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Sample records for ecvam retrospective validation

  1. ECVAM retrospective validation of in vitro micronucleus test (MNT).

    PubMed

    Corvi, Raffaella; Albertini, Silvio; Hartung, Thomas; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Maurici, Daniela; Pfuhler, Stefan; van Benthem, Jan; Vanparys, Philippe

    2008-07-01

    In the past decade several studies comparing the in vitro chromosome aberration test (CAT) and the in vitro micronucleus test (MNT) were performed. A high correlation was observed in each of the studies (>85%); however, no formal validation for the micronucleus in vitro assay had been carried out. Therefore, a working group was established by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) to perform a retrospective validation of the existing data, in order to evaluate the validity of the in vitro MNT on the basis of the modular validation approach. The primary focus of this retrospective validation was on the evaluation of the potential of the in vitro MNT as alternative to the standard in vitro CAT. The working group evaluated, in a first step, the available published data and came to the conclusion that two studies [German ring trial, von der Hude, W., Kalweit, S., Engelhardt, G. et al. (2000) In-vitro micronucleus assay with Chinese hamster V79 cells: results of a collaborative study with 26 chemicals. Mutat. Res., 468, 137-163, and SFTG International Collaborative Study, Lorge, E., Thybaud, V., Aardema, M., Oliver, J., Wataka, A., Lorenzon, G. and Marzin, D. (2006) SFTG International Collaborative Study on in-vitro micronucleus test I. General conditions and overall conclusions of the study. Mutat. Res., 607, 13-36] met the criteria for a retrospective validation according to the criteria previously defined by the working group. These two studies were evaluated in depth (including the reanalysis of raw data) and provided the information required for assessing the reliability (reproducibility) of the test. For the assessment of the concordance between the in vitro MNT and the in vitro CAT, additional published data were considered. Based on this retrospective validation, the ECVAM Validation Management Team concluded that the in vitro MNT is reliable and relevant and can therefore be used as an alternative method to the in vitro CAT

  2. The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM): a review of the ICCVAM test method evaluation process and current international collaborations with the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM).

    PubMed

    Stokes, William S; Schechtman, Leonard M; Hill, Richard N

    2002-12-01

    Over the last decade, national authorities in the USA and Europe have launched initiatives to validate new and improved toxicological test methods. In the USA, the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and its supporting National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) were established by the Federal Government to work with test developers and Federal agencies to facilitate the validation, review, and adoption of new scientifically sound test methods, including alternatives that can refine, reduce, and replace animal use. In Europe, the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) was established to conduct validation studies on alternative test methods. Despite differences in organisational structure and processes, both organisations seek to achieve the adoption and use of alternative test methods. Accordingly, both have adopted similar validation and regulatory acceptance criteria. Collaborations and processes have also evolved to facilitate the international adoption of new test methods recommended by ECVAM and ICCVAM. These collaborations involve the sharing of expertise and data for test-method workshops and independent scientific peer reviews, and the adoption of processes to expedite the consideration of test methods already reviewed by the other organisation. More recently, NICEATM and ECVAM initiated a joint international validation study on in vitro methods for assessing acute systemic toxicity. These collaborations are expected to contribute to accelerated international adoption of harmonised new test methods that will support improved public health and provide for reduced and more-humane use of laboratory animals.

  3. Validation of a human cell based high-throughput genotoxicity assay 'Anthem's Genotoxicity screen' using ECVAM recommended lists of genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Rajakrishna, Lakshmi; Krishnan Unni, Salini; Subbiah, Madhuri; Sadagopan, Sathish; Nair, Ayyappan R; Chandrappa, Ravindra; Sambasivam, Ganesh; Sukumaran, Sunil Kumar

    2014-02-01

    A novel high throughput-enabled human cell based screen, Anthem's Genotoxicity screen, was developed to achieve higher specificity for predicting in vivo genotoxins by an in vitro method. The assay employs engineered human colon carcinoma cell line; HCT116 cells that are stably engineered with three promoter-reporter cassettes such that an increased reporter activity reflects the activation of associated signaling events in a human cell. The current study focuses on the evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of Anthem's Genotoxicity screen using 62 compounds recommended by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). The concordance of Anthem's Genotoxicity screen with in vivo tests was 95.5% with sensitivity of 95.2% and specificity of 95.7%. Thus Anthem's Genotoxicity screen, a high-throughput mechanism based genotox indicator test can be employed by a variety of industries for rapid screening and early detection of potential genotoxins.

  4. ECVAM's response to the changing political environment for alternatives: consequences of the European Union chemicals and cosmetics policies.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas; Bremer, Susanne; Casati, Silvia; Coecke, Sandra; Corvi, Raffaella; Fortaner, Salvador; Gribaldo, Laura; Halder, Marlies; Roi, Annett Janusch; Prieto, Pilar; Sabbioni, Enrico; Worth, Andrew; Zuang, Valerie

    2003-11-01

    The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) has restructured its services by directly targeting the animal tests that need to be replaced. In view of the short time-lines for making available and implementing validated methods, ECVAM is offering to steer the process by bringing together the inputs of stakeholders and encouraging the early involvement of regulators. In essence, steering groups formed by ECVAM senior staff, and complemented with external experts, will carry out the project management and will coordinate the various inputs.

  5. The Production of Polyclonal Antibodies in Laboratory Animals. The Report and Recommendations of ECVAM Workshop 35.

    PubMed

    Leenaars, P P; Hendriksen, C F; de Leeuw, W A; Carat, F; Delahaut, P; Fischer, R; Halder, M; Hanly, W C; Hartinger, J; Hau, J; Lindblad, E B; Nicklas, W; Outschoorn, I M; Stewart-Tull, D E

    1999-01-01

    This is the report of the thirty-fifth of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM's main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. One of the first priorities set by ECVAM was the implementation of procedures which would enable it to become well informed about the state-of-the-art of non-animal test development and validation, and the potential for the possible incorporation of alternative tests into regulatory procedures. It was decided that this would be best achieved by the organisation of ECVAM workshops on specific topics, at which small groups of invited experts would review the current status of various types of in vitro tests and their potential uses, and make recommendations about the best ways forward (1). This joint ECVAM/FELASA (Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations) workshop on The Immunisation of Laboratory Animals for the Production of Polyclonal Antibodies was held in Utrecht (The Netherlands), on 20-22 March 1998, under the co-chairmanship of Coenraad Hendriksen (RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands) and Wim de Leeuw (Inspectorate for Health Protection, The Netherlands). The participants, all experts in the fields of immunology, laboratory animal science, or regulation, came from universities, industry and regulatory bodies. The aims of the workshop were: a) to discuss and evaluate current immunisation procedures for the production of polyclonal antibodies (including route of injection, animal species and adjuvant ); and b) to draft recommendations and guidelines to improve the immunisation procedures, with regard both to animal welfare and to the optimisation of immunisation protocols. This report summarises the outcome of the discussions and includes

  6. The contributions of the European cosmetics industry to the development of alternatives to animal testing: dialogue with ECVAM and future challenges.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Odile

    2002-12-01

    COLIPA (the European Federation of the Cosmetics Industry) represents 24 international companies and 2000 small and medium-sized enterprises. Together with ECVAM, COLIPA has been involved in the development and validation of alternative methods since the beginning of the validation efforts. The work of the Steering Committee on Alternatives to Animal Testing (SCAAT) is based on collaboration between companies, but also with academia, trade associations, the Scientific Committee on Cosmetics and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP), European Commission Directorates General, and ECVAM. Some success has been achieved, but some validation efforts have failed. One lesson is that the search for alternatives requires a lot of humility.

  7. Assessment of the predictive capacity of the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity test method to identify substances not classified for acute oral toxicity (LD50>2000 mg/kg): results of an ECVAM validation study.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Pilar; Cole, Thomas; Curren, Rodger; Gibson, Rosemary M; Liebsch, Manfred; Raabe, Hans; Tuomainen, Anita M; Whelan, Maurice; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka

    2013-04-01

    Assessing chemicals for acute oral toxicity is a standard information requirement of regulatory testing. However, animal testing is now prohibited in the cosmetics sector in Europe, and strongly discouraged for industrial chemicals. Building on the results of a previous international validation study, a follow up study was organised to assess if the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity assay could identify substances not requiring classification as acute oral toxicants under the EU regulations. Fifty-six coded industrial chemicals were tested in three laboratories, each using one of the following protocols: the previously validated protocol, an abbreviated version of the protocol and the protocol adapted for an automation platform. Predictions were very similar among the three laboratories. The assay exhibited high sensitivity (92-96%) but relatively low specificity (40-44%). Three chemicals were under predicted. Assuming that most industrial chemicals are not likely to be acutely toxic, this test method could prove a valuable component of an integrated testing strategy, a read-across argument, or weight-of-evidence approach to identify non toxic chemicals (LD50>2000 mg/kg). However, it is likely to under predict chemicals acting via specific mechanisms of action not captured by the 3T3 test system, or which first require biotransformation in vivo.

  8. Designing validation studies more efficiently according to the modular approach: retrospective analysis of the EPISKIN test for skin corrosion.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hartung, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    It is claimed that the modular approach to validation, which involves seven independent modules, will make the assessment of test validity more flexible and more efficient. In particular, the aspects of between-laboratory variability and predictive capacity are formally separated. Here, the main advantage of the approach is to offer the opportunity for reduced labour, and thus to allow study designs to be more time efficient and cost effective. The impact of this separation was analysed by taking the ECVAM validation study on in vitro methods for skin corrosivity as an example of a successful validation study - two of its methods triggered new OECD test guidelines. Lean study designs, which reduced the number of tests required by up to 60%, were simulated with the original validation data for the EPISKIN model. By using resampling techniques, we were able to demonstrate the effects of the lean designs on three between-laboratory variability measures and on the predictive capacity in terms of sensitivity and specificity, in comparison with the original study. Overall, the study results, especially the levels of confidence, were only slightly affected by the lean designs that were modelled. It is concluded that the separation of the two modules is a promising way to speed-up prospective validation studies and to substantially reduce costs, without compromising study quality.

  9. Validity of Adult Retrospective Reports of Adverse Childhood Experiences: Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardt, Jochen; Rutter, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Background: Influential studies have cast doubt on the validity of retrospective reports by adults of their own adverse experiences in childhood. Accordingly, many researchers view retrospective reports with scepticism. Method: A computer-based search, supplemented by hand searches, was used to identify studies reported between 1980 and 2001 in…

  10. The 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test: practical experience and implications for phototoxicity testing--the report of an ECVAM-EFPIA workshop.

    PubMed

    Ceridono, Mara; Tellner, Pär; Bauer, Daniel; Barroso, João; Alépée, Nathalie; Corvi, Raffaella; De Smedt, Ann; Fellows, Mick D; Gibbs, Neil K; Heisler, Eckhard; Jacobs, Abigail; Jirova, Dagmar; Jones, David; Kandárová, Helena; Kasper, Peter; Akunda, Jacqueline Kinyamu; Krul, Cyrille; Learn, Douglas; Liebsch, Manfred; Lynch, Anthony M; Muster, Wolfgang; Nakamura, Kazuichi; Nash, J Frank; Pfannenbecker, Uwe; Phillips, Gareth; Robles, Catherine; Rogiers, Vera; Van De Water, Femke; Liminga, Ulla Wändel; Vohr, Hans-Werner; Wattrelos, Olivier; Woods, Julie; Zuang, Valérie; Kreysa, Joachim; Wilcox, Phil

    2012-08-01

    This is the report from the "ECVAM-EFPIA workshop on 3T3 NRU Phototoxicity Test: Practical Experience and Implications for Phototoxicity Testing", jointly organized by ECVAM and EFPIA and held on the 25-27 October 2010 in Somma Lombardo, Italy. The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) was established in 1991 within the European Commission Joint Research, based on a Communication from the European Commission (1991). The main objective of ECVAM is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine and replace the use of laboratory animals. The European Federation of Pharmaceuticals Industries and Association (EFPIA) represent the pharmaceutical industry operating in Europe. Through its direct membership of 31 national associations and 40 leading pharmaceutical companies, EFPIA is the voice on the EU scene of 2200 companies committed to researching, developing and bringing to patients new medicines that improve health and the quality of life around the world. The workshop, co-chaired by Joachim Kreysa (ECVAM) and Phil Wilcox (GSK, EFPIA) involved thirty-five experts from academia, regulatory authorities and industry, invited to contribute with their experiences in the field of phototoxicology. The main objectives of the workshop were: -to present 'in use' experience of the pharmaceutical industry with the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake Phototoxicity Test (3T3 NRU-PT), -to discuss why it differs from the results in the original validation exercise, -to discuss technical issues and consider ways to improve the usability of the 3T3 NRU-PT for (non-topical) pharmaceuticals, e.g., by modifying the threshold of chemical light absorption to trigger photo-toxicological testing, and by modifying technical aspects of the assay, or adjusting the criteria used to classify a positive response. During the workshop, the assay methodology was reviewed by comparing the OECD

  11. Validity of the Lifetime Drinking History: A Comparison of Retrospective and Prospective Quantity-Frequency Measures*

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Laura B.; Jacob, Theodore; Haber, Jon Randolph

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The Lifetime Drinking History (LDH) has been used to examine alcohol use throughout the life span. Given its retrospective nature, it is important to examine the validity of the assessment. Method: Building on previous work establishing the reliability and validity of the LDH, the current study examined a sample of 1,295 men in the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. The men were assessed retrospectively with the LDH in 2000, at an average age of 51. The drinking patterns of these same men were also assessed prospectively in four prior studies, taking place in 1987, 1990, 1992, and 1995. Results: Validity of the LDH was examined by comparing the correspondence between the prospective and retrospective quantity-frequency measures and reported age at first regular drinking. Correlations between the retrospective and prospective assessments were high for age at first regular drinking (.42-.58) and quantity-frequency measures (.47-.69), although some mean differences in the amount of consumption existed. Conclusions: Results support the use of the LDH in reporting phases of drinking across the life span. PMID:19261242

  12. EPR tooth dosimetry as a tool for validation of retrospective doses: an end-user perspective.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Mohandas

    2005-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is co-funding several studies on health effects of radiation in Southern Urals in Russia and on Chernobyl liquidators in Ukraine. Obtaining dose-response relationships is central to all these studies. In order to validate retrospective doses estimated by various methods, Electron paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) tooth dosimetry, considered by many as a gold standard, was attempted. The EPR technique, however, has some limitations. This paper discusses the potential pitfalls of using EPR tooth dosimetry, and some potential solutions.

  13. RETROSPECTIVE METHOD VALIDATION AND UNCERTAINTY ESTIMATION FOR ACTINIDES DETERMINATION IN EXCRETA BY ALPHA SPECTROMETRY.

    PubMed

    Hernández, C; Sierra, I

    2016-09-01

    Two essential technical requirements of ISO 17025 guide for accreditation of testing and calibration laboratories are the validation of methods and the estimation of all sources of uncertainty that may affect the analytical result. Bioelimination Laboratory from Radiation Dosimetry Service of CIEMAT (Spain) uses alpha spectrometry to quantify alpha emitters (Pu, Am, Th, U and Cm isotopes) in urine and faecal samples from workers exposed to internal radiation. Therefore and as a step previous to achieving the ISO 17025 accreditation, the laboratory has performed retrospective studies based on the obtained results in the past few years to validate the analytical method. Uncertainty estimation was done identifying and quantifying all the contributions, and finally the overall combined standard uncertainty was calculated.

  14. Validity and reliability of a method for retrospective evaluation of chlorophenate exposure in the lumber industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzman, C.; Teschke, K.; Dimich-Ward, H.; Ostry, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the validity and reliability of a method to retrospectively assess exposure to antisapstain agents used in sawmills (chlorophenates). The method is based on experienced workers' estimates of exposure for each job title at the sawmill where they work. At a pilot mill, 10 randomly selected workers estimated the frequency and duration of exposures to chlorophenates for all 59 job titles. The reliability of their mean exposure estimates was very high, with an intraclass correlation coefficient for all raters of 0.91 (based on a calculated index of exposure). To assess validity, urinary chlorophenate levels were measured for 86% of the workers at the mill during the summer and/or fall, and compared to experienced workers' estimates of exposure. The correlation between workers' exposure estimates and the urinary chlorophenate levels for each job title were consistently above 0.65 for all analyses and greater than 0.72 when summer and fall urine sample results were averaged. The evidence indicates that the validity and reliability of worker exposure estimates are high enough to justify investigation of the method's generalizability to other sawmills.

  15. Development and Retrospective Validation of the Juvenile Spondyloarthritis Disease Activity (JSpADA) Index

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Pamela F.; Colbert, Robert A.; Xiao, Rui; Feudtner, Chris; Beukelman, Timothy; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Pagnini, Ilaria; Wright, Tracey B.; Wallace, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop and validate a Juvenile Spondyloarthritis (JSpA) Disease Activity (JSpADA) index for use in clinical practice and research. Methods Using modified Delphi consensus techniques, ten items were selected by participants in the international pediatric rheumatology list-serve, the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance, and the list-serve for the Pediatric Section of the American College of Rheumatology. Validation was performed in a retrospective multicenter cohort of 243 children. Results 106 physicians representing 14 countries completed the initial questionnaire. Completion rates for the subsequent questionnaires were 84%, 75%, and 77% of the original respondents. Ten items reached 80% consensus: arthritis, enthesitis, patient pain assessment, inflammatory markers, morning stiffness, clinical sacroiliitis, uveitis, back mobility, and patient and physician assessments of disease activity. Two items were eliminated after item analysis (patient and physician assessments of disease activity). Factor analysis identified 3 primary domains that explain 58% of variance: peripheral disease, axial disease, and uveitis. Cronbach α coefficient was 0.66. The JSpADA had high or moderate correlations with the Juvenile Arthritis disease activity score (r=0.80), patient and physician assessments of disease activity (r=0.70 and 0.66), and the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (r=0.56). The JSpADA discriminated well between subjects with active versus inactive disease (p<0.001) and was responsive to improvement or worsening in disease activity over time (p<0.001). Conclusion Using international input and consensus formation techniques, we developed and validated the first disease activity assessment for JSpA. Future studies should validate the JSpADA index in a prospective multi-center cohort. PMID:25047959

  16. [Validation and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods for toxicity evaluation].

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yasuo

    2004-01-01

    For regulatory acceptance of alternative methods (AMs) to animal toxicity tests, their reproducibility and relevance should be determined by intra- and inter-laboratory validation. Appropriate procedures of the validation and regulatory acceptance of AMs were recommended by OECD in 1996. According to those principles, several in vitro methods like skin corrosivity tests and phototoxicity tests were evaluated and accepted by ECVAM (European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods), ICCVAM (The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods), and OECD. Because of the difficulties in conducting inter-laboratory validation and relatively short period remained until EU's ban of animal experiments for safety evaluation of cosmetics, ECVAM and ICCVAM have recently started cooperation in validation and evaluation of AMs. It is also necessary to establish JaCVAM (Japanese Center for the Validation of AM) to contribute the issue and for the evaluation of new toxicity tests originated in Japan.

  17. Where we used to live: validating retrospective measures of childhood neighborhood context for life course epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Osypuk, Theresa L; Kehm, Rebecca; Misra, Dawn P

    2015-01-01

    Early life exposures influence numerous social determinants of health, as distal causes or confounders of later health outcomes. Although a growing literature is documenting how early life socioeconomic position affects later life health, few epidemiologic studies have tested measures for operationalizing early life neighborhood context, or examined their effects on later life health. In the Life-course Influences on Fetal Environments (LIFE) Study, a retrospective cohort study among Black women in Southfield, Michigan (71% response rate), we tested the validity and reliability of retrospectively-reported survey-based subjective measures of early life neighborhood context(N=693). We compared 3 subjective childhood neighborhood measures (disorder, informal social control, victimization), with 3 objective childhood neighborhood measures derived from 4 decades of historical census tract data 1970-2000, linked through geocoded residential histories (tract % poverty, tract % black, tract deprivation score derived from principal components analysis), as well as with 2 subjective neighborhood measures in adulthood. Our results documented that internal consistency reliability was high for the subjective childhood neighborhood scales (Cronbach's α =0.89, 0.93). Comparison of subjective with objective childhood neighborhood measures found moderate associations in hypothesized directions. Associations with objective variables were strongest for neighborhood disorder (rhos=.40), as opposed to with social control or victimization. Associations between subjective neighborhood context in childhood versus adulthood were moderate and stronger for residentially-stable populations. We lastly formally tested for, but found little evidence of, recall bias of the retrospective subjective reports of childhood context. These results provide evidence that retrospective reports of subjective neighborhood context may be a cost-effective, valid, and reliable method to operationalize early

  18. Reliability and Validity of Retrospective Behavioral Self-Report by Narcotics Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anglin, M. Douglas; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reliability and validity of self-reported behavior within a deviant population are examined using data from 2 interviews with 323 narcotics addicts conducted 10 years apart (1974-75 and 1985-86). Results complement existing reliability and validity studies of alcohol use, and suggest that quality information can be obtained from heroin users. (SLD)

  19. Validation of a modified pediatric early warning system score: a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Skaletzky, Sharon M; Raszynski, Andre; Totapally, Balagangadhar R

    2012-05-01

    The Pediatric Early Warning System (PEWS) score may be useful for detection of deterioration in clinical condition. In this retrospective study, the cases were patients transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and controls were those not transferred to the PICU. The maximum PEWS score in both groups were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). The study population included 100 cases and 250 controls. There was no difference in the age of cases and controls (6.3 vs 6.3 years). The length of hospital stay (18.09 ± 32 vs 3.93 ± 2.9 days; P < .001) and the maximum PEWS score (2.95 ± 1.5 vs 1.4 ± 0.8) were significantly higher for the cases (P < .0001). The PEWS score area under the ROC was 0.81 (95% confidence interval = 0.75-0.86). The sensitivity and specificity for a score 2.5 were 62% and 89%, respectively. The use of the modified PEWS score can help identify patients on wards who are at risk for deterioration.

  20. Effects of the EVCAM chemical validation library on differentiation using marker gene expression in lmouse embryonic stem cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adherent cell differentiation and cytotoxicity (ACDC) assay was used to profile the effects of the ECVAM EST validation chemical library (19 compounds) on J1 mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC). PCR-based TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA) provided a high-content assessment of al...

  1. The utility of QSARs in predicting acute fish toxicity of pesticide metabolites: A retrospective validation approach.

    PubMed

    Burden, Natalie; Maynard, Samuel K; Weltje, Lennart; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    The European Plant Protection Products Regulation 1107/2009 requires that registrants establish whether pesticide metabolites pose a risk to the environment. Fish acute toxicity assessments may be carried out to this end. Considering the total number of pesticide (re-) registrations, the number of metabolites can be considerable, and therefore this testing could use many vertebrates. EFSA's recent "Guidance on tiered risk assessment for plant protection products for aquatic organisms in edge-of-field surface waters" outlines opportunities to apply non-testing methods, such as Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models. However, a scientific evidence base is necessary to support the use of QSARs in predicting acute fish toxicity of pesticide metabolites. Widespread application and subsequent regulatory acceptance of such an approach would reduce the numbers of animals used. The work presented here intends to provide this evidence base, by means of retrospective data analysis. Experimental fish LC50 values for 150 metabolites were extracted from the Pesticide Properties Database (http://sitem.herts.ac.uk/aeru/ppdb/en/atoz.htm). QSAR calculations were performed to predict fish acute toxicity values for these metabolites using the US EPA's ECOSAR software. The most conservative predicted LC50 values generated by ECOSAR were compared with experimental LC50 values. There was a significant correlation between predicted and experimental fish LC50 values (Spearman rs = 0.6304, p < 0.0001). For 62% of metabolites assessed, the QSAR predicted values are equal to or lower than their respective experimental values. Refined analysis, taking into account data quality and experimental variation considerations increases the proportion of sufficiently predictive estimates to 91%. For eight of the nine outliers, there are plausible explanation(s) for the disparity between measured and predicted LC50 values. Following detailed consideration of the robustness of

  2. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire for retrospective estimation of diet during the first 2 years of life

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Neufeld, Lynnette M.; García-Guerra, Armando; Quezada-Sanchez, Amado D.; Orjuela, Manuela A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aims to validate a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), specifically designed to retrospectively estimate dietary intake and supplement consumption during the first two years of life in children from resource poor households in semi-rural Mexico. Methods The FFQ querying about diet during the first 2 years of life was administered to mothers of children (N=84), who participated in a prospective study 3 to 5 years earlier, in which complementary feeding practice questionnaires and 24-hour recall (24hrR) were collected at several time points during the first 2 years of life to evaluate dietary and vitamin supplement intake. The resulting FFQ data were compared to intake data collected during the original study using Spearman correlations, deattenuated correlations and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results Total energy intake, as estimated by the retrospective and original instruments, did not differ in the second year (Yr2); correlations between the measures were significant (r=0.40, p<0.001). The 24hrR and FFQ-Yr2 were significantly correlated for dietary intake of vitamins B6, B12 (p<0.001) and folate (p<0.01); however, after including vitamin supplement intake, the two dietary instruments were correlated only for vitamins A and B12 (p<0.05). Conclusions The FFQ provides a reasonable estimate of a child’s dietary intake of energy and key micronutrients during the second year of life, and permits accurate ranking of intake 3 to 5 years after birth. PMID:23532627

  3. Validation of a novel method for retrospectively estimating nutrient intake during pregnancy using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Orjuela, Manuela A.; García-Guerra, Armando; Quezada-Sanchez, Amado David; Neufeld, Lynnette M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Case control studies evaluating the relationship between dietary intake of specific nutrients and risk of congenital, neonatal or early childhood disease require the ability to rank relative maternal dietary intake during pregnancy. Such studies are limited by the lack of validated instruments for assessing gestational dietary intake several years post-partum. This study aims to validate a semi-quantitative interview-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for retrospectively estimating nutrient intake at two critical time points during pregnancy. Methods The FFQ was administered to women (N=84), who 4 to 6 years earlier had participated in a prospective study to evaluate dietary intake during pregnancy. The FFQ queried participants about intake during the previous month (FFQ-month). This was then used as a reference point to estimate consumption by trimester (FFQ-pregnancy). The resulting data were compared to data collected during the original study from two 24-hour recalls (24hr-original) using Spearman correlation and Wilcoxon sign-rank-test. Results Total energy intake as estimated by the retrospective and original instruments did not differ and was only weakly correlated in the trimesters (1st & 3rd) as a whole (r = 0.18-32), though more strongly correlated when restricted to the first half of the 1st trimester (r=0.32) and later half of the 3rd trimester (r=0.87). After energy adjustment, correlation between the 24hR-original and FFQ-pregnancy in the 3rd trimester were r=0.25 (p<0.05) for dietary intake of vitamin A, and r=0.26 (p<0.05) for folate, and r= 0.23-0.77 (p<0.005) for folate, and vitamins A, B6 and B12 in the 1st and 3rd trimester after including vitamin supplement intake. Conclusions The FFQ-pregnancy provides a consistent estimate of maternal intake of key micronutrients during pregnancy and permits accurate ranking of intake 4-6 years post-partum. PMID:22116778

  4. Retrospective Assessment of ADHD Symptoms in Childhood: Discriminatory Validity of Finnish Translation of the Wender Utah Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivisaari, Sasa; Laasonen, Marja; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the discriminatory validity of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and its five suggested subscales (Conduct Problems, Impulsivity Problems, Mood Difficulties, Inattention/Anxiety, Academic Concerns) in a Finnish sample. Method: WURS was administered to 114 adults, aged 18 to 55 years. Participants with ADHD (n = 37) and…

  5. External validation and comparison of three prediction tools for risk of osteoporotic fractures using data from population based electronic health records: retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Stavi, Chandra; Leventer-Roberts, Maya; Balicer, Ran D

    2017-01-01

    Objective To directly compare the performance and externally validate the three most studied prediction tools for osteoporotic fractures—QFracture, FRAX, and Garvan—using data from electronic health records. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Payer provider healthcare organisation in Israel. Participants 1 054 815 members aged 50 to 90 years for comparison between tools and cohorts of different age ranges, corresponding to those in each tools’ development study, for tool specific external validation. Main outcome measure First diagnosis of a major osteoporotic fracture (for QFracture and FRAX tools) and hip fractures (for all three tools) recorded in electronic health records from 2010 to 2014. Observed fracture rates were compared to probabilities predicted retrospectively as of 2010. Results The observed five year hip fracture rate was 2.7% and the rate for major osteoporotic fractures was 7.7%. The areas under the receiver operating curve (AUC) for hip fracture prediction were 82.7% for QFracture, 81.5% for FRAX, and 77.8% for Garvan. For major osteoporotic fractures, AUCs were 71.2% for QFracture and 71.4% for FRAX. All the tools underestimated the fracture risk, but the average observed to predicted ratios and the calibration slopes of FRAX were closest to 1. Tool specific validation analyses yielded hip fracture prediction AUCs of 88.0% for QFracture (among those aged 30-100 years), 81.5% for FRAX (50-90 years), and 71.2% for Garvan (60-95 years). Conclusions Both QFracture and FRAX had high discriminatory power for hip fracture prediction, with QFracture performing slightly better. This performance gap was more pronounced in previous studies, likely because of broader age inclusion criteria for QFracture validations. The simpler FRAX performed almost as well as QFracture for hip fracture prediction, and may have advantages if some of the input data required for QFracture are not available. However, both tools require calibration

  6. PBTK modelling platforms and parameter estimation tools to enable animal-free risk assessment: recommendations from a joint EPAA--EURL ECVAM ADME workshop.

    PubMed

    Bessems, Jos G; Loizou, George; Krishnan, Kannan; Clewell, Harvey J; Bernasconi, Camilla; Bois, Frederic; Coecke, Sandra; Collnot, Eva-Maria; Diembeck, Walter; Farcal, Lucian Romeo; Geraets, Liesbeth; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Kramer, Nynke; Küsters, Gabriele; Leite, Sofia B; Pelkonen, Olavi R; Schröder, Klaus; Testai, Emanuela; Wilk-Zasadna, Iwona; Zaldívar-Comenges, José-Manuel

    2014-02-01

    Information on toxicokinetics is critical for animal-free human risk assessment. Human external exposure must be translated into human tissue doses and compared with in vitro actual cell exposure associated to effects (in vitro-in vivo comparison). Data on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion in humans (ADME) could be generated using in vitro and QSAR tools. Physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) computer modelling could serve to integrate disparate in vitro and in silico findings. However, there are only few freely-available PBTK platforms currently available. And although some ADME parameters can be reasonably estimated in vitro or in silico, important gaps exist. Examples include unknown or limited applicability domains and lack of (high-throughput) tools to measure penetration of barriers, partitioning between blood and tissues and metabolic clearance. This paper is based on a joint EPAA--EURL ECVAM expert meeting. It provides a state-of-the-art overview of the availability of PBTK platforms as well as the in vitro and in silico methods to parameterise basic (Tier 1) PBTK models. Five high-priority issues are presented that provide the prerequisites for wider use of non-animal based PBTK modelling for animal-free chemical risk assessment.

  7. Clinical significance of the nuclear receptor co-regulator DC-SCRIPT in breast cancer: an independent retrospective validation study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction In this study we aimed to validate the prognostic value of DC-SCRIPT mRNA expression in a large independent breast cancer cohort. In addition, since DC-SCRIPT is a transcriptional co-regulator of nuclear receptors, we explored its prognostic value in relation to estrogen-receptor-α (ESR1) and -β (ESR2) and evaluated its predictive value for response to tamoxifen treatment. Methods DC-SCRIPT mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR in 1,505 primary invasive breast cancers and associated with outcome (disease-free survival (DFS), metastasis-free survival (MFS) and overall survival (OS)) using univariate and multivariable Cox regression analysis. Logistic and Cox regressions were used to associate DC-SCRIPT levels with clinical benefit and progression-free survival (PFS) for 296 patients treated with first-line systemic tamoxifen for advanced disease. Results In univariate and multivariable analysis higher DC-SCRIPT levels were associated with a favorable outcome for both the entire cohort and patients with lymph node-negative (LNN) disease that did not receive adjuvant therapy (DFS, MFS and OS; all, P < 0.001). This association was most pronounced in small (pT1) tumors, in ESR1-positive tumors and in tumors with low ESR2 expression. For first-line endocrine therapy for advanced disease no predictive association was seen with clinical benefit or PFS. Conclusions This study provides a higher level of evidence that DC-SCRIPT is indeed an independent, pure prognostic, factor for primary breast cancer and shows that DC-SCRIPT mRNA expression is most informative for either ESR1-positive and/or ESR2-low pT1 tumors. PMID:21122099

  8. Identification of gefitinib off-targets using a structure-based systems biology approach; their validation with reverse docking and retrospective data mining

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Nidhi; Rai, Amit Kumar; Kaushik, Vibha; Brünnert, Daniela; Chahar, Kirti Raj; Pandey, Janmejay; Goyal, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Gefitinib, an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is used as FDA approved drug in breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer treatment. However, this drug has certain side effects and complications for which the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. By systems biology based in silico analysis, we identified off-targets of gefitinib that might explain side effects of this drugs. The crystal structure of EGFR-gefitinib complex was used for binding pocket similarity searches on a druggable proteome database (Sc-PDB) by using IsoMIF Finder. The top 128 hits of putative off-targets were validated by reverse docking approach. The results showed that identified off-targets have efficient binding with gefitinib. The identified human specific off-targets were confirmed and further analyzed for their links with biological process and clinical disease pathways using retrospective studies and literature mining, respectively. Noticeably, many of the identified off-targets in this study were reported in previous high-throughput screenings. Interestingly, the present study reveals that gefitinib may have positive effects in reducing brain and bone metastasis, and may be useful in defining novel gefitinib based treatment regime. We propose that a system wide approach could be useful during new drug development and to minimize side effect of the prospective drug. PMID:27653775

  9. Identification of gefitinib off-targets using a structure-based systems biology approach; their validation with reverse docking and retrospective data mining.

    PubMed

    Verma, Nidhi; Rai, Amit Kumar; Kaushik, Vibha; Brünnert, Daniela; Chahar, Kirti Raj; Pandey, Janmejay; Goyal, Pankaj

    2016-09-22

    Gefitinib, an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is used as FDA approved drug in breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer treatment. However, this drug has certain side effects and complications for which the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. By systems biology based in silico analysis, we identified off-targets of gefitinib that might explain side effects of this drugs. The crystal structure of EGFR-gefitinib complex was used for binding pocket similarity searches on a druggable proteome database (Sc-PDB) by using IsoMIF Finder. The top 128 hits of putative off-targets were validated by reverse docking approach. The results showed that identified off-targets have efficient binding with gefitinib. The identified human specific off-targets were confirmed and further analyzed for their links with biological process and clinical disease pathways using retrospective studies and literature mining, respectively. Noticeably, many of the identified off-targets in this study were reported in previous high-throughput screenings. Interestingly, the present study reveals that gefitinib may have positive effects in reducing brain and bone metastasis, and may be useful in defining novel gefitinib based treatment regime. We propose that a system wide approach could be useful during new drug development and to minimize side effect of the prospective drug.

  10. The alpha-globin genotype does not influence sickle cell disease severity in a retrospective cross-validation study of the pediatric severity score.

    PubMed

    Joly, Philippe; Pondarré, Corinne; Bardel, Claire; Francina, Alain; Martin, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    To validate the recently proposed pediatric severity score (PSS) for sickle cell disease (SCD), we retrospectively assembled clinical data from a cohort of 122 patients with SCD (105 S/S or S/β(0) -thal. and 17 S/C) followed up for at least 2 years. Besides age and α- and β-globin genotypes, four new parameters were also tested against the PSS: duration of data assembly, neonatal screening, use of transcranial Doppler ultrasound to prevent vasculopathies and β-globin gene cluster haplotype. Once again, the PSS clearly differentiated patients by their β-globin genotype (P=0.004) but not by their age during data assembly (P=0.159). But, surprisingly, alpha-gene deletions were not associated with a lower PSS (P=0.604), possibly reflecting the opposite effects of α-thalassemia on global SCD severity. As for the newly tested parameters, the PSS appeared not to be influenced by the duration of data assembly (P=0.071) and neonatal screening (P=0.678) but rather by the introduction of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (P=0.006). Moreover, the Senegal haplotype at the homozygous state may be associated with a lower PSS. Methodologically, our data globally confirm the usefulness of the PSS to identify major etiological factors of SCD gravity. Nevertheless, the score is surely underestimated for patients who have been switched to a chronic therapy before the main SCD complications. Biologically, our study questions about the exact influence of α-thalassemia on global SCD severity.

  11. Cumulative Retrospective Exposure Assessment (REA) as a predictor of amphibole asbestos lung burden: validation procedures and results for industrial hygiene and pathology estimates

    PubMed Central

    Roggli, Victor L.; Boelter, Fred W.; Rasmuson, Eric J.; Redinger, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    Context A detailed evaluation of the correlation and linearity of industrial hygiene retrospective exposure assessment (REA) for cumulative asbestos exposure with asbestos lung burden analysis (LBA) has not been previously performed, but both methods are utilized for case-control and cohort studies and other applications such as setting occupational exposure limits. Objective (a) To correlate REA with asbestos LBA for a large number of cases from varied industries and exposure scenarios; (b) to evaluate the linearity, precision, and applicability of both industrial hygiene exposure reconstruction and LBA; and (c) to demonstrate validation methods for REA. Methods A panel of four experienced industrial hygiene raters independently estimated the cumulative asbestos exposure for 363 cases with limited exposure details in which asbestos LBA had been independently determined. LBA for asbestos bodies was performed by a pathologist by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and free asbestos fibers by SEM. Precision, reliability, correlation and linearity were evaluated via intraclass correlation, regression analysis and analysis of covariance. Plaintiff’s answers to interrogatories, work history sheets, work summaries or plaintiff’s discovery depositions that were obtained in court cases involving asbestos were utilized by the pathologist to provide a summarized brief asbestos exposure and work history for each of the 363 cases. Results Linear relationships between REA and LBA were found when adjustment was made for asbestos fiber-type exposure differences. Significant correlation between REA and LBA was found with amphibole asbestos lung burden and mixed fiber-types, but not with chrysotile. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for the precision of the industrial hygiene rater cumulative asbestos exposure estimates and the precision of repeated laboratory analysis were found to be in the excellent range. The ICC estimates were performed

  12. Feasibility of a semi-automated contrast-oriented algorithm for tumor segmentation in retrospectively gated PET images: phantom and clinical validation.

    PubMed

    Carles, Montserrat; Fechter, Tobias; Nemer, Ursula; Nanko, Norbert; Mix, Michael; Nestle, Ursula; Schaefer, Andrea

    2015-12-21

    PET/CT plays an important role in radiotherapy planning for lung tumors. Several segmentation algorithms have been proposed for PET tumor segmentation. However, most of them do not take into account respiratory motion and are not well validated. The aim of this work was to evaluate a semi-automated contrast-oriented algorithm (COA) for PET tumor segmentation adapted to retrospectively gated (4D) images. The evaluation involved a wide set of 4D-PET/CT acquisitions of dynamic experimental phantoms and lung cancer patients. In addition, segmentation accuracy of 4D-COA was compared with four other state-of-the-art algorithms. In phantom evaluation, the physical properties of the objects defined the gold standard. In clinical evaluation, the ground truth was estimated by the STAPLE (Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation) consensus of three manual PET contours by experts. Algorithm evaluation with phantoms resulted in: (i) no statistically significant diameter differences for different targets and movements (Δφ = 0.3 ± 1.6 mm); (ii) reproducibility for heterogeneous and irregular targets independent of user initial interaction and (iii) good segmentation agreement for irregular targets compared to manual CT delineation in terms of Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC = 0.66 ± 0.04), Positive Predictive Value (PPV  = 0.81 ± 0.06) and Sensitivity (Sen. = 0.49 ± 0.05). In clinical evaluation, the segmented volume was in reasonable agreement with the consensus volume (difference in volume (%Vol) = 40 ± 30, DSC = 0.71 ± 0.07 and PPV = 0.90 ± 0.13). High accuracy in target tracking position (ΔME) was obtained for experimental and clinical data (ΔME(exp) = 0 ± 3 mm; ΔME(clin) 0.3 ± 1.4 mm). In the comparison with other lung segmentation methods, 4D-COA has shown the highest volume accuracy in both experimental and clinical data. In conclusion, the accuracy in volume delineation, position tracking and its robustness on highly irregular target movements

  13. Feasibility of a semi-automated contrast-oriented algorithm for tumor segmentation in retrospectively gated PET images: phantom and clinical validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carles, Montserrat; Fechter, Tobias; Nemer, Ursula; Nanko, Norbert; Mix, Michael; Nestle, Ursula; Schaefer, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    PET/CT plays an important role in radiotherapy planning for lung tumors. Several segmentation algorithms have been proposed for PET tumor segmentation. However, most of them do not take into account respiratory motion and are not well validated. The aim of this work was to evaluate a semi-automated contrast-oriented algorithm (COA) for PET tumor segmentation adapted to retrospectively gated (4D) images. The evaluation involved a wide set of 4D-PET/CT acquisitions of dynamic experimental phantoms and lung cancer patients. In addition, segmentation accuracy of 4D-COA was compared with four other state-of-the-art algorithms. In phantom evaluation, the physical properties of the objects defined the gold standard. In clinical evaluation, the ground truth was estimated by the STAPLE (Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation) consensus of three manual PET contours by experts. Algorithm evaluation with phantoms resulted in: (i) no statistically significant diameter differences for different targets and movements (Δ φ =0.3+/- 1.6 mm); (ii) reproducibility for heterogeneous and irregular targets independent of user initial interaction and (iii) good segmentation agreement for irregular targets compared to manual CT delineation in terms of Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC  =  0.66+/- 0.04 ), Positive Predictive Value (PPV  =  0.81+/- 0.06 ) and Sensitivity (Sen.  =  0.49+/- 0.05 ). In clinical evaluation, the segmented volume was in reasonable agreement with the consensus volume (difference in volume (%Vol)  =  40+/- 30 , DSC  =  0.71+/- 0.07 and PPV  =  0.90+/- 0.13 ). High accuracy in target tracking position (Δ ME) was obtained for experimental and clinical data (Δ ME{{}\\text{exp}}=0+/- 3 mm; Δ ME{{}\\text{clin}}=0.3+/- 1.4 mm). In the comparison with other lung segmentation methods, 4D-COA has shown the highest volume accuracy in both experimental and clinical data. In conclusion, the accuracy in volume

  14. The validated embryonic stem cell test to predict embryotoxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Andrea E M; Spielmann, Horst

    2011-06-16

    In the embryonic stem cell test (EST), differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) is used as a model to assess embryotoxicity in vitro. The test was successfully validated by the European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and models fundamental mechanisms in embryotoxicity, such as cytotoxicity and differentiation. In addition, differences in sensitivity between differentiated (adult) and embryonic cells are also taken into consideration. To predict the embryotoxic potential of a test substance, three endpoints are assessed: the inhibition of differentiation into beating cardiomyocytes, the cytotoxic effects on stem cells and the cytotoxic effects on 3T3 fibroblasts. A special feature of the EST is that it is solely based on permanent cell lines so that primary embryonic cells and tissues from pregnant animals are not needed. In this protocol, we describe the ECVAM-validated method, in which the morphological assessment of contracting cardiomyocytes is used as an endpoint for differentiation, and the molecular-based FACS-EST method, in which highly predictive protein markers specific for developing heart tissue were selected. With these methods, the embryotoxic potency of a compound can be assessed in vitro within 10 or 7 d, respectively.

  15. External validation and comparison of two nomograms predicting the probability of Gleason sum upgrading between biopsy and radical prostatectomy pathology in two patient populations: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Takanobu; Oka, Ryo; Endo, Takumi; Yano, Masashi; Kamijima, Shuichi; Kamiya, Naoto; Fujimura, Masaaki; Sekita, Nobuyuki; Mikami, Kazuo; Hiruta, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to validate and compare the predictive accuracy of two nomograms predicting the probability of Gleason sum upgrading between biopsy and radical prostatectomy pathology among representative patients with prostate cancer. We previously developed a nomogram, as did Chun et al. In this validation study, patients originated from two centers: Toho University Sakura Medical Center (n = 214) and Chibaken Saiseikai Narashino Hospital (n = 216). We assessed predictive accuracy using area under the curve values and constructed calibration plots to grasp the tendency for each institution. Both nomograms showed a high predictive accuracy in each institution, although the constructed calibration plots of the two nomograms underestimated the actual probability in Toho University Sakura Medical Center. Clinicians need to use calibration plots for each institution to correctly understand the tendency of each nomogram for their patients, even if each nomogram has a good predictive accuracy.

  16. The Diagnostic Validity of the 13C-Urea Breath Test in the Gastrectomized Patients: Single Tertiary Center Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong Hwan; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Ju Yup; Choi, Yoon Jin; Yoon, Kichul; Yoon, Hyuk; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Lee, Dong Ho

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic validity of the 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) in the remnant stomach after partial gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Methods: The 13C-UBT results after Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy was compared with the results of endoscopic biopsy-based methods in the patients who have received partial gastrectomy for the gastric cancer. Results: Among the gastrectomized patients who showed the positive 13C-UBT results (≥ 2.5‰, n = 47) and negative 13C-UBT results (< 2.5‰, n = 114) after H. pylori eradication, 26 patients (16.1%) and 4 patients (2.5%) were found to show false positive and false negative results based on biopsy-based methods, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate, and false negative rate for the cut-off value of 2.5‰ were 84.0%, 80.9%, 19.1%, and 16.0%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 44.7% and 96.5%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, two or more H. pylori eradication therapies (odds ratio = 3.248, 95% confidence interval= 1.088–9.695, P = 0.035) was associated with a false positive result of the 13C-UBT. Conclusions: After partial gastrectomy, a discordant result was shown in the positive 13C-UBT results compared to the endoscopic biopsy methods for confirming the H. pylori status after eradication. Additional endoscopic biopsy-based H. pylori tests would be helpful to avoid unnecessary treatment for H. pylori eradication in these cases. PMID:25574466

  17. Low validity of self-report in identifying recent mental health diagnosis among U.S. service members completing Pre-Deployment Health Assessment (PreDHA) and deployed to Afghanistan, 2007: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nevin, Remington L

    2009-01-01

    Background Since 1998, the U.S. Armed Forces has used the mandatory Pre-Deployment Health Assessment (PreDHA) screening questionnaire as a means of assessing the health and suitability of U.S. service members for deployment. Limited data exists to quantify the validity of the self-reported PreDHA. This study was conducted to assess the validity of self-reporting in PreDHA to identify deployed service members who have had a recent mental health disorder diagnosis. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 15,195 U.S. service members deployed in support of combat and reconstruction operations in Afghanistan. The Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS), the DoD's longitudinal medical surveillance database, was queried to identify cases among the cohort with a recent diagnosis of a pertinent mental health disorder and to obtain those subjects' responses to the PreDHA. Results Of the study cohort, 11,179 (73.6%) subjects had a PreDHA available within the DMSS at the time of analysis. A total of 615 subjects (4.0%) had one or more mental health disorder diagnoses during the pre-deployment period. Out the 615 subjects with diagnosed mental health disorders, 465 had a PreDHA. Among these, only 224, not quite half, answered in the affirmative to the PreDHA question: "During the past year, have you sought counseling or care for your mental health?" Conclusion This study demonstrates that the self-reported PreDHA has low validity for identifying service members with diagnosed mental health disorders. The development of electronic decision-support systems which automatically screen electronic health records to identify high-risk service members may prove a valuable component of improved pre-deployment screening processes. PMID:19811664

  18. A retrospective study to validate an intraoperative robotic classification system for assessing the accuracy of kirschner wire (K-wire) placements with postoperative computed tomography classification system for assessing the accuracy of pedicle screw placements.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Wu, Dong-Syuan; Su, Yu-Feng; Wu, Chieh-Hsin; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2016-09-01

    This purpose of this retrospective study is validation of an intraoperative robotic grading classification system for assessing the accuracy of Kirschner-wire (K-wire) placements with the postoperative computed tomography (CT)-base classification system for assessing the accuracy of pedicle screw placements.We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected data from 35 consecutive patients who underwent 176 robotic assisted pedicle screws instrumentation at Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital from September 2014 to November 2015. During the operation, we used a robotic grading classification system for verifying the intraoperative accuracy of K-wire placements. Three months after surgery, we used the common CT-base classification system to assess the postoperative accuracy of pedicle screw placements. The distributions of accuracy between the intraoperative robot-assisted and various postoperative CT-based classification systems were compared using kappa statistics of agreement.The intraoperative accuracies of K-wire placements before and after repositioning were classified as excellent (131/176, 74.4% and 133/176, 75.6%, respectively), satisfactory (36/176, 20.5% and 41/176, 23.3%, respectively), and malpositioned (9/176, 5.1% and 2/176, 1.1%, respectively)In postoperative CT-base classification systems were evaluated. No screw placements were evaluated as unacceptable under any of these systems. Kappa statistics revealed no significant differences between the proposed system and the aforementioned classification systems (P <0.001).Our results revealed no significant differences between the intraoperative robotic grading system and various postoperative CT-based grading systems. The robotic grading classification system is a feasible method for evaluating the accuracy of K-wire placements. Using the intraoperative robot grading system to classify the accuracy of K-wire placements enables predicting the postoperative accuracy of pedicle screw

  19. Clinical applicability and cost of a 46-gene panel for genomic analysis of solid tumours: Retrospective validation and prospective audit in the UK National Health Service

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kulvinder; Camps, Carme; Kaisaki, Pamela; Gupta, Avinash; Talbot, Denis; Middleton, Mark; Henderson, Shirley; Cutts, Anthony; Vavoulis, Dimitrios V.; Housby, Nick; Taylor, Jenny C.; Schuh, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Background Single gene tests to predict whether cancers respond to specific targeted therapies are performed increasingly often. Advances in sequencing technology, collectively referred to as next generation sequencing (NGS), mean the entire cancer genome or parts of it can now be sequenced at speed with increased depth and sensitivity. However, translation of NGS into routine cancer care has been slow. Healthcare stakeholders are unclear about the clinical utility of NGS and are concerned it could be an expensive addition to cancer diagnostics, rather than an affordable alternative to single gene testing. Methods and findings We validated a 46-gene hotspot cancer panel assay allowing multiple gene testing from small diagnostic biopsies. From 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2013, solid tumour samples (including non-small-cell lung carcinoma [NSCLC], colorectal carcinoma, and melanoma) were sequenced in the context of the UK National Health Service from 351 consecutively submitted prospective cases for which treating clinicians thought the patient had potential to benefit from more extensive genetic analysis. Following histological assessment, tumour-rich regions of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections underwent macrodissection, DNA extraction, NGS, and analysis using a pipeline centred on Torrent Suite software. With a median turnaround time of seven working days, an integrated clinical report was produced indicating the variants detected, including those with potential diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic, or clinical trial entry implications. Accompanying phenotypic data were collected, and a detailed cost analysis of the panel compared with single gene testing was undertaken to assess affordability for routine patient care. Panel sequencing was successful for 97% (342/351) of tumour samples in the prospective cohort and showed 100% concordance with known mutations (detected using cobas assays). At least one mutation was identified in 87% (296/342) of

  20. Revealing Latent Value of Clinically Acquired CTs of Traumatic Brain Injury Through Multi-Atlas Segmentation in a Retrospective Study of 1,003 with External Cross-Validation.

    PubMed

    Plassard, Andrew J; Kelly, Patrick D; Asman, Andrew J; Kang, Hakmook; Patel, Mayur B; Landman, Bennett A

    2015-03-20

    Medical imaging plays a key role in guiding treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and for diagnosing intracranial hemorrhage; most commonly rapid computed tomography (CT) imaging is performed. Outcomes for patients with TBI are variable and difficult to predict upon hospital admission. Quantitative outcome scales (e.g., the Marshall classification) have been proposed to grade TBI severity on CT, but such measures have had relatively low value in staging patients by prognosis. Herein, we examine a cohort of 1,003 subjects admitted for TBI and imaged clinically to identify potential prognostic metrics using a "big data" paradigm. For all patients, a brain scan was segmented with multi-atlas labeling, and intensity/volume/texture features were computed in a localized manner. In a 10-fold cross-validation approach, the explanatory value of the image-derived features is assessed for length of hospital stay (days), discharge disposition (five point scale from death to return home), and the Rancho Los Amigos functional outcome score (Rancho Score). Image-derived features increased the predictive R(2) to 0.38 (from 0.18) for length of stay, to 0.51 (from 0.4) for discharge disposition, and to 0.31 (from 0.16) for Rancho Score (over models consisting only of non-imaging admission metrics, but including positive/negative radiological CT findings). This study demonstrates that high volume retrospective analysis of clinical imaging data can reveal imaging signatures with prognostic value. These targets are suited for follow-up validation and represent targets for future feature selection efforts. Moreover, the increase in prognostic value would improve staging for intervention assessment and provide more reliable guidance for patients.

  1. Variation between Hospitals with Regard to Diagnostic Practice, Coding Accuracy, and Case-Mix. A Retrospective Validation Study of Administrative Data versus Medical Records for Estimating 30-Day Mortality after Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kristoffersen, Doris Tove; Skyrud, Katrine Damgaard; Lindman, Anja Schou

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of patient administrative data (PAS) for calculating 30-day mortality after hip fracture as a quality indicator, by a retrospective study of medical records. Methods We used PAS data from all Norwegian hospitals (2005–2009), merged with vital status from the National Registry, to calculate 30-day case-mix adjusted mortality for each hospital (n = 51). We used stratified sampling to establish a representative sample of both hospitals and cases. The hospitals were stratified according to high, low and medium mortality of which 4, 3, and 5 hospitals were sampled, respectively. Within hospitals, cases were sampled stratified according to year of admission, age, length of stay, and vital 30-day status (alive/dead). The final study sample included 1043 cases from 11 hospitals. Clinical information was abstracted from the medical records. Diagnostic and clinical information from the medical records and PAS were used to define definite and probable hip fracture. We used logistic regression analysis in order to estimate systematic between-hospital variation in unmeasured confounding. Finally, to study the consequences of unmeasured confounding for identifying mortality outlier hospitals, a sensitivity analysis was performed. Results The estimated overall positive predictive value was 95.9% for definite and 99.7% for definite or probable hip fracture, with no statistically significant differences between hospitals. The standard deviation of the additional, systematic hospital bias in mortality estimates was 0.044 on the logistic scale. The effect of unmeasured confounding on outlier detection was small to moderate, noticeable only for large hospital volumes. Conclusions This study showed that PAS data are adequate for identifying cases of hip fracture, and the effect of unmeasured case mix variation was small. In conclusion, PAS data are adequate for calculating 30-day mortality after hip-fracture as a quality

  2. Revealing latent value of clinically acquired CTs of traumatic brain injury through multi-atlas segmentation in a retrospective study of 1,003 with external cross-validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plassard, Andrew J.; Kelly, Patrick D.; Asman, Andrew J.; Kang, Hakmook; Patel, Mayur B.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Medical imaging plays a key role in guiding treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and for diagnosing intracranial hemorrhage; most commonly rapid computed tomography (CT) imaging is performed. Outcomes for patients with TBI are variable and difficult to predict upon hospital admission. Quantitative outcome scales (e.g., the Marshall classification) have been proposed to grade TBI severity on CT, but such measures have had relatively low value in staging patients by prognosis. Herein, we examine a cohort of 1,003 subjects admitted for TBI and imaged clinically to identify potential prognostic metrics using a "big data" paradigm. For all patients, a brain scan was segmented with multi-atlas labeling, and intensity/volume/texture features were computed in a localized manner. In a 10-fold crossvalidation approach, the explanatory value of the image-derived features is assessed for length of hospital stay (days), discharge disposition (five point scale from death to return home), and the Rancho Los Amigos functional outcome score (Rancho Score). Image-derived features increased the predictive R2 to 0.38 (from 0.18) for length of stay, to 0.51 (from 0.4) for discharge disposition, and to 0.31 (from 0.16) for Rancho Score (over models consisting only of non-imaging admission metrics, but including positive/negative radiological CT findings). This study demonstrates that high volume retrospective analysis of clinical imaging data can reveal imaging signatures with prognostic value. These targets are suited for follow-up validation and represent targets for future feature selection efforts. Moreover, the increase in prognostic value would improve staging for intervention assessment and provide more reliable guidance for patients.

  3. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: I. Summary of pre-validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Burlinson, Brian; Escobar, Patricia A; Kraynak, Andrew R; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Nakajima, Madoka; Pant, Kamala; Asano, Norihide; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this validation effort was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The purpose of the pre-validation studies (i.e., Phase 1 through 3), conducted in four or five laboratories with extensive comet assay experience, was to optimize the protocol to be used during the definitive validation study.

  4. Peer review of validation studies: an assessment of the role of the OECD by reference to the validation of the uterotrophic assay for endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Combes, Robert D

    2004-06-01

    The involvement of the OECD in managing the validation of the rat uterotrophic assay for endocrine disruptors, and in organising the peer review of the results of this study, has been assessed and compared with the many conclusions and recommendations in several published reports of international workshops on validation, and information in guidance documents, produced by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), the US Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and the OECD itself. It is concluded that the OECD has not followed the recommendations for full transparency and independence of the peer-review process. This is based on the fact that it has published a draft guidance document that differs from the report of a recent OECD workshop on validation, in such a way as to give the OECD the flexibility to fully control the peer-review process and, in so doing, to avoid full transparency. Comparison of the timing of the organisation of workshops by the OECD and the progression of the validation study, together with the fact that a draft test guideline for the assay was written before completion of the peer review, suggest that the OECD has given a higher priority to the expedition of the validation and regulatory acceptance of the uterotrophic assay than it has to good scientific and logistical practice. This severely undermines its credibility in the validation process, so, in order for the OECD to be rightly perceived as an honest broker, it is recommended that the OECD should play no role in the validation of new or revised tests, until after they have been successfully validated, peer reviewed, and endorsed by the appropriate authorities, and are ready for test guideline development. With regard to the on-going OECD validation studies of other in vivo assays for endocrine disruptors, the OECD should take immediate steps to ensure full independence and transparency of their peer review.

  5. Henry's Law: A Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Robert M.; Peticolas, Warner L.

    2004-01-01

    A retrospective view of Henry's law and its applicability in any specific system at a finite concentration is tested. It can be concluded that Henry's law is only a limiting law and is adequate at low mole fractions but is useful for practical purposes where high precision is not required.

  6. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for detection of genotoxic carcinogens: II. Summary of definitive validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Beevers, Carol; De Boeck, Marlies; Burlinson, Brian; Hobbs, Cheryl A; Kitamoto, Sachiko; Kraynak, Andrew R; McNamee, James; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Pant, Kamala; Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Priestley, Catherine; Takasawa, Hironao; Wada, Kunio; Wirnitzer, Uta; Asano, Norihide; Escobar, Patricia A; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Nakajima, Madoka; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this exercise was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The study protocol was optimized in the pre-validation studies, and then the definitive (4th phase) validation study was conducted in two steps. In the 1st step, assay reproducibility was confirmed among laboratories using four coded reference chemicals and the positive control ethyl methanesulfonate. In the 2nd step, the predictive capability was investigated using 40 coded chemicals with known genotoxic and carcinogenic activity (i.e., genotoxic carcinogens, genotoxic non-carcinogens, non-genotoxic carcinogens, and non-genotoxic non-carcinogens). Based on the results obtained, the in vivo comet assay is concluded to be highly capable of identifying genotoxic chemicals and therefore can serve as a reliable predictor of rodent carcinogenicity.

  7. Validation of two age dependent D-dimer cut-off values for exclusion of deep vein thrombosis in suspected elderly patients in primary care: retrospective, cross sectional, diagnostic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Koek, H L (Dineke); Oudega, Ruud; Geersing, Geert-Jan; Janssen, Kristel J M; van Delden, Johannes J M; Moons, Karel G M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the use of age adapted D-dimer cut-off values can be translated to primary care patients who are suspected of deep vein thrombosis. Design Retrospective, cross sectional diagnostic study. Setting 110 primary care doctors affiliated with three hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants 1374 consecutive patients (936 (68.1%) aged >50 years) with clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis. Main outcome measures Proportion of patients with D-dimer values below two proposed age adapted cut-off levels (age in years×10 μg/L in patients aged >50 years, or 750 μg/L in patients aged ≥60 years), in whom deep vein thrombosis could be excluded; and the number of false negative results. Results Using the Wells score, 647 patients had an unlikely clinical probability of deep vein thrombosis. In these patients (at all ages), deep vein thrombosis could be excluded in 309 (47.8%) using the age dependent cut-off value compared with 272 (42.0%) using the conventional cut-off value of 500 μg/L (increase 5.7%, 95% confidence interval 4.1% to 7.8%). This exclusion rate resulted in 0.5% and 0.3% false negative cases, respectively (increase 0.2%, 0.004% to 8.6%).The increase in exclusion rate by using the age dependent cut-off value was highest in the oldest patients. In patients older than 80 years, deep vein thrombosis could be safely excluded in 22 (35.5%) patients using the age dependent cut-off value compared with 13 (21.0%) using the conventional cut-off value (increase 14.5%, 6.8% to 25.8%). Compared with the age dependent cut-off value, the cut-off value of 750 μg/L had a similar exclusion rate (307 (47.4%) patients) and false negative rate (0.3%). Conclusions Combined with a low clinical probability of deep vein thrombosis, use of the age dependent D-dimer cut-off value for patients older than 50 years or the cut-off value of 750 μg/L for patients aged 60 years and older resulted in a considerable increase in the proportion of patients in

  8. A retrospective of VAWT technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwill, Thomas D.; Sutherland, Herbert J.; Berg, Dale E.

