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Sample records for eczema retrospective study

  1. Alitretinoin and acitretin in severe chronic hand eczema; results from a retrospective daily practice study.

    PubMed

    Politiek, Klaziena; Christoffers, Wietske Andrea; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise Anna

    2016-09-01

    Acitretin has been used off-label for years to treat chronic hand eczema, but acitretin is less often prescribed as alitretinoïne was approved. This study evaluates both retinoids in a daily practice cohort of patients with severe chronic hand eczema in terms of drug survival and reasons for discontinuation. Patients using alitretinoin or acitretin between 01-01-1994 and 01-08-2015 were included in this retrospective daily practice study and analyzed by Kaplan-Meier drug survival curves. Potential determinants were analyzed by Cox regression analyses. Ninety-five patients were treated with alitretinoin and 109 patients with acitretin. The main reasons for discontinuation were adverse events and cleared hand eczema, 29.5 and 27.4% in alitretinoin versus 43.1 and 23.9% in acitretin. Patients with hyperkeratotic hand eczema had most often a good effect of treatment: 68.3% in alitretinoin and 50.7% in acitretin treatment. The drug survival rates of alitretinoin and acitretin after 12, 24, 36, and 52 weeks were 69.3, 45.1, 19.6, 7.0% and 74.3, 45.5, 33.8, 23.2%, respectively. Alitretinoin and acitretin are effective treatment options for patients with hand eczema. However, both treatments were more effective in patients with hyperkeratotic hand eczema. Fewer patients discontinued alitretinoin compared with acitretin due to adverse events.

  2. Molluscum contagiosum and associations with atopic eczema in children: a retrospective longitudinal study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Jonathan R; Piguet, Vincent; Gallacher, John; Francis, Nick A

    2016-01-01

    Background Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a common skin condition in children. Consultation rates and current management in primary care, and how these have changed over time, are poorly described. An association between the presence of atopic eczema (AE) and MC has been shown, but the subsequent risk of developing MC in children with a diagnosis of AE is not known. Aim To describe the consultation rate and management of MC in general practice in the UK over time, and test the hypothesis that a history of AE increases the risk of developing MC in childhood. Design and setting Two studies are reported: a retrospective longitudinal study of MC cases and an age–sex matched case-cohort study of AE cases, both datasets being held in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink from 2004 to 2013. Method Data of all recorded MC and AE primary care consultations for children aged 0 to 14 years were collected and two main analyses were conducted using these data: a retrospective longitudinal analysis and an age–sex matched case-cohort analysis. Results The rate of MC consultations in primary care for children aged 0 to 14 years is 9.5 per 1000 (95% CI = 9.4 to 9.6). The greatest rate of consultations for both sexes is in children aged 1–4 years and 5–9 years (13.1 to 13.0 (males) and 13.0 to 13.9 (females) per 1000 respectively). Consultation rates for MC have declined by 50% from 2004 to 2013. Children were found to be more likely to have an MC consultation if they had previously consulted a GP with AE (OR 1.13; 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.16; P<0.005). Conclusion Consultations for MC in primary care are common, especially in 1–9-year-olds, but they declined significantly during the decade under study. A primary care diagnosis of AE is associated with an increased risk of a subsequent primary care diagnosis of MC. PMID:26639950

  3. Eczema

    MedlinePlus

    Eczema is a term for several different types of skin swelling. Eczema is also called dermatitis. Most types cause dry, ... red, and to swell and itch even more. Eczema is not contagious. The cause is not known. ...

  4. Eczema

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Eczema, as defined by the World Allergy Organization (WAO) revised nomenclature in 2003, affects 15% to 20% of school children and 2% to 5% of adults worldwide. About 50% of people with eczema demonstrate atopy, with specific immunoglobulin E responses to allergens. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of topical medical treatments, and dietary interventions in adults and children with established eczema? What are the effects of breastfeeding, reducing allergens, or dietary interventions for primary prevention of eczema in predisposed infants? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 54 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: breastfeeding, controlling house dust mites, corticosteroids, dietary exclusion of eggs or cow's milk, elementary diets, emollients, essential fatty oils, few-foods diet, multivitamins, pimecrolimus, probiotics, pyridoxine, reducing maternal dietary allergens, tacrolimus, vitamin E, and zinc supplements. PMID:21609512

  5. Eczema

    MedlinePlus

    ... concerns. Additional Resources American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology American Academy of Dermatology American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology National Eczema Association National Institute of Arthritis and ...

  6. Eczema May Leave Some Flu Shots Less Effective, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163564.html Eczema May Leave Some Flu Shots Less Effective, Study Finds Vaccine should be ... MONDAY, Feb. 13, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- It's still flu season, and not too late to get your ...

  7. Studies on dermographometry in atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Hornstein, O P; Heyer, G; Langenstein, B

    1989-01-01

    The usual method of investigating dermatographism (D), which is typically white in atopic eczema (AE), allows only a qualitative rating. To allow reproducible quantification of D we have developed an easily usable device termed Dermography. This can be fitted with one to three blunt tapered metal bars of different weight applying a constant stretching pressure over the whole skin area to be examined with different pressures at isolated lines. We used this device to study D in 27 patients with AE and in 20 healthy controls. Of the 27 patients, 21 had white D, 2 had red D, and 4 none at each pressure applied. In 18 of the 20 controls D was red. Both groups differed significantly with regard to the time until the onset of D and its duration, the former being prolonged and the latter shortened in patients with AE. Simultaneous and constant application of distinct grades of pressure for quantitative dermographometry is a method than can reliably be used for the study of inter- and intraindividual variations in vascular reactivity.

  8. Associations of childhood eczema severity: A US population based study

    PubMed Central

    Silverberg, Jonathan I.; Simpson, Eric L.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about predictors of eczema severity in the US population. We sought to determine the distribution and associations of childhood eczema severity in the US. We analyzed data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a prospective questionnaire-based study of a nationally representative sample of 91,642 children (0-17yr). The prevalence of childhood eczema was 12.97% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]=12.42–13.53); 67.0% (95% CI: 64.8–69.2) had mild, 26.0% (95% CI: 23.9–28.1) moderate and 7.0% (95% CI: 5.8–8.3) severe disease. There was significant statewide-variation of the distribution of eczema severity (Rao-Scott chi square, P=0.004), with highest rates of severe disease in Northeastern and Midwestern states. In univariate models, eczema severity was increased with older age, African-American and Hispanic race/ethnicity, lower household income, oldest child in the family, home with a single mother, lower paternal/maternal education level, maternal general health, maternal/paternal emotional health, dilapidated housing and garbage on the streets. In multivariate survey logistic regression models using stepwise and backward selection, moderate–severe eczema was associated with older age, lower household income and fair or poor maternal health, but inversely associated with birthplace outside the US. These data indicate that environmental and/or lifestyle factors play an important role in eczema severity. PMID:24819283

  9. Immunological studies of herpes simplex virus infection in children with atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Goodyear, H M; McLeish, P; Randall, S; Buchan, A; Skinner, G R; Winther, M; Rolland, J; Morgan, G; Harper, J I

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the role of immune defence mechanisms in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in atopic eczema and whether impairment of these mechanisms explains the susceptibility of some children with atopic eczema to cutaneous HSV infections. Ten children with eczema herpeticum and 13 with atopic eczema and recurrent HSV infection affecting multiple skin sites were studied, together with relevant control groups. In all children with atopic eczema, in vitro lymphoproliferation in response to stimulation with concanavalin A (Con A) was significantly decreased and natural killer (NK) cells (CD16 + 56) were reduced compared with non-atopic controls. IL-2 receptors, a marker for lymphocyte activation, were decreased during the acute phase of eczema herpeticum, and for 1 month thereafter. A positive stimulation index (> 3) to HSV antigen, and high HSV IgG antibody titres measured by ELISA, Western blotting and neutralization assay, were seen in children with eczema herpeticum by 6 weeks, and also in children with atopic eczema and recurrent HSV infections. No evidence of an HSV-specific immune defect (either cell-mediated or humoral) was found in atopic eczema. Impairment of cell-mediated immunity in atopic eczema was suggested by the reduced response to Con A. It is likely that reduced numbers of circulating NK cells and a decrease in IL-2 receptors during early eczema herpeticum contribute to the susceptibility of children with atopic eczema to cutaneous HSV infections.

  10. Clinical and contact allergological observations on hand eczema: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, S; Agrawal, S; Rijal, A

    2014-09-01

    Hand eczema (HE) is a common and distressing condition that is perplexing to the patient and the physician alike. To study the frequency and clinical features of hand eczema and to correlate the frequency of atopy and contact sensitization with different clinical features a total of 61 clinically diagnosed patient of Hand eczema were included within a period of one year. Patch test was done in 47 patients and graded accordingly. The frequency of hand eczema was 0.57%. Morphologically pompholyx was the most common type while aetiologically endogenous hand eczema was the commonest. Contact allergy was observed in 55.3% of the cases of which nickel sulphate (18.5%) was found to be the commonest sensitiser followed by Gentamicin and Fragrance mix though contact allergens with positive patch test in different morphological types of hand eczema have no apparent relevance but it still could contribute to the persistence or exacerbation of hand eczema.

  11. Hand Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Uma Shankar; Besarwal, Raj Kumar; Gupta, Rahul; Agarwal, Puneet; Napalia, Sheetal

    2014-01-01

    Hand eczema is often a chronic, multifactorial disease. It is usually related to occupational or routine household activities. Exact etiology of the disease is difficult to determine. It may become severe enough and disabling to many of patients in course of time. An estimated 2-10% of population is likely to develop hand eczema at some point of time during life. It appears to be the most common occupational skin disease, comprising 9-35% of all occupational diseases and up to 80% or more of all occupational contact dermatitis. So, it becomes important to find the exact etiology and classification of the disease and to use the appropriate preventive and treatment measures. Despite its importance in the dermatological practice, very few Indian studies have been done till date to investigate the epidemiological trends, etiology, and treatment options for hand eczema. In this review, we tried to find the etiology, epidemiology, and available treatment modalities for chronic hand eczema patients. PMID:24891648

  12. Contact Allergens Causing Hand Eczema in Ethnic Kashmiri Population: A Study of 7-years

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hand eczema is one of the commonest eczemas encountered in dermatology practice. Contact allergens responsible for causing hand eczema vary from one geographical area of the world to another. Aim: The study tries to identify the commonest allergens causing hand eczema in ethnic Kashmiri population. Material and Methods: A total of 800 patients were patch tested at a sole patch testing facility for the local population over a 7-year period out of which 278 were diagnosed with hand eczema. The morphological type of hand eczema was noted and the patch testing results were analyzed. Past or present relevance of the patch-test result to the clinical diagnosis was also analyzed. Results: Hand eczema was the most common type of eczema patch tested over the 7-year period, constituting 34.75% of the patch-tested population. A positive patch-test result was obtained in 135 patients (48.5%) out of which it was found to be clinically relevant in about 65% cases. Nickel and potassium dichromate were found to be the two commonest allergens causing hand eczema in our population with positive patch test reactions in 45 and 27 patients respectively. Females showed a much higher incidence of hand eczema as well as higher patch test positivity than males (54.1% vs. 38.1%). Conclusions: Hand eczema with a positive patch-test report was found to be much more common in females than males and nickel and potassium dichromate were seen to be the commonest allergens causing hand eczema in ethnic Kashmiri population. PMID:26955125

  13. Eczema Is Associated with Childhood Speech Disorder: A Retrospective Analysis from the National Survey of Children’s Health and the National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Strom, Mark A.; Silverberg, Jonathan I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine if eczema is associated with an increased risk of a speech disorder. Study design We analyzed data on 354 416 children and adolescents from 19 US population-based cohorts: the 2003–2004 and 2007–2008 National Survey of Children’s Health and 1997–2013 National Health Interview Survey, each prospective, questionnaire-based cohorts. Results In multivariate survey logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographics and comorbid allergic disease, eczema was significantly associated with higher odds of speech disorder in 12 of 19 cohorts (P < .05). The pooled prevalence of speech disorder in children with eczema was 4.7% (95% CI 4.5%–5.0%) compared with 2.2% (95% CI 2.2%–2.3%) in children without eczema. In pooled multivariate analysis, eczema was associated with increased odds of speech disorder (aOR [95% CI] 1.81 [1.57–2.05], P < .001). In a single study assessing eczema severity, mild (1.36 [1.02–1.81], P = .03) and severe eczema (3.56 [1.70–7.48], P < .001) were associated with higher odds of speech disorder. History of eczema was associated with moderate (2.35 [1.34–4.10], P = .003) and severe (2.28 [1.11–4.72], P = .03) speech disorder. Finally, significant interactions were found, such that children with both eczema and attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity or sleep disturbance had vastly increased risk of speech disorders than either by itself. Conclusions Pediatric eczema may be associated with increased risk of speech disorder. Further, prospective studies are needed to characterize the exact nature of this association. PMID:26520915

  14. Systematic review of cost-of-illness studies in hand eczema.

    PubMed

    Politiek, Klaziena; Oosterhaven, Jart A F; Vermeulen, Karin M; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A

    2016-08-01

    The individual burden of disease in hand eczema patients is considerable. However, little is known about the socio-economic impact of this disease. The aims of this review were to evaluate the literature on cost-of-illness in hand eczema, and to compose a checklist for future use. The literature was retrieved from the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to October 2015. Quality evaluation was based on seven relevant items in cost-of-illness studies. Cost data (direct and indirect) were extracted and converted into euros (2014 price level) by use of the Dutch Consumer Price Index. Six articles were included. The mean annual total cost per patient ranged from €1712 to €9792 (direct cost per patient, €521 to €3829; and indirect cost per patient, €100 to €6846). Occupational hand eczema patients showed indirect costs up to 70% of total costs, mainly because of absenteeism. A large diversity in hand eczema severity was found between studies. The socio-economic burden of hand eczema is considerable, especially for more severe and/or occupational hand eczema. Absenteeism from paid work leads to a high total cost-of-illness, although disregard of presenteeism often leads to underestimation of indirect costs. Differences in included cost components, the occupational status of patients and hand eczema severity make international comparison difficult. A checklist was added to standardize the approach to cost-of-illness studies in hand eczema.

  15. Breastfeeding and atopic eczema in Japanese infants: The Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Kiyohara, Chikako; Ohya, Yukihiro; Fukushima, Wakaba; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Hirota, Yoshio

    2009-05-01

    Epidemiological studies associated with breastfeeding have provided conflicting results about whether it is preventive or a risk factor for atopic eczema in children. The current prospective study investigated the relationship between breastfeeding and the risk of atopic eczema in Japan. A birth cohort of 763 infants was followed. The first survey during pregnancy and the second survey between 2 and 9 months postpartum collected information on potential confounding factors and atopic eczema status. Data on breastfeeding and symptoms of atopic eczema were obtained from questionnaires in the third survey from 16 to 24 months postpartum. The following variables were a priori selected as potential confounders: maternal age, maternal and paternal history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis, indoor domestic pets (cats, dogs, birds, or hamsters), family income, maternal and paternal education, maternal smoking during pregnancy, baby's sex, baby's birth weight, baby's older siblings, household smoking in the same room as the infant, and time of delivery before the third survey. In the third survey, 142 infants (18.6%) were revealed to have developed atopic eczema based on criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. In an overall analysis, neither exclusive nor partial breastfeeding was significantly related to the risk of atopic eczema. After excluding 64 infants identified with suspected atopic eczema in the second survey, both exclusive breastfeeding for 4 months or more and partial breastfeeding for 6 months or more were independently associated with an increased risk of atopic eczema only among infants with no parental history of allergic disorders [multivariate odds ratios were 2.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-5.55) and 3.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.20-12.36), respectively]. The authors found that, overall, neither exclusive nor partial breastfeeding had a strong impact on the risk of atopic eczema. However, a parental

  16. Suicidal ideation, mental health problems, and social function in adolescents with eczema: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Jon A; Lien, Lars; Dalgard, Florence; Bjertness, Espen; Stern, Robert S

    2014-07-01

    There are few studies on psychosocial problems in adolescents with eczema. We performed a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study to explore the relationship of suicidal ideation, mental health problems, and social functioning with eczema. A total of 4,744 adolescents (18-19 years) were invited for the study, of whom 3,775 (80%) participated. The overall prevalence of current eczema was 9.7%. Among those with current eczema, 15.5% reported suicidal ideation compared with 9.1% among those without eczema, significantly associated in a multivariate model (odds ratio 1.87, 95% confidence interval 1.31-2.68). In a subgroup analyses, the prevalence of suicidal ideation in those with both eczema and itch was 23.8%, and was significantly associated, compared with those without eczema (3.57, 2.46-5.67). Eczema was associated with mental health problems assessed by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (1.72, 1.21-2.45) and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10 (1.63, 1.23-2.16). Five questions assessed social function: feeling attached to family and friends; thriving at school; experiencing bullying; and romantic relationships. Boys with current eczema were less likely to have had romantic relationships (1.93, 1.21-3.08). Eczema in late adolescence is associated with suicidal ideation and mental health problems but rarely with social problems. Our findings point to the importance of addressing mental health issues in adolescents with eczema.

  17. Eczema and sensitization to common allergens in the United States: a multiethnic, population-based study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Teresa; Keiser, Elizabeth; Linos, Eleni; Rotatori, Robert M; Sainani, Kristin; Lingala, Bharathi; Lane, Alfred T; Schneider, Lynda; Tang, Jean Y

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between food and environmental allergens in contributing to eczema risk is unclear on a multiethnic population level. Our purpose was to determine whether sensitization to specific dietary and environmental allergens as measured according to higher specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels is associated with eczema risk in children. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants ages 1 to 17 years were asked whether they had ever received a diagnosis of eczema from a physician (n = 538). Total and specific serum IgE levels for four dietary allergens (egg, cow's milk, peanut, and shrimp) and five environmental allergens (dust mite, cat, dog, Aspergillus, and Alternaria) were measured. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between eczema and IgE levels. In the United States, 10.4 million children (15.6%) have a history of eczema. Eczema was more common in black children (p < 0.001) and in children from families with higher income and education (p = 0.01). The median total IgE levels were higher in children with a history of eczema than in those without (66.4 vs 50.6 kU/L, p = 0.004). In multivariate analysis adjusted for age, race, sex, family income, household education, and physician-diagnosed asthma, eczema was significantly associated with sensitization to cat dander (odds ratio [OR] = 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05, 1.4, p = 0.009) and dog dander (OR = 1.5, 95% CI, 1.2, 1.7, p < 0.001). After correction for multiple comparisons, only sensitization to dog dander remained significant. U.S. children with eczema are most likely to be sensitized to dog dander. Future prospective studies should further explore this relationship.

  18. Association Between TSLP Polymorphisms and Eczema in Japanese Women: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Hitsumoto, Shinichi; Tanaka, Keiko; Arakawa, Masashi

    2015-08-01

    We examined the association between thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and eczema in young adult Japanese women. Cases were 188 women who met the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) for eczema. Controls were 565 women without eczema according to the ISAAC criteria, who had not been diagnosed with asthma, atopic eczema, and/or allergic rhinitis by a doctor and who had no asthma as defined by the European Community Respiratory Health Survey criteria and no rhinoconjunctivitis according to the ISAAC criteria. Compared with women with the TT genotype of SNP rs1837253, those with the TC or CC genotype had a significantly increased risk of eczema after adjustment for age and smoking, although this association was not significant in crude analysis. There were no relationships between SNP rs3806933 or rs2289276 and eczema. The TC and CC genotypes combined of SNP rs1837253 may be significantly positively associated with eczema.

  19. Quality of life in patients with hand eczema as health promotion: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Reza; Saadatjoo, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Health promotion has been defined by the World Health Organization's (WHO) 2005 Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion as "the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and thereby improve their health". One of the most important determinants of health is quality of life. Hand eczema is a common skin disease that can adversely affect the quality of life of patients. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of life in patients with hand eczema. This case-control study was performed on 70 patients with hand eczema and 70 healthy controls. All the patients filled out two questionnaires: Short Form 36 (SF-36) and Dermatology Life Quality index (DLQI). The data were analyzed using the statistical software package for social sciences (SPSS). The mean score score of quality of life in dimensions of physical functioning, vitality, and general health in the SF-36 was lower compared to the control group. The mean score in DLQI in patients with hand eczema was 8.68. There was a significant negative correlation between the scores of different dimensions of QOL obtained in the two questionnaires (SF36 and DLQI). The study demonstrated that the quality of life in patients with hand eczema was lower than that of controls. It seems advisable that psychiatric consultations or psychotherapy be included in the treatment of chronic hand eczema.

  20. [Therapy of hand eczema. What can we learn from the published clinical studies?].

    PubMed

    Diepgen, T L; Svensson, A; Coenraads, P J

    2005-03-01

    Hand eczema is a very common skin disease, which can be induced by different causes. Although many interventions ranging from topical corticosteroids and UV therapy to oral cyclosporine and retinoids are available, the treatment of hand eczema can be very difficult and frustrating. The objective of our study was to assess the external evidence of different treatment modalities for hand eczema. Electronic databases (Cochrane, MEDLINE, Embase, Pascal, Jicst-Eplus, Amed) were systematically searched for clinical trials on therapy for hand eczema. Additionally, four general medical journals (BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, NEJM) and 17 specialists dermatological journals were hand searched from 1977 to August 2004. A total of 100 studies were found and 31 identified as randomised clinical trials (RCTs) dealing with different interventions. Due to the poor quality of most of these RCTs, they are inadequate as a guide to clinical practice. There is a need for high-quality RCTs on therapy for hand eczema regarding established as well as new treatment options taking different subgroups of hand eczema into consideration.

  1. Nipple eczema, an indicative manifestation of atopic dermatitis? A clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyo Sang; Jung, Soo-Eun; Kim, You Chan; Lee, Eun-So

    2015-04-01

    Nipple eczema exhibits as a minor manifestation of atopic dermatitis (AD) or occurs as a single skin symptom on the nipple. To characterize the relationship between nipple eczema and AD, a clinical evaluation and an immunohistochemical study were performed. All cases of nipple eczema were confirmed histopathologically. We divided the patients with nipple eczema into 2 groups, namely, those with AD and those without AD, and compared several clinical features. Upon histological examination, the degree of inflammation was subjectively graded as mild, moderate, or severe by 2 separate investigators. Immunohistochemical stainings were performed by using antiinterleukin (IL)-4, anti-IL-13, anti-CD4, and anti-CD8 antibodies, and the results were scored semiquantitatively. In 43 cases evaluated, 12 were nipple eczema with AD. The clinical analysis and histological examination showed no significant differences between the groups. There were consistent findings of IL-4 expressions throughout the epidermis and IL-13 expression mainly in the perivascular area of the dermis. Although CD4 and CD8 were expressed in the cells in the dermis, CD8 expression was detected in the serocrusts of the epidermis. Expression levels of IL-4, IL-13, CD4, and CD8 exhibited no significant differences between the nipple eczema group with AD and the nipple eczema group without AD. Although nipple eczema may accompany AD, we found no definite differences in the degree or pattern of inflammation and cytokine expression level regardless of whether AD was present or not. Serocrust formation seemed to be mainly a collection of CD8-positive cells.

  2. Hand eczema and use of snus (moist snuff) - a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wrangsjö, Karin; Alderling, Magnus; Lindahl, Gunborg; Meding, Birgitta

    2015-03-01

    A possible association between use of snus (Swedish moist snuff) and hand eczema was studied. 27,466 individuals responded to questions regarding hand eczema, tobacco use and other life style factors in a Swedish Public Health Survey in 2006, response rate 58%. Of these persons, 12.2% reported daily snus use (men 22.0%, women 4.3%), 15.5% daily smoking (men 14.4%, women 16.5%). Of snus users 7.5 % reported hand eczema (men 6.5%, women 11.8%), of smokers 11.7% (men 8.6%, women 13.6%) and of non-tobacco-users 9.7% (men 7.9%, women 11.0%). In multivariate analysis hand eczema was significantly less common in snus users, in total prevalence proportion ratio (PPR) =  0.813, in men PPR =  0.820, but significantly more common in smoking women, PPR = 1.238. Physical exercise was a confounder; gender an effect modifier. No positive association was demonstrated between snus use and hand eczema in contrast to the positive association found between smoking and hand eczema in women.

  3. Atopic Eczema and Stress among Single Parents and Families: An Empirical Study of 96 Mothers.

    PubMed

    Gieler, Uwe; Schoof, Stefanie; Gieler, Tanja; Scheewe, Sibylle; Schut, Christina; Kupfer, Jörg

    2017-01-04

    This study investigated the extent to which single mothers of children with atopic eczema experience disease-related stress. A total of 96 mothers were divided into 4 groups: mothers living with a partner, who had or did not have a child with atopic eczema, and single mothers, who had or did not have a child with atopic eczema. The following questionnaires were used to assess psychological burden: Short Stress Questionnaire (Kurzer Fragebogen zur Erfassung von Belastung; KFB), Satisfaction with Life Questionnaire (Fragebogen zur Lebenszufriedenheit; FLZ), General Depression Scale (Allgemeine Depressions-Skala; ADS), and the Questionnaire for Parents of Children with Atopic Eczema (Fragebogen für Eltern von Neurodermitis kranken Kindern; FEN). Single mothers had higher levels of helplessness and aggression due to their child's scratching behaviour than did mothers living with a partner and a child with atopic eczema. Single mothers of children with atopic eczema had the highest scores regarding experienced stress in the family and the lowest scores concerning general life satisfaction. Special care should be provided for single mothers with higher stress, in order to teach them how to deal with the scratching behaviour of their children.

  4. Parents' and carers' views about emollients for childhood eczema: qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    Muller, I; Yardley, L; Lewis-Jones, S; Ersser, S; Little, P

    2016-01-01

    Objective Leave-on emollients form the mainstay of eczema treatment, but adherence is poor. We aimed to explore parents’/carers' views on effectiveness and acceptability of leave-on emollients for childhood eczema through secondary analysis of data from 2 qualitative data sets. Setting Study 1 recruited through mail-out from 6 general practices in southern England. Study 2 recruited from a feasibility trial of an intervention to support eczema self-care in 31 practices in the same area. Participants Study 1 included 28 interviews with carers of children aged ≤5 years with eczema. Study 2 included 26 interviews with carers of children aged ≤5 years with eczema. Methods Interviews followed semistructured guides: study 1 explored carers' understandings around eczema treatments in order to develop a web-based self-care support intervention; study 2 explored carers' understandings of eczema and eczema treatments after using the intervention. Interviews were carried out face to face or by telephone, audio-recorded and transcribed. Secondary analysis of data from both studies focused on views and experiences of emollient use. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic approach facilitated by NVivo V.10 software. Results In study 1, most participants felt emollients improved eczema but held mixed views about long-term use to prevent flare-ups. In study 2, where carers had used the web-based intervention, all participants held positive views about long-term emollient use. In both studies, participants expressed a range of preferences about emollient ‘thickness’; some felt that ‘thick’ emollients (ointments) were most effective, while others found these difficult to use. Carers described a process of ‘trial and error’, trying emollients suggested by professionals, friends and family, or bought over-the-counter. Carers expressed a need for understanding differences between products and their effective use. Conclusions Providing a rationale for long

  5. Prevalence, incidence and predictive factors for hand eczema in young adults – a follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hand eczema is common in the general population and affects women twice as often as men. It is also the most frequent occupational skin disease. The economic consequences are considerable for society and for the affected individuals. Methods To investigate the prevalence and incidence of hand eczema and to evaluate risk factors for development of hand eczema in young adults. Subjects and methods; This is a prospective follow-up study of 2,403 young adults, 16 – 19 years old in 1995 and aged 29 – 32 years, 13 years later, in 2008. They completed a postal questionnaire that included questions regarding one-year prevalence of hand eczema, childhood eczema, asthma, rhino-conjunctivitis and factors considered to affect hand eczema such as hand-washing, washing and cleaning, cooking, taking care of small children and usage of moisturisers. These factors were evaluated with the multinominal logistic regression analysis. Results The one-year prevalence of hand eczema was 15.8% (females 20.3% and males 10.0%, p < 0.001). The incidence was 11.6 cases per 1000 person-years (females 14.3 and males 5.2, p < 0.001). Childhood eczema was the most important risk factor for hand eczema. The odds ratios were 13.17 when having hand eczema 1995 and 2008 compared to 5.17 in 2008 (p < 0.001). A high frequency of hand washing was important in predicting hand eczema only when having 1-year prevalence 2008, OR 1.02 (p = 0.038). Conclusions After 13 years an increased 1-year prevalence of hand eczema was found. The significant risk factors for hand eczema changed over time from endogenous to exogenous factors. PMID:24164871

  6. IL5RA polymorphisms, smoking and eczema in Japanese women: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Y; Tanaka, K; Arakawa, M

    2015-02-01

    The present case-control study examined the relationship between IL5RA SNPs and eczema in young adult Japanese women. Cases and control subjects were selected from pregnant women who participated in the baseline survey of the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study, which is an ongoing prebirth cohort study. Cases comprised 188 women with eczema in the previous 12 months as defined according to the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), regardless of the presence of a doctor's diagnosis of atopic eczema. Control subjects comprised 1130 women without eczema as defined according to the ISAAC criteria who also had not been diagnosed with atopic eczema by a doctor. Compared with the AA genotype of IL5RA SNP rs17881144, the AT genotype, but not the TT genotype, was significantly associated with a decreased risk of eczema. The ATTAGA haplotype and the GTAGCA haplotype of rs17882210, rs3804797, rs334809, rs9831572, rs6771148 and rs17881144 were significantly associated with an increased risk of eczema. In contrast, the GCTGCA haplotype was significantly related to a decreased risk of eczema. Multiplicative interactions between IL5RA SNPs rs334809 and rs17881144 and smoking with respect to eczema were marginally significant (P = 0.07 and 0.07, respectively). This is the first study to show significant associations between IL5RA SNP rs17881144, the ATTAGA haplotype, the GTAGCA haplotype, and the GCTGCA haplotype and eczema. Smoking may modify the relationships between SNPs rs334809 and rs17881144 and eczema.

  7. Dyshidrotic eczema

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000832.htm Dyshidrotic eczema To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dyshidrotic eczema is a condition in which small blisters develop ...

  8. Sleep disturbances in adults with eczema are associated with impaired overall health: a US population-based study.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Garg, Nitin K; Paller, Amy S; Fishbein, Anna B; Zee, Phyllis C

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are associated with poor health outcomes in adults. However, little is known about the sleep disturbances that occur in adult eczema. We studied the association between adult eczema and sleep disturbance and their impact on overall health and health care utilization. We used the 2012 National Health Interview Survey, a cross-sectional questionnaire of 34,613 adults. Eczema was associated with higher odds of fatigue (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 2.97 (2.65-3.34)), regular daytime sleepiness (2.66 (2.34-3.01)), and regular insomnia (2.36 (2.11-2.64)), even after controlling for sleep duration, history of allergic disease, sociodemographics, and body mass index. There were significant interactions between eczema and fatigue, sleepiness, and insomnia as predictors of poorer overall health status, number of sick days, and doctor visits, such that eczema and each of the sleep symptoms were associated with higher odds of poorer outcomes than either eczema or sleep symptoms alone. Latent class analysis was used and identified five classes of fatigue, sleep disturbances, and allergic disorders. Two classes had high probabilities of eczema: one with high probabilities of asthma, hay fever, food allergy, and multiple sleep symptoms and the other with intermediate probability of insomnia alone. Future studies are warranted to better characterize sleep loss in eczema and develop strategies for treatment and prevention.

  9. Sex and the skin: a qualitative study of patients with acne, psoriasis and atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Magin, Parker; Heading, Gaynor; Adams, Jon; Pond, Dimity

    2010-08-01

    Quantitative questionnaire-based research has suggested a considerable effect of skin disease on the sexual life of sufferers. In this study, we explored the effects of acne, psoriasis and atopic eczema upon sexual functioning and sexual relationships in the context of a wider exploration of the psychological sequelae of these diseases. We employed a qualitative methodology employing in-depth semi-structured interviews and involving thematic analysis and constant comparison. Participants were patients with currently active acne, psoriasis or atopic eczema. Purposive sampling aimed to obtain a sample reflecting a wide range of participant characteristics including skin disease severity, age, sex, and care by general practitioner or dermatologist. Sixty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted. Acne had adverse effects on participants' self-perceived sexual attractiveness and self-confidence, as did psoriasis and eczema. But psoriasis and eczema also had marked effects on sexual well-being and on capacity for intimacy. These were related to issues of self-esteem and sexual self-image and were often pervasive, resulting in marked behavioural avoidance of intimate situations and continuing effects on sexual well-being even in long-established sexual relationships. Effects of psoriasis and eczema on sexual well-being and sexual relationships were mediated more by appearance and texture of non-genital skin than by involvement of genital skin. We conclude that, while recognising the distressing effects of acne on self-perceived sexual attractiveness, clinicians should be especially aware of the capacity of psoriasis and eczema to profoundly affect patients' psychological and sexual well-being.

  10. Causal Inference in Retrospective Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Paul W.; Rubin, Donald B.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of drawing causal inferences from retrospective case-controlled studies is considered. A model for causal inference in prospective studies is applied to retrospective studies. Limitations of case-controlled studies are formulated concerning relevant parameters that can be estimated in such studies. A coffee-drinking/myocardial…

  11. Filaggrin loss-of-function mutations and atopic dermatitis as risk factors for hand eczema in apprentice nurses: part II of a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Maaike J; Verberk, Maarten M; Campbell, Linda E; McLean, W H Irwin; Calkoen, Florentine; Bakker, Jan G; van Dijk, Frank J H; Bos, Jan D; Kezic, Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background/objectives Environmental exposure and personal susceptibility both contribute to the development of hand eczema. In this study, we investigated the effect of loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG), atopic dermatitis and wet work exposure on the development of hand eczema in apprentice nurses. Methods Dutch apprentice nurses were genotyped for the four most common FLG mutations; atopic dermatitis and hand eczema history were assessed by questionnaire. Exposure and hand eczema during traineeships were assessed with diary cards. Results The prevalence of hand eczema during traineeships was higher among subjects with a history of hand eczema reported at inclusion. Hand washing during traineeships and at home increased the risk of hand eczema. After adjustment for the effects of exposure and FLG mutations, an odds ratio of 2.5 (90% confidence interval 1.7–3.7) was found for a history of atopic dermatitis. In this study, an increased risk of hand eczema conferred by FLG mutations could not be shown, but subjects with concomitant FLG mutations and atopic dermatitis showed the highest risk of hand eczema during traineeships. Conclusion A history of atopic dermatitis, a history of hand eczema and wet work exposure were the most important factors increasing the risk of hand eczema during traineeships. PMID:24102300

  12. Flares in childhood eczema.

    PubMed

    Langan, S M

    2009-01-01

    Eczema is a major public health problem affecting children worldwide. Few studies have directly assessed triggers for disease flares. This paper presents evidence from a published systematic review and a prospective cohort study looking at flare factors in eczema. This systematic review suggested that foodstuffs in selected groups, dust exposure, unfamiliar pets, seasonal variation, stress, and irritants may be important in eczema flares. We performed a prospective cohort study that focused on environmental factors and identified associations between exposure to nylon clothing, dust, unfamiliar pets, sweating, shampoo, and eczema flares. Results from this study also demonstrated some new key findings. First, the effect of shampoo was found to increase in cold weather, and second, combinations of environmental factors were associated with disease exacerbation, supporting a multiple component disease model. This information is likely to be useful to families and may lead to the ability to reduce disease flares in the future.

  13. Atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sara J

    2016-02-01

    Atopic eczema is an itchy inflammatory skin disease with a chronic relapsing-remitting course; it has increased in prevalence in recent decades and now affects up to 25% of school-aged children in the developed world and up to 10% of adults. Recent advances in understanding the aetiology of eczema have focused interest on skin barrier dysfunction as a common precursor and pathological feature. In addition, genetically determined skin barrier dysfunction (associated with mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin) is known to predispose to multiple systemic atopic diseases. First-line treatments for atopic eczema focus on maintaining and repairing the skin barrier (emollients) and reducing inflammation (topical steroids); allergen and irritant avoidance are also important to achieve disease control. Second and third-line treatments include topical calcineurin inhibitors, ultraviolet light and systemic immunosuppressant therapies of which only ciclosporin is licenced for the treatment of atopic eczema in adults. Novel biological therapies are in phase II-III clinical trials.

  14. [Key technologies elements of clinical study of traditional Chinese medicine new drugs on children's dermatitis and eczema].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Cheng-Liang; Zhang, Chun; Hu, Si-Yuan

    2013-06-01

    We assessed and graded the evidence of relevant systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials, combined with our clinical study practice to identify eleven key elements as a focus for the clinical study of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) new drugs on children's dermatitis and eczema: the primary purpose and design of the study, the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study, the treatment, the trail procedure,the effectiveness and safety evaluation, and quality control, etc, as well. In addition, seven recommendations for the design of clinical study of TCM new drugs on children's dermatitis and eczema were provided.

  15. [Textile intolerance in atopic eczema--a controlled clinical study].

    PubMed

    Diepgen, T L; Stäbler, A; Hornstein, O P

    1990-10-01

    In patients suffering from atopic dermatitis (AD), we often find intolerance reactions against wool, whereas irritation by synthetic fibers is still a matter of discussion. In a randomized clinical study on 55 patients with AD and 31 healthy controls, we investigated the irritative capacity of poncho-like shirts made of 4 different materials (A: cotton; B, C, D: synthetics of different fiber structure). The intensity of itching or discomfort due to repeated wearing of these shirts was evaluated by means of a point system (max.comfort = 10 points, max. discomfort = 1 point). Our study clearly showed that the irritative capacity of synthetic shirts is significantly higher in patients with AD, while cotton shirts were best tolerated. We also observed significant difference regarding the surface structure and diameter of the synthetic fibers under investigation.

  16. Eek! It's Eczema!

    MedlinePlus

    ... who get eczema often have family members with hay fever (it makes them sneeze and have a runny ... kids who get eczema will also someday develop hay fever or asthma themselves. Eczema is not an allergy ...

  17. Eczema (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... who get eczema often have family members with hay fever , asthma , or other allergies . Some experts think these ... kids who get eczema will also someday develop hay fever or asthma themselves. Eczema is not an allergy ...

  18. Characteristics of equine summer eczema with emphasis on differences between Finnhorses and Icelandic horses in a 11-year study

    PubMed Central

    Hallamaa, Raija E

    2009-01-01

    Summer eczema, allergic dermatitis of the horse, was studied on 275 affected horses in Finland in 1997–2007. Features of the horses, clinical signs of the disease and owners' opinions of aggravating factors were recorded. Differences, especially, between two of the native Scandinavian horse breeds, the Finnhorse and the Icelandic horse, were evaluated. The study was based on clinical examination and information from the owners. Of the horses, 50% were Finnhorses, 26% Icelandic horses and 24% consisted of different breeds of ponies and other horses. Of the Finnhorses, 76% had summer eczema by the age of 5 years, but in the Icelandic horses born in Finland the average age at onset was 7 years. The vast majority of the horses, 75%, had moderate clinical signs, while 16% showed severe and 9% mild. The severity of clinical signs did not depend on the duration of the disease nor was it related to the age at onset. The only linkage to severity was the breed of the horse or import from Iceland; New Forest ponies and imported Icelandic horses showed severe clinical signs significantly more often than Finnhorses. Of the owners, 38% regarded insects as the only aggravating factor, 24% mentioned several simultaneous factors, including grass fodder and sunlight, while 22% could not specify any. In Finland, a typical horse breed suffering from summer eczema is the Finnhorse and the characteristics of the disease are mainly uniform with the other breeds affected. Equine summer eczema seems to be aggravated by various combinations of environmental factors. PMID:19602231

  19. Fertility rates in women with asthma, eczema, and hay fever: a general population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tata, L J; Hubbard, R B; McKeever, T M; Smith, C J P; Doyle, P; Smeeth, L; West, J; Lewis, S A

    2007-05-01

    The protective association between having older siblings and the risk of subsequent allergic disease may be due to decreased fertility among women with allergic disease. In this study, the authors compared fertility rates among women with asthma, eczema, or hay fever with those in the general female population. Computerized primary-care data from the United Kingdom were used to conduct a cohort analysis of 491,516 women. General fertility rates and age-specific fertility rates for 1994-2004 were estimated. Using Poisson regression, the authors compared fertility rates among women with asthma, eczema, or hay fever with rates in women without these diagnoses. Fertility rates were 53.0 and 52.3 livebirths per 1,000 person-years in women with and without asthma, respectively. The fertility rate ratio for women with asthma compared with women without asthma was 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.04) after adjustment for age, smoking, body mass index, and socioeconomic status. Equivalent fertility rate ratios for eczema and hay fever were 1.15 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.17) and 1.08 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.10), respectively. The authors found no evidence that the fertility rates of women with asthma, eczema, or hay fever are lower than those of women in the general population.

  20. Risk factors for eczema in infants born in Cuba: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a concern that allergic disease in childhood is higher than expected in Cuba. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for eczema of infants aged 12–15 months living in Havana. Methods We used a cross-sectional epidemiological study design. Data on eczema symptoms and a wide range of lifestyle factors were collected by researcher administered questionnaires. Results Data were collected on 1956 children (96% response rate), of whom 672 (34%) were reported as having had eczema. Independent risk factors for eczema included young maternal age (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.98 per additional year of age; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-0.99), child’s weight (OR 1.13 per additional kg; 95% CI: 1.03-1.25), insect sting allergy (OR 2.11; 95% CI: 1.33-3.35), rodents in the home (OR 1.39; 95% CI: 1.10-1.76), attendance at childcare facilities (OR 1.34: 95% CI: 1.05-1.70) and self-reported mould in the home (OR 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07-1.41). Infant exposure to paracetamol was associated with an increased risk of eczema even after adjustment for wheeze (OR 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03-1.46). Conclusion Despite a very different culture and environment, the consistency of these findings with those from more economically developed countries suggests potential causal associations. The association with paracetamol, even after adjustment for wheeze, suggests that intervention studies are required in young infants, to ascertain if this commonly used anti-pyretic medication increases allergic disease. PMID:24666750

  1. Complementary and alternative medicines and childhood eczema: a US population-based study.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Lee-Wong, Mary; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in US children with eczema is unknown. Furthermore, it is unknown whether CAM use in the United States is associated with higher eczema prevalence. We sought to determine the eczema prevalence in association with CAM usage. We analyzed data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey that included a nationally representative sample of 9417 children ages 0 to 17 years. Overall, 46.9% (95% confidence interval, 45.6%-48.2%) of children in the United States used 1 or more CAM, of which 0.99% (0.28%-1.71%) used CAM specifically to treat their eczema, including herbal therapy (0.46%), vitamins (0.33%), Ayurveda (0.28%), naturopathy (0.24%), homeopathy (0.20%), and traditional healing (0.12%). Several CAMs used for other purposes were associated with increased eczema prevalence, including herbal therapy (survey logistic regression; adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 2.07 [1.40-3.06]), vitamins (1.45 [1.21-1.74]), homeopathic therapy (2.94 [1.43-6.00]), movement techniques (3.66 [1.62-8.30]), and diet (2.24 [1.10-4.58]), particularly vegan diet (2.53 [1.17-5.51]). In conclusion, multiple CAMs are commonly used for the treatment of eczema in US children. However, some CAMs may actually be harmful to the skin and be associated with higher eczema prevalence in the United States.

  2. Siblings, asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema: a worldwide perspective from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, D P; Aït-Khaled, N; Foliaki, S; Mallol, J; Odhiambo, J; Pearce, N; Williams, H C

    2015-01-01

    Background Associations of larger families with lower prevalences of hay fever, eczema and objective markers of allergic sensitization have been found fairly consistently in affluent countries, but little is known about these relationships in less affluent countries. Methods Questionnaire data for 210 200 children aged 6–7 years from 31 countries, and 337 226 children aged 13–14 years from 52 countries, were collected by Phase Three of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Associations of disease symptoms and labels of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema were analysed by numbers of total, older and younger siblings, using mixed (multi-level) logistic regression models to adjust for individual covariates and at the centre level for region, language and national affluence. Results In both age groups, inverse trends (P < 0.0001) were observed for reported ‘hay fever ever’ and ‘eczema ever’ with increasing numbers of total siblings, and more specifically older siblings. These inverse associations were significantly (P < 0.005) stronger in more affluent countries. In contrast, symptoms of severe asthma and severe eczema were positively associated (P < 0.0001) with total sibship size in both age groups. These associations with disease severity were largely independent of position within the sibship and national GNI per capita. Conclusions These global findings on sibship size and childhood asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema suggest at least two distinct trends. Inverse associations with older siblings (observations which prompted the ‘hygiene hypothesis’ for allergic disease) are mainly a phenomenon of more affluent countries, whereas greater severity of symptoms in larger families is globally more widespread. PMID:24912652

  3. Environmental tobacco smoke and the risk of eczema symptoms among school children in South Africa: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Shirinde, Joyce; Wichmann, Janine; Voyi, Kuku

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the association between eczema ever (EE) and current eczema symptoms (ES) in relation to exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Design A cross-sectional study using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. Setting 16 schools were randomly selected from two neighbourhoods situated in Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Participants From a total population of 3764 school children aged 12–14 years, 3468 completed the questionnaire (92% response rate). A total of 3424 questionnaires were included in the final data analysis. Primary outcome The prevalence of EE and current ES was the primary outcome in this study. Results Data were analysed using Multilevel Logistic Regression Analysis (MLRA). The likelihood of EE was increased by exposure to ETS at home (OR 1.30 95% CI 1.01 to 1.67) and at school (OR 1.26 95% CI 1.00 to 1.60). The likelihood of EE was lower for males (OR 0.66 95% CI 0.51 to 0.84). The likelihood of ES was increased by ETS at home (OR 1.93 95% CI 1.43 to 2.59) and school (1.44 95% CI 1.09 to 1.90). The likelihood of ES was again lower for males (OR 0.56 95% CI 0.42 to 0.76). Smoking by mother/female guardian increased the likelihood of EE and ES, however, this was not significant in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions Symptoms of eczema were positively associated with exposure to ETS at home and school. The results support the hypothesis that ETS is an important factor in understanding the occurrence of eczema. PMID:26310401

  4. Northeastern Pennsylvania Retrospective Case Study Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA conducted a retrospective case study in northeastern Pennsylvania to investigate reported instances of contaminated drinking water resources in areas where hydraulic fracturing activities occurred

  5. A study of skin diseases in dogs and cats. III. III. Microflora of the skin of dogs with chronic eczema.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, S; Krogh, H V

    1978-01-01

    The microflora of the skin was studied in 10 dogs with chronic eczema without clinical signs of secondary infection (Table I). The skin surface was swabbed at 7 different sites, making a total of 70 swabs, 25 of which were taken from visibly inflamed areas and 45 from apparently unaffected skin (Table II). Staph. aureus, Staph. epidermidis, micrococci, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, and Acinetobacter spp. were found consistently. Ten different Gram-negative bacteria, 3 different Gram-positive bacteria, and 2 yeasts were found to occur sporadically (Table III). Compared to a group of 10 healthy dogs a more prolific growth of aerobic microorganisms, a greater number of sites carrying Staph. aureus, and a higher recovery of Gram-negative transients were found in dogs with eczema (Table IV--VII). Within the group of dogs with eczema the growth of Staph. aureus was significantly heavier from eczematous skin areas than from clinically normal skin (Table VIII). In dogs with non-infective dermatitides the colonization of the skin by potentially pathogenic microorganisms may have to be considered in the clinical handling of these diseases.

  6. Childhood eczema: disease of the advantaged?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, H. C.; Strachan, D. P.; Hay, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether the increased prevalence of childhood eczema in advantaged socioeconomic groups is due to increased parental reporting. DESIGN--Comparison of parental reports of eczema with visible eczema recorded by medical officers during a detailed physical examination. SETTING--National birth cohort study. SUBJECTS--8279 children from England, Wales, and Scotland born during 3-9 March 1958 and followed up at the ages of 7, 11, and 16. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Prevalence of eczema according to parental report compared with medical officer's examination at the ages of 7, 11, and 16. RESULTS--Prevalence of both reported and examined eczema increased with rising social class at the ages of 7, 11, and 16 years. The point prevalence of examined eczema at age 7 was 4.8%, 3.6%, 3.6%, 2.4%, 2.2%, and 2.4% in social classes I, II, III non-manual, III manual, IV, and V respectively (chi 2 value for linear trend 12.6, P < 0.001). This trend persisted after adjustment for potential confounders such as region and family size and was not present for examined psoriasis or acne. CONCLUSIONS--Eczema is more prevalent among British schoolchildren in social classes I and II than those in lower classes. Exposures associated with social class are probably at least as important as genetic factors in the expression of childhood eczema. PMID:8173454

  7. Indoor allergen sensitization and the risk of asthma and eczema in children in Pittsburgh.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Brook M; MacGinnitie, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sensitization to cockroach and mouse allergens is correlated with presence and severity of asthma, especially among children living in inner cities. This study evaluated the prevalence of positive skin testing to indoor allergens in the Pittsburgh area and the association with asthma and eczema. A retrospective analysis was performed of 540 children from the Pittsburgh area who underwent skin testing to indoor allergens. Presence of asthma and eczema were determined by parent and/or physician report. Asthma and eczema are not significantly more frequent among children who had positive skin testing to cockroaches or mice. However, asthma was more common among children who had positive skin testing to dogs (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% CI, 1.23-1.65), cats (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.21-1.58), and dust mites (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.03-1.37). Eczema was more common in children who had positive skin testing to cats (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.14-2.02). Both asthma (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.18-1.58) and eczema (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.07-1.92) were more prevalent among children with any positive skin test. We did not find that sensitization to cockroaches or mice was correlated with the diagnosis or asthma or eczema in the Pittsburgh area. However, sensitization to any allergen, and to cats and/or dogs specifically, was associated with diagnosis of both asthma and eczema. Our result suggests that allergic sensitization is associated with these diseases, but the implicated allergens may vary.

  8. Economic Evaluation of a Multifaceted Implementation Strategy for the Prevention of Hand Eczema Among Healthcare Workers in Comparison with a Control Group: The Hands4U Study.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Esther W C; van Dongen, Johanna M; Boot, Cécile R L; van der Gulden, Joost W J; Bosmans, Judith E; Anema, Johannes R

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy for the prevention of hand eczema in comparison with a control group among healthcare workers. A total of 48 departments (n=1,649) were randomly allocated to the implementation strategy or the control group. Data on hand eczema and costs were collected at baseline and every 3 months. Cost-effectiveness analyses were performed using linear multilevel analyses. The probability of the implementation strategy being cost-effective gradually increased with an increasing willingness-to-pay, to 0.84 at a ceiling ratio of €590,000 per person with hand eczema prevented (societal perspective). The implementation strategy appeared to be not cost-effective in comparison with the control group (societal perspective), nor was it cost-beneficial to the employer. However, this study had some methodological problems which should be taken into account when interpreting the results.

  9. A Study Comparing the Quality of Life of Patients in the Treatment of Eczema by Pediatric Generalists and Specialists

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-29

    Eczema; Dermatitis; Dermatitis, Atopic; Genetic Disease, Inborn; Hypersensitivity; Hypersensitivity, Immediate; Immune System Diseases; Skin Diseases; Skin Diseases, Eczematous; Skin Diseases, Genetic

  10. Different sensitization profile for asthma, rhinitis, and eczema among 7-8-year-old children: report from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden studies.

    PubMed

    Rönmark, Eva; Perzanowski, Matthew; Platts-Mills, Thomas; Lundbäck, Bo

    2003-04-01

    Sensitization to different airborne allergens in relation to asthma, rhinitis, and eczema has been studied. A cross-sectional study was performed among 7-8-year-old children living in northern Sweden. The ISAAC-questionnaire with additional questions were sent to the parents, and 3431 (97%) participated. Two-thirds of the children were invited to undergo a skin test with 10 common airborne allergens, and 2148 (88%) participated. The prevalence rates of all three diseases were significantly higher among the children who were sensitized to any of the tested allergens. Among asthmatics, 40% were sensitized to cat, 34% to dog, 28% to horse, 23% to birch and 16% to timothy. The corresponding figures for rhinitis were: cat 49%, dog 33%, horse 37%, birch 46%, timothy 32%; and for eczema: cat 29%, dog 21%, horse 15%, birch 20%, and timothy 11%. Only a few children were sensitized to mites or moulds. The main risk factors for all three diseases were type-1 allergy and a family history of the disease. Independently from other risk factors, sensitization to dog (OR 2.4) and horse (OR 2.2) were significant risk factors for asthma. Sensitization to birch (OR 6.0), horse (OR 4.1), and timothy (OR 2.8) were significant risk factors for rhinitis, while birch (OR 2.4), dog (OR 2.0) and cat (OR 1.6) were significant risk factors for eczema. Despite a large over-lapping of the diseases the pattern of sensitization was different for asthma, rhinitis and eczema. Sensitization to cat was most common among all children, but sensitization to dog and horse was associated with the highest risk for asthma, and sensitization to birch showed the highest risk for rhinitis and eczema. The different risk factor pattern for the often coexisting diseases; asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, may indicate differences in the etiology.

  11. Associations between home dampness-related exposures and childhood eczema among 13,335 preschool children in Shanghai, China: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jiao; Liu, Wei; Hu, Yu; Zou, Zhijun; Shen, Li; Huang, Chen

    2016-04-01

    From April 2011 to April 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China. A total of 13,335 modified ISAAC questionnaires (response rate: 85.3%) were returned by parents or guardians for 4-6 year-old children. Six dampness-related indicators (visible mold spots, visible damp stains, damp bed clothing, water damage, window pane condensation, and moldy odor) were used to evaluate home dampness-related exposures. In the present study, we applied logistic regression model to reveal associations, dose-response relationships, and statistical interaction effects of these dampness-related exposures, with childhood eczema, during lifetime since birth (ever) and in the last 12 months before the questionnaire. The dampness-related indicators were frequently reported in the perinatal and current residences. Prevalences of eczema ever and in the last 12 months were 22.9% and 13.2%, respectively. The dampness-related indicators were robustly associated and dose-response related with increased risk of eczema ever and in the last 12 months in the logistic regression analyses, with adjusted for potential confounders. Specifically, in the perinatal residence, visible mold spots or damp stains could increase 46% (OR, 95% CI: 1.46, 1.29-1.66) odds of childhood eczema (ever); in the current residence, visible mold spots and visible damp stains could increase 34% (1.34, 1.14-1.58) and 38% (1.38, 1.22-1.56) odds of childhood eczema (ever), respectively. Associations were not appreciably different between boys and girls, nor were they different between children with and without parental history of atopy. In conclusion, perinatal and current dampness-related exposures in the residence perhaps are risk factors for childhood eczema.

  12. Food Allergies and Eczema.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Sabrina

    2015-07-01

    Eczema is one of the most common skin conditions of childhood. Patients with eczema suffer in a chronic cycle of itch, scratch, and inflammation. For children with severe eczema, constant itching and scratching can have many consequences including skin infections, behavioral issues, and sleep problems. Parents often find themselves searching for a trigger for their child's eczema flare, and after they have switched detergents, applied a thick moisturizer and topical steroids, and removed all wool clothing from their child's wardrobe, they wonder, "Could food allergies be playing a role?"

  13. Lymphocyte suppressor activity in atopic eczema

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, B. E.; Krueger, G. G.; Hill, H. R.

    1979-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that patients with atopic eczema have depressed cell-mediated immunity. Whether this defect can be attributed to abnormal suppressor cell activity or to the presence of mediators of the allergic response has not been studied before. Lymphocyte transformation was found to be enhanced in patients with mild eczema and markedly depressed in patients with severe eczema, when compared with normal controls. Pre-incubation of cultures for 48 hr without mitogen prior to transformation studies restored normal lymphocyte thymidine uptake in cells from severe atopics, suggesting a labile suppressor cell population, or a labile suppressor substance. Since mononuclear cell supernatants from patients with severe eczema failed to suppress lymphocyte transformation more than supernatants from normals, it is unlikely that the depressed lymphocyte function seen in severe eczema is due to an abnormal suppressor cell population. The possibility that mediators of the allergic response may be acting as a labile suppressor substance was evaluated by adding various concentrations of histamine, cyclic-AMP, or prostaglandin E1 to lymphocytes undergoing mitogenesis. Histamine enhanced thymidine incorporation at low concentrations and depressed uptake at high concentrations; cyclic-AMP and prostaglandin E1 have similar effects on transformation. It is possible that the enhancement of transformation seen in mild eczema and the depression of this response in severe eczema may be related to the concentrations or degree of allergic mediator release. PMID:219977

  14. Randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of carbohydrate-derived fulvic acid in topical treatment of eczema

    PubMed Central

    Gandy, Justin J; Snyman, Jacques R; van Rensburg, Constance EJ

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of carbohydratederived fulvic acid (CHD-FA) in the treatment of eczema in patients two years and older. Methods In this single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative study, 36 volunteers with predetermined eczema were randomly assigned to receive either the study drug or placebo twice daily for four weeks. Results All safety parameters remained within normal limits, with no significant differences in either group. Significant differences were observed for both severity and erythema in the placebo and CHD-FA treated groups, and a significant difference was observed for scaling in the placebo-treated group. With regard to the investigator assessment of global response to treatment, a significant improvement was observed in the CHD-FA group when compared with the placebo group. A statistically significant decrease in visual analog scale score was observed in both groups, when comparing the baseline with the final results. Conclusion CHD-FA was well tolerated, with no difference in reported side effects other than a short-lived burning sensation on application. CHD-FA significantly improved some aspects of eczema. Investigator assessment of global response to treatment with CHD-FA was significantly better than that with emollient therapy alone. The results of this small exploratory study suggest that CHD-FA warrants further investigation in the treatment of eczema. PMID:21931500

  15. Reassociation of dreams. II. An LSD study of sexual conflicts in eczema and asthma.

    PubMed

    Abramson, H A

    1976-07-01

    This second paper on the reassociation of dreams confirms 1. the value of reassociating a key dream (The Beetle Bug Dream) and 2. the use of lysergic acid diethyl amide (LSD) as an adjunct to psychoanalytic therapy. The patient (Joyce) was a young mother whose very severe eczema and asthma were accompanied by an incapacitating depression. The following summary of the three interviews indicate briefly the psychodynamic materials developed which helped Joyce uncover her confused sexual identifications and fear of lesbianism. In Interview 96 the initial Beetle Bug Dream was studied cautiously. On analysis the tentacles of the Beetle Bugs symbolically represented the hands of a man mauling a girl's skin. A sexual approach by a man is considered an attack. "Bugs get under the skin. If Jack (my husband) touches my skin, that spot itches." A second Beetle Bug is described. The special aspect of this unique Bug is that it was not threatening. This Bug is discussed in terms of the transference: the silent analyst and a father who responded to her childhood travail by silence are compared. Reassociation of the Beetle Bug Dream without LSD took place one year later. The session (Interview 235) lasted about 45 minutes and the verbatim recording occupied 12 typewritten pages. Free association led to the realization that the patient was programmed in part to identify with her father--a silent, passive individual. It was apparent that a psychological struggle for femininity, induced by the confused identification led to a threat of penetration by the sting of the Beetle Bug and, where a man was involved, penetration by the penis. Interview 236 (three days later) was conducted under LSD 25. The Beetle Bug Dream again formed the basis of this interview, which lasted four hours and occupied 46 pages of typewritten, verbatim material. A new feeling of independence from maternal influence is felt. "It used to be if I just thought of her, I could start scratching." The relationship

  16. Investigating international time trends in the incidence and prevalence of atopic eczema 1990-2010: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Deckers, Ivette A G; McLean, Susannah; Linssen, Sanne; Mommers, Monique; van Schayck, C P; Sheikh, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of atopic eczema has been found to have increased greatly in some parts of the world. Building on a systematic review of global disease trends in asthma, our objective was to study trends in incidence and prevalence of atopic eczema. Disease trends are important for health service planning and for generating hypotheses regarding the aetiology of chronic disorders. We conducted a systematic search for high quality reports of cohort, repeated cross-sectional and routine healthcare database-based studies in seven electronic databases. Studies were required to report on at least two measures of the incidence and/or prevalence of atopic eczema between 1990 and 2010 and needed to use comparable methods at all assessment points. We retrieved 2,464 citations, from which we included 69 reports. Assessing global trends was complicated by the use of a range of outcome measures across studies and possible changes in diagnostic criteria over time. Notwithstanding these difficulties, there was evidence suggesting that the prevalence of atopic eczema was increasing in Africa, eastern Asia, western Europe and parts of northern Europe (i.e. the UK). No clear trends were identified in other regions. There was inadequate study coverage worldwide, particularly for repeated measures of atopic eczema incidence. Further epidemiological work is needed to investigate trends in what is now one of the most common long-term disorders globally. A range of relevant measures of incidence and prevalence, careful use of definitions and description of diagnostic criteria, improved study design, more comprehensive reporting and appropriate interpretation of these data are all essential to ensure that this important field of epidemiological enquiry progresses in a scientifically robust manner.

  17. Birch pollen influence the severity of atopic eczema - prospective clinical cohort pilot study and ex vivo penetration study.

    PubMed

    Fölster-Holst, Regina; Galecka, Jagoda; Weißmantel, Sigo; Dickschat, Ute; Rippke, Frank; Bohnsack, Kerstin; Werfel, Thomas; Wichmann, Katja; Buchner, Matthias; Schwarz, Thomas; Vogt, Annika; Lademann, Jürgen; Meinke, Martina C

    2015-01-01

    There is little clinical evidence for a correlation between the severity of atopic eczema (AE) and pollen exposition. To obtain more data, we performed a clinical cohort pilot study about the influence of pollen on AE between sensitized and nonsensitized subjects and an experimental study addressing the cutaneous penetration of pollen into the skin. Fifty-five patients were monitored during birch pollen season. To study the cutaneous penetration, grass pollen allergens were applied on excised skin and the uptake in CD1c-expressing dendritic cells was investigated. The correlation between environmental pollen load and severity of the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) score and pruritus was observed, regardless of the status of sensitization. The sensitized group recovered significantly worse after the birch pollen season. Remarkably higher amounts of pollen allergens taken up by CD1c cells were detected in epidermal cells derived from skin explants with a disturbed epidermal barrier. These findings suggest an exacerbating role of pollen in AE utilizing the epidermal route.

  18. Birch pollen influence the severity of atopic eczema – prospective clinical cohort pilot study and ex vivo penetration study

    PubMed Central

    Fölster-Holst, Regina; Galecka, Jagoda; Weißmantel, Sigo; Dickschat, Ute; Rippke, Frank; Bohnsack, Kerstin; Werfel, Thomas; Wichmann, Katja; Buchner, Matthias; Schwarz, Thomas; Vogt, Annika; Lademann, Jürgen; Meinke, Martina C

    2015-01-01

    There is little clinical evidence for a correlation between the severity of atopic eczema (AE) and pollen exposition. To obtain more data, we performed a clinical cohort pilot study about the influence of pollen on AE between sensitized and nonsensitized subjects and an experimental study addressing the cutaneous penetration of pollen into the skin. Fifty-five patients were monitored during birch pollen season. To study the cutaneous penetration, grass pollen allergens were applied on excised skin and the uptake in CD1c-expressing dendritic cells was investigated. The correlation between environmental pollen load and severity of the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) score and pruritus was observed, regardless of the status of sensitization. The sensitized group recovered significantly worse after the birch pollen season. Remarkably higher amounts of pollen allergens taken up by CD1c cells were detected in epidermal cells derived from skin explants with a disturbed epidermal barrier. These findings suggest an exacerbating role of pollen in AE utilizing the epidermal route. PMID:26604810

  19. Childhood Maltreatment in South Korea: Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yanghee; Kim, Sangwon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the prevalence of childhood maltreatment in South Korea using the retrospective version of ICAST and the associations between perceptions of abuse experienced during childhood and recent interpersonal problems and depression. Methods: 539 young persons, aged 18-24 years, from various universities, work places, and…

  20. Choice of Moisturiser for Eczema Treatment (COMET): feasibility study of a randomised controlled parallel group trial in children recruited from primary care

    PubMed Central

    Ridd, Matthew J; Garfield, Kirsty; Gaunt, Daisy M; Redmond, Niamh M; Powell, Kingsley; Wilson, Victoria; Guy, Richard H; Ball, Nicola; Shaw, Lindsay; Purdy, Sarah; Metcalfe, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of ‘leave on’ emollients for children with eczema. Design Single-centre, pragmatic, 4-arm, observer-blinded, parallel, randomised feasibility trial. Setting General practices in the UK. Participants Children with eczema aged 1 month to <5 years. Outcome measures Primary outcome—proportion of parents who reported use of the allocated study emollient every day for the duration of follow-up (12 weeks). Other feasibility outcomes—participant recruitment and retention, data collection and completeness and blinding of observers to allocation. Interventions Aveeno lotion, Diprobase cream, Doublebase gel, Hydromol ointment. Results 197 children were recruited—107 by self-referral (mainly via practice mail-outs) and 90 by inconsultation (clinician consenting and randomising) pathways. Participants recruited inconsultation were younger, had more severe Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure scores and were more likely to withdraw than self-referrals. Parents of 20 (10%) of all the randomised participants reported using the allocated emollient daily for 84 days. The use of other non-study emollients was common. Completeness of data collected by parent-held daily diaries and at monthly study visits was good. Daily diaries were liked (81%) but mainly completed on paper rather than via electronic (‘app’) form. Major costs drivers were general practitioner consultations and eczema-related prescriptions. Observer unblinding was infrequent, and occurred at the baseline or first follow-up visit through accidental disclosure. Conclusions It is feasible in a primary care setting to recruit and randomise young children with eczema to emollients, follow them up and collect relevant trial data, while keeping observers blinded to their allocation. However, reported use of emollients (study and others) has design implications for future trials. Trial registration number ISRCTN21828118/EudraCT2013

  1. The Clinical Efficacy of Mometasone Furoate in Multi-Lamellar Emulsion for Eczema: A Double-blinded Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Duk Han; Lee, Hyun Jong; Park, Chun Wook; Kim, Kyu Han; Lee, Kwang Hoon; Ro, Byung In

    2013-01-01

    Background Topical application of corticosteroids also has an influence on skin barrier impairment. Physiological lipid mixtures, such as multi-lamellar emulsion (MLE) containing a natural lipid component leads to effective recovery of the barrier function. Objective The purpose of this study was to conduct an evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy and skin barrier protection of topical mometasone furoate in MLE. Methods A multi-center randomized, double-blind, controlled study was performed to assess the efficacy and safety of mometasone furoate cream in MLE for Korean patients with eczema. The study group included 175 patients with eczema, who applied either mometasone furoate in MLE cream or methylprednisolone aceponate cream for 2 weeks. Treatment efficacy was evaluated using the physician's global assessment of clinical response (PGA), trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), and visual analogue scale (VAS) for pruritus. Patients were evaluated using these indices at days 4, 8, and 15. Results Comparison of PGA score, TEWL, and VAS score at baseline with those at days 4, 8, and 15 of treatment showed a significant improvement in both groups. Patients who applied mometasone furoate in MLE (74.8%) showed better results (p<0.05) than those who applied methylprednisolone aceponate (47.8%). The TEWL improvement ratio was higher in the mometasone furoate in MLE group than that in the methylprednisolone aceponate group, and VAS improvement was also better in the mometasone furoate in MLE group. Conclusion Mometasone furoate in MLE has a better therapeutic efficacy as well as less skin barrier impairment than methylprednisolone aceponate. PMID:23467551

  2. Atopic and Non-atopic Eczema.

    PubMed

    Rożalski, Michał; Rudnicka, Lidia; Samochocki, Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common term used in the medical literature, but according to The Nomenclature Review Committee Of The World Allergy Organization the name which should be used is eczema. Eczema is divided into two subtypes: atopic and non-atopic. These subtypes differ in the level of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) in serum, response to allergens in skin prick tests, and detection of specific IgE antibodies. Non-atopic eczema is characterized by a low level of total IgE, negative skin prick tests, and undetectable specific IgE antibodies. It is estimated that 10-45% cases of eczema are non-atopic ones. In recent studies, other features differentiating these two subtypes have been identified, such as female predominance in non-atopic eczema. A more severe course, damage of the epidermal barrier, predominance of Th2 (T helper cells 2) response, and a lower positive reaction to metal patch tests are the characteristics of the atopic subtype. In our opinion, new diagnostic criteria taking into account the non-atopic subtype of eczema need to be established.

  3. [Periorbital contact eczema].

    PubMed

    Worm, M; Sterry, W

    2005-11-01

    Periorbital contact eczema is most commonly the result of an allergic contact dermatitis whereas other eczematous skin diseases like atopic eczema or seborrheic eczema occur less frequently. Also, other diseases like autoimmune disorders or rosacea need to be considered. Allergic contact dermatitis is a T-cell-mediated immunological response towards ubiquitous contact allergens. Activated T-cells migrate through the vessels into the skin and produce several inflammatory mediators. Epicutaneous patch testing is an important tool for the diagnosis of contact allergy whereby the allergens are analysed in terms of their ability to induce eczematous skin reaction. Until now the short-term use of corticosteroids are is employed for the treatment of allergic contact eczema. Modern substances with an optimal therapeutic index should rather be used.

  4. Clinical Features and Awareness of Hand Eczema in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Beom; Lee, Seung Ho; Kim, Kea Jeung; Lee, Ga-Young; Yang, Jun-Mo; Kim, Do Won; Lee, Seok Jong; Lee, Cheol Heon; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Kyu Han; Eun, Hee Chul; Chang, Sung Eun; Moon, Kee Chan; Kim, Seong Hyun; Kim, Seong Jin; Kim, Byung-Soo; Lee, Jun Young; Kim, Hyung-Ok; Kang, Hoon; Lee, Min Geol; Kim, Soo-Chan; Ro, Young Suck; Ko, Joo Yeon; Park, Mi Youn; Kim, Myung Hwa; Shin, Jeong Hyun; Choi, Hae Young; Hong, Chang Kwun; Lee, Sung Yul; Bak, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Background Hand eczema is one of the most common skin disorders and negatively affects quality of life. However, a large-scale multicenter study investigating the clinical features of patients with hand eczema has not yet been conducted in Korea. Objective To identify the prevalence of various hand diseases, which is defined as all cutaneous disease occurring in hands, and to investigate the clinical features of patients with hand eczema and the awareness about hand eczema in the general population and to compare the prevalence of hand eczema between health care providers and non-health care providers. Methods To estimate the prevalence of hand diseases, we analyzed the medical records of patients from 24 medical centers. Patients were assessed by online and offline questionnaires. A 1,000 from general population and 913 hand eczema patients answered the questionnaire, for a total of 1,913 subjects. Results The most common hand disease was irritant contact dermatitis. In an online survey, the lifetime prevalence of hand eczema was 31.2%. Hand eczema was more likely to occur in females (66.0%) and younger (20~39 years, 53.9%). Health care providers and housewives were the occupations most frequently associated with hand eczema. Winter (33.6%) was the most common season which people experienced aggravation. The 63.0% and 67.0% answered that hand eczema hinders their personal relationship and negatively affects daily living activities, respectively. Conclusion Hand eczema is a very common disease and hinders the quality of life. The appropriate identification of hand eczema is necessary to implement effective and efficient treatment. PMID:27274632

  5. Occupational hand eczema among nursing staffs in Korea: Self-reported hand eczema and contact sensitization of hospital nursing staffs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang W; Cheong, Seung H; Byun, Ji Y; Choi, You W; Choi, Hae Y

    2013-03-01

    Occupational hand eczema is frequent in hospital workers, especially in nurses. A comprehensive understanding regarding hand eczema is essential for establishing proper prevention and treatment strategies. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for hand eczema in hospital nursing staffs. A self-administered questionnaire study was performed on hospital nursing staffs at a single general hospital in Korea. In addition, 70 patients with hand eczema underwent patch testing. Five hundred and twenty-five of 700 invited nurses completed the study (response rate, 75.0%). The overall frequency of symptom-based hand eczema was 75.6%, and self-reported hand eczema was 31.0%. Risk factors for hand eczema were young age, history of atopic dermatitis, frequent hand washing (>20 times/day) and long duration of glove wearing (>5 min). Hand eczema was less frequent among frequent hand moisturizer users (>3-4 times/day). Positive patch test reactions were observed in 61.4%. Frequent allergens were nickel sulfate (35.7%), cobalt chloride (28.6%) and thiomersal (21.4%). Among various antibiotics, ciprofloxacin (11.4%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (11.4%) and gentamicin (7.1%) were revealed as common allergens, in order of frequency. Hand eczema is quite common among hospital nursing staffs. Proper preventive programs and educations are demanded.

