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Sample records for edasi meid viib

  1. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIIB. Morphology of type I collagen fibrils formed in vivo and in vitro is determined by the conformation of the retained N-propeptide.

    PubMed

    Holmes, D F; Watson, R B; Steinmann, B; Kadler, K E

    1993-07-25

    Previously we showed that fibrils generated from collagen and pNcollagen-ex6 from fibroblasts of an individual with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type VIIB were hieroglyphic in cross-section and all N-propeptides were located at the fibril surface. Hieroglyphs were resolved to near-cylindrical fibrils (that were similar in appearance to the fibrils seen in the tissues of individuals with EDS type VIIB) by treatment with N-proteinase which cleaved the pN alpha 1(I) chains but not the pN alpha 2(I)-ex6 chains (Watson, R. B., Wallis, G. A., Holmes, D. F., Viljoen, D., Byers, P. H., and Kadler, K. E. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 9093-9100). Here, quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) showed that N-propeptides in hieroglyphs were in a "bent-back" conformation and thus located exclusively in the overlap zone of the fibril D-period (D = 67 nm). In contrast, STEM of fibrils from the dermis of an individual with EDS type VIIB showed that partially cleaved N-propeptides (in which cleaved pN alpha 1(I) remained in noncovalent association with pN alpha 2(I)-ex6 chains) were distributed equally between the gap and overlap zones of the fibrils. Comparison of experimental data with theoretical mass distributions of the fibril based on amino acid sequence data gave a consistent value of 33 nm for the total axial extent for the N-propeptides in hieroglyphic and tissue fibrils irrespective of the location of N-propeptides to the gap or overlap zone. These data exclude the possibility that N-propeptides adopt a random configuration, but rather, that they locate to specific sites in the gap and overlap zones. The results demonstrated that cleavage of pN alpha 1(I) chains in vivo releases the N-propeptides from the constraints of the bent-back conformation. Co-distribution of partially cleaved N-propeptides between gap and overlap zones allows a higher surface packing density of N-propeptides and explains how circularity of large diameter fibrils can be achieved

  2. 76 FR 77534 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... consummation of such plans. Section 7A(b)(2) of the Act permits the agencies, in individual cases, to terminate... Europe VII-B, L.P.; Ins Web Corporation; Apax Europe VII-B, L.P. 20120121 G Pershing Square, L.P.... 20120140 G Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association of America; ACS Actividades de Construccion...

  3. Study on passive momentum exchange landing gear using two-dimensional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tsubasa; Hara, Susumu; Otsuki, Masatsugu

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses a landing response control system based on the momentum exchange principle for planetary exploration spacecraft. In the past, landing gear systems with cantilever designs that incorporate honeycomb materials to dissipate shock energy through plastic deformation have been used, but once tested before launch, the system cannot be used in a real mission. The sky crane system used for the Mars Science Laboratory by NASA can achieve a safe and precise landing, but it is highly complex. This paper introduces a momentum exchange impact damper (MEID) that absorbs the controlled object's momentum with extra masses called damper masses. The MEID is reusable, which makes it easy to ensure the landing gear's reliability. In this system, only passive elements such as springs are needed. A single-axis (SA) model has already been used to verify the effectiveness of MEIDs through simulations and experiments measuring the rebound height of the spacecraft. However, the SA model cannot address the rotational motion and tipping of the spacecraft. This paper presents a two-landing-gear-system (TLGS) model in which multiple MEIDs are equipped for two-dimensional analysis. Unlike in the authors' previous studies, in this study each MEID is launched when the corresponding landing gear lands and the MEIDs do not contain active actuators. This mechanism can be used to realize advanced control specifications, and it is simply compared with previous mechanisms including actuators, in which all of the MEIDs are launched simultaneously. If each MEID works when the corresponding gear lands, the rebound height of each gear can be minimized, and tipping can be prevented, as demonstrated by the results of our simulations.

  4. 75 FR 29 - Privacy Act, Government in the Sunshine Act, Freedom of Information Act (“FOIA”), and Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... this section by replacing all references to 11 CFR 100.7(b)(22) with 11 CFR 100.83, and by replacing... citation indicated in the right column: Section Remove Add 104.3(a)(3)(vii)(B) 100.7(b)(22)...... 100.83 104.3(a)(3)(vii)(B) 100.8(b)(24)...... 100.143 104.3(b)(2)(iii)(A) 100.7(b)(22)...... 100.83 104.3(b...

  5. Area 2 Bitcutter and Post-Shot Injection Wells Corrective Action Unit 90 Post-Closure Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Glen Richardson

    2002-09-01

    Area 2 Bitcutter and Post-Shot Containment Wells Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 90 Post-Closure Monitoring requirements are described in Section VII.B.8.b of the Nevada Test Site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility No. NEV HW009, Revision 4, reissued on November 20, 2000.

  6. 21 CFR 178.3295 - Clarifying agents for polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Clarifying agents for polymers. 178.3295 Section... Production Aids § 178.3295 Clarifying agents for polymers. Clarifying agents may be safely used in polymers.... The finished polymers contact food only of types I, II, IV-B, VI-B, VII-B, and VIII as identified...

  7. Educating Children without Housing: A Primer on Legal Requirements and Implementation Strategies for Educators, Advocates and Policymakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffield, Barbara; Heybach, Laurene M.; Julianelle, Patricia F.

    The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act was enacted in 1987 as the first federal legislation intended to comprehensively combat homelessness. Title VII-B of the Act created the Education for Homeless Children and Youth Program, which authorizes the appropriation of federal funds to ensure that children and youth experiencing homelessness…

  8. 50 CFR 680.40 - Crab Quota Share (QS), Processor QS (PQS), Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ), and Individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that year will not be used as the basis for presumed landings. (vii) LLP license history exemption. An... history described in paragraph (c)(2)(vii)(B)(1) of this section is being used by another person for an...,000,000; or (C) Is the person to whom the history of legal processing of crab has been transferred...

  9. Supporting the Education of Unaccompanied Homeless Students. Updated. McKinney-Vento Law into Practice Brief Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Homelessness is a devastating circumstance for any child or youth, but for youth on their own, the stresses of homelessness are multiplied. The myriad of challenges faced by youth experiencing homelessness on their own puts these students at risk of dropping out or school failure. Subtitle VII-B of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act…

  10. RF Sytems in Space. Volume II. Space-Based Radar Analyses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    phase compensation., If distortion is to - 16 .. . . .. . .. ....... ,.._ 2. If the ditrto error are....r.. td te-nt-o-...n...1_ be compensated, it must...TWdutCAL 4t Me~id4"f otb,~4* catiL au.t- -£IwU@F &aQtJU" L~ eUM &o ae 4-. . .. ... .. , -,I,-. FILMED

  11. Functional Evidence for a Cerebellar Node of the Dorsal Attention Network.

    PubMed

    Brissenden, James A; Levin, Emily J; Osher, David E; Halko, Mark A; Somers, David C

    2016-06-01

    The "dorsal attention network" or "frontoparietal network" refers to a network of cortical regions that support sustained attention and working memory. Recent work has demonstrated that cortical nodes of the dorsal attention network possess intrinsic functional connections with a region in ventral cerebellum, in the vicinity of lobules VII/VIII. Here, we performed a series of task-based and resting-state fMRI experiments to investigate cerebellar participation in the dorsal attention network in humans. We observed that visual working memory and visual attention tasks robustly recruit cerebellar lobules VIIb and VIIIa, in addition to canonical cortical dorsal attention network regions. Across the cerebellum, resting-state functional connectivity with the cortical dorsal attention network strongly predicted the level of activation produced by attention and working memory tasks. Critically, cerebellar voxels that were most strongly connected with the dorsal attention network selectively exhibited load-dependent activity, a hallmark of the neural structures that support visual working memory. Finally, we examined intrinsic functional connectivity between task-responsive portions of cerebellar lobules VIIb/VIIIa and cortex. Cerebellum-to-cortex functional connectivity strongly predicted the pattern of cortical activation during task performance. Moreover, resting-state connectivity patterns revealed that cerebellar lobules VIIb/VIIIa group with cortical nodes of the dorsal attention network. This evidence leads us to conclude that the conceptualization of the dorsal attention network should be expanded to include cerebellar lobules VIIb/VIIIa. The functional participation of cerebellar structures in nonmotor cortical networks remains poorly understood and is highly understudied, despite the fact that the cerebellum possesses many more neurons than the cerebral cortex. Although visual attention paradigms have been reported to activate cerebellum, many researchers have

  12. Functional Evidence for a Cerebellar Node of the Dorsal Attention Network

    PubMed Central

    Brissenden, James A.; Levin, Emily J.; Osher, David E.; Halko, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The “dorsal attention network” or “frontoparietal network” refers to a network of cortical regions that support sustained attention and working memory. Recent work has demonstrated that cortical nodes of the dorsal attention network possess intrinsic functional connections with a region in ventral cerebellum, in the vicinity of lobules VII/VIII. Here, we performed a series of task-based and resting-state fMRI experiments to investigate cerebellar participation in the dorsal attention network in humans. We observed that visual working memory and visual attention tasks robustly recruit cerebellar lobules VIIb and VIIIa, in addition to canonical cortical dorsal attention network regions. Across the cerebellum, resting-state functional connectivity with the cortical dorsal attention network strongly predicted the level of activation produced by attention and working memory tasks. Critically, cerebellar voxels that were most strongly connected with the dorsal attention network selectively exhibited load-dependent activity, a hallmark of the neural structures that support visual working memory. Finally, we examined intrinsic functional connectivity between task-responsive portions of cerebellar lobules VIIb/VIIIa and cortex. Cerebellum-to-cortex functional connectivity strongly predicted the pattern of cortical activation during task performance. Moreover, resting-state connectivity patterns revealed that cerebellar lobules VIIb/VIIIa group with cortical nodes of the dorsal attention network. This evidence leads us to conclude that the conceptualization of the dorsal attention network should be expanded to include cerebellar lobules VIIb/VIIIa. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The functional participation of cerebellar structures in nonmotor cortical networks remains poorly understood and is highly understudied, despite the fact that the cerebellum possesses many more neurons than the cerebral cortex. Although visual attention paradigms have been reported to activate

  13. Low-cost Computer-Aided Instruction/Computer-Managed Instruction (CAI/ CMI) System: Feasibility Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Thomsniigr Tate Thoinas G. Klein F33615-78-C-0031 IV David C. Pflasierer LArry F.- Click 9. PERFORMING CIRGANIZAlItON NAME ANL, ADDRESS IS PROGRAM...VIIHI-VIIH3 19, 23 VA-VC2, VIC3-VIE6 24 VIC4-VIIA2A, VIIBI-VIIB8, VIIF-VIIH3 25 VIEl -VIE4 26 ! (Pages 124, 125, and 126 intentionally left blank

  14. The Global Positioning System for Military Users: Current Modernization Plans and Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Jammer 233-2. GPS Augmentation with the iGPS Program 26A-1. Structure of Signals Transmitted by GPS Satellites 34B-1. The Manpack and the Precision...MODERNIZATION PLANS AND ALTERNATIVES VIIB-8. Precision Lightweight GPS Receiver With and Without Antijam Antenna Retrofit 41B-9. iGPS Module, Including...Note: DoD = Department of Defense; GPS = Global Positioning System; INS = inertial navigation system; iGPS = High Integrity GPS. a. Includes 8 IIIC

  15. Resid hydrotreating process using lanthana-alumina-aluminum phosphate catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Absil, R.P.L.; Angevine, P.J.; Chester, A.W.; Kirker, G.W.

    1989-03-07

    A process is described for upgrading a petroleum residual feedstock which comprises contacting the feedstock under hydrotreating conditions with hydrogen and a catalyst composition comprising a catalytic component selected from the group consisting of metals of groups IIIB, IVBVB, VIB, VIIB and VII of the Periodic Table of Elements, copper, zinc, and combinations thereof, and a catalyst support comprising precipitated amorphous combination of lanthana, alumina and aluminum phosphate.

  16. Enrolling Children and Youth Experiencing Homelessness in School. McKinney-Vento Law into Practice Brief Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Subtitle VII-B of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. §§11431-11435; hereafter referred to as "the McKinney-Vento Act"), reauthorized in 2001 by Title X, Part C of the No Child Left Behind Act, ensures educational rights and protections for children and youth experiencing homelessness. Because of their often tumultuous…

  17. Identifying Children and Youth in Homeless Situations. McKinney-Vento Law into Practice Brief Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Subtitle VII-B of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. §§ 11431-11435, hereafter referred to as "The McKinney-Vento Act"), reauthorized in 2001 by Title X, Part C of the No Child Left Behind Act, ensures educational rights and protections for children and youth experiencing homelessness. The most critical step in…

  18. Pain and motor processing in the human cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Coombes, Stephen A; Misra, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Pain-related adaptations in movement require a network architecture that allows for integration across pain and motor circuits. Previous studies addressing this issue have focused on cortical areas such as the midcingulate cortex. Here, we focus on pain and motor processing in the human cerebellum. The goal of this study was to identify areas of activation in the cerebellum, which are common to pain and motor processing, and to determine whether the activation is limited to the superior and inferior cerebellar motor maps or extends into multimodal areas of the posterior cerebellum. Our observations identified overlapping activity in left and right lobules VI and VIIb during pain and motor processing. Activation in these multimodal regions persisted when pain and motor processes were combined within the same trial, and activation in contralateral left lobule VIIb persisted when stimulation was controlled for. Functional connectivity analyses revealed significant correlations in the BOLD time series between multimodal cerebellar regions and sensorimotor regions in the cerebrum including anterior midcingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, and thalamus. The current findings are the first to show multimodal processing in lobules VI and VIIb for motor control and pain processing and suggest that the posterior cerebellum may be important in understanding pain-related adaptations in motor control.

