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Sample records for edessa northern greece

  1. Attenuation of coda waves in northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzidimitriou, P. M.

    1993-03-01

    The single scattering model has been applied for the estimation of coda Q values for local earthquakes that occurred in northern Greece during the period 1983 1989 and recorded by the telemetered network of the Geophysical Laboratory of the University of Thessaloniki. Coda Q estimations were made for four frequency bands centered at 1.5 Hz, 3.0 Hz, 6.0 Hz and 12.0 Hz and for the lapse time windows 10 20 sec, 15 30 sec, 20 45 sec, 30 60 sec and 50 100 sec. The coda Q values obtained show a clear frequency dependence of the form Q c =Q 0 f n , while Q 0 and n depend on the lapse time window. Q 0 was found equal to 33 and n equal to 1.01 for the time window of 10 to 20 sec, while for the other windows Q 0 increased from 60 to 129, with n being stable, close to 0.75. This lapse time dependence is interpreted as due to a depth dependent attenuation. The high attenuation and the strong frequency dependence found are characteristic of an area with high seismicity, in agreement with studies in other seismic regions.

  2. Gold and gold working in Late Bronze Age Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Vavelidis, M; Andreou, S

    2008-04-01

    Numerous objects of gold displaying an impressive variety of types and manufacturing techniques are known from the Late Bronze Age (LBA) contexts of Mycenaean Greece, but very little is known about the origin and processing of gold during the second millennium B.C: . Ancient literature and recent research indicate that northern Greece is probably the richest gold-bearing region in Greece, and yet, very little evidence exists regarding the exploitation of its deposits and the production as well as use of gold in the area during prehistory. The unusual find of a group of small stone crucibles at the prehistoric settlement of Thessaloniki Toumba, one with visible traces of gold melting, proves local production and offers a rare opportunity to examine the process of on-site gold working. Furthermore, the comparison of the chemical composition of prehistoric artefacts from two settlements with those of gold deposits in their immediate areas supports the local extraction of gold and opens up the prospect for some of the Mycenaean gold to have originated in northern Greece. The scarcity of gold items in northern Greek LBA contexts may not represent the actual amount of gold produced and consumed, but could be a result of the local social attitudes towards the circulation and deposition of artefacts from precious metals.

  3. Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Kremastinou, Jenny; Tzanakaki, Georgina; Levidiotou, Stamatina; Markou, Fani; Themeli, Eleftheria; Voyiatzi, Aliki; Psoma, Eleni; Theodoridou, Maria; Blackwell, C Caroline

    2003-10-24

    In response to an increase in the number of cases of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in northern regions of Greece, a survey was carried out to determine if there was an increase in carriage of Neisseria meningitidis, particularly in areas where there have been increases in immigrant populations from neighbouring countries. The second objective was to determine if there was an increase in the serogroup C:2a:P1.5,2 a phenotype associated with recent outbreaks or changes in antibiotic sensitivities. As carriage of Neisseria lactamica is associated with development of natural immunity to IMD, the third objective was to determine the carriage rate of N. lactamica in this population. Among 3167 individuals tested, meningococci were isolated from 334 (10.5%). Compared with our previous studies, the proportion of meningococcal carriers was significantly increased among children in secondary education (11.3%) (chi2=9.67, P<0.005) and military recruits (37.4%) (chi2=21.11, P<0.000). Only 5/334 (1.5%) isolates expressed the phenotype associated with the increase in IMD in Greece. N. lactamica was isolated from 146/3167 (4.6%) participants. It was isolated from 71/987 (7.2%) children attending primary or nursery schools; however, the highest proportion of carriers (11.3%) was found in the boarding school for young Albanian men. In the 21-59-year age range, the majority of N. lactamica isolates (22/25, 88%) were from women, probably due to closer or more prolonged contact with children in the primary school age range. Smoking was significantly associated with isolation of meningococci from men but not from women. Penicillin-insensitive strains (25/334, 7.5%) were identified in all four regions examined; the majority (14/25, 56%) were obtained from military personnel. We conclude that there was a higher proportion of carriers in the population of northern Greece; however, the increase in carriage rate was not associated with the influx of immigrants from neighbouring

  4. On the origin of SO2 above northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerefos, C.; Ganev, K.; Kourtidis, K.; Tzortziou, M.; Vasaras, A.; Syrakov, E.

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes the sources contributing to two seasonal peaks in columnar SO2 amounts measured with a Brewer spectrophotometer at Thessaloniki, Northern Greece since 1982. The SO2 Brewer measurements combined with those at ground level, meteorological analysis and numerical simulations provide estimates on the contribution of local and remote sources to the SO2 column. It is shown that more than 50% of the observed SO2 column can be attributed to lignite-burning sources in Bulgaria, Romania and former Yugoslavia, this percentage rising to 70% at periods with NE flow at 850 hPa. Winds from the NW-N-NE contribute around 60% to the observed mean SO2 column during winter and 75% during the summer. When including all wind directions at 850 hPa, the Greek sources, including the lignite-burning power plant complexes to the WSW of the city, contribute around 40% to the SO2 column. These results are in qualitative agreement with independent observations from inversion of GOME measurements.

  5. Dermatophytosis in northern Greece during the decade 1981-1990.

    PubMed

    Devliotou-Panagiotidou, D; Koussidou-Eremondi, T; Badillet, G

    1995-01-01

    Dermatophytic infections are very common in Greece. In the Mycological Laboratory of the Venereal and Skin Diseases Hospital in Thessaloniki, 6572 isolates of different dermatophytes were obtained from 17,120 patients examined. It is suggested that 5% of the people who present with skin problems in Greece suffer from dermatophyte infections. They are frequent causative agents of tinea pedis, tinea cruris, tinea corporis, tinea capitis and tinea unguium. In this paper, the species, the number and the prevalence of the dermatophytes were studied according to location and sex of the patients. The contribution of dermatophyte infections to the overall incidence of superficial fungal infection over 10 years was also studied.

  6. Greece.

    PubMed

    1985-04-01

    A brief description of the population characteristics, geographical features, history, current political situation, economy, energy supply, foreign relations of Greece is presented. Greece's population of 9.95 million is 98% Greek, and the official language is Greek. 97% of the population is Greek Orthodox, and 2% is Muslim. Schooling is compulsory for 9 years, and the literacy rate is 89% for women and 96% for men. The infant mortality rate is 13.8, and life expectancy is 72 years for males and 75 years for female. Greece is situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula and consists of the mainland, the Peleponnesos, and numerous islands including Crete. Most of the land mass is mountainous, large areas are dry, and only 28% of the land is arable. From the earliest time until recently, emigration from Greece to other countries was a common pattern. Since the 1960s, internal migration to urban areas was the dominant migration trend. Currently, 30% of the population lives in Athens. Despite the growing industrialization and urbanization of the population, the Greeks retain many traditional family and social values. Greece was part of the cradle of civilization, and its history is characterized by the rise of the Minoan culture on Crete, the rise and fall of the Myceneans on the Peleponnesos, the development of the city states of Athens and Sparta, the destruction of Athens during the Peloponnesian War, domination by the Macedonians, the creation of the Hellenistic cilivization, conquest by the Roman Empire, the establishment of the Byzantine Empire, and in 1459 conquest by the Ottoman Empire. In the 1820's Greece fought for and finally won its independence, In World War I Greece fought on the side of the Allies. In World War II, the Greeks successfully resisted an invasion from Italy. In 1941, the country was taken over by the Germans, but the Greek resistance movement continued to fight the Germans until liberation. Between 1944-49, there were 2 unsuccessful

  7. Greece

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... across 800 kilometers from north to south and between Greece and western Turkey, are uniquely situated at the intersection of Europe, ... as well as part of mainland Turkey. Many sites important to ancient and modern history can be found here. The largest modern city in the ...

  8. Flow status of three transboundary rivers in Northern Greece as a tool for hydro-diplomacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzigiannakis, Eyaggelos; Hatzispiroglou, Ioannis; Arampatzis, Georgios; Ilia, Andreas; Pantelakis, Dimitrios; Filintas, Agathos; Panagopoulos, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine how the river flow monitoring consists a tool for hydro-diplomacy. Management of transboundary catchments and the demand of common water resources, often comprise the cause of conflicts and tension threatening the peaceful coexistence of nations. The Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EU sets a base for water management contributing to common approaches, common goals, common principles as well as providing new definitions and measures for Europe's water resources. In northern Greece the main renewable resources are "imported" (over 25% of its water reserves) and for this reason the implementation of continuous flow measurements throughout the year is necessary, even though difficult to achieve. This paper focuses on the three largest transboundary rivers in Northern Greece. Axios and Strymonas river flow across the region of Central Macedonia in Northern Greece. Axios flows from FYROM to Greece, and Strymonas from Bulgaria to Greece. Nestos river flows from Bulgaria to Greece. The Greek part is in the region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace in Northern Greece. Significant productive agricultural areas around these rivers are irrigated from them so they are very important for the local society. Measurements of the river flow velocity and the flow depth have been made at bridges. The frequency of the measurements is roughly monthly, because it is expected a significant change in the depth flow and discharge. A series of continuously flow measure-ments were performed during 2013 and 2014 using flowmeters (Valeport and OTT type). The cross-section characteristics, the river flow velocity of segments and the mean water flow velocity and discharge total profile were measured and calculated re-spectively. Measurements are conducted in the framework of the national water resources monitoring network, which is realised in compliance to the Water Framework Directive under the supervision and coordination of the Hellenic Ministry for the

  9. Eating habits, health attitudes and obesity indices among medical students in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Chourdakis, Michael; Tzellos, Thrasivoulos; Papazisis, Georgios; Toulis, Konstantinos; Kouvelas, Dimitrios

    2010-12-01

    Medical students represent not only the final but also the most crucial opportunity for education in the field of healthy lifestyles and nutritional habits. Eating habits and obesity indices among medical students in southern Greece were described almost a decade ago. However, there is a lack of current, relevant data concerning students living in northern Greece. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the body mass index distribution and nutritional and health-related behavior among medical students in northern Greece. The participants, 187 males (21.5 ± 1.9 years) and 203 females (21.3 ± 2.2 years), filled out a self-report questionnaire. Height and weight measurements were obtained. Dietary practices of fast food consumption (more frequent for males) and regular consumption of fruits and vegetables (more frequent for females) were reported. Females seemed to adopt different practices than males when trying to lose weight and were significantly better informed about the nutrient value of the food consumed. Although the prevalence of overweight (males: 32.1%, females: 8.4%) and obesity (males: 5.9%, females: 1.5%) in the present sample is lower compared to previous data, it remains high according to what would be health promoting. The above findings suggest a need for further improvement in strategies promoting healthier nutrition habits.

  10. A stink bug, Edessa protera sp. n. (Pentatomidae: Edessinae) in Mexican amber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of stink bug, Edessa protera sp. n. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Edessinae) is described from Mexican amber. Diagnostic characters include: an anterior thin but strongly carinate mesosternum, a scutellum with a long tongue and obtuse apex, alternate connexiva and the configuration of the ...

  11. Monitoring and modeling of two alluvial aquifers in lower Nestos river basin, Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Boskidis, Ioannis; Pisinaras, Vassilios; Petalas, Christos; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2012-01-01

    A groundwater monitoring and modeling program in two aquifers within the lower Nestos river basin in Northern Greece is presented. A monitoring network of 54 wells was developed in the two study areas, and groundwater level measurements and water quality sample analyses were conducted for a period of 2.5 years, from March 2007 to October 2009. The field data were used for the calibration and verification of the mathematical model MODFLOW in the two aquifers. The validated model was used to examine ten alternative management scenarios regarding groundwater abstraction in the two aquifers. The study showed that MODFLOW, if properly validated, is a useful and flexible tool in groundwater resources management.

  12. Syphilis on the rise: A prolonged syphilis outbreak among HIV-infected patients in Northern Greece

    PubMed Central

    Tsachouridou, Olga; Skoura, Lemonia; Christaki, Eirini; Kollaras, Panagiotis; Sidiropoulou, Eleni; Zebekakis, Pantelis; Vakirlis, Efstratios; Margariti, Apostolia; Metallidis, Symeon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major public health issue in Europe. Numerous outbreaks of syphilis have been described recently and an increased prevalence of high-risk sexual practices has raised concern about the transmission of HIV and other STDs. Similarly, an increase in sexually transmitted infections has been recorded in Northern Greece. Methods This report describes a recent outbreak of syphilis in people living with HIV. The demographic, clinical, and serologic data of HIV patients diagnosed with syphilis were recorded and analyzed. Data on syphilis incidence from the general population was also compared to HIV patients’ data. Results Fifty-eight HIV-patients of the Infectious Diseases Unit of a tertiary hospital (5.2%) were diagnosed with syphilis during a three-year period (2008-2010). Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and coexistence of other STDs were independent predictors of syphilis (OR: 2.4, 95CI%: 1.26, 4.63, p=0.008; OR: 9.4, 95%CI: 4.49, 19.64, p<0.001, respectively). Origin from a country other than Greece (p=0.005), and homosexual contact (p=0.003), were separate risk factors for syphilis in the general population in the same area. Conclusion Diagnosis of a sexually transmitted disease in an HIV patient is a crucial clinical event that should trigger the clinician’s suspicion for high-risk sexual behavior. Sexual health assessments should be a routine process for HIV patients. PMID:27622160

  13. ESEM-EDX characterisation of airborne particles from an industrialised area of northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Iordanidis, Andreas; Buckman, Jim; Triantafyllou, Athanasios G; Asvesta, Argyro

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise individual airborne particles collected from the Ptolemais-Kozani region (Western Macedonia), northern Greece. Throughout a 1-year period (March 2003 to February 2004), we collected several filters that captured airborne particles at seven sampling sites distributed throughout the area. The airborne particles captured on the filters were then characterised by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The particles were categorised as geogenic, biogenic and anthropogenic. The main anthropogenic airborne particles were fly ash (released from lignite-fired power plants) and carbonaceous (soot and char) and metalliferous (mainly iron- and copper-enriched) particulates. We present here characteristic ESEM and EDX spectra for the airborne particles and underline the presence of characteristic primary and secondary sulphates.

  14. Magnetic Properties of Santorini Volcanics and Archaeological Material From Northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Marco, E.; Spassov, S.; Kondopoulou, D.; Zananiri, I.

    2004-12-01

    Absolute palaeointensity determination is a long-winded and complicated procedure. The Thellier-Thellier technique, in particular, requires multiple heating and cooling steps. Magnetic minerals are often chemically unstable, and multiple heatings may cause oxidation, hence aiding the subsequent neo-formation of remanence carriers during the procedure. Samples from recent rhyodacitic lava flows on Santorini (Southern Greece)and archaeological material (burnt clay) from two Hellenistic pottery kilns at Katerini (Northern Greece) have been tested for their thermal stability. Small specimens were used to study the temperature dependence of magnetic low-field susceptibility, using a Thellier-Thellier like measurement sequence. The remanence properties were tested on palaeomagnetic standard sized samples by detailed alternating field (AF) demagnetisation of isothermal remanent magnetisation (IRM) and IRM acquisition at different annealing temperatures. The coercivity content was analysed using the method of Egli (2003, 2004). Two low coercivity (<100 mT) components were found in the lava samples, the individual contribution to the total magnetisation being unchanged after annealing up to 500 oC. The temperature dependence of susceptibility indicates also two components, which are both thermally stable. Heating and cooling cycles are almost undistinguishable up to 500 oC. In comparison to the lava, the burnt clay from the archaeological site seems to be slightly less resistant against multiple heatings as indicated by susceptibility and remanence behaviour. This is possibly due to the formation of chemical weathering products after the last burning. Temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility in combination with coercivity spectra analysis at different annealing temperatures gives a reliable assessment about magnetic mineral alterations.

  15. Characterization by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of diterpenoid resinous materials in Roman-age amphorae from northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Dimitrakoudi, Evagelia A; Mitkidou, Sofia A; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Kotsakis, Kostas; Stephanidou-Stephanatou, Julia; Stratis, John A

    2011-01-01

    A combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry approach has been used for the characterization of two lumps of resin and 17 adsorbed residues on Roman-age vessels, mainly amphorae, from northern Greece. The data show that a diterpenic resin from plants of the Pinacae family is the main component of the tarry material associated with the analyzed archaeological samples. The identification and mass spectrometric fragmentation of several characteristic diterpenoid biomarkers is discussed. The abundance of secondary products identified in the archaeological samples suggests that the oxidative degradation of abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid to aromatic products was the main pathway. Of particular interest is the presence of characteristic saturated abietane hydrocarbons in one sample, which indicate that a reductive process also occurred on a small scale. The overall similarity in the composition of the residues suggests the common use of pine tar as a waterproofing and sealing agent at different sites in northern Greece during the Roman period.

  16. [4 anthroposcopic markers in the Northern Greece population: hand folding, arm folding, tongue rolling and tongue folding].

    PubMed

    Pentzos-Daponte, A

    1986-03-01

    Four anthroposcopic traits, namely hand clasping, arm folding, tongue rolling and tongue curling have been studied in a total of 7763 individuals from Thessaloniki and its surroundings, representing a sample of the population of Northern Greece. The statistical analysis of the data indicates significant sex differences only concerning tongue rolling. The frequencies obtained for the four traits under study are compared with data from the literature.

  17. Identification of Climatic Factors Affecting the Epidemiology of Human West Nile Virus Infections in Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Stilianakis, Nikolaos I; Syrris, Vasileios; Petroliagkis, Thomas; Pärt, Peeter; Gewehr, Sandra; Kalaitzopoulou, Stella; Mourelatos, Spiros; Baka, Agoritsa; Pervanidou, Danai; Vontas, John; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Climate can affect the geographic and seasonal patterns of vector-borne disease incidence such as West Nile Virus (WNV) infections. We explore the association between climatic factors and the occurrence of West Nile fever (WNF) or West Nile neuro-invasive disease (WNND) in humans in Northern Greece over the years 2010-2014. Time series over a period of 30 years (1979-2008) of climatic data of air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, volumetric soil water content, wind speed, and precipitation representing average climate were obtained utilising the ECMWF's (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) system allowing for a homogeneous set of data in time and space. We analysed data of reported human cases of WNF/WNND and Culex mosquitoes in Northern Greece. Quantitative assessment resulted in identifying associations between the above climatic variables and reported human cases of WNF/WNND. A substantial fraction of the cases was linked to the upper percentiles of the distribution of air and soil temperature for the period 1979-2008 and the lower percentiles of relative humidity and soil water content. A statistically relevant relationship between the mean weekly value climatic anomalies of wind speed (negative association), relative humidity (negative association) and air temperature (positive association) over 30 years, and reported human cases of WNF/WNND during the period 2010-2014 could be shown. A negative association between the presence of WNV infected Culex mosquitoes and wind speed could be identified. The statistically significant associations could also be confirmed for the week the WNF/WNND human cases appear and when a time lag of up to three weeks was considered. Similar statistically significant associations were identified with the weekly anomalies of the maximum and minimum values of the above climatic factors. Utilising the ERA-Interim re-analysis methodology it could be shown that besides air

  18. Identification of Climatic Factors Affecting the Epidemiology of Human West Nile Virus Infections in Northern Greece

    PubMed Central

    Stilianakis, Nikolaos I.; Syrris, Vasileios; Petroliagkis, Thomas; Pärt, Peeter; Gewehr, Sandra; Kalaitzopoulou, Stella; Mourelatos, Spiros; Baka, Agoritsa; Pervanidou, Danai; Vontas, John; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Climate can affect the geographic and seasonal patterns of vector-borne disease incidence such as West Nile Virus (WNV) infections. We explore the association between climatic factors and the occurrence of West Nile fever (WNF) or West Nile neuro-invasive disease (WNND) in humans in Northern Greece over the years 2010–2014. Time series over a period of 30 years (1979–2008) of climatic data of air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, volumetric soil water content, wind speed, and precipitation representing average climate were obtained utilising the ECMWF’s (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) system allowing for a homogeneous set of data in time and space. We analysed data of reported human cases of WNF/WNND and Culex mosquitoes in Northern Greece. Quantitative assessment resulted in identifying associations between the above climatic variables and reported human cases of WNF/WNND. A substantial fraction of the cases was linked to the upper percentiles of the distribution of air and soil temperature for the period 1979–2008 and the lower percentiles of relative humidity and soil water content. A statistically relevant relationship between the mean weekly value climatic anomalies of wind speed (negative association), relative humidity (negative association) and air temperature (positive association) over 30 years, and reported human cases of WNF/WNND during the period 2010–2014 could be shown. A negative association between the presence of WNV infected Culex mosquitoes and wind speed could be identified. The statistically significant associations could also be confirmed for the week the WNF/WNND human cases appear and when a time lag of up to three weeks was considered. Similar statistically significant associations were identified with the weekly anomalies of the maximum and minimum values of the above climatic factors. Utilising the ERA-Interim re-analysis methodology it could be shown that besides

  19. Holocene tsunamigenic sediments and tsunami modelling in the Thermaikos Gulf area (northern Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reicherter, Klaus; Papanikolaou, Ioannis D.; Roger, Jean; Grützner, Christoph; Stamatis, Georgios; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios

    2010-05-01

    Shallow drill cores in flat and southerly exposed coastal areas around the Thermaikos Gulf (Thessalonica, northern Greece) provided evidence for past high energy sedimentary events, which are interpreted as tsunamites. A tsunamigenic source is located along the western tip of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in the North Aegean Basin, where water depths ranging between 1.200 and 1.650 m are sufficiently deep to generate tsunamis. However, the event layers up to now cannot be assigned to individual seismic or landslide sources, but the potential of a tsunami threat in the Thermaikos Gulf area can now be tested, following both sedimentological and modelling processes. Such potential threat regarding the Thermaikos Gulf has only recently been notified but never tested and studied in depth. As a result, several Holocene coarse clastic layers have been found intercalated in clayey or gypsiferous lagoonal deposits. These layers have erosive bases, show fining-up and thinning-up sequences, and include shell debris, foraminifera and rip-up clasts of lagoonal sediments. A widely observed significant feature of these layers involves mud-coated beach clasts, clasts that rework the high-plasticity clays of lagoons. Such features that indicate highly disturbed sedimentological condition (hyperpyncal flows) are rarely described elsewhere. Multiple intercalations of these layers with all the mentioned indicative features downhole are interpreted paleotsunami deposits from tsunamis generated by earthquakes or earthquake-triggered submarine landslides triggered by seismic shaking in the Thermaikos Gulf. Modelling of the tsunami potential of the basin-bounding fault southwards of the Thermaikos Gulf provides an example for possible tsunami generation at only one segment of NAFZ along an approx. 55 km normal fault at the southern fault-bound margin of the North Aegean Basin. The Herodotus Histories report on inundations and sea withdrawals occurring during the Greek-Persian war

  20. Line - organised convection putting fire to forest area of Halkidiki, Northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachou, M.; Brikas, D.; Pytharoulis, I.

    2010-09-01

    The organisation of convection in a line often coincides with the end of heat waves in the Southern Balkans. This was indeed the case on the 21st of August 2006, when the tail of an eastward moving cold front put an end to the preceding heat wave and, at the same time, triggered thunderstorms and windstorms in Southern Bulgaria and Northern Greece. The associated electric activity initiated a fire in Kassandra, Halkidiki, Greece. Due to the prolonged drought and the strong winds, the fire spread quickly. It lasted for three days, costing two human lives, burning an extended forest area, as well as destroying hotels and resort facilities. Availabla data are: i) European Centre for Medium - range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses, ii) RADAR reflectivity data from the Weather Modification Dept. of the Hellenic Agricultural Insurance Organisation and iii) surface and upper air data from the airport ‘Makedonia’ of Thessaloniki, Greece. The heat wave, that affected Greece during the 5 - day period prior to the line convection, was associated with the establishment of a hot, but very stable at low levels, boundary layer, probably modified part of the Saharan air layer, advected to the area of interest. Destabilisation occurred due to surface heating, as well as upper level cold air advection. From the synoptic point of view, upward motion prevails under the inflection point of the subtropical and polar jet streams, indicating once more how important are, for upper level divergence, the curvature changes along the flow. In the meso-α scale, the line convection formed along and just ahead of a shallow, frontogenetically active cold frontal zone. Hence, the line under study may be called a squall line. It is suggested that such zones play a key role in triggering severe weather in the same area, as well as cyclogenesis in the Mediterranean area. Previous studies have shown numerous severe weather events to occur along such zones. In the meso-β scale, the line under

  1. ADHERENCE AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS IN NORTHERN GREECE

    PubMed Central

    Zioga, Efrosini; Kazakos, Kyriakos; Dimopoulos, Evagelos; Koutras, Christos; Marmara, Kalliopi; Marmara, Eleni-Efrosini; Marmaras, Athanasios; Lavdaniti, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adherence as a concept includes various types of health-related behavior. Better medical adherence leads to improved disease control and fewer diabetes–related complications. Quality of life and medication adherence are interrelated. Patients with diabetes who adhere to their treatment can experience an improvement in quality of life and vice versa. Aim: To assess treatment adherence in patients with type II diabetes, as well as the connection between adherence and quality of life. Methodology: A descriptive non-experimental study was conducted in a provincial hospital in Northern Greece. The sample examined was a convenience sample consisting of 108 patients with type II diabetes mellitus. They completed the “Diabetes Self-Care Activities Questionnaire” and SF-36 “Quality of Life Questionnaire”. Results: Participants demonstrated good adherence to diet and blood test / blood glucose test routines, but did not experience high levels of quality of life. The type of treatment affected the adherence to blood tests with a statistically significant difference (p=0,000). Also, marital status affected mental health with a statistically significant difference (p=0,032). The adherence sub scales are correlated with the all domains of quality of life. Conclusions: According to our findings, it is important to plan interventions to enhance adherence to other types of treatment and to help patients to further improve their quality of life. PMID:27698597

  2. Numerical modeling of an intense precipitation event and its associated lightning activity over northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pytharoulis, I.; Kotsopoulos, S.; Tegoulias, I.; Kartsios, S.; Bampzelis, D.; Karacostas, T.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates an intense precipitation event and its lightning activity that affected northern Greece and primarily Thessaloniki on 15 July 2014. The precipitation measurement of 98.5 mm in 15 h at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki set a new absolute record maximum. The thermodynamic analysis indicated that the event took place in an environment that could support deep thunderstorm activity. The development of this intense event was associated with significant low-level convergence and upper-level divergence even before its triggering and a positive vertical gradient of relative vorticity advection. The high resolution (1.667 km × 1.667 km) non-hydrostatic WRF-ARW numerical weather prediction model was used to simulate this intense precipitation event, while the Lightning Potential Index was utilized to calculate the potential for lightning activity. Sensitivity experiments suggested that although the strong synoptic forcing assumed primary role in the occurrence of intense precipitation and lightning activity, their spatiotemporal variability was affected by topography. The application of the very fine resolution topography of NASA Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission improved the simulated precipitation and the calculated lightning potential.

  3. Land degradation and economic conditions of agricultural households in a marginal region of northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorent, Hugues; Evangelou, Christakis; Stellmes, Marion; Hill, Joachim; Papanastasis, Vasilios; Tsiourlis, Georgios; Roeder, Achim; Lambin, Eric F.

    2008-12-01

    Land degradation is caused by and has impacts on both the social and natural components of coupled human-environment systems. However, few studies integrate both aspects simultaneously. The main objective of this study is to test a method to evaluate land degradation based on the integration of aggregate metrics of biophysical and socio-economic "degradation". We applied a framework that integrates the biophysical and socio-economic dimensions of land degradation to test the hypothesis that macro-economic policies, and in particular agricultural subsidies, are an important driving force of land degradation in marginal regions of the Mediterranean Europe. We analysed the influence of subsidies on the profitability of each crop and livestock type found in a sample of farms in a region of northern Greece. Spatial and socio-economic data on agricultural households were collected to link remote sensing data and land degradation maps to socio-economic conditions of these households, as measured by the standard gross margin. The results demonstrate that subsidies provide a crucial socio-economic support to maintain the profitability of agricultural activities but may also promote land-use practices with damaging ecological impacts. Different levels of biophysical and socio-economic "degradation" were associated with different land use practices. The integration of the socio-economic and biophysical dimensions of land degradation reveals associations that would not be detectable if indicators along one dimension alone would be used.

  4. Analytical study of ancient pottery from the archaeological site of Aiani, northern Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Iordanidis, A. Garcia-Guinea, J.

    2009-04-15

    The present study is a multi-analytical approach on the characterization of several potsherd samples, dated from prehistoric to hellenistic times, from Aiani, ancient Upper Macedonia, northern Greece. In particular, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy, coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray system (ESEM-EDX) were used for the determination of the morphological, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the potsherds. The preliminary results indicated a rather local provenance of the analyzed ancient pottery samples and a finer texture and thus better ceramic manufacture as getting to hellenistic era. The use of a silicious or calcerous raw material is probably related to the specific utilization of each ceramic vessel in ancient times. The presence of gehlenite or pyroxene minerals in the ceramic matrix indicated higher firing temperatures, while lower temperatures were deduced when finding phylosilicate minerals. The preliminary results of this study do not necessarily imply that all the pottery of this area, belonging to the same chronological type, have similar physicochemical characteristics.

  5. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of PM 10 in an industrialized urban area of Northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, C.; Kouimtzis, Th; Tsitouridou, R.; Kanias, G.; Simeonov, V.

    Ambient PM 10 were sampled at three sites in an industrialized urban area of Northern Greece during June 1997-June 1998 and analyzed for 17 chemical elements, 5 water-soluble ions and 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In addition, chemical source profiles consisting of the same particulate components were obtained for a number of industrial activities (cement, fertilizer and asphalt production, quarry operations, metal electroplating, metal welding and tempering, steel manufacture, lead and bronze smelters, metal scrap incineration), residential oil burning, non-catalyst and catalyst-equipped passenger cars, diesel fuelled taxis and buses, as well as for geological fugitive sources (paved road dust and soil from open lands). Ambient and source data were used in a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model for source identification and apportionment. Results of CMB modeling showed that major source of ambient PM 10 at all three sites was diesel vehicle exhaust. Significant contribution from industrial oil burning was also evidenced at the site located closest to the industrial area.

  6. Distribution of arsenic in groundwater in the area of Chalkidiki, Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Kouras, A; Katsoyiannis, I; Voutsa, D

    2007-08-25

    An integrate study aiming at the occurrence and distribution of arsenic in groundwater in the area of Chalkidiki, Northern Greece has been carried out. Groundwater samples from public water supply wells and private wells were analysed for arsenic and other quality parameters (T, pH, EC, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, HCO(3), NO(3), SO(4), B, Fe, Mn). Arsenic showed high spatial variation; ranged from 0.001 to 1.840mg/L. Almost 65% of the examined groundwaters exhibit arsenic concentrations higher than the maximum concentration limit of 0.010mg/L, proposed for water intended for human consumption. Correlation analysis and principal component analysis were employed to find out possible relationships among the examined parameters and groundwater samples. Arsenic is highly correlated with potassium, boron, bicarbonate, sodium, manganese and iron suggesting common geogenic origin of these elements and conditions that enhance their mobility. Three groups of groundwater with different physicochemical characteristics were found in the study area: (a) groundwater with extremely high arsenic concentrations (1.6-1.9mg/L) and high temperature (33-42 degrees C) from geothermal wells, (b) groundwater with relatively high arsenic concentrations (>0.050mg/L), lower temperatures and relatively high concentrations of major ions, iron and manganese and, (c) groundwater with low arsenic concentrations that fulfil the proposed limits for dinking water.

  7. Illegal immigration and local labour markets: the case of northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Lianos, T P; Sarris, A H; Katseli, L T

    1996-01-01

    "The purpose of the present study is to enhance knowledge on the impact of illegal immigrants in Greece from both Eastern European and other developing countries. Our analysis is based on direct survey information from the four regions in Greece which employ considerable numbers of illegal aliens." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  8. Spectral characteristics of the Hellenic vertical network - Validation over Central and Northern Greece using GOCE/GRACE global geopotential models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andritsanos, Vassilios D.; Vergos, George S.; Grigoriadis, Vassilios N.; Pagounis, Vassilios; Tziavos, Ilias N.

    2014-05-01

    The Elevation project, funded by the action "Archimedes III - Funding of research groups in T.E.I.", co-financed by the E.U. (European Social Fund) and national funds under the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning 2007-2013" aims mainly to the validation of the Hellenic vertical datum. This validation is carried out over two areas under study, one in Central and another in Northern Greece. During the first stage of the validation process, satellite-only as well as combined satellite-terrestrial models of the Earth's geopotential are used. GOCE and GRACE satellite information is compared against recently measured GPS/Levelling observations at specific benchmarks of the vertical network in Attiki (Central Greece) and Thessaloniki (Northern Greece). A spectral enhancement approach is followed where, given the GOCE/GRACE GGM truncation degree, EGM2008 is used to fill-in the medium and high-frequency content along with RTM effects for the high and ultra high part. The second stage is based on the localization of possible blunders of the vertical network using the spectral information derived previously. The undoubted accuracy of the contemporary global models at the low frequency band leads to some initial conclusions about the consistency of the Hellenic vertical datum.

  9. A large scale geophysical survey in the archaeological site of Europos (northern Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsokas, G. N.; Giannopoulos, A.; Tsourlos, P.; Vargemezis, G.; Tealby, J. M.; Sarris, A.; Papazachos, C. B.; Savopoulou, T.

    1994-04-01

    The results of a large scale exploration of an archaeological site by geophysical means are presented and discussed. The operation took place in the site where the ruins of the ancient city of Europos are buried. This site is in northern Greece. Resistivity prospecting was employed to detect the remnants of wall foundations in the place where the main urban complex of the ancient city once stood. The data were transformed in an image form depicting, thus, the spatial variation of resistivity in a manner that resembles the plane view of the ruins that could have been drawn if an excavation had taken place. This image revealed the urban plan of the latest times of the life of the city. Trial excavations verified the geophysical result. Magnetic prospecting in the same area complemented the resistivity data. The exact location of the fire hearths, kilns and remnants of collapsed roofs were spotted. Magnetic gradient measurements were taken in an area out of the main complex of the ancient city and revealed the location of several kilns. One of these locations was excavated and a pottery kiln was discovered. The resistivity prospecting in one of the graveyards of the ancient city showed anomalies which were expected and corresponded to monumental tombs. The locations of a few of them were excavated and large burial structures were revealed. Ground probing radar profiles were measured over the tombs which showed pronounced resistivity anomalies, so far unearthed. The relatively high resolving ability of the method assisted the interpretation in the sense that a few attributes were added. In the presented case, it was concluded that a particular tomb consists of two rooms and that it is roofless.

  10. Assessment of the occupational exposure at a fertiliser industry in the northern part of Greece.

    PubMed

    Potiriadis, C; Koukouliou, V; Seferlis, S; Kehagia, K

    2011-03-01

    In the northern part of Greece, close to the city of Kavala, a phosphoric acid production industry has operated since 1965. The raw material used is the phosphate rock imported from the foreign countries. During industrial processes, naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) deposits exist in many facilities in the industry, causing increased levels of radiation exposure. Additionally, increased levels of NORM concentrations are also detected in the waste material of the production process, the phosphogypsum. According to the Greek Regulations for Radiation Protection (no. 216B, 5/3/2001), which is in accordance with the 96/29/EURATOM 31/5/1996, the action levels concerning the effective dose to workers at workplaces due to natural radiation sources are 1 mSv y(-1). Work activities where the corresponding doses exceed 6 mSv y(-1) are under the control of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). The mean yearly radon concentration action level at workplaces is 400 Bq m(-3), while the corresponding concentration limit is 3000 Bq m(-3), respectively. GAEC, according to its constitutional law, is the responsible organisation to enforce and to implement the law by means of in situ surveys and laboratory measurements. The first inspection of the area was performed in 2002 and the first measures were proposed. Periodic inspections were performed every 2 y in order to extend the operation licensing of the industry. In this work a dose assessment of the workers based on in situ and laboratory measurements is presented. In order to assess the doses to the workers the external and the internal doses are estimated.

  11. Geo-Hazard Monitoring in Northern Greece Using InSAR Techniques: The Case Study of Thessaloniki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svigkas, Nikos; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Kontoes, Charalampos; Kiratzi, Anastasia

    2015-05-01

    Temporal monitoring of terrain movements and satellite observations are used here to monitor geophysical Natural Hazards in northern Greece for the period 1992-2010, applying Persistent Scatterer Interferometry and Small Baseline Subset techniques, in an attempt to address their causes: anthropogenic or natural due to geological and geomorphological evolution. Our study highlights new areas that were previously unknown to be at risk and validates the remote sensing estimates using drill data, geomechanics and hydrogeology results. Site-specific results are presented for the broader urban area of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki plain (Nea Malgara-Kimina, Chalastra) and the broader area of Katerini.

  12. Probability distribution on faults near the city of Thessaloniki (Northern Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradisopoulou, P.; Papadimitriou, E.; Mirek, J.; Karakostas, V.

    2012-04-01

    Many studies found that stress triggering and fault interaction theories can be incorporated into quantitative earthquake probability estimates. Using two methods of time dependent probability estimates this work aims at the evaluation of the occurrence probability of anticipated earthquakes in the city of Thessaloniki, an urban center of 1 million people located in northern Greece, conditional to the time elapsed since the last stronger event on each fault of the study area and to the history of the following events on adjacent active faults. The city of Thessaloniki was chosen as a case study because is the second largest city in the territory of Greece surrounded by several small towns. The latest destructive earthquake occurred in 1978 (M=6.5) and caused the collapse of buildings and loss of life in the city and nearby villages. In this study we start from the estimate of the probability of occurrence for the stronger known earthquake on a fault in the period 2011-2041 (30 years) based on a time-dependent renewal model. For this probabilistic earthquake forecast the coseismic stress changes of strong earthquakes (M≥6.5) that occurred since the beginning of 20th century in the study area are calculated. The coseismic stress changes are translated into earthquake probability using an earthquake nucleation constitutive relation. According to this the occurrence rate of the anticipated earthquake is calculated taking into account both permanent (clock advance) and temporary (rate-and-state) perturbations. Earthquake probability on a fault is lowest after the last event but as tectonic stress grows the odds of another earthquake increase. For all needed calculations a probability density function for the time of failure for an earthquake of defined magnitude on the fault of interest must be taken into account along with the calculated stress changes on the fault. The technique for incorporating stress changes into the estimation of earthquake probability has

  13. The effect of internal marketing on job satisfaction in health services: a pilot study in public hospitals in Northern Greece

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of internal marketing on job satisfaction in health services, particularly in public hospitals in Northern Greece. Methods A questionnaire with three sections was used. The first one referred to internal marketing by using Foreman and Money's scale, while the second one contained questions on job satisfaction based on Stamps and Piermonte's work. The last section included demographic questions. Three categories of health care professionals, nurses, doctors and paramedic personnel working in public hospitals have participated. Results Doctors tend to be more satisfied with their job than nurses in the same hospitals. Male personnel also tend to be more satisfied with their job than female. Time-defined work contract personnel have a greater level of job satisfaction than permanent personnel. Marital status, position, and educational level have no statistically significant impact on job satisfaction. A slight decline in job satisfaction occurs as the personnel age. Conclusions Internal marketing has a positive effect on the job satisfaction of hospital staff in Northern Greece. Also, doctors and male personnel seem to have greater levels of job satisfaction. Staff with time-defined work contracts with the hospital are more satisfied than permanent staff, and as the staff age, there is a slight decline in job satisfaction. PMID:21981753

  14. Synoptic-mesoscale analysis and numerical modeling of a tornado event on 12 February 2010 in northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsangouras, I. T.; Nastos, P. T.; Pytharoulis, I.