  6. Asthma, Allergy and Eczema among Adults in Multifamily Houses in Stockholm (3-HE Study) - Associations with Building Characteristics, Home Environment and Energy Use for Heating

    PubMed Central

    Norbäck, Dan; Lampa, Erik; Engvall, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for asthma, allergy and eczema were studied in a stratified random sample of adults in Stockholm. In 2005, 472 multifamily buildings (10,506 dwellings) were invited (one subject/dwelling) and 7,554 participated (73%). Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for gender, age, smoking, country of birth, income and years in the dwelling. In total, 11% had doctor's diagnosed asthma, 22% doctor's diagnosed allergy, 23% pollen allergy and 23% eczema. Doctor's diagnosed asthma was more common in dwellings with humid air (OR = 1.74) and mould odour (OR = 1.79). Doctor's diagnosed allergy was more common in buildings with supply exhaust air ventilation as compared to exhaust air only (OR = 1.45) and was associated with redecoration (OR = 1.48) and mould odour (OR = 2.35). Pollen allergy was less common in buildings using more energy for heating (OR = 0.75) and was associated with humid air (OR = 1.76) and mould odour (OR = 2.36). Eczema was more common in larger buildings (OR 1.07) and less common in buildings using more energy for heating (OR = 0.85) and was associated with water damage (OR = 1.47), humid air (OR = 1.73) and mould odour (OR = 2.01). Doctor's diagnosed allergy was less common in buildings with management accessibility both in the neighbourhood and in larger administrative divisions, as compared to management in the neighbourhood only (OR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.29–0.82). Pollen allergy was less common if the building maintenance was outsourced (OR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.51–0.88). Eczema was more common when management accessibility was only at the division level (OR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.06–2.11). In conclusions, asthma, allergy or eczema were more common in buildings using less energy for heating, in larger buildings and in dwellings with redecorations, mould odour, dampness and humid air. There is a need to reduce indoor chemical emissions and to control dampness

  7. Asthma, allergy and eczema among adults in multifamily houses in Stockholm (3-HE study)--associations with building characteristics, home environment and energy use for heating.

    PubMed

    Norbäck, Dan; Lampa, Erik; Engvall, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for asthma, allergy and eczema were studied in a stratified random sample of adults in Stockholm. In 2005, 472 multifamily buildings (10,506 dwellings) were invited (one subject/dwelling) and 7,554 participated (73%). Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for gender, age, smoking, country of birth, income and years in the dwelling. In total, 11% had doctor's diagnosed asthma, 22% doctor's diagnosed allergy, 23% pollen allergy and 23% eczema. Doctor's diagnosed asthma was more common in dwellings with humid air (OR = 1.74) and mould odour (OR = 1.79). Doctor's diagnosed allergy was more common in buildings with supply exhaust air ventilation as compared to exhaust air only (OR = 1.45) and was associated with redecoration (OR = 1.48) and mould odour (OR = 2.35). Pollen allergy was less common in buildings using more energy for heating (OR = 0.75) and was associated with humid air (OR = 1.76) and mould odour (OR = 2.36). Eczema was more common in larger buildings (OR 1.07) and less common in buildings using more energy for heating (OR = 0.85) and was associated with water damage (OR = 1.47), humid air (OR = 1.73) and mould odour (OR = 2.01). Doctor's diagnosed allergy was less common in buildings with management accessibility both in the neighbourhood and in larger administrative divisions, as compared to management in the neighbourhood only (OR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.29-0.82). Pollen allergy was less common if the building maintenance was outsourced (OR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.51-0.88). Eczema was more common when management accessibility was only at the division level (OR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.06-2.11). In conclusions, asthma, allergy or eczema were more common in buildings using less energy for heating, in larger buildings and in dwellings with redecorations, mould odour, dampness and humid air. There is a need to reduce indoor chemical emissions and to control dampness. Energy saving may have consequences for allergy and eczema. More

  8. [Diabetic retinopathy complications--12-year retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Ignat, Florica; Davidescu, Livia

    2002-01-01

    It is analyzed, on a retrospective study on 12 years, the incidence of diabetus melitus cases, hospitalized in the Ophthalmologic Clinic from Craiova with special mention to the frequency of the diabetic retinopathy, of it's complications and in an accordance to other general diseases, especially cardiovascular's, which contributes to the aggravation of the diabetic ocular in juries evolution. The study underlines the high incidence of the new founded cases with diabetus melitus in complicated diabetes retinopathy stage; the high frequency of ocular complications is explained, according to our statistic facts and through an insufficient treatment, sometimes incorrect and many other cases total neglected by the patients.

  9. Dupixent Approved to Treat Eczema

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_164333.html Dupixent Approved to Treat Eczema When topical medication doesn't work To use ... and Drug Administration to treat moderate-to-severe eczema that isn't well controlled by topical medication. ...

  10. Exclusive or Partial Breastfeeding for 6 Months Is Associated With Reduced Milk Sensitization and Risk of Eczema in Early Childhood: The PATCH Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chih-Yung; Liao, Sui-Ling; Su, Kuan-Wen; Tsai, Ming-Han; Hua, Man-Chin; Lai, Shen-Hao; Chen, Li-Chen; Yao, Tsung-Chieh; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Jing-Long

    2016-04-01

    There is insufficient evidence to confirm the association between breastfeeding and allergic outcomes later in life. This study aimed to determine the relationships between different breastfeeding patterns and allergen sensitizations and risk of developing atopic diseases in early childhood. A total of 186 children from a birth cohort in the Prediction of Allergies in Taiwanese Children study for a 4-year follow-up period were enrolled. Total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and specific IgE antibodies against food and inhalant allergens were measured sequentially at 6 months as well as at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 years of age. A significantly lower prevalence of milk sensitization was found in children at ages 1 and 1.5 years who were exclusively or partially breastfed for ≥6 months. Breastfeeding ≥6 months was significantly associated with a reduced risk of developing eczema but not allergic rhinitis and asthma at ages 1 and 2 years. Compared with exclusive breastfeeding ≥6 months, partial breastfeeding <6 months was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing eczema at ages 1 and 2 years. As with exclusive breastfeeding, partial breastfeeding for at least 6 months appears to be associated with a reduced prevalence of milk sensitization as well as a reduced risk of developing eczema in early childhood.

  11. Skin Barrier Function and Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Vestibulum Nasi and Fauces in Healthy Infants and Infants with Eczema: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Berents, Teresa Løvold; Carlsen, Karin Cecilie Lødrup; Mowinckel, Petter; Skjerven, Håvard Ove; Kvenshagen, Bente; Rolfsjord, Leif Bjarte; Bradley, Maria; Lieden, Agne; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Gaustad, Peter; Gjersvik, Petter

    2015-01-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is associated with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization and skin barrier dysfunction, often measured by increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL). In the present study, the primary aim was to see whether S. aureus colonization in the vestibulum nasi and/or fauces was associated with increased TEWL in infants with healthy skin and infants with eczema. Secondarily, we aimed to investigate whether TEWL measurements on non-lesional skin on the lateral upper arm is equivalent to volar forearm in infants. In 167 of 240 infants, recruited from the general population, TEWL measurements on the lateral upper arm and volar forearm, using a DermaLab USB, fulfilled our environmental requirements. The mean of three TEWL measurements from each site was used for analysis. The infants were diagnosed with no eczema (n = 110), possible AE (n = 28) or AE (n = 29). DNA samples were analysed for mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG). Bacterial cultures were reported positive with the identification of at least one culture with S. aureus from vestibulum nasi and/or fauces. S. aureus colonization, found in 89 infants (53%), was not associated with increased TEWL (i.e. TEWL in the upper quartile), neither on the lateral upper arm or volar forearm (p = 0.08 and p = 0.98, respectively), nor with AE (p = 0.10) or FLG mutation (p = 0.17). TEWL was significantly higher on both measuring sites in infants with AE compared to infants with possible AE and no eczema. FLG mutation was significantly associated with increased TEWL, with a 47% difference in TEWL. We conclude that S. aureus in vestibulum nasi and/or fauces was not associated with TEWL, whereas TEWL measurements on the lateral upper arm and volar forearm appear equally appropriate in infants.

  12. Early exposure to antibiotics and infections and the incidence of atopic eczema: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Jochen; Schmitt, Natalie M; Kirch, Wilhelm; Meurer, Michael

    2010-03-01

    It has been suggested that infants exposed to antibiotics are at increased risk for atopic eczema (AE), whereas the early exposure to infections might be protective. This study describes the complex relationship between early exposure to infections, anti-infectious treatment with antibiotics, and incident AE. Using a German population-based administrative health-care and prescription database, we established a cohort of 370 children not diagnosed as having AE during their first year of life. For each individual child we identified all infections and prescriptions of antibiotics within the first year as well as incident AE within the second year of life. Crude analyses suggested that early infections and exposure to antibiotics are risk factors for AE. However, stratified analyses indicated that early infections were only associated with a higher rate of AE when treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics such as cephalosporines or macrolides. The risk ratio (RR) of children with early respiratory tract infections not treated with antibiotics was 0.69 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.39 to 1.24], whereas respiratory tract infections treated with macrolides (RR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.18-3.91) or cephalosporines (RR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.07-3.49) significantly increased the risk for AE. The results for other common childhood infections tended to be similar. Antibiotic treatment appears to modify the association between early infections and subsequent AE. We found no evidence that infections per se significantly alter the likelihood for subsequent AE.

  13. The prevalence, characteristics of and risk factors for eczema in Belgian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Govaere, Elke; Van Gysel, Dirk; Verhamme, Katia M C; Doli, Erenik; Oranje, Arnold P; De Baets, Frans

    2009-01-01

    Childhood eczema is common in infants, but its nature and extent during later childhood remains unclear. In this cross-sectional study we examined the prevalence and characteristics of eczema in an unbiased community population of 2,021 Belgian schoolchildren, aged 3.4 to 14.8 years with skin prick testing and parental questionnaires. Our study identified an eczema prevalence of 23.3% and a considerable allergic comorbidity, mainly in sensitized children. The reported prevalence of eczema in infancy was 18.5% and for current eczema 11.6%. The overall sensitization rate (33.2%) as well as sensitization rates for the individual allergens were significantly higher in children with "eczema ever." Sensitization to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (19.6%), mixed grass pollen (15.1%), and cat (9.1%) were most common. Until the age of 6 years, boys with eczema were significantly more sensitized than girls (p = 0.007). Children with both eczema in infancy and current eczema show a tendency to be more sensitized than children with eczema in infancy only or current eczema only, but significance was only noted for a few individual allergens. Analysis of factors associated with eczema revealed a predominantly atopic profile characterized by family or personal history of allergy. Breastfeeding and environmental factors seemed to assume little relevance except for a protective effect of prematurity and having a dog at birth.

  14. Noninvasive measuring methods for the investigation of irritant patch test reactions. A study of patients with hand eczema, atopic dermatitis and controls.

    PubMed

    Agner, T

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the susceptibility of clinically normal skin to a standard irritant trauma under varying physiological and patophysiological conditions. Evaluation of skin responses to patch tests with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) was used for assessment of skin susceptibility. The following noninvasive measuring methods were used for evaluation of the skin before and after exposure to irritants: measurement of transepidermal water loss by an evaporimeter, measurement of electrical conductance by a hydrometer, measurement of skin blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry, measurement of skin colour by a colorimeter and measurement of skin thickness by ultrasound A-scan. The studies were carried out on healthy volunteers and patients with eczema. In the first studies the standard irritant patch test for assessment of skin susceptibility was characterized and validated. SLS was chosen among other irritants because of its ability to penetrate and impair the skin barrier. The implications of use of different qualities of SLS was investigated. The applied noninvasive measuring methods were evaluated, and for quantification of SLS-induced skin damage measurement of TEWL was found to be the most sensitive method. Application of the standard test on clinically normal skin under varying physiological and patophysiological conditions lead to the following main results: Seasonal variation in skin susceptibility to SLS was found, with increased susceptibility in winter, when the hydration state of the stratum corneum was also found to be decreased. A variation in skin reactivity to SLS during the menstrual cycle was demonstrated, with an increased skin response at day 1 as compared to days 9-11 in the menstrual cycle. The presence of active eczema distant from the test site increased skin susceptibility to SLS, indicating a generalized hyperreactivity of the skin. Taking these sources of variation into account healthy volunteers and patients with hand eczema and

  15. Staphylococcus aureus colonization related to severity of hand eczema.

    PubMed

    Mernelius, S; Carlsson, E; Henricson, J; Löfgren, S; Lindgren, P-E; Ehricht, R; Monecke, S; Matussek, A; Anderson, C D

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge on Staphylococcus aureus colonization rates and epidemiology in hand eczema is limited. The aim of this study was to clarify some of these issues. Samples were collected by the "glove juice" method from the hands of 59 patients with chronic hand eczema and 24 healthy individuals. Swab samples were taken from anterior nares and throat from 43 of the 59 patients and all healthy individuals. S. aureus were spa typed and analysed by DNA-microarray-based genotyping. The extent of the eczema was evaluated by the hand eczema extent score (HEES). The colonization rate was higher on the hands of hand eczema patients (69 %) compared to healthy individuals (21 %, p < 0.001). This was also seen for bacterial density (p = 0.002). Patients with severe hand eczema (HEES ≥ 13) had a significantly higher S. aureus density on their hands compared to those with milder eczema (HEES = 1 to 12, p = 0.004). There was no difference between patients and healthy individuals regarding colonization rates in anterior nares or throat. spa typing and DNA-microarray-based genotyping indicated certain types more prone to colonize eczematous skin. Simultaneous colonization, in one individual, with S. aureus of different types, was identified in 60-85 % of the study subjects. The colonization rate and density indicate a need for effective treatment of eczema and may have an impact on infection control in healthcare.

  16. Space Adaptation Back Pain: A Retrospective Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, E. L.; Scheuring, R. A.; Barnes, M. G.; DeKorse, T. B.; Saile, L. G.

    2008-01-01

    Back pain is frequently reported by astronauts during the early phase of space flight as they adapt to the microgravity environment. However, the epidemiology of space adaptation back pain has not been well defined. The purpose of this retrospective study was to develop a case definition of space adaptation back pain, determine the incidence of space adaptation back pain, and determine the effectiveness of available treatments. Medical records from the Mercury, Apollo, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Skylab, Mir, International Space Station (ISS), and Shuttle programs were reviewed. All episodes of in-flight back pain that met the criteria for space adaptation back pain were recorded. Pain characteristics, including intensity, location, and duration of the pain were noted. The effectiveness of specific treatments also was recorded. The incidence of space adaptation back pain among astronauts was determined to be 53% (384/722). Most of the affected astronauts reported mild pain (85%). Moderate pain was reported by 11% of the affected astronauts and severe pain was reported by only 4% of the affected astronauts. The most effective treatments were fetal positioning (91% effective) and the use of analgesic medications (85% effective). This retrospective study aids in the development of a case definition of space adaptation back pain and examines the epidemiology of space adaptation back pain. Space adaptation back pain is usually mild and self-limited. However, there is a risk of functional impairment and mission impact in cases of moderate or severe pain that do not respond to currently available treatments. Therefore, the development of preventive measures and more effective treatments should be pursued.

  17. Mediterranean diet adherence during pregnancy and risk of wheeze and eczema in the first year of life: INMA (Spain) and RHEA (Greece) mother-child cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Chatzi, Leda; Garcia, Raquel; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Basterrechea, Mikel; Begiristain, Haizea; Iñiguez, Carmen; Vioque, Jesus; Kogevinas, Manolis; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-12-14

    Maternal diet during pregnancy might influence the development of childhood allergic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence during pregnancy on wheeze and eczema in the first year of life in two population-based mother-child cohorts in Spain and Greece. We studied 1771 mother-newborn pairs from the Spanish multi-centre 'INMA' (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) study (Gipuzkoa, Sabadell and Valencia) and 745 pairs from the 'RHEA' study in Crete, Greece. The symptoms of wheeze and eczema were based on the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed by FFQ and MD adherence was evaluated through an a priori score. Multivariate log-binomial regression models were used to adjust for several confounders in each cohort and summary estimates were obtained by a meta-analysis. MD adherence was not associated with the risk of wheeze and eczema in any cohort, and similar results were identified in the meta-analysis approach. High meat intake (relative risk (RR) 1·22, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·49) and 'processed' meat intake (RR 1·18, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·37) during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of wheeze in the first year of life, while a high intake of dairy products was significantly associated with a decreased risk of infantile wheeze (RR 0·83, 95 % CI 0·72, 0·96). The results of the present study show that high meat intake during pregnancy may increase the risk of wheeze in the first year of life, while a high intake of dairy products may decrease it.

  18. Wandering spleen in children: multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Fiquet-Francois, Caroline; Belouadah, Mohamed; Ludot, Hugues; Defauw, Benoit; Mcheik, Jiad Noel; Bonnet, Jean Paul; Kanmegne, Charly Udozen; Weil, Dominique; Coupry, Lionel; Fremont, Benjamin; Becmeur, Francois; Lacreuse, Isabelle; Montupet, Philippe; Rahal, Eliane; Botto, Nathalie; Cheikhelard, Alaa; Sarnacki, Sabine; Petit, Thierry; Poli Merol, Marie Laurence

    2010-07-01

    Wandering spleen in children is a rare condition. The diagnosis is difficult, and any delay can cause splenic ischemia. An epidemiologic, semiological, and surgical diagnosis questionnaire on incidence of wandering spleen in children was sent to several French surgical teams. We report the results of this multicenter retrospective study. Fourteen cases (6 girls, 8 boys) were reported between 1984 and 2009; the age range varies between 1-day-old and 15 years; 86% were seen in the emergency department. Ninety-three percent had diffuse abdominal pain. For 57% of the cases, it was their first symptomatic episode of this type. No diagnosis was established based on the clinical results alone. All patients had presurgical imaging diagnosis. Open surgery was performed on 64% cases. Forty-three had splenectomy for splenic ischemia. Thirty-six percent had splenopexy, 14% had laparoscopic gastropexy, and 7% had spleen repositioning and regeneration. Complications were noted in 60% of the cases resulting in postsplenopexy splenic ischemia. Early diagnosis and surgery are the best guarantee for spleen preservation. Even if the choice of one technique, splenopexy or gastropexy, can be argued, gastropexy has the advantage of avoiding splenic manipulation and restoring proper physiologic anatomy. When there is no history of abdominal surgery, laparoscopy surgery seems the best procedure.

  19. Raton Basin, Colorado Retrospective Case Study Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA conducted a retrospective case study in the Raton Basin of Colorado to investigate reported instances of contaminated drinking water resources in areas where hydraulic fracturing activities occurred.

  20. Association between environmental factors and current asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema symptoms in school-aged children from Oropeza Province – Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, the prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema symptoms in childhood has considerably increased in developing countries including Bolivia, possibly due to changes in lifestyle, environmental and domestic factors. This study aimed to assess the association between environmental factors and asthma, rhinoconjuctivitis and eczema symptoms in school-aged children from Oropeza Province in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 2340 children attending the fifth grade in 36 randomly selected elementary schools in Oropeza province. The prevalence of symptoms was determined using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Environmental factors were assessed by the ISAAC environmental questionnaire including questions related to exposure to pets, farm animals, indoor and outdoor pollution, presence of disease vectors at home and precarious household conditions. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were adjusted for age, sex and place of living. Results Thirty seven percent of children reported that at least one of their parents smoked at home. Wood or coal was used as cooking fuel in 19% of the homes and 29% reported intense truck traffic on the street where they lived. With respect to hygiene conditions, 86% reported exposure to dogs, 59% exposure to cats and 36% regular contact to farm animals. More than one precarious household condition was reported by 8% of children. In the adjusted model exposure to dog (adjusted OR 1.4; CI 95% 1.0-1.9), cat (1.2; 1.0-1.5), farm animals (1.5; 1.2-1.8); intense truck traffic (1.3; 1.0-1.6), parents smoking at home (1.2; 1.0-1.5), presence of disease vectors at home (fourth quartile vs. first quartile: 1.6; 1.2-2.3) and two or more precarious household conditions (1.5; 1.0-2.2) were significantly associated with rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms. The associations were similar for asthma and eczema symptoms; however it did not reach

  1. A retrospective study on hypothyroid patients.

    PubMed

    Barton, E N; Kelly, D; Morrison, E Y

    1991-03-01

    A retrospective study of 58 hypothyroid patients attending the Endocrine Clinic, University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica, between July and August 1989, was undertaken. The age range at initial presentation varied from one month to eighty-four years. The majority of cases (51 or 87.9%) were between 21 and 70 years. There were 50 females (86.2%) and 8 males (13.8%). The underlying causes were idiopathic hypothyroidism (35 or 60.3%), posthyroidectomy (13 or 22.4%), post I131 therapy (6 or 10.4%), panhypopituitarism (3 or 5.2%), hypophysectomy (1 or 1.7%). Biochemical parameters used in diagnosis were serum thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Forty-six patients (79.2%) had elevated TSH, indicative of a high correlation of elevated TSH with hypothyroidism. Duration of symptomatology prior to diagnosis was one year in 27 patients (46.5%), 2-10 years in 23 (39.6%) and 10 years in 4 cases (6.9%). The major presenting signs and symptoms were lethargy (20 or 34.5%), anaemia (mixed normochromic, microcytic (16 or 27.6%), slow relaxation of tendon reflexes (16 or 27.6%), coarsening of skin (15 or 25.9%), weight gain 10 or 17.2%), hoarseness (9 or 15.5%) and psychiatric symptoms (7 or 12%). The known association of primary hypothyroidism with other autoimmune disorders was not borne out in this study. The time-lapse in diagnosis from symptomatology emphasized the need for clinicians to be more alert to the subtle and varied presentation of hypothyroidism.

  2. Altered Gut Microbiota Composition Associated with Eczema in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Maohua; Shi, Tao; Yang, Fen; Liu, Enuo; Yuan, Wei; Ji, Zai-Si; Li, De-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Eczema is frequently the first manifestation of an atopic diathesis and alteration in the diversity of gut microbiota has been reported in infants with eczema. To identify specific bacterial communities associated with eczema, we conducted a case-control study of 50 infants with eczema (cases) and 51 healthy infants (controls). We performed high-throughput sequencing for V3–V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA genes from the gut fecal material. A total of 12,386 OTUs (operational taxonomic units) at a 97% similarity level were obtained from the two groups, and we observed a difference in taxa abundance, but not the taxonomic composition, of gut microbiota between the two groups. We identified four genera enriched in healthy infants: Bifidobacterium, Megasphaera, Haemophilus and Streptococcus; and five genera enriched in infants with eczema: Escherichia/Shigella, Veillonella, Faecalibacterium, Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis and Clostridium XlVa. Several species, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Ruminococcus gnavus, that are known to be associated with atopy or inflammation, were found to be significantly enriched in infants with eczema. Higher abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila in eczematous infants might reduce the integrity of intestinal barrier function and therefore increase the risk of developing eczema. On the other hand, Bacteroides fragilis and Streptococcus salivarius, which are known for their anti-inflammatory properties, were less abundant in infants with eczema. The observed differences in genera and species between cases and controls in this study may provide insight into the link between the microbiome and eczema risk. PMID:27812181

  3. Fish consumption, fish atopy and related heavy metals in childhood eczema.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam Lun; Lui, Heike; Wang, Shuxin Susan; Lam, Hugh Simon; Leung, Ting Fan

    2012-09-01

    Due to increasing worldwide water pollution, fish might be a source of excessive zinc, mercury, arsenic or manganese intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate if fish atopy/sensitization and fish consumption behavior are associated with eczema severity and blood levels of the 4 heavy metals.One-hundred and nineteen patients with eczema and 43 patients with miscellaneous non-eczema skin diseases were studied. There were no differences in average weekly fish consumption and blood levels of the 4 heavy metals between eczema and non-eczema groups. Blood levels of these metals were generally within the upper limits of local reference ranges in all these patients. In eczema patients, freshwater fish consumption behavior in days-per-week was correlated with blood arsenic and mercury levels (rho=0.17, p<0.01 for both metals), but not with zinc or manganese. Levels of arsenic and mercury were also correlated with days of seawater fish consumption per week (arsenic: 0.38, mercury: 0.24, p <0.05).Fish sensitization was present in 25% of patients with eczema. Nevertheless, there was no difference in terms of fish consumption behavior, eczema severity, quality of life, and heavy metal levels between eczema patients with or without fish sensitization. We conclude that without exceeding local normal reference ranges, blood arsenic and mercury levels correlated with fish consumption behavior. There is no evidence to suggest that fish sensitization is associated with more severe eczema (bad for eczema), or that patients have milder eczema with more days of fish consumption (good for eczema).

  4. Diabetes and burns: retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    McCampbell, Beth; Wasif, Nabil; Rabbitts, Angela; Staiano-Coico, Lisa; Yurt, Roger W; Schwartz, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Burn injuries are often associated with multisystemic complications, even in otherwise healthy individuals. It is therefore intuitive that for the diabetic patient, the underlying pathophysiologic alterations in vascular supply, peripheral neuropathy, and immune function could have a profoundly devastating impact on patient outcome. The effects of diabetes on morbidity and mortality of the burn-injured patient have not been examined in great detail. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare clinical outcomes between diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients. We reviewed the charts of 181 diabetic (DM) and 190 nondiabetic (nDM) patients admitted with burns between January 1996 and May 2000, matched by sex and date of admission. Burn cause and size, time to presentation, clinical course, and outcomes were evaluated. Because age was a factor, the analysis was done by three age groups: younger than 18 years, 18 to 65 years, and older than 65 years. Of patients 18 to 65 years, 51% (98/191) were diabetic, whereas 84% (81/96) of those older than 65 and only 4% (3/85) of patients younger than 18 were diabetic. Because of the disproportion in numbers of diabetics compared with nondiabetics in the younger than 18 and older than 65 years-old groups, these patients will not be discussed. Diabetics were more likely to incur scald injury from tub or shower water rather than hot fluid spills (33% DM vs 15% nDM; P < or = 0.01), and have a delayed presentation (45 vs 23%; P = 0.00001). There was no difference in total burn size in all groups. Diabetics in the 18 to 65 years group had a higher rate of full-thickness burns (51 vs 31%; P = 0.025), skin grafts (50 vs 28%; P = 0.01) and burn-related procedures (57 vs 32%; P = 0.001), infections (65 vs 51%; P = 0.05), and longer lengths of stay (23 vs 12 days; P = 0.0001). Although there was no statistically significant difference in incidence of specific infections, the rates of cellulitis, wound infection, urinary tract

  5. Hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome - a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Devdeep; Sinha, Rajiv; Akhtar, Md Shakil; Saha, Agni Sekhar

    2017-01-01

    AIM To ascertain the frequency of hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome (HHS) in a cohort of children with hypertensive emergency in a tertiary pediatric hospital. METHODS A retrospective review was undertaken among children with hypertensive emergency admitted in our tertiary children hospital between June 2014 and December 2015 with an aim to identify any children with HHS. Three children with HHS were identified during this period. RESULTS The 3 patients with HHS presented with hypertensive emergency. They were initially managed with Labetalol infusion and thereafter switched to oral anti-hypertensives (combination of Nifedipine sustained release, Hydralazine and Beta Blocker). All 3 were diagnosed to have unilateral renal artery stenosis. One child was lost to follow up, whereas the other 2 underwent renal angioplasty which was followed with normalization of blood pressure. CONCLUSION Despite activation of renin angiotensin axis secondary to renal artery stenosis, these groups of children have significant hyponatremia. Renal re-vascularisation produces excellent results in most of them. PMID:28101450

  6. Space Adaptation Back Pain: A Retrospective Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Astronaut back pain is frequently reported in the early phase of space flight as they adapt to microgravity. The epidemiology of space adaptation back pain (SABP) has not been well established. This presentation seeks to determine the exact incidence of SABP among astronauts, develop a case definition of SABP, delineate the nature and pattern of SABP, review available treatments and their effectiveness in relieving SABP; and identify any operational impact of SABP. A retrospective review of all available mission medical records of astronauts in the U.S. space program was performed. It was revealed that the incidence of SABP has been determined to be 53% among astronauts in the U.S. space program; most cases of SABP are mild, self-limited, or respond to available treatment; there are no currently accepted preventive measures for SABP; it is difficult to predict who will develop SABP; the precise mechanism and spinal structures responsible for SABP are uncertain; there was no documented evidence of direction operational mission impact related to SABP; and, that there was the potential for mission impact related to uncontrolled pain, sleep disturbance, or the adverse side effects pf anti-inflammatory medications

  7. New Eczema Drug Promising in Early Trial

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163883.html New Eczema Drug Promising in Early Trial Nemolizumab significantly ... the appearance of moderate to severe eczema, a new, preliminary trial finds. Nemolizumab is a man-made, ...

  8. New Eczema Drug Gets FDA's Blessing

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164327.html New Eczema Drug Gets FDA's Blessing Injections may ease ... News) -- Adults plagued by eczema may have a new treatment option, with a new drug approved Tuesday ...

  9. Retrospective Case Study in Killdeer, North Dakota

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This study site was chosen at the request of the state to specifically examine any water resource impacts from a well blowout in September 2010 that resulted in an uncontrolled release of hydraulic fracturing fluids and formation fluids.

  10. What's new in atopic eczema? An analysis of systematic reviews published in 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Shams, K; Grindlay, D J C; Williams, H C

    2011-08-01

    This review provides a summary of key findings from 18 systematic reviews on atopic eczema, published or indexed between January 2009 and 24 August 2010. There was no good evidence on the possible benefit of organic food consumption and eczema. Maternal intake of fish or fish oil may be associated with a reduced risk of eczema in offspring, although further studies are needed. There is some evidence that partially hydrolysed infant formulas rather than standard formulas may be associated with a reduced risk of eczema in infants, but there are shortcomings in the existing evidence. An inverse relationship has been found between gliomas/acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and allergic disease/eczema, but there appears to be no association between multiple sclerosis and eczema. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder does appear to be associated with eczema, but there is no evidence of a causal link. The risk of eczema seems to be increased in urban compared with rural areas. Some new evidence has suggested superiority of 1% pimecrolimus over potent and mild corticosteroids at 6 months but not 12 months, and there is some evidence for superiority of 0.03% and 0.1% tacrolimus over 1% pimecrolimus. An updated Cochrane Review still found no evidence of a benefit from any form of antistaphylococcal treatment in managing clinically infected or uninfected eczema. The evidence base is poor for bath emollients, occlusive treatments (e.g., wet and dry wraps) and woven silk clothing in treating eczema. In general, the methods used in most systematic reviews of eczema need to be reported more clearly, especially with regard to a more vigorous quality assessment of included studies. Included studies are frequently heterogeneous, proxy reporting is common, and appropriate disease definitions are often lacking. Better adherence to existing guidance on trial reporting and prospective registration of clinical trials may help improve the quality of studies.

  11. Military parachute mishap fatalities: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Mellen, P F; Sohn, S S

    1990-12-01

    Military parachuting is relatively safe. Most injuries involve vertebral bodies or the lower extremity, and fatalities are rare. We studied 49 military parachute accident facilities occurring during 1964-1989. Causes of the accidents included accidental deployment of reserve parachute in aircraft, static line failures and entanglements, equipment (canopy) failures, in-air collisions, landing injuries, drowning, and dragging. Rarely, preexisting illness such as coronary artery disease caused or contributed to an accident. Pathologic findings revealed a high proportion of deceleration and blunt force injuries: cardiac, aortic and liver laceration, and skull, pelvic and extremity fractures. Isolated head injury, strangulation, and post traumatic pulmonary embolus were occasionally noted. Toxicological examination demonstrated contributing factors such as alcohol intoxication or antihistamine use in a small number of cases. Background investigations, scene inspections, autopsy and toxicology studies all yielded important data or pertinent negatives during investigations. We propose an investigation protocol.

  12. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    DOE PAGES

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-06-05

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfv,nic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate similar ~ √(nα/ne) driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. Recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusionmore » devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. Finally, we discuss prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.« less

  13. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-06-05

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfv,nic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate similar ~ √(nα/ne) driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. Recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusion devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. Finally, we discuss prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.

  14. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-05-01

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfvénic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate √ {n_α /n_e } driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. More recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusion devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. We discuss further prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.

  15. The digital eczema centre utrecht.

    PubMed

    van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; van Veelen, Carien; Hover, Maaike; Eland-de Kok, Petra; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; Sonnevelt, Gert-Jan; Mensing, Geert; Pasmans, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    The University Medical Centre Utrecht (UMC Utrecht) has developed an eczema portal that combines e-consulting, monitoring and self-management training by a dermatology nurse online for patients and parents of young children with atopic dermatitis (AD). Patient satisfaction with the portal was high. It could be extended to become a Digital Eczema Centre for multidisciplinary collaboration between health-care providers from different locations and the patient. Before starting the construction of the Digital Eczema Centre, the feasibility was examined by carrying out a business case analysis. The purposes, strength and weaknesses showed that the Digital Eczema Centre offered opportunities to improve care for patients with AD. The financial analysis resulted in a medium/best case scenario with a positive result of euro50-240,000 over a period of five years. We expect that the Digital Eczema Centre will increase the accessibility and quality of care. The web-based patient record and the digital chain-of-care promote the involvement of patients, parents and multidisciplinary teams as well as the continuity and coordination of care.

  16. [Preprosthetic orthodontic treatment--retrospective statistic study].

    PubMed

    Ispas, Dana Catrinel; Eftene, Oana Alexandra; Temelcea, Anca; Pădure, Hariclea

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment as a help is the teeth movement made in order to facilitate the odontal,prosthetic and periodontal proceedures which are needed in the dentomaxilar and/or facial reabilitation. The aim of the study was to follow for 5 years which is the percentage of patients who asked for orthodontic treatment in the Orthodontic and Dentofacial Orthopedie Clinic from UMF 'Carol Davila'. We also followed the frequency related to the etiology of the loss of some teeth and also the relationship between the loss of the teeth and periodontal disease. In our country, the number of patients who ask for preprosthetic orthodontic treatment is lower comparing with Western and Northtern Europe, but the percentage is increasing due to the dentists calification. We can conclude by saying that the frequency of losing teeth by cavities is increased by age because all patients from the study group aged 35 and above lost their teeth from cavity etiology and the patients aged 18 and lower had genetic etiology in losing their teeth.

  17. Retrospective Descriptive Study of Cerebral Palsy in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapa, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    There is very little data pertaining to cerebral palsy (CP) from Nepal. In this retrospective study it was observed that dyskinetic CP was seen in 29% and the sex ratio of males to females was two in the study population of children with CP. Both of these are much higher than data from developed countries. Hence, further randomized cross-sectional…

  18. Vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Othon N; Chrisostomidis, Chrisostomos I; Georgiou, Panagis N; Frangoulis, Marios B; Zapantis-Fragos, Menelaos K; Champsas, Grigorios G

    2005-01-01

    From 1986 to 2001, 17 patients (aged 26-77 years) were treated using the vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap. A two-stage procedure was used in 7 and a single-stage island flap in 10. The donor site was closed directly in all patients. Mean length of hospital stay was 16 days (range 12-25). There was no operative mortality. Complications were one partial flap necrosis and two seromas of the donor site, complicated by infection. With a minimum follow-up of more than two years, our study confirms the usefulness of the vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap in head and neck reconstructive surgery. It is a reliable, thin flap of uniform thickness, which carries hairless skin. The length and thickness of its pedicle allows excellent mobility. The main disadvantage of the flap is the complete sacrifice of the muscle necessary for total mobilisation of the flap, and the intraoperative repositioning of the patient.

  19. Academic Resilience: A Retrospective Study of Adults With Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, John G.; Stoch, Shari A.; Chan, Janet S. N.; Hutchinson, Nancy L.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports qualitative analyses of two sets of retrospective interviews with adults with learning difficulties. The purpose of the study was to examine the high school experiences of these adults from a holistic perspective to understand possible factors that contributed to one group staying in school and the other group leaving school…

  20. Systemic treatment of severe atopic eczema: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Jochen; Schäkel, Knut; Schmitt, Natalie; Meurer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Systemic immunosuppressive agents are recommended for patients with atopic eczema in whom disease activity cannot be controlled adequately with topical treatments. Guidelines do not give clear advice which agents to prefer. We systematically reviewed clinical trials on systemic treatment for severe atopic eczema to provide evidence-based treatment recommendations. Standardized literature search, independent standardized assessment of eligibility and data abstraction was performed by 2 reviewers. Twenty-seven studies totalling 979 patients were included. Eleven studies consistently showed effectiveness of cyclosporine. Cyclosporine is recommended as first option for patients with atopic eczema refractory to conventional treatment. Evidence from randomized controlled trials also exists for interferon-? and azathioprine. Although frequently used in clinical practice, systemic glucocorticosteroids have not been assessed adequately in studies. Mycophenolate mofetile showed effectiveness in 2 small uncontrolled studies. Intravenous immunoglobulins and infliximab are not recommended based on published data.

  1. [Allergic contact eczema to ninhydrin].

    PubMed

    Schlacke, K H; Fuchs, T

    1989-01-01

    Use of a surgical marking pen to indicate test areas on the skin during epicutaneous evaluation caused eczema in three female patients undergoing patch testing. Close scrutiny of the individual components of this surgical marking pen revealed contact dermatitis to ninhydrine, a substance whose allergenic potential has hardly been noted in the relevant literature.

  2. Prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis and eczema in 13- to 14-year-old children in Africa: the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Phase III.

    PubMed

    Ait-Khaled, N; Odhiambo, J; Pearce, N; Adjoh, K S; Maesano, I A; Benhabyles, B; Bouhayad, Z; Bahati, E; Camara, L; Catteau, C; El Sony, A; Esamai, F O; Hypolite, I E; Melaku, K; Musa, O A; Ng'ang'a, L; Onadeko, B O; Saad, O; Jerray, M; Kayembe, J M; Koffi, N B; Khaldi, F; Kuaban, C; Voyi, K; M'Boussa, J; Sow, O; Tidjani, O; Zar, H J

    2007-03-01

    Phase I of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood has provided valuable information regarding international prevalence patterns and potential risk factors in the development of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema. However, in Phase I, only six African countries were involved (Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Kenya, South Africa and Ethiopia). Phase III, conducted 5-6 years later, enrolled 22 centres in 16 countries including the majority of the centres involved in Phase I and new centres in Morocco, Tunisia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Togo, Sudan, Cameroon, Gabon, Reunion Island and South Africa. There were considerable variations between the various centres of Africa in the prevalence of the main symptoms of the three conditions: wheeze (4.0-21.5%), allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (7.2-27.3%) and eczema (4.7-23.0%). There was a large variation both between countries and between centres in the same country. Several centres, including Cape Town (20.3%), Polokwane (18.0%), Reunion Island (21.5%), Brazzaville (19.9%), Nairobi (18.0%), Urban Ivory Coast (19.3%) and Conakry (18.6%) showed relatively high asthma symptom prevalences, similar to those in western Europe. There were also a number of centres showing high symptom prevalences for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (Cape Town, Reunion Island, Brazzaville, Eldoret, Urban Ivory Coast, Conakry, Casablanca, Wilays of Algiers, Sousse and Eldoret) and eczema (Brazzaville, Eldoret, Addis Ababa, Urban Ivory Coast, Conakry, Marrakech and Casablanca).

  3. Retrospective studies of operating problems in air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Lauber, J. K.; Cooper, G. E.; Ruffell-Smith, H. P.

    1976-01-01

    An epidemiological model for the study of human errors in aviation is presented. In this approach, retrospective data are used as the basis for formulation of hypotheses as to system factors which may have contributed to such errors. Prospective experimental studies of aviation operations are also required in order to prove or disprove the hypotheses, and to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention techniques designed to solve operational problems in the aviation system.

  4. A Study on Mental Disorders: 5-year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Celine, Thalappillil Mathew; Antony, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    Background: “Mental disorder” is the most common used term in the modern life and the main reason behind this may be the mechanical way of life or stress and strain among youth. Aim: To find the pattern of mental disorders of hospitalized patients in a medical college hospital from 1st April 2005 to 31st March 2010. Settings and Design: A retrospective study conducted among the patients admitted with mental disorders in a medical college hospital from 1st April 2005 to 31st March 2010. Materials and Methods: Data collected from the registers maintained in the medical records department. Statistical Analysis: Z test is used for the comparison of proportions. Results: A total of 7908 mental disorder cases reported in the medical college hospital, 5564 (70.36%) were males and 2344 (29.64%) were females. Most cases occurred in the age group of 30-44 years. Mental disorder was more among females than males in 0-29 years and ≥ 60 years, but in 30-59 years males were more. In each year, mental disorders were reported more in males than females. Of the cases, most of them were mood disorders. Mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use were more among males but schizophrenia, delusional disorders, mood disorders, stress-related disorders, mental retardation, and so on were more among females. Conclusion: Mood disorder was the most occurred mental disorder and the next leading mental disorder was mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use. Counseling can be helpful for preventing most of the mental disorders. Improve the mental health care facilities will be the solution for controlling the mental disorders. PMID:24791229

  5. OSL studies of local bricks for retrospective dosimetric application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Menon, S. N.; Kadam, S. Y.; Koul, D. K.; Datta, D.

    2016-09-01

    Luminescence properties of quartz extracted from bricks has been reported worldwide for its use in dose estimation in case of nuclear or radiological accident. Accordingly, in this study the feasibility of utilizing the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) emission of quartz extracted from red bricks collected from three different locations in and around Mumbai, India for retrospective dosimetry was explored. Thermoluminescence and OSL characterization of the samples were carried out. The growth curve, thermal stability and equivalent dose plateau of the OSL signal suggested the signals to be well behaving. Subsequently, the dose recovery tests carried for different administered doses, using single aliquot regenerative protocol, demonstrated the feasibility of the OSL emissions of these samples for dose evaluation in retrospective dosimetry.

  6. Patch Test as a Diagnostic Tool in Hand Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Vigneshkarthik, Natarajan; Kuruvila, Sheela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of hand eczema. Patch testing is the only investigation available to prove the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Exposures to allergens differ according to geographical, occupational, economic and social factors. Accordingly, patterns of allergic contact dermatitis differ in different parts of the world and different regions of the same country. Aim To study the causes of allergic contact dermatitis in adult patients with hand eczema with the help of patch testing. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 54 hand eczema patients conducted between October 2013 and June 2015, at a tertiary care centre in Southern India. After a detailed history including history of occupational exposure and detailed examination, patch test was done on these patients with Indian standard series. The patches were removed after 48 hours. Another reading was taken after 72 hours. The readings were interpreted according to International Contact Dermatitis Research Group criteria and noted down. The data were summarized using mean and standard deviation for continuous variables and percentages for categorical and dichotomous variables. The test of association was done with Fisher’s-exact test. Results Hyperkeratotic hand eczema was the commonest morphological type (29%), followed by discoid eczema. Pompholyx was significantly more common among patients with history of atopy. A total of 20 patients (37%) showed patch test positivity to a total of 25 allergens. Nickel was the most common allergen (11.11%) followed by para-phenylenediamine (PPD) (7.4%). Nickel (6 patients) and cobalt (3 patients) were the common allergens among women, while potassium dichromate (3 patients) and parthenium (2 patients) were the common allergens among men. Potassium dichromate allergy was significantly more common among masons and PPD allergy was significantly more common among hair dye users. Discoid pattern of

  7. [The Dutch College of General Practitioners practice guideline 'Eczema'].

    PubMed

    de Vries, Corlien J H; de Witt-de Jong, Anne W F; Dirven-Meijer, Pauline C; Burgers, Jako S; Opstelten, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch College of General Practitioners practice guideline 'Eczema' provides recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of common types of eczema: atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, acro-vesicular eczema, nummular eczema, hypostatic eczema, and asteatotic eczema. Age is an important factor when determining the type of eczema. According to the guideline, patient history and physical examination are sufficient in the diagnosis of eczema; additional investigations are rarely indicated. Moisturizing the skin with neutral emollients is the cornerstone of treatment for patients with eczema. If treatment with glucocorticoids is indicated, it is recommended that patients should start with short-term twice daily application, decreasing to once daily application. The guideline advises not to treat eczema patients with tar preparations. General practitioners are also advised not to prescribe calcineurin inhibitors. How work may affect eczema, or how eczema may affect work, should be considered in adult patients.

  8. Osnabrueck hand eczema severity index--a study of the interobserver reliability of a scoring system assessing skin diseases of the hands.

    PubMed

    Skudlik, Christoph; Dulon, Madeleine; Pohrt, Ute; Appl, Karl Christian; John, Swen Malte; Nienhaus, Albert

    2006-07-01

    An easy-to-use standardized instrument is needed for the clinical assessment of the severity of occupational hand eczema by dermatologists as well as occupational physicians. The Osnabrueck hand eczema severity index (OHSI) was developed for this purpose and the interobserver reliability investigated. The clinical severity was evaluated on the basis of the extension or clinical characteristics of six morphological characteristics. For the validation of the OHSI, hand eczema in 28 patients was investigated independently by one dermatologist and 2 occupational physicians. The agreement between the observers was determined by using kappa values, Kendall's coefficient of concordance, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the 95% limits of agreement. The ICC for the total OHSI was 0.80 and the estimated limits of agreement (-3.6 and 3.0) were sufficiently small to expect that ratings according to OHSI performed by independent observers of different medical specialities should produce similar results. It could be demonstrated that the use of the OHSI is simple and practicable. The interobserver reliability for the summary score is good. OHSI seems a reliable tool for assessing the severity of occupational hand eczema.

  9. Chinese herbal medicine research in eczema treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Eczema is a chronic relapsing atopic dermatitis (AD) associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance and poor quality of life of the patient. Treatment of eczema includes use of emollient, topical and systemic antimicrobial agents, corticosteroid or immunomodulating agents. Many patients also seek alternative treatments such as dietary avoidance, supplementation or both. This article reviews the basic pathophysiology of eczema and clinical trials involving Chinese medicine in the treatment of eczema. Research reports on Chinese herbal medicine for eczema were retrieved from PubMed and the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews for this review. Only a few RCTs demonstrated the efficacy (or lack of efficacy) of Chinese medicinal herbs in treating atopic eczema. Further larger scale trials are warranted. PMID:21527032

  10. Promoting effective education for children with eczema.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Deryn

    2016-01-27

    Patient and parent education for children with eczema should follow a consistent approach, guided by an established framework that combines aspects of nursing, education and cognitive psychology. Using the framework enables nurses to understand how to use and develop their skills when providing education about the management of eczema in children, and enables patients and parents to understand and develop the skills required to manage a chronic condition such as eczema. This framework is transferable to the adult context.

  11. Flexural eczema versus atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Goldenberg, Alina; Nedorost, Susan; Thyssen, Jacob P; Fonacier, Luz; Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2015-01-01

    Flexural eczema and atopic dermatitis are frequently synonymized. As respiratory atopy is rarely tested for and found in these patients, systematically equating a flexural distribution of dermatitis with atopic dermatitis may too frequently result in misclassified diagnoses and potentially missed opportunity for intervention toward improving patients' symptoms and quality of life. We present a critical review of the available evidence for the atopic dermatitis diagnosis and discuss the similarities between atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Because neither flexural predilection nor atopy is specific for atopic dermatitis, we conclude that the term atopic dermatitis is a misnomer and propose an etymologic reclassification of atopic dermatitis to "atopy-related" dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis can induce an atopic dermatitis-like phenotype, and thus, flexural dermatitis cannot be assumed as atopic without further testing. Patch testing should at least be considered in cases of chronic or recurrent eczema regardless of the working diagnosis.

  12. Neuroma under the fifth metatarsal head. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Valero, J; Gallart, J; González, D; Agustín, L; Marquina, R; Deus, J; Lahoz, M

    2012-08-01

    This retrospective study was carried out over 83 surgical cases at the distal portion of the fifth metatarsal, compromising the treatment of tailor's bunion, fifth metatarsal overload and the concomitant presence of both pathologies in some cases. Neuromas were founded under the fifth metatarsal head in 18 of the cases studied (21.7%). The results look at whether if there is an association between different fifth metatarsal pathologies and the presence of neuromas and found a significant association between the appearance of neuromas in patients with the same metatarsal overload, especially if it is accompanied by a tailor's bunion pathology.

  13. Environmental Factors Associated with Altered Gut Microbiota in Children with Eczema: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Chan, Carmen W H; Wong, Rosa S; Law, Patrick T W; Wong, Cho Lee; Tsui, Stephen K W; Tang, Winnie P Y; Sit, Janet W H

    2016-07-16

    Eczema is a common skin condition that impairs children's daily life activities and quality of life. Previous research shows that gut microbiome composition plays an important role in the development of eczema. The present review summarizes evidence on environmental factors related to altered gut microbiota in children with eczema. We searched Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews through October 2015. The search strategy focused on articles published in peer-reviewed, English-language journals with no publication year limit. Only original studies and review articles that reported environmental factors on gut microbiome specific to eczema were included in this review. We selected six studies (total 1990 participants) for full review and identified that the composition of gut microbiota specific to eczema could be influenced by the following environmental factors: length of gestation, mode of delivery, type of feeding, method of treatment, number of older siblings, and other lifestyle factors. There has been inconsistent empirical evidence as to the modulatory effects of gut microbiota on immunological functions in children with eczema. Further research on the environmental-host-microbial interaction is needed to develop a strong base of knowledge for the development and implementation of prevention strategies and policies for eczema.

  14. Environmental Factors Associated with Altered Gut Microbiota in Children with Eczema: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Carmen W. H.; Wong, Rosa S.; Law, Patrick T. W.; Wong, Cho Lee; Tsui, Stephen K. W.; Tang, Winnie P. Y.; Sit, Janet W. H.

    2016-01-01

    Eczema is a common skin condition that impairs children’s daily life activities and quality of life. Previous research shows that gut microbiome composition plays an important role in the development of eczema. The present review summarizes evidence on environmental factors related to altered gut microbiota in children with eczema. We searched Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews through October 2015. The search strategy focused on articles published in peer-reviewed, English-language journals with no publication year limit. Only original studies and review articles that reported environmental factors on gut microbiome specific to eczema were included in this review. We selected six studies (total 1990 participants) for full review and identified that the composition of gut microbiota specific to eczema could be influenced by the following environmental factors: length of gestation, mode of delivery, type of feeding, method of treatment, number of older siblings, and other lifestyle factors. There has been inconsistent empirical evidence as to the modulatory effects of gut microbiota on immunological functions in children with eczema. Further research on the environmental-host-microbial interaction is needed to develop a strong base of knowledge for the development and implementation of prevention strategies and policies for eczema. PMID:27438825

  15. Usefulness of Rajka & Langeland Eczema Severity Score in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Gånemo, Agneta; Svensson, Åke; Svedman, Cecilia; Grönberg, Britt-Marie; Johansson, Ann-Charlotte Öhman; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik

    2016-05-01

    Simple, validated eczema severity scores are required for the evaluation of interventions. The Rajka & Langeland (R&L) scale is based on 3 domains (extent, course, and intensity); however, its validity is not yet confirmed. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality aspects of the R&L scale in clinical practice. In the first part of the study, experts and consumers judged the content validity of the scale. The second part of the study was performed with 87 children during a 4-month eczema school. Construct validity, internal consistency, sensitivity to change, time consumption and health-related quality of life variables were investigated. The content of the R&L scale was considered valid by 45 panellists. Inter- and intra-observer reliability was very good. Divergent construct validity was adequate, while convergent construct validity and internal consistency were inadequate. The R&L scale was able to define a significant improvement in eczema during the eczema school. The time required for completing the R&L assessment was significantly shorter than for objective Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD). The R&L scale is a simple, fast, valid, reliable and sensitive tool for scoring of atopic dermatitis in everyday clinical practice.

  16. Pemphigus vulgaris and infections: a retrospective study on 155 patients.

    PubMed

    Esmaili, Nafiseh; Mortazavi, Hossein; Noormohammadpour, Pedram; Boreiri, Majid; Soori, Tahereh; Vasheghani Farahani, Iman; Mohit, Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Background. Autoimmune process and immunosuppressive therapy of pemphigus vulgaris would predispose the patients to infections. Aim. We aimed to study the prevalence of infection and pathogenic agents in pemphigus vulgaris patients admitted to dermatology service. Material and methods. This retrospective study was conducted on 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients (68 males, 87 females) admitted to dermatology service between 2009 and 2011. In this study, the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by light microscopic and direct immunofluorescence findings. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Results. Of 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients, 33 had infection at admission and 9 acquired nosocomial infection. In addition, 37 cases of oral candidiasis and 15 cases of localized herpes simplex were recorded. Totally, 94 cases of infection were recorded. The occurrence of infection was significantly related to the severity of disease, number of hospital admissions, and presence of diabetes mellitus. The most common pathogenic germs isolated from cultures were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Conclusion. Severity of pemphigus vulgaris and diabetes were directly related with tendency to infections. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the most common pathogenic agents. Due to limitations of retrospective study, a prospective study is recommended.

  17. Pemphigus Vulgaris and Infections: A Retrospective Study on 155 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Esmaili, Nafiseh; Noormohammadpour, Pedram; Boreiri, Majid; Soori, Tahereh; Vasheghani Farahani, Iman; Mohit, Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Background. Autoimmune process and immunosuppressive therapy of pemphigus vulgaris would predispose the patients to infections. Aim. We aimed to study the prevalence of infection and pathogenic agents in pemphigus vulgaris patients admitted to dermatology service. Material and methods. This retrospective study was conducted on 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients (68 males, 87 females) admitted to dermatology service between 2009 and 2011. In this study, the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by light microscopic and direct immunofluorescence findings. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Results. Of 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients, 33 had infection at admission and 9 acquired nosocomial infection. In addition, 37 cases of oral candidiasis and 15 cases of localized herpes simplex were recorded. Totally, 94 cases of infection were recorded. The occurrence of infection was significantly related to the severity of disease, number of hospital admissions, and presence of diabetes mellitus. The most common pathogenic germs isolated from cultures were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Conclusion. Severity of pemphigus vulgaris and diabetes were directly related with tendency to infections. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the most common pathogenic agents. Due to limitations of retrospective study, a prospective study is recommended. PMID:23844280

  18. Inbreeding and canine mammary cancer: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Dorn, C R; Schneider, R

    1976-09-01

    Using files of the Animal Neoplasm Registry (ANR) in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California, we conducted a retrospective study to compare the degree of inbreeding in the ancestry of purebred dogs with mammary and other cancers, and of those without tumors. Wright's coefficients of inbreeding, calculated for all animals in the three groups, ranged from 0.000 to 0.535. The median inbreeding coefficients of the mammary cancer and comparison groups (consisting of other cancers) were approximately twice that of the nonneoplastic group, but neither difference was statistically significant. Dogs with mammary adenocarcinoma and mixed mammary cancer had similar degrees of inbreeding.

  19. Onychomycosis in the Denver pediatrics population, a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Young, Lindsay S; Arbuckle, Harvey A; Morelli, Joseph G

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis (OM) is a common nail disorder in adults but has been rare in children. Recent international studies have demonstrated a rise in the prevalence of OM in children and adolescents, with Trichophyton rubrum being the most common pathogen. This 5-year retrospective chart review of children (aged <18) found that 66 of 141 patients (46.8%) presenting to Children's Hospital Colorado or Denver Health Medical Center Dermatology clinics with nail complaints had OM, with the highest prevalence in those aged 6 to 10 and a slight male predominance. Toenails were more commonly affected, and Trichophyton rubrum was the most common pathogen.

  20. Chronic hand eczema: perception and knowledge in non-affected individuals from general and dermatological practice.

    PubMed

    Letulé, Valerie; Herzinger, Thomas; Schirner, Astrid; Hertrich, Frank; Lange, Dirk; Ruzicka, Thomas; Molin, Sonja

    2014-11-01

    Misunderstanding and stigmatisation are common problems encountered by patients with hand eczema. Various misconceptions about the disease circulate in the general population. Although hand eczema has gained more attention in dermatology during the past years, information on public perception of the disease is still lacking. The aim of our study was to investigate perception of and level of knowledge on the subject hand eczema. There were 624 patients included from 2 general medicine practices and 2 dermatological practices. A self-administered questionnaire was filled out by the participants, covering issues on history of hand eczema, level of knowledge and attitude towards a clinical photograph of hand eczema. We found that a larger proportion of individuals from dermatological practice were more familiar with hand eczema as a disease than those from general medical practice. Women knew significantly more about and had a more positive perception of the disease than men. Our results imply that the level of knowledge on hand eczema in the general public is rather low and influenced by prejudice.

  1. Genetic and environmental risk factors for childhood eczema development and allergic sensitization in the CCAAPS cohort.

    PubMed

    Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M; Wang, Ning; LeMasters, Grace K; Bernstein, David I; Epstein, Tolly G; Lindsey, Mark A; Ericksen, Mark B; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Ryan, Patrick H; Villareal, Manuel S; Burkle, Jeff W; Lockey, James E; Reponen, Tiina; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K

    2010-02-01

    Eczema is very common and increasing in prevalence. Prospective studies investigating environmental and genetic risk factors for eczema in a birth cohort are lacking. We evaluated risk factors that may promote development of childhood eczema in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) birth cohort (n=762) of infants with at least one atopic parent. Objective environmental exposure data were available for each participant. At annual physical examinations, children underwent skin prick tests (SPTs), eczema was diagnosed by a clinician, and DNA was collected. Among Caucasian children, 39% developed eczema by age 3. Children with a pet dog were significantly less likely to have eczema at age one (odds ratio (OR)=0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.40-0.97) or at both ages 2 and 3 (OR=0.54, 95% CI: 0.30-0.97). This finding was most significant among children carrying the CD14-159C/T CC genotype. Carriers of the CD14-159C/T and IL4Ralpha I75V single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) had an increased risk of eczema at both ages 2 and 3 (OR=3.44, 95% CI: 1.56-7.57), especially among children who were SPT+. These results provide new insights into the pathogenesis of eczema in high-risk children and support a protective role for early exposure to dog, especially among those carrying the CD14-159C/T SNP. The results also demonstrate a susceptibility effect of the combination of CD14 and IL4Ralpha SNPs with eczema.

  2. Trazodone and alcohol relapse: a retrospective study following residential treatment.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Bhanu Prakash; Schneekloth, Terry D; Biernacka, Joanna M; Frye, Mark A; Mansukhani, Meghna P; Hall-Flavin, Daniel K; Karpyak, Victor M; Loukianova, Larissa L; Lesnick, Timothy G; Mrazek, David

    2011-01-01

    Trazodone is one of the most commonly prescribed hypnotic medications in patients with sleep disturbances in alcohol recovery. A recent study concluded that treating insomnia with trazodone in patients with alcohol dependence might impede improvements in alcohol consumption and lead to increased drinking when trazodone is stopped. We set out to investigate the relationship between trazodone use during alcoholism treatment and relapse rates in patients who were discharged from a residential alcohol treatment program. We retrospectively reviewed records of patients with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence in a residential addiction treatment center from 2005 to 2008 and analyzed the association of trazodone use at discharge and alcohol relapse at 6 months. We also assessed the association between trazodone use and relapse at 6 months adjusting for sex, drug dependence, nonsubstance use Axis I psychiatric diagnoses, patient self-report of difficulties with sleep, and anti-dipsotropic medication use at discharge and evaluated pair-wise interactions of trazodone use with the adjustment variables. Of 283 patients eligible for inclusion, 85 (30%) were taking trazodone at discharge. Older age, self-reported sleep problems, and having a nonsubstance use Axis I psychiatric diagnosis were associated with trazodone use. After discharge, 170 (60%) subjects responded to follow-up efforts. Neither intent to treat nor responder only analysis revealed any association between trazodone use and relapse. Our retrospective study of a complex patient population discharged from a residential treatment setting did not find an association between trazodone use at discharge and relapse rates at 6 months.

  3. Primary Hepatic Lymphoma: A Retrospective, Multicenter Rare Cancer Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Ugurluer, Gamze; Miller, Robert C.; Li, Yexiong; Thariat, Juliette; Ghadjar, Pirus; Schick, Ulrike; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2016-01-01

    Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is a rare malignancy. We aimed to assess the clinical profile, outcome and prognostic factors in PHL through the Rare Cancer Network (RCN). A retrospective analysis of 41 patients was performed. Median age was 62 years (range, 23-86 years) with a male-to-female ratio of 1.9:1.0. Abdominal pain or discomfort was the most common presenting symptom. Regarding B-symptoms, 19.5% of patients had fever, 17.1% weight loss, and 9.8% night sweats. The most common radiological presentation was multiple lesions. Liver function tests were elevated in 56.1% of patients. The most common histopathological diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (65.9%). Most of the patients received Chop-like (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) regimens; 4 patients received radiotherapy (dose range, 30.6-40.0 Gy). Median survival was 163 months, and 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 77 and 59%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year disease-free and lymphoma-specific survival rates were 69, 56, 87 and 70%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that fever, weight loss, and normal hemoglobin level were the independent factors influencing the outcome. In this retrospective multicenter RCN study, patients with PHL had a relatively better prognosis than that reported elsewhere. Multicenter prospective studies are still warranted to establish treatment guidelines, outcome, and prognostic factors. PMID:27746888

  4. Oral lichen planus – retrospective study of 563 Croatian patients

    PubMed Central

    Budimir, Vice; Richter, Ivica; Andabak-Rogulj, Ana; Vučićević-Boras, Vanja

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of oral lichen planus (OLP) in a group of Croatian patients seen between 2006 and 2012. Study Design: A group of 563 patients with a diagnosis of OLP was retrospectively reviewed in our clinic. Data regarding age, gender, medical history, drugs, smoking, alcohol, chief complaint, clinical type, localization, histology, treatment and malignant transformation were registered. Results: Of the 563 patients, 414 were females and 149 were males. The average age at the diagnosis was 58 (range 11-94). The most common site was buccal mucosa (82.4%). Most of our patients did not smoke (72.5%) or consume alcohol (69.6%). Patients reported oral soreness (43.3%), mucosal roughness (7%), xerostomia (3%), gingival bleeding (2%) and altered taste (0.5%) as the chief complaint, while almost half of them were asymptomatic (44.2%). The most common types of OLP were reticular (64.8%) and erosive (22.9%). Plaque-like (5.7%) atrophic/erythemtous (4.3%) and bullous (2.3%) type were also observed. Malignant transformation rate of 0.7% was recorded. Conclusions: OLP mostly affects non-smoking middle-aged women. Buccal mucosa is the most commonly affected site. In almost half of the cases patients are asymptomatic. In spite of the small risk for malignant transformation all patients should be regularly monitored. Key words:Oral lichen planus, malignant transformation, epidemiology, retrospective study. PMID:24608217

  5. How bad was unmodified electroconvulsive therapy! A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Anindya Kumar

    2016-01-01

    “Unmodified”-electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) being considered unethical remained away from the scientific literature, but continued in practice in many parts of the world. The Mental Health Care Bill, 2011, proposed for its banning in India. The aim of this study is to retrospectively observe “how bad was unmodified-ECT” to the patients in a naturalistic setting. The study was done at the Central Institute of Psychiatry, India. Files of patients receiving unmodified ECT during 1990–1995 were retrospectively reviewed. Outcome was evaluated in terms of desired effectiveness and the side effects as noted in the files by the treating team. Six hundred and thirty-seven patients (6.94% of total admission) received ECT with meticulous standard-of-care except provision of anesthesia. Satisfactory improvement was noted in 95.45% patients with no noticeable/reported complication in 89.05%. Premature termination of ECT for complications occurred in 2.19% patients. “Unmodified”-ECT, though unethical, still could ensure favorable outcome with proper case selection and meticulous standard-of-care. PMID:27385857

  6. Platelet profile in patients with gestational diabetes: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Soydinç, Hatice Ender; Özler, Ali; Evsen, Mehmet Sıddık; Turgut, Abdülkadir; Sak, Sibel; Gül, Talip

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare alterations in the morphology and function of platelets occurring in gestational diabetes and healthy pregnancies. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was performed of 77 pregnant women: 42 cases with gestational diabetes and 35 healthy controls. The two groups were compared in terms of demographics and platelet parameters derived from complete blood counts. Results: The mean platelet volume (p=0.001) and HbA1c (p<0.001) were significantly increased in the patients with gestational diabetes. The mean platelet volume was well correlated with the platelet distribution width (rs=0.404, p<0.001) and the platelet count (rs=0.355, p=0.002) Conclusion: The mean platelet volume and other platelet parameters may significantly aid the identification of diabetic pregnants at risk for vascular complications. The role and possible clinical relevance of these changes during diabetic pregnancy need to be investigated in further studies. PMID:24592046

  7. [Fatal child abuse in Japan and Germany. Comparative retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Ohtsuji, M; Ohshima, T; Kondo, T; Godoy, M R; Oehmichen, M

    1998-01-01

    In this study a record for comparative international epidemiological studies on autopsy cases of child abuse is introduced. The form was proved in a retrospective comparative survey of cases of fatal child abuse at the Department of Legal Medicine in Kanazawa (Japan) and Institute of Legal Medicine of Lübeck (Germany). A total of 33 cases were included. The following data were evaluated: age and gender of victims and assailants, relationship between victims and assailants, causes and methods of abuse, chief autopsy findings, and causes of death. The results were leading into two directions between Kanazawa and Lübeck: (1) In the years of 1981-1996 in Kanazawa 23 cases of fatal child abuse were autopsied while during the same period in Lübeck only 10 cases were registered. (2) While sexual abuse was not registered in Kanazawa, it was recorded twice in Lübeck.

  8. A retrospective study of six patients with mandibular metastatic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    CAI, ZHEN; ZHU, CHAO; WANG, LIZHEN; ZHU, LING; ZHANG, ZHIYUAN; ZHU, HANGUANG; WANG, YAN'AN

    2016-01-01

    Mandibular metastatic carcinoma is a rare lesion that accounts for <1% of all oral malignancies. To provide greater experience in this field, the present study was conducted in which 6 cases of mandibular metastatic carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed. The origin of the lesions was the prostate in 2 cases, the lungs in 2 cases, the breast in 1 case and the thyroid gland in 1 case. The clinical and computed tomography features, surgical management and follow-up outcomes were investigated. The study indicated that surgeons should include the suspicion of metastasis in the differential diagnosis for mandibular tumor, particularly in patients who have a history of malignancy. A poor prognosis was associated with the examined patients. To extend the survival time as long as possible, a treatment strategy using multiple therapies, including segmental mandibulectomy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, is recommended. PMID:27284368

  9. Dosimetric characterization of two radium sources for retrospective dosimetry studies

    SciTech Connect

    Candela-Juan, C.; Karlsson, M.; Lundell, M.; Ballester, F.; Tedgren, Å. Carlsson

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: During the first part of the 20th century, {sup 226}Ra was the most used radionuclide for brachytherapy. Retrospective accurate dosimetry, coupled with patient follow up, is important for advancing knowledge on long-term radiation effects. The purpose of this work was to dosimetrically characterize two {sup 226}Ra sources, commonly used in Sweden during the first half of the 20th century, for retrospective dose–effect studies. Methods: An 8 mg {sup 226}Ra tube and a 10 mg {sup 226}Ra needle, used at Radiumhemmet (Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden), from 1925 to the 1960s, were modeled in two independent Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport codes: GEANT4 and MCNP5. Absorbed dose and collision kerma around the two sources were obtained, from which the TG-43 parameters were derived for the secular equilibrium state. Furthermore, results from this dosimetric formalism were compared with results from a MC simulation with a superficial mould constituted by five needles inside a glass casing, placed over a water phantom, trying to mimic a typical clinical setup. Calculated absorbed doses using the TG-43 formalism were also compared with previously reported measurements and calculations based on the Sievert integral. Finally, the dose rate at large distances from a {sup 226}Ra point-like-source placed in the center of 1 m radius water sphere was calculated with GEANT4. Results: TG-43 parameters [including g{sub L}(r), F(r, θ), Λ, and s{sub K}] have been uploaded in spreadsheets as additional material, and the fitting parameters of a mathematical curve that provides the dose rate between 10 and 60 cm from the source have been provided. Results from TG-43 formalism are consistent within the treatment volume with those of a MC simulation of a typical clinical scenario. Comparisons with reported measurements made with thermoluminescent dosimeters show differences up to 13% along the transverse axis of the radium needle. It has been estimated that

  10. Retained fetal membranes in the mare: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Provencher, Real; Threlfall, Walter R.; Murdick, Phillip W.; Wearly, W. Keith

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective study of 3456 deliveries was conducted from the records of four Standardbred broodmare farms where mares were bred by artificial insemination and maintained under close veterinary supervision. Retained fetal membranes (RFM) were observed in 10.6% of the deliveries. Retained fetal membranes occurred more frequently (p < 0.05) after dystocia and in mares which had RFM the previous year. Retained fetal membranes after normal foaling had no significant effect on the reproductive performance (pregnancy rate, pregnancy loss rate, or foaling rate), nor on the general health of the mares, regardless of the duration of RFM (3 to 144 hours). Postfoaling laminitis was not observed. Oxytocin therapy of mares with RFM starting at two hours postpartum significantly reduced the incidence of RFM ≥ 8 hours. Mares with RFM which had received intrauterine antimicrobials between foaling and first breeding had a foaling rate similar to mares with RFM which had not received intrauterine therapy. PMID:17423164

  11. Dermoscopy in differential diagnosis of palmar psoriasis and chronic hand eczema.

    PubMed

    Errichetti, Enzo; Stinco, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Clinical differentiation between palmar psoriasis and chronic hand eczema may sometimes be a diagnostic challenge; in such cases histopathological analysis helps to differentiate the two conditions. In the present study, palmar psoriasis and chronic hand eczema were investigated using dermoscopy and the significance of specific dermoscopic features was assessed in order to improve their non-invasive differentiation. Ten patients with biopsy-proven palmar psoriasis and 11 patients with biopsy-proven chronic hand eczema were included in the study. We found that the presence of diffuse white scales was significant in palmar psoriasis whereas the presence of yellowish scales, brownish-orange dots/globules and yellowish-orange crusts was significant in chronic hand eczema.

  12. Atopic eczema and food allergy.

    PubMed

    Wassmann, Anja; Werfel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Approximately one-third of children with severe atopic eczema suffer from a food allergy, whereas in adult patients, food allergies are rare. In child patients, three different clinical reaction patterns can be differentiated as follows: (1) immediate-type reactions, (2) isolated late eczematous reactions, and (3) combined immediate-type and late eczematous reactions. In childhood food allergies, food allergens, such as cow's milk or hen's egg, are primarily responsible for allergic reactions, while in adolescents and adults, food allergies often develop consecutively after primary sensitization to pollen allergens. Dysfunctions in the epidermal barrier seem to be vitally important in the development of food allergies in patients with atopic eczema by facilitating sensitization after epicutaneous allergen exposure. Further investigation is required to determine the role of intestinal epithelial barrier defects in the pathogenesis of these allergies as well as the genetic characteristics associated with an increased risk of food allergy. The diagnosis of eczematous reactions to food requires a careful diagnostic procedure, taking into account a patient's history and sensitization patterns. The clinical relevance of sensitization often has to be proven by an oral food challenge, with the rating of the skin condition by validated scores after 24 h and the later evaluation of the eczematous reaction.