  19. [Swiss warmblood horse with symptoms of hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia without mutation in the cyclophylin B gene (PPIB)].

    PubMed

    Rüfenacht, S; Straub, R; Steinmann, B; Winand, N; Bidaut, A; Stoffel, M H; Gerber, V; Wyder, M; Müller, E; Roosje, P J

    2010-04-01

    Hereditary equine dermal asthenia (HERDA) is an autosomal recessive skin disease that affects predominantly Quarter Horses and related breeds. Typical symptoms are easy bruising and hyperextensible skin on the back. The prognosis is guarded, as affected horses cannot be ridden normally and are often euthanised. In the Quarter Horse, HERDA is associated with a mutation in cyclophilin B (PPIB), an enzyme involved in triple helix formation of collagen. Here we describe the case of a Swiss Warmblood filly with symptoms of HERDA without PPIB-mutation and in which we also could exclude Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Type IV, VI, VIIA, VIIB and VIIC (dermatosparaxis type) as etiological diseases.

  20. Semiconducting glasses with flux pinning inclusions

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, William L.; Poon, Siu-Joe; Duwez, Pol E.

    1981-01-01

    A series of amorphous superconducting glassy alloys containing 1% to 10% by volume of flux pinning crystalline inclusions have been found to have potentially useful properties as high field superconducting magnet materials. The alloys are prepared by splat cooling by the piston and anvil technique. The alloys have the composition (TM).sub.90-70 (M).sub.10-30 where TM is a transition metal selected from at least one metal of Groups IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB or VIIIB of the Periodic Table such as Nb, Mo, Ru, Zr, Ta, W or Re and M is at least one metalloid such as B, P, C, N, Si, Ge or Al.

  1. Catalytic cracking catalysts using silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Pellet, R.J.; Coughlin, P.K.; Staniulis, M.T.; Long, G.N.; Rabo, J.A.

    1987-05-19

    A cracking catalyst is described comprising: a silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieve of U.S. Pat. No. 4,440,871 characterized in its calcined form by an adsorption of isobutane of at least 2 percent by weight at a pressure of 500 torr and a temperature of 20/sup 0/C and having an effective amount of the cations associated with the silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieve selected from the group consisting of H+, ammonium, Group IIA, groups IIIB to VIIB, cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium, neodymium, and promethium.

  2. Preliminary observation on sexual maturity of black anglerfish (Lophius budegassa) in north-eastern Atlantic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landa, Jorge; Antolínez, Ana; Ámez, Marco A.; Barrado, Joaquín; Castro, Begoña; Cañás, Lucía; Autón, Urbano; Fariña, Antonio C.; Hernández, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    The reproduction of black anglerfish (Lophius budegassa) was studied from samples collected during 5 years, from January 2006 to December 2010, in Celtic Sea, West and South of Ireland (ICES Div. VIIb-k) and Northern Spanish Atlantic waters (ICES Div. VIIIc-IXa). A total of 1167 specimens (4-99 cm) were sampled. The sex ratio, the spawning period and the maturity ogives by length were studied. The sex ratio in both areas studied varied with length, and it was close to 1:1 (male:female), 1:1.22 (54.90% of females) in Div. VIIb-k, and 1:1.01 (50.30% of females) in Div. VIIIc-IXa. A seasonal variation in sex ratio by length was observed at first time in Div VIIIc-IXa, with a very low proportion of intermediate sized females (40-60 cm) in the second semester. A seasonal reproductive migratory behavior is discussed. The spawning period was between December and July in Div. VIIIc-IXa. Spawning males were found throughout the year, but fewer spawning females, as in previous studies. The L50 values were estimated in Div. VIIIc-IXa: 38.2 cm for combined sexes, 36.0 cm for males and 53.0 cm for females. These values of sex ratio and L50 are similar to those obtained in closed areas studied.

  3. High temperature regenerative H.sub.2 S sorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flytani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Inventor); Gavalas, George R. (Inventor); Tamhankar, Satish S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Efficient, regenerable sorbents for removal of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas streams comprise porous, high surface area particles. A first class of sorbents comprise a thin film of binary oxides that form a eutectic at the temperature of the gas stream coated onto a porous, high surface area refractory support. The binary oxides are a mixture of a Group VB or VIB metal oxide with a Group IB, IIB or VIII metal oxide such as a film of V-Zn-O, V-Cu-O, Cu-Mo-O, Zn-Mo-O or Fe-Mo-O coated on an alumina support. A second class of sorbents consist of particles of unsupported mixed oxides in the form of highly dispersed solid solutions of solid compounds characterized by small crystallite size, high porosity and relatively high surface area. The mixed oxide sorbents contain one Group IB, IIB or VIIB metal oxide such as copper, zinc or manganese and one or more oxides of Groups IIIA, VIB or VII such as aluminum, iron or molybdenum. The presence of iron or aluminum maintains the Group IB, IIB or VIIB metal in its oxidized state. Presence of molybdenum results in eutectic formation at sulfidation temperature and improves the efficiency of the sorbent.

  4. Modality specificity in the cerebro-cerebellar neurocircuitry during working memory.

    PubMed

    Ng, H B Tommy; Kao, K-L Cathy; Chan, Y C; Chew, Effie; Chuang, K H; Chen, S H Annabel

    2016-05-15

    Previous studies have suggested cerebro-cerebellar circuitry in working memory. The present fMRI study aims to distinguish differential cerebro-cerebellar activation patterns in verbal and visual working memory, and employs a quantitative analysis to deterimine lateralization of the activation patterns observed. Consistent with Chen and Desmond (2005a,b) predictions, verbal working memory activated a cerebro-cerebellar circuitry that comprised left-lateralized language-related brain regions including the inferior frontal and posterior parietal areas, and subcortically, right-lateralized superior (lobule VI) and inferior cerebellar (lobule VIIIA/VIIB) areas. In contrast, a distributed network of bilateral inferior frontal and inferior temporal areas, and bilateral superior (lobule VI) and inferior (lobule VIIB) cerebellar areas, was recruited during visual working memory. Results of the study verified that a distinct cross cerebro-cerebellar circuitry underlies verbal working memory. However, a neural circuitry involving specialized brain areas in bilateral neocortical and bilateral cerebellar hemispheres subserving visual working memory is observed. Findings are discussed in the light of current models of working memory and data from related neuroimaging studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Phylogenetic characterization of virulent Newcastle disease viruses isolated during outbreaks in northwestern Iran in 2010.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Elham; Pourbakhsh, Seyed Ali; Ahmadi, Malahat; Mardani, Karim; Talebi, Alireza

    2016-11-01

    The northwest of Iran shares long borders with three neighboring countries; therefore, it is considered one of the main entry portals of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) into the country. Ten virulent NDVs were recovered from 19 poultry farms of various prefectures in northwestern Iran during Newcastle disease outbreaks in 2010. The isolates were genotypically analyzed using an F-gene-specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The amplified F gene (nucleotides 189-1666) sequences of the NDV isolates were compared phylogenetically with those of previously published strains in GenBank. All of the NDV isolates belonged to genotype VIIb and were closely related to some isolates from Iran, Russia, and Sweden. Therefore, it can be postulated that these isolates evolved from previously reported strains. The velogenic viruses carried the motif (112)R-R-Q-K-R/F(117) at the F0 cleavage site and a unique substitution of (190)L→F which had never been reported in any NDV genotype VIIb isolate. They shared high sequence similarity with each other but were distinct from current NDV vaccines and NDV strains reported from other countries. This information is fundamental for improving the efficacy of controlling strategies and vaccine development for NDV.

  6. Adsorption of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metal atoms on β 12—Borophene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Quiceno, J. C.; Schleder, G. R.; Marinho, E., Jr.; Fazzio, A.

    2017-08-01

    We perform an ab initio study of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of 3d, 4d and 5d transition metals (TM) adsorbed on freestanding and Ag(1 1 1)-supported {β12} -borophene. The stability of TM adsorption is high for all atoms and increases with the period. For the 3d TM adsorption we observed strong exchange effects. The Ag(1 1 1)-surface induced small effects on the calculated properties. Studying the magnetic interaction between TMs, VIB atoms showed direct exchange, while VIIB and Fe showed 2p(B)-mediated indirect exchange. In the ultimate case of a one-dimensional TM array, Ru and Os also show direct exchange effects.

  7. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 90: Area 2 Bitcutter Containment Annual Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. K. Knapp

    2003-09-01

    Area 2 Bitcutter and Post-Shot Containment Wells Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 90 Post-Closure Monitoring requirements are described in Section VII.B.8.b of the Nevada Test Site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Number NEV HW009, Section VII, Revision 1, March 2003. Post-closure care consists of the following: Semiannual inspections of the unit using an inspection checklist; Photographic documentation; Field note documentation; and Preparation and submittal of an annual report. The annual report consists of copies of the inspection checklist, repair records (if any), photographs, and recommendations and conclusions for the period December 2002 to June 2003. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are provided in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is provided in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are provided in Attachment C.

  8. Two-stage production of olefins utilizing a faujasite structure zeolite in hydrogenation stage

    SciTech Connect

    Kreuter, W.; Mansmann, M.; Watson, A.; Weber, H.; Wernicke, H.J.

    1980-02-12

    A process is disclosed for the production of olefins in two stages. In the first stage, heavy petroleum fractions are hydrogenated in the presence of hydrogen and a hydrogenation catalyst and, in the second stage, the thus-hydrogenated fractions are subjected to thermal cracking the presence of steam. The improvement comprises employing as the hydrogenation catalyst a zeolite of the faujasite structure combined with elements from groups VIB, VIIB and VIII of the periodic table of the elements, wherein the alkali component of the zeolite is exchanged at least partially for ammonium, hydronium, alkaline earth and/or rare earth ions, and the elements are present in a metallic, ionic, oxidic and/or sulfidic form.

  9. Area 2 Bitcutter and Post-Shot Injection Wells Corrective Action Unit 90 Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2001-09-01

    Area 2 Bitcutter and Post-Shot Containment Wells Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 90 Post-Closure Monitoring requirements are described in {section} VIIB.8.b of the Nevada Test Site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility No. NEV HW009, reissued November 20, 2000, Revision 4. Post-closure care consists of the following: Semiannual inspections of the unit using an inspection checklist; photographic documentation; field note documentation; and preparation and submittal of an annual report. The report includes copies of the inspection checklist, photographs, and recommendations and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and a copy of the inspection photographs is found in Attachment C.

  10. Electronic structure and chemical bonding in the lowest electronic states of TcN.

    PubMed

    Borin, Antonio Carlos; Gobbo, João Paulo

    2009-11-12

    Multiconfiguration second-order perturbation theory, with the inclusion of relativistic effects and spin-orbit coupling, was employed to investigate the nature of the ground and low-lying Lambda-S and Omega states of the TcN molecule. Spectroscopic constants, effective bond order, and potential energy curves for 13 low-lying Lambda-S states and 5 Omega states are given. The computed ground state of TcN is of Omega = 3 symmetry (R(e) = 1.605 A and omega(e) = 1085 cm(-1)), originating mainly from the (3)Delta Lambda-S ground state. This result is contrasted with the nature of the ground state for other VIIB transtion-metal mononitrides, including X(3)Sigma(-) symmetry for MnN and Omega = 0(+) symmetry for ReN, derived also from a X(3)Sigma(-) state.

  11. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Chlorophyll (Chl-a) in the Coast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casal, G.

    2016-08-01

    A database of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) from 1982 to 2015 and Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) from 1998 to 2013 have been generated for Irish coast. Monthly averages of both variables have been analysed to study their spatial and temporal trends in each ICES Division surrounding the country. SST presented a clear latitudinal gradient with warmer waters in the south and colder in the north. Warming trend was significant (p- value ≤0.05) and positive for the whole study area (0.26 °C/decade). However, this trend was not spatially homogeneous varying among the different ICES Divisions and being only significant for: VIa, VIb, VIIa, VIIb, VIIc, VIId, VIIe. In the case of Chl-a concentration a clear difference was found between waters located in western areas and the ones located close to the coast. Preliminary results did not show significant trends for any of the ICES Divisions.