    2011-07-01

    Tornadoes are furious convective weather phenomena, with the maximum frequency over Greece during the cold period (autumn, winter).This study analyzes the tornado event that occurred on 12 February 2010 near Vrastama village, at Chalkidiki's prefecture, a non urban area 45 km southeast of Thessaloniki in northern Greece. The tornado developed approximately between 17:10 and 17:35 UTC and was characterized as F2 (Fujita Scale). The tornado event caused several damages to an industrial building and at several olive-tree farms. A synoptic survey is presented along with satellite images, radar products and vertical profile of the atmosphere. Additionally, the nonhydrostatic WRF-ARW atmospheric numerical model (version 3.2.0) was utilized in analysis and forecast mode using very high horizontal resolution (1.333 km × 1.333 km) in order to represent the ambient atmospheric conditions. A comparison of statistical errors between WRF-ARW forecasts and ECMWF analysis is presented, accompanied with LGTS 12:00 UTC soundings (Thessaloniki Airport) and forecast soundings in order to verify the WRF-ARW model. Additionally, a comparison between WRF-ARW and ECMWF thermodynamic indices is also presented. The WRF-ARW high spatial resolution model appeared to simulate with significant accuracy a severe convective event with a lead period of 18 h.

  15. New constraints on extensional tectonics and seismic hazard in northern Attica, Greece: the case of the Milesi Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grützner, Christoph; Schneiderwind, Sascha; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Deligiannakis, Georgios; Pallikarakis, Aggelos; Reicherter, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Northern Attica in Greece is characterized by a set of north dipping, subparallel normal faults. These faults were considered to have low tectonic activity, based on historical earthquake reports, instrumental seismicity and slip rate estimates. This study presents new data for one of these faults, the Milesi Fault. We run GIS based geomorphological analyses on fault offset distribution, field mapping of postglacial fault scarps and ground penetrating radar profiling to image hangingwall deformation. The first palaeoseismological trenching in this part of Greece allowed obtaining direct data on slip rates and palaeoearthquakes. The trenching revealed downthrown and buried palaeosols, which were dated by radiocarbon. The results of our investigations show that the slip rates are higher than previously thought and that at least four palaeoearthquakes with magnitudes of around M6.2 occurred during the last 4000-6000 yr. We calculate an average recurrence interval of 1000-1500 yr and a maximum throw rate of ˜0.4-0.45 mm a-1. Based on the new geological earthquake data we developed a seismic hazard scenario, which also incorporates geological site effects. Intensities up to IX must be expected for Northern Attica and the southeastern part of Evia. Earthquake environmental effects like liquefaction and mass movements are also likely to occur. This scenario is in contrast to the official Greek seismic hazard zonation that is based on historical records and assigns different hazard zones for municipalities that will experience the same intensity by earthquakes on the Milesi Fault. We show that the seismic hazard is likely underestimated in our study area and emphasize the need to incorporate geological information in such assessments.

  16. Stable isotope ecology of Miocene bovids from Northern Greece and the ape/monkey turnover in the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Merceron, Gildas; Kostopoulos, Dimitris S; Bonis, Louis de; Fourel, François; Koufos, George D; Lécuyer, Christophe; Martineau, François

    2013-08-01

    Eurasia was home to a great radiation of hominoid primates during the Miocene. All were extinct by the end of the Miocene in Western Eurasia. Here, we investigate the hypothesis of climate and vegetation changes at a local scale when the cercopithecoid Mesopithecus replaced the hominoid Ouranopithecus along the Axios River, Greece. Because they are herbivorous and were much more abundant than primates, bovids are preferred to primates to study climate change in the Balkans as a cause of hominoid extinction. By measuring carbon stable isotope ratios of bovid enamel, we conclude that Ouranopithecus and Mesopithecus both evolved in pure C3 environments. However, the large range of δ(13)C values of apatite carbonate from bovids combined with their molar microwear and mesowear patterns preclude the presence of dense forested landscapes in northern Greece. Instead, these bovids evolved in rather open landscapes with abundant grasses in the herbaceous layer. Coldest monthly estimated temperatures were below 10°C and warmest monthly temperatures rose close to or above 20°C for the two time intervals. Oxygen isotope compositions of phosphate from bulk samples did not show significant differences between sites but did show between-species variation within each site. Different factors influence oxygen isotope composition in this context, including water provenience, feeding ecology, body mass, and rate of amelogenesis. We discuss this latter factor in regard to the high intra-tooth variations in δ(18)Op reflecting important amplitudes of seasonal variations in temperature. These estimations fit with paleobotanical data and differ slightly from estimations based on climate models. This study found no significant change in climate before and after the extinction of Ouranopithecus along the Axios River. However, strong seasonal variations with relatively cold winters were indicated, conditions quite usual for extant monkeys but unusual for great apes distributed today in

  17. The silica supersaturated waters of northern Evia and eastern central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatis, G.; Gartzos, E.

    1999-12-01

    The area of north Evia and eastern central Greece is characterized by strong geomorphological contrast and is built up mainly of consolidated rocks. Unconsolidated young sediments of Pleistocene to Holocene age cover the valley and basin flats, forming the most productive aquifers in this area. However, two more types of aquifers can be distinguished within the consolidated rock area. The first one is associated with karstified limestones and the second with strongly tectonized ultramafic rocks. The schist-chert formation, with intercalations of shales and cherts, seals the ultramafic masses underneath.Surface and spring waters associated with ultramafic rocks in north Evia and eastern central Greece were studied. Two types of water can be distinguished: (1) high Mg2+ and SiO2 , bicarbonate as the dominant anion, pH 7·4-9·2, temperature 9·5-16·3 °C, low TDS (total dissolved solutes) (459-1037 mg/l), found both in peridotite and serpentinite areas, classified as Mg-HCO3 type; (2) high Ca2+, low Mg2+ and SiO2 , hydroxyl ion as the major anion, pH 11·2, temperature 28 °C, very low TDS (122 mg/l), found in peridotite areas, classified as Ca-OH type. The studied waters are highly supersaturated with respect to quartz, amorphous silica, brucite and most low temperature magnesium silicates (antigorite, sepiolite, talc, etc.). These waters show relatively narrow SiO2 concentration ranges and a trend parallel to the amorphous silica saturation surface. The silica supersaturated waters have the potential to precipitate silica and consequently could affect the people of the local communities that use it as drinking water, causing health problems (kidney stones).

  18. Developing optimum sample size and multistage sampling plans for Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larval infestation and injury in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Ifoulis, A A; Savopoulou-Soultani, M

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to quantify the spatial pattern and develop a sampling program for larvae of Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiffermüller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an important vineyard pest in northern Greece. Taylor's power law and Iwao's patchiness regression were used to model the relationship between the mean and the variance of larval counts. Analysis of covariance was carried out, separately for infestation and injury, with combined second and third generation data, for vine and half-vine sample units. Common regression coefficients were estimated to permit use of the sampling plan over a wide range of conditions. Optimum sample sizes for infestation and injury, at three levels of precision, were developed. An investigation of a multistage sampling plan with a nested analysis of variance showed that if the goal of sampling is focusing on larval infestation, three grape clusters should be sampled in a half-vine; if the goal of sampling is focusing on injury, then two grape clusters per half-vine are recommended.

  19. Low-temperature constraints on the Cenozoic thermal evolution of the Southern Rhodope Core Complex (Northern Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounov, Alexandre; Wüthrich, Eliane; Seward, Diane; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Stockli, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The South Rhodope Core Complex (SRCC) of Northern Greece is probably the most studied metamorphic core complex of the Rhodope Massif, and yet its geological evolution has not yet been fully unravelled, especially the later stages of its thermotectonic evolution. We applied the fission-track method on apatite and zircon and the [U-Th-(Sm)]/He method on apatite in order to reconstruct the low-temperature thermal history. The main detachments responsible for the unroofing of the core complex are the Kerdilion and the Strymon Valley detachments. The Kerdilion detachment initiated the exhumation of the SRCC at the latest at 42 Ma and controlled it until about 24 Ma. Between 24 and 12 Ma, the Strymon Valley detachment accommodated the exhumation. Since 12 Ma brittle normal faults, some of them cutting the Strymon Valley detachment were responsible for the final cooling of the basement rocks in the studied area and the formation of syn-tectonic sedimentary basins. Activity along these brittle normal faults lasted until 6 Ma or probably even until today, as indicated by recent seismic activity in the area.

  20. Tree number estimation with the use of VHR natural colour orthophotos over a heterogeneous landscape in northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stournara, P.; Tsakiri-Strati, M.; Siachalou, S.; Doxani, G.; Mallinis, G.; Tsioukas, V.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial explicit knowledge regarding the quantity and the spatial distribution of forest parameters is crucial for sustainable forest management, as well as in fulfilling national reporting needs in the framework of international treaties (i.e. Kyoto Protocol, FAO, EFFIS etc). Especially, tree number which can be used for assessing forest tree density (tree number/ha), is among the most important and laboursome parameters to be measured in the field. The aim of this study is to estimate tree number based on the use of nationwide, freely available, very high spatial resolution orthophotos acquired from Greek National Cadastre and Mapping Agency during the 2007-2009 period. The study area is the University Forest of Taxiarchis, which is located in central Halkidiki, Northern Greece. The dominant species of the forest includes both broadleaves (oak, beech) and coniferous species (Black pine, Calabrian pine), which are found in both pure and mixed stands. Tree crown detection was tested on natural color orthophoto bands in several plots. The principal components and intensity-hue-saturation transformations were also applied in order to enhance tree detection accuracy. Local maxima technique was utilized for tree crown detection. Accuracy results were evaluated based on field plot data available from the official forest management plan of the area completed in 2011. Overall, the detection accuracy exceeded 50% which is deemed satisfactory considering also the heterogeneity of the Mediterranean landscape and the limited spectral resolution of the remote sensing data available.

  1. Synoptic-mesoscale analysis and numerical modeling of a tornado event on 12 February 2010 in northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsangouras, J. T.; Nastos, P. T.; Pytharoulis, I.

    2010-09-01

    Tornadoes are furious convective weather phenomena, having increased frequency, particularly in the cool season, attributed to the higher moisture content of the atmosphere due to global warming. Tornadoes' source regions are more likely shallow waters, which are easily warmed, such as Gulf of Mexico or Mediterranean Sea. This study analyzes the tornado event, that occurred on 12 February 2010 in Vrastera, Chalkidiki, a non urban area 45 km southeastern of Thessaloniki in northern Greece. The tornado was developed approximately between 17:15 and 18:45 UTC and characterized as F2 (Fujita Scale). The tornado caused several damages to an industrial building and an olive-tree farm. A synoptic analysis based on the ECMWF charts is presented along with an extended dataset of satellite images, radar products and vertical profile of the atmosphere. Additionaly, the nonhydrostatic WRF-ARW atmospheric numerical model (version 3.2) was utilized in analysis and forecast mode using very high horizontal resolution (1 km x 1 km) in order to represent the ambient atmospheric conditions and examine the prediction of the event. Sensitivity experiments look into the model performance in the choice of microphysical and boundary layer parameterization schemes.

  2. Palaeogeographic evolution of Alykes lagoon, Pydna, Northern Greece during the Holocene, based on geomorphological and sedimentological data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsanakas, K.; Gaki-Papanastassiou, K.; Maroukian, H.; Cundy, A.; Papanastassiou, D.; Koskeridou, E.

    2012-04-01

    In this study an attempt is made in order to determine the palaeogeographic evolution of Alykes lagoon, located along the microtidal coast of Pieria Prefecture in northern Greece. For this purpose, sedimentological, micro and macropalaeontological and granulometric analyses have been carried out on sediments that have been collected from two drill cores. The total area of Alykes lagoon is 10.78 km2 while the length of the coastline is 11.4 km with a maximum width of 320 m, not exceeding an elevation of 1m. The lagoon in its present form does not seem to be filling up by terrestrial-fluvial action. The only human activity in the study area is the saltworks in the northern part of the lagoon. Two zones have been recognized according to their microfossil content corresponding to different palaeoenvironments of deposition.During the Holocene the sea invaded this lowland area and created a shallow open marine environment which at times was disturbed by multiple terrestrial inputs induced by fluvial discharge and longshore drift. The prevailing drift is from South to North and has contributed to the formation of a barrier spit which extended towards the NNE and finally confined the lagoon in the northwest. The spit has advanced to the east by forming three generations of ridge and swale topography having a slightly different orientation. Based on a radiocarbon date at -4.4 m below sea level obtained from the southern part of the lagoon, it is assumed that the coastline was already at that location by the end of the seventh millennium BP. Given that the drill core is only about twenty meters from the terrestrial outcrops (Neogene formations) we presume that this was the location of the oldest coastline during the Holocene. Therefore, the formation and evolution of the lagoon can be safely put around the sixth millennium BP.

  3. Radon and radioactivity at a town overlying Uranium ores in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Kourtidis, K; Georgoulias, A K; Vlahopoulou, M; Tsirliganis, N; Kastelis, N; Ouzounis, K; Kazakis, N

    2015-12-01

    Extensive measurements of (222)Rn in the town of Xanthi in N Greece show that the part of the town overlying granite deposits and the outcrop of a uranium ore has exceptionally high indoor radon levels, with monthly means up to 1500 Bq m(-3). A large number of houses (40%) in this part of the town exhibit radon levels above 200 Bq m(-3) while 11% of the houses had radon levels above 400 Bq m(-3). Substantial interannual variability as well as the highest in Europe winter/summer ratios (up to 12) were observed in this part of the town, which consist of traditional stone masonry buildings of the late 19th-early 20th century. Measurements of (238)U and (232)Th content of building materials from these houses as well as radionuclide measurements in different floors show that the high levels of indoor radon measured in these buildings are not due to high radon emanation rates from the building materials themselves but rather due to high radon flux from the soil because of the underlying geology, high radon penetration rates into the buildings from underground due to the lack of solid concrete foundations in these buildings, or a combination thereof. From the meteorological variables studied, highest correlation with indoor (222)Rn was found with temperature (r(2) = 0.65). An indoor radon prognostic regression model using temperature, pressure and precipitation as input was developed, that reproduced indoor radon with r(2) = 0.69. Hence, meteorology is the main driving factor of indoor radon, with temperature being the most important determinant. Preliminary flux measurements indicate that the soil-atmosphere (222)Rn flux should be in the range 150-250 Bq m(-2) h(-1), which is in the upper 10% of flux values for Europe.

  4. Radon and radioactivity at a town overlying Uranium ores in northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtidis, Konstantinos; Georgoulias, Aristeidis; Tsirliganis, Nestor

    2016-04-01

    Extensive measurements of Rn-222 in the town of Xanthi in N Greece show that the part of the town overlying granite deposits and the outcrop of a uranium ore has exceptionally high indoor radon levels, with monthly means up to 1500 Bq m-3. A large number of houses (40%) in this part of the town exhibit radon levels above 200 Bq m-3 while 11% of the houses had radon levels above 400 Bq/m3. Substantial interannual variability as well as the highest in Europe winter/summer ratios (up to 12) were observed in this part of the town, which consist of traditional stone masonry buildings of the late 19th- early 20th century. Measurements of U-238 and Th-232 content of building materials from these houses as well as radionuclide measurements in different floors show that the high levels of indoor radon measured in these buildings are not due to high radon emanation rates from the building materials themselves but rather due to high radon flux from the soil because of the underlying geology, high radon penetration rates into the buildings from underground due to the lack of solid concrete foundations in these buildings, or a combination thereof. From the meteorological variables studied, highest correlation with indoor Rn-222 was found with temperature (r2=0.65). An indoor radon prognostic regression model using temperature, pressure and precipitation as input was developed, that reproduced indoor radon with r2=0.69. Hence, meteorology is the main driving factor of indoor radon, with temperature being the most important determinant. Preliminary flux measurements indicate that the soil-atmosphere Rn-222 flux should be in the range 150-250 Bq m-2 hr-1, which is in the upper 10% of flux values for Europe.

  5. A retrospective epidemiological study of skin diseases among pediatric population attending a tertiary dermatology referral center in Northern Greece

    PubMed Central

    Vakirlis, Efstratios; Theodosiou, Grigorios; Apalla, Zoe; Arabatzis, Michael; Lazaridou, Elizabeth; Sotiriou, Elena; Lallas, Aimilios; Ioannides, Demetrios

    2017-01-01

    Background The incidence of skin diseases in children is influenced by hereditary, social, and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of pediatric dermatoses at a University Hospital in Northern Greece. Patients and methods We reviewed epidemiologic data of 940 patients, aged 0–18 years, who were referred to the outpatient clinic of a University Hospital between January 2013 and December 2015. Demographic data and the frequency of the various diagnoses in various age groups were studied. Results Nine hundred and forty children and adolescents with 1020 diagnoses were included in the study (52.8% females and 47.2% males). The 10 most frequent diagnoses were: dermatitis/eczema (31.5%), viral infections (12.5%), pigmentary disorders (7.4%), melanocytic nevi (5.8%), alopecia areata (5.8%), acne (5.6%), nail disorders (3.3%), vascular malformations and hemangiomas (2.9%), psoriasis (2.6%), and bacterial infections (2.6%). Atopic dermatitis was the most prevalent dermatosis in all age groups accounting for a total of 20.9% of the study population. A remarkably high incidence of various forms of mastocytosis (2.2%) was seen in our data. Conclusion Atopic dermatitis is the most frequent pediatric dermatosis in all age groups. Viral infections, pigmentary disorders, and nevi account for a significant proportion of the referrals. The high incidence of mastocytosis in our study may be attributed to overdiagnosis, overestimation due to the relatively small study population, or it may represent the real incidence of mastocytosis in our region. The low incidence of acne in our study may be attributed to the fact that only severe cases are referred to our hospital.

  6. Zombie bugs? The fungus Purpureocillium cf. lilacinum may manipulate the behavior of its host bug Edessa rufomarginata.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, William; Pacheco-Esquivel, Jessica; Carrasco-Rueda, Farah; Christopher, Yuliana; Gonzalez, Cely; Ramos, Daniel; Urbina, Hector; Blackwell, Meredith

    2014-01-01

    Just before dying, Edessa rufomarginata (Hemiptera, Pentotomidae) individuals that are infected with the fungus Purpureocillium cf. lilacinum (Ascomycota: Ophiocordycipitaceae) move from the leaves onto the stems of their Solanum sp. host and firmly grasp the stems in ways seldom employed by uninfected bugs. These alterations in host behavior probably improve the chances that the subsequently produced fungal spores will be dispersed aerially. Purpureocillium cf. lilacinum is a member of the Ophiocordycipitaceae, a group in which other species also modify the behavior of their hosts. As in the case of newly distinguished relatives of Ophiocordyceps unilateralis associated with "zombie ants" the discovery of P. cf. lilacinum infecting bugs reveals that P. lilacinum may be more diverse than previously appreciated.

  7. Carbonate and lignite cycles in the Ptolemais Basin: Orbital control and suborbital variability (Late Neogene, northern Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. E.; Tougiannidis, N.; Ricken, W.; Rolf, C.; Kleineder, M.; Bertram, N.; Antoniadis, P.

    2009-04-01

    We recently commenced a project to investigate deep drillings as well as outcrops in the Ptolemais Basin, northern Greece, for paleoenvironmental and paleoclimate change. Specific attention is paid to mining sites Achlada, Vevi, Vegora, Amynteon, North Field, South Field, and Lava. The sediment archive comprises Upper Miocene to Quaternary continental lake deposits (up to 800 m thick) with an extended Lower Pliocene section. The Upper Miocene sections are composed of diatomaceous mud and gray marls. Pliocene lake sediments commence with the Kyrio member (lignite/grey marl), followed by the Theodoxus member (beige marl/lignite), and the Notio member (marl with intercalated sand /lignite). The limnic deposits show striking rhythmic bedding of (mostly) carbonates and lignites, reflecting orbital-induced humidity and temperature changes in this small NW-SE elongated continental basin. First, we retrieved chronometric information by determining magnetic polarity changes on three sites as independent stratigraphic ground-truth in combination with palynological evidence and published data. Then we conducted a number of high-resolution (1 - 6 cm increment), non-destructive measurements to obtain paleoclimate proxies: photospectrometry (colors L, a, b), magnetic susceptibility, and natural gamma. Accordingly, we achieved a multi-proxy insight into paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental evolution at unprecedented temporal resolution (up to a few decades!) over long time series and at a number of key sites. Using the newly-developed ESALab software, we conducted spectral and evolutionary spectral analysis to evaluate the cyclo-stratigraphic development. As for orbital variability, spectral power is concentrated on precession, hemi-precession, and eccentricity, with only minor impact of orbital tilt. We used this information to increase the temporal resolution of our age models by tuning as many precession (insolation) maxima as possible to carbonate minima (lignite maxima

  8. Vanadium in particles and sediments of the northern Saronikos Gulf, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kalogeropoulos, N; Scoullos, M; Vassilaki-Grimani, M; Grimanis, A P

    1989-04-01

    This study provides data for total and non-residual vanadium distributions in the northern Saronikos Gulf and shows that close to the Athens sewage outfall (ASO), the combined domestic and industrial wastes have resulted in a considerable increase in concentrations of vanadium in sediments and suspended solids. This appears to be the main vanadium source in the area; a second major source is a fertilizer plant (FP) near the entrance of Piraeus Harbour (PH), the impact of which is also important. Atmospheric inputs from the Piraeus industrial site and frequent crude oil spillages from ships and land-based sources seem to contribute significantly to the observed vanadium distribution, which is clearly affected by the prevailing circulation of surface waters and winds. The high percentage of the 0.5 NHCl-leachable vanadium fraction in the most polluted sediments, together with positive correlation with organic carbon and certain other trace metals (i.e. Ag, Co, Cr, Fe, Zn) and negative correlation coefficients with Al and Sc, indicate that a considerable portion of the vanadium is of "anthropogenic" origin not related to lithogenous particles. It enters the system in association with relatively large organic aggregates, either authigenic or derived from sewage.

  9. Integrating conservation and development at the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece: perception and practice.

    PubMed

    Oikonomou, Zoi-Sylvia; Dikou, Angela

    2008-11-01

    Available information on the socioeconomic implications of marine protected areas (MPAs) for the socioculturally diverse Mediterranean region is scant. The National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece was established in 1992 as a foundation for the conservation of the endangered Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus. The evolution of the degree of acceptance of and satisfaction from the NMPANS by involved stakeholder groups (fishermen, tourism operators, hoteliers and owners of rooms to let, governmental bodies, nongovernmental bodies, students, domestic and foreign tourists) were investigated 13 years after its establishment using written questionnaires delivered during personal interviews. The initial positive attitude of local professionals for the NMPANS has eroded due to the unsatisfactory fulfillment of expectations for socioeconomic development. Fishermen expressed dissatisfaction with, mistrust toward, and a reluctancy to communicate with the NMPANS's management body. They believe that the fishery areas have decreased in actual geographic area because of the prohibitive measures; fish stocks are declining; compensation for damage to fishery equipment by the Mediterranean monk seal and for the prohibitive measures should be provided; and stricter enforcement of regulations should take place. On the other hand, tourism operators, who organize trips for tourists to the NMPANS, unanimously reported direct economic benefits. Furthermore, there was a disparity in the perception of socioeconomic benefits derived from the NMPANS between governmental bodies and local stakeholders. The governmental bodies and the nongovernmental organization MOm-Hellenic Society for the Study and Protection of the Monk Seal postulated that there had been considerable socioeconomic benefits for the local community of Alonissos due to the establishment of the NMPANS, whereas the local nongovernmental organization Ecological and Cultural Movement of

  10. A pesticide monitoring survey in rivers and lakes of northern Greece and its human and ecotoxicological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Emmaluel N; Vryzas, Zisis; Kotopoulou, Athena; Kintzikoglou, Katerina; Makris, Konstantinos C; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2015-06-01

    A pesticide monitoring study covering the main rivers and lakes of Northern Greece (Macedonia, Thrace and Thessaly) was undertaken. A total of 416 samples were collected over a 1.5-year sampling period (September 1999- February 2001) from six rivers and ten lakes. The water samples were analyzed with an off-line solid phase extraction technique coupled with a gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometer using an analytical method for 147 pesticides and their metabolites, including organochlorines, organophosphates, triazines, chloroacetanilides, pyrethroids, carbamates, phthalimides and other pesticides (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides). Based on the pesticide survey results, a human health carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk assessment was conducted for adults and children. Ecotoxicological risk assessment was also conducted using default endpoint values and the risk quotient method. Results showed that the herbicides metolachlor, prometryn, alachlor and molinate, were the most frequently detected pesticides (29%, 12.5%, 12.5% and 10%, respectively). They also exhibited the highest concentration values, often exceeding 1 μg/L. Chlorpyrifos ethyl was the most frequently detected insecticide (7%). Seasonal variations in measured pesticide concentrations were observed in all rivers and lakes. The highest concentrations were recorded during May-June period, right after pesticide application. Concentrations of six pesticides were above the maximum allowable limit of 0.1 μg/L set for drinking water. Alachlor, atrazine and a-HCH showed unacceptable carcinogenic risk estimates (4.5E-06, 4.6E-06 and 1.3E-04, respectively). Annual average concentrations of chlorpyriphos ethyl (0.031 μg L), dicofol (0.01 μg/L), dieldrin (0.02 μg/L) and endosulfan a (0.065 μg/L) exceeded the EU environmental quality standards. The risk quotient estimates for the insecticides chorpyrifos ethyl, diazinon and parathion methyl and herbicide prometryn were above acceptable risk

  11. Integrating Conservation and Development at the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece: Perception and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, Zoi-Sylvia; Dikou, Angela

    2008-11-01

    Available information on the socioeconomic implications of marine protected areas (MPAs) for the socioculturally diverse Mediterranean region is scant. The National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece was established in 1992 as a foundation for the conservation of the endangered Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus. The evolution of the degree of acceptance of and satisfaction from the NMPANS by involved stakeholder groups (fishermen, tourism operators, hoteliers and owners of rooms to let, governmental bodies, nongovernmental bodies, students, domestic and foreign tourists) were investigated 13 years after its establishment using written questionnaires delivered during personal interviews. The initial positive attitude of local professionals for the NMPANS has eroded due to the unsatisfactory fulfillment of expectations for socioeconomic development. Fishermen expressed dissatisfaction with, mistrust toward, and a reluctancy to communicate with the NMPANS’s management body. They believe that the fishery areas have decreased in actual geographic area because of the prohibitive measures; fish stocks are declining; compensation for damage to fishery equipment by the Mediterranean monk seal and for the prohibitive measures should be provided; and stricter enforcement of regulations should take place. On the other hand, tourism operators, who organize trips for tourists to the NMPANS, unanimously reported direct economic benefits. Furthermore, there was a disparity in the perception of socioeconomic benefits derived from the NMPANS between governmental bodies and local stakeholders. The governmental bodies and the nongovernmental organization MOm-Hellenic Society for the Study and Protection of the Monk Seal postulated that there had been considerable socioeconomic benefits for the local community of Alonissos due to the establishment of the NMPANS, whereas the local nongovernmental organization Ecological and Cultural Movement of

  12. Organic and elemental carbon associated to PM10 and PM 2.5 at urban sites of northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Samara, Constantini; Voutsa, Dimitra; Kouras, Athanasios; Eleftheriadis, Kostas; Maggos, Thomas; Saraga, D; Petrakakis, M

    2014-02-01

    Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations, associated to PM10 and PM2.5 particle fractions, were concurrently determined during the warm and the cold months of the year (July-September 2011 and February-April 2012, respectively) at two urban sites in the city of Thessaloniki, northern Greece, an urban-traffic site (UT) and an urban-background site (UB). Concentrations at the UT site (11.3 ± 5.0 and 8.44 ± 4.08 14 μg m(-3) for OC10 and OC2.5 vs. 6.56 ± 2.14 and 5.29 ± 1.54 μg m(-3) for EC10 and EC2.5) were among the highest values reported for urban sites in European cities. Significantly lower concentrations were found at the UB site for both carbonaceous species, particularly for EC (6.62 ± 4.59 and 5.72 ± 4.36 μg m(-3) for OC10 and OC2.5 vs. 0.93 ± 0.61 and 0.69 ± 0.39 μg m(-3) for EC10 and EC2.5). Despite that, a negative UT-UB increment was frequently evidenced for OC2.5 and PM2.5 in the cold months possibly indicative of emissions from residential wood burning at the urban-background site. At both sites, cconcentrations of OC fractions were significantly higher in the cold months; on the contrary, EC fractions at the UT site were prominent in the warm season suggesting some influence from maritime emissions in the nearby harbor area. Secondary organic carbon, being estimated using the EC tracer method and seasonally minimum OC/EC ratios, was found to be an appreciable component of particle mass particularly in the cold season. The calculated secondary contributions to OC ranged between 35 and 59 % in the PM10 fraction, with relatively higher values in the PM2.5 fraction (39-61 %). The source origin of carbonaceous species was investigated by means of air parcel back trajectories, satellite fire maps, and concentration roses. A local origin was mainly concluded for OC and EC with limited possibility for long range transport of biomass (agricultural waste) burning aerosol.

  13. Record of Edessa scabriventris Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) associated to Eugenia uniflora (Brazilian-Cherry) and Psidium guajava (Guava) (Myrtaceae), in north-northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Mauricio S; Fernandes, José A M; Lima, Iracilda M M

    2010-01-01

    This study reports for the first time Edessa scabriventris Stål on Eugenia uniflora (Brazilian-cherry) and on Psidium guajava (guava) (Myrtaceae), fruit trees with economic value. Its geographic distribution is extended with records for the states of Alagoas (Maceió Municipality 35°45'11.16''W; 9°40'18.52''S) and Pará (Belém Municipality 48°28'14.65''W; 1°26'14.83''S), north-northeastern Brazil.

  14. The basement structure below the peat-lignite deposit in the Philippi sub-basin (Northern Greece) inferred by electromagnetic and magnetic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurk, M.; Tougiannidis, N.; Oikonomopoulos, I. K.; Kalisperi, D.

    2015-04-01

    During 2009 and 2010 electromagnetic (EM) soundings and a high-resolution magnetic survey were conducted to study the deeper structure of the peat-lignite deposit in the Philippi sub-basin in Northern Greece. The primary intention of investigating the basement structure of the Philippi sub-basin is to propose the ideal location for a deep and continuous paleoclimate drill site. Data were collected along a 12 km transect (NNE-SSW) through the largest extension of the basin from Krinides at the North to Eleftheroupolis at the South. We used a combined set of Radiomagnetotelluric (RMT), Time Domain Electromagnetic (TEM) and Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) soundings to derive a 2D model of the electrical resistivity distribution versus depth using a joint inversion approach. This model was then cross correlated with a 2D forward model of magnetic anomaly data. The magnetic survey detected strong anomalies in the North that appeared to have been generated by the Philippi granitoid pluton. All three individual data sets support each other and have jointly been analyzed. From this study we yield an asymmetric graben model of the basin structure that shows maximum thickness (ca. 500 m) in the northern part of the basin leading to a reduction of the thickness to the South. The interface between the basin fill and the bedrock ascend steeply in the North. The overall assessment of the deeper basin structure reveals a detachment system that is in good accordance with previous findings.

  15. Distribution, lithotypes and mineralogical study of newly formed thermogenic travertines in Northern Euboea and Eastern Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanellopoulos, Christos

    2012-12-01

    In the northwestern part of Euboea Island and the neighbouring part of the mainland in eastern central Greece, many hot springs exist. We collected and analysed the newly formed material around the hot springs. The samples were studied at the lab with X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). In all cases the studied materials were thermogenic travertine presenting many different lithotypes. The studied travertine deposits consist mainly of aragonite and calcite, but in some cases, as the main mineral phase, an amorphous hydrous ferric oxyhydroxide, probably ferrihydrite (creating a laminated iron-rich travertine deposit), was identified. The lithotypes that were identified were of great variety (spicular, shrubs, etc). Some of them (pisoliths, rafts and foam rock types) are quite rare and one of them (framework type) is described for the first time. Morphological data and field observations suggest possible inorganic and organic controls on carbonate precipitation. Similar lithotypes have been recorded at Mammoth hot springs, Yellowstone National Park in USA and at Rapolano Terme, Italy.

  16. Characterization of the fly ashes from the lignite burning power plants of northern Greece based on their quantitative mineralogical composition.

    PubMed

    Kostakis, G

    2009-07-30

    In the present work, mineralogical analysis of fly ashes produced from the brown coal burning power plants of Agios Dimitrios, Kardia, Ptolemais, LIPTOL, Amynteon, and Achlada-Meliti (Western Macedonia, Greece) was performed, with the aim of characterizing the ashes on the basis of their quantitative mineral phase composition and asses their variability at different time periods. The fly ashes from the Agios Dimitrios, Kardia, and Ptolemais power plants were found to have nearly the same mineralogical composition, consisting mainly of feldspars, lime, anhydrite, quartz, calcium silicates, and high amounts of amorphous phases. The fly ashes from Amynteon were slightly different, having lower content of lime and higher content of feldspars, whilst those from LIPTOL had a relative variable quantitative composition. The fly ashes from the Meliti-Achlada power plant consisted mainly of amorphous phases (very high amounts), mullite, feldspars, and quartz. The mineralogical composition of the ashes produced in all the power plants, except from these of LIPTOL, did not fluctuate significantly over time. An assessment of the hydraulic (cementitious) or pozzolanic character of the ashes is proposed, introducing the use of triangle diagrams A-B-C, which represent the total fraction of the phases with hydraulic or pozzolanic (A), inert (B) character, and the amorphous phases (C).

  17. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides of Ash Produced by Coal Combustion. The Case of the Kardia Mine in Northern Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Fotakis, M.; Tsikritzis, L.; Tzimkas, N.; Kolovos, N.; Tsikritzi, R.

    2008-08-07

    West Macedonia Lignite Center (WMLC), located in Northwest Greece, releases into the atmosphere about 21,400 tons/year of fly ash through the stacks of four coal fired plants. The lignite ash contains naturally occurring radionuclides, which are deposited on the WMLC basin. This work investigates the natural radioactivity of twenty six ash samples, laboratory produced from combustion of lignite, which was sampled perpendicularly to the benches of the Kardia mine. The concentrations of radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 232}Th, were measured spectroscopically and found round one order of magnitude as high as those of lignite. Subsequently the Radionuclide Partitioning Coefficients of radionuclides were calculated and it was found that they are higher for {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K, because the latter have closer affinity with the inorganic matrix of lignite. During combustion up to one third of the naturally occurring radioisotopes escape from the solid phase into the flue gases. With comparison to relative global data, the investigated ash has been found to have relatively high radioactivity, but the emissions of the WMLC radionuclides contribute only 0.03% to the mean annual absorbed dose.

  18. Modeling seawater intrusion in overexploited aquifers in the absence of sufficient data: application to the aquifer of Nea Moudania, northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siarkos, Ilias; Latinopoulos, Pericles

    2016-12-01

    In many coastal areas, overexploitation of groundwater resources has led both to the quantitative degradation of local aquifers and the deterioration of groundwater quality due to seawater intrusion. To investigate the behavior of coastal aquifers under these conditions, numerical modeling is usually implemented; however, the proper implementation of numerical models requires a large amount of data, which are often not available due to the time-consuming and costly process of obtaining them. In the present study, the investigation of the behavior of coastal aquifers under the lack of adequate data is attempted by developing a methodological framework consisting of a series of numerical simulations: a steady-state, a false-transient and a transient simulation. The sequence and the connection between these simulations constitute the backbone of the whole procedure aimed at adjusting the various model parameters, as well as obtaining the initial conditions for the transient simulation. The validity of the proposed methodology is tested through evaluation of the model calibration procedure and the estimation of the simulation errors (mean error, mean absolute error, root mean square error, mean relative error) using the case of Nea Moudania basin, northern Greece. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is performed in order to minimize the error estimates and thus to maximize the reliability of the models. The results of the whole procedure affirm the proper implementation of the developed methodology under specific conditions and assumptions due to the lack of sufficient data, while they give a clear picture of the aquifer's quantitative and qualitative status.

  19. Distribution of persistent organic pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements in soil and vegetation following a large scale landfill fire in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Chrysikou, Loukia; Gemenetzis, Panagiotis; Kouras, Athanasios; Manoli, Evangelia; Terzi, Eleni; Samara, Constantini

    2008-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including hexaclorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and DDTs, as well as trace elements were determined in soil and vegetation samples collected from the surrounding area of the landfill "Tagarades", the biggest in northern Greece, following a large scale fire involving approximately 50,000 tons of municipal waste. High concentrations of total PAHs, PCBs and heavy metals were found inside the landfill (1475 microg kg(-1) dw, 399 microg kg(-1) dw and 29.8 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively), whereas concentrations in the surrounding soils were by far lower ranging between 11.2-28.1 microg kg(-1) dw for PAHs, 4.02-11.2 microg kg(-1) dw for PCBs and 575-1207 mg kg(-1) dw for heavy metals. The distribution of HCHs and DDTs were quite different since certain soils exhibited equal or higher concentrations than the landfill. In vegetation, the concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, HCHs and DDTs ranged from 14.1-34.7, 3.64-25.9, 1.41-32.1 and 0.61-4.03 microg kg(-1) dw, respectively, while those of heavy metals from 81 to 159 mg kg(-1) dw. The results of the study indicated soil and vegetation pollution levels in the surroundings of the landfill comparable to those reported for other Greek locations. The impact from the landfill fire was not evident partially due to the presence of recent and past inputs from other activities (agriculture, vehicular transport, earlier landfill fires).