  13. Which aeroallergens are associated with eczema severity?

    PubMed

    Hon, K L E; Leung, T F; Lam, M C A; Wong, K Y; Chow, C M; Fok, T F; Ng, P C

    2007-07-01

    We investigated if a correlation exists between aeroallergen sensitization and the severity of eczema. Data on aeroallergen response to skin-prick testing (SPT) and disease severity of children with eczema (n = 119) were evaluated. Atopy, as defined by at least one positive response to aeroallergen skin prick testing, was found in > 90% of eczema patients. House dust mite was the most commonly sensitized aeroallergen, followed by cat fur. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae sensitization were associated with eczema severity (present in 67% of the mild and 97% of the severe group; P = 0.001). However, there was no association between eczema severity and higher strengths of SPT response (defined as SPT > 1+ to dust mites or dust). Atopy to moulds, Bermuda grass, cockroach, cat and dog was less prevalent and was not associated with eczema severity. It is sensible to advise parents on specific avoidance strategies only in severely affected children who have a definitive history of eczema exacerbation by specific aeroallergens and who are not responsive to conventional treatment.

  14. A 40-year Retrospective Clinicopathological Study of Ameloblastoma in Iran.

    PubMed

    Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Salehinejad, Jahanshah; Ghazi, Narges; Shirdel, Mohammad; Razi, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is the most common epithelial odontogenic tumor. It may show locally invasive behavior resulting in recurrence and malignancy. Therefore, appropriate diagnosis of this tumor is necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicopathological characteristics of ameloblastomas in an Iranian population. We present a 40-year retrospective study of patients diagnosed from 1971 to 2010 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad, Iran. Information gathered from patient records included age, gender, tumor location and histologic type. The frequency of odontogenic tumors among all lesions was 2.08% and ameloblastoma with 88 samples demonstrated the greatest prevalence (41.5%). Regarding gender, 60% of samples occurred in males. The mean age of studied patients was 33.02± 15.74 years with a peak of occurrence in the third decade of life. The most frequent location of tumor was the mandibles (93.2%). Eighty five (96.6%) tumors were recorded as benign and 3 (3.4%) as malignant. Of benign tumors, 62 (72.9%), 20 (23.5%) and 3 (3.6%) cases were of conventional, unicyctic and peripheral types, respectively. In contrast to most previous studies, the most common histologic subtype in the present study was plexiform. Knowledge of the incidence of ameloblastoma and its clinicopathologic features including most common location, gender and age distribution in different ethnogeographic backgrounds is necessary for accurate diagnosis and proper treatment.

  15. [Effects of infant feeding practice on eczema during early childhood in Shanghai, Hohhot, and Fuzhou].

    PubMed

    Zheng, X Q; Zhu, G W; Zheng, Z Q; Yang, Y; Gong, C D; Deng, S S; Wu, Q L; Peng, Y M

    2016-12-02

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of eczema in early childhood and effect of infant feeding practice on eczema by different regions of China with diverse climate and dietary patterns. Method: A questionnaire survey was conducted from June 2012 to October 2012 in Shanghai, Hohhot, and Fuzhou. The parent or guardian of the children aged between 2.5 to 3.5 years attending routine health visit in the chosen communities were invited to complete a modified questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC). Logistic regression model was used to analyze of the family history of allergy, duration of breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods and other potential confounders. Result: A total of 2 242 children were interviewed, 750 from Shanghai, 716 from Hohhot, and 776 from Fuzhou. The prevalence of eczema in early childhood was significantly different among Shanghai (16.9%, 95%CI 16.87-16.93), Hohhot (34.5%, 95%CI 34.46-34.54)and Fuzhou (44.3%, 95%CI 44.26-44.34). The difference was statistically significant between 3 groups (χ(2)=72.05, P<0.05). Introducing complementary food after the age of 6 months was associated with a decreased risk for eczema when compared to introduction between 4 to 6 months(odds ratio (OR) 0.58, 95%CI 0.41-0.81) in Fuzhou, while there was no significant association between timing of introduction of complementary foods and eczema in Shanghai and Hohhot. Conclusion: The prevalence of eczema during early childhood is various among three cities. The relationship between timing of introduction of complementary foods and eczema in Fuzhou is different from that in Shanghai and Hohhot. The role of climate and dietary patterns on prevalence of eczema needs further studies.

  16. Retrospective study on structural neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Silva-dos-Santos, Amilcar; Talina, Miguel Cotrim

    2016-01-01

    Background. No consensus between guidelines exists regarding neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis. The purpose of this study is to assess anomalies found in structural neuroimaging exams (brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) in the initial medical work-up of patients presenting first-episode psychosis. Methods. The study subjects were 32 patients aged 18–48 years (mean age: 29.6 years), consecutively admitted with first-episode psychosis diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data and neuroimaging exams (CT and MRI) were retrospectively studied. Diagnostic assessments were made using the Operational Criteria Checklist +. Neuroimaging images (CT and MRI) and respective reports were analysed by an experienced consultant psychiatrist. Results. None of the patients had abnormalities in neuroimaging exams responsible for psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven percent of patients had incidental brain findings not causally related to the psychosis (brain atrophy, arachnoid cyst, asymmetric lateral ventricles, dilated lateral ventricles, plagiocephaly and falx cerebri calcification). No further medical referral was needed for any of these patients. No significant differences regarding gender, age, diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, in-stay and cannabis use were found between patients who had neuroimaging abnormalities versus those without. Discussion. This study suggests that structural neuroimaging exams reveal scarce abnormalities in young patients with first-episode psychosis. Structural neuroimaging is especially useful in first-episode psychosis patients with neurological symptoms, atypical clinical picture and old age. PMID:27257547

  17. Retrospective mortality study of cadmium workers: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Thun, M.J.; Schnorr, T.M.; Halperin, W.E.

    1986-02-06

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted among a group of workers exposed to cadmium (7440439), to determine specific causes of death among these workers. The report reviewed the findings of the study and presented additional findings concerning exposures to other hazards at the facility. The study examined the causes of death for 292 cadmium workers who worked at least 2 years at a small facility that recovered cadmium from bag house dust. Exposures included dusts of cadmium-oxide (1306190) and cadmium-sulfide (1306236) and to fumes of cadmium itself. Over a two fold excess of deaths from respiratory cancer was noted among these workers when compared with the general population and over a three fold excess of deaths from prostatic cancer among the men. A follow up of the study cohort revealed that all cause mortality was slightly below that of the United States male population. The Standardized Mortality Ratio for circulatory disease was 65. Deaths due to respiratory cancer were 65% above the number expected. All of the 20 deaths from respiratory cancer were due to cancer of the lung, trachea and bronchus. Deaths due to genitourinary cancer were 35% above expected levels.

  18. What's new in atopic eczema? An analysis of systematic reviews published in 2007 and 2008. Part 2. Disease prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Williams, H C; Grindlay, D J C

    2010-04-01

    This review summarizes clinically important findings from systematic reviews indexed in bibliographical databases between August 2007 and August 2008 that dealt with disease prevention (six reviews) and treatment of atopic eczema (seven reviews). Regarding disease prevention, two independent systematic reviews found some clinical trial evidence that ingestion of probiotics by mothers during pregnancy might reduce the incidence of subsequent eczema. Another review failed to find any clear benefit of prebiotics in eczema prevention. Although furry pets are often cited as causing allergic disease, a systematic review of observational studies found no evidence that exposure to cats or dogs at birth increases eczema risk. One very large review of studies of breastfeeding found some evidence of a protective effect on eczema risk, although all the studies were limited by their observational nature. A German group has attempted an overview of eczema prevention studies with a view to informing national guidelines. In terms of eczema treatment, two systematic reviews have confirmed the efficacy of topical tacrolimus ointment. Another review of 31 trials confirms the efficacy of topical pimecrolimus, although many of those trials were vehicle controlled, which limits their clinical utility. A review of 23 studies of desensitization therapy for allergic diseases found some evidence of benefit for eczema, which needs to be explored further. Despite the popularity of antistaphylococcal therapies for eczema, a Cochrane Review of 21 trials failed to show any clear benefit for any of the therapies for infected or clinically noninfected eczema. Another Cochrane Review dealt with dietary exclusions for people with eczema and found little evidence to support any dietary exclusion, apart from avoidance of eggs in infants with suspected egg allergy supported by evidence of sensitization. A review of 13 studies of probiotics for treating established eczema did not show convincing

  19. Acetazolamide in vestibular migraine prophylaxis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Çelebisoy, Neşe; Gökçay, Figen; Karahan, Ceyda; Bilgen, Cem; Kirazlı, Tayfun; Karapolat, Hale; Köse, Timur

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to check the efficacy of acetazolamide in the prophylaxis of vestibular migraine (VM). Treatment options in VM are mainly based on migraine guidelines. We tried to assess the efficacy of acetazolamide in these patients depending on clinical similarities with episodic ataxia type 2 and familial hemiplegic migraine responding to the drug. This is a retrospective cohort study. Among 50 patients with VM and prescribed acetazolamide 500 mg/day, 39 patients were studied as five had been lost on follow-up and six had stopped taking the drug due to side effects. Vertigo and headache frequency determined by number of attacks per month, and the severity determined by visual analog scales measured in centimeters from 0 to 10 were collected from the records. Initial reported figures for frequency and severity were compared with the results gathered after 3 months of treatment. The results were compared. Acetazolamide was effective in reducing both the frequency and severity of vertigo and headache attacks and this effect was more prominent for vertigo frequency and severity.

  20. Bilateral Traumatic Intracranial Hematomas and its Outcome: a Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sharad; Sharma, Vivek; Singh, Kulwant; Pandey, Deepa; Sharma, Mukesh; Patil, Deepak Bhanudas; Shende, Neeraj; Chauhan, Richa Singh

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the age distribution, mode of injury, type of hematomas, and their surgical outcome in patients with bilateral traumatic head injuries. The present study included 669 cases of traumatic head injury who presented at the neurosurgery emergency out of which 94 cases had bilateral head injuries from the period of August 2009 to April 2014. The data from the hospital computerized database were retrospectively analysed. Cases of bilateral traumatic head injury included 94 patients out of which 88.29 % (n = 83) were males and 11.70 % (n = 11) were females. Commonest mode of injury was road traffic accident in 56.38 % (n = 53) followed by fall from height in 29.78 % (n = 28). In our study, 25.53 % patients had epidural hematoma (EDH) with intracerebral hematoma (ICH) or contusion (n = 24), followed by EDH with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 18.08 % (n = 17). At the time of discharge, all those patients managed conservatively had good Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) while with surgical intervention 58 % patients had good GOS, 19 % had moderate disability, and 9 % remained with severe disability. In cases of bilateral hematomas, EDH is most common and should be managed in neurosurgical emergency. Other combinations of bilateral intracranial hematomas should be managed according to the surgical indication and serial CT imaging.

  1. Retrospective study of ameloblastoma: the possibility of conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takumi; Imai, Yusuke; Takeda, Daisuke; Yasuoka, Daisuke; Ri, Shinshou; Shigeta, Takashi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Shibuya, Yasuyuki; Komori, Takahide

    2013-11-09

    At our institutions, most cases of the solid or multicystic type were treated as conservatively as possible in order to avoid disadvantages of radical treatment. The aim of present study was to retrospectively analyze the ameloblastoma cases diagnosed at our two institutions, to classify them according to the criteria of the 2005 WHO classification, and to evaluate the possibility of using a conservative approach for the surgical treatment of ameloblastoma. Maxillary cases, unicystic cases, peripheral cases and resection-treated cases were excluded from this study. In 23 tumors of mandibular solid or multicystic ameloblastoma, a patient's age, gender, location, clinical signs, duration, radiographic appearance, preoperative diagnosis, ameloblastoma subtypes, treatment, and recurrence were investigated. The recurrence rate (48.7%) in this study was lower than the reported recurrence rate after conservative treatment for solid or multicystic ameloblastoma and was higher than the reported recurrence rate of ameloblastoma, inclusive of other types. However, all patients who were diagnosed with recurrences have maintained their quality of life and were satisfied for at least several years after the conservative treatment. In conclusion, we demonstrated one possibility that a conservative approach might be employed in the surgical treatment of ameloblastoma (even of the solid or multicystic type).

  2. Postpartum domperidone use in British Columbia: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smolina, Kate; Morgan, Steven G.; Hanley, Gillian E.; Oberlander, Tim F.; Mintzes, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Domperidone is commonly used off-label to stimulate milk production in mothers who have low milk supply. The aim of this study was to describe trends, patterns and determinants of postpartum domperidone use. Methods: This is a retrospective, population-based study involving all women with a live birth between Jan. 1, 2002, and Dec. 31, 2011, in the province of British Columbia. We examined administrative data sets containing person-specific information on filled prescriptions and use of medical services, and we used logistic regression to examine associations between domperidone use and maternal characteristics. Results: The study population consisted of 225 532 women with 320 351 live births. The prevalence of postpartum domperidone use more than doubled between 2002 and 2011. In 2011, 1 in 3 women with a preterm birth and 1 in 5 women with a full-term birth were prescribed domperidone in the first 6 months postpartum. Women who were older, had a higher body mass index, had a chronic disease, were first-time mothers, delivered more than 1 baby (multiple pregnancy), had a preterm birth or had a cesarian delivery were more likely to fill a postpartum domperidone prescription. Interpretation: We found an increase in postpartum domperidone use over a 10-year period. More research is needed on maternal and infant health outcomes. PMID:27280111

  3. Radiographic evaluation of mandibular ramus for gender estimation: Retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Damera, Ajit; Mohanalakhsmi, Jonnala; Yellarthi, Pavan Kumar; Rezwana, Begum Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Gender estimation is a very important part of a study in the field of anthropology and forensic sciences. In the skeleton, gender estimation is the first step of the identification process as subsequent methods for age and stature estimation are sex-dependent. Skeletal components such as the pelvis and skull are investigated for gender estimation and the mandible is a practical element to analyze sexual dimorphism in fragmented bones. The aim of the present study is to measure, compare, and evaluate various measurements of the mandibular ramus, observed in digital orthopantomographs and also to assess the usefulness of the mandibular ramus as an aid in gender estimation. Materials and Methods: A radiographic retrospective study was conducted using 80 digital orthopantomographs to measure, compare, and evaluate the measurements of the mandibular ramus such as maximum ramus breadth, maximum ramus height, and coronoid heightusing Planmeca ProMax® digital machine to assess the usefulness of mandibular measurements in gender estimation. Results: Descriptive statistics of various measurements and associated univariate F ratios for both the sexes were determined. Four variables were significant predictor in classifying a given sample (P < 0.001). The F-statistic values indicated that measurements expressing the greatest sexual dimorphism were noticed in the maximum ramus height. Conclusion: Mandibular ramus can be considered as a valuable tool in gender estimation and the most reliable measurements were obtained of linear objects in the horizontal plane by digital panoramic imaging. PMID:27555722

  4. Feline urate urolithiasis: a retrospective study of 159 cases.

    PubMed

    Dear, Jonathan D; Shiraki, Ryojj; Ruby, Annette L; Westropp, Jodi L

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize the signalment, clinicopathologic data, and diagnostic imaging of cats with urate urolithiasis, as well as the salts of uric acid present in the uroliths. A retrospective analysis of feline urate uroliths submitted to the GV Ling Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory between 2000 and 2008 was included. From these data, records were assimilated from referring veterinarians (143); furthermore, all recorded cases from within the William R Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (16) were included. Median values for the complete blood count and chemistry panels available were within the reference intervals, when provided, with only a few outliers present. Of all cases evaluated, seven had a portosystemic shunt (PSS). Cats with urate uroliths and a PSS were younger than cats without a PSS (2 years vs 7 years). The pathogenesis of urate uroliths in cats is poorly understood. Most cats were not completely evaluated for a PSS, however, clinicopathologic parameters indicating hepatic dysfunction were seldom noted; more sensitive diagnostics such as serum bile acids were rarely performed to confirm or negate the presence of a shunt. Studies are warranted to evaluate pathogenesis of urate uroliths to tailor proper management and breeding strategies.

  5. Herbal Medicines and Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rasekhjahromi, Athar; Alipour, Farzaneh; Maalhagh, Mehrnoosh; Sobhanian, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the association between herbal medication and OHSS. Methods. This retrospective cohort study was conducted with 101 polycystic ovary syndrome patients. 66 patients took conventional pharmacological medications and 35 took herbal medications. Data were analyzed by statistical test including Fisher's Exact and binominal logistic regression. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Of the 101 females, 53 were married and 48 were single. There was no significant association between the groups in marriage. No significant association was found in mean age between the two groups (23.9 ± 5.8 years in the control group versus 26.3 ± 6.7 years in the case group). There was a significant difference between the two groups .After adding the dependent (OHSS prevalence) and independent (marriage and group) variables into the model, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed suitability. Variances analyzed with this model ranged between 29.4% and 40.7%. Conclusion. The indiscriminate use of herbs is correlated with OHSS. Because patients increasingly consume herbs, they should be aware of potential side effects. However, appropriate dosages of herbs could be obtained for use instead of conventional treatments, which often have side effects. PMID:27688772

  6. Alopecia Areata in the Elderly: A 10-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yong Hyun; Park, Kyung Hea; Kim, Sang Lim; Lim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Weon Ju; Lee, Seok-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Background Alopecia areata (AA) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease that typically occurs in young adults. AA in the elderly is relatively rare, thus little data have been reported. Objective This study aimed to understand the clinical characteristics of AA in the elderly. Methods We performed a 10-year retrospective study of AA in the elderly who visited our dermatologic clinic from January 2002 to December 2011. A clinical review of medical records and telephone interviews were performed by two dermatologists. Results Among 1,761 patients with newly diagnosed AA, 61 (3.5%) were older than 60 years at the first visit. Among those who completed a telephone interview, 74.3% (26/35) had less than 50% of scalp-localized hair loss. There was no association between the extent of AA and hair graying (p=0.679). Favorable therapeutic response was observed in 62.9% (22/35) of cases. Conclusion AA in the elderly shows mild disease severity and favorable treatment response. There is no association between graying and the extent of AA. However, the influence of aging on the pathogenesis of AA in the elderly deserves further investigation. PMID:26273157

  7. Thyroid dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Demitrost, Laloo; Ranabir, Salam

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a growing problem in our country and we have observed that many patients are associated with thyroid dysfunction later in their life. However, the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in these patients has not been investigated. Aims and Objectives: To find the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in type 2 DM in Manipur, India. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, data of 202 Type 2 DM patients who attended the diabetic clinic of the Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal from January 2011 to July 2012, and whose thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level was investigated were included. The inclusion criteria are known cases of type 2 DM. Exclusion criteria are patients with previous history of hypothyroidism and those on drugs affecting the thyroid profile. Results: Out the 202 type 2 DM patients for the study of which 61 are males and 141 are females, 139 (68.8%) are euthyroid, 33 (16.3%) have subclinical hypothyroidism (10 males and 23 females), 23 (11.4%) have hypothyroidism (6 males and 17 females), 4 (2%) have subclinical hyperthyroidism and 3 (1.5%) are hyperthyroidism cases. Maximum cases were of hypothyroidism (subclinical and clinical) seen in the age group of 45-64 years. Patients with BMI > 25 were at increased risk of having hypothyroidism (P < 0.016). Conclusion: Prevalence of hypothyroidism is quite high in type 2 DM patients above 45 years and more so if their BMI is over 25. PMID:23565418

  8. Infantile acne: a retrospective study of 16 cases.

    PubMed

    Hello, Muriel; Prey, Sorilla; Léauté-Labrèze, Christine; Khammari, Amir; Dreno, Brigitte; Stalder, Jean-François; Barbarot, Sébastien

    2008-01-01

    Infantile acne is a rare and poorly understood disorder. The objective of this study was to improve our knowledge about the epidemiology and clinical course of infantile acne, and evaluate approaches to treatment. This two-center retrospective study covered the period between 1985 and 2007. Inclusion criteria were: (i) age less than 24 months when lesions appeared; (ii) presence of both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions; (iii) persistence of lesions for at least 2 months. The data were drawn from clinical and photographic records, followed by administration of a telephone questionnaire to parents. It was proposed that each case be reviewed on the basis of the child's appearance and score on an acne scar clinical grading scale. Sixteen children were included. Nine had a family history of severe adolescent acne. The average duration of disease was 22 months. Two patients had been effectively treated with oral isotretinoin. More than half of the patients exhibited scars. We re-examined five children (average acne scar clinical grading scale score = 12/540). On the basis of the frequency of scarring, and the severity and average duration of lesions, the use of oral retinoids in severe infantile acne warrants evaluation.

  9. Influence of cholesterol on survival after stroke: retrospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Dyker, A. G.; Weir, C. J.; Lees, K. R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between serum cholesterol concentration and cerebrovascular disease. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Acute stroke unit of inner city general hospital. SUBJECTS: 977 patients with acute stroke. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum total cholesterol concentration, type of stroke investigated by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, three month outcome (good (alive at home) or bad (dead or in care)), long term mortality. RESULTS: After adjustment for known prognostic factors, higher serum cholesterol concentrations were associated with reduced long term mortality after stroke (relative hazard 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 0.98) per mmol/l increase in cholesterol) independently of stroke type, vascular territory and extent, age, and hyperglycaemia. Three month outcome was also influenced independently by serum cholesterol (P = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest an association between poor stroke outcome and lower serum cholesterol concentration. Until a prospective controlled study has confirmed the benefits of lowering cholesterol concentration in elderly subjects, the application of cholesterol lowering guidelines cannot be justified as secondary prevention of acute stroke. PMID:9169402

  10. Correlation of Clinicohaematological Parameters in Paediatric Dengue: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pai Jakribettu, Ramakrishna; Boloor, Rekha; Thaliath, Andrew; Yesudasan George, Sharanya; George, Thomas; Ponadka Rai, Manoj; Rafique Sheikh, Umran; Avabratha, Kadke Shreedhara; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is one of the arthropod-borne (arbo) viral diseases transmitted by female mosquito Aedes aegypti. Dengue fever has a wide spectrum of clinical presentation ranging from flu-like illness to severe complicated stage of dengue hemorrhagic fever leading to mortality. This was a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Coastal Karnataka, South India, to know the correlation between the clinical presentation and haematological parameters in the paediatric cases presented with dengue symptoms. A total of 163 paediatric cases who presented fever and dengue-like illness were included in the study. Of which, 69 were confirmed dengue patients. Critical analysis showed that there was a significant difference in the haematological parameters like total leucocyte count, percent differential leucocyte count, and platelets count, in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P < 0.05 to 0.0001). Additionally, when compared to nondengue patients, even the liver function and renal function parameters were significantly deranged (P < 0.05 to 0.0001). Stratification based on NS1, IgG, and IgM showed significant alterations in the haematological, hepatic, and renal parameters. With respect to the treatment a small percentage of patients, that is, 8% (4 patients), required platelet transfusion as their counts went below 20,000/μL. Two patients succumbed to their illness while three required ICU stay. PMID:26819620

  11. Causative Microorganisms of Infectious Endophthalmitis: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Fang; Liao, Jingyu; Zheng, Yongxin; Tan, Junlian

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the microbial etiology of infectious endophthalmitis and to determine the antibacterial susceptibilities of bacterial isolates at an eye hospital in South China. A retrospective analysis was carried out on 330 patients with clinically diagnosed infectious endophthalmitis who underwent microbiological evaluation from January 2010 to December 2014. Of the 330 patients, 193 patients (58.5%) had posttraumatic endophthalmitis, 67 patients (20.3%) had postoperative endophthalmitis, 61 patients (18.5%) had endogenous endophthalmitis, and 9 patients (2.7%) had postcorneal infective endophthalmitis. Of the 105 cases (31.8%) of culture-positive endophthalmitis, 79 cases (75.2%) had bacterial growth and 26 cases (24.8%) had fungal growth. In posttraumatic endophthalmitis, Gram-positive bacteria were the predominant species, followed by Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. In endogenous endophthalmitis, Gram-negative bacteria were the predominant species, followed by fungi and Gram-positive bacteria. In postsurgical endophthalmitis, all infections were bacterial. However, in postcorneal infective endophthalmitis, all infections were fungal. Overall, levofloxacin showed the highest activity against bacterial isolates. There was a significant difference in the susceptibility to tobramycin between the isolates from posttraumatic and postoperative endophthalmitis (p < 0.05). The results of this study identify the microbial spectrum of infectious endophthalmitis in this clinical setting. PMID:27413545

  12. Relationship between orthodontic treatment and gingival health: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Boke, Fatma; Gazioglu, Cagri; Akkaya, Sevil; Akkaya, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the relationship between orthodontic treatment and gingival health. Materials and Methods: A total of 251 patients among whom 177 were girls and 74 were boys, recruited from the records pool of the Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Gazi, were included in the study. Patients’ treatments have been completed by postgraduate students during the period between 2006 and 2012. Patients’ folders were analyzed according to their age, treatment time, and the type of orthodontic treatment. Intra-oral photographs were analyzed, and the presence or absence of visible plaque, visible inflammation, and gingival recession were recorded, and incisor inclinations analyzed on lateral cephalometric films, before and after orthodontic treatment. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in patients treated with functional appliances before and after treatment. In patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances, visible plaque, visible inflammation, and gingival recession showed significant increases after treatment, gingival biotype did not show any significant difference. Positive correlation was found between lower incisor position and gingival recession in patients treated with fixed appliance and extraction. And also cuspids were the teeth with the highest prevalence of gingival recession. Conclusion: Considering the relationship between orthodontic treatment and gingival health, cooperation among patients, orthodontists, and periodontists is important. PMID:25202219

  13. Retrospective study of 289 odontogenic tumors in a Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    Serpa, Marianna-Sampaio; Tenório, Jefferson-da-Rocha; do Nascimento, George-João-Ferreira; de Souza-Andrade, Emanuel-Sávio; Veras-Sobral, Ana-Paula

    2016-01-01

    Background Odontogenic tumors (OTs) are considered important among oral lesions because of their clinicopathological heterogeneity, and variable biological behavior. This paper aims to determine the frequency and distribution of OTs, over a period of 10 years, at a public university in Northeastern Brazil and compare this data with previous reports. Material and Methods We reviewed all cases of OTs from oral pathology laboratory of University of Pernambuco (UPE), from 2004 to 2014. Diagnoses were re-evaluated and the tumors were classified according to the latest (2005) World Health Organization Classification of Tumors. In addition, we searched in the English-language literature retrospective studies on OTs that used the same classification. Results Data was obtained allowing the analysis of the tissue hemodynamics. We were able to map the vascularization of the face and it was possible to access three arteries of small diameter (0,60mm angular artery; 0,55mm greater palatine artery; 0,45mm infraorbital artery). Conclusions OTs are uncommon neoplasms with geographic variation. Our clinicopathological features are according to literature. In the present study, KCOT was the most frequent one, showing that the new classification of OTs altered the distribution of these lesions and possibly made KCOT the most common OT observed in diagnostic services worldwide. Key words:Odontogenic tumors, jaw neoplasms, epidemiology, oral pathology. PMID:26827068

  14. Acute epididymitis in Greek children: a 3-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Sakellaris, George S; Charissis, Giorgos C

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the study was to compare historical features, physical examination findings, and testicular color Doppler ultrasound in pediatric patients with epididymitis compared to testicular torsion and torsion of the appendix testes. A retrospective review of the medical records of 66 boys presenting with clinical aspects of acute scrotum over a 3-year period was performed. Sixty-six patients were included in the study (29 with epididymitis, 8 with testicular torsion and 12 with torsion of the appendix testis, 4 with scrotal abscesses, 5 with scrotal swelling, and 1 with inflamed epididymal cyst). The duration of symptoms ranged from 6 h to 4 days with a peak on the second day. Urine cultures and viral testes were negative in all patients. Color Doppler ultrasound was diagnostic for epididymitis in 28 patients (96.6%). Systemic intravenous antibiotics were given in all 29 patients with epididymitis. No patient showed signs of testicular atrophy in the follow-up. The increasing incidence of epididymitis should question the policy of routine exploration of the acute scrotum in children. The history and physical examination cannot reliably identify those boys who can be managed conservatively. Color Doppler ultrasound is a useful adjunct in the evaluation of the acute scrotum when physical findings are equivocal but it can also be misleading.

  15. Retrospective study of orthodontic bonding without liquid resin.

    PubMed

    Tang, A T; Björkman, L; Lindbäck, K F; Andlin-Sobocki, A; Ekstrand, J

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the retention of fixed orthodontic appliances bonded without liquid resin with the use of a retrospective study design. Patients from each of 2 consultant orthodontists in the same specialty clinic were chosen under strict selection criteria. In the test group (n = 37), composite material (Phase II) without liquid resin was used to bond full arch fixed appliances onto patients' upper teeth. Patients' appliances, which were bonded with Phase II composite and liquid resin, were used as the control group (n = 37). The duration of the appliance survival, from the date of appliance bonding to the date of first accidental bracket loss, was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier product limit method and log-rank test. Our data suggested that supragingival orthodontic metal brackets seemed to bond on healthy enamel surfaces and to work equally well either with or without the use of liquid resin. The total percentages of bond failure, roughly 6%, were similar in both test and control groups. Approximately 73% of all patients in the test group and 57% of the patients in the control group experienced no bond failure at all throughout the entire course of treatment.

  16. Core outcome domains for controlled trials and clinical recordkeeping in eczema: international multiperspective Delphi consensus process.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Jochen; Langan, Sinéad; Stamm, Tanja; Williams, Hywel C

    2011-03-01

    There is wide variation in the use of outcome measures for eczema. We performed a three-stage web-based international Delphi exercise to develop consensus-based sets of core outcome domains for eczema for "controlled trials" and "clinical recordkeeping". A total of 57 individuals from four stakeholder groups (consumers, clinical experts, regulatory agency representatives, and journal editors) representing 13 countries were asked to rate the importance of 19 outcome domains for eczema and to choose which domains should be included in two core sets of outcomes. Forty-six individuals (81%) participated. Participants received standardized feedback, including the group median, interquartile range, and previous responses, and the assessment was repeated in two subsequent rounds. We defined consensus a priori if at least 60% of the members of at least three stakeholder groups, including consumers, recommended domain inclusion in the core set. Consensus was achieved for inclusion of symptoms, physician-assessed clinical signs, and a measurement for long-term control of flares in the core set of outcome domains for eczema trials. We recommend including these three core outcomes in future eczema trials in order to enhance clinical interpretability and to enable meta-analyses across different studies. For recordkeeping, consensus was reached to regularly monitor eczema symptoms in clinical practice. Future work is needed to select which existing or new scales should be used to measure the domains identified as relevant for the core set.

  17. Health service use among children with and without eczema, asthma, and hay fever

    PubMed Central

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Tang, Line; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Background Atopic diseases, for example, eczema, asthma, and hay fever, are among the most common chronic diseases of childhood. Knowledge on health service use among children with atopic disease is limited. This study aimed to investigate the total use and costs of health services for children with and without eczema, asthma, and hay fever in a Danish general population. Methods We conducted a health survey with four complete birth cohorts from the City of Copenhagen. Individual questionnaire data on eczema, asthma, and hay fever for children aged 3, 6, 11, and 15 years were linked to register information on use and costs of health services and prescribed medication and parental education. In total 9,720 children participated (50.5%). Results We found increased health service use (number of additional consultations per year [95% confidence interval]) among children with current eczema symptoms (1.77 [1.29–2.26]), current asthma symptoms (2.53 [2.08–2.98]), and current hay fever symptoms (1.21 [0.74–1.67]), compared with children without these symptoms. We also found increased use of prescribed medication and most subtypes of health services. Current asthma symptoms and current eczema symptoms, but not current hay fever symptoms, increased the health service costs with at least €300 per year per child. Conclusion Children with eczema, asthma, and hay fever used health services and prescribed medication more than children without these diseases. PMID:27695364

  18. Eczema herpeticum in a wrestler.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Renuka; Mostow, Eliot; Cain, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Eczema herpeticum (EH), first described in 1887, is characterized by a disseminated skin infection consisting of dome-shaped papules and is associated with fever, lymphadenopathy, and malaise. The condition commonly occurs on the trunk, head, and neck and is associated with numerous skin conditions, including atopic dermatitis. It is a result of a superimposed herpes simplex virus infection on otherwise compromised skin. It is a rapidly spreading infection, and early antiviral treatment is essential. Herpes gladiatorum is a common infection in the wrestling population, and atopic dermatitis is a common skin condition in the general population. Together, these 2 conditions can greatly increase the risk of EH infection. It is important for both sports medicine physicians and dermatologists to be aware of the risk of EH infection in this population, the presenting signs and symptoms, and be ready to respond quickly with antiviral treatment.

  19. Total thyroidectomy in geriatric patients: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, F; Russo, G; Sgueglia, M; Blasi, S; Tortorelli, G; Tromba, L; Krizzuk, D; Merola, R

    2014-01-01

    In the English literature there is no single definition that identifies elderly patients. In our retrospective study, we divided total thyroidectomized patients operated on from 2000 to 2010 in the Department of Surgical Sciences of the "Sapienza" University of Rome, in two groups: group 1 consists of 448 patients over 65 years and group 2 consists of 1275 patients under 65 years. We compared both groups in terms of indications for surgery, histological diagnoses, postoperative complications (laryngeal nerv palsy, hypocalcemia, bleeding and seroma) and mortality. The results showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to the type of surgical indication, the type of comorbidities, the incidence of postoperative complications and perioperative mortality. The only data discordant with those in the international literature was the incidence of neoplastic disease that is found to be slightly greater in group 2. In conclusion, total thyroidectomy in patients over 65 years is a safe procedure and is not burdened with a higher percentage of postoperative complications, even if requires a careful preoperative assessment of risk factors related to comorbidity.

  20. Somatization in Post-Concussion Syndrome: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gibaldi, James C

    2016-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of concussion patient data conducted to analyze the prevalence of somatization in patients presenting with post-concussion symptoms. Patient records from June 2010 to December 2015 were examined for concussion history, psychosocial history, neuropsychological test results, validity scores, and a symptom severity scale. Records meeting inclusion criteria from 33 males and 27 females were located. The sample had an age range of 11–78 years with a mean age of 33.40 (SD +/- 7.5 years). A clinically significant number of patients (55%) were found to be somaticizing their symptoms and a significant majority (78%) of somaticizing patients reported no loss of consciousness, retrograde amnesia, or post-traumatic amnesia but their symptom validity scales were significantly exaggerated. Caution should be exercised by clinicians to ensure that the obtained results of neuropsychological testing are reliable and valid. It is very important for the clinician to take into account the entire patient history, including psychosocial factors (such as pre-existing psychological traits or conditions) and social influences (such as stressors in family dynamics or work/school activities that may be affecting the patient's complaints). PMID:27766190

  1. Results after wisdom tooth transplantation. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Silvio; Beck, Isabelle; Kühl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Wisdom tooth transplants offer youth the possibility of biologically fixed tooth replacement in cases of premolar agenesis or premature loss of a molar. In the present study, 57 transplants of third molars were reviewed and evaluated retrospectively on preoperative findings (root growth stages, extraction sites, indication for transplantation), on postoperative clinical findings (local gingivitis, periodontal probing values, tooth mobility, percussion sound and percussion pain) and on radiological findings (tertiary build-up of dentin, osseous periradicular conditions, progress of root growth). Only the transplants which healed with a vital pulp and in a periodontally healthy state were considered successful. Upper and lower wisdom teeth having 50% to 75% root growth progression were transplanted. The postoperative follow-up observation period averaged 26.4 months. The success of a wisdom tooth transplantation was not influenced by the root growth stage (p = 1), the extraction location of wisdom teeth (p = 0.45), or the feasibility for a transplantation (p = 0.56). Three teeth showed pulpal necrosis with apical periodontitis and were counted as failures. The success rate was rather high with 54 out of 57 transplants (94.7%), therefore wisdom tooth transplantations, with careful selection of a suitable graft and its gentle removal, can be described as a good predictable treatment.

  2. Oral piercing and oral diseases: a short time retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Inchingolo, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco; Abenavoli, Fabio M; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Alessio D; Palladino, Antonio; Inchingolo, Angelo M; Dipalma, Gianna

    2011-01-01

    Body piercing indicates the puncturing of a part of the body in which jewelry may be worn. In recent years, oral piercing is increasingly popular especially among young people. Body piercing has to be considered as a surgical procedure to all intents and purposes and, as such, has to be performed only by qualified personnel able to assure high standards of professionalism in facilities subject to sanitary inspections.The aim of the present work is to verify what risks patients may be exposed to and what complications may occur after a healthcare professional performs oral piercing.Our retrospective study includes 108 patients (74 males and 34 females) aged between 14 and 39 years, who had oral piercing done 12±4 months earlier. All the patients underwent clinical examination to reveal the possible presence of late complications. After piercing, none of the 108 patients developed widespread complications.Although all patients said they had followed the piercers' instructions, 96% of them reported postoperative local complications such as bleeding within 12 hours of piercing (90%), perilesional edema for 3±2 days after piercing surgery (80%), and persistent mucosal atrophy (70%).

  3. Laryngeal disease in cats: a retrospective study of 35 cases.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Samantha S; Harvey, Andrea M; Barr, Frances J; Moore, Alasdair H; Day, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to review the medical records of cats referred to the University of Bristol for investigation of laryngeal disease (n=35). Cases were categorised into one of four groups: cats with laryngeal paralysis (LP, n=14), laryngeal neoplasia (n=10), laryngeal inflammation (n=6), or miscellaneous laryngeal diseases (n=5). Laryngoscopy and echolaryngography were useful diagnostic techniques but histology was required for diagnosis of diseases other than LP. Two cats with lymphoma received chemotherapy achieving survival times of 60 and 1440 days. Four cats with LP were treated surgically, with a median survival time of 300 days (range 10-360 days) and six were treated conservatively with a median survival time of 780 days (range 300-2520 days). Three cats with inflammatory disease were treated medically and one by excision of the lesion. Two cats achieved survival times of 120 and 2800 days. Cats with LP, laryngeal lymphoma or laryngitis had excellent long-term survival following appropriate treatment.

  4. Inherited bleeding disorders: a 14-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Eid, Suhair S; Kamal, Nazmi R; Shubeilat, Taisir S; Wael, Abu-Ghoush Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    Congenital bleeding disorders comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases that reflect abnormalities of blood vessels, coagulation proteins, and platelets. A 14-year retrospective study (1991-2005) was conducted for patients referred to the coagulation section of the Hematology Department (King Hussein Medical Center, Amman, Jordan), who had suffered from bleeding tendencies to assess the prevalence of bleeding disorders among Jordanians and to describe their clinical manifestations. Four hundred and three patients matched our criteria. All patients were screened with routine coagulation assays and a complete blood cell count; a factor assay was performed if indicated by the results of the screening assays. A total of 168 patients (41.6%) were diagnosed with a bleeding disorder caused by a factor deficiency, of which 17.1% were described as hemophilia A (n=69), 6.2% were described as vWD (n=25), and 4.2% were described as hemophilia B (n=17). A subset of the total patient population comprising 14.1% of the patients were diagnosed with a Rare Inherited Coagulation Deficiency (RICD), where 4.0% were FX deficient (n=16), 3.7% were FVII deficient (n=15), 3.7% were FV deficient (n=15), 2.5% were FXI deficient (n=10), and 0.2% were diagnosed with afibrinogenemia (n=1).

  5. Oral Piercing and Oral Diseases: A Short Time Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Inchingolo, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco; Abenavoli, Fabio M.; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Alessio D.; Palladino, Antonio; Inchingolo, Angelo M.; Dipalma, Gianna

    2011-01-01

    Body piercing indicates the puncturing of a part of the body in which jewelry may be worn. In recent years, oral piercing is increasingly popular especially among young people. Body piercing has to be considered as a surgical procedure to all intents and purposes and, as such, has to be performed only by qualified personnel able to assure high standards of professionalism in facilities subject to sanitary inspections. The aim of the present work is to verify what risks patients may be exposed to and what complications may occur after a healthcare professional performs oral piercing. Our retrospective study includes 108 patients (74 males and 34 females) aged between 14 and 39 years, who had oral piercing done 12±4 months earlier. All the patients underwent clinical examination to reveal the possible presence of late complications. After piercing, none of the 108 patients developed widespread complications. Although all patients said they had followed the piercers' instructions, 96% of them reported postoperative local complications such as bleeding within 12 hours of piercing (90%), perilesional edema for 3±2 days after piercing surgery (80%), and persistent mucosal atrophy (70%). PMID:22135610

  6. Ankylosis of impacted canines: a retrospective post-surgical study.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alain

    2013-12-01

    Ankylosis is generally discovered following resistance to orthodontic displacement of an impacted canine. This retrospective study, drawing on direct perioperative observation of impacted teeth and of their sites, is intended, among other things, to analyze the causes of resistance to orthodontic movement and to report on the therapeutic interest of the surgical tooth displacement technique in this type of clinical situation. We demonstrate that primary coronal ankylosis can be detected by the orthodontic practitioner using radiographic records, that cervical ankylosis consequent to operative trauma during release is necessarily unpredictable and that it should be suspected when the tooth resists traction for more than 3 months in the absence of any other obvious cause of resistance. Hence, the risk of ankylosis linked to the level of surgical difficulty increases with the depth of coronal submergence within the bone. Moreover, the immediate placement of traction following release reduces the risk of ankylosis. In addition, temporarily suspending traction is a risk factor for secondary apical ankylosis. Finally, surgical positioning should be borne in mind as the final effective option when faced with any form of dental retention.

  7. Eczema

    MedlinePlus

    ... Have you ever tried a new type of soap and developed an itchy rash? That reaction may ... wash gently with a nondrying facial cleanser or soap substitute, and use facial moisturizers, makeup, and sunscreens ...

  8. Eczema

    MedlinePlus

    ... irritating substance, like the perfume in a certain detergent. In addition to a physical examination , a doctor ... want to avoid include household cleaners, drying soaps, detergents, and scented lotions. Try to avoid hot water. ...

  9. How international is bioethics? A quantitative retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background Studying the contribution of individual countries to leading journals in a specific discipline can highlight which countries have the most impact on that discipline and whether a geographic bias exists. This article aims to examine the international distribution of publications in the field of bioethics. Methods Retrospective quantitative study of nine peer reviewed journals in the field of bioethics and medical ethics (Bioethics, Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, Hastings Center Report, Journal of Clinical Ethics, Journal of Medical Ethics, Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, Nursing Ethics, Christian Bioethics, and Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics). Results In total, 4,029 articles published between 1990 and 2003 were retrieved from the nine bioethical journals under study. The United States (59.3%, n = 2390), the United Kingdom (13.5%, n = 544), Canada (4%, n = 160) and Australia (3.8%, n = 154) had the highest number of publications in terms of absolute number of publications. When normalized to population size, smaller affluent countries, such as New Zealand, Finland and Sweden were more productive than the United States. The number of studies originating from the USA was decreasing in the period between 1990 and 2003. Conclusion While a lot of peer reviewed journals in the field of bioethics profile themselves as international journals, they certainly do not live up to what one would expect from an "international" journal. The fact that English speaking countries, and to a larger extent American authors, dominate the international journals in the field of bioethics is a clear geographic bias towards the bioethical discussions that are going on in these journals. PMID:16412229

  10. Comorbidities Associated with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: a Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, José Antonio; Ribeiro, Davi Knoll; Cavallini, Andre Freitas da Silva; Duarte, Caue; Freitas, Gabriel Santos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by partial or complete recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep. OSA brings many adverse consequences, such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiac and encephalic alterations, behavioral, among others, resulting in a significant source of public health care by generating a high financial and social impact. The importance of this assessment proves to be useful, because the incidence of patients with comorbidities associated with AOS has been increasing consistently and presents significant influence in natural disease history. Objective The objective of this study is to assess major comorbidities associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and prevalence in a group of patients diagnosed clinically and polysomnographically with OSA. Methods This is a retrospective study of 100 charts from patients previously diagnosed with OSA in our service between October 2010 and January 2013. Results We evaluated 100 patients with OSA (84 men and 16 women) with a mean age of 50.05 years (range 19–75 years). The prevalence of comorbidities were hypertension (39%), obesity (34%), depression (19%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (18%), diabetes mellitus (15%), hypercholesterolemia (10%), asthma (4%), and no comorbidities (33%). Comorbidities occurred in 56.2% patients diagnosed with mild OSA, 67.6% with moderate OSA, and 70% of patients with severe OSA. Conclusion According to the current literature data and the values obtained in our paper, we can correlate through expressive values obesity with OSA and their apnea hypopnea index (AHI) values. However, despite significant prevalence of OSA with other comorbidities, our study could not render expressive significance values able to justify their correlations. PMID:27096019

  11. Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

    2009-12-01

    This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence.This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College.The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to

  12. CT maxillary sinus evaluation-A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Paula; Faria-Almeida, Ricardo; Braga, Ana-Cristina; Felino, António

    2015-01-01

    Background Proximity of the dental roots to the sinus floor makes dental disease a probable cause of maxillary sinusitis. The aim of this study was to find out if maxillary sinus pathologic changes were more prevalent in patients with dental disease and to evaluate the performance of computed tomography (CT) in analyzing and detecting apical periodontitis and other odontogenic causes on the maxillary sinusitis etiology in a Portuguese Caucasian population. Material and Methods Retrospective cohort study. The total sample of 504 patients and their CT was included in this study. The patients were from a private dental clinic, specializing in oral surgery, where the first complaint was not directly related to sinus disease, but with dental pathology. For each patient, the etiological factors of maxillary sinusitis and the imaging CT findings were analyzed. All the axial, coronal and sagittal CT slices were evaluated and general data were registered. The latter was selected based on the maxillary sinus CT published literature. Results 32.40% of patients presented normal sinus (without any etiological factor associated), 29.00% showed presence of etiological and imaging findings in the maxillary sinus, 20.60% had only imaging changes in the maxillary sinus and 18.00% of patients presented only etiological factors and no change in the maxillary sinus. Conclusions Radiological imaging is an important tool for establishing the diagnosis of maxillary sinus pathology. These results indicate that the CT scan should be an excellent tool for complement the odontogenic sinusitis diagnosis. Key words: Maxillary sinusitis/etiology, odontogenic, computed tomography, maxillary sinus. PMID:25858084

  13. A single-center retrospective study of pediatric hepatoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Weiling; Tang, Suoqin; Chen, Liping; Yi, You; Zhang, Pinwei; Liu, Aiping; Zhi, Tian; Huang, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Hepatoblastoma is a malignant liver tumor generally diagnosed in infants and children <3 years old. The current retrospective study aimed to investigate the associations of tumor stage, pathological type, metastasis and chemotherapy with clinical outcomes. In the current study, a total of 102 patients with hepatoblastoma were enrolled between September 2006 and June 2014. Clinical records and follow-up information for each of patient were obtained to conduct a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank test. The median age of the subjects was 1.5 years, and 98 patients had stage III or IV hepatoblastoma. Complete or partial remittance occurred in 72 subjects, and 91 underwent surgical operation. The survival rate differed significantly among patients with different tumor stages (P=0.015, χ2=8.359). The mortality rate of stage IV subjects with intrahepatic metastasis was significantly higher than that of those without (P=0.004). Among the 45 subjects with relapsed hepatoblastoma, the mortality rate was higher in the subjects that abandoned chemotherapy than in patients who continued regular chemotherapy. In total, 27 of 45 subjects with relapsed hepatoblastoma succumbed to the disease; 20 of them abandoned chemotherapy treatment; and the remaining 7 patients underwent regular chemotherapy and succumbed to the disease by the end of follow-up. The present study indicates that the increased mortality rate was associated with postoperative residual-induced intrahepatic metastasis and relapsed hepatoblastoma; and that regular chemotherapy is necessary for patient to achieve complete or partial remission following surgical operation. PMID:27895749

  14. Retrospective study of prognostic factors in pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chun-Chih; Chang, Hung-Yang; Huang, Daniel Tsung-Ning; Chang, Lung; Lei, Wei-Te

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the leading causative pathogen in pediatric pneumonia and bacteremia throughout the world. The invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is known as isolation of S. pneumoniae from a normally sterile site (e.g., blood, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pericardial fluid, pleural fluid, or peritoneal fluid). The aim of this study is to survey the clinical manifestations and laboratory results of IPD and identify the prognostic factors of mortality. From January 2001 to December 2006, a retrospective review of chart was performed in a teaching hospital in Taipei. The hospitalized pediatric patients with the diagnosis of pneumonia, arthritis, infectious endocarditis, meningitis or sepsis were recruited. Among them, 50 patients were pneumococcal infections proved by positive culture results or antigen tests. Clinical manifestations, laboratory data and hospitalization courses were analyzed. The median age was 3.5-year-old and there were 30 male patients (60%). Eight patients (16%) had underlying disease such as leukemia or congenital heart disease. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) was observed in ten patients and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was performed in three patients. Leukocytosis, elevated C-reactive protein and AST level were noted in most of the patients. The overall mortality rate was 10%. We found that leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and high CRP level were significant predictors for mortality. In conclusion, S. pneumoniae remains an important health threat worldwide and IPD is life-threatening with high mortality rate. We found leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and high CRP levels to be associated with mortality in pediatric IPD, and these factors are worthy of special attention at admission. Although we failed to identify a statistically significant prognostic factor in multivariate analysis due to relatively small sample size, we suggest an aggressive antibiotic treatment in patients with these factors at admission

  15. Bilateral carpal tunnel surgery in one operation: Retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Herisson, O; Dury, M; Rapp, E; Marin-Braun, F

    2016-06-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment syndrome. The incidence of a bilateral condition varies between 22% and 87%. The aim of our study was to assess the level of satisfaction and the clinical outcomes in a group of patients operated on through a bilateral neurolysis on the median nerve in the carpal tunnel, in one operating session. This is a retrospective study involving patients with an electromyographic and clinical diagnosis of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. Patients were treated on an outpatient basis and the bilateral neurolysis was performed by endoscopy. The postoperative data was collected during consultation by a senior surgeon or during telephone interviews. Patients were asked to respond to a satisfaction questionnaire and the functional outcome was assessed through the Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (Quick-DASH) questionnaire. Twenty-nine patients with bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome were operated on in single operating sessions between January 2009 and January 2014. The average follow-up was 46 months. The average age at the time of the intervention was 45 years. Two patients were lost to follow-up, and 27 were able to be assessed. In relation to the clinical and functional outcomes, the average Quick-DASH score was 6.78 (ranges: 0-43.2). Twenty-five patients (92.5%) were satisfied with this simultaneous treatment and 26 patients (96%) would choose the same technique again. One-stage surgery in cases of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome appears to constitute a benefit for the patient, the surgeon and the anaesthetist, but it is reserved for patients who request it and who are motivated by this type of intervention.

  16. Neurological Complications after Renal Transplantation: A Retrospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    CENGİZ, Nilgün; ADIBELLİ, Zelal; YAKUPOĞLU, Yarkın Kamil; TÜRKER, Hande

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and types of neurological complications (NCs) and associated factors in renal transplantation (RT) patients. Methods Three hundred and forty-four patients who had RT performed at our institution between January 2005 and July 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Results File records of the patients revealed 19 who experienced a total of 22 episodes of NCs, of whom three had more than one episode. The mean age of 19 patients included in the study, of whom eight were female, was 37.52±13.08 (range, 18–65) years. NCs were classified into central or peripheral depending on the location of involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). CNS involvement was found in 16 (84.2%) of the 19 patients. Tremor (36.8%) was the most common CNS complication in these patients. Encephalopathy, generalized tonic–clonic seizures, and status epilepticus were observed in two patients (10.5%). Delirium and dementia were observed in one patient (5.2%). Headache was experienced by one patient, and agitated depression was observed in one patient. Six patients (26.3%) had the peripheral nervous system involvement. One patient had the numbness of hands with normal electromyography findings, and four patients had polyneuropathy. In one patient, lumbar plexopathy was observed. Seventeen of the 22 NCs were considered to be caused by immunosuppressive agents. Each incidence of amyloidosis, infection, septic emboli, and hypoglycemia caused a neurological episode. The etiology of one episode was unknown. Conclusion Different neurological disorders can be seen after RT, and most of them are caused by immunosuppressive drugs. NCs seen after RT can be treated by decreasing the dose or changing the immunosuppressive drug.

  17. Caval filters in intensive care: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, F; Di Gennaro, TL; Torino, A; Petruzzi, J; d’Elia, A; Fusco, P; Marfella, R; Lettieri, B

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of a caval vein filter (CVF) peri-implant monitoring protocol in order to reduce pulmonary embolism (PE) mortality and CVF-related morbidity. Background The reduction in mortality from PE associated with the use of CVF is affected by the risk of increase in morbidity. Therefore, CVF implant is a challenging prophylactic or therapeutic option. Nowadays, we have many different devices whose rational use, by applying a strict peri-implant monitoring protocol, could be safe and effective. Materials and methods We retrospectively studied 62 patients of a general Intensive Care Unit (ICU) scheduled for definitive, temporary, or optional bedside CVF implant. A peri-implant monitoring protocol including a phlebocavography, an echo-Doppler examination, and coagulation tests was adopted. Results In our study, no thromboembolic recurrence was registered. We implanted 48 retrievable and only 20 definitive CVFs. Endothelial adhesion (18%), residual clot (5%), cranial or caudal migration (6%), microbial colonization of the filter in the absence of clinical signs of infection (1%), caval thrombosis (1%), and pneumothorax (1%) were reported. Deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) was reported (8%) as early complication. All patients with DVT had a temporary or optional filter implanted. However, in our cohort, definitive CVFs were reserved only to 32% of patients and they were not associated with DVT as complication. Conclusion CVF significantly reduces iatrogenic PE without affecting mortality. Generally, ICU patients have a transitory thromboembolic risk, and so the temporary CVF has been proved to be a first-line option to our cohort. A careful monitoring may contribute to a satisfactory outcome in order to promote CVF implant as a safe prophylaxis option. PMID:25395837

  18. Scrub Typhus Meningitis in South India — A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Stalin; Muthu, Vivekanandan; Iqbal, Nayyar; Remalayam, Bhavith; George, Tarun

    2013-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is prevalent in India although definite statistics are not available. There has been only one study on scrub typhus meningitis 20 years ago. Most reports of meningitis/meningoencephalitis in scrub typhus are case reports Methods A retrospective study done in Pondicherry to extract cases of scrub typhus admitted to hospital between February 2011 and January 2012. Diagnosis was by a combination of any one of the following in a patient with an acute febrile illness- a positive scrub IgM ELISA, Weil-Felix test, and an eschar. Lumbar puncture was performed in patients with headache, nuchal rigidity, altered sensorium or cranial nerve deficits. Results Sixty five cases of scrub typhus were found, and 17 (17/65) had meningitis. There were 33 males and 32 females. Thirteen had an eschar. Median cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell count, lymphocyte percentage, CSF protein, CSF glucose/blood glucose, CSF ADA were 54 cells/µL, 98%, 88 mg/dL, 0.622 and 3.5 U/mL respectively. Computed tomography was normal in patients with altered sensorium and cranial nerve deficits. Patients with meningitis had lesser respiratory symptoms and signs and higher urea levels. All patients had received doxycycline except one who additionally received chloramphenicol. Conclusion Meningitis in scrub typhus is mild with quick and complete recovery. Clinical features and CSF findings can mimic tuberculous meningitis, except for ADA levels. In the Indian context where both scrub typhus and tuberculosis are endemic, ADA and scrub IgM may be helpful in identifying patients with scrub meningitis and in avoiding prolonged empirical antituberculous therapy in cases of lymphocytic meningitis. PMID:23799119

  19. Central odontogenic fibroma: Retrospective study of 8 clinical cases

    PubMed Central

    Hrichi, Radia; Gargallo-Albiol, Jordi; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: The central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a benign odontogenic tumour derived from the dental mesenchymal tissues. It is a rare tumour and only 70 cases of it have been published. Bearing in mind the rareness of the tumour, 8 new cases of central odontogenic fibroma have been found by analyzing the clinical, radiological and histopathological characteristics of COF. Patients and Method: A retrospective study was carried out on 3011 biopsies in the Service of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Dental Clinic of Barcelona University between January 1995 and March 2008. 85 odontogenic tumours were diagnosed of which 8 were central odontogenic fibroma. The radiological study was based on orthopantomographs, periapical and occlusal radiographies and computerised tomographics. The variables collected were: sex, age, clinical characteristics of the lesion, treatment received and possible reappearances of the tumour. Results: The central odontogenic fibroma represents 9.4% of all odontogenic tumours. Of the 8 cases, 5 were diagnosed in men and 3 in women. The average age was 19.9 years with an age range of 11 to 38 years. The most common location of the tumour was in the mandible. All cases were associated with unerupted teeth. Of the 8 tumours, 3 provoked rhizolysis of the adjacent teeth and 4 cases caused cortical bone expansion. 50% of the patients complained of pain associated to the lesion. No case of recurrence was recorded up to 2 years after the treatment. Conclusions: Central odontogenic fibromas usually evolve asymptomatically although they can manifest very aggressively provoking dental displacement and rhizolysis. Radiologically, COF manifest as a uni or multilocular radiotransparent image although they can be indistinguishable from other radiotransparent lesions making diagnosis more difficult. COF treatment involves conservative surgery as well as follow-up patient checks. Key words: Odontogenic tumour, central odontogenic

  20. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  1. Bat rabies in France: a 24-year retrospective epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France.

  2. Postperfusion Syndrome in Cadaveric Liver Transplantations: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Aydınlı, Bahar; Karadeniz, Ümit; Demir, Aslı; Güçlü, Çiğdem Yıldırım; Kazancı, Dilek; Koçulu, Rabia; Haytural, Candan; Özgök, Ayşegül; Bostancı, Erdal Birol; Zorlu, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the factors that affects the postperfusion syndrome in cadaveric liver transplantations and the effect of the postperfusion syndrome on discharge from the hospital. Methods Patients who underwent cadaveric liver transplantations between 2007 and 2013 were scanned retrospectively. Intraoperative anaesthesia records, intensive care unit follow-up forms and discharge reports were examined from patient files. Overall, 43 patients having complete data were included in the study. The postperfusion syndrome is defined as asystoli or a decrease in mean arterial pressure of more than 30%, which occurred in the first 5 min of reperfusion and continued for 1 min. Patients were divided into two groups: those who had the postperfusion syndrome and those who did not. Results The number of patients who had the postperfusion syndrome was 25 of 43 (58.1%). The MELD score of patients without the postperfusion syndrome was calculated as 16.9±3.2 and that of patients with the postperfusion syndrome was 19.7±3.6. A statistically significant relationship was detected between the postperfusion syndrome occurrence and a high MELD score (p=0.013). The diastolic blood pressure just before reperfusion was statistically lower in the group with the postperfusion syndrome than in the other group (p=0.023, 50±8 vs. 58±11). According to the logistic regression analysis, the MELD score and the decrease in diastolic blood pressure before reperfusion were defined as independent predictive factors. Conclusion According to the study, the ratio for having the postperfusion syndrome was found to be 58.1%. The independent predictor factors affecting the postperfusion syndrome were detected as the MELD score and the decrease in diastolic blood pressure before reperfusion. The postperfusion syndrome during orthotropic liver transplantation is an important issue for anaesthesiologists. The awareness of the related factors with the postperfusion syndrome may help in the development

  3. Clinical and mycological analysis of twenty-one cases of tinea incognita in the Aegean region of Turkey: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Turk, Bengu Gerceker; Taskin, Banu; Karaca, Nezih; Sezgin, Aycan Ozden; Aytimur, Derya

    2013-01-01

    Tinea incognita is a dermatophyte infection with atypical clinical features modified by the improper use of corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors. The aim of this study was to analyze clinical and microbiological features of patients with tinea incognita. A total of 6326 patients referred to mycology laboratory between January 2008 and January 2011 for mycological examination with a diagnosis of tinea incognita were reviewed retrospectively. Twenty-one patients, 13 (61.9%) women and 8 (38.1%) men, mean age 42.2±36.8, were included in the study. Of them, lesions were localized in 15 (71.4%) patients and widespread in six (28.6%) patients. The mean duration of the disease was 9.5 (range 1-120) months. All patients had a history of treatment with steroids. Before admission, most of them had been misdiagnosed as eczema or psoriasis. Microscopic examination revealed hyphae and spores in most of the cases (n=17, 80.95%). Mycological cultures were positive in 19 (90.5%) patients. The most frequently isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum (n=14, 66.7%). This case series revealed Trichophyton rubrum as the most frequent agent of tinea incognita. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest case series from Turkey describing clinical features and mycological agents of tinea incognita.

  4. Retrospective Study of a Series of Choanal Atresia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Manica, Denise; Schweiger, Cláudia; Netto, Cátia C Saleh; Kuhl, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although it has been more than 250 years since the first description of choanal atresia (CA), there are still doubts about this abnormality. The differences between unilateral and bilateral forms are seldom discussed. Objectives Aggregate data from patients diagnosed with CA, grouping patients with unilateral and bilateral forms. Methods Retrospective study. Results Eighteen patients were included: 12 (66.6%) presented bilateral atresia, of which 77.8% were mixed bony-membranous type and 22.2% were pure bony type. From the 12 patients with bilateral atresia, 10 presented related malformations, 3 of whom had CHARGE syndrome (coloboma, heart defects, choanal atresia, retardation of growth and development, genitourinary problems, ear abnormalities). From the remaining 6 patients with unilateral atresia, only 2 showed malformations, 1 renal and 1 cardiac. All patients with unilateral atresia needed only 1 surgical procedure, and patients with the bilateral form needed a median of 2.85 interventions (p = 0.003). The median age of surgical procedure in the unilateral group was 6 years, ranging from 6 months to 18 years, and in the bilateral group was 25 days, ranging from 6 days to 6 years (p = 0.003). The median interval between diagnosis and surgery was 9 months in the unilateral group, ranging from 1 month to 18 years, and in the bilateral group was 1 day, ranging from 1 day to 2 months (p = 0.001). Discussion and Conclusions Success rates with the endoscopic approach vary from 62 to 100%. Nonetheless, most of these reports present results without considering the number of compromised sides. In our opinion, unilateral and bilateral cases involve distinct patients (taking into account the related malformations), have diverging clinical presentations, and show discrepant restenosis rates and therefore could be considered in different groups of analysis. PMID:25992054

  5. Be alert to tuberculosis-mediated glomerulonephritis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Sun, L; Yuan, Q; Feng, J; Yao, L; Fan, Q; Ma, J; Wang, L

    2012-05-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection causing glomerulonephritis is a rare disorder. This retrospective study analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis-mediated glomerulonephritis (TB-GN) between 2002 and 2009, as well as the diagnostic tools used. These findings were then compared with those of patients with primary glomerulonephritis (P-GN). The records of all patients were reviewed. The diagnosis of TB-GN was based on renal hematuria and/or proteinuria and cure after antituberculosis therapy alone plus urine culture positive for M. tuberculosis, demonstration of typical tubercle granulomas on renal biopsy specimens, or the detection of M. tuberculosis DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on renal specimens. Forty-six patients with TB-GN and 49 patients with P-GN were included. Compared with patients in the P-GN group, most (76%) patients with TB-GN had a history of TB. Systemic symptoms were much more frequent in patients with TB-GN than local genitourinary symptoms. Serological testing showed a statistical difference between the two groups. Immunoglobulin A nephropathy was found in the majority (72%) of patients with TB-GN. M. tuberculosis DNA detection was positive in 39 (84.8%) patients, a much higher positive rate of diagnosis than that with urine culture for M. tuberculosis. The manifestation of TB-GN is atypical and nonspecific. It warrants a high index of suspicion when patients with renal hematuria and proteinuria fail to respond to standard treatments for P-GN. Clinicians should pay close attention to the medical history and results of special laboratory tests. M. tuberculosis DNA detection on renal biopsy specimens should be considered in order to confirm the diagnosis of TB-GN.

  6. Continuous neurophatic orofacial pain: A retrospective study of 23 cases

    PubMed Central

    Sotorra-Figuerola, Dídac; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Background To determine the clinical characteristics of Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain in patients that suffer Persistent Idiopathic Facial Pain (PIFP), Painful Post-Traumatic Trigeminal Neuropathy (PPTTN) or Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) and to describe their treatment. Material and Methods A retrospective observational study was made, reviewing the clinical history of the patients diagnosed with Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain between 2004 and 2011 at the Orofacial Pain Unit of the Master of Oral Surgery and Implantology of the University of Barcelona and at the Orofacial Pain Unit of the Teknon Medical Center of Barcelona. Results The average age of the patients with Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain was 54.5, with a clear female predominance (86.9%, n=20). Of all patients, 60.9% (n=14) were suffering a PIFP, 21.7% (n=5) had a BMS and 17.4% (n=4) were presenting a PPTTN. The pain quality described by the patients with Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain was oppressive (43.47%, n=10), widely represented by patients with PIFP, and burning (39.13%, n=9) being the only quality that described patients with BMS. The treatment carried out with the patients was only pharmacologic. The most used drugs for the treatment of PIFP and PPTTN were clonazepam (50%, n=9) and amitriptyline (44.44%, n=8). However, a 55.5% (n=10) of the patients with PIFP or PPTTN required the association of two or more drugs for a correct pain control. All the patients with BMS responded satisfactorily to clonazepam. Conclusions Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain is a little known condition among the general population, physicians and dentists. This favors a late diagnosis and inaccurate treatments which entail unnecessary suffering. It is important to inform both the general population and health professionals concerning this painful condition. Key words:Continuous neuropathic orofacial pain, persistent idiopathic facial pain, painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy

  7. Retroperitoneal fibrosis: retrospective descriptive study on clinical features and management

    PubMed Central

    Laroche, Ann-Sophie; Bell, Robert Z; Bezzaoucha, Sarah; Földes, Eva; Lamarche, Caroline; Vallée, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare condition characterized by the presence of inflammatory and fibrous retroperitoneal tissue that often encases the ureters or abdominal organs. This study describes the clinical characteristics, diagnostic methods, and treatments and their effects on renal function. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with RPF at Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital. Results We identified 17 patients with RPF between 1998 and 2013. Eight patients were females (47%), and the mean age was 62±18 years. Eleven patients were idiopathic. Back pain was the most common symptom. All diagnoses were made based on the finding of a retroperitoneal mass on the computed tomography scan. Three patients had histological diagnosis of RPF and seven patients had unspecific changes on their biopsy. Twelve patients needed double-J stents, three patients had a temporary percutaneous nephrostomy, two patients had to have a nephrectomy for refractory ureteral obstruction, and one patient required hemodialysis. Ten patients with idiopathic RPF received medical treatment. In the treated group, only two patients had complete remission of the disease and five patients had improvement of their lesions. There were no deteriorations and only one relapse. Seven patients did not receive any treatment; two of them achieved complete remission, one of them deteriorated, and two of them had no changes. Conclusion Most of our cases of RPF were idiopathic. Almost all treated patients received prednisone and seemed to respond, at least partially. There was a lot of heterogeneity in patient management, which makes it difficult to compare treatment effects. However, treated patients seemed to have more favorable outcomes than those who were not. PMID:27822461

  8. A retrospective study on epidemiology of hypoglycemia in Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Juvva Gowtham; Abhilash, K. P. P.; Saya, Rama Prakasha; Tadipaneni, Neeha; Bose, J. Maheedhar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hypoglycemia is one among the leading causes for Emergency Department (ED) visits and is the most common and easily preventable endocrine emergency. This study is aimed at assessing the incidence and elucidating the underlying causes of hypoglycemia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational study which included patients registering in ED with a finger prick blood glucose ≤60 mg/dl at the time of arrival. All patients aged above 15 years with the above inclusion criteria during the period of August 2010 to July 2013 were selected. The study group was categorized based on diabetic status into diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Results: A total of 1196 hypoglycemic episodes encountered at the ED during the study period were included, and of which 772 with complete data were analyzed. Underlying causes for hypoglycemia in the diabetic group (535) mainly included medication related 320 (59.81%), infections 108 (20.19%), and chronic kidney disease 61 (11.40%). Common underlying causes of hypoglycemia in nondiabetic group (237, 30.69%) included infections 107 (45.15%), acute/chronic liver disease 42 (17.72%), and malignancies 22 (9.28%). Among diabetic subjects on antidiabetic medications (n = 320), distribution over 24 h duration clearly reported two peaks at 8th and 21st h. The incidence of hypoglycemia and death per 1000 ED visits were 16.41 and 0.73 in 2011, 16.19 and 0.78 in 2012, 17.20 and 1.22 in 2013 with an average of 16.51 and 0.91, respectively. Conclusion: Bimodal distribution with peaks in incidences of hypoglycemic attacks at 8th and 21st h based on hourly distribution in a day can be correlated with the times just before next meal. None of the patients should leave ED without proper evaluation of the etiology of hypoglycemia and the problem should be addressed at each individual level. Increasing incidence of death over the years is alarming, and further studies are needed to conclude the root cause. PMID:28217510

  9. Criminal poisoning of commuters in Bangladesh: prospective and retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Majumder, M Mahbub Alam; Basher, Ariful; Faiz, M Abul; Kuch, Ulrich; Pogoda, Werner; Kauert, Gerold F; Toennes, Stefan W

    2008-08-25

    Travel-related poisoning is an emerging social and public health emergency in Bangladesh but its cause and significance have not been determined. To investigate this syndrome we performed a prospective clinical study and retrospective analysis of hospital records in a general medicine unit of a public tertiary care teaching hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, using toxicological analysis by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF MS). The participants of the prospective study were 130 consecutive patients aged 16-80 years who were admitted with central nervous system depression (Glasgow Coma Score 3-14) after using public transportation, in the absence of other abnormalities, from January through June 2004, and a convenience sample of 15 such patients admitted during 3 days in May 2006. In 2004-2006, travel-related poisoning increased from 6.1 to 9.5% of all admissions (210-309 of 3266-3843 per year), representing 46.6-55.7% of all admitted poisoning cases. Incidents were associated with bus (76%), taxi, train, and air travel, or local markets; 98% of patients remembered buying or accepting food or drinks before losing consciousness. Direct financial damage (missing property) was diverse and frequently existential. Among 94 urine samples analyzed by FPIA, 74% tested positive for benzodiazepines. Among 15 urine samples analyzed by LC-TOF MS, lorazepam was detected in all; five also contained diazepam or metabolites; nitrazepam was present in three. FPIA results obtained for these 15 samples were below the recommended cut-off in eight (53%; lorazepam only). Our findings show that the massive medicosocial emergency of travel-related poisoning in Bangladesh is the result of drug-facilitated organized crime and that benzodiazepine drugs are used to commit these crimes, suggesting modifications to the local emergency management of the victims of this type of poisoning. They also highlight the

  10. The Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) statement to assess clinical signs of atopic eczema in trials.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Jochen; Spuls, Phyllis I; Thomas, Kim S; Simpson, Eric; Furue, Masutaka; Deckert, Stefanie; Dohil, Magdalene; Apfelbacher, Christian; Singh, Jasvinder A; Chalmers, Joanne; Williams, Hywel C

    2014-10-01

    The lack of core outcome sets for atopic eczema (AE) is a major obstacle for advancing evidence-based treatment. The global Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative has already defined clinical signs, symptoms, quality of life, and long-term control of flares as core outcome domains for AE trials. This article deals with the standardization of measurement instruments to assess clinical signs of AE. To resolve the current lack of standardization of the assessment of clinical signs of AE, we followed a structured process of systematic reviews and international consensus sessions to identify 1 core outcome measurement instrument for assessment of clinical signs in all future AE trials. Systematic reviews indicated that from 16 different instruments identified to assess clinical signs of AE, only the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) and the objective Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index were identified as extensively validated. The EASI has adequate validity, responsiveness, internal consistency, and intraobserver reliability. The objective SCORAD index has adequate validity, responsiveness, and interobserver reliability but unclear intraobserver reliability to measure clinical signs of AE. In an international consensus study, patients, physicians, nurses, methodologists, and pharmaceutical industry representatives agreed that the EASI is the preferred core instrument to measure clinical signs in all future AE trials. All stakeholders involved in designing, reporting, and using clinical trials on AE are asked to comply with this consensus to enable better evidence-based decision making, clearer scientific communication, and improved patient care.