  12. Production of silicon carbide whiskers using a seeding component to determine shape and size of whiskers

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, D.; Coyle, R.T.; Tait, R.D.; Orth, R.J.

    1993-06-22

    A process for making silicon carbide whiskers is described which comprises heating in a substantially nonoxidized atmosphere a mixture of (1) a particulate form of carbon, (2) a silicon component selected from the group consisting of silica, hydrated silica and a source of silica, (3) a boron component, and (4) a seeding component comprising (a) an element selected from the group consisting of the rare earths, Group IA, Group IB, Group VB, Group VIB, Group VIIB, and Group VIII of the Periodic Table of Elements, or (b) a compound containing said element at temperatures sufficient to induce a reaction between carbon and silica in said mixture to form silicon carbide whiskers and controlling a size and shape of silicon carbide whiskers produced by the process by selecting a particulate size of the seeding component.

  13. Hydrocracking of heavy feeds with dispersed dual function catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Derbyshire, F.J.; Varghese, P.

    1986-08-05

    This patent describes a process for hydroconverting a heavy natural or synthetic oil charge stock by reacting the oil with hydrogen in the presence of a solid, acidic catalyst after adding to the oil a thermally decomposable metal compound of a metal of Group IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB or VIII of the Periodic Table of Elements, the compound being added in an amount equivalent to 10 to 950 ppm, calculated as the elemental metal, based on the oil feed. The improvement described here consists of adding a zeolite having an alpha value of at least 1 and a Constraint Index of less than 1 without active metal on the catalyst, to the oil feed having a Conradson carbon content in excess of 1 weight percent, and hydroconverting the oil with the added acidic zeolite catalyst in a hydroconversion zone to convert at least 25 percent of the Conradsen carbon content to lighter materials to form an upgraded oil product.

  14. Bottoms visbreaking hydroconversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Grosboll, M.P.; Dittmar, P.H.

    1986-04-01

    A process is described for hydroconverting a hydrocarbon chargestock consisting of: (a) heating the chargestock to produce a minor amount of coke; (b) contacting the coke within the chargestock with a minor effective amount of an oil-soluble metal compound, the metal being selected from the group consisting of Groups IV-B, V-B, VI-B, VII-B and VIII of the Periodic Table of Elements, and mixtures thereof; (c) contacting the metal compound and the coke within the chargestock with a hydrogen-containing gas under conditions to produce a solid catalyst within the chargestock capable of promoting hydroconversion of at least a portion of the (d) contacting the chargestock containing the catalyst with hydrogen under hydroconversion conditions; and (e) recovering a hydroconverted hydrocarbon product.

  15. Catalytic cracking catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, R.L.; Perigard, R.G.; Rabo, J.A.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing a catalyst comprising the following steps: (i) contacting a mixture of a large pore zeolite and an inorganic oxide matrix, with a fluoro salt of the formula A/sub (n-m)/(MF/sub n/)/sub z/ wherein ''A'' is an organic or inorganic ionic moiety; (MF/sub n/)/sub z/ is a fluoroanion moiety comprising the element ''M''; ''M'' is an element selected from the group of elements from Groups VB, VIB, VIIB, VIII, IIIA, IVA and VA of the Periodic Table of Elements; ''n'' is the coordination number of ''M''; ''m'' is the valence of ''M''; and ''z'' is the valence or charge associated with ''A''; at a pH greater than about 3, at effective conditions of temperature and time.

  16. Process for preparing catalytic cracking catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, R.L.; Perigard, R.G.; Rabo, J.A.

    1986-05-27

    A process is described for preparing a catalyst comprising the following steps: (i) contacting a mixture of large pore zeolite and inorganic oxide matrix, with a fluoro salt of the formula A/sub (n-m)/(MF/sub n/)/sub z/ wherein ''A'' is an organic or inorganic ionic moiety; (MF/sub n/)/sub z/ is a fluoroanion moiety comprising the element ''M''; ''M'' is an element selected from the group of elements from Groups VB, VIB, VIIB, VIII, IIIA, IVA and VA of the Periodic Table of Elements; ''n'' is the coordination number of ''M''; ''m'' is the valence of ''M''; and ''z'' is the valence or charge associated with ''A''; at a pH greater than 7, at effective conditions of temperature and time.

  17. [Molecular genetic characteristics of the newcastle disease virus velogenic strains isolated in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Kirghizia].

    PubMed

    Korotetskiĭ, I S; Bogoiavlenskiĭ, A P; Prilipov, A G; Usachev, E V; Usacheva, O V; Turgambetova, A S; Zaĭtseva, I A; Kydyrmanov, A; Shakhvorostova, L I; Saiatov, M Kh; Borisov, V V; Pchelkina, I P; Gerilovich, A P; Berezin, V E

    2010-01-01

    The F gene fragment of 79 Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains isolated from domestic and synanthropic birds in Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Ukraine, and Russia in 1993 to 2007 was comparatively analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of test isolates and reference NDV strains obtained from the GenBank was carried out by polymerase chain reaction with subsequent sequencing and comparative analysis of 154-bp nucleotide sequences in the main functional region of the F gene. All newly characterized isolates belong to three NDV genotype VII subgroups: VIIa, VIIb, VIId. The results show it necessary to monitor of NDV strains isolated in the CIS countries since the spread of NDV among migratory and synanthropic birds (pigeons, crows, and jackdaws) poses a serious threat to commercial poultry industry.

  18. POST CLOSURE INSPECTION REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 90: AREA 2 BITCUTTER CONTAINMENT, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA, FOR THE PERIOD JULY 2004 - JUNE 2005

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 90, Area 2 Bitcutter Containment, is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. The post-closure monitoring requirements for CAU 90 are described in Section VII.B.8.b of the Nevada Test Site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Number NEV HW009, Section VII, Revision 1, March 2003. Post-closure activities consist of the following: semiannual inspections of the site using inspection checklists; photographic documentation; field note documentation; and preparation and submittal of an annual Post-Closure Inspection Report. This annual report covers the period of July 2004 to June 2005 and consists of copies of the inspection checklists, maintenance and repair records (if any), photographs, and recommendations and conclusions. The inspection checklists are provided in Appendix A. A copy of the field notes is provided in Appendix B, and copies of photographs are provided in Appendix C.

  19. Temporal dynamics of visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Sobczak-Edmans, M; Ng, T H B; Chan, Y C; Chew, E; Chuang, K H; Chen, S H A

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of the human cerebellum in working memory has been well established in the last decade. However, the cerebro-cerebellar network for visual working memory is not as well defined. Our previous fMRI study showed superior and inferior cerebellar activations during a block design visual working memory task, but specific cerebellar contributions to cognitive processes in encoding, maintenance and retrieval have not yet been established. The current study examined cerebellar contributions to each of the components of visual working memory and presence of cerebellar hemispheric laterality was investigated. 40 young adults performed a Sternberg visual working memory task during fMRI scanning using a parametric paradigm. The contrast between high and low memory load during each phase was examined. We found that the most prominent activation was observed in vermal lobule VIIIb and bilateral lobule VI during encoding. Using a quantitative laterality index, we found that left-lateralized activation of lobule VIIIa was present in the encoding phase. In the maintenance phase, there was bilateral lobule VI and right-lateralized lobule VIIb activity. Changes in activation in right lobule VIIIa were present during the retrieval phase. The current results provide evidence that superior and inferior cerebellum contributes to visual working memory, with a tendency for left-lateralized activations in the inferior cerebellum during encoding and right-lateralized lobule VIIb activations during maintenance. The results of the study are in agreement with Baddeley's multi-component working memory model, but also suggest that stored visual representations are additionally supported by maintenance mechanisms that may employ verbal coding.

  20. Cerebellar contributions to biological motion perception in autism and typical development.

    PubMed

    Jack, Allison; Keifer, Cara M; Pelphrey, Kevin A

    2017-04-01

    Growing evidence suggests that posterior cerebellar lobe contributes to social perception in healthy adults. However, they know little about how this process varies across age and with development. Using cross-sectional fMRI data, they examined cerebellar response to biological (BIO) versus scrambled (SCRAM) motion within typically developing (TD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) samples (age 4-30 years old), characterizing cerebellar response and BIO > SCRAM-selective effective connectivity, as well as associations with age and social ability. TD individuals recruited regions throughout cerebellar posterior lobe during BIO > SCRAM, especially bilateral lobule VI, and demonstrated connectivity with right posterior superior temporal sulcus (RpSTS) in left VI, Crus I/II, and VIIIb. ASD individuals showed BIO > SCRAM activity in left VI and left Crus I/II, and bilateral connectivity with RpSTS in Crus I/II and VIIIb/IX. No between-group differences emerged in well-matched subsamples. Among TD individuals, older age predicted greater BIO > SCRAM response in left VIIb and left VIIIa/b, but reduced connectivity between RpSTS and widespread regions of the right cerebellum. In ASD, older age predicted greater response in left Crus I and bilateral Crus II, but decreased effective connectivity with RpSTS in bilateral Crus I/II. In ASD, increased BIO > SCRAM signal in left VI/Crus I and right Crus II, VIIb, and dentate predicted lower social symptomaticity; increased effective connectivity with RpSTS in right Crus I/II and bilateral VI and I-V predicted greater symptomaticity. These data suggest that posterior cerebellum contributes to the neurodevelopment of social perception in both basic and clinical populations. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1914-1932, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The subunit composition and function of mammalian cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Kadenbach, Bernhard; Hüttemann, Maik

    2015-09-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) from mammals and birds is composed of 13 subunits. The three catalytic subunits I-III are encoded by mitochondrial DNA, the ten nuclear-coded subunits (IV, Va, Vb, VIa, VIb, VIc, VIIa, VIIb, VIIc, VIII) by nuclear DNA. The nuclear-coded subunits are essentially involved in the regulation of oxygen consumption and proton translocation by COX, since their removal or modification changes the activity and their mutation causes mitochondrial diseases. Respiration, the basis for ATP synthesis in mitochondria, is differently regulated in organs and species by expression of tissue-, developmental-, and species-specific isoforms for COX subunits IV, VIa, VIb, VIIa, VIIb, and VIII, but the holoenzyme in mammals is always composed of 13 subunits. Various proteins and enzymes were shown, e.g., by co-immunoprecipitation, to bind to specific COX subunits and modify its activity, but these interactions are reversible, in contrast to the tightly bound 13 subunits. In addition, the formation of supercomplexes with other oxidative phosphorylation complexes has been shown to be largely variable. The regulatory complexity of COX is increased by protein phosphorylation. Up to now 18 phosphorylation sites have been identified under in vivo conditions in mammals. However, only for a few phosphorylation sites and four nuclear-coded subunits could a specific function be identified. Research on the signaling pathways leading to specific COX phosphorylations remains a great challenge for understanding the regulation of respiration and ATP synthesis in mammalian organisms. This article reviews the function of the individual COX subunits and their isoforms, as well as proteins and small molecules interacting and regulating the enzyme.

  2. Prognostic Importance of Lesion Location on Functional Outcome in Patients with Cerebellar Ischemic Stroke: a Prospective Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Picelli, Alessandro; Zuccher, Paola; Tomelleri, Giampaolo; Bovi, Paolo; Moretto, Giuseppe; Waldner, Andreas; Saltuari, Leopold; Smania, Nicola

    2017-02-01

    To date, few studies focused on prediction of functional recovery after cerebellar stroke. The main aim of this prospective pilot study was to determine the association between cerebellar lesion location and functional outcome in adults with acute cerebellar infarction. We examined 14 patients with first-ever unilateral cerebellar ischemic stroke within 7 days and at 90 days from the onset of stroke by means of the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale. Cerebellar lesions were traced from magnetic resonance imaging performed within 72 h since stroke and region of interest were generated. The association between the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale score and lesion location was determined with the voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping methods implemented in the MRIcro software. Colored lesion-symptom maps representing the z statistics were generated and overlaid onto the MNI-ICBM 152 linear probabilistic atlas of the human brain and the Johns Hopkins University white matter templates. Our results documented that injuries to the V, VI, VIIA Crus I, VIIA Crus II, VIIB, VIIIA, and VIIIB lobules and the middle cerebellar peduncle are significantly associated with the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS) score at 1 week after the onset of stroke. Furthermore, we found that injuries to the VI, VIIA Crus I, VIIA Crus II, VIIB, VIIIA, and VIIIB lobules, the dentate nucleus, and the middle cerebellar peduncle are significantly associated with the ICARS score at 3 months since the cerebellar stroke onset. The findings of this pilot study might improve prognostic accuracy of functional outcome in patients with acute cerebellar infarction.