  20. Mass concentration and elemental composition of indoor PM 2.5 and PM 10 in University rooms in Thessaloniki, northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemenetzis, Panagiotis; Moussas, Panagiotis; Arditsoglou, Anastasia; Samara, Constantini

    The mass concentration and the elemental composition of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were measured in 40 rooms (mainly offices or mixed office-lab rooms, and photocopying places) of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. A total of 27 major, minor and trace elements were determined by ED-XRF analysis. The PM 2.5/PM 10 concentration ratios averaged 0.8±0.2, while the corresponding elemental ratios ranged between 0.4±0.2 and 0.9±0.2. The concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were significantly higher (by 70% and 50%, respectively) in the smokers' rooms compared to the non-smokers' places. The total elemental concentrations were also higher in the smokers' rooms (11.5 vs 8.2 μg m -3 for PM 2.5, and 10.3 vs 7.6 μg m -3 for PM 2.5-10). Fine particle concentrations (PM 2.5) were found to be quite proportional to smoking strength. On the contrary, the two environments exhibited similar coarse (PM 2.5-10) particle fractions not related to the number of cigarettes smoked. A slight decrease of particle concentrations with increasing the floor level was also observed, particularly for PM 2.5, suggesting that high-level floors are less impacted by near ground-level sources like traffic emissions. Finally, the removal efficiency of air purification systems was evaluated.

  1. Local social capital and the acceptance of Protected Area policies: an empirical study of two Ramsar river delta ecosystems in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Jones, N; Clark, J R A; Panteli, M; Proikaki, M; Dimitrakopoulos, P G

    2012-04-15

    Managing Protected Areas (PAs) is a challenging task, and globally many instruments have been utilised for this purpose. Existing research demonstrates that the effectiveness of these instruments is highly dependent on their social acceptability among local communities resident within PAs. Consequently, investigating local attitudes and perceptions of Protected Area (PA) policies has been emphasised in recent studies. Drawing on empirical work conducted in two National Parks including river delta ecosystems designated as Ramsar wetlands in northern Greece, this paper examines local residents' perceptions of three hypothesized policy options (regulatory, market-based and participatory) for Park management. The influence of social capital elements (social trust, institutional trust and social networks) on residents' perceptions is explored. The findings reveal a high degree of importance attached by resident communities to Park designation in both PAs, though residents' perceptions of the proposed management options varied. The regulatory option was regarded as the least restrictive, while the most restrictive was perceived to be the market-based option. However, greater benefits were identified by residents from the market-based option, while the fewest benefits were considered to arise from the proposed regulatory option. Furthermore, local residents' perceptions were significantly shaped by the proposed management and decision-making structure offered under each policy option. The influence of different social capital elements on residents' perceptions also varied in the study sample, with social trust and institutional trust positively correlated with the benefits that were perceived to arise from the different policy options. Moreover, when social capital was measured as an aggregate indicator at the level of the individual, it was positively correlated with perceived environmental benefits.

  2. Chemical assessment and fractionation of some heavy metals and arsenic in agricultural soils of the mining affected Drama plain, Macedonia, northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Sofianska, E; Michailidis, K

    2015-03-01

    The concentration and chemical fractionation of some heavy metals (Mn, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd) and As in agricultural soils of the western Drama plain (northern Greece) were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique. Drama plain constitutes the recipient of the effluents from Xiropotamos stream, which passes through the abandoned "25 km Mn-mine" place. Results showed that soils were found to have elevated concentrations of potentially harmful elements which are mainly associated with Mn mineralization. Peak total concentrations (in mg kg(-1)) of 130,013 for Mn, 1996 for Pb, 2140 for Zn, 147 for Cu, 28 for Cd, and 1077 for As were found in sampling points close and along both sides of the Xiropotamos stream, as a result of downstream transfer and dispersion of Mn mine wastes via flooding episodes. Contaminated sites are important sources of pollution and may pose significant environmental hazards for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The geochemical influence of the mine wastes as a source of soil pollution is substantially reduced in sites 200 m remote of the Xiropotamos stream course. The chemical partitioning patterns indicated that the potential for Mn, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and As remobilization and bioavailability is low, as most of these elements were present in the residual and/or the more stable Mn- and Fe-hydroxide fractions. The partitioning in significant percent (14-25 %) of Cd with the weakly bound exchangeable/carbonate fraction indicated that this metal could be highly mobile as well as bioavailable in the studied contaminated soils and this could be concern to human health.

  3. Communicating a Marine Protected Area Through the Local Press: The Case of the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikou, Angela; Dionysopoulou, Niki

    2011-05-01

    Local distrust for Marine Protected Area (MPA) managers is emerging as an important factor obstructing the fulfillment of MPA objectives, and, thus, there is a need to develop a means of enhancing relationship building between MPA managers and local people. We used the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece, as a relevant case-study to investigate whether the local print media's framing of the marine park and its management affected locals' attitudes. We conducted a longitudinal review of local newspaper articles pertaining to the NMPANS during 1980-2008, and we conducted telephone interviews with local people. We found that salience of the NMPANS in the local print media remained limited and sporadic, the main stakeholder remained the centralized public sector, and the regional print media was rather detached, moderate, and largely supportive of the NMPANS throughout 1980-2008. The progression of the management periods of the NMPANS, however, was accompanied by increased importance of the NMPANS, increased deviance from conservation as the chief objective of the NMPANS's establishment, a shift from presenting facts to presenting reactions, and a shift from a positive to a mixed image of the NMPANS. Locals who relied on newspapers for local news were better informed about the NMPANS, more likely to accept the NMPANS, and more likely to participate in meetings regarding the NMPANS regardless of gender, age, and occupation than those who did not rely on newspapers. The local print media may be utilized as a free-choice learning vehicle to enhance the value of an MPA among local people and to enhance the development of trust between park managers and locals through a proactive, empowering, and cognitive media strategy.

  4. Tornadoes and waterspouts in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioutas, Michalis V.

    Tornadoes and waterspouts occur in various parts of Greece and may often reach the media as remarkable events, depending of their intensity and the level of damage. This paper is based on a research started from the beginning of 2000 for identifying and recording tornadoes and waterspouts in Greece and evaluating their intensity and other fundamental characteristics. Search of historical events for obtaining more comprehensive tornado climatology is in progress. In an almost 3-year period, January 2000-September 2002, tornadoes and waterspouts have been reported from various parts of Greece, including western Greece, the Ionian islands and western Peloponnese mainly during autumn and winter. Northern Greece is affected by tornadic activity mostly during summer and early autumn. The geographical distribution showed a preference for tornado occurrence mainly in coastal areas. Based on this almost 3-year data sample, a mean number of six tornadoes per year has resulted, corresponding to a density of 0.45 10 -4 km -2 year -1. Maximum intensity of tornadoes recorded was rated as T6 of the Tornado and Storm Research Organization (TORRO) scale (F3 of the Fujita scale). A basic synoptic typing scheme is presented, including four synoptic circulation patterns associated to tornado occurrence.

  5. Application of Ambient Noise Array Tomography on Geotechnical Scales and Comparison with Independent Geophysical Information: A Test for the Thessaloniki Area (Northern Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthymidis, Marios; Papazachos, Costas; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Theodoulidis, Nikos; Fikos, Ilias

    2015-04-01

    Ambient noise array tomography has been recently recognized as a promising tool for the study of the shallow 2D/3D geophysical structure. The method basis relies on the implementation of cross-correlation analysis on ambient noise data, which is able to provide the Green's Function of the medium between two spatially separated recording stations (Gouedard et al. 2008). The obtained cross-correlation trace contains information about the group and phase velocity of the surface waves that are dominant in the ambient noise wavefield. A typical application, similar to larger-scale studies, employs appropriate narrow-band Gaussian filters on the cross-correlation trace (Multiple Filter Analysis), allowing the construction of the group velocity dispersion curves for selected paths within the study area. An inversion procedure leads to tomographic images (group velocity maps for specific frequencies), which can be locally inverted to derive 1D shear wave (S-Wave) velocity profiles. The superposition of all the local 1D S-Wave velocity profiles can potentially lead to a pseudo-3D (or pseudo-2D) velocity model for the subsurface structure. In order to study the capability of the ambient noise array tomography method to provide reliable geophysical ground models on geotechnical scales in urban environments, a relative small circular array (radius of 500m approximately) incorporating 34 recording stations was installed inside the city of Thessaloniki (Northern Greece). The study area corresponds to the boundary between the geological bedrock and Quaternary/Neogene sediments, with the gneiss bedrock showing a gradual thickness increase from its NE outcrop towards the SW, to the coastline of the city. Large-scale studies in the broader Thessaloniki area (e.g. Anastasiadis et al. 2001, Panou et al. 2005) have showed that the bedrock exhibits a more or less 2D structure in the study area, gradually dipping towards the coastline realizing depths possibly exceeding 200m. Furthermore

  6. Granitoids associated with East Vardar ophiolites (Serbia, F.Y.R. of Macedonia and northern Greece): Origin, evolution and geodynamic significance inferred from major and trace element data and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šarić, Kristina; Cvetković, Vladica; Romer, Rolf L.; Christofides, George; Koroneos, Antonis

    2009-03-01

    The paper presents and discusses a new set of major, trace and Sr-Nd-Pb data concerning Upper Jurassic granitoid rocks associated with the East Vardar ophiolites. These rocks form a discontinuous belt from Serbia in the north to northern Greece in the south. Two major styles of granitoid magmatism are recognized: (1) the southern granitoids form large intrusions cutting both the East Vardar ophiolites and the metamorphic rocks of the Serbo-Macedonian massif; (2) the northern granitoids are small petrogenetically variable bodies that are always spatially associated with ophiolites; these are probably multiphase, resulting in numerous low-volume granitoid intrusions within ophiolites. The southern granitoids (except at Fanos, N Greece) form an almost complete suite of decreasing radiogenic neodymium ( ɛNd( T) = 3.3 to - 8.9) and increasing radiogenic strontium (Sr i = 0.70740-0.71588) with increasing silica contents, and assimilation fractional crystallization (AFC) processes seem to have played an important role in their petrogenesis. Their primary magmas most probably originated by melting of a slightly enriched MORB-like mantle. The Fanos granite is a special case as it is characterized by a uniform isotopic composition for differently evolved rocks (Sr i = 0.70516-0.70559, ɛNd( T) = - 1.6 to - 0.7). This granite is interpreted to have derived from lower crustal melts that differentiated mainly through fractionation processes. The northern granitoid group consists of intermediate rocks (Sr i = 0.70557-0.70746, ɛNd( T) = - 4.5 to - 0.8), high-Sr i granites (Sr i = 0.70956-0.71602, ɛNd( T) = insertionofequalsignintheequationof(Nd(T)=-6to-5.1ifappropriate.-->- 6 to - 5.1, HREE- and Y-enriched) and low-Sr i granites (Sr i = 0.70330-0.70767, ɛNd( T) = - 5.1 to 1.5). High-Sr i granites are interpreted to have crystallized from peraluminous magmas generated by fusion of (meta)sedimentary rocks caused by obduction-induced melting. The northern intermediate rocks and

  7. The oldest sediments of Greece revealed by detrital zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating: Cambro-Ordovician sandstones from northern Gondwana in the External Hellenides - implications on the evolution of the eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kydonakis, Konstantinos; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios; Poujol, Marc; Brun, Jean-Pierre; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Paquette, Jean-Louis

    2013-04-01

    Detrital zircon U-Pb ages of a quartzite from the Feneos locality of Peloponnesus, S. Greece, were determined by LA-ICPMS. The rock classifies as a mature quartz arenite and belongs to an original shale-sandstone succession now metamorphosed into a phyllite-quartzite unit. The latter chiefly represents the External Blueschist Belt of the Hellenides widely known as the Arna or Phyllite - Quartzite (PQ) Unit. Zircon age clusters at 0.5-0.75, 0.85, 0.95-1.1, 1.75-2 and 2.4-3 Ga point at the Saharan Metacraton and the Transgondwanan Supermountain as contributing sources; the youngest concordant grain is 522 Ma old. Based on great similarities in lithology, zircon age-distribution patterns and depositional setting between the Feneos quartzite and intact Cambro-Ordovician sandstone-shale sequences of Libya (Murzuq and Kufrah basins) we propose that the protolith of the former was deposited in an epeiric sea north of Libya during the Cambro-Ordovician. Feneos, as part of the Cimmerian block, had become detached from the NE Gondwanan margin during Late Carboniferous - Early Permian times and drifted northward. In central Crete, similar-looking sequences (Galinos beds) were originally deposited in an accretionary/fore-arc complex outboard of the south Laurussian active margin (Pelagonia) between ~297-230 Ma. The southern Pelagonian margin eventually collided (mild docking) with the northward drifting Cimmerian block signaling the closure of Palaeotethys by early Late Triassic. The Gondwanan affinity of the Feneos quartzite strongly contrasts the European one of the Galinos beds; the suture of Palaeotethys can thus be traced in S. Greece within the pre-Triassic sedimentary sequences of Peloponnesus and Crete. In the eastern Mediterranean realm, rocks with similar age clusters crop out in Greece (Peloponnesus, this study; eastern Crete, Sfaka locality; north-central Macedonia, Vertiskos terrane), NW Turkey (central Sakarya terrane), Libya (Murzuq and Kufrah basins), Israel

  8. Structural Analysis of Recent and Active Faults and Regional State of Stress in the Epicentral Area of the 1978 Thessaloniki Earthquakes (northern Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, Jacques-Louis; Carey-Gailhardis, Evelyne; Mouyaris, Nicolas; Simeakis, Konstantinos; Roundoyannis, Theodora; Anghelidhis, Christos

    1983-12-01

    During spring and summer 1978, Macedonia (Greece) suffered damaging seismic activity. During the two main shocks which occurred on May 23 (Mb = 5.7) and June 20 (Mb = 6.1), seismic open cracks and faults were formed in the epicentral area, 25 km NNE from Thessaloniki. They have been mapped and their kinematics analyzed. These studies have shown that they result from the reactivation of existing faults of Pleistocene, Recent, and historical age and that the crust is stretching along a N-S to NNE-SSW direction in that part of the North Aegean. Principal stress directions have been computed from the slip vectors measured on recent neotectonic faults and seismic cracks and faults, this computation utilizing a simple mechanical model (homogeneous deformation through the addition of small and independent displacements of rigid blocks in a highly fractured body). A striking feature of this analysis is that the tensional directions σ3 deduced from seismic faulting and from recent neotectonic faulting are nearly the same. They are compatible with the regional tension axis deduced from focal mechanisms of North Aegean and with the focal mechanisms of the 1978 Thessaloniki main shocks. They are also compatible with in situ stress measurements in this region. Studies of superficial seismic faulting strongly support previous assumptions proposed from aftershock distribution: the 1978 Thessaloniki earthquakes resulted from reactivation of several different faults situated within the same NE dipping fault zone of Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene age (and older) separating the Serbo-Macedonian Massif from the Peonias (East Vardar) zone.

  9. Spreading of Thelazia callipaeda in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, E; Komnenou, A; Thomas, A; Ioannidou, E; Colella, V; Otranto, D

    2017-02-26

    Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae), the so-called oriental eyeworm, has been increasingly reported as an agent of infection in animals and humans from many European countries. Clinical signs range from subclinical to moderate or severe ocular disorders (e.g., epiphora, photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, ulcers). The disease has been also diagnosed in animals from countries of the Balkan area (e.g., Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia), but only a single case of canine thelaziosis, presumably autochthonous, was reported in Northern Greece. In this study, we provide robust information of the occurrence of thelaziosis in Greece by reporting autochthonous cases of thelaziosis in dogs (n = 46), cats (n = 3) and in one rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) living in Northern and Central regions of Greece. The occurrence of a single haplotype of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene confirms that the same zoonotic haplotype of the parasite circulating in Europe is also spreading in Greece. The increased awareness of this parasitosis is crucial to limit the risk of further infections in both humans and animals in European countries.

  10. Adult Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkos, Alexios

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this article is to analyse the current situation of adult education in Greece. The article focuses on the following points: (a) the degree of participation in programmes of continuing professional training and general adult education courses, (b) the quality and the outcomes of the adult education provision in Greece, and (c)…

  11. Part I: temporal and spatial distribution of multiclass pesticide residues in lake waters of Northern Greece: application of an optimized SPE-UPLC-MS/MS pretreatment and analytical method.

    PubMed

    Kalogridi, Eleni-Chrysoula; Christophoridis, Christophoros; Bizani, Erasmia; Drimaropoulou, Garyfallia; Fytianos, Konstantinos

    2014-06-01

    The present work describes the application of an analytical procedure, utilizing ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry instrumentation, for the determination of 253 multiclass pesticides, classified in six different groups. Solid phase extraction was applied for the isolation and pre-concentration of target compounds in water samples. Surface waters of the lakes located in Northern Greece (Volvi, Doirani, and Kerkini), were collected in two time periods (fall/winter 2010 and spring/summer 2011) and analyzed, applying the developed analytical methods. Spatial distribution of detected pesticides was visualized using interpolation methods and geographical information systems (GIS). Pesticides with maximum concentrations were amitrole, propoxur, simazine, chlorpyrifos, carbendazim, triazophos, disulfoton-sulfone, pyridaben, sebuthylazine, terbuthylazine, atrazine, atrazine-desethyl, bensulfuron-methyl, metobromuron, metribuzin, rotenone, pyriproxyfen, and rimsulfuron. In Lake Kerkini, mainly carbamates and triazines were determined at elevated concentrations, near the coastal point of the NW side of the lake. Seasonal variations were strong among the applied pesticide classes and determined concentrations, indicating the contribution of pesticide application patterns and rainfall. Lake Doirani exhibited organophosphate pesticides at higher concentrations mainly at coastal points, while triazines emerged as the main pollutant during spring sampling. Lake Volvi exhibited the highest pesticide concentrations, mostly triazines and ureas at the central part of the lake. The occurrence of extreme values and nonconstant seasonal variations indicated that the concentrations were increased disproportionately during the second sampling, as a result of the varying contribution of pollution sources right after the application period. In all cases, the total concentration of pesticides increased during the second sampling period.

  12. Timing of igneous accretion, composition, and temporal relation of the Kassandra-Sithonia rift-spreading center within the eastern Vardar suture zone, Northern Greece: insights into Jurassic arc/back-arc systems evolution at the Eurasian plate margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonev, Nikolay; Marchev, Peter; Moritz, Robert; Filipov, Petyo

    2015-10-01

    In the Hellenides of northern Greece, the Kassandra-Sithonia and Central Chalkidiki ophiolites constitute the Vardar suture zone against the Serbo-Macedonian margin of Eurasia. The mafic-intermediate to acid members in the crustal section of the Kassandra-Sithonia ophiolites have N- and E-MORB signatures compatible with an origin in a back-arc spreading center. The MORB mantle source has received subduction zone input from the nearby Paikon arc system as revealed by LILE and LREE enrichments. A diorite from the Gerakini complex presumably belonging to the Central Chalkidiki ophiolites shows more enriched HFSE and REE patterns relative to MORB and Na-rich character compared to the Kassandra-Sithonia ophiolites. The Sithonia ophiolite crystallization spans from 159 to 149 Ma, and the Gerakini complex diorite crystallized at 173 Ma as derived from new U-Pb zircon geochronology. The main cluster of Permo-Carboniferous, a small cluster of Neoproterozoic-Cambrian and few Proterozoic, Ordovician, Devonian, Triassic and Middle Jurassic inherited zircons derive from the Serbo-Macedonian margin units. Thus, a Late Jurassic ca. 10 Ma lasting igneous accretion of the Kassandra-Sithonia back-arc crust within the eastern Vardar zone is now well constrained and corroborated by Berriasian-Early Valanginian supra-ophiolite cover limestones. Instead of an affinity to the Central Chalkidiki ophiolites, the Gerakini diorite exhibits chemical similarity to the Chortiatis arc magmatic suite of the Circum-Rhodope belt within the eastern Vardar zone. The Gerakini diorite predates the Sithonia ophiolite in which the Chortiatis arc suite supplied Middle Jurassic inherited zircons. The Chortiatis arc compared with arc-related Evros ophiolites of the Circum-Rhodope belt in Thrace region shows the same 173-160 Ma life span and tectonic setting, implying the extension of the arc systems across the north Aegean Sea. Based on these new temporal constraints, a tectonic scenario of Jurassic

  13. Pathology in Greece.

    PubMed

    Sakellariou, S; Patsouris, E

    2015-11-01

    Pathology is the field of medicine that studies diseases. Ancient Greece hosted some of the earliest societies that laid the structural foundations of pathology. Initially, knowledge was based on observations but later on the key elements of pathology were established based on the dissection of animals and the autopsy of human cadavers. Christianized Greece under Ottoman rule (1453-1821) was not conducive to the development of pathology. After liberation, however, a series of events took place that paved the way for the establishment and further development of the specialty. The appointment in 1849 of two Professors of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens for didactical purposes proved to be the most important step in fostering the field of pathology in modern Greece. Presently in Greece there are seven university departments and 74 pathology laboratories in public hospitals, employing 415 specialized pathologists and 90 residents. The First Department of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens University is the oldest (1849) and largest in Greece, encompassing most pathology subspecialties.

  14. Family Language Policies among Albanian Immigrants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatzidaki, Aspassia; Maligkoudi, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of family language policies among 37 Albanian immigrant families in Northern Greece within the framework of Spolsky's language policy model. Data collection was based on semi-directed interviews with parents which were analysed using both content and discourse analysis. According to our findings, three…

  15. Alternative Use in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Situating the University of Thessaly in Volos and Larissa, Greece, represents the idea that the university has a role to play in the community, and, therefore, its facilities are integrated within the city. Describes an old factory warehouse converted to create "a building within a building," while preserving style of the former factory…

  16. Greece Plus 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, James E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    For the past 10 years all students have been enrolled in the industrial arts program for 13 weeks each year in the Greece Central School District, New York. The orientation phase in grades 7-8 concentrates on the construction, graphic communication, transportation, and manufacturing clusters. Grades 9 through 12 continue three levels of career and…

  17. Counseling in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malikiosi-Loizos, Maria; Ivey, Allen E.

    2012-01-01

    There is rapid growth in Greece's professional and research activity in counseling, despite the lack of a clear professional identity for the field. It is hoped this will be overcome through the newly started graduate programs. Opportunities, objectives, and strategies for counseling's advancement should be directed toward close and essential…

  18. [Midwifes in ancient Greece].

    PubMed

    Arata, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the evidence about obstetrics and in particular midwifes in ancient Greece. The substantives which mean "obstetrician" in Greek are quite numerous, but the most attested and common is [see text]. This work examines all the tasks which were connected with this profession (e.g. in the legal field).

  19. Greece. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    There is no immigration problems in Greece today. On the contrary, the country's economic development makes it necessary for Greek workers who have emigrated temporarily to return and be integrated into the production system. The educational policy for emigrant workers' children involves: (1) ensuring that children who have settled abroad know…

  20. Archaeomagnetism in Macedonia, Greece: a progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M. E.; Kontopoulou, D.

    A project has been initiated to gather archaeomagnetic data from the rich archaeological heritage of Macedonia. We report here results from the first five kilns studied, which range in age from Hellenistic to Byzantine (broadly speaking, from 500BC to 1500AD). With so few data, and such a long time interval, we are obviously far from defining the geomagnetic secular variation in northern Greece. Nevertheless, a useful first step has been taken, and the results obtained so far compare favourably with the much larger data set from nearby Bulgaria.

  1. Epidemiological Observations on Cryptosporidiosis in Diarrheic Goat Kids in Greece.

    PubMed

    Giadinis, Nektarios D; Papadopoulos, Elias; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papanikolopoulou, Vasiliki; Karanikola, Sofia; Diakou, Anastasia; Vergidis, Vergos; Xiao, Lihua; Ioannidou, Evi; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in diarrheic goat kids in Greece and the risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. Altogether, 292 diarrheic 4-15-day-old goat kids from 54 dairy goat herds of Northern Greece were examined. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 223 of 292 (76.4%) goat kids and the intensity of infection was scored as "high" in 142 samples, "moderate" in 45 samples, and "low" in 36 samples. Larger herds (>200 animals) had higher infection rates than smaller ones, although this difference was not statistically significant. Significantly higher infection rates were observed in herds during late kidding season (1 January to 30 April) compared to the early one (1 September to 31 December). These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is very common in diarrheic goat kids in Greece, especially in large herds during the late parturition season.

  2. Greece and Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer is in full swing in this stunning true-color image of the southeastern European countries and Turkey captured by MODIS on June 29, 2002. Clockwise from left, the mountains of Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Turkey are swathed in brilliant greens and shades of golden brown; meanwhile (counterclockwise from left) the Ionian, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Black Seas are beautifully blue and green.Running diagonally across the image from the bottom middle to the top right is a gray streak that is caused by the angle of reflection of the sun on the water (called sun glint). The darker areas within this gray swath denote calmer water, and make visible currents that would not otherwise be noticeable.Surprisingly few fires were burning hot enough to be detectable by MODIS when this image was acquired during the height of the summer dry season. A single fire is visible burning in mainland Greece, six are visible in northwestern Turkey, and one burns on the western coast (marked with red outlines). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  3. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    PubMed

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality.

  4. Fire in Southern Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The last major fire in southern Greece was brought under control this weekend, but not until over 469,000 acres of mostly forest and farmland were destroyed. An estimated 4000 people lost their homes, and over 60 deaths were reported. These were the worst fires ever to occur in Greece. In this Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image acquired September 4 over the western coast of the Peloponnesus Peninsula, burned areas appear in dark red, and unburned vegetation is green. The area includes the ancient site of Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The fires came within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the archaeological site, but spared it.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 56.4 by

  5. Analysis of synoptic conditions for tornadic days over western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Matsangouras, I. T.

    2014-09-01

    Tornadoes have been reported in Greece during the last few decades and recent studies have given evidence that western Greece is an area vulnerable to tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds In this study, the composite means and anomalies of synoptic conditions for tornadic events (tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds) over western Greece are analyzed and discussed. The daily composite means of synoptic conditions were based on the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis data sets, for the period 12 August 1953 to 31 December 2012. The daily composite anomalies were calculated with respect to 30 years of climatological study (1981-2010) of the synoptic conditions. The analysis was carried out in terms of seasonal and monthly variability of composite means and anomalies of synoptic conditions for specific isobaric levels of 500, 700, 850, 925 hPa and the sea level pressure (SLP). In addition, an analysis and discussion about the dynamic lifted index from NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data sets is presented. The daily composite mean analysis of 500 hPa revealed a trough line across the northern Adriatic Sea and central Italy, associated with a SW upper-air stream over western Greece. The maximum composite anomalies were depicted at the isobaric level of 500 hPa during autumn, spring and summer, against winter when the anomaly appeared at 925 hPa isobaric level. In addition, 48% of tornado events during the autumn season occurred in pre-frontal weather conditions (cold fronts) and 27% developed after the passage of the cold front. Furthermore, the main difference in synoptic patterns between tornado and waterspout days along western Greece during the autumn season is the maximum daily composite anomaly over the Gulf of Taranto.

  6. Latrodectus Envenomation in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Garyfallia Nikolaos; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Kalkouni, Rania; Iliopoulou, Sofia; Rigakos, Giorgos; Baka, Agoritsa

    2014-01-01

    During the summer period 2011–2012, seven widow spider bites in Greece were reported to the Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Widow spiders (in the genus Latrodectus) are found all over the world, including Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and the US. Alpha-latrotoxin (main mammalian toxin) causes the toxic effects observed in humans. Victims should receive timely medical care to avoid suffering. Latrodectus bites are very rarely fatal. All the patients reported having an insect bite 30 minutes to 2 hours before they arrived at the Emergency Department of the local hospital. Severe muscle cramps, weakness, tremor, abdominal pain, and increased levels of creatinine phosphokinase were present in all patients. The Emergency Operation Center of the Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention was informed immediately in all cases. Antivenin was administered to four patients upon the request of their physicians. All patients recovered fully. It is essential that health care workers recognize early the symptoms and signs of Latrodectus bites to provide the necessary care. The management of mild to moderate Latrodectus envenomations is primarily supportive. Hospitalization and possibly antivenin should be reserved for patients exhibiting serious systemic symptoms or inadequate pain control. The most important thing for all of these patients is early pain relief. PMID:25662533

  7. NATO, Greece and the 2004 Summer Olympics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    42 Tayfur, 55. 43 Kondonassis, Alexander J., “Greece and the European Common Market ,” Greece: Today...Athens News Agency, 14 September 2004 and “Greek, Albanian Foreign Ministers Said to ‘Continue’ Political Rapprochement,” Athens Elevtheros Tipos ...FBIS, 05 August 2004. Kondonassis, Alexander J., “Greece and the European Common Market ,” Greece: Today and Tomorrow, Essays on Issues and Problems

  8. Multi-approach characterization of the Rhodope marbles, Greece used in monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotsika, Elissavet; Raco, Brunella; Psomiadis, David; Poutoukis, Dimitrios; Zisi, Nikoleta

    2010-05-01

    Northern Greece has many archaeological sites featuring buildings and objects entirely or partly constructed from marble whose provenance is doubtful. In Northern Greece, the most probable source of such marble is the Rhodope Mountains. For the purpose of supporting further provenance studies, these marbles are fully scientifically characterized. The sampling took place in several ancient quarries which were on trade routes of Hellenistic, Roman or Byzantine settlements. Trade of marble in N. Greece is proved to have been equally important as in S. Greece, comparing the qualitative marble of Thassos with the best marbles of the south (e.g. Paros, Naxos etc.). The techniques used are petrographic and geochemical (microscope, X-Ray diffraction patterns, Scanning Electron Microscope) methods and stable isotope ratio analysis (δ13C and δ18O). The use of a multi-technique approach with combined parameters allows the best possible discrimination. This scientific investigation both supplements the isotopic database and proves that in N. Greece people used also imported marbles.

  9. Nowcasting extreme weather events over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsafados, Petros; Nomikou, Vera; Mavromatidis, Elias; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Lagouvardos, Konstantinos; Kotroni, Vassiliki

    2014-05-01

    Accurate and consistent very short-term prediction (nowcasting) of high-impact weather events can lead to significant improvement in warnings and advisories providing a direct impact on the risk management. To this end, an advanced mesoscale meteorological data assimilation tool, the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS), has been implemented in order to serve as an early warning system. LAPS incorporates surface and upper air observations (METAR, SYNOP, satellite, soundings, radar, aircraft etc) into large-scale gridded data (as background fields) and produces high spatial and temporal resolution analysis fields and early forecasts. This study presents the performance of the LAPS system in describing two unusual events of hazardous weather conditions over Greece. The first case study is characterized by the passage of a cyclonic system accompanied with cold fronts over Southern Greece. Heavy downpour, lightning and flooding were the main characteristics of the storm that affected Athens metropolitan area on February 22nd 2013. In the second case study the passage of a cold front over SE Aegean Sea led in a destructive and deadly flash flooding that affected the Northern areas of Rhodes Island on November 22nd 2013. This second flash flood event was triggered by the extreme precipitation (almost 100 mm in 4 hours) and killed 4 people making it the deadliest ever for the area. For both case studies, the conventional numerical weather prediction models operating at various research institutes and universities provided a rather insufficient spatiotemporal estimation of the extreme precipitation. For these cases, the LAPS-based nowcasting procedure has been applied with and without the ingestion of high resolution remote sensed precipitation estimates. The LAPS outputs have been evaluated against independent observations obtained from a dense network of surface meteorological stations. Results indicate that LAPS outputs were better than those obtained from the

  10. Corinth Canal, Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Isthmus of Corinth has played a very important role in the history of Greece. It is the only land bridge between the country's north (Attica) and south (Peloponnese). It is a 6 km wide tongue of land separating the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Sea. Populations, armies and commodities have got to move through it. In the 6th century BCE, the Greeks built the Diolkos, a 10 meter-wide stone roadway to pull ships across the Isthmus on wooden cylinders and wheeled vehicles. In 1882, a canal was started and completed 11 years later. It is 6343 meters long, 25 meters wide, and 8 meters deep.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 25.3 by 37.7 kilometers (15.7 by 23.4 miles) Location: 37.9 degrees North latitude, 23 degrees East longitude

  11. Education and Modernization in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazamias, Andreas M.

    This history of Greek education traces the path of modernization from the emergence of Greece as an independent state in the early 1800's up to the present date. Educational philosophy and content are seen as pawns in the social and political struggles of those years. Detailed coverage of the historical events describes the structure of education…

  12. School Building Organisation in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the past and current organizational structure of Greece's School Building Organisation, a body established to work with government agencies in the design and construction of new buildings and the provisioning of educational equipment. Future planning to incorporate culture and creativity, sports, and laboratory learning in modern school…

  13. Constructed wetlands for wastewater and activated sludge treatment in north Greece: a review.

    PubMed

    Tsihrintzis, V A; Gikas, G D

    2010-01-01

    Constructed wetlands used for the treatment of urban, industrial and agricultural wastewater have become very popular treatment systems all over the world. In Greece, these systems are not very common, although the climate is favourable for their use. During recent years, there have been several attempts for the implementation of these systems in Greece, which include, among others, pilot-scale systems used for research, and full-scale systems designed and/or constructed to serve settlements or families. The purpose of this paper is the presentation of systems operating in Northern Greece, which have been studied by the Laboratory of Ecological Engineering and Technology of Democritus University of Thrace and others. A comparison is made of different system types, and the effect of various design and operational parameters is presented. Current research shows the good and continuous performance of these systems.

  14. Stratigraphy and tectonics of a time-transgressive ophiolite obduction onto the eastern margin of the Pelagonian platform from Late Bathonian until Valanginian time, exemplified in northern Evvoia, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherreiks, Rudolph; Meléndez, Guillermo; BouDagher-Fadel, Marcelle; Fermeli, Georgia; Bosence, Dan

    2014-11-01

    The obduction of an ophiolite sheet onto the eastern Pelagonian carbonate platform complex of the Hellenides began during the Late Bathonian and ended with the final emplacement of the ophiolite during Valanginian time. The early stages of obduction caused subaerial exposure of the platform, recorded by an unconformity of Callovian age, which is marked by laterites overlying folded and faulted, karstic substrates. The laterites have distinct ophiolitic geochemical signatures, indicating that emergent ophiolite had been undergoing lateritic weathering. This unconformity coincides with widespread western Tethyan, Callovian gaps, indicating that the obduction in the Hellenides was probably related to far-reaching plate tectonic processes. Resumed gravitational pull and rollback of the subducted, oceanic leading edge of the temporarily exposed ophiolite. Platform drowning continued into Tithonian-Valanginian time, documented initially by reefal carbonates and then by below-CCD, carbonate-free radiolarian cherts and shales. Subsequently, siliciclastic turbidites, which apparently originated from uplifted Variscan basement, were deposited together with and over the radiolarite as the ophiolite nappe sheet advanced. The nappe substrate underwent tectonic deformations of varying intensity, while polymictic mélange and syntectonic sedimentary debris accreted beneath the ophiolite and at the nappe front. The provenience of the ophiolite nappe complexes of northern Evvoia most probably has to be looked for in the Vardar ocean.

  15. Recent trend analysis of mean air temperature in Greece based on homogenized data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamara, A.; Argiriou, A. Α.; Anadranistakis, M.

    2016-11-01

    Numerous studies analyze the temperature variations in the Mediterranean area due to the anticipated impact of climate change in this part of the world. A number of studies examined the temperature climate in Greece, but few are based on a large number of synoptic stations covering all regions and climatic zones and even fewer are based on homogenized data set series, despite the fact that climatological studies must use high-quality homogeneous data series. The present work reviews previous studies dealing with climatic changes in Greece and addresses changes of mean air temperature, based on a large set of homogenized data from 52 synoptic stations. A statistically significant negative trend during 1960-1976 and a positive one during 1977-2004 were revealed. During 1960-1976, the lowest negative annual temperature trend is observed in Crete. During 1977-2004, the northern region of Greece was characterized by prominent annual warming, whereas the north and central Aegean Sea and the semi-mountainous area were characterized by the lowest warming. All stations are characterized by high seasonal trends in summer; the most extreme trends are observed in the northern and eastern regions and in the Attica area. Positive temperature trends occur from May to October, while negative trends dominate from November to February. The most pronounced warming is recorded in June and July, and the most strongly decreasing trend occurs in November. Annual temperature trends in northern Greece follow the hemispheric pattern, and the overall summer warming in Greece is greater than the hemisphere's.

  16. The History of Adult Education in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    Adult education in Greece dates back to the time of Homer. Poetry and Panhellenic festivals were the earliest forms of adult education in Greece. By classical times, however, an entire learning society of human and material resources had been developed. Greek society experienced periods of high levels of culture and learning only to be conquered…

  17. Health technology assessment in Greece.

    PubMed

    Liaropoulos, L; Kaitelidou, D

    2000-01-01

    In 1983 a health reform aimed to assure universal coverage and equity in the distribution of services in Greece. The reform implied state responsibility for the financing and delivery of services and a reduction of the private sector. The model was a Bismarckian scheme for social insurance. However, healthcare delivery remains fragmented and uncoordinated and the private sector is getting stronger. The dominant payment system is fee-for-service for the private sector and administered prices and salaries for public hospitals and social insurance funds. The many insurers have their own eligibility requirements, validation procedures, etc. Coverage of services by social security funds, probably among the most comprehensive in Europe, is determined more on historical and political grounds than on efficiency or cost-effectiveness. The system is plagued by problems, including geographical inequalities, overcentralization, bureaucratic management, poor incentives in the public sector, open-ended financing, inefficient use of hospital beds, and lack of cost-effectiveness. There are no specific legal provisions for the control of health technology. Technologies are introduced without standards or formal consideration of needs. There are no current efforts to control health technology in Greece. However, health technology assessment (HTA) has gained increasing visibility. In 1997 a law provided for a new government agency responsible for quality control, economic evaluation of health services, and HTA. The hope is that the new law may introduce evaluation and assessment elements into health policy formulation and assure that cost effectiveness, quality, and appropriate use of health technology will receive more attention.

  18. Metallic mineral resources of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsirambides, Ananias; Filippidis, Anestis

    2012-12-01

    Today Greece produces and exports raw bauxite and alumina, concentrates of galena and sphalerite and ferronickel. The indicated reserves of bauxite, located in the Mt Helikon-Mt Parnassus-Mt Giona-Mt Iti zone, are estimated at approximately 100 mt and those of aluminum 2.5 mt. The probable and indicated reserves of lead and zinc from Chalkidiki are approximately 3.125 mt. The total production of concentrates of galena and sphalerite is approximately 220,000 tpa. The proven reserves of nickel are approximately 1.392 mt and the production of ferronickel is approximately 18,500 tpa. Production of copper, silver and gold is pending in 2015. The probable and indicated reserves of copper from Skouries Chalkidiki are approximately 1.943 mt. In the Prefecture Units of Chalkidiki and Evros the probable and indicated reserves of gold are approximately 19.37 million ounces and those of silver 131.6 million ounces. Chromium, manganese and molybdenum present good prospects of exploitation. Calculated at current prices, the total gross value of the probable and indicated reserves of the metallic minerals of Greece is €79.4 billion.