    2012-01-01

    The study of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) technology at Sandia National Laboratories started in the 1970's and concluded in the 1990's. These studies concentrated on the Darrieus configurations because of their high inherent efficiency, but other configurations (e.g., the Savonius turbine) were also examined. The Sandia VAWT program culminated with the design of the 34-m 'Test Bed' Darrieus VAWT. This turbine was designed and built to test various VAWT design concepts and to provide the necessary databases to validate analytical design codes and algorithms. Using the Test Bed as their starting point, FloWind Corp. developed a commercial VAWT product line with composite blades and an extended height-to-diameter ratio. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the design process and results of the Sandia 34-m VAWT Test Bed program and the FloWind prototype development program with an eye toward future offshore designs. This paper is our retrospective of the design, analysis, testing and commercial process. Special emphasis is given to those lessons learned that will aid in the development of an off-shore VAWT.

  9. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Retrospective Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Romanyukha, Alex; Trompier, Francois

    2011-05-05

    Necessity for, principles of, and general concepts of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) retrospective dosimetry are presented. Also presented and given in details are examples of EPR retrospective dosimetry applications in tooth enamel, bone, and fingernails with focus on general approaches for solving technical and methodological problems. Advantages, drawbacks, and possible future developments are discussed and an extensive bibliography on EPR retrospective dosimetry is provided.

  10. Causal Inference in Retrospective Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Paul W.; Rubin, Donald B.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of drawing causal inferences from retrospective case-controlled studies is considered. A model for causal inference in prospective studies is applied to retrospective studies. Limitations of case-controlled studies are formulated concerning relevant parameters that can be estimated in such studies. A coffee-drinking/myocardial…

  11. Development, validation and acceptance of alternative methods in the quality control of vaccines: A case report.

    PubMed

    Hendriksen, C F

    1995-12-01

    Information about levels of protection against tetanus is needed both for the assessment of immune status and for the estimation of the potency of batches of tetanus toxoid. Originally, levels of protective antibodies in human serum samples were titrated in an in vivo toxin neutralization (TN) test. Potency testing was based either on an indirect protection test or a direct challenge test. In the former test, rabbits or guinea pigs are immunized and bled, followed by titration of serum samples in a TN test. In the latter test, used in the quality control of tetanus toxoid for human use, protective immunity is induced by vaccination in guinea pigs or mice and subsequently challenging them directly with tetanus toxin. In the mid-1980s, an in vitro model was developed at the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) for estimating levels of tetanus antitoxin in serum samples. This model, the toxin-binding inhibition (ToBI) test, was validated recently for both diagnostic testing and potency testing. Although accurate estimation of antitoxin levels is more important for diagnostic testing than for potency testing, the ToBI test has been adopted for determining the immune status but not for potency testing. One major reason is that there are no official guidelines for titration of human serum samples. By contrast, potency testing is performed in accordance with the monographs of national and international pharmacopoeias, which complicates acceptance for technical and bureaucratic reasons. This paper focuses on the validation studies performed at the RIVM. In particular, attention is paid to the various problems encountered. Suggestions for the role of the European Centre for Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM)( *) in the quality control of vaccines are also presented.

  12. Selecting a Retrospective Conversion Vendor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisowski, Andrew; Sessions, Judith

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of using vendors for retrospective conversion of library catalogs rather than in-house projects highlights reasons to consider vendors, four conversion methodologies, and vendor selection criteria (database, non-matches, local data, accuracy, charging, schedule, product delivery time, local system compatibility, MARC format, impact on…

  13. Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review provides a yearly comparison between realized energy outcomes and the Reference case projections included in previous Annual Energy Outlooks (AEO) beginning with 1982. This edition of the report adds the AEO 2012 projections and updates the historical data to incorporate the latest data revisions.

  14. Cosmetics Europe multi-laboratory pre-validation of the SkinEthic™ reconstituted human corneal epithelium test method for the prediction of eye irritation.

    PubMed

    Alépée, N; Bessou-Touya, S; Cotovio, J; de Smedt, A; de Wever, B; Faller, C; Jones, P; Le Varlet, B; Marrec-Fairley, M; Pfannenbecker, U; Tailhardat, M; van Goethem, F; McNamee, P

    2013-08-01

    Cosmetics Europe, The Personal Care Association, known as Colipa before 2012, conducted a program of technology transfer and assessment of Within/Between Laboratory (WLV/BLV) reproducibility of the SkinEthic™ Reconstituted Human Corneal Epithelium (HCE) as one of two human reconstructed tissue eye irritation test methods. The SkinEthic™ HCE test method involves two exposure time treatment procedures - one for short time exposure (10 min - SE) and the other for long time exposure (60 min - LE) of tissues to test substance. This paper describes pre-validation studies of the SkinEthic™ HCE test method (SE and LE protocols) as well as the Eye Peptide Reactivity Assay (EPRA). In the SE WLV study, 30 substances were evaluated. A consistent outcome with respect to viability measurement across all runs was observed with all substances showing an SD of less than 18%. In the LE WLV study, 44 out of 45 substances were consistently classified. These data demonstrated a high level of reproducibility within laboratory for both the SE and LE treatment procedures. For the LE BLV, 19 out of 20 substances were consistently classified between the three laboratories, again demonstrating a high level of reproducibility between laboratories. The results for EPRA WLV and BLV studies demonstrated that all substances analysed were categorised similarly and that the method is reproducible. The SkinEthic™ HCE test method entered into the experimental phase of a formal ECVAM validation program in 2010.

  15. Retrospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Anthony

    1971-01-01

    A collection of essays on education printed in The New Era during the 1920-1930 era and written by: Beatrice Ensor, A. S. Neill, G. Bernard Shaw, Adolphe Ferriere, C. G. Jung, Martin Buber, Alfred Adler, Harold Rugg, Ovide Decroly, and Paul Langevin. (SE)

  16. Retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, David A.

    Charting a course toward an uncertain future is always a risky business, especially among shoals of fiscal restraint or national tragedy, and the prudent navigator is well advised to remember where he's been as he looks ahead. The ocean and space sciences are poised for grand joint adventures, but shrinking budgets and the lingering Challenger numbness are restrictive lee shores that must be considered when laying plans. To sharpen the focus on future choices, it may be helpful to glance in the geophysical rearview mirror and remember some of the challenges and opportunities of a different era.A quarter century is a long time, but many images from 25 years ago can still be recalled in crisp detail, like photographs in a scrapbook. In 1961, results from the International Geophysical Year (IGY) filled the pages of the Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, and the U.S. program of space exploration finally was underway with conviction. The Indian Ocean Expedition, conceived during the IGY, ushered in a new era of international oceanography. The TIROS III satellite beamed to earth fuzzy pictures of tropical storms and revealed the intricate writhings of the Gulf Stream. Forecasters and fluid dynamicists suddenly saw new horizons, and geophysical turbulence became a major topic at the IUGG Symposium in Marseilles, France. Papers with prescient themes were presented at the AGU Ocean Section meeting: June Pattullo (then at Oregon State College, Corvallis) on heat storage in the Pacific; Ferris Webster (then at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.) on Gulf Stream meanders. Polar oceanography was well represented in AGU journals: Kenneth Hunkins (at what was then called the Lamont Geological Observatory, Palisades, N.Y.) described the Alpha Rise, discovered from a drifting Arctic ice island, and Edward Thiel (then at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis) and his co-workers discussed open ocean tides, gravimetrically measured from Antarctic ice shelves.

  17. Explicating Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    How we choose to use a term depends on what we want to do with it. If "validity" is to be used to support a score interpretation, validation would require an analysis of the plausibility of that interpretation. If validity is to be used to support score uses, validation would require an analysis of the appropriateness of the proposed…

  18. Coastal zone color scanner retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, B. Greg

    1994-04-01

    The following special section of the Journal of Geophysical Research is dedicated to a retrospective of scientific studies using the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) instrument. The CZCS was launched in late 1978 aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite as a "proof-of-concept" instrument to demonstrate the feasibility of using satellite platforms to monitor the distribution of oceanic phytoplankton in the world's oceans. It provided data until the middle of 1986. Phytoplankton primary production contributes approximately one half of the global biospheric fixation of organic matter by photosynthesis, thereby forming the base of the oceanic food web and providing a major sink for atmospheric CO2.

  19. A 14-year retrospective maternal report of alcohol consumption in pregnancy predicts pregnancy and teen outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hannigan, John H; Chiodo, Lisa M; Sokol, Robert J; Janisse, James; Ager, Joel W; Greenwald, Mark K; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Detecting patterns of maternal drinking that place fetuses at risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) is critical to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention but is challenging because information on antenatal drinking collected during pregnancy is often insufficient or lacking. Although retrospective assessments have been considered less favored by many researchers due to presumed poor reliability, this perception may be inaccurate because of reduced maternal denial and/or distortion. The present study hypothesized that fetal alcohol exposure, as assessed retrospectively during child adolescence, would be related significantly to prior measures of maternal drinking and would predict alcohol-related behavioral problems in teens better than antenatal measures of maternal alcohol consumption. Drinking was assessed during pregnancy, and retrospectively about the same pregnancy, at a 14-year follow-up in 288 African-American women using well-validated semistructured interviews. Regression analysis examined the predictive validity of both drinking assessments on pregnancy outcomes and on teacher-reported teen behavior outcomes. Retrospective maternal self-reported drinking assessed 14 years postpartum was significantly higher than antenatal reports of consumption. Retrospective report identified 10.8 times more women as risk drinkers (≥ one drink per day) than the antenatal report. Antenatal and retrospective reports were moderately correlated and both were correlated with the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. Self-reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy based on retrospective report identified significantly more teens exposed prenatally to at-risk alcohol levels than antenatal, in-pregnancy reports. Retrospective report predicted more teen behavior problems (e.g., attention problems and externalizing behaviors) than the antenatal report. Antenatal report predicted younger gestational age at birth and retrospective report predicted smaller birth size

  20. Filter validation.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Russell E

    2006-01-01

    Validation of a sterilizing filtration process is critical since it is impossible with currently available technology to measure the sterility of each filled container; therefore, sterility assurance of the filtered product must be achieved through validation of the filtration process. Validating a pharmaceutical sterile filtration process involves three things: determining the effect of the liquid on the filter, determining the effect of the filter on the liquid, and demonstrating that the filter removes all microorganisms from the liquid under actual processing conditions.

  1. Retrospective Birth Dating of Cells

    SciTech Connect

    L.Spalding, K; Bhardwaj, R D; Buchholz, B A; Druid, H; Frisen, J

    2005-04-19

    The generation of cells in the human body has been difficult to study and our understanding of cell turnover is limited. Extensive testing of nuclear weapons resulted in a dramatic global increase in the levels of the isotope {sup 14}C in the atmosphere, followed by an exponential decrease after the test ban treaty in 1963. We show that the level of {sup 14}C in genomic DNA closely parallels atmospheric levels, and can be used to establish the time point when the DNA was synthesized and cells were born. We use this strategy to determine the age of cells in the cortex of the adult human brain, and show that whereas non-neuronal cells are exchanged, occipital neurons are as old as the individual, supporting the view that postnatal neurogenesis does not take place in this region. Retrospective birth dating is a generally applicable strategy that can be used to measure cell turnover in man under physiological and pathological conditions.

  2. Propensity Score Matching: Retrospective Randomization?

    PubMed

    Jupiter, Daniel C

    Randomized controlled trials are viewed as the optimal study design. In this commentary, we explore the strength of this design and its complexity. We also discuss some situations in which these trials are not possible, or not ethical, or not economical. In such situations, specifically, in retrospective studies, we should make every effort to recapitulate the rigor and strength of the randomized trial. However, we could be faced with an inherent indication bias in such a setting. Thus, we consider the tools available to address that bias. Specifically, we examine matching and introduce and explore a new tool: propensity score matching. This tool allows us to group subjects according to their propensity to be in a particular treatment group and, in so doing, to account for the indication bias.

  3. Northeastern Pennsylvania Retrospective Case Study Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA conducted a retrospective case study in northeastern Pennsylvania to investigate reported instances of contaminated drinking water resources in areas where hydraulic fracturing activities occurred

  4. Translation: in retrospect and prospect.

    PubMed Central

    Woese, C R

    2001-01-01

    This review is occasioned by the fact that the problem of translation, which has simmered on the biological sidelines for the last 40 years, is about to erupt center stage--thanks to the recent spectacular advances in ribosome structure. This most complex, beautiful, and fascinating of cellular mechanisms, the translation apparatus, is also the most important. Translation not only defines gene expression, but it is the sine qua non without which modern (protein-based) cells would not have come into existence. Yet from the start, the problem of translation has been misunderstood--a reflection of the molecular perspective that dominated Biology of the last century. In that the our conception of translation will play a significant role in creating the structure that is 21st century Biology, it is critical that our current (and fundamentally flawed) view of translation be understood for what it is and be reformulated to become an all-embracing perspective about which 21st century Biology can develop. Therefore, the present review is both a retrospective and a plea to biologists to establish a new evolutionary, RNA-World-centered concept of translation. What is needed is an evolutionarily oriented perspective that, first and foremost, focuses on the nature (and origin) of a primitive translation apparatus, the apparatus that transformed an ancient evolutionary era of nucleic acid life, the RNA World, into the world of modern cells. PMID:11497425

  5. Retrospective Conversion: Investing in the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Report on developments in the retrospective conversion of manual library files to machine-readable form discusses planning and decision making; accommodating full records; conforming to standards; creating bibliographic records; sources of retrospective conversion support (bibliographic utilities, stand-alone systems); use of microcomputers;…

  6. Game Coaching System Design and Development: A Retrospective Case Study of FPS Trainer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Wee Hoe

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a retrospective case study of a game-based learning (GBL) researcher who cooperated with a professional gamer and a team of game developers to design and develop a coaching system for First-Person Shooter (FPS) players. The GBL researcher intended to verify the ecological validity of a model of cooperation; the developers wanted to…

  7. Academic Workload and Working Time: Retrospective Perceptions versus Time-Series Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyvik, Svein

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the validity of perceptions by academic staff about their past and present workload and working hours. Retrospective assessments are compared with time-series data. The data are drawn from four mail surveys among academic staff in Norwegian universities undertaken in the period 1982-2008. The findings show…

  8. Retrospective Assessment of Behavioral Inhibition in Infants and Toddlers: Development of a Parent Report Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gensthaler, A.; Mohler, E.; Resch, F.; Paulus, F.; Schwenck, C.; Freitag, C. M.; Goth, K.

    2013-01-01

    A behaviorally inhibited temperament in early childhood has been identified as a potential risk factor for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. The purpose of our investigation was the development and evaluation of the factor structure, reliability and validity of the first retrospective parent report measure to assess behavioral…

  9. Gastric peritoneal carcinomatosis - a retrospective review

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hwee Leong; Chia, Claramae Shulyn; Tan, Grace Hwei Ching; Choo, Su Pin; Tai, David Wai-Meng; Chua, Clarinda Wei Ling; Ng, Matthew Chau Hsien; Soo, Khee Chee; Teo, Melissa Ching Ching

    2017-01-01

    AIM To characterize patients with gastric peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) and their typical clinical and treatment course with palliative systemic chemotherapy as the current standard of care. METHODS We performed a retrospective electronic chart review of all patients with gastric adenocarcinoma with PC diagnosed at initial metastatic presentation between January 2010 and December 2014 in a single tertiary referral centre. RESULTS We studied a total of 271 patients with a median age of 63.8 years and median follow-up duration of 5.1 mo. The majority (n = 217, 80.1%) had the peritoneum as the only site of metastasis at initial presentation. Palliative systemic chemotherapy was eventually planned for 175 (64.6%) of our patients at initial presentation, of which 171 were initiated on it. Choice of first-line regime was in accordance with the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines for Gastric Cancer Treatment. These patients underwent a median of one line of chemotherapy, completing a median of six cycles in total. Chemotherapy disruption due to unplanned hospitalizations occurred in 114 (66.7%), while cessation of chemotherapy occurred in 157 (91.8%), with 42 cessations primarily attributable to PC-related complications. Patients who had initiation of systemic chemotherapy had a significantly better median overall survival than those who did not (10.9 mo vs 1.6 mo, P < 0.001). Of patients who had initiation of systemic chemotherapy, those who experienced any disruptions to chemotherapy due to unplanned hospitalizations had a significantly worse median overall survival compared to those who did not (8.7 mo vs 14.6 mo, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION Gastric PC carries a grim prognosis with a clinical course fraught with disease-related complications which may attenuate any survival benefit which palliative systemic chemotherapy may have to offer. As such, investigational use of regional therapies is warranted and required validation in patients with isolated PC to

  10. Alignment validation

    SciTech Connect

    ALICE; ATLAS; CMS; LHCb; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-06

    The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under constructionat CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector andthe muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignmentinformation is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments.

  11. SANSMIC Validation.

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Paula D.; Rudeen, David Keith; Lord, David L.

    2014-08-01

    SANSMIC is solution mining software that was developed and utilized by SNL in its role as geotechnical advisor to the US DOE SPR for planning purposes. Three SANSMIC leach modes - withdrawal, direct, and reverse leach - have been revalidated with multiple test cases for each mode. The withdrawal mode was validated using high quality data from recent leach activity while the direct and reverse modes utilized data from historical cavern completion reports. Withdrawal results compared very well with observed data, including the location and size of shelves due to string breaks with relative leached volume differences ranging from 6 - 10% and relative radius differences from 1.5 - 3%. Profile comparisons for the direct mode were very good with relative leached volume differences ranging from 6 - 12% and relative radius differences from 5 - 7%. First, second, and third reverse configurations were simulated in order to validate SANSMIC over a range of relative hanging string and OBI locations. The first-reverse was simulated reasonably well with relative leached volume differences ranging from 1 - 9% and relative radius differences from 5 - 12%. The second-reverse mode showed the largest discrepancies in leach profile. Leached volume differences ranged from 8 - 12% and relative radius differences from 1 - 10%. In the third-reverse, relative leached volume differences ranged from 10 - 13% and relative radius differences were %7E4 %. Comparisons to historical reports were quite good, indicating that SANSMIC is essentially the same as documented and validated in the early 1980's.

  12. Somatization in Post-Concussion Syndrome: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gibaldi, James C

    2016-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of concussion patient data conducted to analyze the prevalence of somatization in patients presenting with post-concussion symptoms. Patient records from June 2010 to December 2015 were examined for concussion history, psychosocial history, neuropsychological test results, validity scores, and a symptom severity scale. Records meeting inclusion criteria from 33 males and 27 females were located. The sample had an age range of 11–78 years with a mean age of 33.40 (SD +/- 7.5 years). A clinically significant number of patients (55%) were found to be somaticizing their symptoms and a significant majority (78%) of somaticizing patients reported no loss of consciousness, retrograde amnesia, or post-traumatic amnesia but their symptom validity scales were significantly exaggerated. Caution should be exercised by clinicians to ensure that the obtained results of neuropsychological testing are reliable and valid. It is very important for the clinician to take into account the entire patient history, including psychosocial factors (such as pre-existing psychological traits or conditions) and social influences (such as stressors in family dynamics or work/school activities that may be affecting the patient's complaints). PMID:27766190

  13. Uncovering the Problem-Solving Process: Cued Retrospective Reporting Versus Concurrent and Retrospective Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; Witte, Puk

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the amounts of problem-solving process information ("action," "why," "how," and "metacognitive") elicited by means of concurrent, retrospective, and cued retrospective reporting. In a within-participants design, 26 participants completed electrical circuit troubleshooting tasks under different reporting conditions. The…

  14. Retrospective Conversion of Three Library Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carolyn A.

    1982-01-01

    Reports on the retrospective conversion via OCLC of cataloging for three library collections at the University of South Carolina--the main, rare book, and historical collections. Backgrounds of the collections, conversion procedures, determinants of conversion rates, and cost factors are discussed. (Author/JL)

  15. A Retrospective Appraisal of Teacher Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasser-Abu Alhija, Fadia M.; Fresko, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Examination of an induction program for new teachers was undertaken from the viewpoint of induction graduates three years after participation. Their retrospective perspectives were investigated as to their satisfaction with assimilation in school in the induction year, their attitudes towards organizational aspects of the program, and the…

  16. Childhood Maltreatment in South Korea: Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yanghee; Kim, Sangwon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the prevalence of childhood maltreatment in South Korea using the retrospective version of ICAST and the associations between perceptions of abuse experienced during childhood and recent interpersonal problems and depression. Methods: 539 young persons, aged 18-24 years, from various universities, work places, and…

  17. The Learning Organization Turns 15: A Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter A. C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Special Issue; to provide a practitioner's retrospective views of the learning organization concept; and to comment on the status of "The Learning Organization" journal. Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted involves recounting a personal history of a practitioner's experiences…

  18. Optical Scanning for Retrospective Conversion of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Morten

    1986-01-01

    This discussion of the use of optical scanning and computer formatting for retrospective conversion focuses on a series of applications known as Optical Scanning for Creation of Information Databases (OSCID). Prior research in this area and the usefulness of OSCID for creating low-priced machine-readable data representing older materials are…

  19. Preparing the Collection for Retrospective Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the planning and preparation necessary to ensure a cost-effective and accurate retrospective conversion of school library catalogs. Suggested strategies include heavy weeding, developing accurate standardized shelf lists with an entry for each holding, and standardizing entries within a school district or region. (CLB)

  20. Assessing family-of-origin functioning in Mexican American adults: retrospective application of the family environment scale.

    PubMed

    Negy, Charles; Snyder, Douglas K

    2006-12-01

    Although both theoretical and empirical literature suggests that individuals' family-of-origin experiences affect subsequent relationship functioning as adults, few studies have examined the appropriateness of family assessment techniques when applied retrospectively for use in either theory development or clinical applications. This study examined psycho-metric characteristics of the Family Environment Scale (FES) when used retrospectively with Mexican Americans to assess their families-of-origin. Findings provided qualified support for the internal consistency of the FES and showed significant mean profile differences for this population across gender and when compared to the normative sample for this measure. Retrospective reports on the FES related to independent measures of family history of distress and, to a lesser extent, with current relationship functioning, providing preliminary support for the criterion-related validity of the FES when adapted for retrospective assessment. Limitations and implications of findings for further research are discussed.

  1. From Construct Validity to Theory Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haig, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Lee Cronbach once expressed the view that all roads lead to construct validity. In looking to clarify the consensus definition of validity, and its place in assessment, Newton is also led to the troublesome idea of construct validity. To be sure, he addresses other validity issues, but in this commentary, I will restrict my attention to construct…

  2. Emerging technological bases for retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Straume, T; Anspaugh, L R; Haskell, E H; Lucas, J N; Marchetti, A A; Likhtarev, I A; Chumak, V V; Romanyukha, A A; Khrouch, V T; Gavrilin YuI; Minenko, V F

    1997-01-01

    In this article we discuss examples of challenging problems in retrospective dosimetry and describe some promising solutions. The ability to make measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry and luminescence techniques promises to provide improved dosimetry for regions of Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation contaminated by radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident. In addition, it may soon be possible to resolve the large neutron discrepancy in the dosimetry system for Hiroshima through novel measurement techniques that can be used to reconstruct the fast-neutron fluence emitted by the bomb some 51 years ago. Important advances in molecular cytogenetics and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements have produced biodosimeters that show potential in retrospective dosimetry. The most promising of these are the frequency of reciprocal translocations measured in chromosomes of blood lymphocytes using fluorescence in situ hybridization and the electron paramagnetic resonance signal in tooth enamel.

  3. The DAO Retrospective Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todling, Richardo; Zhu, Yanqiu; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The fixed-lag Kalman smoother of Cohn et al. (1994), or a version of a more computationally feasible approximation of it developed by Todling et al. (1998), is under implementation at the Data Assimilation Office (DAO) to build a retrospective data assimilation system (RDAS). The initial version of the RDAS uses the physical-space statistical analysis system and a modification of the incremental analysis update (IAU) procedure of Bloom et al. (1996); a follow up version of the RDAS Nill require the use of the adjoint of the DAO general circulation model (developed by Y. Yang and M Navon). The retrospective procedure is designed to produce improved analyses as well as improved assimilated fields consequently providing an improved climate representation through data assimilation.

  4. Retrospective Revaluation of Associative Retroactive Cue Interference

    PubMed Central

    Miguez, Gonzalo; Laborda, Mario A.; Miller, Ralph R.

    2013-01-01

    Two fear-conditioning experiments with rats assessed whether retrospective revaluation, which has been observed in cue competition (i.e., when compounded cues are followed with an outcome), can also be observed in retroactive cue interference (i.e., when different cues are reinforced in separate phases with the same outcome). Experiment 1 found that after inducing retroactive cue interference (i.e., X-outcome followed by A-outcome), nonreinforced presentations of the interfering cue (A) decreases interference with responding to the target cue (X), just as has been observed in retrospective revaluation experiments in cue competition. Using the opposite manipulation (i.e., adding reinforced presentations of A), Experiment 2 demonstrated that after inducing retroactive cue interference, additional reinforced presentations of the interfering cue (A) increases interference with responding to the target cue (X); alternatively stated, the amount of interference increases with the amount of training with the interfering cue. Thus, both types of retrospective revaluation occur in retroactive cue competition. The results are discussed in terms of the possibility that similar associative mechanisms underlie cue competition and cue interference. PMID:24142799

  5. Methods for retrospective geocoding in population studies: the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer C; Wyatt, Sharon B; Hickson, DeMarc; Gwinn, Danielle; Faruque, Fazlay; Sims, Mario; Sarpong, Daniel; Taylor, Herman A

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of geographic information systems (GIS) in epidemiological population studies requires careful attention to the methods employed in accomplishing geocoding and creating a GIS. Studies have provided limited details,hampering the ability to assess validity of spatial data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the multiphase geocoding methods used to retrospectively create a GIS in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We used baseline data from 5,302 participants enrolled in the JHS between 2000 and 2004 in a multiphase process to accomplish geocoding2 years after participant enrollment. After initial deletion of ungeocodable addresses(n=52), 96% were geocoded using ArcGIS. An interactive method using data abstraction from participant records, use of additional maps and street reference files,and verification of existence of address, yielded successful geocoding of all but 13 addresses. Overall, nearly 99% (n=5,237) of the JHS cohort was geocoded retrospectively using the multiple strategies for improving and locating geocodable addresses. Geocoding validation procedures revealed highly accurate and reliable geographic data. Using the methods and protocol developed provided a reliable spatial database that can be used for further investigation of spatial epidemiology. Baseline results were used to describe participants by select geographic indicators, including residence in urban or rural areas, as well as to validate the effectiveness of the study's sampling plan. Further, our results indicate that retrospectively developing a reliable GIS for a large, epidemiological study is feasible. This paper describes some of the challenges in retrospectively creating a GIS and provides practical tips that enhanced the success.

  6. 77 FR 47572 - Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... COMMISSION 19 CFR Chapter II Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules AGENCY: International Trade Commission... July 11, 2011, the Commission recently adopted its Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules... submitted in connection with the Commission's Preliminary Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing...

  7. The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire: a population-based random sampling study.

    PubMed

    Piauilino, D C; Bueno, O F A; Tufik, S; Bittencourt, L R; Santos-Silva, R; Hachul, H; Gorenstein, C; Pompéia, S

    2010-05-01

    The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) has been shown to have acceptable reliability and factorial, predictive, and concurrent validity. However, the PRMQ has never been administered to a probability sample survey representative of all ages in adulthood, nor have previous studies controlled for factors that are known to influence metamemory, such as affective status. Here, the PRMQ was applied in a survey adopting a probabilistic three-stage cluster sample representative of the population of Sao Paulo, Brazil, according to gender, age (20-80 years), and economic status (n=1042). After excluding participants who had conditions that impair memory (depression, anxiety, used psychotropics, and/or had neurological/psychiatric disorders), in the remaining 664 individuals we (a) used confirmatory factor analyses to test competing models of the latent structure of the PRMQ, and (b) studied effects of gender, age, schooling, and economic status on prospective and retrospective memory complaints. The model with the best fit confirmed the same tripartite structure (general memory factor and two orthogonal prospective and retrospective memory factors) previously reported. Women complained more of general memory slips, especially those in the first 5 years after menopause, and there were more complaints of prospective than retrospective memory, except in participants with lower family income.

  8. An Ecological Approach to Prospective and Retrospective Timing of Long Durations: A Study Involving Gamers

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Simon; Bisson, Nicolas; Grondin, Simon

    2010-01-01

    To date, most studies comparing prospective and retrospective timing have failed to use long durations and tasks with a certain degree of ecological validity. The present study assessed the effect of the timing paradigm on playing video games in a “naturalistic environment” (gaming centers). In addition, as it involved gamers, it provided an opportunity to examine the effect of gaming profile on time estimation. A total of 116 participants were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospectively a video game session lasting 12, 35 or 58 minutes. The results indicate that time is perceived as longer in the prospective paradigm than in the retrospective one, although the variability of estimates is the same. Moreover, the 12-minute session was perceived as longer, proportionally, than the 35- and 58-minute sessions. The study also revealed that the number of hours participants spent playing video games per week was a significant predictor of time estimates. To account for the main findings, the differences between prospective and retrospective timing are discussed in quantitative terms using a proposed theoretical framework, which states that both paradigms use the same cognitive processes, but in different proportions. Finally, the hypothesis that gamers play more because they underestimate time is also discussed. PMID:20174648

  9. Adaptive control based on retrospective cost optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillo, Mario A.

    This dissertation studies adaptive control of multi-input, multi-output, linear, time-invariant, discrete-time systems that are possibly unstable and nonminimum phase. We consider both gradient-based adaptive control as well as retrospective-cost-based adaptive control. Retrospective cost optimization is a measure of performance at the current time based on a past window of data and without assumptions about the command or disturbance signals. In particular, retrospective cost optimization acts as an inner loop to the adaptive control algorithm by modifying the performance variables based on the difference between the actual past control inputs and the recomputed past control inputs based on the current control law. We develop adaptive control algorithms that are effective for systems that are nonminimum phase. We consider discrete-time adaptive control since these control laws can be implemented directly in embedded code without requiring an intermediate discretization step. Furthermore, the adaptive controllers in this dissertation are developed under minimal modeling assumptions. In particular, the adaptive controllers require knowledge of the sign of the high-frequency gain and a sufficient number of Markov parameters to approximate the nonminimum-phase zeros (if any). No additional modeling information is necessary. The adaptive controllers presented in this dissertation are developed for full-state-feedback stabilization, static-output-feedback stabilization, as well as dynamic compensation for stabilization, command following, disturbance rejection, and model reference adaptive control. Lyapunov-based stability and convergence proofs are provided for special cases. We present numerical examples to illustrate the algorithms' effectiveness in handling systems that are unstable and/or nonminimum phase and to provide insight into the modeling information required for controller implementation.

  10. [Diabetic retinopathy complications--12-year retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Ignat, Florica; Davidescu, Livia

    2002-01-01

    It is analyzed, on a retrospective study on 12 years, the incidence of diabetus melitus cases, hospitalized in the Ophthalmologic Clinic from Craiova with special mention to the frequency of the diabetic retinopathy, of it's complications and in an accordance to other general diseases, especially cardiovascular's, which contributes to the aggravation of the diabetic ocular in juries evolution. The study underlines the high incidence of the new founded cases with diabetus melitus in complicated diabetes retinopathy stage; the high frequency of ocular complications is explained, according to our statistic facts and through an insufficient treatment, sometimes incorrect and many other cases total neglected by the patients.

  11. Flow cytometry: retrospective, fundamentals and recent instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Picot, Julien; Guerin, Coralie L; Le Van Kim, Caroline; Boulanger, Chantal M

    2012-03-01

    Flow cytometry is a complete technology given to biologists to study cellular populations with high precision. This technology elegantly combines sample dimension, data acquisition speed, precision and measurement multiplicity. Beyond the statistical aspect, flow cytometry offers the possibility to physically separate sub-populations. These performances come from the common endeavor of physicists, biophysicists, biologists and computer engineers, who succeeded, by providing new concepts, to bring flow cytometry to current maturity. The aim of this paper is to present a complete retrospective of the technique and remind flow cytometry fundamentals before focusing on recent commercial instrumentation.

  12. 42 CFR 476.94 - Notice of QIO initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... changes as a result of a DRG validation. 476.94 Section 476.94 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... changes as a result of a DRG validation. (a) Notice of initial denial determination—(1) Parties to be... retrospective review, (excluding DRG validation and post procedure review), within 3 working days of the...

  13. Aging and retrospective revaluation of causal learning.

    PubMed

    Mutter, Sharon A; Atchley, Anthony R; Plumlee, Leslie M

    2012-01-01

    In a 2-stage causal learning task, young and older participants first learned which foods presented in compound were followed by an allergic reaction (e.g., STEAK-BEANS→ REACTION) and then the causal efficacy of 1 food from these compounds was revalued (e.g., BEANS→ NO REACTION). In Experiment 1, unrelated food pairs were used, and although there were no age differences in compound- or single-cue-outcome learning, older adults did not retrospectively revalue the causal efficacy of the absent target cues (e.g., STEAK). However, they had weaker within-compound associations for the unrelated foods, and this may have prevented them from retrieving the representations of these cues. In Experiment 2, older adults still showed no retrospective revaluation of absent cues even though compound food cues with pre-existing associations were used (e.g., STEAK-POTATO), and they received additional learning trials. Finally, in Experiment 3, older adults revalued the causal efficacy of the target cues when small, unobtrusive icons of these cues were present during single-cue revaluation. These findings suggest that age-related deficits in causal learning for absent cues are due to ineffective associative binding and reactivation processes.

  14. Fandom Biases Retrospective Judgments Not Perception

    PubMed Central

    Huff, Markus; Papenmeier, Frank; Maurer, Annika E.; Meitz, Tino G. K.; Garsoffky, Bärbel; Schwan, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Attitudes and motivations have been shown to affect the processing of visual input, indicating that observers may see a given situation each literally in a different way. Yet, in real-life, processing information in an unbiased manner is considered to be of high adaptive value. Attitudinal and motivational effects were found for attention, characterization, categorization, and memory. On the other hand, for dynamic real-life events, visual processing has been found to be highly synchronous among viewers. Thus, while in a seminal study fandom as a particularly strong case of attitudes did bias judgments of a sports event, it left the question open whether attitudes do bias prior processing stages. Here, we investigated influences of fandom during the live TV broadcasting of the 2013 UEFA-Champions-League Final regarding attention, event segmentation, immediate and delayed cued recall, as well as affect, memory confidence, and retrospective judgments. Even though we replicated biased retrospective judgments, we found that eye-movements, event segmentation, and cued recall were largely similar across both groups of fans. Our findings demonstrate that, while highly involving sports events are interpreted in a fan dependent way, at initial stages they are processed in an unbiased manner. PMID:28233877

  15. Fandom Biases Retrospective Judgments Not Perception.

    PubMed

    Huff, Markus; Papenmeier, Frank; Maurer, Annika E; Meitz, Tino G K; Garsoffky, Bärbel; Schwan, Stephan

    2017-02-24

    Attitudes and motivations have been shown to affect the processing of visual input, indicating that observers may see a given situation each literally in a different way. Yet, in real-life, processing information in an unbiased manner is considered to be of high adaptive value. Attitudinal and motivational effects were found for attention, characterization, categorization, and memory. On the other hand, for dynamic real-life events, visual processing has been found to be highly synchronous among viewers. Thus, while in a seminal study fandom as a particularly strong case of attitudes did bias judgments of a sports event, it left the question open whether attitudes do bias prior processing stages. Here, we investigated influences of fandom during the live TV broadcasting of the 2013 UEFA-Champions-League Final regarding attention, event segmentation, immediate and delayed cued recall, as well as affect, memory confidence, and retrospective judgments. Even though we replicated biased retrospective judgments, we found that eye-movements, event segmentation, and cued recall were largely similar across both groups of fans. Our findings demonstrate that, while highly involving sports events are interpreted in a fan dependent way, at initial stages they are processed in an unbiased manner.

  16. An Interactive, Graphical Tool for Retrospectively Assessing Symptom Frequency and Severity: An Illustration With Eating Disorder Behaviors, Body Weight, and Stress.

    PubMed

    De Young, Kyle P; Anderson, Drew A

    2016-09-16

    There are few assessments that gather valid, highly detailed data on short-term (i.e., weekly) symptom frequency/severity retrospectively. In particular, methodologies that provide valid data for research investigating symptom changes are typically prospective, expensive, and burdensome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new interactive and graphical assessment tool for gathering detailed information about eating-related symptom frequency/severity retrospectively over a 3-month period. A mixed eating disorder sample (N = 113) recruited from the community provided symptom data once weekly for 12 weeks and completed the Interactive, Graphical Assessment Tool (IGAT) assessing eating disorder symptoms on three occasions to determine the test-retest and concurrent validity of the IGAT. The IGAT performed marginally better than other measures for retrospective symptom frequency assessment in the eating disorders and did so at a greater level of detail than other available tools. Future research should evaluate the IGAT with other behaviors of interest.

  17. A retrospective study of patient outcomes and satisfaction following pinnaplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Nicholas; Smith, Caroline P; Cullen, Jim R; McCluney, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Up to 5% of all children have prominent ears. Psychological distress and bullying adversely affect these children and can cause significant social exclusion. In times of austerity, cosmetic procedures such as surgical correction of prominent ears are felt to be an unnecessary cost to the health service. Materials and methods A retrospective case note review of all patients undergoing pinnaplasty was undertaken. Postoperative outcomes were compared against the Royal College of Surgeons of England standards. The Glasgow Benefit Inventory, a validated post-intervention questionnaire, was then posted out to all patients. Results A total of 72 patients were identified. Average age at procedure was 13 years. Eleven patients were above the age of 19 years. Twenty-eight patients were male and forty-four female. Sixty-two cases underwent bilateral pinnaplasty. No patients developed hematoma, and there were no readmissions within 30 days of surgery. Twenty-nine patients responded to the questionnaire (40%), of whom 27 reported a positive impact on their psychosocial well-being with a mean score of 36. Conclusion Pinnaplasty offers patients an opportunity to alleviate the psychological distress of bullying and harassment secondary to the appearance of prominent ears. PMID:27307775

  18. Validity of the Premorbid Adjustment Scale

    PubMed Central

    Brill, N.; Reichenberg, A.; Weiser, M.; Rabinowitz, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of the current study was to test the predictive and concurrent validity of the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS) by comparing it with another similar but more elaborate retrospective measure and with data collected during late adolescence. Methods: We compared PAS late adolescence scores (age 16–18 years) of 91 males with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder with data on behavior collected in adolescence, before the first psychotic episode as part of standardized Draft Board screening, and with the same measure readministered during adulthood and modified to collect the same data again retrospectively. Results: The correlation of the PAS social withdrawal and social relations items with the social behavior scale of the Draft Board were .76 and .80, respectively, for the concurrent ratings and .52 and .53, respectively, for the data collected at age 17 years. The correlation of the PAS school achievements and school adjustment items with the functioning in structured environments scale of the Draft Board were .71 and .72, respectively, for the concurrent ratings and .43 and .47, respectively, for the data collected at age 17 years. Conclusions: Our results support the predictive and concurrent validity of the PAS and the validity of self-reported data on premorbid functioning in persons with schizophrenia. PMID:18032397

  19. Retrospective Analysis Of CO2 Laser Myringotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipman, Sidney P.; Guelcher, Robert T.

    1988-06-01

    A retrospective review of the author's series of 91 carbon dioxide (CO2) laser myringotomy cases performed between 1983 and 1986 is presented. Patients with chronic otitis media with effusion (COME) were selected on the basis of possible benefit from shorter ventilation time than tympanostomy tube insertion. The proceedings were performed on an outpatient basis with topical iontophoretic anesthesia, which offers significant cost savings and a lack of possible complications. The CO2 laser gives clean precise 0.8mm perforations which remain open for 2-4 weeks, this shorter ventilation time minimizing the period of water precautions and other side effects. The laser perforations heal well. With a success rate of 52 % reported, which could be increased with careful patient selection, we feel that the advantages of carbon dioxide laser myringotomy over myringotomy plus intubation outweight the risk of recurrent otitis media with effusion formation in those patients to whom this procedure is applicable.

  20. Retrospective Data Assimilation for GEOS-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todling, Ricardo; Giering, Ralf; Kaminski, Thomas; Zhu, Yan-Qiu; Guo, Jing

    2003-01-01

    The NASA/Goddard Earth Observing System 3 (GEOS-3) has recently been replaced operationally by GEOS-4. One of the major components of the new system is the finite-volume general circulation model (GCM) of Lin and Rood. Updating the GEOS-3 retrospective data assimilation system of Zhu et al. to GEOS-4 requires two main steps: (i) developing the adjoint of the finite-volume GCM; and (ii) developing the adjoint of the procedures interfacing the GCM with the Physical-space Statistical Analysis System. These required adjoints are being developed automatically through the use of the Transformation of Algorithms in Fortran compiler of Giering and Kaminski. In this presentation we discuss the current status of development and plans for the near future as well as show preliminary results.

  1. Nursing student medication errors: a retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Harding, Lorill; Petrick, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a retrospective review of medication errors made and reported by nursing students in a 4-year baccalaureate program. Data were examined in relation to the semester of the program, kind of error according to the rights of medication administration, and contributing factors. Three categories of contributing factors were identified: rights violations, system factors, and knowledge and understanding. It became apparent that system factors, or the context in which medication administration takes place, are not fully considered when students are taught about medication administration. Teaching strategies need to account for the dynamic complexity of this process and incorporate experiential knowledge. This review raised several important questions about how this information guides our practice as educators in the clinical and classroom settings and how we can work collaboratively with practice partners to influence change and increase patient safety.

  2. Diastematomyelia: a retrospective review of 138 patients.

    PubMed

    Cheng, B; Li, F T; Lin, L

    2012-03-01

    Diastematomyelia is a rare congenital abnormality of the spinal cord. This paper summarises more than 30 years' experience of treating this condition. Data were collected retrospectively on 138 patients with diastematomyelia (34 males, 104 females) who were treated at our hospital from May 1978 to April 2010. A total of 106 patients had double dural tubes (type 1 diastematomyelia), and 32 patients had single dural tubes (type 2 diastematomyelia). Radiographs, CT myelography, and MRI showed characteristic kyphoscoliosis, widening of the interpedicle distance, and bony, cartilaginous, and fibrous septum. The incidences of symptoms including characteristic changes of the dorsal skin, neurological disorders, and congenital spinal or foot deformity were significantly higher in type 1 than in type 2. Surgery is more effective for patients with type 1 diastematomyelia; patients without surgery showed no improvement.

  3. DSCOVR Retrospective Science Products and Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, W. F.; Codrescu, S. M.; Tilton, M.; Redmon, R. J.; Loto'aniu, P. T. M.; Cartwright, J.; Mccullough, H.; Denig, W. F.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA's Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) will provide essential next-generation solar wind measurements from L1 to space-weather forecasters, modelers, and the science community in general. Parameters available include bulk flow speed, velocities, number density, and vector magnetic field. The NCEI Solar Geophysics Branch is responsible for long-term archive and user-access of the products created by the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC), as well as creation of and access to a set of additional products based on the archived data. We discuss the data available to retrospective users and some of the new capabilities that we have developed to allow improved search and access for our science community. Feedback concerning additional products or access features that would be of interest to the user base will also be solicited. The NCEI DSCOVR access page can be located at http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/dscovr/

  4. Retrospective analysis of pathologic nipple discharge.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Wu, D; Fan, Z-M

    2015-02-13

    The cause of pathologic nipple discharge is mainly benign lesions, but there is still a possibility of malignancy. Pathologic nipple discharge may be the only or the first symptom of breast cancer. This study aimed to investigate the clinical factors associated with lesions in patients with pathologic nipple discharge using a retrospective analysis of clinical data in 207 cases. The univariate analysis showed that age >50 years, breast lumps, or breast calcifications were risk factors associated with breast cancer in nipple discharge patients (P < 0.05). Discharge characteristics, duration of disease, and identification of lesions had no clear clinical significance (P > 0.05). The multivariate analysis also showed that age >50 years, breast lumps, and breast calcifications were risk factors associated with breast cancer in nipple discharge patients (P < 0.05). Age, breast lumps, and breast calcifications had important clinical significance in identification of benign and malignant nipple discharge.

  5. Retrospective birth dating of cells in humans.

    PubMed

    Spalding, Kirsty L; Bhardwaj, Ratan D; Buchholz, Bruce A; Druid, Henrik; Frisén, Jonas

    2005-07-15

    The generation of cells in the human body has been difficult to study, and our understanding of cell turnover is limited. Testing of nuclear weapons resulted in a dramatic global increase in the levels of the isotope 14C in the atmosphere, followed by an exponential decrease after 1963. We show that the level of 14C in genomic DNA closely parallels atmospheric levels and can be used to establish the time point when the DNA was synthesized and cells were born. We use this strategy to determine the age of cells in the cortex of the adult human brain and show that whereas nonneuronal cells are exchanged, occipital neurons are as old as the individual, supporting the view that postnatal neurogenesis does not take place in this region. Retrospective birth dating is a generally applicable strategy that can be used to measure cell turnover in man under physiological and pathological conditions.

  6. Retrospective measles outbreak investigation: Sudan, 2004.

    PubMed

    Coronado, Fátima; Musa, Nisreen; El Tayeb, El Sayed Ahmed; Haithami, Salah; Dabbagh, Alya; Mahoney, Frank; Nandy, Robin; Cairns, Lisa

    2006-10-01

    Recent population-based studies of measles incidence and deaths in Sudan are not available. To determine the epidemiology and case-fatality rate (CFR) of measles, we conducted a retrospective outbreak investigation in two states in northern Sudan. Of 1144 case-patients identified, 92% were <15 years; 48.6% were vaccinated; and 62% received vitamin A before illness. Ten measles-associated deaths were identified (CFR 0.9%; 95% confidence interval 0.16-1.91). CFR determined by this investigation is lower than expected for the region but remains 10 times higher than that in developed countries. Measles control should be strengthened by improving vaccine coverage, measles surveillance and case-management.

  7. Retrospective dream components and musical preferences.

    PubMed

    Kroth, Jerry; Lamas, Jasmin; Pisca, Nicholas; Bourret, Kristy; Kollath, Miranda

    2008-08-01

    Retrospective dream components endorsed on the KJP Dream Inventory were correlated with those on the Short Test of Musical Preference for 68 graduate students in counseling psychology (11 men). Among 40 correlations, 6 were significant between preferences for Heavy Metal and Dissociative avoidance dreams (.32), Dreaming that you are dreaming (.40), Dreaming that you have fallen unconscious or asleep (.41), Recurring pleasantness (.31), and Awakening abruptly from a dream (-.31); between preferences for Rap/Hip-Hop and Sexual dreams (.27); and between preferences for Jazz and Recurring pleasantness in dreams (.33). Subjects preferring Classical music reported a higher incidence of Dreams of flying (.33) and rated higher Discontentedness in dreams (-.26). The meaning of these low values awaits research based on personality inventories and full dream reports.

  8. 40 year retrospective of fundamental mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soileau, M. J.

    2008-10-01

    Fundamental mechanisms of laser induced damage (LID) have been one of the most controversial topics during the forty years of the Boulder Damage Symposium (Ref. 1.) LID is fundamentally a very nonlinear process and sensitive to a variety of parameters including wavelength, pulse width, spot size, focal conditions, material band gap, thermal-mechanical prosperities, and component design considerations. The complex interplay of many of these parameters and sample to sample materials variations combine to make detailed, first principle, models very problematic at best. The phenomenon of self-focusing, the multi spatial and temporal mode structure of most lasers, and the fact that samples are 'consumed' in testing complicate experiential results. This paper presents a retrospective of the work presented at this meeting.

  9. Hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome - a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Devdeep; Sinha, Rajiv; Akhtar, Md Shakil; Saha, Agni Sekhar

    2017-01-01

    AIM To ascertain the frequency of hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome (HHS) in a cohort of children with hypertensive emergency in a tertiary pediatric hospital. METHODS A retrospective review was undertaken among children with hypertensive emergency admitted in our tertiary children hospital between June 2014 and December 2015 with an aim to identify any children with HHS. Three children with HHS were identified during this period. RESULTS The 3 patients with HHS presented with hypertensive emergency. They were initially managed with Labetalol infusion and thereafter switched to oral anti-hypertensives (combination of Nifedipine sustained release, Hydralazine and Beta Blocker). All 3 were diagnosed to have unilateral renal artery stenosis. One child was lost to follow up, whereas the other 2 underwent renal angioplasty which was followed with normalization of blood pressure. CONCLUSION Despite activation of renin angiotensin axis secondary to renal artery stenosis, these groups of children have significant hyponatremia. Renal re-vascularisation produces excellent results in most of them. PMID:28101450

  10. Assessing the Validity of Can-Do Statements in Retrospective (Then-Now) Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, N. Anthony; Dewey, Dan P.; Cox, Troy L.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated the strengths and limitations of a self-assessment based on ACTFL Can-Do statements ("ACTFL," 2013]) as a tool for measuring linguistic gains over an internship abroad in Russia. They assessed its reliability, determined how its items mapped with the ACTFL scale, and measured the degree to which…

  11. Validity of Retrospective Reports of Eating Behavior from the Eating Disorder Examination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    whether physical (e.g., extraneous noise) or psychological (e.g., interrupting the respondent’s narration to ask a question), will disrupt memory...H., Urrows, S., Higgins. P., Abeles, M.• Hall. C., Karoly, P.• & Newton, C. (1998). Fibromyalgia and women’s pursuit ofpersonal goals: A daily...1994). Psychotherapy and bulimia nervosa: The longer-term effects of interpersonal psychotherapy, behaviour therapy and cognitive behaviour therapy

  12. Space Adaptation Back Pain: A Retrospective Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, E. L.; Scheuring, R. A.; Barnes, M. G.; DeKorse, T. B.; Saile, L. G.

    2008-01-01

    Back pain is frequently reported by astronauts during the early phase of space flight as they adapt to the microgravity environment. However, the epidemiology of space adaptation back pain has not been well defined. The purpose of this retrospective study was to develop a case definition of space adaptation back pain, determine the incidence of space adaptation back pain, and determine the effectiveness of available treatments. Medical records from the Mercury, Apollo, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Skylab, Mir, International Space Station (ISS), and Shuttle programs were reviewed. All episodes of in-flight back pain that met the criteria for space adaptation back pain were recorded. Pain characteristics, including intensity, location, and duration of the pain were noted. The effectiveness of specific treatments also was recorded. The incidence of space adaptation back pain among astronauts was determined to be 53% (384/722). Most of the affected astronauts reported mild pain (85%). Moderate pain was reported by 11% of the affected astronauts and severe pain was reported by only 4% of the affected astronauts. The most effective treatments were fetal positioning (91% effective) and the use of analgesic medications (85% effective). This retrospective study aids in the development of a case definition of space adaptation back pain and examines the epidemiology of space adaptation back pain. Space adaptation back pain is usually mild and self-limited. However, there is a risk of functional impairment and mission impact in cases of moderate or severe pain that do not respond to currently available treatments. Therefore, the development of preventive measures and more effective treatments should be pursued.

  13. Retrospective analysis of seven breast tuberculosis cases

    PubMed Central

    Çakar, Beyhan; Çiledağ, Aydin

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the demographic data, diagnostic methods, therapeutic regimens and duration of therapy in 7 breast tuberculosis (BTB) cases. The data of BTB cases treated between January 2006 and December 2013 were retrospectively evaluated, with a total of 648 tuberculosis (TB) cases recorded during the 8-year period. Among these cases, 296 patients (50%) suffered from pulmonary TB, 278 (43%) from non-pulmonary TB and 45 (7%) from PTB plus NPTB. In total, 7 BTB were diagnosed, which constituted 1.08% (7/648) of all TB cases and 2.51% (7/278) of all NPTB cases. The mean age of patients was 34±9.46 years, with no pregnant or lactating women. Bilateral breast involvement was detected in only 1 case, while all cases had a BCG scar, and obtained a mean tuberculin skin test (TST) result of 14.28±6.79 mm (range, 7–26 mm). The symptoms included presence of a mass, tenderness, pain, swelling and fluctuation in the breast, with or without discharging sinuses. In 1 case, history of contact with TB was found. All patients were newly-diagnosed BTB cases, with no other organ involvement. Upon histopathological examination of breast tissue, granulomatous inflammation with typical caseous necrosis was observed in 1 case, non-caseous necrosis inflammation was detected in 2 cases, granulomatous inflammation was observed in 3 cases, and mastitis and fat necrosis inflammation was observed in 1 case. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining was positive in only 2 cases, and all patient were treated with anti-TB drugs with a successful outcome and no recurrence. In conclusion, BTB is a rare form of TB and the present retrospective study reported 7 cases of BTB along with the results of histopathological examination, microbiological examination and treatment. TB must be considered when there is presence of breast masses presenting with tenderness, pain, swelling and fluctuation, with or without discharging sinuses. PMID:27882115

  14. Retrospective Analysis of Women with Only Mastalgia

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Mehmet; Küçükerdem, Halime Seda; Can, Hüseyin; Tarcan, Ercüment

    2016-01-01

    Objective Mastalgia is the most common symptom in women, who has gone under breast imaging. 70% of women face with mastalgia at least once in their lifetime. In our study, we aimed to investigate the examinations and the results of the females referred to our outpatient clinics with mastalgia and to determine the frequency of malignancy. Materials and Methods Files of all women patients referred to General Surgery Outpatient Clinics between 01.06.2014–31.05.2015 has been investigated retrospectively. Cases only with breast pain complaint (n=789) out of 2798 women has been included in the study. Women with lump in breast, nipple discharge, redness, breast retraction and pregnant and lactating women were excluded. Breast examination findings, ultrasonography (USG), mammography results, whether biopsies are done or not and diagnoses have been investigated retrospectively. Results Mean age was 42.97±12.36 (16–74) years. 59.7% (n=471) of the women had bilateral mastalgia and 91.1% (n=719) of the breast examinations were found to be normal. USG was required from 664 (84.2%) women and mammography was required from 448 (56.8%) women. Considering diagnoses; fibrocystic changes in 32.3% (n=201), ductal ectasia in 8.8% (n=55), fibroadenomas in 6.1% (n=38), reactive lymphoid hyperplasia in 1.1% (n=7) was observed. Only 1 (0.2%) woman was diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma. Conclusion According to researches, 0.5% of the women with mastalgia were diagnosed with breast cancer. In our study this rate was found as 0.2%. Women with only mastalgia without any abnormality in physical examination should be informed about dealing with pain. PMID:28331753

  15. Retrospective Evaluation of Anaesthetic Techniques for Caesarean

    PubMed Central

    Sarı, Melek Aksoy; Küçükgüçlü, Semih; Özbilgin, Şule; Günenç, Ferim Sakize; Mercan, Sümeyye; Esen, Ayşenur; Yetim, Büşra

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the maternal, foetal and neonatal effects of anaesthetic techniques used in caesarean sections (C/S) retrospectively over 6 years at the Hospital of Medical School of Dokuz Eylül University and to compare the results with the literature from Turkey and developed countries. Methods After obtaining approval from the ethics committee, anaesthetic and gestational data from all caesarean operations performed over a 6-year period between 2005 and 2010 was retrospectively obtained from hospital archives. Results During this period, a total of 10,819 labours was conducted and C/S ratio was 55% with 5953 patients. General anaesthesia was performed in 1479 patients (24.8%) and regional anaesthesia was performed in 4474 patients (75.2%) [Spinal anaesthesia for 1203 patients (26.9%), epidural anaesthesia for 830 patients (18.5%) and combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia for 2441 patients (54.6%)]. In 2010, regional anaesthesia ratio increased to 84.6%, whereas in 2005, it was 63.8%. Regional anaesthesia was used significantly more often in both elective and urgent patients (82% elective and 65.2% emergency). Because of failed regional anaesthesia or surgical complications, anaesthesia was changed to general anaesthesia in 215 patients (4.8%). APGAR scores in 1 and 5 min were significantly higher with regional anaesthesia when compared with general anaesthesia. Conclusion Regional anaesthesia rate for C/S patients in the Hospital of Medical School of Dokuz Eylül University is increased and is higher than Turkey’s average; but these figures are still lower than those in the developed countries. PMID:27366533

  16. Agreeing on Validity Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    Kane (this issue) presents a comprehensive review of validity theory and reminds us that the focus of validation is on test score interpretations and use. In reacting to his article, I support the argument-based approach to validity and all of the major points regarding validation made by Dr. Kane. In addition, I call for a simpler, three-step…

  17. Raton Basin, Colorado Retrospective Case Study Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA conducted a retrospective case study in the Raton Basin of Colorado to investigate reported instances of contaminated drinking water resources in areas where hydraulic fracturing activities occurred.

  18. Space Adaptation Back Pain: A Retrospective Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Astronaut back pain is frequently reported in the early phase of space flight as they adapt to microgravity. The epidemiology of space adaptation back pain (SABP) has not been well established. This presentation seeks to determine the exact incidence of SABP among astronauts, develop a case definition of SABP, delineate the nature and pattern of SABP, review available treatments and their effectiveness in relieving SABP; and identify any operational impact of SABP. A retrospective review of all available mission medical records of astronauts in the U.S. space program was performed. It was revealed that the incidence of SABP has been determined to be 53% among astronauts in the U.S. space program; most cases of SABP are mild, self-limited, or respond to available treatment; there are no currently accepted preventive measures for SABP; it is difficult to predict who will develop SABP; the precise mechanism and spinal structures responsible for SABP are uncertain; there was no documented evidence of direction operational mission impact related to SABP; and, that there was the potential for mission impact related to uncontrolled pain, sleep disturbance, or the adverse side effects pf anti-inflammatory medications

  19. Brucellosis: a retrospective evaluation of 164 cases

    PubMed Central

    Kazak, Esra; Akalın, Halis; Yılmaz, Emel; Heper, Yasemin; Mıstık, Reşit; Sınırtaş, Melda; Özakın, Cüneyt; Göral, Güher; Helvacı, Safiye

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Brucellosis is a public health problem that is prevalent in several developing countries. METHODS The clinical and laboratory characteristics of 164 cases of brucellosis in Bursa, Turkey, were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS The ages of the 164 patients ranged from 15–85 years. All of the patients underwent the Rose Bengal test and 163 (99.4%) patients tested positive. 122 (74.4%) patients were diagnosed with acute brucellosis, 31 (18.9%) with subacute brucellosis and 11 (6.7%) with chronic brucellosis. Focal involvement was found in 101 (61.6%) patients. Although patients with focal involvement had a higher white blood cell count (p = 0.002), those without focal involvement had higher aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase values, and lower platelet values (p = 0.005, 0.007 and 0.039, respectively). Spondylodiscitis was observed on imaging in 58 (66.7%) of the 87 patients who presented with back pain. Among the 118 patients who were examined within the first month of treatment, 79 (66.9%) responded to treatment. The relapse rate was 11.6% among all 164 patients. CONCLUSION Brucellosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis among patients who present with fever, and joint or back pain. Focal involvement should be investigated in the presence of leucocytosis, and subacute or chronic forms of brucellosis. To identify cases of spondylodiscitis, radiography should be performed in patients who present with back pain. PMID:26768063

  20. Wandering spleen in children: multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Fiquet-Francois, Caroline; Belouadah, Mohamed; Ludot, Hugues; Defauw, Benoit; Mcheik, Jiad Noel; Bonnet, Jean Paul; Kanmegne, Charly Udozen; Weil, Dominique; Coupry, Lionel; Fremont, Benjamin; Becmeur, Francois; Lacreuse, Isabelle; Montupet, Philippe; Rahal, Eliane; Botto, Nathalie; Cheikhelard, Alaa; Sarnacki, Sabine; Petit, Thierry; Poli Merol, Marie Laurence

    2010-07-01

    Wandering spleen in children is a rare condition. The diagnosis is difficult, and any delay can cause splenic ischemia. An epidemiologic, semiological, and surgical diagnosis questionnaire on incidence of wandering spleen in children was sent to several French surgical teams. We report the results of this multicenter retrospective study. Fourteen cases (6 girls, 8 boys) were reported between 1984 and 2009; the age range varies between 1-day-old and 15 years; 86% were seen in the emergency department. Ninety-three percent had diffuse abdominal pain. For 57% of the cases, it was their first symptomatic episode of this type. No diagnosis was established based on the clinical results alone. All patients had presurgical imaging diagnosis. Open surgery was performed on 64% cases. Forty-three had splenectomy for splenic ischemia. Thirty-six percent had splenopexy, 14% had laparoscopic gastropexy, and 7% had spleen repositioning and regeneration. Complications were noted in 60% of the cases resulting in postsplenopexy splenic ischemia. Early diagnosis and surgery are the best guarantee for spleen preservation. Even if the choice of one technique, splenopexy or gastropexy, can be argued, gastropexy has the advantage of avoiding splenic manipulation and restoring proper physiologic anatomy. When there is no history of abdominal surgery, laparoscopy surgery seems the best procedure.