  3. Rare case of tibial hemimelia, preaxial polydactyly, and club foot.

    PubMed

    Granite, Guinevere; Herzenberg, John E; Wade, Ronald

    2016-12-16

    A seven-month old female presented with left tibial hemimelia (or congenital tibial aplasia; Weber type VIIb, Jones et al type 1a), seven-toed preaxial polydactyly, and severe club foot (congenital talipes equinovarus). Definitive amputation surgery disarticulated the lower limb at the knee. This case report describes the anatomical findings of a systematic post-amputation examination of the lower limb's superficial dissection, X-rays, and computed tomography (CT) scans. From the X-rays and CT scans, we found curved and overlapping preaxial supernumerary toes, hypoplastic first metatarsal, lack of middle and distal phalanges in one supernumerary toe, three tarsal bones, hypoplastic middle phalanx and no distal phalanx for fourth toe, and no middle or distal phalanges for fifth toe. The fibula articulated with the anteromedial calcaneus and the tibia was completely absent. We identified numerous muscles and nerves in the superficial dissection that are described in the results section of the case report. Due to the rarity of this combination of anatomical findings, descriptions of such cases are very infrequent in the literature.

  4. Rare case of tibial hemimelia, preaxial polydactyly, and club foot

    PubMed Central

    Granite, Guinevere; Herzenberg, John E; Wade, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    A seven-month old female presented with left tibial hemimelia (or congenital tibial aplasia; Weber type VIIb, Jones et al type 1a), seven-toed preaxial polydactyly, and severe club foot (congenital talipes equinovarus). Definitive amputation surgery disarticulated the lower limb at the knee. This case report describes the anatomical findings of a systematic post-amputation examination of the lower limb’s superficial dissection, X-rays, and computed tomography (CT) scans. From the X-rays and CT scans, we found curved and overlapping preaxial supernumerary toes, hypoplastic first metatarsal, lack of middle and distal phalanges in one supernumerary toe, three tarsal bones, hypoplastic middle phalanx and no distal phalanx for fourth toe, and no middle or distal phalanges for fifth toe. The fibula articulated with the anteromedial calcaneus and the tibia was completely absent. We identified numerous muscles and nerves in the superficial dissection that are described in the results section of the case report. Due to the rarity of this combination of anatomical findings, descriptions of such cases are very infrequent in the literature. PMID:28035313

  5. Structural evolution and properties of subnanometer Tc(n) (n = 2-15) clusters.

    PubMed

    Weck, Philippe F; Kim, Eunja; Poineau, Frédéric; Czerwinski, Kenneth R

    2009-11-21

    All-electron scalar relativistic calculations of the geometric and electronic structures of neutral subnanometer Tc(n) (n = 2-15) clusters have been performed using spin-polarized density functional theory. It is shown that the structural evolution of Tc(n) clusters from n = 3 to n = 8 is similar to Mn clusters, which also belong to the group of VIIB transition metals. The calculated binding energy per atom varies gradually from 0.65 eV for Tc(2) to 2.35 eV for Tc(15). The computed electron affinity and ionization potential follow the classical electrostatic metallic droplet model for clusters larger than Tc(6) and converge asymptotically to the experimental value of the bulk Tc work function. A study of the kinetic stability of Tc clusters in terms of the second difference of binding energies and the energy gap between the frontier orbital states predicts Tc(3)(D(3h)), Tc(4)(T(d)), Tc(6)(O(h)), Tc(12)(I(h)), and Tc(13)(I(h)) to be the most stable clusters. Vibrational spectra of Tc clusters are also provided for further experimental identification.

  6. Development of SRC-I product analysis. Volume 3. Documentation of procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Schweighardt, F.K.; Kingsley, I.S.; Cooper, F.E.; Kamzelski, A.Z.; Parees, D.M.

    1983-09-01

    This section documents the BASIC computer program written to simulate Wilsonville's GC-simulated distillation (GCSD) results at APCI-CRSD Trexlertown. The GC conditions used at APCI for the Wilsonville GCSD analysis of coal-derived liquid samples were described in the SRC-I Quarterly Technical Report, April-June 1981. The approach used to simulate the Wilsonville GCSD results is also from an SRC-I Quarterly Technical Report and is reproduced in Appendix VII-A. The BASIC computer program is described in the attached Appendix VII-B. Analysis of gases produced during coal liquefaction generates key information needed to determine product yields for material balance and process control. Gas samples from the coal process development unit (CPDU) and tubing bombs are the primary samples analyzed. A Carle gas chromatographic system was used to analyze coal liquefaction gas samples. A BASIC computer program was written to calculate the gas chromatographic peak area results into mole percent results. ICRC has employed several analytical workup procedures to determine the amount of distillate, oils, asphaltenes, preasphaltenes, and residue in SRC-I process streams. The ASE procedure was developed using Conoco's liquid column fractionation (LC/F) method as a model. In developing the ASE procedure, ICRC was able to eliminate distillation, and therefore quantify the oils fraction in one extraction step. ASE results were shown to be reproducible within +- 2 wt %, and to yield acceptable material balances. Finally, the ASE method proved to be the least affected by sample composition.

  7. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 90: Area 2 Bitcutter Containment

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 90, Area 2 Bitcutter Containment, is identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' of 1996. The post-closure requirements for CAU 90 are described in Section VII.B.8.b of the Nevada Test Site ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act'' Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Number NEV HW0021, dated November 2005. Post-closure activities consist of the following: Semiannual inspections of the site using inspection checklists; Photographic documentation; Field note documentation; and Preparation and submittal of an annual Post-Closure Inspection Report. This annual report covers the period of July 2006 to June 2007 and consists of a summary of the results of the inspections, copies of the inspection checklists and field notes, maintenance and repair records (if any), photographs, and conclusions and recommendations. The inspection checklists are provided in Appendix A, a copy of the field notes is provided in Appendix B, and copies of photographs taken during the inspections are provided in Appendix C.

  8. Specific cerebellar regions are related to force amplitude and rate of force development.

    PubMed

    Spraker, M B; Corcos, D M; Kurani, A S; Prodoehl, J; Swinnen, S P; Vaillancourt, D E

    2012-01-16

    The human cerebellum has been implicated in the control of a wide variety of motor control parameters, such as force amplitude, movement extent, and movement velocity. These parameters often covary in both movement and isometric force production tasks, so it is difficult to resolve whether specific regions of the cerebellum relate to specific parameters. In order to address this issue, the current study used two experiments and SUIT normalization to determine whether BOLD activation in the cerebellum scales with the amplitude or rate of change of isometric force production or both. In the first experiment, subjects produced isometric pinch-grip force over a range of force amplitudes without any constraints on the rate of force development. In the second experiment, subjects varied the rate of force production, but the target force amplitude remained constant. The data demonstrate that BOLD activation in separate sub-areas of cerebellar regions lobule VI and Crus I/II scales with both force amplitude and force rate. In addition, BOLD activation in cerebellar lobule V and vermis VI was specific to force amplitude, whereas BOLD activation in lobule VIIb was specific to force rate. Overall, cerebellar activity related to force amplitude was located superior and medial, whereas activity related to force rate was inferior and lateral. These findings suggest that specific circuitry in the cerebellum may be dedicated to specific motor control parameters such as force amplitude and force rate.

  9. Ehlers-Danlos Arthrochalasia type (VIIA-B) – expanding the phenotype: from prenatal life through adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Klaassens, M.; Reinstein, E.; Hilhorst-Hofstee, Y.; Schrander, J.J.P.; Malfait, F.; Staal, H.; ten Have, L.C.; Blaauw, J.; Roggeveen, H.C.J.; Krakow, D.; De Paepe, A.; van Steensel, M.A.M.; Pals, G.; Graham, J. M.; Schrander-Stumpel, C.T.R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) form a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited connective-tissue disorders characterized by joint hypermobility, tissue fragility and skin abnormalities. Six subtypes have been well characterized based on clinical features and molecular genetic abnormalities. The arthrochalasia type EDS (formerly type VIIa and VIIb) is characterized by severe generalized joint hypermobility with multiple dislocations including congenital bilateral dislocation of the hips, muscular hypotonia and distinct dysmorphic features. The diagnosis of the arthrochalasia type EDS is of importance in the neonatal period because of consequences of physical disability in later life. However, the differential diagnosis may be difficult because of overlap with other hypermobility syndromes. In addition, the significant hypotonia may direct the physician towards various neuromuscular diagnoses. As patients get older, the hypotonia decreases and facial features become less distinct. In this report we describe seven patients at different ages. Timing of diagnosis varied from prenatal life to adult age. The diagnosis of EDS type VII was confirmed by biochemical studies or mutation analysis showing characteristic mutations in COL1A1 and COL1A2. These mutations result in skipping of exon 6, which leads to defective collagen synthesis. For physicians treating patients with EDS type VII, achieving mobility for the patient is the greatest challenge and it may be impossible due to recurrent dislocations of nearly all joints in severe cases. PMID:21801164

  10. Increased activation of the human cerebellum during pitch discrimination: a positron emission tomography (PET) study.

    PubMed

    Petacchi, Augusto; Kaernbach, Christian; Ratnam, Rama; Bower, James M

    2011-12-01

    Recent years have seen a growing debate concerning the function of the cerebellum. Here we used a pitch discrimination task and PET to test for cerebellar involvement in the active control of sensory data acquisition. Specifically, we predicted greater cerebellar activity during active pitch discrimination compared to passive listening, with the greatest activity when pitch discrimination was most difficult. Ten healthy subjects were trained to discriminate deviant tones presented with a slightly higher pitch than a standard tone, using a Go/No Go paradigm. To ensure that discrimination performance was matched across subjects, individual psychometric curves were assessed beforehand using a two-step psychoacoustic procedure. Subjects were scanned while resting in the absence of any sounds, while passively listening to standard tones, and while detecting deviant tones slightly higher in pitch among these standard tones at four different performance levels. Consistent with our predictions, 1) passive listening alone elicited cerebellar activity (lobule IX), 2) cerebellar activity increased during pitch discrimination as compared to passive listening (crus I and II, lobules VI, VIIB, and VIIIB), and 3) this increase was correlated with the difficulty of the discrimination task (lobules V, VI, and IX). These results complement recent findings showing pitch discrimination deficits in cerebellar patients (Parsons et al., 2009) and further support a role for the cerebellum in sensory data acquisition. The data are discussed in the light of anatomical and physiological evidence functionally connecting auditory system and cerebellum.

  11. Evidence for topographic organization in the cerebellum of motor control versus cognitive and affective processing

    PubMed Central

    Stoodley, Catherine J.; Schmahmann, Jeremy D.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with cerebellar damage often present with the cerebellar motor syndrome of dysmetria, dysarthria and ataxia, yet cerebellar lesions can also result in the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome, including executive, visual-spatial, and linguistic impairments, and affective dysregulation. We have hypothesized that there is topographic organization in the human cerebellum such that the anterior lobe and lobule VIII contain the representation of the sensorimotor cerebellum; lobules VI and VII of the posterior lobe comprise the cognitive cerebellum; and the posterior vermis is the anatomical substrate of the limbic cerebellum. Here we analyze anatomical, functional neuroimaging, and clinical data to test this hypothesis. We find converging lines of evidence supporting regional organization of motor, cognitive, and limbic behaviors in the cerebellum. The cerebellar motor syndrome results when lesions involve the anterior lobe and parts of lobule VI, interrupting cerebellar communication with cerebral and spinal motor systems. Cognitive impairments occur when posterior lobe lesions affect lobules VI and VII (including Crus I, Crus II, and lobule VIIB), disrupting cerebellar modulation of cognitive loops with cerebral association cortices. Neuropsychiatric disorders manifest when vermis lesions deprive cerebrocerebellar limbic loops of cerebellar input. We consider this functional topography to be a consequence of the differential arrangement of connections of the cerebellum with the spinal cord, brainstem, and cerebral hemispheres, reflecting cerebellar incorporation into the distributed neural circuits subserving movement, cognition, and emotion. These observations provide testable hypotheses for future investigations. PMID:20152963

  12. Microstructural analyses of the posterior cerebellar lobules in relapsing-onset multiple sclerosis and their implication in cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Moroso, Amandine; Ruet, Aurélie; Lamargue-Hamel, Delphine; Munsch, Fanny; Deloire, Mathilde; Coupé, Pierrick; Charré-Morin, Julie; Saubusse, Aurore; Ouallet, Jean-Christophe; Planche, Vincent; Tourdias, Thomas; Dousset, Vincent; Brochet, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    The posterior cerebellar lobules seem to be the anatomical substrate of cognitive cerebellar processes, but their microstructural alterations in multiple sclerosis (MS) remain unclear. To correlate diffusion metrics in lobules VI to VIIIb in persons with clinically isolated syndrome (PwCIS) and in cognitively impaired persons with MS (CIPwMS) with their cognitive performances. Sixty-nine patients (37 PwCIS, 32 CIPwMS) and 36 matched healthy subjects (HS) underwent 3T magnetic resonance imaging, including 3D T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were calculated within each lobule and in the cerebellar peduncles. We investigated the correlations between cognitive outcomes and the diffusion parameters of cerebellar sub-structures and performed multiple linear regression analysis to predict cognitive disability. FA was generally lower and MD was higher in the cerebellum and specifically in the vermis Crus II, lobules VIIb and VIIIb in CIPwMS compared with PwCIS and HS. In hierarchical regression analyses, 31% of the working memory z score variance was explained by FA in the left lobule VI and in the left superior peduncle. Working memory was also associated with MD in the vermis Crus II. FA in the left lobule VI and right VIIIa predicted part of the information processing speed (IPS) z scores. DTI indicators of cerebellar microstructural damage were associated with cognitive deficits in MS. Our results suggested that cerebellar lobular alterations have an impact on attention, working memory and IPS.