  19. Emerging Trichinella britovi infections in free ranging pigs of Greece.

    PubMed

    Boutsini, S; Papatsiros, V G; Stougiou, D; Marucci, G; Liandris, E; Athanasiou, L V; Papadoudis, A; Karagiozopoulos, E; Bisias, A; Pozio, E

    2014-01-31

    Trichinella infections in humans and pigs have been documented in Greece since 1945 and a high prevalence of infection in pigs occurred in the 1950s. Up to 1984 only sporadic infections in humans were documented, and this zoonosis was not considered as a public health problem until 2009 when a human outbreak caused by the consumption of pork from an organic pig farm occurred. In the present study, we describe the re-emergence of Trichinella spp. infections in free-ranging pigs from organic farms of 3 counties (Dramas, Evros and Kavala) in Northern-Eastern Greece during the period 2009-2012. Totally 37 out of 12,717 (0.29%) free-ranging pigs which were tested during the period in question, were positive for Trichinella spp. larvae. The etiological agent was identified as Trichinella britovi. The average larval burden was 13.7 in the masseter, 6.2 in the foreleg muscles and 7.5 in the diaphragm. The 37 positive animals originated from seven free range pig farms. The practice of organic pig production systems in Greece has grown in popularity over the last years due to the increasing interest of consumers for products considered as traditional. However, this type of pig production increases the risk for Trichinella spp. infections, since animals can acquire the infection by feeding on carcasses or the offal of hunted or dead wild animals. The awareness and education of hunters and farmers is extremely important to reduce the transmission among free ranging pigs and the risk for humans.

  20. Rabies in Greece; historical perspectives in view of the current re-emergence in wild and domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Tsiodras, Sotirios; Korou, Laskarina-Maria; Tzani, Myrsini; Tasioudi, Konstantia E; Kalachanis, Kostantinos; Mangana-Vougiouka, Olga; Rigakos, George; Dougas, George; Seimenis, Aristarchos M; Kontos, Vassileios

    2014-01-01

    Greece has been rabies free since 1987 while no human cases have been seen since 1970. The re-emergence of rabies in Northern Greece during 2012-2013 in wild and domestic animals prompted a systematic review of historical evidence of the presence of the disease in the country from ancient years till the present. Historical data is presented along with efforts to prevent disease in animals and humans especially during the high prevalent periods in the country in the mid-20th century. These efforts serve as a guide to current extensive efforts to prevent spread especially in the wild and domestic animal populations.

  1. THE CHANGING ECONOMY OF NORTHERN GREECE SINCE WORLD WAR II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    used. The book is divided into 11 chapters: physical and human aspects, agriculture, livestock, fishing, forestry, mining , industry and handicrafts, electricity, transportation, ports and trade tourism and conclusion.

  2. The zeolite deposits of Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamatakis, M.G.; Hall, A.; Hein, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Zeolites are present in altered pyroclastic rocks at many localities in Greece, and large deposits of potential economic interest are present in three areas: (1) the Evros region of the province of Thrace in the north-eastern part of the Greek mainland; (2) the islands of Kimolos and Poliegos in the western Aegean; and (3) the island of Samos in the eastern Aegean Sea. The deposits in Thrace are of Eocene-Oligocene age and are rich in heulandite and/or clinoptilolite. Those of Kimolos and Poliegos are mainly Quaternary and are rich in mordenite. Those of Samos are Miocene, and are rich in clinoptilolite and/or analcime. The deposits in Thrace are believed to have formed in an open hydrological system by the action of meteoric water, and those of the western Aegean islands in a similar way but under conditions of high heat flow, whereas the deposits in Samos were formed in a saline-alkaline lake.

  3. Deinstitutionalization in Greece: Ethical problems.

    PubMed

    Ploumpidis, D; Garanis-Papadatos, T; Economou, M

    2008-10-01

    The following paper is based on a Concerted Action which focused on the "Ethical aspects of deistinstutionalisation in mental health care" in 2001. It investigates the development and the ethical dilemmas posed by deinstitutionalization in Greece. This movement has recently undergone a very active phase but the transition from the traditional model of psychiatric care to the community based system unavoidably creates many ethical problems related to the professionals' attitude towards individual liberties, dignity and other fundamental rights of mentally ill persons. These problems exist not only in the level of the therapist-patient relationship but in the level of policy making as well as its implementation. Moreover, the paper deals with specific ethical problems such as stigmatisation and isolation in the community context, as well as the role of the family.

  4. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens in wild birds in Greece.

    PubMed

    Diakou, Anastasia; Norte, Ana Cláudia; Lopes de Carvalho, Isabel; Núncio, Sofia; Nováková, Markéta; Kautman, Matej; Alivizatos, Haralambos; Kazantzidis, Savas; Sychra, Oldřich; Literák, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    Wild birds are common hosts of ticks and can transport them for long distances, contributing to the spreading of tick-borne pathogens. The information about ticks on birds and tick-borne pathogens in Greece is limited. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and species of ticks infesting wild resident birds (mostly small passerines) in Greece, and to assess Borrelia and Rickettsia infection in the collected ticks. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. was performed by nested PCR targeting the flaB gene. Rickettsia spp. were detected by PCR targeting the gltA and ompA genes. Seven (2 %) out of 403 birds examined in northern Greece in 2013 were infested with 15 ticks, identified as Ixodes frontalis, Ixodes acuminatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma aegyptium and Hyalomma sp. All ticks were negative for Borrelia spp. while four of them were positive for rickettsiae (Rickettsia aeschlimannii in H. aegyptium and Rickettsia sp. in I. frontalis, H. aegyptium and H. marginatum). Ixodes acuminatus is reported for the first time in Greece and Sylvia borin is reported as a new host record for I. acuminatus.

  5. Anisotropy Studies in Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviris, G.; Papadimitriou, P.; Makropoulos, K.

    2007-12-01

    The Gulf of Corinth, located in Central Greece, is a tectonic graben characterized by high seismicity level. GPS measurements indicate extension of the Gulf in an approximately N-S direction, with a rate of 10 to 15 mm/year. The southern part of the Gulf is dominated by the presence of large active normal faults in an almost E-W direction, dipping north, resulting to the subsidence of the central part of the graben. Analysis of data recorded by the Cornet network, which is the permanent network of the University of Athens, revealed the existence of an anisotropic upper crust at the eastern part of the Gulf of Corinth. Anisotropy was also observed at the western part of Corinth Gulf, using data recorded by a temporary seismological network installed in the area. Furthermore, shear wave splitting analysis was performed in the region of Attica (to the NE of the Gulf) that hosts Athens, the capital of Greece, using aftershocks of the 1999 Athens earthquake (Mw=6.0) that caused 143 fatalities. The methods used for the determination of the splitting parameters are the polarization vector as a function of time (polarigram) and the hodogram. For each selected event the direction of polarization of the fast shear wave, the delay between the two split shear waves and the polarization of the source were measured. Concerning both parts of the Gulf of Corinth, the obtained mean values of anisotropy vary between N90° and N142°. In the region of Attica the mean values of the anisotropy direction of all stations vary between N95° and N100°, almost parallel to the azimuth of the Parnitha fault. The time delay between the split shear waves vary between 0.020s and 0.130s. The obtained anisotropy measurements are in agreement with the extensive dilatancy anisotropy (EDA) model, since the direction of anisotropy is independent from the event-station azimuth and perpendicular to the direction of extension. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The present study was co-funded by the European Social Fund

  6. GREECE Sounding Rocket Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R.; Grubbs, G. A., II; Bonnell, J. W.; Ogasawara, K.; Hampton, D. L.; Jahn, J. M.; Donovan, E.; Gustavsson, B.; Lanchester, B. S.; McHarg, M. G.; Spanswick, E.; Trondsen, T. S.; Valek, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    On 03 March 2014 at 11:09:50 UT the Ground-to-Rocket Electrodynamics-Electrons Correlative Experiment (GREECE) sounding rocket successfully launched from Poker Flat, Alaska . It reached an apogee of approximately 335 km over the native village of Venetie during a dynamic post-midnight auroral event. A wide range of precipitating electrons were measured with the Acute Precipitating Electron Spectrometer (APES) and Medium-energy Electron SPectrometer (MESP), cumulatively covering 300 ev to 200 keV in varying time resolutions. DC to low frequency electric and magnetic fields were measured at the same time and a langmuir probe was also employed. In addition to the on board instrumentation a suite of ground based imagers was deployed under apogee. We used several electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices (EMCCDs) with different filters and field of views imaging along magnetic zenith. This yielded multi-emission line information about the auroral brightness at the magnetic footprint of the rocket critical for our main goal of exploring the correlation of the sheer flows often observed in high resolution imagery during aurora and the in situ signatures of precipitating particles and waves. The instruments used will be discussed in further detail along with preliminary results of an event rich in particle and wave signatures.

  7. Pleural calcification in northwest Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Bazas, T.; Oakes, D.; Gilson, J.C.; Bazas, B.; McDonald, J.C.

    1985-12-01

    Mass miniature radiography in 1969 detected a high prevalence of pleural calcification in three villages in northwest Greece. In 1980 a survey of a 15% sample of the population over the age of 10 was carried out with a 80% response rate. Full-size radiographs, ventilatory capacity measurements, and a detailed questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, type of work, and residence were used. Independent classification of the 408 films by two readers using the ILO/UC scheme showed very few small opacities but a very high prevalence of pleural calcification first evident in young adults and rising to 70% in the elderly. The overall prevalence was 34.7% in men and 21.5% in women. A comparison with the 1969 survey showed a progression rate of 5% per annum. In neither sex was there a significant relation of pleural calcification to smoking, ventilatory capacity, nor type of work, though those classified as field croppers had a slightly higher prevalence. There was no obvious evidence of increased lung cancer or mesothelioma in the village. The agent responsible for this apparently benign condition was not identified.

  8. Distribution of trace elements in sediment and soil from river Vardar Basin, Macedonia/Greece.

    PubMed

    Popov, Stanko Ilić; Stafilov, Trajče; Šajn, Robert; Tănăselia, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    A systematic study was carried out to investigate the distribution of 59 elements in the sediment and soil samples collected from the river Vardar (Republic of Macedonia and Greece) and its major tributaries. The samples were collected from 28 sampling sites. Analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. R-mode factor analysis (FA) was used to identify and characterise element associations. Seven associations of elements were determined by the method of multivariate statistics. Every factor (Factors 1-3 and 6 and 7 as geogenic and Factors 4 and 5 as anthropogenic associations of elements) are examined and explained separately. The distribution of various elements showed that there is a presence of anthropogenic elements (Ag, Cd, Cu, Ge, Pb, Sn and Zn) introduced in the river sediments and soils from the mining, metallurgical, industrial and agricultural activities in Vardar River Basin, which covers most of the Republic of Macedonia and Central-northern part of Greece.

  9. Porifera of Greece: an updated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of Porifera of Greece was created in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) that has resumed efforts to compile a complete checklist of species recorded from Greece. An updated checklist of Porifera was created on the basis of a list of the Aegean Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha published one decade ago. All records of species known to occur in Greek waters were taxonomically validated and cross-checked for possible inaccuracies and omissions. Then, all recent publications were reviewed and the species recorded from 2006 to date were added to the list. New information The updated checklist of Porifera of Greece comprises 215 species, classified to 111 genera, 65 families, 24 orders, and 4 classes. In total, 34 new additions were made to the previous species list (8 Calcarea, 17 Demospongiae, 1 Hexactinellida, and 6 Homoscleromorpha) with Calcarea being listed for the first time from the area. The demosponge orders Poecilosclerida, Dictyoceratida, Tetractinellida, Haplosclerida, and Suberitida have the highest number of species covering 62% of the known Greek sponge species richness. It is worth mentioning that 8 species have been first described from Greek waters, 7 of which are considered endemic to this area. Our bibliographic overview also revealed knowledge gaps with regard to specific habitats typically rich in sponge diversity, and marine sectors of Greece. PMID:27932903

  10. Cystic echinococcosis in Greece. Past and present.

    PubMed

    Sotiraki, S; Chaligiannis, I

    2010-09-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease with a wide geographical distribution, Greece included, and is considered to be a serious problem for the public health and the livestock economy. Although the disease was widespread in Greece since ancient times, cystic echinococcosis was identified as a serious problem around 1970, and since then national surveillance programmes are running, based on meat inspection and stray dogs management. Ever since, there are official records of the parasite's prevalence in humans and livestock which show a continuous decline. More precisely, human hydatidosis, according to the official records, declines from an annual incidence of 14.8 per 100,000 inhabitants during 1967-1971 to 0.3 in 2008. Late surveys reveal that in Greece the prevalence of echinococcosis was 23-39.2% for sheep, 7.6-14.7% for goats, 0% in cattle and 0.6% in pigs, while further molecular analyses in Southern Greece showed the existence of the genotypes G1 and G3 in sheep and G7 in goats in that area. All data presented demonstrate that the parasite is still present in Greece. Surveillance is nowadays being performed under EU regulations but it is highly important to improve and adopt corrective and preventive measures to avoid animal and human infection.

  11. Information about Macedonian medicine in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Syrmos, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    Ancient Greek Macedonians were highly interested in the improvement of their physical and psychological health. At first, they worshiped the mythical god Asclepius and his daughter Hygieia. In at least 24 places in northern Greece, in Halkidiki, Thessaloniki, Kozani, Kavala, Thassos, Serres and other places, archaelogical findings were related to Asclepius. Macedonian kings were also interested in the development of medicine, for the sake of their fellow citizens and their soldiers. Characteristic examples are the close relations of Hippocrates with king Perdikas (5(th) century B.C.) and of Nicomachus (Aristotle's father being a physician) with king Amintas. Alexander the Great had as his personal physician, the famous physician Philippos of Acarnania. An incident between Alexander and Philippos of Acarnania shows the respect of Macedonian kings to their doctors: Alexander became ill after a bath in the frozen river Cydnus (near ancient Tarsus). At this time he received a letter from his general Parmenion for not to trust his physician. Alexander gave this letter to Philippos to read it and while Philippos was reading it and was rather frightened, he saw Alexander drinking the medicine he had given him. We may note that Alexander the Great as a student of Aristotle had a general education about medicine. Archaeological findings revealed two funerary monuments of physicians: a doctor from Thasos, who practiced in Pella as a public physician during the 3rd quarter of the 4(th) century B.C. and a physician named Alexander, who lived in the 1rst half of the 5(th) century A.D. The tomb of a third physician, probably a surgeon, excavated in Pydna, near mount Olympus (3(rd) century BC)also indicates the importance of physicians in Macedonia. Archaeological findings, like surgical knives, from the Hellinistic and Roman periods, found in the city of Veria, also showed the respect of Ancient Greeks to medicine and to their physicians. An example is the skeleton of a young

  12. Marine Bryozoa of Greece: an annotated checklist

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Until today, a complete checklist of Bryozoa of the Greek seas had never been published and species records were scattered in several taxonomic and ecological studies. The aim of this paper is to produce a first checklist of marine bryozoan species of Greece, in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS) initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI), by reviewing the existing literature and following the recent trends in the taxonomy of this group.  New information The marine bryozoan fauna of Greece comprises 237 species, classified in 127 genera, 66 families, 3 orders, and 2 classes. The vast majority belongs to the class Gymnolaemata (177 Cheilostomatida and 21 Ctenostomatida), while the remaining 39 species are Stenolaemata (all Cyclostomatida). Among these species, 12 are considered endemic to the eastern Mediterranean, while another 12 species are non-indigenous. PMID:27956854

  13. Brachiopoda of Greece: an annotated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Until today, only scattered species records of Brachiopoda from Greece have been included in publications on the Mediterranean brachiopod fauna. These records were mostly based on material collected during marine expeditions in the eastern Mediterranean decades ago, while few recent additional records appear in ecological studies. The aim of this paper was to give the first checklist of brachiopod species of Greece, in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS) initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI), by reviewing the existing literature. New information Twelve brachiopod species have been found in Greek waters so far. The nomenclature, distribution, fossil records, ecology, and literature sources are discussed for each species. PMID:27932904

  14. Harmonic analysis of the precipitation in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Zerefos, C. S.

    2009-04-01

    Greece is a country with a big variety of climates due to its geographical position, to the many mountain ranges and also to the multifarious and long coastline. The mountainous volumes are of such orientation that influences the distribution of the precipitation, having as a result, Western Greece to present great differentiations from Central and Eastern Greece. The application of harmonic analysis to the annual variability of precipitation is the goal of this study, so that the components, which compose the annual variability, be elicited. For this purpose, the mean monthly precipitation data from 30 meteorological stations of National Meteorological Service were used for the time period 1950-2000. The initial target is to reduce the number of variables and to detect structure in the relationships between variables. The most commonly used technique for this purpose is the application of Factor Analysis to a table having as columns the meteorological stations-variables and rows the monthly mean precipitation, so that 2 main factors were calculated, which explain the 98% of total variability of precipitation in Greece. Factor 1, representing the so-called uniform field and interpreting the most of the total variance, refers in fact to the Mediterranean depressions, affecting mainly the West of Greece and also the East Aegean and the Asia Minor coasts. In the process, the Fourier Analysis was applied to the factor scores extracted from the Factor Analysis, so that 2 harmonic components are resulted, which explain above the 98% of the total variability of each main factor, and are due to different synoptic and thermodynamic processes associated with Greece's precipitation construction. Finally, the calculation of the time of occurrence of the maximum precipitation, for each harmonic component of each one of the two main factors, gives the spatial distribution of appearance of the maximum precipitation in the Hellenic region.

  15. New archaeointensity results from archaeological sites and variation of the geomagnetic field intensity for the last 7 millennia in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, E.; Spatharas, V.; Gómez-Paccard, M.; Chauvin, A.; Kondopoulou, D.

    In this study six new intensity determinations are presented, obtained from five well dated archaeological sites, located in northern Greece and in Paros, Cyclades Islands. The fired structures consisted of ceramic and pottery kilns belonging to the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods. Between 8 and 21 samples of highly fired baked clays, tiles and bricks were taken, homogeneously distributed over the structures. The samples were analysed using the classical Thellier method, providing the past intensities and directions of the geomagnetic field recorded at each site. The intensity values have been corrected for anisotropy of thermal remanent magnetisation and cooling rate effects. Differences in the mean archaeointensities per site ranging from 1% to 11%, before and after TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections, were obtained. The new results indicate a decrease of 20% of the geomagnetic field strength in Greece, during the last four centuries BC. In order to compare our results with previously published data, a catalogue of archaeo- and palaeointensity results for the Aegean area has been established, covering the last 7 millennia. It consists of 336 data from Greece, western Turkey and Former Yugoslavia, collected from various authors. Weighting factors have been applied to these data, that then have been treated with a hierarchical Bayesian modelling, and a geomagnetic field intensity variation curve for Greece was constructed. A good agreement is observed when comparing the curve for Greece with the Bulgarian secular variation curve (SVC) for intensity. Satisfactory coincidence is also found with the archaeointensity data from Mesopotamia. Despite the presence of some time gaps, a more precise secular variation intensity curve has been constructed for Greece which, combined with a forthcoming directional SVC, will help for dating purposes.

  16. Cyanobacteria of Greece: an annotated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Ourailidis, Iordanis; Panou, Manthos; Pappas, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of Greek Cyanobacteria was created in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) that has resumed efforts to compile a complete checklist of species reported from Greece. This list was created from exhaustive search of the scientific literature of the last 60 years. All records of taxa known to occur in Greece were taxonomically updated. New information The checklist of Greek Cyanobacteria comprises 543 species, classified in 130 genera, 41 families, and 8 orders. The orders Synechococcales and Oscillatoriales have the highest number of species (158 and 153 species, respectively), whereas these two orders along with Nostocales and Chroococcales cover 93% of the known Greek cyanobacteria species. It is worth mentioning that 18 species have been initially described from Greek habitats. The marine epilithic Ammatoidea aegea described from Saronikos Gulf is considered endemic to this area. Our bibliographic review shows that Greece hosts a high diversity of cyanobacteria, suggesting that the Mediterranean area is also a hot spot for microbes. PMID:27956851

  17. Higher Education in Greece Compared to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miliotis, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts higher education in Canada and Greece. An overview of the systems in place is followed by an analysis centred on the triad of funding, access and quality. Similarities and differences are highlighted, and the current challenges and issues faced by both nations will be examined, especially in terms of world…

  18. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Sidira, Persefoni; Larichev, Victor; Gavrilova, Ludmila; Kuzmina, Ksenia; Mousavi-Jazi, Mehrdad; Mirazimi, Ali; Ströher, Ute; Nichol, Stuart

    2014-02-01

    Seroprevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is high in some regions of Greece, but only 1 case of disease has been reported. We used 4 methods to test 118 serum samples that were positive for CCHFV IgG by commercial ELISA and confirmed the positive results. A nonpathogenic or low-pathogenicity strain may be circulating.

  19. Women of Ancient Greece: Participating in Sport?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Brett D.

    Based on evidence obtained from Greek literature and artifacts, this paper examines the extent to which women in ancient Greece participated in physical activity, sports, and games. Homer's "Odyssey" describes women playing ball and driving chariots; vases dating back to 700-675 B.C. portray women driving light chariots in a procession;…

  20. Reviews of National Policies for Education - Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This volume contains the Educational Policy Review of Greece undertaken in 1995-96 at the request of the Greek authorities. The book contains two parts with 13 chapters. Part 1 provides the full text of the Background Report, prepared by the Greek authorities for the purpose of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)…

  1. Classical Greece, Black Historians, and Martin Bernal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squeri, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    Explores the work of Martin Bernal in tracing the roots of Greek civilization to Africa. Discusses the Ancient, Aryan, and Revised Ancient models for explaining Greek origins. Observes that Bernal's thesis comes at a time of increased interest in non-Western history. Suggests that views of ancient Greece will never be the same. (SG)

  2. Association of joint occurrence of warm and dry conditions over Greece with anticyclonic activity during summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzaki, Maria; Nastos, Panagiotis; Polychroni, Iliana; Flocas, Helena A.; Kouroutzoglou, John; Dalezios, Nicolas R.

    2016-04-01

    Anticyclones are often associated with extreme phenomena, like prolonged droughts or heatwaves and, thus, they can significantly impact fauna and flora, water resources and public health. In this study, the association of the summer anticyclonic activity with the joint occurrence of extreme warm and dry conditions over Greece is explored. The warm and dry extreme conditions are defined by utilizing the Warm/Dry (WD) index for representative meteorological stations from sub-regions of Greece with different climatic features. The WD index is the number of days over a period (here summer) having at the same time mean air temperature > 75th percentile of daily mean temperature and precipitation < 25th percentile of daily precipitation amounts. The anticyclonic activity is determined by the density of the anticyclonic systems over the greater Mediterranean region, which, during summer, is maximized over the Balkans and the northern African coast. The anticyclonic system density has resulted from the comprehensive climatology of Mediterranean anticyclones that was assembled with the aid of the finding and tracking scheme of the University of Melbourne (MS scheme), using the ERA-Interim mean sea-level pressure fields for 1979-2012. The examination of inter-annual and spatial variations of the WD index in association with shifts of the anticyclonic maxima shows that the different sub-regions of Greece are not affected evenly, stressing the role of the complex topography of the region and the variations in the subtropical jet position.

  3. A novel AP92-like Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strain, Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Kontana, Natasa; Sourba, Tatiana; Tsioka, Katerina; Tsatsaris, Andreas; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2014-09-01

    Ticks were collected from various regions of northern Greece and tested for the presence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) RNA. Human and animal sera were collected in the regions where CCHFV-positive ticks were detected, and they were tested for the presence of IgG antibodies against the virus. A CCHFV strain was detected in Rhipicephalus bursa ticks collected from sheep in Kastoria regional unit, differing by 9.7% at the nucleotide level from the AP92 strain, which was isolated in 1975 in another region of Greece. Up to date, CCHF cases have not been reported in these regions. The human seroprevalence in the area was estimated at 6%, while IgG-positive sheep was detected in two of the four neighboring farms tested. The circulation of this specific CCHFV lineage in Greece, especially in a region where the seroprevalence is high, together with the lack of human CCHF cases, suggests a probable antigenic, but non- or low-pathogenic character of this lineage. Further studies on these strains will increase our knowledge about the role of AP92-like strains in the CCHF epidemiology, which might be useful for drug and vaccine design.

  4. Tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marios Karagiannis, Georgios; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    Greece is vulnerable to tsunamis, due to the length of the coastline, its islands and its geographical proximity to the Hellenic Arc, an active subduction zone. Historically, about 10% of all world tsunamis occur in the Mediterranean region. Here we review existing tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece. We analyze capabilities across the disaster management continuum, including prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Specifically, we focus on issues like legal requirements, stakeholders, hazard mitigation practices, emergency operations plans, public awareness and education, community-based approaches and early-warning systems. Our research is based on a review of existing literature and official documentation, on previous projects, as well as on interviews with civil protection officials in Greece. In terms of tsunami disaster prevention and hazard mitigation, the lack of tsunami inundation maps, except for some areas in Crete, makes it quite difficult to get public support for hazard mitigation practices. Urban and spatial planning tools in Greece allow the planner to take into account hazards and establish buffer zones near hazard areas. However, the application of such ordinances at the local and regional levels is often difficult. Eminent domain is not supported by law and there are no regulatory provisions regarding tax abatement as a disaster prevention tool. Building codes require buildings and other structures to withstand lateral dynamic earthquake loads, but there are no provisions for resistance to impact loading from water born debris Public education about tsunamis has increased during the last half-decade but remains sporadic. In terms of disaster preparedness, Greece does have a National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC) and is a Member of UNESCO's Tsunami Program for North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAM) region. Several exercises have been organized in the framework of the NEAM Tsunami Warning

  5. Northern Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Tropical Northern Australia     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of tropical northern Australia were acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry ...

  6. Education For Sustainability - Experiences From Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronos, Athena

    2016-11-01

    One of the main issues involved is changing people's attitudes, values, behavior and consumption patterns. University education in Greece aims to educate engineers so that besides acquiring theoretical knowledge, they also learn to show competences and are motivated to act accordingly. Educating for sustainable development also entails the development of critical capacities and the necessary skills to be able to identify and formulate problems. This paper outlines the way in which an approach to teaching sustainability has been embodied in the Industrial Design, West Macedonia Greece. More specifically, it describes a course to develop comprehensive case studies and support material in order to aid, Industrial Design students in understanding the sustainability concepts and how solutions can be developed

  7. Albanian and Polish undocumented workers in Greece: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, G; Romaniszyn, K

    1998-01-01

    "This article deals with the migration of undocumented workers from Albania and Poland to Greece. Its underlying assumption is that migration from the former post-communist countries to Greece is not a homogeneous phenomenon, thus allowing for a distinction and comparison between the migration waves from Poland and Albania to Greece. The article shows that economic migration from Albania and Poland to Greece is primarily an economically triggered phenomenon which results from both individual rational choices and social, structural settings, and which verifies a general tendency of mass flows, characteristic of the era of disorganized capitalism." (EXCERPT)

  8. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Chouvarda, I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. Methods With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Results Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Conclusions Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated. PMID:26123910

  9. Novel phleboviruses detected in ticks, Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Kontana, Anastasia; Tsioka, Katerina; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2016-07-01

    Since 2009, when severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and Heartland virus have been identified and associated with disease in humans, the interest on tick-borne phleboviruses is increasing rapidly. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of tick-borne phleboviruses in Greece and compare them with respective ones detected worldwide. Ticks collected from goats and sheep in 60 sites of 13 regional units of Greece were grouped in pools (1-3 ticks per pool) and tested for the presence of phleboviral RNA. Six of 210 pools were positive; they consisted of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from sheep in 3 regional units of Greece: Pella (2/30, 6.7%), Imathia (2/21, 9.5%), and Ioannina (2/28, 7.1%). The overall tick minimum infection rate was 2.1%. The sequences of the Greek phlebovirus (provisionally named Antigone virus) form a distinct clade in the tick-borne phleboviruses, differing by >40% from the currently known phleboviruses. Any probable implication of these viruses to public health remains to be elucidated.

  10. Essential-oil diversity of Salvia tomentosa Mill. in Greece.

    PubMed

    Hanlidou, Effie; Karousou, Regina; Lazari, Diamanto

    2014-08-01

    Salvia tomentosa essential oils from Greece were studied for the first time here. The oils from five populations growing in Mediterranean pine forests on the island of Thassos (northern Aegean Sea) and from 14 populations situated in deciduous forests in Thrace (northeastern Greek mainland) were investigated. Their essential-oil contents ranged from 1.1 to 3.3% (v/w, based on the dry weight of the plant material). The populations from Thassos had high contents of α-pinene (18.0 ± 2.9%), 1,8-cineole (14.7 ± 3.0%), cis-thujone (14.0 ± 6.9%), and borneol (12.8 ± 2.2%) and smaller amounts of camphene, camphor, and β-pinene, whereas the populations from Thrace showed high α-pinene (16.7 ± 4.0%), β-pinene (22.8 ± 4.5%), camphor (18.3 ± 4.3%), and camphene (10.3 ± 2.4%) contents, much lower 1,8-cineole and borneol amounts, while cis-thujone was completely lacking. The comparison of the present results with published data showed that oils having cis-thujone as one of the main compounds were reported for the first time here. Multivariate statistical analyses indicate that the observed essential-oil variation was related to geographical and environmental factors.

  11. Combining electromagnetic measurements in the Mygdonian sedimentary basin, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autio, U.; Smirnov, M. Yu.; Savvaidis, A.; Soupios, P.; Bastani, M.

    2016-12-01

    We present a novel approach where time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) data are transformed and subsequently used in two-dimensional (2-D) magnetotelluric inversion of the determinant of the impedance tensor. The main idea is to integrate TEM with magnetotelluric (MT) data to produce subsurface electrical resistivity models. Specifically, we show that 2-D MT data inversion of the determinant of the impedance tensor supported by inclusion of TEM-MT-transformed data has superior resolution at the near surface and at the same time static shift afflicting the MT data can be addressed. Thus, the approach allows for practical express integration of TEM data with MT measurements as opposed to a full combined 3-D inversion, which requires significant resources. The approach is successfully applied in the Mygdonian sedimentary basin located in Northern Greece. In addition to TEM and MT data, also controlled source - and radiomagnetotelluric data are available from the Mygdonian basin, which have been subjected to 2-D analysis previously. We have extended the analysis to a full 3-D inversion using ModEM code. All obtained models are analysed and are in a good agreement.

  12. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  13. Statistical evaluation of the simulated convective activity over Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartsios, Stergios; Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Karacostas, Theodore S.; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Pytharoulis, Ioannis; Bampzelis, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the project DAPHNE (www.daphne-meteo.gr), the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model with the Advanced Research dynamic solver (WRF-ARW, version 3.5.1) is used to produce very high spatiotemporal resolution simulations of the convective activity over Thessaly plain and hence, enhancing our knowledge on the impact of high resolution elevation and land use data in the moist convection. The expecting results act as a precursor for the potential applicability of a planned precipitation enhancement program. The three model domains, covering Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa (d01), the wider area of Greece (d02) and Thessaly region-central Greece (d03), are used at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km respectively. ECMWF operational analyses at 6-hourly intervals (0.25ox0.25o lat.-long.) are imported as initial and boundary conditions of the coarse domain, while in the vertical, 39 sigma levels (up to 50 hPa) are used, with increased resolution in the boundary layer. Microphysical processes are represented by WSM6 scheme, sub-grid scale convection by Kain-Fritsch scheme, longwave and shortwave radiation by RRTMG scheme, surface layer by Monin-Obukhov (MM5), boundary layer by Yonsei University and soil physics by NOAH Unified model. Six representative days with different upper-air synoptic circulation types are selected, while high resolution (3'') elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM - version 4) are inserted in the innermost domain (d03), along with the Corine Land Cover 2000 raster data (3''x3''). The aforementioned data sets are used in different configurations, in order to evaluate the impact of each one on the simulated convective activity in the vicinity of Thessaly region, using a grid of available meteorological stations in the area. For each selected day, four (4) sensitivity simulations are performed, setting a total number of 24 runs. Finally, the best configuration provides

  14. Cloud-to-ground lightning activity over Greece: Spatio-temporal analysis and impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsangouras, I. T.; Nastos, P. T.; Kapsomenakis, J.

    2016-03-01

    Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning activity recorded by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS) Precision Lightning Network (PLN) is analysed over the wider area of Greece. In addition, the spatial and temporal relationships between TRMM 3B42 (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) datasets and lightning are presented. The analyses concern the period from January 14, 2008 to December 31, 2012. The Laboratory of Climatology and Atmospheric Environment, University of Athens, has established a detailed dataset of lightning impacts over Greece from 1895 to 2013, based on digitized archive editions of newspapers. The mean seasonal variability of CG lightning activity revealed autumn as the most dominant season with 303 LD, while the mean monthly variability of CG indicated October as the most lightning active month and May as the month with a mean of 27 LD. The mean annual spatial distribution of CG lightning per km2, depicted the maximum frequency over Pindus mountain range (> 7 CG/km2). During the autumn season, the northern Ionian Sea experienced a mean frequency of more than 5 CG/km2, compared to the southern Ionian Sea and NW Peloponnesus, where values of more than 7 CG/km2 are depicted. During the summer season, the maximum frequency appeared along Pindus mountain range, around Attica, Thessaly and central Macedonia highlands. The spatial distribution of seasonal correlations between the number of CG flashes/day and gridded (TRMM 3B42) daily rainfall totals for the period 2008-2012 over Greece, indicated that correlations were mainly positive all over the under study area, within all seasons, and especially during summer and autumn. Regarding the lightning impacts in Greece, based on the 1895-2013 study period, more than 343 fatalities and at least 224 injured people have been recorded. The spatial analysis of lightning impacts, showed that the majority of events has been recorded over Greek mainland and only few scattered events have been reported over

  15. Educational Reform in Greece: Central Concepts and a Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gounari, Panayota; Grollios, George

    2012-01-01

    The case of Greece as the most recent neoliberal experiment can provide valuable insights not only about a generalized attack on the welfare state and the public good, but also about the radical changes in public education that are altering its public mission, vision, and goals. In this paper first we trace the educational landscape in Greece as…

  16. Intellectual Assessment of Children and Adolescents: The Case of Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bablekou, Zoe; Kazi, Smaragda

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews the history of intellectual assessment of children and adolescents in Greece, as well as procedures, current practices, and future directions. Although the history of special education is long in Greece, there has been very sporadic and incoherent legislation and decision making on the subject. Currently, intelligence tests are…

  17. Lifelong Education in Greece: Recent Developments and Current Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karalis, Thanassis; Vergidis, Dimitris

    2004-01-01

    This article concerns recent developments and current trends in lifelong education in Greece, specifically those related with funding from European Social Fund (ESF). The analysis undertaken focuses mainly on (a) the expansion of continuing training activities in Greece during the past ten years and the development of new training organizations as…

  18. Conducting Qualitative Research on Desertification in Western Lesvos, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iosifides, Theodoros; Politidis, Theodoros

    2005-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to present some critical methodological strategies employed in a qualitative research study on local socioeconomic development and desertification in western Lesvos, Greece. Through in-depth qualitative interviews with local producers in western Lesvos, Greece, an effort was made to identify and analyze the links…

  19. Vascular nursing in Greece: luxury or necessity?

    PubMed

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Bitza, Christina; Papanas, Nikolaos; Matsagkas, Miltiadis; Lazarides, Miltos K

    2013-09-01

    Although peripheral arterial disease is prevalent in the primary care setting, insufficient vascular education among nurses and physicians coupled with certain economic constraints undermines treatment efficacy. Moreover, the burden of advanced venous pathology such as posthrombotic syndrome, venous ulcers, and lymphedema remains suboptimally treated. This article advocates the development of a vascular nursing specialty as a means to improving vascular care especially nowadays, when health care providers dictate comprehensive and cost-effective nursing practice and patient management. It also presents the first attempt to organize a Vascular Nursing Educational Session in Greece.

  20. Distributional effects of environmental policies in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekakis, Joseph N.

    1990-07-01

    Environmental protection policies generate an equity question concerning the fair allocation of environmental benefits and costs. This paper presents evidence from Greece during the 1980s. The findings reveal that Greek environmental policies, in the form of government self-regulatory programs, are mostly regressive in nature. At the regional level these programs combine all forms of vertical equity. Since the public sector finances the majority of related expenditures out of taxes, the regressive elements of environmental policies have been reinforced by discretionary fiscal measures and tax evasion, accompanied by inflation, which have distorted the country's progressive tax system.

  1. Greece's health crisis: from austerity to denialism.

    PubMed

    Kentikelenis, Alexander; Karanikolos, Marina; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2014-02-22

    Greece's economic crisis has deepened since it was bailed out by the international community in 2010. The country underwent the sixth consecutive year of economic contraction in 2013, with its economy shrinking by 20% between 2008 and 2012, and anaemic or no growth projected for 2014. Unemployment has more than tripled, from 7·7% in 2008 to 24·3% in 2012, and long-term unemployment reached 14·4%. We review the background to the crisis, assess how austerity measures have affected the health of the Greek population and their access to public health services, and examine the political response to the mounting evidence of a Greek public health tragedy.

  2. Anciet marble quarries in Lesvos island Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataragkas, M.; Mataragkas, D.

    2009-04-01

    ANCIENT MARBLE QUARRIES IN LESBOS ISLAND, GREECE Varti- Matarangas M.1 & Matarangas D. 1 Institute of Geological and Mining Exploration (IGME), Olympic Village, Entrance C, ACHARNAE 13677, GREECE myrsini@igme.gr , myrsini@otenet.g r A B S T R A C T Ten ancient marble quarries of Lesbos Island, most of them previously unknown, have been studied, in the frame of the research study on the ancient marble quarries in the Aegean Sea. In the present paper the geological, petrological and morphological features of the aforementioned quarries are examined. Concerning the six ancient quarries located in the areas of Tarti, Agia Paraskevi (Tsaf), Mageiras, Loutra, Latomi (Plomari) and Thermi, the authochthonous neopaleozoic unit constitutes their geological formation, while their hosting lithological formations are the included crystalline limestone lens like beds. In two ancient quarries in the areas Moria and Alyfanta, the geological formation is the authochthonous upper Triassic series and the hosting lithological formation the upper Triassic carbonate sequence, while in the areas of Akrasi-Abeliko and Karyni, the geological formation is the thrust Triassic unit and the lithological hosting formations are the included strongly deformed or not crystalline limestone lenticular beds. Furthermore, the petrographic features were also determined permitting the identification of the building stones that have been used.

  3. Impact of irrigations on simulated convective activity over Central Greece: A high resolution study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsopoulos, S.; Tegoulias, I.; Pytharoulis, I.; Kartsios, S.; Bampzelis, D.; Karacostas, T.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the impact of irrigations in the characteristics of convective activity simulated by the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model with the Advanced Research dynamic solver (WRF-ARW, version 3.5.1), under different upper air synoptic conditions in central Greece. To this end, 42 cases equally distributed under the six most frequent upper air synoptic conditions, which are associated with convective activity in the region of interest, were utilized considering two different soil moisture scenarios. In the first scenario, the model was initialized with the surface soil moisture of the ECMWF analysis data that usually does not take into account the modification of soil moisture due to agricultural activity in the area of interest. In the second scenario, the soil moisture in the upper soil layers of the study area was modified to the field capacity for the irrigated cropland. Three model domains, covering Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa (d01), the wider area of Greece (d02) and central Greece - Thessaly region (d03) are used at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km respectively. The model numerical results indicate a strong dependence of convective spatiotemporal characteristics from the soil moisture difference between the two scenarios. Acknowledgements: This research is co-financed by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund) and Greek national funds, through the action "COOPERATION 2011: Partnerships of Production and Research Institutions in Focused Research and Technology Sectors" (contract number 11SYN_8_1088 - DAPHNE) in the framework of the operational programme "Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship" and Regions in Transition (OPC II, NSRF 2007-2013).