  1. (Self-)Portrait of Prof. R. C.: A Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Charles E., III

    2010-01-01

    This essay offers a retrospective on the four special issues of this journal (1957, 1980, 1990, 2001) dedicated to the "state of the art" of rhetorical criticism. Drawing on Oscar Wilde's "The Portrait of Mr. W. H." as allegory, the essay also functions to queer this retrospective in an ongoing effort to queer rhetorical studies. The essay closes…

  2. CA Condensates as a Retrospective Search Tool. A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Inge Berg

    1973-01-01

    A retrospective test search on one year of CA Condensates was carried out in order to calculate the costs per profile and to get an impression of how CA Condensates would suffice as a database for retrospective use. (11 references) (Author)

  3. 42 CFR 456.709 - Retrospective drug use review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retrospective drug use review. 456.709 Section 456... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.709 Retrospective drug use review. (a)...

  4. 42 CFR 456.709 - Retrospective drug use review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retrospective drug use review. 456.709 Section 456... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.709 Retrospective drug use review. (a)...

  5. 42 CFR 456.709 - Retrospective drug use review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retrospective drug use review. 456.709 Section 456... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.709 Retrospective drug use review. (a)...

  6. 42 CFR 456.709 - Retrospective drug use review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retrospective drug use review. 456.709 Section 456... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.709 Retrospective drug use review. (a)...

  7. 42 CFR 456.709 - Retrospective drug use review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retrospective drug use review. 456.709 Section 456... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.709 Retrospective drug use review. (a)...

  8. Extraction of the respiratory signal from small-animal CT projections for a retrospective gating method.

    PubMed

    Chavarrías, C; Vaquero, J J; Sisniega, A; Rodríguez-Ruano, A; Soto-Montenegro, M L; García-Barreno, P; Desco, M

    2008-09-07

    We propose a retrospective respiratory gating algorithm to generate dynamic CT studies. To this end, we compared three different methods of extracting the respiratory signal from the projections of small-animal cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners. Given a set of frames acquired from a certain axial angle, subtraction of their average image from each individual frame produces a set of difference images. Pixels in these images have positive or negative values (according to the respiratory phase) in those areas where there is lung movement. The respiratory signals were extracted by analysing the shape of the histogram of these difference images: we calculated the first four central and non-central moments. However, only odd-order moments produced the desired breathing signal, as the even-order moments lacked information about the phase. Each of these curves was compared to a reference signal recorded by means of a pneumatic pillow. Given the similar correlation coefficients yielded by all of them, we selected the mean to implement our retrospective protocol. Respiratory phase bins were separated, reconstructed independently and included in a dynamic sequence, suitable for cine playback. We validated our method in five adult rat studies by comparing profiles drawn across the diaphragm dome, with and without retrospective respiratory gating. Results showed a sharper transition in the gated reconstruction, with an average slope improvement of 60.7%.

  9. Extraction of the respiratory signal from small-animal CT projections for a retrospective gating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavarrías, C.; Vaquero, J. J.; Sisniega, A.; Rodríguez-Ruano, A.; Soto-Montenegro, M. L.; García-Barreno, P.; Desco, M.

    2008-09-01

    We propose a retrospective respiratory gating algorithm to generate dynamic CT studies. To this end, we compared three different methods of extracting the respiratory signal from the projections of small-animal cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners. Given a set of frames acquired from a certain axial angle, subtraction of their average image from each individual frame produces a set of difference images. Pixels in these images have positive or negative values (according to the respiratory phase) in those areas where there is lung movement. The respiratory signals were extracted by analysing the shape of the histogram of these difference images: we calculated the first four central and non-central moments. However, only odd-order moments produced the desired breathing signal, as the even-order moments lacked information about the phase. Each of these curves was compared to a reference signal recorded by means of a pneumatic pillow. Given the similar correlation coefficients yielded by all of them, we selected the mean to implement our retrospective protocol. Respiratory phase bins were separated, reconstructed independently and included in a dynamic sequence, suitable for cine playback. We validated our method in five adult rat studies by comparing profiles drawn across the diaphragm dome, with and without retrospective respiratory gating. Results showed a sharper transition in the gated reconstruction, with an average slope improvement of 60.7%.

  10. The Iowa Validation Site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing can be used to observe the land surface hydrologic cycle, but the quantitative aspects of these observations are not well known. We present a small (1 km^2) experimental validation site, the Iowa Validation Site. Initially we have focused on validating remotely-sensed observations of ...

  11. A retrospective study on hypothyroid patients.

    PubMed

    Barton, E N; Kelly, D; Morrison, E Y

    1991-03-01

    A retrospective study of 58 hypothyroid patients attending the Endocrine Clinic, University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica, between July and August 1989, was undertaken. The age range at initial presentation varied from one month to eighty-four years. The majority of cases (51 or 87.9%) were between 21 and 70 years. There were 50 females (86.2%) and 8 males (13.8%). The underlying causes were idiopathic hypothyroidism (35 or 60.3%), posthyroidectomy (13 or 22.4%), post I131 therapy (6 or 10.4%), panhypopituitarism (3 or 5.2%), hypophysectomy (1 or 1.7%). Biochemical parameters used in diagnosis were serum thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Forty-six patients (79.2%) had elevated TSH, indicative of a high correlation of elevated TSH with hypothyroidism. Duration of symptomatology prior to diagnosis was one year in 27 patients (46.5%), 2-10 years in 23 (39.6%) and 10 years in 4 cases (6.9%). The major presenting signs and symptoms were lethargy (20 or 34.5%), anaemia (mixed normochromic, microcytic (16 or 27.6%), slow relaxation of tendon reflexes (16 or 27.6%), coarsening of skin (15 or 25.9%), weight gain 10 or 17.2%), hoarseness (9 or 15.5%) and psychiatric symptoms (7 or 12%). The known association of primary hypothyroidism with other autoimmune disorders was not borne out in this study. The time-lapse in diagnosis from symptomatology emphasized the need for clinicians to be more alert to the subtle and varied presentation of hypothyroidism.

  12. Examining Convergence of Retrospective and Ecological Momentary Assessment Measures of Negative Affect and Eating Disorder Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Wonderlich, Joseph A.; Lavender, Jason M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Engel, Scott G.; Le Grange, Daniel; Mitchell, James E.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Data gathered via retrospective forms of assessment are subject to various recall biases. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is an alternative approach involving repeated momentary assessments within a participant's natural environment, thus reducing recall biases and improving ecological validity. EMA has been used in numerous prior studies examining various constructs of theoretical relevance to eating disorders. Method This investigation includes data from three previously published studies with distinct clinical samples: (a) women with anorexia nervosa (N=118), (b) women with bulimia nervosa (N=133), and (c) obese men and women (N=50; 9 with current binge eating disorder). Each study assessed negative affective states and eating disorder behaviors using traditional retrospective assessments and EMA. Spearman rho correlations were used to evaluate the concordance of retrospective versus EMA measures of affective and/or behavioral constructs in each sample. Bland-Altman plots were also used to further evaluate concordance in the assessment of eating disorder behaviors. Results There was moderate to strong concordance for the measures of negative affective states across all three studies. Moderate to strong concordance was also found for the measures of binge eating and exercise frequency. The strongest evidence of concordance across measurement approaches was found for purging behaviors. Discussion Overall, these preliminary findings support the convergence of retrospective and EMA assessments of both negative affective states and various eating disorder behaviors. Given the advantages and disadvantages associated with each of these assessment approaches, the specific questions being studied in future empirical studies should inform decisions regarding selection of the most appropriate method. PMID:25195932

  13. Retrospective environmental biomonitoring - Mussel Watch expanded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöne, Bernd R.; Krause, Richard A.

    2016-09-01

    its chemical composition is controlled by the soft parts and that a robust interpretation of the shell record requires a detailed understanding of bivalve physiology, behavior and ecology. This review attempts to bring together the Mussel Watch and sclerochronology communities and lay the foundation of a new subdiscipline of the Mussel Watch: retrospective environmental biomonitoring. For this purpose, we provide an overview of seminal work from both fields and outline potential future research directions.

  14. A Simple Lightning Assimilation Technique For Improving Retrospective WRF Simulations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Convective rainfall is often a large source of error in retrospective modeling applications. In particular, positive rainfall biases commonly exist during summer months due to overactive convective parameterizations. In this study, lightning assimilation was applied in the Kain...

  15. Medical imaging, PACS, and imaging informatics: retrospective.

    PubMed

    Huang, H K

    2014-01-01

    Historical reviews of PACS (picture archiving and communication system) and imaging informatics development from different points of view have been published in the past (Huang in Euro J Radiol 78:163-176, 2011; Lemke in Euro J Radiol 78:177-183, 2011; Inamura and Jong in Euro J Radiol 78:184-189, 2011). This retrospective attempts to look at the topic from a different angle by identifying certain basic medical imaging inventions in the 1960s and 1970s which had conceptually defined basic components of PACS guiding its course of development in the 1980s and 1990s, as well as subsequent imaging informatics research in the 2000s. In medical imaging, the emphasis was on the innovations at Georgetown University in Washington, DC, in the 1960s and 1970s. During the 1980s and 1990s, research and training support from US government agencies and public and private medical imaging manufacturers became available for training of young talents in biomedical physics and for developing the key components required for PACS development. In the 2000s, computer hardware and software as well as communication networks advanced by leaps and bounds, opening the door for medical imaging informatics to flourish. Because many key components required for the PACS operation were developed by the UCLA PACS Team and its collaborative partners in the 1980s, this presentation is centered on that aspect. During this period, substantial collaborative research efforts by many individual teams in the US and in Japan were highlighted. Credits are due particularly to the Pattern Recognition Laboratory at Georgetown University, and the computed radiography (CR) development at the Fuji Electric Corp. in collaboration with Stanford University in the 1970s; the Image Processing Laboratory at UCLA in the 1980s-1990s; as well as the early PACS development at the Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, in the late 1970s, and film scanner and digital radiography developed by Konishiroku Photo Ind. Co. Ltd

  16. Retrospective stress-forecasting of earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yuan; Crampin, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    retrospectively stress-forecasting ~17 earthquakes ranging in magnitude from a M1.7 swarm event in N Iceland, to the 1999 M7.7 Chi-Chi Earthquake in Taiwan, and the 2004 Mw9.2 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake (SAE). Before SAE, the changes in SWS were observed at seismic stations in Iceland at a distance of ~10,500km the width of the Eurasian Plate, from Indonesia demonstrating the 'butterfly wings' sensitivity of the New Geophysics of a critically microcracked Earth. At that time, the sensitivity of the phenomena had not been recognised, and the SAE was not stress-forecast. These results have been published at various times in various formats in various journals. This presentation displays all the results in a normalised format that allows the similarities to be recognised, confirming that observations of SWS time-delays can stress-forecast the times, magnitudes, and in some circumstances fault-breaks, of impending earthquakes. Papers referring to these developments can be found in geos.ed.ac.uk/home/scrampin/opinion. Also see abstracts in EGU2015 Sessions: Crampin & Gao (SM1.1), Liu & Crampin (NH2.5), and Crampin & Gao (GD.1).

  17. Diabetes and burns: retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    McCampbell, Beth; Wasif, Nabil; Rabbitts, Angela; Staiano-Coico, Lisa; Yurt, Roger W; Schwartz, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Burn injuries are often associated with multisystemic complications, even in otherwise healthy individuals. It is therefore intuitive that for the diabetic patient, the underlying pathophysiologic alterations in vascular supply, peripheral neuropathy, and immune function could have a profoundly devastating impact on patient outcome. The effects of diabetes on morbidity and mortality of the burn-injured patient have not been examined in great detail. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare clinical outcomes between diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients. We reviewed the charts of 181 diabetic (DM) and 190 nondiabetic (nDM) patients admitted with burns between January 1996 and May 2000, matched by sex and date of admission. Burn cause and size, time to presentation, clinical course, and outcomes were evaluated. Because age was a factor, the analysis was done by three age groups: younger than 18 years, 18 to 65 years, and older than 65 years. Of patients 18 to 65 years, 51% (98/191) were diabetic, whereas 84% (81/96) of those older than 65 and only 4% (3/85) of patients younger than 18 were diabetic. Because of the disproportion in numbers of diabetics compared with nondiabetics in the younger than 18 and older than 65 years-old groups, these patients will not be discussed. Diabetics were more likely to incur scald injury from tub or shower water rather than hot fluid spills (33% DM vs 15% nDM; P < or = 0.01), and have a delayed presentation (45 vs 23%; P = 0.00001). There was no difference in total burn size in all groups. Diabetics in the 18 to 65 years group had a higher rate of full-thickness burns (51 vs 31%; P = 0.025), skin grafts (50 vs 28%; P = 0.01) and burn-related procedures (57 vs 32%; P = 0.001), infections (65 vs 51%; P = 0.05), and longer lengths of stay (23 vs 12 days; P = 0.0001). Although there was no statistically significant difference in incidence of specific infections, the rates of cellulitis, wound infection, urinary tract

  18. Retrospective on the National Ozone Expeditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, S.

    2002-05-01

    In 1985, the British Antarctic Survey discovered the Antarctic ozone hole. In March of l986, a small group of American scientists began planning an emergency mission to Antarctica to try to gain insights as to its cause. On August 22, l986, they arrived in Antarctica and began a series of ground-based and balloon-borne measurements that ultimately helped show that the ozone hole is caused primarily by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Multiple instruments measured ozone's rapid disappearance in September, documenting the rate of its destruction and helping to substantiate the validity of the remarkable ozone trend. Others measured chemical compounds such as HCl, nitrogen dioxide, and HF. A second expedition occurred in 1987, and some of the investigators continued a series of measurements for multiple years. Key measurements were those of de Zafra and coworkers, which focussed on observations of chlorine monoxide using ground-based microwave emission techniques. The contributions of these National Ozone Expeditions to the evolution of understanding of the Antarctic ozone hole will be reviewed in this lecture.

  19. TRUS Biopsy Yield in Indian Population: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Prakash Wamanrao; Sawant, Ajit Somaji; Patil, Akshay Vijay; Narwade, Sayalee Suryabhan; Mundhe, Shankar Tanaji; Savalia, Abhishek Jaysukhbhai; Tamhankar, Ashwin Sunil

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The reported cancer detection rate of Trans-Rectal Ultrasonography (TRUS) biopsies (TRUS biopsy yield) has been around 30 percent in western countries. However it is much lower in Asian countries, including India. Hence a larger proportion of patients in India undergo unnecessary biopsies. Aims To find out the cancer detection rate of TRUS biopsy (TRUS biopsy yield) in contemporary Indian population. Also, to study the positive predictive values at different serum Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)/PSA Density (PSAD) cut off levels and suspicious Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) findings. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was carried out in a tertiary care institute. All symptomatic patients who underwent TRUS guided biopsy for indication of raised serum PSA level (>4 ng/ml) or suspicious DRE findings (nodule, irregularity, hard consistency, immobile rectal mucosa) from January 2012 to December 2014 were included. For serum PSA range (4-10) ng/ml, TRUS guided biopsy was done in patients with percent free/total PSA < 25. Statistical analysis used were Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Spearman’s rank correlation analysis and Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. Results Out of the 235 patients included, 60 patients had malignancy (overall cancer detection rate= 25.53%). The cancer detection rate for PSA ranges of (4-10) and (10-20) ng/ml was as low as 5.95% and 13.16% respectively. Patients with malignant disease had significantly smaller prostate gland size than patients with benign disease (53.89 vs 63.06; p-value <0.05). On the other hand, cancer detection rate was 100% for PSA greater than 50ng/ml. The cancer detection rates were only upto 10% for PSA density ranges upto 0.25 ng/ml/cm3. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) for PSA and PSAD was 0.876 and 0.884 respectively. Only one patient (0.43%) had post-biopsy complication (acute bacterial prostatitis) requiring hospital admission. Conclusion The current serum PSA and PSAD cut

  20. Validity for What Purpose?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Lorrie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: The evolution of validity understandings from mid-century to now has emphasized that test validity depends on test purpose--adding consequence considerations to issues of interpretation and evidentiary warrants. Purpose: To consider the tensions created by multiple purposes for assessment and sketch briefly how we got to where…

  1. SOSS ICN Model Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Zhifan

    2016-01-01

    Under the NASA-KAIA-KARI ATM research collaboration agreement, SOSS ICN Model has been developed for Incheon International Airport. This presentation describes the model validation work in the project. The presentation will show the results and analysis of the validation.

  2. Validating Automated Speaking Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Jared; Van Moere, Alistair; Cheng, Jian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents evidence that supports the valid use of scores from fully automatic tests of spoken language ability to indicate a person's effectiveness in spoken communication. The paper reviews the constructs, scoring, and the concurrent validity evidence of "facility-in-L2" tests, a family of automated spoken language tests in Spanish,…

  3. Five Data Validation Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkin, Mark G.

    2008-01-01

    Data-validation routines enable computer applications to test data to ensure their accuracy, completeness, and conformance to industry or proprietary standards. This paper presents five programming cases that require students to validate five different types of data: (1) simple user data entries, (2) UPC codes, (3) passwords, (4) ISBN numbers, and…

  4. Kane, Validity and Soundness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author begins by discussing four challenges on the concept of validity. These challenges are: (1) the appeal to logic and syllogistic reasoning; (2) the claim of reliability; (3) the local and the universal; and (4) the unitary and the divisible. In language testing validity cannot be achieved directly but only through a…

  5. An SAT® Validity Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    This primer should provide the reader with a deeper understanding of the concept of test validity and will present the recent available validity evidence on the relationship between SAT® scores and important college outcomes. In addition, the content examined on the SAT will be discussed as well as the fundamental attention paid to the fairness of…

  6. Validating Analytical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)

  7. Bibliometrics for Social Validation.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a bibliometric, citation network-based method for assessing the social validation of novel research, and applies this method to the development of high-throughput toxicology research at the US Environmental Protection Agency. Social validation refers to the acceptance of novel research methods by a relevant scientific community; it is formally independent of the technical validation of methods, and is frequently studied in history, philosophy, and social studies of science using qualitative methods. The quantitative methods introduced here find that high-throughput toxicology methods are spread throughout a large and well-connected research community, which suggests high social validation. Further assessment of social validation involving mixed qualitative and quantitative methods are discussed in the conclusion.

  8. Bibliometrics for Social Validation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a bibliometric, citation network-based method for assessing the social validation of novel research, and applies this method to the development of high-throughput toxicology research at the US Environmental Protection Agency. Social validation refers to the acceptance of novel research methods by a relevant scientific community; it is formally independent of the technical validation of methods, and is frequently studied in history, philosophy, and social studies of science using qualitative methods. The quantitative methods introduced here find that high-throughput toxicology methods are spread throughout a large and well-connected research community, which suggests high social validation. Further assessment of social validation involving mixed qualitative and quantitative methods are discussed in the conclusion. PMID:28005974

  9. Model Validation Status Review

    SciTech Connect

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-11-28

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M&O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and

  10. Validation of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stachowitz, Rolf A.; Combs, Jacqueline B.

    1988-01-01

    The validation of expert systems (ESs) has only recently become an active AI research topic. Current approaches have concentrated mainly on the validation of rule properties of such systems. The efforts presented improves on current methods by also exploiting the structural and semantic information of such systems. To increase programmer productivity, more and more companies have begun exploiting the advent of AI technology by developing applications using ES shells or other AI-based high level program generators. The architecture, functionality, and future goals of Expert Systems Validation are described along with the features that have been implemented for and in Automated Reasoning Tool, the ES shell presented.

  11. Thrombophilia diagnosis: a retrospective analysis of a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Spychalska-Zwolińska, Marta; Zwoliński, Tomasz; Mieczkowski, Artur; Budzyński, Jacek

    2015-09-01

    It is estimated that 30-50% of patients suffering from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) could be diagnosed with congenital or acquired thrombophilia. Its diagnosis, however, rarely changes the clinical management, but is associated with significant costs and negative psychological and social aspects. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the causes and clinical consequences of diagnostics for thrombophilia. A retrospective review of the medical records of 5600 patients was performed, 62 of whom had, at the time, been diagnosed for thrombophilia because of a thromboembolic event. A review of the current literature on the validity of diagnostic tests for hypercoagulability in certain clinical conditions was also performed. The most common reason for thrombophilia testing was episodes of lower limb DVT (56%). The most frequently diagnosed abnormalities were the heterozygous form of the V Leiden gene (18%), protein S deficiency (11%), and the anti cardiolipin antibody IgG (11%). In 45% of the patients, laboratory results did not confirm the presence of any congenital thrombophilia. After receiving the results, 11% of the respondents completed oral anticoagulation therapy after 3 months, and 28% of patients qualified for indefinite use of oral anticoagulant therapy. In most of the cases examined, the diagnosis of thrombophilia did not significantly affect the treatment. A common aberration identified in patients with a history of thromboembolic incidents was the coexistence of risk factors for atherosclerosis.

  12. Impact of Lanthanum Carbonate on Prognosis of Chronic Hemodialysis Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study (Kawashima Study).

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Kenji; Nagai, Kojiro; Yokota, Narushi; Minakuchi, Jun; Kawashima, Shu

    2016-04-01

    In hemodialysis patients, mineral and bone disorder is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and subsequent death through the progression of vascular calcification. Serum phosphorus plays a major role in this process. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed the effects of oral phosphate binder, lanthanum carbonate (LC), on the mortality in hemodialysis patients. Among a total of 841 patients who underwent maintenance hemodialysis on 1 July 2010, patients who were treated with LC (LC group, N = 324) and those who were treated without LC (NLC group, N = 517) were compared with respect to their all-cause mortality for a long-term observation period of up to 36 months. The mortality rate was compared using the Cox proportional hazard model adjusted by the propensity score. The adjusted hazard ratio for mortality in the LC group versus NLC group was 0.515 (95% confidence interval, 0.328-0.807), suggesting that the use of LC is associated with an almost 50% reduction in the mortality rate. The present retrospective study including all hemodialysis patients demonstrated, for the first time, an association between the use of LC and improved prognosis in hemodialysis patients. Randomized controlled trials should be done in the future to validate our present findings.

  13. The phenotypic spectrum of progressive supranuclear palsy: a retrospective multicenter study of 100 definite cases.

    PubMed

    Respondek, Gesine; Stamelou, Maria; Kurz, Carolin; Ferguson, Leslie W; Rajput, Alexander; Chiu, Wan Zheng; van Swieten, John C; Troakes, Claire; Al Sarraj, Safa; Gelpi, Ellen; Gaig, Carles; Tolosa, Eduardo; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Giese, Armin; Roeber, Sigrun; Arzberger, Thomas; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Höglinger, Günter U

    2014-12-01

    The phenotypic variability of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) may account for its frequent misdiagnosis, in particular in early stages of the disease. However, large multicenter studies to define the frequency and natural history of PSP phenotypes are missing. In a cohort of 100 autopsy-confirmed patients we studied the phenotypic spectrum of PSP by retrospective chart review. Patients were derived from five brain banks with expertise in neurodegenerative disorders with referrals from multiple academic hospitals. The clinical characteristics of the 100 cases showed remarkable heterogeneity. Most strikingly, only 24% of cases presented as Richardson's Syndrome (RS), and more than half of the cases either showed overlapping features of several predescribed phenotypes, or features not fitting proposed classification criteria for PSP phenotypes. Classification of patients according to predominant clinical features in the first 2 years of the disease course allowed a more comprehensive description of the phenotypic spectrum. These predominance types differed significantly with regard to survival time and frequency of cognitive deficits. In summary, the phenotypic spectrum of PSP may be broader and more variable than previously described in single-center studies. Thus, too strict clinical criteria defining distinct phenotypes may not reflect this variability. A more pragmatic clinical approach using predominance types could potentially be more helpful in the early recognition of and for making prognostic predictions for these patients. Given the limitations arising from the retrospective nature of this analysis, a systematic validation in a prospective cohort study is imperative.

  14. Retrospective biodosimetry using translocation frequency in a stable cell of occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Min Su; Lee, Jin Kyung; Bae, Keum Seok; Han, Eun-Ae; Jang, Seong Jae; Ha, Wi-Ho; Lee, Seung-Sook; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Kim, Wan Tae

    2015-01-01

    Two cases of hematological malignancies were reported in an industrial radiography company over a year, which were reasonably suspected of being consequences of prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation because of the higher incidence than expected in the general population. We analyzed chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes from the other workers who had been working under similar circumstances as the patients in the company. Among the subjects tested, 10 workers who belonged to the highest band were followed up periodically for 1.5 years since the first analysis. The aim of this study was to clarify pertinence of translocation analysis to an industrial set-up where chronic exposure was commonly expected. To be a useful tool for a retrospective biodosimetry, the aberrations need to be persistent for a decade or longer. Therefore we calculated the decline rates and half-lives of frequency for both a reciprocal translocation and a dicentric chromosome and compared them. In this study, while the frequency of reciprocal translocations was maintained at the initial level, dicentric chromosomes were decreased to 46.9% (31.0–76.5) of the initial frequency over the follow-up period. Our results support the long-term stability of reciprocal translocation through the cell cycle and validate the usefulness of translocation analysis as a retrospective biodosimetry for cases of occupational exposure. PMID:25922373

  15. Retrospective assessment of dryland soil stability in relation to grazing and climate change.

    PubMed

    Washington-Allen, Robert A; West, Neil E; Ramsey, R Douglas; Phillips, Debra H; Shugart, Herman H

    2010-01-01

    Accelerated soil erosion is an aspect of dryland degradation that is affected by repeated intense drought events and land management activities such as commercial livestock grazing. A soil stability index (SSI) that detects the erosion status and susceptibility of a landscape at the pixel level, i.e., stable, erosional, or depositional pixels, was derived from the spectral properties of an archived time series (from 1972 to 1997) of Landsat satellite data of a commercial ranch in northeastern Utah. The SSI was retrospectively validated with contemporary field measures of soil organic matter and erosion status that was surveyed by US federal land management agencies. Catastrophe theory provided the conceptual framework for retrospective assessment of the impact of commercial grazing and soil water availability on the SSI. The overall SSI trend was from an eroding landscape in the early drier 1970s towards stable conditions in the wetter mid-1980s and late 1990s. The landscape catastrophically shifted towards an extreme eroding state that was coincident with the "The Great North American Drought of 1988". Periods of landscape stability and trajectories toward stability were coincident with extremely wet El Niño events. Commercial grazing had less correlation with soil stability than drought conditions. However, the landscape became more susceptible to erosion events under multiple droughts and grazing. Land managers now have nearly a year warning of El Niño and La Niña events and can adjust their management decisions according to predicted landscape erosion conditions.

  16. Retrospective Revaluation: The Phenomenon and Its Theoretical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ralph R.; Witnauer, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Retrospective revaluation refers to an increase (or decrease) in responding to conditioned stimulus (CS X) as a result of decreasing (or increasing) the associative strength of another CS (A) with respect to the unconditioned stimulus (i.e., A-US) that was previously trained in compound with the target CS (e.g., AX−US or just AX). We discuss the conditions under which retrospective revaluation phenomena are most apt to be observed and their implications for various models of learning that are able to account for retrospective revaluation (e.g., Dickinson and Burke, 1996; Miller and Matzel, 1988; Van Hamme and Wasserman, 1994). Although retroactive revaluation is relatively parameter specific, it is seen to be a reliable phenomenon observed across many tasks and species. As it is not anticipated by many conventional models of learning (e.g., Rescorla and Wagner, 1972), it serves as a critical benchmark for evaluating traditional and newer models. PMID:26342855

  17. Prevalence of vestibular symptoms in individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder — A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Prashanth; Jamuar, Pratyasha

    2017-01-01

    Summary The objective of the study was to retrospectively determine the prevalence of vestibular symptoms in individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). It was also attempted to determine the prevalence of vestibular symptoms and factors (gender and age of reported hearing loss) that could affect the prevalence in individuals with ANSD. The vestibular symptoms reported in the case history were analyzed in individuals diagnosed with ANSD. The symptoms reported by a total of 316 individuals (185 females and 131 males) with ANSD were analyzed. The result of the study showed that one in five individuals with ANSD reported at least one of the vestibular symptom. The vestibular symptoms were in more females and in individuals with earlier onset of hearing loss. The result of the study supports that there is a vestibular damage in individuals with ANSD. However, it is essential to carry out prospective studies validating these vestibular symptoms with objective vestibular tests before generalizing the results. PMID:28357181

  18. A new method for calculating the accumulated dose in ESR dating and retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luiz Carlos; Kinoshita, Angela; Lopes, Renato P; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2010-02-01

    Dose evaluation by electron spin resonance (ESR) is usually accomplished by constructing a dose-response curve by measuring the peak-to-peak intensity of the dosimetric signals in the g = 2 region. In several cases, this signal is overlapped with others that can interfere with dose reconstruction. In this work a new method to correct the spectrum before the measurement of the signal intensity is proposed. Examples of dose determination of accumulated dose (AD) of two fossil teeth from southern Brazilian megafauna are given. One of them presents a dose-independent signal in the region of interest, and the validity of this method is shown. For the other, without interfering signals, no difference in the AD was found. This method can also be applied to retrospective dosimetry by ESR for any sample with dose-independent interfering signals, thus improving the accuracy in AD determination by ESR.

  19. Reliability of file-based retrospective ratings of psychopathy with the PCL-R.

    PubMed

    Grann, M; Långström, N; Tengström, A; Stålenheim, E G

    1998-06-01

    A rapidly emerging consensus recognizes Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991) as the most valid and useful instrument to assess psychopathy (Fulero, 1995; Stone, 1995). We compared independent clinical PCL-R ratings of 40 forensic adult male criminal offenders to retrospective file-only ratings. File-based PCL-R ratings, in comparison to the clinical ratings, yielded categorical psychopathy diagnoses with a sensitivity of .57 and a specificity of .96. The intraclass correlation (ICC) of the total scores as estimated by ICC(2,1) was .88, and was markedly better on Factor 2, ICC(2,1) = .89, than on Factor 1, ICC(2,1) = .69. The findings support the belief that for research purposes, file-only PCL-R ratings based on Swedish forensic psychiatric investigation records can be made with good alternate-form reliability.

  20. Land Product Validation (LPV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaepman, Gabriela; Roman, Miguel O.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss Land Product Validation (LPV) objectives and goals, LPV structure update, interactions with other initiatives during report period, outreach to the science community, future meetings and next steps.

  1. College Text Test Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Donald C.

    1979-01-01

    A team of faculty members and graduate students identified major concepts and developed validated test questions for two widely used textbooks in personal hygiene classes in order to standardize norms for classes and supplement inadequate instructor's manuals. (JMF)

  2. Trace Volatile Data Validation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Document designed to offer data reviewers guidance in determining the validity ofanalytical data generated through the USEPA Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) Statement ofWork (SOW) ISM01.X Inorganic Superfund Methods (Multi-Media, Multi-Concentration)

  3. Validation of multiprocessor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siewiorek, D. P.; Segall, Z.; Kong, T.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments that can be used to validate fault free performance of multiprocessor systems in aerospace systems integrating flight controls and avionics are discussed. Engineering prototypes for two fault tolerant multiprocessors are tested.

  4. Validation of Gaia data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabricius, C.; Arenou, F.; Jordi, C.; Figueras, F.; Soria, S.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Carrasco, J. M.

    2017-03-01

    In preparation of the first Gaia data release the data has undergone a large number of tests, in order to check the validity of positions, parallaxes, proper motions, and magnitudes. Tests carried out by the Gaia consortium - with participation of the University of Barcelona - include independent error estimations from the negative parallax tail, comparisons with existing catalogues, internal consistency of open clusters, distributions of the various quantities, etc. This validation has led to final conclusions on which Gaia solutions to accept for publication.

  5. EOS Terra Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David

    1999-01-01

    The EOS Terra mission will be launched in July 1999. This mission has great relevance to the atmospheric radiation community and global change issues. Terra instruments include ASTER, CERES, MISR, MODIS and MOPITT. In addition to the fundamental radiance data sets, numerous global science data products will be generated, including various Earth radiation budget, cloud and aerosol parameters, as well as land surface, terrestrial ecology, ocean color, and atmospheric chemistry parameters. Significant investments have been made in on-board calibration to ensure the quality of the radiance observations. A key component of the Terra mission is the validation of the science data products. This is essential for a mission focused on global change issues and the underlying processes. The Terra algorithms have been subject to extensive pre-launch testing with field data whenever possible. Intensive efforts will be made to validate the Terra data products after launch. These include validation of instrument calibration (vicarious calibration) experiments, instrument and cross-platform comparisons, routine collection of high quality correlative data from ground-based networks, such as AERONET, and intensive sites, such as the SGP ARM site, as well as a variety field experiments, cruises, etc. Airborne simulator instruments have been developed for the field experiment and underflight activities including the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS), AirMISR, MASTER (MODIS-ASTER), and MOPITT-A. All are integrated on the NASA ER-2, though low altitude platforms are more typically used for MASTER. MATR is an additional sensor used for MOPITT algorithm development and validation. The intensive validation activities planned for the first year of the Terra mission will be described with emphasis on derived geophysical parameters of most relevance to the atmospheric radiation community. Detailed information about the EOS Terra validation Program can be found on the EOS Validation program

  6. Verification and validation benchmarks.

    SciTech Connect

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2007-02-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V&V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V&V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the level of

  7. A Validation of the Legal Dangerousness Scale With Released Criminally Insane Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppin, Mary K.

    This study proposes a method for reporting findings that combines true positives and true negatives to measure total accuracy of predictions. A retrospective study of dangerous behavior among criminally insane offenders in Colorado confirmed the findings of Cocozza and Steadman (1974) regarding the predictive validity of the Legal Dangerousness…

  8. Retrospective Evaluation of New Chinese Diagnostic Scoring System for Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jun; Wang, Huafang; Guo, Tao; Mei, Heng; Hu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To retrospectively validate the new Chinese DIC scoring system (CDSS). Methods This study retrospectively collected the information of 619 patients (371 cases with non-hematologic malignancies, 248 cases with hematologic malignancies) who suspected of DIC in Wuhan Union Hospital during 2013-4 to 2014-6. We validated CDSS by comparing it with three leading scoring systems, from International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH), Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) and Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare (JMHW), and evaluated its prognostic value by 28 days mortality, APACHE II and SOFA score. Results In non-hematologic malignancies, CDSS was more specific than JAAM (72.55% vs. 50.49%, p<0.05) and more sensitive than ISTH (77.07% vs. 62.03%, p<0.05). In hematologic malignancies, the area under the ROC curve of CDSS was larger than ISTH and JMHW (0.933 vs. 0.889, p<0.01 with ISTH, 0.944 vs. 0.845, p<0.01 with JMHW). In addition, the 28-day mortality rate, SOFA scores, APACHE II scores of DIC patients diagnosed by CDSS were significantly greater than non-DIC (P <0.05). Conclusions We are the first group to propose CDSS. It emphasized the values of the clinical manifestations, the rapidly declining platelet count, APTT in the diagnosis of DIC and used D-dimer as the fibrin-related maker. DIC with hematological malignancies was treated as a special part. In this study we can see that CDSS displayed an acceptable property for the diagnosis of DIC with appropriate sensitivity and specificity, and also had a good prognostic value for DIC patients. PMID:26076032

  9. Reliability and comparability of psychosis patients' retrospective reports of childhood abuse.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Helen L; Craig, Thomas K; Fearon, Paul; Morgan, Kevin; Dazzan, Paola; Lappin, Julia; Hutchinson, Gerard; Doody, Gillian A; Jones, Peter B; McGuffin, Peter; Murray, Robin M; Leff, Julian; Morgan, Craig

    2011-05-01

    An increasing number of studies are demonstrating an association between childhood abuse and psychosis. However, the majority of these rely on retrospective self-reports in adulthood that may be unduly influenced by current psychopathology. We therefore set out to explore the reliability and comparability of first-presentation psychosis patients' reports of childhood abuse. Psychosis case subjects were drawn from the Aetiology and Ethnicity of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses (ÆSOP) epidemiological study and completed the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire to elicit abusive experiences that occurred prior to 16 years of age. High levels of concurrent validity were demonstrated with the Parental Bonding Instrument (antipathy: r(s)=0.350-0.737, P<.001; neglect: r(s)=0.688-0.715, P<.001), and good convergent validity was shown with clinical case notes (sexual abuse: κ=0.526, P<.001; physical abuse: κ=0.394, P<.001). Psychosis patients' reports were also reasonably stable over a 7-year period (sexual abuse: κ=0.590, P<.01; physical abuse: κ=0.634, P<.001; antipathy: κ=0.492, P<.01; neglect: κ=0.432, P<.05). Additionally, their reports of childhood abuse were not associated with current severity of psychotic symptoms (sexual abuse: U=1768.5, P=.998; physical abuse: U=2167.5, P=.815; antipathy: U=2216.5, P=.988; neglect: U=1906.0, P=.835) or depressed mood (sexual abuse: χ(2)=0.634, P=.277; physical abuse: χ(2)=0.159, P=.419; antipathy: χ(2)=0.868, P=.229; neglect: χ(2)=0.639, P=.274). These findings provide justification for the use in future studies of retrospective reports of childhood abuse obtained from individuals with psychotic disorders.

  10. Feasibility and validity of ecological momentary assessment in adolescents with high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder.

    PubMed

    Khor, Angela S; Gray, Kylie M; Reid, Sophie C; Melvin, Glenn A

    2014-01-01

    Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) may increase accuracy of data compared with retrospective questionnaires by assessing behaviours as they occur, hence decreasing recall biases and increasing ecological validity. This study examined the feasibility and concurrent validity of an EMA tool for adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASD). Thirty-one adolescents with HFASD completed a mobile phone EMA application that assessed stressors and coping for two weeks. Parents and adolescents also completed retrospective measures of the adolescent's coping/stressors. Moderate compliance with the EMA tool was achieved and some concurrent validity was established with the retrospective measure of coping. Concordance was found between the types of stressors reported by parents and adolescents but not the quantity. The results suggest adolescents with HFASD are capable of reporting on their stressors and coping via EMA. EMA has the potential to be a valuable research tool in this population.

  11. The RASD Outstanding Reference Sources Committee: Retrospect and Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheets, Janet; Masters, Deborah C.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the Reference and Adult Services Division's Outstanding Reference Sources Committee procedures for preparation of the 1979 listing, discusses expansion to include nonbook sources, and provides a retrospective list of nonbook sources selected by the 1979-80 committee. Nonbook sources include microforms and databases. Six references are…

  12. Academic Resilience: A Retrospective Study of Adults With Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, John G.; Stoch, Shari A.; Chan, Janet S. N.; Hutchinson, Nancy L.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports qualitative analyses of two sets of retrospective interviews with adults with learning difficulties. The purpose of the study was to examine the high school experiences of these adults from a holistic perspective to understand possible factors that contributed to one group staying in school and the other group leaving school…

  13. Retrospective Reports of Important Personal Events by Aging Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Dorothy

    Only a longitudinal study, in which retrospective reports can be verified against data collected earlier, can determine what topics tend to be reported accurately and whether certain types of individuals are more likely to be accurate reporters. A representative group of adults who became parents 50 years ago are now part of the oldest and longest…

  14. Personality and Accuracy of Retrospective Reports of Aging Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Dorothy; Honzik, Marjorie P.

    Only a longitudinal study, in which retrospective reports can be verified against data collected earlier, can determine what topics tend to be reported accurately and whether certain types of individuals are more likely to be accurate reporters. A representative sample of women who became mothers 50 years ago are now part of the oldest and longest…

  15. Looking Forward, Looking Back: Anticipation is More Evocative than Retrospection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Boven, Leaf; Ashworth, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    The results of 5 experiments indicate that people report more intense emotions during anticipation of, than during retrospection about, emotional events that were positive (Thanksgiving Day), negative (annoying noises, menstruation), routine (menstruation), and hypothetical (all-expenses-paid ski vacation). People's tendency to report more intense…

  16. A Retrospective of Four Decades of Community College Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Deborah L.; Felsher, Rivka A.; Ramdin, Gianna

    2016-01-01

    In the 40th publication year of the "Community College Journal of Research and Practice" ("CCJRP"), the authors present a 39-year retrospective on research on the community college through the lens of the journal. It is not known exactly what the body of community college research wholly consists of. Without access to the…

  17. A Retrospective Look at Website Accessibility over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Stephanie; Parmanto, Bambang; Zeng, Xiaoming

    2005-01-01

    Websites were retrospectively analysed to study the effects that technological advances in web design have had on accessibility for persons with disabilities. A random sample of general websites and a convenience sample of US government websites were studied and compared for the years 1997-2002. Web accessibility barrier (WAB) and complexity…

  18. 45 CFR 233.27 - Supplemental payments under retrospective budgeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... budgeting. 233.27 Section 233.27 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY... SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.27 Supplemental payments under retrospective budgeting. (a) General requirements. A State plan which provides for...

  19. Federal Public Health Service: In Retrospect and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I offer a retrospective case study about my early, short-term work within the U.S. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health and then my later, longer-term work within the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, where I endeavored for two decades largely to help our nation's schools improve health and associated…

  20. Education in Asia and the Pacific. Retrospect: Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raja Roy

    Offered as a tribute to the growing and fruitful spirit of regional cooperation in education in Asia and the Pacific, this volume provides a retrospective and prospective view of cooperative efforts and conditions in the 28 countries of the region. Part One outlines landmark efforts accomplished through a series of UNESCO regional conferences…

  1. Experiential Learning in Retrospect: A Future Organizational Challenge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Annika; Bjoorn, Urban; Jonson, Gunilla

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe a retrospective reflection over unconscious, emergent learning among employees of an organization and to suggest how to capture these moments of experiential learning for future organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: Action research in organizations is undertaken in interaction with…

  2. Retrospective Revaluation Effects Following Serial Compound Training and Target Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effting, Marieke; Vervliet, Bram; Kindt, Merel

    2010-01-01

    Using a conditioned suppression task, two experiments examined retrospective revaluation effects after serial compound training in a release from overshadowing design. In Experiment 1, serial X [right arrow] A+ training produced suppression to target A, which was enhanced when preceded by feature X, whereas X by itself elicited no suppression.…

  3. Retrospective Descriptive Study of Cerebral Palsy in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapa, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    There is very little data pertaining to cerebral palsy (CP) from Nepal. In this retrospective study it was observed that dyskinetic CP was seen in 29% and the sex ratio of males to females was two in the study population of children with CP. Both of these are much higher than data from developed countries. Hence, further randomized cross-sectional…

  4. Retrospective Conversion at a Two-Year College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, Michael T.

    1982-01-01

    Findings of a project to convert a single LC class from cards to machine readable tapes at a two-year college suggest that an in-house retrospective conversion is feasible for academic libraries. A high conversion hit rate, implying minimal original cataloging, will keep project costs and duration low. There are five references. (RAA)

  5. Retrospective Conversion: A Question of Time, Standards, and Purpose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Phyllis A.; McDonald, David R.

    1986-01-01

    Examines the factors that determine the cost of retrospective conversion (definition of conversion, standards of acceptance, method of conversion, hit rate, standards for creation of machine-readable records for nonhits); reports results of cost study at University of Michigan library; and introduces an alternative strategy for discussion. Seven…

  6. Retrospective Analysis of a Home Care Hospice Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brescia, Frank J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Presents a retrospective study of patients who died in a hospice home care program to examine quality of care and differences between patients who died at home and in the hospital. No prediction could be made of which patients could remain at home until death. (JAC)

  7. A Retrospective Introduction to Religious Education: An Interpretive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The author takes a retrospective look at his book "Religious Education: An Interpretive Approach," first published in 1997, and now available to readers, open access, via the European Wergeland Centre website (http://www.theewc.org/Content/Library/Research-Development/Literature/Introducing-Religious-Education-an-Interpretive-Approach).…

  8. Techniques for Improved Retrospective Fine-scale Meteorology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pleim-Xiu Land-Surface model (PX LSM) was developed for retrospective meteorological simulations to drive chemical transport models. One of the key features of the PX LSM is the indirect soil moisture and temperature nudging. The idea is to provide a three hourly 2-m temperature ...

  9. "JTPE": A 30-Year Retrospective of Published Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Jesse L.; Woods, Amelia M.; Daum, David N.; Ellison, Douglas; Trendowski, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    This case study presents an examination of 30 years of "Journal of Teaching in Physical Education" ("JTPE") research. The purpose of this study was to provide a retrospective view of "JTPE" and its contribution to the field of physical education. In this effort the current study employed citation analysis, co-author…

  10. 76 FR 31892 - Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Chapter III Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Request for information. SUMMARY: In accordance with Executive Order (E.O.) 13563, ``Improving... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On January 18, 2011, the President issued E.O. 13563, ``Improving Regulation...

  11. The GOES Time Code Service, 1974–2004: A Retrospective

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Michael A.; Hanson, D. Wayne

    2005-01-01

    NIST ended its Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) time code service at 0 hours, 0 minutes Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) on January 1, 2005. To commemorate the end of this historically significant service, this article provides a retrospective look at the GOES service and the important role it played in the history of satellite timekeeping. PMID:27308105

  12. Student Support through Personal Development Planning: Retrospection and Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Sue; Bufton, Serena

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of higher education students' retrospective meaning making of their experiences of personal development planning (PDP). An earlier study of first year students had indicated that students rarely reflected on their own meta-cognitive processes and were preoccupied with practical study skill matters, particularly…

  13. 77 FR 70123 - Retrospective Review Under Executive Order 13579

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... analysis of existing rules; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is making available its draft Plan for the retrospective analysis of its existing regulations. The draft Plan describes the processes and activities that the NRC uses to determine whether...

  14. Retrospective Cognition by Food-Caching Western Scrub-Jays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Kort, S.R.; Dickinson, A.; Clayton, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    Episodic-like memory, the retrospective component of cognitive time travel in animals, needs to fulfil three criteria to meet the behavioral properties of episodic memory as defined for humans. Here, we review results obtained with the cache-recovery paradigm with western scrub-jays and conclude that they fulfil these three criteria. The jays…

  15. Comparison and evaluation of retrospective intermodality image registration techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Jay B.; Fitzpatrick, J. Michael; Wang, Matthew Y.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Maurer, Calvin R., Jr.; Kessler, Robert M.; Maciunas, Robert J.; Barillot, Christian; Lemoine, Didier; Collignon, Andre M. F.; Maes, Frederik; Suetens, Paul; Vandermeulen, Dirk; van den Elsen, Petra A.; Hemler, Paul F.; Napel, Sandy; Sumanaweera, Thilaka S.; Harkness, Beth A.; Hill, Derek L.; Studholme, Colin; Malandain, Gregoire; Pennec, Xavier; Noz, Marilyn E.; Maguire, Gerald Q., Jr.; Pollack, Michael; Pelizzari, Charles A.; Robb, Richard A.; Hanson, Dennis P.; Woods, Roger P.

    1996-04-01

    All retrospective image registration methods have attached to them some intrinsic estimate of registration error. However, this estimate of accuracy may not always be a good indicator of the distance between actual and estimated positions of targets within the cranial cavity. This paper describes a project whose principal goal is to use a prospective method based on fiducial markers as a 'gold standard' to perform an objective, blinded evaluation of the accuracy of several retrospective image-to-image registration techniques. Image volumes of three modalities -- CT, MR, and PET -- were taken of patients undergoing neurosurgery at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. These volumes had all traces of the fiducial markers removed, and were provided to project collaborators outside Vanderbilt, who then performed retrospective registrations on the volumes, calculating transformations from CT to MR and/or from PET to MR, and communicated their transformations to Vanderbilt where the accuracy of each registration was evaluated. In this evaluation the accuracy is measured at multiple 'regions of interest,' i.e. areas in the brain which would commonly be areas of neurological interest. A region is defined in the MR image and its centroid C is determined. Then the prospective registration is used to obtain the corresponding point C' in CT or PET. To this point the retrospective registration is then applied, producing C' in MR. Statistics are gathered on the target registration error (TRE), which is the disparity between the original point C and its corresponding point C'. A second goal of the project is to evaluate the importance of correcting geometrical distortion in MR images, by comparing the retrospective TRE in the rectified images, i.e., those which have had the distortion correction applied, with that of the same images before rectification. This paper presents preliminary results of this study along with a brief description of each registration technique and an

  16. Space Shuttle navigation validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragsdale, A.

    The validation of the guidance, navigation, and control system of the Space Shuttle is explained. The functions of the ascent, on-board, and entry mission phases software of the navigation system are described. The common facility testing, which evaluates the simulations to be used in the navigation validation, is examined. The standard preflight analysis of the operational modes of the navigation software and the post-flight navigation analysis are explained. The conversion of the data into a useful reference frame and the use of orbit parameters in the analysis of the data are discussed. Upon entry the data received are converted to flags, ratios, and residuals in order to evaluate performance and detect errors. Various programs developed to support navigation validation are explained. A number of events that occurred with the Space Shuttle's navigation system are described.

  17. Space Shuttle navigation validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragsdale, A.

    1985-01-01

    The validation of the guidance, navigation, and control system of the Space Shuttle is explained. The functions of the ascent, on-board, and entry mission phases software of the navigation system are described. The common facility testing, which evaluates the simulations to be used in the navigation validation, is examined. The standard preflight analysis of the operational modes of the navigation software and the post-flight navigation analysis are explained. The conversion of the data into a useful reference frame and the use of orbit parameters in the analysis of the data are discussed. Upon entry the data received are converted to flags, ratios, and residuals in order to evaluate performance and detect errors. Various programs developed to support navigation validation are explained. A number of events that occurred with the Space Shuttle's navigation system are described.

  18. Base Flow Model Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Neeraj; Brinckman, Kevin; Jansen, Bernard; Seiner, John

    2011-01-01

    A method was developed of obtaining propulsive base flow data in both hot and cold jet environments, at Mach numbers and altitude of relevance to NASA launcher designs. The base flow data was used to perform computational fluid dynamics (CFD) turbulence model assessments of base flow predictive capabilities in order to provide increased confidence in base thermal and pressure load predictions obtained from computational modeling efforts. Predictive CFD analyses were used in the design of the experiments, available propulsive models were used to reduce program costs and increase success, and a wind tunnel facility was used. The data obtained allowed assessment of CFD/turbulence models in a complex flow environment, working within a building-block procedure to validation, where cold, non-reacting test data was first used for validation, followed by more complex reacting base flow validation.

  19. Shift Verification and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Pandya, Tara M.; Evans, Thomas M.; Davidson, Gregory G; Johnson, Seth R.; Godfrey, Andrew T.

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  20. Validating Software Metrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-30

    validation test: Spearman Rank Correlation and Wald - Wolfowitz Runs Test (test for randomness) (5,8]. For example, if a complexity metric is claimed to be... error count (E). Validity Criteria Select values of V, B, A, and P. The values of V, B, A, and P, used in the example are .7, .7, 20%, and 80...Procedures with no errors Average rank of first group = 85.2419 based on 31 values . Average rank of second group = 45.5 based on 81 values . Large sample test

  1. 77 FR 43827 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... replace animal use for vaccine potency testing (Stokes et al., 2011). The USDA has developed and validated... Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM), the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods, the... Potency Testing of Leptospira interrogans Serovar pomona Bacterins. Washington, DC:USDA Animal and...

  2. The effect of retrospective sampling on estimates of prediction error for multifactor dimensionality reduction.

    PubMed

    Winham, Stacey J; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A

    2011-01-01

    The standard in genetic association studies of complex diseases is replication and validation of positive results, with an emphasis on assessing the predictive value of associations. In response to this need, a number of analytical approaches have been developed to identify predictive models that account for complex genetic etiologies. Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) is a commonly used, highly successful method designed to evaluate potential gene-gene interactions. MDR relies on classification error in a cross-validation framework to rank and evaluate potentially predictive models. Previous work has demonstrated the high power of MDR, but has not considered the accuracy and variance of the MDR prediction error estimate. Currently, we evaluate the bias and variance of the MDR error estimate as both a retrospective and prospective estimator and show that MDR can both underestimate and overestimate error. We argue that a prospective error estimate is necessary if MDR models are used for prediction, and propose a bootstrap resampling estimate, integrating population prevalence, to accurately estimate prospective error. We demonstrate that this bootstrap estimate is preferable for prediction to the error estimate currently produced by MDR. While demonstrated with MDR, the proposed estimation is applicable to all data-mining methods that use similar estimates.

  3. Douglas-fir plantations in Europe: a retrospective test of assisted migration to address climate change.

    PubMed

    Isaac-Renton, Miriam G; Roberts, David R; Hamann, Andreas; Spiecker, Heinrich

    2014-08-01

    We evaluate genetic test plantations of North American Douglas-fir provenances in Europe to quantify how tree populations respond when subjected to climate regime shifts, and we examined whether bioclimate envelope models developed for North America to guide assisted migration under climate change can retrospectively predict the success of these provenance transfers to Europe. The meta-analysis is based on long-term growth data of 2800 provenances transferred to 120 European test sites. The model was generally well suited to predict the best performing provenances along north-south gradients in Western Europe, but failed to predict superior performance of coastal North American populations under continental climate conditions in Eastern Europe. However, model projections appear appropriate when considering additional information regarding adaptation of Douglas-fir provenances to withstand frost and drought, even though the model partially fails in a validation against growth traits alone. We conclude by applying the partially validated model to climate change scenarios for Europe, demonstrating that climate trends observed over the last three decades warrant changes to current use of Douglas-fir provenances in plantation forestry throughout Western and Central Europe.

  4. Validity and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maraun, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    As illuminated forcefully by Professor Newton's provocative analytical and historical excursion, as long as tests are employed to practical ends (prediction, selection, etc.) there is little cause for the metatheoretic angst that occasions rounds of papers on the topic of validity. But then, also, there seems little need, within this context of…

  5. Land Product Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisette, Jeffrey; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The "Land Product Validation" (LPV) subgroup of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Working on Group on Calibration and Validation was formed in 2000. Goals of the LPV subgroup are: (1)to increase the quality and economy of global satellite product validation via developing and promoting international standards and protocols for field sampling, scaling, error budgeting, data exchange and product evaluation, and (2) to advocate mission-long validation programs for current and future earth observing satellites. First-round LPV activities will compliment the research themes of the Global Observation of Forest Cover (GOFC) program, which are: biophysical products, fire/burn scar detection, and land cover mapping. Meetings in June and July of 2001 focused on the first two themes. The GOFC "Forest Cover Characteristics and Changes" meeting provides a forum to initiate LPV activities related to Land Cover. The presentation will start with a summary of the LPV subgroup and its current activities. This will be followed by an overview of areas for potential coordination between the LPV and the GOFC Land Cover Theme.

  6. The Chimera of Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Education policy over the past 40 years has focused on the importance of accountability in school improvement. Although much of the scholarly discourse around testing and assessment is technical and statistical, understanding of validity by a non-specialist audience is essential as long as test results drive our educational…

  7. "Validation": Mobilisation and Disciplination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Per

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an empirical example of what a process of mobilisation and disciplination could mean in practice. The example is taken from a "validation" initiative (recognition of prior learning) among a small group of unemployed people in Sweden. An ethnographic approach means that data were collected, mainly through…

  8. Domain Validity and Generalizability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Henry F.; Michael, William B.

    1975-01-01

    An alternative derivation of Tryon's basic formula for the coefficient of domain validity or the coefficient of generalizability developed by Cronbach, Rajaratnam, and Glaser is provided. This derivation, which is also the generalized Kuder-Richardson coefficient, requires a relatively minimal number of assumptions compared with that in previously…

  9. EOS Terra Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David

    2000-01-01

    The EOS Terra mission will be launched in July 1999. This mission has great relevance to the atmospheric radiation community and global change issues. Terra instruments include Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multi-Angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). In addition to the fundamental radiance data sets, numerous global science data products will be generated, including various Earth radiation budget, cloud and aerosol parameters, as well as land surface, terrestrial ecology, ocean color, and atmospheric chemistry parameters. Significant investments have been made in on-board calibration to ensure the quality of the radiance observations. A key component of the Terra mission is the validation of the science data products. This is essential for a mission focused on global change issues and the underlying processes. The Terra algorithms have been subject to extensive pre-launch testing with field data whenever possible. Intensive efforts will be made to validate the Terra data products after launch. These include validation of instrument calibration (vicarious calibration) experiments, instrument and cross-platform comparisons, routine collection of high quality correlative data from ground-based networks, such as AERONET, and intensive sites, such as the SGP ARM site, as well as a variety field experiments, cruises, etc. Airborne simulator instruments have been developed for the field experiment and underflight activities including the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) AirMISR, MASTER (MODIS-ASTER), and MOPITT-A. All are integrated on the NASA ER-2 though low altitude platforms are more typically used for MASTER. MATR is an additional sensor used for MOPITT algorithm development and validation. The intensive validation activities planned for the first year of the Terra

  10. Retrospective dosimetry using EPR and TL techniques: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Haskell, E.H.

    1996-12-31

    Methods of retrospective dosimetry, including luminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), rely on measurement of accident dose absorbed by naturally occurring materials - ceramics in the case of both thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and organic materials and bio- minerals in the case of EPR. Each of these methods relies on measurement of radiation defects resulting from accidental exposure. Since defects also result from natural sources of radiation over the lifetime of a sample, analysis is usually restricted to materials for which the natural dose may be determined and subtracted from the measured cumulative dose. Luminescence dating techniques rely heavily on an accurate assessment of cumulative dose from natural radiation sources, and dating research has provided us with the bulk of our knowledge in this area. Virtually all of the work on natural dose determination can be directly applied to retrospective techniques. With EPR techniques the cumulative dose from diagnostic x- rays is also of importance.

  11. OSL studies of local bricks for retrospective dosimetric application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Menon, S. N.; Kadam, S. Y.; Koul, D. K.; Datta, D.

    2016-09-01

    Luminescence properties of quartz extracted from bricks has been reported worldwide for its use in dose estimation in case of nuclear or radiological accident. Accordingly, in this study the feasibility of utilizing the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) emission of quartz extracted from red bricks collected from three different locations in and around Mumbai, India for retrospective dosimetry was explored. Thermoluminescence and OSL characterization of the samples were carried out. The growth curve, thermal stability and equivalent dose plateau of the OSL signal suggested the signals to be well behaving. Subsequently, the dose recovery tests carried for different administered doses, using single aliquot regenerative protocol, demonstrated the feasibility of the OSL emissions of these samples for dose evaluation in retrospective dosimetry.

  12. Retrospective dosimetry analyses of reactor vessel cladding samples

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L. R.; Soderquist, C. Z.; Fero, A. H.

    2011-07-01

    Reactor pressure vessel cladding samples for Ringhals Units 3 and 4 in Sweden were analyzed using retrospective reactor dosimetry techniques. The objective was to provide the best estimates of the neutron fluence for comparison with neutron transport calculations. A total of 51 stainless steel samples consisting of chips weighing approximately 100 to 200 mg were removed from selected locations around the pressure vessel and were sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for analysis. The samples were fully characterized and analyzed for radioactive isotopes, with special interest in the presence of Nb-93m. The RPV cladding retrospective dosimetry results will be combined with a re-evaluation of the surveillance capsule dosimetry and with ex-vessel neutron dosimetry results to form a comprehensive 3D comparison of measurements to calculations performed with 3D deterministic transport code. (authors)

  13. Dermatologic manifestation of hyperandrogenism: a retrospective chart review.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte M; Rudolph, Jennifer; Gerber, Donald A; Glick, Sharon; Shalita, Alan R; Lowenstein, Eve J

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have described a wide spectrum of hyperandrogenism diseases, many of which are difficult to distinguish from each other. In order to better understand diseases of hyperandrogenism, the authors performed a retrospective study of the cutaneous features and metabolic findings in women with hyperandrogenism. A retrospective chart analysis compiled by three dermatologists in both academic and private settings was performed, including patients presenting with > or = 2 manifestations of hyperandrogenism. Relevant dermatologic and associated manifestations and laboratory and imaging study findings were reviewed. Moderate to severe acne was the most common manifestation. Other common manifestations that patients first presented with include hirsutism, acanthosis nigricans, androgenic alopecia, and skin tags. Oligomenorrhea was the most common systemic presenting sign. Statistical analysis of various clinical markers revealed correlations with hyperandrogenemia. Acanthosis nigricans and hirsutism were found to be useful clinical markers for hyperandrogenism, whereas androgenic alopecia was not. This study provides some insights into the presentation and diverse manifestations seen in hyperandrogenism.

