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Sample records for edasi meid viib

  1. The occurrence of five major Newcastle disease virus genotypes (II, IV, V, VI and VIIb) in Bulgaria between 1959 and 1996.

    PubMed Central

    Czeglédi, A.; Herczeg, J.; Hadjiev, G.; Doumanova, L.; Wehmann, E.; Lomniczi, B.

    2002-01-01

    Partial sequence and restriction enzyme cleavage site analyses of the fusion protein gene were used to genotype 47 Newcastle disease virus strains isolated between 1959 and 1996 in Bulgaria. Viruses belonged to five major genotypes that appeared to be associated with epizootics characterized by temporal and/or geographical restrictions. Genotype IV viruses (responsible for the European branch of the first panzootic) dominated the scene up to the early 1980s, interspersed with sporadic outbreaks caused by genotype II (US strains causing pneumoencephalitis) viruses. Genotype V viruses (transmitted by psittacines from South America) were first shown in 1973 and persisted until the late 1980s. Genotype VI (earliest members from the Middle-East 1968/70 outbreaks) was represented by scattered isolations between 1974 and 1996. A genotype VIIb (recent Middle East epizootic) virus was isolated as early as in 1984. Newcastle disease epizootics in Bulgaria were highlighted by multiple infection with more than one genotype at any one time. PMID:12558353

  2. 12 CFR 204.124 - Repurchase agreement involving shares of a money market mutual fund whose portfolio consists...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... thereof that the depository institution is obligated to repurchase (12 CFR 204.2(a)(1)(vii)(B)). (b) The... bank may purchase directly (12 CFR 208.123). (d) The Board has determined that an obligation arising...)(1)(vii)(B) of Regulation D, 12 CFR 204.2(a)(1)(vii)(B)....

  3. Study on passive momentum exchange landing gear using two-dimensional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tsubasa; Hara, Susumu; Otsuki, Masatsugu

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses a landing response control system based on the momentum exchange principle for planetary exploration spacecraft. In the past, landing gear systems with cantilever designs that incorporate honeycomb materials to dissipate shock energy through plastic deformation have been used, but once tested before launch, the system cannot be used in a real mission. The sky crane system used for the Mars Science Laboratory by NASA can achieve a safe and precise landing, but it is highly complex. This paper introduces a momentum exchange impact damper (MEID) that absorbs the controlled object's momentum with extra masses called damper masses. The MEID is reusable, which makes it easy to ensure the landing gear's reliability. In this system, only passive elements such as springs are needed. A single-axis (SA) model has already been used to verify the effectiveness of MEIDs through simulations and experiments measuring the rebound height of the spacecraft. However, the SA model cannot address the rotational motion and tipping of the spacecraft. This paper presents a two-landing-gear-system (TLGS) model in which multiple MEIDs are equipped for two-dimensional analysis. Unlike in the authors' previous studies, in this study each MEID is launched when the corresponding landing gear lands and the MEIDs do not contain active actuators. This mechanism can be used to realize advanced control specifications, and it is simply compared with previous mechanisms including actuators, in which all of the MEIDs are launched simultaneously. If each MEID works when the corresponding gear lands, the rebound height of each gear can be minimized, and tipping can be prevented, as demonstrated by the results of our simulations.

  4. 21 CFR 178.3295 - Clarifying agents for polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Clarifying agents for polymers. 178.3295 Section... Production Aids § 178.3295 Clarifying agents for polymers. Clarifying agents may be safely used in polymers.... The finished polymers contact food only of types I, II, IV-B, VI-B, VII-B, and VIII as identified...

  5. Area 2 Bitcutter and Post-Shot Injection Wells Corrective Action Unit 90 Post-Closure Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Glen Richardson

    2002-09-01

    Area 2 Bitcutter and Post-Shot Containment Wells Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 90 Post-Closure Monitoring requirements are described in Section VII.B.8.b of the Nevada Test Site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility No. NEV HW009, Revision 4, reissued on November 20, 2000.

  6. 50 CFR 680.40 - Crab Quota Share (QS), Processor QS (PQS), Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ), and Individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... that year will not be used as the basis for presumed landings. (vii) LLP license history exemption. An... history described in paragraph (c)(2)(vii)(B)(1) of this section is being used by another person for...

  7. 50 CFR 680.40 - Crab Quota Share (QS), Processor QS (PQS), Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ), and Individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... that year will not be used as the basis for presumed landings. (vii) LLP license history exemption. An... history described in paragraph (c)(2)(vii)(B)(1) of this section is being used by another person for...

  8. Pain and motor processing in the human cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Coombes, Stephen A; Misra, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Pain-related adaptations in movement require a network architecture that allows for integration across pain and motor circuits. Previous studies addressing this issue have focused on cortical areas such as the midcingulate cortex. Here, we focus on pain and motor processing in the human cerebellum. The goal of this study was to identify areas of activation in the cerebellum, which are common to pain and motor processing, and to determine whether the activation is limited to the superior and inferior cerebellar motor maps or extends into multimodal areas of the posterior cerebellum. Our observations identified overlapping activity in left and right lobules VI and VIIb during pain and motor processing. Activation in these multimodal regions persisted when pain and motor processes were combined within the same trial, and activation in contralateral left lobule VIIb persisted when stimulation was controlled for. Functional connectivity analyses revealed significant correlations in the BOLD time series between multimodal cerebellar regions and sensorimotor regions in the cerebrum including anterior midcingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, and thalamus. The current findings are the first to show multimodal processing in lobules VI and VIIb for motor control and pain processing and suggest that the posterior cerebellum may be important in understanding pain-related adaptations in motor control.

  9. Semiconducting glasses with flux pinning inclusions

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, William L.; Poon, Siu-Joe; Duwez, Pol E.

    1981-01-01

    A series of amorphous superconducting glassy alloys containing 1% to 10% by volume of flux pinning crystalline inclusions have been found to have potentially useful properties as high field superconducting magnet materials. The alloys are prepared by splat cooling by the piston and anvil technique. The alloys have the composition (TM).sub.90-70 (M).sub.10-30 where TM is a transition metal selected from at least one metal of Groups IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB or VIIIB of the Periodic Table such as Nb, Mo, Ru, Zr, Ta, W or Re and M is at least one metalloid such as B, P, C, N, Si, Ge or Al.

  10. Catalytic cracking catalysts using silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Pellet, R.J.; Coughlin, P.K.; Staniulis, M.T.; Long, G.N.; Rabo, J.A.

    1987-05-19

    A cracking catalyst is described comprising: a silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieve of U.S. Pat. No. 4,440,871 characterized in its calcined form by an adsorption of isobutane of at least 2 percent by weight at a pressure of 500 torr and a temperature of 20/sup 0/C and having an effective amount of the cations associated with the silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieve selected from the group consisting of H+, ammonium, Group IIA, groups IIIB to VIIB, cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium, neodymium, and promethium.