  11. Cardiac device implantation in Fabry disease: A retrospective monocentric study.

    PubMed

    Sené, Thomas; Lidove, Olivier; Sebbah, Joel; Darondel, Jean-Marc; Picard, Hervé; Aaron, Laurent; Fain, Olivier; Zenone, Thierry; Joly, Dominique; Charron, Philippe; Ziza, Jean-Marc

    2016-10-01

    The incidence and predictive factors of arrhythmias and/or conduction abnormalities (ACAs) requiring cardiac device (CD) implantation are poorly characterized in Fabry disease (FD). The aim of our retrospective study was to determine the prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with ACA requiring CD implantation in a monocentric cohort of patients with confirmed FD who were followed up in a department of internal medicine and reference center for FD.Forty-nine patients (20M, 29F) were included. Nine patients (4M, 5F; 18%) had at least one episode of ACA leading to device therapy. Six patients (4M/2F) required a pacemaker (PM) for sinus node dysfunction (n = 4) or atrioventricular disease (n = 2). One female patient required an internal cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) to prevent sudden cardiac death because of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (nSVT). One female patient required PM-ICD for sinus node dysfunction and nSVT. One patient underwent CD implantation before the diagnosis of FD. The annual rate of CD implantation was estimated at 1.90 per 100 person years. On univariate analysis at the end of the follow-up period, the factors associated with ACAs requiring CD implantation were as follows: delayed diagnosis of FD, delayed initiation of enzyme replacement therapy, age at the last follow-up visit, and severe multiorgan phenotype (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, chronic kidney disease, and/or sensorineural hearing loss). On multivariate analysis, age at diagnosis of FD and age at the last follow-up visit were independently associated with an increased risk of ACAs requiring CD (P < 0.05).Considering the high frequency of ACAs requiring CD implantation and the risk of sudden death in patients with FD, regular monitoring is mandatory, especially in patients with a late diagnosis of FD and/or with a severe phenotype. Regular Holter ECGs, therapeutic education of patients, and deliverance of an emergency card including a phenotype summary are

  12. Congenital Zika syndrome with arthrogryposis: retrospective case series study

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Epitacio Leite Rolim; Lins, Otavio Gomes; Aragão, Maria de Fátima Viana Vasco; Brainer-Lima, Alessandra Mertens; Cruz, Danielle Di Cavalcanti Sousa; Rocha, Maria Angela Wanderley; Sobral da Silva, Paula Fabiana; Carvalho, Maria Durce Costa Gomes; do Amaral, Fernando José; Gomes, Joelma Arruda; Ribeiro de Medeiros, Igor Colaço; Ventura, Camila V; Ramos, Regina Coeli

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical, radiological, and electromyographic features in a series of children with joint contractures (arthrogryposis) associated with congenital infection presumably caused by Zika virus. Design Retrospective case series study. Setting Association for Assistance of Disabled Children, Pernambuco state, Brazil. Participants Seven children with arthrogryposis and a diagnosis of congenital infection presumably caused by Zika virus during the Brazilian microcephaly epidemic. Main outcome measures Main clinical, radiological, and electromyographic findings, and likely correlation between clinical and primary neurological abnormalities. Results The brain images of all seven children were characteristic of congenital infection and arthrogryposis. Two children tested positive for IgM to Zika virus in the cerebrospinal fluid. Arthrogryposis was present in the arms and legs of six children (86%) and the legs of one child (14%). Hip radiographs showed bilateral dislocation in seven children, subluxation of the knee associated with genu valgus in three children (43%), which was bilateral in two (29%). All the children underwent high definition ultrasonography of the joints, and there was no evidence of abnormalities. Moderate signs of remodeling of the motor units and a reduced recruitment pattern were found on needle electromyography (monopolar). Five of the children underwent brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the remaining two CT only. All presented malformations of cortical development, calcifications predominantly in the cortex and subcortical white matter (especially in the junction between the cortex and white matter), reduction in brain volume, ventriculomegaly, and hypoplasia of the brainstem and cerebellum. MRI of the spine in four children showed apparent thinning of the cord and reduced ventral roots. Conclusions Congenital Zika syndrome should be added to the differential diagnosis of congenital

  13. Is breast feeding a risk factor for eczema during the first year of life?

    PubMed

    Sariachvili, Manana; Droste, Jos; Dom, Sandra; Wieringa, Marjan; Vellinga, Akke; Hagendorens, Margo; Bridts, Chris; Stevens, Wim; Sprundel, Marc Van; Desager, Kristine; Weyler, Joost

    2007-08-01

    Breast feeding (BF) provides many advantages to the offspring; however, at present there is an ongoing debate as to whether or not it prevents allergic diseases. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of duration of BF on eczema in the first year of life. A birth cohort of 1128 infants was followed prospectively from 5 months of pregnancy. Data were collected using questionnaires, a medical examination and blood tests for allergy at the age of 1 yr. Breast feeding was not statistically significant associated with eczema in the first year of life [adj ORs with 95% CIs: 0.8 (0.4-1.3), 0.8 (0.5-1.3) and 1.0 (0.6-1.5) for BF duration of 1-6 wk, 7-12 wk and > or = 13 wk, respectively]. Eczema was positively associated with atopy and educational level of the mother, use of antibiotics in pregnancy and passive smoking by the child during the first 12 months. Regular postnatal contact of the infants with dogs was inversely associated with eczema. Breast feeding was positively associated with eczema among children with non-atopic parents [adj ORs with 95% CIs: 2.1 (0.4-10.6), 2.2 (0.4-11.3) and 1.9 (0.4-8.5) for BF duration of 1-6 wk, 7-12 wk and > or = 13 wk, respectively], whereas an inverse association was found among children with atopic parents [adj ORs with 95% CIs: 0.6 (0.3-1.3), 0.7 (0.3-1.4) and 0.9 (0.5-1.7) for the same BF durations]. However, these associations were not statistically significant. Breast feeding has no significant effect on the prevalence of eczema in the first year of life. The effect of BF on eczema in children depends on parental atopy.

  14. [Prevention of atopic eczema. Evidence based guidelines].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, T

    2005-03-01

    With an estimated prevalence of 12% for preschool children and 3% for adults, atopic eczema is a serious public health problem. This disease severely jeopardizes quality of life and is associated with considerable costs. Since there is still no causal therapy, primary and secondary prevention are especially important. Here the evidence basis for recommendations on prevention of atopic eczema is discussed on the basis of the first evidence-based consensus guideline (S3) on allergy prevention. This recommends that babies should be breastfed exclusively for at least 4 months and exposure to passive smoking be avoided even during pregnancy; restriction of the maternal diet during pregnancy has no influence, though during breastfeeding it can lower the incidence of eczema among babies at risk. Thereby this measure should be balanced with potential consequences of malnutrition. There seems to be a positive correlation between keeping small rodents (rabbits, guinea pigs), and possibly cats, and the occurrence of atopic eczema, while keeping dogs has no effect or even a protective effect. Avoidance of an unfavorable indoor climate is probably also helpful in preventing eczema. There is no evidence to support deviating from the current recommendations of the standing committee for vaccination.

  15. Risk factors associated with postcraniotomy meningitis: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Hua; Chang, Chih-Yen; Lin, Li-Jhen; Chen, Wei Liang; Chang, Yu-Jun; Wang, Shu-Hui; Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Yen, Hua-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Postcraniotomy meningitis (PCM) is a major challenge in neurosurgery, and changing patterns of infectious agents in PCM have been noted. The limited epidemiological data and urgent clinical needs motivated this research. We conducted this study to determine a risk assessment for PCM and the current pattern of infectious agents. We performed a retrospective case-control study of significant cases of postcraniotomy meningitis in the Changhua Christian Hospital System between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2012. Postcraniotomy meningitis was diagnosed in 22 out of 4392 surgical patients; this data was reviewed for risk assessment. This study assessed the risk factors for postcraniotomy meningitis and found that it was more frequently seen in patients who were elderly (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.32–2.98, P = 0.013), underwent emergency procedures (OR = 4.82, 95% CI = 1.50–14.53, P = 0.008), had leak of cerebrospinal fluid (OR = 4.62, 95% CI = 2.03–10.50, P = 0.012), had external ventricular drainage (OR = 4.68, 95% CI = 2.46–8.87, P = 0.006), were admitted to the intensive care unit (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.53–8.08, P = 0.012), had used drain placement >72 hours (OR = 2.66, 95% CI = 1.04–4.29, P = 0.007), had surgery >4.5 hours (OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.39–4.05, P = 0.005), had repeat operations (OR = 2.74, 95% CI = 1.31–5.73, P = 0.018), endured trauma (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = 1.57–17.61, P = 0.007), or had 30-days mortality (OR = 5.07, 95% CI = 2.20–11.48, P = 0.001). The predominant pathogens isolated from cerebrospinal fluid were Staphylococcus aureus in 8 patients (36.7%) and Acinetobacter baumannii in 7 patients (31.8%). In our study, the mortality rate was 5.1% among all postcraniotomy patients. Accurate risk assessment, early diagnosis, and choice of appropriate antibiotics in accordance with epidemiologic information are

  16. Infectious sacroiliitis: a retrospective, multicentre study of 39 adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-brucellar and non-tuberculous infectious sacroiliitis (ISI) is a rare disease, with misleading clinical signs that delay diagnosis. Most observations are based on isolated case reports or small case series. Our aim was to describe the clinical, bacteriological, and radiological characteristics of ISI, as well as the evolution of these arthritis cases under treatment. Methods This retrospective study included all ISI cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 in eight French rheumatology departments. ISI was diagnosed if sacroiliitis was confirmed bacteriologically or, in the absence of pathogenic agents, if clinical, biological, and radiological data was compatible with this diagnosis and evolution was favourable under antibiotic therapy. Results Overall, 39 cases of ISI were identified in adults, comprising 23 women and 16 men, with a mean age at diagnosis of 39.7 ± 18.1 years. The left sacroiliac joint (SI) was affected in 59% of cases, with five cases occurring during the post-partum period. Lumbogluteal pain was the most common symptom (36/39). Manipulations of the SI joint were performed in seven patients and were always painful. Mean score for pain using the visual analogue score was 7.3/10 at admission, while 16 patients were febrile at diagnosis. No risk factor was found for 30.7% of patients. A diagnosis of ISI was only suspected in five cases at admission. The mean time to diagnosis was long, being 43.3 ± 69.1 days on average. Mean C-reactive protein was 149.7 ± 115.3 mg/l, and leukocytosis (leukocytes ≥ 10 G/l) was uncommon (n = 15) (mean level of leukocytes 10.4 ± 3.5 G/l). Radiographs (n = 33) were abnormal in 20 cases, revealing lesions of SI, while an abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scan (n = 27) was abnormal in 21 cases, suggesting arthritis of the SI joints in 13 cases (48.1%) and a psoas abscess in eight. Bone scans (n = 14) showed hyperfixation of the SI in 13 cases. Magnetic

  17. Use of a Robotic Sampler (PIPER) for Evaluation of Particulate Matter Exposure and Eczema in Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Shah, Lokesh; Mainelis, Gediminas; Ramagopal, Maya; Black, Kathleen; Shalat, Stuart L

    2016-02-19

    While the association of eczema with asthma is well recognized, little research has focused on the potential role of inhalable exposures and eczema. While indoor air quality is important in the development of respiratory disease as children in the U.S. spend the majority of their time indoors, relatively little research has focused on correlated non-respiratory conditions. This study examined the relationship between particulate matter (PM) exposures in preschool age children and major correlates of asthma, such as wheeze and eczema. Air sampling was carried out using a robotic (PIPER) child-sampling surrogate. This study enrolled 128 participants, 57 male and 71 female children. Ages ranged from 3 to 58 months with the mean age of 29.3 months. A comparison of subjects with and without eczema showed a difference in the natural log (ln) of PM collected from the PIPER air sampling (p = 0.049). PIPER's sampling observed an association between the ln PM concentrations and eczema, but not an association with wheezing history in pre-school children. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis of the role of the microenvironment in mediating atopic dermatitis, which is one of the predictors of persistent asthma. Our findings also support the use of PIPER in its ability to model and sample the microenvironment of young children.

  18. Dairy food, calcium and vitamin D intake in pregnancy, and wheeze and eczema in infants.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Y; Sasaki, S; Tanaka, K; Hirota, Y

    2010-06-01

    The present prospective study examined the association between maternal consumption of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D during pregnancy and the risk of wheeze and eczema in the infants aged 16-24 months. Subjects were 763 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed with a diet history questionnaire. Symptoms of wheeze and eczema were based on criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Higher maternal intake of total dairy products, milk, cheese and calcium during pregnancy was significantly related to a decreased risk of infantile wheeze, but not eczema (adjusted ORs (95% CI) between extreme quartiles were 0.45 (0.25-0.79), 0.50 (0.28-0.87), 0.51 (0.31-0.85), and 0.57 (0.32-0.99), respectively). When maternal vitamin D consumption during pregnancy was categorised into two groups using a cut-off point at the 25th percentile, children whose mothers had consumed > or =4.309 microg x day(-1) had a significantly reduced risk of wheeze and eczema (adjusted ORs (95% CI) were 0.64 (0.43-0.97) and 0.63 (0.41-0.98), respectively). Higher consumption of calcium and dairy foods other than yoghurt during pregnancy may reduce the risk of infantile wheeze. Higher vitamin D intake during pregnancy may be protective against childhood wheeze and eczema.

  19. Use of a Robotic Sampler (PIPER) for Evaluation of Particulate Matter Exposure and Eczema in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Lokesh; Mainelis, Gediminas; Ramagopal, Maya; Black, Kathleen; Shalat, Stuart L.

    2016-01-01

    While the association of eczema with asthma is well recognized, little research has focused on the potential role of inhalable exposures and eczema. While indoor air quality is important in the development of respiratory disease as children in the U.S. spend the majority of their time indoors, relatively little research has focused on correlated non-respiratory conditions. This study examined the relationship between particulate matter (PM) exposures in preschool age children and major correlates of asthma, such as wheeze and eczema. Air sampling was carried out using a robotic (PIPER) child-sampling surrogate. This study enrolled 128 participants, 57 male and 71 female children. Ages ranged from 3 to 58 months with the mean age of 29.3 months. A comparison of subjects with and without eczema showed a difference in the natural log (ln) of PM collected from the PIPER air sampling (p = 0.049). PIPER’s sampling observed an association between the ln PM concentrations and eczema, but not an association with wheezing history in pre-school children. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis of the role of the microenvironment in mediating atopic dermatitis, which is one of the predictors of persistent asthma. Our findings also support the use of PIPER in its ability to model and sample the microenvironment of young children. PMID:26907317

  20. Eczema molluscatum in tacrolimus treated atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Stefanie; Wollenberg, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Eczema molluscatum describes the occurrence of molluscum contagiosum virus infection in a patient with underlying atopic dermatitis. Novel, safe and effective treatment options in atopic dermatitis are the topical immunomodulators tacrolimus and pimecrolimus. One major advantage over corticosteroids is that they do not induce skin atrophy. Some physicians fear that topical immunomodulators may predispose patients to skin infections. We observed a patient with atopic dermatitis who developed eczema molluscatum during treatment with tacrolimus 0.1% ointment. After withdrawal of tacrolimus, the lesions resolved spontaneously over 3 weeks.

  1. Retrospective Biodosimetry of an Occupational Overexposure-Case Study.

    PubMed

    Beaton-Green, L A; Barr, T; Ainsbury, E A; Wilkins, R C

    2016-12-01

    In 2014, Health Canada was approached by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission to conduct biodosimetry for a possible overexposure 4 y prior to assessment. Dose estimates were determined by means of two cytogenetic assays, the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) and translocations as measured by the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). As dicentrics are considered to be unstable over time, the results of the DCA were adjusted to account for the time elapsed between the suspected exposure and sampling. The frequency of damage was then compared to Health Canada's calibration curves, respectively, to calculate dose. In addition, the translocation data were corrected for age-related increases in background. With a half-life of 36 months for dicentric chromosomes taken into consideration, the dose estimates from both assays were in agreement. Due to the uncertainty in the half-life of dicentrics, the FISH assay is considered to be more reliable as a technique for retrospective biodosimetry.

  2. Hepatitis E in Israel: A nation-wide retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Erez-Granat, Ortal; Lachish, Tamar; Daudi, Nili; Shouval, Daniel; Schwartz, Eli

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the epidemiology, risk factors and clinical course of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in Israel, an industrialized country. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of acute HEV cases diagnosed in Israel from 1993 to 2013. Acute HEV was defined by ALT/AST elevation and a positive HEV PCR test or positive anti-HEV-IgM serology. HEV RNA was tested by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Antibodies to HEV were tested retrospectively using an ELISA assay. HEV-RNA was sequenced using RT-PCR of ORF1 and ORF2 regions to diagnose genotype of the virus. Epidemiologic and clinical data were collected by reviewing the clinical files and through a telephone interview according to a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: Acute HEV was diagnosed in 68 patients. Among the 59 patients who gave an informed consent and were interviewed, 41% of infections were autochthonous (acquired in Israel), 44% travel-related and 15% imported by foreign workers. Autochthonous patients were mainly females (62.5%), more than half of them pregnant, 26% recalled consuming food or water in areas with poor sanitation, 44% ate non-kosher meat. Fulminant hepatitis developed in 3 patients (5%), all of them were females, two of them with post-partum infection, all acquired the disease in Israel (autochthonous). Israeli travelers with imported infection were predominantly males (73%), acquired the disease in the Indian subcontinent (81%), with 100% reporting having consumed fresh vegetables and drinks with ice cubes abroad. Six patients’ sera were tested for genotype and revealed HEV genotype 1 (all cases acquired in the Indian subcontinent). CONCLUSION: This is the first report which highlights the existence of hepatitis E as an autochthonous infection in Israel. Imported HEV originates mostly from the Indian subcontinent. PMID:27350735

  3. Automatic detection and severity measurement of eczema using image processing.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Nafiul; Munia, Tamanna Tabassum Khan; Tavakolian, Kouhyar; Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nick; Fazel-Rezai, Reza

    2016-08-01

    Chronic skin diseases like eczema may lead to severe health and financial consequences for patients if not detected and controlled early. Early measurement of disease severity, combined with a recommendation for skin protection and use of appropriate medication can prevent the disease from worsening. Current diagnosis can be costly and time-consuming. In this paper, an automatic eczema detection and severity measurement model are presented using modern image processing and computer algorithm. The system can successfully detect regions of eczema and classify the identified region as mild or severe based on image color and texture feature. Then the model automatically measures skin parameters used in the most common assessment tool called "Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI)," by computing eczema affected area score, eczema intensity score, and body region score of eczema allowing both patients and physicians to accurately assess the affected skin.

  4. The eczema risk variant on chromosome 11q13 (rs7927894) in the population-based ALSPAC cohort: a novel susceptibility factor for asthma and hay fever.

    PubMed

    Marenholz, Ingo; Bauerfeind, Anja; Esparza-Gordillo, Jorge; Kerscher, Tamara; Granell, Raquel; Nickel, Renate; Lau, Susanne; Henderson, John; Lee, Young-Ae

    2011-06-15

    In a genome-wide association study, a common variant on chromosome 11q13.5 (rs7927894[T]) has been identified as a susceptibility locus for eczema. We aimed to analyze the effect of this risk variant on asthma and hay fever and to determine its impact on the general population level in over 9300 individuals of the prospectively evaluated Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort. We demonstrate an association of rs7927894[T] with atopic asthma and with hay fever. The largest effect sizes were found in patients with the combined phenotype atopic asthma plus eczema [odds ratio (OR) = 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-1.88; P = 3.7 × 10(-4)] and hay fever plus eczema (OR = 1.37; 95% CI 1.15-1.62; P = 3.8 × 10(-4)). We replicated the effects of rs7927894[T] on eczema-associated asthma and hay fever independently in the German GENUFAD (GEnetic studies in NUclear Families with Atopic Dermatitis) study and show that they are significantly larger than the effect observed in eczema. The estimated population attributable risk fractions for eczema, eczema-associated atopic asthma or hay fever were 9.3, 24.9 and 23.5%, respectively. Finally in eczema, we found a synergistic interaction of rs7927894[T] with filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations, which are a major cause of epidermal barrier dysfunction, and replicated the interaction in the German Multicenter Allergy Study birth cohort. The synergistic effect of rs7927894[T] and FLG mutations on eczema risk as well as the association of both variants with eczema-associated atopic asthma and hay fever point to an involvement of rs7927894[T] in a functional pathway that is linked to the barrier defect.

  5. Eczema - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... XYZ List of All Topics All Eczema - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Korean (한국어) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Korean (한국어) ...

  6. Anaesthesia for foetoscopic Laser ablation- a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kumbhar, Vaishali; Radhika, M; Gundappa, Parameswara; Simha, Jayashree; Radhakrishnan, Prathima

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Twin pregnancy with monochorionic placenta may be associated with arteriovenous vascular anastomosis of the placental vessels resulting in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and twin reversed arterial perfusion syndrome (TRAP). Foetoscopic LASER ablation (FLA) is the treatment of choice in reducing foetal mortality related to this. Methods: A retrospective review of medical records of 41 FLA procedures for TTTS and TRAP were analysed for anaesthetic management. Thirty-four patients received subarachnoid block, three combined spinal-epidural block, three general anaesthesia and one local anaesthesia with sedation. Nitroglycerine 5 mg patch was used for tocolysis 1 h before the procedure and continued for 24–48 h postoperatively. Results: Bupivacaine was used in 34 patients, and ropivacaine in three patients. Mean dose of bupivacaine 0.5% was 2.43 ± 0.32 ml and ropivacaine 0.75% was 2.85 ± 0.19 ml. The mean duration of surgery was 117.07 ± 28 min. Mild hypotension occurred in all patients under spinal anaesthesia and was treated with vasopressors. The foetal outcome among all 41 patients were 13 delivered live twins, 15 had a single live baby with intrauterine death of other twin baby. In 12 patients, both babies were intrauterine death. One patient was lost for follow-up. Conclusion: Foetoscopic procedures can be done under central neuraxial block, however occasionally general anaesthesia may be required. PMID:28003695

  7. Thyroid abnormalities in paediatric patients with vitiligo: retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Borlu, Murat; Çınar, Salih Levent; Kesikoğlu, Ayten; Utaş, Serap

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association between vitiligo and thyroid disease is not fully investigated especially in paediatric patients. Aim To determine the incidence of vitiligo and thyroid disorders in children. This is the first report from middle Anatolia and the second report from Turkey. Material and methods A retrospective chart review was performed to examine the presence of thyroid abnormalities in paediatric patients who had been admitted to the dermatology department with vitiligo. Results A total of 155 paediatric patients, including 80 (52%) male and 75 (48%) female patients were included. The mean age was 8.6 years. Non segmental vitiligo was the most common type of the disease in 140 (90%) reviewed patients, while segmental vitiligo appeared only in 15 (10%) patients. The mean onset of vitiligo was 5.6 ±0.9 years. A family history of vitiligo was found in 14 (9%) children. Thirty-four (22%) patients had thyroid function tests and/or thyroid autoantibody abnormality. All of these patients had non segmental vitiligo. It was statistically significant (p < 0.05) in types of vitiligo and thyroid disease parameters. Conclusions Our results show that it may be useful to screen thyroid in children with non segmental vitiligo. PMID:27512360

  8. A retrospective study of patient outcomes and satisfaction following pinnaplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Nicholas; Smith, Caroline P; Cullen, Jim R; McCluney, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Up to 5% of all children have prominent ears. Psychological distress and bullying adversely affect these children and can cause significant social exclusion. In times of austerity, cosmetic procedures such as surgical correction of prominent ears are felt to be an unnecessary cost to the health service. Materials and methods A retrospective case note review of all patients undergoing pinnaplasty was undertaken. Postoperative outcomes were compared against the Royal College of Surgeons of England standards. The Glasgow Benefit Inventory, a validated post-intervention questionnaire, was then posted out to all patients. Results A total of 72 patients were identified. Average age at procedure was 13 years. Eleven patients were above the age of 19 years. Twenty-eight patients were male and forty-four female. Sixty-two cases underwent bilateral pinnaplasty. No patients developed hematoma, and there were no readmissions within 30 days of surgery. Twenty-nine patients responded to the questionnaire (40%), of whom 27 reported a positive impact on their psychosocial well-being with a mean score of 36. Conclusion Pinnaplasty offers patients an opportunity to alleviate the psychological distress of bullying and harassment secondary to the appearance of prominent ears. PMID:27307775

  9. Growth of herpes simplex type 1 on skin explants of atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Goodyear, H M; Davies, J A; McLeish, P; Buchan, A; Skinner, G R; Winther, M; Harper, J I

    1996-05-01

    In a novel approach to looking at why some children with atopic eczema are susceptible to cutaneous herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, this study evaluates the hypothesis that HSV replicates more easily on eczematous than normal skin. Growth of HSV on eczematous skin explants was compared with growth on explants from three control groups (psoriasis, Darier's disease and normal skin) over a 2-day period. Growth of HSV was significantly less on normal skin than in atopic eczema, psoriasis and Darier's disease. Virus replicated more quickly, and grew to higher titre within 24h, in eczematous and psoriatic explants than in normal skin. A defect in skin barrier function and host defence factors including local cytokine secretion are discussed as possible mechanisms in causing the increased susceptibility of children with atopic eczema to HSV infection.

  10. Ambient Air Pollution, Meteorological Factors and Outpatient Visits for Eczema in Shanghai, China: A Time-Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiao; Yang, Yingying; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong; Song, Weimin; Tan, Jianguo; Xu, Feng; Xu, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    Environmental irritants are important risk factors for skin diseases, but little is known about the influence of environmental factors on eczema incidence. In this time-series study, our objective was to examine the associations of environmental factors with outpatient visits for eczema. Daily outpatient visits between 2007 and 2011 (1826 days) were collected from Huashan Hospital in Shanghai, China. We used an overdispersed generalized additive model to investigate the short-term association between environmental factors and outpatient visits for eczema. Daily outpatient visits for eczema were significantly associated with air pollution and meteorological factors. For example, a 10 μg/m3 increase of 7-day (lag 06) average concentrations of PM10 (particulate matter no greater than 10 microns), SO2, NO2 was associated with 0.81% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.39%, 1.22%), 2.22% (95% CI: 1.27%, 3.16%) and 2.31% (95% CI: 1.17%, 3.45%) increase in outpatient visits for eczema, respectively. A 10 °C elevation of temperature on lag 0 day were associated with 8.44% (95% CI: 4.66%, 12.22%) increase in eczema visits, whereas 10 unit decrease of 7-day average relative humidity were associated with 10.86% (95% CI: 8.83%, 12.89%) increase in eczema visits. This study provided clear evidence of ambient air pollution, high temperature and low relative humidity on increasing the incidence of eczema in Shanghai, China. PMID:27834842

  11. Methods for retrospective geocoding in population studies: the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer C; Wyatt, Sharon B; Hickson, DeMarc; Gwinn, Danielle; Faruque, Fazlay; Sims, Mario; Sarpong, Daniel; Taylor, Herman A

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of geographic information systems (GIS) in epidemiological population studies requires careful attention to the methods employed in accomplishing geocoding and creating a GIS. Studies have provided limited details,hampering the ability to assess validity of spatial data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the multiphase geocoding methods used to retrospectively create a GIS in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We used baseline data from 5,302 participants enrolled in the JHS between 2000 and 2004 in a multiphase process to accomplish geocoding2 years after participant enrollment. After initial deletion of ungeocodable addresses(n=52), 96% were geocoded using ArcGIS. An interactive method using data abstraction from participant records, use of additional maps and street reference files,and verification of existence of address, yielded successful geocoding of all but 13 addresses. Overall, nearly 99% (n=5,237) of the JHS cohort was geocoded retrospectively using the multiple strategies for improving and locating geocodable addresses. Geocoding validation procedures revealed highly accurate and reliable geographic data. Using the methods and protocol developed provided a reliable spatial database that can be used for further investigation of spatial epidemiology. Baseline results were used to describe participants by select geographic indicators, including residence in urban or rural areas, as well as to validate the effectiveness of the study's sampling plan. Further, our results indicate that retrospectively developing a reliable GIS for a large, epidemiological study is feasible. This paper describes some of the challenges in retrospectively creating a GIS and provides practical tips that enhanced the success.

  12. Evaluation of massage with essential oils on childhood atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C; Lis-Balchin, M; Kirk-Smith, M

    2000-09-01

    Childhood atopic eczema is an increasingly common condition in young children. As well as being irritating to the child, it causes sleepless nights for both the child and the family and leads to difficulties in parental relationships and can have severe effects on employment. A group of eight children, born to professional working mothers were studied to test the hypothesis that massage with essential oils (aromatherapy) used as a complementary therapy in conjunction with normal medical treatment, would help to alleviate the symptoms of childhood atopic eczema. The children were randomly allocated to the massage with essential oils group and both counselled and massaged with a mixture of essential oils by the therapist once a week and the mother every day over a period of 8 weeks. The preferred essential oils, chosen by the mothers for their child, from 36 commonly used aromatherapy oils, were: sweet marjoram, frankinsence, German chamomile, myrrh, thyme, benzoin, spike lavender and Litsea cubeba. A control group of children received the counselling and massage without essential oils. The treatments were evaluated by means of daily day-time irritation scores and night time disturbance scores, determined by the mother before and during the treatment, both over an 8 week period; finally general improvement scores were allocated 2 weeks after the treatment by the therapist, the general practitioner and the mother. The study employed a single case experimental design across subjects, such that there were both a within-subject control and between-subjects control, through the interventions being introduced at different times. The results showed a significant improvement in the eczema in the two groups of children following therapy, but there was no significant difference in improvement shown between the aromatherapy massage and massage only group. Thus there is evidence that tactile contact between mother and child benefits the symptoms of atopic eczema but there is no

  13. Therapeutic management of anal eczema: an evidence-based review

    PubMed Central

    Havlickova, B; Weyandt, G H

    2014-01-01

    Aim To conduct a systematic review of treatments for anal eczema (AE). Methods We conducted a Medline search for clinical trial data for the treatment of perianal diseases including AE, including papers not published in the English language. We assessed the study reports using the system recommended by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine. No meta-analysis was attempted. Results The evidence base for topical treatments used to treat AE is very poor: there are very few studies and many of those that exist are of poor quality. The best evidence was found for medications that are yet to be licensed for AE. Among products with existing licences for the treatment of eczema, our assessment found some evidence to support the continued use of mild-to-moderate corticosteroids first line in most patients. Discussion Features of the perianal region, and the fact that it is almost always occluded, mean that not all medications recommended in the general treatment guidelines for eczema are appropriate for AE. However, there are no specific treatment guidelines for these patients. This may in part be because of the lack of high-quality evidence-based medicine in this therapy area. Many frequently prescribed medications were developed and licensed many years ago, in an era when clinical trial design was not expected to be as rigorous as it is today. Conclusion This review highlights the need to conduct more high-quality clinical trials in patients with AE in order that specific guidelines for the management of this difficult proctological condition can be prepared. PMID:24898365

  14. Atopic eczema. What has caused the epidemic in industrialised countries and can early intervention modify the natural history of atopic eczema?

    PubMed

    Thestrup-Pedersen, K

    2003-07-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) has a lifetime prevalence of between 15 and 20% in industrialized countries, but a very low prevalence in rural Africa. The 'atopic eczema epidemic' has developed in industrialized countries within the last four decades. The disease has a strong genetic influence, so environmental factors must be responsible for the dramatic increase in disease prevalence. It is therefore fair to consider what interventions may change its prevalence. In this article, several factors are considered: the increased number of doctors in industrialized countries, the development of drugs like topical steroids and emollients, the 'demanding parents' and 'old mother' syndromes, introduction of vaccination programmes, allergen exposure, breastfeeding and the possible beneficial effects of probiotics. In 90% of children with AE, onset is before the age of 5. Its course runs over years. Approximately two out of three outgrow the disease between 7 and 12 years of age. Although its cause is unknown, type I allergic reactions are common and allergen avoidance has been attempted in many studies as a preventive measure in atopic dermatitis. However, results are rather disappointing. The use of probiotics, i.e. daily intake of Lactobacillus, has proven effective in preventing, or at least delaying, the development of atopic eczema. So has breastfeeding, although some studies cannot confirm its beneficial effect. Therapeutic interventions using antihistamines, desensitisation and control of skin inflammation using topical steroids have not proven successful in shortening the course of atopic eczema, although controlled studies are lacking. The use of emollients has, however, a documented effect in up to one of three children with mild atopic eczema. It will be interesting to observe if the new topical immuno-modulators, tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, may be able to shorten the natural course of the disease.

  15. Comparison of cellular and humoral immunoassays for the assessment of summer eczema in horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare and analyze three common diagnostic methods for summer eczema (SE) in horses, an allergic dermatitis caused by bites of Culicoides spp. Nine horses with a medical history of SE and nine control animals were intradermally challenged with whole body extracts ...

  16. Daghemsvistelse I Retrospektivt Perspektiv: En teori- och metodprovande studie (Daycare in Retrospect).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torstenson-Ed, Tullie

    This Swedish language report describes a preliminary study to test a retrospective life-history-inspired approach to studying children's experiences in a day care center, and whether children's experiences vary in different educational contexts and in relation to the teachers' experiences. The theoretical part of the study dealt with theories of…

  17. Retrospective Case Study in the Raton Basin, Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Study site locations in Las Animas and Huerfano Counties were selected in response to ongoing complaints about changes in appearance, odor, and taste associated with drinking water in domestic wells. \

  18. Data Reports for Retrospective Case Study in Northeastern Pennsylvania

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page includes the data reports for sampling rounds collected in Northeastern Pennsylvania conducted as part of EPA's Study of the Potential Impacts of Hydrualic Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources

  19. The Reconceptualization of Curriculum Studies, 1987: A Personal Retrospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinar, William F.

    1988-01-01

    Relates how historical developments initiated the curriculum reform movement, which caused curriculum studies to become vulnerable to reconceptualization. Traces the movement from Sputnik in 1957 through reconceptualists' opposition to the mainstream field in the 1970s. The opposition has now become the field itself, which is characterized by…

  20. Candidacy for Bilateral Hearing Aids: A Retrospective Multicenter Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boymans, Monique; Goverts, S. Theo; Kramer, Sophia E.; Festen, Joost M.; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to find factors for refining candidacy criteria for bilateral hearing aid fittings. Clinical files of 1,000 consecutive hearing aid fittings were analyzed. Method: Case history, audiometric, and rehabilitation data were collected from clinical files, and an extensive questionnaire on long-term outcome measures…

  1. Effluent guidelines, leather tanning, and pollution prevention: A retrospective study

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This study was undertaken to learn: in what ways and for what reasons a specific industry in the past already was implementing pollution in order to comply with existing effuent guidelines and to what degree the effluent guidelines development document for that industry had already previously projected that outcome.

  2. Wilms' tumor: single centre retrospective study from South India.

    PubMed

    Guruprasad, B; Rohan, B; Kavitha, S; Madhumathi, D S; Lokanath, D; Appaji, L

    2013-09-01

    Wilms' tumor is the most common malignant renal tumor in paediatric age group, and is classically managed by multimodal treatment which involves surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The last few decades have seen a dramatic change in the prognosis of this disease, which once was a uniformly lethal malignancy. While there is plenty of data in world literature on the outcome of Wilms' tumor, there is paucity of data from India. Hence, we conducted the present study to analyze the outcome of Wilms' tumor at our institute. To study the clinicopathologic profile and outcome of Wilms' tumor with NWTS (National Wilms' Tumor Study Group) IV protocol. Sixty-one patients with histopathological proven diagnosis of Wilms' tumor and had received treatment at our institute from Jan 2003 through Dec 2010 were included for analysis. Patients received treatment based on NWTS IV protocol. Patients were analysed for overall survival and event free survival and these outcomes were correlated with age, sex, stage at presentation and histology. Favourable histology which included focal anaplasia was found in 80.3 % while unfavourable histology was elicited in 19.7 % of the cases. The estimated 5 year event-free survival was 83.3 % and overall survival was 85.2 %. Tumour histology was the single most important factor predicting the survival. Patients with childhood Wilms' still present very late in our setting, this poses management challenges as large tumor are technically difficult to deliver at surgery. Histology has a crucial role in outcome of this disease. With multidisciplinary approach, similar survival rates to National Wilms' Tumor Study Group seems to be achievable even in Indian scenario.

  3. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M

    2002-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  4. A retrospective study of mushroom poisoning in Iran.

    PubMed

    Pajoumand, A; Shadnia, S; Efricheh, H; Mandegary, A; Hassanian-Moghadam, H; Abdollahi, M

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the pattern of mushroom poisoning in adults admitted to the Loghman-Hakim Hospital Poison Center from 1992 to 2002. All patients > or = 12 years of age were included in the study. The frequency of mushroom poisoning with respect to age, sex, season, reason, place of residence, latent phase, clinical and laboratory findings, treatment, and outcome of patients was investigated. Of the 72421 poisoning cases admitted to Loghman-Hakim Hospital Poison Center from 1992 to 2002, only 37 were poisoned by consumption of toxic mushrooms. As some of the patients' files were incomplete, only 25 files were included in the study. Of this number, 68% were male. The patients' age ranged between 12 and 65 years, with a mean of 31 years of age. All cases were accidental and mostly from Tehran (36%) and the northern provinces (rainy woodlands) of Iran (32%). Autumn was the most common season for poisoning with a frequency of 80%. The latent phase of poisonings was between 0.5 and 12 hours. The most frequently reported symptoms were vomiting (84%), nausea (60%), abdominal pain (60%) and diarrhea (40%). Jaundice was observed in 44% of cases, with a 50% rate of hepatic encephalopathy. A total of 66% of patients were discharged and the duration range of hospitalization was 1-12 days. In conclusion, people should be more informed of the dangers posed by wild mushrooms. Training of physicians and nurses in the accurate diagnosis and management of patients poisoned with poisonous mushrooms would improve the rate of survival.

  5. A retrospective pilot study: management of patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ancheta, Irma B

    2006-01-01

    An epidemic disease - a major cause of chronic disability - congestive heart failure adversely affects the health of millions. Congestive heart failure is the most frequent cause of cardiovascular hospital admissions and shares a significant responsibility for the high cost of healthcare. Despite medical and technological advances, studies show that the treatment of heart failure is suboptimal. Physician knowledge and awareness of appropriate treatment may contribute to patient compliance and improve delivery of healthcare. The purpose of this article is to examine how patients with heart failure in a heart failure clinic are managed. Recommendations are proposed and the role of nurses and clinicians in heart failure management is discussed.

  6. Role of Virechana Karma in cure and prevention of recurrence of Vicharchika (Eczema)

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Mandip; Chandola, Harimohan

    2012-01-01

    Mandip and Chandola reported that administration of Rasayana (Guduchi and Bhringaraja) after Koshtha Shuddhi with Aragvadha Hima and simultaneous giving of Shirishadi decoction orally and applying of Snuhyadi Lepa externally provided complete remission to 22.6% patients of Vicharchika (Eczema) and checked the recurrences of the disease in the 89.5% patients. As in this group, cure rate was not up to the expectation; therefore, it was thought desirable to see whether performing of Virechana Karma instead of Koshtha Shuddhi prior to the administration of the above drugs enhances the cure rate for the Vicharchika (Eczema) patients. For the present study, 39 patients of Vicharchika (Eczema) were registered, of which 32 patients completed the full course of the treatment. These patients were given Virechana after preparing with the proper internal Snehana, Abhyanga, and Svedana as per classical method. After the Samsarjana Krama, they were administered the Shirishadi decoction and Guduchi-Bhringraja Rasayana powder orally with simultaneous local application of Snuhyadi Lepa on the eczematous lesions. The results of this study showed that when Virechana Karma was performed prior to the administration of Guduchi-Bhringaraja Rasayana and Shirishadi decoction orally and SnuhyadiLepa externally, it not only increased the cure rate to 81.3% in the patients of Vicharchika (Eczema) but also checked the recurrences to great extent as only negligible number of the patients reported the recurrence. PMID:23723667

  7. Identifying Chinese Herbal Medicine Network for Eczema: Implications from a Nationwide Prescription Database

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Hu, Sindy; Yang, Sien-hung; Chen, Jiun-liang; Chen, Yu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Eczema is a highly prevalent dermatological disease that can severely affect the patient's quality of life. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is commonly used in combination for eczema due to the complicated pathogenesis. This study aimed to identify a CHM network for the treatment of eczema by using a nationwide database. During 2011, 381,282 CHM prescriptions made for eczema (ICD-9-CM 692.x) were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan and analyzed by using association rule mining and social network analysis. Among 661 available CHMs, 44 important combinations were identified. Among the CHM networks, seven clusters with the predominant traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pattern were recognized. The largest CHM cluster was used to treat the wind-dampness-heat pattern, and Xiao-Feng-San (24.1% of all prescriptions) was the core of this cluster with anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and antiallergic effects. Lonicera japonica (11.0% of all prescriptions) with Forsythia suspense (17.0% of all prescriptions) was the most commonly used CHM combination and was also the core treatment for treating the heat pattern, in which an antimicrobial effect is found. CHM network analysis is helpful for TCM doctors or researchers to choose candidates for clinical practice or further studies. PMID:25685167

  8. Infant feeding and the development of food allergies and atopic eczema: An update.

    PubMed

    Gamboni, Sarah E; Allen, Katrina J; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2013-05-01

    There is an increasing awareness of food allergies in the community. Dermatologists frequently see patients with atopic eczema, where parents are extremely concerned about the role of food allergy. Advice given to parents regarding the timing of introduction of solid foods has changed markedly over the past decade. Whereas previous advice advocated delaying the introduction of solid foods until the infant's gastrointestinal system had matured, recent studies suggest that the introduction of solids from around 4 to 6 months may actually prevent the development of allergies. Studies on maternal dietary restrictions during pregnancy and lactation have led researchers to believe that antigen avoidance does not play a significant role in the prevention of atopic disease. Breastfeeding exclusively for 4 to 6 months has multiple benefits for mother and child, however, it does not convincingly prevent food allergies or decrease atopic eczema. New evidence suggests that the use of hydrolysed formulas does not delay or prevent atopic eczema or food allergy. This article aims to highlight current evidence and provide an update for dermatologists on the role of food exposure in the development of atopic disease, namely atopic eczema.

  9. Identifying chinese herbal medicine network for eczema: implications from a nationwide prescription database.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Hu, Sindy; Yang, Sien-Hung; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Yu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Eczema is a highly prevalent dermatological disease that can severely affect the patient's quality of life. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is commonly used in combination for eczema due to the complicated pathogenesis. This study aimed to identify a CHM network for the treatment of eczema by using a nationwide database. During 2011, 381,282 CHM prescriptions made for eczema (ICD-9-CM 692.x) were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan and analyzed by using association rule mining and social network analysis. Among 661 available CHMs, 44 important combinations were identified. Among the CHM networks, seven clusters with the predominant traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pattern were recognized. The largest CHM cluster was used to treat the wind-dampness-heat pattern, and Xiao-Feng-San (24.1% of all prescriptions) was the core of this cluster with anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and antiallergic effects. Lonicera japonica (11.0% of all prescriptions) with Forsythia suspense (17.0% of all prescriptions) was the most commonly used CHM combination and was also the core treatment for treating the heat pattern, in which an antimicrobial effect is found. CHM network analysis is helpful for TCM doctors or researchers to choose candidates for clinical practice or further studies.

  10. [Emergency Psychiatric Service in general hospitals: a retrospective study].

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Fernando Sérgio Pereira; da Silva, Cezar Augusto Ferreira; Oliveira, Eliany Nazaré

    2010-09-01

    The Emergency Psychiatric Service in General Hospitals (SEPHG, acronym in Portuguese) is a service included in the psychiatric reform movement. The purpose of the present study was to characterize patients with psychological distress treated at the Dr. Estevam SEPHG, located in Sobral, Cear state. This exploratory study was performed using documental analyses with a quantitative approach, and involved 191 clients treated at the referred SEPHG from January to December 2007. Data collection was performed using a client register book, which contained information obtained from the patients' medical record. There was a predominance of male patients (70.15%), aged 30-49 years (48.71%) and single (74.86%). Most patients were from the city of Sobral (69.64%). In 42.40% of cases, the diagnosis was of alcohol use/abuse. Most clients (66.50%) sought the service voluntarily. After being evaluated at the SEPHG, 43.45% of patients were referred to the local Center for Psychosocial Care-Alcohol and other Drugs. The results emphasize the importance of mental health.

  11. Cerebral venous thrombosis: a Moroccan retrospective study of 30 cases

    PubMed Central

    Souirti, Zouhayr; Messouak, Ouafae; Belahsen, Faouzi

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare origin of stroke, the clinical presentation and etiologies vary. The prognosis is shown to be better than arterial thrombosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and MR Venograpgy (MRV) are currently important tools for the diagnosis. We studied 30 cases of CVT diagnosed in the department of neurology at the University Hospital of Fez (Morocco). Patients diagnosed with CVT signs between January 2003 and October 2007 were included in the study. Cerebral CT-scan was performed in 27 cases (90%) while the MRI examination was done in 18 patients (67%); and most patients (90%) received anticoagulant therapy. The mean age of our patients was of 29 years (age range between 18 days and 65 years). A female predominance was observed (70%). The clinical presentation of patients was dominated by: headache in 24 cases (80%), motor and sensory disability in 15 cases (50%), seizures in 10 cases (33%), consciousness disorder in 10 cases (33%). CVT was associated to post-partum in 10 cases (33%), infectious origin in 8 cases (26%), Behçet disease in 2 cases (7%), pulmonary carcinoma in 1 case, thrombocytemia in 1 case and idiopathic in 7 cases (23%). The evolution was good in 20 cases (67%), minor squelaes were observed in 6 patients (20%), while major squelaes were observed in 2 cases. Two cases of death were registered. The CVT is a pathology of good prognosis once the diagnosis is promptly established and early heparin treatment initiated. PMID:25317229

  12. Relationship between Childhood Maltreatment, Suicidality, and Bipolarity: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aims of current study were to determine whether childhood maltreatment contributes to the occurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD) with bipolarity or suicidality. Methods In total, 132 outpatients diagnosed with MDD between 2014 and 2015 on the medical records were included. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the presence of childhood maltreatment (CM group) and no childhood maltreatment (NCM group). Depression severity and bipolarity were identified using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Korean version of Mood Disorder Questionnaire (K-MDQ) respectively on the medical records. In addition, the baseline loud dependence of auditory evoked potentials of 36 patients on medical records were analyzed. Results The mean total BDI, BDI item 9 (suicide ideation), and total K-MDQ score were significantly higher in the CM group than the NCM group. The number of subjects with bipolarity was significantly higher in the CM than in the NCM group. Furthermore two thirds subjects experienced the significant maltreatment during childhood. The central serotonergic activity of the CM group was also lower than that of the NCM group. Conclusion The findings of this study support that there is a relationship between childhood maltreatment and bipolarity or suicidality in patients with MDD. PMID:28326110

  13. Hepatozoon species infection in domestic cats: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Baneth, G; Aroch, I; Tal, N; Harrus, S

    1998-10-01

    Hepatozoon sp. is a protozoan parasite of peripheral blood neutrophils in cats. Feline hepatozoonosis has been reported infrequently and little is known about the pathogenesis of this infection. In order to further clarify clinicopathological characteristics of hepatozoonosis in domestic cats, a retrospecitve study of hepatozoonosis in cats admitted during 1989-1995 to the Hebrew University School of Veterinary Medicine was conducted. The study population comprised all the cats whose medical records included a complete blood count with a microscopical examination of a blood smear during this 7-year period (n=1229). Hepatozoon gametocytes were identified in seven cats (0.57%) ranging from 1 to 6 years of age. Infected cats were mostly males (6/7) of mixed breed (5/7) with a variety of complaints and clinical signs. The clinicopathological findings included increased activities of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (5/6) and creatine kinase (CK) (5/6). The elevated enzymes detected in cats with hepatozoonosis are suggestive of muscular damage. Sixty-seven percent (4/6) of the cats with hepatozoonosis which were tested for a retroviral disease were found infected either in FIV or FELV. In addition, 2/7 cats were co-infected with Hemobartonella felis. In conclusion, parasitemia with Hepatozoon sp. is a rare finding in cats from Israel. The over-representation of cats with a retroviral disease among the cats with hepatozoonosis indicates a possible association between immunosupression and the development of Hepatozoon infection.

  14. A Retrospective Study of Gay Gifted, Young Adult Males' Perceptions of Giftedness and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedillo, Paul James

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, retrospective study investigated suicidal ideation among 32 young adult men. Participants were asked to report their experiences as adolescents. The primary focus of the study was to discover how gay gifted adolescents dealt with issues of suicide and suicidal ideation. Participants were selected using a purposive sampling…

  15. Women's Reported Health Behaviours before and during Pregnancy: A Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smedley, Jenna; Jancey, Jonine M.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Zhao, Yun; Monteiro, Sarojini M. D. R.; Howat, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine women's reported health behaviours (physical activity, diet, weight management) before and during pregnancy, and to identify sources of health information. Design: Retrospective study incorporating quantitative (a self-completed survey) and qualitative (one-on-one interviews) methods. Methodology:…

  16. Retrospective Study of Serum Sclerostin Measurements in Bed Rest Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spatz, J. M.; Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Divieti, Pajevic P.; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, M. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton s response to mechanical unloading at the cellular level in part by an increase in sclerostin, an inhibitor of the anabolic Wnt pathway. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Thus, we determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men who participated in a controlled bed rest study. Seven healthy adult men (31 +/- 3 yrs old) underwent 90-day six-degree head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston's Institute for Translational Sciences - Clinical Research Center (ITS-CRC). Serum sclerostin, PTH, serum markers of bone turnover (bone specific alkaline phosphatase, RANKL/OPG, and osteocalcin), urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24 hour pooled urinary markers of bone resorption (NTX, DPD, PYD) were evaluated pre-bed rest (BL), bed rest day 28 (BR-28), bed rest day 60 (BR-60), and bed rest day 90 (BR-90). In addition, bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at BL, BR-60, and post bed rest day 5 (BR+5). Data are reported as mean +/- standard deviation. We used repeated measures ANOVA to compare baseline values to BR-28, BR-60, and BR-90. RESULTS Consistent with prior reports, BMD declined significantly (1-2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites (spine, hip, femur neck, and calcaneus). Serum sclerostin levels were elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29% +/- 20%, p = 0.003), BR-60 (+42% +/- 31%, p < 0.001), and BR-90 (22% +/- 21%, p = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (-17% +/- 16%, p = 0.02), BR-60 (-24% +/- 14%, p = 0.03), and returned to baseline at BR-90 (-21% +/- 21%, p = 0.14). Serum bone turnover markers did not change, however urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated following bed rest (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION We observed an increase of serum sclerostin

  17. Breast cancer in moroccan young women: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is uncommon in young women and induces more aggressive biologic characteristics. Survival in young women has been widely studied in developed countries. Less favorable prognosis and low survival were found. In Morocco, this study is the first investigation of clinical features, treatment and prognosis associated with breast cancer in young women. Findings Four hundred and nine women aged 35 years or less were included in this study. All these women were diagnosed as having breast cancer at the National Institute of Oncology in Rabat, Morocco between 2003 and 2007. The relation between clinical and therapeutic characteristics and event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed by Cox regression analysis. The median age of the patients was 32 years. Fifty three patients (13%) have metastatic disease at diagnosis and 356 patients (87%) had localised disease. In 57.9% of the cases, the estrogen receptors status was positive. The median follow-up was 32.2 months. After 3 years the survival rate was 80.6%. In the case of localised disease, OS and EFS at 3 years were 83.2% and 62.5%, respectively. OS and EFS at 3 years was higher in patients with stage I than patients with stage II and stage III (p = 0.001). Positive estrogen receptors was significantly associated to OS and EFS at 3 years compared to negative estrogen receptors (p = 0.001). Adjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy and adjuvant hormone therapy were associated with net benefit in OS and EFS at 3 years. Cox regression analysis showed that negative ER was significantly associated with poorer OS (HR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.25 - 4.66, p < 0.009) and poorer EFS (HR = 1.73, 95%CI = 1.05 - 2.86, p = 0.03). Stage III disease were associated to poorer EFS (HR = 5.35, 95%CI = 1.60 -17.84, p = 0.006). Conclusions In Morocco, young women with breast cancer had less favorable prognosis. Multivariate analysis showed that negative hormone receptor status was associated with lower

  18. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: sinotomy versus excisional surgery, a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Rabie, M Ezzedien; Al Refeidi, Abdullah A; Al Haizaee, Abdullah; Hilal, Saleh; Al Ajmi, Hassan; Al Amri, Abdul Aziz

    2007-03-01

    Pilonidal disease is a disease of relatively young people, the exact aetiology of which is unknown. Treatment options vary from simple incision to complex flap procedures. Each method has its advocates and they all have a variable recurrence rate. The multiplicity of procedures testifies to the lack of an optimal treatment method. The objective of this study is to compare sinotomy, that is, simply laying the sinus open with the more popular radical surgery, where the sinus-bearing tissues are excised. Patients who were admitted to Aseer Central Hospital, Saudi Arabia with a pilonidal sinus or abscess, in the period from April 1999 to January 2005, were identified. The medical records were reviewed and data related to the patient characteristics, disease process and the procedures carried out were noted. Identified patients were contacted by phone to check recurrence of the disease and their abidance to instructions regarding regular hair removal from the area. Eighty-one patients were included in the study. The median age was 24.2 years (range 16-60 years). There were 9 women and 72 men. All procedures were carried out under general anaesthesia except sinotomy, which was carried out under general or local anaesthesia. The surgical procedure was incision and drainage of abscess in 16 cases (19.8%), excision with primary closure in 29 cases (35.8%), excision by the open method in 15 cases (18.5%), sinotomy in 14 cases (17.3%) and rhomboid flap construction in 8 cases (9.9%). The overall recurrence rate was 26.9%, and the mean hospital stay was 4.1 days. Sinotomy had a low recurrence rate (12.5%) and a short hospital stay (2.8 days). Sinotomy has the advantages of simplicity, the possibility of operating under local anaesthesia, with an acceptable recurrence rate. We recommend sinotomy for pilonidal sinus and abscess alike, both in primary and recurrent cases.

  19. Outcome following physician supervised prehospital resuscitation: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Søren; Krüger, Andreas J; Zwisler, Stine T; Brøchner, Anne C

    2015-01-01

    Background Prehospital care provided by specially trained, physician-based emergency services (P-EMS) is an integrated part of the emergency medical systems in many developed countries. To what extent P-EMS increases survival and favourable outcomes is still unclear. The aim of the study was thus to investigate ambulance runs initially assigned ‘life-saving missions’ with emphasis on long-term outcome in patients treated by the Mobile Emergency Care Unit (MECU) in Odense, Denmark Methods All MECU runs are registered in a database by the attending physician, stating, among other parameters, the treatment given, outcome of the treatment and the patient's diagnosis. Over a period of 80 months from May 1 2006 to December 31 2012, all missions in which the outcome of the treatment was registered as ‘life saving’ were scrutinised. Initial outcome, level of competence of the caretaker and diagnosis of each patient were manually established in each case in a combined audit of the prehospital database, the discharge summary of the MECU and the medical records from the hospital. Outcome parameters were final outcome, the aetiology of the life-threatening condition and the level of competences necessary to treat the patient. Results Of 25 647 patients treated by the MECU, 701 (2.7%) received prehospital ‘life saving treatment’. In 596 (2.3%) patients this treatment exceeded the competences of the attending emergency medical technician or paramedic. Of these patients, 225 (0.9%) were ultimately discharged to their own home. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that anaesthesiologist administrated prehospital therapy increases the level of treatment modalities leading to an increased survival in relation to a prehospital system consisting of emergency medical technicians and paramedics alone and thus supports the concept of applying specialists in anaesthesiology in the prehospital setting especially when treating patients with cardiac arrest, patients in

  20. Impact of Lanthanum Carbonate on Prognosis of Chronic Hemodialysis Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study (Kawashima Study).

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Kenji; Nagai, Kojiro; Yokota, Narushi; Minakuchi, Jun; Kawashima, Shu

    2016-04-01

    In hemodialysis patients, mineral and bone disorder is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and subsequent death through the progression of vascular calcification. Serum phosphorus plays a major role in this process. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed the effects of oral phosphate binder, lanthanum carbonate (LC), on the mortality in hemodialysis patients. Among a total of 841 patients who underwent maintenance hemodialysis on 1 July 2010, patients who were treated with LC (LC group, N = 324) and those who were treated without LC (NLC group, N = 517) were compared with respect to their all-cause mortality for a long-term observation period of up to 36 months. The mortality rate was compared using the Cox proportional hazard model adjusted by the propensity score. The adjusted hazard ratio for mortality in the LC group versus NLC group was 0.515 (95% confidence interval, 0.328-0.807), suggesting that the use of LC is associated with an almost 50% reduction in the mortality rate. The present retrospective study including all hemodialysis patients demonstrated, for the first time, an association between the use of LC and improved prognosis in hemodialysis patients. Randomized controlled trials should be done in the future to validate our present findings.

  1. Chronic hepatitis: a retrospective study in 34 dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Fuentealba, C; Guest, S; Haywood, S; Horney, B

    1997-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the histological changes observed in 34 accessioned cases of canine chronic hepatitis and to correlate these changes with the clinical pathological data. Cases of chronic hepatitis were subdivided into 6 categories: chronic active hepatitis (10/34), chronic persistent hepatitis (7/32), chronic cholestatic hepatitis (6/34), fibrosing hepatitis with cirrhosis (3/34), chronic cholangiohepatitis (3/34), and miscellaneous secondary hepatitis (5/34). Iron accumulation was a consistent finding in all livers examined. Although all cases of chronic hepatitis had elevated liver enzymes, no correlation was detected between biochemical parameters and the severity of morphologic changes. Similarly, no correlation was detected between rhodanine staining for copper and morphologic or biochemical indicators of cholestasis. However, presence of copper correlated well with reticulo-fibrosis (r = 0.8) and bile duct hyperplasia, suggesting that changes in the hemodynamics of the hepatic acini due to fibrosis could influence storage of copper. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:9187802

  2. Effect of lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, macro minerals and trace elements on eczema.

    PubMed

    Amin, Mohammad Nurul; Liza, Kaniz Fatema; Sarwar, Md Shahid; Ahmed, Jamiuddin; Adnan, Md Tareek; Chowdhury, Manjurul Islam; Hossain, Mohammad Zahid; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul

    2015-09-01

    The exact etiology and pathogenesis of eczema are not yet fully understood, although different factors are considered as pathogenic mechanisms in the development of eczema. Our study was designed to determine extent of serum lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, macro minerals and trace elements in patients with eczema, and thereby, find any pathophysiological correlation. The study was conducted as a case-control study with 65 eczema patients as cases and 65 normal healthy individuals as controls. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring the serum level of malondialdehyde (MDA). Antioxidants- vitamin A and E concentration was determined by RP-HPLC method whereas vitamin C was evaluated for serum ascorbic acid by UV spectrophotometric method. Serum macro minerals (Na, K, Ca) and trace elements (Zn, Fe) were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). This study found significantly higher level of MDA (p < 0.001) and lower level of antioxidants (p < 0.05) in patients in comparison to the control subjects. Analysis of serum macro minerals (Na, K and Ca) and trace elements (Zn, Fe) found that the mean values of Na, K, Ca, Zn and Fe were 2771.60 ± 75.64, 66.33 ± 3.03, 48.41 ± 2.50, 0.30 ± 0.02 and 0.29 ± 0.009 mg/L for the patient group and 3284.81 ± 34.51, 162.18 ± 3.72, 87.66 ± 2.10, 0.75 ± 0.06 and 0.87 ± 0.06 mg/L for the control group, accordingly. There was a significant difference for all the minerals between the patients and controls (p < 0.001). This study suggests a strong association between the pathogenesis of eczema with the elevated level of MDA and depleted level of antioxidants, macro minerals, and trace elements.

  3. Treatment of Bone Defects in War Wounds: Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Grubor, Predrag; Milicevic, Snjezana; Grubor, Milan; Meccariello, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Results of the treatment of open fractures primarily depend on the treatment of connected soft tissue injuries. Objective: The aim was to present the experience and methods gained during the treatment of diaphyseal bone defects as a consequence of gunshot fracture soft war trauma. Patients and Methods: The study consisted of 116 patients with the diaphyseal bone defect who were treated with the usage of primary and delayed autotransplantation of bones, transplants of the fibula and Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis. Results: The results of compensation of bone defect less than 4 cm and conducted by an early cortico-spongioplastics were as follows: good in 8 respondents (45%), satisfactory in 6 (34%) and poor in 4 respondents (21%). In cases of delayed cortico-spongioplastics, the above mentioned results were: good in 36 (41%) respondents, satisfactory in 24 (34%) and poor in 16 (25%) respondents. The results of compensation of bone defect greater than 4 cm with the usage of fibular transplant were as follows: good in 3 (38%) respondents, satisfactory in 3 (38%) and poor in 2 (24%), and with the usage of using the Ilizarov method, the results were as follows: good in 8 (57%) respondents, satisfactory in 3 (21.5%) and poor in 3(21.5%) respondents. Conclusion: The results showed that, in cases of compensation of bone defects less than 4 cm, the advantage is given to the primary spongioplastics over the delayed one. In cases of compensation of bone defects greater than 4 cm, the advantage is given to the Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis when compared to the fibular transplant. PMID:26543315

  4. Indoor risk factors for atopic eczema in school children from East Germany.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, T; Heinrich, J; Wjst, M; Krause, C; Adam, H; Ring, J; Wichmann, H E

    1999-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relation between environmental influences such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury, as well as environmental tobacco smoke, pet keeping, and heating systems on the prevalence of atopic eczema. Therefore, a multicenter cross-sectional study of school children aged 5-14 years, including a standardized questionnaire, blood and urine analyses, and a dermatological examination, was undertaken. A cases-control approach was chosen in order to identify relevant risk factors. A total of 2200 school children (response 79.1%) of two areas (Bitterfeld, Hettstedt) polluted by industrial activities and an agricultural control region (Zerbst) of the former German Democratic Republic were examined. Atopic eczema as identified by dermatological examination and history was the outcome variable of interest. Body burden of arsenic and heavy metals and questionnaire data on environmental tobacco smoke exposure, pet keeping, and heating system were investigated as potential risk factors. The overall prevalence of atopic eczema was 2.6%, with higher prevalences in the industrial areas (2.5 and 2.9%) compared to the control area (1.6%, not significant). Bivariate analyses did not reveal statistically significant associations between atopic eczema and tobacco smoke exposure or the body burden of arsenic and heavy metals. According to multiple logistic regression analysis, atopic eczema was significantly more frequent in predisposed families and those who reported keeping guinea pigs (OR=4.37, CI 2.15-8.91), but not other pets, like dogs, cats, and hamsters. In comparison to a distant heating system, a decreased risk was observed in households with central heating system (OR=0.30, CI 0.10-0.90), whereas the presence of a gas heater with an exhaust pipe connection to the wall was associated with a significantly elevated risk for eczema (OR=8.22, CI 2.44-27.66). The heating system and exposure to certain animal allergens are related to the manifestation

  5. Natural history of untreatable hepatocellular carcinoma: A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Cabibbo, Giuseppe; Maida, Marcello; Genco, Chiara; Parisi, Pietro; Peralta, Marco; Antonucci, Michela; Brancatelli, Giuseppe; Cammà, Calogero; Craxì, Antonio; Di Marco, Vito

    2012-01-01

    visit. The overall median survival was 6.8 mo, and the 1-year survival was 32%. The 1-year survival according to BCLC classes was 100%, 79%, 12% and 0%, for BCLC A, B, C and D, respectively. There was a significant difference in survival between each BCLC class. The median survival of patients of BCLC stages A, B, C and D was 33, 17.4, 6.9, and 1.8 mo, respectively (P < 0.05 for comparison between stages). The median survival of Child-Pugh A, B and C classes were 9.8 mo (range 6.4-13), 6.1 (range 4.9-7.3), and 3.7 (range 1.5-6), respectively (P < 0.05 for comparison between stages). By univariate analysis, the variables significantly associated to an increased liklihood of mortality were Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS), presence of ascites, low level of albumin, elevated level of bilirubin, international normalized ratio (INR) and Log-[(α fetoprotein (AFP)]. At multivariate analysis, mortality was independently predicted by bad PS (P < 0.0001), high INR values (P = 0.0001) and elevated Log-(AFP) levels (P = 0.009). CONCLUSION: This study confirms the heterogeneous behavior of untreated HCC. BCLC staging remains an important prognostic guide and may be important in decision-making for palliative treatment. PMID:23060970

  6. Game Coaching System Design and Development: A Retrospective Case Study of FPS Trainer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Wee Hoe

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a retrospective case study of a game-based learning (GBL) researcher who cooperated with a professional gamer and a team of game developers to design and develop a coaching system for First-Person Shooter (FPS) players. The GBL researcher intended to verify the ecological validity of a model of cooperation; the developers wanted to…

  7. Retrospective Study of Lithium Use for Institutionalized Mentally Retarded Individuals with Behavior Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langee, Harvey R.

    1990-01-01

    Severely and profoundly mentally retarded institutionalized residents (N=74) who received lithium carbonate for behavior disorders were followed in a 10-year retrospective study. Thirty-one subjects demonstrated a sustained major reduction or elimination of behavioral symptoms. Lithium responders were likely to be older and to present symptoms of…

  8. Reduced Requirements for Long-Term Institutional Care: Results of a Retrospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurewitsch, Eleanor Chestnut

    1984-01-01

    Conducted a retrospective study of 102 Swiss seniors to determine nonmedical factors affecting substantial care days required prior to death. Protected senior housing and an independent and helpful personality seemed to contribute significantly to compression of morbidity and to reduced need for long-term institutional care. (JAC)

  9. Retrospective Study of Quetiapine in Children and Adolescents with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardan, Antonio Y.; Jou, Roger J.; Handen, Benjamin L.

    2005-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted in a clinic specialized in treating individuals with developmental disabilities to examine the effectiveness and tolerability of quetiapine in children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorders. Ten consecutive outpatients (age = 12.0 [plus or minus] 5.1 years) treated with quetiapine (dose = 477…

  10. A retrospective study of etiological factors of abortion in the owl monkey, Aotus trivirgatus.

    PubMed

    Rouse, R; Bronson, R T; Sehgal, P K

    1981-01-01

    Abortions in owl monkeys occurred in the late second and early third trimesters. Retrospective study of clinical records showed that handling, maternal anemia, karyotype, and season were unassociated with abortion. Most aborted infants had no gross lesions at necropsy. Some had renal tubular necorsis, probably a postmortem change.

  11. Factors promoting psychological adjustment to childhood atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Hannah; Rostill, Helen; Reed, Julie; Gill, Steve

    2006-06-01

    Research has found that children with atopic eczema are more likely to experience psychosocial difficulties than would be expected within the general population. This article aims to explore the relationship between child, parent and family factors in promoting positive adjustment to atopic eczema. Children aged five to 11 years with atopic eczema and their parents were identified from a specialist children's dermatology clinic. Seventy-four respondents completed questionnaires assessing child behaviour, parental well-being and family functioning. Parental psychological health, a supportive family environment and low impact of atopic eczema on family functioning were found to predict lower levels of internalizing behaviour (anxiety, depression and social withdrawal). These findings emphasize the importance of family and parental psychological processes rather than biomedical variables in promoting positive adjustment to atopic eczema.

  12. An Ecological Approach to Prospective and Retrospective Timing of Long Durations: A Study Involving Gamers

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Simon; Bisson, Nicolas; Grondin, Simon

    2010-01-01

    To date, most studies comparing prospective and retrospective timing have failed to use long durations and tasks with a certain degree of ecological validity. The present study assessed the effect of the timing paradigm on playing video games in a “naturalistic environment” (gaming centers). In addition, as it involved gamers, it provided an opportunity to examine the effect of gaming profile on time estimation. A total of 116 participants were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospectively a video game session lasting 12, 35 or 58 minutes. The results indicate that time is perceived as longer in the prospective paradigm than in the retrospective one, although the variability of estimates is the same. Moreover, the 12-minute session was perceived as longer, proportionally, than the 35- and 58-minute sessions. The study also revealed that the number of hours participants spent playing video games per week was a significant predictor of time estimates. To account for the main findings, the differences between prospective and retrospective timing are discussed in quantitative terms using a proposed theoretical framework, which states that both paradigms use the same cognitive processes, but in different proportions. Finally, the hypothesis that gamers play more because they underestimate time is also discussed. PMID:20174648

  13. Farm exposure in utero may protect against asthma, hay fever and eczema.

    PubMed

    Douwes, J; Cheng, S; Travier, N; Cohet, C; Niesink, A; McKenzie, J; Cunningham, C; Le Gros, G; von Mutius, E; Pearce, N

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess which factors contribute to the lower prevalence of allergic diseases in farmers' children, and the importance of timing of exposure. In a cross-sectional questionnaire survey, asthma symptoms, hay fever and eczema were assessed, as well as current, early and prenatal farm-related exposures in 1,333 farmers' children and 566 reference children aged 5-17 yrs. Farmers' children had a lower incidence of asthma symptoms and eczema. Current and maternal exposure during pregnancy to animals and/or grain and hay reduced the risk of asthma symptoms, hay fever and eczema. The exposure-response association for maternal exposure was nonlinear for most outcomes. After mutual adjustment, the effects of prenatal exposure remained unchanged whereas current exposure remained protective only for asthma medication, asthma ever and hay fever. Exposure during the first 2 yrs was not associated with symptoms, after controlling for prenatal exposure. A combination of prenatal and current exposure was most strongly associated with wheeze (odds ratio (OR) 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28-0.80), asthma medication (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30-0.82), asthma ever (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.33-0.76), hay fever (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.30-0.73) and eczema (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.30-0.70). Prenatal exposure may contribute to the low prevalence of asthma, hay fever and eczema in farmers' children, but continued exposure may be required to maintain optimal protection.

  14. Retrospective and prospective data collection compared in the Dutch End Of Life in Dementia (DEOLD) study.

    PubMed

    van der Steen, Jenny T; Ribbe, Miel W; Deliens, Luc; Gutschow, Giselka; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2014-01-01

    Studying end of life in dementia patients is challenging because of ill-defined prognoses and frequent inability to self-report. We aim to quantify and compare (1) feasibility and (2) sampling issues between prospective and retrospective data collection specific to end-of-life research in long-term care settings. The observational Dutch End of Life in Dementia study (DEOLD; 2007 to 2011) used both prospective data collection (28 facilities; 17 nursing home organizations/physician teams; questionnaires between January 2007 and July 2010, survival until July 2011) and retrospective data collection (exclusively after death; 6 facilities; 2 teams, questionnaires between November 2007 and March 2010). Prospective collection extended from the time of admission to the time after death or conclusion of the study. Prospectively, we recruited 372 families: 218 residents died (59%) and 184 (49%) had complete physician and family after-death assessments. Retrospectively, 119 decedents were enrolled, with 64 (54%) complete assessments. Cumulative data collection over all homes lasted 80 and 8 years, respectively. Per complete after-death assessments in a year, the prospective data collection involved 37.9 beds, whereas this was 7.9 for the retrospective data collection. Although age at death, sex, and survival curves were similar, prospectively, decedents' length of stay was shorter (10.3 vs. 31.4 mo), and fewer residents had advanced dementia (39% vs. 54%). Regarding feasibility, we conclude that prospective data collection is many fold more intensive and complex per complete after-death assessment. Regarding sampling, if not all are followed until death, it results in right censoring and in different, nonrepresentative samples of decedents compared with retrospective data collection. Future work may adjust or stratify for dementia severity and length of stay as key issues to promote comparability between studies.