  14. MERIS Land Products Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramon, D.; Santer, R.; Dilligeard, E.; Jolivet, D.; Vidot, J.

    2004-05-01

    Over land, the aerosol remote sensing is based on the observation of Dense Dark Vegetation (DDV) and this concept is applied on MERIS with a spectral index (ARVI, Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index) to detect the DDV and the use of the bands at 412, 443 and 670 nm to characterize the aerosols. The aerosol size distribution is assumed to follow the Junge law while the aerosol refractive index is set to 1.44. The aerosol product consists on the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 865 nm and on the spectral dependence of the aerosol path radiance (Epsilon coefficient ɛ which is the ratio of the aerosol reflectance at 765 nm to that at 865 nm). The validation exercise is mostly based on the use of ground based optical measurements from the AERONET network. A classical validation of the aerosol product is conducted using the extinction measurements. A deeper validation is done in order to investigate the different assumptions used in the aerosol remote sensing module by: (i) using the ground based measurements to validate the DDV reflectance model. Atmospheric correction will be done, including the aerosols, to derive DDV reflectances for comparison to standard values. (ii) using the ground based measurements to validate the choice of the Junge size distribution by comparing the simulated radiances with this model to the measurements in the principal plane. The AOT at 865 nm is badly retrieved because of the inaccuracy of the DDV reflectance model in the red whereas the AOT at 443 nm is in good agreement with AERONET data and accuracy is comparable to what is achieved by MODIS over comparable sites. The Junge size distribution is well adapted for the representation of aerosols optical properties. The main algorithm improvement we recommend consists in introducing a dynamical DDV reflectance model that is a reflectance which varies with the ARVI of the target. Under clear sky conditions, the surface pressure is a level-2 MERIS product based on a two band ratio

  15. Retrospective studies of operating problems in air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Lauber, J. K.; Cooper, G. E.; Ruffell-Smith, H. P.

    1976-01-01

    An epidemiological model for the study of human errors in aviation is presented. In this approach, retrospective data are used as the basis for formulation of hypotheses as to system factors which may have contributed to such errors. Prospective experimental studies of aviation operations are also required in order to prove or disprove the hypotheses, and to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention techniques designed to solve operational problems in the aviation system.

  16. The General Single-Dish Data format: A retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenness, Tim; Stobie, Elizabeth B.; Maddalena, Ronald J.; Garwood, Robert W.; Fairclough, Jon H.; Prestage, Richard M.; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Padman, Rachael

    2015-09-01

    The General Single-Dish Data format (GSDD) was developed in the mid-1980s as a data model to support centimeter, millimeter and submillimeter instrumentation at NRAO, JCMT, the University of Arizona and IRAM. We provide an overview of the GSDD requirements and associated data model, discuss the implementation of the resultant file formats, describe its usage in the observatories and provide a retrospective on the format.

  17. Measurement validity in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Tariq M; Patton, Niall

    2005-04-01

    Measurements in ophthalmic research may be of parameters such as visual functions, quality of life or physical measures and can involve different types of instruments such as questionnaires and mechanical, chemical or electronic devices. Whatever the mode of measurement, however, all these devices require sufficient evidence for validity before inferences can be made on the basis of their findings. This article explores the nature and often overlooked importance of validity and explains some of the terminology involved. It discusses the main forms that ophthalmologists should be aware of before they can assess whether the instruments, old and new, are providing results upon which inferences can be made with any level of confidence. The literature search involved use of Medline, PubMed and Ovid as well as referenced papers in journals and books. Searches were comprehensive and international. Foreign texts were translated.

  18. CIPS Validation Data Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nam Dinh

    2012-03-01

    This report documents analysis, findings and recommendations resulted from a task 'CIPS Validation Data Plan (VDP)' formulated as an POR4 activity in the CASL VUQ Focus Area (FA), to develop a Validation Data Plan (VDP) for Crud-Induced Power Shift (CIPS) challenge problem, and provide guidance for the CIPS VDP implementation. The main reason and motivation for this task to be carried at this time in the VUQ FA is to bring together (i) knowledge of modern view and capability in VUQ, (ii) knowledge of physical processes that govern the CIPS, and (iii) knowledge of codes, models, and data available, used, potentially accessible, and/or being developed in CASL for CIPS prediction, to devise a practical VDP that effectively supports the CASL's mission in CIPS applications.

  19. Flight code validation simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, B.A.

    1995-08-01

    An End-To-End Simulation capability for software development and validation of missile flight software on the actual embedded computer has been developed utilizing a 486 PC, i860 DSP coprocessor, embedded flight computer and custom dual port memory interface hardware. This system allows real-time interrupt driven embedded flight software development and checkout. The flight software runs in a Sandia Digital Airborne Computer (SANDAC) and reads and writes actual hardware sensor locations in which IMU (Inertial Measurements Unit) data resides. The simulator provides six degree of freedom real-time dynamic simulation, accurate real-time discrete sensor data and acts on commands and discretes from the flight computer. This system was utilized in the development and validation of the successful premier flight of the Digital Miniature Attitude Reference System (DMARS) in January 1995 at the White Sands Missile Range on a two stage attitude controlled sounding rocket.

  20. UTSim2 validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandin, Robert; Gray, Tim

    2017-02-01

    The Center for NDE (CNDE) at Iowa State University has a long history of developing physics models for NDE and packaging these models into simulation tools which make the modeling capabilities accessible to CNDEs industrial sponsors. Recent work at CNDE has led to the development of a new ultrasonic simulation package, UTSim2, which aims to continue this tradition of supporting industrial application of CNDE models. In order to meet this goal, UTSim2 has been designed as an extensible software package which can support previously-developed physics models as well as future models yet to be developed. Initial work has focused on the implementation of a Gauss-Hermite beam model, a paraxial approximation, which is implemented as part of the Thompson-Gray measurement model. This paper will present recent validation results and include comparisons against both previously-validated model output and newly-performed experiments.

  1. Self-Validating Thermocouple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M. (Inventor); Mata, Carlos T. (Inventor); Santiago, Josephine B. (Inventor); Vokrot, Peter (Inventor); Zavala, Carlos E. (Inventor); Burns, Bradley M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Self-Validating Thermocouple (SVT) Systems capable of detecting sensor probe open circuits, short circuits, and unnoticeable faults such as a probe debonding and probe degradation are useful in the measurement of temperatures. SVT Systems provide such capabilities by incorporating a heating or excitation element into the measuring junction of the thermocouple. By heating the measuring junction and observing the decay time for the detected DC voltage signal, it is possible to indicate whether the thermocouple is bonded or debonded. A change in the thermal transfer function of the thermocouple system causes a change in the rise and decay times of the thermocouple output. Incorporation of the excitation element does not interfere with normal thermocouple operation, thus further allowing traditional validation procedures as well.

  2. Bioculture System Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Kevin Y.

    2012-01-01

    The Bioculture System first flight will be to validate the performance of the hardware and its automated and manual operational capabilities in the space flight environment of the International Space Station. Biology, Engineering, and Operations tests will be conducted in the Bioculture System fully characterize its automated and manual functions to support cell culturing for short and long durations. No hypothesis-driven research will be conducted with biological sample, and the science leads have all provided their concurrence that none of the data they collect will be considered as proprietary and can be free distributed to the science community. The outcome of the validation flight will be to commission the hardware for use by the science community. This presentation will provide non-proprietary details about the Bioculture System and information about the activities for the first flight.

  3. Characteristic Time Model Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    combustors (Rizk and Mongia , 1986). The only practical m.thod for ascertaining the validity of these models it to develop a well defined experimental datum...layer around the recirculation zone found in the primary zone of a gas turbine combustor . Experi- mental results are used to investigate CTM parameters...Length Scale ....................................... 80 4.3.6 Relation of rsglobal to Combustors ............................... 80 4.4 Spray

  4. 77 FR 59567 - Retrospective Regulatory Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ..., 1216, 1235 RIN 1125-AA71 Retrospective Regulatory Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Executive Office for...), entitled ``Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563,'' on March 1,...

  5. AMSR Validation Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobl, E. S.

    2003-12-01

    AMSR and AMSR-E are passive microwave radiometers built by NASDA in Japan. AMSR flies on ADEOS II, launched December 14 2001, and AMSR-E flies on NASA's Aqua satellite, launched May 4 2001. The Science teams in both countries have developed algorithms to retrieve different atmospheric parameters from the data obtained by these radiometers. The US Science team has developed a Validation plan that involved several campaigns. In fact most of these campaign have taken place this year: 2003, nicknamed the "Golden Year" for AMSR Validation. The first campaign started in January 2003 with the Extra-tropical precipitation campaign, followed by IOP3 for Cold Lands Processes Experiment (CLPX) in Colorado. After the change out of some of the instruments, the Validation program continued with the Arctic Sea Ice campaign based in Alaska, and followed by CLPX IOP 4, back in Colorado. Soil Moisture EXperiment 03 (SMEX03) started in late June in Alabama and Georgia, and then completed in Oklahoma mid-July. The last campaign in this series is AMSR Antarctic Sea Ice (AASI)/SMEX in Brazil. The major goals of each campaign, and very preliminary data will be shown. Most of these campaigns were in collaboration with the Japanese AMSR scientists.

  6. Mars Aerobot Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerzhanovich, V. V.; Cutts, J.; Bachelder, A.; Cameron, J.; Patzold, J.; Quadrelli, M.; Yavrouian, A.; Cantrell, J.; Lachenmeier, T.; Smith, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Balloon Validation Program (MABVAP) was initiated in August 1997 to develop and validate key technologies needed for aerobot missions on Mars. The major elements of the program are the development of balloons for flight on Mars, robust techniques for deployment and inflation and modeling and simulation of balloon flight paths. selection, development and tests of available balloon materials, design and fabrication of balloons (both superpressure and solar- heated), design and fabrication of deployment and inflation systems for aerial deployment, design and fabrication of avionics to control deployment/inflation process and to get telemetry and video data. Modeling of main processes during deployment and actual flight is also a part of MABVAP. In order to validate deployment and inflation, MABVAP applies experience from previous Mars balloon development or study activities the Russian-French Mars Aerostat Project (1988-1995), Mars Aerial Platform Study (1994) and Mars Aerobot/Balloon Study (1996). The program includes laboratory, wind tunnel, vacuum chamber tests of the system components and a number of tropospheric and stratospheric flight tests of deployment and inflation of lightfilm balloons in a simulated Martian environment.

  7. Reconstruction of organ dose for external radiotherapy patients in retrospective epidemiologic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choonik; Jung, Jae Won; Pelletier, Christopher; Pyakuryal, Anil; Lamart, Stephanie; Kim, Jong Oh; Lee, Choonsik

    2015-03-01

    Organ dose estimation for retrospective epidemiological studies of late effects in radiotherapy patients involves two challenges: radiological images to represent patient anatomy are not usually available for patient cohorts who were treated years ago, and efficient dose reconstruction methods for large-scale patient cohorts are not well established. In the current study, we developed methods to reconstruct organ doses for radiotherapy patients by using a series of computational human phantoms coupled with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and a radiotherapy-dedicated Monte Carlo transport code, and performed illustrative dose calculations. First, we developed methods to convert the anatomy and organ contours of the pediatric and adult hybrid computational phantom series to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-image and DICOM-structure files, respectively. The resulting DICOM files were imported to a commercial TPS for simulating radiotherapy and dose calculation for in-field organs. The conversion process was validated by comparing electron densities relative to water and organ volumes between the hybrid phantoms and the DICOM files imported in TPS, which showed agreements within 0.1 and 2%, respectively. Second, we developed a procedure to transfer DICOM-RT files generated from the TPS directly to a Monte Carlo transport code, x-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) for more accurate dose calculations. Third, to illustrate the performance of the established methods, we simulated a whole brain treatment for the 10 year-old male phantom and a prostate treatment for the adult male phantom. Radiation doses to selected organs were calculated using the TPS and XVMC, and compared to each other. Organ average doses from the two methods matched within 7%, whereas maximum and minimum point doses differed up to 45%. The dosimetry methods and procedures established in this study will be useful for the reconstruction of organ dose to support

  8. Reconstruction of organ dose for external radiotherapy patients in retrospective epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choonik; Jung, Jae Won; Pelletier, Christopher; Pyakuryal, Anil; Lamart, Stephanie; Kim, Jong Oh; Lee, Choonsik

    2015-03-21

    Organ dose estimation for retrospective epidemiological studies of late effects in radiotherapy patients involves two challenges: radiological images to represent patient anatomy are not usually available for patient cohorts who were treated years ago, and efficient dose reconstruction methods for large-scale patient cohorts are not well established. In the current study, we developed methods to reconstruct organ doses for radiotherapy patients by using a series of computational human phantoms coupled with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and a radiotherapy-dedicated Monte Carlo transport code, and performed illustrative dose calculations. First, we developed methods to convert the anatomy and organ contours of the pediatric and adult hybrid computational phantom series to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-image and DICOM-structure files, respectively. The resulting DICOM files were imported to a commercial TPS for simulating radiotherapy and dose calculation for in-field organs. The conversion process was validated by comparing electron densities relative to water and organ volumes between the hybrid phantoms and the DICOM files imported in TPS, which showed agreements within 0.1 and 2%, respectively. Second, we developed a procedure to transfer DICOM-RT files generated from the TPS directly to a Monte Carlo transport code, x-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) for more accurate dose calculations. Third, to illustrate the performance of the established methods, we simulated a whole brain treatment for the 10 year-old male phantom and a prostate treatment for the adult male phantom. Radiation doses to selected organs were calculated using the TPS and XVMC, and compared to each other. Organ average doses from the two methods matched within 7%, whereas maximum and minimum point doses differed up to 45%. The dosimetry methods and procedures established in this study will be useful for the reconstruction of organ dose to support

  9. Fracture mechanics validity limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Dennis M.; Ernst, Hugo A.

    1994-01-01

    Fracture behavior is characteristics of a dramatic loss of strength compared to elastic deformation behavior. Fracture parameters have been developed and exhibit a range within which each is valid for predicting growth. Each is limited by the assumptions made in its development: all are defined within a specific context. For example, the stress intensity parameters, K, and the crack driving force, G, are derived using an assumption of linear elasticity. To use K or G, the zone of plasticity must be small as compared to the physical dimensions of the object being loaded. This insures an elastic response, and in this context, K and G will work well. Rice's J-integral has been used beyond the limits imposed on K and G. J requires an assumption of nonlinear elasticity, which is not characteristic of real material behavior, but is thought to be a reasonable approximation if unloading is kept to a minimum. As well, the constraint cannot change dramatically (typically, the crack extension is limited to ten-percent of the initial remaining ligament length). Rice, et al investigated the properties required of J-type parameters, J(sub x), and showed that the time rate, dJ(sub x)/dt, must not be a function of the crack extension rate, da/dt. Ernst devised the modified-J parameter, J(sub M), that meets this criterion. J(sub M) correlates fracture data to much higher crack growth than does J. Ultimately, a limit of the validity of J(sub M) is anticipated, and this has been estimated to be at a crack extension of about 40-percent of the initial remaining ligament length. None of the various parameters can be expected to describe fracture in an environment of gross plasticity, in which case the process is better described by deformation parameters, e.g., stress and strain. In the current study, various schemes to identify the onset of the plasticity-dominated behavior, i.e., the end of fracture mechanics validity, are presented. Each validity limit parameter is developed in

  10. Excavator Design Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pholsiri, Chalongrath; English, James; Seberino, Charles; Lim, Yi-Je

    2010-01-01

    The Excavator Design Validation tool verifies excavator designs by automatically generating control systems and modeling their performance in an accurate simulation of their expected environment. Part of this software design includes interfacing with human operations that can be included in simulation-based studies and validation. This is essential for assessing productivity, versatility, and reliability. This software combines automatic control system generation from CAD (computer-aided design) models, rapid validation of complex mechanism designs, and detailed models of the environment including soil, dust, temperature, remote supervision, and communication latency to create a system of high value. Unique algorithms have been created for controlling and simulating complex robotic mechanisms automatically from just a CAD description. These algorithms are implemented as a commercial cross-platform C++ software toolkit that is configurable using the Extensible Markup Language (XML). The algorithms work with virtually any mobile robotic mechanisms using module descriptions that adhere to the XML standard. In addition, high-fidelity, real-time physics-based simulation algorithms have also been developed that include models of internal forces and the forces produced when a mechanism interacts with the outside world. This capability is combined with an innovative organization for simulation algorithms, new regolith simulation methods, and a unique control and study architecture to make powerful tools with the potential to transform the way NASA verifies and compares excavator designs. Energid's Actin software has been leveraged for this design validation. The architecture includes parametric and Monte Carlo studies tailored for validation of excavator designs and their control by remote human operators. It also includes the ability to interface with third-party software and human-input devices. Two types of simulation models have been adapted: high-fidelity discrete

  11. Validation of a Russian Language Oswestry Disability Index Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Yu, Elizabeth M; Nosova, Emily V; Falkenstein, Yuri; Prasad, Priya; Leasure, Jeremi M; Kondrashov, Dimitriy G

    2016-11-01

    Study Design Retrospective reliability and validity study. Objective To validate a recently translated Russian language version of the Oswestry Disability Index (R-ODI) using standardized methods detailed from previous validations in other languages. Methods We included all subjects who were seen in our spine surgery clinic, over the age of 18, and fluent in the Russian language. R-ODI was translated by six bilingual people and combined into a consensus version. R-ODI and visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaires for leg and back pain were distributed to subjects during both their initial and follow-up visits. Test validity, stability, and internal consistency were measured using standardized psychometric methods. Results Ninety-seven subjects participated in the study. No change in the meaning of the questions on R-ODI was noted with translation from English to Russian. There was a significant positive correlation between R-ODI and VAS scores for both the leg and back during both the initial and follow-up visits (p < 0.01 for all). The instrument was shown to have high internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.82) and moderate test-retest stability (interclass correlation coefficient = 0.70). Conclusions The R-ODI is both valid and reliable for use among the Russian-speaking population in the United States.

  12. 76 FR 26651 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Department's ``Preliminary Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules,'' dated April 25, 2011, follows... 13563 recognizes the importance of maintaining a consistent culture of retrospective review and analysis... (Independent of E.O. 13563) Already Underway To Conduct Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules The...

  13. Gilding the Outcome by Tarnishing the Past: Inflationary Biases in Retrospective Pretests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Paul J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.; Taylor, Hazel

    2009-01-01

    We tested for inflationary bias introduced through retrospective pretests by analyzing traditional pretest, retrospective pretest, and posttest evaluation data collected on a first-line supervisory leadership training program, involving 196 supervisors and their subordinates, across 17 organizational settings. Retrospective pretest ratings by both…

  14. The Correspondence of Daily and Retrospective PTSD Reports among Female Victims of Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Simpson, Tracy L.; Moore, Sally A.; Varra, Alethea A.; Kaysen, Debra L.

    2012-01-01

    Research addressing the association between daily and retrospective symptom reports suggests that retrospective reports are typically inflated. The present study examined the association between daily posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom reports over 1 month and a corresponding retrospective report (PTSD Checklist [PCL]; Weathers et al.,…

  15. VALIDATION OF ASHWAGANDHA CHURNAM

    PubMed Central

    Nagavalli, D.; Vetrichelvan, T.; Gayathri, N.; Poongothai, P.; Sivasankari, K. P.; Vadamalai, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    Ashwagandha churnam is an important Ayurvedic medicine obtained form dried roots and stems of withania somnifer1 (family;- Solanaceae)1, used as a tonic for emaciation of children, debility form old age, rheumatism, hypertension, ulcer, tumor2, sedative etc. In the present study a validation of Ashwagandha churnam by organoleptic, microscopic characteristics, extractive values total ash acid insoluble ash, and qualitative analysis of different organic constituents has been done TLC analysis to standardize the churnam has been performed. These studies will help in future of fixing standards for this churnam. PMID:22557018

  16. ALHAT System Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Tye; Bailey, Erik; Crain, Timothy; Paschall, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    NASA has embarked on a multiyear technology development effort to develop a safe and precise lunar landing capability. The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is investigating a range of landing hazard detection methods while developing a hazard avoidance capability to best field test the proper set of relevant autonomous GNC technologies. Ultimately, the advancement of these technologies through the ALHAT Project will provide an ALHAT System capable of enabling next generation lunar lander vehicles to globally land precisely and safely regardless of lighting condition. This paper provides an overview of the ALHAT System and describes recent validation experiments that have advanced the highly capable GNC architecture.

  17. A simple method to retrospectively estimate patient dose-area product for chest tomosynthesis examinations performed using VolumeRAD

    SciTech Connect

    Båth, Magnus Svalkvist, Angelica; Söderman, Christina

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the present work was to develop and validate a method of retrospectively estimating the dose-area product (DAP) of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system (GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK) from digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data available in the scout image. Methods: DICOM data were retrieved for 20 patients undergoing chest tomosynthesis using VolumeRAD. Using information about how the exposure parameters for the tomosynthesis examination are determined by the scout image, a correction factor for the adjustment in field size with projection angle was determined. The correction factor was used to estimate the DAP for 20 additional chest tomosynthesis examinations from DICOM data available in the scout images, which was compared with the actual DAP registered for the projection radiographs acquired during the tomosynthesis examination. Results: A field size correction factor of 0.935 was determined. Applying the developed method using this factor, the average difference between the estimated DAP and the actual DAP was 0.2%, with a standard deviation of 0.8%. However, the difference was not normally distributed and the maximum error was only 1.0%. The validity and reliability of the presented method were thus very high. Conclusions: A method to estimate the DAP of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system from DICOM data in the scout image was developed and validated. As the scout image normally is the only image connected to the tomosynthesis examination stored in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) containing dose data, the method may be of value for retrospectively estimating patient dose in clinical use of chest tomosynthesis.

  18. Validation of performance assessment models

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, M.P.; Kincaid, C.T.

    1991-11-01

    The purpose of model validation in a low-level waste site performance assessment is to increase confidence in predictions of the migration and fate of future releases from the wastes. Unlike the process of computer code verification, model validation is a site-specific process that requires site-specific data. This paper provides an overview of the topic of model validation and describes the general approaches, strategies, and limitations of model validation being considered by various researchers concerned with the subject.

  19. Test Takers' Experiences with Computer-Administered Listening Comprehension Tests: Interviewing for Qualitative Explorations of Test Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Greta

    2004-01-01

    In this study, retrospective interviews were used to investigate reliability (and thus validity) threats to a computerized ESL listening comprehension test administered at a university in the US. The participants in the investigation, six international graduate students, were asked to respond to semi- and open-ended questions during individual…

  20. Retrospective indexing (RI) - A computer-aided indexing technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    An account is given of a method for data base-updating designated 'computer-aided indexing' (CAI) which has been very efficiently implemented at NASA's Scientific and Technical Information Facility by means of retrospective indexing. Novel terms added to the NASA Thesaurus will therefore proceed directly into both the NASA-RECON aerospace information system and its portion of the ESA-Information Retrieval Service, giving users full access to material thus indexed. If a given term appears in the title of a record, it is given special weight. An illustrative graphic representation of the CAI search strategy is presented.

  1. Inbreeding and canine mammary cancer: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Dorn, C R; Schneider, R

    1976-09-01

    Using files of the Animal Neoplasm Registry (ANR) in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California, we conducted a retrospective study to compare the degree of inbreeding in the ancestry of purebred dogs with mammary and other cancers, and of those without tumors. Wright's coefficients of inbreeding, calculated for all animals in the three groups, ranged from 0.000 to 0.535. The median inbreeding coefficients of the mammary cancer and comparison groups (consisting of other cancers) were approximately twice that of the nonneoplastic group, but neither difference was statistically significant. Dogs with mammary adenocarcinoma and mixed mammary cancer had similar degrees of inbreeding.

  2. Neuroma under the fifth metatarsal head. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Valero, J; Gallart, J; González, D; Agustín, L; Marquina, R; Deus, J; Lahoz, M

    2012-08-01

    This retrospective study was carried out over 83 surgical cases at the distal portion of the fifth metatarsal, compromising the treatment of tailor's bunion, fifth metatarsal overload and the concomitant presence of both pathologies in some cases. Neuromas were founded under the fifth metatarsal head in 18 of the cases studied (21.7%). The results look at whether if there is an association between different fifth metatarsal pathologies and the presence of neuromas and found a significant association between the appearance of neuromas in patients with the same metatarsal overload, especially if it is accompanied by a tailor's bunion pathology.

  3. Retrospective sputter depth profiling using 3D mass spectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Leiliang; Wucher, Andreas; Winograd, Nicholas

    2011-02-01

    A molecular multilayer stack composed of alternating Langmuir-Blodgett films was analyzed by ToF-SIMS imaging in combination with intermediate sputter erosion using a focused C60(+) cluster ion beam. From the resulting dataset, depth profiles of any desired lateral portion of the analyzed field-of-view can be extracted in retrospect, allowing the influence of the gating area on the apparent depth resolution to be assessed. In a similar way, the observed degradation of depth resolution with increasing depth of the analyzed interface can be analyzed in order to determine the 'intrinsic' depth resolution of the method.

  4. Onychomycosis in the Denver pediatrics population, a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Young, Lindsay S; Arbuckle, Harvey A; Morelli, Joseph G

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis (OM) is a common nail disorder in adults but has been rare in children. Recent international studies have demonstrated a rise in the prevalence of OM in children and adolescents, with Trichophyton rubrum being the most common pathogen. This 5-year retrospective chart review of children (aged <18) found that 66 of 141 patients (46.8%) presenting to Children's Hospital Colorado or Denver Health Medical Center Dermatology clinics with nail complaints had OM, with the highest prevalence in those aged 6 to 10 and a slight male predominance. Toenails were more commonly affected, and Trichophyton rubrum was the most common pathogen.

  5. EAS Tycho Brahe prize lecture 2011. Hipparcos: a retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perryman, Michael

    2011-10-01

    The Hipparcos satellite was launched in 1989. It was the first, and remains to date the only, attempt at performing large-scale astrometric measurements from space. Hipparcos marked a fundamentally new approach to the field of astrometry, revolutionising our knowledge of the positions, distances, and space motions of the stars in the solar neighbourhood. In this retrospective, I look back at the processes which led to the mission's acceptance, provide a short summary of the underlying measurement principles and the experiment's scientific achievements, and a conclude with a brief summary of its principal legacy—the Gaia mission.

  6. [Retrospective evaluation of carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children].

    PubMed

    San Vicente, B; Bardají, C; Rigol, S; Obiols, P; Melo, M; Bella, R

    2009-04-01

    Carcinoids of the appendix are rare in children. Usually diagnosed incidentally on histologic investigation following appendectomy for acute apendicitis. To investigate the significance of the diagnosis of appendiceal carcinoid tumors in children, we conducted a retrospective study in our institution. Between 1990 and 2007 a total of 1158 appendectomy were done. In four patients the diagnosis was appendiceal carcinoid. We studied treatment, follow-up and prognosis of this patients. Indicacion for appendectomy was acute pain in lower right quadrant. The median tumor diameter was lower than 1 cm and the appropriate treatment was appendectomy. The prognosis was excellent in all the patients.

  7. Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Chen, Junye

    2009-01-01

    The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalyses has produced several years of data, on the way to a. completing the 1979-present modern satellite era. Here, we present a preliminary evaluation of those years currently available, including comparisons with the existing long reanalyses (ERA40, JPA25 and NCEP I and II) as well as with global data sets for the water and energy cycle. Time series shows that the MERRA budgets can change with some of the variations in observing systems. We will present all terms of the budgets in MERRA including the time rates of change and analysis increments (tendency due to the analysis of observations).

  8. Effect of captopril on infantile haemangiomas: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Christou, Elizabeth M; Wargon, Orli

    2012-08-01

    The mechanism of action of beta adrenergic blockers in the involution of infantile haemangioma (IH) remains unclear. It has been proposed that the renin-angiotensin pathway may play a role. We present a retrospective case series of 17 patients with IH who were treated with oral corticosteroid therapy and developed hypertension requiring treatment with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril. All patients, with written documentation, demonstrated an improvement in their lesion at the start of oral corticosteroid therapy (n = 14). Captopril alone did not sustain the corticosteroid-induced involution with a documented worsening of infantile haemangioma in seven out of 12 patients (58%).

  9. Supported Employment and Social Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Test, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty studies on supported employment for people with disabilities were evaluated using a proposed Social Validity Matrix. Results suggested further research should investigate alternative strategies for assessing social validity, develop systematic procedures for collecting and using social validity data, and establish functional variables…

  10. Determining Validity in Qualitative Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, John W.; Miller, Dana L.

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that the choice of validity procedures in qualitative inquiry is governed by two perspectives: the lens researchers choose to validate their studies and the researchers' paradigm assumptions. The article advances a two-dimensional framework to help researchers identify appropriate validity procedures for their studies. Nine validity…

  11. Validation of the BEPLATE code

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, G.E.; Bullock, J.S.

    1997-11-01

    The electroforming simulation code BEPLATE (Boundary Element-PLATE) has been developed and validated for specific applications at Oak Ridge. New areas of application are opening up and more validations are being performed. This paper reports the validation experience of the BEPLATE code on two types of electroforms and describes some recent applications of the code.

  12. Conference Report: Advancing the Science of Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing for Better Safety Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Introduction The 3rd International Conference on Alternatives for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT3), organized by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, was held from May 10 -13, 20...

  13. Background music as a quasi clock in retrospective duration judgments.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Nicole; Areni, Charles S

    2006-04-01

    The segmentation-change model of time perception proposes that individuals engaged in cognitive tasks during a given interval of time retrospectively estimate duration by recalling events that occurred during the interval and inferring each event's duration. Previous research suggests that individuals can recall the number of songs heard during an interval and infer the length of each song, exactly the conditions that foster estimates of duration based on the segmentation-change model. The results of a laboratory experiment indicated that subjects who solved word-search puzzles for 20 min. estimated the duration of the interval to be longer when 8 short songs (<3 min.) as opposed to 4 long songs (6+ min.) were played in the background, regardless of whether the musical format was Contemporary Dance or New Age. Assuming each song represented a distinct segment in memory, these results are consistent with the segmentation-change model. These results suggest that background music may not always reduce estimates of duration by drawing attention away from the passage of time. Instead, background music may actually expand the subjective length of an interval by creating accessible traces in memory, which are retrospectively used to infer duration.

  14. Pemphigus vulgaris and infections: a retrospective study on 155 patients.

    PubMed

    Esmaili, Nafiseh; Mortazavi, Hossein; Noormohammadpour, Pedram; Boreiri, Majid; Soori, Tahereh; Vasheghani Farahani, Iman; Mohit, Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Background. Autoimmune process and immunosuppressive therapy of pemphigus vulgaris would predispose the patients to infections. Aim. We aimed to study the prevalence of infection and pathogenic agents in pemphigus vulgaris patients admitted to dermatology service. Material and methods. This retrospective study was conducted on 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients (68 males, 87 females) admitted to dermatology service between 2009 and 2011. In this study, the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by light microscopic and direct immunofluorescence findings. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Results. Of 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients, 33 had infection at admission and 9 acquired nosocomial infection. In addition, 37 cases of oral candidiasis and 15 cases of localized herpes simplex were recorded. Totally, 94 cases of infection were recorded. The occurrence of infection was significantly related to the severity of disease, number of hospital admissions, and presence of diabetes mellitus. The most common pathogenic germs isolated from cultures were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Conclusion. Severity of pemphigus vulgaris and diabetes were directly related with tendency to infections. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the most common pathogenic agents. Due to limitations of retrospective study, a prospective study is recommended.

  15. Pemphigus Vulgaris and Infections: A Retrospective Study on 155 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Esmaili, Nafiseh; Noormohammadpour, Pedram; Boreiri, Majid; Soori, Tahereh; Vasheghani Farahani, Iman; Mohit, Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Background. Autoimmune process and immunosuppressive therapy of pemphigus vulgaris would predispose the patients to infections. Aim. We aimed to study the prevalence of infection and pathogenic agents in pemphigus vulgaris patients admitted to dermatology service. Material and methods. This retrospective study was conducted on 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients (68 males, 87 females) admitted to dermatology service between 2009 and 2011. In this study, the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by light microscopic and direct immunofluorescence findings. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Results. Of 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients, 33 had infection at admission and 9 acquired nosocomial infection. In addition, 37 cases of oral candidiasis and 15 cases of localized herpes simplex were recorded. Totally, 94 cases of infection were recorded. The occurrence of infection was significantly related to the severity of disease, number of hospital admissions, and presence of diabetes mellitus. The most common pathogenic germs isolated from cultures were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Conclusion. Severity of pemphigus vulgaris and diabetes were directly related with tendency to infections. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the most common pathogenic agents. Due to limitations of retrospective study, a prospective study is recommended. PMID:23844280

  16. The Chernobyl experience in the area of retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Chumak, Vadim V

    2012-03-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred on 26 April 1986 at a nuclear power plant located less than 150 km north of Kiev, was the largest nuclear accident to date. The unprecedented scale of the accident was determined not only by the amount of released activity, but also by the number of workers and of the general public involved, and therefore exposed to increased doses of ionising radiation. Due to the unexpected and large scale of the accident, dosimetry techniques and practices were far from the optimum; personal dosimetry of cleanup workers (liquidators) was not complete, and there were no direct measurements of the exposures of members of the public. As a result, an acute need for retrospective dose assessment was dictated by radiation protection and research considerations. In response, substantial efforts have been made to reconstruct doses for the main exposed cohorts, using a broad variety of newly developed methods: analytical, biological and physical (electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of teeth, thermoluminescence of quartz) and modelling. This paper reviews the extensive experience gained by the National Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Ukraine in the field of retrospective dosimetry of large cohorts of exposed population and professionals. These dose reconstruction projects were implemented, in particular, in the framework of epidemiological studies, designed to follow-up the medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident and study health effects of ionizing radiation, particularly Ukrainian-American studies of cataracts and leukaemia among liquidators.

  17. Trazodone and alcohol relapse: a retrospective study following residential treatment.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Bhanu Prakash; Schneekloth, Terry D; Biernacka, Joanna M; Frye, Mark A; Mansukhani, Meghna P; Hall-Flavin, Daniel K; Karpyak, Victor M; Loukianova, Larissa L; Lesnick, Timothy G; Mrazek, David

    2011-01-01

    Trazodone is one of the most commonly prescribed hypnotic medications in patients with sleep disturbances in alcohol recovery. A recent study concluded that treating insomnia with trazodone in patients with alcohol dependence might impede improvements in alcohol consumption and lead to increased drinking when trazodone is stopped. We set out to investigate the relationship between trazodone use during alcoholism treatment and relapse rates in patients who were discharged from a residential alcohol treatment program. We retrospectively reviewed records of patients with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence in a residential addiction treatment center from 2005 to 2008 and analyzed the association of trazodone use at discharge and alcohol relapse at 6 months. We also assessed the association between trazodone use and relapse at 6 months adjusting for sex, drug dependence, nonsubstance use Axis I psychiatric diagnoses, patient self-report of difficulties with sleep, and anti-dipsotropic medication use at discharge and evaluated pair-wise interactions of trazodone use with the adjustment variables. Of 283 patients eligible for inclusion, 85 (30%) were taking trazodone at discharge. Older age, self-reported sleep problems, and having a nonsubstance use Axis I psychiatric diagnosis were associated with trazodone use. After discharge, 170 (60%) subjects responded to follow-up efforts. Neither intent to treat nor responder only analysis revealed any association between trazodone use and relapse. Our retrospective study of a complex patient population discharged from a residential treatment setting did not find an association between trazodone use at discharge and relapse rates at 6 months.

  18. The benefit of hindsight in observational science: Retrospective seismological observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Andrew; Behr, Yannik; Entwistle, Elizabeth; Galetti, Erica; Townend, John; Bannister, Stephen

    2012-09-01

    We show that interferometric theory allows recordings on a large variety of sensor types to be both spatially and temporally redatumed. Recordings of an energy source can thus be obtained at times before, during or after the period during which the sensor was physically installed. As a consequence, sensors in acoustic, elastic, electromagnetic, electrokinetic and a variety of other wavefield or diffusive environments may be deployed retrospectively, after an event of interest occurs and at locations chosen with the benefits of hind-sight: recordings of the event of interest can then be constructed post hoc. As an illustration, seismograms from two earthquakes are constructed on a seismometer deployed only after the earthquakes' seismic energy had completely dissipated. Bizarrely, a contributory component of such deterministic seismograms turns out to be ambient, random seismic noise. The seismograms obtained can be used to estimate seismic velocities in the vicinity of the seismometer, and provide independent information about the source phase (which is unavailable from the equivalent direct recordings). Thus, such retrospective observations provide novel information about both the earth and the energy source.

  19. Primary Hepatic Lymphoma: A Retrospective, Multicenter Rare Cancer Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Ugurluer, Gamze; Miller, Robert C.; Li, Yexiong; Thariat, Juliette; Ghadjar, Pirus; Schick, Ulrike; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2016-01-01

    Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is a rare malignancy. We aimed to assess the clinical profile, outcome and prognostic factors in PHL through the Rare Cancer Network (RCN). A retrospective analysis of 41 patients was performed. Median age was 62 years (range, 23-86 years) with a male-to-female ratio of 1.9:1.0. Abdominal pain or discomfort was the most common presenting symptom. Regarding B-symptoms, 19.5% of patients had fever, 17.1% weight loss, and 9.8% night sweats. The most common radiological presentation was multiple lesions. Liver function tests were elevated in 56.1% of patients. The most common histopathological diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (65.9%). Most of the patients received Chop-like (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) regimens; 4 patients received radiotherapy (dose range, 30.6-40.0 Gy). Median survival was 163 months, and 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 77 and 59%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year disease-free and lymphoma-specific survival rates were 69, 56, 87 and 70%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that fever, weight loss, and normal hemoglobin level were the independent factors influencing the outcome. In this retrospective multicenter RCN study, patients with PHL had a relatively better prognosis than that reported elsewhere. Multicenter prospective studies are still warranted to establish treatment guidelines, outcome, and prognostic factors. PMID:27746888

  20. Retrospective access to data: the ENGAGE consent experience.

    PubMed

    Tassé, Anne Marie; Budin-Ljøsne, Isabelle; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Harris, Jennifer R

    2010-07-01

    The rapid emergence of large-scale genetic databases raises issues at the nexus of medical law and ethics, as well as the need, at both national and international levels, for an appropriate and effective framework for their governance. This is even more so for retrospective access to data for secondary uses, wherein the original consent did not foresee such use. The first part of this paper provides a brief historical overview of the ethical and legal frameworks governing consent issues in biobanking generally, before turning to the secondary use of retrospective data in epidemiological biobanks. Such use raises particularly complex issues when (1) the original consent provided is restricted; (2) the minor research subject reaches legal age; (3) the research subject dies; or (4) samples and data were obtained during medical care. Our analysis demonstrates the inconclusive, and even contradictory, nature of guidelines and confirms the current lack of compatible regulations. The second part of this paper uses the European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE Consortium) as a case study to illustrate the challenges of research using previously collected data sets in Europe. Our study of 52 ENGAGE consent forms and information documents shows that a broad range of mechanisms were developed to enable secondary use of the data that are part of the ENGAGE Consortium.

  1. Oral lichen planus – retrospective study of 563 Croatian patients

    PubMed Central

    Budimir, Vice; Richter, Ivica; Andabak-Rogulj, Ana; Vučićević-Boras, Vanja

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of oral lichen planus (OLP) in a group of Croatian patients seen between 2006 and 2012. Study Design: A group of 563 patients with a diagnosis of OLP was retrospectively reviewed in our clinic. Data regarding age, gender, medical history, drugs, smoking, alcohol, chief complaint, clinical type, localization, histology, treatment and malignant transformation were registered. Results: Of the 563 patients, 414 were females and 149 were males. The average age at the diagnosis was 58 (range 11-94). The most common site was buccal mucosa (82.4%). Most of our patients did not smoke (72.5%) or consume alcohol (69.6%). Patients reported oral soreness (43.3%), mucosal roughness (7%), xerostomia (3%), gingival bleeding (2%) and altered taste (0.5%) as the chief complaint, while almost half of them were asymptomatic (44.2%). The most common types of OLP were reticular (64.8%) and erosive (22.9%). Plaque-like (5.7%) atrophic/erythemtous (4.3%) and bullous (2.3%) type were also observed. Malignant transformation rate of 0.7% was recorded. Conclusions: OLP mostly affects non-smoking middle-aged women. Buccal mucosa is the most commonly affected site. In almost half of the cases patients are asymptomatic. In spite of the small risk for malignant transformation all patients should be regularly monitored. Key words:Oral lichen planus, malignant transformation, epidemiology, retrospective study. PMID:24608217

  2. How bad was unmodified electroconvulsive therapy! A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Anindya Kumar

    2016-01-01

    “Unmodified”-electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) being considered unethical remained away from the scientific literature, but continued in practice in many parts of the world. The Mental Health Care Bill, 2011, proposed for its banning in India. The aim of this study is to retrospectively observe “how bad was unmodified-ECT” to the patients in a naturalistic setting. The study was done at the Central Institute of Psychiatry, India. Files of patients receiving unmodified ECT during 1990–1995 were retrospectively reviewed. Outcome was evaluated in terms of desired effectiveness and the side effects as noted in the files by the treating team. Six hundred and thirty-seven patients (6.94% of total admission) received ECT with meticulous standard-of-care except provision of anesthesia. Satisfactory improvement was noted in 95.45% patients with no noticeable/reported complication in 89.05%. Premature termination of ECT for complications occurred in 2.19% patients. “Unmodified”-ECT, though unethical, still could ensure favorable outcome with proper case selection and meticulous standard-of-care. PMID:27385857

  3. Liver 4DMRI: A retrospective image-based sorting method

    SciTech Connect

    Paganelli, Chiara; Summers, Paul; Bellomi, Massimo; Baroni, Guido; Riboldi, Marco

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4DMRI) is an emerging technique in radiotherapy treatment planning for organ motion quantification. In this paper, the authors present a novel 4DMRI retrospective image-based sorting method, providing reduced motion artifacts than using a standard monodimensional external respiratory surrogate. Methods: Serial interleaved 2D multislice MRI data were acquired from 24 liver cases (6 volunteers + 18 patients) to test the proposed 4DMRI sorting. Image similarity based on mutual information was applied to automatically identify a stable reference phase and sort the image sequence retrospectively, without the use of additional image or surrogate data to describe breathing motion. Results: The image-based 4DMRI provided a smoother liver profile than that obtained from standard resorting based on an external surrogate. Reduced motion artifacts were observed in image-based 4DMRI datasets with a fitting error of the liver profile measuring 1.2 ± 0.9 mm (median ± interquartile range) vs 2.1 ± 1.7 mm of the standard method. Conclusions: The authors present a novel methodology to derive a patient-specific 4DMRI model to describe organ motion due to breathing, with improved image quality in 4D reconstruction.

  4. VAN method lacks validity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, David D.; Kagan, Yan Y.

    Varotsos and colleagues (the VAN group) claim to have successfully predicted many earthquakes in Greece. Several authors have refuted these claims, as reported in the May 27,1996, special issue of Geophysical Research Letters and a recent book, A Critical Review of VAN [Lighthill 1996]. Nevertheless, the myth persists. Here we summarize why the VAN group's claims lack validity.The VAN group observes electrical potential differences that they call “seismic electric signals” (SES) weeks before and hundreds of kilometers away from some earthquakes, claiming that SES are somehow premonitory. This would require that increases in stress or decreases in strength cause the electrical variations, or that some regional process first causes the electrical signals and then helps trigger the earthquakes. Here we adopt their notation SES to refer to the electrical variations, without accepting any link to the quakes.

  5. Validation of EMP bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, L.K.; Merewether, K.O.; Chen, K.C.; Jorgenson, R.E.; Morris, M.E.; Solberg, J.E.; Lewis, J.G.; Derr, W.

    1996-07-01

    Test data on canonical weapon-like fixtures are used to validate previously developed analytical bounding results. The test fixtures were constructed to simulate (but be slightly worse than) weapon ports of entry but have known geometries (and electrical points of contact). The exterior of the test fixtures exhibited exterior resonant enhancement of the incident fields at the ports of entry with magnitudes equal to those of weapon geometries. The interior consisted of loaded transmission lines adjusted to maximize received energy or voltage but incorporating practical weapon geometrical constraints. New analytical results are also presented for bounding the energies associated with multiple bolt joints and for bounding the exterior resonant enhancement of the exciting fields.

  6. Alveolar Ridge Reconstruction with Titanium Meshes and Simultaneous Implant Placement: A Retrospective, Multicenter Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Paraud Freixas, Andres; Han, Chang-Hun; Bechara, Sohueil; Tawil, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate horizontal bone gain and implant survival and complication rates in patients treated with titanium meshes placed simultaneously with dental implants and fixed over them. Methods. Twenty-five patients treated with 40 implants and simultaneous guided bone regeneration with titanium meshes (i–Gen®, MegaGen, Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea) were selected for inclusion in the present retrospective multicenter study. Primary outcomes were horizontal bone gain and implant survival; secondary outcomes were biological and prosthetic complications. Results. After the removal of titanium meshes, the CBCT evaluation revealed a mean horizontal bone gain of 3.67 mm (±0.89). The most frequent complications were mild postoperative edema (12/25 patients: 48%) and discomfort after surgery (10/25 patients: 40%); these complications were resolved within one week. Titanium mesh exposure occurred in 6 patients (6/25 : 24%): one of these suffered partial loss of the graft and another experienced complete graft loss and implant failure. An implant survival rate of 97.5% (implant-based) and a peri-implant marginal bone loss of 0.43 mm (±0.15) were recorded after 1 year. Conclusions. The horizontal ridge reconstruction with titanium meshes placed simultaneously with dental implants achieved predictable satisfactory results. Prospective randomized controlled trials on a larger sample of patients are required to validate these positive outcomes. PMID:27999799

  7. Vietnam's forest transition in retrospect: demonstrating weaknesses in business-as-usual scenarios for REDD.

    PubMed

    Ankersen, Jeppe; Grogan, Kenneth; Mertz, Ole; Fensholt, Rasmus; Castella, Jean-Christophe; Lestrelin, Guillaume; Nguyen, Dinh Tien; Danielsen, Finn; Brofeldt, Søren; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2015-05-01

    One of the prerequisites of the REDD+ mechanism is to effectively predict business-as-usual (BAU) scenarios for change in forest cover. This would enable estimation of how much carbon emission a project could potentially prevent and thus how much carbon credit should be rewarded. However, different factors like forest degradation and the lack of linearity in forest cover transitions challenge the accuracy of such scenarios. Here we predict and validate such BAU scenarios retrospectively based on forest cover changes at village and district level in North Central Vietnam. With the government's efforts to increase the forest cover, land use policies led to gradual abandonment of shifting cultivation since the 1990s. We analyzed Landsat images from 1973, 1989, 1998, 2000, and 2011 and found that the policies in the areas studied did lead to increased forest cover after a long period of decline, but that this increase could mainly be attributed to an increase in open forest and shrub areas. We compared Landsat classifications with participatory maps of land cover/use in 1998 and 2012 that indicated more forest degradation than was captured by the Landsat analysis. The BAU scenarios were heavily dependent on which years were chosen for the reference period. This suggests that hypothetical REDD+ activities in the past, when based on the remote sensing data available at that time, would have been unable to correctly estimate changes in carbon stocks and thus produce relevant BAU scenarios.

  8. Vietnam's Forest Transition in Retrospect: Demonstrating Weaknesses in Business-as-Usual Scenarios for REDD+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankersen, Jeppe; Grogan, Kenneth; Mertz, Ole; Fensholt, Rasmus; Castella, Jean-Christophe; Lestrelin, Guillaume; Nguyen, Dinh Tien; Danielsen, Finn; Brofeldt, Søren; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2015-05-01

    One of the prerequisites of the REDD+ mechanism is to effectively predict business-as-usual (BAU) scenarios for change in forest cover. This would enable estimation of how much carbon emission a project could potentially prevent and thus how much carbon credit should be rewarded. However, different factors like forest degradation and the lack of linearity in forest cover transitions challenge the accuracy of such scenarios. Here we predict and validate such BAU scenarios retrospectively based on forest cover changes at village and district level in North Central Vietnam. With the government's efforts to increase the forest cover, land use policies led to gradual abandonment of shifting cultivation since the 1990s. We analyzed Landsat images from 1973, 1989, 1998, 2000, and 2011 and found that the policies in the areas studied did lead to increased forest cover after a long period of decline, but that this increase could mainly be attributed to an increase in open forest and shrub areas. We compared Landsat classifications with participatory maps of land cover/use in 1998 and 2012 that indicated more forest degradation than was captured by the Landsat analysis. The BAU scenarios were heavily dependent on which years were chosen for the reference period. This suggests that hypothetical REDD+ activities in the past, when based on the remote sensing data available at that time, would have been unable to correctly estimate changes in carbon stocks and thus produce relevant BAU scenarios.

  9. Retrospective benzene and total hydrocarbon exposure assessment for a petroleum marketing and distribution worker epidemiology study.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, T W; Pearlman, E D; Schnatter, A R; Bowes, S M; Murray, N; Nicolich, M J

    1996-04-01

    A quantitative exposure-estimating algorithm for benzene and total hydrocarbons was developed for a case control study of petroleum marketing and distribution workers. The algorithm used a multiplicative model to adjust recently measured quantitative exposure data to past scenarios for which representative exposure measurement data did not exist. This was accomplished through the development of exposure modifiers to account for differences in the workplace, the materials handled, the environmental conditions, and the tasks performed. Values for exposure modifiers were obtained empirically and through physical/chemical relationships. Dates for changes that altered exposure potential were obtained from archive records, retired employee interviews, and from current operations personnel. Exposure modifiers were used multiplicatively, adjusting available measured data to represent the relevant exposure scenario and time period. Changes in exposure modifiers translated to step changes in exposure estimates. Though limited by availability of data, a validation exercise suggested that the algorithm provided accurate exposure estimates for benzene (compared with measured data in industrial hygiene survey reports); the estimates generally differed by an average of less than 20% from the measured values. This approach is proposed to quantify exposures retrospectively where there are sufficient data to develop reliable current era estimates and where a historical accounting of key exposure modifiers can be developed, but where there are insufficient historic exposure measurements to directly assess historic exposures.

  10. Alveolar Ridge Reconstruction with Titanium Meshes and Simultaneous Implant Placement: A Retrospective, Multicenter Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Zita Gomes, Raquel; Paraud Freixas, Andres; Han, Chang-Hun; Bechara, Sohueil; Tawil, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate horizontal bone gain and implant survival and complication rates in patients treated with titanium meshes placed simultaneously with dental implants and fixed over them. Methods. Twenty-five patients treated with 40 implants and simultaneous guided bone regeneration with titanium meshes (i-Gen®, MegaGen, Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea) were selected for inclusion in the present retrospective multicenter study. Primary outcomes were horizontal bone gain and implant survival; secondary outcomes were biological and prosthetic complications. Results. After the removal of titanium meshes, the CBCT evaluation revealed a mean horizontal bone gain of 3.67 mm (±0.89). The most frequent complications were mild postoperative edema (12/25 patients: 48%) and discomfort after surgery (10/25 patients: 40%); these complications were resolved within one week. Titanium mesh exposure occurred in 6 patients (6/25 : 24%): one of these suffered partial loss of the graft and another experienced complete graft loss and implant failure. An implant survival rate of 97.5% (implant-based) and a peri-implant marginal bone loss of 0.43 mm (±0.15) were recorded after 1 year. Conclusions. The horizontal ridge reconstruction with titanium meshes placed simultaneously with dental implants achieved predictable satisfactory results. Prospective randomized controlled trials on a larger sample of patients are required to validate these positive outcomes.

  11. Evaluation of accuracy and applicability of protein models: retrospective analysis of biological and biomedical predictions.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sofia; Vihinen, Mauno

    2009-01-01

    In order to study protein function and activity structural data is required. Since experimental structures are available for just a small fraction of all known protein sequences, computational methods such as protein modelling can provide useful information. Over the last few decades we have predicted, with homology modelling methods, the structures for numerous proteins. In this study we assess the structural quality and validity of the biological and medical interpretations and predictions made based on the models. All the models had correct scaffolding and were ranked at least as correct or good by numerical evaluators even though the sequence identity with the template was as low as 8%. The biological explanations made based on models were well in line with experimental structures and other experimental studies. Retrospective analysis of homology models indicates the power of protein modelling when made carefully from sequence alignment to model building and refinement. Modelling can be applied to studying and predicting different kinds of biological phenomena and according to our results it can be done so with success.

  12. Comparison of treatment plans: a retrospective study by the method of radiobiological evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puzhakkal, Niyas; Kallikuzhiyil Kochunny, Abdullah; Manthala Padannayil, Noufal; Singh, Navin; Elavan Chalil, Jumanath; Kulangarakath Umer, Jamshad

    2016-09-01

    There are many situations in radiotherapy where multiple treatment plans need to be compared for selection of an optimal plan. In this study we performed the radiobiological method of plan evaluation to verify the treatment plan comparison procedure of our clinical practice. We estimated and correlated various radiobiological dose indices with physical dose metrics for a total of 30 patients representing typical cases of head and neck, prostate and brain tumors. Three sets of plans along with a clinically approved plan (final plan) treated by either Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) or Rapid Arc (RA) techniques were considered. The study yielded improved target coverage for final plans, however, no appreciable differences in doses and the complication probabilities of organs at risk were noticed. Even though all four plans showed adequate dose distributions, from dosimetric point of view, the final plan had more acceptable dose distribution. The estimated biological outcome and dose volume histogram data showed least differences between plans for IMRT when compared to RA. Our retrospective study based on 120 plans, validated the radiobiological method of plan evaluation. The tumor cure or normal tissue complication probabilities were found to be correlated with the corresponding physical dose indices.

  13. Single tooth replacement of missing molars: a retrospective study of 78 implants.

    PubMed

    Schwartz-Arad, D; Samet, N; Samet, N

    1999-04-01

    As experience with osseointegrated implants has grown, greater use has been made of placement in the posterior jaw. The aim of this study is to present the survival rate of 78 osseointegrated single implants, inserted in the molar area and to evaluate the prosthetic rehabilitation on these teeth. This retrospective study presents findings of 55 consecutive patients with 78 restored single osseointegrated implants in the molar area. The patients went through a clinical and radiological evaluation. The same maxillofacial surgeon inserted all implants. Three of the implants were inserted into the maxilla and 75 into the mandible; 4 of the 78 implants were immediate implants. The cumulative survival rate after one year was 93.6%. Follow-up was up to 80 months, with an average of 27 months. Out of all the implants, 6 failed (7. 7%): 5 failed in the surgical stage, and 1 after prosthetic loading. The main implant failures were among the titanium screw implants. Prosthetic complications occurred in 11 cases (14%), which included loosening of the abutment and/or the crown (9 cases), fracture of the abutment (1 case), and porcelain fracture (1 case). No incident of implant fracture occurred. Within the limits of this study, replacement of a single molar by a single implant is a valid and successful surgical treatment modality, with a high survival rate.

  14. Design for validation: An approach to systems validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, William C.; Dunham, Janet R.; Laprie, Jean-Claude; Williams, Thomas; Howden, William; Smith, Brian; Lewis, Carl M. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Every complex system built is validated in some manner. Computer validation begins with review of the system design. As systems became too complicated for one person to review, validation began to rely on the application of adhoc methods by many individuals. As the cost of the changes mounted and the expense of failure increased, more organized procedures became essential. Attempts at devising and carrying out those procedures showed that validation is indeed a difficult technical problem. The successful transformation of the validation process into a systematic series of formally sound, integrated steps is necessary if the liability inherent in the future digita-system-based avionic and space systems is to be minimized. A suggested framework and timetable for the transformtion are presented. Basic working definitions of two pivotal ideas (validation and system life-cyle) are provided and show how the two concepts interact. Many examples are given of past and present validation activities by NASA and others. A conceptual framework is presented for the validation process. Finally, important areas are listed for ongoing development of the validation process at NASA Langley Research Center.

  15. Dosimetric characterization of two radium sources for retrospective dosimetry studies

    SciTech Connect

    Candela-Juan, C.; Karlsson, M.; Lundell, M.; Ballester, F.; Tedgren, Å. Carlsson

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: During the first part of the 20th century, {sup 226}Ra was the most used radionuclide for brachytherapy. Retrospective accurate dosimetry, coupled with patient follow up, is important for advancing knowledge on long-term radiation effects. The purpose of this work was to dosimetrically characterize two {sup 226}Ra sources, commonly used in Sweden during the first half of the 20th century, for retrospective dose–effect studies. Methods: An 8 mg {sup 226}Ra tube and a 10 mg {sup 226}Ra needle, used at Radiumhemmet (Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden), from 1925 to the 1960s, were modeled in two independent Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport codes: GEANT4 and MCNP5. Absorbed dose and collision kerma around the two sources were obtained, from which the TG-43 parameters were derived for the secular equilibrium state. Furthermore, results from this dosimetric formalism were compared with results from a MC simulation with a superficial mould constituted by five needles inside a glass casing, placed over a water phantom, trying to mimic a typical clinical setup. Calculated absorbed doses using the TG-43 formalism were also compared with previously reported measurements and calculations based on the Sievert integral. Finally, the dose rate at large distances from a {sup 226}Ra point-like-source placed in the center of 1 m radius water sphere was calculated with GEANT4. Results: TG-43 parameters [including g{sub L}(r), F(r, θ), Λ, and s{sub K}] have been uploaded in spreadsheets as additional material, and the fitting parameters of a mathematical curve that provides the dose rate between 10 and 60 cm from the source have been provided. Results from TG-43 formalism are consistent within the treatment volume with those of a MC simulation of a typical clinical scenario. Comparisons with reported measurements made with thermoluminescent dosimeters show differences up to 13% along the transverse axis of the radium needle. It has been estimated that

  16. A Retrospective Analysis of Urine Drugs of Abuse Immunoassay True Positive Rates at a National Reference Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Davis, Kamisha L; Sadler, Aaron J; Genzen, Jonathan R

    2016-03-01

    Urine drug screens are commonly performed to identify drug use or monitor adherence to drug therapy. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the true positive and false positive rates of one of our in-house urine drug screen panels. The urine drugs of abuse panel studied consists of screening by immunoassay then positive immunoassay results were confirmed by mass spectrometry. Reagents from Syva and Microgenics were used for the immunoassay screen. The screen was performed on a Beckman AU5810 random access automated clinical analyzer. The percent of true positives for each immunoassay was determined. Agreement with previously validated GC-MS or LC-MS-MS confirmatory methods was also evaluated. There were 8,825 de-identified screening results for each of the drugs in the panel, except for alcohol (N = 2,296). The percent of samples that screened positive were: 10.0% for amphetamine/methamphetamine/3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), 12.8% for benzodiazepines, 43.7% for opiates (including oxycodone) and 20.3% for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The false positive rate for amphetamine/methamphetamine was ∼14%, ∼34% for opiates (excluding oxycodone), 25% for propoxyphene and 100% for phencyclidine and MDMA immunoassays. Based on the results from this retrospective study, the true positive rate for THC drug use among adults were similar to the rate of illicit drug use in young adults from the 2013 National Survey; however, our positivity rate for cocaine was higher than the National Survey.

  17. Mobile propeller dynamometer validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Mason Wade

    With growing interest in UAVs and OSU's interest in propeller performance and manufacturing, evaluating UAV propeller and propulsion system performance has become essential. In attempts to evaluate these propellers a mobile propeller dynamometer has been designed, built, and tested. The mobile dyno has been designed to be cost effective through the ability to load it into the back of a test vehicle to create simulated forward flight characteristics. This allows much larger propellers to be dynamically tested without the use of large and expensive wind tunnels. While evaluating the accuracy of the dyno, several improvements had to be made to get accurate results. The decisions made to design and improve the mobile propeller dyno will be discussed along with attempts to validate the dyno by comparing its results against known sources. Another large part of assuring the accuracy of the mobile dyno is determining if the test vehicle will influence the flow going into the propellers being tested. The flow into the propeller needs to be as smooth and uniform as possible. This is determined by characterizing the boundary layer and accelerated flow over the vehicle. This evaluation was accomplished with extensive vehicle aerodynamic measurements with the use of full-scale tests using a pitot-rake and the actual test vehicle. Additional tests were conducted in Oklahoma State University's low speed wind tunnel with a 1/8-scale model using qualitative flow visualization with smoke. Continuing research on the mobile dyno will be discussed, along with other potential uses for the dyno.