  11. Preliminary observation on sexual maturity of black anglerfish (Lophius budegassa) in north-eastern Atlantic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landa, Jorge; Antolínez, Ana; Ámez, Marco A.; Barrado, Joaquín; Castro, Begoña; Cañás, Lucía; Autón, Urbano; Fariña, Antonio C.; Hernández, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    The reproduction of black anglerfish (Lophius budegassa) was studied from samples collected during 5 years, from January 2006 to December 2010, in Celtic Sea, West and South of Ireland (ICES Div. VIIb-k) and Northern Spanish Atlantic waters (ICES Div. VIIIc-IXa). A total of 1167 specimens (4-99 cm) were sampled. The sex ratio, the spawning period and the maturity ogives by length were studied. The sex ratio in both areas studied varied with length, and it was close to 1:1 (male:female), 1:1.22 (54.90% of females) in Div. VIIb-k, and 1:1.01 (50.30% of females) in Div. VIIIc-IXa. A seasonal variation in sex ratio by length was observed at first time in Div VIIIc-IXa, with a very low proportion of intermediate sized females (40-60 cm) in the second semester. A seasonal reproductive migratory behavior is discussed. The spawning period was between December and July in Div. VIIIc-IXa. Spawning males were found throughout the year, but fewer spawning females, as in previous studies. The L50 values were estimated in Div. VIIIc-IXa: 38.2 cm for combined sexes, 36.0 cm for males and 53.0 cm for females. These values of sex ratio and L50 are similar to those obtained in closed areas studied.

  12. The Association Between Eye Movements and Cerebellar Activation in a Verbal Working Memory Task.

    PubMed

    Peterburs, Jutta; Cheng, Dominic T; Desmond, John E

    2016-09-01

    It has been argued that cerebellar activations during cognitive tasks may masquerade as cognition, while actually reflecting processes related to movement planning or motor learning. The present study investigated whether the cerebellar load effect for verbal working memory, that is, increased activations in lobule VI/Crus I and lobule VIIB/VIIIA, is related to eye movements and oculomotor processing. Fifteen participants performed an fMRI-based Sternberg verbal working memory task. Oculomotor and cognitive task demands were manipulated by using closely and widely spaced stimuli, and high and low cognitive load. Trial-based quantitative eye movement parameters were obtained from concurrent eye tracking. Conventional MRI analysis replicated the cerebellar load effect in lobules VI and VIIB/VIIIa. With quantitative eye movement parameters as regressors, analysis yielded very similar activation patterns. While load effect and eye regressor generally recruited spatially distinct neocortical and cerebellar regions, conjunction analysis showed that a small subset of prefrontal areas implicated in the load effect also responded to the eye regressor. The present results indicate that cognitive load-dependent activations in lateral superior and posteroinferior cerebellar regions in the Sternberg task are independent of eye movements occurring during stimulus encoding. This is inconsistent with the notion that cognitive load-dependent cerebellar activations merely reflect oculomotor processing. PMID:26286918

  13. High temperature regenerative H.sub.2 S sorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flytani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Inventor); Gavalas, George R. (Inventor); Tamhankar, Satish S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Efficient, regenerable sorbents for removal of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas streams comprise porous, high surface area particles. A first class of sorbents comprise a thin film of binary oxides that form a eutectic at the temperature of the gas stream coated onto a porous, high surface area refractory support. The binary oxides are a mixture of a Group VB or VIB metal oxide with a Group IB, IIB or VIII metal oxide such as a film of V-Zn-O, V-Cu-O, Cu-Mo-O, Zn-Mo-O or Fe-Mo-O coated on an alumina support. A second class of sorbents consist of particles of unsupported mixed oxides in the form of highly dispersed solid solutions of solid compounds characterized by small crystallite size, high porosity and relatively high surface area. The mixed oxide sorbents contain one Group IB, IIB or VIIB metal oxide such as copper, zinc or manganese and one or more oxides of Groups IIIA, VIB or VII such as aluminum, iron or molybdenum. The presence of iron or aluminum maintains the Group IB, IIB or VIIB metal in its oxidized state. Presence of molybdenum results in eutectic formation at sulfidation temperature and improves the efficiency of the sorbent.

  14. Quantitative examination of the bottlenose dolphin cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Alicia; Grisham, William; Sheh, Colleen; Annese, Jacopo; Ridgway, Sam

    2013-08-01

    Neuroanatomical research into the brain of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) has revealed striking similarities with the human brain in terms of size and complexity. However, the dolphin brain also contains unique allometric relationships. When compared to the human brain, the dolphin cerebellum is noticeably larger. Upon closer examination, the lobule composition of the cerebellum is distinct between the two species. In this study, we used magnetic resonance imaging to analyze cerebellar anatomy in the bottlenose dolphin and measure the volume of the separate cerebellar lobules in the bottlenose dolphin and human. Lobule identification was assisted by three-dimensional modeling. We find that lobules VI, VIIb, VIII, and IX are the largest lobules of the bottlenose dolphin cerebellum, while the anterior lobe (I-V), crus I, crus II, and the flocculonodular lobe are smaller. Different lobule sizes may have functional implications. Auditory-associated lobules VIIb, VIII, IX are likely large in the bottlenose dolphin due to echolocation abilities. Our study provides quantitative information on cerebellar anatomy that substantiates previous reports based on gross observation and subjective analysis. This study is part of a continuing effort toward providing explicit descriptions of cetacean neuroanatomy to support the interpretation of behavioral studies on cetacean cognition. PMID:23775830

  15. Phylogenetic characterization of virulent Newcastle disease viruses isolated during outbreaks in northwestern Iran in 2010.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Elham; Pourbakhsh, Seyed Ali; Ahmadi, Malahat; Mardani, Karim; Talebi, Alireza

    2016-11-01

    The northwest of Iran shares long borders with three neighboring countries; therefore, it is considered one of the main entry portals of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) into the country. Ten virulent NDVs were recovered from 19 poultry farms of various prefectures in northwestern Iran during Newcastle disease outbreaks in 2010. The isolates were genotypically analyzed using an F-gene-specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The amplified F gene (nucleotides 189-1666) sequences of the NDV isolates were compared phylogenetically with those of previously published strains in GenBank. All of the NDV isolates belonged to genotype VIIb and were closely related to some isolates from Iran, Russia, and Sweden. Therefore, it can be postulated that these isolates evolved from previously reported strains. The velogenic viruses carried the motif (112)R-R-Q-K-R/F(117) at the F0 cleavage site and a unique substitution of (190)L→F which had never been reported in any NDV genotype VIIb isolate. They shared high sequence similarity with each other but were distinct from current NDV vaccines and NDV strains reported from other countries. This information is fundamental for improving the efficacy of controlling strategies and vaccine development for NDV.