  13. Hydroconversion of heavy crudes with high metal and asphaltene content in the presence of soluble metallic compounds and water

    SciTech Connect

    Galliasso, R.; Salazar, J.A.; Morales, A.; Carrasquel, A.R.

    1986-06-03

    A thermal hydroconversion process is described for a hydrocarbon feedstock containing asphaltenes and metals which comprises the steps of (a) combining the feedstock with water, with a metallic catalyst precursor soluble in the feedstock and containing a metal catalyst which is a member of the group consisting of Groups IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB and VIII of the Periodic Table of Elements; (b) pre-heating the resulting admixture to a temperature of at least about 230/sup 0/C but no more than about 420/sup 0/C for a time period sufficient to effect decomposition of the metallic catalyst precursor present; (c) introducing hydrogen into the pre-heated admixture and subjecting the resulting mixture to thermal hydroconversion at a temperature of about 420/sup 0/C to about 540/sup 0/C and at a pressure of about 20 to about 250 atmospheres for a time period sufficient to provide an upgraded hydrocarbon mixture, and while maintaining a liquid water concentration in the resulting mixture of about 2 to about 25 percent by volume, based on the volume of the feedstock; (d) fractionating the upgraded hydrocarbon mixture to produce at least one vapor phase fraction and a residue fraction containing the metal catalyst; and (e) recycling at least a portion of the residue fraction to step (a), above.

  14. Hydrocracking of heavy feeds plus light fractions with dispersed dual function catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Varghese, P.; Whitehurst, D.D.

    1987-04-21

    A process is described for hydrocracking a heavy natural or synthetic oil charge stock to lower boiling hydrocarbon products wherein at least about 75% of the heavy natural or synthetic oil charge stock boils above 400/sup 0/C and contains 5 to 50 wt % of a lighter fraction having a boiling point within the range of 150/sup 0/C to 400/sup 0/C and having a Conradson carbon content in excess of 1 weight percent based on the weight of the heavy oil, which comprises: (a) adding to the charge stock a thermally decomposable metal compound in an amount equivalent to about 10 to about 950 weight ppm, calculated as the elemental metal, based on the heavy oil feed, the metal being selected from the group of Groups IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB, and VIII of the Periodic Table of Elements and mixtures thereof; (b) adding to the charge stock a separate acidic zeolite catalyst solid having an alpha value of at least 1 and a Constraint Index less than 1 and having no added active metal deposited thereon, in an amount equal to 0.1 to 10 weight percent of the feed; (c) reacting the oil containing the catalyst and the acidic solid under hydrocracking conditions in a hydrocracking zone to convert at least 25 percent of the heavy oil to lighter materials; (d) recovering a hydrocracked oil as a product of the process.

  15. Hydrotreating process employing a pretreated alumina containing material

    SciTech Connect

    Kukes, S.G.; Davis, T.; Brandes, K.K.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a hydrotreating process comprising the step of contacting a substantially liquid hydrocarbon-containing feed stream, which also contains compounds of at least one metal and/or sulfur as impurities, with a free hydrogen containing gas and a catalyst composition, under such conditions as to produce a hydrocarbon-containing stream having reduced levels of the at least one metal and sulfur; wherein the catalyst composition has been prepared by a process comprising the steps of (A) impregnating a support material comprising alumina with a solution consisting essentially of water and at least one dissolved thiocyanate compound; (B) heating the material obtained in step (A) under such conditions as to at least partially dry the material obtained in step (A); (C) impregnating the at least partially dried material obtained in step (B) with a solution comprising a liquid solvent and at least one dissolved compound of at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals belonging to Group VB, VIB, Group VIIB, Group VIII and Group IB of the Periodic Table of Elements; (D) heating the material obtained in step (C) at a first temperature so as to least partially dry the material obtained in step (C); and (E) heating the at least partially dried material obtained in step (D) at a second temperature, which is higher than the first temperature, so as to activate at least partially dried material obtained in step (D).

  16. Genetic diversity of the genotype VII Newcastle disease virus: identification of a novel VIIj sub-genotype.

    PubMed

    Xue, Cong; Cong, Yanlong; Yin, Renfu; Sun, Yixue; Ding, Chan; Yu, Shengqing; Liu, Xiufan; Hu, Shunlin; Qian, Jing; Yuan, Qianliang; Yang, Mingxi; Wang, Chunfeng; Ding, Zhuang

    2017-02-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease of poultry caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Multiple genotypes of NDV have been circulating worldwide and NDV is continuously evolving, resulting into more diversity. Of multiple viral genotypes, VII is particularly important given that it had been associated with most recent ND outbreaks worldwide. In this study, an epidemiological investigation performed in northeastern China during 2014-2015 showed that 11 genotype VII isolates amounted to 55 percent in a total number of NDV isolates. Therefore, to evaluate the genetic diversity worldwide and epidemiological distribution in China of genotype VII NDV, a phylogenetic analysis based on the 1255 complete F gene sequences showed that VII is the most predominant genotype worldwide. A further detailed characterization on genotype VII was conducted based on the 477 complete F gene sequences from 11 isolates and 466 reference viruses available in GenBank. The results demonstrated that VII can be further divided into 8 sub-genotypes (VIIb, VIId-VIIj), indicating its complex genetic diversity. It is worthy of note that the isolation rate of VIIj is increasing recently. It emphasizes the necessity to pay close attention to the epidemiological dynamic of genotype VII NDV and highlights the importance of vaccination program.

  17. Analysis of Several PLA2 mRNA in Human Meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Denizot, Yves; De Armas, Rafael; Durand, Karine; Robert, Sandrine; Moreau, Jean-Jacques; Caire, François; Weinbreck, Nicolas; Labrousse, François

    2009-01-01

    In view of the important oncogenic action of phospholipase A2(PLA2) we investigated PLA2 transcripts in human meningiomas. Real-time PCR was used to investigate PLA2 transcripts in 26 human meningioma tumors. Results indicated that three Ca2+-dependent high molecular weight PLA2 (PLA2-IVA, PLA2-IVB, PLA2-IVC), one Ca2+-independent high molecular weight PLA2 (PLA2-VI) and five low molecular weight secreted forms of PLA2 (PLA2-IB, PLA2-IIA, PLA2-III, PLA2-V, and PLA2-XII) are expressed with PLA2-IVA, PLA2-IVB, PLA2-VI, and PLA2-XIIA as the major expressed forms. PLA2-IIE, PLA2-IIF, PLA2-IVD, and PLA2-XIIB are not detected. Plasma (PLA2-VIIA) and intracellular (PLA2-VIIB) platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase transcripts are expressed in human meningiomas. However no difference was found for PLA2 transcript amounts in relation to the tumor grade, the subtype of meningiomas, the presence of inflammatory infiltrated cells, of an associated edema, mitosis, brain invasion, vascularisation or necrosis. In conclusion numerous genes encoding multiples forms of PLA2 are expressed in meningiomas where they might act on the phospholipid remodeling and on the local eicosanoid and/or cytokine networks. PMID:20339511

  18. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates from Pakistan during 2009-2013 reveals circulation of new sub genotype.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Naila; Naeem, Khalid; Abbas, Muhammad Athar; Ali Malik, Akbar; Rashid, Farooq; Rafique, Saba; Ghafar, Abdul; Rehman, Abdul

    2013-09-01

    Despite observing the standard bio-security measures at commercial poultry farms and extensive use of Newcastle disease vaccines, a new genotype VII-f of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) got introduced in Pakistan during 2011. In this regard 300 ND outbreaks recorded so far have resulted into huge losses of approximately USD 200 million during 2011-2013. A total of 33 NDV isolates recovered during 2009-2013 throughout Pakistan were characterized biologically and phylogenetically. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a new velogenic sub genotype VII-f circulating in commercial and domestic poultry along with the earlier reported sub genotype VII-b. Partial sequencing of Fusion gene revealed two types of cleavage site motifs; lentogenic (112)GRQGRL(117) and velogenic (112)RRQKRF(117) along with some point mutations indicative of genetic diversity. We report here a new sub genotype of virulent NDV circulating in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan and provide evidence for the possible genetic diversity which may be causing new NDV out breaks.

  19. History of Newcastle disease in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Abolnik, Celia

    2017-02-24

    Poultry production in South Africa, a so-called developing country, may be seen as a gradient between two extremes with highly integrated commercial enterprises with world-class facilities on one hand and unimproved rural chickens kept by households and subsistence farmers on the other. Although vaccination against Newcastle disease is widely applied to control this devastating infection, epizootics continue to occur. Since the first official diagnosis in 1945, through the sporadic outbreaks of the 1950s and early 1960s, to serious epizootics caused by genotype VIII (late 1960s-2000), genotype VIIb (1993-1999), genotype VIId (2003-2012) and most recently genotype VIIh (2013 to present), South Africa's encounters with exotic Newcastle disease follow global trends. Importation - probably illegal - of infected poultry, poultry products or exotic birds and illegal swill dumping are likely routes of entry. Once the commercial sector is affected, the disease spreads rapidly within the region via transportation routes. Each outbreak genotype persisted for about a decade and displaced its predecessor.

  20. Respiratory chain proteins.

    PubMed

    Kadenbach, B; Schneyder, B; Mell, O; Stroh, S; Reimann, A

    1991-01-01

    Mammalian mitochondrial DNA codes for 13 proteins, which are all components of energy transducing enzyme complexes of the respiratory chain, i.e. the complexes which translocate protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The number of subunits of these enzyme complexes increase with increasing evolutionary stage of the organism. The additional nuclear coded subunits of the enzyme complexes from higher organisms are involved in the regulation of respiration, as demonstrated by the influence of intraliposomal ATP and ADP on the reconstituted cytochrome c oxidase (COX) from bovine heart. This regulation is not found with the reconstituted enzyme from P. denitrificans, which lacks the nuclear coded subunits. Some of the nuclear coded subunits occur in tissue-specific isoforms, as reported for COX and NADH dehydrogenase. Tissue-specific regulation of COX activity is also demonstrated by the differential effects of intraliposomal ADP on the kinetics of reconstituted COX from bovine liver and heart, which differ in subunits VIa, VIIa and VIII. At least 3 different COX isozymes occur in bovine liver, heart or skeletal muscle and smooth muscle. An evolutionary relationship between COX subunits VIa and VIc and between VIIa and VIIb is suggested based on the crossreactivity of monoclonal antibodies, amino acid sequence homology and hybridization at low stringency of PCR-amplified cDNAs for subunits VIa-1, VIa-h and VIc from the rat.

  1. Aversion-related circuitry in the cerebellum: responses to noxious heat and unpleasant images.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Eric A; Elman, Igor; Pendse, Gautam; Schmahmann, Jeremy; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2011-03-09

    The cerebellum is reliably activated during both acute and chronic pain conditions, but it is unclear whether the response to aversive painful stimuli can be generalized to other aversive stimuli. We hypothesized that cerebellar activation during pain reflects higher-level encoding of aversive stimuli. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare cerebellar responses in 11 healthy volunteers to noxious heat (46 °C) applied to the hand and to the passive viewing of images selected from the International Affective Picture System. Aversive stimuli in the form of noxious heat and unpleasant pictures (unpleasant vs neutral) activated overlapping areas in the posterior cerebellum, specifically in hemispheric lobule VI, Crus I, and VIIb. Pleasant pictures (pleasant vs neutral) did not share the same pattern of activation as observed with the aversive stimuli. Cerebellar areas that showed functional overlap with both heat pain and unpleasant picture viewing were significantly inversely correlated with fMRI signals measured in limbic system structures, including the anterior hypothalamus, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, and the parahippocampal gyrus. Heat-specific functional connectivity was detected in many regions including primary motor cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, anterior insula, and the periaqueductal gray. The overlap between cerebellar lobuli reactive to noxious heat and passive viewing of unpleasant images suggest that the cerebellum may contain specific regions involved in encoding generalized aversive processing. The separate cortical networks suggest that noxious heat-evoked responses in the cerebellum can be divided into sensorimotor and emotional networks.