  18. Stellar opacity validations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pennec, M.; Turck-Chièze, S.; Ribeyre, X.; Ducret, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    This paper focuses on the radiative transfer in stars where opacities seem to raise problems : β-Cephei and solar-type stars. We first concentrate on the iron bump (log T = 5.25), responsible for β-Cephei pulsations through the κ-mechanism. To discriminate between the different opacity calculations used to predict their oscillations, new well-qualified calculations are used and compared to OP calculations. In parallel with this theoretical work, an experiment has been conducted at LULI 2000 in 2011 on iron and nickel. We show that this extended study pushes for the revision of the tables in the conditions corresponding to the iron bump region, at least for nickel. We will then deal with the Sun case for which we are preparing an opacity experiment on a high-energy laser, in some conditions of the radiative zone (T = [2 - 15 ×10^{6} K] and ρ = [0.2 - 150 g/cm^{3}]). To reach these high temperatures and densities at LTE and validate or not plasma effects and line widths, we are exploring an approach called the Double Ablation Front, driven by plasma radiative effects. The 1D simulations performed with the code CHIC show that with this technique, we could reach conditions equivalent to the conditions of half of the solar radiative zone.

  19. Platelet profile in patients with gestational diabetes: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Soydinç, Hatice Ender; Özler, Ali; Evsen, Mehmet Sıddık; Turgut, Abdülkadir; Sak, Sibel; Gül, Talip

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare alterations in the morphology and function of platelets occurring in gestational diabetes and healthy pregnancies. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was performed of 77 pregnant women: 42 cases with gestational diabetes and 35 healthy controls. The two groups were compared in terms of demographics and platelet parameters derived from complete blood counts. Results: The mean platelet volume (p=0.001) and HbA1c (p<0.001) were significantly increased in the patients with gestational diabetes. The mean platelet volume was well correlated with the platelet distribution width (rs=0.404, p<0.001) and the platelet count (rs=0.355, p=0.002) Conclusion: The mean platelet volume and other platelet parameters may significantly aid the identification of diabetic pregnants at risk for vascular complications. The role and possible clinical relevance of these changes during diabetic pregnancy need to be investigated in further studies. PMID:24592046

  20. Retrospective analysis of phone queries to an epilepsy clinic hotline.

    PubMed

    Laforme, Anny; Jubinville, Suzie; Gravel, Micheline; Cossette, Patrick; Nguyen, Dang K

    2014-01-01

    We undertook a retrospective study of 5,189 telephone calls made between January 2004 and June 2011 through our adult epilepsy clinic hotline to a single epileptologist initially and two epileptologists from June 2010 onwards. The majority of calls were made by patients themselves (72%), followed by family members (16%) and health care providers (11%). Half of the calls originated from outside the city limits. Most were related to medication (25%), notification of seizures (23%), appointments or tests (12%), and side effects (9%). Half of the workload was generated by 10% of patients. The hotline service appears to respond to needs, with most calls requiring rapid intervention. It is desirable to develop novel approaches to address the needs of high-frequency callers.

  1. The L1 retrotransposition assay: a retrospective and toolkit.

    PubMed

    Rangwala, Sanjida H; Kazazian, Haig H

    2009-11-01

    LINE1s (L1s) are a class of mammalian non-LTR (long terminal repeat) retroelements that make up nearly 20% of the human genome. Because of the difficulty of studying the mobilization of endogenous L1s, an exogenous cell culture retrotransposition assay has become integral to research in L1 biology. This assay has allowed for investigation of the mechanism and consequences of mobilization of this retroelement, both in cell lines and in whole animal models. In this paper, we outline the genesis of in vitro retrotransposition systems which led to the development of the L1 retrotransposition assay in the mid-1990s. We then provide a retrospective, describing the many uses and variations of this assay, ending with caveats and predictions for future developments. Finally, we provide detailed protocols on the application of the retrotransposition assay, including lists of constructs available in the L1 research community and cell lines in which this assay has been applied.

  2. Blount's disease: a retrospective review and recommendations for treatment.

    PubMed

    Schoenecker, P L; Meade, W C; Pierron, R L; Sheridan, J J; Capelli, A M

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-two patients treated for Blount's disease were retrospectively reviewed. The results of treatment were assessed by clinical and radiographic parameters and arbitrarily classified good, fair, or poor. Five patients were definitively treated with braces; five extremities were rated good and one poor. Twelve patients were treated with a proximal tibial osteotomy performed before their fifth birthday. Nineteen extremities were rated good, one fair, and three poor. Fifteen patients had their initial surgical procedure after the fifth birthday. Eight extremities were rated good, six fair, and seven poor. Recurrence of the varus deformity secondary to an unsuspected medial bony physeal bar occurred in four patients. Resection of this bony bridge concomitant with a varus correcting osteotomy may be indicated. For severe deformity in older children, several different salvage procedures were used.

  3. [Fatal child abuse in Japan and Germany. Comparative retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Ohtsuji, M; Ohshima, T; Kondo, T; Godoy, M R; Oehmichen, M

    1998-01-01

    In this study a record for comparative international epidemiological studies on autopsy cases of child abuse is introduced. The form was proved in a retrospective comparative survey of cases of fatal child abuse at the Department of Legal Medicine in Kanazawa (Japan) and Institute of Legal Medicine of Lübeck (Germany). A total of 33 cases were included. The following data were evaluated: age and gender of victims and assailants, relationship between victims and assailants, causes and methods of abuse, chief autopsy findings, and causes of death. The results were leading into two directions between Kanazawa and Lübeck: (1) In the years of 1981-1996 in Kanazawa 23 cases of fatal child abuse were autopsied while during the same period in Lübeck only 10 cases were registered. (2) While sexual abuse was not registered in Kanazawa, it was recorded twice in Lübeck.

  4. Coblation cryptolysis to treat tonsil stones: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Chang, Christopher Y; Thrasher, Richard

    2012-06-01

    We introduce a novel and potentially effective approach in the treatment of tonsil stones using Coblation technology. A retrospective pilot case series was performed demonstrating the effectiveness of a technique that we call Coblation tonsil cryptolysis. This technique is unique in that it can be performed in adult patients without sedation using only local anesthesia, much like laser tonsil cryptolysis. As with laser cryptolysis, pain is significant for only a few days and most adults can resume normal diet and activity within 1 week. In contrast, tonsillectomy entails significant morbidity for several weeks. However, Coblation avoids the significant disadvantages of laser use, including the potential for airway fire, retinal damage from reflected scatter, dealing with plume from vaporized tissues, oral/facial burns, and the high cost of purchasing and maintaining laser equipment. After a single session of Coblation tonsil cryptolysis, a significant decrease and even elimination of tonsil stones can potentially be achieved.

  5. A Retirement and A Reservation: A Retrospective Autobiography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sok K

    2012-01-01

    A retirement is a rite of passage that requires careful planning, because it forces a retiree to make a shift in the paradigm in life. For 37 years, I was a healing professional, a breadwinner, and a working spouse. I am now a jobless loner, an inactive pensioner, and a homebound spouse. In this retrospective autobiography, I suggest a few points to help my younger colleagues to better their upcoming retirement: professional, financial, social, and familial. To overcome Erikson's identity crisis, I volunteered to be a wounded healer at Warm Springs Indian Reservation. My volunteer medical service at Warm Springs Indian Reservation was a good antidote to creatively overcome my postretirement blues. PMID:22745621

  6. Retrospective Biodosimetry of an Occupational Overexposure-Case Study.

    PubMed

    Beaton-Green, L A; Barr, T; Ainsbury, E A; Wilkins, R C

    2016-12-01

    In 2014, Health Canada was approached by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission to conduct biodosimetry for a possible overexposure 4 y prior to assessment. Dose estimates were determined by means of two cytogenetic assays, the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) and translocations as measured by the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). As dicentrics are considered to be unstable over time, the results of the DCA were adjusted to account for the time elapsed between the suspected exposure and sampling. The frequency of damage was then compared to Health Canada's calibration curves, respectively, to calculate dose. In addition, the translocation data were corrected for age-related increases in background. With a half-life of 36 months for dicentric chromosomes taken into consideration, the dose estimates from both assays were in agreement. Due to the uncertainty in the half-life of dicentrics, the FISH assay is considered to be more reliable as a technique for retrospective biodosimetry.

  7. Risk factors for rape re-victimisation: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Lurie, S; Boaz, M; Golan, A

    2013-11-01

    Sexual re-victimisation refers to a pattern in which the sexual assault victim has an increased risk of subsequent victimisation relative to an individual who was never victimised. The purpose of our study was to identify risks factors for a second rape, the severest form of sexual re-victimisation. All rape victims treated at the First Regional Israeli Center for Sexual Assault Victims between October 2000 and July 2010 were included in this retrospective analysis. We compared characteristics of 53 rape victims who were victimised twice to those of 1,939 rape victims who were victimised once. We identified several risk factors for a second rape, which can be used in prevention programmes. These are: psychiatric background, history of social services involvement, adulthood, non-virginity and minority ethnicity.

  8. Sickle cell anemia from central India: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Jain, Dipty; Italia, Khushnooma; Sarathi, Vijaya; Ghoshand, Kanjaksha; Colah, Roshan

    2012-11-01

    Although sickle cell anemia in India is believed to have a mild clinical presentation, few studies report severe disease in many patients from central India. Hence, we have retrospectively studied 316 children with SCA who were followed up for a period of 5.8±5.7 years. There were 55.4 blood transfusions, 43.3 episodes of vaso-occlusive crises requiring hospitalization, and 108.9 hospitalizations per 100 person years. Ninety six (30%) patients had severe disease whereas 74 patients also fulfilled the criteria for hydroxyurea therapy. Significant proportion of children with sickle cell anemia from central India present with severe clinical presentation and require regular medical attention.

  9. Brazilian nursing and professionalization at technical level: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Göttems, Leila Bernarda Donato; Alves, Elioenai Dornelles; de Sena, Roseni Rosangela

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a retrospective analysis of the Brazilian Nursing concerning the professionalization of workers at technical level. It also provides some indication about the trends of professional education. There is a clear indication of increased intellectual and conceptual accumulation in the four decades the professional education in nursing at technical level has been part of the public policy agenda. This experience serves as reference for the formulation of new actions directed to other professionals of technical level who deliver direct care to the population. The study shows that there was reformulation of the nursing professional qualification issue, including in the discussion the need to improve the quality of educational processes and extensive supply of continuous education to workers already inserted in the process, in order to keep the constant changes in the Brazilian Health system.

  10. A retrospective study of six patients with mandibular metastatic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    CAI, ZHEN; ZHU, CHAO; WANG, LIZHEN; ZHU, LING; ZHANG, ZHIYUAN; ZHU, HANGUANG; WANG, YAN'AN

    2016-01-01

    Mandibular metastatic carcinoma is a rare lesion that accounts for <1% of all oral malignancies. To provide greater experience in this field, the present study was conducted in which 6 cases of mandibular metastatic carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed. The origin of the lesions was the prostate in 2 cases, the lungs in 2 cases, the breast in 1 case and the thyroid gland in 1 case. The clinical and computed tomography features, surgical management and follow-up outcomes were investigated. The study indicated that surgeons should include the suspicion of metastasis in the differential diagnosis for mandibular tumor, particularly in patients who have a history of malignancy. A poor prognosis was associated with the examined patients. To extend the survival time as long as possible, a treatment strategy using multiple therapies, including segmental mandibulectomy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, is recommended. PMID:27284368

  11. Reduction and Retrospection Approach to Modeling of Hierarchical Biological Rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, Mitsuyuki; Okayama, Hiroshi; Katayama, Norihiro; Karashima, Akihiro

    Physiome inherently investigates hierarchical layers of biological system. In the post genome era, the number of layers should increase because possible mechanisms at molecular level are always referred to. However, biological modeling in the post genome era has to face unavoidable uncertainties in biological measurements and explosion of degree of freedom. An exhaustive modeling seems to be necessary to understand possible mechanisms underlying biological phenomena at every hierarchical level. However, simultaneously it looks like an impossible or reckless trial. In order to get rid of them, we propose a novel modeling strategy that integrates the top-down retrospection and bottom-up reduction modeling. Here, our strategy is applied to modeling of biological rhythms which is an appropriate system to study because of the penetration of rhythmic dynamics through all of the hierarchical layers.

  12. [Fauna attacks in French Guiana: retrospective 4-year analysis].

    PubMed

    Mimeau, E; Chesneau, P

    2006-02-01

    The rich, diversified fauna of French Guiana has an infamous reputation for its aggressiveness. A retrospective analysis of the records the SAMU emergency service in Guiana showed that less than 1% of phone calls received between 1998 and 2001 involved fauna attacks. Most of these calls involved flying hymenoptera (36.9%), snakes (15.6 %), dogs (13.8%), and scorpions (9.8%). In 69 of 666 cases, the attack was severe enough to warrant dispatching a SMUR intensive mobile care unit. These cases involved poisonous snake bites (n=35), flying hymenoptera stings (n=24) and scorpion stings (n=5). Although this study presents numerous confounding factors, its findings indicate that the risk of fauna attacks in French Guiana may be overestimated.

  13. Retained fetal membranes in the mare: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Provencher, Real; Threlfall, Walter R.; Murdick, Phillip W.; Wearly, W. Keith

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective study of 3456 deliveries was conducted from the records of four Standardbred broodmare farms where mares were bred by artificial insemination and maintained under close veterinary supervision. Retained fetal membranes (RFM) were observed in 10.6% of the deliveries. Retained fetal membranes occurred more frequently (p < 0.05) after dystocia and in mares which had RFM the previous year. Retained fetal membranes after normal foaling had no significant effect on the reproductive performance (pregnancy rate, pregnancy loss rate, or foaling rate), nor on the general health of the mares, regardless of the duration of RFM (3 to 144 hours). Postfoaling laminitis was not observed. Oxytocin therapy of mares with RFM starting at two hours postpartum significantly reduced the incidence of RFM ≥ 8 hours. Mares with RFM which had received intrauterine antimicrobials between foaling and first breeding had a foaling rate similar to mares with RFM which had not received intrauterine therapy. PMID:17423164

  14. Predictive biomarkers in colorectal cancer: usage, validation, and design in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qian; Mandrekar, Sumithra J; Sargent, Daniel J

    2012-03-01

    As cancer treatment development has shifted its attention to targeted therapies, it is becoming increasingly important to provide tools for selecting the right treatment for an individual patient to achieve optimal clinical benefit. Biomarkers, identified and studied in the process of understanding the nature of the disease at the molecular pathogenesis level, have been increasingly recognized as a critical aspect in more accurate diagnosis, prognosis assessment, and therapeutic targeting. Predictive biomarkers, which can aid treatment decisions, require extensive data for validation. In this article, we discuss the definition, clinical usages, and more extensively the clinical trial designs for the validation of predictive biomarkers. Predictive biomarker validation methods can be broadly grouped into retrospective and prospective designs. Retrospective validation utilizes data from previously conducted prospective randomized controlled trials. Prospective designs include enrichment designs, treatment-by-marker interaction designs, marker-based strategy designs, and adaptive designs. We discuss each design with examples and provide comparisons of the advantages and disadvantages among the different designs. We conclude that the combination of scientific, clinical, statistical, ethical, and practical considerations provides guidance for the choice of the clinical trial design for validation of each proposed predictive biomarker.

  15. Hepatitis E in Israel: A nation-wide retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Erez-Granat, Ortal; Lachish, Tamar; Daudi, Nili; Shouval, Daniel; Schwartz, Eli

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the epidemiology, risk factors and clinical course of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in Israel, an industrialized country. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of acute HEV cases diagnosed in Israel from 1993 to 2013. Acute HEV was defined by ALT/AST elevation and a positive HEV PCR test or positive anti-HEV-IgM serology. HEV RNA was tested by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Antibodies to HEV were tested retrospectively using an ELISA assay. HEV-RNA was sequenced using RT-PCR of ORF1 and ORF2 regions to diagnose genotype of the virus. Epidemiologic and clinical data were collected by reviewing the clinical files and through a telephone interview according to a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: Acute HEV was diagnosed in 68 patients. Among the 59 patients who gave an informed consent and were interviewed, 41% of infections were autochthonous (acquired in Israel), 44% travel-related and 15% imported by foreign workers. Autochthonous patients were mainly females (62.5%), more than half of them pregnant, 26% recalled consuming food or water in areas with poor sanitation, 44% ate non-kosher meat. Fulminant hepatitis developed in 3 patients (5%), all of them were females, two of them with post-partum infection, all acquired the disease in Israel (autochthonous). Israeli travelers with imported infection were predominantly males (73%), acquired the disease in the Indian subcontinent (81%), with 100% reporting having consumed fresh vegetables and drinks with ice cubes abroad. Six patients’ sera were tested for genotype and revealed HEV genotype 1 (all cases acquired in the Indian subcontinent). CONCLUSION: This is the first report which highlights the existence of hepatitis E as an autochthonous infection in Israel. Imported HEV originates mostly from the Indian subcontinent. PMID:27350735

  16. Beach-goer behavior during a retrospectively detected algal ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Algal blooms occur among nutrient rich, warm surface waters and may adversely impact recreational beaches. During July – September 2003, a prospective study of beachgoers was conducted on weekends at a public beach on a Great Lake in the United States. We measured each beachgoer’s activity at the start and end of their beach visit and the environmental factors: water and air temperature, wind speed and wave height at the study site each day. At the time, there was no notification of algal blooms; we retrospectively evaluated the presence of algal blooms using MERIS data from the Envisat-1 satellite. A total of 2840 people participated in the study over 16 study days. The majority (55%) were female, and 751 (26%) were < 18 years of age. An algal bloom was detected retrospectively by remotely sensed satellite imagery during August 16 – 24. This peak bloom period (PB) included 4 study days. During PB study days, more study participants 226/742 (31%) reported body contact with the water compared to contact 531/2098 (25%) on non-peak days. During the 4 PB days, of the environmental factors, only mean water temperature was significantly different, 250 C vs. 230 C (p<0.05) from other days.These results suggest that beachgoer body contact with water was not deterred by the presence of an algal bloom, and that interventions to actively discourage water contact during a bloom are needed to reduce exposure to blooms. This is an abstract of a proposed presentation and

  17. Validity on Trial: Psychometric and Legal Conceptualizations of Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Parker, Polly

    2006-01-01

    The psychometric literature is replete with comprehensive discussions of test validity, test validation, and the characteristics of quality assessment programs. The most authoritative source for guidance regarding sound test development and evaluation practices is the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. However, the Standards are…

  18. Poor mobilizer: a retrospective study on proven and predicted incidence according to GITMO criteria.

    PubMed

    Piccirillo, Nicola; Vacca, Michele; Lanti, Alessandro; Ipsevich, Francesco; Maresca, Maddalena; Fiorelli, Elena; Bianchi, Maria; Adorno, Gaspare; Pierelli, Luca; Majolino, Ignazio; Leone, Giuseppe; Zini, Gina

    2012-10-01

    The Italian Group for Bone Marrow Transplantation (Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Midollo Osseo, GITMO) recently formalized criteria for a shared definition of poor mobilizer in order to facilitate randomized clinical trials and study comparison focusing on the efficacy of current mobilizing regimens. The availability of a standardized tool for poor mobilizer definition suggested us to retrospectively test GITMO criteria feasibility and applicability. Therefore we analyzed medical and laboratory records of adult patients affected by myeloma (MM) or lymphoma undergoing mobilization for autologous peripheral blood HSC collection from January 2010 to June 2011, at Servizio di Emotrasfusione, Istituto di Ematologia, Università Cattolica Del Sacro Cuore, Roma, UOC SIMT AO S. Camillo Forlanini Roma and SIMT Fondazione Policlinico Tor Vergata Roma. We collected data about 227 patients (134 male, 93 female) affected by MM (31.3%) NHL (58.6%) e HD (10.1%). Thirty-nine patients, 21 male and 18 female met proven poor mobilizer criteria definition resulting in a incidence of 17.2% (12.7% in MM, 21.8% in NHL and 4.3% in HD). Eleven patients, seven affected by lymphoma and four affected by myeloma, were defined predicted PM according to major criteria. Eight patients, seven affected by lymphoma and one affected by myeloma, were define predicted PM according to minor criteria. Sixteen out of 39 patients defined as poor mobilizer either according to major or minor criteria underwent collection procedures and eight (20.5%) achieved a cell dose ⩾2×10(6)/kg CD34(+) cells. GITMO criteria application was easy and resulted in poor mobilizer incidence comparable to current literature. Definitions of proven poor mobilizer and predicted poor mobilizer according to major criteria were very effective while minor criteria were less predictive. These results came from a retrospective analysis and therefore should be validated in future prospective trial. On the other hand these data could be

  19. Model Valid Prediction Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, P. C.

    2002-12-01

    A new concept, valid prediction period (VPP), is presented here to evaluate model predictability. VPP is defined as the time period when the prediction error first exceeds a pre-determined criterion (i.e., the tolerance level). It depends not only on the instantaneous error growth, but also on the noise level, the initial error, and tolerance level. The model predictability skill is then represented by a single scalar, VPP. The longer the VPP, the higher the model predictability skill is. A theoretical framework on the base of the backward Fokker-Planck equation is developed to determine the probability density function (pdf) of VPP. Verification of a Gulf of Mexico nowcast/forecast model is used as an example to demonstrate the usefulness of VPP. Power law scaling is found in the mean square error of displacement between drifting buoy and model trajectories (both at 50 m depth). The pdf of VPP is asymmetric with a long and broad tail on the higher value side, which suggests long-term predictability. The calculations demonstrate that the long-term (extreme long such as 50-60 day) predictability is not an "outlier" and shares the same statistical properties as the short-term predictions. References Chu P. C., L. M. Ivanov, and C.W. Fan, Backward Fokker-Plank equation for determining model predictability with unknown initial error distribution. J. Geophys. Res., in press, 2002. Chu P.C., L.M.Ivanov, T.M. Margolina, and O.V.Melnichenko, 2002b: On probabilistic stability of an atmospheric model to various amplitude perturbations. J. Atmos. Sci., in press Chu P.C., L.M. Ivanov, L. Kantha, O.V. Melnichenko and Y.A. Poberezhny, 2002c: The long-term correlations and power decay law in model prediction skill. Geophys. Res. Let., in press.

  20. Code inspection instructional validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Kay; Stancil, Shirley

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Data Systems Branch (SDSB) of the Flight Data Systems Division (FDSD) at Johnson Space Center contracted with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to validate the effectiveness of an interactive video course on the code inspection process. The purpose of this project was to determine if this course could be effective for teaching NASA analysts the process of code inspection. In addition, NASA was interested in the effectiveness of this unique type of instruction (Digital Video Interactive), for providing training on software processes. This study found the Carnegie Mellon course, 'A Cure for the Common Code', effective for teaching the process of code inspection. In addition, analysts prefer learning with this method of instruction, or this method in combination with other methods. As is, the course is definitely better than no course at all; however, findings indicate changes are needed. Following are conclusions of this study. (1) The course is instructionally effective. (2) The simulation has a positive effect on student's confidence in his ability to apply new knowledge. (3) Analysts like the course and prefer this method of training, or this method in combination with current methods of training in code inspection, over the way training is currently being conducted. (4) Analysts responded favorably to information presented through scenarios incorporating full motion video. (5) Some course content needs to be changed. (6) Some content needs to be added to the course. SwRI believes this study indicates interactive video instruction combined with simulation is effective for teaching software processes. Based on the conclusions of this study, SwRI has outlined seven options for NASA to consider. SwRI recommends the option which involves creation of new source code and data files, but uses much of the existing content and design from the current course. Although this option involves a significant software development effort, SwRI believes this option

  1. 77 FR 65645 - Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules: Notice of Staff Memorandum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... revisions to the Commission's Natural Gas Pipeline regulations that may be appropriate to remove reporting..., which requested independent regulatory agencies issue plans for periodic retrospective analysis of...

  2. Concurrent Validity and Holland's Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffey, Robert L.; Walsh, W. Bruce

    1974-01-01

    This study was designed to explore two areas: (1) the concurrent validity of Holland's theory for employed men using four different operational definitions of vocational orientation, and (2) the relationships among all possible combinations of same named scales across the four inventories. Findings tend to support the concurrent validity of…

  3. Software Verification and Validation Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Olund, Thomas S.

    2008-09-15

    This Software Verification and Validation procedure provides the action steps for the Tank Waste Information Network System (TWINS) testing process. The primary objective of the testing process is to provide assurance that the software functions as intended, and meets the requirements specified by the client. Verification and validation establish the primary basis for TWINS software product acceptance.

  4. Ecological reality and model validation

    SciTech Connect

    Cale, Jr, W. G.; Shugart, H. H.

    1980-01-01

    Definitions of model realism and model validation are developed. Ecological and mathematical arguments are then presented to show that model equations which explicitly treat ecosystem processes can be systematically improved such that greater realism is attained and the condition of validity is approached. Several examples are presented.

  5. Narratives Validate Communicative Development Inventories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Marten

    2001-01-01

    Explores the criterion-related validity of the Swedish version of the Communicative Development Inventories--Words & Sentences (SECDI-W&S). In two follow-up procedures, SECDI-W&S was used to assess vocabulary and grammar skills in 32 children. Overall results confirm that the criterion-related validity of the SECDI is sound. (Author/VWL)

  6. Compiler validates units and dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, F. E.

    1980-01-01

    Software added to compiler for automated test system for Space Shuttle decreases computer run errors by providing offline validation of engineering units used system command programs. Validation procedures are general, though originally written for GOAL, a free-form language that accepts "English-like" statements, and may be adapted to other programming languages.

  7. Tournament Validity: Testing Golfer Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachau, Daniel; Andrews, Lance; Gibson, Bryan; DeNeui, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The concept of tournament validity was explored in three studies. In the first study, measures of tournament validity, difficulty, and discrimination were introduced. These measures were illustrated with data from the 2003 Professional Golf Association (PGA) Tour. In the second study, the relationship between difficulty and discrimination was…

  8. Validity Evidence in Scale Development: The Application of Cross Validation and Classification-Sequencing Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Tu¨lin

    2014-01-01

    In literature, it has been observed that many enhanced criteria are limited by factor analysis techniques. Besides examinations of statistical structure and/or psychological structure, such validity studies as cross validation and classification-sequencing studies should be performed frequently. The purpose of this study is to examine cross…

  9. Anaesthesia for foetoscopic Laser ablation- a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kumbhar, Vaishali; Radhika, M; Gundappa, Parameswara; Simha, Jayashree; Radhakrishnan, Prathima

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Twin pregnancy with monochorionic placenta may be associated with arteriovenous vascular anastomosis of the placental vessels resulting in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and twin reversed arterial perfusion syndrome (TRAP). Foetoscopic LASER ablation (FLA) is the treatment of choice in reducing foetal mortality related to this. Methods: A retrospective review of medical records of 41 FLA procedures for TTTS and TRAP were analysed for anaesthetic management. Thirty-four patients received subarachnoid block, three combined spinal-epidural block, three general anaesthesia and one local anaesthesia with sedation. Nitroglycerine 5 mg patch was used for tocolysis 1 h before the procedure and continued for 24–48 h postoperatively. Results: Bupivacaine was used in 34 patients, and ropivacaine in three patients. Mean dose of bupivacaine 0.5% was 2.43 ± 0.32 ml and ropivacaine 0.75% was 2.85 ± 0.19 ml. The mean duration of surgery was 117.07 ± 28 min. Mild hypotension occurred in all patients under spinal anaesthesia and was treated with vasopressors. The foetal outcome among all 41 patients were 13 delivered live twins, 15 had a single live baby with intrauterine death of other twin baby. In 12 patients, both babies were intrauterine death. One patient was lost for follow-up. Conclusion: Foetoscopic procedures can be done under central neuraxial block, however occasionally general anaesthesia may be required. PMID:28003695

  10. Acetazolamide in vestibular migraine prophylaxis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Çelebisoy, Neşe; Gökçay, Figen; Karahan, Ceyda; Bilgen, Cem; Kirazlı, Tayfun; Karapolat, Hale; Köse, Timur

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to check the efficacy of acetazolamide in the prophylaxis of vestibular migraine (VM). Treatment options in VM are mainly based on migraine guidelines. We tried to assess the efficacy of acetazolamide in these patients depending on clinical similarities with episodic ataxia type 2 and familial hemiplegic migraine responding to the drug. This is a retrospective cohort study. Among 50 patients with VM and prescribed acetazolamide 500 mg/day, 39 patients were studied as five had been lost on follow-up and six had stopped taking the drug due to side effects. Vertigo and headache frequency determined by number of attacks per month, and the severity determined by visual analog scales measured in centimeters from 0 to 10 were collected from the records. Initial reported figures for frequency and severity were compared with the results gathered after 3 months of treatment. The results were compared. Acetazolamide was effective in reducing both the frequency and severity of vertigo and headache attacks and this effect was more prominent for vertigo frequency and severity.

  11. Evaluation of the DAO Retrospective Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Yanqiu; Todling, R.; Guo, J.; Cohn, S. E.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have developed and implemented a retrospective data assimilation system (RDAS) as an upgrade to the operational DAO/Terra data assimilation system. This formulation aims at improving analysis over filter analysis by the dynamically consistent incorporation of observation information past a given analysis time. The current implementation of the RDAS uses the adjoint of the tangent linear model of a simplified version of the Terra general circulation model and extensions to the physical-space statistical analysis system to propagate observation information back in time. The RDAS adopts the same assumptions of the regular data assimilation system, particularly, no explicit propagation of error covariances are involved therefore rendering a procedure that is computationally affordable. In this study, we show results of experiments conducted to investigate the performance of the 6-hour (lag-1) RDAS. Statistical results obtained over one month during a winter season indicate that the RDAS represents considerable improvement over the regular assimilation. Plans for implementation of the RDAS capability in our new finite-volume data assimilation system will also be presented at the time of the conference.

  12. Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis: A Retrospective Review of 16 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ramprasad, Kowsalya; MuddeGowda, Mythri Kuthagale

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is an uncommon disorder of unknown etiology that is characterized by extensive destruction of the involved kidney. It is being increasingly recognized as an important cause of renal morbidity around the world. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was undertaken to review the xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis cases presented at our tertiary care referral center in Bangalore, India. Results A total of 16 biopsy-proven cases of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis from October 2007 to March 2010 treated at our institute were included in the study. There were 10 females and 6 males with a mean age of 51.5 years. Flank pain was the most common presenting symptom followed by fever. All patients had unilateral disease and underwent total nephrectomy of the affected nonfunctional kidney. Conclusions Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a chronic and unusual infectious inflammatory condition involving the renal parenchyma. The definite treatment is nephrectomy. Early identification and prompt treatment of this relatively benign and uncommon condition is important to minimize morbidity and mortality. PMID:21750755

  13. Retrospective forecast of ETAS model with daily parameters estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcone, Giuseppe; Murru, Maura; Console, Rodolfo; Marzocchi, Warner; Zhuang, Jiancang

    2016-04-01

    We present a retrospective ETAS (Epidemic Type of Aftershock Sequence) model based on the daily updating of free parameters during the background, the learning and the test phase of a seismic sequence. The idea was born after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. The CSEP (Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability) Center in Japan provided an appropriate testing benchmark for the five 1-day submitted models. Of all the models, only one was able to successfully predict the number of events that really happened. This result was verified using both the real time and the revised catalogs. The main cause of the failure was in the underestimation of the forecasted events, due to model parameters maintained fixed during the test. Moreover, the absence in the learning catalog of an event similar to the magnitude of the mainshock (M9.0), which drastically changed the seismicity in the area, made the learning parameters not suitable to describe the real seismicity. As an example of this methodological development we show the evolution of the model parameters during the last two strong seismic sequences in Italy: the 2009 L'Aquila and the 2012 Reggio Emilia episodes. The achievement of the model with daily updated parameters is compared with that of same model where the parameters remain fixed during the test time.

  14. Total thyroidectomy in geriatric patients: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, F; Russo, G; Sgueglia, M; Blasi, S; Tortorelli, G; Tromba, L; Krizzuk, D; Merola, R

    2014-01-01

    In the English literature there is no single definition that identifies elderly patients. In our retrospective study, we divided total thyroidectomized patients operated on from 2000 to 2010 in the Department of Surgical Sciences of the "Sapienza" University of Rome, in two groups: group 1 consists of 448 patients over 65 years and group 2 consists of 1275 patients under 65 years. We compared both groups in terms of indications for surgery, histological diagnoses, postoperative complications (laryngeal nerv palsy, hypocalcemia, bleeding and seroma) and mortality. The results showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to the type of surgical indication, the type of comorbidities, the incidence of postoperative complications and perioperative mortality. The only data discordant with those in the international literature was the incidence of neoplastic disease that is found to be slightly greater in group 2. In conclusion, total thyroidectomy in patients over 65 years is a safe procedure and is not burdened with a higher percentage of postoperative complications, even if requires a careful preoperative assessment of risk factors related to comorbidity.

  15. Feline urate urolithiasis: a retrospective study of 159 cases.

    PubMed

    Dear, Jonathan D; Shiraki, Ryojj; Ruby, Annette L; Westropp, Jodi L

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize the signalment, clinicopathologic data, and diagnostic imaging of cats with urate urolithiasis, as well as the salts of uric acid present in the uroliths. A retrospective analysis of feline urate uroliths submitted to the GV Ling Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory between 2000 and 2008 was included. From these data, records were assimilated from referring veterinarians (143); furthermore, all recorded cases from within the William R Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (16) were included. Median values for the complete blood count and chemistry panels available were within the reference intervals, when provided, with only a few outliers present. Of all cases evaluated, seven had a portosystemic shunt (PSS). Cats with urate uroliths and a PSS were younger than cats without a PSS (2 years vs 7 years). The pathogenesis of urate uroliths in cats is poorly understood. Most cats were not completely evaluated for a PSS, however, clinicopathologic parameters indicating hepatic dysfunction were seldom noted; more sensitive diagnostics such as serum bile acids were rarely performed to confirm or negate the presence of a shunt. Studies are warranted to evaluate pathogenesis of urate uroliths to tailor proper management and breeding strategies.

  16. Bilateral Traumatic Intracranial Hematomas and its Outcome: a Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sharad; Sharma, Vivek; Singh, Kulwant; Pandey, Deepa; Sharma, Mukesh; Patil, Deepak Bhanudas; Shende, Neeraj; Chauhan, Richa Singh

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the age distribution, mode of injury, type of hematomas, and their surgical outcome in patients with bilateral traumatic head injuries. The present study included 669 cases of traumatic head injury who presented at the neurosurgery emergency out of which 94 cases had bilateral head injuries from the period of August 2009 to April 2014. The data from the hospital computerized database were retrospectively analysed. Cases of bilateral traumatic head injury included 94 patients out of which 88.29 % (n = 83) were males and 11.70 % (n = 11) were females. Commonest mode of injury was road traffic accident in 56.38 % (n = 53) followed by fall from height in 29.78 % (n = 28). In our study, 25.53 % patients had epidural hematoma (EDH) with intracerebral hematoma (ICH) or contusion (n = 24), followed by EDH with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 18.08 % (n = 17). At the time of discharge, all those patients managed conservatively had good Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) while with surgical intervention 58 % patients had good GOS, 19 % had moderate disability, and 9 % remained with severe disability. In cases of bilateral hematomas, EDH is most common and should be managed in neurosurgical emergency. Other combinations of bilateral intracranial hematomas should be managed according to the surgical indication and serial CT imaging.

  17. A Retrospective Approach to Testing the DNA Barcoding Method

    PubMed Central

    Chapple, David G.; Ritchie, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    A decade ago, DNA barcoding was proposed as a standardised method for identifying existing species and speeding the discovery of new species. Yet, despite its numerous successes across a range of taxa, its frequent failures have brought into question its accuracy as a short-cut taxonomic method. We use a retrospective approach, applying the method to the classification of New Zealand skinks as it stood in 1977 (primarily based upon morphological characters), and compare it to the current taxonomy reached using both morphological and molecular approaches. For the 1977 dataset, DNA barcoding had moderate-high success in identifying specimens (78-98%), and correctly flagging specimens that have since been confirmed as distinct taxa (77-100%). But most matching methods failed to detect the species complexes that were present in 1977. For the current dataset, there was moderate-high success in identifying specimens (53-99%). For both datasets, the capacity to discover new species was dependent on the methodological approach used. Species delimitation in New Zealand skinks was hindered by the absence of either a local or global barcoding gap, a result of recent speciation events and hybridisation. Whilst DNA barcoding is potentially useful for specimen identification and species discovery in New Zealand skinks, its error rate could hinder the progress of documenting biodiversity in this group. We suggest that integrated taxonomic approaches are more effective at discovering and describing biodiversity. PMID:24244283

  18. A 40-year Retrospective Clinicopathological Study of Ameloblastoma in Iran.

    PubMed

    Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Salehinejad, Jahanshah; Ghazi, Narges; Shirdel, Mohammad; Razi, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is the most common epithelial odontogenic tumor. It may show locally invasive behavior resulting in recurrence and malignancy. Therefore, appropriate diagnosis of this tumor is necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicopathological characteristics of ameloblastomas in an Iranian population. We present a 40-year retrospective study of patients diagnosed from 1971 to 2010 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad, Iran. Information gathered from patient records included age, gender, tumor location and histologic type. The frequency of odontogenic tumors among all lesions was 2.08% and ameloblastoma with 88 samples demonstrated the greatest prevalence (41.5%). Regarding gender, 60% of samples occurred in males. The mean age of studied patients was 33.02± 15.74 years with a peak of occurrence in the third decade of life. The most frequent location of tumor was the mandibles (93.2%). Eighty five (96.6%) tumors were recorded as benign and 3 (3.4%) as malignant. Of benign tumors, 62 (72.9%), 20 (23.5%) and 3 (3.6%) cases were of conventional, unicyctic and peripheral types, respectively. In contrast to most previous studies, the most common histologic subtype in the present study was plexiform. Knowledge of the incidence of ameloblastoma and its clinicopathologic features including most common location, gender and age distribution in different ethnogeographic backgrounds is necessary for accurate diagnosis and proper treatment.

  19. Retrospective study of ameloblastoma: the possibility of conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takumi; Imai, Yusuke; Takeda, Daisuke; Yasuoka, Daisuke; Ri, Shinshou; Shigeta, Takashi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Shibuya, Yasuyuki; Komori, Takahide

    2013-11-09

    At our institutions, most cases of the solid or multicystic type were treated as conservatively as possible in order to avoid disadvantages of radical treatment. The aim of present study was to retrospectively analyze the ameloblastoma cases diagnosed at our two institutions, to classify them according to the criteria of the 2005 WHO classification, and to evaluate the possibility of using a conservative approach for the surgical treatment of ameloblastoma. Maxillary cases, unicystic cases, peripheral cases and resection-treated cases were excluded from this study. In 23 tumors of mandibular solid or multicystic ameloblastoma, a patient's age, gender, location, clinical signs, duration, radiographic appearance, preoperative diagnosis, ameloblastoma subtypes, treatment, and recurrence were investigated. The recurrence rate (48.7%) in this study was lower than the reported recurrence rate after conservative treatment for solid or multicystic ameloblastoma and was higher than the reported recurrence rate of ameloblastoma, inclusive of other types. However, all patients who were diagnosed with recurrences have maintained their quality of life and were satisfied for at least several years after the conservative treatment. In conclusion, we demonstrated one possibility that a conservative approach might be employed in the surgical treatment of ameloblastoma (even of the solid or multicystic type).

  20. Results after wisdom tooth transplantation. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Silvio; Beck, Isabelle; Kühl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Wisdom tooth transplants offer youth the possibility of biologically fixed tooth replacement in cases of premolar agenesis or premature loss of a molar. In the present study, 57 transplants of third molars were reviewed and evaluated retrospectively on preoperative findings (root growth stages, extraction sites, indication for transplantation), on postoperative clinical findings (local gingivitis, periodontal probing values, tooth mobility, percussion sound and percussion pain) and on radiological findings (tertiary build-up of dentin, osseous periradicular conditions, progress of root growth). Only the transplants which healed with a vital pulp and in a periodontally healthy state were considered successful. Upper and lower wisdom teeth having 50% to 75% root growth progression were transplanted. The postoperative follow-up observation period averaged 26.4 months. The success of a wisdom tooth transplantation was not influenced by the root growth stage (p = 1), the extraction location of wisdom teeth (p = 0.45), or the feasibility for a transplantation (p = 0.56). Three teeth showed pulpal necrosis with apical periodontitis and were counted as failures. The success rate was rather high with 54 out of 57 transplants (94.7%), therefore wisdom tooth transplantations, with careful selection of a suitable graft and its gentle removal, can be described as a good predictable treatment.

  1. Postpartum domperidone use in British Columbia: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smolina, Kate; Morgan, Steven G.; Hanley, Gillian E.; Oberlander, Tim F.; Mintzes, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Domperidone is commonly used off-label to stimulate milk production in mothers who have low milk supply. The aim of this study was to describe trends, patterns and determinants of postpartum domperidone use. Methods: This is a retrospective, population-based study involving all women with a live birth between Jan. 1, 2002, and Dec. 31, 2011, in the province of British Columbia. We examined administrative data sets containing person-specific information on filled prescriptions and use of medical services, and we used logistic regression to examine associations between domperidone use and maternal characteristics. Results: The study population consisted of 225 532 women with 320 351 live births. The prevalence of postpartum domperidone use more than doubled between 2002 and 2011. In 2011, 1 in 3 women with a preterm birth and 1 in 5 women with a full-term birth were prescribed domperidone in the first 6 months postpartum. Women who were older, had a higher body mass index, had a chronic disease, were first-time mothers, delivered more than 1 baby (multiple pregnancy), had a preterm birth or had a cesarian delivery were more likely to fill a postpartum domperidone prescription. Interpretation: We found an increase in postpartum domperidone use over a 10-year period. More research is needed on maternal and infant health outcomes. PMID:27280111

  2. Spinal cord gliomas: A multi-institutional retrospective analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Wahab, May . E-mail: mwahab@med.miami.edu; Etuk, Blessing; Palermo, James; Shirato, Hiroki; Kresl, John; Yapicier, Ozlem; Walker, Gail; Shaw, Edward; Lee, Charles; Curran, Walter; Thomas, Terry; Markoe, Arnold

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: To determine the impact of postoperative radiation therapy (POXRT) on outcome in spinal cord gliomas. Patients and Methods: Data from 242 patients were collected retrospectively from six institutions using a standardized data sheet. Pathology specimens, when available, were centrally reviewed. Results: A total of 183 patients were analyzed: 82 received surgery alone as initial treatment, whereas 101 had surgery and POXRT. Demographic, diagnostic, and treatment factors were analyzed for impact on progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). PFS in ependymoma patients was 74%, 60%, and 35% at 5, 10, 15 years, respectively, and was significantly influenced by treatment type, race, age, tumor grade, and type of surgery on univariate analysis, with age being the only significant factor on multivariate analysis (MVA) (p = 0.01). OS of ependymoma patients was 91%, 84%, and 75% at 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively, and was significantly influenced by both complete resection (p = 0.04) and age (p = 0.03) on MVA. In astrocytomas, PFS was 42%, 29%, and 15% at 5, 10, and 15 years, and was significantly influenced by POXRT in low- and intermediate-grade tumors on MVA (p = 0.02). OS at 5, 10, and 15 years was 59%, 53%, and 32%, respectively, and was significantly influenced by grade on MVA (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Postoperative radiation therapy reduced disease progression in low- and moderate-grade astrocytomas. In ependymomas, complete resection significantly influenced OS.

  3. Herbal Medicines and Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rasekhjahromi, Athar; Alipour, Farzaneh; Maalhagh, Mehrnoosh; Sobhanian, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the association between herbal medication and OHSS. Methods. This retrospective cohort study was conducted with 101 polycystic ovary syndrome patients. 66 patients took conventional pharmacological medications and 35 took herbal medications. Data were analyzed by statistical test including Fisher's Exact and binominal logistic regression. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Of the 101 females, 53 were married and 48 were single. There was no significant association between the groups in marriage. No significant association was found in mean age between the two groups (23.9 ± 5.8 years in the control group versus 26.3 ± 6.7 years in the case group). There was a significant difference between the two groups .After adding the dependent (OHSS prevalence) and independent (marriage and group) variables into the model, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed suitability. Variances analyzed with this model ranged between 29.4% and 40.7%. Conclusion. The indiscriminate use of herbs is correlated with OHSS. Because patients increasingly consume herbs, they should be aware of potential side effects. However, appropriate dosages of herbs could be obtained for use instead of conventional treatments, which often have side effects. PMID:27688772

  4. Oral piercing and oral diseases: a short time retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Inchingolo, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco; Abenavoli, Fabio M; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Alessio D; Palladino, Antonio; Inchingolo, Angelo M; Dipalma, Gianna

    2011-01-01

    Body piercing indicates the puncturing of a part of the body in which jewelry may be worn. In recent years, oral piercing is increasingly popular especially among young people. Body piercing has to be considered as a surgical procedure to all intents and purposes and, as such, has to be performed only by qualified personnel able to assure high standards of professionalism in facilities subject to sanitary inspections.The aim of the present work is to verify what risks patients may be exposed to and what complications may occur after a healthcare professional performs oral piercing.Our retrospective study includes 108 patients (74 males and 34 females) aged between 14 and 39 years, who had oral piercing done 12±4 months earlier. All the patients underwent clinical examination to reveal the possible presence of late complications. After piercing, none of the 108 patients developed widespread complications.Although all patients said they had followed the piercers' instructions, 96% of them reported postoperative local complications such as bleeding within 12 hours of piercing (90%), perilesional edema for 3±2 days after piercing surgery (80%), and persistent mucosal atrophy (70%).

  5. 3D geo-database research: Retrospective and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, Martin; Zlatanova, Sisi

    2011-07-01

    3D geo-database research is a promising field to support challenging applications such as 3D urban planning, environmental monitoring, infrastructure management, and early warning or disaster management and response. In these fields, interdisciplinary research in GIScience and related fields is needed to support the modelling, analysis, management, and integration of large geo-referenced data sets, which describe human activities and geophysical phenomena. Geo-databases may serve as platforms to integrate 2D maps, 3D geo-scientific models, and other geo-referenced data. However, current geo-databases do not provide sufficient 3D data modelling and data handling techniques. New 3D geo-databases are needed to handle surface and volume models. This article first presents a 25-year retrospective of geo-database research. Data modelling, standards, and indexing of geo-data are discussed in detail. New directions for the development of 3D geo-databases to open new fields for interdisciplinary research are addressed. Two scenarios in the fields of early warning and emergency response demonstrate the combined management of human and geophysical phenomena. The article concludes with a critical outlook on open research problems.

  6. Thyroid abnormalities in paediatric patients with vitiligo: retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Borlu, Murat; Çınar, Salih Levent; Kesikoğlu, Ayten; Utaş, Serap

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association between vitiligo and thyroid disease is not fully investigated especially in paediatric patients. Aim To determine the incidence of vitiligo and thyroid disorders in children. This is the first report from middle Anatolia and the second report from Turkey. Material and methods A retrospective chart review was performed to examine the presence of thyroid abnormalities in paediatric patients who had been admitted to the dermatology department with vitiligo. Results A total of 155 paediatric patients, including 80 (52%) male and 75 (48%) female patients were included. The mean age was 8.6 years. Non segmental vitiligo was the most common type of the disease in 140 (90%) reviewed patients, while segmental vitiligo appeared only in 15 (10%) patients. The mean onset of vitiligo was 5.6 ±0.9 years. A family history of vitiligo was found in 14 (9%) children. Thirty-four (22%) patients had thyroid function tests and/or thyroid autoantibody abnormality. All of these patients had non segmental vitiligo. It was statistically significant (p < 0.05) in types of vitiligo and thyroid disease parameters. Conclusions Our results show that it may be useful to screen thyroid in children with non segmental vitiligo. PMID:27512360

  7. Cerebral mycosis: 7-year retrospective series in a tertiary center.

    PubMed

    Raparia, Kirtee; Powell, Suzanne Z; Cernoch, Pat; Takei, Hidehiro

    2010-06-01

    This study focuses on the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, risk factors, diagnosis and outcome of all cases of central nervous system (CNS) fungal infections in a tertiary center. Medical records of 18 patients of culture-proven CNS fungal infections were retrospectively reviewed from 2000 to 2007, including 12 isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and seven from tissue biopsy. Patient demographic data included 10 males and eight females. The mean age was 55 years (range: 24-89 years). All but one patient were immunocompromised. Fungal organisms isolated from CSF included: Cryptococcous neoformans (8 patients), Coccidioides immitis (3 patients), and Aspergillus versicolor (1 patient). Histopathology of seven biopsy cases revealed groups of pigmented golden-brown fungal forms in three cases; three cases showed septate fungi, two of which had melanin in their walls; and one case showed multiple round spherules. These cases on microbiological cultures grew Coccidioides immitis (1 patient), Aspergillus fumigatus (1 patient), Cladophialophora bantiana (2 patients), Fonsecaea monophora (1 patient) and Scedosporium apiospermum (2 patients). Five of the seven fungal organisms isolated from tissue biopsies were dematiaceous fungi. Twelve patients died after a period of a few weeks to months, two were lost to follow-up, and four are alive with severe neurological sequelae. CNS fungal infections in our cohort were more common in patients post-transplant and with hematologic malignancies. In our series, rare dematiaceous fungi are emerging agents for cerebral mycosis. The outcome of CNS fungal infections is poor despite vigorous antifungal therapy.

  8. Dementia deaths in hospice: a retrospective case note audit.

    PubMed

    Vries, Kay de; Nowell, Allyson

    2011-12-01

    Dementia is now recognized as a progressive terminal illness and it is established that people with dementia have significant palliative care needs as they approach the end of life. However, population prevalence studies suggest that very few people with dementia access hospice services in the UK. The literature further suggests that hospice staff may be inadequately prepared to care for people with dementia. A retrospective internal case note audit covering a 3-month period of referrals was undertaken in one hospice in the south of England as part of work to establish staff education requirements arising from patient make-up. Only patients over the age of 65 were included. Of the 288 case notes audited, 9% of the patients had either been diagnosed with dementia or suffered with dementia as a comorbidity. The results of the audit suggest that the number of people with dementia referred to hospice services may have increased in the last decade. This is in keeping with expectations and future predictions resulting from increased disease surveillance and an increasingly ageing population.

  9. Key elements on team achievement: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Taveira, Alvaro D

    2008-07-01

    This study is a historical reconstruction and in-depth scrutiny of one very successful team initiative within a Quality Improvement (QI) program in a municipal government organization. The identification of the essential concepts that contributed to the team's success and their integration into a local explanatory theory of team achievement is the final purpose of the study. The focus of this retrospective study is on the team process, with primary attention given to team members' perspectives and reflections on the project development. Data collection and analysis were conducted with methods drawn from the qualitative research tradition and from Quality Management. Main findings point to the importance of consistent management support, correct team composition with an emphasis on the team leader choice and demeanor, and to the central role of training in the group conduct. The negotiated approach to decision-making employed by the team, which reflected its organizational context, and the effort and mechanisms that allowed the group to reach equilibrium between internal and external interests proved critical for its ultimate achievement.

  10. Acute Surgical Pulmonary Embolectomy: A 9-Year Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Alan R.; Manetta, Frank; Lessen, Ronald; Kozikowski, Andrzej; Jahn, Lynda; Akerman, Meredith; Lesser, Martin L.; Glassman, Lawrence R.; Graver, Michael; Scheinerman, Jacob S.; Kalimi, Robert; Palazzo, Robert; Vatsia, Sheel; Pogo, Gustave; Hall, Michael; Yu, Pey-Jen; Singh, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism is a substantial cause of morbidity and death. Although the American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines recommend surgical pulmonary embolectomy in patients with acute pulmonary embolism associated with hypotension, there are few reports of 30-day mortality rates. We performed a retrospective review of acute pulmonary embolectomy procedures performed in 96 consecutive patients who had severe, globally hypokinetic right ventricular dysfunction as determined by transthoracic echocardiography. Data on patients who were treated from January 2003 through December 2011 were derived from health system databases of the New York State Cardiac Surgery Reporting System and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons. The data represent procedures performed at 3 tertiary care facilities within a large health system operating in the New York City metropolitan area. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 4.2%. Most patients (68 [73.9%]) were discharged home or to rehabilitation facilities (23 [25%]). Hemodynamically stable patients with severe, globally hypokinetic right ventricular dysfunction had a 30-day mortality rate of 1.4%, with a postoperative mean length of stay of 9.1 days. Comparable findings for hemodynamically unstable patients were 12.5% and 13.4 days, respectively. Acute pulmonary embolectomy can be a viable procedure for patients with severe, globally hypokinetic right ventricular dysfunction, with or without hemodynamic compromise; however, caution is warranted. Our outcomes might be dependent upon institutional capability, experience, surgical ability, and careful patient selection. PMID:25873794

  11. Alopecia Areata in the Elderly: A 10-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yong Hyun; Park, Kyung Hea; Kim, Sang Lim; Lim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Weon Ju; Lee, Seok-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Background Alopecia areata (AA) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease that typically occurs in young adults. AA in the elderly is relatively rare, thus little data have been reported. Objective This study aimed to understand the clinical characteristics of AA in the elderly. Methods We performed a 10-year retrospective study of AA in the elderly who visited our dermatologic clinic from January 2002 to December 2011. A clinical review of medical records and telephone interviews were performed by two dermatologists. Results Among 1,761 patients with newly diagnosed AA, 61 (3.5%) were older than 60 years at the first visit. Among those who completed a telephone interview, 74.3% (26/35) had less than 50% of scalp-localized hair loss. There was no association between the extent of AA and hair graying (p=0.679). Favorable therapeutic response was observed in 62.9% (22/35) of cases. Conclusion AA in the elderly shows mild disease severity and favorable treatment response. There is no association between graying and the extent of AA. However, the influence of aging on the pathogenesis of AA in the elderly deserves further investigation. PMID:26273157

  12. Thyroid dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Demitrost, Laloo; Ranabir, Salam

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a growing problem in our country and we have observed that many patients are associated with thyroid dysfunction later in their life. However, the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in these patients has not been investigated. Aims and Objectives: To find the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in type 2 DM in Manipur, India. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, data of 202 Type 2 DM patients who attended the diabetic clinic of the Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal from January 2011 to July 2012, and whose thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level was investigated were included. The inclusion criteria are known cases of type 2 DM. Exclusion criteria are patients with previous history of hypothyroidism and those on drugs affecting the thyroid profile. Results: Out the 202 type 2 DM patients for the study of which 61 are males and 141 are females, 139 (68.8%) are euthyroid, 33 (16.3%) have subclinical hypothyroidism (10 males and 23 females), 23 (11.4%) have hypothyroidism (6 males and 17 females), 4 (2%) have subclinical hyperthyroidism and 3 (1.5%) are hyperthyroidism cases. Maximum cases were of hypothyroidism (subclinical and clinical) seen in the age group of 45-64 years. Patients with BMI > 25 were at increased risk of having hypothyroidism (P < 0.016). Conclusion: Prevalence of hypothyroidism is quite high in type 2 DM patients above 45 years and more so if their BMI is over 25. PMID:23565418

  13. Infantile acne: a retrospective study of 16 cases.

    PubMed

    Hello, Muriel; Prey, Sorilla; Léauté-Labrèze, Christine; Khammari, Amir; Dreno, Brigitte; Stalder, Jean-François; Barbarot, Sébastien

    2008-01-01

    Infantile acne is a rare and poorly understood disorder. The objective of this study was to improve our knowledge about the epidemiology and clinical course of infantile acne, and evaluate approaches to treatment. This two-center retrospective study covered the period between 1985 and 2007. Inclusion criteria were: (i) age less than 24 months when lesions appeared; (ii) presence of both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions; (iii) persistence of lesions for at least 2 months. The data were drawn from clinical and photographic records, followed by administration of a telephone questionnaire to parents. It was proposed that each case be reviewed on the basis of the child's appearance and score on an acne scar clinical grading scale. Sixteen children were included. Nine had a family history of severe adolescent acne. The average duration of disease was 22 months. Two patients had been effectively treated with oral isotretinoin. More than half of the patients exhibited scars. We re-examined five children (average acne scar clinical grading scale score = 12/540). On the basis of the frequency of scarring, and the severity and average duration of lesions, the use of oral retinoids in severe infantile acne warrants evaluation.

  14. Clyde W. Tombaugh, Discoverer of Pluto: A Personal Retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, David H.

    2013-10-01

    This talk offers a retrospective of the life, times, and ideas of Clyde W. Tombaugh. One of the premier observers of the twentieth century, Tombaugh began observing as a teenager and was hired by the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, in 1928, to resume and conduct the searh for “Planet X”, the world postulated by Percival Lowell, founder of the observatory. Tombaugh discovered this object on February 18, 1930, and it was subsequently named Pluto a few months later. Tombaugh’s life following the discovery was busy, full, and sometimes difficult. He continued his search for about fifteen years, discovering five open clusters, one globular cluster, a new cataclysmic variable star, and likely the first known supercluster of galaxies. He also discovered a comet, but that find was not confirmed for 81 years until it was rediscovered by the Tenagra Observatories just a few months ago and named Comet Tombaugh-Tenagra. Tombaugh was as well known for his delightful sense of humor and fun as he was for his abilities as an observer. However it would be difficult to present such a talk without some mention of the concern and depression he endured at the end of his life about the changing status of his signature discovery. Ultimately, this presentation will try to offer a personal perspective of the man and the scientist I knew for the decades since I first heard him speak in 1963 until his death in 1997.

  15. Laryngeal disease in cats: a retrospective study of 35 cases.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Samantha S; Harvey, Andrea M; Barr, Frances J; Moore, Alasdair H; Day, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to review the medical records of cats referred to the University of Bristol for investigation of laryngeal disease (n=35). Cases were categorised into one of four groups: cats with laryngeal paralysis (LP, n=14), laryngeal neoplasia (n=10), laryngeal inflammation (n=6), or miscellaneous laryngeal diseases (n=5). Laryngoscopy and echolaryngography were useful diagnostic techniques but histology was required for diagnosis of diseases other than LP. Two cats with lymphoma received chemotherapy achieving survival times of 60 and 1440 days. Four cats with LP were treated surgically, with a median survival time of 300 days (range 10-360 days) and six were treated conservatively with a median survival time of 780 days (range 300-2520 days). Three cats with inflammatory disease were treated medically and one by excision of the lesion. Two cats achieved survival times of 120 and 2800 days. Cats with LP, laryngeal lymphoma or laryngitis had excellent long-term survival following appropriate treatment.

  16. Retrospective Attention Gates Discrete Conscious Access to Past Sensory Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Thibault, Louis; van den Berg, Ronald; Cavanagh, Patrick; Sergent, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Cueing attention after the disappearance of visual stimuli biases which items will be remembered best. This observation has historically been attributed to the influence of attention on memory as opposed to subjective visual experience. We recently challenged this view by showing that cueing attention after the stimulus can improve the perception of a single Gabor patch at threshold levels of contrast. Here, we test whether this retro-perception actually increases the frequency of consciously perceiving the stimulus, or simply allows for a more precise recall of its features. We used retro-cues in an orientation-matching task and performed mixture-model analysis to independently estimate the proportion of guesses and the precision of non-guess responses. We find that the improvements in performance conferred by retrospective attention are overwhelmingly determined by a reduction in the proportion of guesses, providing strong evidence that attracting attention to the target’s location after its disappearance increases the likelihood of perceiving it consciously. PMID:26863625

  17. Influence of cholesterol on survival after stroke: retrospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Dyker, A. G.; Weir, C. J.; Lees, K. R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between serum cholesterol concentration and cerebrovascular disease. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Acute stroke unit of inner city general hospital. SUBJECTS: 977 patients with acute stroke. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum total cholesterol concentration, type of stroke investigated by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, three month outcome (good (alive at home) or bad (dead or in care)), long term mortality. RESULTS: After adjustment for known prognostic factors, higher serum cholesterol concentrations were associated with reduced long term mortality after stroke (relative hazard 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 0.98) per mmol/l increase in cholesterol) independently of stroke type, vascular territory and extent, age, and hyperglycaemia. Three month outcome was also influenced independently by serum cholesterol (P = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest an association between poor stroke outcome and lower serum cholesterol concentration. Until a prospective controlled study has confirmed the benefits of lowering cholesterol concentration in elderly subjects, the application of cholesterol lowering guidelines cannot be justified as secondary prevention of acute stroke. PMID:9169402

  18. Retrospective study on structural neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Silva-dos-Santos, Amilcar; Talina, Miguel Cotrim

    2016-01-01

    Background. No consensus between guidelines exists regarding neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis. The purpose of this study is to assess anomalies found in structural neuroimaging exams (brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) in the initial medical work-up of patients presenting first-episode psychosis. Methods. The study subjects were 32 patients aged 18–48 years (mean age: 29.6 years), consecutively admitted with first-episode psychosis diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data and neuroimaging exams (CT and MRI) were retrospectively studied. Diagnostic assessments were made using the Operational Criteria Checklist +. Neuroimaging images (CT and MRI) and respective reports were analysed by an experienced consultant psychiatrist. Results. None of the patients had abnormalities in neuroimaging exams responsible for psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven percent of patients had incidental brain findings not causally related to the psychosis (brain atrophy, arachnoid cyst, asymmetric lateral ventricles, dilated lateral ventricles, plagiocephaly and falx cerebri calcification). No further medical referral was needed for any of these patients. No significant differences regarding gender, age, diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, in-stay and cannabis use were found between patients who had neuroimaging abnormalities versus those without. Discussion. This study suggests that structural neuroimaging exams reveal scarce abnormalities in young patients with first-episode psychosis. Structural neuroimaging is especially useful in first-episode psychosis patients with neurological symptoms, atypical clinical picture and old age. PMID:27257547

  19. Retrospective mortality study of cadmium workers: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Thun, M.J.; Schnorr, T.M.; Halperin, W.E.