  16. Modality specificity in the cerebro-cerebellar neurocircuitry during working memory.

    PubMed

    Ng, H B Tommy; Kao, K-L Cathy; Chan, Y C; Chew, Effie; Chuang, K H; Chen, S H Annabel

    2016-05-15

    Previous studies have suggested cerebro-cerebellar circuitry in working memory. The present fMRI study aims to distinguish differential cerebro-cerebellar activation patterns in verbal and visual working memory, and employs a quantitative analysis to deterimine lateralization of the activation patterns observed. Consistent with Chen and Desmond (2005a,b) predictions, verbal working memory activated a cerebro-cerebellar circuitry that comprised left-lateralized language-related brain regions including the inferior frontal and posterior parietal areas, and subcortically, right-lateralized superior (lobule VI) and inferior cerebellar (lobule VIIIA/VIIB) areas. In contrast, a distributed network of bilateral inferior frontal and inferior temporal areas, and bilateral superior (lobule VI) and inferior (lobule VIIB) cerebellar areas, was recruited during visual working memory. Results of the study verified that a distinct cross cerebro-cerebellar circuitry underlies verbal working memory. However, a neural circuitry involving specialized brain areas in bilateral neocortical and bilateral cerebellar hemispheres subserving visual working memory is observed. Findings are discussed in the light of current models of working memory and data from related neuroimaging studies.

  17. POST CLOSURE INSPECTION REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 90: AREA 2 BITCUTTER CONTAINMENT, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA, FOR THE PERIOD JULY 2004 - JUNE 2005

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 90, Area 2 Bitcutter Containment, is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. The post-closure monitoring requirements for CAU 90 are described in Section VII.B.8.b of the Nevada Test Site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Number NEV HW009, Section VII, Revision 1, March 2003. Post-closure activities consist of the following: semiannual inspections of the site using inspection checklists; photographic documentation; field note documentation; and preparation and submittal of an annual Post-Closure Inspection Report. This annual report covers the period of July 2004 to June 2005 and consists of copies of the inspection checklists, maintenance and repair records (if any), photographs, and recommendations and conclusions. The inspection checklists are provided in Appendix A. A copy of the field notes is provided in Appendix B, and copies of photographs are provided in Appendix C.

  18. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 90: Area 2 Bitcutter Containment Annual Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. K. Knapp

    2003-09-01

    Area 2 Bitcutter and Post-Shot Containment Wells Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 90 Post-Closure Monitoring requirements are described in Section VII.B.8.b of the Nevada Test Site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Number NEV HW009, Section VII, Revision 1, March 2003. Post-closure care consists of the following: Semiannual inspections of the unit using an inspection checklist; Photographic documentation; Field note documentation; and Preparation and submittal of an annual report. The annual report consists of copies of the inspection checklist, repair records (if any), photographs, and recommendations and conclusions for the period December 2002 to June 2003. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are provided in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is provided in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are provided in Attachment C.

  19. Temporal dynamics of visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Sobczak-Edmans, M; Ng, T H B; Chan, Y C; Chew, E; Chuang, K H; Chen, S H A

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of the human cerebellum in working memory has been well established in the last decade. However, the cerebro-cerebellar network for visual working memory is not as well defined. Our previous fMRI study showed superior and inferior cerebellar activations during a block design visual working memory task, but specific cerebellar contributions to cognitive processes in encoding, maintenance and retrieval have not yet been established. The current study examined cerebellar contributions to each of the components of visual working memory and presence of cerebellar hemispheric laterality was investigated. 40 young adults performed a Sternberg visual working memory task during fMRI scanning using a parametric paradigm. The contrast between high and low memory load during each phase was examined. We found that the most prominent activation was observed in vermal lobule VIIIb and bilateral lobule VI during encoding. Using a quantitative laterality index, we found that left-lateralized activation of lobule VIIIa was present in the encoding phase. In the maintenance phase, there was bilateral lobule VI and right-lateralized lobule VIIb activity. Changes in activation in right lobule VIIIa were present during the retrieval phase. The current results provide evidence that superior and inferior cerebellum contributes to visual working memory, with a tendency for left-lateralized activations in the inferior cerebellum during encoding and right-lateralized lobule VIIb activations during maintenance. The results of the study are in agreement with Baddeley's multi-component working memory model, but also suggest that stored visual representations are additionally supported by maintenance mechanisms that may employ verbal coding.

  20. The cyclope gene of Drosophila encodes a cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc homolog.

    PubMed

    Szuplewski, S; Terracol, R

    2001-08-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain. In eukaryotes, the enzyme is composed of 3 mitochondrial DNA-encoded subunits and 7-10 (in mammals) nuclear DNA-encoded subunits. This enzyme has been extensively studied in mammals and yeast but, in Drosophila, very little is known and no mutant has been described so far. Here we report the genetic and molecular characterization of mutations in cyclope (cype) and the cloning of the gene encoding a cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc homolog. cype is an essential gene whose mutations are lethal and show pleiotropic phenotypes. The 77-amino acid peptide encoded by cype is 46% identical and 59% similar to the human subunit (75 amino acids). The transcripts are expressed maternally and throughout development in localized regions. They are found predominantly in the central nervous system of the embryo; in the central region of imaginal discs; in the germarium, follicular, and nurse cells of the ovary; and in testis. A search in the Genome Annotation Database of Drosophila revealed the absence of subunit VIIb and the presence of 9 putative nuclear cytochrome c oxidase subunits with high identity scores when compared to the 10 human subunits. PMID:11514451

  1. The cyclope gene of Drosophila encodes a cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc homolog.

    PubMed Central

    Szuplewski, S; Terracol, R

    2001-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain. In eukaryotes, the enzyme is composed of 3 mitochondrial DNA-encoded subunits and 7-10 (in mammals) nuclear DNA-encoded subunits. This enzyme has been extensively studied in mammals and yeast but, in Drosophila, very little is known and no mutant has been described so far. Here we report the genetic and molecular characterization of mutations in cyclope (cype) and the cloning of the gene encoding a cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc homolog. cype is an essential gene whose mutations are lethal and show pleiotropic phenotypes. The 77-amino acid peptide encoded by cype is 46% identical and 59% similar to the human subunit (75 amino acids). The transcripts are expressed maternally and throughout development in localized regions. They are found predominantly in the central nervous system of the embryo; in the central region of imaginal discs; in the germarium, follicular, and nurse cells of the ovary; and in testis. A search in the Genome Annotation Database of Drosophila revealed the absence of subunit VIIb and the presence of 9 putative nuclear cytochrome c oxidase subunits with high identity scores when compared to the 10 human subunits. PMID:11514451