  15. The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire: a population-based random sampling study.

    PubMed

    Piauilino, D C; Bueno, O F A; Tufik, S; Bittencourt, L R; Santos-Silva, R; Hachul, H; Gorenstein, C; Pompéia, S

    2010-05-01

    The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) has been shown to have acceptable reliability and factorial, predictive, and concurrent validity. However, the PRMQ has never been administered to a probability sample survey representative of all ages in adulthood, nor have previous studies controlled for factors that are known to influence metamemory, such as affective status. Here, the PRMQ was applied in a survey adopting a probabilistic three-stage cluster sample representative of the population of Sao Paulo, Brazil, according to gender, age (20-80 years), and economic status (n=1042). After excluding participants who had conditions that impair memory (depression, anxiety, used psychotropics, and/or had neurological/psychiatric disorders), in the remaining 664 individuals we (a) used confirmatory factor analyses to test competing models of the latent structure of the PRMQ, and (b) studied effects of gender, age, schooling, and economic status on prospective and retrospective memory complaints. The model with the best fit confirmed the same tripartite structure (general memory factor and two orthogonal prospective and retrospective memory factors) previously reported. Women complained more of general memory slips, especially those in the first 5 years after menopause, and there were more complaints of prospective than retrospective memory, except in participants with lower family income.

  16. Leber's congenital amaurosis. A retrospective study of 33 cases and a histopathological study of one case.

    PubMed

    Noble, K G; Carr, R E

    1978-05-01

    This report is a retrospective study of 33 patients seen over a 16-year period in whom a diagnosis of Leber's congenital amaurosis was made. The findings of an autosomal recessive heredity in 33%, connatal blindness (visual acuity less than 20/200) in 95%m nystagmus in 75%, and a markedly abnormal electroretinogram in 100% is in agreement with the findings of previously published large series. The difficulty in making the correct diagnosis initially was related to the wide variety of fundus findings and a high association (30%) of central nervous system disease. In the differential diagnosis of connatal blindness, only Leber's congenital amaurosis exhibits an absent or markedly diminished response on electroretinogram. The histopathologic findings in a 6-month-old infant with this disorder are compared with those of previously published reports.

  17. Trade Policy and Health: Adding Retrospective Studies to the Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Blouin, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    Prospective studies of the potential health consequences of trade and investment treaties, such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership, are critical. These studies can make visible to trade policy-makers the potential negative impacts associated to such treaties and can influence the outcomes of such negotiations. However, few researchers have examined retrospectively the consequences of trade agreements. With more than 400 trade agreements and more than 2000 investment treaties currently in force, researchers have a large corpus of agreements to analyse in order to assess not only their potential impacts on health system and population health, but also their actual impacts. This comment suggests some research questions that would benefit from retrospective inquiry.

  18. A half century retrospective study of homicide-suicide in Geneva--Switzerland: 1956-2005.

    PubMed

    Shiferaw, Kebede; Burkhardt, Sandra; Lardi, Christelle; Mangin, Patrice; La Harpe, Romano

    2010-02-01

    This study provides a retrospective review from the forensic files of the University Centre of Legal Medicine in Western Switzerland in Geneva, from January 1956 to December 2005. The studied homicide-suicide cases cover a period of half a century (50 years). As a rule, all police-ordered forensic examinations of violent death cases in the Canton of Geneva are conducted by the University Centre of Legal Medicine. All of the data necessary for an exhaustive retrospective study are thus readily available. During the period covered in this work, 228 homicides were perpetrated in Geneva. In 23 cases, the homicide was followed by the suicide of the aggressor. The 34 victims of these homicides (18 women, 1 man and 15 children) had either an intimate or filial relationship with the perpetrator. Most of the suicidal perpetrators were men that killed their spouses or intimate partners, with children as additional victims in some cases. Shooting was the most common means to kill, followed by stabbing. The majority of the victims and perpetrators were Swiss nationals. This retrospective study shows that in the last 50 years, homicide-suicide cases in the Canton of Geneva have been a rare and an episodic phenomena with a very variable frequency from 1 year to another.

  19. Oral lichen planus: A retrospective study of 633 patients from Bucharest, Romania

    PubMed Central

    Parlatescu, Ioanina; Gheorghe, Carmen; Tovaru, Mihaela; Costache, Mariana; Sardella, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this retrospective study, patients’ medical records were reviewed to investigate the profiles of 633 OLP cases in a group of Romania. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, the following clinical data were obtained from the medical charts of patients: gender, age, clinical presentation of OLP, site affected, presence of symptoms, extraoral manifestations of lichen planus, presence of systemic diseases, and history of medications. Results: Most (78.67%) OLP patients were female and the mean age at presentation was 52 years. The white type of the disease (reticular/papular/plaque lesions) was the main form encountered in this sample (48.97%). Among patients with available hepatitis C virus test results, 9.6% were serum-positive. OLP was associated with gallbladder disease (i.e. cholecystitis, cholelithiasis) in 19% of patients. Six patients (0.95%) developed squamous cell carcinoma at a site with confirmed OLP lesions. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, no similar study has been conducted in a Romanian population. The present investigation revealed the predominance of OLP among middle-aged white women and the prevalence of bilateral involvement of the buccal mucosa with reticular white lesions. Anti-HCV circulating antibodies were more common in patients with OLP than in the general population and, notably, OLP was associated with gallbladder disease (cholecystitis, cholelithiasis) in 19% of patients. Key words:Oral lichen planus, oral mucosal diseases, retrospective study. PMID:23229244

  20. Higher maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites in late pregnancy are associated with a lower risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months

    PubMed Central

    El-Heis, S; Crozier, SR; Robinson, SM; Harvey, NC; Cooper, C; Inskip, HM; Godfrey, KM

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence that atopic eczema partly originates in utero is increasing, with some studies linking the risk of developing the condition with aspects of maternal diet during pregnancy. Nicotinamide, a naturally occurring nutrient that is maintained through the dietary intakes of vitamin B3 and tryptophan has been used in the treatment of some skin conditions including atopic eczema. Objective To examine the relation of maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related tryptophan metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. Methods Within the UK Southampton Women Survey, infantile atopic eczema at ages 6 and 12 months was ascertained (modified UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). Maternal serum levels of kynurenine, kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid, tryptophan, nicotinamide and N1-methylnicotinamide were measured in late pregnancy by mass spectrometry, n=497 and related to the odds ratio of infantile atopic eczema. Results Maternal nicotinamide and related metabolite concentrations were not associated with offspring atopic eczema at age 6 months. Higher concentrations of nicotinamide and anthranilic acid were, however, associated with a lower risk of eczema at age 12 months (odds ratios 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.91 /SD change, p=0.007 and 0.63, 0.48-0.83, p=0.001, respectively). The associations were robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Conclusion and clinical relevance This is the first study linking maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. The findings point to potentially modifiable maternal influences on this complex and highly prevalent condition. PMID:27517618

  1. Challenges of identifying eczema in darkly pigmented skin.

    PubMed

    Myers, Joan

    2015-07-01

    There is a paucity of information about the difference in the presentation of eczema in darkly pigmented skin compared to children with fair or white skin. This article describes the possible challenges of diagnosing eczema in children with darkly pigmented skin. The physiological difference in darkly pigmented skin compared with fair or white skin is explored, and how eczema may be manifested and identified in darkly pigmented skin. The author uses the term darkly pigmented skin to describe children of black Caribbean, African or Asian descent.

  2. Evidence from a large-scale meta-analysis indicates eczema reduces the incidence of glioma

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chao; Dong, Jing; Chu, Yudong; He, Guijuan; Xu, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between eczema and the risk of primary glioma. Relevant studies were selected through electronic searches of PubMed and EMBASE. A meta-analysis of 12 case-control studies and one cohort study was performed. A fixed effect model was applied to analyze 13 studies consisting of 10,897 glioma cases and 56,081 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the strength of the associations. The data demonstrate that eczema significantly reduces the risk of glioma (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.61–0.78, P < 0.001). Additional studies with larger patient cohorts are required to validate our findings. PMID:27566584

  3. Middle third fractures of facial skeleton at University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Nor, G M; Lian, C B

    1988-12-01

    This is a retrospective study of 80 patients with major central and lateral middle third fractures of facial skeleton treated at University Hospital from 1981 to 1985. The most common was the fractures of zygomatic complex. The peak incidence was in the 20-29 year age group and males were involved more than females (ratio 9: 1). Road traffic accidents were to be blamed for most of the fractures which was 82.25%.

  4. Meta-analysis of antenatal infection and risk of asthma and eczema

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Tingting; Zhang, Li; Qu, Yi; Mu, Dezhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The influence of maternal infection during pregnancy on allergic disorders in offspring is not well understood. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate current evidence on the association between maternal infection during pregnancy and asthma or eczema in offspring. Methods: We searched databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Medline, and Web of Science) for all relevant studies published before March 2016. Any cohort studies, case–control studies, or cross-sectional studies published in English and focused on the association between maternal infection during pregnancy and the risk of asthma or eczema in offspring were included. Random-effects models were used for combined analyses. Results: A total of 10 studies with 299,830 participants were included. Maternal infection was associated with an increased risk for asthma (odds ratio [OR]: 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24–1.92; P < 0.01) and eczema (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.13–1.64; P < 0.01). Further analyses showed associations between asthma and several specific maternal infections: fever episode (OR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.35–2.23), chorioamnionitis (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 0.96–2.11), respiratory infection (OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 0.94–2.36), and urogenital infection (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.18–1.64). Conclusion: The results from this meta-analysis and systematic review provide evidence that maternal infection during pregnancy might be related to subsequent asthma and eczema in offspring. However, there was variation of included studies with regard to type of maternal infection, age of children, and methods of exposure ascertainment. Additional studies are needed to further confirm these associations. PMID:27583891

  5. Skip the Antibiotics for Mild Eczema in Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164083.html Skip the Antibiotics for Mild Eczema in Kids Skin condition cleared ... March 14, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Despite widespread use, antibiotics are not an effective treatment for milder cases ...

  6. Retrospective cohort study of cancer morbidity in furniture makers exposed to wood dust.

    PubMed

    Barthel, E; Dietrich, M

    1989-05-01

    A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to examine the cancer morbidity in a group of 759 furniture makers of the Neubrandenburg District. During the study interval of 1973 to 1984, a total of 40 malignant tumors occurred in the exposed group. Except for bronchial cancer (SIR = 68) and prostate cancer (SIR = 43), all observed tumors were overrepresented in comparison to the incidence of such illnesses in the normal population of the study area. Significantly increased SIRs occurred for malignant melanoma (2 cases, SIR = 952) and for rectal cancer (6 cases, SIR = 239). Malignant tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses were not observed.

  7. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a Lymphoma Study Association retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Lazarovici, Julien; Dartigues, Peggy; Brice, Pauline; Obéric, Lucie; Gaillard, Isabelle; Hunault-Berger, Mathilde; Broussais-Guillaumot, Florence; Gyan, Emmanuel; Bologna, Serge; Nicolas-Virelizier, Emmanuelle; Touati, Mohamed; Casasnovas, Olivier; Delarue, Richard; Orsini-Piocelle, Frédérique; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Gabarre, Jean; Fornecker, Luc-Matthieu; Gastinne, Thomas; Peyrade, Fréderic; Roland, Virginie; Bachy, Emmanuel; André, Marc; Mounier, Nicolas; Fermé, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma represents a distinct entity from classical Hodgkin lymphoma. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the management of patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of adult patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma were collected in Lymphoma Study Association centers. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed, and the competing risks formulation of a Cox regression model was used to control the effect of risk factors on relapse or death as competing events. Among 314 evaluable patients, 82.5% had early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Initial management consisted in watchful waiting (36.3%), radiotherapy (20.1%), rituximab (8.9%), chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy (21.7%), combined modality treatment (12.7%), or radiotherapy plus rituximab (0.3%). With a median follow-up of 55.8 months, the 10-year PFS and OS estimates were 44.2% and 94.9%, respectively. The 4-year PFS estimates were 79.6% after radiotherapy, 77.0% after rituximab alone, 78.8% after chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy, and 93.9% after combined modality treatment. For the whole population, early treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, but not rituximab alone (Hazard ratio 0.695 [0.320–1.512], P=0.3593) significantly reduced the risk of progression compared to watchful waiting (HR 0.388 [0.234–0.643], P=0.0002). Early treatment appears more beneficial compared to watchful waiting in terms of progression-free survival, but has no impact on overall survival. Radiotherapy in selected early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, and combined modality treatment, chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy for other patients, are the main options to treat adult patients with a curative intent. PMID:26430172

  8. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a Lymphoma Study Association retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Lazarovici, Julien; Dartigues, Peggy; Brice, Pauline; Obéric, Lucie; Gaillard, Isabelle; Hunault-Berger, Mathilde; Broussais-Guillaumot, Florence; Gyan, Emmanuel; Bologna, Serge; Nicolas-Virelizier, Emmanuelle; Touati, Mohamed; Casasnovas, Olivier; Delarue, Richard; Orsini-Piocelle, Frédérique; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Gabarre, Jean; Fornecker, Luc-Matthieu; Gastinne, Thomas; Peyrade, Fréderic; Roland, Virginie; Bachy, Emmanuel; André, Marc; Mounier, Nicolas; Fermé, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma represents a distinct entity from classical Hodgkin lymphoma. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the management of patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of adult patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma were collected in Lymphoma Study Association centers. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed, and the competing risks formulation of a Cox regression model was used to control the effect of risk factors on relapse or death as competing events. Among 314 evaluable patients, 82.5% had early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Initial management consisted in watchful waiting (36.3%), radiotherapy (20.1%), rituximab (8.9%), chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy (21.7%), combined modality treatment (12.7%), or radiotherapy plus rituximab (0.3%). With a median follow-up of 55.8 months, the 10-year PFS and OS estimates were 44.2% and 94.9%, respectively. The 4-year PFS estimates were 79.6% after radiotherapy, 77.0% after rituximab alone, 78.8% after chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy, and 93.9% after combined modality treatment. For the whole population, early treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, but not rituximab alone (Hazard ratio 0.695 [0.320-1.512], P=0.3593) significantly reduced the risk of progression compared to watchful waiting (HR 0.388 [0.234-0.643], P=0.0002). Early treatment appears more beneficial compared to watchful waiting in terms of progression-free survival, but has no impact on overall survival. Radiotherapy in selected early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, and combined modality treatment, chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy for other patients, are the main options to treat adult patients with a curative intent.

  9. Proof of efficacy of Kamillosan(R) cream in atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Patzelt-Wenczler, R; Ponce-Pöschl, E

    2000-04-19

    Kamillosan(R) cream contains chamomile extract as active principle manufactured from the chamomile sort Manzana which is rich in active principles and has been proved not to exhibit a chamomile-related allergen potential. For this reason Kamillosan(R) cream is suited for local therapy of atopic eczema. In a partially double-blind, randomized study carried out as a half-side comparison, Kamillosan(R) cream was tested vs. 0.5% hydrocortisone cream and the vehicle cream as placebo in patients suffering from medium-degree atopic eczema. After a 2-week treatment Kamillosan(R) cream showed a mild superiority towards 0.5% hydrocortisone and a marginal difference as compared to placebo.

  10. Correlates of breastfeeding frequency among nomadic pastoralists of Turkana, Kenya: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Gray, S J

    1995-11-01

    Recent research has shown that significant variation in breast-feeding behavior exists among natural fertility populations, all of whom have been characterized as practicing "on-demand" breastfeeding. A number of recent prospective studies have contributed to a better understanding of breastfeeding structure and of its consequences for population differences in fertility. Currently, there is a growing interest in quantifying the complex environmental and biocultural interactions which influence that structure; in other words, in establishing an ecology of breastfeeding. In this paper, a carefully structured retrospective study of breastfeeding behavior among nomadic Turkana is used to identify environmental, biobehavioral, and socioeconomic factors associated with variation in breastfeeding frequency among Turkana women. In agreement with the results of a prospective study conducted as part of the same research, the age (growth) and physical development of nurslings show significant correlations with breastfeeding frequency. Maternal physical status, the depth of the maternal social network, and, to a lesser degree, rainfall patterns are also significant. All of these factors appear to influence breastfeeding through their effects on maternal participation in herding activities and related absences from camp. Finally, the study also presents new strategies for collecting and utilizing retrospective data, which are notoriously unreliable and difficult to classify according to operational definitions recently developed for prospective studies. Results of the present study suggest methods by which the quality and reliability of recall data may be enhanced.

  11. Acetaminophen intake and risk of asthma, hay fever and eczema in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Vlaski, Emilija; Stavric, Katerina; Isjanovska, Rozalinda; Seckova, Lidija; Kimovska, Milica

    2007-09-01

    A positive association between acetaminophen intake and allergic diseases has recently been reported in developed countries with impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance and promotion of atopy as proposed underlying mechanisms. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between acetaminophen intake and asthma, hay fever, and eczema in The Republic of Macedonia as a country with acetaminophen intake not physician-controlled, high passive smoke exposure and dietary antioxidant intake, and moderately low prevalence of allergic diseases. Self-reported data obtained through the standardized International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Phase Three written questionnaires of 3026 adolescents aged 13/14 years from randomly selected schools in Skopje, the capital of Macedonia, were used. The frequency of current acetaminophen intake--both unadjusted and adjusted for confounding factors--was correlated to current and ever-diagnosed asthma, hay fever and eczema by odds ratios (OR, 95% CI) in binary logistic regression. Use of acetaminophen at least once monthly increased the risk of current wheeze (adjusted OR 2.04, 1.31-3.20 p = 0.002), asthma 'ever' (adjusted OR 2.77, 1.06-7.26 p=0.039), current allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (adjusted OR 2.95, 1.79-4.88 p=0.000) and hay fever 'ever' (adjusted OR 2.25, 1.36-3.70 p=0.002). A significant association between frequent acetaminophen intake and atopic eczema and also between infrequent acetaminophen intake and investigated allergic diseases was not established. The findings suggest an increased risk of asthma and hay fever, but not atopic eczema associated with frequent acetaminophen use in a developing country.

  12. Safety of bevacizumab in clinical practice for recurrent ovarian cancer: A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    SELLE, FRÉDÉRIC; EMILE, GEORGE; PAUTIER, PATRICIA; ASMANE, IRÈNE; SOARES, DANIELE G.; KHALIL, AHMED; ALEXANDRE, JEROME; LHOMMÉ, CATHERINE; RAY-COQUARD, ISABELLE; LOTZ, JEAN-PIERRE; GOLDWASSER, FRANÇOIS; TAZI, YOUSSEF; HEUDEL, PIERRE; PUJADE-LAURAINE, ERIC; GOUY, SÉBASTIEN; TREDAN, OLIVIER; BARBAZA, MARIE O.; ADY-VAGO, NORA; DUBOT, CORALINE

    2016-01-01

    The poor outcome of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer constitutes a continuous challenge for decision-making in clinical practice. In this setting, molecular targets have recently been identified, and novel compounds are now available. Bevacizumab has been introduced for the treatment of patients with ovarian cancer and is, to date, the most extensively investigated targeted therapy in this setting. However, potential toxicities are associated with the use of this monoclonal antibody. These toxicities have been reported in clinical trials, and can also be observed outside of trials. As limited data is currently available regarding the safety of bevacizumab treatment in daily clinical practice, the current retrospective study was designed to evaluate this. Data from 156 patients with recurrent ovarian cancer who had received bevacizumab treatment between January 2006 and June 2009 were retrospectively identified from the institutional records of five French centers. In contrast to clinical trials, the patients in the present study were not selected and had a heterogeneous profile according to their prior medical history, lines of treatment prior to bevacizumab introduction and number of relapses. The results first confirm the effect of heavy pretreatment on the occurrence of serious and fatal adverse events in clinical practice, as previously reported for clinical trials and for other retrospective cohort studies. Importantly, the data also demonstrates, for the first time, that medical history of hypertension is an independent predictive risk factor for the development of high-grade hypertension during bevacizumab treatment. These results thus suggest that treating physicians must consider all risk factors for managing bevacizumab toxicity prior to its introduction. Such risk factors include the time of bevacizumab introduction, a patient's history of hypertension and a low incidence of pre-existing obstructive disease. PMID:26998090

  13. Climate and the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema in children

    PubMed Central

    Weiland, S; Husing, A; Strachan, D; Rzehak, P; Pearce, N

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the association between climate and atopic diseases using worldwide data from 146 centres of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Methods: Between 1992 and 1996, each centre studied random samples of children aged 13–14 and 6–7 years (approx. 3000 per age group and centre) using standardised written and video questionnaires on symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema during the past 12 months. Data on long term climatic conditions in the centres were abstracted from one standardised source, and mixed linear regression models calculated to take the clustering of centres within countries into account. Results: In Western Europe (57 centres in 12 countries), the prevalence of asthma symptoms, assessed by written questionnaire, increased by 2.7% (95% CI 1.0% to 4.5%) with an increase in the estimated annual mean of indoor relative humidity of 10%. Similar associations were seen for the video questionnaire and the younger age group. Altitude and the annual variation of temperature and relative humidity outdoors were negatively associated with asthma symptoms. The prevalence of eczema symptoms correlated with latitude (positively) and mean annual outdoor temperature (negatively). Conclusions: Results suggest that climate may affect the prevalence of asthma and atopic eczema in children. PMID:15208377

  14. [Epidemio-clinical profile of human scabies through dermatologic consultation. Retrospective study of 1148 cases].

    PubMed

    Mebazaa, Amel; Zeglaoui, Faten; Ezzine, Nedia; Kharfi, Monia; Zghal, Mohamed; Fazaa, Bécima; Kamoun, Mohamed Ridha

    2003-11-01

    We report a retrospective study of all scabies cases collected in the department of Dermatology of Charles Nicolle Hospital during a 8 year-period (1993-2000). 148 cases of scabies were collected with a mean incidence of 144 new cases/year (65-204). Diagnosis was made clinically in all cases. Parasitological exam was done in case of doubtful diagnosis. Our purpose is to try to define an epidemio-clinical profile of scabies in Tunisia and to estimate the incidence of this parasitosis through our dermatological consultation with reviewing the literature data.

  15. Atrial fibrillation in CLL patients treated with ibrutinib. An international retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Philip A; Lévy, Vincent; Tam, Constantine S; Al Nawakil, Chadi; Goudot, François-Xavier; Quinquenel, Anne; Ysebaert, Loic; Michallet, Anne-Sophie; Dilhuydy, Marie-Sarah; Van Den Neste, Eric; Dupuis, Jehan; Keating, Michael J; Meune, Christophe; Cymbalista, Florence

    2016-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) occurs in 5-9% of patients treated with ibrutinib for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL); the clinical consequences and optimal management are unclear. We retrospectively studied 56 CLL patients who received ibrutinib and developed AF. Median time to onset was 3·8 months. AF was persistent in 35/56 (62%) cases despite treatment. Clinical consequences included: three episodes of severe cardiac failure (one fatal) and one stroke; eight non-thrombocytopenic patients (14%) experienced severe bleeding adverse events. Altogether, ibrutinib was permanently discontinued in 26/56 cases (46%). Data to guide optimal management are lacking and clinical practice guidelines are urgently needed.

  16. Freeze-dried allograft versus autograft bone in scoliosis surgery. A retrospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Recht, J; Bayard, F; Delloye, C; Vincent, A

    1993-12-01

    Two groups of 36 patients who underwent posterior vertebral fusion for scoliosis were compared retrospectively; the postoperative follow-up was 2 years. Autogenous bone taken from the iliac crest was used in group A, whereas the patients in group B received freeze-dried allograft from our bone bank. There was no significant difference between the two groups in maintenance of the curve correction after the same delay, nor in incidence of complications. A reduction of blood loss or operating time, however, could not be demonstrated in our study.

  17. Long-term follow-up of heel spur surgery. A 10-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Vohra, P K; Giorgini, R J; Sobel, E; Japour, C J; Villalba, M A; Rostkowski, T

    1999-02-01

    A comparative retrospective study of 48 open heel spur surgeries and 20 endoscopic plantar fasciotomies was conducted involving 59 patients over a 10-year period. There was a significant reduction in heel pain at the time of follow-up (average, 3 years) for both groups. Overall, 85% of procedures were associated with patient satisfaction with the results, and patients said that they would recommend heel spur surgery for relief of severe heel pain in 94% of cases. Factors influencing the postoperative outcome, such as duration of preoperative symptoms, extent of conservative care, and obesity, are discussed.

  18. Minipigs and potbellied pigs as pets in the veterinary practice--a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Sipos, W; Schmoll, F; Stumpf, I

    2007-11-01

    Minipigs have become popular pets in recent years. Therefore, an increasing number of veterinarians are being challenged by specific problems of these animals. This retrospective study gives an overview on the diagnoses and therapeutic interventions of the patients submitted to the clinic for swine at the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna during the last 6 years (n=48). Most frequently, colic symptoms of the gastro-intestinal tract (n=12) and orthopaedic locomotion disorders (n=10), mainly due to accidents or long claws, could be observed, followed by urogenital tract and skin disorders (n=4 each). Therapeutic interventions are discussed with regard to medical aspects as well as statutory provisions.

  19. Maternal history, sensitization to allergens, and current wheezing, rhinitis, and eczema among children in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Soto-Quiros, Manuel E; Silverman, Edwin K; Hanson, Lars A; Weiss, Scott T; Celedón, Juan C

    2002-04-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema in Latin American countries. We investigated the relation between potential risk factors and current wheezing, allergic rhinitis, and eczema among 208 Costa Rican children aged 10-13 years participating in phase II of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). The geometric mean ( +/- SD) serum total IgE level of children with current wheezing was significantly higher than that of children without current wheezing (533.8 +/- 5.2 vs. 144.7 +/- 6.0 IU/mL, P < 0.01). In a multivariate analysis, a maternal history of asthma, skin test reactivity (STR) to house dust mites, and STR to Alternaria were significantly associated with current wheezing. Children who had a maternal history of asthma had 2.4 times higher odds of current wheezing than those without maternal history of asthma (95% CI for OR = 1.1-5.3). Sensitization to either house dust mite or Alternaria was associated with 3.3 times increased odds of current wheezing (95% CI for OR for STR to dust mite = 1.6-6.7; 95% CI for OR for STR to Alternaria = 1.1-11.0). In a multivariate analysis, STR to house dust mite and STR to cat dander were significantly associated with allergic rhinitis, and a maternal history of eczema and STR to dog dander were associated with eczema in the child. The interaction between familial factors and lifestyle changes resulting from social reforms implemented 60 years ago may explain the high prevalence of atopic diseases in Costa Rica.

  20. Mental health associations with eczema, asthma and hay fever in children: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Linneberg, Allan; Obel, Carsten; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Tang Møllehave, Line; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the association of eczema, asthma and hay fever with mental health in a general child population and to assess the influence of parental socioeconomic position on these associations. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional health survey of children aged 3, 6, 11 and 15 years in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. Individual questionnaire data on eczema, asthma, and hay fever and mental health problems assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was linked to register data on demographics and parental socioeconomic position. 9215 (47.9%) children were included in the analyses. Results Linear regression analyses showed that children with current eczema symptoms had higher SDQ scores (mean difference, 95% CI) of emotional problems (0.26, 0.12 to 0.39), conduct problems (0.19, 0.09 to 0.29) and hyperactivity problems (0.32, 0.16 to 0.48); children with current asthma symptoms had higher SDQ scores of emotional problems (0.45, 0.32 to 0.58), conduct problems (0.28, 0.18 to 0.38) and hyperactivity problems (0.52, 0.35 to 0.69); and children with current hay fever symptoms had higher SDQ scores of emotional problems (0.57, 0.42 to 0.72), conduct problems (0.22, 0.11 to 0.33), hyperactivity problems (0.44, 0.26 to 0.61) and peer problems (0.14, 0.01 to 0.26), compared with children without current symptoms of the relevant disease. For most associations, parental socioeconomic position did not modify the effect. Conclusions Children with eczema, asthma or hay fever had more emotional, conduct and hyperactivity problems, but not peer problems, compared with children without these diseases. Atopic diseases added equally to the burden of mental health problems independent of socioeconomic position. PMID:27742629

  1. [Incidence of hand eczema after surgical washing and use of surgical gloves].

    PubMed

    Barfred, L; Rasmussen, H H; Andersen, K E

    1993-04-26

    Contact dermatitis caused by surgical gloves is well known. Contact urticaria and anaphylactoid reactions among hospital personnel and patients following contact with latex gloves and glove dusting powder have previously been reported. A suspected increased frequency of hand eczema among personnel using detergents and surgical gloves in operating units initiated the present study. A questionnaire survey was performed in order to examine the frequency and degree of hand eczema among 332 surgeons and nurses working at the surgical units of Odense University Hospital during the period 1.6.-1.9.1989. A total of 242 persons (72%) answered the questionnaire. One hundred and fourteen persons (47%) claimed to develop skin discomfort or hand eczema following the washing procedure or use of surgical gloves. Among the personnel with skin problems 60% had spontaneously changed to another detergent/glove-product with subsequent clearing of the symptoms in 75% of the cases. Dermatological examination and patch tests were performed with European Standard series, gloves, rubber chemicals and selected soap components in 53 persons. Hand eczema was found in 16 persons (7%). Positive patch test reactions to latex gloves were found in four persons and only one person reacted to the rubber accelerators known to be present in the gloves according to the manufacturers' information. Among 26 persons with skin-discomfort and immediate symptoms, ten were prick tested with the standard battery of inhalant allergens, corn starch surgical glove powder, and extract of surgical gloves. Three persons reacted to glove extract, none reacted to glove powder.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. The Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis, Eczema and Asthma in Students of Guidance Schools in Mazandaran Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zamanfar, Daniel; Ghaffari, Javad; Behzadnia, Salar; Yazdani-charati, Jamshid; Tavakoli, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eczema, allergic rhinitis and asthma are common chronic allergic disorders in childhood. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of common allergic disorders among Iranian guidance schools students in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. METHODS: This analytical cross-sectional study was performed on 3000 children aged 11-14 years old during 2012-13 according to ISAAC study. Of 3000 recruited children 1576 (52.54%) were female and 1424 (47.46%) were male. Data gathered by ISAAC first phase questionnaire analysed by SPSS software 20. RESULTS: The prevalence of wheezing, allergic rhinitis symptoms (sneezing and pruritus) and atopic dermatitis symptoms (pruritus skin lesion) were 30.5%, 30% and 15% respectively. History of pets contact and smoking was positive 6.6% and 36 % respectively. About 52% was born with caesarian section. There was wheezing in 32.5% during sport. The diagnosis of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema were 12.2%, 28.5% and 15% respectively. Eczema, asthma and allergic rhinitis were significantly more common in boys students (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed that asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema have a high prevalence and they are more common in boys. PMID:28028401

  3. The phenotypic spectrum of progressive supranuclear palsy: a retrospective multicenter study of 100 definite cases.

    PubMed

    Respondek, Gesine; Stamelou, Maria; Kurz, Carolin; Ferguson, Leslie W; Rajput, Alexander; Chiu, Wan Zheng; van Swieten, John C; Troakes, Claire; Al Sarraj, Safa; Gelpi, Ellen; Gaig, Carles; Tolosa, Eduardo; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Giese, Armin; Roeber, Sigrun; Arzberger, Thomas; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Höglinger, Günter U

    2014-12-01

    The phenotypic variability of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) may account for its frequent misdiagnosis, in particular in early stages of the disease. However, large multicenter studies to define the frequency and natural history of PSP phenotypes are missing. In a cohort of 100 autopsy-confirmed patients we studied the phenotypic spectrum of PSP by retrospective chart review. Patients were derived from five brain banks with expertise in neurodegenerative disorders with referrals from multiple academic hospitals. The clinical characteristics of the 100 cases showed remarkable heterogeneity. Most strikingly, only 24% of cases presented as Richardson's Syndrome (RS), and more than half of the cases either showed overlapping features of several predescribed phenotypes, or features not fitting proposed classification criteria for PSP phenotypes. Classification of patients according to predominant clinical features in the first 2 years of the disease course allowed a more comprehensive description of the phenotypic spectrum. These predominance types differed significantly with regard to survival time and frequency of cognitive deficits. In summary, the phenotypic spectrum of PSP may be broader and more variable than previously described in single-center studies. Thus, too strict clinical criteria defining distinct phenotypes may not reflect this variability. A more pragmatic clinical approach using predominance types could potentially be more helpful in the early recognition of and for making prognostic predictions for these patients. Given the limitations arising from the retrospective nature of this analysis, a systematic validation in a prospective cohort study is imperative.

  4. Prognostic factors in peptic ulcer perforations: a retrospective 14-year study.

    PubMed

    Unver, Mutlu; Fırat, Özgür; Ünalp, Ömer Vedat; Uğuz, Alper; Gümüş, Tufan; Sezer, Taylan Özgür; Öztürk, Şafak; Yoldaş, Tayfun; Ersin, Sinan; Güler, Adem

    2015-05-01

    Regarding the complications of peptic ulcer, a perforation remains the most important fatal complication. The aim of our retrospective study was to determine relations between postoperative morbidity and comorbid disease or perioperative risk factors in perforated peptic ulcer. In total, 239 patients who underwent emergency surgery for perforated peptic ulcer in Ege University General Surgery Department, between June 1999 and May 2013 were included in this study. The clinical data concerning the patient characteristics, operative methods, and complications were collected retrospectively. One hundred seventy-five of the 239 patients were male (73.2%) and 64 were female (26.8%). Mean American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score was 1 in the patients without morbidity, but mean ASA score was 3 in the morbidity and mortality groups. Primary suture and omentoplasty was the selected procedure in 228 of the patients. Eleven patients underwent resection. In total, 105 patients (43.9%) had comorbidities. Thirty-seven patients (67.3%) in the morbidity group had comorbid diseases. Thirteen (92.9%) patients in the mortality group had comorbid diseases. Perforation as a complication of peptic ulcer disease still remains among the frequent indications of urgent abdominal surgery. Among the analyzed parameters, age, ASA score, and having comorbid disease were found to have an effect on both mortality and morbidity. The controversial subject in the present study is regarding the duration of symptoms. The duration of symptoms had no effect on mortality nor morbidity in our study.

  5. Complication rates in patients using absorbable collagen sponges in third molar extraction sockets: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hoon; Jung, Hwi-Dong; Kim, Bok-Joo; Kim, Chul-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the postoperative complication rates for absorbable type-I collagen sponge (Ateloplug; Bioland) use in third molar extraction. Materials and Methods From January to August 2013, 2,697 total patients undergoing third molar extraction and type-I collagen sponge application in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Yonsei University Dental Hospital (1,163 patients) and Dong-A University Hospital (1,534 patients) were evaluated in a retrospective study using their operation and medical records. Results A total of 3,869 third molars in 2,697 patients were extracted and the extraction sockets packed with type-I collagen sponges to prevent postoperative complications. As a result, the overall complication rate was 4.52%, with 3.00% experiencing surgical site infection (SSI), 1.14% showing alveolar osteitis, and 0.39% experiencing hematoma. Of the total number of complications, SSI accounted for more than a half at 66.29%. Conclusion Compared to previous studies, this study showed a relatively low incidence of complications. The use of type-I collagen sponges is recommended for the prevention of complications after third molar extraction. PMID:25741465

  6. Eczema-Like Psoriasiform Skin Reaction due to Brazilian Keratin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gavazzoni-Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis; Rochael, Mayra; Vilar, Enoï; Tanus, Aline; Tosti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The use of formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers in hair-straightening formulations started in Rio de Janeiro in 2003. The technique is known as BKT, Brazilian keratin treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze the types of skin reactions presented by patients due to BKT. We describe 7 patients with severe erythema and scurf on the scalp which developed shortly after BKT. The lesions were eczema-like psoriasiform, located mainly on the scalp. Some patients also developed eczema-like lesions and pustules on the face, neck, upper arms, and upper trunk. Dermatoscopic findings included erythema, perifollicular and interfollicular scurf. The peripilar desquamation resembled the outer skin of an onion bulb. Scalp biopsies revealed psoriasiform and spongiotic psoriasiform patterns, one of them similar to anti-TNFα biologic drug psoriasiform alopecia. The possible consequences of the absorption of formaldehyde by hairdressers or clients are still to be verified by the scientific community; however, the skin and scalp reactions observed in our cases suggest a drug reaction phenomenon and not only eczemas of irritant or allergic origin. PMID:27172059

  7. Factors influencing the stability of miniscrews. A retrospective study on 300 miniscrews.

    PubMed

    Manni, Antonio; Cozzani, Mauro; Tamborrino, Fabio; De Rinaldis, Sergio; Menini, Anna

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, over a period of approximately 3 years, the reactions to orthodontic loading of a type V titanium miniscrew. In this retrospective study, conducted in a private practice, the records of 300 miniscrews inserted in 132 consecutive patients (80 females, 60.6 percent) by the same surgeon were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 23.2 years. Three types of miniscrews (type A: diameter 1.5 mm, length 9 mm; type B: diameter 1.5 mm, length 11 mm; and type C: diameter 1.3 mm, length 11 mm) were used. The clinical variables evaluated included the loading time and location of the miniscrew in relation to the gingiva and root. The success rates with different variables were compared using chi-square or Fisher's exact test where appropriate. A cumulative survival rate of 81 percent (243/300) was found using Kaplan-Meier analysis, with an optimum success rate for the 1.3 mm wide miniscrew inserted in the attached gingiva, with immediate loading applied. Cox proportional hazard regression showed significant differences between success rate and the following parameters: gender, loading time, gingival or bone localization, and diameter of the miniscrews. Considering the clinically controllable parameters, and within the limits of this retrospective study, 1.3 mm diameter miniscrews inserted in attached gingiva and immediately loaded had the most favourable prognosis.

  8. Stress in mothers of young children with eczema

    PubMed Central

    Faught, Jamie; Bierl, Cynthia; Barton, Belinda; Kemp, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess parental stress levels of mothers of children less than 6 years old with eczema and compare these levels with those reported for other chronic childhood illnesses. Methods Mothers were recruited from hospital‐based out‐patient clinics (55%) or while their child was an in‐patient (45%) for management of eczema. Maternal stress was measured utilising the Parenting Stress Index‐Long Form (PSI) in 33 mothers. The severity of the eczema at the time of interview was documented by the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) score and the Investigators' Global Assessment (IGA) score. Results The children with eczema had a mean age of 2.8 years. Mothers of children aged 5 years or less with eczema exhibited significantly higher total stress scores (mean PSI 259.6, 95% CI 244.9 to 274.3) as compared to mothers of normal children (PSI 222.8, 95% CI 221.4 to 224.2) and children with other chronic disorders such as insulin‐dependent diabetes (PSI 218.1, 95% CI 204.7 to 231.6) and profound deafness (PSI 221.7, 95% CI 206.4 to 237.0). Stress scores in the parental domain (138.2, 95% CI 128.9 to 147.6) did not differ significantly from the scores of parents of children with severe disabilities such as those requiring home enteral feeding (135.2, 95% CI 129.3 to 141.1) and those with Rett syndrome (132.8, 95% CI 125.0 to 140.6). Conclusions Moderate to severe childhood eczema should be regarded as a significant illness in which maternal stress is equivalent to that associated with the care of children with severe developmental and physical problems. PMID:17412743

  9. Changes in quality of life in persons with eczema and psoriasis after treatment in departments of dermatology.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Astrid K; Mørk, Cato; Lillehol, Bodil Mørk; Myrdal, Anne M; Helland, Svein; Hanestad, Berit R; Moum, Torbjørn

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of chronic dermatological diseases on quality of life (QoL) of Norwegian patients following in-patient management. QoL was measured by the Norwegian version of the Dermatology Life Quality Index, a validated, self-administered questionnaire. Adult in-patients with psoriasis and eczema were selected for one year from the dermatological departments in Norway. A total of 212 patients were included, and 126 patients (50% men, 85 with psoriasis and 41 with eczema, mean age 46 years) completed the questionnaires at time of hospital admission and one week after discharge. The patients reported adverse impact on QoL, but no differences between the psoriasis and eczema groups could be demonstrated. Patients with psoriasis improved from 18.3 (7.6) (mean (SD)) to 12.1 (8.2) (p < 0.01), and those with eczema improved from 20.0 (6.0) to 14.4 (7.8) (p < 0.01). Seventy percent of the patients showed improvement, 20% remained unchanged and 10% worsened. The parameters for which the most improvement was seen were those that were of most concern to the patients, i.e. their symptoms and embarrassment. In conclusion, the results are consistent with previous international studies.

  10. Risk factors, clinical variants and therapeutic outcome of retronychia: a retrospective study of 18 patients.

    PubMed

    Gerard, Emilie; Prevezas, Christos; Doutre, Marie-Sylvie; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Cogrel, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Retronychia is a form of post-traumatic ingrowing nail disease that involves proximal nail plate embedding into the proximal nail fold, with multiple generations of nail plate beneath the proximal nail. This disease is probably underdiagnosed because of incomplete clinical forms. The aim of this study was to report clinical and aetiological variants of retronychia and to evaluate their therapeutic outcome. A retrospective review was performed on 18 patients who were seen in our institution between 2007 and 2013. The diagnostic criteria for retronychia were paronychia and interruption of nail growth. A female predominance (83.3%) was reported. Various precipitating factors were found, including traumatisms in 10 patients (55%), pregnancy and postpartum period in two patients (11%), and compartment syndrome in one patient (5%). The mean duration of paronychia was eight months (15 days to four years). The fingers most affected were the great toes. Retronychia occurred bilaterally in five cases (27%) and unilaterally in one case (61%). The commonest signs were, in decreasing order, xanthonychia (yellow discolouration of nail plate), longitudinal nail over-curvature, swelling of proximal nail fold, elevation of the proximal nail plate, granulation tissue, subungual hyperkeratosis, superficial leuconychia, distal onycholysis, subungueal haemorrhage, and Beau's lines. Most of the cases improved after proximal nail plate avulsion. Recurrence occurred in three cases (16.6%). In our opinion, ischaemic damage is the main cause of retronychia. Evaluation of clinical variants is mandatory to propose appropriate treatment. The limitations of this study include the retrospective design.

  11. Human papillomavirus infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M O O; Carestiato, F N; Perdigão, P H; Xavier, M P P T; Silva, Kc; Botelho, M O; Oliveira, L H S; Cavalcanti, S M B

    2005-10-01

    There is considerable data to support a central role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in the etiology of cervical cancer. More than a 100 HPV types have been described, and 40 have been isolated from benign and malignant genital lesions. Consequently, there is strong motivation to evaluate HPV testing for cervical cancer screening. Few studies concerning the natural history of HPV infection have been conducted in the state of Rio de Janeiro. We determined the prevalence of HPV types in female genital lesions by using Hybrid Capture Assay (HCA) and we retrospectively analyzed the course of HPV infection. Our sample included 788 women attended at Laboratórios Sérgio Franco. The average age of the participants was 29.6 years. HPV prevalence and cytological diagnosis were determined. The overall prevalence of HPV DNA in the study group was 50.1% (395/788), ranging from 25% (NORMAL) to 100% in high-grade intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). High risk HPV was found in 12% inflammatory, 58.3% HPV, 63.2% LSIL and 100% HSIL. A retrospective analysis of 78 patients showed that 22 presented persistent lesions, 2 had progressive lesions, 4 had regressive lesions, 13 showed latent infections, 18 were transiently infected and 19 were submitted to curative treatment. No cases of cancer were registered in this population, which can afford private medical care and regular follow-up exams. We suggest that HCA be used in specific cases involving persistent and recurrent lesions.

  12. Cysts in Periradicular Region of Deciduous Molars in Mixed Dentition: Retrospective Study of Five Cases

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Ankush; Wadde, Kavita; Dewalwar, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% The cyst in mixed dentition stage cause expansion of buccal cortex, displacement of teeth and may present as case of infection. The cyst in periradicular region of deciduous molar are of frequent occurrence. The differential diagnosis of this lesion is radicular cysts of deciduous molar: developmental or infammatory dentigerous cyst of corresponding unerupted premolar. After going through the available literature of radicular cyst of deciduous molars and dentigerous cysts of developing premolars in mixed dentition we studied the five cases of cyst in periradicular region of deciduous molars in mixed dentition retrospectively for the diagnostic dilemma of radicular cyst verses dentigerous cyst. In conclusion, we can set some criteria for the diagnosis which is particularly important for treatment and for conservation of developing premolar. How to cite this article: Manekar VS, Chavan A, Wadde K, Dewalwar V. Cysts in Periradicular Region of Deciduous Molars in Mixed Dentition: Retrospective Study of Five Cases. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):229-235. PMID:25709310

  13. The menstrual cycle regularization following D-chiro-inositol treatment in PCOS women: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    La Marca, Antonio; Grisendi, Valentina; Dondi, Giulia; Sighinolfi, Giovanna; Cianci, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by irregular cycles, hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovary at ultrasound and insulin resistance. The effectiveness of D-chiro-inositol (DCI) treatment in improving insulin resistance in PCOS patients has been confirmed in several reports. The objective of this study was to retrospectively analyze the effect of DCI on menstrual cycle regularity in PCOS women. This was a retrospective study of patients with irregular cycles who were treated with DCI. Of all PCOS women admitted to our centre, 47 were treated with DCI and had complete medical charts. The percentage of women reporting regular menstrual cycles significantly increased with increasing duration of DCI treatment (24% and 51.6% at a mean of 6 and 15 months of treatment, respectively). Serum AMH levels and indexes of insulin resistance significantly decreased during the treatment. Low AMH levels, high HOMA index, and the presence of oligomenorrhea at the first visit were the independent predictors of obtaining regular menstrual cycle with DCI. In conclusion, the use of DCI is associated to clinical benefits for many women affected by PCOS including the improvement in insulin resistance and menstrual cycle regularity. Responders to the treatment may be identified on the basis of menstrual irregularity and hormonal or metabolic markers.

  14. Prevalence of vestibular symptoms in individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder — A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Prashanth; Jamuar, Pratyasha

    2017-01-01

    Summary The objective of the study was to retrospectively determine the prevalence of vestibular symptoms in individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). It was also attempted to determine the prevalence of vestibular symptoms and factors (gender and age of reported hearing loss) that could affect the prevalence in individuals with ANSD. The vestibular symptoms reported in the case history were analyzed in individuals diagnosed with ANSD. The symptoms reported by a total of 316 individuals (185 females and 131 males) with ANSD were analyzed. The result of the study showed that one in five individuals with ANSD reported at least one of the vestibular symptom. The vestibular symptoms were in more females and in individuals with earlier onset of hearing loss. The result of the study supports that there is a vestibular damage in individuals with ANSD. However, it is essential to carry out prospective studies validating these vestibular symptoms with objective vestibular tests before generalizing the results. PMID:28357181

  15. Permeability of the small intestine to (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA in children with acute gastroenteritis or eczema

    SciTech Connect

    Forget, P.; Sodoyez-Goffaux, F.; Zappitelli, A.

    1985-06-01

    Increased gut permeability to macromolecules is thought to be an important factor in the development of food hypersensitivity. The latter can develop in the course of acute gastroenteritis and could play a role in infantile eczema. The authors studied gut permeability in 10 normal adults, 11 control children, 7 children with acute gastroenteritis, and 8 patients with infantile eczema, making use of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA as probe molecule. (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA was given orally (50-100 microCi); 24-h urinary excretion of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA was measured and expressed as a percentage of the oral dose. Mean and standard error were 2.35 +/- 0.24, 2.51 +/- 0.21, 9.96 +/- 3.44, and 10.90 +/- 2.05 in normal adults, control children, and gastroenteritis and eczema patients, respectively. Differences between controls and either gastroenteritis (p less than 0.001) or eczema (p less than 0.001) patients are significant. The results support the hypothesis that increased gut permeability could play a role in food hypersensitivity.

  16. [The clinical effectiveness of the application of interferential currents for the combined treatment of onychopathies associated with psoriasis and eczema].

    PubMed

    Nemchaninova, O B; Lykova, S G; Pozdnyakova, O N; Reshetnikova, T B; Makhnovets, E N; Simonova, E P; Spitsyna, A V

    2016-01-01

    The frequency of the development of clinically significant changes in the nail plates was estimated in the present study that included 454 patients presenting with psoriasis and 140 patients with eczema characterized by the localization of the pathological process on the skin of the wrists and/or feet. The changes in the nail plates were shown to occur in 56,2% of the patients with psoriasis and in 90,7% of those suffering from eczema. The capillaroscopy of the microvessels feeding the affected nails was carried out to determine the type of the capillaroscopic picture. The patients with onychopathies were largely characterized by the spastic-atonic type of the changes in the microcirculatory bed. The changes of this type were documented in 86,5% of the patients with psoriatic onychopathy and in 83,9% of those presenting with onychodystrophy associated with eczema. The effectiveness of the combined treatment including the application of interferential currents was estimated in comparison with that of standard therapy. It was shown that the use of interferential currents for the treatment of the patients with psoriasis results in a decrease of the severity index of nail damage by 47,8% in comparison with 18,1% in the case of standard medicamentous therapy. Similarly, a 77,2 and 51,3% decrease of the index of severity was documented in the patients with eczema after their treatment with the use of interferential currents and standard medicamentous therapy, respectively.

  17. Acid-coated Textiles (pH 5.5-6.5)--a New Therapeutic Strategy for Atopic Eczema?

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Teresa; Rothmaier, Markus; Zander, Holger; Ring, Johannes; Gutermuth, Jan; Anliker, Mark D

    2015-07-01

    Increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and decreased skin capacitance are characteristic features of the disturbed epidermal barrier in atopic eczema (AE). The "acid mantle", which is a slightly acidic film on the surface of the skin has led to the development of acidic emollients for skin care. In this context, the effect of citric acid-coated textiles on atopic skin has not been examined to date. A textile carrier composed of cellulose fibres was coated with a citric acid surface layer by esterification, ensuring a constant pH of 5.5-6.5. Twenty patients with AE or atopic diathesis were enrolled in the study. In a double-blind, half-side experiment, patients had to wear these textiles for 12 h a day for 14 days. On day 0 (baseline), 7 and 14, tolerability (erythema, pruritus, eczema, wearing comfort) and efficacy on skin barrier were assessed by TEWL skin hydration (corneometry/capacitance), pH and clinical scoring of eczema (SCORAD). Citric acid-coated textiles were well tolerated and improved eczema and objective parameters of skin physiology, including barrier function and a reduced skin surface pH, with potential lower pathogenic microbial colonisation.

  18. PDT-induced apoptosis in brain tissue in vivo: a retrospective study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilge, Lothar D.; Portnoy, Michelle; Wilson, Brian C.

    1999-07-01

    The apoptotic response of normal brain and intracranial VX2 tumor following photodynamic therapy mediated by five different photodynamic drugs, Photofrin, ALA, AlClPc, SnET2 and mTHPC, was evaluated in a preliminary retrospective analysis. Rabbit brain, with or without tumor, was treated by PDT with interstitial light delivery. Histological sections at 24 h post PDT were assessed by the TUNEL assay. Confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to determine the total apoptotic cell count and the spatial distribution of apoptotic bodies within the tissue. The data were confirmed qualitatively by light microscopy on adjacent H&E-stained sections. Light-only and drug-only controls produced background levels. The highest apoptotic count was seen with Photofrin. The counts in AlClPc-treated animals were not above the background level, while the other 3 photosensitizers gave intermediate levels. With some, but not all, drugs the spatial distribution of apoptotic bodies correlated well with the light fluence distribution. Apoptosis was seen outside the zone of frank coagulative necrosis. There was not apparent drug-dose dependency at the relatively high doses used here. The retrospective nature of this study did not allow optimization of the treatment parameters. Nevertheless, the findings have potentially significant implications, both for understanding the mechanisms of apoptosis in brain tissue and for improving the clinical use of PDT for treatment of patients with malignant brain tumors.

  19. Clinical and Breed Characteristics of Idiopathic Head Tremor Syndrome in 291 Dogs: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Shell, Linda G.; Berezowski, John; Rishniw, Mark; Nibblett, Belle M.; Kelly, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To establish signalment and phenomenology of canine idiopathic head tremor syndrome (IHTS), an episodic head movement disorder of undetermined pathogenesis. Design. Retrospective case series. Animals. 291 dogs with IHTS diagnosed between 1999 and 2013. Procedures. Clinical information was obtained from an online community of veterinary information aggregation and exchange (Veterinary Information Network, 777 W Covell Boulevard, Davis, CA 95616) and conducted with their approval. Information on breed, sex, age of onset, tremor description, mentation during the event, effect of distractions and drugs, diagnostics, presence of other problems, and outcome was analyzed. Results. IHTS was found in 24 pure breeds. Bulldogs, Labrador Retrievers, Boxers, and Doberman Pinschers comprised 69%; mixed breeds comprised 17%. Average onset age was 29 months (range: 3 months to 12 years). First episode occurred before 48 months of age in 88%. Vertical (35%), horizontal (50%), and rotational (15%) movements were documented. Possible trigger events were found in 21%. Mentation was normal in 93%. Distractions abated the tremor in 87%. Most dogs did not respond to antiepileptic drugs. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance. This retrospective study documents IHTS in many breeds including Labrador Retrievers, Boxers, and mixed breeds. PMID:26064776

  20. Surgical treatment for male prolactinoma: A retrospective study of 184 cases.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi-Jun; Chen, Mei-Ting; Lian, Wei; Xing, Bing; Yao, Yong; Feng, Ming; Wang, Ren-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    A total of 184 cases of surgically treated male prolactinoma were analyzed retrospectively to summarize the outcome of this surgical intervention. We analyzed the general characteristics, clinical manifestations, hormone levels, imaging features, preoperative treatments, surgical outcomes, pathology results, and follow-up records for all included patients. The most common clinical manifestations included sexual dysfunction (47.4%), headache (55.9%), and visual disturbance (46.7%). Serum prolactin levels ranged from 150 to 204,952 ng/mL. Tumor size varied from 6 to 70 mm. Pituitary adenomas grew in a parasellar pattern with visual deficits occurring 40.7% of the time. After surgical therapy, 88.6% of patients achieved symptom relief, and 98.4% experienced an immediate postoperative decline in prolactin level. Fifty-seven patients (31.0%) achieved initial remission, and 26 patients (45.6%) experienced recurrence. Hence, our results suggest that in male prolactinoma characterized by a large pituitary diameter and high serum prolactin level, tumor size predicts the degree of gross resection. The prognostic predictors included preoperative tumor growth pattern and Ki-67 index.Citation: Yi-jun S, Mei-ting C, Wei L, Bing X, Yong Y, Ming F, Ren-zhi W. (2016) Surgical treatment for male prolactinoma: a retrospective study of 184 cases.

  1. French retrospective multicentric study of neonatal hemochromatosis: importance of autopsy and autoimmune maternal manifestations.

    PubMed

    Collardeau-Frachon, Sophie; Heissat, Sophie; Bouvier, Raymonde; Fabre, Monique; Baruteau, Julien; Broue, Pierre; Cordier, Marie-Pierre; Debray, Dominique; Debiec, Hanna; Ronco, Pierre; Guigonis, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal hemochromatosis is a rare disease that causes fetal loss and neonatal death in the 1st weeks of life and is one of the most common causes of liver failure in the neonate. The diagnosis is mostly made retrospectively, based on histopathologic features of severe liver fibrosis associated with hepatic and extrahepatic siderosis. Several etiologies may underlie this phenotype, including a recently hypothesized gestational alloimmune disease. Fifty-one cases of liver failure with intrahepatic siderosis in fetuses and neonates were analyzed retrospectively. Maternal and infant data were collected from hospitalization and autopsy reports. All available slides were reviewed independently by 3 pathologists. Immunologic studies were performed on maternal sera collected immediately after delivery. The diagnosis of neonatal haemochromatosis was retained in 33 cases, including 1 case with Down syndrome and 1 case with myofibromas. Liver siderosis was inversely proportional to fibrosis progression. In fetuses, iron storage was more frequent in the thyroid than in the pancreas. Perls staining in labial salivary glands was positive in 1 of 5 cases. Abnormal low signal intensity by magnetic resonance imaging was detected in the pancreas in 2 of 7 cases. Renal tubular dysgenesis was observed in 7 of 23 autopsy cases. Chronic villitis was seen in 7 of 15 placentas. Half of the mothers presented with an autoimmune background and/or autoantibodies in their sera. Our work highlights the importance of autopsy in cases of neonatal hemochromatosis and marshals additional data in support of the hypothesis that neonatal hemochromatosis could reflect maternal immune system dysregulation.

  2. Diffuse malignant mesothelioma of the pleura in Ontario and Quebec: A retrospective study of 332 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffie, P.; Feld, R.; Minkin, S.; Cormier, Y.; Boutan-Laroze, A.; Ginsberg, R.; Ayoub, J.; Shepherd, F.A.; Evans, W.K.; Figueredo, A. )

    1989-08-01

    Three-hundred thirty-two cases of pleural diffuse malignant mesothelioma (DMM) seen at large centers in Ontario and Quebec from 1965 to 1984 were reviewed retrospectively. Previous asbestos exposure was found in 44% of patients. Diagnosis was most often made by exploratory thoracotomy; pleural biopsy or cytology were rarely contributory. The delay in diagnosis was often long (median time, 3.5 months) and thrombocytosis (platelets greater than or equal to 400,000/microL) was common (41% of cases). The median survival (MS) was only 9 months. Eleven clinical variables were analyzed for prognostic significance. The three most important prognostic factors using a univariate analysis were stage, weight loss, and histologic type. For 118 patients with complete data, multivariate analysis showed that the stage of disease, high platelet count, and asbestos exposure were the most important prognostic factors. There was no cure of DMM, and we did not find any drastic differences in survival among groups of patients subjected to the different therapeutic measures. Radical surgery and radiotherapy were ineffective and we confirmed the low response rate to chemotherapeutic agents. This large retrospective trial can serve as a baseline for future studies in this field. In particular, it provides the basis for appropriate stratification variables to be used in future therapeutic trials.

  3. Early nasogastric feeding versus parenteral nutrition in severe acute pancreatitis: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yulong; Tang, Chengwu; Feng, Wenming; Bao, Ying; Yu, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of early nasogastric enteral nutrition (EN) with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Methods: From July 2008 to July 2014,185 patients with SAP admitted to our centre were enrolled in this retrospective study. They were divided into EN group (n=89) and TPN group (n=96) based on the nutrition support modes. Patients in EN group received nasogastric EN support, while patients in TPN group received TPN support within 72 hours of disease onset. The medical records were reviewed and clinical factors were retrospectively analyzed. Results: There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between two groups. EN group had significantly lower incidence of pancreatic infections (P=0.0333) and extrapancreatic infections (P=0.0431). Significantly shorter hospital stay (P=0.0355) and intensive-care stay (P=0.0313) were found in EN group. TPN group was found to have significantly greater incidence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) (P=0.0338) and mortality (P=0.0382). Moreover, the incidence of hyperglycemia was significantly higher in TPN group (P=0.0454). Conclusions: Early nasogastric EN was feasible and significantly decreased the incidence of infectious complications as well as the frequency of MODS and mortality caused by SAP. PMID:28083056

  4. Testosterone and growth hormone normalization: a retrospective study of health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ginzburg, Enrique; Lin, Alvin; Sigler, Michael; Olsen, Denise; Klimas, Nancy; Mintz, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Background Age-related declines in testosterone and growth hormone (GH) are associated with increased adiposity and decreases in lean mass and bone mineral density (BMD). A long-term retrospective study examined the effects of testosterone and/or GH supplementation on body composition and quality of life (QoL). Methods A database survey assessed the records of 91 men and 97 women (ages 25–82) in treatment groups based on their hormonal status: dehydroepiandrosterone but no hormonal supplementation (control); testosterone only (Tes); GH only (GH); and testosterone plus GH (Tes+GH). Pre-and post-treatment assessments recorded changes in fat and lean mass, BMD, and QoL. Results After an average of 3 years of treatment, weight decreased in women in the control and Tes+GH groups but remained stable in men in all groups. Tes and Tes+GH produced statistically significant increases in lean mass, reductions in fat mass, and improvements in BMD in both sexes; GH produced similar changes in women. QoL and mood improved in all groups. Treatments were generally safe and well tolerated. Conclusions In this retrospective survey, treatment with testosterone and/or GH was associated with favorable effects in men and women across a wide age range. PMID:21197337

  5. Therapeutic patient education in atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Barbarot, S; Stalder, J F

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic patient education (TPE) is a patient-centred process that entails the transfer of skills (e.g. self-management, treatment adaptation) from a trained healthcare professional to patients and/or their carers. TPE has been shown to help improve adherence, prevent complications, and improve quality of life (QoL) in chronic illnesses such as diabetes, asthma and cardiovascular disease. Recently, TPE recommendations for patients with atopic eczema have been proposed. TPE is a four-step process: understanding the patient's knowledge, beliefs and hopes; setting age-appropriate educational objectives; helping the patient (or carer) to acquire skills; and assessing the success of the programme. TPE programmes always involve a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including nurses, psychologists, doctors and dieticians who are expert in the disease area. TPE should be offered to (never forced upon) any patient who has experienced treatment failure, or to families who feel they lack social support. High-quality TPE programmes should be evidence-based, tailored to a patient's individual educational and cultural background (rather than being standardized in form and content), and have well-defined content and activities.

  6. A retrospective study of the value of indirect CT venography: a British perspective

    PubMed Central

    Slater, S; Oswal, D; Bhartia, B

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to establish the value of indirect CT venography (CTV) in clinical practice within the UK. Methods 804 combined CT pulmonary angiogram and CTV studies were retrospectively reviewed. CTV was performed 180 s after the injection of contrast using an incremental technique with a 5-mm collimation and a 5-cm interspace between images extending from the iliac crests to the tibial plateaus. Results 12.9% of studies had isolated pulmonary emboli (PE), 3.0% had both a PE and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and 1.1% had an isolated DVT. The proportion of positive cases diagnosed by CTV alone was 6.6%. Conclusion In a UK-based practice, the incidence and the proportion of isolated DVT diagnosed by CTV are lower than expected from published data. An analysis of possible causes for this is made within the paper. PMID:21896661

  7. The retrospective study of the carcinogenic hydrocarbon benz[a]pyrene in the biosphere.

    PubMed

    Ilnitsky, A P; Vinogradov, V N; Riabchun, V K; Mischenko, V S; Gvildis, V Y; Belitsky, G A; Shabad, L M

    1979-11-01

    The major aim of this study was to determine taking, as an example, the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benz[a]pyrene (BaP), the present biologically active compounds in the early historical and geological epochs with the following assessment of the degree of danger of such compounds in the modern times. In the first section of work, study results of soil samples in the areas of eternal frost confirmed the presence of BaP in the frozen layers of soil aged 10 years, 100 years, 3000--4000 and 10,000 years of age. In the second part of the work, results are furnished on the BaP content in the ice of modern glaciers and their moraines, located in Kamchatka. BaP was found in 11 samples in the concentration of 0.001--0.003 microgram/l. These data represent the first results in the retrospective study of carcinogenic substances in the biosphere.

  8. Obstetric outcome of ethnic Turkish women in London: a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kanthasamy, M; Bognanno, A; Subramanian, V; Macneilly, L; Miguel, L; Dong, S; Taiwo, E; Nauta, M; Yoong, W

    2013-05-01

    There is concern that the maternal mortality in ethnic minority women is significantly greater than that of Caucasian British women. The objective of this study was to compare the demographic and obstetric outcomes between these two groups. Data were collected retrospectively over a 2-year period from 148 index and 148 control cases. The study group had statistically similar maternal age, labour duration, blood loss and mode of delivery compared with Caucasian British women (p > 0.05). A total of 68% of Turkish women spoke little or no English; were more likely to be non-smokers and also more likely to be married to unemployed spouses (p = 0.0001). This is the first study comparing obstetric outcomes of immigrant Turkish women with their Caucasian British counterparts. There was no significant difference in maternal or fetal outcomes, which could be attributed to the 'healthy migrant' theory, coupled with increased vigilance in ethnic minority pregnancies.

  9. Antiepileptic drug use in a nursing home setting: a retrospective study in older adults.

    PubMed

    Callegari, Camilla; Ielmini, M; Bianchi, L; Lucano, M; Bertù, Lorenza; Vender, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The authors set out to examine qualitatively the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in a population of older adults in a nursing home setting, evaluating aspects such as specialist prescriptions and changes in dosage. This retrospective prevalence study was carried out in a state-funded nursing home that provides care and rehabilitation for elderly people. The first objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of AED use in this population. The second objective was to monitor AED dosage modifications during the fifteen-month study period, focusing on the safety and the tolerability of AEDs. In the period of time considered, 129 of 402 monitored patients received at least one anti-epileptic therapy. The prevalence of AED use was therefore 32%. Gabapentin was found to be the most commonly prescribed drug, with a frequency of 29%, and it was used mainly for anxiety disorders, psychosis, neuropathic pain and mood disorders.

  10. Antiepileptic drug use in a nursing home setting: a retrospective study in older adults.

    PubMed

    Callegari, Camilla; Ielmini, M; Bianchi, L; Lucano, M; Bertù, L; Vender, Simone

    2016-05-13

    The authors set out to examine qualitatively the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in a population of older adults in a nursing home setting, evaluating aspects such as specialist prescriptions and changes in dosage. This retrospective prevalence study was carried out in a state-funded nursing home that provides care and rehabilitation for elderly people. The first objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of AED use in this population. The second objective was to monitor AED dosage modifications during the fifteen-month study period, focusing on the safety and the tolerability of AEDs. In the period of time considered, 129 of 402 monitored patients received at least one anti-epileptic therapy. The prevalence of AED use was therefore 32%. Gabapentin was found to be the most commonly prescribed drug, with a frequency of 29%, and it was used mainly for anxiety disorders, psychosis, neuropathic pain and mood disorders.

  11. Antiepileptic drug use in a nursing home setting: a retrospective study in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Callegari, Camilla; Ielmini, Marta; Bianchi, Lucia; Lucano, Melissa; Bertù, Lorenza; Vender, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Summary The authors set out to examine qualitatively the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in a population of older adults in a nursing home setting, evaluating aspects such as specialist prescriptions and changes in dosage. This retrospective prevalence study was carried out in a state-funded nursing home that provides care and rehabilitation for elderly people. The first objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of AED use in this population. The second objective was to monitor AED dosage modifications during the fifteen-month study period, focusing on the safety and the tolerability of AEDs. In the period of time considered, 129 of 402 monitored patients received at least one anti-epileptic therapy. The prevalence of AED use was therefore 32%. Gabapentin was found to be the most commonly prescribed drug, with a frequency of 29%, and it was used mainly for anxiety disorders, psychosis, neuropathic pain and mood disorders. PMID:27358221

  12. Remarkable improvement of relapsing dyshidrotic eczema after treatment of coexistant hyperhidrosis with oxybutynin.

    PubMed

    Markantoni, Vasiliki; Kouris, Anargyros; Armyra, Kalliopi; Vavouli, Charitomeni; Kontochristopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    Dyshidrotic hand eczema is a common condition, which can be resistant to various treatments. Although a number of etiologic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of dyshidrotic eczema, hyperhidrosis is assumed to play a significant role. Oxybutynin is an alternative treatment for hyperhidrosis. We present the cases of two patients suffering from hyperhidrosis and dyshidrotic eczema, who were treated with oxybutynin with impressive results.

  13. Unilateral Nipple Eczema in Children: Report of Five Cases and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David; Cooper, Susan M; McPherson, Tess

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral nipple eczema on the background of atopy is not an uncommon problem and is a minor criterion in some diagnostic systems for atopic dermatitis (AD), but unilateral atopic nipple eczema is underrecognized and often causes clinical concern. We present the first case series of children with unilateral atopic nipple eczema and discuss the clinical aspects of this unusual distribution.

  14. Profile of deliberate self-harm patients presenting to Emergency Department: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Jegaraj, Moses Kirubairaj Amos; Mitra, Shubhanker; Kumar, Sathish; Selva, Bagyalakshmi; Pushparaj, Manimaran; Yadav, Bijesh; Prabhakar, Abhilash Kundavaram Paul; Reginald, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Background: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a major under-recognized epidemic in the low- and middle-income countries. This is a large retrospective study form the Emergency Department (ED) of Tertiary Care Center of South India to describe the clinicodemographic features of DSH cases. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at ED of Christian Medical College, Vellore, India from January 01, 2011 to December 31, 2013. All cases of DSH were included in the study. The demographic details, mode of DSH and clinical outcome were extracted from the electronic medical record. Descriptive statistics are presented. Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables. For all tests, a two-sided P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Total of 1228 patients were admitted to ED for DSH during the study period. Male and female occurred in equal ratio. More than half of the cases occurred among age group below 30 years. Consumption of pesticides (agricultural chemicals) was the single most common mode of DSH (46%), especially among men, followed by medication overdose (29.8%). Consumption of plant poison and tablet overdose was higher among women. Overall mortality due to DSH was low (1.5%) in our study. Conclusion: DSH is under-recognized major public health problem in low-middle income countries like India. Most cases occur among young and productive age group and in equal frequencies among men and women. Timely and the appropriate institution of treatment can decrease the morbidity and mortality due to DSH remarkably. PMID:27453847

  15. Class, type and position of 9148 surgically removed third molars in 3206 patients: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Navarro, Miriam L.; Acosta-Veloz, Anselmo L.; Juárez-Hernández, Angélica

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the class, type, position, diagnosis and most common procedures used in the surgical removal of third molars, and evaluate the sex and age distribution in a representative sample of Mexican patients. Study Design: A retrospective descriptive study was made covering the period 1993-2008 in relation to 9148 extracted third molars in 3206 patients treated in the Dental School of Salle Bajío University, A.C. (Mexico). Patients of either sex and aged 11-59 years, with at least one third molar programmed for surgical removal, were included in the study. A descriptive statistical study was made. Results: The mean patient age was 27.6 ± 10.6 years. There were 2093 females (65.3%) and 1111 males (34.6%). In relation to the 4025 upper molars, extraction was decided for prophylactic reasons in 3827 cases (95.08%). Type A presentations were recorded in 1929 cases (47.9%), with a vertical position in 1931 teeth (48%). In relation to the 5123 lower third molars, extraction was likewise most often indicated for prophylactic reasons (4424 cases, 86.36%). A total of 2353 teeth corresponded to type A (45.9%), 2545 were class I cases (49.7%), and a mesioangular position was observed in 1850 cases (36.1%). Conclusions: The present study shows that in Mexican patients, upper third molars most often correspond to type A and class I, with a vertical position, while lower third molars predominantly correspond to type A and class I, with a mesioangular position. This information can help dental surgeons take better decisions before and after surgery, to the benefit of their patients. Key words:Third molars, retrospective review, surgical removal. PMID:22143723

  16. [Complications in bland struma surgery. A retrospective study based on 2,035 personal cases].

    PubMed

    Vara-Thorbeck, R; Tovar, J L; Rosell, J; Guerero, J A; Ruiz, M; Salvi, M; Morales, O I; Vara-Thorbeck, C

    1989-01-01

    In the present retrospective study we examine the complications arising from simple goiter operations based on the analysis of 2,035 cases. The mortality rate is extremely low (0.3%). The most typical intraoperative complications - such as unilateral vocal cord paralysis (1.6%) and permanent parathyroprival hypocalcemia (0.4%) were observed to occur much more frequently in cases of subtotal thyroidectomy than in those of partial resection. - As a result of the introduction of synthetic reabsorbent sewing materials, healing problems have been drastically reduced (0.4%). Hypothyreosis and goiter recurrence can be avoided in cases of subtotal thyroidectomy by life-long and individually adjusted administration of thyroid hormones (rate of incidence in our study 3.1%). - In our view a subtotal thyroidectomy is indicate in cases where malignity is suspected (one or more cold nodules).