    1986-02-06

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted among a group of workers exposed to cadmium (7440439), to determine specific causes of death among these workers. The report reviewed the findings of the study and presented additional findings concerning exposures to other hazards at the facility. The study examined the causes of death for 292 cadmium workers who worked at least 2 years at a small facility that recovered cadmium from bag house dust. Exposures included dusts of cadmium-oxide (1306190) and cadmium-sulfide (1306236) and to fumes of cadmium itself. Over a two fold excess of deaths from respiratory cancer was noted among these workers when compared with the general population and over a three fold excess of deaths from prostatic cancer among the men. A follow up of the study cohort revealed that all cause mortality was slightly below that of the United States male population. The Standardized Mortality Ratio for circulatory disease was 65. Deaths due to respiratory cancer were 65% above the number expected. All of the 20 deaths from respiratory cancer were due to cancer of the lung, trachea and bronchus. Deaths due to genitourinary cancer were 35% above expected levels.

  20. Correlation of Clinicohaematological Parameters in Paediatric Dengue: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pai Jakribettu, Ramakrishna; Boloor, Rekha; Thaliath, Andrew; Yesudasan George, Sharanya; George, Thomas; Ponadka Rai, Manoj; Rafique Sheikh, Umran; Avabratha, Kadke Shreedhara; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is one of the arthropod-borne (arbo) viral diseases transmitted by female mosquito Aedes aegypti. Dengue fever has a wide spectrum of clinical presentation ranging from flu-like illness to severe complicated stage of dengue hemorrhagic fever leading to mortality. This was a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Coastal Karnataka, South India, to know the correlation between the clinical presentation and haematological parameters in the paediatric cases presented with dengue symptoms. A total of 163 paediatric cases who presented fever and dengue-like illness were included in the study. Of which, 69 were confirmed dengue patients. Critical analysis showed that there was a significant difference in the haematological parameters like total leucocyte count, percent differential leucocyte count, and platelets count, in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P < 0.05 to 0.0001). Additionally, when compared to nondengue patients, even the liver function and renal function parameters were significantly deranged (P < 0.05 to 0.0001). Stratification based on NS1, IgG, and IgM showed significant alterations in the haematological, hepatic, and renal parameters. With respect to the treatment a small percentage of patients, that is, 8% (4 patients), required platelet transfusion as their counts went below 20,000/μL. Two patients succumbed to their illness while three required ICU stay. PMID:26819620

  1. Improving diagnostic criteria for Propionibacterium acnes osteomyelitis: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Asseray, Nathalie; Papin, Christophe; Touchais, Sophie; Bemer, Pascale; Lambert, Chantal; Boutoille, David; Tequi, Brigitte; Gouin, François; Raffi, François; Passuti, Norbert; Potel, Gilles

    2010-07-01

    The identification of Propionibacterium acnes in cultures of bone and joint samples is always difficult to interpret because of the ubiquity of this microorganism. The aim of this study was to propose a diagnostic strategy to distinguish infections from contaminations. This was a retrospective analysis of all patient charts of those patients with >or=1 deep samples culture-positive for P. acnes. Every criterion was tested for sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio, and then the diagnostic probability of combinations of criteria was calculated. Among 65 patients, 52 (80%) were considered truly infected with P. acnes, a diagnosis based on a multidisciplinary process. The most valuable diagnostic criteria were: >or=2 positive deep samples, peri-operative findings (necrosis, hardware loosening, etc.), and >or=2 surgical procedures. However, no single criterion was sufficient to ascertain the diagnosis. The following combinations of criteria had a diagnostic probability of >90%: >or=2 positive cultures + 1 criterion among: peri-operative findings, local signs of infection, >or=2 previous operations, orthopaedic devices; 1 positive culture + 3 criteria among: peri-operative findings, local signs of infection, >or=2 previous surgical operations, orthopaedic devices, inflammatory syndrome. The diagnosis of P. acnes osteomyelitis was greatly improved by combining different criteria, allowing differentiation between infection and contamination.

  2. Causative Microorganisms of Infectious Endophthalmitis: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Fang; Liao, Jingyu; Zheng, Yongxin; Tan, Junlian

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the microbial etiology of infectious endophthalmitis and to determine the antibacterial susceptibilities of bacterial isolates at an eye hospital in South China. A retrospective analysis was carried out on 330 patients with clinically diagnosed infectious endophthalmitis who underwent microbiological evaluation from January 2010 to December 2014. Of the 330 patients, 193 patients (58.5%) had posttraumatic endophthalmitis, 67 patients (20.3%) had postoperative endophthalmitis, 61 patients (18.5%) had endogenous endophthalmitis, and 9 patients (2.7%) had postcorneal infective endophthalmitis. Of the 105 cases (31.8%) of culture-positive endophthalmitis, 79 cases (75.2%) had bacterial growth and 26 cases (24.8%) had fungal growth. In posttraumatic endophthalmitis, Gram-positive bacteria were the predominant species, followed by Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. In endogenous endophthalmitis, Gram-negative bacteria were the predominant species, followed by fungi and Gram-positive bacteria. In postsurgical endophthalmitis, all infections were bacterial. However, in postcorneal infective endophthalmitis, all infections were fungal. Overall, levofloxacin showed the highest activity against bacterial isolates. There was a significant difference in the susceptibility to tobramycin between the isolates from posttraumatic and postoperative endophthalmitis (p < 0.05). The results of this study identify the microbial spectrum of infectious endophthalmitis in this clinical setting. PMID:27413545

  3. Retrospectively evaluated preinjury personality traits influence postconcussion symptoms.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Kit-Man; Tsai, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Wei-Chi; Yang, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Sheng-Jean

    2016-01-01

    Postconcussion symptoms (PCS) are not uncommon following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Personality traits have always been viewed as one of the most important explanations for persistent postconcussion symptoms (PPCS). Unfortunately, studies on the association between preinjury personality traits and the PPCS are still limited. This study thus aimed to examine the relationship between the preinjury personality and PCS in patients with mTBI. A total of 106 participants including 53 healthy participants were recruited. All participants complete the modified Checklist of Postconcussion Symptoms and the Health, Personality, & Habit Scale. Participants were evaluated within 4 weeks and at 4 months, respectively, after injury. The results showed patients reported significantly more PCS than healthy participants did within 4 weeks postinjury. A significant positive association between PCS and retrospectively evaluated preinjury personality was found. Specifically, patients who reported that their preinjury personality was depressive or anxious-related presented more PCS. This study might be the first to directly demonstrate that preinjury personality traits are closely linked to PCS reporting in patients with mTBI. Importantly, PCS reporting might be associated with different personality traits at different periods after injuries, and thus, a careful evaluation for personality characteristics is merited after mTBI.

  4. Relationship between orthodontic treatment and gingival health: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Boke, Fatma; Gazioglu, Cagri; Akkaya, Sevil; Akkaya, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the relationship between orthodontic treatment and gingival health. Materials and Methods: A total of 251 patients among whom 177 were girls and 74 were boys, recruited from the records pool of the Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Gazi, were included in the study. Patients’ treatments have been completed by postgraduate students during the period between 2006 and 2012. Patients’ folders were analyzed according to their age, treatment time, and the type of orthodontic treatment. Intra-oral photographs were analyzed, and the presence or absence of visible plaque, visible inflammation, and gingival recession were recorded, and incisor inclinations analyzed on lateral cephalometric films, before and after orthodontic treatment. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in patients treated with functional appliances before and after treatment. In patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances, visible plaque, visible inflammation, and gingival recession showed significant increases after treatment, gingival biotype did not show any significant difference. Positive correlation was found between lower incisor position and gingival recession in patients treated with fixed appliance and extraction. And also cuspids were the teeth with the highest prevalence of gingival recession. Conclusion: Considering the relationship between orthodontic treatment and gingival health, cooperation among patients, orthodontists, and periodontists is important. PMID:25202219

  5. Evaluating semantic metamemory: Retrospective confidence judgements on the information subtest.

    PubMed

    Ladowsky-Brooks, Ricki L

    2016-12-12

    The current research explored the potential value of adding a supplementary measure of metamemory to the Information subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Third Edition (WAIS-III in Study 1) or Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV in Study 2) in order to assess its relationship to other neuropsychological measures and to brain injury. After completing the Information subtest, neuropsychological examinees were asked to make retrospective confidence judgements (RCJ) by rating their answer certainty in the original order of item administration. In Study 1 (N = 52) and study 2 (N = 30), correct answers were rated with significantly more certainty than wrong answers (termed a "confidence gap"), and in both studies, higher confidence for wrong answers was significantly correlated with poorer performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (for categories completed r = -.58 in Study 1, and r = -.47 in Study 2; for perseverative errors r = .44 in Study 1, and r = .45 in Study 2). In both studies, a number of examinees with positive CT findings had a very small or reversed confidence gap. These findings suggest that semantic metamemory is sensitive to executive functioning and brain injury and should be assessed in the neuropsychological examination.

  6. Inherited bleeding disorders: a 14-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Eid, Suhair S; Kamal, Nazmi R; Shubeilat, Taisir S; Wael, Abu-Ghoush Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    Congenital bleeding disorders comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases that reflect abnormalities of blood vessels, coagulation proteins, and platelets. A 14-year retrospective study (1991-2005) was conducted for patients referred to the coagulation section of the Hematology Department (King Hussein Medical Center, Amman, Jordan), who had suffered from bleeding tendencies to assess the prevalence of bleeding disorders among Jordanians and to describe their clinical manifestations. Four hundred and three patients matched our criteria. All patients were screened with routine coagulation assays and a complete blood cell count; a factor assay was performed if indicated by the results of the screening assays. A total of 168 patients (41.6%) were diagnosed with a bleeding disorder caused by a factor deficiency, of which 17.1% were described as hemophilia A (n=69), 6.2% were described as vWD (n=25), and 4.2% were described as hemophilia B (n=17). A subset of the total patient population comprising 14.1% of the patients were diagnosed with a Rare Inherited Coagulation Deficiency (RICD), where 4.0% were FX deficient (n=16), 3.7% were FVII deficient (n=15), 3.7% were FV deficient (n=15), 2.5% were FXI deficient (n=10), and 0.2% were diagnosed with afibrinogenemia (n=1).

  7. Retrospective Seismological Observations: Recording yesterday's earthquakes on seismometers installed today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entwistle, E.; Curtis, A.; Baptie, B.; Meles, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake seismograms are usually available only at seismometers that are active at the time of the event. However, recently Source-Receiver Interferometry (SRI) was shown to combine spatial and temporal redatuming to construct seismograms on seismometers deployed only before, during or after the earthquake occurred. Thus seismometers can be redeployed post-earthquake in more useful locations, and earthquake seismograms can nevertheless be obtained (Curtis et al., 2012). We identify suitable SRI source and receiver geometries to construct new earthquake seismograms across the USA. Suitable geometries satisfy: 1) minimum and maximum source-to-receiver distances, 2) a source-to-receiver-array ray path that intersects one or more other seismometers, 3) a dense receiver array that lies approximately perpendicularly (70 - 110 degrees) to a point on that ray, 4) sufficiently long ambient noise records. We also improve SRI receiver integration by embedding seismometer arrays within 2D spatial Voronoi cells. Using data from the USArray TA network we successfully reconstructed M5.5 earthquake seismograms at seven virtual locations in New Mexico. Thus, a new database of retrospective earthquake seismograms can be constructed across the USA.

  8. RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW OF MORTALITY IN GIANT PACIFIC OCTOPUS (ENTEROCTOPUS DOFLEINI).

    PubMed

    Seeley, Kathryn E; Clayton, Leigh A; Hadfield, Catherine A; Muth, Dillon; Mankowski, Joseph L; Kelly, Kathleen M

    2016-03-01

    The giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) is a popular exhibit species in public display aquaria, but information on health and disease is limited. This retrospective review evaluates time in collection and describes antemortem clinical signs and pathology of giant Pacific octopuses in an aquarium setting. Between March 2004 and December 2013, there were 19 mortalities: eight males, 10 females, and one individual whose sex was not recorded. Average time spent in collection for all octopuses was 375 ± 173 days (males 351 ± 148 days, females 410 ± 196 days). Ten (52.6%) of the octopuses were sexually mature at the time of death, six (31.6%) were not sexually mature, and reproductive status could not be determined in three octopuses (15.8%). Minimal changes were noted on gross necropsy but branchitis was histologically evident in 14 octopuses, often in conjunction with amoeboid or flagellate parasites. Senescence, parasitism, and husbandry were all important contributors to mortality and should be considered when caring for captive octopuses.

  9. Retrospective study of 289 odontogenic tumors in a Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    Serpa, Marianna-Sampaio; Tenório, Jefferson-da-Rocha; do Nascimento, George-João-Ferreira; de Souza-Andrade, Emanuel-Sávio; Veras-Sobral, Ana-Paula

    2016-01-01

    Background Odontogenic tumors (OTs) are considered important among oral lesions because of their clinicopathological heterogeneity, and variable biological behavior. This paper aims to determine the frequency and distribution of OTs, over a period of 10 years, at a public university in Northeastern Brazil and compare this data with previous reports. Material and Methods We reviewed all cases of OTs from oral pathology laboratory of University of Pernambuco (UPE), from 2004 to 2014. Diagnoses were re-evaluated and the tumors were classified according to the latest (2005) World Health Organization Classification of Tumors. In addition, we searched in the English-language literature retrospective studies on OTs that used the same classification. Results Data was obtained allowing the analysis of the tissue hemodynamics. We were able to map the vascularization of the face and it was possible to access three arteries of small diameter (0,60mm angular artery; 0,55mm greater palatine artery; 0,45mm infraorbital artery). Conclusions OTs are uncommon neoplasms with geographic variation. Our clinicopathological features are according to literature. In the present study, KCOT was the most frequent one, showing that the new classification of OTs altered the distribution of these lesions and possibly made KCOT the most common OT observed in diagnostic services worldwide. Key words:Odontogenic tumors, jaw neoplasms, epidemiology, oral pathology. PMID:26827068

  10. Acute epididymitis in Greek children: a 3-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Sakellaris, George S; Charissis, Giorgos C

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the study was to compare historical features, physical examination findings, and testicular color Doppler ultrasound in pediatric patients with epididymitis compared to testicular torsion and torsion of the appendix testes. A retrospective review of the medical records of 66 boys presenting with clinical aspects of acute scrotum over a 3-year period was performed. Sixty-six patients were included in the study (29 with epididymitis, 8 with testicular torsion and 12 with torsion of the appendix testis, 4 with scrotal abscesses, 5 with scrotal swelling, and 1 with inflamed epididymal cyst). The duration of symptoms ranged from 6 h to 4 days with a peak on the second day. Urine cultures and viral testes were negative in all patients. Color Doppler ultrasound was diagnostic for epididymitis in 28 patients (96.6%). Systemic intravenous antibiotics were given in all 29 patients with epididymitis. No patient showed signs of testicular atrophy in the follow-up. The increasing incidence of epididymitis should question the policy of routine exploration of the acute scrotum in children. The history and physical examination cannot reliably identify those boys who can be managed conservatively. Color Doppler ultrasound is a useful adjunct in the evaluation of the acute scrotum when physical findings are equivocal but it can also be misleading.

  11. Retrospective Evaluation of Xylazine/Halothane Anesthesia in 125 Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Adetunji, A.; Pascoe, P. J.; McDonell, W. N.; Horney, F. D.

    1984-01-01

    A retrospective morbidity and mortality study was carried out on 125 case records of cattle involving xylazine/halothane anesthesia at the Ontario Veterinary College, Guelph between May 1979 and February 1983. One hundred and six animals were given xylazine intramuscularly with a mean dose of 0.22 mg/kg and the remaining 19 were given a mean dose of 0.17 mg/kg intravenously. When the animals became recumbent, they were intubated and connected to an anesthetic machine which delivered halothane in oxygen. Anesthetic complications were recorded for ten cattle (8%) in the series and were mainly associated with regurgitation of ruminal contents, with or without aspiration. Three animals died as a result of the anesthetic procedure and in three other instances there were complications which were potentially fatal. Two of the anesthetic deaths were directly attributable to faulty technique rather than a specific drug response. The use of xylazine/halothane was judged to be clinically satisfactory and did not produce an unacceptable complication rate, although it is evident there is a significant risk associated with general anesthesia in ruminants. PMID:17422450

  12. Oral Piercing and Oral Diseases: A Short Time Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Inchingolo, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco; Abenavoli, Fabio M.; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Alessio D.; Palladino, Antonio; Inchingolo, Angelo M.; Dipalma, Gianna

    2011-01-01

    Body piercing indicates the puncturing of a part of the body in which jewelry may be worn. In recent years, oral piercing is increasingly popular especially among young people. Body piercing has to be considered as a surgical procedure to all intents and purposes and, as such, has to be performed only by qualified personnel able to assure high standards of professionalism in facilities subject to sanitary inspections. The aim of the present work is to verify what risks patients may be exposed to and what complications may occur after a healthcare professional performs oral piercing. Our retrospective study includes 108 patients (74 males and 34 females) aged between 14 and 39 years, who had oral piercing done 12±4 months earlier. All the patients underwent clinical examination to reveal the possible presence of late complications. After piercing, none of the 108 patients developed widespread complications. Although all patients said they had followed the piercers' instructions, 96% of them reported postoperative local complications such as bleeding within 12 hours of piercing (90%), perilesional edema for 3±2 days after piercing surgery (80%), and persistent mucosal atrophy (70%). PMID:22135610

  13. Retrospective source attribution for source-oriented sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bein, K. J.; Zhao, Y.; Wexler, A. S.

    2015-10-01

    Previous work successfully implemented a novel system that uses a single particle mass spectrometer to conditionally sample size-segregated, source-oriented particles from the ambient atmosphere in real-time. The underlying hypothesis is that the composition of individual particles is a metric of particle source and thus sampling particles based on composition should be synonymous with sampling based on source. System operation relies on real-time pattern recognition to control the actuation of different ChemVol samplers, where each ChemVol is associated with a unique composition signature. In the current work, a synthesis of data collected during these studies is used in retrospect to reconcile the actual source combinations contributing to the particles collected by each ChemVol. Source attribution is based on correlations between ChemVol sampling periods and coincident wind direction and temporal emissions patterns, coupled to knowledge of single particle composition and surrounding sources. Residential and commercial cooking, vehicular emissions, residential heating and highly processed regional background PM were identified as the major sources. Results show that real-time patterns in single particle mixing state correctly identified specific sources and that these sources were successfully separated into different ChemVols for both summer and winter seasons.

  14. Ankylosis of impacted canines: a retrospective post-surgical study.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alain

    2013-12-01

    Ankylosis is generally discovered following resistance to orthodontic displacement of an impacted canine. This retrospective study, drawing on direct perioperative observation of impacted teeth and of their sites, is intended, among other things, to analyze the causes of resistance to orthodontic movement and to report on the therapeutic interest of the surgical tooth displacement technique in this type of clinical situation. We demonstrate that primary coronal ankylosis can be detected by the orthodontic practitioner using radiographic records, that cervical ankylosis consequent to operative trauma during release is necessarily unpredictable and that it should be suspected when the tooth resists traction for more than 3 months in the absence of any other obvious cause of resistance. Hence, the risk of ankylosis linked to the level of surgical difficulty increases with the depth of coronal submergence within the bone. Moreover, the immediate placement of traction following release reduces the risk of ankylosis. In addition, temporarily suspending traction is a risk factor for secondary apical ankylosis. Finally, surgical positioning should be borne in mind as the final effective option when faced with any form of dental retention.

  15. Neck pain in children: a retrospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Jocelyn; Davidian, Christine; Mior, Silvano

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Spinal pain in the paediatric population is a significant health issue, with an increasing prevalence as they age. Paediatric patients attend for chiropractor care for spinal pain, yet, there is a paucity of quality evidence to guide the practitioner with respect to appropriate care planning. Methods: A retrospective chart review was used to describe chiropractic management of paediatric neck pain. Two researchers abstracted data from 50 clinical files that met inclusion criteria from a general practice chiropractic office in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada. Data were entered into SPSS 15 and descriptively analyzed. Results: Fifty paediatric neck pain patient files were analysed. Patients’ age ranged between 6 and 18 years (mean 13 years). Most (98%) were diagnosed with Grade I–II mechanical neck pain. Treatment frequency averaged 5 visits over 19 days; with spinal manipulative therapy used in 96% of patients. Significant improvement was recorded in 96% of the files. No adverse events were documented. Conclusion: Paediatric mechanical neck pain appears to be successfully managed by chiropractic care. Spinal manipulative therapy appears to benefit paediatric mechanical neck pain resulting from day-today activities with no reported serious adverse events. Results can be used to inform clinical trials assessing effectiveness of manual therapy in managing paediatric mechanical neck pain. PMID:27713576

  16. Bisphosphonates in Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: An International Retrospective Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Chellapandian, Deepak; Makras, Polyzois; Kaltsas, Gregory; van den Bos, Cor; Naccache, Lamia; Rampal, Raajit; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Weitzman, Sheila; Egeler, R. Maarten; Abla, Oussama

    2016-01-01

    Background Bone is the most common organ of involvement in patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), which is often painful and associated with significant morbidity from pathological fractures. Current first-line treatments include chemotherapy and steroids that are effective but often associated with adverse effects, whereas the disease may reactivate despite an initial response to first-line agents. Bisphosphonates are osteoclast inhibitors that have shown to be helpful in treating bone lesions of LCH. To date, there are no large international studies to describe their role in treating bone lesions of LCH. Method We conducted a multicenter retrospective review of 13 patients with histologically proven LCH, who had received bisphosphonates either at diagnosis or at disease reactivation. Results Ten patients (77%) had a single system bone disease, and 3 (23%) had bone lesions as part of multisystem disease. Median follow-up time post-bisphosphonate therapy was 4.6 years (range, 0.8 to 8.2 years). Treatment with bisphosphonates was associated with significant pain relief in almost all patients. Twelve (92%) achieved resolution of active bone lesions, and 10 out of them had no active disease for a median of 3.5 years (range, 0.8 to 5 years). One patient did not respond. No major adverse effects were reported in this series. Conclusion Bisphosphonates are well-tolerated drugs that can significantly improve bone pain and induce remission in active bone LCH. Future prospective studies evaluating the role of bisphosphonates in LCH are warranted. PMID:27413525

  17. Chiropractic Treatment of Temporomandibular Dysfunction: A Retrospective Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Pavia, Steven; Fischer, Rebecca; Roy, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to describe chiropractic treatment of 14 patients who presented with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD). Methods This is a retrospective case series of 14 patients, including 13 adults and 1 child. The majority of these patients were undergoing chiropractic care for spine-related conditions when they presented with additional TMD signs and symptoms. They were evaluated and treated with Activator Methods International published protocols relative to the temporomandibular joint before the addition of treatment to the suprahyoid muscles. Results All pre- and postadjustment assessments were recorded using a numeric pain scale. The resulting average showed a reduction in the patients’ pain scores from the initial visit of 8.3 ± 1.6 to the last visit at 1.4 ± 1.1 with an 80.9% ± 15.4% improvement. The average number of visits was 13.6 ± 8.2. Conclusion All patients selected for this case series showed a reduction of temporomandibular dysfunction symptoms. PMID:26793040

  18. Radiographic evaluation of mandibular ramus for gender estimation: Retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Damera, Ajit; Mohanalakhsmi, Jonnala; Yellarthi, Pavan Kumar; Rezwana, Begum Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Gender estimation is a very important part of a study in the field of anthropology and forensic sciences. In the skeleton, gender estimation is the first step of the identification process as subsequent methods for age and stature estimation are sex-dependent. Skeletal components such as the pelvis and skull are investigated for gender estimation and the mandible is a practical element to analyze sexual dimorphism in fragmented bones. The aim of the present study is to measure, compare, and evaluate various measurements of the mandibular ramus, observed in digital orthopantomographs and also to assess the usefulness of the mandibular ramus as an aid in gender estimation. Materials and Methods: A radiographic retrospective study was conducted using 80 digital orthopantomographs to measure, compare, and evaluate the measurements of the mandibular ramus such as maximum ramus breadth, maximum ramus height, and coronoid heightusing Planmeca ProMax® digital machine to assess the usefulness of mandibular measurements in gender estimation. Results: Descriptive statistics of various measurements and associated univariate F ratios for both the sexes were determined. Four variables were significant predictor in classifying a given sample (P < 0.001). The F-statistic values indicated that measurements expressing the greatest sexual dimorphism were noticed in the maximum ramus height. Conclusion: Mandibular ramus can be considered as a valuable tool in gender estimation and the most reliable measurements were obtained of linear objects in the horizontal plane by digital panoramic imaging. PMID:27555722

  19. Retrospective study of orthodontic bonding without liquid resin.

    PubMed

    Tang, A T; Björkman, L; Lindbäck, K F; Andlin-Sobocki, A; Ekstrand, J

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the retention of fixed orthodontic appliances bonded without liquid resin with the use of a retrospective study design. Patients from each of 2 consultant orthodontists in the same specialty clinic were chosen under strict selection criteria. In the test group (n = 37), composite material (Phase II) without liquid resin was used to bond full arch fixed appliances onto patients' upper teeth. Patients' appliances, which were bonded with Phase II composite and liquid resin, were used as the control group (n = 37). The duration of the appliance survival, from the date of appliance bonding to the date of first accidental bracket loss, was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier product limit method and log-rank test. Our data suggested that supragingival orthodontic metal brackets seemed to bond on healthy enamel surfaces and to work equally well either with or without the use of liquid resin. The total percentages of bond failure, roughly 6%, were similar in both test and control groups. Approximately 73% of all patients in the test group and 57% of the patients in the control group experienced no bond failure at all throughout the entire course of treatment.

  20. 10 CFR 719.45 - Are there any special procedures or requirements regarding subcontractor and retrospective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... subcontractor and retrospective insurance carrier legal costs? 719.45 Section 719.45 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS Reimbursement of Costs Subject to This Part § 719.45 Are there any special procedures or requirements regarding subcontractor and retrospective insurance carrier legal...

  1. Explaining Differences between Retrospective and Traditional Pretest Self-Assessments: Competing Theories and Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimon, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Summarizing theory and results of empirical research, this article serves to illustrate why effects measured with retrospective pretests may be subject to bias and may not always be explained by response shift theory. It presents three contending theories to explain the difference between retrospective and traditional pretest results and considers…

  2. 45 CFR 233.23 - When assistance shall be paid under retrospective budgeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... budgeting. 233.23 Section 233.23 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY... SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.23 When assistance shall be paid under retrospective budgeting. (a) A State which uses retrospective budgeting...

  3. 45 CFR 233.23 - When assistance shall be paid under retrospective budgeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... budgeting. 233.23 Section 233.23 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY... SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.23 When assistance shall be paid under retrospective budgeting. (a) A State which uses retrospective budgeting...

  4. 45 CFR 233.24 - Retrospective budgeting; determining eligibility and computing the assistance payment in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.24 Retrospective budgeting; determining eligibility and... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retrospective budgeting; determining eligibility and computing the assistance payment in the initial one or two months. 233.24 Section 233.24...

  5. 45 CFR 233.26 - Retrospective budgeting; determining eligibility after the initial one or two months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retrospective budgeting; determining eligibility..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.26 Retrospective budgeting; determining eligibility after the initial one or two months....

  6. 45 CFR 233.26 - Retrospective budgeting; determining eligibility after the initial one or two months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retrospective budgeting; determining eligibility..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.26 Retrospective budgeting; determining eligibility after the initial one or two months....

  7. 7 CFR 273.21 - Monthly Reporting and Retrospective Budgeting (MRRB).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Monthly Reporting and Retrospective Budgeting (MRRB... ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS Program Alternatives § 273.21 Monthly Reporting and Retrospective Budgeting (MRRB). (a... benefits. For included households, this system replaces the prospective budgeting system provided in...

  8. Coding of Stimuli by Animals: Retrospection, Prospection, Episodic Memory and Future Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentall, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    When animals code stimuli for later retrieval they can either code them in terms of the stimulus presented (as a retrospective memory) or in terms of the response or outcome anticipated (as a prospective memory). Although retrospective memory is typically assumed (as in the form of a memory trace), evidence of prospective coding has been found…

  9. 76 FR 32133 - FAR Council's Plan for Retrospective Review Under Executive Order 13563-Preliminary Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... has developed a preliminary plan for the retrospective analysis of provisions in the FAR, in... forth principles and requirements designed to strengthen regulations and regulatory review by promoting... retrospective analysis of existing rules. The E.O. requires every agency to develop ``a preliminary...

  10. Reliability of Frequent Retrospective Behavior Ratings for Elementary School Students with EBD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Mack D.; Vannest, Kimberly; Davis, John; Davis, Cole; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This study is a preliminary examination of the reliability of frequent retrospective teacher behavior ratings. Frequent retrospective behavior ratings are an approach for creating scales that can be used to monitor individual behavioral progress. In this study, the approach is used to progress monitor behavioral individualized education plan goals…

  11. What We Learned From the Oil Crisis of 1973: A 30-Year Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeder, John L.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty years ago, the Arab Oil Embargo caused us to stop taking gasoline for granted and caused the author to start teaching students about the importance of energy in our lives. This retrospective shows the same general patterns discerned from a 20-year retrospective a decade ago: a sharp decrease in energy use following each of the two energy…

  12. Retrospective Questions or a Diary Method? A Two-Level Multitrait-Multimethod Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hox, Joop J.; Kleiboer, Annet M.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a comparison between retrospective questions and daily diaries inquiring about positive and negative support in spousal interactions. The design was a multitrait-multimethod matrix with trait factors of positive and negative support, and method factors of retrospective questions and daily asked questions. Five questions were…

  13. Big Data Clinical Research: Validity, Ethics, and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Balas, E Andrew; Vernon, Marlo; Magrabi, Farah; Gordon, Lynne Thomas; Sexton, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Electronic Health Records (EHR) promise improvement for patient care and also offer great value for biomedical research including clinical, public health, and health services research. Unfortunately, the full potential of EHR big data research has remained largely unrealized. The purpose of this study was to identify rate limiting factors, and develop recommendations to better balance unrestricted extramural EHR access with legitimate safeguarding of EHR data in retrospective research. By exploring primary, secondary, and tertiary sources, this review identifies external constraints and provides a comparative analysis of social influencers in retrospective EHR-based research. Results indicate that EHRs have the advantage of reflecting the reality of patient care but also show a frequency of between 4.3-86% of incomplete and inaccurate data in various fields. The rapid spread of alternative analytics for health data challenges traditional interpretations of confidentiality protections. A confusing multiplicity of controls creates barriers to big data EHR research. More research on the use of EHR big data is likely to improve accuracy and validity. Information governance and research approval processes should be simplified. Comprehensive regulatory policies that do not exclusively cover health care entities, are needed. Finally, new computing safeguards are needed to address public concerns, like research access only to aggregate data and not to individually identifiable information.

  14. Intratumoral Mistletoe (Viscum album L) Therapy in Patients With Unresectable Pancreas Carcinoma: A Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schad, Friedemann; Atxner, Jan; Buchwald, Dirk; Happe, Antje; Popp, Stephan; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald

    2014-07-01

    Pancreatic carcinoma remains one of the main causes for cancer-related death. Intratumoral application of anticancer agents is discussed as a promising method for solid tumors such as pancreatic cancer. Endoscopic ultrasound provides a good tool to examine and treat the pancreas. European mistletoe (Viscum album L) is a phytotherapeutic commonly used in integrative oncology in Central Europe. Its complementary use seeks to induce immunostimulation and antitumoral effects as well as alleviate chemotherapeutic side effects. Intratumoral mistletoe application has induced local tumor response in various cancer entities. This off-label use needs to be validated carefully in terms of safety and benefits. Here we report on 39 patients with advanced, inoperable pancreatic cancer, who received in total 223 intratumoral applications of mistletoe, endoscopic ultrasound guided or under transabdominal ultrasound control. No severe procedure-related events were reported. Adverse drug reactions were mainly increased body temperature or fever in 14% and 11% of the applications, respectively. Other adverse drug reactions, such as pain or nausea, occurred in less than 7% of the procedures. No severe adverse drug reaction was recorded. Patients received standard first- and second-line chemotherapy and underwent adequate palliative surgical interventions as well as additive subcutaneous and partly intravenous mistletoe application. A median survival of 11 months was observed for all patients, or 11.8 and 8.3 months for stages III and IV, respectively. Due to the multimodal therapeutic setting and the lack of a control group, the effect of intratumoral mistletoe administration alone remains unclear. This retrospective analysis suggests that intratumoral-applicated mistletoe might contribute to improve survival of patients with pancreatic cancer. In conclusion, the application is feasible and safe, and its efficacy should be evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.

  15. Comparison of Filtering Methods for the Modeling and Retrospective Forecasting of Influenza Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wan; Karspeck, Alicia; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    A variety of filtering methods enable the recursive estimation of system state variables and inference of model parameters. These methods have found application in a range of disciplines and settings, including engineering design and forecasting, and, over the last two decades, have been applied to infectious disease epidemiology. For any system of interest, the ideal filter depends on the nonlinearity and complexity of the model to which it is applied, the quality and abundance of observations being entrained, and the ultimate application (e.g. forecast, parameter estimation, etc.). Here, we compare the performance of six state-of-the-art filter methods when used to model and forecast influenza activity. Three particle filters—a basic particle filter (PF) with resampling and regularization, maximum likelihood estimation via iterated filtering (MIF), and particle Markov chain Monte Carlo (pMCMC)—and three ensemble filters—the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), the ensemble adjustment Kalman filter (EAKF), and the rank histogram filter (RHF)—were used in conjunction with a humidity-forced susceptible-infectious-recovered-susceptible (SIRS) model and weekly estimates of influenza incidence. The modeling frameworks, first validated with synthetic influenza epidemic data, were then applied to fit and retrospectively forecast the historical incidence time series of seven influenza epidemics during 2003–2012, for 115 cities in the United States. Results suggest that when using the SIRS model the ensemble filters and the basic PF are more capable of faithfully recreating historical influenza incidence time series, while the MIF and pMCMC do not perform as well for multimodal outbreaks. For forecast of the week with the highest influenza activity, the accuracies of the six model-filter frameworks are comparable; the three particle filters perform slightly better predicting peaks 1–5 weeks in the future; the ensemble filters are more accurate predicting peaks in the

  16. Classifying degenerative joint disease by the RDC/TMD and by panoramic imaging: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Winocur, E; Reiter, S; Krichmer, M; Kaffe, I

    2010-03-01

    The purposes of the study were to evaluate the utility of diagnosing degenerative joint disease (DJD) by the clinical finding of coarse crepitus alone, without supporting imaging studies, as defined by the RDC/TMD, and to evaluate the contribution of panoramic radiography as an aid in the diagnosis of DJD. A retrospective analysis of 372 consecutive patients with TMD was conducted. Their panoramic radiographs were evaluated for the extent of their contribution to the final diagnosis. Panoramic radiography was of no diagnostic value in 94.4% of the cases when the group was considered as a whole. When patients diagnosed with DJD were considered separately, panoramic radiography was completely sufficient for reaching the final diagnosis in 20.0% of the cases. In almost 90% of these patients, however, the clinical examination did not support the diagnosis of DJD (no coarse crepitus was found). This raises some doubts about the effectiveness of the clinical examination according to the RDC/TMD and about the utility of panoramic radiography in the definitive diagnosis of DJD, because both techniques have low accuracy (11.1% and 20%, respectively). The present study supports the current recommendations that panoramic radiography should not be ordered routinely to assess DJD, but still it is first choice when any dental problem is suspected. Further additional imaging (computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) should be considered only if there is reason to expect that the findings might affect diagnosis and management. This study adds to recent criticisms of the clinical validity of the RDC/TMD, with regard to DJD.

  17. Risk of epilepsy in stroke patients receiving acupuncture treatment: a nationwide retrospective matched-cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shu-Wen; Liao, Chien-Chang; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Chen, Ta-Liang; Lane, Hsin-Long; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Shih, Chun-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk of epilepsy in stroke patients receiving and not receiving acupuncture treatment. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting This study was based on Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database that included information on stroke patients hospitalised between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2004. Participants We identified 42 040 patients hospitalised with newly diagnosed stroke who were aged 20 years and above. Primary and secondary outcome measures We compared incident epilepsy during the follow-up period until the end of 2009 in stroke patients who were and were not receiving acupuncture. The adjusted HRs and 95% CIs of epilepsy associated with acupuncture were calculated using multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression. Results Stroke patients who received acupuncture treatment (9.8 per 1000 person-years) experienced a reduced incidence of epilepsy compared to those who did not receive acupuncture treatment (11.5 per 1000 person-years), with an HR of 0.74 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.80) after adjustment for sociodemographic factors and coexisting medical conditions. Acupuncture treatment was associated with a decreased risk of epilepsy, particularly among stroke patients aged 20–69 years. The log-rank test probability curve indicated that stroke patients receiving acupuncture treatment had a reduced probability of epilepsy compared with individuals who did not receive acupuncture treatment during the follow-up period (p<0.0001). Conclusions Stroke patients who received acupuncture treatment had a reduced risk of epilepsy compared with those not receiving acupuncture treatment. However, the protective effects associated with acupuncture treatment require further validation in prospective cohort studies. PMID:27412100

  18. Comparison of filtering methods for the modeling and retrospective forecasting of influenza epidemics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan; Karspeck, Alicia; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2014-04-01

    A variety of filtering methods enable the recursive estimation of system state variables and inference of model parameters. These methods have found application in a range of disciplines and settings, including engineering design and forecasting, and, over the last two decades, have been applied to infectious disease epidemiology. For any system of interest, the ideal filter depends on the nonlinearity and complexity of the model to which it is applied, the quality and abundance of observations being entrained, and the ultimate application (e.g. forecast, parameter estimation, etc.). Here, we compare the performance of six state-of-the-art filter methods when used to model and forecast influenza activity. Three particle filters--a basic particle filter (PF) with resampling and regularization, maximum likelihood estimation via iterated filtering (MIF), and particle Markov chain Monte Carlo (pMCMC)--and three ensemble filters--the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), the ensemble adjustment Kalman filter (EAKF), and the rank histogram filter (RHF)--were used in conjunction with a humidity-forced susceptible-infectious-recovered-susceptible (SIRS) model and weekly estimates of influenza incidence. The modeling frameworks, first validated with synthetic influenza epidemic data, were then applied to fit and retrospectively forecast the historical incidence time series of seven influenza epidemics during 2003-2012, for 115 cities in the United States. Results suggest that when using the SIRS model the ensemble filters and the basic PF are more capable of faithfully recreating historical influenza incidence time series, while the MIF and pMCMC do not perform as well for multimodal outbreaks. For forecast of the week with the highest influenza activity, the accuracies of the six model-filter frameworks are comparable; the three particle filters perform slightly better predicting peaks 1-5 weeks in the future; the ensemble filters are more accurate predicting peaks in the past.

  19. Corticosteroids in IgA Nephropathy: A Retrospective Analysis from the VALIGA Study

    PubMed Central

    Tesar, Vladimir; Troyanov, Stéphan; Bellur, Shubha; Verhave, Jacobien C.; Cook, H. Terence; Feehally, John; Roberts, Ian S.D.; Cattran, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines suggest treatment with corticosteroids (CS) in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) when proteinuria is persistently ≥1 g/d despite 3–6 months of supportive care and when eGFR is >50 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Whether the benefits of this treatment extend to patients with an eGFR≤50 ml/min per 1.73 m2, other levels of proteinuria, or different renal pathologic lesions remains unknown. We retrospectively studied 1147 patients with IgAN from the European Validation Study of the Oxford Classification of IgAN (VALIGA) cohort classified according to the Oxford-MEST classification and medication used, with details of duration but not dosing. Overall, 46% of patients received immunosuppression, of which 98% received CS. Treated individuals presented with greater clinical and pathologic risk factors of progression. They also received more antihypertensive medication, and a greater proportion received renin angiotensin system blockade (RASB) compared with individuals without immunosuppressive therapy. Immunosuppression was associated with a significant reduction in proteinuria, a slower rate of renal function decline, and greater renal survival. Using a propensity score, we matched 184 subjects who received CS and RASB to 184 patients with a similar risk profile of progression who received only RASB. Within this group, CS reduced proteinuria and the rate of renal function decline and increased renal survival. These benefits extended to those with an eGFR≤50 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and the benefits increased proportionally with the level of proteinuria. Thus, CS reduced the risk of progression regardless of initial eGFR and in direct proportion to the extent of proteinuria in this cohort. PMID:25677392

  20. A large retrospective multicenter study of vaginal melanomas: implications for new management.

    PubMed

    Vaysse, Charlotte; Pautier, Patricia; Filleron, Thomas; Maisongrosse, Veronique; Rodier, Jean-François; Lavoue, Vincent; Reyal, Fabien; Thomas, Laurence; de la Fouchardière, Arnaud; Delannes, Martine

    2013-04-01

    The outcome of patients presenting with vaginal melanoma has been assessed in a large multicentric retrospective study. The databases of 12 French institutions were searched for primary vaginal melanomas managed between 1990 and 2007. Among the 54 patients recorded, 46 were managed with a curative intent and included in the study. The clinical characteristics, treatments, and detection of c-KIT protein expression have been studied. The median age of the patients was 63.5 years (42-88). Twenty-eight patients were classified as International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I, five as stage II, six as stage III, and one as stage IVA. c-KIT protein was overexpressed in 80% of the patients. Forty-two patients underwent surgical resection of the tumor, nine patients received local adjuvant treatment, and 10 received systemic adjuvant therapy. The median relapse-free survival was 10.9 months. c-KIT-negative status (P=0.01) and stage I (P=0.02) were associated with locoregional recurrence. The rate of metastasis was increased for advanced FIGO stages (P<0.01). The median overall survival (OS) was 28.4 months. The finding of lymph node metastasis adversely affected OS (P<0.01). Conservative surgery and radiotherapy were associated with a decrease in metastasis-free and OS (P<0.01) compared with surgery alone, this group of patients presenting with advanced FIGO stages (P=0.02). Despite the use of limited data, conservative surgery combined with a sentinel lymph node procedure, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy could be proposed to patients with early FIGO stage in the absence of validated management. c-KIT negativity by immunochemistry appears to be a poor prognosis marker in terms of locoregional recurrences but not for metastatic spread nor survival. Further assessment of the role of c-KIT expression in this disease is thus mandatory to select patients for targeted therapy.

  1. A Retrospective Cohort Study of Glossopharyngeal Nerve Taste in Children with Recurrent Acute Tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Hill, Courtney A; Dang, Suveera; Beach, Michael; Chen, Eunice Y

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare glossopharyngeal taste between healthy children and those with recurrent acute tonsillitis. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Pediatric clinics in a tertiary care medical center and satellite location. Subjects and Methods Smell and taste testing was administered to 80 well children and 64 children with recurrent acute tonsillitis (age range, 6-17 years). Smell testing was performed with the NIH Toolbox Odor Identification Test, with scores based on national averages for age and sex. Validated Taste Strips were placed on the midline of the tongue at the circumvallate papillae in random tastant order and in increasing concentrations to test sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. Ordinal logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Results The healthy and tonsillitis groups were similar, with mean ages of 11.3 and 10.8 years ( P = .34), respectively. The tonsillitis group had fewer boys (n = 18 vs 43, P = .002), higher mean body mass index (BMI) percentile (n = 72.2 vs 59.8, P = .01), and more subjects with public or no insurance (n = 24 vs 13, P = .004). Univariate analysis revealed no statistically significant differences in rate of normal overall taste (67.2% vs 60%, P = .39) and in sweet (79.7% vs 82.5%, P = .67), salty (85.9% vs 82.8%, P = .82), sour (64.1% vs 70%, P = .48), and bitter (90.6% vs 86.3%, P = .45). In multivariate analysis, smell ability, sex, BMI percentile, parent BMI, and insurance type did not affect overall taste or sweet, salty, sour, or bitter alone. Conclusion Despite controlling for potential intrinsic (sex, smell, BMI) and extrinsic (parent BMI, insurance type) confounders, there was no statistically significant difference in taste among children with recurrent acute tonsillitis as compared with healthy children.

  2. Retrospective study evaluating the performance of a first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 in an Italian unselected population

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Francesco; Cignini, Pietro; Giannarelli, Diana; Brizzi, Cristiana; Coco, Claudio; D’Emidio, Laura; Giorgio, Elsa; Giorlandino, Maurizio; Mangiafico, Lucia; Mastrandrea, Marialuisa; Milite, Vincenzo; Mobili, Luisa; Nanni, Cinzia; Raffio, Raffaella; Taramanni, Cinzia; Vigna, Roberto; Mesoraca, Alvaro; Bizzoco, Domenico; Gabrielli, Ivan; Di Giacomo, Gianluca; Barone, Maria Antonietta; Cima, Antonella; Giorlandino, Francesca Romana; Emili, Sabrina; Cupellaro, Marina; Giorlandino, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to assess the performance of a combined first-trimester screening for trisomy 21 in an unselected Italian population referred to a specialized private center for prenatal medicine. Methods a retrospective validation of first-trimester screening algorithms [risk calculation based on maternal age and nuchal translucency (NT) alone, maternal age and serum parameters (free β-hCG and PAPP-A) alone and a combination of both] for fetal aneuploidies evaluated in an unselected Italian population at Artemisia Fetal-Maternal Medical Centre in Rome. All measurements were performed between 11+0 and 13+6 weeks of gestation, between April 2007 and December 2008. Results of 3,610 single fetuses included in the study, we had a complete follow-up on 2,984. Fourteen of 17 cases of trisomy 21 were detected when a cut-off of 1:300 was applied [detection rate (DR) 82.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 64.2–100; false-positive rate (FPR) 4.7%, 95% CI 3.9–5.4; false-negative rate (FNR) 17.6%, 95% CI 0–35.8%]. Conclusion in our study population the detection rate for trisomy 21, using the combined risk calculation based on maternal age, fetal NT, maternal PAPP-A and free β-hCG levels, was superior to the application of either parameter alone. The algorithm has been validated for first trimester screening in the Italian population. PMID:26266002

  3. The GEOS Retrospective Data Assimilation System: The 6-hour lag case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Yan-Qiu; Todling, Ricardo; Guo, Jing; Cohn, Stephen E.; Navon, I. Michael; Yang, Yan; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The fixed-lag Kalman smoother (FLKS) has been proposed as a framework to construct data assimilation procedures capable of producing high-quality climate research datasets. Fixed-lag Kalman smoother-based systems, referred to as retrospective data assimilation systems, are an extension to three-dimensional filtering procedures with the added capability of incorporating observations not only in the past and present time of the estimate, but also at future times. A variety of simplifications are necessary to render retrospective assimilation procedures practical. In this article, we present an FLKS-based retrospective data assimilation system implementation for the Goddard Earth Observing System (GOES) Data Assimilation System (DAS). The practicality of this implementation comes from the practicality of its underlying (filter) analysis system, i.e., the physical-space statistical analysis system (PSAS). The behavior of two schemes is studied here. The first retrospective analysis (RA) scheme is designed simply to update the regular PSAS analyses with observations available at times ahead of the regular analysis times. Although our GEOS DAS implementation is general, results are only presented for when observations 6-hours ahead of the analysis time are used to update the PSAS analyses and thereby to calculate the so-called lag-1 retrospective analyses. Consistency tests for this RA scheme show that the lag-1 retrospective analyses indeed have better 6-hour predictive skills than the predictions from the regular analyses. This motivates the introduction of the second retrospective analysis scheme which, at each analysis time, uses the 6-hour retrospective analysis to replace the first-guess normally used in the PSAS analysis, and therefore allows the calculation of a revised (filter) PSAS analysis. Since in this scheme the lag-1 retrospective analyses influence the filter results, this procedure is referred to as the retrospective-based iterative analysis (RIA) scheme

  4. Validation of the Metacomprehension Scale

    PubMed

    Moore; Zabrucky; Commander

    1997-10-01

    Evidence for the factorial, convergent and discriminant, and criterion-related validity of the Metacomprehension Scale (MCS) was examined in a sample of 237 young adults. The instrument was factorially heterogeneous but exhibited homogeneity within each of the seven subscales. Evidence for the convergent and discriminant validity of the MCS was examined by correlating the subscales from the MCS with subscales from metacognitive questionnaires measuring similar constructs from related domains. In general, correlations within constructs were larger than correlations between constructs, providing preliminary evidence of the convergent and discriminant validity of the MCS. The criterion-related validity of the MCS relative to other metacognitive measures was examined by using the metacognitive measures and the MCS to predict comprehension performance. The MCS predicted performance better than the other measures of metacognition and accounted for variance in performance not accounted for by the other measures. These results show promise for the value of self-assessments of metacomprehension. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  5. Validation studies and proficiency testing.

    PubMed

    Ankilam, Elke; Heinze, Petra; Kay, Simon; Van den Eede, Guy; Popping, Bert

    2002-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) entered the European food market in 1996. Current legislation demands the labeling of food products if they contain <1% GMO, as assessed for each ingredient of the product. To create confidence in the testing methods and to complement enforcement requirements, there is an urgent need for internationally validated methods, which could serve as reference methods. To date, several methods have been submitted to validation trials at an international level; approaches now exist that can be used in different circumstances and for different food matrixes. Moreover, the requirement for the formal validation of methods is clearly accepted; several national and international bodies are active in organizing studies. Further validation studies, especially on the quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, need to be performed to cover the rising demand for new extraction methods and other background matrixes, as well as for novel GMO constructs.

  6. QDB: Validated Plasma Chemistries Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Sara; Hamilton, James; Hill, Christian; Tennyson, Jonathan; UCL Team

    2016-09-01

    One of most challenging recurring problems when modelling plasmas is the lack of data. This lack of complete and validated datasets hinders research on plasma processes and curbs development of industrial Applications. We will describe the QDB project which aims to fill this missing link by provide a platform for exchange and validation of chemistry datasets. The database will collate published data on both electron scattering and heavy particle reactions and also facilitates and encourages peer-to-peer data sharing by its users. This data platform is rigorously supported by the validation methodical validation of the datasetsan automated chemistry generator employed; this methodology identifies missing reactions in chemistries which although important are currently unreported in the literature and employs mathematical methods to analyze the importance of these chemistries. Gaps in the datasets are filled using in house theoretical methods.

  7. ICP-MS Data Validation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Document designed to offer data reviewers guidance in determining the validity ofanalytical data generated through the USEPA Contract Laboratory Program Statement ofWork (SOW) ISM01.X Inorganic Superfund Methods (Multi-Media, Multi-Concentration)

  8. ICP-AES Data Validation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Document designed to offer data reviewers guidance in determining the validity ofanalytical data generated through the USEPA Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) Statement ofWork (SOW) ISM01.X Inorganic Superfund Methods (Multi-Media, Multi-Concentration)

  9. PSI-Center Validation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. A.; Akcay, C.; Glasser, A. H.; Hansen, C. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Marklin, G. J.; Milroy, R. D.; Morgan, K. D.; Norgaard, P. C.; Shumlak, U.; Sutherland, D. A.; Victor, B. S.; Sovinec, C. R.; O'Bryan, J. B.; Held, E. D.; Ji, J.-Y.; Lukin, V. S.

    2014-10-01

    The Plasma Science and Innovation Center (PSI-Center - http://www.psicenter.org) supports collaborating validation platform experiments with 3D extended MHD simulations using the NIMROD, HiFi, and PSI-TET codes. Collaborators include the Bellan Plasma Group (Caltech), CTH (Auburn U), HBT-EP (Columbia), HIT-SI (U Wash-UW), LTX (PPPL), MAST (Culham), Pegasus (U Wisc-Madison), SSX (Swarthmore College), TCSU (UW), and ZaP/ZaP-HD (UW). The PSI-Center is exploring application of validation metrics between experimental data and simulations results. Biorthogonal decomposition (BOD) is used to compare experiments with simulations. BOD separates data sets into spatial and temporal structures, giving greater weight to dominant structures. Several BOD metrics are being formulated with the goal of quantitive validation. Results from these simulation and validation studies, as well as an overview of the PSI-Center status will be presented.

  10. Mercury and Cyanide Data Validation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Document designed to offer data reviewers guidance in determining the validity ofanalytical data generated through the USEPA Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) Statement ofWork (SOW) ISM01.X Inorganic Superfund Methods (Multi-Media, Multi-Concentration)

  11. Empirical agreement in model validation.

    PubMed

    Jebeile, Julie; Barberousse, Anouk

    2016-04-01

    Empirical agreement is often used as an important criterion when assessing the validity of scientific models. However, it is by no means a sufficient criterion as a model can be so adjusted as to fit available data even though it is based on hypotheses whose plausibility is known to be questionable. Our aim in this paper is to investigate into the uses of empirical agreement within the process of model validation.

  12. Specification Reformulation During Specification Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, Kevin M.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the ARIES Simulation Component (ASC) is to uncover behavioral errors by 'running' a specification at the earliest possible points during the specification development process. The problems to be overcome are the obvious ones the specification may be large, incomplete, underconstrained, and/or uncompilable. This paper describes how specification reformulation is used to mitigate these problems. ASC begins by decomposing validation into specific validation questions. Next, the specification is reformulated to abstract out all those features unrelated to the identified validation question thus creating a new specialized specification. ASC relies on a precise statement of the validation question and a careful application of transformations so as to preserve the essential specification semantics in the resulting specialized specification. This technique is a win if the resulting specialized specification is small enough so the user my easily handle any remaining obstacles to execution. This paper will: (1) describe what a validation question is; (2) outline analysis techniques for identifying what concepts are and are not relevant to a validation question; and (3) identify and apply transformations which remove these less relevant concepts while preserving those which are relevant.

  13. Power Plant Model Validation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2016-02-12

    The PPMV is used to validate generator model using disturbance recordings. The PPMV tool contains a collection of power plant models and model validation studies, as well as disturbance recordings from a number of historic grid events. The user can import data from a new disturbance into the database, which converts PMU and SCADA data into GE PSLF format, and then run the tool to validate (or invalidate) the model for a specific power plant against its actual performance. The PNNL PPMV tool enables the automation of the process of power plant model validation using disturbance recordings. The tool uses PMU and SCADA measurements as input information. The tool automatically adjusts all required EPCL scripts and interacts with GE PSLF in the batch mode. The main tool features includes: - The tool interacts with GE PSLF - The tool uses GE PSLF Play-In Function for generator model validation. - Database of projects (model validation studies) - Database of the historic events. - Database of the power plant - The tool has advanced visualization capabilities - The tool automatically generates reports

  14. A Study on Mental Disorders: 5-year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Celine, Thalappillil Mathew; Antony, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    Background: “Mental disorder” is the most common used term in the modern life and the main reason behind this may be the mechanical way of life or stress and strain among youth. Aim: To find the pattern of mental disorders of hospitalized patients in a medical college hospital from 1st April 2005 to 31st March 2010. Settings and Design: A retrospective study conducted among the patients admitted with mental disorders in a medical college hospital from 1st April 2005 to 31st March 2010. Materials and Methods: Data collected from the registers maintained in the medical records department. Statistical Analysis: Z test is used for the comparison of proportions. Results: A total of 7908 mental disorder cases reported in the medical college hospital, 5564 (70.36%) were males and 2344 (29.64%) were females. Most cases occurred in the age group of 30-44 years. Mental disorder was more among females than males in 0-29 years and ≥ 60 years, but in 30-59 years males were more. In each year, mental disorders were reported more in males than females. Of the cases, most of them were mood disorders. Mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use were more among males but schizophrenia, delusional disorders, mood disorders, stress-related disorders, mental retardation, and so on were more among females. Conclusion: Mood disorder was the most occurred mental disorder and the next leading mental disorder was mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use. Counseling can be helpful for preventing most of the mental disorders. Improve the mental health care facilities will be the solution for controlling the mental disorders. PMID:24791229

  15. How international is bioethics? A quantitative retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background Studying the contribution of individual countries to leading journals in a specific discipline can highlight which countries have the most impact on that discipline and whether a geographic bias exists. This article aims to examine the international distribution of publications in the field of bioethics. Methods Retrospective quantitative study of nine peer reviewed journals in the field of bioethics and medical ethics (Bioethics, Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, Hastings Center Report, Journal of Clinical Ethics, Journal of Medical Ethics, Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, Nursing Ethics, Christian Bioethics, and Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics). Results In total, 4,029 articles published between 1990 and 2003 were retrieved from the nine bioethical journals under study. The United States (59.3%, n = 2390), the United Kingdom (13.5%, n = 544), Canada (4%, n = 160) and Australia (3.8%, n = 154) had the highest number of publications in terms of absolute number of publications. When normalized to population size, smaller affluent countries, such as New Zealand, Finland and Sweden were more productive than the United States. The number of studies originating from the USA was decreasing in the period between 1990 and 2003. Conclusion While a lot of peer reviewed journals in the field of bioethics profile themselves as international journals, they certainly do not live up to what one would expect from an "international" journal. The fact that English speaking countries, and to a larger extent American authors, dominate the international journals in the field of bioethics is a clear geographic bias towards the bioethical discussions that are going on in these journals. PMID:16412229

  16. Imported malaria in pregnant women: a retrospective pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Käser, Annina K.; Arguin, Paul M.; Chiodini, Peter L.; Smith, Valerie; Delmont, Jean; Jiménez, Beatriz C.; Färnert, Anna; Kimura, Mikio; Ramharter, Michael; Grobusch, Martin P.; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Data on imported malaria in pregnant women are scarce. Method A retrospective, descriptive study of pooled data on imported malaria in pregnancy was done, using data from 1977 to 2014 from 8 different collaborators in Europe, the United States and Japan. Most cases were from the period 1991–2014. National malaria reference centresas well as specialists on this topic were asked to search their archives for cases of imported malaria in pregnancy. A total of 632 cases were collated, providing information on Plasmodium species, region of acquisition, nationality, country of residence, reason for travel, age, gestational age, prophylactic measures and treatment used, as well as on complications and outcomes in mother and child. Results Datasets from some sources were incomplete. The predominant Plasmodium species was P. falciparum in 72% of cases. Among the 543 cases where information on the use of chemoprophylaxis was known, 471 (74.5%) did not use chemoprophylaxis or used incorrect or incomplete chemoprophylaxis. The main reason for travelling was “visiting friends and relatives” VFR (48.6%) and overall, most cases of malaria were imported from West Africa (85.9%). Severe anaemia was the most frequent complication in the mother. Data on offspring outcome was limited, but spontaneous abortion was a frequently reported foetal outcome (n = 14). A total of 50 different variants of malaria treatment regimens were reported. Conclusion Imported cases of malaria in pregnancy are mainly P. falciparum acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria prevention and treatment in pregnant travellers is a challenge for travel medicine due to few data on medication safety and maternal and foetal outcomes. International, collaborative efforts are needed to capture standardized data on imported malaria cases in pregnant women. PMID:26227740

  17. Retrospective Study of a Series of Choanal Atresia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Manica, Denise; Schweiger, Cláudia; Netto, Cátia C Saleh; Kuhl, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although it has been more than 250 years since the first description of choanal atresia (CA), there are still doubts about this abnormality. The differences between unilateral and bilateral forms are seldom discussed. Objectives Aggregate data from patients diagnosed with CA, grouping patients with unilateral and bilateral forms. Methods Retrospective study. Results Eighteen patients were included: 12 (66.6%) presented bilateral atresia, of which 77.8% were mixed bony-membranous type and 22.2% were pure bony type. From the 12 patients with bilateral atresia, 10 presented related malformations, 3 of whom had CHARGE syndrome (coloboma, heart defects, choanal atresia, retardation of growth and development, genitourinary problems, ear abnormalities). From the remaining 6 patients with unilateral atresia, only 2 showed malformations, 1 renal and 1 cardiac. All patients with unilateral atresia needed only 1 surgical procedure, and patients with the bilateral form needed a median of 2.85 interventions (p = 0.003). The median age of surgical procedure in the unilateral group was 6 years, ranging from 6 months to 18 years, and in the bilateral group was 25 days, ranging from 6 days to 6 years (p = 0.003). The median interval between diagnosis and surgery was 9 months in the unilateral group, ranging from 1 month to 18 years, and in the bilateral group was 1 day, ranging from 1 day to 2 months (p = 0.001). Discussion and Conclusions Success rates with the endoscopic approach vary from 62 to 100%. Nonetheless, most of these reports present results without considering the number of compromised sides. In our opinion, unilateral and bilateral cases involve distinct patients (taking into account the related malformations), have diverging clinical presentations, and show discrepant restenosis rates and therefore could be considered in different groups of analysis. PMID:25992054

  18. Comorbidities Associated with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: a Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, José Antonio; Ribeiro, Davi Knoll; Cavallini, Andre Freitas da Silva; Duarte, Caue; Freitas, Gabriel Santos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by partial or complete recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep. OSA brings many adverse consequences, such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiac and encephalic alterations, behavioral, among others, resulting in a significant source of public health care by generating a high financial and social impact. The importance of this assessment proves to be useful, because the incidence of patients with comorbidities associated with AOS has been increasing consistently and presents significant influence in natural disease history. Objective The objective of this study is to assess major comorbidities associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and prevalence in a group of patients diagnosed clinically and polysomnographically with OSA. Methods This is a retrospective study of 100 charts from patients previously diagnosed with OSA in our service between October 2010 and January 2013. Results We evaluated 100 patients with OSA (84 men and 16 women) with a mean age of 50.05 years (range 19–75 years). The prevalence of comorbidities were hypertension (39%), obesity (34%), depression (19%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (18%), diabetes mellitus (15%), hypercholesterolemia (10%), asthma (4%), and no comorbidities (33%). Comorbidities occurred in 56.2% patients diagnosed with mild OSA, 67.6% with moderate OSA, and 70% of patients with severe OSA. Conclusion According to the current literature data and the values obtained in our paper, we can correlate through expressive values obesity with OSA and their apnea hypopnea index (AHI) values. However, despite significant prevalence of OSA with other comorbidities, our study could not render expressive significance values able to justify their correlations. PMID:27096019

  19. Be alert to tuberculosis-mediated glomerulonephritis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Sun, L; Yuan, Q; Feng, J; Yao, L; Fan, Q; Ma, J; Wang, L

    2012-05-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection causing glomerulonephritis is a rare disorder. This retrospective study analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis-mediated glomerulonephritis (TB-GN) between 2002 and 2009, as well as the diagnostic tools used. These findings were then compared with those of patients with primary glomerulonephritis (P-GN). The records of all patients were reviewed. The diagnosis of TB-GN was based on renal hematuria and/or proteinuria and cure after antituberculosis therapy alone plus urine culture positive for M. tuberculosis, demonstration of typical tubercle granulomas on renal biopsy specimens, or the detection of M. tuberculosis DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on renal specimens. Forty-six patients with TB-GN and 49 patients with P-GN were included. Compared with patients in the P-GN group, most (76%) patients with TB-GN had a history of TB. Systemic symptoms were much more frequent in patients with TB-GN than local genitourinary symptoms. Serological testing showed a statistical difference between the two groups. Immunoglobulin A nephropathy was found in the majority (72%) of patients with TB-GN. M. tuberculosis DNA detection was positive in 39 (84.8%) patients, a much higher positive rate of diagnosis than that with urine culture for M. tuberculosis. The manifestation of TB-GN is atypical and nonspecific. It warrants a high index of suspicion when patients with renal hematuria and proteinuria fail to respond to standard treatments for P-GN. Clinicians should pay close attention to the medical history and results of special laboratory tests. M. tuberculosis DNA detection on renal biopsy specimens should be considered in order to confirm the diagnosis of TB-GN.