  2. The first Japanese case of the arthrochalasia type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with COL1A2 gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Hatamochi, Atsushi; Hamada, Takahiro; Yoshino, Makoto; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2014-03-15

    This is the first report for a Japanese case of arthrochalasia type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). A 46-year-old woman consulted us for joint hypermobility and skin hyperextensibility that had been present soon after birth. There was no family history of a similar disease. She was diagnosed as having bilateral congenital hip dislocation and bilateral habitual shoulder dislocation at her childhood. Her skin was velvety, doughy and hyperextensible. She showed hypermobility of the joints of the hands and feet and generalized joint laxity, with no evidence of scoliosis. Electrophoretic analysis of collagenous proteins revealed the presence of an additional band in the position of pNα2(I) in the sample from culture medium of the patient fibroblasts. Analysis of the α2 chains of type I collagen gene, COL1A2, showed a heterozygous G to T transition at the +1 position of the exon 6 donor splice site (c.279+1G>T). This mutation resulted in skipping of exon 6, which leads to deficient processing of the amino-terminal end of proα2(I) chains of type I collagen. Based on these findings, we made a diagnosis of the arthrochalasia type of EDS, which corresponds to EDS type VIIB in the former classification.

  3. Increased activation of the human cerebellum during pitch discrimination: a positron emission tomography (PET) study.

    PubMed

    Petacchi, Augusto; Kaernbach, Christian; Ratnam, Rama; Bower, James M

    2011-12-01

    Recent years have seen a growing debate concerning the function of the cerebellum. Here we used a pitch discrimination task and PET to test for cerebellar involvement in the active control of sensory data acquisition. Specifically, we predicted greater cerebellar activity during active pitch discrimination compared to passive listening, with the greatest activity when pitch discrimination was most difficult. Ten healthy subjects were trained to discriminate deviant tones presented with a slightly higher pitch than a standard tone, using a Go/No Go paradigm. To ensure that discrimination performance was matched across subjects, individual psychometric curves were assessed beforehand using a two-step psychoacoustic procedure. Subjects were scanned while resting in the absence of any sounds, while passively listening to standard tones, and while detecting deviant tones slightly higher in pitch among these standard tones at four different performance levels. Consistent with our predictions, 1) passive listening alone elicited cerebellar activity (lobule IX), 2) cerebellar activity increased during pitch discrimination as compared to passive listening (crus I and II, lobules VI, VIIB, and VIIIB), and 3) this increase was correlated with the difficulty of the discrimination task (lobules V, VI, and IX). These results complement recent findings showing pitch discrimination deficits in cerebellar patients (Parsons et al., 2009) and further support a role for the cerebellum in sensory data acquisition. The data are discussed in the light of anatomical and physiological evidence functionally connecting auditory system and cerebellum.

  4. Development of SRC-I product analysis. Volume 3. Documentation of procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Schweighardt, F.K.; Kingsley, I.S.; Cooper, F.E.; Kamzelski, A.Z.; Parees, D.M.

    1983-09-01

    This section documents the BASIC computer program written to simulate Wilsonville's GC-simulated distillation (GCSD) results at APCI-CRSD Trexlertown. The GC conditions used at APCI for the Wilsonville GCSD analysis of coal-derived liquid samples were described in the SRC-I Quarterly Technical Report, April-June 1981. The approach used to simulate the Wilsonville GCSD results is also from an SRC-I Quarterly Technical Report and is reproduced in Appendix VII-A. The BASIC computer program is described in the attached Appendix VII-B. Analysis of gases produced during coal liquefaction generates key information needed to determine product yields for material balance and process control. Gas samples from the coal process development unit (CPDU) and tubing bombs are the primary samples analyzed. A Carle gas chromatographic system was used to analyze coal liquefaction gas samples. A BASIC computer program was written to calculate the gas chromatographic peak area results into mole percent results. ICRC has employed several analytical workup procedures to determine the amount of distillate, oils, asphaltenes, preasphaltenes, and residue in SRC-I process streams. The ASE procedure was developed using Conoco's liquid column fractionation (LC/F) method as a model. In developing the ASE procedure, ICRC was able to eliminate distillation, and therefore quantify the oils fraction in one extraction step. ASE results were shown to be reproducible within +- 2 wt %, and to yield acceptable material balances. Finally, the ASE method proved to be the least affected by sample composition.

  5. POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 110: AREA 3 WMD U-3AX/BL CRATER, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA FOR THE PERIOD JULY 2004 - JUNE 2005

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-08-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring report provides the results of inspections and monitoring for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 110, Area 3 Waste Management Division (WMD) U-3ax/bl Crater. This report includes an analysis and summary of the site inspections, repairs and maintenance, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data obtained at CAU 110, for the annual period July 2004 through June 2005. Site inspections of the cover were performed quarterly to identify any significant changes to the site requiring action. The overall condition of the cover, cover vegetation, perimeter fence, and use restriction warning signs was good. Settling was observed that exceeded the action level as specified in Section VII.B.7 of the Hazardous Waste Permit Number NEV HW009 (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, 2000). This permit states that cracks or settling greater than 15 centimeters (cm) (6 inches [in]) deep that extend 1.0 meter (m) (3 feet [ft]) or more on the cover will be evaluated and repaired within 60 days of detection.

  6. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 90: Area 2 Bitcutter Containment

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 90, Area 2 Bitcutter Containment, is identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' of 1996. The post-closure requirements for CAU 90 are described in Section VII.B.8.b of the Nevada Test Site ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act'' Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Number NEV HW0021, dated November 2005. Post-closure activities consist of the following: Semiannual inspections of the site using inspection checklists; Photographic documentation; Field note documentation; and Preparation and submittal of an annual Post-Closure Inspection Report. This annual report covers the period of July 2006 to June 2007 and consists of a summary of the results of the inspections, copies of the inspection checklists and field notes, maintenance and repair records (if any), photographs, and conclusions and recommendations. The inspection checklists are provided in Appendix A, a copy of the field notes is provided in Appendix B, and copies of photographs taken during the inspections are provided in Appendix C.

  7. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 90: Area 2 Bitcutter Containment, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 90, Area 2 Bitcutter Containment, is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996, as amended February 2008. The post-closure requirements for CAU 90 are described in Section VII.B.8.b of the Nevada Test Site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Number NEV HW0021, dated November 2005. Post-closure activities consist of the following: (1) Semiannual inspections of the site using inspection checklists; (2) Photographic documentation; (3) Field note documentation; and (4) Preparation and submittal of an annual Post-Closure Inspection Report. This annual report covers the period of July 2007 to June 2008 and consists of a summary of the results of the inspections, copies of the inspection checklists and field notes, maintenance and repair records (if any), photographs, and conclusions and recommendations. The inspection checklists are provided in Appendix A, a copy of the field notes is provided in Appendix B, and copies of photographs taken during the inspections are provided in Appendix C.