  17. Rotavirus-associated immune thrombocytopenic purpura in children: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ai, Qi; Yin, Jing; Chen, Sen; Qiao, Lijin; Luo, Na

    2016-10-01

    Certain studies have previously indicated that an association may exist between rotavirus infection and primary immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The present retrospective study aimed to investigate whether rotavirus may cause ITP in children. Firstly, the incidence of ITP in children with or without rotavirus diarrhea was compared. A 14.58% incident rate was observed in children with rotavirus diarrhea compared with a 7.22% incident rate in children without rotavirus diarrhea. Subsequently, the clinical features of ITP children with or without rotavirus infection were compared. The results indicated that ITP children with rotavirus infection were significantly younger, showed significantly decreased mean platelet volume (MPV) levels and presented a significantly higher frequency of bleeding score of 3 against ITP children without rotavirus infection. In conclusion, these findings suggest that rotavirus serves a causative role in ITP.

  18. Prevalence and phenomenology of neonaticide in Switzerland 1980-2010: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Paula

    2015-01-01

    For a child, the likelihood of being murdered is highest during the first year of life, and many such cases are neonaticides. Although several recent studies have examined neonaticide in different countries and cultures, there has been no in-depth analysis of Swiss cases, even though this country has special neonaticide legislation and four "baby hatches" have been opened to prevent such killings. The primary objective of this retrospective study was to analyze the prevalence and phenomenon of neonaticide in Switzerland. Using data from judicial files, 11 cases were identified in 15 German-speaking cantons between 1980 and 2010. The sample included two uncommon cases of nonmaternal neonaticide. The discussion addresses possible prevention strategies.

  19. GREATER KUDU (TRAGELAPHUS STREPSICEROS) MORTALITY IN EUROPEAN ZOOLOGICAL INSTITUTIONS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Antoine; Lamglait, Benjamin; Petit, Thierry; Roman, Yannick; Jebram, Joerg

    2016-06-01

    A questionnaire was sent to 39 European institutions holding greater kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), in order to determine the causes of captive greater kudu mortality. All reported macroscopic lesions and histopathologic observations, as well as other information regarding individuals that died, were analyzed to determine the most affected body systems and causes of death. Overall response rate was 31%, and 131 individuals were included in the study. The most frequently affected body systems were the digestive system (47%), respiratory system (38%), musculoskeletal system (37%), and cardiovascular system (32%). Most frequent causes of death were infectious diseases (27%) and trauma/accidents (18%); the cause was undetermined in 28% of cases. Nutrition-related disorders were difficult to assess, but results highlight possible nutritional imbalances. This retrospective study represents the first overview of greater kudu mortality in a captive population.

  20. Retrospective study of factors affecting employability of individuals with cerebral palsy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tobimatsu, Y; Nakamura, R

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of individuals with cerebral palsy that affected their ability to find a job in Japan. A retrospective nonrandomized descriptive study was performed. Subjects were 99 individuals with cerebral palsy who were eligible to have a vocational training at the National Rehabilitation Center for the Disabled after graduation from high school. All of them were able to perform ADL unassistedly. The mean age of the subjects was 19.9 years (range, 18 to 33) and the mean intelligence quotient measured by WAIS-R was 78.5 (range, 46 to 110). Walking ability, being female and experience of learning in a regular middle high school were significant explanatory variables in the multiple regression equation. The ability of individuals with cerebral palsy to get a job in Japan in the 1990's was largely determined by being able to walk and having an education in a regular school.

  1. [Retrospective study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the district hospital of Am Timan, Chad].

    PubMed

    Demba Kodindo, I; Baïndaou, G; Tchonfinet, M; Ngamada, F; Ndjékoundadé, A; Moussa Djibrine, M; Mahmout Nahor, N; Kérah Hinzoumbé, C; Saada, D; Seydou, D

    2015-03-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is not included in the statistical yearbook of Health of the Ministry of Public Health. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiological profile of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis attended at the District Hospital of Am Timan in order to assess the importance and the prevalence of this neglected disease. This is a retrospective study of cases reported in the records of the Laboratory of the Hospital District of Am Timan between January 2008 and December 2012. It allowed the identification of 680 clinical cases. Direct microscopic diagnosis was positive in 580 cases (85%). The number of cases has been increasing from 2008 to 2010 (2008 = 80 cases, 123 cases in 2009; 2010 = 198 cases) before decreasing during the following year (2011 = 137 cases and in 2012 = 42 cases). The months of strong incidence of the cases were June, July, August and September. The M/F sex-ratio was 1.7.

  2. The value of occlusive balloons in the management of abnormal placentation: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Omar, H R; Sprenker, C; Alvey, E; Hoffman, M; Karlnoski, R; Ching, Y-H; Cain, M; Mangar, D; Camporesi, E M

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal placentation is a potential cause of maternal morbidity and mortality from massive postpartum bleeding. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of occlusive balloons when used as an adjunct to surgery in reducing blood loss and transfusion requirements. A retrospective study of 42 patients was performed involving consecutive cases of abnormal placentation who delivered with either conventional surgery with preoperatively placed occlusive balloons or conventional surgery alone. No differences were noted between the control group and the group of patients who had occlusive balloons with regard to estimated blood loss (P = 0.767), packed red blood cells transfused (P = 0.799), amount of crystalloids infused (P = 0.435), total procedure duration (P = 0.076), and length of ICU stay (P = 0.315) or total hospital stay (P = 0.254). Prophylactic intravascular balloon catheters did not benefit women with abnormal placentation when compared with conventional surgery alone.

  3. Gastrointestinal lymphoma in Western Algeria: pattern of distribution and histological subtypes (retrospective study)

    PubMed Central

    Harir, Noria; Tou, Abdenacer; Medjamia, Miloud; Guenaoui, Khaira

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary gastrointestinal (GI) lymphomas (GIL) are uncommon diseases that can involve the whole GI tract. Considerable variation exists in the literature with respect to incidence of the various histological subtypes and sites of involvement. This study was undertaken to establish the anatomic distribution, histological subtypes and sites of GI lymphomas of patients from Western Algeria. Methods The case records of 58 consecutive patients with GIL diagnosed at the Pathologies Departments of Algerian west region (the Military Hospital of Oran city and the Central University Hospital of Sidi Bel Abbes city) from January 2006 to December 2013 were retrospectively evaluated for epidemiology and histopathology report. All lymphomas were reclassified according to the WHO 2008 classification. Results A total of 58 patients (39 male, 19 female) with mean age of 61 years and a range of 20–89 years were included in this study. Stomach was the most common site involved (70.7%). The commonest histological subtype was mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) B cell lymphoma (46.6%), followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) (43.1%).The frequency of Helicobacter pylori (HP) positivity differ between gastric and intestinal location P=0.003 and correlates with the histological type P=0.01. Conclusions This retrospective study of patients with GI lymphoma from Western Algeria illustrates the pattern of distribution of various common and rare histological subtypes. More studies are necessary to find a potential cause, risk factor or genetic mutation that can explain these specific characteristics of GIL. PMID:28078126

  4. Reconstruction of organ dose for external radiotherapy patients in retrospective epidemiologic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choonik; Jung, Jae Won; Pelletier, Christopher; Pyakuryal, Anil; Lamart, Stephanie; Kim, Jong Oh; Lee, Choonsik

    2015-03-01

    Organ dose estimation for retrospective epidemiological studies of late effects in radiotherapy patients involves two challenges: radiological images to represent patient anatomy are not usually available for patient cohorts who were treated years ago, and efficient dose reconstruction methods for large-scale patient cohorts are not well established. In the current study, we developed methods to reconstruct organ doses for radiotherapy patients by using a series of computational human phantoms coupled with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and a radiotherapy-dedicated Monte Carlo transport code, and performed illustrative dose calculations. First, we developed methods to convert the anatomy and organ contours of the pediatric and adult hybrid computational phantom series to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-image and DICOM-structure files, respectively. The resulting DICOM files were imported to a commercial TPS for simulating radiotherapy and dose calculation for in-field organs. The conversion process was validated by comparing electron densities relative to water and organ volumes between the hybrid phantoms and the DICOM files imported in TPS, which showed agreements within 0.1 and 2%, respectively. Second, we developed a procedure to transfer DICOM-RT files generated from the TPS directly to a Monte Carlo transport code, x-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) for more accurate dose calculations. Third, to illustrate the performance of the established methods, we simulated a whole brain treatment for the 10 year-old male phantom and a prostate treatment for the adult male phantom. Radiation doses to selected organs were calculated using the TPS and XVMC, and compared to each other. Organ average doses from the two methods matched within 7%, whereas maximum and minimum point doses differed up to 45%. The dosimetry methods and procedures established in this study will be useful for the reconstruction of organ dose to support

  5. Reconstruction of organ dose for external radiotherapy patients in retrospective epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choonik; Jung, Jae Won; Pelletier, Christopher; Pyakuryal, Anil; Lamart, Stephanie; Kim, Jong Oh; Lee, Choonsik

    2015-03-21

    Organ dose estimation for retrospective epidemiological studies of late effects in radiotherapy patients involves two challenges: radiological images to represent patient anatomy are not usually available for patient cohorts who were treated years ago, and efficient dose reconstruction methods for large-scale patient cohorts are not well established. In the current study, we developed methods to reconstruct organ doses for radiotherapy patients by using a series of computational human phantoms coupled with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and a radiotherapy-dedicated Monte Carlo transport code, and performed illustrative dose calculations. First, we developed methods to convert the anatomy and organ contours of the pediatric and adult hybrid computational phantom series to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-image and DICOM-structure files, respectively. The resulting DICOM files were imported to a commercial TPS for simulating radiotherapy and dose calculation for in-field organs. The conversion process was validated by comparing electron densities relative to water and organ volumes between the hybrid phantoms and the DICOM files imported in TPS, which showed agreements within 0.1 and 2%, respectively. Second, we developed a procedure to transfer DICOM-RT files generated from the TPS directly to a Monte Carlo transport code, x-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) for more accurate dose calculations. Third, to illustrate the performance of the established methods, we simulated a whole brain treatment for the 10 year-old male phantom and a prostate treatment for the adult male phantom. Radiation doses to selected organs were calculated using the TPS and XVMC, and compared to each other. Organ average doses from the two methods matched within 7%, whereas maximum and minimum point doses differed up to 45%. The dosimetry methods and procedures established in this study will be useful for the reconstruction of organ dose to support

  6. Effect of prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter and intake of Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) in pregnancy on eczema occurrence in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Spengler, John D; Maugeri, Umberto; Miller, Rachel L; Budzyn-Mrozek, Dorota; Perzanowski, Matt; Flak, Elzbieta; Mroz, Elzbieta; Majewska, Renata; Kaim, Irena; Perera, Frederica

    2011-11-15

    The goal of the study was to test the hypothesis that prenatal Paracetamol exposure increases the risk of developing eczema in early childhood and that this association may be stronger in children who are exposed in fetal period to higher concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The study sample consisted of 322 women recruited from January 2001 to February 2004 in the Krakow inner city area who gave birth to term babies and completed 5-year follow-up. Paracetamol use in pregnancy was collected by interviews and prenatal personal exposure to PM2.5 over 48 h was measured in recruited women in the second trimester of pregnancy. After delivery, every three months in the first 24 months of the newborn's life and every 6 months later, a detailed standardized face-to-face interview on the infant's health was administered to each mother by trained interviewers. During the interviews at each of the study periods after birth, a history of eczema was recorded. The incident rate ratio (IRR) for frequency of eczema events over the follow-up was estimated from the Poisson regression model and the overall effect of main exposure variables on eczema was assessed by odds ratios (ORs) by the logistic model. The estimated relative risk of eczema occurring whenever in the follow-up was related significantly neither with prenatal Paracetamol nor higher PM2.5 exposure, however, their joint effect was significant (OR interaction term=6.04; 95%CI: 1.04-35.16). Of potential confounders considered in the analysis only damp/moldy home significantly increased the risk of eczema (OR=1.53; 95%CI: 1.14-2.05). In contrast, there was an inverse significant association between the presence of older siblings and eczema (OR=0.55; 95%CI: 0.35-0.84). The joint effect of the main exposure variables significantly increased frequency of eczema events (IRR=1.78, 95%CI: 1.22-2.61). In conclusion, the findings of the study suggest that Paracetamol use by mothers in pregnancy is not an independent

  7. Potential of Hybrid Computational Phantoms for Retrospective Heart Dosimetry After Breast Radiation Therapy: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moignier, Alexandra; Derreumaux, Sylvie; Broggio, David; Beurrier, Julien; Chea, Michel; Boisserie, Gilbert; Franck, Didier; Aubert, Bernard; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Current retrospective cardiovascular dosimetry studies are based on a representative patient or simple mathematic phantoms. Here, a process of patient modeling was developed to personalize the anatomy of the thorax and to include a heart model with coronary arteries. Methods and Materials: The patient models were hybrid computational phantoms (HCPs) with an inserted detailed heart model. A computed tomography (CT) acquisition (pseudo-CT) was derived from HCP and imported into a treatment planning system where treatment conditions were reproduced. Six current patients were selected: 3 were modeled from their CT images (A patients) and the others were modelled from 2 orthogonal radiographs (B patients). The method performance and limitation were investigated by quantitative comparison between the initial CT and the pseudo-CT, namely, the morphology and the dose calculation were compared. For the B patients, a comparison with 2 kinds of representative patients was also conducted. Finally, dose assessment was focused on the whole coronary artery tree and the left anterior descending coronary. Results: When 3-dimensional anatomic information was available, the dose calculations performed on the initial CT and the pseudo-CT were in good agreement. For the B patients, comparison of doses derived from HCP and representative patients showed that the HCP doses were either better or equivalent. In the left breast radiation therapy context and for the studied cases, coronary mean doses were at least 5-fold higher than heart mean doses. Conclusions: For retrospective dose studies, it is suggested that HCP offers a better surrogate, in terms of dose accuracy, than representative patients. The use of a detailed heart model eliminates the problem of identifying the coronaries on the patient's CT.

  8. Unintentional Injuries and Violence among Adults in Northern Jordan: A Hospital-Based Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Alzghoul, Manal M; Shakhatreh, Mohammed K; Al-Sheyab, Nihaya

    2017-03-24

    Injuries (unintentional and intentional) are the main cause of death and disability worldwide, including Jordan. The main purpose of this hospital-based retrospective study was to identify characteristics, causes, and risk factors of unintentional injuries and violence among all adult patients who approached the Accidents and Emergency department because of injury in Northern Jordan. Data were collected retrospectively from four major hospitals from January 2008 to January 2013. A total of 2425 Jordanian individuals who accessed and were treated by the four hospitals were included in this study. The findings show that the majority of patients who approached the Accidents and Emergency departments in the four hospitals were males (n = 2044, 87.16%) versus females (n = 301, 12.8%). Violence was the most common reason of injury (70.66%), followed by road traffic crashes (23.21%). The most common anatomical locations of reported injuries were the head (38.74%), followed by abdomen/pelvis and lower back, among males and females (9.93%). Violence had a high significant effect on the site of injuries. Patients who had been injured to the head because of a stab wound or fighting were substantially over-involved in head injuries, with injury rates 3.88 and 7.51 times higher than those who had been injured to the head due to gunshot, respectively. Even patients who had been injured to the head because of assault show much higher involvement in injury risk than non-assault patients (Odds Ratio = 8.46). These findings highlight the need for a large national study to confirm the findings. It also draws attention to the importance of public awareness and to special injury prevention programs that not only focus on saving lives and lessening the number of injuries, illnesses, and fatalities, but also to limit the social and economic burden of injury among adults in Northern Jordan.

  9. Reporting adverse transfusion reactions: A retrospective study from tertiary care hospital from New Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Pahuja, Sangeeta; Puri, Vandana; Mahajan, Gunjan; Gupta, Prajwala; Jain, Manjula

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Blood transfusion services have achieved newer heights in the last decade, with developments in cellular techniques, component separation, and integration of molecular methods. However, the system of recording and reporting of the adverse events related to blood transfusion is developing countries like India is grossly inadequate and voluntary in nature. AIMS: This study was undertaken to analyze the retrospective data on adverse events related to blood transfusions in our hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was done to examine all the transfusion related adverse events reported in a Regional Blood Bank Transfusion Centre of North India over a period of 9 years. Adverse transfusion events related to whole blood, red cell concentrates (RCCs), and all other components were analyzed and classified on the basis of their clinical features and laboratory tests. Average rate of transfusion reactions with the components was also assessed. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Categorical variables were analyzed using the Chi-square test. P < 0.05 was taken to indicate a significant difference. RESULTS: During this period, a total of 1,60,973 blood/blood component units were issued by our blood bank to various departments of the hospital and 314 immediate transfusion events were reported. The rate of immediate transfusion reactions during the study was 0.19%. Average transfusion reaction rate with RCC was 0.25% with febrile nonhemolytic reactions being the most common type of adverse event (37.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Awareness should be increased among clinicians to correctly prevent, identify, and report transfusion-related adverse events. These measures should be implemented to increase blood transfusion quality and safety. PMID:28316433

  10. Measurement of Lumbosacral Angle in Normal Radiographs: A Retrospective Study in Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okpala, FO

    2014-01-01

    Background: A retrospective study of lumbosacral angle (LSA) in normal lateral supine lumbosacral radiographs of 274 Nigerians (aged 15-74 years) of Southeast region. A supine lateral lumbar spine radiograph is a very accurate means of measuring lordotic angles. The LSA is one of such angles, and can be used in the investigation, treatment and follow-up of low back disorders. Little is known about what the normal value for our population is and therefore, what constitutes hypo-/hyper-lordosis; most of the data in use in medical practice are based on studies on other races. Aim: To quantify the normal LSA in our population. Materials and Methods: LSA was measured by the Ferguson's technique and the data analyzed with SPSS Statistics version 17.0 (Chicago IL, USA). Results: LSA varied between 18° and 71°. With a 95.0 confidence interval of 43.3-45.6°, the mean (standard deviation) was 44.5 (9.9)° and showed no significant variation with sex and between various age groups; it compared favorably (though with small difference) with some of the literature values currently in use. Conclusion: This study had established the normal lordosis and the possible values at which to consider hypo-lordosis (below 15°), and hyper-lordosis (above 75°) in our population. Also established is that the development of lumbar lordosis ceases at spinal maturity, and that in normal lumbar lordosis measurement, the retrospective approach is a credible alternative to the prospective method. PMID:25328789

  11. Patients seeking treatment for craniofacial pain: a retrospective study of 300 patients.

    PubMed

    Shankland, Wesley E

    2008-10-01

    Those engaged in any type of pain practice will encounter patients who have seen many practitioners. This is especially true for clinicians who treat craniofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders. In this retrospective study of 300 patients seeking treatment for various types of craniofacial pain, the average age was 43.05 years. A mean average of 3.92 clinicians was consulted with the range of practitioners being one to 26. The average time of pain was 4.15 years. Most of the subjects (210) were in the age groups 21 years to 60 years old. Females comprised 85.30% of the subjects with a mean average age of 43.43 years; 14.70% were male with a mean average age of 41.02 years.

  12. Use of combined oral contraceptives: retrospective study in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Savabi-Esfahany, M; Fadaei, S; Yousefy, A

    2006-01-01

    We carried out a retrospective cross-sectional study on 500 women in Isfahan who started taking combined oral contraceptives (COCs) during the period 21 March 1995-20 March 1997. The cumulative continuation rate fell from 77% to 12% over 60 months. The most common reason for discontinuation was side-effects. There was a significant correlation between side-effects and cumulative COC continuation rate (P < 0.05). The lowest rate was seen in women reporting nausea or vomiting. Women who are interested in COCs should receive extensive counselling about the possible side-effects and should be helped to find a method of birth control suited to their temperament and physiology.

  13. A retrospective study on the use of acepromazine maleate in dogs with seizures.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Karen M; Marioni-Henry, Katia; Wagner, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Use of acepromazine (i.e., acetylpromazine) maleate in dogs with a history of seizures is reportedly contraindicated because of the risk of decreasing the seizure threshold in these animals. In this retrospective study, acepromazine was administered for tranquilization to 36 dogs with a prior history of seizures and to decrease seizure activity in 11 dogs. No seizures were seen within 16 hours of acepromazine administration in the 36 dogs that received the drug for tranquilization during hospitalization. After acepromazine administration, seizures abated for 1.5 to 8 hours (n=6) or did not recur (n=2) in eight of 10 dogs that were actively seizing. Excitement-induced seizure frequency was reduced for 2 months in one dog.

  14. Extranodal oral non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. A retrospective study of 40 cases in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Keszler, Alicia; Piloni, María J; Paparella, María L; Soler, Marcela de Dios; Ron, Patricia Cabrera; Narbaitz, Marina

    2008-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted of extranodal oral Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas diagnosed at the Surgical Pathology Laboratory of the School of Dentistry at Buenos Aires University, Argentina, between 1985 and 2004. The 40 cases found represent 0.2% of the oral biopsies diagnosed during that time and 4.6% of malignant neoplasias. Overall mean age of patients was 49.4 years, and frequency was greater in males. 80% affected soft tissues. Prevalent location was gingival, followed by palate. Intraosseous cases were more frequent in mandible (75%) than in upper maxilla. 100% of the cases were phenotype B, with a higher frequency of high-grade aggressiveness. The most common histological type was Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma. 60% of the Plasmablastic Lymphomas in the series came from HIV+ patients. Evolution time prior to consultation was 1 to 3 months in 57.7% of the cases.

  15. Adult dengue haemorrhagic fever at Kuala Lumpur Hospital: retrospective study of 102 cases.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, N M; Cheong, I

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective study involving 102 adults with dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) was conducted to investigate the demographic aspect, clinical presenting features, laboratory investigations, complications, and mortality associated with the disease. The clinical diagnosis of DHF was in accordance with WHO recommendations. Epistaxis, gingivitis, haematemesis and gastritis were among the common complications. Platelet levels tended to decline from a higher value on admission (mean 67,000/mm3) to lower levels on subsequent days, with the lowest (mean 61,000/mm3) being on day 6 of the fever. Hyponatraemia (46.8%) was commonly observed. Morbidity of DHF was significant (29.4%) but the case fatality rate remained low (2.0%) in our adults, suggesting that adults are less likely than children to suffer from shock syndrome.

  16. Conservative versus operative treatment for Kienböck's disease. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Delaere, O; Dury, M; Molderez, A; Foucher, G

    1998-02-01

    In this retrospective study on Kienböck's disease, a comparison was made between 21 cases operated on by various techniques and 22 cases treated conservatively, with a mean follow-up of 65 months. Operative management of the disease did not show any superiority over conservative treatment. Moreover, surgery was responsible for a loss of mobility of 24%, and for a change in social activities in about a quarter of the patients, while grip strength was only slightly improved. Surgical indications for Kienböck's disease should be carefully considered, keeping in mind their side-effects, and the relative benignity in some cases of the natural course of the disease.

  17. Shewanella infection of snake bites: a twelve-year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Po-Yu; Shi, Zhi-Yuan; Lin, Chin-Fu; Huang, Jin-An; Liu, Jai-Wen; Chan, Kun-Wei; Tung, Kwong-Chung

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Infections of snake bite wounds by Shewanella are rarely discussed in the medical literature. This study aims to characterize the presentation and management of Shewanella infections in snake bite wounds. METHOD: We retrospectively investigated the microbiology, clinical features, and outcomes of patients with Shewanella infected snake bite wounds admitted to a tertiary medical center from January 1998 to December 2009. RESULTS: Ten patients with Shewanella-infected snake bite wounds were identified. All of the snake bites were caused by cobras. The majority of patients had moderate to severe local envenomation and polymicrobial infections. Shewanella isolates are susceptible to ampicillin-sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and quinolones but are resistant to penicillin and cefazolin. All of the patients examined had favorable outcomes. CONCLUSION: It is recommended that Shewanella infection be considered in snake bite patients, especially when patients present with moderate to severe local envenomation. PMID:22666785

  18. Platelet-rich plasma versus open surgical release in chronic tennis elbow: A retrospective comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Karaduman, Mert; Okkaoglu, Mustafa Caner; Sesen, Hakan; Taskesen, Anil; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Altay, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare short and mid-term results in the treatment of chronic elbow tendinosis with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or Nirschl surgical technique. Method A retrospective study was conducted on patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis, treated by Nirschl surgical technique (50 elbows) or PRP (60 elbows). Outcome was evaluated with Visual Analog Score (VAS), Mayo Elbow Scores and grip strength measurements. Results VAS and Mayo Elbow Scores of the PRP group had improved as a mean of 83% (p = 0.0001), 74% (p = 0.0001) over baseline and 34.2 pounds gain of grip strength. Conclusion The PRP seems to be better for pain relief and functionality in the short and mid-term periods. PMID:26955228

  19. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis: a retrospective study of 23 patients in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Lings, Kristina; Bygum, Anette

    2015-04-01

    Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LAD) is an autoimmune, chronic bullous disease affecting primarily young children and adults. Studies on LAD are relatively sparse and from Scandinavia we could only find a few case reports. Therefore we decided to conduct a retrospective investigation of patients seen at our department since 1972. A total of 23 patients were identified; 7 children (F:M ratio 0.75) and 16 adults (F:M ratio 0.78). Mean age at disease onset in the two age groups were 2.7 and 56.8 years. Estimated incidence rate in our region: 0.67 per million per year. The most commonly used treatment modalities were corticosteroids, dapsone and sulphapyridine.

  20. Effect of sinus membrane perforation on dental implant integration: a retrospective study on 128 patients.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eric; Kraut, Richard A

    2011-02-01

    A common complication of sinus augmentation is perforation of the sinus membrane during augmentation and/or implant placement. This retrospective study examines the effect of sinus membrane perforation with regard to graft survival and implant integration. A total of 175 sinuses were augmented with 115 of the membranes being reported intact at the time of surgery. A total of three infections occurred in patients who sustained perforated sinuses and one infection occurred in a patient who had an intact sinus. All four infections resolved after culture sensitivity and placement of the patient on an appropriate antibiotic for 10 days. Of 438 dental implants placed in the augmented sinuses, five implants failed, four of which were associated with perforated sinuses and and which was not associated with a perforated grafted sinus.

  1. COMPARISON OF CONDUCT DISORDER AND HYPERKINETIC CONDUCT DISORDER : A RETROSPECTIVE CLINIAL STUDY FROM NORTH INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Savita; Aga, Vimal M.; Balraj; Gupta, Nitin

    1999-01-01

    In a retrospective descriptive study of hyperkinetic conduct disorders (HCD) and conduct disorders (CD), as per ICD-10 diagnostic criteria, their clinical and phenomenological correlates were compared; with an aim of describing their distinctive clinical profiles. 20 cases of HCD and 25 cases of CD were compared on socio-demographic variables, temperament and specified clinical variables. The two groups differed in terms of the HCD group having younger age of onset, a more gradual development of and longer duration of conduct symptoms as compared to CD children. HCD children also had temperamental deviance (in the form of inattention, distractibility), lower IQ, more perinatal complications and delayed milestones as compared to the CD group; which made significant contribution to discriminant functions between the two groups. Results point towards different pathways of development of conduct symptomatology in HCD group as compared to the CD group PMID:21455373

  2. A retrospective study of end-stage renal disease in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    LaDouceur, Elise E B; Davis, Barbara; Tseng, Flo

    2014-03-01

    This retrospective study summarizes 11 cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from eight zoologic institutions across the United States and Canada. Ten bears were female, one was male, and the mean age at the time of death was 24 yr old. The most common clinical signs were lethargy, inappetence, and polyuria-polydipsia. Biochemical findings included azotemia, anemia, hyperphosphatemia, and isosthenuria. Histologic examination commonly showed glomerulonephropathies and interstitial fibrosis. Based on submissions to a private diagnostic institution over a 16-yr period, ESRD was the most commonly diagnosed cause of death or euthanasia in captive polar bears in the United States, with an estimated prevalence of over 20%. Further research is needed to discern the etiology of this apparently common disease of captive polar bears.

  3. Survival time of endodontically treated teeth: a 7-year retrospective clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldea, Bogdan; Canjau, Silvana; Popescu, Dragos; Tudor, Anca; Todea, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective clinical study was to examine the survival time of endodontically treated teeth (ETT) and the factors that may influence the failure risk, over a period of up to 7 years. The files of 67 patients that received metal free post and core restorations using a standardized technique were analyzed. The survival probability was assessed using Kaplan-Meyer analysis and Log Rank (Matel-Cox). Cox regression was used to assess the risk of failure and to identify possible covariates. The average survival time of the ETT was 6.6 Years. The cumulative failure rate was 5.82% for all type of the restored endodontically treated teeth. The main failure type was encountered in the cervical area of the teeth, and due to the extensive hard tissue loss, the teeth were extracted.

  4. A retrospective study of spinal cord lesions in goats submitted to 3 veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew L; Goupil, Brad A; Valentine, Beth A

    2012-06-01

    A retrospective study of spinal cord lesions in goats was conducted to identify the range of lesions and diseases recognized and to make recommendations regarding the best tissues to examine and tests to conduct in order to maximize the likelihood of arriving at a definitive etiologic diagnosis in goats with clinical signs referable to the spinal cord. Twenty-seven goats with a spinal cord lesion were identified. The most common lesion recognized, in 13 of 27 goats, was degenerative myelopathy. Eight goats with degenerative myelopathy were diagnosed with copper deficiency. Non-suppurative inflammation due to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, necrosis due to parasite larvae migration, and neoplasia were each diagnosed 3 times. Based on these findings, it is recommended that, in addition to careful handling and histologic examination of the spinal cord, samples of other tissues, including the brain, liver, and serum, be collected for ancillary testing if warranted.

  5. Clinical practice trends in cryosurgery: a retrospective study of cutaneous lesions

    PubMed Central

    Erkan, Ceren Dagar; Karaca, Semsettin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cryosurgery is an alternative treatment for many benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions of the skin. Aim To review the indications of cryosurgery for cutaneous lesions. Material and methods The retrospective study was based on the assessment of medical records of 1031 dermatology patients who had cryosurgery. Results One thousand two hundred and forty-four sessions of cryosurgery were applied to the total of 1031 patients. Of the 1031 patients, the most frequent indication for cryosurgery was common warts which were present in 535 (61.59%) patients, followed by anogenital warts in 119 (11.54%) patients, callosity in 81 (7.85%) patients, actinic keratosis in 77 (7.46%) patients, molluscum contagiosum in 35 (3.39%) patients, and other benign or malignant skin lesions. Conclusions Cryosurgery is still a valuable treatment of choice in various benign, premalignant, and malignant skin diseases but seems to be underused for indications other than viral warts. PMID:26015777

  6. Bacterial infections in horses: a retrospective study at the University Equine Clinic of Bern.

    PubMed

    Panchaud, Y; Gerber, V; Rossano, A; Perreten, V

    2010-04-01

    Bacterial infections present a major challenge in equine medicine. Therapy should be based on bacteriological diagnosis to successfully minimize the increasing number of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. The present study is a retrospective analysis of bacteriological results from purulent infections in horses admitted at the University Equine Clinic of Bern from 2004 to 2008. From 378 samples analyzed, 557 isolates were identified, of which Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus and coliforms were the most common. Special attention was paid to infections with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) ST398 and a non-MRSA, multidrug-resistant S. aureus clone ST1 (BERN100). Screening of newly-admitted horses showed that 2.2 % were carriers of MRSA. Consequent hygiene measures taken at the Clinic helped to overcome a MRSA outbreak and decrease the number of MRSA infections.

  7. [A retrospective study analysis of urinary hippuric acid levels in occupational toxicology exams].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Kelly Cristina; Sagebin, Fernando Rodrigues; Oliveira, Paola Garcia; Glock, Luiz; Thiesen, Flavia Valladão

    2010-06-01

    Hippuric acid is the primary metabolite of toluene, a solvent widely used in industrial processes with considerable toxic effects, a fact which justifies regularly monitoring individuals with occupational exposure to this solvent. This work aims at evaluating urinary hippuric acid levels found in workers subject to biological monitoring. A retrospective study was carried out with data referring from 2002 to 2005, in which exams results and employment status were analyzed (periodic, post-employment, and pre-employment exams). Results indicate a significant reduction in hippuric acid levels for 2005. Periodic exams presented higher results than pre-employment and post-employment exams. No significant difference was found in individuals grouped according to their status in each of the established intervals, their reference numbers, and maximum biological levels allowed. Hippuric acid levels detected indicate low risk of toluene exposure for the population under evaluation, probably due to a growing concern with the deployment of measures regarding occupational hygiene.

  8. [Surgical wound infection in patients undergoing extra-anatomical arterial surgery. A retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Monreal, M; Callejas, J M; Lisbona, C; Martorell, A; Lerma, R; Boabaid, R; Mejía, S

    1993-01-01

    We present a retrospective review of a series of patients from our Service submitted to surgical extra-anatomical grafts. Correlation between diverse variants and ulterior obliteration by thrombosis or infection of the surgical wounds is analyzed. The series included 133 patients surgically treated between 1986 and 1991. The studied variants were: sex, age, type of graft, the material used, length and type of anesthesia, presentation of hypotension during the surgical intervention, diabetes, platelet recount. Fourteen patients (11%) presented early graft obliteration and 15 (11%) presented an infection of their surgical wound. Only the platelet variant showed statistical differences in patients presenting infection. A high recount of platelets could be a factor risk of infection.

  9. Retrospective serological study on hepatitis E infection in pigs from 1985 to 1997 in Spain.

    PubMed

    Casas, Maribel; Pujols, Joan; Rosell, Rosa; de Deus, Nilsa; Peralta, Bibiana; Pina, Sonia; Casal, Jordi; Martín, Marga

    2009-03-30

    The objective of the present work was to ascertain the date in which hepatitis E virus (HEV) was introduced in the Spanish pig population. For this, a serological retrospective study was carried out using archived sera. A total of 2871 serum samples gathered between 1985 and 1997 and collected in 208 farms of Spain were tested for anti-HEV IgG by an in-house ELISA. Of the 2871 sera analyzed by ELISA, 1390 were positive for anti-HEV antibodies (48.4%, 95% CI: 46.9-49.9%) and that corresponded to 204/208 farms (98%, 95% CI: 96.1-99.9%) having at least one positive pig. Our results show that HEV was present and widespread in Spanish swine farms at least since 1985. Any significant changes in prevalence were detected from 1 year to another and therefore, HEV infection in swine should be considered endemic in Spain.

  10. Mortality of iron-steel workers in Anshan, China: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Pan, Guowei; Tanaka, Chieko; Feng, Yiping; Yu, Lianzheng; Liu, Tiefu; Liu, Liming; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Ken

    2006-01-01

    Foundry workers have increased mortality and morbidity risks from numerous causes, including various cancers. A retrospective Chinese iron-steel cohort study was conducted to examine the mortality effects of exposure to foundry work. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized rate ratios (SRRs) were calculated to evaluate mortality risks among male workers with exposure to 15 hazardous factors, adjusting for confounders. During 14 years of follow-up, 13,363 of 121,846 male workers died. SMR analysis showed a healthy-worker effect in comparison with the general population. SRR analysis showed increased risks for all causes, all neoplasms, and others among the exposed workers compared with non-exposed blue-collar workers. Combined exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and two or more dusts increased the risks of lung cancer (SRR = 654; 95% CI: 113-3,780) and other malignancies. Foundry work has adverse health effects, including carcinogenic risks.

  11. The Stateville penitentiary malaria experiments: a case study in retrospective ethical assessment.

    PubMed

    Miller, Franklin G

    2013-01-01

    During World War II, malaria research was conducted in prisons. A notable example was the experiments at Stateville Penitentiary in Illinois, in which prisoner-subjects were infected with malaria for the purpose of testing the safety and efficacy of novel anti-malaria drugs. Over time, commentators have shifted from viewing the malaria research at Stateville as a model of ethical clinical research to seeing the experiments as paradigmatic of abusive human experimentation. This essay undertakes a retrospective ethical assessment of the Stateville malaria research during the 1940s in light of basic ethical principles and the Nuremberg Code, as well as contemporary malaria research. In addition to its historical interest, this case study provides a rich context for addressing basic issues of research ethics, including the voluntariness of consent, the justification of risks, and the exploitation of vulnerable subjects.

  12. Adverse obstetric outcome in women with a history of infertility: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, H; Hassan, I; Vanga, P; Subramanium, M; Adeghe, J H

    2006-01-01

    Women with a history of infertility are associated with a higher incidence of adverse pregnancy outcome. This retrospective study reviewed 105 women with a known history of infertility; of these 105 women, 77 (73%) conceived spontaneously and 28 (27%) had assisted conception. Our finding confirms higher perinatal complications; relative ratios (RR) for pre-eclampsia was 4.6 (95% CI=2.1-9.9), intrauterine growth restriction 4.8 (95% CI=1.9-12.0), gestational diabetes 1.8 (95% CI=0.5-5.8), pre-term premature rupture of membrane 2.3 (95% CI=0.6-8.8) and pre-term labour 2.6 (95% CI=1.1-5.9). We postulate that women with a history of infertility are at high risk of such obstetric complications and may benefit from intensified antenatal care.

  13. Prevalence, pattern, etiology, and management of maxillofacial trauma in a developing country: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Udhayakumar, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This retrospective study aims to evaluate the prevalence of maxillofacial trauma in a developing country, along with its pattern, etiology and management. Data for the present study were collected from the Department of Dentistry, ESIC Medical College and Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Chennai in India. Materials and Methods The medical records of patients treated for maxillofacial injuries between May 2014 and November 2015 were retrospectively retrieved and analyzed for prevalence, pattern, etiology, and management of maxillofacial trauma. SPSS software version 16.0 was used for the data analysis. Results Maxillofacial fractures accounts for 93.3% of total injuries. The mean and standard deviation for the age of the patients were 35.0±11.8 years and with a minimum age of 5 years and maximum age of 75 years. Adults from 20 to 40 years age groups were more commonly involved, with a male to female ratio of 3:1. There was a statistically significantly higher proportion of males more commonly involved in accident and injuries (P <0.001). Conclusion The most common etiology of maxillofacial injury was road traffic accidents (RTA) followed by falls and assaults, the sports injuries seem to be very less. In RTA, motorized two-wheelers (MTW) were the most common cause of incidents. The majority of victims of RTA were young adult males between the ages of 20 to 40 years. The malar bone and maxilla were the most common sites of fracture, followed by the mandible. The right side of the zygomatic complex was the predominant side of MTW injury. The majority of the zygomatic complex fractures were treated by conservative management. Open reduction and internal fixation were performed for indicated fracture patients. PMID:27595083

  14. Concurrent intrathecal methotrexate and liposomal cytarabine for leptomeningeal metastasis from solid tumors: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian J; van Vugt, Vincent A; Rush, Toni; Brown, Tiffany; Chen, Clark C; Carter, Bob S; Schwab, Richard; Fanta, Paul; Helsten, Teresa; Bazhenova, Lyudmila; Parker, Barbara; Pingle, Sandeep; Saria, Marlon G; Brown, Bradley D; Piccioni, David E; Kesari, Santosh

    2014-09-01

    Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) from solid tumors is typically a late manifestation of systemic cancer with limited survival. Randomized trials comparing single agent intrathecal methotrexate to liposomal cytarabine have shown similar efficacy and tolerability. We hypothesized that combination intrathecal chemotherapy would be a safe and tolerable option in solid tumor LM. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of combination IT chemotherapy in solid tumor LM at a single institution between April 2010 and July 2012. In addition to therapies directed at active systemic disease, each subject received IT liposomal cytarabine plus IT methotrexate with dexamethasone premedication. Patient characteristics, survival outcomes and toxicities were determined by systematic chart review. Thirty subjects were treated during the study period. The most common cancer types were breast 15 (50 %), glioblastoma 6 (20 %), and lung 5 (17 %). Cytologic clearance was achieved in 6 (33 %). Median non-glioblastoma overall survival was 30.2 weeks (n = 18; range 3.9-73.4), and did not differ significantly by tumor type. Median time to neurologic progression was 7 weeks (n = 8; range 0.9-57), with 10 subjects (56 %) experiencing death from systemic disease without progression of LM. Age less than 60 was associated with longer overall survival (p = 0.01). Six (21 %) experienced grade III toxicities during treatment, most commonly meningitis 2 (7 %). Combination IT chemotherapy was feasible in this small retrospective cohort. Prospective evaluation is necessary to determine tolerability, the impact on quality of life and neurocognitive outcomes or any survival benefit when compared to single agent IT chemotherapy.

  15. Physical fitness and hematological changes during acclimatization to moderate altitude: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Brothers, Michael D; Wilber, Randall L; Byrnes, William C

    2007-01-01

    While high altitude adaptations have been studied extensively, limited research has examined moderate altitude (MA: 1500 to 3000 m) adaptations and their time course, despite the fact that millions of people sojourn to or reside at MA. We retrospectively examined long-term MA acclimatization by analyzing recurring physical fitness test results and hematological data among 2147 college-age male cadets previously residing at either sea level (SL) or MA and currently attending the U.S. Air Force Academy (USAFA), a unique, regimented, and well-controlled military university located at 2210 m. Significant (p < 0.01) differences were found in aerobic and anaerobic fitness test scores between former SL and MA subjects, with MA subjects scoring 27 points (8%) higher during a 1.5-mile aerobic fitness run and 18 points (6%) higher than SL subjects in the anaerobic fitness test for 2 yr. These differences may be partly explained by the hematological differences observed. Hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) was significantly (p < 0.001) higher (6.3%; approximately 1 g/dL) in MA subjects prior to arrival at USAFA and acutely, but the difference between altitude conditions was gone at the next retrospective blood draw (+17 months). After 2.5 yr at USAFA, former SL residents had significantly (p < 0.001) higher [Hb] by +10%, or 1.5 g/dL versus prearrival values. This study suggests that significant hematological acclimatization occurs with MA exposure and requires greater than 7 months to reach stability. The altitude-induced erythropoiesis may explain in part the improvements in aerobic performance, but altitude-related anaerobic differences still remain after hematological acclimatization.

  16. Airway complications in traumatic lower cervical spinal cord injury: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Niedeggen, Andreas; Estel, Barbara; Seidl, Rainer O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate risk factors for pneumonia in patients with traumatic lower cervical spinal cord injury. Design Observational study, retrospective study. Setting Spinal cord unit in a maximum care hospital. Methods Thirty-seven patients with acute isolated traumatic spinal cord injury at levels C4–C8 and complete motor function injury (AIS A, B) treated from 2004 to 2010 met the criteria for inclusion in our retrospective analysis. The following parameters were considered: ventilation-specific parameters, re-intubation, creation of a tracheostomy, pneumonia, antibiotic treatment, and length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and total hospitalization. Results Among the patients, 81% had primary invasive ventilation. In 78% of cases a tracheostomy was created; 3% of these cases were discharged with invasive ventilation and 28% with a tracheostomy without ventilation. Pneumonia according to Centers for Disease Control criteria occurred in 51% of cases within 21 ± 32 days of injury, and in 3% at a later date. The number of pre-existing conditions was significantly associated with pneumonia. Length of ICU stay was 25 ± 34 days, and average total hospital duration was 230 ± 144 days. Significant factors affecting the duration of ventilation were the number of pre-existing conditions and tetraplegia-specific complications. Conclusions Our results confirm that patients with traumatic lower cervical spinal cord injuries defined by lesion level and AIS constitute a homogeneous group. This group is characterized by a high rate of pneumonia during the first 4 weeks after injury. The number of pre-existing general conditions and spinal injury-specific comorbidities are the only risk factors identified for the development of pneumonia and/or duration of ventilation. PMID:25117865

  17. Evaluation of the Unit Rod surgical instrumentation in Duchenne scoliosis. A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nedelcu, T; Georgescu, I

    2016-01-01

    The article represents a retrospective clinical and radiological study. Objectives. Evaluating the safety and efficiency of the surgical treatment by using the Unit Rod for scoliosis in adolescents and children presenting Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy. Summary. Surgical management of myopathic scoliosis still causes controversies regarding the timing of surgery (patient’s age), the pelvic inclusion in the arthrodesis or the advantages of surgery over the conservatory treatment. The patients are very fragile and a long surgery with massive blood loss could lead to serious complications. Unit Rod instrumentation is simple, confers excellent stability and has a low rate of complications. Methods. This is a retrospective clinical and radiological study with a medium follow-up of 6.9 years including 13 patients diagnosed with Duchenne myopathy. All investigated patients were non-ambulatory at the time of surgery and have been treated by the Unit Rod technique at the University Hospital of Rouen between 2002 and 2008. Spinal fusion was, in all cases, realized from T2 to pelvis. Galveston technique of pelvic fixation and Luque’s sublaminar wire instrumentation of the spine were used. Results. The results obtained with this treatment and post-surgery complications were analyzed and compared with those from literature. The advantages of this technique consist mostly in a good and stable pelvic fixation, a short interventional time, a minimal blood loss and few complications. Cobb angle correction is similar to that obtained by other surgical procedures. Conclusions. Using the Unit Rod instrumentation of scoliosis in Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy is safe, has excellent outcomes, brings post-surgery improvements, and has minor intra and post-surgery complications. The low cost of this treatment could make it a first choice for medical health systems with financial problems. PMID:27928452

  18. Hospitalizations Due to Adverse Drug Events in the Elderly—A Retrospective Register Study

    PubMed Central

    Laatikainen, Outi; Sneck, Sami; Bloigu, Risto; Lahtinen, Minna; Lauri, Timo; Turpeinen, Miia

    2016-01-01

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) are more likely to affect geriatric patients due to physiological changes occurring with aging. Even though this is an internationally recognized problem, similar research data in Finland is still lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the number of geriatric medication-related hospitalizations in the Finnish patient population and to discover the potential means of recognizing patients particularly at risk of ADEs. The study was conducted retrospectively from the 2014 emergency department patient records in Oulu University Hospital. A total number of 290 admissions were screened for ADEs, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and drug-drug interactions (DDIs) by a multi-disciplinary research team. Customized Naranjo scale was used as a control method. All admissions were categorized into “probable,” “possible,” or “doubtful” by both assessment methods. In total, 23.1% of admissions were categorized as “probably” or “possibly” medication-related. Vertigo, falling, and fractures formed the largest group of ADEs. The most common ADEs were related to medicines from N class of the ATC-code system. Age, sex, residence, or specialty did not increase the risk for medication-related admission significantly (min p = 0.077). Polypharmacy was, however, found to increase the risk (OR 3.3; 95% CI, 1.5–6.9; p = 0.01). In conclusion, screening patients for specific demographics or symptoms would not significantly improve the recognition of ADEs. In addition, as ADE detection today is largely based on voluntary reporting systems and retrospective manual tracking of errors, it is evident that more effective methods for ADE detection are needed in the future. PMID:27761112

  19. Impact of pharmacist and clinician dual intervention on prescribed benzodiazepines in prisoner patients: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Lerat, Marie-Cecile; Cabelguenne, Delphine; Lassia, Jerome; Meunier, Frederic; Zimmer, Luc

    2011-12-01

    High-dose benzodiazepine (BDZs) represents an important risk factor for dependence, particularly in a prison environment. In Lyon's prison, BDZs and/or opioid maintenance treatment are often prescribed to patients with mental disorders. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the impact of psychiatrist and pharmacist collaboration on reducing the BDZs dose prescribed to prisoner patients. Since 2001, clinicians and pharmacists have been holding monthly meetings to develop prescribing guidelines and discuss those patients receiving high-dose BDZs. All prescribed psychotropic drugs were noted for each included patient in the control (before guidelines) and intervention groups. Criteria used to define each patient profile included age, diagnosis (mental disorder), and concomitant treatment (opioids, antidepressants). To compare each group, the daily dose of prescribed BDZs was used as a quantitative variable and expressed in diazepam equivalent. Four hundred and seventy-three patients were included, 222 in the control group and 251 in the intervention group. The two groups showed no difference in terms of diagnosis. The daily dose of BDZ was higher in the control group when all patients were considered (mean(CONTROL GROUP) = 46 mg in diazepam equivalent vs. mean(INTERVENTIION GROUP) = 34 mg) and for each of the following patient categories: 'mental disorder' (48 mg vs. 30 mg), 'no opioid treatment' (44 mg vs. 31 mg), 'buprenorphin treatment' (58 mg vs. 63 mg), 'no antidepressant treatment' (41 mg vs. 29 mg), and 'antidepressant treatment' (53 mg vs. 38 mg). The results of this retrospective study show the positive impact of multidisciplinary intervention on reducing the prescribed daily dose of BDZs. This experience confirms the positive impact that pharmacist feedback on prescriptions and the development of treatment guidelines by clinician and pharmacist collaboration have on improving the prescribing practice in a prison environment.

  20. Evaluation of the Unit Rod surgical instrumentation in Duchenne scoliosis. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    T, Nedelcu; I, Georgescu

    2016-01-01

    The article represents a retrospective clinical and radiological study. Objectives. Evaluating the safety and efficiency of the surgical treatment by using the Unit Rod for scoliosis in adolescents and children presenting Duchenne's muscular dystrophy. Summary. Surgical management of myopathic scoliosis still causes controversies regarding the timing of surgery (patient's age), the pelvic inclusion in the arthrodesis or the advantages of surgery over the conservatory treatment. The patients are very fragile and a long surgery with massive blood loss could lead to serious complications. Unit Rod instrumentation is simple, confers excellent stability and has a low rate of complications. Methods. This is a retrospective clinical and radiological study with a medium follow-up of 6.9 years including 13 patients diagnosed with Duchenne myopathy. All investigated patients were non-ambulatory at the time of surgery and have been treated by the Unit Rod technique at the University Hospital of Rouen between 2002 and 2008. Spinal fusion was, in all cases, realized from T2 to pelvis. Galveston technique of pelvic fixation and Luque's sublaminar wire instrumentation of the spine were used. Results. The results obtained with this treatment and post-surgery complications were analyzed and compared with those from literature. The advantages of this technique consist mostly in a good and stable pelvic fixation, a short interventional time, a minimal blood loss and few complications. Cobb angle correction is similar to that obtained by other surgical procedures. Conclusions. Using the Unit Rod instrumentation of scoliosis in Duchenne's muscular dystrophy is safe, has excellent outcomes, brings post-surgery improvements, and has minor intra and post-surgery complications. The low cost of this treatment could make it a first choice for medical health systems with financial problems.

  1. A retrospective epidemiological study of skin diseases among pediatric population attending a tertiary dermatology referral center in Northern Greece

    PubMed Central

    Vakirlis, Efstratios; Theodosiou, Grigorios; Apalla, Zoe; Arabatzis, Michael; Lazaridou, Elizabeth; Sotiriou, Elena; Lallas, Aimilios; Ioannides, Demetrios

    2017-01-01

    Background The incidence of skin diseases in children is influenced by hereditary, social, and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of pediatric dermatoses at a University Hospital in Northern Greece. Patients and methods We reviewed epidemiologic data of 940 patients, aged 0–18 years, who were referred to the outpatient clinic of a University Hospital between January 2013 and December 2015. Demographic data and the frequency of the various diagnoses in various age groups were studied. Results Nine hundred and forty children and adolescents with 1020 diagnoses were included in the study (52.8% females and 47.2% males). The 10 most frequent diagnoses were: dermatitis/eczema (31.5%), viral infections (12.5%), pigmentary disorders (7.4%), melanocytic nevi (5.8%), alopecia areata (5.8%), acne (5.6%), nail disorders (3.3%), vascular malformations and hemangiomas (2.9%), psoriasis (2.6%), and bacterial infections (2.6%). Atopic dermatitis was the most prevalent dermatosis in all age groups accounting for a total of 20.9% of the study population. A remarkably high incidence of various forms of mastocytosis (2.2%) was seen in our data. Conclusion Atopic dermatitis is the most frequent pediatric dermatosis in all age groups. Viral infections, pigmentary disorders, and nevi account for a significant proportion of the referrals. The high incidence of mastocytosis in our study may be attributed to overdiagnosis, overestimation due to the relatively small study population, or it may represent the real incidence of mastocytosis in our region. The low incidence of acne in our study may be attributed to the fact that only severe cases are referred to our hospital.

  2. Microbiota in Healthy Skin and in Atopic Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Capra, Lucetta; Longo, Giorgio; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2014-01-01

    The Italian interest group (IG) on atopic eczema and urticaria is member of the Italian Society of Allergology and Immunology. The aim of our IG is to provide a platform for scientists, clinicians, and experts. In this review we discuss the role of skin microbiota not only in healthy skin but also in skin suffering from atopic dermatitis (AD). A Medline and Embase search was conducted for studies evaluating the role of skin microbiota. We examine microbiota composition and its development within days after birth; we describe the role of specific groups of microorganisms that colonize distinct anatomical niches and the biology and clinical relevance of antimicrobial peptides expressed in the skin. Specific AD disease states are characterized by concurrent and anticorrelated shifts in microbial diversity and proportion of Staphylococcus. These organisms may protect the host, defining them not as simple symbiotic microbes but rather as mutualistic microbes. These findings reveal links between microbial communities and inflammatory diseases such as AD and provide novel insights into global shifts of bacteria relevant to disease progression and treatment. This review also highlights recent observations on the importance of innate immune systems and the relationship with normal skin microflora for the maintenance of healthy skin. PMID:25126558

  3. Mortality Risk amongst Nursing Home Residents Evacuated after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Shuhei; Gilmour, Stuart; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Amina; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kami, Masahiro; Shibuya, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Background Safety of evacuation is of paramount importance in disaster planning for elderly people; however, little effort has been made to investigate evacuation-related mortality risks. After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident we conducted a retrospective cohort survival survey of elderly evacuees. Methods A total of 715 residents admitted to five nursing homes in Minamisoma city, Fukushima Prefecture in the five years before 11th March 2011 joined this retrospective cohort study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were drawn from facility medical records. Evacuation histories were tracked until the end of 2011. The evacuation's impact on mortality was assessed using mortality incidence density and hazard ratios in Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Overall relative mortality risk before and after the earthquake was 2.68 (95% CI: 2.04–3.49). There was a substantial variation in mortality risks across the facilities ranging from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.34–1.76) to 2.88 (95% CI: 1.74–4.76). No meaningful influence of evacuation distance on mortality was observed although the first evacuation from the original facility caused significantly higher mortality than subsequent evacuations, with a hazard ratio of 1.94 (95% CI: 1.07–3.49). Conclusion High mortality, due to initial evacuation, suggests that evacuation of the elderly was not the best life-saving strategy for the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Careful consideration of the relative risks of radiation exposure and the risks and benefits of evacuation is essential. Facility-specific disaster response strategies, including in-site relief and care, may have a strong influence on survival. Where evacuation is necessary, careful planning and coordination with other nursing homes, evacuation sites and government disaster agencies is essential to reduce the risk of mortality. PMID:23555921

  4. Treatment results and prognostic factors of pediatric neuroblastoma: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We conducted a retrospective analysis to investigate treatment results and prognostic factors of pediatric neuroblastoma patients. Methods This retrospective study was carried out analyzing the medical records of patients with the pathological diagnosis of neuroblastoma seen at South Egypt Cancer Institute, Assiut University during the period from January 2001 and January 2010. After induction chemotherapy, response according to international neuoblastoma response criteria was assessed. Radiotherapy to patients with residual primary tumor was applied. Overall and event free survival (OAS and EFS) rates were estimated using Graphed prism program. The Log-rank test was used to examine differences in OAS and EFS rates. Cox-regression multivariate analysis was done to determine the independent prognostic factors affecting survival rates. Results Fifty three cases were analyzed. The median follow-up duration was 32 months and ranged from 2 to 84 months. The 3-year OAS and EFS rates were 39.4% and 29.3% respectively. Poor prognostic factors included age >1 year of age, N-MYC amplification, and high risk group. The majority of patients (68%) presented in high risk group, where treatment outcome was poor, as only 21% of patients survived for 3 year. Conclusion Multivariate analysis confirmed only the association between survival and risk group. However, in univariate analysis, local radiation therapy resulted in significant survival improvement. Therefore, radiotherapy should be given to patients with residual tumor evident after induction chemotherapy and surgery. Future attempts to improve OAS in high risk group patients with aggressive chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation should be considered. PMID:21182799

  5. Reproducibility of Brain Morphometry from Short-Term Repeat Clinical MRI Examinations: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hon-Man; Chen, Shan-Kai; Chen, Ya-Fang; Lee, Chung-Wei; Yeh, Lee-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the inter session reproducibility of automatic segmented MRI-derived measures by FreeSurfer in a group of subjects with normal-appearing MR images. Materials and Methods After retrospectively reviewing a brain MRI database from our institute consisting of 14,758 adults, those subjects who had repeat scans and had no history of neurodegenerative disorders were selected for morphometry analysis using FreeSurfer. A total of 34 subjects were grouped by MRI scanner model. After automatic segmentation using FreeSurfer, label-wise comparison (involving area, thickness, and volume) was performed on all segmented results. An intraclass correlation coefficient was used to estimate the agreement between sessions. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to assess the population mean rank differences across sessions. Mean-difference analysis was used to evaluate the difference intervals across scanners. Absolute percent difference was used to estimate the reproducibility errors across the MRI models. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine the across-scanner effect. Results The agreement in segmentation results for area, volume, and thickness measurements of all segmented anatomical labels was generally higher in Signa Excite and Verio models when compared with Sonata and TrioTim models. There were significant rank differences found across sessions in some labels of different measures. Smaller difference intervals in global volume measurements were noted on images acquired by Signa Excite and Verio models. For some brain regions, significant MRI model effects were observed on certain segmentation results. Conclusions Short-term scan-rescan reliability of automatic brain MRI morphometry is feasible in the clinical setting. However, since repeatability of software performance is contingent on the reproducibility of the scanner performance, the scanner performance must be calibrated before conducting such studies or before using such software for retrospective

  6. Effect of Persistent Thrombocytopenia on Mortality in Surgical Critical Care Patients: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qin; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Li, Guanwei; Anjum, Nadeem; Hu, Dong; Li, Yuan; Wu, Xiuwen; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Yunzhao; Li, Jieshou

    2017-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is common among surgical critically ill patients. The relationship between the duration of thrombocytopenia and mortality is not well studied. This retrospective 12-month cohort study was designed to evaluate the association between persistent thrombocytopenia and mortality among surgical critically ill patients to determine the risk factors for persistent thrombocytopenia. The study included adult patients consecutively admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) at our institution. Patients with a diagnosis of thrombocytopenia were identified from a prospective critical care database. We defined patients with persistent thrombocytopenia as those with thrombocytopenia lasting more than 7 consecutive days. The primary outcome of this study was 28-day mortality and the secondary outcomes were lengths of SICU stay and hospital stay. Fifty-one patients experienced persistent thrombocytopenia and 71 experienced nonpersistent thrombocytopenia. Among patients with persistent thrombocytopenia, mortality was significantly higher, and SICU and hospital stays were longer than those with nonpersistent thrombocytopenia. Risk factor analysis failed to predict which patients with thrombocytopenia would develop into persistent thrombocytopenia. Persistent thrombocytopenia is a clinically significant disorder and is associated with poorer outcomes. Future studies are needed to further define this process.

  7. Odontogenic tumors in children and adolescents. A 15-year retrospective study in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Guerrisi, Marcela; Piloni, María Julia; Keszler, Alicia

    2007-05-01

    There are few studies on bucco-maxillary lesions in children and adolescents, and reports on odontogenic tumors (OT) are scanty. Comparison among the available data is difficult due to differences in the criteria used in each study. The aim of the present work was to perform a retrospective study of OT in patients aged up to 20 years diagnosed at a center specialized in histopathologic diagnosis of oral diseases. All cases diagnosed with OT between 1990 and 2004 were retrieved from the Service archives. The 153 retrieved cases accounted for 7% of total biopsies performed during that period, and to 78.4% of tumors of the jaws. Mean age of the whole population was 12.7 years and the male to female ratio was 2:1. The most frequent tumor types were Odontoma, (50.9%), Ameloblastoma (18.3%) and Myxoma (8.5%), and the most infrequent was Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor (1.3%). According to our results, OT cannot be considered infrequent. They are the prevalent tumors of the jaws in the age group studied herein.

  8. The frequency and malignant transformation rate of oral lichen planus and leukoplakia--a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Brzak, Bozana Loncar; Mravak-Stipetić, Marinka; Canjuga, Ivana; Baricević, Marinka; Balicević, Drinko; Sikora, Miroslav; Filipović-Zore, Irina

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the frequency and malignant transformation rate of oral lichen planus and leukoplakia in a large group of oral medicine patients. Study included 12 508 patients who were referred between 1998 and 2007 to the Department of Oral Medicine. The frequency of OLP was 4.30%, leukoplakia 1.11%, and combined diagnoses 0.14%. In primary biopsies dysplasia was found in 12.96% of patients with leukoplakia and not in one with OLP and combined lesions. The highest frequency of leukoplakia was found in smokers. Women were found as predominant sufferers of both diseases and their combination. During the observed period often years malignant transformation of OLP was not detected, unlike leukoplakia where it was 0.64%. The frequency of OLP and leukoplakia in our study are comparable to other similar studies. The highest frequency of malignant transformation was observed in those patients who did not respond to our invitation to regular check-up. It is therefore neccessary to perform a detailed examination of the oral cavity in these patients and to raise patients awareness of the disease and the importance of regular follow-up.

  9. The association between gall bladder mucoceles and hyperlipidaemia in dogs: a retrospective case control study.

    PubMed

    Kutsunai, M; Kanemoto, H; Fukushima, K; Fujino, Y; Ohno, K; Tsujimoto, H

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of gall bladder mucoceles (GM) in dogs has become increasingly frequent in veterinary medicine. Primary breed-specific hyperlipidaemia is reported in Shetland Sheepdogs and Miniature Schnauzers, breeds in which GM are known to occur more frequently than in other breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between GM and hyperlipidaemia in dogs. The study design was a retrospective case control study. Medical records of dogs diagnosed with GM at the Veterinary Medical Centre of The University of Tokyo between 1 April 2007 and 31 March 2012, were reviewed. Fifty-eight dogs with GM and a record of either serum cholesterol, triglyceride, or glucose concentrations were included in the study. Hypercholesterolaemia (15/37 cases; odds ratio [OR]: 2.92; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-8.36) and hypertriglyceridaemia (13/24 cases; OR: 3.55; 95% CI:1.12-15.91) showed significant association with GM. Pomeranians (OR: 10.69), American Cocker Spaniels (OR: 8.94), Shetland Sheepdogs (OR: 6.21), Miniature Schnauzers (OR: 5.23), and Chihuahuas (OR: 3.06) were significantly predisposed to GM. Thirty-nine out of 58 cases had at least one concurrent disease, including pancreatitis (five cases), hyperadrenocorticism (two cases), and hypothyroidism (two cases). A significant association between GM and hyperlipidaemia was confirmed, suggesting that hyperlipidaemia may play a role in the pathogenesis of GM.

  10. Quality of sickness certification in primary health care: a retrospective database study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the period 2004–2009, national and regional initiatives were developed in Sweden to improve the quality of sickness certificates. Parameters for assessing the quality of sickness certificates in primary health care have been proposed. The aim of this study was to measure the quality of sickness certification in primary health care by means of assessing sickness certificates issued between 2004 and 2009 in Stockholm. Methods This was a retrospective study using data retrieved from sickness certificates contained in the electronic patient records of 21 primary health care centres in Stockholm County covering six consecutive years. A total number of 236 441 certificates were used in the current study. Seven quality parameters were chosen as outcome measures. Descriptive statistics and regression models with time, sex and age group as explanatory variables were used. Results During the study period, the quality of the sickness certification practice improved as the number of days on first certification decreased and the proportion of duly completely and acceptable certificates increased. Assessment of need for vocational rehabilitation and giving a prognosis for return to work were not significantly improved during the same period. Time was the most influential variable. Conclusions The quality of sickness certification practice improved for most of the parameters, although additional efforts to improve the quality of sickness certificates are needed. Measures, such as reminders, compulsory certificate fields and structured guidance, could be useful tools to achieve this objective. PMID:23586694

  11. Tuberculin skin test conversion among health sciences students: A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Lu, José E.; Cárcamo, Cesar P.; García, Patricia J.; Bussalleu, Alejandro; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Previous studies have reported that health sciences students are at greater risk for tuberculosis infection, especially in developing countries. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection among Health Sciences students in Peru. Students enrolled at private university (in Lima – Peru) are tested annually for tuberculosis infection by tuberculin skin test. Data on tuberculin skin test results between 2002 and 2009 was used in this retrospective cohort study, a total of 4842 students were included. Tuberculin skin test conversion was defined as the change of tuberculin skin test from negative (<10 mm) to positive (≥10 mm) after 48 –72 h of inoculation. Baseline tuberculin skin test positivity was 1.0% (95%CI: 0.6%–1.3%), whereas tuberculin skin test conversion incidence was 12.4 per 100 person-years (95%CI: 11.8–13.0). This study showed that students from clinical careers in close contact with patients had an increased risk of tuberculosis infection in the internship, especially Medicine, Dentistry, Medical Technology and Nursing. Administrative, environmental and personal protection measures should be implemented and evaluated periodically in order to reduce the risk of exposure. PMID:23116653

  12. Trend Analysis of Malaria Occurrence in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Legesse, Deresse; Haji, Yusuf; Abreha, Solomon

    2015-01-01

    Background. Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The trend of malaria occurrence remains unknown in the study area. This study is aimed at determining the last five years' trend of malaria occurrence from 2008/09 to 2012/13 in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods. A health facility-based retrospective study was conducted in Wolaita Zone from March to August, 2014. Five years' laboratory confirmed malaria record review was made from six health centers. Result. A total of 105,755 laboratory confirmed malaria cases were reported, with total slide positivity rate of 33.27% and mean annual occurrence of 21,151 cases. Malaria occurred with a fluctuating trend in the study area, with its peak occurring at the year 2011/12. Overall, no remarkable decline in the total laboratory confirmed malaria was observed in the last five years. P. falciparum was the predominantly reported species, accounting for 75,929 (71.80%) of cases. The highest slide positivity rate was observed in the age group of 5–14 years (40.5%) followed by 1–4 years (35.5%). Two malaria peak seasons occurred: one from September to December and the other from April to June. Conclusion. No remarkable decline in laboratory confirmed malaria in the last five years was observed. PMID:26770866

  13. Screening for Down's syndrome using serum alpha fetoprotein: a retrospective study indicating caution.

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, K; Carpenter, P

    1985-01-01

    A report was made on the outcome of a four year retrospective study in 27 064 pregnancies, of the clinical efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of a screening programme for Down's syndrome based on reported strategies related to the measurement of maternal serum alpha fetoprotein. This study identified 27 pregnancies affected by Down's syndrome with a median multiple of the median maternal serum alpha fetoprotein concentration of 0.82. This figure is considerably higher than that obtained from previous reports on this subject. With an age related multiple of the median maternal serum alpha fetoprotein strategy, 30.8% of Down's affected pregnancies were identified as well as 11.6% of unaffected pregnancies. Perhaps a United Kingdom collaborative study should begin to investigate the reasons for such wide population variance in the reports for the median multiple of the median for Down's affected pregnancies. Until such studies are carried out, screening for Down's syndrome based on low maternal serum alpha fetoprotein concentration is premature. PMID:2408699

  14. A retrospective cohort study among iron-steel workers in Anshan, China: exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Pan, Guowei; Tanaka, Chieko; Feng, Yiping; Yu, Lianzheng; Liu, Tiefu; Liu, Liming; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Ken

    2006-09-01

    Although adequate assessment of exposure is needed in epidemiological studies among foundry workers, previous studies are often lacking in this aspect. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of a Chinese iron and steel company with a 14-yr follow up during 1980-1993. Exposure assessment was performed for a single job, i.e., the current job for the active worker and the longest job for the retired or deceased worker as of the end of the follow-up, which was allocated as the surrogate of lifetime job and was applied to a job-exposure matrix. Of the 147,062 cohort members, 52,394 males (43%) and 5,291 females (21%) were exposed to any of 15 hazardous factors such as dust, silica, PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), CO (carbon monoxide) and heat. In 2,104 randomly selected samples, the exposure assessment of exposed workers based on a single job was found to be 12-14% lower than the real situation. This study suggests that the exposure assessment is valuable in evaluating the health effects among the foundry workers, despite some limitations such as underestimation of exposure assessment and the lack of data regarding smoking and drinking habits.

  15. Retrospective study on the distribution of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Bacsadi, Á; Papp, A; Szeredi, L; Tóth, G; Nemes, C; Imre, V; Tolnai, Z; Széll, Z; Sréter, T

    2016-04-15

    Europe has experienced the spreading of vector-borne helminths including heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) from the Mediterranean countries towards the northern ones in the past decades. Recently, the establishment of D. immitis was confirmed in Hungary on the basis of period prevalence studies involving dogs, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus). The aim of our retrospective study was to describe the spatial distribution of the parasite and the time course of spreading of D. immitis in Hungary. Necropsy records of 2622 dogs received at our laboratories from 2001 to 2015 were reviewed for heartworm infections. The locality of origin of animals was recorded in a geographic information system database and compared to the results of the period prevalence study involving wild canids. Autochthonous heartworm infection was detected in 27 dogs. The time course analysis indicates that the parasite established in Hungary in 2007. As temperature is one of the most important determinants of the distribution of D. immitis, the climate of the Great Hungarian Plain is the most suitable region for the establishment of D. immitis in Hungary. Our studies revealed that the Great Hungarian Plain became a D. immitis endemic region for 2015. Nevertheless, sporadic cases in wild canids and dogs also occur in other regions of the country.

  16. Immunomodulating effect of laser therapy in patients with microbial eczema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudchenko, Mycola O.; Denisenko, Olga I.

    1999-11-01

    While examining 90 patients suffering the microbial eczema (ME), we revealed disorders of the immune system in the majority of them (3/4). It was established that the inclusion of percutaneous laser irradiation of the blood in a course of multimodality treatment of patients with ME caused an immunomodulating action which resulted in an improved ME course in these patients.