  4. Ambient noise tomography of the western Corinth Rift, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannopoulos, Dimitrios; Rivet, Diane; Sokos, Efthimios; Deschamps, Anne; Paraskevopoulos, Paraskevas; Lyon-Caen, Hélène; Pascal, Bernard; Tselentis, G.-Akis

    2016-04-01

    The Corinth Rift separates Peloponnesus to the south from main-land Greece to the north. It is one of the most active extensional intra-continental rifts in the world, with geodetically measured rates of extension varying from ~5 mm/yr at the eastern part to ~15 mm/yr at the western part. This work presents a first attempt to study the crustal velocity structure of the western Corinth Rift using ambient noise recordings. We used 3 yrs (01/2012-12/2014) of continuous waveform data recorded at 24 stations from the Corinth Rift Laboratory (CRL) and the Hellenic Unified Seismological Network (HUSN). All available vertical component time-series were cross-correlated to extract Rayleigh wave Green's functions. Group velocity dispersion curves between 0.5 and 7 s period were measured for each station pair by applying frequency-time analysis and then inverted to build group velocity maps of the study area. At the studied periods, the northern coast of the Corinth Rift is generally imaged as a region of elevated seismic velocities compared to the southern coast. More specifically, low velocities are observed in areas of Plio-Quaternary syn-rift sediments such as off-shore regions of the rift, the Mornos delta and a large part of the southern coast. Higher velocities are observed in pre-rift basement structures which are dominated mostly by carbonates. The preliminary results demonstrate good agreement with the major geological features of the area and agree relatively well with previous local earthquake tomography studies. This work will be the base for further investigations towards the study of the Corinth Rift structure using long time-series of ambient noise data.

  5. Mysida and Lophogastrida of Greece: a preliminary checklist

    PubMed Central

    Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of Mysida and Lophogastrida of Greece was created within the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), which is one of the applications of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) resuming efforts to develop a complete checklist of species recorded and reported from Greek waters. The objectives of the present study were to update and cross-check taxonomically all records of Mysida and Lophogastrida species known to occur in Greek waters in order to search for inaccuracies and omissions. New information The up-to-date checklist of Mysida and Lophogastrida of Greece comprises 49 species, classified to 25 genera. PMID:27932912

  6. The Sirius Cult in Ancient Greece. Aristaios and the Formation of the Attico-Cycladic Mythological Substratum.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laoupi, A.

    Pivotal figure of Sirius myth among the inhabitants of Late Bronze Age Greece (ca.1600-1100 B.C.) is Aristaios protector of the shepherds and hunters teacher of cheese-making and the art of hunting , of oil-making and bee-keeping , honey and honey - mead, god of medicinal herbs and the cooling Etesian winds of mid-summer. The aim of this paper is to detect a) the inventors of Sirius astromyth within the boundaries of prehistoric Greek maritime Civilization (the Pelasgian substratum), b)the geographical distribution of this myth via its main divine figure (colonization of Western Mediterranean and the Prehistoric trade of silphium with the North African Coast , Kadmos and cultural relationships with Eastern Mediterranean connection with Thesaly, Northern Greece, Arcadia, Argos, Attica, Minoan Crete and Cyclades, N.W. Greece), c)the elements of Sirius cult worshipped by the insular population of the Aegean, d)the historical pathway of this astromyth and its survival to the later periods of Cycladic history (Keians coins, Keian traditions, modern Keian names and localities) e)the immigration of its symbols (the hunting lion, the motif of the dogs, deities with fertilizing and creative properties) and f) the environmental setting which gave birth to this astromyth (disturbance of wind patterns, teleconnections with Indian monsoons and NAO, climatic oscillations, pestilence in Eastern Mediterranean).

  7. Transport of toxic organic aerosol pollutants from Yugoslavia to Greece during the operation "Allied Force".

    PubMed

    Rapsomanikis, S; Zerefos, C; Melas, D; Tsangas, N

    2002-10-01

    Between March 24 and June 10, 1999 a large number of chemicals were ejected into the atmosphere because of air strikes on chemical industries and oil storage facilities in former Yugoslavia. Chemicals released into the atmosphere under suitable meteorological conditions can be transported across borders to large distances. The releases may have contained not only conventional air pollutants but also semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs) which include dioxins, furans, PCBs and PAHs, all known to be hazardous to health. A measuring programme was initiated at Democritus University Thrace, Greece to monitor the chemical characteristics of atmospheric aerosol during February, March and April 1999. Particulate matter (aerosol) was collected on filters and was analysed using high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry for their content in SOCs. In the present work we show evidence of two events with three to twenty fold increased SOCs in the atmosphere of Northern Greece which were associated with air masses transported from the conflict area, following the destruction of chemical plants and oil storage facilities.

  8. Suicide in Greece: 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Kontaxakis, V; Papaslanis, Th; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Tsouvelas, G; Giotakos, O; Papadimitriou, G Ν

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008 several European countries have fallen into a financial crisis. This crisis has mainly affected the Greek population. The lower of income and the increase of unemployment as consequences of crisis lead to negative effects on people's mental health. Usually, in periods of economic crisis there is an increase of suicidality of population. The aim of this study is to examine the changes of suicide rates in Greece during the last decade (2001-2011) with particular consideration in the recent period of economic crisis (2008-2011). Data regarding the greek general population and the crude data on suicides were obtained from the Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT). We assessed the specific suicide rate, i.e. the number of suicide cases per 100.000 inhabitants (SSR) using population data on the 2001 and 2011 census. Yearly and mean total, age and sex-SSR were calculated in five years age groups. There were no suicide cases among children under the age of fifteen. We compared total and male, female SSR during the period before the crisis (2001-2007) and during the crisis (2008-2011). During the decade 2001-2011 a total number of 4133 suicide cases were recorded. There were 3423 (82.8%) male suicides and 710 (17.2%) female suicides. During the decade 2001-2011 total SSR increased by 38.4%. In males increased by 33.1% and in females by 69.6%. In the period before the crisis (2001-2007) total SSR decreased by 3.9%. In males decreased by 8.4% but in females increased by 22.3%. During the period of crisis (2008-2011) total SSR increased by 27.2%. In males increased by 26.9% and in females by 28.5%. There was a statistically significant increase in total SSR during the crisis regarding subjects 50-54 years old (t=3.43, p=0.007) and in total SSR of males (t=2.31, p=0.047) as well as of the males age groups 50-54 (t=3.56, p=0.006), 45-49 (t=2.87, p=0.02), 30-34 (t=2.96, p=0.02). There were no statistically significant differences both in total SSR and in SSR of all

  9. Preterm birth in ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    PubMed

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2017-01-01

    This report refers to preterm birth in Ancient Greece based on mythological, historical and archeological data. The two antique goddesses, patronesses of labor and birth, Artemis and Eileithyia, cared for full-term, as well as preterm infants, among them for the mythological preterms Dionysos and Eurystheus. The former was rapidly transported by Hermes and received special care by the nymphs Hyades in a mountain cave with "incubator" properties. Historical data are related to the nine months duration of a normal pregnancy, to the definition of "Elitomina" (preterms), the lower limit of viability, the causes for preterm birth, the existence of small for gestational age infants and relevant causes, the physical examination of neonates and postpartum care. Lastly, excavations in Athens and Astypalaia discovered burials - in wells or pots - of preterm infants with gestational age 24-37 weeks.

  10. Vocational Education and Training in Greece: The European Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paleocrassas, Stamatis

    1992-01-01

    Gives a brief review of Greece's current vocational education/training system, compares it to European models, describes the European Community process of harmonization of vocational qualifications, and discusses new legislation establishing a national vocational education/training system. (SK)

  11. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from hotels of Greece.

    PubMed

    Alexiou, S D; Antoniadis, A; Papapaganagiotou, J; Stefanou, T

    1989-03-01

    Twenty water samples collected from 6 hotels situated in various areas of Greece were examined for the presence of Legionella pneumophila and Legionella-like organisms. Five of the six hotels included in this investigation were associated with cases of legionellosis. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 and 8 were isolated from four of six hotels, mainly from the hot water supply system. This is the first isolation and identification of L. pneumophila in Greece.

  12. Radiological investigation of lignite ash. The case of the West Macedonia Lignite Center (Greece)

    SciTech Connect

    Tsikritzis, L.I.; Fotakis, M.; Tzimkas, N.; Tsikritzi, R.; Trikoilidou, E.; Kolovos, N.

    2009-07-01

    This article investigates the natural radioactivity of 26 ash samples, laboratory produced from lignite samples collected in the West Macedonia Lignite Center in Northern Greece. The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and 232Th were measured by spectroscopy and found four to five times higher than those in the original lignite samples. The radionuclides transfer factors depend on the characteristics of the combustion process and were found higher for {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra, and 40K, because of their closer affinity with the inorganic fraction of the lignite. Compared with other results found in the published literature, the studied ash has relatively high content in radioactivity, but the resulting radiation dose from the radionuclide emissions in the West Macedonia Lignite Center do not contribute significantly to the total effective dose.

  13. Ascidiacea (Chordata: Tunicata) of Greece: an updated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of the ascidian fauna (Tunicata: Ascidiacea) of Greece was compiled within the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an application of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) aiming to produce a complete checklist of species recorded from Greece. This checklist was constructed by updating an existing one with the inclusion of recently published records. All the reported species from Greek waters were taxonomically revised and cross-checked with the Ascidiacea World Database. New information The updated checklist of the class Ascidiacea of Greece comprises 75 species, classified in 33 genera, 12 families, and 3 orders. In total, 8 species have been added to the previous species list (4 Aplousobranchia, 2 Phlebobranchia, and 2 Stolidobranchia). Aplousobranchia was the most speciose order, followed by Stolidobranchia. Most species belonged to the families Didemnidae, Polyclinidae, Pyuridae, Ascidiidae, and Styelidae; these 4 families comprise 76% of the Greek ascidian species richness. The present effort revealed the limited taxonomic research effort devoted to the ascidian fauna of Greece, which is attributed to the lack of experts and low sampling effort. Therefore, major knowledge gaps on the ascidian diversity of Greece occur and further research in this field is needed. PMID:27932910

  14. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  15. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece.

    PubMed

    Pallantzas, A; Kourakos, P; Stampolidis, N; Papagianni, E; Balagoura, A; Stathopoulos, A; Polizoi, A; Emvalomata, A; Evaggelopoulou, M; Castana, O

    2012-12-31

    Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a "rocket war". The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department's experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities.

  16. Monitoring Santorini volcano (Greece) breathing from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foumelis, Michael; Trasatti, Elisa; Papageorgiou, Elena; Stramondo, Salvatore; Parcharidis, Issaak

    2013-04-01

    Since its last eruption in 1950, Santorini volcano (Greece) remained in a dormant state. This is also evidenced for the period 1992-2010 by the gradual deflation signal over Nea Kameni as measured by satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) with low rates of about 5-6 mm yr-1 as well as by the absence of seismic activity within the caldera. However, at the beginning of 2011 the volcano showed signs of unrest with increased microseismic activity and significant ground uplift, reaching 14 cm within a year (2011 March-2012 March), according to InSAR time-series. ALOS PALSAR data indicate the onset of the phenomenon in early 2010 where an aseismic pre-unrest phase of increased subsidence (1-3 cm) preceded the uplift. Joint inversions of SAR and GPS velocities using spherical and spheroidal magmatic source types indicate their location offshore at about 1 km north of Nea Kameni and between 3.5 and 3.8 km depth. The estimated volume variation rate is 6 × 106 m3 yr-1 to 9 × 106 m3 yr-1. A gradual slowing in the rate of inflation within the first quarter of 2012 is apparent by ENVISAT data, while subsequent observations from RADARSAT-2 confirm the observed trend.

  17. Laron syndrome. First report from Greece.

    PubMed

    Galli-Tsinopoulou, Assimina; Nousia-Arvanitakis, Sanda; Tsinopoulos, Ioannis; Bechlivanides, Christos; Shevah, Orit; Laron, Zvi

    2003-01-01

    Laron-type dwarfism is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deletions or mutations of the growth hormone receptor gene. It is characterized by high circulating levels of growth hormone (GH) and low levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Patients are refractory to both endogenous and exogenous GH, and present severe growth retardation and obesity. Therapy with recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) accelerates linear growth. We describe a 2-year old girl with Laron syndrome, who presented with postnatal growth failure and hypoglycaemic seizures. Her evaluation disclosed high GH values during a glucagon test (peak GH value 170 ng/ml) and very low IGF I value (0.1 ng/ml) with no rise following GH administration. The growth velocity improved considerably with the administration of IGF I. Molecular analysis showed a heterozygous mutation on exon 4 of the GH receptor gene, inherited from the mother, a rather puzzling finding considering the clinical findings in mother and infant. This case constitutes the first report of Laron syndrome from Greece.

  18. Space Radar Image of Athens, Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This space radar image of Athens, Greece, shows the sprawling, modern development of this ancient capital city. Densely populated urban areas appear in shades of pink and light green. The Acropolis the dark green triangular patch in the center of the image. Archaeological discoveries indicate Athens has been continuously occupied for at least the last 5,000 years. Numerous ships, shown as bright dots, are seen in the harbor areas in the upper left part of the image. The port city of Piraeus is at the left center. This image is 45 kilometers by 45 kilometers (28 miles by 28 miles) and is centered at 37.9 degrees north latitude, 23.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 2, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  19. Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment In Greece Using Gis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathoma, M.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Zong, Y.; Smith, D.

    A new methodology is described that uses GIS (Geographical Information System)to determine tsunami vulnerability at different spatial and temporal scales. The method- ology is based on the construction of a GIS database, which may be used by different end-users and under varying hazard scenarios. Primary data are collected for a range of parameters that relate to the natural environment, land use, the built environment, the local economy and services, as well as socio-economic parameters. The methodol- ogy permits interrogation of the primary datasets by several different end-user groups. For example, the GIS may be used: (1) by the emergency services in order to locate large numbers of casualties, to organise the immediate post-tsunami disaster response and to design evacuation routes; (2) by insurance companies in order to set the premi- ums of individual buildings and businesses and (3) by the municipal authorities as a tool for local planning (planning regulations, relocation of buildings). The results of two applications of the methodology in Greece are presented. The first application in Herakleio (Crete) relates to the impact that the 1650AD tsunami would have in the area under the current circumstances. The worse case scenario for the second application is based on the 1963 tsunami, which affected the coastal segment west of Aeghio in Peloponnese. The two case studies provide valuable information for civil protection, disaster management and planning.

  20. Immigration to Greece: a critical evaluation of Greek policy.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, G

    1996-04-01

    "In the light of the EU's interest in the movement of labour within the Union, the first part of this article looks at the character of Greek migrant labour with the aim of providing an overview of changes in the flow of migrant labour into Greece and of the policies adopted in relation to immigrant labour. It discusses the failure of the Greek government to formulate strategic measures to combat illegal immigration...and the limited (if any) efforts being made to aid the integration of Albanians. The second part of the article concentrates on [the experiences of] Albanian migrant labourers in Greece....[It] also assesses the similarities and differences in the employment positions of Albanian men and women in Greece and the way in which mechanisms of marginalisation differently affect these two categories."

  1. Recording and Evaluating the Role of Volunteers Regarding Natural Hazards Prevention and Disaster Management in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios

    2013-04-01

    The role of volunteers in disaster management is of decisive importance, particularly for major catastrophes. In Northern Europe, volunteers are the main group that responds even in regular low impact incidents. On the other hand, in Southern Europe, state professionals hold the primary role. This is partly cultural, but it is also defined by the different types of hazards involved. For example, Southern Europe suffers from earthquakes and wildfires that can cause severe and widespread damage. This implies that there is a need for highly trained and skilled personnel, not only for efficiency purposes, but also in order to avoid casualties among the operating staff. However, the need of volunteers' involvement is well recognised both for prevention measures (mainly regarding forest fires) and for disaster management purposes particularly during major catastrophes whereas the professional personnel are outsourced. Moreover, the economic crisis stretches the public sector, decreasing the capability and resources of the state mechanism. The latter increases the need for the volunteers' active participation, which is also regarded as cost effective. Greece has a short tradition regarding volunteers and their official involvement with natural hazards. This is also due to the fact that civil protection has a short history in Greece, since it was established in 1995, whereas its legal framework was only shaped in 2002. The act 3013/2002 introduces officially the role of volunteers within the legal framework. In particular, the act N3013/2002 offers a detailed description of the role of voluntary organizations within the civil protection system, the interagency cooperation, and the financial instruments through which the various bodies secure their funding along with the establishment of an inventory from the General Secretariat of Civil Protection. However, several provisions described in the 2002 Act have not been applied yet. For instance voluntary organizations are not

  2. Aquatic animal resources in Prehistoric Aegean, Greece.

    PubMed

    Mylona, Dimitra

    2014-12-01

    This paper explores the early stages in the history of fishing in the Aegean Sea in Greece, and highlights its formative phases and its specific characteristics in different points in time. This is testified by various physical remains, such as fish bones, fishing tools, and representations in art, which are gathered in the course of archaeological research. The aquatic resources in the Aegean Sea have been exploited and managed for millennia by communities that lived near the water and often made a living from it. The earliest evidence for a systematic, intensive exploitation of marine resources in the Aegean Sea dates to the Mesolithic, eleven millennia ago. In the Neolithic period, the adoption of a sedentary, agro-pastoral way of life led to a reduction in the intensity of fishing and shellfish gathering. Its importance as an economic resource remained high only in certain regions of rich, eutrophic waters. In the Bronze Age, an era of social complexity and centralized economy, the exploitation of aquatic, mostly marine, resources became a complex, multi-faceted activity which involved subsistence, industry and ideology. The range of preferred fish and invertebrate species, the fishing technology, and the processing of fish and shellfish in order to produce elaborate foods or prestige items are all traceable aspects of the complex relationship between humans and the aquatic resources throughout the prehistory of fishing and shellfish gathering in the Aegean area. The broadening of collaboration between archaeology and physical sciences offers new means to explore these issues in a more thorough and nuanced manner.

  3. Mutual relationship between mathematics and astronomy in the ancient Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obradovic, S.

    2006-05-01

    In the paper we consider the foundations of mathematics in the ancient Greece as a deductive system, especially the Euclidean geometry. We investigate the concepts of continuum and discreteness in mathematics and nature. A special attention is given to the mathematics applied to the foundation of the Pythagorean concept of the universe and adoption of Aristotle's and Ptolemy's worldviews.

  4. Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in Greece, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Anna; Theocharopoulos, George; Dougas, Georgios; Athanasiou, Maria; Detsis, Marios; Baka, Agoritsa; Lytras, Theodoros; Mellou, Kassiani; Bonovas, Stefanos; Panagiotopoulos, Takis

    2011-01-01

    During 2010, an outbreak of West Nile virus infection occurred in Greece. A total of 197 patients with neuroinvasive disease were reported, of whom 33 (17%) died. Advanced age and a history of heart disease were independently associated with death, emphasizing the need for prevention of this infection in persons with these risk factors. PMID:22000357

  5. School Adjustment Difficulties of Immigrant Children in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palaiologou, Nektaria

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and main results of a longitudinal study in Greece that explored the learning and psychosocial difficulties of immigrant pupils, as compared with those of their Greek classmates. The "Teacher-Child Rating Scale" (T-CRS) and "Child Rating Scale" (CRS) were used as instruments to measure the…

  6. Religious Education in Greece: A New Curriculum, an Old Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukounaras Liagkis, Marios

    2015-01-01

    Religious Education (RE) in Greece is a compulsory school subject according the 2011 new framework for compulsory education, entitled "New School". This article focuses on two statutory documents for RE, "The Curriculum for RE" and the "The Teacher's Guide for RE", and the pilot scheme of the new curriculum running in…

  7. Huntington's disease in Greece: the experience of 14 years.

    PubMed

    Panas, M; Karadima, G; Vassos, E; Kalfakis, N; Kladi, A; Christodoulou, K; Vassilopoulos, D

    2011-12-01

    A large scale genetic and epidemiological study of Huntington's disease (HD) was carried out in Greece from January 1995 to December 2008. Diagnostic testing was carried out in 461 symptomatic individuals, while 256 were tested for presymptomatic purposes. The diagnosis of HD with a CAG expansion ≥ 36 was confirmed in 278 symptomatic individuals. The prevalence of HD in Greece was estimated at approximately 2.5 to 5.4:100,000, while the mean minimum incidence was estimated at 2.2 to 4.4 per million per year. The molecular diagnosis of HD was confirmed in the majority of patients (84.4%) sent for confirmation. The false-positive cases 15.6% were characterized by the absence of a family history of HD and the presence of an atypical clinical picture. The uptake of predictive testing for HD was 8.6%. A prenatal test was requested in six pregnancies. The findings of our study do not differ significantly from those of similar studies from other European countries despite the relative genetic isolation of Greece. Of interest is the identification of clusters of HD in Greece. The presence or absence of a family history of HD should be interpreted cautiously, during the diagnostic process.

  8. Language Shift in Second Generation Albanian Immigrants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogonas, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    Albanian immigration to Greece started in the beginning of the 1990s and the second generation of Albanian immigrants is a recent phenomenon. This paper presents the findings of research investigating language maintenance/shift among second generation Albanian immigrants in Athens using as main informants adolescents of Albanian origin.…

  9. An Enlightened Use of Educational Monitoring for Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korilaki, Panayota

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to discuss the issues surrounding educational monitoring systems. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is a general review of the situation in Greece. Findings: This paper suggests that a superior educational monitoring system aiming to alleviate educational and social inequalities as well as discrepancies between…

  10. Soviet Foreign Policy Towards Greece and Turkey: Contrast within Coherence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    may have been motivated on the Greek side by wariness of the apparent courtship of the Soviet Union being undertaken by Greece’s traditional rival...Ulam, Adam B., The Rivals, Penguin Books, 1971. 11. Couloumbis, T.A., Petropulos, J.A. Psomiades, H.J., Foreign Interference in Greek Politics, Pella

  11. Inclusive Discourse in Greece: Strong Voices, Weak Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoniou-Sideri, Athina; Deropoulou-Derou, Eudoxia; Karagianni, Panagiota; Spandagou, Ilektra

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the inclusive discourse in Greece at a period characterized by change in policy and practice. The aim is to discuss critically the distance between the strong voices and weak practices that characterizes the Greek inclusive discourse. The first part focuses on disability and presents the ways that a "common sense"…

  12. Implementing Innovation in Primary EFL: A Case Study in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karavas, Evdokia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight and discuss the strategies used to diffuse and manage a primary ELT innovation in Greece, strategies that proved essential for developing stakeholders' acceptance and ownership of the innovation, thereby facilitating its further development and sustainability. The PEAP Programme, launched in 2010,…

  13. Literacy in Ancient Greece: The Evidence from History and Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Karyn

    In examining the nature of literacy in ancient Athens, this paper reviews the work of key modern scholars and their positions in the debates concerning the development of literacy in Greece, the oral culture preceeding this, and the technology that enabled it to occur. Following an introduction surveying the viewpoints of Rhys Carpenter, L. H.…

  14. The History of Teaching Quantum Mechanics in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampakis, Constantin; Skordoulis, Constantin

    2007-01-01

    In this work, our goal is to examine the attitude of the Greek scientific community towards Quantum Mechanics and establish the history of teaching of this theory in Greece. We have examined Physics textbooks written by professors of the University of Athens, as well as records of public speeches, university yearbooks from 1923 to 1970, articles…

  15. Lessons from Greece: A Body, Mind, Spirit Odyssey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Linda L.

    2006-01-01

    In Spring Semester 2005, the author was a visiting Fulbright professor at Aristotle University in Greece. The purpose of the Fulbright Program is to increase mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of the 150 or so countries that currently participate in the Fulbright Program. In this article, the author looks…

  16. Health Needs: Policy Plan and School Practice in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soultatou, Pelagia; Duncan, Peter; Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Papadopoulos, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of health-related needs on a policy design and curriculum enactment basis in terms of the national school health education curriculum in Greek secondary education. Design/methodology/approach: A single case study, using an ethnographic approach, was conducted in Greece, seeking to…

  17. Psychometric Validation of the Youth Social Capital Scale in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutra, Kleio; Orfanos, Philippos; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Kritsotakis, George; Kokkevi, Anna; Philalithis, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article describes the psychometric validation of the Youth Social Capital scale (YSCS) in 16- to 17-year-old students living in rural and urban areas in Crete, Greece. Methods: Sampling was performed among 27 secondary education units of Heraklion Prefecture. The self-reported questionnaire was answered by 692 participants…

  18. Teaching about Ancient Greece: A Model Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouris, George

    1988-01-01

    Offers an instructional unit about city-states in Ancient Greece and provides an instructional design model that may be used in similar efforts. Appropriate for grades 6-12, this unit acquaints students with Greek city-states, their locations, main characteristics, social and political structures, origins, and evolution. (GEA)

  19. Let's Play Doctor: Medical Rounds in Ancient Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockler, Donald

    1998-01-01

    Biology students are exposed to historical theories of medicine by contrasting modern medicine and germ theory with the humoral theory of medicine in ancient Greece. After spending one day describing basic theories in humoral medicine, the teacher role-plays a Hippocratic physician treating ailing Greek patients in a Hippocratic medical workshop.…

  20. A Comparative Evaluation of Geography Schoolbooks of Greece and Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadimitriou, Fivos

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on geographical education in Greece and Cyprus (Southern Cyprus). The two countries have different sets of books for their educational systems, approved by the relevant Ministries of Education. Since the teaching of these officially approved sets of books is compulsory, the context of geographical education in these countries…

  1. Academic Entrepreneurship, Innovation Policies and Politics in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arapostathis, Stathis

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the process of the emergence in Greece of the "Triple Helix", and the nature of the "Helix" in the context of the concurrent changes occurring in Greek socio-political affairs. The influence of politics and innovation policies on the relationships between academia and government and industry is considered.…

  2. The Kosovo Conflict: Emerging Relationships and Implications for Greece

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    Monitor and Minority Group. Greece. Available on line, http://www.duth.gr/ maillist -archives/thrace/tl54/msg00025.html. 155 Philhellenic Perspective...and Minority Group [http://www.duth.gr/ maillist - archives/thrace/tl54/msg00025.html] Greek Ministry of Defence, Hellenic Peace Support Missions

  3. Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.

    The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

  4. Plato and Play: Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Angour, Armand

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines Plato's notions of play in ancient Greek culture and shows how the philosopher's views on play can be best appreciated against the background of shifting meanings and evaluations of play in classical Greece. Play--in various forms such as word play, ritual, and music--proved central to the development of…

  5. On an American Campus in Greece, a Chorus of Critics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebel, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Mike Frank G. Epitropoulos moved to Greece in the summer of 2005 to become chairman of the business and applied-sociology departments on a small branch campus of the University of Indianapolis, in the shadow of the Acropolis. A former sociology professor at the University of Pittsburgh, he had long wanted to live with his wife and two sons in the…

  6. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from the intestinal microbiota of goats in Greece in the absence of selective pressure.

    PubMed

    Filioussis, George; Tzivara, Athanasia; Petridou, Evanthia; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Burriel, Angeliki R; Kritas, Spyridon K

    2013-07-01

    The presence of ciprofloxacin resistance commensal Escherichia coli (C-R-Ec) was determined for goats in the absence of selective pressure in Northern and Central Greece. The C-R-Ec was categorized in 3 groups with respect to their phenotypic resistance to other antibiotics as well as the carriage of antibiotic resistance genes. The first group consisted of 7 C-R-Ec that were found also resistant to tetracycline. Among them tet(B) (n = 7), qnr(S) (n = 7), and qnr(B) (n = 3) producers were identified by polymerase chain reaction. The second group consisted of 10 C-R-Ec that were found sensitive to all other antibiotics, and their phenotypic resistance to ciprofloxacin was not attributed to the presence of resistance genes. Finally, the third group consisted of 2 C-R-Ec also resistant to sulfamethoxazole. These strains were not carrying any transferable elements that contribute to resistance either to ciprofloxacin or to sulfamethoxazole. This is the first report of ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolated from goats in Greece.

  7. [Medical myths and notions in Ancient Greece].

    PubMed

    Boulogne, J

    2001-01-01

    The article deals with the views on health and disease prevalent in Ancient Greece, the cradle of modern European medicine, focusing on the ever-present myths functioning in that realm despite attempts to rationally explain medical phenomena. On the basis of the works of Hippocrates and Galen, the author has distinguished five different epistemological attitudes towards those phenomena: the holistic, macrocosmological, monistic, anti-hypothetical and eclectic. The first was based on the idea of mechanical and logical causes. In medicine it is marked by determinism connected with climatic conditions. Hippocrates believed that health depended on the weather, in particular on the effects of winds, types of water and properties of soil. Myth emerged in this conception in the way matter - earth, water, air and fire - was conceived, particular in the properties ascribed to them: cold, humidity, aridity and warmth. The author charges that this conception was permeated with ethnocentrism and cites examples invoked by Hippocrates on the basis of his observations on the Scythians. The macrocosmological attitude involves subordinating medicine to cosmology. Man's body is a microcosm. The author cites the treatise 'On Diets', in which the greatest importance both in the universe and in processes taking place in the human body as ascribed to two factors - fire and water. Their combination was said to have played a crucial role in the typology of corporal and mental constitutions. Those features, together with the seasons of the year, mode of behaviour and food, constitute the four forces guiding vital processes. The author then presents the embryogenic conception contained in the cosmological treatise. It was based on such things as numerological speculations, hence - despite its rationalistic assumptions, consigns it to the mythic. The third attitude, the monistic approach, presents a treatise ascribed to Hippocrates 'On the Sacred Disease' and dealing with epilepsy. The

  8. Development of a Coastal Inventory in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karditsa, Aikaterini; Poulos, Serafim; Velegrakis, Adonis; Ghionis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Andreadis, Olympos; Monioudi, Isavella

    2015-04-01

    Greek coastline that accounts more than 16.000 km hosts hundreds of beaches, which constitute a great touristic destination. However, no gathered information exists relative to its qualitative and quantitative characteristics (e.g. physicogeographical characteristics, artificial structures, nearby land use). Therefore, the development of a coastal database that would successfully concentrate all relative data, in the form of a National Inventory, could be a valuable tool for the management and the sustainable use and exploitation of beaches and the coastal zone. This work presents an example of the development of a beach inventory in the case of the beach zones of Heraklion and Lassithi counties in the Island of Crete, which is one of the most touristic areas in Greece. Data were initially abstracted from satellite images and combined with in situ observations carried out along 98 beaches with shoreline length >100 m. The collected data included geomorphological, topographic and bathymetric mapping, sediment sampling from the subaerial and underwater part and recording of artificial structures. The initial mapping showed that beaches represent only the 18%, with 74% of the total coastline to be rocky while 8% of the coastline host some kind of artificial intervention. The combination of satellite and in situ mapping led to the development of a coastal geomorphological map. Beach widths were found to be limited with the majority of beaches (59%) to have maximum widths less than 25 m, 35% to range between 25 and 50m and about 6% with maximum widths >50m. Concerning beach length, the threshold of 1000 m is overcome only by the 46% of the beaches. Beaches with very smooth slopes (<2.5) are infrequent (~6%), whilst beaches with low slopes (2.5-5%) are the majority (42%) along with beaches with moderate slopes (5-7.5%) that account approximately the 32%. Beaches with high slopes (7.5-10%) are about 11%, whereas very high slopes and extremely high slopes are much less

  9. The role of rivers in transporting organic contaminants in the marine environment of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2013-04-01

    The study of trace organic contaminants in coastal marine environments and especially in estuarine systems is of great importance, since these areas, being biologically productive and receiving considerable pollutant inputs from land-based sources via river runoff, act as a transit zone in which contaminants are transported to the sea. The aim of this work is to identify the significance of estuarine export of organic pollution in the marine environment of Greece. For this reason, the distribution, composition and sources of hydrocarbon mixtures were investigated in sediments collected from eight major Greek estuarine systems, by using a molecular marker approach and several diagnostic criteria and indices. Surface sediment samples were collected from the estuaries of five rivers in Northern Greece flowing into Aegean sea (Axios, Aliakmonas, Strymon, Nestos, Evros), one river in Central Greece (Asopos) also flowing into Aegean Sea and two rivers in Western Greece flowing into Ionian sea (Acheloos, Acherontas). The highest aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations (>100 μg/g), indicative of petroleum pollution, were recorded in Asopos estruaries, followed by Aliakmonas, Axios, Strymon and Evros estuaries (50-100 μg/g). On the contrary, in Nestos delta, as well as in Acheloos and Acherontas estuaries, hydrocarbon values were found low and similar to those measured in open sea (< 25 μg/g), indicating that these rivers are not major hydrocarbon suppliers in the marine environment. The unresolved complex mixture (UCM) was the main component of the aliphatic fraction in most cases demonstrating some petroleum inputs in all areas, but high values of the ratio unresolved to resolved compounds (U/R), which are clearly indicative of petroleum residues, were measured only in Asopos, Axios and Evros estuary (U/R: 5.1-10.4). The n-alkane distribution was generally similar with that of total aliphatics. The high molecular weight n-alkanes (>C23) predominated in most cases, showing

  10. Use of wild bird surveillance, human case data and GIS spatial analysis for predicting spatial distributions of West Nile virus in Greece.

    PubMed

    Valiakos, George; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Birtsas, Periklis; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Hutchings, Michael R; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Pervanidou, Danai; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Tsokana, Constantina; Baka, Agoritsa; Manolakou, Katerina; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Artois, Marc; Yon, Lisa; Hannant, Duncan; Petrovska, Liljana; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Billinis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS). Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density). Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723-1,386). Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace) western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841-6,189) and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence.

  11. Northern cardiometeopathies.

    PubMed

    Hasnulin, V I; Sevost'yanova, E V; Hasnulina, A V

    2001-04-01

    Our research in high latitudes has allowed the identification of a special class of deadaptive disorders, northern cardiometeopathies, which integrates cardiovascular functional violations connected to biologically significant modifications of meteorological, geomagnetic, electrical, gravitational, rhythmological and other geo-ecological factors of the North. Cardiac and cerebral disorder complexes, and also some psychoemotional modifications manifest cardiometeopathies. Cardiometeopathies can occur with developing of pathology, and in such a case they can be selected in the independent form of deadaptive disease. At the same time, cardiometeopathies in case where cardiovascular pathology already exists could cause complications and become a particular risk factor for the development of injuries and myocardial heart attack. The most important mechanism of cardiometeopathies' formation is the organism's reaction to modifications of the Earth's electromagnetic field, based on internal electromagnetic fields' (first of all pulsing field of heart) dependence on the magnitude and directness of modification of the external electromagnetic fields. The analysis of the high degree of dependence of the blood circulation effiency during geomagnetic perturbations in the North of the modification of electromagnetic heart activity allows us to speak of the discovery of an earlier unknown electromagnetic blood pump.

  12. Geology and geochronology of the Arnea, Sithonia and Ouranopolis intrusions, Chalkidiki peninsula, northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wet, A. P.; Miller, J. A.; Bickle, M. J.; Chapman, H. J.

    1989-04-01

    The Chalkidiki Peninsula comprises the Greek geotectonic units of the Vardar-Axios Zone and the Serbo-Macedonian Massif. Several granitic bodies of various ages intrude this area and many of them are of unknown or disputed age. The ages of the Arnea, Sithonia and Ouranopolis granitoids are investigated using 40Ar- 39Ar stepheated mineral and Rb-Sr whole rock analyses. The Arnea granite has experienced intense but variable deformation, recrystallization and retrogression. In general it lacks easily datable minerals because of it's highly evolved silica rich composition. However coarse-grained phlogopitic mica separated from a minor less evolved porphyritic part of the intrusion yields an excellent 40Ar- 39Ar plateau age of 136 ± 1 Ma. Rb-Sr whole rock samples give a regression line of age 155 ± 11Ma and an initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio of 0.7174 ± 0.0017 (MSWD 280). The scatter may reflect the widespread recrystallization and deformation of the Arnea granite. The Arnea granite is at least Late Jurassic in age and has undergone regional greenschist metamorphism during the Early Cretaceous. Biotite from the Sithonia granitoid yields a plateau age of 43 ± 0.6 Ma. Muscovites from crosscutting pegmatites within the granitoid give slightly saddle-shaped age spectra with minimum ages of 49 Ma and 50 Ma, suggesting Argon-40 excess. Biotite and muscovite from the Ouranopolis granitoid yield plateau ages of 44 ±1.1 Ma and 47 ± 0.7 Ma respectively. It is suggested that this granitoid is coeval and cogenetic with the Sithonia granitoid. Both intrusions are Eocene in age. Rb-Sr whole rock samples from the Sithonia and Ouranopolis granitoids failed to provide any isochrons. This is interpreted to be due to inhomogeneities in these young intrusions. The age data strongly suggest that the Sithonia and Ouranopolis granitoids are unrelated to the Arnea granite. Coupled with geochemical and petrographic data these results clarify the relationships between some of the granitic intrusions and have important regional implications.

  13. Reproductive and lipid cycles in the male frog Rana ridibunda in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Loumbourdis, N S; Kyriakopoulou-Sklavounou, P

    1991-01-01

    1. Reproductive and lipid cycles in the male frog Rana ridibunda were studied. 2. The spermatogenesis of Rana ridibunda is of the potentially continuous type. 3. During prehibernating season (September-November) a part of lipid is mobilized from fat bodies to other body sites or is transformed to other metabolites. 4. During wintering this frog consumes mainly glycogen. 5. In February the lipid is accumulated in the fat bodies and the liver mass shows a second peak, probably as a result of glycogen accumulation. 6. The greatest decrease of metabolites was observed during the breeding season and this is the result of the intensive activities related to the reproduction and maintenance.

  14. Tinea capitis in adults during 1981-95 in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Devliotou-Panagliotidou, D; Koussidou-Eremondi, T; Chaidemenos, G C; Theodoridou, M; Minas, A

    2001-11-01

    The mycological laboratory of our Hospital examined 31,073 patients between 1981 and 1995. Sex, age, the residence of patients, the clinical type of tinea and contacts with other persons and animals were investigated. All the patients were also examined under Wood's light. Tinea capitis was diagnosed in 35 adults. Trichophyton violaceum was the commonest aetiological agent (54.5%), especially in elderly women. The other anthropophilic fungi were T. rubrum (8.5%), T. schoenleinii (5.7%) and T. tonsurans (2.8%). The zoophilic fungi Microsporum canis (14.3%), T. terrucosum (8.5%) and T. mentagrophytes (5.7%) were also isolated.