  8. Newcastle disease in the European Union 2000 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Dennis J

    2011-12-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a devastating disease of poultry that has to some extent been neglected by those working in the field in the past 10 to 15 years while attention has been focused on the emergence and spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza caused by a H5N1 subtype virus. During 2000 to 2009 in the European Union (EU) member states, ND viruses virulent for chickens have been detected in wild birds, domesticated pigeons and poultry. Based on these isolations it appears that the epizootic in racing pigeons caused by the variant viruses termed pigeon avian paramyxovirus type 1, which form the genetic group 4b(VIb) first seen in Europe in 1981, continued during 2000 to 2009, and the virus is probably enzootic in racing pigeons in some EU countries. This virus appears to have spread regularly to wild birds, especially those of the Columbidae family, and has been the cause of significant outbreaks in poultry. Other avian paramyxovirus type 1 viruses responsible for ND outbreaks in the EU during 2000 to 2009 have been those from genetic groups 5b(VIIb) and 5d(VIId). There is evidence that the former may well represent spread from a wild bird source and these viruses have also been isolated from wild birds, while the latter represents continuing spread from the East. Future legislation or recommendations aimed at the control and eradication of ND will need to encompass these three sources of virulent ND viruses.

  9. Biological motion processing: the left cerebellum communicates with the right superior temporal sulcus.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Arseny A; Erb, Michael; Gharabaghi, Alireza; Grodd, Wolfgang; Tatagiba, Marcos S; Pavlova, Marina A

    2012-02-01

    The cerebellum is thought to be engaged not only in motor control, but also in the neural network dedicated to visual processing of body motion. However, the pattern of connectivity within this network, in particular, between the cortical circuitry for observation of others' actions and the cerebellum remains largely unknown. By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with functional connectivity analysis and dynamic causal modelling (DCM), we assessed cerebro-cerebellar connectivity during a visual perceptual task with point-light displays depicting human locomotion. In the left lateral cerebellum, regions in the lobules Crus I and VIIB exhibited increased fMRI response to biological motion. The outcome of the connectivity analyses delivered the first evidence for reciprocal communication between the left lateral cerebellum and the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS). Through communication with the right posterior STS that is a key node not only for biological motion perception but also for social interaction and visual tasks on theory of mind, the left cerebellum might be involved in a wide range of social cognitive functions. PMID:22019860

  10. The number of Purkinje neurons and their topology in the cerebellar vermis of normal and reln haplodeficient mouse.

    PubMed

    Magliaro, Chiara; Cocito, Carolina; Bagatella, Stefano; Merighi, Adalberto; Ahluwalia, Arti; Lossi, Laura

    2016-09-01

    The Reeler heterozygous mice (reln(+/-)) are haplodeficient in the gene (reln) encoding for the reelin glycoprotein (RELN) and display reductions in brain/peripheral RELN similar to autistic or schizophrenic patients. Cytoarchitectonic alterations of the reln(+/-) brain may be subtle, and are difficult to demonstrate by current histological approaches. We analyzed the number and topological organization of the Purkinje neurons (PNs) in five vermal lobules - central (II-III), culmen (IV-V), tuber (VIIb), uvula (IX), and nodulus (X) - that process different types of afferent functional inputs in reln(+/+) and reln(+/-) adult mice (P60) of both sexes (n=24). Animals were crossed with L7GFP mice so that the GFP-tagged PNs could be directly identified in cryosections. Digital images from these sections were processed with different open source software for quantitative topological and statistical analyses. Diversity indices calculated were: maximum caliper, density, area of soma, dispersion along the XZ axis, and dispersion along the YZ axis. We demonstrate: i. reduction in density of PNs in reln(+/-) males (14.37%) and reln(+/-) females (17.73%) compared to reln(+/+) males; ii. that reln(+/-) males have larger PNs than other genotypes, and females (irrespective of the reln genetic background) have smaller PNs than reln(+/+) males; iii. PNs are more chaotically arranged along the YZ axis in reln(+/-) males than in reln(+/+) males and, except in central lobulus, reln(+/-) females. Therefore, image processing and statistics reveal previously unforeseen gender and genotype-related structural differences in cerebellum that may be clues for the definition of novel biomarkers in human psychiatric disorders. PMID:26996540

  11. Absorption, fluorescence, and Raman spectra of mass-selected rhenium dimers in argon matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhendong; Dong, Jian-Guo; Lombardi, John R.; Lindsay, D. M.; Harbich, W.

    1994-07-01

    We report absorption, laser fluorescence, and Raman spectra for Re2 in an argon matrix prepared by the mass-selected ion deposition technique. The dirhenium absorption spectrum consists of seven band systems (A-G) extending from the near infrared into the ultraviolet region. For the A system (a simple vibrational progression), we find T0=10 817(1) cm-1, ωe=317.1(5) cm-1 and ωexe=1.0(1) cm-1. A Franck-Condon analysis of the A system intensities predicts that this state has a smaller equilibrium internuclear distance than the ground state (Δre=-0.073 Å), in violation of Badger's rule. The B system starts at 13 250 cm-1 and consists of four overlapping (and possibly perturbed) subsystems, whose average vibrational spacing is 270(11) cm-1. The C, D, E, and F systems (vibrational spacings in parentheses) are centered at 22 300 cm-1 (210 cm-1), 24 500 cm-1 (195 cm-1), 29 150 cm-1 (175 cm-1), and 32 900 cm-1 (160 cm-1), respectively. Weak fluorescence spectra, obtained upon laser excitation into the A system, were characterized by vibrational progressions to the dimer ground (X) state and to a low lying (X') state for which T0=357.6(5) cm-1 and ωe=332.3(2) cm-1. Raman and fluorescence progressions to the ground state were observed when the B system was excited. These data give ωe=337.9(49) cm-1 for the dimer ground state in good agreement with measurements from photodetachment spectra [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108, 178 (1986)]. We propose likely assignments for the low lying electronic states of Re2 and discuss our results in terms of the bonding in the other group VIIB dimers, Mn2 and Tc2.