  17. A retrospective study to correlate breech presentation and enhanced risk of postspinal hypotension during cesarean delivery

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anshul; Pandey, Shivali; Kumar, Roopesh; Sethi, Chavi; Sharma, Sanjya

    2015-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid blockade for cesarean section still poses a threat of profound hypotension and can result in unstable maternal and fetal hemodynamics. The correlation of fetal breech and vertex presentation with the occurrence of hypotension under spinal anesthesia is reviewed in this retrospective, double-blind study. Patients and methods The study was conducted on pregnant females scheduled for a lower segment cesarean section between January 2014 and December 2014. After applying inclusion criteria, 568 patients were recruited in the study out of which 363 had vertex and 184 patients had breech presentation. They were divided into two groups, Group I and Group II. The monitoring and therapeutic data (blood pressure, heart rate, arterial oxygen saturation, and dose of vasopressor/atropine) recovered from automated data analysis were analyzed retrospectively for prevalence of hypotension, bradycardia, and hypotension with bradycardia and nausea ± vomiting. Results Among Group I, prevalence of hypotension, bradycardia, and hypotension together with bradycardia was 152 (41.83%) patients, eight (2.20%) patients, and seven (1.92%) patients, respectively. In Group II, the prevalence of hypotension, bradycardia, and hypotension with bradycardia was 93 (50.5%) patients, five (2.71%) patients, and six (3.2%) patients, respectively. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant for hypotension. For Group I, 152 patients (41.87%) experienced one, 23 patients (6.33%) experienced two, and three patients (0.82%) experienced three episodes of hypotension. In Group II, 93 (50.5%), 19 (7.89%), and two (1.08%) patients experienced such episodes. The difference was significant with respect of one and two episodes. The prevalence of intraoperative nausea was 11.01% (40 patients) in Group I, whereas 11.41% (21 patients) in Group II. Intraoperative vomiting occurred in 19 patients (5.23%) of Group I and 14 patients (7.60%) of Group II. The height of the

  18. EMS-STARS: Emergency Medical Services "Superuser" Transport Associations: An Adult Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Hall, M Kennedy; Raven, Maria C; Hall, Jane; Yeh, Clement; Allen, Elaine; Rodriguez, Robert M; Tangherlini, Niels L; Sporer, Karl A; Brown, John F

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Emergency medical services (EMS) "superusers" -those who use EMS services at extremely high rates -have not been well characterized. Recent interest in the small group of individuals who account for a disproportionate share of health-care expenditures has led to research on frequent users of emergency departments and other health services, but little research has been done regarding those who use EMS services. To inform policy and intervention implementation, we undertook a descriptive analysis of EMS superusers in a large urban community. In this paper we compare EMS superusers to low, moderate, and high users to characterize factors contributing to EMS use. We also estimate the financial impact of EMS superusers. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study based on 1 year of data from an urban EMS system. Data for all EMS encounters with patients age ≥18 years were extracted from electronic records generated on scene by paramedics. We identified demographic and clinical variables associated with levels of EMS use. EMS users were characterized by the annual number of EMS encounters: low (1), moderate (2-4), high (5-14), and superusers (≥15). In addition, we performed a financial analysis using San Francisco Fire Department (SFFD) 2009 charge and reimbursement data. Results. A total of 31,462 adults generated 43,559 EMS ambulance encounters, which resulted in 39,107 transports (a 90% transport rate). Encounters for general medical reasons were common among moderate and high users and less frequent among superusers and low users, while alcohol use was exponentially correlated with encounter frequency. Superusers were significantly younger than moderate EMS users, and more likely to be male. The superuser group created a significantly higher financial burden/person than any other group, comprising 0.3% of the study population, but over 6% of annual EMS charges and reimbursements. Conclusions. In this retrospective study, adult

  19. Single-lung transplantation in emphysema: Retrospective study analyzing survival and waiting list mortality

    PubMed Central

    Borro, José M; Delgado, María; Coll, Elisabeth; Pita, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To performed remains a subject of debate and is the principal aim of the study. METHODS: This retrospective analysis included 73 patients with emphysema (2000-2012). The outcomes of patients undergoing single-lung transplantation (SL) (n = 40) or double-lung transplant (DL) (n = 33) were compared in a Cox multivariate analysis to study the impact of the technique, postoperative complications and acute and chronic rejection on survival rates. Patients were selected for inclusion in the waiting list according to the International Society of Heart Lung Transplantation criteria. Pre and postoperative rehabilitation and prophylaxis, surgical technique and immunosuppressive treatment were similar in every patients. Lung transplantation waiting list information on a national level and retrospective data on emphysema patient survival transplanted in Spain during the study period, was obtained from the lung transplantation registry managed by the National Transplant Organization (ONT). RESULTS: Both groups were comparable in terms of gender and clinical characteristics. We found significant differences in the mean age between the groups, the DL patients being younger as expected from the inclusion criteria. Perioperative complications occurred in 27.6% SL vs 54% DL (P = 0.032). Excluding perioperative mortality, median survival was 65.3 mo for SL and 59.4 mo for DL (P = 0.96). Bronchiolitis obliterans and overall 5-year survival were similar in both groups. Bacterial respiratory infection, cytomegalovirus and fungal infection rates were higher but not significant in SL. No differences were found between type of transplant and survival (P = 0.48). To support our results, national data on all patients with emphysema in waiting list were obtained (n = 1001). Mortality on the waiting list was 2.4% for SL vs 6.2% for DL. There was no difference in 5 year survival between 235 SL and 430 DL patients transplanted (P = 0.875). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that SL

  20. Retrospective Study Looking at Cinacalcet in the Management of Hyperparathyroidism after Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mawad, Habib; Bouchard, Hugues; Tran, Duy; Ouimet, Denis; Bell, Robert Zoël; Bezzaoucha, Sarah; Boucher, Anne; Collette, Suzon; Pichette, Vincent; Senécal, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the use of cinacalcet in the management of hyperparathyroidism in kidney transplant recipients. The secondary objective is to identify baseline factors that predict cinacalcet use after transplantation. Methods. In this single-center retrospective study, we conducted a chart review of all patients having been transplanted from 2003 to 2012 and having received cinacalcet up to kidney transplantation and/or thereafter. Results. Twenty-seven patients were included with a mean follow-up of 2.9 ± 2.4 years. Twenty-one were already taking cinacalcet at the time of transplantation. Cinacalcet was stopped within the first month in 12 of these patients of which 7 had to restart therapy. The main reason for restarting cinacalcet was hypercalcemia. Length of treatment was 23 ± 26 months. There were only 3 cases of mild hypocalcemia. There was no statistically significant association between baseline factors and cinacalcet status a year later. Conclusions. Discontinuing cinacalcet within the first month of kidney transplantation often leads to hypercalcemia. Cinacalcet appears to be an effective treatment of hypercalcemic hyperparathyroidism in kidney transplant recipients. Further studies are needed to evaluate safety and long-term benefits. PMID:28386475

  1. Maxillofacial Fractures in the Province of Pescara, Italy: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ascani, Giuliano; Di Cosimo, Francesca; Costa, Michele; Mancini, Paolo; Caporale, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the etiology and pattern of maxillofacial fractures in the Province of Pescara, Abruzzo, Central Italy. Was performed a retrospective review of patients treated at the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery of Spirito Santo Hospital from January 2010 to December 2012. Data collected and analyzed included sex, age, cause of injury, site of fracture, monthly distribution, and alcohol misuse. A total of 306 patients sustaining 401 maxillofacial fractures were treated. There were 173 males (56.5%) and 133 females (43.5%). Most of the patients (36.9%) were in the age group of 18–44 years. The most common causes of injuries were road traffic accidents (26.4%); the second leading cause was interpersonal violence (23.2%), followed by injuries associated with falls (19.2%). Fractures of the mandible (31%) and zygoma (23%) were the most common maxillofacial fractures in our study. The monthly distribution peaked in the summer (July and August, 30.4%) and in October (13.1%). In conclusion, this study confirms the close correlation between the incidence and etiology of facial fractures and the geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic features of a population. The data obtained provide important information for the design of future plans for injury prevention and for education of citizens. PMID:24587920

  2. A Retrospective Clinical Study: Complications of Totally Implanted Central Venous Access Ports

    PubMed Central

    Seok, June Pill; Cho, Hyun Min; Ryu, Han Young; Hwang, Wan Jin; Sung, Tae Yun

    2014-01-01

    Background When managing patients who require repeated venous access, gaining a viable intravenous route has been problematic. To improve the situation, various studies on techniques for venous access have been conducted. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical results of complications following totally implanted central venous access port (TICVAP) insertion. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on 163 patients, from December 2008 to March 2013. The occurrence of complications was studied in three separate periods of catheter use: the intraoperative period, postoperative period, and period during the treatment. Results A total of 165 cases of TICVAP insertions involving 156 patients were included in the final analysis. There were 35 complications (21%) overall. Among these, 31 cases of complications (19%) occurred during the treatment period and the other 4 cases were intraoperative and postoperative complications (2%). There were no statistically significant differences in age and gender of the patients between the two groups to be risk factors (p=0.147, p=0.08). Past history of chemotherapy, initial laboratory findings, and the locations of TICVAP insertion also showed no statistical significance as risk factors (p>0.05). Conclusion Because the majority of complications occurred after port placement and during treatment, meticulous care and management and appropriate education are necessary when using TICVAPs. PMID:24570862

  3. A retrospective study to compare improvement of implant maintenance by Medical Treatment Model

    PubMed Central

    Maruo, Katsuichiro; Singh, Kamleshwar; Shibata, Sadahiko; Sugiura, Go; Kumagai, Takashi; Tamaki, Katsushi; Jain, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background: Study comparing the improvement of implant maintenance is limited. Clinicians must be aware of implant maintenance to improve long-term success of implant. Aims: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate whether the Medical Treatment Model (MTM), which is a comprehensive treatment, includes initial risk assessment, lifestyle instructions, such as diet and habits, and a customized maintenance program to improve implant prognosis. Materials and Methods: Patients who were comprehensively treated were included and divided into two groups, test and control groups. The test group included patients who started treatment with MTM, whereas control group included patients who started treatment without MTM introduction. Moreover, subsequently, compliance with maintenance, occurrence of biological complications, and implant failure were evaluated. Results: About 199 patients with 515 implants were analyzed in the control group and 38 patients with 59 implants in the test group. In the control and test groups, the percentages of patients in the four compliance categories were, respectively, 73.9% and 89.5% for excellent compliance, 7.0% and 7.9% for good compliance, 14.6% and 0% for fair compliance, and 4.5% and 2.6% for poor compliance. There was a statistically significant difference in the compliance with periodontal and implant maintenance between the test and control groups (P = 0.029). Conclusions: Within the limitation of this study, MTM significantly enhanced the compliance of patients treated with implants. PMID:27994406

  4. Factors Associated with Reevaluation of the Stepwise Excavation Procedure: An 8-Year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Verdugo, Paula; Guzmán-Armstrong, Sandra; Cobb, Deborah; Dawson, Deborah V; Blanchette, Derek; Kolker, Justine L; Hernández, Marcela; Warren, J J

    2016-01-01

    Although the stepwise excavation procedure (SWP) has been shown to be an effective caries treatment technique, studies reporting its application outside of controlled clinical trials are limited. We performed a retrospective study from patient record data to assess the proportion of patients who had an SWP reevaluated within 18 months at The University of Iowa College of Dentistry (UICOD) between 2004 and 2012, and evaluated the association between different variables and this outcome. A total of 1,985 SWPs were performed in 1,326 patients, with 518 patients having had reevaluation within 18 months. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression modeling revealed strong associations between explanatory variables such as provider type, tooth type, patient age, number of recalls and the calendar year in which the SWP was done and reevaluation status. There was also evidence of association with dental insurance status. Other characteristics such as gender, distance traveled to the UICOD, number of surfaces treated and tooth arch did not show any significant association. In general, patients were more likely to have reevaluation when seen by faculty members or residents, the procedure was performed in molars/pre-molars, they were older, they had more recalls and were seen earlier in the study period. These results suggest that decisions to use SWP should consider patient demographics and treatment characteristics such as provider level, tooth type, patient age and number of recalls. The impact of treatment year may reflect program heterogeneity or temporal changes in external societal factors.

  5. For What Reasons Do Patients File a Complaint? A Retrospective Study on Patient Rights Units’ Registries

    PubMed Central

    Önal, Gülsüm; Civaner, M. Murat

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2004, Patient Rights Units were established in all public hospitals in Turkey to allow patients to voice their complaints about services. Aims: To determine what violations are reflected into the complaint mechanism, the pattern over time, and patients’ expectations of the services. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: A retrospective study performed using the complaint database of the Istanbul Health Directorate, from 2005 to 2011. Results: The results indicate that people who are older than 40 years, women, and those with less than high school education are the most common patients in these units. A total of 218,186 complaints were filed. Each year, the number of complaints increased compared to the previous year, and nearly half of the applications were made in 2010 and 2011 (48.9%). The three most frequent complaints were “not benefiting from services in general” (35.4%), “not being treated in a respectable manner and in comfortable conditions” (17.8%), and “not being properly informed” (13.5%). Two-thirds of the overall applications were found in favour of the patients (63.3%), and but this rate has decreased over the years. Conclusion: Patients would like to be treated in a manner that respects their human dignity. Educating healthcare workers on communication skills might be a useful initiative. More importantly, health policies and the organisation of services should prioritise patient rights. It is only then would be possible to exercise patient rights in reality. PMID:25759767

  6. Clinical Effect of Rebound Hyperthermia After Cooling Postcardiac Arrest: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Makker, Parth; Shimada, Yuichi J; Misra, Deepika; Kanei, Yumiko

    2016-10-26

    Therapeutic hypothermia is used in select patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) to improve neurologic outcome. Rebound hyperthermia (RH) is commonly observed post-treatment. Previous studies analyzing the association of RH with clinical outcome have reported conflicting results. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of RH after completion of therapeutic hypothermia in patients postcardiac arrest. We analyzed a retrospective cohort from our institution. All adults who underwent therapeutic hypothermia post-OHCA were divided into two cohorts depending on the presence/absence of fever (T > 38°C) within 24 hours of completing hypothermia protocol. Clinical outcomes were analyzed at hospital discharge or death. Among 306 patients admitted with OHCA, 117 underwent hypothermia, 97 survived 24 hours postrewarming. Twenty-seven patients (50%) with RH died compared with 20 (47%) without RH (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.52-2.57). Twenty-six patients (67%) with RH had a poor neurologic outcome compared with 27 (63%) without RH (OR 1.19, 95% CI, 0.51-2.74). RH is common after completion of therapeutic hypothermia in comatose patients due to cardiac arrest and is associated with poor neurologic outcomes. We found no significant clinical impact of rebound hypothermia on neurologic outcome or mortality, but our study was underpowered to reveal such impact if it exists.

  7. Evolution of oral and written confrontation naming errors in aphasia. A retrospective study on vascular patients.

    PubMed

    Basso, A; Corno, M; Marangolo, P

    1996-02-01

    Impaired naming is a common finding in aphasia but while it is known that naming errors diminish over time, longitudinal studies are rare. In this retrospective study, naming errors of 84 vascular aphasic patients are studied. Errors in oral and written confrontation naming tasks in two successive evaluations are tabulated and coded into one of 10 error types. No Response, Word-Finding Difficulty, Semantic Paraphasia, Unrelated Paraphasia, Phonemic/Orthographic Paraphasia, Neologism, Paraphasic Jargon, Phonemic/Neologistic Jargon, Stereotypy, and Other. All analyses were carried out on the difference scores, that is, the score in the second examination minus the score in the first examination. Results indicate that there is a significant decrease of No Responses (in oral and written naming) and Neologisms (in oral naming), and a significant increase of Orthographic Paraphasias in written naming. Moreover, the difference score for Phonemic/Orthographic Paraphasias was higher in written than oral naming. The difference scores for the other types of error were not statistically significant.

  8. Effect of Liverubin™ on hepatic biochemical profile in patients of alcoholic liver disease: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Nanda, V; Gupta, V; Sharma, S N; Pasricha, A; Karmakar, A Kumar; Patel, A; Bhatt, V M; Kantroo, B L; Kumar, B; Paul, N K Ketar; Attam, R

    2014-12-01

    Liverubin™ is an available drug in the Indian market that contains silymarin, the major active complex extracted from the medicinal plant milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.). The study retrospectively tracked and analyzed the data of 602 patients, out of which 230 were alcohol induced; 131 with alcohol-induced liver damage (ALD), 13 with liver cirrhosis, and 86 with fatty liver; to assess the effects of water soluble Silymarin (Liverubin™) on important hepatic biochemical parameters. The data was collected from 32 major cities treated by 72 physicians across India who were observed for the specified treatment duration of 11 months. Data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics. At the end of the treatment the hepatic biochemical profile was appreciably improved: the mean % of change in the levels of important hepatic biochemical parameters was observed as follows: total bilirubin 63.48% (direct bilirubin: 64.96%; indirect bilirubin: 61.63%). The serum SGOT and SGPT changed at a mean % of 65.43 and 69.31 respectively while serum alkaline phosphatase was changed at a mean % rate of 39.81. Liverubin™ proved to be safe & well-tolerated among the studied population and no significant treatment related adverse events were reported during the study. Liverubin™ treatment is found to bring about effective lowering of abnormally elevated hepatic biochemical parameters. Liverubin™, water soluble active Silymarin, in the popularly prescribed doses of 140-mg tid is observed to be a promising safe and effective drug in cases of alcoholic liver disease.

  9. Mortality in the UK industrial silica sand industry: 2. A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, T; Rushton, L

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the mortality experience of a cohort of employees in the UK silica sand industry exposed to respirable crystalline silica (RCS). Methods: A retrospective cohort mortality study followed all workers to 2001 with at least one year's employment at one of seven UK silica sand producing quarries between 1950 and 1986. Each worker was assigned a job category and cumulative exposure to RCS was estimated using a job-exposure matrix. Results: A total of 764 deaths were identified in 2703 cohort members. The overall mortality rate for the cohort was lower than would be expected in the general population. Mortality from circulatory and respiratory disease was also less than expected, but death due to pneumoconiosis was slightly raised (two deaths). Mortality from all cancers was slightly decreased. Mortality was not raised in any job category. Cancer mortality was raised at one quarry due to a significant increase in lung (standardised mortality rate (SMR) 162.0, 95% CI 113.5 to 224.3) and bladder (SMR 366.5, 95% CI 167.6 to 695.7) cancers. Mortality from lung cancer and other causes did not show a trend with cumulative exposure to RCS. Conclusions: This study did not show any consistent relation between RCS exposure (in the absence of other known carcinogens) and the development of lung cancer. This contrasts with a number of studies that have shown positive findings in similar and related industries. PMID:15961620

  10. Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation: Retrospective Assessment of Cardiac Safety in a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzer, Peter M.; Landgrebe, Michael; Husser, Oliver; Resch, Markus; Schecklmann, Martin; Geisreiter, Florian; Poeppl, Timm B.; Prasser, Sarah Julia; Hajak, Goeran; Langguth, Berthold

    2012-01-01

    Background: Vagus nerve stimulation has been successfully used as a treatment strategy for epilepsy and affective disorders for years. Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) is a new non-invasive method to stimulate the vagus nerve, which has been shown to modulate neuronal activity in distinct brain areas. Objectives: Here we report effects of tVNS on cardiac function from a pilot study, which was conducted to evaluate the feasibility and safety of tVNS for the treatment of chronic tinnitus. Methods: Twenty-four patients with chronic tinnitus underwent treatment with tVNS over 3–10 weeks in an open single-armed pilot study. Safety criteria and practical usability of the neurostimulating device were to investigate by clinical examination and electrocardiography at baseline and at several visits during and after tVNS treatment (week 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24). Results: Two adverse cardiac events (one classified as a severe adverse event) were registered but considered very unlikely to have been caused by the tVNS device. Retrospective analyses of electrocardiographic parameters revealed a trend toward shortening of the QRS complex after tVNS. Conclusion: To our knowledge this is one of the first studies investigating feasibility and safety of tVNS in a clinical sample. In those subjects with no known pre-existing cardiac pathology, preliminary data do not indicate arrhythmic effects of tVNS. PMID:22891061

  11. Body mass index effects sperm quality: a retrospective study in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, En-Yin; Huang, Yan; Du, Qing-Yun; Yao, Gui-Dong; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2017-01-01

    Excess weight and obesity have become a serious problem in adult men of reproductive age throughout the world. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the relationships between body mass index and sperm quality in subfertile couples in a Chinese Han population. Sperm analyses were performed and demographic data collected from 2384 male partners in subfertile couples who visited a reproductive medical center for treatment and preconception counseling. The subjects were classified into four groups according to their body mass index: underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Of these subjects, 918 (38.3%) had a body mass index of >25.0 kg m-0 2 . No significant differences were found between the four groups with respect to age, occupation, level of education, smoking status, alcohol use, duration of sexual abstinence, or the collection time of year for sperm. The results clearly indicated lower sperm quality (total sperm count, sperm concentration, motile sperm, relative amounts of type A motility, and progressive motility sperm [A + B]) in overweight and obese participants than in those with normal body mass index. Normal sperm morphology and sperm volume showed no clear difference between the four groups. This study indicates that body mass index has a negative effect on sperm quality in men of subfertile couples in a Northern Chinese population. Further study should be performed to investigate the relationship between body mass index and sperm quality in a larger population.

  12. Postdeployment Respiratory Health Care Encounters Following Deployment to Kabul, Afghanistan: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Jessica M; Abraham, Joseph H; Clark, Leslie L; Rohrbeck, Patricia; Ludwig, Sharon L; Hu, Zheng; Baird, Coleen P

    2016-03-01

    Inhalational hazards are numerous in operational environments. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to investigate associations between deployment to Kabul, Afghanistan and subsequent respiratory health among U.S. military personnel. The study population consisted of personnel who deployed to Kabul, select Operation Enduring Freedom locations, personnel stationed in the Republic of Korea, and U.S.-stationed personnel. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated for respiratory symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A significantly elevated rate of symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions was observed among Kabul-deployed personnel compared to personnel deployed or stationed in Bagram (IRR 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.19), Republic of Korea (IRR 1.20; 95% CI, 1.10-1.31), and the United States (IRR 1.52; 95% CI, 1.43-1.62). A statistically elevated rate of asthma was observed among personnel deployed to Kabul, relative to U.S.-stationed personnel (IRR 1.61; 95% CI, 1.22-2.12). Statistically significant rates were not observed for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among Kabul-deployed personnel compared to other study groups. These findings suggest that deployment to Kabul is associated with an elevated risk of postdeployment respiratory symptoms and new-onset asthma.

  13. Comparison of treatment plans: a retrospective study by the method of radiobiological evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puzhakkal, Niyas; Kallikuzhiyil Kochunny, Abdullah; Manthala Padannayil, Noufal; Singh, Navin; Elavan Chalil, Jumanath; Kulangarakath Umer, Jamshad

    2016-09-01

    There are many situations in radiotherapy where multiple treatment plans need to be compared for selection of an optimal plan. In this study we performed the radiobiological method of plan evaluation to verify the treatment plan comparison procedure of our clinical practice. We estimated and correlated various radiobiological dose indices with physical dose metrics for a total of 30 patients representing typical cases of head and neck, prostate and brain tumors. Three sets of plans along with a clinically approved plan (final plan) treated by either Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) or Rapid Arc (RA) techniques were considered. The study yielded improved target coverage for final plans, however, no appreciable differences in doses and the complication probabilities of organs at risk were noticed. Even though all four plans showed adequate dose distributions, from dosimetric point of view, the final plan had more acceptable dose distribution. The estimated biological outcome and dose volume histogram data showed least differences between plans for IMRT when compared to RA. Our retrospective study based on 120 plans, validated the radiobiological method of plan evaluation. The tumor cure or normal tissue complication probabilities were found to be correlated with the corresponding physical dose indices.

  14. Single tooth replacement of missing molars: a retrospective study of 78 implants.

    PubMed

    Schwartz-Arad, D; Samet, N; Samet, N

    1999-04-01

    As experience with osseointegrated implants has grown, greater use has been made of placement in the posterior jaw. The aim of this study is to present the survival rate of 78 osseointegrated single implants, inserted in the molar area and to evaluate the prosthetic rehabilitation on these teeth. This retrospective study presents findings of 55 consecutive patients with 78 restored single osseointegrated implants in the molar area. The patients went through a clinical and radiological evaluation. The same maxillofacial surgeon inserted all implants. Three of the implants were inserted into the maxilla and 75 into the mandible; 4 of the 78 implants were immediate implants. The cumulative survival rate after one year was 93.6%. Follow-up was up to 80 months, with an average of 27 months. Out of all the implants, 6 failed (7. 7%): 5 failed in the surgical stage, and 1 after prosthetic loading. The main implant failures were among the titanium screw implants. Prosthetic complications occurred in 11 cases (14%), which included loosening of the abutment and/or the crown (9 cases), fracture of the abutment (1 case), and porcelain fracture (1 case). No incident of implant fracture occurred. Within the limits of this study, replacement of a single molar by a single implant is a valid and successful surgical treatment modality, with a high survival rate.

  15. [Psychosocial factors of chronic hand eczema].

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Liu, Panpan; Li, Ji; Xie, Hongfu; Kuang, Yehong; Li, Jie; Su, Juan; Zhu, Wu

    2017-02-28

    目的:探讨慢性手部湿疹(chronic hand eczema,CHE)患者的心理社会因素。方法:收集CHE患者240例,正常对照(normal control,NC)221例,采用一般情况问卷、艾森克人格问卷(Eysenck Personality Questionnaire,EPQ)、抑郁自评量表(Self-Rating Depression Scale,SDS)、焦虑自评量表(Self-Rating Anxiety,SAS)及湿疹患者生活质量量表(Eczema Quality of Life Scale,EQOLS)测评受试者人格特征、情绪状态、生活质量等心理社会因素及与疾病严重程度的相关性。结果:EPQ量表得分比较,CHE组内外向(E)维度得分显著低于NC组(P<0.01),神经质(N)维度得分显著高于NC组(P<0.01);精神质(P)维度和掩饰(L)维度得分两组间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。CHE组的SDS量表和SAS量表得分均显著高于NC组(P<0.01)。EQOLS量表得分比较,CHE组的疾病、心理、生理、社会各维度、量表总分及总体生活质量评分均显著高于NC组(P<0.01)。CHE患者的皮损程度和与瘙痒水平与SDS,SAS,EQOLS量表的疾病、生理、心理、社会各维度、总体生活质量、总分均有显著相关性(P<0.05)。结论:CHE患者个性更偏内向,情绪不稳定;抑郁、焦虑水平较高,生活质量水平下降,且均与病情严重程度相关。.

  16. High Incidence of Human Rabies Exposure in Northwestern Tigray, Ethiopia: A Four-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Teklu, Gebreyohans Gebru; Hailu, Teweldemedhn Gebretinsae; Eshetu, Gebremedhin Romha

    2017-01-01

    Background Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease that has been known in Ethiopia for centuries in society as “Mad Dog Disease”. It is an important disease with veterinary and public health significance in the North western zone of Tigray where previous studies have not been conducted. Frequent occurrence of outbreaks in the area led the researchers to carry out a four year retrospective study to estimate the incidence of human rabies exposure in Northwestern Tigray, Ethiopia. Methodology A referent study was conducted on human rabies exposure cases recorded from 2012 to 2015 at Suhul hospital, Shire Endaselase, Northwestern Tigray, Ethiopia. Exposure cases included in this research constituted victims bitten by unprovoked dogs and who received post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) at the hospital. Two thousand one hundred eighty human rabies exposure cases retrieved from the rabies case database were included in this study. Principal findings The majority of the exposed cases were males (1363/2180, 63%). Age wise, the most exposed age group was ≥15 years in all the study years: 166 (58%), 335 (65%), 492 (66%) and 394 (63%) in 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. Similarly, exposure cases for human rabies increased with age in both males and females across the study years. The incidence of human rabies exposure cases calculated per 100,000 populations was 35.8, 63.0, 89.8 and 73.1 in 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that being male was a risk for human rabies exposure in all the study years. Conclusion The study discovered the highest annual human rabies exposure incidence in Ethiopia. This suggests an urgent need for synergistic efforts of human and animal health sectors to implement prevention and control strategies in this area. PMID:28060935

  17. ‘Omics’ biomarkers associated with chronic low back pain: protocol of a retrospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Allegri, Massimo; Klersy, Catherine; Wang, Wei; Sim, Moira; Gieger, Christian; Manz, Judith; Pemberton, Iain K; MacDougall, Jane; Williams, Frances MK; Van Zundert, Jan; Buyse, Klaas; Lauc, Gordan; Gudelj, Ivan; Primorac, Dragan; Skelin, Andrea; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Karssen, Lennart C; Kapural, Leonardo; Rauck, Richard; Fanelli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic low back pain (CLBP) produces considerable direct costs as well as indirect burdens for society, industry and health systems. CLBP is characterised by heterogeneity, inclusion of several pain syndromes, different underlying molecular pathologies and interaction with psychosocial factors that leads to a range of clinical manifestations. There is still much to understand in the underlying pathological processes and the non-psychosocial factors which account for differences in outcomes. Biomarkers that may be objectively used for diagnosis and personalised, targeted and cost-effective treatment are still lacking. Therefore, any data that may be obtained at the ‘-omics’ level (glycomics, Activomics and genome-wide association studies—GWAS) may be helpful to use as dynamic biomarkers for elucidating CLBP pathogenesis and may ultimately provide prognostic information too. By means of a retrospective, observational, case-cohort, multicentre study, we aim to investigate new promising biomarkers potentially able to solve some of the issues related to CLBP. Methods and analysis The study follows a two-phase, 1:2 case–control model. A total of 12 000 individuals (4000 cases and 8000 controls) will be enrolled; clinical data will be registered, with particular attention to pain characteristics and outcomes of pain treatments. Blood samples will be collected to perform -omics studies. The primary objective is to recognise genetic variants associated with CLBP; secondary objectives are to study glycomics and Activomics profiles associated with CLBP. Ethics and dissemination The study is part of the PainOMICS project funded by European Community in the Seventh Framework Programme. The study has been approved from competent ethical bodies and copies of approvals were provided to the European Commission before starting the study. Results of the study will be reviewed by the Scientific Board and Ethical Committee of the PainOMICS Consortium. The

  18. Bidirectional Association between Asthma and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Two Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Li; Wei, Chang-Ching; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a demonstrated association between asthma and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this study, we examined the bidirectional association between asthma and IBS using a nationwide database. Methods We conducted two retrospective cohort studies using data obtained from the National Health Insurance of Taiwan. Study 1 included 29,648 asthma patients newly diagnosed between 2000 and 2010. Study 2 included 29,875 IBS patient newly diagnosed between 2000 and 2010. For each study, four subjects without asthma and IBS were selected, respectively, frequency-matched by sex, age, and the diagnosis date. All four cohorts were followed up until the end of 2011 to estimate incident IBS for Study 1 and incident asthma for study 2. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model after controlling for sex, age and comorbidities. Results The incidence of IBS was 1.89 times higher in the asthma cohort than in the comparison cohort (8.26 vs. 4.36 per 1,000 person-years), with an aHR of 1.57 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.47–1.68]. The aHRs remained significant in all subgroups measured by sex, age and the presence of comorbidities. In contrast, the incidence of asthma was 1.76 times higher in the IBS cohort than the comparison cohort (7.09 vs. 4.03 per 1,000 person-years), with an aHR of 1.54 (95% CI = 1.44−1.64). Similarly, aHRs remained significant in all subgroups measured by sex, age and the presence of comorbidities. Conclusion The present study suggests a bidirectional association between asthma and IBS. Atopy could be a shared pathophysiology underlying this association, deserving a further investigation. PMID:27093172

  19. Double-blind, multicentre analysis of the efficacy of borage oil in patients with atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Henz, B M; Jablonska, S; van de Kerkhof, P C; Stingl, G; Blaszczyk, M; Vandervalk, P G; Veenhuizen, R; Muggli, R; Raederstorff, D

    1999-04-01

    Although gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) has been shown to correct deficiencies in skin lipids associated with reduced delta-6-desaturase activity which should result in improvement of dysregulation of inflammation and immunity in atopic eczema, clinical studies with evening primrose oil containing 10% GLA have yielded contradictory results. We have therefore examined the effect of a higher percentage (at least 23%) GLA-containing borage oil in adults with stable atopic eczema of moderate severity in a double-blind, multicentre study. One hundred and sixty patients were randomized to take daily either 500 mg of borage oil-containing capsules or the bland lipid miglyol as a placebo over a 24-week period. Use of topical diflucortolone-21-valerate cream was allowed as rescue medication, with the amount used until response being defined as primary, and clinical improvement as secondary efficacy criteria. Although several clinical symptoms improved compared with placebo, the overall response to borage oil did not reach statistical significance. Significant differences in favour of borage oil were, however, observed in a subgroup excluding patients who failed to show increased erythrocyte dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid levels and in whom adherence to inclusion criteria and the study protocol were questionable. GLA metabolites increased in borage oil-treated patients only, and serum IgE showed a trend to decrease on overall and subgroup analysis. No substance-related adverse effects were observed. This study shows no overall efficacy of GLA-containing borage oil in atopic eczema, with steroid use being the primary response parameter, although it suggests that a subgroup of patients may benefit from this well-tolerated treatment.

  20. Sebaceous adenitis in Swedish dogs, a retrospective study of 104 cases

    PubMed Central

    Hernblad Tevell, Elisabeth; Bergvall, Kerstin; Egenvall, Agneta

    2008-01-01

    Background Sebaceous adenitis (SA) is an uncommon, immune mediated skin disease in dogs. The aim was to retrospectively investigate SA in dogs in Sweden with respect to breed, sex and age distribution. A second aim was to retrospectively compare clinical signs in dogs with generalized SA and to estimate the survival after diagnosis in the English springer spaniel, standard poodle and the akita. Methods In total 34 Swedish veterinarians contributed with 104 clinically and histologically verified SA cases. Breed, gender and age at diagnosis were registered for each case. The degree of clinical signs at time for diagnosis and at follow-up and information about treatments, concurrent diseases and euthanasia were recorded for the springer spaniels, standard poodles and akitas using a standardized questionnaire. Results A total of 104 cases of SA were included; most cases were recorded for the springer spaniel (n = 25), standard poodle (n = 21) and the akita (n = 10). These three breeds, together with the lhasa apso and the chow-chow, were the most common when national registry data from the Swedish Board of Agriculture and Swedish Kennel Club were considered. The mean age at diagnosis was 4.8 years. The proportion of males was 61%. When the springer spaniels, standard poodles and the akitas with generalized signs were compared (n = 51), the spaniels showed significantly more severe clinical signs than the poodles at diagnosis regarding alopecia, seborrhoea, pyoderma and the overall severity of clinical signs. At follow-up, the degree of clinical signs for otitis externa and pyoderma differed significantly between the breeds. The estimated median survival time was 42 months. In dogs where data regarding survival was available at the end of the study (n = 44), SA was reported to be the reason for euthanasia in 14 dogs, whereof 7 within 24 months after diagnosis. Conclusion The result of this study implicates that the English springer spaniel is a breed predisposed to SA

  1. Risk of Death in Bullous Pemphigoid: A Retrospective Database Study in Finland.

    PubMed

    Försti, Anna-Kaisa; Jokelainen, Jari; Timonen, Markku; Tasanen, Kaisa

    2016-08-23

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune skin disease of elderly people, which is associated with increased mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for BP in Finland, and concomitant comorbidities and medications. This was a retrospective database study of all cases of BP diagnosed at the Department of Dermatology, Oulu University Hospital, Finland, between 1985 and 2012. A total of 198 immunologically confirmed cases of BP were found. One-year mortality was 16.7%, and SMR 7.56 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.98-10.14). The most common comorbidities were cardiovascular diseases (76.3%) and neurodegenerative diseases (40.9%). Malignancies (8.6%) were associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio = 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.5, p = 0.047). A novel finding was that polypharmacy was very common in patients with BP, and the higher the number of drugs, the greater the mortality. In conclusion, the mortality for BP in Finland is 7.6-fold that of a reference population, and malignancies and polypharmacy are associated with increased mortality.

  2. Paracoccidioidomycosis in southern Rio Grande do Sul: A retrospective study of histopathologically diagnosed cases

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Silvana Pereira; Jorge, Valéria Magalhães; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski

    2014-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and is endemic to Brazil. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the PCM cases in the countryside south of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The files from four histopathology laboratories located in the city of Pelotas were obtained, and all of the epidemiological and clinical data from the PCM diagnosed cases were collected for analysis. A total of 123 PCM cases diagnosed between 1966 and 2009 were selected. Of these patients, 104 (84.5%) were male, and 17 were female. The patients ranged from 02 to 92 years of age. Fifty-two cases (41.9%) were obtained from the oral pathology laboratory, and the remaining 71 cases (58.1%) were obtained from the three general pathology laboratories. Of all of the patients studied, 65.2% lived in rural zones and worked in agriculture or other related fields. Data on the evolution of this disease was available for 43 cases, and the time frame ranged from 20 to 2920 days (mean = 572.3 days). An accurate diagnosis performed in less than 30 days only occurred in 21% of the cases. PCM is endemic to the countryside of Rio Grande do Sul. Therefore, it is recommended that PCM be included as a differential diagnosis, mainly for individuals between 30 and 60 years of age, living in rural zones and who have respiratory signs and associated-oropharyngeal lesions. PMID:24948940

  3. Factors affecting symptoms and functionality of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Yucel, Hulya

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the associations between clinical, physical, and neurophysiological outcomes and self-reported symptoms and functions of patients after surgical carpal tunnel release. [Subjects and Methods] Among 261 patients who had undergone open surgical carpal tunnel release within the last three years, 83 (mean age 50.27 ± 11.13 years) participated in this study. Their socio-demographics and comorbidities were recorded. The intensity of pain, paresthesia, and fatigue symptoms in the hand were assessed by means of a Visual Analogue Scale, the Semmes-Weinstein Monofilaments test of light touch pressure sensation, and Jamar dynamometry for measurement of grip and pinch strengths. The Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire evaluated the severity of symptoms and hand functional status, and the variables were analyzed by multivariate linear regression. [Results] The severity of the symptoms and functional status of release surgery patients was associated with diabetes mellitus, migraine, night pain, paresthesia and fatigue symptoms, impaired light touch pressure, and lack of medical treatment. [Conclusion] Appropriate post-surgery treatment programs for these factors should be taken into consideration to help patients obtain optimal functionality and health in their daily lives. PMID:25995565

  4. Prognostic factors of palatal mucoepidermoid carcinoma: a retrospective analysis based on a double-center study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenguang; Wang, Yufeng; Qi, Xiaofeng; Xie, Junqi; Wei, Zheng; Yin, Xiteng; Wang, Zhiyong; Meng, Jian; Han, Wei

    2017-03-06

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the palate is a common malignancy of minor salivary glands. This study was designed to identify the prognostic factors for MEC of the palate. The medical records of patients diagnosed with MEC of the palate who visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Nanjing Stomatological Hospital and the Department of Stomatology at Central Hospital of Xuzhou were retrospectively studied. The prognostic factors were determined using a Cox proportional hazards model. Furthermore, the expression of cancer stem cell (CSC) markers CD44, CD133, Nanog and Sox2 were detected in neoplastic samples of these patients by immunohistochemistry. As a result, both univariate analysis and multivariate analysis proved a high histological grade and an advanced tumor stage as negative prognostic factors for overall survival. By immunohistochemistry staining and survival analysis, a combination of CD44/CD133/SOX2 was found to have the strongest prognostic value for palatal MEC patients. In conclusion, the proposed nomogram which include histological grade and tumor stage along with cancer stem cell markers provides a more accurate long-term prediction for palatal MEC patients.

  5. The Capabilities and Limitations of Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Detecting Kidney Stones: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Mellena D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the performance of currently available magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting kidney stones, compared to computed tomography (CT) results, and to determine the characteristics of successfully detected stones. Patients who had undergone both abdominal/pelvic CT and MRI exams within 30 days were studied. The images were reviewed by two expert radiologists blinded to the patients' respective radiological diagnoses. The study consisted of four steps: (1) reviewing the MRI images and determining whether any kidney stone(s) are identified; (2) reviewing the corresponding CT images and confirming whether kidney stones are identified; (3) reviewing the MRI images a second time, armed with the information from the corresponding CT, noting whether any kidney stones are positively identified that were previously missed; (4) for all stones MRI-confirmed on previous steps, the radiologist experts being asked to answer whether in retrospect, with knowledge of size and location on corresponding CT, these stones would be affirmed as confidently identified on MRI or not. In this best-case scenario involving knowledge of stones and their locations on concurrent CT, radiologist experts detected 19% of kidney stones on MRI, with stone size being a major factor for stone identification. PMID:27980535

  6. Prognostic factors of palatal mucoepidermoid carcinoma: a retrospective analysis based on a double-center study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenguang; Wang, Yufeng; Qi, Xiaofeng; Xie, Junqi; Wei, Zheng; Yin, Xiteng; Wang, Zhiyong; Meng, Jian; Han, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the palate is a common malignancy of minor salivary glands. This study was designed to identify the prognostic factors for MEC of the palate. The medical records of patients diagnosed with MEC of the palate who visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Nanjing Stomatological Hospital and the Department of Stomatology at Central Hospital of Xuzhou were retrospectively studied. The prognostic factors were determined using a Cox proportional hazards model. Furthermore, the expression of cancer stem cell (CSC) markers CD44, CD133, Nanog and Sox2 were detected in neoplastic samples of these patients by immunohistochemistry. As a result, both univariate analysis and multivariate analysis proved a high histological grade and an advanced tumor stage as negative prognostic factors for overall survival. By immunohistochemistry staining and survival analysis, a combination of CD44/CD133/SOX2 was found to have the strongest prognostic value for palatal MEC patients. In conclusion, the proposed nomogram which include histological grade and tumor stage along with cancer stem cell markers provides a more accurate long-term prediction for palatal MEC patients. PMID:28262804

  7. Who needs surgery for pediatric myelomeningocele? A retrospective study and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Loff, Clara; Calado, Eulália

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Children with myelomeningocele (MMC) are usually subjected to multiple surgeries. However, the number and type of surgeries are not the same in every patient with MMC over time. This report summarizes the surgical interventions in a cohort of several ages. Materials and methods Data on all of the patients with MMC, aged from 1 year and 10 months to 21 years and 11 months, were retrospectively reviewed at the Dona Estefânia Hospital in Lisbon, Portugal. Data were collected by chart review and individual interviews. The factors analyzed were demographics, ambulatory status, neurological level of involvement, shunt status, Arnold–Chiari malformation type II, surgical history, and occurrence of fracture. The surgical interventions were categorized as neurosurgical, orthopedic, urinary, ulcer repair and others. Results A total of 84 alive were eligible and enrolled. The average age was 14 years and six months. A total of 59 patients received shunts (all but one ventriculoperitoneal). In the study group, the 84 patients required 663 surgeries. Neurosurgical interventions were the most frequent surgical procedure and predominated during the first 2 years of life. Surgical interventions related to shunts were the most common neurosurgical interventions. Orthopedic surgeries were more frequent in the age group 6–12 years. Urological surgeries were done mainly after 6 years of age. Surgical repair of pressure ulcers was more common after 12 years of age. Conclusions Our study brings to light the complexity of this condition, with multiple surgeries among patients with MMC. PMID:25029586

  8. Firearm and Nonfirearm Homicide in 5 South African Cities: A Retrospective Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Mary Lou; Myers, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We assessed the effectiveness of South Africa’s Firearm Control Act (FCA), passed in 2000, on firearm homicide rates compared with rates of nonfirearm homicide across 5 South African cities from 2001 to 2005. Methods. We conducted a retrospective population-based study of 37 067 firearm and nonfirearm homicide cases. Generalized linear models helped estimate and compare time trends of firearm and nonfirearm homicides, adjusting for age, sex, race, day of week, city, year of death, and population size. Results. There was a statistically significant decreasing trend regarding firearm homicides from 2001, with an adjusted year-on-year homicide rate ratio of 0.864 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.848, 0.880), representing a decrease of 13.6% per annum. The year-on-year decrease in nonfirearm homicide rates was also significant, but considerably lower at 0.976 (95% CI = 0.954, 0.997). Results suggest that 4585 (95% CI = 4427, 4723) lives were saved across 5 cities from 2001 to 2005 because of the FCA. Conclusions. Strength, timing and consistent decline suggest stricter gun control mediated by the FCA accounted for a significant decrease in homicide overall, and firearm homicide in particular, during the study period. PMID:24432917

  9. [Postoperative evaluation of different surgical procedures in genuine stress urinary incontinence: a retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Colorado, S; Pérez-Soriano, P; Alvarez-Mercado, R L; Herbert, A; Kunhardt-Rasch, J

    1996-06-01

    An evaluation of the surgical treatment for stress and mixed urinary incontinence and pelvic relaxation. One-year follow-up, was done. A retrospective study with 144 files from the surgeries performed between February 1993 and June 1994, at the Clínica de Urología Ginecológica del Instituto Nacional de Perinatología. We excluded 37 files because of incomplete information. The age, parity, hormonal stage, preoperative diagnosis by urodynamic studies, surgical treatments and one-year follow-up were analyzed. The mean age was 45.5 years. Pereyra procedure was performed in 53, Burch procedure in 47, anterior colporrhaphy in 5, and sling procedure in 2 patients. The incidence of complications was similar between the different groups. Resumption of spontaneous postsurgical voiding was delayed in the Pereyra group. The Burch urethropexy and Pereyra procedures were equally effective, with no statistical differences observed. Burch vaginal suspension was not more effective for the correction of urinary stress incontinence than Pereyra procedure.

  10. Epidemiology of syphilis-related hospitalisations in Spain between 1997 and 2006: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Megía, M Carmen; González-Escalada, Alba; Álvaro-Meca, Alejandro; Gil-deMiguel, Ángel; Gil-Prieto, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Objective In order to illustrate the important public health impact of syphilis, which is a preventable infection, the epidemiology of syphilis-related hospitalisations in Spain was studied over a 10-year period. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using the National Epidemiological Surveillance System for Hospital Data (Minimum Data Set). All hospitalisations due to syphilis infection in any diagnostic position (ICD-9-CM 090–097) between 1997 and 2006 were analysed, according to the Spanish version of the International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision (ICD-9-CM). Results There were 9556 hospitalisations associated with syphilis in Spain. The hospitalisation rate was 2.33 per 100 000 population, the mortality rate was 0.07 per 100 000 population and the lethality was 3.17%. The hospitalisation rate increased significantly after 2000 and was higher in men. Conclusion Syphilis remains a major public health problem because of both potential complications and its close association with HIV infection. It is necessary to promote early diagnosis, ensure treatment in patients with syphilis and emphasise health promotion and prevention programmes. PMID:22080538

  11. Contrast Enema and Risk of Sepsis in Premature Babies: A 12-Year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Arpit; Ogwara, Frederick; Homel, Peter; Filipov, Panayot

    2017-02-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the association between contrast enema (CE) and clinical sepsis (CS) in premature babies (PB) and the role of antibiotics (ABs) in its prevention. Study Design A retrospective electronic chart review of preterm babies, who underwent CE during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. Group I includes CEs of babies exposed to AB during or within 48 hours of the procedure. Group II represents CEs of babies, not exposed to AB. Variables for both groups were collected and analyzed. Results There were 161 CEs performed in 133 babies. The overall incidence of CS after CE in preterm babies was 21/160 cases (13%). The incidence was significantly lower in Group I (1/79, 1.2%), compared with Group II (20/81, 24.7%) (p < 0.001). Six (30%) of the 20 babies from Group II had positive blood culture and all 20 required AB after the CE. There were no statistical differences in the variables between the two groups. Conclusion There is a possible association between CE and CS in preterm babies. ABs given during or before the procedure prevent this complication.

  12. Sharp force injury fatalities: a retrospective study (1982-2012) in Brescia (Italy).

    PubMed

    Vassalini, Marzia; Verzeletti, Andrea; De Ferrari, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    A retrospective study was carried out on postmortem examination data of 131 sharp force-related casualties recorded by the Brescia Institute of Forensic Medicine between 1982 and 2012. The objective was to identify relevant parameters that may be used to distinguish the manner of deaths between homicide, suicide, and accident. The following variables were considered: manner of death; demographic data; scene; type of sharp object; location and numbers of wounds; the presence of hesitation marks/defense wounds; toxicological findings; psychiatric history. There were 92 homicides, 28 suicides, and 11 accidents. Most victims were male, with an average age of 43. Injuries in isolation were present in 9.8% of homicides, in 35.7% of suicides, and in 54.5% of accidents. Most injuries involved the left anterior chest in homicides and the forearms in suicides. This study underlines the importance of a meticulous postmortem examination of injuries on the body and their relationship with other results from the death scene investigation.

  13. Retrospective study of patients with Chiari: malformation submitted to surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Taricco, Mário Augusto; Melo, Luiz Ricardo Santiago

    2008-06-01

    The Chiari malformation (CM) is characterized by variable herniation of one or both cerebellar tonsils, associated or not with displacement of the hindbrain structures into the vertebral canal. This is a retrospective study of 29 patients with CM submitted to surgical procedure between 1990 and 2003. There were 14 females and 15 males whose ages ranged from 16 to 65 years. There were seven patients with isolated CM, 12 associated with syringomyelia (SM), three associated with basilar impression (BI) and seven associated with SM and BI. The surgery was based on posterior fossa decompression. In seven patients a catheter was introduced from the subarachnoid space into the III ventricle and five were submitted to tonsillectomy. Twenty-one patients improved, one worsened, one remained unchanged, four missed follow up and two died. We conclude that the best results with CM surgery are obtained by an effective posterior fossa decompression. Those CM cases associated with other abnormalities, such as SM and BI, probably need complementary techniques which will be the theme for new prospective studies.

  14. Retrospective study of 149 cases of salivary gland carcinoma in a Spanish hospital population

    PubMed Central

    Campo-Trapero, Julián; Cano-Sánchez, Jorge; García-Martín, Rosa; Ballestín-Carcavilla, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Background The clinical and histological characteristics of salivary gland tumors vary widely, complicating their diagnosis and management, and major differences have been recorded in the distribution of histopathological diagnoses among different countries. Material and Methods This retrospective study reviewed the demographic (age, sex) and clinicopathological (pathology diagnosis and localization) characteristics of cases diagnosed with primary SGC between June 1992 and May 2014 in the Pathology Department of the 12 de Octubre Hospital of Madrid. Diagnoses were recorded according to the 2005 WHO classification. Results The study included 149 SCG patients, aged between 11 and 94 yrs, with mean age at onset of 55.56 yrs and peak incidence in the eighth decade of life. The male:female ratio was 1.01. The parotid gland was the most frequently involved (75.2%). The most frequent carcinoma was mucoepidermoid carcinoma (24.2%), followed by acinic cell carcinoma (15.4%). Conclusions The demographic and histopathological characteristics of patients with salivary gland carcinomas in Spain, reported here for the first time, are broadly similar to those found in other countries. Key words:Salivary gland carcinomas, descriptive, salivary glands, salivary gland tumors, head and neck cancer, oral cancer, Spain. PMID:28160579

  15. Chromosomal abnormalities in couples with repeated fetal loss: An Indian retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Frenny J; Liehr, Thomas; Kumari, Pritti; Akinde, Ralph; Sheth, Harsh J; Sheth, Jayesh J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recurrent pregnancy loss is a common occurrence and a matter of concern for couples planning the pregnancy. Chromosomal abnormalities, mainly balanced rearrangements, are common in couples with repeated miscarriages. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contribution of chromosomal anomalies causing repeated spontaneous miscarriages and provide detailed characterization of a few structurally altered chromosomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cytogenetic study was carried out on 4859 individuals having a history of recurrent miscarriages. The cases were analyzed using G-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization wherever necessary. RESULTS: Chromosomal rearrangements were found in 170 individuals (3.5%). Translocations were seen in 72 (42.35%) cases. Of these, reciprocal translocations constituted 42 (24.70%) cases while Robertsonian translocations were detected in 30 (17.64%) cases. 7 (4.11%) cases were mosaic, 8 (4.70%) had small supernumerary marker chromosomes and 1 (0.6%) had an interstitial microdeletion. Nearly, 78 (1.61%) cases with heteromorphic variants were seen of which inversion of Y chromosome (57.70%) and chromosome 9 pericentromeric variants (32.05%) were predominantly involved. CONCLUSIONS: Chromosomal analysis is an important etiological investigation in couples with repeated miscarriages. Characterization of variants/marker chromosome enable calculation of a more precise recurrent risk in a subsequent pregnancy thereby facilitating genetic counseling and deciding further reproductive options. PMID:24497706

  16. Effectiveness of combining manual therapy and acupuncture on temporomandibular joint dysfunction: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Byung-Cheul; Ha, Chung-Hyo; Song, Yung-Sun; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2007-01-01

    This retrospective study investigated the effects of combining manual therapy and acupuncture on the pain and maximal mouth opening (MMO), which were associated with temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD). The 49 TMD patients (15 men, 34 women; mean age = 30.47 years, SD = 13.52 years) were treated with a combination of acupuncture and manual therapy two or three times a week at the hospital. The pain and maximal mouth opening were assessed before and after 1 and 4 weeks of treatment. The combination therapy produced significant changes in pain levels (p < 0.001) and mouth opening (p < 0.001). All pairwise non-parametric comparison showed a significant improvement in pain (p < 0.05 for all pairs) and MMO (p < 0.05 for all pairs). These findings suggest that combining manual therapy and acupuncture decreases the pain level and increases the MMO of TMD patients. However, future studies should further investigate the efficacy of combined treatment on TMD with more rigorous randomized clinical trials.

  17. Spectrum of autoimmune vesiculobullous diseases in Iran: a 13-year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Sobhan, Mohammadreza; Farshchian, Mahmood; Tamimi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background Autoimmune bullous diseases (ABDs) represent a group of rare, acquired disorders characterized by overlapping features with involvement of the skin and mucous membranes, resistance to treatment, and potential lethality that comprise pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid (BP), epidermolysis bullosa, dermatitis herpetiformis, and linear immunoglobulin A bullous dermatosis. Aim The main aim of this study was to identify the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical courses of these common diseases in Hamadan, Iran. Few surveys have been carried out to demonstrate the whole spectrum of ABDs in the literature. Notably, in Hamadan we are the first. Materials and methods This 13-year retrospective study was designed to evaluate all of documented data obtained from hospitalized patients with ABDs at Farshchian Hospital from October 1999 to October 2012. We collected information on epidemiologic data, clinical aspects, histologic findings, and therapy prescribed. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results Of 168 patients, 78% had pemphigus. The age of patients at presentation ranged from 1 month to 115 years, with a mean of 47.5±19.93 years. Mucosal or skin involvement of ABDs was statistically significant (P<0.001). The incidence of ABDs differed significantly based on anatomic location (P=0.003). We documented three deaths. Conclusion Compared to previous literature, our findings showed equal epidemiologic properties in Iran. Although pemphigus was the most common ABD followed by BP, it is expected that in line with the global trend, an increase in BP will be driven by population aging in Iran. PMID:26811692

  18. Normal lymph node size in the mediastinum: a retrospective study in two patient groups.

    PubMed

    Ingram, C E; Belli, A M; Lewars, M D; Reznek, R H; Husband, J E

    1989-01-01

    The size and number of normal mediastinal lymph nodes seen on computed tomography were studied retrospectively in 110 patients from the Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, and St Bartholomew's Hospital, London. The mediastinum was divided into four areas. Lymph nodes were seen in 81% of patients. The number of patients with nodes in a specific area varied from 28% in the right superior mediastinum to 46% in the pretracheal retrocaval space. Seventeen per cent of the areas studied contained one node, 11% contained two or three nodes and 4% had three nodes. Fewer nodes were seen in patients with sparse mediastinal fat. Sixty-seven per cent of patients had nodes measuring 5 mm or less in maximum transverse diameter and 21% of patients had one or more nodes of 6-10 mm. Only a single calcified node measured more than 10 mm. We conclude that the majority of nodes are 5 mm or less in diameter and that almost all normal nodes measure 10 mm or less.

  19. Sphenoid sinus fungall ball: a retrospective study over a 10- year period.

    PubMed

    Eloy, Ph; Grenier, J; Pirlet, A; Poirrier, A L; Stephens, J S; Rombaux, Ph

    2013-06-01

    A fungal ball consists of a dense conglomerate of fungal hyphae growing at the surface of the sinus mucosa without tissue infiltration. The maxillary sinus is by far the most commonly involved paranasal sinus cavity followed by the sphenoid sinus. The present study is a retrospective study of 25 consecutive cases treated during the last 10 years in the two hospitals be- longing to the Catholic University of Louvain (CHU Mont-Godinne and UCL Saint Luc). We report the symptomatology, the imaging and discuss the different surgical managements. We conclude that the clinician must have a high index of suspicion when dealing with a unilateral rhinosinusitis persisting despite a maximal and well conducted medical treatment. This is particularly so in elderly women when associated with facial pain and post nasal drip, particularly when the computed tomography shows an unilateral opacity of the sphenoid sinus with or without a sclerosis or an erosion of the bony walls, a polyp in the sphenoethmoidal recess or a hyperdensity mimicking a foreign body. An endonasal endoscopic sphenoidotomy is the treatment of choice in most cases, allowing good ventilation of the sinus and radical removal of all the fungal concretion. A biopsy of the sinus mucosa adjacent to fungal elements is of upmost important to confirm the non- invasiveness of the fungi within the tissue. Antifungal medication is not required in uncomplicated forms. All host factors producing some degree of immunosuppression must be corrected when present and must alert the clinician to rule out any forms of invasive disease.

  20. Are gastric hyperplastic polyps an additional manifestation in celiac disease?: Results from a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Dore, Maria Pina; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Rocchi, Chiara; Loria, Maria Francesca; Soro, Sara; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2017-02-01

    Gastric polyps are frequently reported in patients undergoing upper endoscopic procedures. In this retrospective study, the association between hyperplastic polyps and celiac disease in Northern Sardinia was estimated.Age, gender, body mass index, and medications taken in the 2 preceding months, including proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), H2 receptor blockers (anti-H2), Helicobacter pylori status, endoscopic findings, and histology from charts of patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy were reviewed. Polyps were classified as hyperplastic, fundic gland, inflammatory, and adenomatous.3.7% (423/11379) patients had celiac disease. Prevalence of gastric polyps was 4.2% (3.8% among celiac vs 4.2% nonceliac patients). Inflammatory polyp was the most common histotype (55.8% and 56.2%) followed by fundic gland polyps (31.4% and 43.7%), hyperplastic (8.7% and 0%), and adenomas, in celiac and nonceliac patients, respectively. Fundic gland polyps were more common in PPI users (odds ratio: 4.06) than in nonusers (2.65, P = 0.001) among celiac and nonceliac patients. Age older than 50, female gender, esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy year, and PPI use were associated with the presence of polyps, whereas active H pylori infection was not.Gastric polyps were common in Sardinian patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy. However, the previously reported association between hyperplastic polyps and celiac disease was not confirmed in our study.

  1. Rapid-maxillary-expansion induced rhinological effects: a retrospective multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Motro, Melih; Schauseil, Michael; Ludwig, Björn; Zorkun, Berna; Mainusch, Saskia; Ateş, Mustafa; Küçükkeleş, Nazan; Korbmacher-Steiner, Heike

    2016-03-01

    Conventional dental-borne rapid maxillary expansion (RME) leads to a widening of the airways, followed by improved nasal breathing. Although combined skeletal-dental appliances are nowadays being inserted increasingly often and provide a force at the center of resistance in the nasomaxillary complex, no study exists so far that shows whether this treatment may improve the expansionary effect on the airways. In this study, low-dose computed tomography (CT) images from 31 patients (average age 14.63 ± 0.38 years) were examined retrospectively. Both records (T0 = before expansion and T1 = immediately after maximum expansion) were taken in a time interval of 25 days to avoid growth influence. Five patients were treated with Hyrax RME, 6 patients with Hybrid RME, and 20 patients with acrylic cap RME. The total airway volume increased highly significantly (mean +7272.6 mm(3); P < 0.001, power = 0.998), representing an average airway expansion of +11.54 % (2.35 %/mm activation). While the nasopharynx and oropharynx showed highly significant expansion (P < 0.000, power = 0.999), the airway at the laryngopharynx did not change significantly (P > 0.779, power = 0.05). Although the patients were significantly older in the Hybrid RME group (P = 0.006), the positive rhinological effects were comparable within all groups of different appliances (P > 0.316). Hybrid RME may, therefore, be an advisable procedure in patients with nasomaxillary impairment and pronounced patient's age.

  2. Proteinuria as a Therapeutic Target in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease: a Retrospective Multicenter Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Hsu; Wu, Hon-Yen; Wang, Chieh-Li; Yang, Feng-Jung; Wu, Pei-Chen; Hung, Szu-Chun; Kan, Wei-Chih; Yang, Chung-Wei; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Hung, Kuan-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Current evidence of proteinuria reduction as a surrogate target in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is incomplete due to lack of patient-pooled database. We retrospectively studied a multicenter cohort of 1891 patients who were enrolled in the nationwide multidisciplinary pre-end stage renal disease care program with a baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <45 mL/min/1.73 m2 and followed longitudinally to investigate the effect of the change in proteinuria on renal death (defined as composite of dialysis and death occurring before initiation of dialysis). The group with a change in proteinuria ≤0.30 g/g (n = 1261) had lower cumulative probabilities of renal death (p < 0.001). In a linear regression model, a higher baseline proteinuria and a greater increase in proteinuria were associated with faster annual GFR decline. Cox’s analysis showed that every 1 unit increase in natural log(baseline proteinuria, 10 g/g) and every 0.1 g/g increase in the change in proteinuria resulted in 67% (HR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.46–1.91) and 1% (HR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.01–1.01) greater risk of renal death respectively after adjusting for the effects of the other covariates. Our study provided a patient-based evidence to support proteinuria as a therapeutic target in advanced CKD. PMID:27198863

  3. Invasive pulmonary fungal infections in patients with connective tissue disease: a retrospective study from northern China

    PubMed Central

    Ge, H.F.; Liu, X.Q.; Zhu, Y.Q.; Chen, H.Q.; Chen, G.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary fungal infection (IPFI) is a potentially fatal complication in patients with connective tissue disease (CTD). The current study aimed to uncover the clinical characteristics and risk factors of patients with IPFI-CTD. The files of 2186 CTD patients admitted to a single center in northern China between January 2011 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 47 CTD patients with IPFI were enrolled into this study and assigned to the CTD-IPFI group, while 47 uninfected CTD patients were assigned to the control group. Clinical manifestations were recorded, and risk factors of IPFI were calculated by stepwise logistical regression analysis. Forty-seven (2.15%) CTD patients developed IPFI. Systemic lupus erythematosus patients were responsible for the highest proportion (36.17%) of cases with IPFI. Candida albicans (72.3%) accounted for the most common fungal species. CTD-IPFI patients had significantly elevated white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and fasting glucose values compared to controls (P<0.05). Cough, sputum and blood in phlegm were the most common symptoms. Risk factors of IPFI in CTD included maximum prednisone dose ≥30 mg/day within 3 months prior to infection, anti-microbial drug therapy, and interstitial pneumonia. CTD patients who have underlying interstitial pneumonia, prior prednisone or multiple antibiotics, were more likely to develop IPFI. PMID:27683823

  4. Pelvic floor physical therapy for lifelong vaginismus: a retrospective chart review and interview study.

    PubMed

    Reissing, Elke D; Armstrong, Heather L; Allen, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Pelvic floor physical therapy is used in the treatment of sexual pain disorders; however, women with lifelong vaginismus have not yet been included in treatment studies or have not been differentiated from women with acquired vaginismus and/or dyspareunia. This retrospective chart review and interview study was intended to obtain initial information on physical therapy interventions, course, and outcome in women who have never been able to experience vaginal intercourse. The files of 53 women, consecutively treated at one physical therapy clinic, were included in the chart review; 13 of these women volunteered to be interviewed. The chart review revealed significant pelvic floor pathology and an average treatment course of 29 sessions. Internal manual techniques were found to be most effective, followed by patient education, dilatation exercises, and home exercises. Although participants were very satisfied with the physical therapy, some symptoms, such as pain, anxiety/fear, and pelvic floor tension remained and scores on the Female Sexual Distress Scale and Female Sexual Function Index indicated clinical levels of sexual distress and impaired sexual function after treatment. Although there appears to be no linear relation between symptom reduction and healthy sexual function, this initial information suggests that physical therapy may be a promising treatment option for some women with lifelong vaginismus and merits further evaluation.

  5. [Retrospective study of 48 cases of primary central nervous system lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Alessandro, Lucas; Pastor Rueda, José M; Villalonga, Juan F; Bruno, Verónica A; Carpani, Federico; Blaquier, Juan B; Tognarelli, Sofía; Varela, Francisco J; Muggeri, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an infrequent form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma restricted to the CNS. More than 90% are type B and mainly affect patients aged 50-70 years. Immunodeficiency is the most important risk factor. The aim of our study was to evaluate the immune status, clinical presentation and findings in complementary studies of PCNSL patients. A retrospective analysis of 48 cases treated in our center between January 1992 and May 2015 was performed. Median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range 25-84); with male predominance (2.1:1). Forty one cases (85%) were immunocompetent patients. Brain MRI findings showed parenchymal involvement in 45 cases (94%), 43% with frontal lobe and 35% basal ganglia, 4% had meningeal involvement and 2% had ophthalmic involvement at diagnosis. Fifty-five percent had restricted signal on diffusion weighted imaging and contrast enhancement was found in 89%. Pyramidal syndrome was the main initial clinical manifestation (56%). There were abnormal findings in 62% of CSF samples, but in only 11.1% positive cytology results were detected. The most frequent type was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (83%), being B-cell type the most common form between them (96%). In our series PCNSL was more frequent in immunocompetent elderly male subjects. At initial evaluation, clinical manifestations and MRI findings were variable. The initial suspicion of this entity would allow an early diagnosis, avoiding empirical treatments that may confuse or delay diagnosis.

  6. Positive or Negative Ulnar Variance after Ulnar Shortening for Ulnar Impaction Syndrome: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Soo-Min; Kim, Kyung-Cheon

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to compare simple radiographic findings and clinical results according to residual ulnar variance following ulnar shortening for ulnar impaction syndrome. Methods Forty-five cases of ulnar impaction syndrome, which were treated with ulnar shortening from 2005 to 2008, were studied retrospectively. Group I included 13 cases with positive residual variance after ulnar shortening and group II included 32 cases with negative variance after shortening. The presence of a lunate cystic lesion both preoperatively and at final follow-up and assessments of wrist function based on the modified Mayo wrist score, the disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) score, as well as the Chun and Palmer score were evaluated. Results A cystic lesion of the lunate was present in 4 cases preoperatively and the size decreased in 2 cases at final follow-up in group I, and in 10 and 5 cases, respectively, in group II. No statistical difference was observed between the groups. The modified Mayo wrist score, DASH score, as well as the Chun and Palmer score improved significantly in both groups. No significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of the proportion of positive cystic lesions at final follow-up or the functional scores. Conclusions After ulnar shortening, the degree of radiological change in the cystic lunate lesions and clinical improvement did not differ significantly between the groups with unintended residual positive and negative variance after shortening. PMID:22949953

  7. Pemoline therapy in college students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Heiligenstein, E; Johnston, H F; Nielsen, J K

    1996-07-01

    Pemoline, a dopamine agonist, is effective in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but its efficacy in adults is unknown. The authors studied the efficacy and safety of pemoline, using retrospective chart review of treated students with ADHD over a 2-year period. Forty students met diagnostic and treatment criteria; pemoline was associated with much improved or very much improved Clinical Global Impression symptoms scores in 70% of the students during a treatment period of 14 or more days. Severity of illness scores dropped from 4.11 to 3.01 between baseline and subsequent evaluation. Nine evaluable patients had adverse events, most commonly headaches, insomnia, and decreased appetite. Five additional students, who failed to meet the treatment-duration criterion, terminated because of severe initial insomnia. The authors concluded that pemoline is effective and safe in students with ADHD and has a lower abuse potential than methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine, the other two widely used, structurally dissimilar compounds, but controlled studies may be necessary before any final conclusions are reached.

  8. Retrospective Study of Etiologic Agents Associated with Nonsuppurative Meningoencephalitis in Stranded Cetaceans in the Canary Islands

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Susan; Saliki, Jeremiah T.; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Arbelo, Manuel; Zucca, Daniele; Fernández, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Nineteen natural cases of etiologically undetermined encephalitides in free-ranging cetaceans were studied retrospectively. Histological examination of the brains revealed variable degrees of nonsuppurative encephalitis or meningoencephalitis, characterized predominantly by perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrates. A PCR assay was used on brain and other available tissues to detect the presence of morbillivirus, herpesvirus, West Nile virus, Toxoplasma gondii, and Brucella spp. In addition, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed on selected tissues to determine the presence of morbilliviral antigens. Six animals (5 striped dolphins and 1 common dolphin) showed IHC and/or molecular evidence of morbilliviral antigens and/or genomes, mainly in brain tissue. Conventional nested PCR detected herpesviral DNA in brain tissue samples from two striped dolphins. There was no evidence of West Nile virus, T. gondii, or Brucella spp. in any of the brain tissue samples examined. The information presented here increases the number of confirmed morbillivirus-positive cases within the Canarian archipelago from two previously reported cases to eight. Furthermore, a new nested-PCR method for the detection of morbillivirus is described here. Regarding herpesvirus, the phylogenetic analysis performed in the current study provides valuable information about a possible pathogenic branch of cetacean alphaherpesviruses that might be responsible for some fatal cases worldwide. PMID:24759718

  9. Maternal and Live-birth Outcomes of Pregnancies following Assisted Reproductive Technology: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Linling; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yifeng; Zhang, Runjv; Wu, Yiqing; Huang, Yun; Liu, Feng; Li, Meigen; Sun, Saijun; Xing, Lanfeng; Zhu, Yimin; Chen, Yiyi; Xu, Li; Zhou, Liangbi; Huang, Hefeng; Zhang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to explore associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and maternal and neonatal outcomes compared with similar outcomes following spontaneously conceived births. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnancies conceived by ART (N = 2641) during 2006–2014 compared to naturally conceived pregnancies (N = 5282) after matching for maternal age and birth year. Pregnancy complications, perinatal complications and neonatal outcomes of enrolled subjects were investigated and analysed by multivariate logistic regression. We found that pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) were associated with a significantly increased incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, placenta previa, placental abruption, preterm premature rupture of membranes, placental adherence, postpartum haemorrhage, polyhydramnios, preterm labour, low birth weight, and small-for-date infant compared with spontaneously conceived births. Pregnancies conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) showed similar elevated complications, except some of the difference narrowed or disappeared. Singleton pregnancies or nulliparous pregnancies following ART still exhibited increased maternal and neonatal complications. Therefore, we conclude that pregnancies conceived following ART are at increased risks of antenatal complications, perinatal complications and poor neonatal outcomes, which may result from not only a higher incidence of multiple pregnancy, but also the manipulation involved in ART processes. PMID:27762324

  10. A Descriptive, Retrospective Study of After-hours Calls in Hospice and Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yun; Gentry, Amanda L.; Pusateri, Margaret; Courtney, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Few studies have described after-hours calls in hospice patient care. This retrospective study examines the timing of after-hours telephone triage services; the reasons for access to after-hours hospice and palliative care services; and the predominant nursing interventions offered in after-hours calls in hospice and palliative care. Methods A fixed coding scheme was used to code a de-identified after-hours triage phone log of all calls between July 2005 and June 2006 (n=4,434) from a Pennsylvania hospice and palliative care services organization. Descriptive statistics were used to identify call timing pattern, call reasons, and predominant nursing interventions. Results Triage services were utilized most frequently to request assistance with signs and symptoms control (25.7%), report death (17.8%), and to request a home visit (15.3%). The top nursing interventions included updating case managers or supervisors about the needs of follow-up (29.5%), coordinating home visits (20.5%), and instructing caregivers or patients on how to control new signs and symptoms (19.8%). Conclusions A better understanding of when and why patients and their family caregivers utilize after-hours hospice triage services can assist in the design of future proactive interventions to improve care, and enhance training for new and existing hospice triage nurses. PMID:22773920

  11. Efficacy of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors versus nootropics in Alzheimer's disease: a retrospective, longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tsolaki, M; Pantazi, T; Kazis, A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of nootropics (piracetam, aniracetam, nimodopine and dihydroergicristine) versus acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChE-Is) (tacrine and donepezil) in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This is a retrospective study of 510 patients with Alzheimer's disease. To determine clinical efficacy of treatment, we used the mean change over time in scores for the following tests: the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); the Cambridge Cognitive Examination for the Elderly; and the Functional Rating Scale for Symptoms of Dementia. In all patients and in patients with severe Alzheimer's disease (baseline MMSE < 11), no significant differences were seen in the neuropsychological test scores between the two treatment groups. In patients with moderate dementia (baseline MMSE between 11 and 20), however, there was a significantly greater deterioration, as shown on the CAMCOG scale, after 12 months' treatment for patients receiving AChE-Is compared with those receiving nootropics (-4.38 for AChE-Is group versus 1.48 for nootropics group). For patients with mild dementia (baseline MMSE score between 21 and 26), there was a significantly greater deterioration on the MMSE scale for each time-point in the nootropics group compared with the AChE-Is group. In conclusion, we did not find any strong evidence that a difference in efficacy exists between AChE-Is and nootropics in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Spontaneous acromegaly: a retrospective case control study in German shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    Fracassi, F; Zagnoli, L; Rosenberg, D; Furlanello, T; Caldin, M

    2014-10-01

    Acromegaly results from the overproduction of growth hormone in adulthood and is characterised by overgrowth of soft tissue and/or bone as well as insulin resistance. There are few data indicating the risk factors associated with this disease in dogs or its clinicopathological features and sequelae. The objective of this retrospective study was to catalogue and assess these aspects of the disease in German shepherd dogs (GSDs) which were found to be over-represented among acromegalic dogs attending two veterinary referral clinics over a period of 7 years. Each acromegalic dog (AD) was compared with two breed/age/sex matched controls. Clinical signs of acromegaly included panting, polyuria/polydipsia, widened interdental spaces, weakness, inspiratory stridor, macroglossia, weight gain, redundant skin folds, thick coat, exophthalmos and mammary masses. Serum alkaline phosphatase, creatine-kinase, glucose, triglyceride, phosphate ion, and 'calcium per phosphate product' concentrations were significantly higher in acromegalic animals while haemoglobin concentration, blood urea nitrogen, sodium and chloride ion concentrations, and urinary specific gravity, osmolality and fractional excretion of phosphate were significantly lower. Although, in the majority of cases clinicopathological abnormalities resolved following ovariohysterectomy, in one dog, acromegalic signs abated and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations normalised only following the surgical excision of mammary tumours carried out 2 months after ovariohysterectomy. The findings of this study indicate that GSDs are predisposed to the development of acromegaly with a suspected inherited susceptibility.