  15. Concentration of heavy metals in seawater and sediments from the northern Aegean Sea, Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Fytianos, K; Vasilikiotis, G.S.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the study presented was to investigate the distribution of heavy metals in seawater and sediments in areas, which face increasing marine pollution problems, due to the industrialization and especially in the closed gulfs of Thermaikos and Kavala in north Aegean sea. The city of Thessaloniki with more than 1,200,000 inhabitants and the surrounding industrial area use Thermaikos Gulf as the final receiver for their liquid wastes. The Gulf of Thermaikos receives domestic, agricultural, industrial and natural runoff from a heavily populated and fairly industrialized area. The heavy metal contamination is mainly affected by industrial wastes from oil refinery, steel industry, a fertilizer plant and some other industries located in the industrial area, west of the city.

  16. Sea cliff erosion in the eastern part of the North Aegean coastline, Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Xeidakis, George S; Delimani, P K; Skias, S G

    2006-01-01

    The coastal zone is an area where many human activities are taking place. Erosion of the coast obstructs, in various ways, these activities creating occasionally serious socioeconomic and environmental problems. In this paper the coastal erosion problems encountered in the eastern Greek part of the North Aegean Sea Coast, a stretch of about 51 km long adjacent to the city of Alexandroupolis, are discussed. Given the observed type and location of erosion and other sea-action phenomena, the coast under study is divided in two parts/stretches. The western stretch, where the city of Alexandroupolis is presently extending, presents, mainly, cliff erosion problems and retreat of the coastline, very serious in some sections; whereas, the eastern stretch (to the east of the city) exhibits deposition and progression seawards due to the abundance of sediments supplied by Evros river delta. A classification of the coastline according to its relief, geologic material, erosion characteristics and rate, slope failure phenomena as well as the wave energy potential, is presented together with suggestions for case-appropriate mitigation and protection measures regarding the coastal erosion problems. The paper is focusing on the cliff erosion phenomena, since varying in height coastal cliffs made of soft rocks, cover the major part of the investigated coastline (western stretch).

  17. Byzantine wall paintings from Kastoria, northern Greece: Spectroscopic study of pigments and efflorescing salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordanidis, Andreas; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Strati, Aggeliki; Gkimourtzina, Amalia; Papoulidou, Androniki

    2011-02-01

    This study concerns the investigation of pigments and efflorescence phenomena on the wall paintings of Kastoria, a rural, non-metropolitan Byzantine town. A large number of representative samples were collected from the murals of three churches, dated to post-Byzantine era (14th-17th c. AD). The identified pigments for the red colour were hematite (Fe 2O 3), cinnabar (HgS) and minium (Pb 3O 4), while brown and yellow colours were attributed to mixtures of ochres (Fe-oxides and hydroxides) and lime. The utilization of admixtures of iron, lead and mercury compounds was also attested in order to render specific tones on the painted surfaces. Black and dark blue hues were prepared using black carbon and Mn in some cases. Grey colours were assigned to a mixture of black carbon and lime. Green colour is rather attributed to admixtures of Fe-rich minerals and lime and not to the commonly used green earths. Baryte (BaSO 4) was also evidenced as a filler or extender. Phosphorous was detected and connected to proteinaceous material and Mo and Sb were traced which are probably affiliated to Fe-oxides. Regarding efflorescing salts, the determined compounds are: calcite, dolomite, gypsum, halite, nitratine, natron and mirabilite, all of which are related to temperature and humidity changes and moisture fluctuations inside the wall paintings.

  18. Comparison of evolution and tectonic significance of the Pindos and Vourinos ophiolite suites, northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, John V.; Zimmerman, Jay

    1996-05-01

    The Pindos ophiolite, located on the western edge of the Sub-Pelagonian (Othris) zone, comprises a complex series of westward-verging thrust sheets dominantly composed of peridotite tectonite, phaneritic mafic and leucocratic rocks, and pillow lavas. Harzburgite tectonites from part of the east-central thrust sheet (Dramala Complex) show three well developed foliations. The oldest, compositional layering (S 0), has been isoclinally folded, and preferred orientations of elongate grains and aggregates of olivine and orthopyroxene parallel to the axial surfaces of the isoclines define the second foliation (S 1). Spinel lineations parallel fold axes of the isoclinal folds. Thermometric calculations from mineral compositions and grain sizes of olivines and pyroxenes associated with the oldest preserved foliations (compositional layering, S 0 = S 1) indicate that rocks of the tectonite suite equilibrated at depths of between 45 and 60 km, at temperatures between 1210°C and 925°C and at differential stresses from 5 to 10 MPa. In general, rocks indicative of higher temperatures of equilibration formed at lower values of differential stress. The third, and youngest, foliation is defined by bands of fine-grained olivine and pyroxene mylonite that cut across older structural elements. Mylonites equilibrated at temperatures between 650°C and 710°C, presumably indicative of shallower depths (30-20 km) than the older foliations, accompanied by differential stresses ranging from 200 to 300 MPa, and probably formed during obduction of the complex. The sense and orientation of shear determined from kinematic indicators within the mylonitic zones indicate an updip displacement vector inclined at an angle of 20° to 40° toward 016°, suggesting obduction to the east-northeast relative to the present position of the Pindos ophiolite. There is no direct evidence for the amount of rotation about a vertical axis that may have occurred during obduction or later tectonic transport. The composition, internal structure, environments of equilibration, stress history, and inferred direction of obduction of the Pindos ultramafites are strikingly similar to those of the Vourinos Complex located 40 km to the northeast on the eastern margin of the Sub-Pelagonian zone. It is probable that the two ophiolites shared a common origin and an identical early obduction history. During Late Jurassic times, the Vourinos and its metamorphic sole were thrust over a thick sequence of shelf carbonates and a thin, diamictitic melange, both units being metamorphosed to lower greenschist facies. Comparable units beneath the Pindos thrust sheet (the Loumnitsa Unit and the Avdella Melange) are thicker, somewhat more lithologically diverse, and comprise amphibolite, greenschist, radiolarite, pillow lava, garnetite, exotic marble, flysch, and poorly metamorphosed, fossiliferous limestone, typically occurring in tightly folded, thin thrust slices. Differences in the timing and direction of post-emplacement thrust transport of the two complexes are marked and may have begun late in the obduction phase.

  19. Evaluation and management of juvenile recurrent parotitis in children from northern Greece

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulou-Alataki, E; Chatziavramidis, A; Vampertzi, O; Alataki, S; Konstantinidis, I

    2015-01-01

    Background: Juvenile Recurrent Parotitis (JRP) is a recurrent parotid inflammation of childhood.  The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical, laboratory and imaging profile of children with JRP as well as to estimate the impact of siadendoscopy as a therapeutic tool in the clinical outcome of JRP. Methods: Twenty-three children with JRP aged 3.5-16 years, were investigated. Twelve of them underwent sialendoscopy: seven aged <8 years under general and five aged >8 years under local anesthesia. Results: The age at onset ranged from 2-15 years while the number of episodes from 2-8 per year. The autoantibody profile was negative in all patients, suggesting no evidence for autoimmune diseases.  Antibody deficiency was found in two children. The imaging studies reveal an overall parotid swelling and intraparotid lymph nodes while microabscesses were present in 31% of the patients. Twelve patients who underwent sialendoscopy had a significant improvement in their clinical outcome; the mean episodes of JRP before sialendoscopy was 3.9/year and reduced to 0.4 at the post-intervention year. Conclusion: Sialendoscopy represents an alternative and promising perspective in the management of JRP. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (4): 356-359. PMID:27688702

  20. Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliadis, Elias S; Grivas, Theodoros B; Kaspiris, Angelos

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth about diagnosis and treatment of kyphosis and less about scoliosis. The innovation of the board, the application of axial traction and even the principle of trans-abdominal correction for correction of spinal deformities have their origin in Hippocrates. Galen, who lived nearly five centuries later impressively described scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis, provided aetiologic implications and used the same principles with Hippocrates for their management, while his studies influenced medical practice on spinal deformities for more than 1500 years. PMID:19243609

  1. Diurnal variation of wind-chill at Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balafoutis, Ch. J.

    1989-12-01

    The diurnal variations of wind-chill at Thessaloniki, Greece, are considered using hourly data from January 1960 to December 1977. This is the first attempt in Greece to describe bioclimatic conditions using wind-chill data. The hourly values of wind-chill were calculated by Siple-Passel's formula which still appears to be most widely used. The values of wind-chill are discussed in terms of Terjung's scale. Thessaloniki does not experience “frost-bite” conditions during the coldest months but does experience “warm” conditions during the summer period. A comparison of hourly and daily mean values show that the means do not indicate the real range of wind-chill during the day.

  2. Adoption and use of e-invoicing in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Marinagi, C. E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com Trivellas, P. E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com Reklitis, Panagiotis E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com; Skourlas, C.

    2015-02-09

    This paper investigates the adoption and use of electronic invoices (e-invoices) in Greek organizations. The study attempts to evaluate current practices applied in implementing e-invoicing. A field research has been conducted, which is based on a structured questionnaire. The target sample consisted of 42 Greek enterprises. The main issues of the investigation include the existing invoice processing practices, the barriers that prevent the extended adoption and use of e-invoicing, the observed benefits from e-invoicing implementation, and the strategic drivers for transition to e-invoicing. Currently, the use of e-invoicing in Greece is low. However, the research results testify that the adoption of e-invoicing in Greece is promising. Even though, a number of enterprises state that benefits of e-invoicing are not clear yet, the majority of enterprises agree that there are crucial financial priorities that e-invoicing is expected to support.

  3. Effective ultraviolet irradiance measurements from artificial tanning devices in Greece.

    PubMed

    Petri, Aspasia; Karabetsos, Efthymios

    2015-12-01

    Artificial tanning remains very popular worldwide, despite the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunbeds as 'carcinogenic to humans'. Greek Atomic Energy Commission has initiated a surveillance action of the artificial tanning devices in Greece in order to record the effective irradiance levels from the sunbeds and to inform and synchronise the domestic artificial tanning business sector with the requirements of the European Standard EN 60335-2-27:2010. In this direction, in situ measurements of UV emissions from sunbeds in solaria businesses all over Greece were performed from October 2013 until July 2014, with a radiometer and a portable single-monochromator spectrophotometer. Analysis of the measurements' results revealed that effective irradiance in ∼60 % of the measured sunbeds exceeded the 0.3 W m(-2) limit value set by EN 60335-2-27:2010 and only 20 % of the devices could be categorised as UV type 3.

  4. A clinical and educational telemedicine link between Bulgaria and Greece.

    PubMed

    Anogianakis, George; Ilonidis, George; Anogeianaki, Antonia; Milliaras, Spyros; Klisarova, Anelia; Temelkov, Temel; Vlachakis-Milliaras, Emmanuel

    2003-01-01

    During its transition to a market economy, Bulgaria benefited from foreign aid provided by Greece. One of the projects was the clinical and educational telemedicine link between the Medical University of Varna in Bulgaria and the Faculty of Medicine of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in Greece. This began in 1997. In terms of the educational activities, the Bulgarian side of the network supports: an electronic classroom equipped with personal workstations, multimedia projectors and videoconference facilities; electronic design and publishing activities; Web hosting and mail server activities; and satellite communications. Communications are via ISDN. The main clinical experience has been remote consultations in immunology. This experience (admittedly limited) demonstrates that telemedicine can be used to provide assistance to remote colleagues. In addition, the use of telemedicine can greatly improve the quality of care available to travellers and migrant workers in cases where the patient cannot communicate with the attending physician because of a language barrier.

  5. West Nile virus infections in Greece: an update.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna

    2012-07-01

    Approximately 2 years have passed since the detection of the first human case of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Greece, which was the starting signal of a large outbreak in 2010, followed by a second one in 2011. More than 250 neuroinvasive disease cases with 15% fatality were observed during the two WNV seasons. WNV lineage 2 sequences were obtained from blood donors, Culex mosquitoes, wild birds and sentinel chickens. The Greek WNV strain shows high genetic relatedness to the goshawk-Hungary/04 WNV strain; an amino acid substitution in nonstructural protein 3 (H249P) is observed, which has been previously associated with increased virus transmission. This article provides an overview of the WNV outbreaks in Greece and discusses the knowledge gained from these events.

  6. Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Vasiliadis, Elias S; Grivas, Theodoros B; Kaspiris, Angelos

    2009-02-25

    Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth about diagnosis and treatment of kyphosis and less about scoliosis. The innovation of the board, the application of axial traction and even the principle of trans-abdominal correction for correction of spinal deformities have their origin in Hippocrates. Galen, who lived nearly five centuries later impressively described scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis, provided aetiologic implications and used the same principles with Hippocrates for their management, while his studies influenced medical practice on spinal deformities for more than 1500 years.

  7. Urban wastewater and stormwater technologies in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Angelakis, A N; Koutsoyiannis, D; Tchobanoglous, G

    2005-01-01

    The status of urban sewerage and stormwater drainage systems in ancient Greece is reviewed, based on the results of archaeological studies of the 20th century. Emphasis is given to the construction, operation, and management of sewerage and stormwater drainage systems during the Minoan period (2nd millennium B.C.). The achievements of this period in dealing with the hygienic and the functional requirements of palaces and cities, were so advanced that they can only be compared to modern urban water systems, developed in Europe and North America in the second half of the 19th century A.D. The advanced Minoan technologies were exported to all parts of Greece in later periods of the Greek civilization, i.e. in Mycenaean, Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic periods.

  8. Factors determining migrant remittances: the case of Greece.

    PubMed

    Lianos, T P

    1997-01-01

    "In this study we review the literature regarding the theory and the empirical evidence regarding migrants' remittance behavior, and we examine the flow and determinants of remittances from Greek migrants for the period 1961 to 1991. The main body of data is for remittances to Greece from Germany, but for some years data are available for remittances from Belgium and Sweden as well. The objective of this study is to test the significance of certain factors in terms of their effects on remittances to Greece. These factors are the migrant's income, the migrant's family income, the rate of unemployment, the rate of interest, the exchange rate, and the rate of inflation. The study attempts to see if these factors have had any effect on the volume of remittances. It also attempts to see if there are any structural changes during this period that affect migrants' propensity to remit."

  9. Online Communities: The Case of Immigrants in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaretou, Ioannis; Karousos, Nikos; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Foteinou, Georgia-Barbara; Pavlidis, Giorgos

    Immigrants in Greece are an increasing population, very often threatened by poverty and social exclusion. At the same time Greek government has no formal policy concerning their assimilation in Greek society and this situation generates multiple problems in both immigrants and native population. In this work we suggest that new technology can alleviate these effects and we present specific tools and methodologies adopted by ANCE, in order to support online communities and specifically immigrant communities in Greece. This approach has the potential to support immigrant communities' in terms of the organization of personal data, communication, and provision of a working space for dedicated use. The Information System's operational features are also presented, along with other characteristics and state-of-the-art features in order to propose a general direction to the design of online communities' mechanisms.

  10. Natural radioactivity content of granite tiles used in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papaefthymiou, H

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations in commercial granite tiles imported in Greece were performed using gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K ranged from 1 to 434, 2 to 239 and 71 to 1576 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The calculated activity concentration index (I) values for all granite samples examined were found to be within the EC limit values for superficial and other materials with restricted use.

  11. West Nile virus infections in humans--focus on Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna

    2013-10-01

    West Nile virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus causing to humans a variety of symptoms, from asymptomatic or mild infection, to severe, and often fatal, infection of the central nervous system. The present review aims to describe the main clinical characteristics of the disease, to provide the recent epidemiological data, including those from the recent outbreaks in Greece, and to discuss the environmental factors which might play a role in the virus emergence and its wider dispersal.

  12. Geochemical correlation of surface and subsurface oils, western Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacas, J.G.; Monopolis, D.; Nicolaou, C.A.; Anders, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Biodegraded seep oils, devoid of n-alkanes and most isoprenoid hydrocarbons, were successfully correlated with subsurface crude oils in western Greece primarily using carbon isotopes and the more microbially resistant tricyclic terpane and aromatic steroid hydrocarbon distributions. All the studied oils seem to fit into three major genetic groups which are consistent with the geologic, tectonic, and geographic settings and are presumably related to different source-rock facies. Group I oils are typical of the abundant oil shows in the Epirus province, northwest Greece. Minor but consistent biomarker differences necessitated subgrouping of the Epirus oils, implying derivation from slightly different sources. Group II oils are located in the Katakolon area, northwestern Peloponnese. Group III oils, which are clearly distinct from the other groups, are centered in Zakynthos Island. An oil seep at Trifos, west central Greece, and a subsurface oil from Paxi Island, because of uncertain correlations, are classed intermediate between Group I and II oils. An aromatic steroid hydrocarbon measurement, modified after Mackenzie et al. (1981), appears useful in determining the relative maturity of biodegraded and conventional oils and carbonate rock extracts. ?? 1986.

  13. A ten year Moment Tensor database for Western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpetsidaki, Anna; Sokos, Efthimios; Tselentis, G.-Akis

    2016-10-01

    Moment Tensors (MTs) provide important information for seismotectonic, stress distribution and source studies. It is also important as a real time or near real time information in shakemaps, tsunami warning, and stress transfer. Therefore a reliable and rapid MT computation is a routine task for modern seismic networks with broadband sensors and real-time digital telemetry. In this paper we present the database of Moment Tensor solutions computed during the last ten years in Western Greece by the University of Patras, Seismological Laboratory (UPSL). The data from UPSL broad band network were used together with the ISOLA Moment Tensor inversion package for routine MT calculation. The procedures followed and the comparison of UPSL derived solutions with the ones provided by other agencies for Western Greece region are presented as well. The Moment Tensor database includes solutions for events in the magnitude range 2.8-6.8 and provides a unique insight into the faulting characteristics of Western Greece. Moreover it paves the way for detailed studies of stress tensor and stress transfer. The weak events' Moment Tensor included in UPSL's database are important for the comprehension of local seismotectonics and reveal the role of minor faults, which may be critical in seismic hazard estimation.

  14. Analysis of synoptic conditions for tornadic days over Western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Matsangouras, I. T.

    2014-03-01

    Tornadoes have been reported in Greece during the last decades and recent studies have given evidence that west Greece is a vulnerable area for tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds to occur. In this study, the composite means and anomalies of synoptic conditions for tornadic events (tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds) over west Greece are analyzed and discussed. The daily composite means of synoptic conditions were based on National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis datasets, for the period 12 August 1953 to 31 December 2012. The daily composite anomalies were calculated with respect to 30 years climatology (1981-2010) of the synoptic conditions. The analysis was carried out in terms of seasonal and monthly variability of composite means and anomalies of synoptic conditions for specific isobaric levels of 500, 700, 850, 925 hPa and the sea level pressure (SLP). In addition, an analysis and discussion about the dynamic Lifted Index from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis datasets is presented.

  15. Generics market in Greece: the pharmaceutical industry's beliefs.

    PubMed

    Geitona, Mary; Zavras, Dimitrios; Hatzikou, Magda; Kyriopoulos, John

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the beliefs and perspectives of the pharmaceutical industry on generic medication in Greece. Questionnaires were mailed to all 58 members of the Hellenic Association of Pharmaceutical Companies from November 2002 to February 2003. The response rate was 52%, namely 30 questionnaires were completed and returned. The questionnaire requested information on companies' involvement in generics, their opinion on generics' characteristics and on public policies affecting the demand and supply of generic medication. A descriptive analysis of the outcomes, that is percentage comparison through binomial tests and Fisher tests, was performed. According to our findings, 43% of the respondents were involved in the production and distribution of generics and the mean period of their involvement was 12 years. The majority of the respondents were in favor of their companies' involvement in generics, despite the relatively small market share of generics in Greece; 9.7% of total pharmaceutical market in 2003. Bearing in mind that in Greece the promotion of generics is not encouraged, pharmaceutical companies believe that the mandatory introduction of bioequivalence studies is an indirect promotional strategy towards generics. Additionally, the majority declared that their main competitive advantages are their safety, efficacy and effectiveness as well as their economic benefit to the society. Finally, the respondents expressed their preference for the introduction of pharmacoeconomic submissions for drugs' reimbursement by social insurance funds.

  16. Genetic characterisation of Taenia multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece.

    PubMed

    Al-Riyami, Shumoos; Ioannidou, Evi; Koehler, Anson V; Hussain, Muhammad H; Al-Rawahi, Abdulmajeed H; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papadopoulos, Elias; Jabbar, Abdul

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to genetically characterise the larval stage (coenurus) of Taenia multiceps from ruminants in Greece, utilising DNA regions within the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (partial cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (pnad1) mitochondrial (mt) genes, respectively. A molecular-phylogenetic approach was used to analyse the pcox1 and pnad1 amplicons derived from genomic DNA samples from individual cysts (n=105) from cattle (n=3), goats (n=5) and sheep (n=97). Results revealed five and six distinct electrophoretic profiles for pcox1 and pnad1, respectively, using single-strand conformation polymorphism. Direct sequencing of selected amplicons representing each of these profiles defined five haplotypes each for pcox1 and pnad1, among all 105 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of individual sequence data for each locus, including a range of well-defined reference sequences, inferred that all isolates of T. multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece clustered with previously published sequences from different continents. The present study provides a foundation for future large-scale studies on the epidemiology of T. multiceps in ruminants as well as dogs in Greece.

  17. Spatial and temporal changes of water quality, and SWAT modeling of Vosvozis river basin, North Greece.

    PubMed

    Boskidis, Ioannis; Gikas, Georgios D; Pisinaras, Vassilios; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2010-09-01

    The results of an investigation of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Vosvozis river in Northern Greece is presented. For the purposes of this study, three gaging stations were installed along Vosvozis river, where water quantity and quality measurements were conducted for the period August 2005 to November 2006. Water discharge, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) and electrical conductivity (EC) were measured in situ using appropriate equipment. The collected water samples were analyzed in the laboratory for the determination of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium nitrogen, total Kjeldalh nitrogen (TKN), orthophosphate (OP), total phosphorus (TP), COD, and BOD. Agricultural diffuse sources provided the major source of nitrate nitrogen loads during the wet period. During the dry period (from June to October), the major nutrient (N, P) and COD, BOD sources were point sources. The trophic status of Vosvozis river during the monitoring period was determined as eutrophic, based on Dodds classification scheme. Moreover, the SWAT model was used to simulate hydrographs and nutrient loads. SWAT was validated with the measured data. Predicted hydrographs and pollutographs were plotted against observed values and showed good agreement. The validated model was used to test eight alternative scenarios concerning different cropping management approaches. The results of these scenarios indicate that nonpoint source pollution is the prevailing type of pollution in the study area. The SWAT model was found to satisfactorily simulate processes in ephemeral river basins and is an effective tool in water resources management.

  18. Chemical parameters as natural tracers in hydrogeology: a case study of Louros karst system, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsanou, K.; Lambrakis, N.; D'Alessandro, W.; Siavalas, G.

    2016-11-01

    The Louros Basin hosts one of the most important karst systems of Epirus Prefecture (Greece) and plays a key role in supplying three counties with drinking water. Aiming to investigate the origin of groundwater and its flow patterns, a multi-tracer approach was used to describe and evaluate the hydrogeology of the system. Therefore, 271 surface water and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physicochemical parameters, major ions, and trace and rare earth elements, as well as stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H). These data provided meaningful tracing of the water origin, water-rock interaction processes, and relationships among the aquifers. In particular, the elaboration of the major ions supported by the distribution of rare earth elements indicated that there are three aquifers located at different levels hosted in the Senonian and Pantokrator limestone formations. These aquifers are hydraulically interconnected by a cascade and constitute the Louros karst system which is drained by the homonymous river. Hydrochemical and isotopic data revealed that the Louros karst system is isolated from the adjacent northern Ioannina Basin and it is being recharged by precipitation. Higher groundwater salinity, where present, is mainly associated with increased water-rock interaction due to longer and deeper hydrologic flow, favoring the dissolution of evaporitic, carbonate and phosphate minerals.

  19. From Mesoproterozoic magmatism to collisional Cretaceous anatexis: Tectonomagmatic history of the Pelagonian Zone, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenker, Filippo Luca; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios; Moulas, Evangelos; Larionov, Alexander; Quadt, Albrecht

    2014-08-01

    The magmatic history of the Pelagonian Zone, in northern Greece, is constrained with secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) U-Pb dating on zircons of various granitoids whose structural positions were defined with respect to the regional main foliation. Ages pertain to four groups: (i) Mesoproterozoic (circa 1430 Ma) crystallization of granites inferred from inherited magmatic zircon cores that have been partially molten during the (ii) Neoproterozoic at circa 685 Ma (metamorphic zircon rims) and subsequently intruded by a Neoproterozoic leucogranite (circa 600 Ma). (iii) Late- or post-Variscan calc-alkaline granitoids (315-301 Ma) were in turn intruded by a subvolcanic dike at about 280 Ma. In the Early Permian the ɛNd(t) in magmas decreased from -7.3 to -1.3, hinting to mantle-derived melts produced during extension. Rifting is further heralded by two acidic and one mafic dike containing Lower-Middle Triassic zircons (246-242 Ma). (iv) Early Cretaceous anatectic melts at 117 ± 8 Ma formed during regional metamorphism. This age is the first report of in situ anatexis in the Pelagonian Zone. Cretaceous anatexis developed during the Mesozoic collision of Pelagonia with the Eurasian margin. Major- and trace-element geochemistry of amphibolites further attests for the complex pre-Alpine tectonic history with Neoproterozoic calc-alkaline and back-arc geochemical signature and Triassic alkali-magmatism.

  20. Magnetostratigraphy of a Lower-Middle Triassic boundary section from Chios (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muttoni, G.; Kent, D. V.; Gaetani, M.

    1995-12-01

    The Marmarotrapeza Formation at Chios Island (northern Aegean Sea, Greece) is renowned for its Lower-Middle Triassic boundary sections in a marine Tethyan setting. Two sections have been sampled bed by bed to develop a magnetostratigraphic framework for the ammonoid and conodont biostratigraphy. The boundary sections occur within a lower normal (A +)-reverse (B -)-upper normal (C +) polarity sequence. The Lower-Middle Triassic boundary, placed at the first occurrence of the ammonoid genera Aegeiceras ugra Diener, Paracrochordiceras spp., Paradanubites depressus Fantini Sestini and Japonites sp., and close to the first appearance of the conodont species Gondolella timorensis Nogami, occurs in normal polarity zone Chios C +. The overall mean direction of the reversal-bearing characteristic component, whose early acquisition is suggested by a tilt test, is D = 271.2°, I = 33.2° ( α95 = 11.7°, k = 112.5, N = 3). The inferred paleolatitude of the sampling sites is about 18°N, consistent with either an African or stable European affinity, although the declinations suggest large-scale counter-clockwise rotations with respect to Africa or stable Europe since the Early-Middle Triassic.

  1. Fate of natural organic matter at a full-scale Drinking Water Treatment Plant in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, A; Papadakis, N; Voutsa, D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the fate of natural organic matter (NOM) and subsequent changes during the various treatment processes at a full-scale Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP). Monthly sampling campaigns were conducted for 1 year at six sites along DWTP of Thessaloniki, Northern Greece including raw water from the Aliakmonas River that supplies DWTP and samples from various treatment processes (pre-ozonation, coagulation, sand filtration, ozonation, and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration). The concentration of NOM and its characteristics as well as the removal efficiency of various treatment processes on the basis of dissolved organic carbon, UV absorbance, specific ultra-violet absorbance, fluorescence intensity, hydrophobicity, biodegradable dissolved organic carbon, and formation potential of chlorination by-products trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) were studied. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in reservoir of the Aliakmonas River ranged from 1.46 to 1.84 mg/L, exhibiting variations regarding UV, fluorescence, and hydrophobic character through the year. Along DWTP, a significant reduction of aromatic, fluorophoric, and hydrophobic character of NOM was observed resulting in significant elimination of THM (63%) and HAAs (75%) precursors.

  2. Chemical parameters as natural tracers in hydrogeology: a case study of Louros karst system, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsanou, K.; Lambrakis, N.; D'Alessandro, W.; Siavalas, G.

    2017-03-01

    The Louros Basin hosts one of the most important karst systems of Epirus Prefecture (Greece) and plays a key role in supplying three counties with drinking water. Aiming to investigate the origin of groundwater and its flow patterns, a multi-tracer approach was used to describe and evaluate the hydrogeology of the system. Therefore, 271 surface water and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physicochemical parameters, major ions, and trace and rare earth elements, as well as stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H). These data provided meaningful tracing of the water origin, water-rock interaction processes, and relationships among the aquifers. In particular, the elaboration of the major ions supported by the distribution of rare earth elements indicated that there are three aquifers located at different levels hosted in the Senonian and Pantokrator limestone formations. These aquifers are hydraulically interconnected by a cascade and constitute the Louros karst system which is drained by the homonymous river. Hydrochemical and isotopic data revealed that the Louros karst system is isolated from the adjacent northern Ioannina Basin and it is being recharged by precipitation. Higher groundwater salinity, where present, is mainly associated with increased water-rock interaction due to longer and deeper hydrologic flow, favoring the dissolution of evaporitic, carbonate and phosphate minerals.

  3. Endocrine disrupting compounds in the atmosphere of the urban area of Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salapasidou, M.; Samara, C.; Voutsa, D.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in a complex urban atmosphere. Target compounds were alkylphenols (NP, tOP, nOP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO), bisphenol A (BPA), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and phthalates (DMP, DEP, DBP, BBP, DEHP, DNOP). EDCs were determined in ambient PM10 from two sampling sites, one urban-traffic and one urban-industrial, located in the city of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. At both sites, DEHP and NP were found to be the predominant EDCs in airborne PM10. Concentrations of NP did not exhibit any spatial difference, whereas concentrations of DEHP were significantly higher at the urban-traffic site. Wind direction was not found to have any significant effect on ambient EDCs concentrations suggesting impact from local sources rather than transport; however some peak concentrations might be attributed to short-distance sources. The gas/particle partition coefficient, Kp, and the gaseous phase of EDCs were calculated by employing two approaches based on literature data (a) for the subcooled liquid vapor pressure ( PL0) and (b) the octanol-air partition coefficient ( KOA). It appeared that the g/ p partition of phthalates estimated by the KOA approach is in better agreement with experimental partition data reported by other investigators. Absorption in organic matter was found to be significant partition mechanism at the urban-traffic site.

  4. Environmental parameters affecting the species diversity along the Aliakmon River, North Greece.

    PubMed

    Ilias, Ilias F; Lakis, Christos; Papazafeiriou, Agapi Z

    2008-03-15

    The annual distribution of aquatic and coastal macrophytes in five selected sites along the Aliakmon River was studied from January 2005 to December 2005 in Northern Greece. Soil and water chemical parameters in these sites were also evaluated. A total of 75 taxa were recorded belonging to 37 families and 53 genera. The majority of the macrophytes belonged to coastal plants (76%), whereas the rest of the macrophytes belonged to aquatic plants (24%). Species of the family Asteraceae were dominant among coastal plants, whereas species of the family Potamogetonaceae were dominant among aquatic plants. Soil samples from the site of Dam of Veria had higher pH and electric conductivity (80-100 cm depth), whereas CaCO3 contents were significantly higher in soil samples from the area of P. Prodromos (60-80 cm depth). Most physicochemical water parameters as well as selected soil nutrients and major ionic components showed an increase during the low charge period (fall) compared to with the high charge period (spring), especially in parameters associated with agricultural activity. Furthermore, there was an increase in most examined values moving towards the delta of the river.

  5. Petrographical, palynological, and sedimentological aspects regarding the genesis of Palaeogene lignites near Alexandroupolis, Thrace, Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniadis, P.; Kaouras, G.; Khanaqa, P.; Riegel, W.; Gentzis, T.

    2006-01-21

    Several minor lignite deposits of Palaeogene (Eocene to Oligocene) age occur in the vicinity of Alexandroupolis, Thrace, northern Greece. A few, rather thin seams were mined in the past by small private operations for local use. Coal samples have been collected from old mine dumps and outcrops around abandoned mine posts to be studied by means of maceral analysis at high magnification. The groundwater and vegetation index are calculated from the maceral composition and used to draw conclusions concerning the environment of deposition. In addition, block samples of coal cut perpendicular to bedding were studied at intermediate magnification and underfluorescence, thus revealing some interesting bedding features as well as well-preserved plant organisms. The coals are characteristically finely laminated and highly gelified. Palynological preparations have thus far yielded only poorly preserved palynomorph assemblages, rather low in diversity and dominated by fern spores. This fern dominance is rather unusual: however, it is compatible with the occurrence of fertile fern fronds observed in petrographic coal sections. Accompanying clastic sediments exhibit cyclic fining-upward sequences at a scale averaging about 1 m in vertical extent. Grain sizes range from small gravel to clay and silt. In some cases, siltstones in the roof of coal seams include abundant plant fragments showing parallel venation. The evidence presented from various sources suggests a rather unstable fluvial environment and a generally high water table on the flood plain for the formation of these lignites.

  6. Submarine Volcanic Morphology of Santorini Caldera, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomikou, P.; Croff Bell, K.; Carey, S.; Bejelou, K.; Parks, M.; Antoniou, V.

    2012-04-01

    Santorini volcanic group form the central part of the modern Aegean volcanic arc, developed within the Hellenic arc and trench system, because of the ongoing subduction of the African plate beneath the European margin throughout Cenozoic. It comprises three distinct volcanic structures occurring along a NE-SW direction: Christianna form the southwestern part of the group, Santorini occupies the middle part and Koloumbo volcanic rift zone extends towards the northeastern part. The geology of the Santorini volcano has been described by a large number of researchers with petrological as well as geochronological data. The offshore area of the Santorini volcanic field has only recently been investigated with emphasis mainly inside the Santorini caldera and the submarine volcano of Kolumbo. In September 2011, cruise NA-014 on the E/V Nautilus carried out new surveys on the submarine volcanism of the study area, investigating the seafloor morphology with high-definition video imaging. Submarine hydrothermal vents were found on the seafloor of the northern basin of the Santorini caldera with no evidence of high temperature fluid discharges or massive sulphide formations, but only low temperature seeps characterized by meter-high mounds of bacteria-rich sediment. This vent field is located in line with the normal fault system of the Kolumbo rift, and also near the margin of a shallow intrusion that occurs within the sediments of the North Basin. Push cores have been collected and they will provide insights for their geochemical characteristics and their relationship to the active vents of the Kolumbo underwater volcano. Similar vent mounds occur in the South Basin, at shallow depths around the islets of Nea and Palaia Kameni. ROV exploration at the northern slopes of Nea Kameni revealed a fascinating underwater landscape of lava flows, lava spines and fractured lava blocks that have been formed as a result of 1707-1711 and 1925-1928 AD eruptions. A hummocky topography at

  7. A heuristic expert system for forest fire guidance in Greece.

    PubMed

    Iliadis, Lazaros S; Papastavrou, Anastasios K; Lefakis, Panagiotis D

    2002-07-01

    Forests and forestlands are common inheritance for all Greeks and a piece of the national wealth that must be handed over to the next generations in the best possible condition. After 1974, Greece faces a severe forest fire problem and forest fire forecasting is the process that will enable the Greek ministry of Agriculture to reduce the destruction. This paper describes the basic design principles of an Expert System that performs forest fire forecasting (for the following fire season) and classification of the prefectures of Greece into forest fire risk zones. The Expert system handles uncertainty and uses heuristics in order to produce scenarios based on the presence or absence of various qualitative factors. The initial research focused on the construction of a mathematical model which attempted to describe the annual number of forest fires and burnt area in Greece based on historical data. However this has proven to be impossible using regression analysis and time series. A closer analysis of the fire data revealed that two qualitative factors dramatically affect the number of forest fires and the hectares of burnt areas annually. The first is political stability and national elections and the other is drought cycles. Heuristics were constructed that use political stability and drought cycles, to provide forest fire guidance. Fuzzy logic was applied to produce a fuzzy expected interval for each prefecture of Greece. A fuzzy expected interval is a narrow interval of values that best describes the situation in the country or a part of the country for a certain time period. A successful classification of the prefectures of Greece in forest fire risk zones was done by the system, by comparing the fuzzy expected intervals to each other. The system was tested for the years 1994 and 1995. The testing has clearly shown that the system can predict accurately, the number of forest fires for each prefecture for the following year. The average accuracy was as high as 85

  8. Archeointensities during the Neolithic period in Greece: new data to constraint the secular variation curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjat, G.; Aidona, E.; Camps, P.; Poidras, T.; Kondopoulou, D.

    2011-12-01

    Archaeomagnetism has been continuously developed over the last three decades. Backed archaeological features such as pottery, kilns or burnt structures, provide reliable data as they usually carry a strong and stable thermo-remanent magnetization acquired during the last firing. Numerous studies have provided high quality data for both the direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field essentially in Europe (e. g. compilations Genevey et al 2008, G3, Kovacheva et al, 2009, G3). In particular, Greece provides a lot of archaeological materials and numerous data are available (e. g. Aitken et al 1984, PEPI, Aitken et al 1989, PEPI, De Marco et al, 2008, Phys. Chem. Earth) from archaeomagnetic features or historical lava flows (Spassov et al, 2010, G3). The Greek secular variation curves (SVCs) are available for the last 8 millennia for the intensity and the last 6 millenia for the direction. Nevertheless, the coverage of the archaeological periods remains with several gaps for periods older than 2500 BC (Genevey et al, 2008, G3 and Kovacheva et al, 2009, G3). In this study, we present paleointensity results from Neolithic settlements in Northern Greece. Samples have been collected from four different archaeological sites: burnt structures and ceramics in Avgi (Kastoria, 5400-5100 B.C.) and Vasili (Farsala, 6000 B.C.), one kiln with the associated ceramics from Sossandra (Aridaia, 5000-4600 B.C.) and one ceramic collection from Dikili Tash (Kavala, 4800 B.C.). The samples have been subjected to a standard magnetic analysis in order to define the stability of the magnetic carriers and fulfil all the required criteria for the estimation of the palaeointensity. We obtained two reliable palaeointensities for the Avgi and Vasili sites of 38 and 48 μT respectively and a high mean paleointensity value arround 85 μT for the Dikili Tash site. These results are compared with the SVCs from neighbouring countries as well as with recent compilations and global models. We

  9. Evidence for Neotethys rooted within the Vardar suture zone from the Voras Massif, northernmost Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Sally A. M.; Robertson, Alastair H. F.