  12. Sex differences in cerebellar mechanisms involved in pain-related safety learning.

    PubMed

    Labrenz, Franziska; Icenhour, Adriane; Thürling, Markus; Schlamann, Marc; Forsting, Michael; Timmann, Dagmar; Elsenbruch, Sigrid

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the cerebellum contributes to the central processing of pain, including pain-related learning and memory processes. As a complex experience with multiple emotional and cognitive facets, the response to pain and its underlying neural correlates differ between men and women. However, it remains poorly understood whether and to what extent sex differences exist in the cerebellar contribution to pain-related associative learning processes. In the present conditioning study with experimental abdominal pain as unconditioned stimuli (US), we assessed sex-dependent differences in behavioral and neural responses to conditioned warning and safety cues in healthy volunteers. The results revealed that in response to visual stimuli signaling safety from abdominal pain (CS(-)), women showed enhanced cerebellar activation in lobules I-IV, V, VI, VIIIa, IX and X as well as Crus II and the dentate nucleus, which are mostly representative of somatomotor networks. On the other hand, men showed enhanced neural activation in lobules I-IV, VI, VIIb, VIIIb, IX as well as Crus I and II in response to CS(-), which are representative of frontoparietal and ventral attention networks. No sex differences were observed in response to pain-predictive warning signals (CS(+)). Similarly, men and women did not differ in behavioral measures of conditioning, including conditioned changes in CS valence and contingency awareness. Together, we could demonstrate that the cerebellum is involved in associative learning processes of conditioned anticipatory safety from pain and mediates sex differences in the underlying neural processes. Given the high prevalence of chronic pain conditions in women, these results may contribute to improve our understanding of the acquisition and manifestation of chronic abdominal pain syndromes. PMID:26004678

  13. Single session imaging of cerebellum at 7 Tesla: obtaining structure and function of multiple motor subsystems in individual subjects.

    PubMed

    Batson, Melissa A; Petridou, Natalia; Klomp, Dennis W J; Frens, Maarten A; Neggers, Sebastiaan F W

    2015-01-01

    The recent increase in the use of high field MR systems is accompanied by a demand for acquisition techniques and coil systems that can take advantage of increased power and accuracy without being susceptible to increased noise. Physical location and anatomical complexity of targeted regions must be considered when attempting to image deeper structures with small nuclei and/or complex cytoarchitechtonics (i.e. small microvasculature and deep nuclei), such as the brainstem and the cerebellum (Cb). Once these obstacles are overcome, the concomitant increase in signal strength at higher field strength should allow for faster acquisition of MR images. Here we show that it is technically feasible to quickly and accurately detect blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal changes and obtain anatomical images of Cb at high spatial resolutions in individual subjects at 7 Tesla in a single one-hour session. Images were obtained using two high-density multi-element surface coils (32 channels in total) placed beneath the head at the level of Cb, two channel transmission, and three-dimensional sensitivity encoded (3D, SENSE) acquisitions to investigate sensorimotor activations in Cb. Two classic sensorimotor tasks were used to detect Cb activations. BOLD signal changes during motor activity resulted in concentrated clusters of activity within the Cb lobules associated with each task, observed consistently and independently in each subject: Oculomotor vermis (VI/VII) and CrusI/II for pro- and anti-saccades; ipsilateral hemispheres IV-VI for finger tapping; and topographical separation of eye- and hand- activations in hemispheres VI and VIIb/VIII. Though fast temporal resolution was not attempted here, these functional patches of highly specific BOLD signal changes may reflect small-scale shunting of blood in the microvasculature of Cb. The observed improvements in acquisition time and signal detection are ideal for individualized investigations such as differentiation of

  14. Single session imaging of cerebellum at 7 Tesla: obtaining structure and function of multiple motor subsystems in individual subjects.

    PubMed

    Batson, Melissa A; Petridou, Natalia; Klomp, Dennis W J; Frens, Maarten A; Neggers, Sebastiaan F W

    2015-01-01

    The recent increase in the use of high field MR systems is accompanied by a demand for acquisition techniques and coil systems that can take advantage of increased power and accuracy without being susceptible to increased noise. Physical location and anatomical complexity of targeted regions must be considered when attempting to image deeper structures with small nuclei and/or complex cytoarchitechtonics (i.e. small microvasculature and deep nuclei), such as the brainstem and the cerebellum (Cb). Once these obstacles are overcome, the concomitant increase in signal strength at higher field strength should allow for faster acquisition of MR images. Here we show that it is technically feasible to quickly and accurately detect blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal changes and obtain anatomical images of Cb at high spatial resolutions in individual subjects at 7 Tesla in a single one-hour session. Images were obtained using two high-density multi-element surface coils (32 channels in total) placed beneath the head at the level of Cb, two channel transmission, and three-dimensional sensitivity encoded (3D, SENSE) acquisitions to investigate sensorimotor activations in Cb. Two classic sensorimotor tasks were used to detect Cb activations. BOLD signal changes during motor activity resulted in concentrated clusters of activity within the Cb lobules associated with each task, observed consistently and independently in each subject: Oculomotor vermis (VI/VII) and CrusI/II for pro- and anti-saccades; ipsilateral hemispheres IV-VI for finger tapping; and topographical separation of eye- and hand- activations in hemispheres VI and VIIb/VIII. Though fast temporal resolution was not attempted here, these functional patches of highly specific BOLD signal changes may reflect small-scale shunting of blood in the microvasculature of Cb. The observed improvements in acquisition time and signal detection are ideal for individualized investigations such as differentiation of

  15. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates from Pakistan during 2009–2013 reveals circulation of new sub genotype

    SciTech Connect

    Siddique, Naila; Naeem, Khalid; Abbas, Muhammad Athar; Ali Malik, Akbar; Rashid, Farooq; Rafique, Saba; Ghafar, Abdul; Rehman, Abdul

    2013-09-15

    Despite observing the standard bio-security measures at commercial poultry farms and extensive use of Newcastle disease vaccines, a new genotype VII-f of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) got introduced in Pakistan during 2011. In this regard 300 ND outbreaks recorded so far have resulted into huge losses of approximately USD 200 million during 2011–2013. A total of 33 NDV isolates recovered during 2009–2013 throughout Pakistan were characterized biologically and phylogenetically. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a new velogenic sub genotype VII-f circulating in commercial and domestic poultry along with the earlier reported sub genotype VII-b. Partial sequencing of Fusion gene revealed two types of cleavage site motifs; lentogenic {sup 112}GRQGRL{sup 117} and velogenic {sup 112}RRQKRF{sup 117} along with some point mutations indicative of genetic diversity. We report here a new sub genotype of virulent NDV circulating in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan and provide evidence for the possible genetic diversity which may be causing new NDV out breaks. - Highlights: • The first report of isolation of new genotype VII-f of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in Pakistan. • We report the partial Fusion gene sequences of new genotype VII-f of virulent NDV from Pakistan. • We report the phylogenetic relationship of new NDV strains with reported NDV strains. • Provide outbreak history of new virulent NDV strain in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan. • We provide possible evidence for the role of backyard poultry in NDV outbreaks.