  20. Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

    2009-12-01

    This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence.This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College.The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to

  1. The Retrospective Iterated Analysis Scheme for Nonlinear Chaotic Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todling, Ricardo

    2002-01-01

    Atmospheric data assimilation is the name scientists give to the techniques of blending atmospheric observations with atmospheric model results to obtain an accurate idea of what the atmosphere looks like at any given time. Because two pieces of information are used, observations and model results, the outcomes of data assimilation procedure should be better than what one would get by using one of these two pieces of information alone. There is a number of different mathematical techniques that fall under the data assimilation jargon. In theory most these techniques accomplish about the same thing. In practice, however, slight differences in the approaches amount to faster algorithms in some cases, more economical algorithms in other cases, and even give better overall results in yet some other cases because of practical uncertainties not accounted for by theory. Therefore, the key is to find the most adequate data assimilation procedure for the problem in hand. In our Data Assimilation group we have been doing extensive research to try and find just such data assimilation procedure. One promising possibility is what we call retrospective iterated analysis (RIA) scheme. This procedure has recently been implemented and studied in the context of a very large data assimilation system built to help predict and study weather and climate. Although the results from that study suggest that the RIA scheme produces quite reasonable results, a complete evaluation of the scheme is very difficult due to the complexity of that problem. The present work steps back a little bit and studies the behavior of the RIA scheme in the context of a small problem. The problem is small enough to allow full assessment of the quality of the RIA scheme, but it still has some of the complexity found in nature, namely, its chaotic-type behavior. We find that the RIA performs very well for this small but still complex problem which is a result that seconds the results of our early studies.

  2. Retrospective study of prognostic factors in pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chun-Chih; Chang, Hung-Yang; Huang, Daniel Tsung-Ning; Chang, Lung; Lei, Wei-Te

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the leading causative pathogen in pediatric pneumonia and bacteremia throughout the world. The invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is known as isolation of S. pneumoniae from a normally sterile site (e.g., blood, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pericardial fluid, pleural fluid, or peritoneal fluid). The aim of this study is to survey the clinical manifestations and laboratory results of IPD and identify the prognostic factors of mortality. From January 2001 to December 2006, a retrospective review of chart was performed in a teaching hospital in Taipei. The hospitalized pediatric patients with the diagnosis of pneumonia, arthritis, infectious endocarditis, meningitis or sepsis were recruited. Among them, 50 patients were pneumococcal infections proved by positive culture results or antigen tests. Clinical manifestations, laboratory data and hospitalization courses were analyzed. The median age was 3.5-year-old and there were 30 male patients (60%). Eight patients (16%) had underlying disease such as leukemia or congenital heart disease. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) was observed in ten patients and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was performed in three patients. Leukocytosis, elevated C-reactive protein and AST level were noted in most of the patients. The overall mortality rate was 10%. We found that leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and high CRP level were significant predictors for mortality. In conclusion, S. pneumoniae remains an important health threat worldwide and IPD is life-threatening with high mortality rate. We found leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and high CRP levels to be associated with mortality in pediatric IPD, and these factors are worthy of special attention at admission. Although we failed to identify a statistically significant prognostic factor in multivariate analysis due to relatively small sample size, we suggest an aggressive antibiotic treatment in patients with these factors at admission

  3. Counterfeit medicines in Peru: a retrospective review (1997–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Edwin; Bel, Elvira; Suñé, Josep María

    2016-01-01

    Objective To consolidate and assess information on counterfeit medicines subject to pharmaceutical alerts issued by the Peruvian Medicines Regulatory Authority over 18 years (1997–2014) of health monitoring and enforcement. Design A retrospective review of drug alerts. Setting A search of the website of the General Directorate of Medicines, Supplies and Drugs (DIGEMID) of the Ministry of Health of Peru for drug alerts issued between 1997 and 2014. Eligibility criteria Drug alerts related to counterfeit medicines. Results A total of 669 DIGEMID alerts were issued during the study period, 354 (52.91%) of which cover 1738 cases of counterfeit medicines (many alerts deal with several cases at a time). 1010 cases (58.11%) involved pharmaceutical establishments and 349 (20.08%) involved non-pharmaceutical commercial outlets. In 126 cases (7.25%), counterfeit medicines were seized in an unauthorised trade (without any marketing authorisation); in 253 cases (14.56%) the type of establishment or business associated with the seized product was not identified. Conclusions Counterfeit medicines are a serious public health problem in Peru. A review of the data cannot determine whether counterfeit medicines in Peru increased during the study period, or if monitoring by different government health agencies highlighted the magnitude of the problem by providing more evidence. The problem is clearly structural, since the majority of cases (58.11% of the total) were detected in legitimate supply chains. Most counterfeit medicines involve staple pharmaceutical products and common dosage forms. Considerable work remains to be done to control the serious problem of counterfeit medicines in Peru. PMID:27044580

  4. Bilateral carpal tunnel surgery in one operation: Retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Herisson, O; Dury, M; Rapp, E; Marin-Braun, F

    2016-06-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment syndrome. The incidence of a bilateral condition varies between 22% and 87%. The aim of our study was to assess the level of satisfaction and the clinical outcomes in a group of patients operated on through a bilateral neurolysis on the median nerve in the carpal tunnel, in one operating session. This is a retrospective study involving patients with an electromyographic and clinical diagnosis of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. Patients were treated on an outpatient basis and the bilateral neurolysis was performed by endoscopy. The postoperative data was collected during consultation by a senior surgeon or during telephone interviews. Patients were asked to respond to a satisfaction questionnaire and the functional outcome was assessed through the Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (Quick-DASH) questionnaire. Twenty-nine patients with bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome were operated on in single operating sessions between January 2009 and January 2014. The average follow-up was 46 months. The average age at the time of the intervention was 45 years. Two patients were lost to follow-up, and 27 were able to be assessed. In relation to the clinical and functional outcomes, the average Quick-DASH score was 6.78 (ranges: 0-43.2). Twenty-five patients (92.5%) were satisfied with this simultaneous treatment and 26 patients (96%) would choose the same technique again. One-stage surgery in cases of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome appears to constitute a benefit for the patient, the surgeon and the anaesthetist, but it is reserved for patients who request it and who are motivated by this type of intervention.

  5. CT maxillary sinus evaluation-A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Paula; Faria-Almeida, Ricardo; Braga, Ana-Cristina; Felino, António

    2015-01-01

    Background Proximity of the dental roots to the sinus floor makes dental disease a probable cause of maxillary sinusitis. The aim of this study was to find out if maxillary sinus pathologic changes were more prevalent in patients with dental disease and to evaluate the performance of computed tomography (CT) in analyzing and detecting apical periodontitis and other odontogenic causes on the maxillary sinusitis etiology in a Portuguese Caucasian population. Material and Methods Retrospective cohort study. The total sample of 504 patients and their CT was included in this study. The patients were from a private dental clinic, specializing in oral surgery, where the first complaint was not directly related to sinus disease, but with dental pathology. For each patient, the etiological factors of maxillary sinusitis and the imaging CT findings were analyzed. All the axial, coronal and sagittal CT slices were evaluated and general data were registered. The latter was selected based on the maxillary sinus CT published literature. Results 32.40% of patients presented normal sinus (without any etiological factor associated), 29.00% showed presence of etiological and imaging findings in the maxillary sinus, 20.60% had only imaging changes in the maxillary sinus and 18.00% of patients presented only etiological factors and no change in the maxillary sinus. Conclusions Radiological imaging is an important tool for establishing the diagnosis of maxillary sinus pathology. These results indicate that the CT scan should be an excellent tool for complement the odontogenic sinusitis diagnosis. Key words: Maxillary sinusitis/etiology, odontogenic, computed tomography, maxillary sinus. PMID:25858084

  6. Neurological Complications after Renal Transplantation: A Retrospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    CENGİZ, Nilgün; ADIBELLİ, Zelal; YAKUPOĞLU, Yarkın Kamil; TÜRKER, Hande

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and types of neurological complications (NCs) and associated factors in renal transplantation (RT) patients. Methods Three hundred and forty-four patients who had RT performed at our institution between January 2005 and July 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Results File records of the patients revealed 19 who experienced a total of 22 episodes of NCs, of whom three had more than one episode. The mean age of 19 patients included in the study, of whom eight were female, was 37.52±13.08 (range, 18–65) years. NCs were classified into central or peripheral depending on the location of involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). CNS involvement was found in 16 (84.2%) of the 19 patients. Tremor (36.8%) was the most common CNS complication in these patients. Encephalopathy, generalized tonic–clonic seizures, and status epilepticus were observed in two patients (10.5%). Delirium and dementia were observed in one patient (5.2%). Headache was experienced by one patient, and agitated depression was observed in one patient. Six patients (26.3%) had the peripheral nervous system involvement. One patient had the numbness of hands with normal electromyography findings, and four patients had polyneuropathy. In one patient, lumbar plexopathy was observed. Seventeen of the 22 NCs were considered to be caused by immunosuppressive agents. Each incidence of amyloidosis, infection, septic emboli, and hypoglycemia caused a neurological episode. The etiology of one episode was unknown. Conclusion Different neurological disorders can be seen after RT, and most of them are caused by immunosuppressive drugs. NCs seen after RT can be treated by decreasing the dose or changing the immunosuppressive drug.

  7. Outcomes following cervical disc arthroplasty: a retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Cody, John P; Kang, Daniel G; Tracey, Robert W; Wagner, Scott C; Rosner, Michael K; Lehman, Ronald A

    2014-11-01

    Cervical disc arthroplasty has emerged as a viable technique for the treatment of cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy, with the proposed benefit of maintenance of segmental range of motion. There are relatively few, non-industry sponsored studies examining the outcomes and complications of cervical disc arthroplasty. Therefore, we set out to perform a single center evaluation of the outcomes and complications of cervical disc arthroplasty. We performed a retrospective review of all patients from a single military tertiary medical center undergoing cervical disc arthroplasty from August 2008 to August 2012. The clinical outcomes and complications associated with the procedure were evaluated. A total of 219 consecutive patients were included in the review, with an average follow-up of 11.2 (±11.0)months. Relief of pre-operative symptoms was noted in 88.7% of patients, and 92.2% of patients were able to return to full pre-operative activity. There was a low rate of complications related to the anterior cervical approach (3.2% with recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, 8.9% with dysphagia), with no device/implant related complications. Symptomatic cervical radiculopathy is a common problem in both the civilian and active duty military populations and can cause significant disability leading to loss of work and decreased operational readiness. There exist several surgical treatment options for appropriately indicated patients. Based on our findings, cervical disc arthroplasty is a safe and effective treatment for symptomatic cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy, with a low incidence of complications and high rate of symptom relief.

  8. Caval filters in intensive care: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, F; Di Gennaro, TL; Torino, A; Petruzzi, J; d’Elia, A; Fusco, P; Marfella, R; Lettieri, B

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of a caval vein filter (CVF) peri-implant monitoring protocol in order to reduce pulmonary embolism (PE) mortality and CVF-related morbidity. Background The reduction in mortality from PE associated with the use of CVF is affected by the risk of increase in morbidity. Therefore, CVF implant is a challenging prophylactic or therapeutic option. Nowadays, we have many different devices whose rational use, by applying a strict peri-implant monitoring protocol, could be safe and effective. Materials and methods We retrospectively studied 62 patients of a general Intensive Care Unit (ICU) scheduled for definitive, temporary, or optional bedside CVF implant. A peri-implant monitoring protocol including a phlebocavography, an echo-Doppler examination, and coagulation tests was adopted. Results In our study, no thromboembolic recurrence was registered. We implanted 48 retrievable and only 20 definitive CVFs. Endothelial adhesion (18%), residual clot (5%), cranial or caudal migration (6%), microbial colonization of the filter in the absence of clinical signs of infection (1%), caval thrombosis (1%), and pneumothorax (1%) were reported. Deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) was reported (8%) as early complication. All patients with DVT had a temporary or optional filter implanted. However, in our cohort, definitive CVFs were reserved only to 32% of patients and they were not associated with DVT as complication. Conclusion CVF significantly reduces iatrogenic PE without affecting mortality. Generally, ICU patients have a transitory thromboembolic risk, and so the temporary CVF has been proved to be a first-line option to our cohort. A careful monitoring may contribute to a satisfactory outcome in order to promote CVF implant as a safe prophylaxis option. PMID:25395837

  9. Retrospective Reconstructions of Active Bone Marrow Dose-Volume Histograms

    SciTech Connect

    Veres, Cristina; Allodji, Rodrigue S.; Llanas, Damien; Vu Bezin, Jérémi; Chavaudra, Jean; Mège, Jean Pierre; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Quiniou, Eric; Deutsh, Eric; Vathaire, Florent de; Diallo, Ibrahima

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To present a method for calculating dose-volume histograms (DVH's) to the active bone marrow (ABM) of patients who had undergone radiation therapy (RT) and subsequently developed leukemia. Methods and Materials: The study focuses on 15 patients treated between 1961 and 1996. Whole-body RT planning computed tomographic (CT) data were not available. We therefore generated representative whole-body CTs similar to patient anatomy. In addition, we developed a method enabling us to obtain information on the density distribution of ABM all over the skeleton. Dose could then be calculated in a series of points distributed all over the skeleton in such a way that their local density reflected age-specific data for ABM distribution. Dose to particular regions and dose-volume histograms of the entire ABM were estimated for all patients. Results: Depending on patient age, the total number of dose calculation points generated ranged from 1,190,970 to 4,108,524. The average dose to ABM ranged from 0.3 to 16.4 Gy. Dose-volume histograms analysis showed that the median doses (D{sub 50%}) ranged from 0.06 to 12.8 Gy. We also evaluated the inhomogeneity of individual patient ABM dose distribution according to clinical situation. It was evident that the coefficient of variation of the dose for the whole ABM ranged from 1.0 to 5.7, which means that the standard deviation could be more than 5 times higher than the mean. Conclusions: For patients with available long-term follow-up data, our method provides reconstruction of dose-volume data comparable to detailed dose calculations, which have become standard in modern CT-based 3-dimensional RT planning. Our strategy of using dose-volume histograms offers new perspectives to retrospective epidemiological studies.

  10. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and pathologic response: a retrospective cohort

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Diocésio Alves Pinto; Zucca-Matthes, Gustavo; Vieira, René Aloísio da Costa; de Andrade, Cristiane Thomaz de Aquino Exel; da Costa, Allini Mafra; Monteiro, Aurélio Julião de Castro; Lago, Lissandra Dal; Nunes, João Soares

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the complete pathologic response attained by patients diagnosed with locally advanced breast cancer submitted to neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on the doxorubicin/ cyclophosphamide regimen followed by paclitaxel. Methods: A retrospective cohort of patients with locally advanced breast cancer, admitted to the Hospital de Câncer de Barretos between 2006 and 2008 submitted to the doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide protocol followed by paclitaxel (4 cycles of doxorubicin 60mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 600mg/m2 every 21 days; 4 cycles of paclitaxel 175mg/m2 every 21 days). The following variables were assessed: age, menopause, performance status, initial clinical staging, anthropometric data, chemotherapy (dose – duration), toxicity profile, post-treatment staging, surgery, pathologic complete response rate, disease-free survival, and pathological characteristics (type and histological degree, hormonal profile and lymph node involvement). Statistical analysis was performed using a 5% level of significance. Results: Of the 434 patients evaluated, 136 were excluded due to error in staging or because they had received another type of chemotherapy. Median age was 50 years, all with performance status 0-1. Median initial clinical size of tumor was 65mm and the median final clinical size of the tumor was 22mm. Fifty-one (17.1%) patients experienced a pathologic complete response. Those with a negative hormonal profile or who were triple-negative (negative Her-2 and hormonal profile) experienced a favorable impact on the pathologic complete response. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin/ cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel provided a pathologic complete response in the population studied in accordance with that observed in the literature. Triple-negative patients had a greater chance of attaining this response. PMID:24488382

  11. A single-center retrospective study of pediatric hepatoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Weiling; Tang, Suoqin; Chen, Liping; Yi, You; Zhang, Pinwei; Liu, Aiping; Zhi, Tian; Huang, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Hepatoblastoma is a malignant liver tumor generally diagnosed in infants and children <3 years old. The current retrospective study aimed to investigate the associations of tumor stage, pathological type, metastasis and chemotherapy with clinical outcomes. In the current study, a total of 102 patients with hepatoblastoma were enrolled between September 2006 and June 2014. Clinical records and follow-up information for each of patient were obtained to conduct a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank test. The median age of the subjects was 1.5 years, and 98 patients had stage III or IV hepatoblastoma. Complete or partial remittance occurred in 72 subjects, and 91 underwent surgical operation. The survival rate differed significantly among patients with different tumor stages (P=0.015, χ2=8.359). The mortality rate of stage IV subjects with intrahepatic metastasis was significantly higher than that of those without (P=0.004). Among the 45 subjects with relapsed hepatoblastoma, the mortality rate was higher in the subjects that abandoned chemotherapy than in patients who continued regular chemotherapy. In total, 27 of 45 subjects with relapsed hepatoblastoma succumbed to the disease; 20 of them abandoned chemotherapy treatment; and the remaining 7 patients underwent regular chemotherapy and succumbed to the disease by the end of follow-up. The present study indicates that the increased mortality rate was associated with postoperative residual-induced intrahepatic metastasis and relapsed hepatoblastoma; and that regular chemotherapy is necessary for patient to achieve complete or partial remission following surgical operation. PMID:27895749

  12. Retrospective case series of aripiprazole augmentation in pervasive developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeni; Cho, Soo-Churl; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Jae-Won; Lee, Seung-Hee; Kim, Boong-Nyun

    2010-09-01

    Due to co-morbidities and treatment resistant nature of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), diverse combinations of regimens have been tried. This retrospective study aimed to explore adjunctive use of aripiprazole in children with PDD. Changes in illness severity were measured by Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S) and Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I) in 14 aripiprazole-treated patients with PDD. Improvement of illness severity was observed after aripiprazole add-on (5.8±0.8 to 4.9±1.0, Z=-2.75, p=0.001). Mean dosage was 7.7 mg/day [standard deviation (SD) 3.3, range 5-15]. A higher mean dosage was observed in group with improvement in symptoms (t=-2.33, df =12, p=0.004). The target symptoms most effectively improved after using aripiprazole were positive psychotic symptoms (mean CGI-I: 2.0±1.4, 3 responders/4 patients, 75% response) followed by aggressive behavior (2.5±1.7, 3/4, 75%), self-injurious behavior (2.0±1.0, 2/3, 67%), stereotypic behavior (2.7±1.2, 2/3, 67%), tic (2.8±1.0, 2/4, 50%), irritability (3.5±2.1, 1/2, 50%), obsessive behavior (2.5±2.1, 1/3, 33%), hyperactivity (3.4±1.6, 3/7, 43%) and mood fluctuation (3, 0/1, no response). Five patients (35%) discontinued aripiprazole due to treatment-emergent adverse effects (akathisia, insomnia, withdrawal). The results of this study suggest that aripiprazole augmentation may be used safely in maladaptive behaviors of some populations of PDD. However, future studies are required to confirm these preliminary findings.

  13. [Retrospective detection of hantavirus clinical infections in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Nieves Parisi, M D; Enria, D A; Pini, N C; Sabattini, M S

    1996-01-01

    Hantavirus activity in rodents and human beings in Argentina has been known since the 1980's. In this study, we retrospectively investigated hantavirus infections among Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever (AHF) cases notified between 1987 and 1994, without virological confirmation. IgG and IgM antibodies to hantavirus were tested by ELISA. Among 1028 patients included in the study, we found 13 recent infections (1.26%) and 13 remote infections (1.26%). IgG antibodies determined in 745 healthy persons living in the same localities of recent infection cases, gave only one positive result (0.13%). Nine of the 13 recent infections had the clinical presentation of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) while the other four were in the form of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS). We performed a clinical and epidemiological comparison between the nine patients with FHSR and two paired control groups: one with confirmed AHF and the other with Febrile Syndrome of Undetermined Etiology (FSUE), which were negative for hantavirus, Junin and LCM. There were no differences between clinical signs or symptoms. Nevertheless, normal or high leucocyte counts, with thrombocytopenia, hemoconcentration, high creatinine levels and proteinuria in HFRS cases resulted useful for differential diagnosis. These results showed the coexistence of Junin virus and hantaviruses in the endemic area of AHF, and indicate the importance of including the infection with these viruses in the differential diagnosis of hemorrhagic fevers and respiratory distress syndromes of unknown etiology. The clinical variability found could be related to the presence of more than one hantavirus serotype in our country.

  14. Narcolepsy and pregnancy: a retrospective European evaluation of 249 pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Maurovich-Horvat, Eszter; Kemlink, David; Högl, Birgit; Frauscher, Birgit; Ehrmann, Laura; Geisler, Peter; Ettenhuber, Katharina; Mayer, Geert; Peraita-Adrados, Rosa; Calvo, Elena; Lammers, Gert Jan; Van der Heide, Astrid; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Poli, Francesca; Dauvilliers, Yves; Jennum, Poul; Leonthin, Helle; Mathis, Johannes; Wierzbicka, Aleksandra; Puertas, Francisco J; Beitinger, Pierre A; Arnulf, Isabelle; Riha, Renata L; Tormášiová, Maria; Slonková, Jana; Nevšímalová, Sona; Sonka, Karel

    2013-10-01

    In a retrospective cohort study undertaken in 12 European countries, 249 female narcoleptic patients with cataplexy (n = 216) and without cataplexy (n = 33) completed a self-administrated questionnaire regarding pregnancy and childbirth. The cohort was divided further into patients whose symptoms of narcolepsy started before or during pregnancy (308 pregnancies) and those in whom the first symptoms of narcolepsy appeared after delivery (106 pregnancies). Patients with narcolepsy during pregnancy were older during their first pregnancy (P < 0.001) and had a higher body mass index (BMI) prior to pregnancy (P < 0.01). Weight gain during pregnancy was higher in narcoleptic patients with cataplexy (P < 0.01). More patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy during pregnancy had impaired glucose metabolism and anaemia. Three patients experienced cataplexy during delivery. The rate of caesarean sections was higher in the narcolepsy-cataplexy group compared to the narcolepsy group (P < 0.05). The mean birth weight and gestational age of neonates were within the normal range and did not differ across groups. Neonatal care was affected adversely by symptoms of narcolepsy in 60.1% of those with narcolepsy during pregnancy. This study reports more obstetric complications in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy during pregnancy; however, these were not severe. This group also had a higher BMI and higher incidence of impaired glucose metabolism during pregnancy. Caesarian section was conducted more frequently in narcolepsy-cataplexy patients, despite cataplexy being a rare event during delivery. Furthermore, symptoms of narcolepsy may render care of the infant more difficult.

  15. Retrospective Accounts of Injection Initiation in Intimate Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Janie; Rajan, Sonali; McMahon, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The influence of family members, peers and sexual partners on initiation to injection drug use is well established. Furthermore, research on gender differences in injection initiation has recognized the increased vulnerability of women, in particular, to injection-related health risks, and the gendered nature of the injection initiation experience. Yet more research is needed on the interpersonal and structural dynamics that shape injection initiation within intimate partnerships. Methods This paper draws on narrative data from semi-structured ethnographic interviews with 25, relatively stable, drug-using couples from two New York City neighborhoods. The study was conducted between 2007–2009. Our analyses focus on retrospective accounts of injection initiation from IDUs who were initiated to injection (or initiated their partners) in current or former intimate partnerships. In particular we analyze narratives of injection initiation events where both partners participated as initiates or initiators. Results Transition to injection within intimate partnerships was common, especially for women, and occurred in specific contexts. Structural and interpersonal dynamics, including the ubiquity of drugs in poor communities and the gendered nature of drug acquisition and use strategies, as well as the problem of increased drug tolerance, situational impediments to drug access, and the perceived cost-benefit of injecting, all influenced the process of initiation to injection drug use within couples. The data also suggest that, even when risks associated with injection initiation were understood, both pragmatic and emotional considerations within relationships tended to offset concerns about potential dangers. Conclusion The findings suggest the need for a broad range of interventions (including couples-focused interventions) to minimize rates of injection initiation within intimate partnerships. PMID:22398215

  16. Scrub Typhus Meningitis in South India — A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Stalin; Muthu, Vivekanandan; Iqbal, Nayyar; Remalayam, Bhavith; George, Tarun

    2013-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is prevalent in India although definite statistics are not available. There has been only one study on scrub typhus meningitis 20 years ago. Most reports of meningitis/meningoencephalitis in scrub typhus are case reports Methods A retrospective study done in Pondicherry to extract cases of scrub typhus admitted to hospital between February 2011 and January 2012. Diagnosis was by a combination of any one of the following in a patient with an acute febrile illness- a positive scrub IgM ELISA, Weil-Felix test, and an eschar. Lumbar puncture was performed in patients with headache, nuchal rigidity, altered sensorium or cranial nerve deficits. Results Sixty five cases of scrub typhus were found, and 17 (17/65) had meningitis. There were 33 males and 32 females. Thirteen had an eschar. Median cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell count, lymphocyte percentage, CSF protein, CSF glucose/blood glucose, CSF ADA were 54 cells/µL, 98%, 88 mg/dL, 0.622 and 3.5 U/mL respectively. Computed tomography was normal in patients with altered sensorium and cranial nerve deficits. Patients with meningitis had lesser respiratory symptoms and signs and higher urea levels. All patients had received doxycycline except one who additionally received chloramphenicol. Conclusion Meningitis in scrub typhus is mild with quick and complete recovery. Clinical features and CSF findings can mimic tuberculous meningitis, except for ADA levels. In the Indian context where both scrub typhus and tuberculosis are endemic, ADA and scrub IgM may be helpful in identifying patients with scrub meningitis and in avoiding prolonged empirical antituberculous therapy in cases of lymphocytic meningitis. PMID:23799119

  17. Retrospective analysis of vocal cord-to-suprasternal notch distance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyerim; Chang, Jee-Eun; Ryu, Jung-Hee; Jung, Haesun; Min, Seong-Won; Lee, Jung-Man; Hwang, Jin-Young

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Endotracheal tube (ETT) positioning using the cuff ballottement test, which confirms that the inflated cuff is positioned at the suprasternal notch with squeezing or inflating a pilot balloon, has been reported to be a simple and reliable method of preventing endobronchial intubation. However, in patients with a short vocal cord-to-suprasternal notch, ETT placement using the cuff ballottement test can cause vocal cord injury. In the present study, we assessed the distance from a point 15 mm below the vocal cord to the suprasternal notch (VSD-15), the safe position for ETT cuff placement above the suprasternal notch, and investigated variables for predicting VSD-15. We retrospectively examined neck computed tomography in 427 adult patients and measured VSD-15 and the distance from the thyroid notch to the suprasternal notch (TSD). Patient height, weight, sex, and age were also recorded. In total, 47 patients (11.0%) showed a VSD-15 shorter than 45 mm. VSD-15 significantly correlated with TSD (r = 0.778, P < 0.001) and height (r = 0.312, P < 0.001), and inversely correlated with age (r = −0.321, P < 0.001). In multiple linear regression models, a formula was obtained for VSD-15 (VSD-15 [mm] = −6.220 + 0.744 × TSD [mm] + 0.092 × height [cm] − 0.065 × age [years], R2 = 0.621). The cuff ballottement test should be used cautiously in patients with a predicted short VSD-15. VSD-15 can be predicted from TSD, height, and age. PMID:28207550

  18. Continuous neurophatic orofacial pain: A retrospective study of 23 cases

    PubMed Central

    Sotorra-Figuerola, Dídac; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Background To determine the clinical characteristics of Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain in patients that suffer Persistent Idiopathic Facial Pain (PIFP), Painful Post-Traumatic Trigeminal Neuropathy (PPTTN) or Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) and to describe their treatment. Material and Methods A retrospective observational study was made, reviewing the clinical history of the patients diagnosed with Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain between 2004 and 2011 at the Orofacial Pain Unit of the Master of Oral Surgery and Implantology of the University of Barcelona and at the Orofacial Pain Unit of the Teknon Medical Center of Barcelona. Results The average age of the patients with Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain was 54.5, with a clear female predominance (86.9%, n=20). Of all patients, 60.9% (n=14) were suffering a PIFP, 21.7% (n=5) had a BMS and 17.4% (n=4) were presenting a PPTTN. The pain quality described by the patients with Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain was oppressive (43.47%, n=10), widely represented by patients with PIFP, and burning (39.13%, n=9) being the only quality that described patients with BMS. The treatment carried out with the patients was only pharmacologic. The most used drugs for the treatment of PIFP and PPTTN were clonazepam (50%, n=9) and amitriptyline (44.44%, n=8). However, a 55.5% (n=10) of the patients with PIFP or PPTTN required the association of two or more drugs for a correct pain control. All the patients with BMS responded satisfactorily to clonazepam. Conclusions Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain is a little known condition among the general population, physicians and dentists. This favors a late diagnosis and inaccurate treatments which entail unnecessary suffering. It is important to inform both the general population and health professionals concerning this painful condition. Key words:Continuous neuropathic orofacial pain, persistent idiopathic facial pain, painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy

  19. Retrospective survey on therapeutic efficacy of Qigong in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Hong, Sung-Soo; Lim, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hye-Jung; Woo, Won-Hong; Moon, Sun-Rock

    2003-01-01

    Qigong is a complementary intervention for preventing and curing disease, and protecting and improving health through regulation of body and mind. Recently, we have been studying the psychoneuroimmunological effects of Qigong on the promotion of health. However, there are not many studies on the therapeutic efficacy of Qigong on various symptoms in Korea, hence the need to survey the clinical efficacy of Qigong. To evaluate the impact of Qigong in health care we categorized its effectiveness on the basis of ten years of subjects' memoranda. Among the 768 subjects, the motivation for doing Qigong was mostly to attend to health problems (81.5%), and males were more likely to use Qigong than females. The most improved symptoms were associated with psychological and musculoskeletal problems. Furthermore 66.9% of subjects reported improvements of perceived physical health and 40.3% of perceived psychological health. Other symptoms reduced by Qigong were pain (43.1%), fatigue (22.1%), and insomnia (8.7%). Wound healing was also surveyed (n = 332), and 84% of respondents reported improvement in recovery time, 66.6% reported reduced inflammation after Qigong and 50.3% reported no scarring as compared to before. In addition, 59.9% of respondents reported an increase in resistance to the common cold after four months of Qigong. The limitation of the study is that it is a retrospective survey on the basis of trainees' experiences of Qigong. Although this may constitute a potential bias, the study despite its limitations does provide precious empirical evidence of the effectiveness of Qigong.

  20. Central odontogenic fibroma: Retrospective study of 8 clinical cases

    PubMed Central

    Hrichi, Radia; Gargallo-Albiol, Jordi; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: The central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a benign odontogenic tumour derived from the dental mesenchymal tissues. It is a rare tumour and only 70 cases of it have been published. Bearing in mind the rareness of the tumour, 8 new cases of central odontogenic fibroma have been found by analyzing the clinical, radiological and histopathological characteristics of COF. Patients and Method: A retrospective study was carried out on 3011 biopsies in the Service of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Dental Clinic of Barcelona University between January 1995 and March 2008. 85 odontogenic tumours were diagnosed of which 8 were central odontogenic fibroma. The radiological study was based on orthopantomographs, periapical and occlusal radiographies and computerised tomographics. The variables collected were: sex, age, clinical characteristics of the lesion, treatment received and possible reappearances of the tumour. Results: The central odontogenic fibroma represents 9.4% of all odontogenic tumours. Of the 8 cases, 5 were diagnosed in men and 3 in women. The average age was 19.9 years with an age range of 11 to 38 years. The most common location of the tumour was in the mandible. All cases were associated with unerupted teeth. Of the 8 tumours, 3 provoked rhizolysis of the adjacent teeth and 4 cases caused cortical bone expansion. 50% of the patients complained of pain associated to the lesion. No case of recurrence was recorded up to 2 years after the treatment. Conclusions: Central odontogenic fibromas usually evolve asymptomatically although they can manifest very aggressively provoking dental displacement and rhizolysis. Radiologically, COF manifest as a uni or multilocular radiotransparent image although they can be indistinguishable from other radiotransparent lesions making diagnosis more difficult. COF treatment involves conservative surgery as well as follow-up patient checks. Key words: Odontogenic tumour, central odontogenic

  1. Retroperitoneal fibrosis: retrospective descriptive study on clinical features and management

    PubMed Central

    Laroche, Ann-Sophie; Bell, Robert Z; Bezzaoucha, Sarah; Földes, Eva; Lamarche, Caroline; Vallée, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare condition characterized by the presence of inflammatory and fibrous retroperitoneal tissue that often encases the ureters or abdominal organs. This study describes the clinical characteristics, diagnostic methods, and treatments and their effects on renal function. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with RPF at Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital. Results We identified 17 patients with RPF between 1998 and 2013. Eight patients were females (47%), and the mean age was 62±18 years. Eleven patients were idiopathic. Back pain was the most common symptom. All diagnoses were made based on the finding of a retroperitoneal mass on the computed tomography scan. Three patients had histological diagnosis of RPF and seven patients had unspecific changes on their biopsy. Twelve patients needed double-J stents, three patients had a temporary percutaneous nephrostomy, two patients had to have a nephrectomy for refractory ureteral obstruction, and one patient required hemodialysis. Ten patients with idiopathic RPF received medical treatment. In the treated group, only two patients had complete remission of the disease and five patients had improvement of their lesions. There were no deteriorations and only one relapse. Seven patients did not receive any treatment; two of them achieved complete remission, one of them deteriorated, and two of them had no changes. Conclusion Most of our cases of RPF were idiopathic. Almost all treated patients received prednisone and seemed to respond, at least partially. There was a lot of heterogeneity in patient management, which makes it difficult to compare treatment effects. However, treated patients seemed to have more favorable outcomes than those who were not. PMID:27822461

  2. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  3. Bat rabies in France: a 24-year retrospective epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France.

  4. Tuberculosis of hip in children: A retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Myung-Sang; Kim, Sung-Soo; Lee, Sung-Rak; Moon, Young-Wan; Moon, Jeong-Lim; Moon, Seog-In

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) of hip constitutes nearly 15% of all cases of osteoarticular tuberculosis. We report a retrospective study carried out on 43 children with hip TB. Materials and Methods: Forty-three children of TB hip treated between 1971 and 2000 were analysed. Twenty-four children of the early series were treated with streptomycin (S), isoniazid (H) and PAS (Pa) for 18 months (3HPaS, 15 HPa), while 19 children in the later series were treated with isoniazid (H), rifampicin (R) and ethambutol (E) or pyrazinamide (Z) for 12 months [(12 RHE(Z)]. Five out of 18 children with radiologically normal appearing type hip TB were treated with chemotherapy alone and 38 children were subjected to surgery; simple synovectomy alone in 31 hips, joint debridement in six hips, and proximal femoral varisation osteotomy in one. After surgery hips were immobilized in cast for one to three months according to the severity of the disease and patients pain tolerance, and then were mobilized under leg traction in bed gradually till pain subsided completely. Results: TB of hip healed with minimum sequelae in all children. In 18 Type one hip TB, normal hip (synovial form) anatomy was maintained, and in 25 patients with advanced lesions some defect in the femoral head and acetabulum was noticed, though painless good hip motion was maintained. Excellent to good results were obtained in 31 children (73.1%), fair in eight (18.6%), and poor in four (9.3%). In four patients with poor results, there was some residual morphological defect in the hip. None developed ankylosis of hip. Conclusion: We achieved good outcome with minimum sequelae in this series. The management goal should be aimed not only to heal the disease but also to maintain a painless mobile hip and anatomical cephalocotyloid relationship until maturity, and retard the development of secondary osteoarthritis. PMID:22448058

  5. Outcomes After Unilateral Uterine Artery Embolization: A Retrospective Review

    SciTech Connect

    Bratby, M. J.; Hussain, F. F.; Walker, W. J.

    2008-03-15

    Purpose. Bilateral uterine artery embolization (UAE) is considered necessary to provide effective treatment for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Occasionally, only unilateral embolization is performed, and this study evaluates these outcomes. Materials and Methods. As part of a prospective observational study of more than 1600 patients treated with UAE since 1996, there have been 48 patients in whom unilateral embolization has been performed. This study retrospectively reviews clinical response as assessed by our standard questionnaire and radiological response assessed by either magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound. Results. Two principal groups emerged: the largest, where only the dominant unilateral arterial supply was electively embolized (30 patients); and the second, where there was technical failure to catheterize the second uterine artery as a result of anatomical constraints (12 patients). Favorable clinical response with a reduction in menorrhagia at 1 year was seen in 85.7% (18/21) of those patients with a dominant arterial supply to the fibroid(s). In contrast, in those patients where there was technical failure to embolize one uterine artery, there was a high rate of clinical failure requiring further intervention in 58.3% (7/12). Comparison of the technical failure group with the dominant uterine artery group demonstrated a statistically significant (Fisher's exact test) difference in the proportion of patients with evidence of persistent fibroid vascularity (p < 0.001) and requiring repeat intervention (p < 0.01). Conclusion. We conclude that unilateral UAE can achieve a positive clinical result in the group of patients where there is a dominant unilateral artery supplying the fibroid(s), in contrast to the poor results seen following technical failure.

  6. Postperfusion Syndrome in Cadaveric Liver Transplantations: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Aydınlı, Bahar; Karadeniz, Ümit; Demir, Aslı; Güçlü, Çiğdem Yıldırım; Kazancı, Dilek; Koçulu, Rabia; Haytural, Candan; Özgök, Ayşegül; Bostancı, Erdal Birol; Zorlu, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the factors that affects the postperfusion syndrome in cadaveric liver transplantations and the effect of the postperfusion syndrome on discharge from the hospital. Methods Patients who underwent cadaveric liver transplantations between 2007 and 2013 were scanned retrospectively. Intraoperative anaesthesia records, intensive care unit follow-up forms and discharge reports were examined from patient files. Overall, 43 patients having complete data were included in the study. The postperfusion syndrome is defined as asystoli or a decrease in mean arterial pressure of more than 30%, which occurred in the first 5 min of reperfusion and continued for 1 min. Patients were divided into two groups: those who had the postperfusion syndrome and those who did not. Results The number of patients who had the postperfusion syndrome was 25 of 43 (58.1%). The MELD score of patients without the postperfusion syndrome was calculated as 16.9±3.2 and that of patients with the postperfusion syndrome was 19.7±3.6. A statistically significant relationship was detected between the postperfusion syndrome occurrence and a high MELD score (p=0.013). The diastolic blood pressure just before reperfusion was statistically lower in the group with the postperfusion syndrome than in the other group (p=0.023, 50±8 vs. 58±11). According to the logistic regression analysis, the MELD score and the decrease in diastolic blood pressure before reperfusion were defined as independent predictive factors. Conclusion According to the study, the ratio for having the postperfusion syndrome was found to be 58.1%. The independent predictor factors affecting the postperfusion syndrome were detected as the MELD score and the decrease in diastolic blood pressure before reperfusion. The postperfusion syndrome during orthotropic liver transplantation is an important issue for anaesthesiologists. The awareness of the related factors with the postperfusion syndrome may help in the development

  7. Validation of NOViSE.

    PubMed

    Korzeniowski, Przemyslaw; Brown, Daniel C; Sodergren, Mikael H; Barrow, Alastair; Bello, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to establish face, content, and construct validity of NOViSE-the first force-feedback enabled virtual reality (VR) simulator for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). Fourteen surgeons and surgical trainees performed 3 simulated hybrid transgastric cholecystectomies using a flexible endoscope on NOViSE. Four of them were classified as "NOTES experts" who had independently performed 10 or more simulated or human NOTES procedures. Seven participants were classified as "Novices" and 3 as "Gastroenterologists" with no or minimal NOTES experience. A standardized 5-point Likert-type scale questionnaire was administered to assess the face and content validity. NOViSE showed good overall face and content validity. In 14 out of 15 statements pertaining to face validity (graphical appearance, endoscope and tissue behavior, overall realism), ≥50% of responses were "agree" or "strongly agree." In terms of content validity, 85.7% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that NOViSE is a useful training tool for NOTES and 71.4% that they would recommend it to others. Construct validity was established by comparing a number of performance metrics such as task completion times, path lengths, applied forces, and so on. NOViSE demonstrated early signs of construct validity. Experts were faster and used a shorter endoscopic path length than novices in all but one task. The results indicate that NOViSE authentically recreates a transgastric hybrid cholecystectomy and sets promising foundations for the further development of a VR training curriculum for NOTES without compromising patient safety or requiring expensive animal facilities.

  8. Validation of NOViSE

    PubMed Central

    Korzeniowski, Przemyslaw; Brown, Daniel C.; Sodergren, Mikael H.; Barrow, Alastair; Bello, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to establish face, content, and construct validity of NOViSE—the first force-feedback enabled virtual reality (VR) simulator for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). Fourteen surgeons and surgical trainees performed 3 simulated hybrid transgastric cholecystectomies using a flexible endoscope on NOViSE. Four of them were classified as “NOTES experts” who had independently performed 10 or more simulated or human NOTES procedures. Seven participants were classified as “Novices” and 3 as “Gastroenterologists” with no or minimal NOTES experience. A standardized 5-point Likert-type scale questionnaire was administered to assess the face and content validity. NOViSE showed good overall face and content validity. In 14 out of 15 statements pertaining to face validity (graphical appearance, endoscope and tissue behavior, overall realism), ≥50% of responses were “agree” or “strongly agree.” In terms of content validity, 85.7% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that NOViSE is a useful training tool for NOTES and 71.4% that they would recommend it to others. Construct validity was established by comparing a number of performance metrics such as task completion times, path lengths, applied forces, and so on. NOViSE demonstrated early signs of construct validity. Experts were faster and used a shorter endoscopic path length than novices in all but one task. The results indicate that NOViSE authentically recreates a transgastric hybrid cholecystectomy and sets promising foundations for the further development of a VR training curriculum for NOTES without compromising patient safety or requiring expensive animal facilities. PMID:27671036

  9. Retrospective Ratings of Emotions: the Effects of Age, Daily Tiredness, and Personality

    PubMed Central

    Mill, Aire; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri

    2016-01-01

    Remembering the emotions we have experienced in the past is the core of one's unique life-experience. However, there are many factors, both at the state and trait level that can affect the way past feelings are seen. The main aim of the current study was to examine the impact of individual differences on systematic biases in retrospective ratings compared to the momentary experience of basic emotions such as sadness, fear, happiness, and anger. To this end, an experience sampling study across 2 weeks was conducted using a younger and an older age-group; the experience of momentary emotions was assessed on 7 randomly determined occasions per day, the retrospective ratings being collected at the end of each day about that day, as well as at the end of the study about the previous 2 weeks. The results indicated that age and daily tiredness have significant effects on retrospective emotion ratings over a 1-day period (state level), enhancing the retrospective ratings of negative emotions and decreasing the ratings of felt happiness. Whereas personality traits influence the more long-term emotion experience (trait level), with all Big Five personality traits having selective impact on retrospective emotion ratings of fear, sadness, happiness, and anger. Findings provide further evidence about the systematic biases in retrospective emotion ratings, suggesting that, although retrospective ratings are based on momentary experience, daily tiredness and personality traits systematically influence the way in which past feelings are seen. PMID:26793142

  10. Predictive validity of the strain index in manufacturing facilities.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Nathan; Moore, J Steven

    2002-01-01

    The Strain Index is a job analysis method for determining if workers are exposed to increased risk of developing distal upper extremity disorders. Its predictive and external validity was initially demonstrated in a pork processing plant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate its predictive validity in two manufacturing plants. While blinded to health outcomes, investigators analyzed the right and left sides of 28 single-task jobs using the Strain Index and classified them as "hazardous" or "safe" based on the Strain Index score. Subsequently, OSHA 200 logs were used to ascertain the occurrence of distal upper extremity disorders retrospectively. If at least one such disorder occurred on the right or left side during the prior three years, that side was classified as "positive." If no such disorder was reported during the prior three years, that side was classified as "negative." When comparing sides, symmetry between morbidity and hazard classification was required. When comparing jobs, such symmetry was not required. Evidence of association between the hazard classifications and the morbidity classifications for the 56 sides and the 28 jobs was evaluated using 2 x 2 contingency tables. For the sides, the association between hazard classification and morbidity classification was statistically significant with an empirical odds ratio of 73.2. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 1.00, 0.84, 0.47, and 1.00. Similar results were noted for the jobs--the empirical odds ratio was 106.6, and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 1.00, 0.91, 0.75, and 1.00. While these results provide additional evidence of the Strain Index's external validity and predictive validity, it should be noted that these jobs involved the performance of single tasks.

  11. Predictive validity of the Strain Index in turkey processing.

    PubMed

    Knox, K; Moore, J S

    2001-05-01

    The Strain Index is a job analysis method for determining if workers are exposed to increased risk of developing distal upper extremity disorders. Its predictive and external validity was initially demonstrated in a pork processing plant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of the Strain Index in one turkey processing plant. While blinded to health outcomes, investigators analyzed the right and left sides of workers in 28 jobs using the Strain Index and classified them as "hazardous" or "safe" based on the Strain Index score. Subsequently, OSHA 200 logs were used to ascertain the occurrence of distal upper extremity disorders retrospectively. If at least one such disorder had occurred on the right or left side during the previous 3 years, that side was classified as "positive." If no such disorder was reported during the previous 3 years, that side was classified as "negative." When comparing sides, symmetry between morbidity and hazard classification was required. When comparing jobs, such symmetry was not required. Evidence of association between the hazard classifications and the morbidity classifications for the 56 sides and the 28 jobs was evaluated using 2 x 2 contingency tables. For the sides, the association between hazard classification and morbidity classification was statistically significant, with an odds ratio of 22.0. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 0.86, 0.79, 0.92, and 0.65, respectively. Similar results were noted for the jobs--the odds ratio was 50.0, and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 0.91, 0.83, 0.95, and 0.71. These results provide additional evidence of the external validity and predictive validity of the Strain Index.

  12. Validation of catheter semiquantitative culture technique for nonstaphylococcal organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, D P; Garcia, A; Kelly, J W; Longfield, R N; Harrison, L

    1996-01-01

    The catheter semiquantitative culture roll tip technique has been validated as a discriminator between non-catheter-related bacteremias and catheter-related bacteremias (CRBs) caused by Staphylococcus species. However, this technique has not been specifically validated when used for the evaluation of catheters infected with organisms other than staphylococci. We reviewed catheters that had been submitted for semiquantitative roll tip culture as well as hospital records to determine clinical correlates of infection. Local infection and CRB were defined by standard criteria. Catheter-related sepsis (CRS) was defined as fever, leukocytosis, or hypotension which resolved with catheter removal, without another source of infection. For 195 catheters from 93 patients, gram-negative rods and enterococci were present on 36, fungi were on 25, Corynebacterium species were on 5, Bacillus species were on 3, Staphylococcus species were on 79, and 41 demonstrated no growth. Of 21 episodes of CRB or CRS due to nonstaphylococcal organisms, only 1 (questionable) episode was due to a catheter with < 15 CFU (P < 0.05). Eleven of these 21 episodes of CRB or CRS were due to gram-negative rods and enterococci, of which only the questionable episode was due to a catheter with < 15 CFU. Nine of these 21 episodes of CRB or CRS were due to fungi, none of which were associated with a catheter with < 15 CFU. The data for Staphylococcus species recapitulated published data (none of 21 CRB or CRS episodes were associated with catheters with < 15 CFU) and validated this retrospective technique. The data presented in this study validate the use of the semiquantitative culture technique for the evaluation of catheter-related infections caused by organisms other than staphylococci. PMID:8789025

  13. Quality data validation: Comprehensive approach to environmental data validation

    SciTech Connect

    Matejka, L.A. Jr.

    1993-10-01

    Environmental data validation consists of an assessment of three major areas: analytical method validation; field procedures and documentation review; evaluation of the level of achievement of data quality objectives based in part on PARCC parameters analysis and expected applications of data. A program utilizing matrix association of required levels of validation effort and analytical levels versus applications of this environmental data was developed in conjunction with DOE-ID guidance documents to implement actions under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order in effect at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This was an effort to bring consistent quality to the INEL-wide Environmental Restoration Program and database in an efficient and cost-effective manner. This program, documenting all phases of the review process, is described here.

  14. Validating LES for Jet Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2011-01-01

    Engineers charged with making jet aircraft quieter have long dreamed of being able to see exactly how turbulent eddies produce sound and this dream is now coming true with the advent of large eddy simulation (LES). Two obvious challenges remain: validating the LES codes at the resolution required to see the fluid-acoustic coupling, and the interpretation of the massive datasets that result in having dreams come true. This paper primarily addresses the former, the use of advanced experimental techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV) and Raman and Rayleigh scattering, to validate the computer codes and procedures used to create LES solutions. It also addresses the latter problem in discussing what are relevant measures critical for aeroacoustics that should be used in validating LES codes. These new diagnostic techniques deliver measurements and flow statistics of increasing sophistication and capability, but what of their accuracy? And what are the measures to be used in validation? This paper argues that the issue of accuracy be addressed by cross-facility and cross-disciplinary examination of modern datasets along with increased reporting of internal quality checks in PIV analysis. Further, it is argued that the appropriate validation metrics for aeroacoustic applications are increasingly complicated statistics that have been shown in aeroacoustic theory to be critical to flow-generated sound.

  15. HDF-EOS 5 Validator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard; Bane, Bob; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    A computer program partly automates the task of determining whether an HDF-EOS 5 file is valid in that it conforms to specifications for such characteristics as attribute names, dimensionality of data products, and ranges of legal data values. ["HDF-EOS" and variants thereof are defined in "Converting EOS Data From HDF-EOS to netCDF" (GSC-15007-1), which is the first of several preceding articles in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs.] Previously, validity of a file was determined in a tedious and error-prone process in which a person examined human-readable dumps of data-file-format information. The present software helps a user to encode the specifications for an HDFEOS 5 file, and then inspects the file for conformity with the specifications: First, the user writes the specifications in Extensible Markup Language (XML) by use of a document type definition (DTD) that is part of the program. Next, the portion of the program (denoted the validator) that performs the inspection is executed, using, as inputs, the specifications in XML and the HDF-EOS 5 file to be validated. Finally, the user examines the output of the validator.

  16. Education Level Predicts Retrospective Metamemory Accuracy in Healthy Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Szajer, Jacquelyn; Murphy, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of education on retrospective metamemory accuracy in 143 healthy older adults and 143 early to moderate AD patients, using retrospective measures of confidence in the accuracy of retrieval responses in an episodic odor recognition memory task. Relative confidence accuracy was computed as the difference between confidence judgments for correct and incorrect responses. In both AD patients and controls, individuals reporting 17 years of education or more had significantly more accurate levels of confidence than individuals with 12 years or less. Thus, education was a significant predictor of retrospective metamemory accuracy in healthy aging and AD. PMID:24131064

  17. Prospective and Retrospective Time Estimates of Children: A Comparison Based on Ecological Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Bisson, Nicolas; Tobin, Simon; Grondin, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Children's time estimation literature lacks of studies comparing prospective and retrospective time estimates of long lasting ecological tasks, i.e. tasks reflecting children's daily activities. In the present study, children were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospectively how much time they played a video game or read a magazine. Regardless of the task, the results revealed that prospective time estimates were longer than the retrospective ones. Also, time estimates of the video game task were longer, less accurate and more variable than those of the reading task. The results are discussed in the light of the current literature about time estimation of long lasting ecological tasks. PMID:22412982

  18. Criminal poisoning of commuters in Bangladesh: prospective and retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Majumder, M Mahbub Alam; Basher, Ariful; Faiz, M Abul; Kuch, Ulrich; Pogoda, Werner; Kauert, Gerold F; Toennes, Stefan W

    2008-08-25

    Travel-related poisoning is an emerging social and public health emergency in Bangladesh but its cause and significance have not been determined. To investigate this syndrome we performed a prospective clinical study and retrospective analysis of hospital records in a general medicine unit of a public tertiary care teaching hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, using toxicological analysis by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF MS). The participants of the prospective study were 130 consecutive patients aged 16-80 years who were admitted with central nervous system depression (Glasgow Coma Score 3-14) after using public transportation, in the absence of other abnormalities, from January through June 2004, and a convenience sample of 15 such patients admitted during 3 days in May 2006. In 2004-2006, travel-related poisoning increased from 6.1 to 9.5% of all admissions (210-309 of 3266-3843 per year), representing 46.6-55.7% of all admitted poisoning cases. Incidents were associated with bus (76%), taxi, train, and air travel, or local markets; 98% of patients remembered buying or accepting food or drinks before losing consciousness. Direct financial damage (missing property) was diverse and frequently existential. Among 94 urine samples analyzed by FPIA, 74% tested positive for benzodiazepines. Among 15 urine samples analyzed by LC-TOF MS, lorazepam was detected in all; five also contained diazepam or metabolites; nitrazepam was present in three. FPIA results obtained for these 15 samples were below the recommended cut-off in eight (53%; lorazepam only). Our findings show that the massive medicosocial emergency of travel-related poisoning in Bangladesh is the result of drug-facilitated organized crime and that benzodiazepine drugs are used to commit these crimes, suggesting modifications to the local emergency management of the victims of this type of poisoning. They also highlight the

  19. Retrospective exposure assessment to airborne asbestos among power industry workers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A method of individually assessing former exposure to asbestos fibres is a precondition of risk-differentiated health surveillance. The main aims of our study were to assess former levels of airborne asbestos exposure in the power industry in Germany and to propose a basic strategy for health surveillance and the early detection of asbestos related diseases. Methods Between March 2002 and the end of 2006, we conducted a retrospective questionnaire based survey of occupational tasks and exposures with airborne asbestos fibres in a cohort of 8632 formerly asbestos exposed power industry workers. The data on exposure and occupation were entered into a specially designed computer programme, based on ambient monitoring of airborne asbestos fibre concentrations. The cumulative asbestos exposure was expressed as the product of the eight-hour time weighted average and the total duration of exposure in fibre years (fibres/cubic centimetre-years). Results Data of 7775 (90% of the total) participants working in installations for power generation, power distribution or gas supply could be evaluated. The power generation group (n = 5284) had a mean age of 56 years, were exposed for 20 years and had an average cumulative asbestos exposure of 42 fibre years. The occupational group of "metalworkers" (n = 1600) had the highest mean value of 79 fibre years. The corresponding results for the power distribution group (n = 2491) were a mean age of 45 years, a mean exposure duration of 12 years and an average cumulative asbestos exposure of only 2.5 fibre years. The gas supply workers (n = 512) had a mean age of 54 years and a mean duration of exposure of 15 years. Conclusions While the surveyed cohort as a whole was heavily exposed to asbestos dust, the power distribution group had a mean cumulative exposure of only 6% of that found in the power generation group. Based on the presented data, risk-differentiated disease surveillance focusing on metalworkers and electricians

  20. Electroneuromyographic Features in Fabry Disease: A Retrospective Review

    PubMed Central

    AKPINAR, Çetin Kürşad; TÜRKER, Hande; BAYRAK, Oytun; CENGİZ, Nilgün

    2015-01-01

    can be normal at the early stages. Quantitative sensory test, autonomic tests (R-R interval and sympathetic skin response) and skin biopsy should be performed in such cases. In our country, pediatric physicians work on Fabry disease more than physicians dealing with Fabry disease in adults. Therefore, in this retrospective study, we aimed to draw adult and pediatric neurologists’ attention to Fabry disease.