  2. Design and synthesis of 4-substituted quinazolines as potent EGFR inhibitors with anti-breast cancer activity.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Marwa; Magdy, Naja

    2016-09-23

    Cancer is a major health problem to human beings around the world. Many quinazoline derivatives were reported to have potent cytotoxic activity. Our aim in this work is the discovery of potent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors with anti-breast cancer activity containing 4-substituted quinazoline pharmacophore. Novel series of 4-substituted 6,8-dibromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-quinazoline derivatives have been designed and synthesized. New derivatives were tested against MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma cell line) and screened for their inhibition activity against epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK). Most of the tested compounds show potent antiproliferative activity and EGFR-TK inhibitory activity. Compounds VIIIc and VIIIb exerted powerful cytotoxic activity (IC50 3.1 and 6.3 µM) with potent inhibitory percent (91.1 and 88.4%) against EGFR-TK. Compounds IX, VIIa, X, VIIb, VIc, V, IV, VIa and VIb showed promising cytotoxic effects with IC50 range (12-79 µM) with good activity against EGFR-TK with the inhibitory percent (85.4-60.8%). On the other hand, compounds VIIc, VIIIa exerted low cytotoxic effects as revealed from their IC50 value (124 and 144 µM) with low activity against EGFR-TK with inhibitory percent 30.6 and 29.1% respectively.

  3. POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 110: AREA 3 WMD U-3AX/BL CRATER, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA FOR THE PERIOD JULY 2004 - JUNE 2005

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-08-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring report provides the results of inspections and monitoring for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 110, Area 3 Waste Management Division (WMD) U-3ax/bl Crater. This report includes an analysis and summary of the site inspections, repairs and maintenance, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data obtained at CAU 110, for the annual period July 2004 through June 2005. Site inspections of the cover were performed quarterly to identify any significant changes to the site requiring action. The overall condition of the cover, cover vegetation, perimeter fence, and use restriction warning signs was good. Settling was observed that exceeded the action level as specified in Section VII.B.7 of the Hazardous Waste Permit Number NEV HW009 (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, 2000). This permit states that cracks or settling greater than 15 centimeters (cm) (6 inches [in]) deep that extend 1.0 meter (m) (3 feet [ft]) or more on the cover will be evaluated and repaired within 60 days of detection.

  4. The first Japanese case of the arthrochalasia type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with COL1A2 gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Hatamochi, Atsushi; Hamada, Takahiro; Yoshino, Makoto; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2014-03-15

    This is the first report for a Japanese case of arthrochalasia type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). A 46-year-old woman consulted us for joint hypermobility and skin hyperextensibility that had been present soon after birth. There was no family history of a similar disease. She was diagnosed as having bilateral congenital hip dislocation and bilateral habitual shoulder dislocation at her childhood. Her skin was velvety, doughy and hyperextensible. She showed hypermobility of the joints of the hands and feet and generalized joint laxity, with no evidence of scoliosis. Electrophoretic analysis of collagenous proteins revealed the presence of an additional band in the position of pNα2(I) in the sample from culture medium of the patient fibroblasts. Analysis of the α2 chains of type I collagen gene, COL1A2, showed a heterozygous G to T transition at the +1 position of the exon 6 donor splice site (c.279+1G>T). This mutation resulted in skipping of exon 6, which leads to deficient processing of the amino-terminal end of proα2(I) chains of type I collagen. Based on these findings, we made a diagnosis of the arthrochalasia type of EDS, which corresponds to EDS type VIIB in the former classification.

  5. The relationship between enthesitis indices and disease activity parameters in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Sivas, Filiz; Mermerci Başkan, Bedriye; Erkol Inal, Esra; Akbulut Aktekin, Lale; Barça, Nurdan; Ozoran, Kürşat; Bodur, Hatice

    2009-03-01

    In this study, patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) were assessed both by patient and physician using two enthesitis indices and the relationship between these indices and disease activity parameters was investigated. The study involved 100 AS patients. The patients were evaluated with 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) for spinal pain (VAS-S), peripheral joint pain (VAS-P), global assessment of patient, and global assessment of doctor. In the laboratory evaluations, the erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR) and serum C-reactive protein levels of the patients were determined. Bath AS disease activity index (BASDAI), Bath AS functional index (BASFI), Bath AS metrology index, and Bath AS radiology index were calculated. The severity of enthesitis was evaluated according to Mander enthesitis index (MEI) and Maastricht ankylosing spondylitis enthesitis score applied by both the patient (MASES-P) him/herself and the physician (MASES-D). There was a correlation between BASDAI and BASFI as well as MEI, MASES-D, and MASES-P indices (r = 0.447, r = 0.342, r = 0.663, r = 0.530, r = 0.464, and r = 0.435, respectively). No correlation between the laboratory parameters and enthesitis indices were detected. In multiple linear regression analysis, BASFI, VAS-S, and female gender (41.3%) were the best predictors of MEI-D, whereas BASFI, VAS-S, female gender, and ESR (32.5%) were the best predictors for MASES-D and BASFI (18.9%) was the best predictor of MASES-P. The assessment of simple and easily applicable MASES score by a patient may be expected to help the physician in clinical practice. When the disease activity of the patients with AS are evaluated, both BASDAI, the clinical importance of which has been confirmed in numerous studies and which is recommended by ASAS, and BASFI, which is valued by patients, should be considered.

  6. Simple and Fast Sample Preparation Followed by Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for the Analysis of 2- and 4-Methylimidazole in Cola and Dark Beer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sol Ji; Jung, Mun Yhung

    2017-04-01

    We have developed a simple and fast sample preparation technique in combination with a gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for the quantification of 2-methylimidazole (2-MeI) and 4-methylimidazole (4-MeI) in colas and dark beers. Conventional sample preparation technique for GC-MS requires laborious and time-consuming steps consisting of sample concentration, pH adjustment, ion pair extraction, centrifugation, back-extraction, centrifugation, derivatization, and extraction. Our sample preparation technique consists of only 2 steps (in situ derivation and extraction) which requires less than 3 min. This method provided high linearity, low limit of detection and limit of quantification, high recovery, and high intra- and interday repeatability. It was found that internal standard method with diluted stable isotope (4-MeI-d6 ) and 2-ethylimidazole (2-EI) could not correctly compensate the matrix effects. Thus, standard addition technique was used for the quantification of 2- and 4-MeI. The established method was successfully applied to colas and dark beers for the determination of 2-MeI and 4-MeI. The 4-MeI contents in colas and dark beers ranged from 8 to 319 μg/L and from trace to 417 μg/L, respectively. Small quantity (0 to 8 μg/L) of 2-MeI was found only in dark beers. The contents of 4-MeI (22 μg/L) in colas obtained from fast food restaurants were significantly lower than those (177 μg/L) in canned or bottled colas. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Improved segmentation of cerebellar structures in children

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Priya Lakshmi; Boonazier, Natalie; Warton, Christopher; Molteno, Christopher D; Joseph, Jesuchristopher; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W; Zöllei, Lilla; Meintjes, Ernesta M

    2016-01-01

    Background Consistent localization of cerebellar cortex in a standard coordinate system is important for functional studies and detection of anatomical alterations in studies of morphometry. To date, no pediatric cerebellar atlas is available. New method The probabilistic Cape Town Pediatric Cerebellar Atlas (CAPCA18) was constructed in the age-appropriate National Institute of Health Pediatric Database asymmetric template space using manual tracings of 16 cerebellar compartments in 18 healthy children (9–13 years) from Cape Town, South Africa. The individual atlases of the training subjects were also used to implement multi atlas label fusion using multi atlas majority voting (MAMV) and multi atlas generative model (MAGM) approaches. Segmentation accuracy in 14 test subjects was compared for each method to ‘gold standard’ manual tracings. Results Spatial overlap between manual tracings and CAPCA18 automated segmentation was 73% or higher for all lobules in both hemispheres, except VIIb and X. Automated segmentation using MAGM yielded the best segmentation accuracy over all lobules (mean Dice Similarity Coefficient 0.76; range 0.55–0.91). Comparison with existing methods In all lobules, spatial overlap of CAPCA18 segmentations with manual tracings was similar or higher than those obtained with SUIT (spatially unbiased infra-tentorial template), providing additional evidence of the benefits of an age appropriate atlas. MAGM segmentation accuracy was comparable to values reported recently by Park et al. (2014) in adults (across all lobules mean DSC = 0.73, range 0.40–0.89). Conclusions CAPCA18 and the associated multi atlases of the training subjects yield improved segmentation of cerebellar structures in children. PMID:26743973

  8. Proteome Screening of Pleural Effusions Identifies Galectin 1 as a Diagnostic Biomarker and Highlights Several Prognostic Biomarkers for Malignant Mesothelioma*

    PubMed Central

    Mundt, Filip; Johansson, Henrik J.; Forshed, Jenny; Arslan, Sertaç; Metintas, Muzaffer; Dobra, Katalin; Lehtiö, Janne; Hjerpe, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive asbestos-induced cancer, and affected patients have a median survival of approximately one year after diagnosis. It is often difficult to reach a conclusive diagnosis, and ancillary measurements of soluble biomarkers could increase diagnostic accuracy. Unfortunately, few soluble mesothelioma biomarkers are suitable for clinical application. Here we screened the effusion proteomes of mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinoma patients to identify novel soluble mesothelioma biomarkers. We performed quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomics using isobaric tags for quantification and used narrow-range immobilized pH gradient/high-resolution isoelectric focusing (pH 4–4.25) prior to analysis by means of nano liquid chromatography coupled to MS/MS. More than 1,300 proteins were identified in pleural effusions from patients with malignant mesothelioma (n = 6), lung adenocarcinoma (n = 6), or benign mesotheliosis (n = 7). Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000531. The identified proteins included a set of known mesothelioma markers and proteins that regulate hallmarks of cancer such as invasion, angiogenesis, and immune evasion, plus several new candidate proteins. Seven candidates (aldo-keto reductase 1B10, apolipoprotein C-I, galectin 1, myosin-VIIb, superoxide dismutase 2, tenascin C, and thrombospondin 1) were validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in a larger group of patients with mesothelioma (n = 37) or metastatic carcinomas (n = 25) and in effusions from patients with benign, reactive conditions (n = 16). Galectin 1 was identified as overexpressed in effusions from lung adenocarcinoma relative to mesothelioma and was validated as an excellent predictor for metastatic carcinomas against malignant mesothelioma. Galectin 1, aldo-keto reductase 1B10, and apolipoprotein C-I were all identified as potential prognostic biomarkers for malignant mesothelioma. This analysis of the effusion proteome

  9. Single Session Imaging of Cerebellum at 7 Tesla: Obtaining Structure and Function of Multiple Motor Subsystems in Individual Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Batson, Melissa A.; Petridou, Natalia; Klomp, Dennis W. J.; Frens, Maarten A.; Neggers, Sebastiaan F. W.

    2015-01-01

    The recent increase in the use of high field MR systems is accompanied by a demand for acquisition techniques and coil systems that can take advantage of increased power and accuracy without being susceptible to increased noise. Physical location and anatomical complexity of targeted regions must be considered when attempting to image deeper structures with small nuclei and/or complex cytoarchitechtonics (i.e. small microvasculature and deep nuclei), such as the brainstem and the cerebellum (Cb). Once these obstacles are overcome, the concomitant increase in signal strength at higher field strength should allow for faster acquisition of MR images. Here we show that it is technically feasible to quickly and accurately detect blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal changes and obtain anatomical images of Cb at high spatial resolutions in individual subjects at 7 Tesla in a single one-hour session. Images were obtained using two high-density multi-element surface coils (32 channels in total) placed beneath the head at the level of Cb, two channel transmission, and three-dimensional sensitivity encoded (3D, SENSE) acquisitions to investigate sensorimotor activations in Cb. Two classic sensorimotor tasks were used to detect Cb activations. BOLD signal changes during motor activity resulted in concentrated clusters of activity within the Cb lobules associated with each task, observed consistently and independently in each subject: Oculomotor vermis (VI/VII) and CrusI/II for pro- and anti-saccades; ipsilateral hemispheres IV-VI for finger tapping; and topographical separation of eye- and hand- activations in hemispheres VI and VIIb/VIII. Though fast temporal resolution was not attempted here, these functional patches of highly specific BOLD signal changes may reflect small-scale shunting of blood in the microvasculature of Cb. The observed improvements in acquisition time and signal detection are ideal for individualized investigations such as differentiation of

  10. Single session imaging of cerebellum at 7 Tesla: obtaining structure and function of multiple motor subsystems in individual subjects.