  16. Bilateral cerebellar activation in unilaterally challenged essential tremor

    PubMed Central

    Broersma, Marja; van der Stouwe, Anna M.M.; Buijink, Arthur W.G.; de Jong, Bauke M.; Groot, Paul F.C.; Speelman, Johannes D.; Tijssen, Marina A.J.; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common hyperkinetic movement disorders. Previous research into the pathophysiology of ET suggested underlying cerebellar abnormalities. Objective In this study, we added electromyography as an index of tremor intensity to functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (EMG-fMRI) to study a group of ET patients selected according to strict criteria to achieve maximal homogeneity. With this approach we expected to improve upon the localization of the bilateral cerebellar abnormalities found in earlier fMRI studies. Methods We included 21 propranolol sensitive patients, who were not using other tremor medication, with a definite diagnosis of ET defined by the Tremor Investigation Group. Simultaneous EMG-fMRI recordings were performed while patients were off tremor medication. Patients performed unilateral right hand and arm extension, inducing tremor, alternated with relaxation (rest). Twenty-one healthy, age- and sex-matched participants mimicked tremor during right arm extension. EMG power variability at the individual tremor frequency as a measure of tremor intensity variability was used as a regressor, mathematically independent of the block regressor, in the general linear model used for fMRI analysis, to find specific tremor-related activations. Results Block-related activations were found in the classical upper-limb motor network, both for ET patients and healthy participants in motor, premotor and supplementary motor areas. In ET patients, we found tremor-related activations bilaterally in the cerebellum: in left lobules V, VI, VIIb and IX and in right lobules V, VI, VIIIa and b, and in the brainstem. In healthy controls we found simulated tremor-related activations in right cerebellar lobule V. Conclusions Our results expand on previous findings of bilateral cerebellar involvement in ET. We have identified specific areas in the bilateral somatomotor regions of the cerebellum: lobules V, VI and VIII. PMID:26909321

  17. Genetic characterization of type A foot-and-mouth disease virus 3A region in context of the reemergence of VP359-deletion lineage in India.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Jajati Keshari; Sahu, Abhipsa; Pandey, Laxmikant; Sanyal, Aniket; Hemadri, Divakar; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2009-07-01

    The 3A region of foot-and-mouth disease virus has been implicated in host range and virulence. Here we analyzed the 3A region of serotype A virus in view of the emergence of a variant group in India with an amino acid deletion at an antigenically critical position of capsid protein, VP3. The 3A region exhibited extreme variability with 38% of the amino acid positions showing substitutions and the C-terminal third (127-151) region was most flexible. Genotype inclusive grouping of type A foot-and-mouth disease virus as observed in 1D region based phylogeny was much less apparent at 3A region possibly due to independent evolution of nonstructural and structural protein coding regions. Akin to the 1D region, the VP3(59)-deletion group maintained its phylogenetic distinctness even at the 3A region and was found to be diverging with time. Twelve lineage specific signature amino acid residues, of which four were identified to be experiencing positive selection, indicates fixation of advantageous mutations in a lineage specific manner. Six positions, all located in the hypervariable C-terminal third, were identified to be under positive selection and were presumed to be imparting the virus certain advantage accounting for its adaptability to wide host spectrum and rapid dissemination. A significant change of Q(44)H was noted only in the older lineage (VIIb) of the deletion group at a position where Q(44)R mutation is associated with guinea pig adaptation. As this site has been detected to be under positive selection, such a lineage specific substitution is thought to have imparted certain temporary advantage to the virus during its possible adaptation in wild or some understudied domestic hosts and must not have seriously compromised fitness upon readaptation in bovines. A conserved hydrophobic transmembrane domain from position 59 to 76 could be predicted which possibly anchors 3A to intracellular membranes for successful interaction with RNA replication complex. PMID

  18. A methodology for community-level hypothesis testing applied to detect trends in phytoplankton and fish communities in Irish waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynam, Christopher P.; Cusack, Caroline; Stokes, David

    2010-04-01

    Many simple (univariate, bivariate) and complex (multivariate) statistical techniques are used to investigate trends in biological communities and to test hypotheses about potential relationships between ecosystem components. However, the simple methods that are commonly used (regression and correlation) are prone to Type I error (rejecting a true null hypothesis) when applied repeatedly. Although multivariate methods are preferable for community analysis, their computations are mathematically demanding and the interpretation of their outputs can be challenging. We present simple community analysis (SCA), an intuitive methodology with which to test for trend and correlation at the community-level. We demonstrate SCA using fish survey and phytoplankton count data: the non-parametric test statistic, Kendall's tau, is used to determine the strength of trends in abundance in 65 species of fish sampled during the Irish groundfish survey (maximal length of sampling periods were 1999-2007 in ICES division VIIg and 2002-2007 in divisions VIa, VIIb and VIIj, however catches of numerous species were not recorded prior to 2003) and in 77 genera of phytoplankton sampled at Irish aquaculture sites (1991-2002). The sample distribution of the test statistic (tau is used here, but other measures may be used) is compared to the expected distribution using distributional tests (Kolmogorov-Smirnov) to evaluate the significance of community-level trends. The phytoplankton community has been increasing in abundance on Irish western and southwestern coasts (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test D > 0.5, p < 0.001). Similarly, and in agreement with previously published long-term studies, Lusitanian fish have been increasing on the shelf to the north and west of Ireland ( D ≥ 0.35, p < 0.001), while the boreal community has been declining to the south (southeast, D = 0.47, p < 0.001; southwest, D = 0.32, p = 0.03). Although SCA cannot identify causality, the trends in fish communities are as expected

  19. Identification of new sub-genotypes of virulent Newcastle disease virus with potential panzootic features.

    PubMed

    Miller, Patti J; Haddas, Ruth; Simanov, Luba; Lublin, Avishay; Rehmani, Shafqat Fatima; Wajid, Abdul; Bibi, Tasra; Khan, Taseer Ahmad; Yaqub, Tahir; Setiyaningsih, Surachmi; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-01-01

    Virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates from new sub-genotypes within genotype VII are rapidly spreading through Asia and the Middle East causing outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND) characterized by significant illness and mortality in poultry, suggesting the existence of a fifth panzootic. These viruses, which belong to the new sub-genotypes VIIh and VIIi, have epizootic characteristics and do not appear to have originated directly from other genotype VII NDV isolates that are currently circulating elsewhere, but are related to the present and past Indonesian NDV viruses isolated from wild birds since the 80s. Viruses from sub-genotype VIIh were isolated in Indonesia (2009-2010), Malaysia (2011), China (2011), and Cambodia (2011-2012) and are closely related to the Indonesian NDV isolated in 2007, APMV1/Chicken/Karangasem, Indonesia (Bali-01)/2007. Since 2011 and during 2012 highly related NDV isolates from sub-genotype VIIi have been isolated from poultry production facilities and occasionally from pet birds, throughout Indonesia, Pakistan and Israel. In Pakistan, the viruses of sub-genotype VIIi have replaced NDV isolates of genotype XIII, which were commonly isolated in 2009-2011, and they have become the predominant sub-genotype causing ND outbreaks since 2012. In a similar fashion, the numbers of viruses of sub-genotype VIIi isolated in Israel increased in 2012, and isolates from this sub-genotype are now found more frequently than viruses from the previously predominant sub-genotypes VIId and VIIb, from 2009 to 2012. All NDV isolates of sub-genotype VIIi are approximately 99% identical to each other and are more closely related to Indonesian viruses isolated from 1983 through 1990 than to those of genotype VII, still circulating in the region. Similarly, in addition to the Pakistani NDV isolates of the original genotype XIII (now called sub-genotype XIIIa), there is an additional sub-genotype (XIIIb) that was initially detected in India and Iran