  1. Endoscopic Septoplasty: A Retrospective Analysis of 415 Cases.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Shreeya V; Kulkarni, Vinay P; Burse, Kiran; Bharath, Manu; Bharadwaj, Chaitanya; Sancheti, Vandana

    2015-09-01

    Nasal obstruction is the most common complaint in nasal and sinus disease. Deviated nasal septum is a very frequently encountered and common cause. Surgical correction of a deviated septum- nasal septoplasty- is the definite treatment for septal deviation. Over the last 2 decades, the applications for endoscopy in the field of rhinology have evolved beyond functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Septoplasty which is among the three most commonly performed procedures in otolaryngology is particularly well suited to endoscopic application. Endoscopic septoplasty as a minimally invasive technique can limit the dissection and minimize trauma to the nasal septal flap under excellent visualization whose primary advantage is to decrease morbidity and post operative swelling in isolated septal deviation by limiting the excision to the area of deviation. This was a retrospective study, conducted in a tertiary care medical college hospital over a period of 5 years. The study group comprised 415 patients in and around Nashik District; who visited our tertiary health centre and were subjected to endoscopic septoplasty. Complete data records from 415 patients were available for statistical analysis. Maximum numbers of patients were in age group 20-39. The youngest patient was 7 years old and oldest was 75 years. Mean age was 32 years. The 7 years old was operated for DCR for congenital NLD block and septoplasty was adjunct procedure. Even the 75 years was operated for DCR. In the present study out of 415 cases, 256 (67.5 %) cases were male and 115 (32.5 %) cases were female. There is a male preponderance in the overall distribution of cases. In the present study of 415 patients, the most common operative procedure done was septoplasty in 260 (62.6 %), FESS with septoplasty in 38 (9.2 %) cases, septorhinopolasty in 41 (9.9 %) cases and DCR with septoplasty in 78 (18.3 %) cases. Endoscopic septoplasty facilitates good access to accomplish endoscopic DCR, FESS, and

  2. Four-year retrospective look for acute scrotal pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Ayvaz, Olga Devrim; Celayir, Aysenur Cerrah; Moralioglu, Serdar; Bosnali, Oktav; Pektas, Osman Zeki; Pelin, Ahmet Koray; Caman, Sefik

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A group of diseases in the scrotum setting forth by the sudden swelling and redness and pain consist of acute scrotal pathologies. The most common causes of acute scrotum in children are epididymitis, epididymo-orchitis, orchitis, testicular torsion, torsion of the appendix testis, incarcerated inguinal hernia and traumatic hydro/hematocele. In this study; we aim to evaulate patients with acute scrotal pathologies who were interned in our department. METHODS: All hospital data of cases who were interned at our deparment due to acute scrotum in between June 2010-June 2014 were evaluated retrospectively. Cases with incarcerated inguinal herni were excluded in this study. RESULTS: In a 4-year-period 114 cases were interned in our department with acute scrotum. Mean age of the patients was 7.6±4.577 years (min: 1m-max: 18yrs). Doppler US was performed in 112 patients to evaluate the blood flow while in 2 patients applied after normal office hours were evaluated without Doppler US and operated under emergency conditions. The patients had received diagnosis of epididymitis/epididymo-orchitis/orchitis (n=83 cases; 72.8%), testicular torsion (n=24; 21.1%), torsion of the appendix testis (n=2; 1.8%) with and traumatic hydrocele/ hematocele (n=5; 4.4%). While detorsion was performed in 18 (75%) cases with testicular torsion and orchiectomy in 6 (25%) cases. Histopathological evaluation of orchiectomy specimens revealed hemorrhagic necrosis and hemorrhagic infarction or ischemic changes. Normal testicular size and vascularity were detected in 11 (61.1%) cases with detorsioned testis as detected by follow-up Doppler US. Late orchiectomy was performed in 7 cases (38.9%) with complete atrophy due to lack of blood supply. CONCLUSION: Although Doppler US is very helpful for differential diagnosis of patients with acute scrotum who applied early period, if Doppler US will lead to a waste of time, direct surgery without delay will reduce the risk of testicular loss. PMID

  3. Retrospective Analysis of Inflight Exercise Loading and Physiological Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Buxton, R. E.; De Witt, J. K.; Guilliams, M. E.; Hanson, A. M.; Peters, B. T.; Pandorf, M. M. Scott; Sibonga, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts perform exercise throughout their missions to counter the health declines that occur as a result of long-term exposure to weightlessness. Although all astronauts perform exercise during their missions, the specific prescriptions, and thus the mechanical loading, differs among individuals. For example, inflight ground reaction force data indicate that subject-specific differences exist in foot forces created when exercising on the second-generation treadmill (T2) [1]. The current exercise devices allow astronauts to complete prescriptions at higher intensities, resulting in greater benefits with increased efficiency. Although physiological outcomes have improved, the specific factors related to the increased benefits are unknown. In-flight exercise hardware collect data that allows for exploratory analyses to determine if specific performance factors relate to physiological outcomes. These analyses are vital for understanding which components of exercise are most critical for optimal human health and performance. The relationship between exercise performance variables and physiological changes during flight has yet to be fully investigated. Identifying the critical performance variables that relate to improved physiological outcomes is vital for creating current and future exercise prescriptions to optimize astronaut health. The specific aims of this project are: 1) To quantify the exercise-related mechanical loading experienced by crewmembers on T2 and ARED during their mission on ISS; 2) To explore relationships between exercise loading variables, bone, and muscle health changes during the mission; 3) To determine if specific mechanical loading variables are more critical than others in protecting physiology; 4) To develop methodology for operational use in monitoring accumulated training loads during crew exercise programs. This retrospective analysis, which is currently in progress, is being conducted using data from astronauts that have flown long

  4. Cardiac device implantation in Fabry disease: A retrospective monocentric study.

    PubMed

    Sené, Thomas; Lidove, Olivier; Sebbah, Joel; Darondel, Jean-Marc; Picard, Hervé; Aaron, Laurent; Fain, Olivier; Zenone, Thierry; Joly, Dominique; Charron, Philippe; Ziza, Jean-Marc

    2016-10-01

    The incidence and predictive factors of arrhythmias and/or conduction abnormalities (ACAs) requiring cardiac device (CD) implantation are poorly characterized in Fabry disease (FD). The aim of our retrospective study was to determine the prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with ACA requiring CD implantation in a monocentric cohort of patients with confirmed FD who were followed up in a department of internal medicine and reference center for FD.Forty-nine patients (20M, 29F) were included. Nine patients (4M, 5F; 18%) had at least one episode of ACA leading to device therapy. Six patients (4M/2F) required a pacemaker (PM) for sinus node dysfunction (n = 4) or atrioventricular disease (n = 2). One female patient required an internal cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) to prevent sudden cardiac death because of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (nSVT). One female patient required PM-ICD for sinus node dysfunction and nSVT. One patient underwent CD implantation before the diagnosis of FD. The annual rate of CD implantation was estimated at 1.90 per 100 person years. On univariate analysis at the end of the follow-up period, the factors associated with ACAs requiring CD implantation were as follows: delayed diagnosis of FD, delayed initiation of enzyme replacement therapy, age at the last follow-up visit, and severe multiorgan phenotype (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, chronic kidney disease, and/or sensorineural hearing loss). On multivariate analysis, age at diagnosis of FD and age at the last follow-up visit were independently associated with an increased risk of ACAs requiring CD (P < 0.05).Considering the high frequency of ACAs requiring CD implantation and the risk of sudden death in patients with FD, regular monitoring is mandatory, especially in patients with a late diagnosis of FD and/or with a severe phenotype. Regular Holter ECGs, therapeutic education of patients, and deliverance of an emergency card including a phenotype summary are

  5. [Retrospective evaluation of 15 cases with psoas abscesses].

    PubMed

    Turunç, Tahsin; Turunç, Tuba; Demiroğlu, Y Ziya; Colakoğlu, Sule

    2009-01-01

    Psoas abscesses are suppurative collections within the fascia surrounding the psoas and iliacus muscles. In this retrospective study it was aimed to evaluate the demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings and treatment outcomes of 15 psoas abscess cases admitted to Baskent University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey during June 2003-January 2008 period. The mean age of the patients was 55.8 years (range 18 to 70 years) with a female to male ratio of 5/10. Thirteen of the cases (86.5%) were admitted with the complaints of fever and back pain. Thirteen of the cases were diagnosed by abdominal computerized tomography while the other two by abdominal ultrasonography. One of the 15 patients was considered as primary psoas abscess, while the remaining 14 as secondary psoas abscess. The most common accompanying disease was diabetes mellitus (66.6%). Fourteen patients with secondary psoas abscess had vertebral osteomyelitis which was due to tuberculosis in five cases, to urinary tract infection in five cases, to pneumoniae in two cases, to surgical infection in one case and to brucellosis in one case. The cultivation of the abscess material from the 14 secondary psoas abscess cases revealed growth of bacteria in 11 of them (5 Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 1 Escherichia coli, 1 methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, 1 methicilin-resistant S. aureus, 1 Acinetobacter baumannii, 1 Brucella melitensis, 1 Serratia marcescens). The biochemical parameters of the cases (mean leukocyte counts: 14.500 cell/mm3; mean erythrocyte sedimentation rates: 78 mm/hour; mean C-reactive protein levels: 108 mg/dl) were also high. Thirteen patients underwent percutaneous drainage and received appropriate antibiotic treatment and the other two patients were treated with open surgical debridement. The duration of antimicrobial treatment was one year for M. tuberculosis cases and about 4-6 weeks in the others. One of the cases died due to complicating meningitis and sepsis. It is

  6. A Retrospective of Four Decades of Military Interest in Thermophotovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guazzoni, Guido; Matthews, Selma

    2004-11-01

    Following a short discussion on the origin of Thermophotovoltaic (TPV), this presentation offers a retrospective of the progress and results of the recurrent efforts in TPV conducted in the United States by the Military during the last 40 years. The US Army's interest in TPV, for the development of portable power sources, started a few years after the energy conversion approach was conceived. TPV technology was seen to offer a solution for the Army's need for power in the 10 to 1500 Watt range. The technology offered the means to overcome the limitation of size and weight found in existing commercial power sources, with the additional advantage of silent and multifuel operation. Hence, the Army invested research and development (R&D) funding to investigate TPV feasibility for tactical field application. After an initial decade of continuous research studies by the Army, the support for this technology has experienced cycles of significant efforts interrupted by temporary waiting periods to allow this technology to further mature. Over the last four decades, several TPV proof of concept systems were developed. The results of their testing and evaluation have demonstrated the feasibility of the technology for development of power sources with output of several watts to a few hundreds watts. To date, the results have not been found to adequately demonstrate the applicability of TPV to the development of military power generators with output above 500 watts. TPV power sources have not been developed yet for Army field use or troop testing. The development risk is still considered to be moderate-to-high since practical-size systems that go beyond the laboratory test units have not been designed, constructed, tested. The greatest need is for system development, along with concurrent continued component development and improvement. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) support for TPV R&D effort has been drastically reduced. The Army is still pursuing a 500

  7. Congenital Zika syndrome with arthrogryposis: retrospective case series study

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Epitacio Leite Rolim; Lins, Otavio Gomes; Aragão, Maria de Fátima Viana Vasco; Brainer-Lima, Alessandra Mertens; Cruz, Danielle Di Cavalcanti Sousa; Rocha, Maria Angela Wanderley; Sobral da Silva, Paula Fabiana; Carvalho, Maria Durce Costa Gomes; do Amaral, Fernando José; Gomes, Joelma Arruda; Ribeiro de Medeiros, Igor Colaço; Ventura, Camila V; Ramos, Regina Coeli

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical, radiological, and electromyographic features in a series of children with joint contractures (arthrogryposis) associated with congenital infection presumably caused by Zika virus. Design Retrospective case series study. Setting Association for Assistance of Disabled Children, Pernambuco state, Brazil. Participants Seven children with arthrogryposis and a diagnosis of congenital infection presumably caused by Zika virus during the Brazilian microcephaly epidemic. Main outcome measures Main clinical, radiological, and electromyographic findings, and likely correlation between clinical and primary neurological abnormalities. Results The brain images of all seven children were characteristic of congenital infection and arthrogryposis. Two children tested positive for IgM to Zika virus in the cerebrospinal fluid. Arthrogryposis was present in the arms and legs of six children (86%) and the legs of one child (14%). Hip radiographs showed bilateral dislocation in seven children, subluxation of the knee associated with genu valgus in three children (43%), which was bilateral in two (29%). All the children underwent high definition ultrasonography of the joints, and there was no evidence of abnormalities. Moderate signs of remodeling of the motor units and a reduced recruitment pattern were found on needle electromyography (monopolar). Five of the children underwent brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the remaining two CT only. All presented malformations of cortical development, calcifications predominantly in the cortex and subcortical white matter (especially in the junction between the cortex and white matter), reduction in brain volume, ventriculomegaly, and hypoplasia of the brainstem and cerebellum. MRI of the spine in four children showed apparent thinning of the cord and reduced ventral roots. Conclusions Congenital Zika syndrome should be added to the differential diagnosis of congenital

  8. A retrospective study on epidemiology of hypoglycemia in Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Juvva Gowtham; Abhilash, K. P. P.; Saya, Rama Prakasha; Tadipaneni, Neeha; Bose, J. Maheedhar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hypoglycemia is one among the leading causes for Emergency Department (ED) visits and is the most common and easily preventable endocrine emergency. This study is aimed at assessing the incidence and elucidating the underlying causes of hypoglycemia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational study which included patients registering in ED with a finger prick blood glucose ≤60 mg/dl at the time of arrival. All patients aged above 15 years with the above inclusion criteria during the period of August 2010 to July 2013 were selected. The study group was categorized based on diabetic status into diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Results: A total of 1196 hypoglycemic episodes encountered at the ED during the study period were included, and of which 772 with complete data were analyzed. Underlying causes for hypoglycemia in the diabetic group (535) mainly included medication related 320 (59.81%), infections 108 (20.19%), and chronic kidney disease 61 (11.40%). Common underlying causes of hypoglycemia in nondiabetic group (237, 30.69%) included infections 107 (45.15%), acute/chronic liver disease 42 (17.72%), and malignancies 22 (9.28%). Among diabetic subjects on antidiabetic medications (n = 320), distribution over 24 h duration clearly reported two peaks at 8th and 21st h. The incidence of hypoglycemia and death per 1000 ED visits were 16.41 and 0.73 in 2011, 16.19 and 0.78 in 2012, 17.20 and 1.22 in 2013 with an average of 16.51 and 0.91, respectively. Conclusion: Bimodal distribution with peaks in incidences of hypoglycemic attacks at 8th and 21st h based on hourly distribution in a day can be correlated with the times just before next meal. None of the patients should leave ED without proper evaluation of the etiology of hypoglycemia and the problem should be addressed at each individual level. Increasing incidence of death over the years is alarming, and further studies are needed to conclude the root cause. PMID:28217510

  9. Surgeon specialization and operative mortality in United States: retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Maurice; Cutler, David M; Birkmeyer, John D; Chandra, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    Objective To measure the association between a surgeon’s degree of specialization in a specific procedure and patient mortality. Design Retrospective analysis of Medicare data. Setting US patients aged 66 or older enrolled in traditional fee for service Medicare. Participants 25 152 US surgeons who performed one of eight procedures (carotid endarterectomy, coronary artery bypass grafting, valve replacement, abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, lung resection, cystectomy, pancreatic resection, or esophagectomy) on 695 987 patients in 2008-13. Main outcome measure Relative risk reduction in risk adjusted and volume adjusted 30 day operative mortality between surgeons in the bottom quarter and top quarter of surgeon specialization (defined as the number of times the surgeon performed the specific procedure divided by his/her total operative volume across all procedures). Results For all four cardiovascular procedures and two out of four cancer resections, a surgeon’s degree of specialization was a significant predictor of operative mortality independent of the number of times he or she performed that procedure: carotid endarterectomy (relative risk reduction between bottom and top quarter of surgeons 28%, 95% confidence interval 0% to 48%); coronary artery bypass grafting (15%, 4% to 25%); valve replacement (46%, 37% to 53%); abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (42%, 29% to 53%); lung resection (28%, 5% to 46%); and cystectomy (41%, 8% to 63%). In five procedures (carotid endarterectomy, valve replacement, lung resection, cystectomy, and esophagectomy), the relative risk reduction from surgeon specialization was greater than that from surgeon volume for that specific procedure. Furthermore, surgeon specialization accounted for 9% (coronary artery bypass grafting) to 100% (cystectomy) of the relative risk reduction otherwise attributable to volume in that specific procedure. Conclusion For several common procedures, surgeon specialization was an important predictor

  10. Complications of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Our Experience from a Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Radunovic, Miodrag; Lazovic, Ranko; Popovic, Natasa; Magdelinic, Milorad; Bulajic, Milutin; Radunovic, Lenka; Vukovic, Marko; Radunovic, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intraoperative and postoperative complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, as well as the frequency of conversions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical records of 740 patients who had laparoscopic cholecystectomy were analysed retrospectively. We evaluated patients for the presence of potential risk factors that could predict the development of complications such as age, gender, body mass index, white blood cell count and C-reactive protein (CRP), gallbladder ultrasonographic findings, and pathohistological analysis of removed gallbladders. The correlation between these risk factors was also analysed. RESULTS: There were 97 (13.1%) intraoperative complications (IOC). Iatrogenic perforations of a gallbladder were the most common complication - 39 patients (5.27%). Among the postoperative complications (POC), the most common ones were bleeding from abdominal cavity 27 (3.64%), biliary duct leaks 14 (1.89%), and infection of the surgical wound 7 patients (0.94%). There were 29 conversions (3.91%). The presence of more than one complication was more common in males (OR = 2.95, CI 95%, 1.42-4.23, p < 0.001). An especially high incidence of complications was noted in patients with elevated white blood cell count (OR = 3.98, CI 95% 1.68-16.92, p < 0.01), and CRP (OR = 2.42, CI 95% 1.23-12.54, p < 0.01). The increased incidence of complications was noted in patients with ultrasonographic finding of gallbladder empyema and increased thickness of the gallbladder wall > 3 mm (OR = 4.63, CI 95% 1.56-17.33, p < 0.001), as well as in patients with acute cholecystitis that was confirmed by pathohistological analysis (OR = 1.75, CI 95% 2.39-16.46, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Adopting laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a new technique for treatment of cholelithiasis, introduced a new spectrum of complications. Major biliary and vascular complications are life threatening, while minor complications cause patient discomfort and prolongation of

  11. Validation of histology image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojaii, Rushin; Karavardanyan, Tigran; Yaffe, Martin; Martel, Anne L.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to validate an image registration pipeline used for histology image alignment. In this work a set of histology images are registered to their correspondent optical blockface images to make a histology volume. Then multi-modality fiducial markers are used to validate the alignment of histology images. The fiducial markers are catheters perfused with a mixture of cuttlefish ink and flour. Based on our previous investigations this fiducial marker is visible in medical images, optical blockface images and it can also be localized in histology images. The properties of this fiducial marker make it suitable for validation of the registration techniques used for histology image alignment. This paper reports on the accuracy of a histology image registration approach by calculation of target registration error using these fiducial markers.

  12. MODEL VALIDATION AND UNCERTAINTY QUANTIFICATION.

    SciTech Connect

    Hemez, F.M.; Doebling, S.W.

    2000-10-01

    This session offers an open forum to discuss issues and directions of research in the areas of model updating, predictive quality of computer simulations, model validation and uncertainty quantification. Technical presentations review the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamics and model validation for structural dynamics. A panel discussion introduces the discussion on technology needs, future trends and challenges ahead with an emphasis placed on soliciting participation of the audience, One of the goals is to show, through invited contributions, how other scientific communities are approaching and solving difficulties similar to those encountered in structural dynamics. The session also serves the purpose of presenting the on-going organization of technical meetings sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and dedicated to health monitoring, damage prognosis, model validation and uncertainty quantification in engineering applications. The session is part of the SD-2000 Forum, a forum to identify research trends, funding opportunities and to discuss the future of structural dynamics.

  13. 45 CFR 233.35 - Computing the assistance payment under retrospective budgeting after the initial one or two...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.35 Computing the assistance payment under retrospective budgeting after... retrospective budgeting after the initial one or two months (AFDC). 233.35 Section 233.35 Public Welfare... retrospective budgeting is used, the State shall not count income from the budget month already considered...

  14. 45 CFR 233.25 - Retrospective budgeting; computing the assistance payment after the initial one or two months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retrospective budgeting; computing the assistance... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.25 Retrospective budgeting; computing the assistance payment after the initial one... assistance under § 233.24, the amount of each subsequent month's payment shall be computed retrospectively,...

  15. All Validity Is Construct Validity. Or Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Paul E. Newton's article on the consensus definition of validity tackles a number of big issues and makes a number of strong claims. I agreed with much of what he said, and I disagreed with a number of his claims, but I found his article to be consistently interesting and thought provoking (whether I agreed or not). I will focus on three general…

  16. Critical validation studies of neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Gruzelier, John; Egner, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    The field of neurofeedback training has proceeded largely without validation. In this article the authors review studies directed at validating sensory motor rhythm, beta and alpha-theta protocols for improving attention, memory, and music performance in healthy participants. Importantly, benefits were demonstrable with cognitive and neurophysiologic measures that were predicted on the basis of regression models of learning to enhance sensory motor rhythm and beta activity. The first evidence of operant control over the alpha-theta ratio is provided, together with remarkable improvements in artistic aspects of music performance equivalent to two class grades in conservatory students. These are initial steps in providing a much needed scientific basis to neurofeedback.

  17. PIV Data Validation Software Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackshire, James L.

    1997-01-01

    A PIV data validation and post-processing software package was developed to provide semi-automated data validation and data reduction capabilities for Particle Image Velocimetry data sets. The software provides three primary capabilities including (1) removal of spurious vector data, (2) filtering, smoothing, and interpolating of PIV data, and (3) calculations of out-of-plane vorticity, ensemble statistics, and turbulence statistics information. The software runs on an IBM PC/AT host computer working either under Microsoft Windows 3.1 or Windows 95 operating systems.

  18. Cost Validation Using PRICE H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, John; Kwan, Eric; Wood, Milana

    2011-01-01

    PRICE H was introduced into the JPL cost estimation tool set circa 2003. It became more available at JPL when IPAO funded the NASA-wide site license for all NASA centers. PRICE H was mainly used as one of the cost tools to validate proposal grassroots cost estimates. Program offices at JPL view PRICE H as an additional crosscheck to Team X (JPL Concurrent Engineering Design Center) estimates. PRICE H became widely accepted ca, 2007 at JPL when the program offices moved away from grassroots cost estimation for Step 1 proposals. PRICE H is now one of the key cost tools used for cost validation, cost trades, and independent cost estimates.

  19. Communication Between Acute Care Hospitals and Skilled Nursing Facilities During Care Transitions: A Retrospective Chart Review.

    PubMed

    Jusela, Cheryl; Struble, Laura; Gallagher, Nancy Ambrose; Redman, Richard W; Ziemba, Rosemary A

    2017-03-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.3 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Communication Between Acute Care Hospitals and Skilled Nursing Facilities During Care Transitions: A Retrospective Chart Review" found on pages 19-28, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until February 29, 2020. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Discuss problematic barriers during care transitions

  20. Demodex dermatitis: a retrospective analysis of clinical diagnosis and successful treatment with topical crotamiton.

    PubMed

    Bikowski, Joseph B; Del Rosso, James Q

    2009-01-01

    Given the reported common occurrence of Demodex dermatitis in the general population, Demodex dermatitis-considered as a separate condition from rosacea and seborrheic dermatitis-was evaluated in a retrospective case analysis.

  1. 76 FR 15859 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... Chapters 5 and 61 Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Office of... Executive Order (EO) 13563, ``Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review.'' E.O. 132563 was signed...

  2. 76 FR 15224 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Labor. ACTION...: E.O. 13653, 76 FR 3821, Jan. 21, 2011; E.O. 12866, 58 FR 51735, Oct. 4, 1993. Dated: March 15,...

  3. 76 FR 40645 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Chapter 14 50 CFR Chapters I and IV Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563... cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. Authority: E.O. 13653, 76 FR 3821, Jan. 21, 2011;...

  4. 76 FR 18104 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Labor. ACTION...: E.O. 13653, 76 FR 3821, Jan. 21, 2011; E.O. 12866, 58 FR 51735, Oct. 4, 1993. William E....

  5. 77 FR 57566 - Announcement of Public Meeting on the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule Retrospective Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Announcement of Public Meeting on the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule Retrospective Review and Request for Public Comment on Potential Approaches to Electronic Delivery of the CCR;...

  6. The validity of recommendations from clinical guidelines: a survival analysis

    PubMed Central

    García, Laura Martínez; Sanabria, Andrea Juliana; Álvarez, Elvira García; Trujillo-Martín, Maria Mar; Etxeandia-Ikobaltzeta, Itziar; Kotzeva, Anna; Rigau, David; Louro-González, Arturo; Barajas-Nava, Leticia; del Campo, Petra Díaz; Estrada, Maria-Dolors; Solà, Ivan; Gracia, Javier; Salcedo-Fernandez, Flavia; Lawson, Jennifer; Haynes, R. Brian; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clinical guidelines should be updated to maintain their validity. Our aim was to estimate the length of time before recommendations become outdated. Methods: We used a retrospective cohort design and included recommendations from clinical guidelines developed in the Spanish National Health System clinical guideline program since 2008. We performed a descriptive analysis of references, recommendations and resources used, and a survival analysis of recommendations using the Kaplan–Meier method. Results: We included 113 recommendations from 4 clinical guidelines with a median of 4 years since the most recent search (range 3.9–4.4 yr). We retrieved 39 136 references (range 3343–14 787) using an exhaustive literature search, 668 of which were related to the recommendations in our sample. We identified 69 (10.3%) key references, corresponding to 25 (22.1%) recommendations that required updating. Ninety-two percent (95% confidence interval 86.9–97.0) of the recommendations were valid 1 year after their development. This probability decreased at 2 (85.7%), 3 (81.3%) and 4 years (77.8%). Interpretation: Recommendations quickly become outdated, with 1 out of 5 recommendations being out of date after 3 years. Waiting more than 3 years to review a guideline is potentially too long. PMID:25200758

  7. The Reliability and Predictive Validity of the Stalking Risk Profile.

    PubMed

    McEwan, Troy E; Shea, Daniel E; Daffern, Michael; MacKenzie, Rachel D; Ogloff, James R P; Mullen, Paul E

    2016-06-14

    This study assessed the reliability and validity of the Stalking Risk Profile (SRP), a structured measure for assessing stalking risks. The SRP was administered at the point of assessment or retrospectively from file review for 241 adult stalkers (91% male) referred to a community-based forensic mental health service. Interrater reliability was high for stalker type, and moderate-to-substantial for risk judgments and domain scores. Evidence for predictive validity and discrimination between stalking recidivists and nonrecidivists for risk judgments depended on follow-up duration. Discrimination was moderate (area under the curve = 0.66-0.68) and positive and negative predictive values good over the full follow-up period (Mdn = 170.43 weeks). At 6 months, discrimination was better than chance only for judgments related to stalking of new victims (area under the curve = 0.75); however, high-risk stalkers still reoffended against their original victim(s) 2 to 4 times as often as low-risk stalkers. Implications for the clinical utility and refinement of the SRP are discussed.

  8. Retrospective record review in proactive patient safety work – identification of no-harm incidents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In contrast to other safety critical industries, well-developed systems to monitor safety within the healthcare system remain limited. Retrospective record review is one way of identifying adverse events in healthcare. In proactive patient safety work, retrospective record review could be used to identify, analyze and gain information and knowledge about no-harm incidents and deficiencies in healthcare processes. The aim of the study was to evaluate retrospective record review for the detection and characterization of no-harm incidents, and compare findings with conventional incident-reporting systems. Methods A two-stage structured retrospective record review of no-harm incidents was performed on a random sample of 350 admissions at a Swedish orthopedic department. Results were compared with those found in one local, and four national incident-reporting systems. Results We identified 118 no-harm incidents in 91 (26.0%) of the 350 records by retrospective record review. Ninety-four (79.7%) no-harm incidents were classified as preventable. The five incident-reporting systems identified 16 no-harm incidents, of which ten were also found by retrospective record review. The most common no-harm incidents were related to drug therapy (n = 66), of which 87.9% were regarded as preventable. Conclusions No-harm incidents are common and often preventable. Retrospective record review seems to be a valuable tool for identifying and characterizing no-harm incidents. Both harm and no-harm incidents can be identified in parallel during the same record review. By adding a retrospective record review of randomly selected records to conventional incident-reporting, health care providers can gain a clearer and broader picture of commonly occurring, no-harm incidents in order to improve patient safety. PMID:23876023

  9. Clinical audit project in undergraduate medical education curriculum: an assessment validation study

    PubMed Central

    Steketee, Carole; Mak, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the merit of the Clinical Audit Project (CAP) in an assessment program for undergraduate medical education using a systematic assessment validation framework. Methods A cross-sectional assessment validation study at one medical school in Western Australia, with retrospective qualitative analysis of the design, development, implementation and outcomes of the CAP, and quantitative analysis of assessment data from four cohorts of medical students (2011- 2014). Results The CAP is fit for purpose with clear external and internal alignment to expected medical graduate outcomes.  Substantive validity in students’ and examiners’ response processes is ensured through relevant methodological and cognitive processes. Multiple validity features are built-in to the design, planning and implementation process of the CAP.  There is evidence of high internal consistency reliability of CAP scores (Cronbach’s alpha > 0.8) and inter-examiner consistency reliability (intra-class correlation>0.7). Aggregation of CAP scores is psychometrically sound, with high internal consistency indicating one common underlying construct.  Significant but moderate correlations between CAP scores and scores from other assessment modalities indicate validity of extrapolation and alignment between the CAP and the overall target outcomes of medical graduates.  Standard setting, score equating and fair decision rules justify consequential validity of CAP scores interpretation and use. Conclusions This study provides evidence demonstrating that the CAP is a meaningful and valid component in the assessment program. This systematic framework of validation can be adopted for all levels of assessment in medical education, from individual assessment modality, to the validation of an assessment program as a whole.  PMID:27716612

  10. Infectious sacroiliitis: a retrospective, multicentre study of 39 adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-brucellar and non-tuberculous infectious sacroiliitis (ISI) is a rare disease, with misleading clinical signs that delay diagnosis. Most observations are based on isolated case reports or small case series. Our aim was to describe the clinical, bacteriological, and radiological characteristics of ISI, as well as the evolution of these arthritis cases under treatment. Methods This retrospective study included all ISI cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 in eight French rheumatology departments. ISI was diagnosed if sacroiliitis was confirmed bacteriologically or, in the absence of pathogenic agents, if clinical, biological, and radiological data was compatible with this diagnosis and evolution was favourable under antibiotic therapy. Results Overall, 39 cases of ISI were identified in adults, comprising 23 women and 16 men, with a mean age at diagnosis of 39.7 ± 18.1 years. The left sacroiliac joint (SI) was affected in 59% of cases, with five cases occurring during the post-partum period. Lumbogluteal pain was the most common symptom (36/39). Manipulations of the SI joint were performed in seven patients and were always painful. Mean score for pain using the visual analogue score was 7.3/10 at admission, while 16 patients were febrile at diagnosis. No risk factor was found for 30.7% of patients. A diagnosis of ISI was only suspected in five cases at admission. The mean time to diagnosis was long, being 43.3 ± 69.1 days on average. Mean C-reactive protein was 149.7 ± 115.3 mg/l, and leukocytosis (leukocytes ≥ 10 G/l) was uncommon (n = 15) (mean level of leukocytes 10.4 ± 3.5 G/l). Radiographs (n = 33) were abnormal in 20 cases, revealing lesions of SI, while an abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scan (n = 27) was abnormal in 21 cases, suggesting arthritis of the SI joints in 13 cases (48.1%) and a psoas abscess in eight. Bone scans (n = 14) showed hyperfixation of the SI in 13 cases. Magnetic

  11. Comparison of retrospective analyses of the global ocean heat content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chepurin, Gennady A.; Carton, James A.

    1999-07-01

    In this study, we compare seven retrospective analyses of basin- to global-scale upper ocean temperature. The analyses span a minimum of 10 years during the 50-year period since World War II. Three of the analyses (WOA-94, WHITE, BMRC) are based on objective analysis and thus, do not rely on a numerical forecast model. The remaining four (NCEP, WAJSOWICZ, ROSATI, SODA) are based on data assimilation in which the numerical forecast is provided by some form of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Modular Ocean Model driven by historical winds. The comparison presented here is limited to heat content in the upper 250 m, information that is available for all analyses. The results are presented in three frequency bands: seasonal, interannual (periods of 1-5 years), and decadal (periods of 5-25 years). At seasonal frequencies, all of the analyses are quite similar. Otherwise, the differences among analyses are limited to the regions of the western boundary currents, and some regions in the Southern Hemisphere. At interannual frequencies, significant differences appear between the objective analyses and the data assimilation analyses. Along the equator in the Pacific, where variability is dominated by El Niño, the objective analyses have somewhat noisier fields, as well as reduced variance prior to 1980 due to lack of observations. Still, the correlation among analyses generally exceeds 80% in this region. Along the equator in the Atlantic, the correlation is lower (30-60%) although inspection of the time series shows that the same biennial progression of warm and cool events appears in all analyses since 1980. In the midlatitude Pacific agreement among objective analyses and data assimilation analyses is good. The analysis of Rosati et al. [Rosati, A., Gudgel, R., Miyakoda, K., 1995. Decadal analysis produced from an ocean assimilation system. Mon. Weather Rev., 123, 2, 206.] differs somewhat from the others apparently because in this analysis, the forecast model

  12. Risk factors associated with postcraniotomy meningitis: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Hua; Chang, Chih-Yen; Lin, Li-Jhen; Chen, Wei Liang; Chang, Yu-Jun; Wang, Shu-Hui; Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Yen, Hua-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Postcraniotomy meningitis (PCM) is a major challenge in neurosurgery, and changing patterns of infectious agents in PCM have been noted. The limited epidemiological data and urgent clinical needs motivated this research. We conducted this study to determine a risk assessment for PCM and the current pattern of infectious agents. We performed a retrospective case-control study of significant cases of postcraniotomy meningitis in the Changhua Christian Hospital System between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2012. Postcraniotomy meningitis was diagnosed in 22 out of 4392 surgical patients; this data was reviewed for risk assessment. This study assessed the risk factors for postcraniotomy meningitis and found that it was more frequently seen in patients who were elderly (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.32–2.98, P = 0.013), underwent emergency procedures (OR = 4.82, 95% CI = 1.50–14.53, P = 0.008), had leak of cerebrospinal fluid (OR = 4.62, 95% CI = 2.03–10.50, P = 0.012), had external ventricular drainage (OR = 4.68, 95% CI = 2.46–8.87, P = 0.006), were admitted to the intensive care unit (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.53–8.08, P = 0.012), had used drain placement >72 hours (OR = 2.66, 95% CI = 1.04–4.29, P = 0.007), had surgery >4.5 hours (OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.39–4.05, P = 0.005), had repeat operations (OR = 2.74, 95% CI = 1.31–5.73, P = 0.018), endured trauma (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = 1.57–17.61, P = 0.007), or had 30-days mortality (OR = 5.07, 95% CI = 2.20–11.48, P = 0.001). The predominant pathogens isolated from cerebrospinal fluid were Staphylococcus aureus in 8 patients (36.7%) and Acinetobacter baumannii in 7 patients (31.8%). In our study, the mortality rate was 5.1% among all postcraniotomy patients. Accurate risk assessment, early diagnosis, and choice of appropriate antibiotics in accordance with epidemiologic information are

  13. Making the Term "Validity" Useful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Daniel Koretz is the Henry Lee Shattuck Professor of Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. His research focuses on educational assessment and policy, particularly the effects of high-stakes testing on educational practice and the validity of score gains. He is the author of "Measuring Up: What Educational Testing Really Tells…

  14. Validation of FRP Matting Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    Civil Engineer Center to validate requirements for using Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) matting as a foreign object debris cover when repairing damaged...19 2.8.2 Type B-3 polymer glue anchor...FOD cover matting solution, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP), was identified as a potential replacement as the USAF airfield damage repair (ADR

  15. Test Bias and Construct Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    The several statistical methods described for detecting test bias in terms of various internal features of a person's test performances and the test's construct validity can be applied to any groups in the population. But the evidence regarding groups other than U.S. blacks and whites is either lacking or is still too sketchy to permit any strong…

  16. Validating LES for Jet Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    Engineers charged with making jet aircraft quieter have long dreamed of being able to see exactly how turbulent eddies produce sound and this dream is now coming true with the advent of large eddy simulation (LES). Two obvious challenges remain: validating the LES codes at the resolution required to see the fluid-acoustic coupling, and the interpretation of the massive datasets that are produced. This paper addresses the former, the use of advanced experimental techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV) and Raman and Rayleigh scattering, to validate the computer codes and procedures used to create LES solutions. This paper argues that the issue of accuracy of the experimental measurements be addressed by cross-facility and cross-disciplinary examination of modern datasets along with increased reporting of internal quality checks in PIV analysis. Further, it argues that the appropriate validation metrics for aeroacoustic applications are increasingly complicated statistics that have been shown in aeroacoustic theory to be critical to flow-generated sound, such as two-point space-time velocity correlations. A brief review of data sources available is presented along with examples illustrating cross-facility and internal quality checks required of the data before it should be accepted for validation of LES.

  17. Genomic validation of national systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    National evaluation centers began testing estimated breeding values (EBVs) several decades ago to determine optimum statistical methods and convince breeders that the chosen methods work properly. In 1998, validation of traditional EBVs became more formal when 3 tests of genetic trend were required ...

  18. Comments on Implementing Validity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafni, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Naomi Gafni, director of Research and Development, National Institute for Testing and Evaluation, Jerusalem, Israel, has devoted a substantial part of her career to the development of admissions tests and other educational tests and to the investigation of their validity. As such she is keenly aware of the complexities involved in this process.…

  19. Validity Issues in Narrative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polkinghorne, Donald E.

    2007-01-01

    Attention to the judgments about the validity of research-generated knowledge claims is integral to all social science research. During the past several decades, knowledge development has been split into two communities: conventional researchers and reformist researchers. Narrative research is positioned within the reformist community. The two…

  20. Testing and validating environmental models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirchner, J.W.; Hooper, R.P.; Kendall, C.; Neal, C.; Leavesley, G.

    1996-01-01

    Generally accepted standards for testing and validating ecosystem models would benefit both modellers and model users. Universally applicable test procedures are difficult to prescribe, given the diversity of modelling approaches and the many uses for models. However, the generally accepted scientific principles of documentation and disclosure provide a useful framework for devising general standards for model evaluation. Adequately documenting model tests requires explicit performance criteria, and explicit benchmarks against which model performance is compared. A model's validity, reliability, and accuracy can be most meaningfully judged by explicit comparison against the available alternatives. In contrast, current practice is often characterized by vague, subjective claims that model predictions show 'acceptable' agreement with data; such claims provide little basis for choosing among alternative models. Strict model tests (those that invalid models are unlikely to pass) are the only ones capable of convincing rational skeptics that a model is probably valid. However, 'false positive' rates as low as 10% can substantially erode the power of validation tests, making them insufficiently strict to convince rational skeptics. Validation tests are often undermined by excessive parameter calibration and overuse of ad hoc model features. Tests are often also divorced from the conditions under which a model will be used, particularly when it is designed to forecast beyond the range of historical experience. In such situations, data from laboratory and field manipulation experiments can provide particularly effective tests, because one can create experimental conditions quite different from historical data, and because experimental data can provide a more precisely defined 'target' for the model to hit. We present a simple demonstration showing that the two most common methods for comparing model predictions to environmental time series (plotting model time series

  1. Epistemic Iterations and Consensus Definitions of Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhard, George, Jr.; Behizadeh, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    In his article, Paul E. Newton has conducted a review of selected perspectives on validity theory with the goal of disambiguating the definition of validity and describing a consensus definition of validity. Newton provides a nuanced discussion of the evolution of the concept of validity over the years. His Focus article has two major goals: (1)…

  2. Validation Methods for Direct Writing Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, M. David; Crocker, Linda

    1990-01-01

    This review of methods for validating writing assessments was conceptualized within a framework suggested by S. Messick (1989) that included five operational components of construct validation: (1) content representativeness; (2) structural fidelity; (3) nomological validity; (4) criterion-related validity; and (5) nomothetic span. (SLD)

  3. The Religious Support Scale: construction, validation, and cross-validation.

    PubMed

    Fiala, William E; Bjorck, Jeffrey P; Gorsuch, Richard

    2002-12-01

    Cutrona and Russell's social support model was used to develop a religious support measure (C. E. Cutrona & D. W. Russell, 1987), including 3 distinct but related subscales respectively measuring support from God, the congregation, and church leadership. Factor analyses with the main sample's data (249 Protestants) and cross-validation (93 additional Protestants) supported the scales' reliability and validity. All 3 types of religious support were related to lower depression and greater life satisfaction. Moreover, several relationships between the 3 subscales and psychological functioning variables remained significant after controlling for variance because of church attendance and social support. Results suggest that religious attendance does not automatically imply religious support, and that religious support can provide unique resources for religious persons, above and beyond those furnished by social support. Findings are discussed regarding relevance to community psychology.

  4. Retrospective study of long-term outcome after brain arteriovenous malformation rupture: the RAP score.

    PubMed

    Shotar, Eimad; Debarre, Matthieu; Sourour, Nader-Antoine; Di Maria, Federico; Gabrieli, Joseph; Nouet, Aurélien; Chiras, Jacques; Degos, Vincent; Clarençon, Frédéric

    2017-01-20

    OBJECTIVE The authors aimed to design a score for stratifying patients with brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) rupture, based on the likelihood of a poor long-term neurological outcome. METHODS The records of consecutive patients with BAVM hemorrhagic events who had been admitted over a period of 11 years were retrospectively reviewed. Independent predictors of a poor long-term outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≥ 3) beyond 1 year after admission were identified. A risk stratification scale was developed and compared with the intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) score to predict poor outcome and inpatient mortality. RESULTS One hundred thirty-five patients with 139 independent hemorrhagic events related to BAVM rupture were included in this analysis. Multivariate logistic regression followed by stepwise analysis showed that consciousness level according to the Glasgow Coma Scale (OR 6.5, 95% CI 3.1-13.7, p < 10(-3)), hematoma volume (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.8, p = 0.005), and intraventricular hemorrhage (OR 7.5, 95% CI 2.66-21, p < 10(-3)) were independently associated with a poor outcome. A 12-point scale for ruptured BAVM prognostication was constructed combining these 3 factors. The score obtained using this new scale, the ruptured AVM prognostic (RAP) score, was a stronger predictor of a poor long-term outcome (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.87, 95% CI 0.8-0.92, p = 0.009) and inpatient mortality (AUC 0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.95, p = 0.006) than the ICH score. For a RAP score ≥ 6, sensitivity and specificity for predicting poor outcome were 76.8% (95% CI 63.6-87) and 90.8% (95% CI 81.9-96.2), respectively. CONCLUSIONS The authors propose a new admission score, the RAP score, dedicated to stratifying the risk of poor long-term outcome after BAVM rupture. This easy-to-use scoring system may help to improve communication between health care providers and consistency in clinical research. Only external prospective cohorts and population

  5. A Retrospective Analysis of Pressure Ulcer Incidence and Modified Braden Scale Score Risk Classifications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Lin; Cao, Ying-Juan; Wang, Jing; Huai, Bao-Sha

    2015-09-01

    The Braden Scale is the most widely used pressure ulcer risk assessment in the world, but the currently used 5 risk classification groups do not accurately discriminate among their risk categories. To optimize risk classification based on Braden Scale scores, a retrospective analysis of all consecutively admitted patients in an acute care facility who were at risk for pressure ulcer development was performed between January 2013 and December 2013. Predicted pressure ulcer incidence first was calculated by logistic regression model based on original Braden score. Risk classification then was modified based on the predicted pressure ulcer incidence and compared between different risk categories in the modified (3-group) classification and the traditional (5-group) classification using chi-square test. Two thousand, six hundred, twenty-five (2,625) patients (mean age 59.8 ± 16.5, range 1 month to 98 years, 1,601 of whom were men) were included in the study; 81 patients (3.1%) developed a pressure ulcer. The predicted pressure ulcer incidence ranged from 0.1% to 49.7%. When the predicted pressure ulcer incidence was greater than 10.0% (high risk), the corresponding Braden scores were less than 11; when the predicted incidence ranged from 1.0% to 10.0% (moderate risk), the corresponding Braden scores ranged from 12 to 16; and when the predicted incidence was less than 1.0% (mild risk), the corresponding Braden scores were greater than 17. In the modified classification, observed pressure ulcer incidence was significantly different between each of the 3 risk categories (P less than 0.05). However, in the traditional classification, the observed incidence was not significantly different between the high-risk category and moderate-risk category (P less than 0.05) and between the mild-risk category and no-risk category (P less than 0.05). If future studies confirm the validity of these findings, pressure ulcer prevention protocols of care based on Braden Scale scores can

  6. Contraceptive Use and Pregnancy Outcomes among Opioid Drug-Using Women: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cornford, Charles S.; Close, Helen J.; Bray, Roz; Beere, Deborah; Mason, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The contraceptive needs of illicit opioid users differ from non-drug users but are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to describe contraceptive use and pregnancy outcomes in opioid-using women, and to examine their association with a range of risk factors. Method This retrospective cohort study used UK general practice records, Treatment Outcomes Profile and National Drug Treatment Monitoring System data, and a nested data validation exercise. A cohort of 376 women aged 20–61 years were in active treatment for opioid addiction in October 2010 at two specialised primary care practices in North-East England. Outcomes were age-adjusted prevalence estimates for contraceptive use and pregnancy outcomes in users of illicit opioids. The association between lifestyle-related risk factors and contraception was explored. Results Drug-using women made lower use of planned (non-condom) contraception (24% vs 50%, p<0.001), had more frequent pregnancy terminations (0.46 vs. 0.025, p = 0.004) and higher annual incidence of chlamydia (1.1% vs. 0.33%, p<0.001), when compared with age-matched population data. Specifically, there was low use of oral contraceptives (4% vs. 25%, p<0.001), IUCD (1% vs. 6%, p<0.001), and sterilisation (7% vs. 6%, p = 0.053), but higher rates of injectable contraceptives (6% vs. 3%, p = 0.003). A total of 64% of children aged <16 years born to this group did not live with their mother. No individual risk factor (such as sex-working) significantly explained the lower use or type of non-condom contraception. Conclusions This is the first study to describe planned contraceptive use among drug-users, as well as the association with a range of risk factors and pregnancy outcomes. The low uptake of planned contraception, set against high rates of terminations and sexually transmitted disease demonstrates the urgent clinical need to improve contraceptive services, informed by qualitative work to explore the values and beliefs influencing

  7. Self-reported ill health in male UK Gulf War veterans: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Rebecca; Maconochie, Noreen; Doyle, Pat

    2004-01-01

    Background Forces deployed to the first Gulf War report more ill health than veterans who did not serve there. Many studies of post-Gulf morbidity are based on relatively small sample sizes and selection bias is often a concern. In a setting where selection bias relating to the ill health of veterans may be reduced, we: i) examined self-reported adult ill health in a large sample of male UK Gulf War veterans and a demographically similar non-deployed comparison group; and ii) explored self-reported ill health among veterans who believed that they had Gulf War syndrome. Methods This study uses data from a retrospective cohort study of reproduction and child health in which a validated postal questionnaire was sent to all UK Gulf War veterans (GWV) and a comparison cohort of Armed Service personnel who were not deployed to the Gulf (NGWV). The cohort for analysis comprises 42,818 males who responded to the questionnaire. Results We confirmed that GWV report higher rates of general ill health. GWV were significantly more likely to have reported at least one new medical symptom or disease since 1990 than NGWV (61% versus 37%, OR 2.7, 95% CI 2.5–2.8). They were also more likely to report higher numbers of symptoms. The strongest associations were for mood swings (OR 20.9, 95%CI 16.2–27.0), memory loss/lack of concentration (OR 19.6, 95% CI 15.5–24.8), night sweats (OR 9.9, 95% CI 6.5–15.2), general fatigue (OR 9.6, 95% CI 8.3–11.1) and sexual dysfunction (OR 4.6, 95%CI 3.2–6.6). 6% of GWV believed they had Gulf War syndrome (GWS), and this was associated with the highest symptom reporting. Conclusions Increased levels of reported ill health among GWV were confirmed. This study was the first to use a questionnaire which did not focus specifically on the veterans' symptoms themselves. Nevertheless, the results are consistent with those of other studies of post-Gulf war illness and thus strengthen overall findings in this area of research. Further examination

  8. Research Design and Statistical Methods in Indian Medical Journals: A Retrospective Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Shabbeer; Yellur, Rajashree; Subramani, Pooventhan; Adiga, Poornima; Gokhale, Manoj; Iyer, Manasa S.; Mayya, Shreemathi S.

    2015-01-01

    Good quality medical research generally requires not only an expertise in the chosen medical field of interest but also a sound knowledge of statistical methodology. The number of medical research articles which have been published in Indian medical journals has increased quite substantially in the past decade. The aim of this study was to collate all evidence on study design quality and statistical analyses used in selected leading Indian medical journals. Ten (10) leading Indian medical journals were selected based on impact factors and all original research articles published in 2003 (N = 588) and 2013 (N = 774) were categorized and reviewed. A validated checklist on study design, statistical analyses, results presentation, and interpretation was used for review and evaluation of the articles. Main outcomes considered in the present study were – study design types and their frequencies, error/defects proportion in study design, statistical analyses, and implementation of CONSORT checklist in RCT (randomized clinical trials). From 2003 to 2013: The proportion of erroneous statistical analyses did not decrease (χ2=0.592, Φ=0.027, p=0.4418), 25% (80/320) in 2003 compared to 22.6% (111/490) in 2013. Compared with 2003, significant improvement was seen in 2013; the proportion of papers using statistical tests increased significantly (χ2=26.96, Φ=0.16, p<0.0001) from 42.5% (250/588) to 56.7 % (439/774). The overall proportion of errors in study design decreased significantly (χ2=16.783, Φ=0.12 p<0.0001), 41.3% (243/588) compared to 30.6% (237/774). In 2013, randomized clinical trials designs has remained very low (7.3%, 43/588) with majority showing some errors (41 papers, 95.3%). Majority of the published studies were retrospective in nature both in 2003 [79.1% (465/588)] and in 2013 [78.2% (605/774)]. Major decreases in error proportions were observed in both results presentation (χ2=24.477, Φ=0.17, p<0.0001), 82.2% (263/320) compared to 66.3% (325

  9. Lymph node dissection for Siewert II esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma: A retrospective study of 3 surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiao-Feng; Yue, Jie; Tang, Peng; Shang, Xiao-Bin; Jiang, Hong-Jing; Yu, Zhen-Tao

    2017-02-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the application of right thansthoracic Ivor-Lewis (IL), left transthoracic (LTT), and left thoracoabdominal (LTA) approach in Siewert type II adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction (AEG).The data of 196 patients with Siewert type II AEG received surgical resection in our cancer center between January 2014 and April 2016 was retrospectively analyzed. Finally, 136 patients met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study and divided into the IL (47 cases), LTT (51 cases), and LTA group (38 cases). Clinical and short-term treatment effects were compared among the 3 groups.The patients with weight loss, diabetes, and heart disease increased in the LTT group (P = 0.054, P = 0.075, and P = 0.063, respectively). Operation time was significantly longest in the IL group (P < 0.001), but the amount of bleeding and tumor size did not significantly differ among the 3 groups (P = 0.176 and P = 0.228, respectively). The IL group had the significantly longest proximal surgical margin (P < 0.001) and most number of total (P < 0.001) and thoracic lymph nodes (P < 0.001) dissected. Both the IL and LTA groups had more abdominal lymph nodes dissected than the LTT group (P < 0.001). In general, the IL and LTT groups had the highest dissection rates of every station of thoracic (P < 0.05) and lower mediastinal lymph nodes (P < 0.05), respectively. The dissection rate of the paracardial, left gastric artery, and gastric lesser curvature lymph nodes did not differ significantly among the 3 groups (P > 0.05), but the dissection rate of the hepatic artery, splenic artery, and celiac trunk lymph nodes was significantly highest in the IL group (P < 0.05). Postoperative hospital stay, perioperative complications, and mortality did not differ significantly among the 3 groups (P > 0.05).Compared with the traditional left transthoracic approach, the Ivor-Lewis approach did not increase

  10. Research design and statistical methods in Indian medical journals: a retrospective survey.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Shabbeer; Yellur, Rajashree; Subramani, Pooventhan; Adiga, Poornima; Gokhale, Manoj; Iyer, Manasa S; Mayya, Shreemathi S

    2015-01-01

    Good quality medical research generally requires not only an expertise in the chosen medical field of interest but also a sound knowledge of statistical methodology. The number of medical research articles which have been published in Indian medical journals has increased quite substantially in the past decade. The aim of this study was to collate all evidence on study design quality and statistical analyses used in selected leading Indian medical journals. Ten (10) leading Indian medical journals were selected based on impact factors and all original research articles published in 2003 (N = 588) and 2013 (N = 774) were categorized and reviewed. A validated checklist on study design, statistical analyses, results presentation, and interpretation was used for review and evaluation of the articles. Main outcomes considered in the present study were - study design types and their frequencies, error/defects proportion in study design, statistical analyses, and implementation of CONSORT checklist in RCT (randomized clinical trials). From 2003 to 2013: The proportion of erroneous statistical analyses did not decrease (χ2=0.592, Φ=0.027, p=0.4418), 25% (80/320) in 2003 compared to 22.6% (111/490) in 2013. Compared with 2003, significant improvement was seen in 2013; the proportion of papers using statistical tests increased significantly (χ2=26.96, Φ=0.16, p<0.0001) from 42.5% (250/588) to 56.7 % (439/774). The overall proportion of errors in study design decreased significantly (χ2=16.783, Φ=0.12 p<0.0001), 41.3% (243/588) compared to 30.6% (237/774). In 2013, randomized clinical trials designs has remained very low (7.3%, 43/588) with majority showing some errors (41 papers, 95.3%). Majority of the published studies were retrospective in nature both in 2003 [79.1% (465/588)] and in 2013 [78.2% (605/774)]. Major decreases in error proportions were observed in both results presentation (χ2=24.477, Φ=0.17, p<0.0001), 82.2% (263/320) compared to 66.3% (325/490) and

  11. Methodology for Validating Building Energy Analysis Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Wortman, D.; O'Doherty, B.; Burch, J.

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this report was to develop a validation methodology for building energy analysis simulations, collect high-quality, unambiguous empirical data for validation, and apply the validation methodology to the DOE-2.1, BLAST-2MRT, BLAST-3.0, DEROB-3, DEROB-4, and SUNCAT 2.4 computer programs. This report covers background information, literature survey, validation methodology, comparative studies, analytical verification, empirical validation, comparative evaluation of codes, and conclusions.

  12. A retrospective case-control analysis of 2002 running injuries

    PubMed Central

    Taunton, J; Ryan, M; Clement, D; McKenzie, D; Lloyd-Smith, D; Zumbo, B

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To provide an extensive and up to date database for specific running related injuries, across the sexes, as seen at a primary care sports medicine facility, and to assess the relative risk for individual injuries based on investigation of selected risk factors. Methods: Patient data were recorded by doctors at the Allan McGavin Sports Medicine Centre over a two year period. They included assessment of anthropometric, training, and biomechanical information. A model was constructed (with odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals) of possible contributing factors using a dependent variable of runners with a specific injury and comparing them with a control group of runners who experienced a different injury. Variables included in the model were: height, weight, body mass index, age, activity history, weekly activity, history of injury, and calibre of runner. Results: Most of the study group were women (54%). Some injuries occurred with a significantly higher frequency in one sex. Being less than 34 years old was reported as a risk factor across the sexes for patellofemoral pain syndrome, and in men for iliotibial band friction syndrome, patellar tendinopathy, and tibial stress syndrome. Being active for less than 8.5 years was positively associated with injury in both sexes for tibial stress syndrome; and women with a body mass index less than 21 kg/m2 were at a significantly higher risk for tibial stress fractures and spinal injuries. Patellofemoral pain syndrome was the most common injury, followed by iliotibial band friction syndrome, plantar fasciitis, meniscal injuries of the knee, and tibial stress syndrome. Conclusions: Although various risk factors were shown to be positively associated with a risk for, or protection from, specific injuries, future research should include a non-injured control group and a more precise measure of weekly running distance and running experience to validate these results. PMID:11916889

  13. Statistical validation of earthquake related observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossobokov, V. G.

    2011-12-01

    optional "antipodal strategy", one can make the predictions efficient, so that the wins will systematically outscore the losses. Sounds easy, however, many precursor phenomena are lacking info on a rigorous control and, in many cases, even the necessary precondition of any scientific study, i.e., an unambiguous definition of "precursor/signal". On the other hand, understanding the complexity of seismic process along with its non-stationary hierarchically organized behaviors, has led already to reproducible intermediate-term middle-range earthquake prediction technique that has passed control test in forward real-time applications during at least the last two decades. In particular, place and time of each of the mega earthquakes of 27 February 2010 in Chile and 11 March 2011 in Japan were recognized as in state of increased probability of such events in advance their occurrences in the ongoing since 1992 Global Test of the algorithms M8 and MSc. These evidences, in conjunction with a retrospective analysis of seismic activity preceding 26 December 2004 in the Indian Ocean and other mega earthquakes of the 20th century, give grounds for assuming that the algorithms of validated effectiveness in magnitude ranges M7.5+ and M8.0+ are applicable to predict the mega-earthquakes as well.

  14. CTF Void Drift Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Salko, Robert K.; Gosdin, Chris; Avramova, Maria N.; Gergar, Marcus

    2015-10-26

    This milestone report is a summary of work performed in support of expansion of the validation and verification (V&V) matrix for the thermal-hydraulic subchannel code, CTF. The focus of this study is on validating the void drift modeling capabilities of CTF and verifying the supporting models that impact the void drift phenomenon. CTF uses a simple turbulent-diffusion approximation to model lateral cross-flow due to turbulent mixing and void drift. The void drift component of the model is based on the Lahey and Moody model. The models are a function of two-phase mass, momentum, and energy distribution in the system; therefore, it is necessary to correctly model the ow distribution in rod bundle geometry as a first step to correctly calculating the void distribution due to void drift.

  15. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation

    PubMed Central

    Petrides, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures’ convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment. PMID:27409773

  16. Network testbed creation and validation

    DOEpatents

    Thai, Tan Q.; Urias, Vincent; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; Watts, Kristopher K.; Sweeney, Andrew John

    2017-03-21

    Embodiments of network testbed creation and validation processes are described herein. A "network testbed" is a replicated environment used to validate a target network or an aspect of its design. Embodiments describe a network testbed that comprises virtual testbed nodes executed via a plurality of physical infrastructure nodes. The virtual testbed nodes utilize these hardware resources as a network "fabric," thereby enabling rapid configuration and reconfiguration of the virtual testbed nodes without requiring reconfiguration of the physical infrastructure nodes. Thus, in contrast to prior art solutions which require a tester manually build an emulated environment of physically connected network devices, embodiments receive or derive a target network description and build out a replica of this description using virtual testbed nodes executed via the physical infrastructure nodes. This process allows for the creation of very large (e.g., tens of thousands of network elements) and/or very topologically complex test networks.

  17. Large-scale retrospective evaluation of regulated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry bioanalysis projects using different total error approaches.

    PubMed

    Tan, Aimin; Saffaj, Taoufiq; Musuku, Adrien; Awaiye, Kayode; Ihssane, Bouchaib; Jhilal, Fayçal; Sosse, Saad Alaoui; Trabelsi, Fethi

    2015-03-01

    The current approach in regulated LC-MS bioanalysis, which evaluates the precision and trueness of an assay separately, has long been criticized for inadequate balancing of lab-customer risks. Accordingly, different total error approaches have been proposed. The aims of this research were to evaluate the aforementioned risks in reality and the difference among four common total error approaches (β-expectation, β-content, uncertainty, and risk profile) through retrospective analysis of regulated LC-MS projects. Twenty-eight projects (14 validations and 14 productions) were randomly selected from two GLP bioanalytical laboratories, which represent a wide variety of assays. The results show that the risk of accepting unacceptable batches did exist with the current approach (9% and 4% of the evaluated QC levels failed for validation and production, respectively). The fact that the risk was not wide-spread was only because the precision and bias of modern LC-MS assays are usually much better than the minimum regulatory requirements. Despite minor differences in magnitude, very similar accuracy profiles and/or conclusions were obtained from the four different total error approaches. High correlation was even observed in the width of bias intervals. For example, the mean width of SFSTP's β-expectation is 1.10-fold (CV=7.6%) of that of Saffaj-Ihssane's uncertainty approach, while the latter is 1.13-fold (CV=6.0%) of that of Hoffman-Kringle's β-content approach. To conclude, the risk of accepting unacceptable batches was real with the current approach, suggesting that total error approaches should be used instead. Moreover, any of the four total error approaches may be used because of their overall similarity. Lastly, the difficulties/obstacles associated with the application of total error approaches in routine analysis and their desirable future improvements are discussed.

  18. When are person tradeoffs valid?

    PubMed Central

    Doctor, Jason N.; Miyamoto, John; Bleichrodt, Han

    2009-01-01

    The person tradeoff (PTO) is commonly used in health economic applications. However, to date it has no theoretical basis. The purpose of this paper is to provide this basis from a set of assumptions that together justify the most common applications of the PTO method. Our analysis identifies the central assumptions in PTO measurements. We test these assumptions in an experiment, but find only limited support for the validity of the PTO. PMID:19683816

  19. Lase Validation Experiment. Pt-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garstang, Michael

    1999-01-01

    This report discusses the work done in validation the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) data. This data was analyzed and compared to data from the RS-80 radiosonde. After an error was found and corrected in the programs used to analyze the LASE data, the results were closer to the results expected. The interpretation of the LASE measurements was based on the use of the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model. This work is further described in the report.

  20. Simulation Validation for Societal Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    144 Figure 19. WIZER Working Together with ORA and DyNet ........................................ 163 Figure...how WIZER can work together with existing tools in COS such as AutoMap, ORA, and DyNet . Chapter 9 positions WIZER and its contributions in Computer...called DyNet (Carley, Reminga, and Kamneva 2003) which includes an agent removal feature. 136 The validations above were done semi-automatically