    2004-03-01

    Three conflicting models are currently proposed for the location and tectonic setting of the Eurasian continental margin and adjacent Tethys ocean in the Balkan region during Mesozoic-Early Tertiary time. Model 1 places the Eurasian margin within the Rhodope zone relatively close to the Moesian platform. A Tethyan oceanic basin was located to the south bordering a large "Serbo-Pelagonian" microcontinent. Model 2 correlates an integral "Serbo-Pelagonian" continental unit with the Eurasian margin and locates the Tethys further southwest. Model 3 envisages the Pelagonian zone and the Serbo-Macedonian zone as conjugate continental units separated by a Tethyan ocean that was sutured in Early Tertiary time to create the Vardar zone of northern Greece and former Yugoslavia. These published alternatives are tested in this paper based on a study of the tectono-stratigraphy of a completely exposed transect located in the Voras Mountains of northernmost Greece. The outcrop extends across the Vardar zone, from the Pelagonian zone in the west to the Serbo-Macedonian zone in the east. Within the Voras Massif, six east-dipping imbricate thrust sheets are recognised. Of these, Units 1-4 correlate with the regional Pelagonian zone in the west (and related Almopias sub-zone). By contrast, Units 5-6 show a contrasting tectono-stratigraphy and correlate with the Paikon Massif and the Serbo-Macedonian zone to the east. These units form a stack of thrust sheets, with Unit 1 at the base and Unit 6 at the top. Unstacking these thrust sheets places ophiolitic units between the Pelagonian zone and the Serbo-Macedonian zone, as in Model 3. Additional implications are, first, that the Paikon Massif cannot be seen as a window of Pelagonian basement, as in Model 1, and, secondly, Jurassic andesitic volcanics of the Paikon Massif locally preserve a gneissose continental basement, ruling out a recently suggested origin as an intra-oceanic arc. We envisage that the Almopias (Vardar) ocean rifted

  10. Archeointensities in Greece during the Neolithic period: New insights into material selection and secular variation curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjat, G.; Aidona, E.; Kondopoulou, D.; Camps, P.; Rathossi, C.; Poidras, T.

    2013-02-01

    Numerous archeomagnetic studies have provided high quality data for both the direction and the intensity of the geomagnetic field, essentially in Europe for the last 10 millennia. In particular, Greece supplies a lot of archeological materials due to its impressive cultural heritage and volcanic activity, so that numerous data have been obtained from burnt clays or historical lava flows. The most recent Greek secular variation curves are available for the last 8 millennia for the intensity and the last 6 millennia for the direction. Nevertheless, the coverage still presents several gaps for periods older than 2500 BC. In an effort to complete the Greek curve and extend it to older times, we present the archeointensity results from three Neolithic settlements in Northern Greece. The samples are of two different natures: burnt structures from Avgi (5250 ± 150 BC) and Vasili (4800 ± 200 BC), as well as ceramics from Dikili Tash (4830 ± 80 BC) and Vasili (4750 ± 250 BC). The samples have been subjected to standard rock magnetic analyses in order to estimate the thermal stability and the domain state of the magnetic carriers before archeointensity measurements. Surprisingly, very few ceramic samples provided reliable archeointensities whereas samples from burnt structures presented a very good success rate. Complementary studies showed that a detailed examination of the matrix color, following archeological information and classification standards can be a decisive test for pre-selection of sherds. In spite of these unsuccessful measurements from ceramics, we obtained an intensity value of 73.5 ± 1.1 μT for Dikili Tash, a higher value than the other data obtained in the same area, during the same period. However we do not have evidences for a technical artefact during the experiment. The burnt structures yielded two reliable archeointensities of 36.1 ± 1.8 μT and 46.6 ± 3.4 μT for Avgi and Vasili, respectively. Finally, we achieved a new archeomagnetic dating

  11. Working with Students with Special Educational Needs in Greece: Teachers' Stressors and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antoniou, Alexander-Stamatios; Polychroni, Fotini; Kotroni, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Few studies explore the specific sources of stress, and the coping strategies applied by teachers of children with special educational needs, particularly in small countries such as Greece. The present study investigated the specific work-related stressors affecting special educational needs teachers in Greece and the coping strategies applied by…

  12. Historical and Contemporary Aspects of the Relationship between the State and Adult Education in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    An outgrowth of earlier research on historical and contemporary adult education in Greece, this paper provides highlights of the relationship between the state and adult education in that country. The highlights are organized by the following historical periods: prehistory (c. 3000-1100 B.C.); early and archaic Greece (c. 1100-700 B.C.);…

  13. Tracking the vector of Onchocerca lupi in a rural area of Greece.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Papadopoulos, Elias; Petrić, Dušan; Ćupina, Aleksandra Ignjatović; Bain, Odile

    2012-07-01

    During a hot Mediterranean summer, an expedition brought parasitologists from Brazil, France, Greece, Italy, and Serbia to a wooded area near Xanthi, Thrace, northeastern Greece, near the Turkish border, on the track of the vector of the little-known nematode Onchocerca lupi. The scientific purposes of the expedition blended then with stories of humans, animals, and parasites in this rural area.

  14. The Effect of Education on Economic Growth in Greece over the 1960-2000 Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsamadias, Constantinos; Prontzas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of education on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000 by applying the model introduced by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil. The findings of the empirical analysis reveal that education had a positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000. The econometric…

  15. A Marvelous Journey: Calling from Greece to a U.S. Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lana; Sucich, John

    2007-01-01

    A unit of study on Ancient Greece is a part of the fourth grade social studies curriculum at Belmont Day School. The students spend 10 weeks exploring Greek history and mythology. This article discusses a new project that the authors conducted, wherein one of them was going to Greece on a study tour, while the other one stays in Belmont Day…

  16. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of paliperidone palmitate for treating schizophrenia in Greece

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients having chronic schizophrenia with frequent relapses and hospitalizations represent a great challenge, both clinically and financially. Risperidone long-acting injection (RIS-LAI) has been the main LAI atypical antipsychotic treatment in Greece. Paliperidone palmitate (PP-LAI) has recently been approved. It is dosed monthly, as opposed to biweekly for RIS-LAI, but such advantages have not yet been analysed in terms of economic evaluation. Purpose To compare costs and outcomes of PP-LAI versus RIS-LAI in Greece. Methods A cost-utility analysis was performed using a previously validated decision tree to model clinical pathways and costs over 1 year for stable patients started on either medication. Rates were taken from the literature. A local expert panel provided feedback on treatment patterns. All direct costs incurred by the national healthcare system were obtained from the literature and standard price lists; all were inflated to 2011 costs. Patient outcomes analyzed included average days with stable disease, numbers of hospitalizations, emergency room visits, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Results The total annual healthcare cost with PP-LAI was €3529; patients experienced 325 days in remission and 0.840 QALY; 28% were hospitalized and 15% received emergency room treatment. With RIS-LAI, the cost was €3695, patients experienced 318.6 days in remission and 0.815 QALY; 33% were hospitalized and 17% received emergency room treatment. Thus, PP-LAI dominated RIS-LAI. Results were generally robust in sensitivity analyses with PP-LAI dominating in 74.6% of simulations. Results were sensitive to the price of PP-LAI. Conclusions PP-LAI appears to be a cost-effective option for treating chronic schizophrenia in Greece compared with RIS-LAI since it results in savings to the health care system along with better patient outcomes. PMID:22747533

  17. Biochemical genetic variability in brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Greece.

    PubMed

    Suchentrunk, Franz; Mamuris, Zissis; Sfougaris, Athanassios I; Stamatis, Costas

    2003-06-01

    Allozyme variability of 91 brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from seven regions in Greece was compared to existing data of Bulgarian populations to test the hypothesis of the occurrence ofspecific alleles in Greece, likely stemming from an isolated Late Pleistocene refugial population in the southern Balkans. This hypothesis is particularly suggested by some subfossil Late Pleistocene hare remains in Greece and the reported high mtDNA diversity in Greek hares. Allozymic diversity could be higher in Greek hares than in hares from neighboring regions as a result of the accumulation of variants in a long-lasting Pleistocene refugium. Conversely, Greek hares could exhibit reduced genetic diversity because of long-lasting low effective population sizes during the Late Glacial Maximum and a lower chance of postglacial gene flow from other populations into this rather marginal part in the southern Balkans. Horizontal starch gel electrophoresis of proteins from 35 loci revealed three alleles (Es-1(-162), Pep-2(114), Mpi(88)) at low frequencies, which were not found in Bulgarian or any other brown hare population. In contrast, some alleles from the populations from Bulgaria and other regions of Europe were absent in the Greek samples. Population genetic statistics indicated only a slight tendency of increased gene pool diversity in Greek hares, little substructuring in Greek and Bulgarian populations, respectively, as well as an only slightly lower level of gene flow between the two neighboring regions, as compared to the gene flow within each region. The results conform to the hypothesis of a Late Pleistocene refugial population in the southern Balkans, with some few specific nuclear gene pool characteristics, but little effect on the overall genetic differentiation between Greek and Bulgarian hares.

  18. Relocation and characteristics of recent earthquake sequences (2013, 2014) on the North Gulf of Evia, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshou, Alexandra; Ganas, Athanassios; Karastathis, Vassilios; Mouzakiotis, Evangelos

    2015-04-01

    This work presents the results of relocation and stress inversion analysis for two recent earthquake sequences in the northern Gulf of Evia, central Greece. On 12 November 2013 (18:09, UTC) a moderate earthquake, ML=4.8 occurred onshore northern Evia, near the village Taxiarxis. The epicentral area of this event was manually located: φ=38.9133° Ν, λ=23.0977° Ε at depth 14 km, according to NOA. For a period of one month there were 155 aftershocks with magnitude ML>0.5, while the first day there were 85 earthquakes; the largest of them with magnitude ML=3.9. On November 17, 2014, two shallow earthquakes with magnitude ML=5.2 occurred inside the northern Gulf of Evia, about 34 km NW of Chalkis town. For the location of above events broadband data from HUSN network were used. The relocation for both sequences was done by use of the NonLinLoc software of Lomax etal. (2000). For this purpose a local velocity model was used, calculated in the past by traveltime inversion techniques. For the 2013 seismic sequence the phase data from National Observatory of Athens include more than 12700 P and 4800 S - wave arrivals. Only events with at least 8 P-wave and 4 S-wave arrival having an azimuthal gap lower than 180°, location RMS lower than 0.8 sec and vertical and horizontal errors lower than 1.5 km were selected for processing. A NNW-SSE near-vertical fault was revealed after relocation. The second part of this study refers to the calculation of the moment tensor solutions for the main events as well as for the strongest aftershocks of the 2014 seismic sequence. Seismological broadband data from the Hellenic Unified Seismological Network were collected and analyzed in order to determine the source parameters of the events that occurred in the study area. We selected and analyzed the data of 10 broadband seismological stations with three components. The source parameters were calculated based on a moment tensor inversion, using regional waveforms at epicentral distances

  19. Lethrus (Lethrus) schneideri sp. n. (Coleoptera, Geotrupidae) from Greece

    PubMed Central

    Král, David; Hillert, Oliver; Drožová, Dana; Šípek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Lethrus (Lethrus) schneideri Král & Hillert, sp. n. from Thrace, Greece, is described. The new species is morphologically most similar and probably closely related to Lethrus (Lethrus) apterus (Laxmann, 1770) and Lethrus (Lethrus) ares Král, Rejsek & Schneider, 2001. Diagnostic characters (shape of mandibles, ventral mandible processes, pronotum and parameres) are illustrated. Character matrix for separation of males of the Lethrus species closely related to Lethrus schneideri Král & Hillert, sp. n. and geographic ranges for all species studied are mapped. PMID:24146588

  20. Satellite spectral data and archaeological reconnaissance in western Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Frederick A.; Bauer, M. E.; Cullen, Brenda C.

    1991-01-01

    A Macro-geographical reconnaissance of the Western Peloponnesos adopts spectral signatures taken by Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper as a new instrument of archaeological survey in Greece. Ancient records indicate that indigenous resources contributed to the prosperity of the region. Natural resources and Ancient, Medieval, and Pre-modern Folklife in the Western Peloponnesos describes the principal lines of research. For a supervised classification of attested ancient resources, a variety of biophysical surface features were pinpointed: stone quarries, coal mines, forests of oak and silver fir, terracotta-producing clay beds, crops, and various wild but exploited shrubs such as flax.

  1. Tot Graeci Tot Sententiae: Astronomical Perspective Multiplicity in Ancient Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, O.

    2011-06-01

    Ancient Greece was made of a multiplicity of thinking heads, in an atmosphere of (relative) freedom of opinions, in every field of knowledge. then we should not wonder if many astronomical and cosmological theories, survived until our 17th century, had already been formulated by different philosophers and in different regions, cities and periods of Greek history. Geocentric and heliocentric theories, as well as an atomistic theory of an infinite universe (with infinite worlds), could survive without crashing with one another. In the same time, religious opinions regarding the planets and Sun as a series of gods were present, however not on a scientific ground.

  2. Agroecosystems shape population genetic structure of the greenhouse whitefly in Northern and Southern Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To predict further invasions of pests it is important to understand what factors contribute to the genetic structure of their populations. Cosmopolitan pest species are ideal for studying how different agroecosystems affect population genetic structure within a species at different climatic extremes. We undertook the first population genetic study of the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum), a cosmopolitan invasive herbivore, and examined the genetic structure of this species in Northern and Southern Europe. In Finland, cold temperatures limit whiteflies to greenhouses and prevent them from overwintering in nature, and in Greece, milder temperatures allow whiteflies to inhabit both fields and greenhouses year round, providing a greater potential for connectivity among populations. Using nine microsatellite markers, we genotyped 1274 T. vaporariorum females collected from 18 greenhouses in Finland and eight greenhouses as well as eight fields in Greece. Results Populations from Finland were less diverse than those from Greece, suggesting that Greek populations are larger and subjected to fewer bottlenecks. Moreover, there was significant population genetic structure in both countries that was explained by different factors. Habitat (field vs. greenhouse) together with longitude explained genetic structure in Greece, whereas in Finland, genetic structure was explained by host plant species. Furthermore, there was no temporal genetic structure among populations in Finland, suggesting that year-round populations are able to persist in greenhouses. Conclusions Taken together our results show that greenhouse agroecosystems can limit gene flow among populations in both climate zones. Fragmented populations in greenhouses could allow for efficient pest management. However, pest persistence in both climate zones, coupled with increasing opportunities for naturalization in temperate latitudes due to climate change, highlight challenges for the

  3. Shame and Anxiety Feelings of a Roma Population in Greece.

    PubMed

    Gouva, M; Mentis, M; Kotrotsiou, S; Paralikas, Th; Kotrotsiou, E

    2015-12-01

    Shame is a crucial issue for Roma. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the severity of shame and anxiety feelings in a Roma population living in Greece and assess the differentiation of these feelings between Roma men and women. A quota sample of 194 Roma adult men and women living in Southern Greece was retrieved. The Experiences of Shame Scale (ESS), the Other As Shamer Scale (OAS) and the Spielberg's State/Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires were used. Women scored statistically significantly higher than men on ESS, whereas men scored higher on OAS scale (52.27 ± 16.91 vs 45.42 ± 9.98 and 35.93 ± 16.94 vs 30.87 ± 13.72 respectively). Women scored higher than men in both STAI subscales, however significant differences were observed only in State Anxiety scale (48.83 ± 9.26 vs 43.20 ± 9.81). OAS total score was inversely related to state anxiety, whereas ESS total score was positive related to trait anxiety, all correlations being significant at p < 0.05 level. Roma men and women exhibit high levels of shame and anxiety. Cultural, social and minority issues contribute to feelings of inferiority and anxiety experience.

  4. Are operative delivery procedures in Greece socially conditioned?

    PubMed

    Skalkidis, Y; Petridou, E; Papathoma, E; Revinthi, K; Tong, D; Trichopoulos, D

    1996-04-01

    Caesarean section rates have increased in Greece by almost 50% during the last 13 years. We conducted a study in Athens, Greece, to assess the importance of a series of medical and socioeconomic factors in the use of Caesarean section or operative vaginal procedures, rather than a non-operative process, for the delivery of singleton, liveborn babies of primiparous mothers. We used a case control approach to compare 444 babies delivered through a Caesarean section and 130 delivered through operative vaginal delivery with 1235 normally delivered babies in a public and a private hospital. Data were analysed through multiple logistic regression. Caesarean section was more commonly performed in older, shorter or overweight mothers and for high and low birth-weight babies, as well as in response to several obstetric complications and following in-vitro fertilization. A similar pattern was noted with respect to operative vaginal delivery, except that this procedure was not unusually frequent among overweight women and was not encountered in this study among children born after in-vitro fertilization. Caesarean section was performed twice as often in the public teaching hospital as in a private maternity hospital, and operative vaginal delivery was several times more common in the former than in the latter, after controlling for biomedical risk factors. The unequal distribution of operative delivery procedures between the public and the private hospital raises questions about the justification of their performance in a substantial fraction of deliveries, and indicates that social factors condition their use.

  5. A clinical and educational telemedicine link between Bulgaria and Greece.

    PubMed

    Anogianakis, George; Ilonidis, George; Anogeianaki, Antonia; Milliaras, Spyros; Klisarova, Anelia; Temelkov, Temel; Vlachakis-Milliaras, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    During its transition to a free economy, Bulgaria benefited from foreign aid provided by Greece. One of the projects was the clinical and educational telemedicine link between the Medical University of Varna in Bulgaria and the Faculty of Medicine of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in Greece. This began in 1997. In terms of the educational activities, the Bulgarian side of the network supports (a) electronic design and publishing activities, (b) web hosting and mail server activities and (c) satellite communications. In addition it supports an electronic classroom equipped with personal workstations, multimedia projectors and videoconference facilities. Communications are via the ISDN network. In terms of its telemedicine activities, the network provides remote medical assistance to "language handicapped" travellers and to migrant workers in both countries. The main clinical experience is remote consultations in immunology. This admittedly limited experience demonstrates that telemedicine can be used to provide assistance to remote colleagues. In cases where the patient cannot communicate with the attending physician, the use of telemedicine can greatly improve the quality of care available to travellers and migrant workers.

  6. Service quality perceptions in primary health care centres in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Papanikolaou, Vicky; Zygiaris, Sotiris

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Context  The paper refers to the increased competition between health care providers and the need for patient‐centred services in Greece. Using service quality methodology, this paper investigates service quality perceptions of patients in Greek public primary health centres. Objective  To test the internal consistency and applicability of SERVQUAL in primary health care centres in Greece. Strategy  SERVQUAL was used to examine whether patients have different expectations from health care providers and whether different groups of patients may consider some dimensions of care more important than others. Results  The analysis showed that there were gaps in all dimensions measured by SERVQUAL. The largest gap was detected in empathy. Further analysis showed that there were also differences depending on gender, age and education levels. A separate analysis of expectations and perceptions revealed that this gap was because of differences in patients’ perceptions rather than expectations. Discussion and conclusions  This paper raises a number of issues that concern the applicability of SERVQUAL in health care services and could enhance current discussions about SERVQUAL improvement. Quality of health care needs to be redefined by encompassing multiple dimensions. Beyond a simple expectations–perceptions gap, people may hold different understandings of health care that, in turn, influence their perception of the quality of services. PMID:22296402

  7. A 7-year survey of dermatophytoses in Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Maraki, Sofia; Nioti, Eleni; Mantadakis, Elpis; Tselentis, Yannis

    2007-11-01

    Dermatophytoses are of worldwide distribution. Epidemiological studies concerning dermatophyte infections have been performed in many countries and differences in the incidence and the aetiological agents have been reported in different geographical locations. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevailing species of dermatophytes in the island of Crete, Greece, and their pattern of infection during a 7-year period (1997-2003). A total of 5544 samples obtained from 3751 patients with clinically suspected dermatomycoses were examined mycologically in the laboratory of Clinical Microbiology at the University Hospital of Crete, Greece. Skin, hair and nail specimens were subjected to direct microscopy and culture. Dermatophytes were isolated from 520 patients (13.9%). Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated dermatophyte accounting for 48% of the infections, followed by Microsporum canis (17.9%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (14.2%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (6%). Tinea unguium, tinea pedis, tinea corporis, tinea capitis, tinea cruris, tinea manuum and tinea facei were the clinical types of dermatophytoses in decreasing order of frequency. Trichophyton rubrum is the predominant dermatophyte in our area. As the epidemiology of dermatophytoses is changing over time it is important to review periodically the incidence of dermatophytes and their distribution.

  8. Energy Payback Time of a Rooftop Photovoltaic System in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachoutis, E.; Koubogiannis, D.

    2016-11-01

    Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is an important tool to quantitatively assess energy consumption and environmental impact of any product. Current research related to energy consumption in buildings moves towards Nearly Zero Energy Building (NZEB). In such a building, an important issue concerns the energy production by renewable sources, including on-site production. The most feasible way to achieve renewable energy utilization in a building level in Greece is by using rooftop Photovoltaic (PV) systems, also promoted in the last decade by the national legislation concerning energy conservation measures. Apart from cost-related issues and payback times, Embodied Energy (EE) and Embodied CO2 (ECO2) emissions have also to be considered against the anticipated corresponding savings. Using a particular PV system as a case study, its basic constitutive materials are determined and their masses are calculated. Embodied energy values are estimated by using embodied energy coefficients available in the international literature. Considering a specific geographic location in Greece for the building on which the PV is installed, the annual energy generated by the system is estimated based on its performance data and curves. The Energy and CO2 Payback Times (EPBT and CO2PBT) are estimated and assessed, as well as future work is suggested.

  9. Stakeholder appraisal of policy options for tackling obesity in Greece.

    PubMed

    Codrington, C; Sarri, K; Kafatos, A

    2007-05-01

    The study aimed to map stakeholders' evaluations of policy options to counter the rising prevalence of obesity in Greece, where the case for action on obesity is only now being made. The multi-criteria mapping method was used to capture and compare stakeholders' appraisals and to provide a policy analysis. Efficacy and practical feasibility were the issues most frequently used by stakeholders to evaluate options and were weighted more highly than cost criteria, which were often defined in terms of governmental costs. There was a broad favourable appraisal for downstream measures offering individuals the skills, information and opportunities to make healthier choices, rather than options to modify the obesogenic environment. Consistently, high rankings were given to educational options, for improving communal facilities and for some information-related options (food labelling, advertising), with particular support for policies targeting the young. There was also significant advocacy by a few for the creation of a new government body charged with intersectoral policy co-ordination. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project analyses thus point to support for a portfolio of measures to combat the problem of obesity in Greece as well as an appreciation that political will is an essential prerequisite.

  10. Cassini Scientist for a Day: an international contest in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonidou, Anezina; Moussas, Xenophon; Xystouris, Georgios; Coustenis, Athena; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Katsavrias, Christos; Bampasidis, Georgios; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos; Kouloumvakos, Athanasios; Patsou, Ioanna

    2013-04-01

    The Cassini Outreach Team of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is being organizing a brilliant school contest in Astronomy focusing in the Saturnian system. This essay contest provides school students all around the worlds with the opportunity to get involved in astronomy and astrophysics and planetary sciences in particular. From 2010 the 'Cassini Scientist for a Day' contest has being one of the most successful as well as important outreach activities of ESA and NASA in Greece with hundreds of participants all over Greece. The number of participants is growing rapidly every year. This type of school competition in Greece is particularly important since Astronomy and Astrophysics and Space Sciences, although very popular, are not included in the school curricula and thus students rarely have the opportunity to experience and participate actively in these subjects. For the years 2010 and 2011, the Space Physics Group of the Astronomy, Astrophysics and Mechanics section of the University of Athens in association with external colleagues has been selected as the co-ordinator of NASA for the competition in Greece. Under the guidance of Cassini Outreach team, the members of the Space Physics Group have informed, explained and spread the rules of the competition at primary, secondary and high schools all over Greece. In general, the students have the option to choose Cassini monitoring between three targets of the Saturnian system, which the participants show that will bring the best scientific result. Their arguments should be summarized in an essay of 500 words more or less. They also have the option to do team work through groups of maximum three students. The participation in the contest for 2010 was unexpectedly high and thoroughly satisfied. The winners awarded through a ceremony which was held in the largest amphitheater at the central building of the University of Athens, that was fully packed. The following year 2011 the participation increased up to 300% while

  11. Petrology and Rock Magnetism of the peridotites of Pindos Ophiolite (Greece), insights into the serpentinization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnemains, D.; Carlut, J. H.; Mevel, C.; Andreani, M.; Escartin, J.; Debret, B.

    2015-12-01

    We present a petrological and magnetic study of a suite of serpentinized peridotites from the Pindos ophiolite spanning a wide range in the degree of serpentinization (from ~10 to 100%). The Pindos ophiolite, in Northern Greece, is a portion of Late Triassic oceanic lithosphere obducted during the convergence of the Apulian and Pelagonian micro-continents. This ophiolite is interpreted mainly as the result of a supra-subduction zone spreading process but its complete history remains largely unknown. Therefore, it is not clear when the ultramafic section was exposed to fluid circulation that resulted in its serpentinization. Element partitioning during serpentinization reactions is dependent on parameters such as temperature and water-rock ratio. In particular, they affect the behavior of the iron released by olivine, which can be taken up either by magnetite, serpentine and/or brucite. Analyses of the reaction products are therefore a key to constrain the conditions during the main stage of the alteration. Our study was designed to gain insight on the conditions prevailing during hydration. Our results indicate that even fully serpentinized samples have a very low magnetization and magnetite content. Moreover, microprobe and μXanes results show that serpentine is the main host of iron in the divalent but also trivalent form. These results are compared with a set of data from serpentinized ultramafics sampled from the ocean floors, as well as from various other ophiolites. We suggest that serpentinization at Pindos occurred at relatively low-temperature (less than 200 °C), therefore not at a ridge environment. In addition, we stress that the presence of trivalent iron in serpentine indicates that serpentinization may remain a producer of hydrogen even when very little magnetite is formed.

  12. Influence of geology on arsenic concentrations in ground and surface water in central Lesvos, Greece.

    PubMed

    Aloupi, Maria; Angelidis, Michael O; Gavriil, Apostolos M; Koulousaris, Michael; Varnavas, Soterios P

    2009-04-01

    The occurrence of As was studied in groundwater used for human consumption and irrigation, in stream water and sediments and in water from thermal springs in the drainage basin of Kalloni Gulf, island of Lesvos, Greece, in order to investigate the potential influence of the geothermal field of Polichnitos-Lisvori on the ground and surface water systems of the area. Total dissolved As varied in the range <0.7-88.3 microg L(-1) in groundwater, 41.1-90.7 microg L(-1) in thermal spring water and 0.4-13.2 microg L(-1) in stream water, whereas As concentrations in stream sediments varied between 2.0-21.9 mg kg(-1). Four out of 31 groundwater samples exceeded the EC standard of 10 microg L(-1). The survey revealed an enrichment in both surface and groundwater hydrological systems in the northern part of the area (average concentrations of As in groundwater, stream water and stream sediment: 8.0 microg L(-1), 8.8 microg L(-1) and 15.0 mg kg(-1) respectively), in association with the volcanic bedrocks, while lower As concentrations were found in the eastern part (average concentrations in groundwater, stream water and stream sediment: 2.9 microg L(-1), 1.7 microg L(-1) and 5.9 mg kg(-1) respectively), which is dominated by ophiolitic ultramafic formations. The variation of As levels between the different parts of the study area suggests that local geology exerts a determinant influence on As geochemical behaviour. On the other hand, the geothermal activity manifested in the area of Polichnitos-Lisvori does not affect the presence of As in groundwater and streams.

  13. Health impacts due to particulate air pollution in Volos City, Greece.

    PubMed

    Moustris, Konstantinos P; Proias, George T; Larissi, Ioanna K; Nastos, Panagiotis T; Koukouletsos, Konstantinos V; Paliatsos, Athanasios G

    2016-01-01

    There is great consensus among the scientific community that suspended particulate matter is considered as one of the most harmful pollutants, particularly the inhalable particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) causing respiratory health problems and heart disorders. Average daily concentrations exceeding established standard values appear, among other cases, to be the main cause of such episodes, especially during Saharan dust episodes, a natural phenomenon that degrades air quality in the urban area of Volos. In this study the AirQ2.2.3 model, developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) European Center for Environment and Health, was used to evaluate adverse health effects by PM10 pollution in the city of Volos during a 5-year period (2007-2011). Volos is a coastal medium size city in the Thessaly region. The city is located on the northern side of the Gulf of Pagassitikos, on the east coast of Central Greece. Air pollution data were obtained by a fully automated monitoring station, which was established by the Municipal Water Supply and Sewage Department in the Greater Area of Volos, located in the centre of the city. The results of the current study indicate that when the mean annual PM10 concentration exceeds the corresponding European Union (EU) threshold value, the number of hospital admissions for respiratory disease (HARD) is increased by 25% on average. There is also an estimated increase of about 2.5% in HARD compared to the expected annual HARD cases for Volos. Finally, a strong correlation was found between the number of days exceeding the EU daily threshold concentration ([PM10] ≥ 50 μg m(-3)) and the annual HARD cases.

  14. Detailed microseismicity study in the area of Florina (Greece): Evidence for fluid driven seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesimeri, Maria; Karakostas, Vassilios; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Tsaklidis, George; Tsapanos, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    A local seismic network was installed and operated in the area of Florina, northern Greece, during July 2013 - January 2014 for studying the high microseismic activity following the occurrence of an Mw = 4.1 event on 17 February 2013. The recordings of the local network along with the ones of the Hellenic Unified Seismological Network (HUSN) are used for obtaining accurate locations and defining the characteristics of the seismic activity. A new velocity model is calculated for a broader area using the recordings of the HUSN stations. Relocation is performed for 1330 events recorded by the local network and 423 events recorded by HUSN using the double difference technique and cross correlation measurements. Fault plane solutions are determined for the two largest events (Mw = 3.6 and Mw = 4.1) using waveform inversion technique. The causative fault of the largest event (Mw = 4.1) is striking almost E-W and dipping to the north. However, most of the activity is concentrated in its south and forms an almost vertical, south dipping plane, striking almost E-W. This southern cluster consists of multiplets and is located in an area of positive Coulomb stress changes, due to the coseismic slip of the Mw = 4.1 earthquake. The spatio-temporal evolution of microseismicity is in most cases well explained by diffusion curves, a signature of fluid induced seismicity. However, there are cases where a triggering front could not describe the evolution of the activity resulting to an earthquake - earthquake triggering. The dependent or independent (Poisson process) earthquake occurrence was examined by searching their interevent time distribution. These characteristics are interpreted as the consequence of CO2 emission through faults which are used as pathways in an area enhanced by the coseismic Coulomb stress changes.

  15. Peri-equatorial paleolatitudes for Jurassic radiolarian cherts of Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiello, I.W.; Hagstrum, J.T.; Principi, G.

    2008-01-01

    Radiolarian-rich sediments dominated pelagic deposition over large portions of the Tethys Ocean during middle to late Jurassic time as shown by extensive bedded chert sequences found in both continental margin and ophiolite units of the Mediterranean region. Which paleoceanographic mechanisms and paleotectonic setting favored radiolarian deposition during the Jurassic, and the nature of a Tethys-wide change from biosiliceous to biocalcareous (mainly nannofossil) deposition at the beginning of Cretaceous time, have remained open questions. Previous paleomagnetic analyses of Jurassic red radiolarian cherts in the Italian Apennines indicate that radiolarian deposition occurred at low peri-equatorial latitudes, similar to modern day deposition of radiolarian-rich sediments within equatorial zones of high biologic productivity. To test this result for other sectors of the Mediterranean region, we undertook paleomagnetic study of Mesozoic (mostly middle to upper Jurassic) red radiolarian cherts within the Aegean region on the Peloponnesus and in continental Greece. Sampled units are from the Sub-Pelagonian Zone on the Argolis Peninsula, the Pindos-Olonos Zone on the Koroni Peninsula, near Karpenissi in central Greece, and the Ionian Zone in the Varathi area of northwestern Greece. Thermal demagnetization of samples from all sections removed low-temperature viscous and moderate-temperature overprint magnetizations that fail the available fold tests. At Argolis and Koroni, however, the cherts carry a third high-temperature magnetization that generally exhibits a polarity stratigraphy and passes the available fold tests. We interpret the high-temperature component to be the primary magnetization acquired during chert deposition and early diagenesis. At Kandhia and Koliaky (Argolis), the primary declinations and previous results indicate clockwise vertical-axis rotations of ??? 40?? relative to "stable" Europe. Due to ambiguities in hemispheric origin (N or S) and thus

  16. Trends in suicidality amid the economic crisis in Greece.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Savopoulos, Christos; Siamouli, Melina; Zaggelidou, Eleni; Mageiria, Stamatia; Iacovides, Apostolos; Hatzitolios, Apostolos I

    2013-08-01

    For the decade 2000-2010, suicidal rates appear to be both low and stable in Greece and unrelated to the socioeconomic environment. It is highly possible that the recent crisis caused a significant increase in dysphoria, stress, depression and maybe suicidal ideation in the general population, but completed suicides do not seem to have increased so far. Measures are needed to make sure there will be no increase in completed suicides in the near future, since historically, periods of socioeconomic instability might be related to increased suicidality. Community interventions reduce stigma and enhance help-seeking. However, only those including the creation of social support networks are essential in the fight against suicidality.

  17. Long survival in a 69,XXX triploid infant in Greece.

    PubMed

    Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Vassiliou, Georgia; Sekerli, Eleni; Sidiropoulou, Vasiliki; Tsiga, Alexandra; Dimopoulou, Despina; Voyiatzis, Nikolaos

    2005-12-30

    The live birth of a triploidy infant is a very rare event and death usually occurs within the first hours of life. Triploid cases with a survival of more than two months are infrequent. We report on an infant with a 69,XXX chromosome constitution who survived 164 days. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated a 69,XXX karyotype with no evidence of mosaicism. This is the longest survival reported for this condition to date in Greece and the fourth longest worldwide. The infant was admitted to our clinic several times due to respiratory problems, and supplementary oxygen was required. The improved survival of our case was possibly due to better management of respiratory illness and prematurity, and these are essential factors that physicians should consider carefully with such rare cases.

  18. Reengineering NHS Hospitals in Greece: Redistribution Leads to Rational Mergers

    PubMed Central

    Nikolentzos, Athanasios; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Polyzos, Nikolaos; Thireos, Eleftherios; Tountas, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate existing public hospital infrastructure of the National Health System (NHS), in terms of clinics and laboratories, as well as the healthcare workforce in each of these units and in every health region in Greece, in an attempt to optimize the allocation of these resources. An extensive analysis of raw data according to supply and performance indicators was performed to serve as a solid and objective scientific baseline for the proposed reengineering of the Greek public hospitals. Suggestions for “reshuffling” clinics and diagnostic laboratories, and their personnel, were made by using a best versus worst outcome indicator approach at a regional and national level. This study is expected to contribute to the academic debate about the gap between theory and evidence based decision-making in health policy. PMID:26156925

  19. First results on video meteors from Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravelias, G.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the first systematic video meteor observations from a, forthcoming permanent, station in Crete, Greece, operating as the first official node within the International Meteor Organization's Video Network. It consists of a Watec 902 H2 Ultimate camera equipped with a Panasonic WV-LA1208 (focal length 12mm, f/0.8) lens running MetRec. The system operated for 42 nights during 2011 (August 19-December 30, 2011) recording 1905 meteors. It is significantly more performant than a previous system used by the author during the Perseids 2010 (DMK camera 21AF04.AS by The Imaging Source, CCTV lens of focal length 2.8 mm, UFO Capture v2.22), which operated for 17 nights (August 4-22, 2010) recording 32 meteors. Differences - according to the author's experience - between the two softwares (MetRec, UFO Capture) are discussed along with a small guide to video meteor hardware.

  20. Karyomorphometric analysis of Fritillaria montana group in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Samaropoulou, Sofia; Bareka, Pepy; Kamari, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fritillaria Linnaeus, 1753 (Liliaceae) is a genus of geophytes, represented in Greece by 29 taxa. Most of the Greek species are endemic to the country and/or threatened. Although their classical cytotaxonomic studies have already been presented, no karyomorphometric analysis has ever been given. In the present study, the cytological results of Fritillaria montana Hoppe ex W.D.J. Koch, 1832 group, which includes Fritillaria epirotica Turrill ex Rix, 1975 and Fritillaria montana are statistically evaluated for the first time. Further indices about interchromosomal and intrachromosomal asymmetry are given. A new population of Fritillaria epirotica is also investigated, while for Fritillaria montana, a diploid individual was found in a known as triploid population. Paired t-tests and PCoA analysis have been applied to compare the two species. PMID:28123688

  1. Archaeological evidence for a destructive earthquake in Patras, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiros, S. C.; Pytharouli, S. I.

    2014-07-01

    Oriented collapse of columns, large-scale destruction debris and temporary abandonment of the area deduced from an archaeological excavation provide evidence for a major (intensity IX) earthquake in Patras, Greece. This, and possibly a cluster of other earthquakes, can be derived from archaeological data. These earthquakes are not included in the historical seismicity catalogues, but can be used to put constraints to the seismic risk of this city. Patras was affected by a cluster of poorly documented earthquakes between 1714 and 1806. The city seems to be exposed to risks of progressive reactivation of a major strike-slip fault. A magnitude 6.4 earthquake in 2008 has been related to it. This fault has also been associated with a total of four events in the last 20 years, a situation reminiscent of the seismic hazard at the western edge of the North Anatolian Fault.

  2. First report of Troglostrongylus brevior in a kitten in Greece.

    PubMed

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Aeriniotaki, Tania; Traversa, Donato

    2014-10-01

    The first case of a natural infestation with Troglostrongylus brevior in a kitten in Greece is described here. A ∼40-day-old stray cat was referred to a private veterinary clinic with signs of respiratory distress. First stage larvae of a metastrongyloid nematode were observed in the wet mount faecal preparation. Despite an anthelmintic treatment, the respiratory signs worsened and the kitten died 2 days later. The larvae in the faeces were identified morphologically and genetically as T. brevior. The present evidence suggests a vertical or direct infestation of the kitten and a severe pathogenic role of T. brevior in young cats. This report expands the recent published cases of troglostrongylosis in domestic cats to a wider geographical distribution and opens new questions on the apparent spreading of T. brevior from wild to domestic hosts.

  3. Groundwater quality assessment of the Limnos Island Volcanic Aquifers, Greece.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, George; Panagiotaras, Dionisios; Giannoulopoulos, Panagiotis

    2013-05-01

    Limnos Island in Greece, which has been the subject of extensive hydrogeological research, contains confined volcanic aquifers that overlie impermeable flysch. Groundwater salinization is usually the effect of seawater intrusion, and results from a combination of factors such as low annual areal precipitation and exploitation of aquifers for civil, commercial, and agricultural purposes. Areas with intense agricultural activities have also increasingly observed these effects. A geochemical evaluation on the basis of multiple ion (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-), NO3-) concentrations and physicochemical parameters distribution revealed that ion exchange is the dominant hydrogeochemical process. However, the enrichment of groundwater in potassium and magnesium results from rock and mineral weathering and dissolution.