  20. Consensus Paper: Revisiting the Symptoms and Signs of Cerebellar Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bodranghien, Florian; Bastian, Amy; Casali, Carlo; Hallett, Mark; Louis, Elan D; Manto, Mario; Mariën, Peter; Nowak, Dennis A; Schmahmann, Jeremy D; Serrao, Mariano; Steiner, Katharina Marie; Strupp, Michael; Tilikete, Caroline; Timmann, Dagmar; van Dun, Kim

    2016-06-01

    region in lobule VIII, and (c) cognitive and limbic regions located in the posterior lobe (lobule VI, lobule VIIA which includes crus I and crus II, and lobule VIIB). The limbic cerebellum is mainly represented in the posterior vermis. The cortico-ponto-cerebellar and cerebello-thalamo-cortical loops establish close functional connections between the cerebellum and the supratentorial motor, paralimbic and association cortices, and cerebellar symptoms are associated with a disruption of these loops. PMID:26105056

  1. The German approach to emergency/disaster management.

    PubMed

    Domres, B; Schauwecker, H H; Rohrmann, K; Roller, G; Maier, G W; Manger, A

    2000-01-01

    Disaster control and disaster relief in Germany are public tasks. But the government has shifted the responsibility of the administration of these tasks to the 16 states, the so called "Lander", because the EFG is a federal republic. The same is valid for the civil defense and the civil protection in the case of military or international risks. The 16 states are also responsible for the legislation of rescue service, fire fighting service and disaster control (natural and technical disasters). Counties and district-free cities are responsible for the organisation of these services. The German system is based on the principle of subsidiary between official and private institutions. A lot of official and private relief organisations are responsible for the execution of disaster relief tasks. In Germany the following organisations exist: Official (GO): Technisches Hilfswerk (THW/Federal Technical Support Service), Feuerwehren (Fire Brigades/professionals and volunteers) Academie of Emergency Planning and Civil Defense Private (NGO): Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund Deutschland (ASB/Workers' Samaritan Association Germany), Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Rettung Schiffbruchiger (DGzRS, German Lifesaving Association), Deutsches Rotes Kreuz (DRK/German Red Cross), Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe (JUH/St. John's Ambulance), Malteser Hilfsdienst (MEID/Maltese-Relief-Organisation). ASB, DRK, JUH and MHD are specialised in the field of rescue, medical and welfare services and medical disaster relief. 80% of the German rescue service and 95% of the German disaster medical relief are realised by these NGO's. NGO's and GO's employ more than 1.2 million volunteers and appr. 100,000 professionals. Rescue service is carried out by professionals, disaster relief by volunteers. The German constitution allows to call the federal army in case of disaster, to support the disaster relief organisations (for example: flood Oder River 1997, train-crash "ICE" 1998). In all counties and district free cities

  2. Voxel Based Morphometry Alterations in Mal de Debarquement Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon-Hee; Chakrapani, Shruthi

    2015-01-01

    Background Mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS) is a disorder of chronic self-motion perception that occurs though entrainment to rhythmic background motion, such as from sea voyage, and involves the perception of low-frequency rocking that can last for months or years. The neural basis of this persistent sensory perception abnormality is not well understood. Methods We investigated grey matter volume differences underlying persistent MdDS by performing voxel-based morphometry on whole brain and pre-specified ROIs in 28 individuals with MdDS and comparing them to 18 age, sex, and handedness matched controls. Results MdDS participants exhibited greater grey matter volume in the left inferior parietal lobule, right inferior occipital gyrus (area V3v), right temporal pole, bilateral cerebellar hemispheric lobules VIII/IX and left lobule VIIa/VIIb. Grey matter volumes were lower in bilateral inferior frontal, orbitofrontal, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) and left superior medial gyri (t = 3.0, p<0.005uncorr). In ROI analyses, there were no volume differences in the middle occipital gyrus (region of V5/MT) or parietal operculum 2 (region of the parietoinsular vestibular cortex). Illness duration was positively related to grey matter volume in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula (IFG/AI), right posterior insula, superior parietal lobule, left middle occipital gyrus (V5/MT), bilateral postcentral gyrus, anterior cerebellum, and left cerebellar hemisphere and vermian lobule IX. In contrast, illness duration was negatively related to volume in pgACC, posterior middle cingulate gyrus (MCC), left middle frontal gyrus (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex-DLPFC), and right cerebellar hemispheric lobule VIIIb (t = 3.0, p<0.005uncorr). The most significant differences were decreased volume in the pgACC and increased volume in the left IFG/AI with longer illness duration (qFDRcorr <0.05). Concurrent medication use did not correlate with these findings or have a

  3. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, For the Period July 2007-June 2008

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-08-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report (PCIMR) provides the results of inspections and monitoring for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 110, Area 3 WMD [Waste Management Division] U-3ax/bl Crater. This PCIMR includes an analysis and summary of the site inspections, repairs and maintenance, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data obtained at CAU 110 for the period July 2007 through June 2008. Site inspections of the cover were performed quarterly to identify any significant changes to the site requiring action. The overall condition of the cover, perimeter fence, and use restriction (UR) warning signs was good. However, settling was observed that exceeded the action level as specified in Section VII.B.7 of the Hazardous Waste Permit Number NEV HW021 (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, 2005). This permit states that cracks or settling greater than 15 centimeters (6 inches) deep that extend 1.0 meter (m) (3 feet [ft]) or more on the cover will be evaluated and repaired within 60 days of detection. Two areas of settling and cracks were observed on the south and east edges of the cover during the September 2007 inspection that exceeded the action level and required repair. The areas were repaired in October 2007. Additional settling and cracks were observed along the east side of the cover during the December 2007 inspection that exceeded the action level, and the area was repaired in January 2008. Significant animal burrows were also observed during the March 2008 inspection, and small mammal trapping and relocation was performed in April 2008. The semiannual subsidence surveys were performed in September 2007 and March 2008. No significant subsidence was observed in the survey data. Monument 5 shows the greatest amount of subsidence (-0.02 m [-0.08 ft] compared to the baseline survey of 2000). This amount is negligible and near the resolution of the survey instruments; it does not indicate that subsidence is occurring overall on