    PubMed

    Batson, Melissa A; Petridou, Natalia; Klomp, Dennis W J; Frens, Maarten A; Neggers, Sebastiaan F W

    2015-01-01

    The recent increase in the use of high field MR systems is accompanied by a demand for acquisition techniques and coil systems that can take advantage of increased power and accuracy without being susceptible to increased noise. Physical location and anatomical complexity of targeted regions must be considered when attempting to image deeper structures with small nuclei and/or complex cytoarchitechtonics (i.e. small microvasculature and deep nuclei), such as the brainstem and the cerebellum (Cb). Once these obstacles are overcome, the concomitant increase in signal strength at higher field strength should allow for faster acquisition of MR images. Here we show that it is technically feasible to quickly and accurately detect blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal changes and obtain anatomical images of Cb at high spatial resolutions in individual subjects at 7 Tesla in a single one-hour session. Images were obtained using two high-density multi-element surface coils (32 channels in total) placed beneath the head at the level of Cb, two channel transmission, and three-dimensional sensitivity encoded (3D, SENSE) acquisitions to investigate sensorimotor activations in Cb. Two classic sensorimotor tasks were used to detect Cb activations. BOLD signal changes during motor activity resulted in concentrated clusters of activity within the Cb lobules associated with each task, observed consistently and independently in each subject: Oculomotor vermis (VI/VII) and CrusI/II for pro- and anti-saccades; ipsilateral hemispheres IV-VI for finger tapping; and topographical separation of eye- and hand- activations in hemispheres VI and VIIb/VIII. Though fast temporal resolution was not attempted here, these functional patches of highly specific BOLD signal changes may reflect small-scale shunting of blood in the microvasculature of Cb. The observed improvements in acquisition time and signal detection are ideal for individualized investigations such as differentiation of

  11. TIMS U-series dating and stable isotopes of the last interglacial event in Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, M.; Wasserburg, G.J.; Chen, J.H. ); Aharon, P. ); Zhu, Z.R.; Chappell, J. ); Bloom, A. )

    1993-06-01

    The extensive flight of uplifted reef terraces which occurs along the Vitiaz strait on the northern flank of the Huon Peninsula in PNG (Papua New Guinea) contains a particularly good record of sea level changes in the last 250 ky. The Huon terraces were the target of an international expedition which took place in July--August 1988. In particular, the authors searched for suitable samples for U-series dating in a reef complex designated as VII, which is correlated with the last interglacial episode and high sea level stand. This complex is composed of a barrier reef (VIIb), a lagoon, and a fringing reef (VIIa). Twelve corals from these terraces and two corals from the older reef complex VIII were selected for analysis. The petrography, oxygen and carbon isotope compositions, and magnesium and strontium concentrations were determined along with the concentrations and isotopic compositions of uranium and thorium. The simplest model for sea level height for terrace VII is a continuous rise between 134 and 118 ky. Alternatively, there may have been two periods of rapid sea level rise. In contrast, in the Bahamas, there is evidence that sea level remained rather constant over the time interval 132 to 120 ky. The absence of ages between 132 and 120 ky in PNG could be the result of changes in the local tectonic uplift rates during that time, or erosion that disrupted the continuous record. In any event, the authors find no basis for accepting a single brief time for the age of the last interglacial and applying this age as a precise chronometer for worldwide correlation, or as a test of climatic models. The older ages reported here precede the Milankovitch solar insolation peak at 128 ky, and the younger ages are [approximately]10 ky after this peak. If the present high-precision data are correct, then it will be necessary to reassess the validity of the Milankovitch theory of climatic changes. 76 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Bilateral cerebellar activation in unilaterally challenged essential tremor

    PubMed Central

    Broersma, Marja; van der Stouwe, Anna M.M.; Buijink, Arthur W.G.; de Jong, Bauke M.; Groot, Paul F.C.; Speelman, Johannes D.; Tijssen, Marina A.J.; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common hyperkinetic movement disorders. Previous research into the pathophysiology of ET suggested underlying cerebellar abnormalities. Objective In this study, we added electromyography as an index of tremor intensity to functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (EMG-fMRI) to study a group of ET patients selected according to strict criteria to achieve maximal homogeneity. With this approach we expected to improve upon the localization of the bilateral cerebellar abnormalities found in earlier fMRI studies. Methods We included 21 propranolol sensitive patients, who were not using other tremor medication, with a definite diagnosis of ET defined by the Tremor Investigation Group. Simultaneous EMG-fMRI recordings were performed while patients were off tremor medication. Patients performed unilateral right hand and arm extension, inducing tremor, alternated with relaxation (rest). Twenty-one healthy, age- and sex-matched participants mimicked tremor during right arm extension. EMG power variability at the individual tremor frequency as a measure of tremor intensity variability was used as a regressor, mathematically independent of the block regressor, in the general linear model used for fMRI analysis, to find specific tremor-related activations. Results Block-related activations were found in the classical upper-limb motor network, both for ET patients and healthy participants in motor, premotor and supplementary motor areas. In ET patients, we found tremor-related activations bilaterally in the cerebellum: in left lobules V, VI, VIIb and IX and in right lobules V, VI, VIIIa and b, and in the brainstem. In healthy controls we found simulated tremor-related activations in right cerebellar lobule V. Conclusions Our results expand on previous findings of bilateral cerebellar involvement in ET. We have identified specific areas in the bilateral somatomotor regions of the cerebellum: lobules V, VI and VIII. PMID:26909321

  13. Differences in cortico-striatal-cerebellar activation during working memory in syndromal and nonsyndromal children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Goradia, Dhruman; Dodge, Neil C; Warton, Christopher; Molteno, Christopher D; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2013-08-01

    Although children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure may exhibit the distinctive facial dysmorphology seen in full or partial fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS/PFAS), many lack that dysmorphology. This study examined the functional organization of working memory in the brain in three groups of children-those meeting diagnostic criteria for FAS or PFAS, heavily exposed (HE) nonsyndromal children, and healthy controls. A verbal n-back task (1-back and 0-back) was administered to 47 children (17 with FAS/PFAS, 13 HE, and 17 controls) during fMRI. Intra-group one-sample t-tests were used to identify activity regions of interest central to verbal working memory including the dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC), inferior frontal gyrus, caudate/putamen, parietal cortex, and cerebellar Crus I/lobule VI and lobule VIIB-IX. Whereas groups did not differ in task sensitivity, fMRI analyses suggested different patterns of sub-network recruitment across groups. Controls primarily recruited left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area). By contrast, HE primarily recruited an extensive set of fronto-striatal regions, including left dPFC and left caudate, and the FAS/PFAS group relied primarily on two cerebellar subregions and parietal cortex. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate differential recruitment of critical brain regions that subserve basic function in children with different fetal alcohol spectrum disorders compared to controls. The distinct activation patterns seen in the two exposed groups may be related to substantial differences in alcohol dose/occasion to which these groups were exposed in utero.

  14. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates from Pakistan during 2009–2013 reveals circulation of new sub genotype

    SciTech Connect

    Siddique, Naila; Naeem, Khalid; Abbas, Muhammad Athar; Ali Malik, Akbar; Rashid, Farooq; Rafique, Saba; Ghafar, Abdul; Rehman, Abdul

    2013-09-15

    Despite observing the standard bio-security measures at commercial poultry farms and extensive use of Newcastle disease vaccines, a new genotype VII-f of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) got introduced in Pakistan during 2011. In this regard 300 ND outbreaks recorded so far have resulted into huge losses of approximately USD 200 million during 2011–2013. A total of 33 NDV isolates recovered during 2009–2013 throughout Pakistan were characterized biologically and phylogenetically. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a new velogenic sub genotype VII-f circulating in commercial and domestic poultry along with the earlier reported sub genotype VII-b. Partial sequencing of Fusion gene revealed two types of cleavage site motifs; lentogenic {sup 112}GRQGRL{sup 117} and velogenic {sup 112}RRQKRF{sup 117} along with some point mutations indicative of genetic diversity. We report here a new sub genotype of virulent NDV circulating in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan and provide evidence for the possible genetic diversity which may be causing new NDV out breaks. - Highlights: • The first report of isolation of new genotype VII-f of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in Pakistan. • We report the partial Fusion gene sequences of new genotype VII-f of virulent NDV from Pakistan. • We report the phylogenetic relationship of new NDV strains with reported NDV strains. • Provide outbreak history of new virulent NDV strain in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan. • We provide possible evidence for the role of backyard poultry in NDV outbreaks.

  15. Improved segmentation of cerebellar structures in children.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Priya Lakshmi; Warton, Christopher; Rosella Boonzaier, Natalie; Molteno, Christopher D; Joseph, Jesuchristopher; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W; Zöllei, Lilla; Meintjes, Ernesta M

    2016-03-15

    Consistent localization of cerebellar cortex in a standard coordinate system is important for functional studies and detection of anatomical alterations in studies of morphometry. To date, no pediatric cerebellar atlas is available. The probabilistic Cape Town Pediatric Cerebellar Atlas (CAPCA18) was constructed in the age-appropriate National Institute of Health Pediatric Database asymmetric template space using manual tracings of 16 cerebellar compartments in 18 healthy children (9-13 years) from Cape Town, South Africa. The individual atlases of the training subjects were also used to implement multi atlas label fusion using multi atlas majority voting (MAMV) and multi atlas generative model (MAGM) approaches. Segmentation accuracy in 14 test subjects was compared for each method to 'gold standard' manual tracings. Spatial overlap between manual tracings and CAPCA18 automated segmentation was 73% or higher for all lobules in both hemispheres, except VIIb and X. Automated segmentation using MAGM yielded the best segmentation accuracy over all lobules (mean Dice Similarity Coefficient 0.76; range 0.55-0.91; mean Hausdorff distance 0.9 mm; range 0.8-2.7 mm). In all lobules, spatial overlap of CAPCA18 segmentations with manual tracings was similar or higher than those obtained with SUIT (spatially unbiased infra-tentorial template), providing additional evidence of the benefits of an age appropriate atlas. MAGM segmentation accuracy was comparable to values reported recently by Park et al. (Neuroimage 2014;95(1):217) in adults (across all lobules mean DSC=0.73, range 0.40-0.89). CAPCA18 and the associated multi-subject atlases of the training subjects yield improved segmentation of cerebellar structures in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The number of Purkinje neurons and their topology in the cerebellar vermis of normal and reln haplodeficient mouse.

    PubMed

    Magliaro, Chiara; Cocito, Carolina; Bagatella, Stefano; Merighi, Adalberto; Ahluwalia, Arti; Lossi, Laura

    2016-09-01

    The Reeler heterozygous mice (reln(+/-)) are haplodeficient in the gene (reln) encoding for the reelin glycoprotein (RELN) and display reductions in brain/peripheral RELN similar to autistic or schizophrenic patients. Cytoarchitectonic alterations of the reln(+/-) brain may be subtle, and are difficult to demonstrate by current histological approaches. We analyzed the number and topological organization of the Purkinje neurons (PNs) in five vermal lobules - central (II-III), culmen (IV-V), tuber (VIIb), uvula (IX), and nodulus (X) - that process different types of afferent functional inputs in reln(+/+) and reln(+/-) adult mice (P60) of both sexes (n=24). Animals were crossed with L7GFP mice so that the GFP-tagged PNs could be directly identified in cryosections. Digital images from these sections were processed with different open source software for quantitative topological and statistical analyses. Diversity indices calculated were: maximum caliper, density, area of soma, dispersion along the XZ axis, and dispersion along the YZ axis. We demonstrate: i. reduction in density of PNs in reln(+/-) males (14.37%) and reln(+/-) females (17.73%) compared to reln(+/+) males; ii. that reln(+/-) males have larger PNs than other genotypes, and females (irrespective of the reln genetic background) have smaller PNs than reln(+/+) males; iii. PNs are more chaotically arranged along the YZ axis in reln(+/-) males than in reln(+/+) males and, except in central lobulus, reln(+/-) females. Therefore, image processing and statistics reveal previously unforeseen gender and genotype-related structural differences in cerebellum that may be clues for the definition of novel biomarkers in human psychiatric disorders.