  13. Retrospective cohort study of anti-tumor necrosis factor agent use in a veteran population.

    PubMed

    Bounthavong, Mark; Madkour, Nermeen; Kazerooni, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents are effective for several immunologic conditions (rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn's disease (CD), and psoriasis). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents via chart review. Methods. Single-site, retrospective cohort study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents in veterans initiated between 2010 and 2011. Primary aim evaluated response at 12 months post-index date. Secondary aims evaluated initial response prior to 12 months post-index date and infection events. Results. A majority of patients were prescribed anti-TNF agents for CD (27%) and RA (24%). Patients were initiated on etanercept (41%), adalimumab (40%), and infliximab (18%) between 2010 and 2011. No differences in patient demographics were reported. Response rates were high overall. Sixty-five percent of etanercept patients, 82% of adalimumab patients, and 59% of infliximab patients were either partial or full responders, respectively. Approximately 16%, 11%, and 12% of etanercept, adalimumab, and infliximab were non-responders, respectively. Infections between the groups were non-significant. Etanercept and adalimumab patients had higher but non-significant odds of being a responder relative to infliximab. Conclusions. Most patients initiated with anti-TNF agent were responders at 12 months follow-up for all indications in a veteran population.

  14. Breast augmentation under general anesthesia versus monitored anesthesia care: a retrospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Eldor, Liron; Weissman, Avi; Fodor, Lucian; Carmi, Nurit; Ullmann, Yehuda

    2008-09-01

    Breast augmentation is one of the leading esthetic surgeries, enjoying high satisfaction rates. Pain, nausea, and vomiting are frequent shortcomings of the immediate postoperative period. The aim of this study was to compare breast augmentation from the anesthetic point of view: general anesthesia (GA) versus monitored anesthesia care (MAC). The charts of 115 patients were reviewed in this retrospective study performed over a period of 2 years. Sixty-nine women chose to have the surgery done under MAC, and 46 under GA. Statistically significant differences were noted in both postoperative hospital stay (16.1 +/- 6.78 hours vs. 11.7 +/- 6.10 hours) and frequency of vomiting (mean, 0.5 vs. 0.22 times per patient) after GA and MAC, respectively (Mann-Whitney, P < 0.01). Postoperative pain, assessed using the visual analog scale, was significantly higher (mean visual analog scale, 5 vs. 3.27) when the prosthesis was placed in the submuscular plane compared with the subglandular plane (Mann-Whitney, P = 0.043). When offered a choice, more women preferred MAC over GA for their breast augmentation procedure. Less vomiting and shorter postoperative hospitalization were prominent in the MAC group.

  15. Prevalence and severity of antipsychotic related constipation in patients with schizophrenia: a retrospective descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antipsychotic are the cornerstone in the treatment of schizophrenia. They also have a number of side-effects. Constipation is thought to be common, and a potential serious side-effect, which has received little attention in recent literature. Method We performed a retrospective study in consecutively admitted patients, between 2007 and 2009 and treated with antipsychotic medication, linking different electronic patient data to evaluate the prevalence and severity of constipation in patients with schizophrenia under routine treatment conditions. Results Over a period of 22 months 36.3% of patients (99) received at least once a pharmacological treatment for constipation. On average medication for constipation was prescribed for 273 days. Severe cases (N = 50), non-responsive to initial treatment, got a plain x-ray of the abdomen. In 68.4% fecal impaction was found. Conclusion A high prevalence of constipation, often severe and needing medical interventions, was confirmed during the study period. Early detection, monitoring over treatment and early intervention of constipation could prevent serious consequences such as ileus. PMID:21385443

  16. Validation of a modified pediatric early warning system score: a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Skaletzky, Sharon M; Raszynski, Andre; Totapally, Balagangadhar R

    2012-05-01

    The Pediatric Early Warning System (PEWS) score may be useful for detection of deterioration in clinical condition. In this retrospective study, the cases were patients transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and controls were those not transferred to the PICU. The maximum PEWS score in both groups were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). The study population included 100 cases and 250 controls. There was no difference in the age of cases and controls (6.3 vs 6.3 years). The length of hospital stay (18.09 ± 32 vs 3.93 ± 2.9 days; P < .001) and the maximum PEWS score (2.95 ± 1.5 vs 1.4 ± 0.8) were significantly higher for the cases (P < .0001). The PEWS score area under the ROC was 0.81 (95% confidence interval = 0.75-0.86). The sensitivity and specificity for a score 2.5 were 62% and 89%, respectively. The use of the modified PEWS score can help identify patients on wards who are at risk for deterioration.

  17. Maternal risk factors and anaemia in pregnancy: a prospective retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Noronha, J A; Bhaduri, A; Vinod Bhat, H; Kamath, A

    2010-02-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy is still a concern during the reproductive period, as it is associated with increased maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. This study examined the maternal risk factors associated with increased prevalence of anaemia among antenatal and postnatal women. A prospective-retrospective cohort approach was carried out among 1,077 antenatal and 1,000 postnatal women. The haemoglobin was estimated using the cyanmethaemoglobin method. The maternal factors included were age, parity, education, socioeconomic status, spacing, history of bleeding, worm infestation, period of gestation, knowledge regarding anaemia in pregnancy, food selection ability and compliance to iron supplementation. Of the 1,077 antenatal women studied, 540 were anaemic. Among the 1,000 postnatal women, the prevalence was 537 (53.7%). The high prevalence was strongly associated with low socioeconomic status (OR 1.409 [1.048-1.899]; p < 0.023) which affected their knowledge and health seeking behaviour in both the groups. Hence it can be concluded that empowering women in terms of education and economic status is the key factor in combating anaemia in pregnancy to prevent the vicious cycle of associated problems.

  18. Sebaceous adenitis in Havanese dogs: a retrospective study of the clinical presentation and incidence.

    PubMed

    Frazer, Megan M; Schick, Anthea E; Lewis, Thomas P; Jazic, Edward

    2011-06-01

    Sebaceous adenitis is a suspected immune-mediated disease that targets and destroys sebaceous glands. This retrospective study evaluated the clinical presentation and incidence of sebaceous adenitis in Havanese dogs. Sebaceous adenitis was diagnosed in 35% (12 of 34) of Havanese dogs presented over a 5-year period. Onset of clinical signs occurred during young adulthood. Follicular casts were present in 92% (11 of 12) of affected dogs. Other common clinical signs included alopecia and hypotrichosis. The trunk, head and ears were commonly affected, with 67% (8 of 12) of cases having pinnal and/or external ear canal involvement. Secondary pyoderma was seen in 42% (5 of 12) of dogs. Histopathology revealed absent sebaceous glands in 83% (10 of 12) and a lymphoplasmacytic periadnexal infiltrate in 92% (11 of 12) of samples. Treatment included multiple modalities. Cyclosporin was prescribed in 83% (10 of 12) of cases. Other systemic therapies included vitamin A and fatty acid supplementation. Topical therapies included antiseborrhoeic shampoos and sprays, and oil soaks. Follow-up ranging from 2 months to 3 years was obtained in 67% (8 of 12) of dogs. Improvement ranged from minimal to marked, with better clinical response associated with longer duration of treatment. Owners with follow-up of more than 1 year commonly reported occasional flares of the clinical signs. This study found that sebaceous adenitis was a common diagnosis in Havanese dogs, that the ears were commonly affected and that a lymphoplasmacytic periadnexal infiltrate associated with absent sebaceous glands was frequently seen on dermatohistopathological examination.

  19. Intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection and congenital birth defects: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hershko-Klement, A; Sukenik-Halevy, R; Biron Shental, T; Miller, N; Berkovitz, A

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to study the birth defect rates in intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) pregnancies. A cohort of couples presenting male factor infertility between January 2006 and January 2014 was retrospectively analyzed. Discharge letters and a telephone interview were performed for assessing pregnancy outcome. All clinical data were reviewed by a board certified medical geneticist. Main outcomes were fetal/birth defect and chromosomal abnormality rates. Two thousand two hundred and fifty-eight pregnancies were available for analysis, of them, 1669 (73.9%) resulting from ICSI and 2258 (26.1%) achieved by IMSI. Pregnancy outcome distribution did not show a significant difference. For the fresh embryo transfer cohort, fetal/birth defect rate was 4.5%, chromosomal aberration rate was 1.0%, and structural malformation rate was 3.5%. IMSI vs. ICSI pregnancies were less likely to involve a fetal/birth defect: 3.5% vs. 4.8%, respectively, but did not reach a statistical significance OR 0.71 (95% CI 0.39-1.22). Split by multiplicity, this trend existed only for singleton pregnancies; 1.4% structural malformations rate vs. 3.8%, respectively, OR 0.35 (95% CI 0.11-0.9). The frozen cohort demonstrated a significantly lower birth defect rate (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.09-0.58). We conclude that IMSI procedure does not involve an increased malformation rate and may offer a reduced anomaly incidence. Further studies are required.

  20. Factors Associated With Outcomes in Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection of Gastric Cardia Tumors: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yae Su; Lee, Bong Eun; Kim, Gwang Ha; Park, Do Youn; Jeon, Hye Kyung; Baek, Dong Hoon; Kim, Dong Uk; Song, Geun Am

    2015-08-01

    Tumors of the gastric cardia are among the most technically difficult lesions to remove by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic outcomes of ESD in gastric cardia tumors according to clinicopathologic characteristics, and to assess the predictive factors for incomplete resection.We conducted a retrospective observational study of 82 patients with adenomas and early cancers of the gastric cardia who underwent ESD between January 2006 and December 2013 at the Pusan National University Hospital. Therapeutic outcomes of ESD and procedure-related complications were analyzed.En bloc resection, complete resection, and curative resection rates were 87%, 79%, and 66%, respectively. Deep submucosal invasion was the most common cause of noncurative resection in the cases in which complete resection was achieved. On multivariate analyses, hemispheric distribution (anterior hemisphere; odds ratio [OR] 4.808) and depth of tumor invasion (submucosal cancer; OR 22.056) were independent factors associated with incomplete resection. The rates of procedure-related bleeding, perforation, and stenosis were 6%, 1%, and 0%, respectively; none of the complications required surgical intervention.In conclusion, ESD is a safe, effective, and feasible treatment for gastric cardia tumors. However, the complete resection rate decreases for tumors that are located in the anterior hemisphere or have deep submucosal invasion.

  1. Use of Serotonergic Drugs in Canada for Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders: Results of a Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Manji, Farouq; Lam, Jennifer; Taylor, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Surgery for GI dysmotility is limited to those with severe refractory disease. Though effective, use of serotonergic promotility drugs has been restricted in Canada due to adverse events. We aimed to investigate utilization of promotility serotonergic drugs in patients under consideration for surgical management. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using prospectively collected data. The study population included consecutive patients referred to a motility clinic for consideration of bowel resection at a Canadian tertiary hospital (1996–2011). Univariable tests and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess predictors of serotonergic drug use. Results. Of 128 patients, the majority (n = 98, 76.6%) had constipation-dominant symptoms. Only 25% (n = 32) had tried serotonergic promotility drugs. There was no association between use of these drugs and severity of constipation nor was there an association between serotonergic drug use and presence of diffuse dysmotility (all p > 0.05). The majority of patients (n = 97, 75.8%) underwent some type of surgical resection, which was associated with considerable morbidity (n = 13, 13.4%). Conclusions. Surgical management of GI dysmotility results in serious morbidity. Serotonergic promotility drugs may allow patients to avoid surgery but disease severity does not predict use of these drugs. PMID:27313955

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma resulting from chronic osteomyelitis: a retrospective study of 8 cases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinghu; Cui, Haomin; Dong, Jinlei; He, Yu; Zhou, Dongsheng; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma is a severe malignant tumor but was rare in the chronic osteomyelitis. The purpose of this study was to present the results from a retrospective study the cases of squamous cell carcinoma arising from chronic osteomyelitis. Material and methods: Between 1974 and 2010, eight cases of squamous cell carcinoma after chronic osteomyelitis were treated. The patients had an average age of 55 years (range 45 to 66 years), with a male predominance (6 men and 2 woman). We analyzed the time up to cancerization, localization and histopathological types of the carcinoma, and types and results of the treatment. Results: The mean delay between the initial injury and the diagnosis of malignant transformation was 28 years (range 8 to 50 years). The carcinoma resulted from tibia osteomyelitis in six cases, femur in one case and ankle in one case. The pathological examination showed two cases of a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with bone invasion and six cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Curative amputation was performed in all patients but one who refused. No recurrence or metastasis occurred during follow-up time. Conclusion: Amputation appears to be an effective treatment method in squamous carcinoma secondary to chronic osteomyelitis. PMID:26617726

  3. Atypical antipsychotic drugs and risk of ischaemic stroke: population based retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Sudeep S; Rochon, Paula A; Herrmann, Nathan; Lee, Philip E; Sykora, Kathy; Gunraj, Nadia; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Gurwitz, Jerry H; Marras, Connie; Wodchis, Walter P; Mamdani, Muhammad

    2005-01-01

    Objective To compare the incidence of admissions to hospital for stroke among older adults with dementia receiving atypical or typical antipsychotics. Design Population based retrospective cohort study. Setting Ontario, Canada. Patients 32 710 older adults (≤ 65 years) with dementia (17 845 dispensed an atypical antipsychotic and 14 865 dispensed a typical antipsychotic). Main outcome measures Admission to hospital with the most responsible diagnosis (single most important condition responsible for the patient's admission) of ischaemic stroke. Observation of patients until they were either admitted to hospital with ischaemic stroke, stopped taking antipsychotics, died, or the study ended. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, participants receiving atypical antipsychotics showed no significant increase in risk of ischaemic stroke compared with those receiving typical antipsychotics (adjusted hazard ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 1.26). This finding was consistent in a series of subgroup analyses, including ones of individual atypical antipsychotic drugs (risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine) and selected subpopulations of the main cohorts. Conclusion Older adults with dementia who take atypical antipsychotics have a similar risk of ischaemic stroke to those taking typical antipsychotics. PMID:15668211

  4. Retrospective cohort study of anti-tumor necrosis factor agent use in a veteran population

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Nermeen; Kazerooni, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents are effective for several immunologic conditions (rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn’s disease (CD), and psoriasis). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents via chart review. Methods. Single-site, retrospective cohort study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents in veterans initiated between 2010 and 2011. Primary aim evaluated response at 12 months post-index date. Secondary aims evaluated initial response prior to 12 months post-index date and infection events. Results. A majority of patients were prescribed anti-TNF agents for CD (27%) and RA (24%). Patients were initiated on etanercept (41%), adalimumab (40%), and infliximab (18%) between 2010 and 2011. No differences in patient demographics were reported. Response rates were high overall. Sixty-five percent of etanercept patients, 82% of adalimumab patients, and 59% of infliximab patients were either partial or full responders, respectively. Approximately 16%, 11%, and 12% of etanercept, adalimumab, and infliximab were non-responders, respectively. Infections between the groups were non-significant. Etanercept and adalimumab patients had higher but non-significant odds of being a responder relative to infliximab. Conclusions. Most patients initiated with anti-TNF agent were responders at 12 months follow-up for all indications in a veteran population. PMID:24883246

  5. Pivotal clinical trials of novel ophthalmic drugs and medical devices: retrospective observational study, 2002–2012

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jenny; Ciolino, Joseph B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Novel therapeutics are an important part of ophthalmologists’ armamentarium, and the risks and benefits of these therapies must be carefully evaluated. We sought to quantify the characteristics of the pivotal clinical trials supporting the regulatory approval of new ophthalmic drugs and medical devices. Design Retrospective observational study. Setting and data source Medical review dossiers for new ophthalmic drug and high-risk device approvals released publicly by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Main outcome measures Proportion of pivotal trials with randomisation, masking, active or placebo controls and subgroup analyses; total and median number of trial enrollees; and the number of drugs and devices approved with required postapproval studies. Results From 2002 to 2012, the FDA approved 11 ophthalmic drugs and 25 devices. The pivotal trials underlying the approvals of ophthalmic drugs in our study cohort enrolled a median of 809 patients. Virtually all drug trials were randomised and masked (91%), of which 7 (70%) used a placebo control. Pivotal trials for ophthalmic devices enrolled 324 patients on average, and significantly fewer trials for ophthalmic devices versus drugs were randomised (16% vs 91%; p<0.001) or masked (12% vs 91%; p<0.001). 8 (32%) ophthalmic devices and 6 (55%) ophthalmic drugs were approved with required postapproval studies. Conclusions Ophthalmic therapeutics were approved based on varying levels of evidence. Postapproval studies could be used to confirm or refute early indications of safety and effectiveness of these therapeutics, with the study results accessible to patients and clinicians who need to make informed treatment decisions. PMID:26044760

  6. A retrospective long term study of teeth restored with prefabricated carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin posts.

    PubMed

    Segerström, Susanna; Astbäck, Johnny; Ekstrand, Karl D

    2006-01-01

    The Composipost endodontic post, made of stretched aligned carbon fibers embedded in an epoxy-resin matrix, has since the beginning of the nineties been widely used for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the treatment outcome of the Composipost system up to 7 years. In a study published 1998, 236 patients treated during 1992-93 by seven Swedish general dental private practitioners were studied. Five of the former seven private practitionersi consented to participate in this follow up of that study. Thus the material was reduced to 138 patients. Thirty-nine of these were excluded due to insufficient data. For the remaining 99 patients, data were collected from dental records. All patients were offered a clinical examination but only 25 accepted. Data were collected from dental records for the remaining 74 patients. The mean follow up time was 6,7 years with a range from 1 month to 10 years (median 7.6 years, SD 2.5 years), (five teeth were extracted during the previous study). The outcome was considered successful if the post and core was in situ and showed no clinical or radiographic signs of technical failures. Sixty-four teeth (65%) restored with the Composipost system were successful after a mean time of 6.7 years. Thirty-two teeth were extracted due to fractures, periapical lesions and periodontitis. Dislodgment of post was observed in three cases. In conclusion, within the limitations of this study, after a mean time of 6.7 years, the Composipost restored teeth had shorter survival times than those of previously documented cast posts.

  7. Cementless total hip arthroplasty in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: A retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Zeng, Min; Xie, Jie; Wen, Ting; Hu, Yihe

    2017-01-01

    Controversies on the surgical protocols and efficacies of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) still exist. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the perioperative managements and their outcomes related to performing THA on patients with AS.Data of 54 AS patients who underwent 81 THAs between 2008 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and imaging data were collected preoperatively, postoperatively, and during the follow-up period for surgical efficacy.Using posterolateral approach, cementless prostheses were selected in all cases. Mean follow-up period was 3.6 years (range, 2-8 years). Inclinations and anteversions of acetabular cups were 36.3°±4.5° (range, 30°-50°) and 12.3°±4.9° (range, 0°-25°) respectively. Mean visual analog scale (VAS) score decreased from 6.7 ± 2.1 (range, 4-10) preoperatively to 1.5 ± 1.0 (range, 0-4) at final follow-up, and mean Harris hip score (HHS) improved from 31.2 ± 11.6 (range, 15-45) to 86.1 ± 4.3 (range, 80-95) (P < 0.05). Postoperative range of motion (ROM) in flexion was improved from 6.7°±13.5° (range, 0°-50°) preoperatively to 82.5°±6.4° (range, 70°-100°) at final follow-up, and ROM in extension was improved from 1.8°±5.7°(range, 0°-15°) to 15.4°±2.6° (range, 10°-20°) (P < 0.05). Heterotopic ossification (HO) was documented in 9 hips (11.1%). Signs of stable fibrous ingrowth and bone ingrowth were detected in 52 and 29 hips, respectively. Sciatic never injury was occurred in 3 cases, and treated conservatively. There were no signs of periprosthetic fractures, dislocation, or prosthesis loosening.Surgical efficacies of THA for AS patients with severe hip involvement are satisfactory.

  8. Poor mobilizer: a retrospective study on proven and predicted incidence according to GITMO criteria.

    PubMed

    Piccirillo, Nicola; Vacca, Michele; Lanti, Alessandro; Ipsevich, Francesco; Maresca, Maddalena; Fiorelli, Elena; Bianchi, Maria; Adorno, Gaspare; Pierelli, Luca; Majolino, Ignazio; Leone, Giuseppe; Zini, Gina

    2012-10-01

    The Italian Group for Bone Marrow Transplantation (Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Midollo Osseo, GITMO) recently formalized criteria for a shared definition of poor mobilizer in order to facilitate randomized clinical trials and study comparison focusing on the efficacy of current mobilizing regimens. The availability of a standardized tool for poor mobilizer definition suggested us to retrospectively test GITMO criteria feasibility and applicability. Therefore we analyzed medical and laboratory records of adult patients affected by myeloma (MM) or lymphoma undergoing mobilization for autologous peripheral blood HSC collection from January 2010 to June 2011, at Servizio di Emotrasfusione, Istituto di Ematologia, Università Cattolica Del Sacro Cuore, Roma, UOC SIMT AO S. Camillo Forlanini Roma and SIMT Fondazione Policlinico Tor Vergata Roma. We collected data about 227 patients (134 male, 93 female) affected by MM (31.3%) NHL (58.6%) e HD (10.1%). Thirty-nine patients, 21 male and 18 female met proven poor mobilizer criteria definition resulting in a incidence of 17.2% (12.7% in MM, 21.8% in NHL and 4.3% in HD). Eleven patients, seven affected by lymphoma and four affected by myeloma, were defined predicted PM according to major criteria. Eight patients, seven affected by lymphoma and one affected by myeloma, were define predicted PM according to minor criteria. Sixteen out of 39 patients defined as poor mobilizer either according to major or minor criteria underwent collection procedures and eight (20.5%) achieved a cell dose ⩾2×10(6)/kg CD34(+) cells. GITMO criteria application was easy and resulted in poor mobilizer incidence comparable to current literature. Definitions of proven poor mobilizer and predicted poor mobilizer according to major criteria were very effective while minor criteria were less predictive. These results came from a retrospective analysis and therefore should be validated in future prospective trial. On the other hand these data could be

  9. Frontolateral Approach Applied to Sellar Region Lesions: A Retrospective Study in 79 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hao-Cheng; Wu, Zhen; Wang, Liang; Xiao, Xin-Ru; Li, Da; Jia, Wang; Zhang, Li-Wei; Zhang, Jun-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various surgical approaches for the removal of sellar region lesions have previously been described. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and safety of the frontolateral approach (FLA) to remove sellar region lesions. Methods: We presented a retrospective study of 79 patients with sellar region lesions who were admitted and operated by the FLA approach from August 2011 to August 2015 in Department of Neurosurgery of Beijing Tian Tan Hospital. We classified FLA into three types, compared the FLA types to the areas of lesion invasion, and analyzed operation bleeding volume, gross total resection (GTR) rate, visual outcome, and mortality. Results: Seventy-nine patients were followed up from 2.9 to 50.3 months with a mean follow-up of 20.5 months. There were 42 cases of meningiomas, 25 cases of craniopharyngiomas, and 12 cases of pituitary adenomas. The mean follow-up Karnofsky Performance Scale was 90.4. GTR was achieved in 75 patients (94.9%). Two patients (2.5%) had tumor recurrence. No patients died perioperatively or during short-term follow-up. Three patients (3.8%) with craniopharyngioma died 10, 12, and 23 months, respectively, after surgery. The operative bleeding volume of this study was no more than that of the other approaches in the sellar region (P = 0.783). In this study, 35 patients (44.3%) had visual improvement after surgery, 38 patients (48.1%) remained unchanged, and three patients’ visual outcome (3.8%) worsened. Conclusions: FLA was an effective approach in the treatment of sellar region lesions with good preservation of visual function. FLA classification enabled tailored craniotomies for each patient according to the anatomic site of tumor invasion. This study found that FLA had similar outcomes to other surgical approaches of sellar region lesions. PMID:27364792

  10. Second Mesiobuccal Canal Treatment in a Predoctoral Dental Clinic: A Retrospective Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Marcelo Santos; Parker, Jeffrey M; Tawil, Peter Z

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this retrospective clinical study was to evaluate the location and treatment of second canals in mesiobuccal roots (MB2) of first and second maxillary molars in a predoctoral endodontic clinic by the graduating classes of 2008 to 2015. These results were compared to similar clinical studies. Included in the study were 368 root canal treatments performed by 310 third- and fourth-year dental students at one U.S. dental school. All cases were done under faculty supervision, and the students were instructed to use dental loupe magnification. Students' evaluation sheets were used to deteremine the total MB2 canals treated in first and second maxillary molars. The results showed that, overall, 72.55% of the teeth had an MB2 canal treated. The frequency was higher in first molars (75.91%) than in second molars (56.92%) (p<0.05). Third-year students were able to detect 39 MB2 canals in 57 maxillary molars (68.42%), while fourth-year students detected 228 MB2 canals in 311 teeth (73.31%) (p>0.05). Under proper supervision by experienced endodontists, these dental students were capable of treating MB2 canals in maxillary molars. The frequency of MB2 canals located and treated by dental students with the assistance of experienced professionals was higher in first than in second molars. No significant difference was found between third- and fourth-year students. The incidence of MB2 canals located and treated in this study was found to be similar to that in other clinical studies.

  11. Injuries in a Professional Ballet Dance Company: A 10-year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Prem N; Farber, Joseph; Arnouk, Johnny; Varner, Kevin E; Mcculloch, Patrick C

    2016-03-01

    Ballet dancers are high-performance athletes who are particularly susceptible to a wide variety of musculoskeletal injuries. However, they are relatively understudied, and data on their injury rates are lacking. This retrospective study features the largest aggregate data on professional ballet dancers to date and aims to identify the most common diagnoses and areas of injury in this unique population to better direct preventative and clinical practices. The study encompassed a 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2010 of dancers from a single company. Data regarding the dancers' age, gender, location of injury, and diagnosis were collected from workers' compensation claims, company records, and medical records maintained by the treating doctors. These were analyzed to determine metrics on injury incidence, frequency, and diagnosis. Over the 10-year span, 574 injuries occurred. There were approximately 52 dancers per year for a total of 153 who danced at least one complete season during the study period. The average age was 27, and 53% were female. Given turnover with retirement and replacements, the total number of dancer-years was 520, indicating an injury incidence per annum of 1.10 (574 injuries per 520 dancer-years). The most common locations of injury were foot and ankle and the lumbar spine, with the three most common diagnoses making up greater than a third (37%) of the total. As the current largest study in professional ballet, the findings set the benchmark metrics for musculoskeletal injury to the foot, ankle, and lumbar spine sites. Future studies should aim to identify injury risk factors and modalities for prevention of these injuries.

  12. Premedication with midazolam in intellectually disabled dental patients: Intramuscular or oral administration? A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Boku, Aiji; Sugimura, Mitsutaka; Oyamaguchi, Aiko; Inoue, Mika; Niwa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of midazolam for dental care in patients with intellectual disability is poorly documented. The purpose of this study was to determine which method of premedication is more effective for these patients, 0.15 mg/kg of intramuscular midazolam or 0.3 mg/kg of oral midazolam. Material and Methods This study was designed and implemented as a non-randomized retrospective study. The study population was composed of patients with intellectual disability who required dental treatment under ambulatory general anesthesia from August 2009 through April 2013. Patients were administered 0.15 mg/kg of midazolam intramuscularly (Group IM) or 0.3 mg/kg orally (Group PO). The predictor variable was the method of midazolam administration. The outcome variables measured were Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/ Sedation (OAA/S) Scale scores, the level of cooperation when entering the operation room and for venous cannulation, post-anesthetic agitation and recovery time. Results Midazolam was administered intramuscularly in 23 patients and orally in 21 patients. More patients were successfully sedated with no resistance behavior during venous cannulation in Group PO than in Group IM (p=0.034). There were no differences in demographic data and other variables between the groups. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that oral premedication with 0.3 mg/kg of midazolam is more effective than 0.15 mg/kg of midazolam administered intramuscularly, in terms of patient resistance to venous cannulation. If both oral and intramuscular routes of midazolam are acceptable in intellectually disabled patients, the oral route is recommended. Key words:Premedication, midazolam, intellectual disability. PMID:27031068

  13. Cost and clinical consequences of smoking cessation in outpatients after cardiovascular disease: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Díaz-Cerezo, Silvia; de Burgoa, Verónica Sanz; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This cohort retrospective study explored the cost and clinical consequences of smoking cessation in outpatients after cardiovascular events (CVEs), in Spain. A total of 2,540 patients (68.1 years; 60.7% male; 8.4% smokers, 52.9% ex-smokers, and 38.7% never smokers) fulfilling the selection criteria and followed up throughout a period of 36 months after the event were considered eligible for analysis. Total costs were higher among current smokers in comparison with ex-smokers and never smokers (€7,981 versus [vs] €7,322 and €5,619, respectively) (P < 0.001). Both health care costs (€6,273 vs €5,673 and €4,823, respectively) (P < 001) and loss of productivity at work costs (€1,708 vs €1,650 and €796, respectively) (P < 001) accounted for such differences. There was also a difference in CVE recurrence rates (18.6% vs 16.5% and 9.6%, respectively) (P < 01). Smoking cessation in CVE outpatients was associated with lower cost and risk of CVE recurrence compared with smokers, and their health status was similar to that of never smokers, in routine clinical practice in Spain. PMID:23983479

  14. The Seoul Metropolitan Lifestyle Intervention Program and Metabolic Syndrome Risk: A Retrospective Database Study

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Jina; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Ryu, Hosihn; Park, Mi-Suk; Lee, Hyang Sook; Park, Yoo Mi; Lim, Do-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Since 2011, the Seoul Metabolic Syndrome Management (SMESY) program has been employed as a community-wide, lifestyle modification intervention in Seoul, Korea. We aimed to determine if the SMESY intervention would be significantly associated with improvements in metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. This retrospective database study included data from 25,449 participants aged 30–64 years between 1 January 2013 and 30 June 2013. In the SMESY program, 3 risk-stratified groups by the number of MetS factors were followed for 12 months with different intensity and timeframe of intervention. Among the high-(n = 7116) and moderate-risk groups (n = 14,762), all MetS factors (except triglycerides among the moderate-risk group) as well as MetS z-scores significantly improved over 12 months (all p < 0.05). Among the low-risk group (n = 3571), all factors aggravated significantly over 12 months (all p < 0.05). We observed temporal associations between the implementation of the SMESY program and improvements in MetS risk factors. However, such improvements differed by risk-stratified group, being most robust for the high-risk group, modest for the moderate-risk group, and aggravated for the low-risk group. Thus, more intensive interventions targeting different risk-stratified groups are needed, given a better understanding of the increase in risk factors observed in the low-risk group. PMID:27384576

  15. Alveolar Ridge Reconstruction with Titanium Meshes and Simultaneous Implant Placement: A Retrospective, Multicenter Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Paraud Freixas, Andres; Han, Chang-Hun; Bechara, Sohueil; Tawil, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate horizontal bone gain and implant survival and complication rates in patients treated with titanium meshes placed simultaneously with dental implants and fixed over them. Methods. Twenty-five patients treated with 40 implants and simultaneous guided bone regeneration with titanium meshes (i–Gen®, MegaGen, Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea) were selected for inclusion in the present retrospective multicenter study. Primary outcomes were horizontal bone gain and implant survival; secondary outcomes were biological and prosthetic complications. Results. After the removal of titanium meshes, the CBCT evaluation revealed a mean horizontal bone gain of 3.67 mm (±0.89). The most frequent complications were mild postoperative edema (12/25 patients: 48%) and discomfort after surgery (10/25 patients: 40%); these complications were resolved within one week. Titanium mesh exposure occurred in 6 patients (6/25 : 24%): one of these suffered partial loss of the graft and another experienced complete graft loss and implant failure. An implant survival rate of 97.5% (implant-based) and a peri-implant marginal bone loss of 0.43 mm (±0.15) were recorded after 1 year. Conclusions. The horizontal ridge reconstruction with titanium meshes placed simultaneously with dental implants achieved predictable satisfactory results. Prospective randomized controlled trials on a larger sample of patients are required to validate these positive outcomes. PMID:27999799

  16. Analysis of Mtwo rotary instrument separation during endodontic therapy: a retrospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan-Nan; Ge, Jiu-Yu; Xie, Si-Jing; Chen, Ge; Zhu, Min

    2014-11-01

    To analyze the incidence of instrument separation (IS) and the factors influencing it, when associated with Mtwo rotary system (VDW, Munich, Germany) during endodontic therapy. A retrospective study involving a total of 24,108 root canals (11,036 endodontic treated teeth) was conducted at Nanjing Stomatology Hospital between January 2011 and March 2013. The information included were tooth type, root canal curvature, number of fractured instruments, length of the separated fragments, and the distance from broken tip to apex. The incidence of IS was observed to be 2.2 % according to the number of teeth and 1.0 % according to the number of root canals. Many of the separated fragments were 2-4 mm in length and the mean length was 3.07 ± 1.46 mm, and 78.4 % of fractures occurred in the apex. The mean length of separated fragments in severely curved canals was maximum, while ultra-severe curved canals was observed to be minimum. Mtwo instruments demonstrated an extremely low fracture rate during endodontic therapy. Molar teeth (especially lower molars) and the degree of canal curvature had a significant effect on the incidence of IS.

  17. The treatment of oral leukoplakia with the CO2 laser: A retrospective study of 65 patients.

    PubMed

    Mogedas-Vegara, Alfonso; Hueto-Madrid, Juan-Antonio; Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo; Bescós-Atín, Coro

    2015-06-01

    The use of CO2 laser has become a routine procedure for the treatment of oral leukoplakia. In this retrospective study, we evaluated 65 patients with oral leukoplakia treated with CO2 laser vaporization. The main location was the tongue (n = 21/65, 32.3%). The initial biopsy showed mild/moderate dysplasia in almost half the patients (n = 29, 44.6%) and hyperplasia without dysplasia in around a third of the patients (n = 21, 32.3%). The recurrence and malignant transformation rates were 33.8% (n = 22) and 15.4% (n = 10), respectively. The follow-up mean (standard deviation) was 15.0 (10.6) months. The procedure-related complications rate was 7.7% (n = 5). The Kaplan-Meier curves for time to recurrence showed differences only for gingiva lesions compared to tongue lesions (log rank, p = 0.032). Malignant leukoplakia transformation is independent of treatment, although it seems advisable to treat leukoplakia with or without dysplasia.

  18. Osteoarthrosis of Temporomandibular Joint Related to the Defects of Posterior Dentition: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Levorová, Jitka; Machoň, Vladimír; Guha, Anasuya; Foltán, René

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthrosis (OA) of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a progressive degenerative disease, gradually affecting cartilage, synovial membrane and bone structures. OA of TMJ clinically manifests with joint noises, pain and restricted mouth opening. In late stages, it results in severe damage of TMJ structures and development of ankylosis. Osteoarthrosis is a multifactorial disease; the occurrence is associated with TMJ overloading. The cohort included 619 patients [538 women (87%) and 81 men (13%), with average age 40.6 years (age range 8-89 years)] with TMJ disorder, who were examined in the year 2014 in Department of Dental Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital in Prague, Czech Republic. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse, if the lack of posterior teeth (supporting teeth zones) is the main etiologic factor of osteoarthrosis of TMJ. Diagnosis of OA was established on the clinical signs and the panoramic X-ray signs. Simultaneously other etiologic factors of OA were assessed. The presence of OA changes on X-ray had 171 patients (i.e. 27.6% of the total number of 619). 17.5% from these patients with OA had defect in posterior dentition. Other aetiological factors (stress, skeletal or vertebrogenous disorders) showed higher incidence of OA changes on X-ray. Defect of posterior dentition is not negligible, but it is not the main aetiological factor for osteoarthrosis of TMJ.

  19. Rapid prototyping modelling in oral and maxillofacial surgery: A two year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Stoor, Patricia; Mesimäki, Karri; Kontio, Risto K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of rapid prototyping (RP) models in medicine to construct bony models is increasing. Material and Methods The aim of the study was to evaluate retrospectively the indication for the use of RP models in oral and maxillofacial surgery at Helsinki University Central Hospital during 2009-2010. Also, the used computed tomography (CT) examination – multislice CT (MSCT) or cone beam CT (CBCT) - method was evaluated. Results In total 114 RP models were fabricated for 102 patients. The mean age of the patients at the time of the production of the model was 50.4 years. The indications for the modelling included malignant lesions (29%), secondary reconstruction (25%), prosthodontic treatment (22%), orthognathic surgery or asymmetry (13%), benign lesions (8%), and TMJ disorders (4%). MSCT examination was used in 92 and CBCT examination in 22 cases. Most of the models (75%) were conventional hard tissue models. Models with colored tumour or other structure(s) of interest were ordered in 24%. Two out of the 114 models were soft tissue models. Conclusions The main benefit of the models was in treatment planning and in connection with the production of pre-bent plates or custom made implants. The RP models both facilitate and improve treatment planning and intraoperative efficiency. Key words:Rapid prototyping, radiology, computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography. PMID:26644837

  20. [A retrospective study of intoxications admitted to the university hospital/UFJF from 2000 to 2004].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Cícero da Silva; Barbosa, Nádia Rezende; Vieira, Rita de Cássia Padula Alves; Carvalho, Marcos Roberto de; Marangon, Paula Beatriz; Santos, Priscila Larcher Carneiro; Teixeira Júnior, Mário Lúcio

    2010-05-01

    Poisonings may have their consequences minimized by the acquisition of knowledge concerning its etiologies, evolutions and means of prevention. In Brazil, the progressive increase of toxic emergencies justifies the acquisition and analysis of regional and decentralized data concerning toxic emergencies. The aim of this retrospective and descriptive study was to evaluate data on the toxicology occurrence registered at the University Hospital/UFJF from 2000 to 2004. Data were collected using a structured instrument which comprised: age range, gender, profession, average hospitalization time, etiology and possible reasons for the intoxication, drug categories, where the patients live and the most important exposure route to the poisonous agent. The possible relationship among the data was also examined. The profile found for poisoning in the 50 cases analyzed, was that accidents are more common from 0 to 5 years old (24%) and male gender (68%), the majority of the cases happened in the city of Juiz de Fora (78%) and oral exposure. The most important poisonous agents were found to be the psychotropics (60%). Definition of a profile helps promoting educative activities and expands poisoning prevention campaigns by public health agencies. Therefore, these facts strengthen the importance of an Information Service net to prevent and reduce intoxications and the irrational use of drugs.

  1. Predictors of falls and fractures in bradykinetic rigid syndromes: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D R; Watt, H C; Lees, A J

    2006-01-01

    Background Falls and fractures contribute to morbidity and mortality in bradykinetic rigid syndromes. Methods The authors performed a retrospective case notes review at the Queen Square Brain Bank for Neurological Disorders and systematically explored the relation between clinical features and falls and fractures in 782 pathologically diagnosed cases (474 with Parkinson's disease (PD); 127 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP); 91 multiple system atrophy (MSA); 46 dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB); 27 vascular parkinsonism; nine Alzheimer's disease; eight corticobasal degeneration). Results Falls were recorded in 606 (77.5%) and fractures in 134 (17.1%). In PD, female gender, symmetrical onset, postural instability, and autonomic instability all independently predicted time to first fall. In PD, PSP, and MSA latency to first fall was shortest in those with older age of onset of disease. Median latency from disease onset to first fall was shortest in Richardson's syndrome (12 months), MSA (42), and PSP‐parkinsonism (47), and longest in PD (108). In all patients fractures of the hip were more than twice as common as wrist and forearm fractures. Fractures of the skull, ribs, and vertebrae occurred more frequently in PSP than in other diseases. Conclusion Measures to prevent the morbidity associated with falls and fractures in bradykinetic rigid syndromes may be best directed at patients with the risk factors identified in this study. PMID:16543524

  2. [A glance at the safe: suicide prevention in private psychiatric practice. A retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Gysin, Fátima; Gysin, François

    2007-01-01

    The presence and importance of the theme suicide as it appears in the full time private psychiatric practice of one psychiatrist is evaluated in a retrospective quantitative study. Of the decade 1995-2005 of private clinical practice one year, 2003, was selected its data analyzed for 40% of all patients followed in 2003. The treatment of the simple patients was covered by a specific health insurance that had a contractual link to the psychiatrist. Prevalence and incidence of suicidality as a theme were established on the background of the caracteristics of the clinical activity in the examined psychiatric office: diagnostics, number of visits and duration of treatment. A third of this ambulatory population in private psychiatric office showed suicidal ideation and fantasies. One in ten patients had more serious sucidal risk. Suicidality was significatively correlated with the presence of a depressive mood disorder. In depressed patients the suicidal theme was three times more frequente compared with other patients. The frequent presence of the suicide figure in the context of private psychiatric consultation contrasts with the fact that suicidal acts are rare. Psychiatric response to suicidal ideation in the context of private practice is an efficient prevention when certain conditions are fullfilled concerning accessability, duration and frequence of the consultations.

  3. Retrospective study of canine heartworm disease with caval syndrome in Grenada, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Chikweto, A; Bhaiyat, M I; Lanza-Perea, M; Veytsman, S; Tiwari, K; De Allie, C; Sharma, R N

    2014-10-15

    Canine heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis is an important disease of dogs. The aim of this retrospective study was to estimate the prevalence of canine heartworm disease and evaluate cases of caval syndrome in dogs submitted for necropsy in Grenada. Out of 1617 dogs necropsied over a period of 13 years (2001-2013), 249 were found to be infected with D. immitis; giving an overall prevalence of 15.4% (95% confidence interval, 13.6% to 17.1%). There was no significant difference between male and female dogs with respect to canine heartworm infection (p = 0.3). During this period, the annual prevalence of canine heartworm disease was 22% in 2001 before slightly declining to an average of 18% in 2002-2003 and peaking at 26.8% in 2004-2005. From 2006 onwards, annual prevalence rates have steadily been decreasing; reaching the lowest (9%) in 2013. Among the 249 positive cases, 33 (13.2%) of the dogs had caval syndrome. Caval syndrome cases presented with concurrent clinical signs and were associated with cardio-pulmonary and hepatic gross lesions at necropsy. Aberrant migration of D. immitis was also noted in 2 dogs with caval syndrome. This is the first report which presents the findings of canine heartworm disease with caval syndrome in Grenada.

  4. Disease course and therapeutic approach in dermatomyositis: A four-center retrospective study of 100 patients.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas E; Arnold, W David; Hebert, Donald; Gwathmey, Kelly; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J; McVey, April L; Pasnoor, Mamatha; Amato, Anthony A; McDermott, Michael P; Kissel, John; Heatwole, Chad R

    2015-08-01

    Dermatomyositis is a life-altering inflammatory disorder of skin and muscle. Details regarding the natural course of this disorder, the effects of specific therapies on its progression, and the optimal therapeutic dosage and duration of prednisone are limited. We performed a retrospective medical record review of dermatomyositis patients at four medical centers. All patients were over the age of 21 and had a clinical diagnosis of dermatomyositis with pathological confirmation. We reviewed average muscle strength, corticosteroid use, creatine kinase levels, and supplemental immunosuppressant use during the 36-month period following each patient's initial assessment. One hundred patients participated with an average age of 50.1 years. Average muscle strength improved and prednisone requirements lessened six months after initial assessment. There was no difference in the mean change in muscle strength or cumulative corticosteroid use over 36 months among those initially treated with methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil, pulse IVIG, or azathioprine. There was a 5% mortality rate in dermatomyositis patients due to infections. Treated dermatomyositis patients demonstrate the most significant improvement in strength during the first six-to-twelve months following their initial clinical assessment. Additional prospective studies are needed to determine the relative benefit of select immunosuppressant agents in preserving strength and reducing corticosteroid use in dermatomyositis.

  5. Diabetes screening after gestational diabetes in England: a quantitative retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Andrew; Butler, Lucilla; Jones, Simon; van Vlymen, Jeremy; Sadek, Khaled; Munro, Neil; Carr, Helen; de Lusignan, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends postpartum and annual monitoring for diabetes for females who have had a diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Aim To describe the current state of follow-up after GDM in primary care, in England. Design and setting A retrospective cohort study in 127 primary care practices. The total population analysed comprised 473 772 females, of whom 2016 had a diagnosis of GDM. Method Two subgroups of females were analysed using electronic general practice records. In the first group of females (n = 788) the quality of postpartum follow-up was assessed during a 6-month period. The quality of long-term annual follow-up was assessed in a second group of females (n = 718), over a 5-year period. The two outcome measures were blood glucose testing performed within 6 months postpartum (first group) and blood glucose testing performed annually (second group). Results Postpartum follow-up was performed in 146 (18.5%) females within 6 months of delivery. Annual rates of long-term follow-up stayed consistently around 20% a year. Publication of the Diabetes in Pregnancy NICE guidelines, in 2008, had no effect on long-term screening rates. Substantial regional differences were identified among rates of follow-up. Conclusion Monitoring of females after GDM is markedly suboptimal despite current recommendations. PMID:24567578

  6. Radial nerve injury associated with humeral shaft fracture: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Flávia Pessoni Faleiros Macêdo; Barbosa, Rafael Inácio; Elui, Valéria Meirelles Carril; Barbieri, Cláudio Henrique; Mazzer, Nilton; Fonseca, Marisa de Cássia Registro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the profile of patients with humeral diaphyseal fractures in a tertiary hospital. Methods: We conducted a survey from January 2010 to July 2012, including data from patients classified under humeral diaphyseal fracture (S42.3) according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The variables analyzed were: age, gender, presence of radial nerve injury, causal agent and the type of treatment carried out. Results: The main causes of trauma were car accidents. The radial nerve lesion was present in some cases and was caused by the same trauma that caused the fracture or iatrogenic injury. Most of these fractures occurred in the middle third of humeral diaphysis and was treated conservatively. Conclusion: The profile of patients with fracture of humeral shaft, in this specific sample, was composed mainly of adult men involved in traffic accidents; the associated radial nerve lesion was present in most of these fractures and its cause was strongly related to the trauma mechanism. Level of Evidence II, Retrospective Study. PMID:26327789

  7. Retrospective benzene and total hydrocarbon exposure assessment for a petroleum marketing and distribution worker epidemiology study.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, T W; Pearlman, E D; Schnatter, A R; Bowes, S M; Murray, N; Nicolich, M J

    1996-04-01

    A quantitative exposure-estimating algorithm for benzene and total hydrocarbons was developed for a case control study of petroleum marketing and distribution workers. The algorithm used a multiplicative model to adjust recently measured quantitative exposure data to past scenarios for which representative exposure measurement data did not exist. This was accomplished through the development of exposure modifiers to account for differences in the workplace, the materials handled, the environmental conditions, and the tasks performed. Values for exposure modifiers were obtained empirically and through physical/chemical relationships. Dates for changes that altered exposure potential were obtained from archive records, retired employee interviews, and from current operations personnel. Exposure modifiers were used multiplicatively, adjusting available measured data to represent the relevant exposure scenario and time period. Changes in exposure modifiers translated to step changes in exposure estimates. Though limited by availability of data, a validation exercise suggested that the algorithm provided accurate exposure estimates for benzene (compared with measured data in industrial hygiene survey reports); the estimates generally differed by an average of less than 20% from the measured values. This approach is proposed to quantify exposures retrospectively where there are sufficient data to develop reliable current era estimates and where a historical accounting of key exposure modifiers can be developed, but where there are insufficient historic exposure measurements to directly assess historic exposures.

  8. HOPE-fixation of lung tissue allows retrospective proteome and phosphoproteome studies.

    PubMed

    Shevchuk, Olga; Abidi, Nada; Klawonn, Frank; Wissing, Josef; Nimtz, Manfred; Kugler, Christian; Steinert, Michael; Goldmann, Torsten; Jänsch, Lothar

    2014-11-07

    Hepes-glutamic acid buffer-mediated organic solvent protection effect (HOPE)-fixation has been introduced as an alternative to formalin fixation of clinical samples. Beyond preservation of morphological structures for histology, HOPE-fixation was demonstrated to be compatible with recent methods for RNA and DNA sequencing. However, the suitability of HOPE-fixed materials for the inspection of proteomes by mass spectrometry so far remained undefined. This is of particular interest, since proteins constitute a prime resource for drug research and can give valuable insights into the activity status of signaling pathways. In this study, we extracted proteins from human lung tissue and tested HOPE-treated and snap-frozen tissues comparatively by proteome and phosphoproteome analyses. High confident data from accurate mass spectrometry allowed the identification of 2603 proteins and 3036 phosphorylation sites. HOPE-fixation did not hinder the representative extraction of proteins, and investigating their biochemical properties, covered subcellular localizations, and cellular processes revealed no bias caused by the type of fixation. In conclusion, proteome as well as phosphoproteome data of HOPE lung samples were qualitatively equivalent to results obtained from snap-frozen tissues. Thus, HOPE-treated tissues match clinical demands in both histology and retrospective proteome analyses of patient samples by proteomics.

  9. STUDY OF THE SUITABILITY OF ISRAELI HOUSEHOLD SALT FOR RETROSPECTIVE DOSIMETRY.

    PubMed

    Datz, Hanan; Druzhyna, Sofia; Oster, Leonid; Orion, Itzhak; Horowitz, Yigal

    2016-09-01

    The first results of an in-depth evaluation of the practical potential of common household Israeli salt as a retrospective dosemeter in the event of a nuclear accident or terror attack are presented. Ten brands of salt were investigated with emphasis on four of the bestselling brands that constitute 76 % of the total consumer market. Eight of the ten brands show similar glow curves with two main glow peaks at maximum temperatures of ∼176°C and ∼225°C measured at a heating rate of 1°C s(-1) Chemical analysis of three major brands indicates substantial impurity levels of 200-500 ppm of Ca, K, Mg and S and significant differences of additional ppm trace impurities, which lead to an ∼50 % difference in the TL response of the three major brands. Fading in the dark is in significant but under room light is of the order of 35 % per day. The dose response is linear/supralinear with the threshold of supralinearity at ∼0.01 Gy reaching maximum value of ∼4 at 0.5-1 Gy for two of the major brands. The precision of repeated measurements is ∼10 % (1 SD), but the accuracy of dose assessment under field conditions requires further study.

  10. RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF MICROORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH VASCULAR ACCESS INFECTIONS IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    D’Amato-Palumbo, S; Kaplan, AA; Feinn, RS; Lalla, RV

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess microorganisms associated with vascular access-associated infections (VAIs) in hemodialysis patients, with respect to possible origin from the mouth. Study Design A retrospective and comparative analysis of the microbes associated with VAI in hemodialysis patients treated during a 10-year period was performed using the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD). Results Of 218 patient records identified, 65 patients collectively experienced 115 VAI episodes. The most common microorganisms involved were Staphylococcus aureus (49.6% of infections), Staphylococcus epidermidis (10.4%), Serratia marcescens (10.4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.6%), and Enterococcus faecalis / fecum (8.7%). None of these was found in 1% or more of HOMD clone libraries, indicating that they very rarely colonize the teeth or plaque. Conclusions Most VAIs were associated with microorganisms more likely to originate from other body sites than from the oral cavity. The risk of a VAI being caused by microorganisms originating from the oral cavity is very small. PMID:23217535

  11. A retrospective study: clinical experience using vacuum-assisted closure in the treatment of wounds.

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Suresh; Terrazas, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    We report the results of our wound care experience using the wound vac as an adjunct therapy in the treatment of sternal, spinal, and lower-extremity wounds. This is a retrospective study in which 42 patients were evaluated between 1999 and 2002 for nonhealing sternal, spinal, and lower-extremity wounds. There were 12 patients with sternal wounds with a variety of pathogens who were treated with antimicrobials along with the wound VAC. The VAC was applied for an average of 12 days, and all 12 patients went onto complete closure by the end of four weeks. There were 14 patients in the lower-extremity wound group, again, with a variety of pathogens. The VAC was placed for an average of 29.3 days to achieve closure along with the wound VAC. There were 16 spinal wound patients with a variety of pathogens. All the patients received antimicrobial therapy, with the average duration of the VAC beings 27.6 days and closure taking about eight weeks. The wound VAC, along with appropriate antimicrobial therapy and surgery, appears to help reduce the number of days to healing, along with a reduction in the number hospital days and possibly costs to the health system. Images Figure 1a Figure 1b Figure 2a Figure 2b Figure 3a Figure 3b Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:15303413

  12. Pregnancy Outcomes in Chinese Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE): A Retrospective Study of 109 Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Ming; Guo, Shuiming; Shang, Weifeng; Li, Qing; Zeng, Rui; Han, Min; Ge, Shuwang; Xu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease that primarily affects women during their reproductive years. The interaction between SLE and pregnancy remains debated. The objective of this study was to analyze the fetal and maternal outcomes of Chinese women with SLE. A total of 109 pregnancies in 83 SLE patients from June 2004 to June 2014 at a tertiary university hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Patients’ characteristics, clinical and laboratory data during pregnancy were obtained from electronic medical records. After exclusion of elective abortions, the live birth rate was 61.5%. Significantly, APS (antiphospholipid syndrome), disease activity, hypertension, hypocomplementemia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia during pregnancy were more commonly observed in fetal loss pregnancies than in live birth pregnancies. Compared to the 64 women with a history of SLE, 19 women with new-onset lupus during pregnancy had worse pregnancy outcome. Furthermore, the 64 patients with a history of SLE were divided into lupus nephritis group and SLE group (non-renal involvement). We found that the lupus nephritis group had worse maternal outcome than the SLE group. We conclude that new-onset lupus during pregnancy predicts both adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, while a history of lupus nephritis predicts adverse maternal outcomes. It is essential to provide SLE women with progestational counseling and regular multispecialty care during pregnancy. PMID:27442513

  13. Dislocation of the Elbow: A Retrospective Multicentre Study of 86 Patients

    PubMed Central

    de Haan, Jeroen; Schep, Niels W.L; Zengerink, Imme; van Buijtenen, Jesse; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; den Hartog, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective multicentre cohort study was to prospectively assess the long-term functional outcomes of simple and complex elbow dislocations. We analysed the hospital and outpatient records of 86 patients between 01.03.1999 and 25.02.2009 with an elbow dislocation. After a mean follow-up of 3.3 years, all patients were re-examined at the outpatient clinic for measurement of different outcomes. The mean range of motion was ROM 135.5°. The Mayo elbow performance index (MEPI) scored an average of 91.9 (87.5% of the patients were rated excellent or good). The average Quick disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (Quick- DASH) score was 9.7, the sports/music score 11.5 and work score 6.1. The Oxford function score was 75.7, Oxford pain score 75.2 and Oxford social-psychological score 73.9. Elbow dislocation is a mild disease and generally, the outcome is excellent. Functional results might improve with early active movements. PMID:20352027

  14. Aortic Dissection and Sudden Unexpected Deaths: A Retrospective Study of 31 Forensic Autopsy Cases.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Li, Ling; Mu, Hong-Shu; Fan, Shuan-Liang; He, Fang-Gang; Wang, Zhen-Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is the most common cause of sudden unexpected death related to aortic diseases. A retrospective study of 31 sudden unexpected deaths caused by AAD was conducted at Xi'an Jiaotong University Forensic Center from 2001 to 2012. We summarized the forensic characteristics of AAD and assessed the clinically diagnostic accuracy of AAD. The characteristics of sudden unexpected death due to AAD were male predominant (male: female=6.7:1), relatively young with the mean age of 44, and predominance of type A dissection (77.4%). Cardiac tamponade was the most frequent cause of sudden death (87.1%). Of the 31 cases, 26 (83.9%) patients were not recognized clinically and were misdiagnosed with acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, cholecystitis, acute gastroenteritis, renal/urinary lithiasis, or acute pancreatitis. In summary, AAD can be difficult to recognize, diagnosis is therefore sometimes delayed or missed. The medicolegal death investigation can help physicians have a better understanding of AAD.

  15. Epidemiology of pemphigus vulgaris in the Northeast China: a 10-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoling; Pan, Jisheng; Yu, Zhiming; Wang, Yanhua; Cai, Limin; Zheng, Shuyun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence, epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic features of patients with pemphigus vulgaris in China. We retrospectively investigated a total of 221 patients with pemphigus vulgaris. The parameters including age at diagnosis/onset, sex, diagnostic methods, hospitalizations, side-effects with different treatments, pemphigus vulgaris-associated diseases, the therapeutic features and duration of follow up were evaluated. The male : female ratio was 1:1.40. The incidence rate was obviously higher in two age groups, 31-40 years and 41-50 years. The mean age at onset was 44.19 ± 21.45 years. The majority of patients (56.56%) presented the mucocutaneous type. In addition, we found that various doses of corticosteroids (including the mean initial dose, maximum control dose, total dose before reducing and hospitalized total dose) exhibited statistical differences between only corticosteroids and corticosteroids-immunosuppressant groups in mild, moderate and severe pemphigus vulgaris (P < 0.05). Our survey suggested that pemphigus vulgaris most frequently occurred in the 41-50-year age group in China and the majority of patients manifested mucocutaneous lesions. Importantly, the incidence rate in females was higher than in males. The patients who needed combined immunosuppressant treatment, usually needed higher doses of corticosteroids initially, to control the disease and over the total course of treatment.

  16. A retrospective clinicopathological study on oral lichen planus and malignant transformation: Analysis of 518 cases

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zheng Y.; Zhu, Lai K.; Feng, Jin Q.; Tang, Guo Y.; Zhou, Zeng T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of a relatively large cohort of patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) from eastern China. Study design: A total of 518 patients with histologically confirmed OLP in a long-term follow-up period (6 months-21.5 years) were retrospectively reviewed in our clinic. Results: Of the 518 patients, 353 females and 165 males were identified. The average age at diagnosis was 46.3 years (range 9-81 years) with the buccal mucosa being the most common site (87.8%). At initial presentation, white lichen and red lichen was seen in 52.3% and 47.7% patients, respectively. Of these, 5 (0.96%) patients previously diagnosed clinically and histopathologically as OLP developed oral cancer. All of them were the females with no a history of smoking or alcohol use. Conclusions: Clinical features of eastern Chinese OLP patients were elucidated. Notably, approximately 1% of OLP developed into cancer, which provides further evidence of potentially malignant nature of OLP. Key words:Oral lichen planus, clinical features, malignant transformation, oral cancer. PMID:22549677

  17. Cost and clinical consequences of smoking cessation in outpatients after cardiovascular disease: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Díaz-Cerezo, Silvia; de Burgoa, Verónica Sanz; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This cohort retrospective study explored the cost and clinical consequences of smoking cessation in outpatients after cardiovascular events (CVEs), in Spain. A total of 2,540 patients (68.1 years; 60.7% male; 8.4% smokers, 52.9% ex-smokers, and 38.7% never smokers) fulfilling the selection criteria and followed up throughout a period of 36 months after the event were considered eligible for analysis. Total costs were higher among current smokers in comparison with ex-smokers and never smokers (€7,981 versus [vs] €7,322 and €5,619, respectively) (P < 0.001). Both health care costs (€6,273 vs €5,673 and €4,823, respectively) (P < 001) and loss of productivity at work costs (€1,708 vs €1,650 and €796, respectively) (P < 001) accounted for such differences. There was also a difference in CVE recurrence rates (18.6% vs 16.5% and 9.6%, respectively) (P < 01). Smoking cessation in CVE outpatients was associated with lower cost and risk of CVE recurrence compared with smokers, and their health status was similar to that of never smokers, in routine clinical practice in Spain.

  18. Alveolar Ridge Reconstruction with Titanium Meshes and Simultaneous Implant Placement: A Retrospective, Multicenter Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Zita Gomes, Raquel; Paraud Freixas, Andres; Han, Chang-Hun; Bechara, Sohueil; Tawil, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate horizontal bone gain and implant survival and complication rates in patients treated with titanium meshes placed simultaneously with dental implants and fixed over them. Methods. Twenty-five patients treated with 40 implants and simultaneous guided bone regeneration with titanium meshes (i-Gen®, MegaGen, Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea) were selected for inclusion in the present retrospective multicenter study. Primary outcomes were horizontal bone gain and implant survival; secondary outcomes were biological and prosthetic complications. Results. After the removal of titanium meshes, the CBCT evaluation revealed a mean horizontal bone gain of 3.67 mm (±0.89). The most frequent complications were mild postoperative edema (12/25 patients: 48%) and discomfort after surgery (10/25 patients: 40%); these complications were resolved within one week. Titanium mesh exposure occurred in 6 patients (6/25 : 24%): one of these suffered partial loss of the graft and another experienced complete graft loss and implant failure. An implant survival rate of 97.5% (implant-based) and a peri-implant marginal bone loss of 0.43 mm (±0.15) were recorded after 1 year. Conclusions. The horizontal ridge reconstruction with titanium meshes placed simultaneously with dental implants achieved predictable satisfactory results. Prospective randomized controlled trials on a larger sample of patients are required to validate these positive outcomes.

  19. Impact of capillary invasion on the prognosis of gastric adenocarcinoma patients: A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pan-Pan; Xu, Yuan-Wei; Zhang, Wei-Han; Liu, Kai; Chen, Xin-Zu; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Zhi-Xin; Chen, Jia-Ping; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Capillary invasion (CI) has been found to play an important role in metastasis and recurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). However, the prognostic significance of CI is still controversial. From January 2005 to December 2011, 1398 patients with GAC who underwent gastrectomy were retrospectively enrolled and divided into CI (+) and CI (−) groups. Clinicopathological features and survival outcomes were compared between these groups. In our study, 227 (16.2%) patients were CI (+). Patients with CI (+) had significantly more advanced tumors and worse prognosis than those with CI (−) (p < 0.001). CI was demonstrated as an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.023) in patients with GAC. When stratified by TNM stage, the prognosis of CI (+) group in stage III was remarkably worse than CI (−) group (p = 0.006), while the differences were not significant in stage I–II and stage IV (both p > 0.05). The nomograms indicated that CI was part of the individual prognostic prediction system. The predictive accuracy of CI and other characteristics was better than TNM alone (p < 0.001). Our finding suggested that CI was an independent prognostic factor in patients with GAC, and the nomogram based on CI and other clinicopathological factors was a valuable and accurate tool in individual prognostic prediction. PMID:27145279

  20. Risk of skin cancer in multiple myeloma patients: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Austin A; Wang, James; Vardanyan, Suzie; Madden, Erik K; Hebroni, Frank; Udd, Kyle A; Spektor, Tanya M; Nosrati, Jason D; Kitto, Alex Z; Zahab, Michael; Cheema, Simrin; Fors, Darron H; Norberg, Adam; Diehl, Joseph; Waterman, Gabriel N; Swift, Regina A; Crowley, John; Berenson, James R

    2016-11-01

    Immunosuppressed patients are known to have an increased incidence of skin cancer. Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) show impaired immune function. In the past, because of poor survival, the incidence of specific secondary primary malignancies such as skin cancer among these patients was difficult to establish. With more effective MM therapies that have emerged in recent years, these patients are living markedly longer, and therefore, it becomes of increasing importance to determine whether their risk of developing other medical problems such as skin cancer is increased. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 205 myeloma patients and 193 age-, race-, and gender-matched control subjects to assess the incidence of skin cancers among patients with MM and determine the specific types of and risk factors for skin cancer. We found that there is an increased occurrence of skin cancer among patients with MM compared to control subjects (26.8% vs. 16.1% in controls; P = 0.009). Among specific types of skin cancer, the proportion of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was higher than controls (P = 0.016). In addition to MM diagnosis, older age and Caucasian ethnicity were predictors of skin cancer of any type. Furthermore, older age was also a predictor of SCC.

  1. Income Related Inequality of Health Care Access in Japan: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Misuzu; Hata, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the association between income level and health care access in Japan. Data from a total of 222,259 subjects (age range, 0–74 years) who submitted National Health Insurance claims in Chiba City from April 2012 to March 2014 and who declared income for the tax period from January 1 to December 31, 2012 were integrated and analyzed. The generalized estimating equation, in which household was defined as a cluster, was used to evaluate the association between equivalent income and utilization and duration of hospitalization and outpatient care services. A significant positive linear association was observed between income level and outpatient visit rates among all age groups of both sexes; however, a significantly higher rate and longer period of hospitalization, and longer outpatient care, were observed among certain lower income subgroups. To control for decreased income due to hospitalization, subjects hospitalized during the previous year were excluded, and the data was then reanalyzed. Significant inverse associations remained in the hospitalization rate among 40–59-year-old men and 60–69-year-old women, and in duration of hospitalization among 40–59 and 60–69-year-olds of both sexes and 70–74-year-old women. These results suggest that low-income individuals in Japan have poorer access to outpatient care and more serious health conditions than their higher income counterparts. PMID:26978270

  2. The results of therapeutic plasma exchange in patients with severe hyperthyroidism: a retrospective multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Keklik, Muzaffer; Kaynar, Leylagul; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Sivgin, Serdar; Solmaz, Musa; Pala, Cigdem; Aribas, Sulbiye; Akyol, Gulsah; Unluhizarci, Kursat; Cetin, Mustafa; Eser, Bulent; Unal, Ali

    2013-06-01

    Hyperthyroidism characterized by elevated serum levels of circulating thyroid hormones. The aim of hyperthyroidism treatment is to achieve a euthyroid state as soon as possible and to maintain euthyroid status. However, drug withdrawal and utilization of alternative therapies are needed in cases in which leucopenia or impairment in liver functions is observed during medical therapy. In the present study, we aimed to present our cases which underwent therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) due to severe hyperthyroidism. The results of 22 patients who underwent therapeutic plasma exchange due to hyperthyroidism in Apheresis Units of Erciyes University and Gaziantep University, between 2006 and 2012, were retrospectively reviewed. These cases had severe thyrotoxic values despite anti-thyroid drug use. After TPE, we observed a significant decrease in free thyroxin (FT4) (p<0.001) and free triiodotyhronin (FT3) (p<0.004) levels. There was statistically significant increase in the mean values of TSH levels after TPE (p<0.001). Clinical improvement was achieved in hyperthyroidism by TPE in 20 cases (91%). Both FT3 and FT4 levels remained above the normal limits in two of 22 patients. TPE should be considered as an effective and safe therapeutic option to achieve euthyroid state before surgery or radioactive iodine treatment. TPE is a useful option in cases with severe hyperthyroidism unresponsive to anti-thyroid agents and in those with clinical manifestations of cardiac failure and in patients with severe adverse events during anti-thyroid therapy.

  3. Association between pain outcomes and race and opioid treatment: Retrospective cohort study of Veterans.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Diana J; Gravely, Amy A; Nelson, David B; Bair, Matthew J; Kerns, Robert D; Higgins, Diana M; Farmer, Melissa M; Partin, Melissa R

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether pain outcomes (pain interference, perceived pain treatment effectiveness) vary by race and then whether opioid use moderates these associations. These analyses are part of a retrospective cohort study among 3,505 black and 46,203 non-Hispanic, white Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) patients with diagnoses of chronic musculoskeletal pain who responded to the 2007 VA Survey of Healthcare Experiences of Patients (SHEP). We used electronic medical record data to identify prescriptions for pharmacologic pain treatments in the year after diagnosis (Pain Diagnosis index visit) and before the SHEP index visit (the visit that made one eligible to complete the SHEP); pain outcomes came from the SHEP. We found no significant associations between race and pain interference or perceived effectiveness of pain treatment. VA patients with opioid prescriptions between the Pain Diagnosis index visit and the SHEP index visit reported greater pain interference on the SHEP than those without opioid prescriptions during that period. Opioid prescriptions were not associated with perceived treatment effectiveness for most patients. Findings raise questions about benefits of opioids for musculoskeletal pain and point to the need for alternative treatments for addressing chronic noncancer pain.

  4. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment of Isolated Pathologies of the Sphenoid Sinus: Retrospective Study of 46 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Marcolini, Thomas Ribeiro; Safraider, Maryane Cristine; Socher, Jan Alessandro; Lucena, Guilherme Olinto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Isolated disease of the sphenoid is rare and has often been overlooked due to its remote location and difficult access. Objective A retrospective study of the main causes of isolated sphenoid sinus diseases with discussion of the most appropriate methods of diagnosis and treatment. Methods A total of 46 cases of isolated sphenoid disease treated between January 2008 and December 2013 were evaluated by objective ear, nose, and throat examination and video endoscopy, computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses, and, in some cases, magnetic resonance imaging. In each case, we decided between drug and/or endoscopic treatment. Results We identified 12 cases of isolated sphenoiditis (26.1%), 3 cases of fungal sphenoiditis (6.5%), 3 cases of sphenochoanal polyps (6.5%), 22 cases of mucocele (47.8%), 2 cases of cerebrospinal fluid leak (4.3%), and 1 case each of meningoencephalocele (2.1%), inverted papilloma (2.1%), fibrous dysplasia (2.1%), and squamous cell carcinoma (2.1%). Conclusion A prevalence of inflammatory and infectious diseases was found, and endoscopic surgery for the sphenoid sinus approach is effective in treating various diseases of the isolated sphenoid, whether complicated or not. PMID:25992167

  5. Pesticide poisoning in domestic animals and livestock in Austria: a 6 years retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingzi; Kruzik, Paul; Helsberg, Albert; Helsberg, Inge; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter

    2007-07-04

    A 6 years retrospective study of pesticide poisonings in domestic animals and livestock from 1999 to 2004 submitted to the Institute for Medical Chemistry, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna in Austria was compiled and analysed. Totally 380 pesticide analysis requests were referred by veterinary practitioners, from the Institute for Pathology of the above university, by regional and central governments as well as local police departments and district administrations, animal protectionist groups, public health authorities and private clients. Among the total number of suspected samples for pesticides, 175 (46.1%) cases were found positive to contain pesticides of various kinds. Among the pesticides found, carbamate insecticides were most prominent, representing 50.3% of the total positive cases. These compounds were followed by rodenticides-anticoagulants with 18.9% of the positive results, by organophosphate insecticides 5.1%, and by the rodenticides-nonanticoagulant 3.4%, the other 22.3% included molluscicides, herbicides, etc. In totally 225 animals, 123 animals were found positive for pesticide intoxication, among them 47.2% were dogs, 34.1% were cats 9.8% of other species and 8.9% of unspecified animal samples. The pesticides were characterized by HPLC-techniques using commercially available standards. The aim of this Austrian survey was to determine the incidence and frequency of confirmed pesticide intoxications in animals in Austria and to emphasize its relevance in veterinary practice for livestock and domestic animals.

  6. Oral granuloma gravidarum: a retrospective study of 41 cases in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central