  17. Addressing harmful algal blooms (HABs) impacts with ferrate(VI): Simultaneous removal of algal cells and toxins for drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yang; Wu, Meiyin; Zhang, Huiqin; Zheng, Lei; Acosta, Yaritza; Hsu, Tsung-Ta D

    2017-11-01

    Although ferrate(VI) has long been recognized as a multi-purpose treatment agent, previous investigations regarding ferrate(VI) for addressing harmful algal blooms (HABs) impacts in drinking water treatment only focused on a single HAB pollutant (e.g. algal cells or algal toxins). Moreover, the performance of ferrate(VI)-driven coagulation was poorly investigated in comparison with ferrate(VI) oxidation, though it has been widely acknowledged as a major ferrate(VI) treatment mechanism. We herein reported ferrate(VI) as an emerging agent for simultaneous and effective removal of algal cells and toxins in a simulated HAB-impacted water. Ferrate(VI)-driven oxidation enabled algal cell inactivation and toxin decomposition. Subsequently, Fe(III) from ferrate(VI) reduction initiated an in-situ coagulation for cell aggregation. Cell viability (initial 4.26 × 10(4) cells/mL at pH 5.5 and 5.16 × 10(4) cells/mL at pH 7.5) decreased to 0.0% at ≥ 7 mg/L Fe(VI) at pH 5.5 and 7.5, respectively. Cell density and turbidity were dramatically decreased at pH 5.5 once ferrate(VI) doses were beyond their respective threshold levels, which are defined as minimum effective iron doses (MEIDs). However, the particulate removal at pH 7.5 was poor, likely because the coagulation was principally driven by charge neutralization and a higher pH could not sufficiently lower the particle surface charge. Meanwhile, algal toxins (i.e., microcystins) of 3.98 μg/L could be substantially decomposed at either pH. And the greater degradation achieved at pH 5.5 was due to the higher reactivity of ferrate(VI) at the lower pH. This study represents the first step toward the ferrate(VI) application as a promising approach for addressing multiple HABs impacts for water treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Development of Cooperative Learning Model Based on Local Wisdom of Bali for Physical Education, Sport and Health Subject in Junior High School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoda, I. K.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a cooperative learning model based on local wisdom (PKBKL) of Bali (Tri Pramana’s concept), for physical education, sport, and health learning in VII grade of Junior High School in Singaraja-Buleleng Bali. This research is the development research of the development design chosen refers to the development proposed by Dick and Carey. The development of model and learning devices was conducted through four stages, namely: (1) identification and needs analysis stage (2) the development of design and draft of PKBKL and RPP models, (3) testing stage (expert review, try out, and implementation). Small group try out was conducted on VII-3 grade of Undiksha Laboratory Junior High School in the academic year 2013/2014, large group try out was conducted on VIIb of Santo Paulus Junior High School Singaraja in the academic year 2014/2015, and the implementation of the model was conducted on three (3) schools namely SMPN 2 Singaraja, SMPN 3 Singaraja, and Undiksha laboratory Junior High School in the academic year 2014/2015. Data were collected using documentation, testing, non-testing, questionnaire, and observation. The data were analyzed descriptively. The findings of this research indicate that: (1) PKBKL model has met the criteria of the operation of a learning model namely: syntax, social system, principles of reaction, support system, as well as instructional and nurturing effects, (2) PKBKL model is a valid, practical, and effective model, (3) the practicality of the learning devices (RPP), is at the high category. Based on the research results, there are two things recommended: (1) in order that learning stages (syntax) of PKBKL model can be performed well, then teachers need to have an understanding of the cooperative learning model of Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) type and the concepts of scientifically approach well, (2) PKBKL model can be performed well on physical education, sport and health learning, if the

  19. Consensus Paper: Revisiting the Symptoms and Signs of Cerebellar Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bodranghien, Florian; Bastian, Amy; Casali, Carlo; Hallett, Mark; Louis, Elan D.; Mariën, Peter; Nowak, Dennis A.; Schmahmann, Jeremy D.; Serrao, Mariano; Steiner, Katharina Marie; Strupp, Michael; Tilikete, Caroline; Timmann, Dagmar; van Dun, Kim

    2017-01-01

    region in lobule VIII, and (c) cognitive and limbic regions located in the posterior lobe (lobule VI, lobule VIIA which includes crus I and crus II, and lobule VIIB). The limbic cerebellum is mainly represented in the posterior vermis. The cortico-ponto-cerebellar and cerebello-thalamocortical loops establish close functional connections between the cerebellum and the supratentorial motor, paralimbic and association cortices, and cerebellar symptoms are associated with a disruption of these loops. PMID:26105056

  20. Identification of new sub-genotypes of virulent Newcastle disease virus with potential panzootic features.

    PubMed

    Miller, Patti J; Haddas, Ruth; Simanov, Luba; Lublin, Avishay; Rehmani, Shafqat Fatima; Wajid, Abdul; Bibi, Tasra; Khan, Taseer Ahmad; Yaqub, Tahir; Setiyaningsih, Surachmi; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-01-01

    Virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates from new sub-genotypes within genotype VII are rapidly spreading through Asia and the Middle East causing outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND) characterized by significant illness and mortality in poultry, suggesting the existence of a fifth panzootic. These viruses, which belong to the new sub-genotypes VIIh and VIIi, have epizootic characteristics and do not appear to have originated directly from other genotype VII NDV isolates that are currently circulating elsewhere, but are related to the present and past Indonesian NDV viruses isolated from wild birds since the 80s. Viruses from sub-genotype VIIh were isolated in Indonesia (2009-2010), Malaysia (2011), China (2011), and Cambodia (2011-2012) and are closely related to the Indonesian NDV isolated in 2007, APMV1/Chicken/Karangasem, Indonesia (Bali-01)/2007. Since 2011 and during 2012 highly related NDV isolates from sub-genotype VIIi have been isolated from poultry production facilities and occasionally from pet birds, throughout Indonesia, Pakistan and Israel. In Pakistan, the viruses of sub-genotype VIIi have replaced NDV isolates of genotype XIII, which were commonly isolated in 2009-2011, and they have become the predominant sub-genotype causing ND outbreaks since 2012. In a similar fashion, the numbers of viruses of sub-genotype VIIi isolated in Israel increased in 2012, and isolates from this sub-genotype are now found more frequently than viruses from the previously predominant sub-genotypes VIId and VIIb, from 2009 to 2012. All NDV isolates of sub-genotype VIIi are approximately 99% identical to each other and are more closely related to Indonesian viruses isolated from 1983 through 1990 than to those of genotype VII, still circulating in the region. Similarly, in addition to the Pakistani NDV isolates of the original genotype XIII (now called sub-genotype XIIIa), there is an additional sub-genotype (XIIIb) that was initially detected in India and Iran

  1. Investigating function and connectivity of morphometric findings — Exemplified on cerebellar atrophy in spinocerebellar ataxia 17 (SCA17)

    PubMed Central

    Reetz, Kathrin; Dogan, Imis; Rolfs, Arndt; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Schulz, Jörg B.; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17) is a rare autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia but also a broad spectrum of other neuropsychiatric signs. As anatomical and structural studies have shown severe cerebellar atrophy in SCA17 and a differentiation of the human cerebellum into an anterior sensorimotor and posterior cognitive/emotional partition has been implicated, we aimed at investigating functional connectivity patterns of two cerebellar clusters of atrophy revealed by a morphometric analysis in SCA17 patients. In particular, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) revealed a large cluster of atrophy in SCA17 in the bilateral anterior cerebellum (lobule V) and another one in the left posterior cerebellum (lobules IX, VIIb, VIIIA, VIIIB). These two cerebellar clusters were used as seeds for functional connectivity analyses using task-based meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and task-free resting state connectivity analysis. Results demonstrated first consistent functional connectivity throughout the cerebellum itself; the anterior cerebellar seed showed stronger connectivity to lobules V, VI and to some extent I–IV, and the posterior cerebellar seed to the posterior lobules VI–IX. Importantly, the cerebellar anterior seed also showed consistently stronger functional connectivity than the posterior one with pre- and motor areas as well as the primary somatosensory cortex. In turn, task-based task-independent functional connectivity analyses revealed that the cerebellar posterior seed was linked with fronto-temporo-parietal areas as well as partly the insula and the thalamus, i.e., brain regions implicated in cognitive and affective processes. Functional characterization of experiments activating either cerebellar seed further corroborated this notion, revealing mainly motor-related functions for the anterior cluster and predominantly cognitive functions were associated for the posterior one. The

  2. Selective O-alkylation of phenol with methanol over sulphates supported on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Samolada, M.C.; Grigoriadou, E.; Kiparissides, Z.; Vasalos, I.A.

    1995-03-01

    The reaction of phenol with methanol was studied in a fixed-bed reactor system as a potential source for the production of methyl aryl ethers. For this reason, the performance of alumina-supported catalysts impregnated with sulphate salts of metals of the groups VIIB and IIB was studied. The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time, type of metal, metal content, and potassium content on the selectivity of methyl aryl ethers (MAE), as well as the phenol conversion and the yield of MAE, were established. The reaction temperature and the potassium content were found mainly to affect the selectivity of the catalyst, the phenol conversion, and the yield of MAE. Empirical equations were drived which proved to be useful for predicting the performance of a catalyst over a broad range of reaction conditions. A catalyst (K{sub 3}{sup S}) containing only potassium (3 wt%) in the form of potassium sulphate supported on {gamma}-alumina was found to have the most promising performance compared to those reported in the literature in terms of MAE selectivity and phenol conversion at atmospheric pressure (selectivity of MAE = 98%, phenol conversion = 65 wt%). The catalyst remains stable over a broad range of temperatures (290-330{degrees}C). K{sub 3}{sup S} is an inexpensive catalyst, showing major selectivity advantages and product composition (anisole, 92 wt%; o-cresol, 8 wt%) and a low coke production (7 wt%). The presence of potassium sulphate in the catalyst proved to be the controlling factor for the production of MAE and it was found to be the active phase of the catalyst. The MAE selectivity of potassium sulphate catalysts in determined by the potassium content of the catalyst, while its optimum value is achieved, when acid sites of medium strength (+ 1.5 < H{sub 0} {le} + 4.8) with low acidity values 22 x 10{sup {minus}4} mmol/m{sup 2} exist on their surface. 35 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Consensus Paper: Revisiting the Symptoms and Signs of Cerebellar Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bodranghien, Florian; Bastian, Amy; Casali, Carlo; Hallett, Mark; Louis, Elan D; Manto, Mario; Mariën, Peter; Nowak, Dennis A; Schmahmann, Jeremy D; Serrao, Mariano; Steiner, Katharina Marie; Strupp, Michael; Tilikete, Caroline; Timmann, Dagmar; van Dun, Kim

    2016-06-01

    region in lobule VIII, and (c) cognitive and limbic regions located in the posterior lobe (lobule VI, lobule VIIA which includes crus I and crus II, and lobule VIIB). The limbic cerebellum is mainly represented in the posterior vermis. The cortico-ponto-cerebellar and cerebello-thalamo-cortical loops establish close functional connections between the cerebellum and the supratentorial motor, paralimbic and association cortices, and cerebellar symptoms are associated with a disruption of these loops.

  4. The German approach to emergency/disaster management.

    PubMed

    Domres, B; Schauwecker, H H; Rohrmann, K; Roller, G; Maier, G W; Manger, A

    2000-01-01

    Disaster control and disaster relief in Germany are public tasks. But the government has shifted the responsibility of the administration of these tasks to the 16 states, the so called "Lander", because the EFG is a federal republic. The same is valid for the civil defense and the civil protection in the case of military or international risks. The 16 states are also responsible for the legislation of rescue service, fire fighting service and disaster control (natural and technical disasters). Counties and district-free cities are responsible for the organisation of these services. The German system is based on the principle of subsidiary between official and private institutions. A lot of official and private relief organisations are responsible for the execution of disaster relief tasks. In Germany the following organisations exist: Official (GO): Technisches Hilfswerk (THW/Federal Technical Support Service), Feuerwehren (Fire Brigades/professionals and volunteers) Academie of Emergency Planning and Civil Defense Private (NGO): Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund Deutschland (ASB/Workers' Samaritan Association Germany), Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Rettung Schiffbruchiger (DGzRS, German Lifesaving Association), Deutsches Rotes Kreuz (DRK/German Red Cross), Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe (JUH/St. John's Ambulance), Malteser Hilfsdienst (MEID/Maltese-Relief-Organisation). ASB, DRK, JUH and MHD are specialised in the field of rescue, medical and welfare services and medical disaster relief. 80% of the German rescue service and 95% of the German disaster medical relief are realised by these NGO's. NGO's and GO's employ more than 1.2 million volunteers and appr. 100,000 professionals. Rescue service is carried out by professionals, disaster relief by volunteers. The German constitution allows to call the federal army in case of disaster, to support the disaster relief organisations (for example: flood Oder River 1997, train-crash "ICE" 1998). In all counties and district free cities

  5. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, For the Period July 2007-June 2008

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-08-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report (PCIMR) provides the results of inspections and monitoring for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 110, Area 3 WMD [Waste Management Division] U-3ax/bl Crater. This PCIMR includes an analysis and summary of the site inspections, repairs and maintenance, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data obtained at CAU 110 for the period July 2007 through June 2008. Site inspections of the cover were performed quarterly to identify any significant changes to the site requiring action. The overall condition of the cover, perimeter fence, and use restriction (UR) warning signs was good. However, settling was observed that exceeded the action level as specified in Section VII.B.7 of the Hazardous Waste Permit Number NEV HW021 (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, 2005). This permit states that cracks or settling greater than 15 centimeters (6 inches) deep that extend 1.0 meter (m) (3 feet [ft]) or more on the cover will be evaluated and repaired within 60 days of detection. Two areas of settling and cracks were observed on the south and east edges of the cover during the September 2007 inspection that exceeded the action level and required repair. The areas were repaired in October 2007. Additional settling and cracks were observed along the east side of the cover during the December 2007 inspection that exceeded the action level, and the area was repaired in January 2008. Significant animal burrows were also observed during the March 2008 inspection, and small mammal trapping and relocation was performed in April 2008. The semiannual subsidence surveys were performed in September 2007 and March 2008. No significant subsidence was observed in the survey data. Monument 5 shows the greatest amount of subsidence (-0.02 m [-0.08 ft] compared to the baseline survey of 2000). This amount is negligible and near the resolution of the survey instruments; it does not indicate that subsidence is occurring overall on