  4. Cranial trauma in ancient Greece: from Homer to classical authors.

    PubMed

    Konsolaki, Eleni; Astyrakaki, Elisabeth; Stefanakis, George; Agouridakis, Panos; Askitopoulou, Helen

    2010-12-01

    This article presents literary evidence on traumatic cranio-cerebral injuries in ancient Greece from about 900 B.C. to 100 B.C. The main sources of information are epic and classic Greek texts of that period. Homer provides the first literary source of head trauma, which he portrayed in his epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey. He describes 41 injuries of the head, face and cervical spine, of which all but two were fatal. Subsequently, other classical authors like Plato, Plutarch and others illustrate cases of cranial trauma that occurred mainly in the battlefields, during athletic games or in unusual accidents. They describe some interesting cases of head trauma in prominent men, such as the poet Aeschylos, the kings Pyrrhos and Kyros and Alexander the Great. Most of these descriptions show that the ancient Greeks possessed very good knowledge of the anatomy of the head and neck region and also of the pathophysiological consequences of trauma in the region.

  5. [Medicine in the pre-hippocratic civilization of ancient greece].

    PubMed

    Lips Castro, Walter; Urenda Arias, Catalina

    2014-12-01

    The beginnings of the magical-religious conception of disease would go back to before the development of writing (prehistory). During ancient times the world was conceived as a place where the supernatural was essential for mankind's survival, therefore, explanations of all phenomena, including disease, were based on supernatural causes. With the development of Greek civilization began the establishment of a rational approach to the nature of the world, which gradually included medicine. But the origin of the rational and naturalist perspective of medicine is due in part to the influence of ancient Egyptian civilization. Various terms were used to refer to healing agents at the pre-Hippocratic period of ancient Greece: iatromantis, phôlarcos, ouliads, and asclepiads. Later, in the ancient Greek civilization, healing through prophecy was gradually replaced, though not entirely displaced, by a new medicine, based on a rational theoretical framework about health and disease: téchnê iatrikê.

  6. [The succession of the Hippocratic corpus in modern Greece].

    PubMed

    Sugano, Yukiko; Honda, Katsuya

    2010-03-01

    This paper examines how the Hippocratic corpus was passed on during the Enlightenment of modern Greece, introducing part of the latest Greek research on the history of medicine. Although classical studies at large had stagnated at the time under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, with the movement toward independence in the second half of the 18th century the Greeks raised their consciousness of the fact that they were the successors to their ancestral great achievements. From that time classical studies, including the history of medicine, had been activated. From some medical dissertations and books written by Greek doctors or researchers of those days, we will recognize that they made efforts to deepen the substance of modern Greek medicine, seeking the principles of medical practice from the ancient heritage.

  7. Headache during airplane travel ("airplane headache"): first case in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kararizou, Evangelia; Anagnostou, Evangelos; Paraskevas, George P; Vassilopoulou, Sofia D; Naoumis, Dimitrios; Kararizos, Grigoris; Spengos, Konstantinos

    2011-08-01

    Headache related to airplane flights is rare. We describe a 37-year-old female patient with multiple intense, jabbing headache episodes over the last 3 years that occur exclusively during airplane flights. The pain manifests during take-off and landing, and is located always in the left retro-orbital and frontotemporal area. It is occasionally accompanied by dizziness, but no additional symptoms occur. Pain intensity diminishes and disappears after 15-20 min. Apart from occasional dizziness, no other symptoms occur. The patient has a history of tension-type headache and polycystic ovaries. Blood tests and imaging revealed no abnormalities. Here, we present the first case in Greece. We review the current literature on this rare syndrome and discuss on possible pathophysiology and the investigation of possible co-factors such as anxiety and depression.

  8. Health care practices in ancient Greece: The Hippocratic ideal

    PubMed Central

    Kleisiaris, Christos F.; Sfakianakis, Chrisanthos; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.

    2014-01-01

    Asclepius and Hippocrates focused medical practice on the natural approach and treatment of diseases, highlighting the importance of understanding the patient’s health, independence of mind, and the need for harmony between the individual, social and natural environment, as reflected in the Hippocratic Oath. The aim of this study was to present the philosophy of care provision in ancient Greece and to highlight the influence of the Hippocratic ideal in modern health care practices. A literature review was carried out using browser methods in international databases. According to the literature, “healthy mind in a healthy body” was the main component of the Hippocratic philosophy. Three main categories were observed in the Hippocratic provision of care: health promotion, interventions on trauma care, and mental care and art therapy interventions. Health promotion included physical activity as an essential part of physical and mental health, and emphasized the importance of nutrition to improve performance in the Olympic Games. Interventions on trauma care included surgical practices developed by Hippocrates, mainly due to the frequent wars in ancient Greece. Mental care and art therapy interventions were in accordance with the first classification of mental disorders, which was proposed by Hippocrates. In this category music and drama were used as management tools in the treatment of illness and in the improvement of human behavior. The role of Asclepieion of Kos was highlighted which clearly indicates a holistic health care model in care provision. Finally, all practices regarded detailed recordings and evaluation of information within the guidelines. The Hippocratic philosophy on health care provision focused on the holistic health care model, applying standards and ethical rules that are still valid today. PMID:25512827

  9. Spatio-temporal activity of lightnings over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Matsangouras, I. T.; Chronis, T. G.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events are always associated with convective weather conditions driving to intense lightning activity: Cloud to Ground (CG), Ground to Cloud (GC) and Cloud to Cloud (CC). Thus, the study of lightnings, which typically occur during thunderstorms, gives evidence of the spatio-temporal variability of intense precipitation. Lightning is a natural phenomenon in the atmosphere, being a major cause of storm related with deaths and main trigger of forest fires during dry season. Lightning affects the many electrochemical systems of the body causing nerve damage, memory loss, personality change, and emotional problems. Besides, among the various nitrogen oxides sources, the contribution from lightning likely represents the largest uncertainty. An operational lightning detection network (LDN) has been established since 2007 by HNMS, consisting of eight time-of-arrival sensors (TOA), spatially distributed across Greek territory. In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of recorded lightnings (CG, GC and CC) are analyzed over Greece, during the period from January 14, 2008 to December 31, 2009, for the first time. The data for retrieving the location and time-of-occurrence of lightning were acquired from Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). In addition to the analysis of spatio-temporal activity over Greece, the HNMS-LDN characteristics are also presented. The results of the performed analysis reveal the specific geographical sub-regions associated with lightnings incidence. Lightning activity occurs mainly during the autumn season, followed by summer and spring. Higher frequencies of flashes appear over Ionian and Aegean Sea than over land during winter period against continental mountainous regions during summer period.

  10. Integrated flash flood vulnerability assessment: Insights from East Attica, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Thaler, Thomas; Heiser, Micha; Hübl, Johannes; Fuchs, Sven

    2016-10-01

    In the framework of flood risk assessment, vulnerability is a key concept to assess the susceptibility of elements at risk. Besides the increasing amount of studies on flash floods available, in-depth information on vulnerability in Mediterranean countries was missing so far. Moreover, current approaches in vulnerability research are driven by a divide between social scientists who tend to view vulnerability as representing a set of socio-economic factors, and natural scientists who view vulnerability in terms of the degree of loss to an element at risk. Further, vulnerability studies in response to flash flood processes are rarely answered in the literature. In order to close this gap, this paper implemented an integrated vulnerability approach focusing on residential buildings exposed to flash floods in Greece. In general, both physical and social vulnerability was comparable low, which is interpreted as a result from (a) specific building regulations in Greece as well as general design principles leading to less structural susceptibility of elements at risk exposed, and (b) relatively low economic losses leading to less social vulnerability of citizens exposed. The population show high risk awareness and coping capacity to response to natural hazards event and in the same time the impact of the events are quite low, because of the already high use of local protection measures. The low vulnerability score for East Attica can be attributed especially to the low physical vulnerability and the moderate socio-economic well-being of the area. The consequence is to focus risk management strategies mainly in the reduction of the social vulnerability. By analysing both physical and social vulnerability an attempt was made to bridge the gap between scholars from sciences and humanities, and to integrate the results of the analysis into the broader vulnerability context.

  11. Seismic Hazard Assessment in the Aspospirgos Area, Athens - Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voulgaris, N.; Drakatos, G.; Lekkas, E.; Karastathis, V.; Valadaki, A.; Plessas, S.

    2005-12-01

    The extensive damages and human life loss related to the September 7, 1999 earthquake in the Athens area (Greece) initiated an effort to re-evaluate seismic hazard in various regions around the capital. One of the target areas selected within the framework of the specially designed research project ESTIA was the industrial area of Aspropirgos, where the epicenter of the main shock was located. The multidisciplinary approach towards seismic hazard assessment included a microseismicity survey and detailed geological and tectonic studies in the area in order to delineate and define the recently activated seismic sources in the area. Initially a portable network, consisting of seventeen (17) digital seismographs was installed and operated for 2 months during the autumn of 2004. A total of five hundred forty five (545) earthquakes (M<3) have been recorded. The results of the geological survey in the region were summarised in two maps compiled at a scale of 1:5,000 and 1:25,000, respectively. These data sets were combined with all the available historical and instrumental seismological data and a revised seismic source zone model was defined for the broader area and subsequently used for hazard assessment calculations. The results were presented as maximum expected peak ground acceleration and velocity distribution maps for 475 and 949 years return period or 90% probability of NBE for the next 50 and 100 years respectively. Finally in order to facilitate the implementation of the above results according to the current Greek Aseismic Code the required distribution for the 3 different soil types was mapped using the results of the geological survey. By combining the above types of data the engineer is able to calculate specific design spectra for every site while combination with available vulnerability estimates could lead to more realistic seismic risk calculations. Acknowledgments We would like to thank the General Secretariat for Research and Technology of Greece for

  12. The significance of tectonism in the glaciations of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathrellos, George; Skilodimou, Hariklia; Maroukian, Habik

    2014-05-01

    In Greece, Middle to Late Pleistocene mountain glaciations appear to have been quite extensive, along the mountain range of Pindus, on Mt. Olympus and in the highlands of Peloponnesus. This study focuses on the Middle to Late Pleistocene glaciations based on the examination of cirque formations and their elevation changes due to vertical tectonism, in certain parts of Greece, namely Pindus, Mt. Olympus and Peloponnesus. An initial spatial database of these glacial forms was created including their location and mean elevation. Some of the glaciated sites have been taken from previous literature and others were recorded from topographic maps, air photos and field work. ArcGIS 10 software was used to process the glaciated sites. A map depicting the glaciated areas of Greek regions was compiled with over 230 cirques. A cirque's top, lip and margins of each location were mapped. So altitudes of apex and lip and mean altitude of each cirque ([apex+lip]/2), were calculated. A total number of 239 inactive cirques was recorded with limestone as the dominant lithology. As one moves to the south, in the case of Pindus range and its extension in the Peloponnesus, the number of cirques decreases. These glacial forms occur at altitudes varying from 2,770 to 1,600 m.a.s.l. Thus the preservation of ice for longer periods of time is more likely at altitudes higher than 1,600 m.a.s.l. Concerning the distribution of the mean elevations of cirques one should take into consideration the tectonic activity of the study area. Especially in the Pindus range, Mount Olympus, and Peloponnesus this process is in the form of uplift. This has increased the mean elevation of the cirques in every following ice age. So, in older times many cirques were a few hundred meters lower than the more recent glacial period.

  13. Health care practices in ancient Greece: The Hippocratic ideal.

    PubMed

    Kleisiaris, Christos F; Sfakianakis, Chrisanthos; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V

    2014-01-01

    Asclepius and Hippocrates focused medical practice on the natural approach and treatment of diseases, highlighting the importance of understanding the patient's health, independence of mind, and the need for harmony between the individual, social and natural environment, as reflected in the Hippocratic Oath. The aim of this study was to present the philosophy of care provision in ancient Greece and to highlight the influence of the Hippocratic ideal in modern health care practices. A literature review was carried out using browser methods in international databases. According to the literature, "healthy mind in a healthy body" was the main component of the Hippocratic philosophy. Three main categories were observed in the Hippocratic provision of care: health promotion, interventions on trauma care, and mental care and art therapy interventions. Health promotion included physical activity as an essential part of physical and mental health, and emphasized the importance of nutrition to improve performance in the Olympic Games. Interventions on trauma care included surgical practices developed by Hippocrates, mainly due to the frequent wars in ancient Greece. Mental care and art therapy interventions were in accordance with the first classification of mental disorders, which was proposed by Hippocrates. In this category music and drama were used as management tools in the treatment of illness and in the improvement of human behavior. The role of Asclepieion of Kos was highlighted which clearly indicates a holistic health care model in care provision. Finally, all practices regarded detailed recordings and evaluation of information within the guidelines. The Hippocratic philosophy on health care provision focused on the holistic health care model, applying standards and ethical rules that are still valid today.

  14. Climate change induced lanslide hazard mapping over Greece- A case study in Pelion Mountain (SE Thessaly, Central Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelitsa, Varvara; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Anagnwstopoulou, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Landslides, as a major type of geological hazard, represent one of the natural events that occur most frequently worldwide after hydro-meteorological events. Landslides occur when the stability of a slope changes due to a number of factors, such as the steep terrain and prolonged precipitation. Identification of landslides and compilation of landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk maps are very important issues for the public authorities providing substantial information regarding, the strategic planning and management of the land-use. Although landslides cannot be predicted accurately, many attempts have been made to compile these maps. Important factors for the the compilation of reliable maps are the quality and the amount of available data and the selection of the best method for the analysis. Numerous studies and publications providing landslide susceptibility,hazard and risk maps, for different regions of Greece, have completed up to now. Their common characteristic is that they are static, taking into account parameters like geology, mean annual precipitaion, slope, aspect, distance from roads, faults and drainage network, soil capability, land use etc., without introducing the dimension of time. The current study focuses on the Pelion Mountain, which is located at the southeastern part of Thessaly in Central Greece; aiming to compile "dynamic" susceptibility and hazard maps depending on climate changes. For this purpose, past and future precipipation data from regional climate models (RCMs) datasets are introduced as input parameters for the compilation of "dynamic" landslide hazard maps. Moreover, land motion mapping data produced by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) are used for the validation of the landslide occurrence during the period from June 1992 to December 2003 and as a result for the calibration of the mapping procedure. The PSI data can be applied at a regional scale as support for land motion mapping and at local scale for the

  15. Investigation of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever and Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Greece

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-12

    nasal bleeding, hematuria and gross gastrointestinal bleeding. K-- F -6- Up todate 41 HFRS cases have been serologically diagnosed in Greece. The...CCHF in Greece up until April 1987, was discussed and the conclusions drawn are reported. 4 pA. : -3- B. HORAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROKE (HilS) B1...level. Two house rats (Rattus rattus) captured in a slaughter house in Thessaloniki were found to be seropositive (Table 2). _ _ I -9-. Todate

  16. Health, economic crisis, and austerity: A comparison of Greece, Finland and Iceland.

    PubMed

    Tapia Granados, José A; Rodriguez, Javier M

    2015-07-01

    Reports have attributed a public health tragedy in Greece to the Great Recession and the subsequent application of austerity programs. It is also claimed that the comparison of Greece with Iceland and Finland-where austerity policies were not applied-reveals the harmful effect of austerity on health and that by protecting spending in health and social budgets, governments can offset the harmful effects of economic crises on health. We use data on life expectancy, mortality rates, incidence of infectious diseases, rates of vaccination, self-reported health and other measures to examine the evolution of population health and health services performance in Greece, Finland and Iceland since 1990-2011 or 2012-the most recent years for which data are available. We find that in the three countries most indicators of population health continued improving after the Great Recession started. In terms of population health and performance of the health care system, in the period after 2007 for which data are available, Greece did as good as Iceland and Finland. The evidence does not support the claim that there is a health crisis in Greece. On the basis of the extant evidence, claims of a public health tragedy in Greece seem overly exaggerated.

  17. Radon concentration of waters in Greece and Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolopoulos, D.; Vogiannis, E.; Louizi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Radon (222Rn) is a radioactive gas generated by the decay of the naturally occurring 238U series. It is considered very important from radiological point of view, since it is the most significant natural source of human radiation exposure (approximately 50% from all natural sources). Radon is present in soil, rocks, building materials and waters. Through diffusion and convection, radon migrates and emanates to the atmosphere. Outdoors, radon concentrates at low levels (in the order of 10 Bq/m3). However indoors, radon accumulates significantly. It is trivial to observe indoor environments with high radon levels (in the order of 400 Bq/m3 or higher). Radon accumulation indoors, depends on the composition of the underlying soil and rock formation, on building materials, meteorological parameters, ventilation, heating and water use. Although soil and building materials are the most significant radon sources, there have been reported elevated radon concentrations in building structures due to entering water. It is the radon concentrations in the entering water, the volume and the way of water usage, separated or in combination, that result in large amounts of radon in indoor air. Moreover, radon is a factor of stomach radiation burden due to water consumption. This burden is estimated by measurements of radon concentrations in waters. Due to the health impact of radon exposure, the reporting team continuously measures radon. This work focused on the radon concentrations exposure due to water consumption and use in Greece and Cyprus. Various locations in Greece and Cyprus were accessed taking into consideration existing natural radioactivity data (mainly radon in water), however under the restriction of the capability of movement. Radon in water was measured by Alpha Guard (Genitron Ltd) via a special unit (Aqua Kit). This unit consists of a vessel used for forced degassing of radon diluted in water samples, a security vessel used for water drop deposition. Vessels and

  18. Soil erosion prediction using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) in a GIS framework, Chania, Northwestern Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouli, Maria; Soupios, Pantelis; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2009-04-01

    Soil erosion is a growing problem in southern Greece and particularly in the island of Crete, the biggest Greek island with great agricultural activity. Soil erosion not only decreases agricultural productivity, but also reduces the water availability. In the current study, an effort to predict potential annual soil loss has been conducted. For the prediction, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) has been adopted in a Geographical Information System framework. The RUSLE factors were calculated (in the form of raster layers) for the nine major watersheds which cover the northern part of the Chania Prefecture. The R-factor was calculated from monthly and annual precipitation data. The K-factor was estimated using soil maps available from the Soil Geographical Data Base of Europe at a scale of 1:1,000,000. The LS-factor was calculated from a 30-m digital elevation model. The C-factor was calculated using Remote Sensing techniques. The P-factor in absence of data was set to 1. The results show that an extended part of the area is undergoing severe erosion. The mean annual soil loss is predicted up to ˜200 (t/ha year-1) for some watersheds showing extended erosion and demanding the attention of local administrators.

  19. The Lefkada barrier and beachrock system (NW Greece) — Controls on coastal evolution and the significance of extreme wave events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Simon Matthias; Vött, Andreas; Brückner, Helmut; Grapmayer, Ralf; Handl, Mathias; Wennrich, Volker

    2012-02-01

    The Lefkada-Preveza coastal zone, NW Greece, is characterised by an active barrier system and related extensive beachrock sequences. Besides the gradual coastal processes of longshore drift and spit evolution, the presence of active tectonics and the occurrence of tsunamis have been documented in previous studies and are part of the coastal geomorphological system. In this paper, we present the results of detailed multi-proxy sedimentological and geomorphological investigations carried out along the northern part of the barrier system and in back-beach positions. Our findings suggest that extreme wave events contributed to coastal and environmental changes and involved temporary breakdown of the barrier system. Sedimentary findings suggest that one generation of event deposits may be related to the 365 AD Crete earthquake and associated tsunami. According to our results, the Lefkada coastal system formed by the interaction of both long-term, gradual and sudden, impulsive littoral geomorphodynamics. Extreme wave events are assumed to have played a significant role in the evolution of the present coastline, acting as recurrent impulsive disturbances of the coastal system. Subsequently, the onset of long-term gradual coastal processes, such as longshore drift, re-established a state of natural coastal balance by re-arranging the coastal sediments.

  20. Headward erosion and deep erosion estimations in the wider area of Nemea, Greece, using GIS and freely available DSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mexia, Konstantina

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the present paper is to study and compare the headward erosion and deep erosion rates in the river systems of Asopos, Nemeas and Raizanis, which are in the wider area of the Nemea archaeological site, in the Peloponnese, Greece. The study area is a section of the NE part of the Peloponnese, specifically the zone between the villages of Velo and Vrachati. In the study area terraces appear, which have been mapped in detail and which correspond to isotopic stages of interglacial periods of the Pleistocene. The basic processes that act in our study area and have shaped the current relief is headward erosion and deep erosion, which are favoured by the dominant lithology and fault tectonic. The northern parts of the three river networks intersect sea at terraced levels, where the local terrace front backward retreat indicates the rate of headward erosion and the depth of the valleys at the terrace front indicates the rate of deep erosion. Thus we tried to calculate the rate of these two factors for each river system in order to understand the course of the phenomenon in time. In order to achieve our goal, we used geological and topographical maps of the area at a 1/50.000 scale. Mapinfo GIS software was used in order to make the necessary measurements. The results from the analysis of the topographic maps were compared with the results from freely available DSMs such as ASTER GDEM and SRTM DEM.

  1. Evolution of a calcite marble shear zone complex on Thassos Island, Greece: microstructural and textural fabrics and their kinematic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestmann, Michel; Kunze, Karsten; Matthews, Alan

    2000-11-01

    The deformation history of a monophase calcite marble shear zone complex on Thassos Island, Northern Greece, is reconstructed by detailed geometric studies of the textural and microstructural patterns relative to a fixed reference system (shear zone boundary, SZB). Strain localization within the massive marble complex is linked to decreasing P- T conditions during the exhumation process of the metamorphic core complex. Solvus thermometry indicates that temperatures of 300-350°C prevailed during part of the shear zone deformation history. The coarse-grained marble protolith outside the shear zone is characterized by symmetrically oriented twin sets due to early coaxial deformation. A component of heterogeneous non-coaxial deformation is first recorded within the adjacent protomylonite. Enhanced strain weakening by dynamic recrystallization promoted strong localization of plastic deformation in the ultramylonite of the calcite shear zone, where high strain was accommodated by non-coaxial flow. This study demonstrates that both a pure shear and a simple shear strain path can result in similar crystallographic preferred orientations (single c-axis maximum perpendicular to the SZB) by different dominant deformation mechanisms. Separated a-axis pole figures (+ a- and - a-axis) show different density distributions with orthorhombic texture symmetry in the protolith marble and monoclinic symmetry in the ultramylonite marble consistently with the observed grain fabric symmetry.

  2. Metamorphic conditions and structural evolution of the Kesebir-Kardamos dome: Rhodope metamorphic complex (Greece-Bulgaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulas, Evangelos; Schenker, Filippo Luca; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios

    2017-03-01

    The synmetamorphic nappe system of the Rhodope Metamorphic Complex has been deformed into dome-and-basin structures attributed to syn- to post-convergent exhumation. We document the deformation style and present new thermobarometric and geochronological constraints for the Kesebir-Kardamos dome in southern Bulgaria and northern Greece. The dome consists of a migmatitic core overlain by high-grade thrust sheets. Kinematic indicators indicate a continuum from ductile to brittle conditions during exhumation. Thermodynamic modeling applied to the high-grade, intermediate thrust sheets yielded peak conditions of 1.2 GPa and ca 730 °C. New U-Pb SHRIMP-II dating of zircons from rocks of the same unit revealed Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous (145 Ma) as the time of metamorphic crystallization; some zircon rims yielded Eocene ages (53 and 44 Ma) interpreted as having been thermally reset owing to coeval granitoid magmatism. The high-grade rocks were covered by Lutetian-Priabonian marine sediments after exhumation. Slumps suggest that sedimentation took place in a tectonically active environment. Our new structural, petrological and geochronological results suggest that the major shear zone in the core of the Kesebir-Kardamos dome is equivalent to the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Nestos Shear Zone. Post-Jurassic metamorphic ages recorded in the Rhodope most likely represent crustal rather than deep subduction geodynamic processes.

  3. Public Perception of Climate Risk: The Case of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voskaki, Asimina; Tsermenidis, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is generally considered as one of the greatest challenges our world is facing. In the case of Greece climatic change seems to be associated with sea level rise, increase in temperature, variation in precipitation patterns, and extreme weather events. As a result of climate pattern changes a series of consequences are expected in areas involving build environment, infrastructures, health and various sectors of the economy. Even though climate change is probably going to affect Greece in terms of human welfare and economic growth, public perception and attitude do not always identify it as the most important, amongst others, environmental area of concern, or compared to various socio-economic issues. Considering that topics related to climate change involve a certain degree of uncertainty public perception seems to be important when dealing with adaptation strategies to manage or prevent risks from climate change impact and therefore people's reaction to risks seem to be an issue of great importance in future policy planning and implementation. The key issue of this paper is to investigate and analyse public perception in Greece as regards to climate change risk. Through a questionnaire survey this research investigates people's understanding, specific knowledge, opinion, awareness, emotions, behavior with regards to climate change risks and their willingness to pay in order to minimize or prevent risk. In addition, it examines people's willingness to alter current lifestyle and adapt to a changing climate. The information derived from survey data concern the topics and the perceived importance of the causes of the climate change between certain groups of people; the analysis of the data is focused on the correlation between perceived risk and knowledge about the issues involved. Rather than applying a specific technique extensively, we choose to deploy a number of methodologies with which we are able to draw different aspects from the data. To this

  4. Geomorphologic Structures on the South Cretan Margin, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomikou, Paraskevi; Lykousis, Vasilis; Alexandri, Matina; Rousakis, Grigoris; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Lampridou, Danai; Alves, Tiago; Ballas, Dionysios

    2015-04-01

    Geomorphologic Structures on the South Cretan Margin, Greece Nomikou P.1, Lykousis V.2, Alexandri M.2, Rousakis G.2, Sakellariou D.2, Lampridou D.1 , Alves T.3, Ballas D.2 1University of Athens, Department of Geology and Geoenvironment, Panepistimioupoli Zografou, 15784 Athens, Greece. 2Inst. of Oceanography, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Anavyssos, Greece. 33D Seismic Laboratory, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Main Building-Park Place, CF10 3AT Cardiff, UK. The swath bathymetric survey of the South Cretan Margin has been conducted during the HERMES-1 (May-June 2005) and HERMES-2 (September-October 2005) cruises onboard R/V "AEGAEO" using the 20 kHz, SEABEAM 2120 system. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry outlines in unprecedented detail the shape and the morphological features of the region. One of the most dominant geomorphological structures of the southwest Cretan slope is the submarine Samaria Canyon (Western Cretan Trough) which is characterized by high relief steep walls and V-shaped cross sections. Despite the fact that the trough trends predominantly northeastward, with a central axis oriented from east to west, the head displays a north-trending hook termination on the continental shelf. The minimum depth of its axis is 1400 m and the thalweg ranges from 1500 to 3500m. In addition, abrupt alternation in the axial trend of the canyon is observed, accompanied by sharp changes in axial gradient and in the geometry of the canyon profile ending in a flat area of 3600 m depth. From Paleochora up to Sindonia, numerous small canyons trending N-S crosscut the steep Cretan southern margin, that reaches the 2000 m isobath. These are transversal to the main direction E-W of the slope. Furthermore, the detailed bathymetric map reveals the morphology of several troughs bounded by steep flanks. Their flat bottom may reach up to 3000m water depth. The most characteristic one, Ptolemy trough (eastern South Cretan Trough), is located in

  5. Evidence from cosmic-ray exposure dating based on 36Cl for the pre-Minoan caldera on Santorini, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassas, Constantin; Bourlès, Didier; Braucher, Regis; Druitt, Tim; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Léanni, Laetitia

    2016-04-01

    The physiography of Santorini prior to the Minoan (Late Bronze Age) eruption (17th century BCE) is of great archaeological interest, given the importance of Santorini as a commercial centre and port in the Minoan empire. However, the paleogeography of the pre-Minoan caldera has been a point of controversy: Heiken and McCoy (1984) advocated the existence, in the southern part of the present-day caldera, of a pre-existing caldera formed during the 172 ka Lower Pumice eruption, whereas Druitt and Francaviglia (1992), based on the presence of in situ plinian pumice from the Minoan eruption adhering to the modern cliff, conceived the pre-Minoan (22 ka) caldera as having occupied much of the northern basin of the present-day caldera. With the goal of settling the debate we performed cosmic ray exposure dating employing in situ-produced cosmogenic 36Cl to date different generations of caldera cliffs at Santorini, and hence to identify those cliffs predating the Minoan eruption. Our methodology involved the determination of the in situ-produced cosmogenic 36Cl in basaltic and andesitic rocks cropping out in the cliffs. The samples returned 36Cl CRE ages consistent with previously published field mapping of cliff populations based on geomorphological and stratigraphic arguments (Druitt and Francaviglia 1992), suggesting that much of the present cliff line of northern Santorini predated the Minoan eruption, or was superficially modified by landslips and rockfalls during that eruption. The 36Cl CRE ages enable us to better define the paleogeography of the pre-Minoan caldera. References [1] Druitt, T. H. and Francaviglia, V.1992. Caldera formation on Santorini and the physiography of the islands in the Late Bronze Age. Bulletin of Volcanology 54, 484-493. [2] Heiken G and McCoy F (1984) Caldera development during the Minoan eruption, Thira, Cyclades, Greece. Journal of Geophysical Research: 89 (B10), 8841-8862.

  6. Drought variability over Thessaly plain, Greece. Present and future changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Kapsomenakis, John; Dalezios, Nicolas R.; Kotsopoulos, Spyridon; Poulos, Serafim

    2015-04-01

    The diachronic variability of precipitation is of major scientific concern, because it is linked to water availability or deficiency on regional scale. The latter, resulted from a prolonged period of abnormally low precipitation or permanent absence of precipitation, is associated with dryness, having on one hand, a substantial impact on agricultural production and thus the society itself, and on the other hand, the redistribution of flora and fauna. In some cases, dryness drive climate refugees, and this is a great challenge - threat - that must be faced - mitigated - by stake holders in international organizations and fora. The Aridity Index (AI) measures the degree of dryness of the climate at a given region, and according to the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) it is defined as the ratio of precipitation to the potential evapotranspiration. In this study, we investigate the climate change impacts on AI over Thessaly plain, Greece. Thessaly, the largest plain and granary of Greece, includes a total area of 14,036 km2, which represents almost 11% of the Greek territory. Regarding the geomorphology, the ground is 50% mountainous-hilly and 50% flat, irrigated by Peneus, the third largest river in the country, which flows through the axis east-west. The assessment of AI was conducted utilizing daily evapotranspiration losses, based on the modified FAO-56 Penman-Monteith formula, and daily precipitation totals from a number of Regional Climate Models (RCMs), within the ENSEMBLE European Project. Further, the projected changes of AI between the period 1961-1990 (reference period) and the periods 2021-2050 (near future) and 2071-2100 (far future) along with the inter-model standard deviations are presented, under SRES A1B. The findings of the analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal changes of AI over Thessaly plain, focusing on their societal aspects. Acknowlegdements. This work is supported by the project AGROCLIMA (11SYN_3_1913), which is funded by

  7. The disease burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Kourlaba, Georgia; Hillas, Georgios; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros; Maniadakis, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to estimate the self-reported prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Greece and to quantify its burden on patients’ daily activities, productivity, and psychological status. Methods A population-based, random digit-dialed telephone nationwide survey was conducted between July 10, 2015 and July 31, 2015 in order to recruit patients with COPD in Greece. Among the 11,471 persons contacted, 3,414 met the inclusion criterion of age ≥40 years and completed the screening questions regarding COPD. Of the 362 subjects who reported that they had been diagnosed with COPD, 351 completed the survey. Data on demographic and lifestyle characteristics, comorbidities, disease history, perceived disease severity, breathlessness severity, symptoms severity, limitations in daily activities, psychological distress, and productivity were collected. All data were collected through the telephone interview method using a structured questionnaire. Results The overall self-reported COPD prevalence was 10.6%. Among 351 participants, only 9% reported that they suffered from severe breathlessness. The mean COPD assessment test score was 19.0, with 84% of participants having a COPD assessment test score ≥10. As for the perceived severity of COPD, the majority of subjects considered that their respiratory condition was of moderate (34.2%) or mild severity (33.9%). Overall, the participants reported a significant impact of COPD on their daily life. For instance, 61.5% of them reported that their respiratory condition has affected their sports activities. Moreover, 73% of subjects considered that the health care system could do more for them than it actually does. Almost one-fourth of the participants reported that they had missed work during the past 12 months due to their respiratory symptoms, with the mean number of days lost being 10. Conclusion This survey provides insightful data regarding the impact of COPD on Greek

  8. Northern Trust Mines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The United States and the Navajo Nation entered into settlement agreements that provide funds to conduct investigations and any needed cleanup at 16 of the 46 priority mines, including six mines in the Northern Abandoned Uranium Mine Region.

  9. Environmental Impact of Eu Policies On Acheloos River Basin, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoulikidis, N.; Nikolaidis, N. P.; Oikonomopoulou, A.; Batzias, F.

    The environmental impact of EU policies aiming at protecting surface and ground wa- ters are being assessed in the Acheloos River Basin, Greece as part of a Joint Research Centre (JRC) / DG Environment (DG Env) funded project. The basin offers the possi- bility of studying the impact of EU policies on a multitude of aquatic ecosystems: four artificial and four natural lakes and a large estuary with important hydrotops (lagoons, coastal salt lacustrine and freshwater marshes, etc.) that belong to the NATURA 2000 sites or are protected by the RAMSAR Convention. A database has been developed that includes all available information on sources, fluxes, and concentration levels of nutrients and selected heavy metals from prior and current research programs at the Acheloos River Basin and coastal environment. This information has been used to identify the environmental pressures and develop nutrient budgets for each sub-basin of the watershed to assess the relative contributions of nutrients from various land uses. The mathematical model HSPF is being used to model the hydrology and nitro- gen fate and transport in the watershed. Management scenarios will be developed and modelling exercises will be carried out to assess the impacts of the scenarios. Eco- nomic analysis of the nutrient management scenarios will be conducted to evaluate the costs associated with management practices for reaching acceptable water quality status.

  10. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece.

    PubMed

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-10-28

    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini's shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  11. Cesium-137 monitoring using lichens from W. Macedonia, N. Greece.

    PubMed

    Sawidis, Thomas; Tsigaridas, Konstantinos; Tsikritzis, Lazaros

    2010-10-01

    (137)Cs content in lichens and substrate (soil, bark) collected from W. Macedonia, Greece was measured 20 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Archive material from previous collections was also used for comparison and a diachronic estimation of the radio-contamination status. A gradual decrease was detected which depended on various factors such as the collected species, location, growth rate and substrate. Maximum accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was observed in epilithic lichens in comparison to epigeic or epiphytic ones. Furthermore, foliose or crustose lichens such as Parmelia sulcata, Xanthoria parietina, Xanthoria calcicola, Xanthoparmelia somloensis were more contaminated than filamentose at the same biotope. Among filamentose or fruticose species those with large surface area to biomass ratio e.g. Usnea sp. showed also greater accumulation capacity. Autoradiography revealed an amount of (137)Cs distributed more or less uniformly in lichen thalli. The high (137)Cs activities found in lichens 20 years after Chernobyl suggest that these primitive plants are effective, suitable and inexpensive biological detectors of the distribution and burden of fallout radionuclide fallout pattern.

  12. Facing and managing natural disasters in the Sporades Islands, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanikola, P.; Panagopoulos, T.; Tampakis, S.; Karantoni, M. I.; Tsantopoulos, G.

    2013-11-01

    The region of the Sporades Islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes, due to the marine volcano "Psathoura", and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defence plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect from each of the separate stakeholders so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked about their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.

  13. Facing and managing natural disasters in the Sporades islands, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanikola, P.; Panagopoulos, T.; Tampakis, S.; Karantoni, M. I.; Tsantopoulos, G.

    2014-04-01

    The region of the Sporades islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes due to the marine volcano Psathoura and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defense plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly about the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.

  14. [Fertility and female employment in Greece: a microeconomic model].

    PubMed

    Symeonidou, H; Magdalinos, M

    1993-01-01

    The National Social Research Center of Greece applied November 1984-February 1985 data on 3193 women to a micro-economic model which achieves more efficacious estimation and test procedures and separates useful information from political decisions. The researchers compared the behavior of women from three areas: Athens, other urban regions, and rural areas. Specifically, they wanted to examine the relationship between fertility and women's employment in greater Athens. The model assumes that each woman maximizes her utility which is a function of three factors: family size, free time (leisure), and consumer goods. The test to detect specification errors indicated structural differences between urban and rural areas and heteroscedasticity in the supply equation for work and the demand equation for children. The final model with five structural and four variance equations confirmed that employment affects fertility directly and through women's sex-role attitudes. The mean number of live births, desired family size, and ideal family size were lower in Athens, greater in rural areas, and at an intermediary level in other urban regions. Fertility in Athens and women's employment were not significantly different than that in other urban area. The differences in women's employment were much greater between towns and rural areas, probably because many women in rural areas work without a salary in the family's business. The final model did not find fertility to have an overall significant direct effect on employment but did find it had a significant indirect effect in rural areas due to attitudes toward sexual roles.

  15. Cesium-137 monitoring using mosses from W. Macedonia, N. Greece.

    PubMed

    Sawidis, Thomas; Tsikritzis, Lazaros; Tsigaridas, Konstantinos

    2009-06-01

    (137)Cs activities in mosses and substrate (soil, bark) collected from W. Macedonia, Greece were measured 20 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Archive material from previous studies was also used for comparison and diachronic estimation of the radio-contamination status. A gradual decrease was detected which depended on various factors such as the collected species, location, growth rate and substrate. Maximum accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was observed in the epilithic mosses in comparison to the epiphytic ones. The (137)Cs content in the bark of the two broad-leaved species (oak and fagus) was higher than that of the conifer (pinus). Bark specimens of about 50 cm height were in general more contaminated than those of 200 cm. Autoradiography revealed an amount of (137)Cs distributed more or less uniformly in moss thalli. The high (137)Cs activities found in mosses 20 years after Chernobyl suggest that these primitive plants are effective, suitable and inexpensive biological detectors of the distribution and burden of radionuclide fallout pattern.

  16. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-01-01

    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011–2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini’s shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano. PMID:26507183

  17. Factors affecting breastfeeding duration in Greece: What is important?

    PubMed Central

    Tavoulari, Evangelia-Filothei; Benetou, Vassiliki; Vlastarakos, Petros V; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Chrousos, George; Kreatsas, George; Gryparis, Alexandros; Linos, Athena

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate factors associated with breastfeeding duration (BD) in a sample of mothers living in Greece. METHODS Four hundred and twenty-eight mothers (438 infants) were initially recruited in a tertiary University Hospital. Monthly telephone interviews (1665 in total) using a structured questionnaire (one for each infant) were conducted until the sixth postpartum month. Cox regression analysis was used to assess factors influencing any BD. RESULTS Any breastfeeding rates in the first, third, and sixth month of the infant’s life reached 87.5%, 57.0% and 38.75%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, maternal smoking in the lactation period [hazard-ratio (HR) = 4.20] and psychological status (HR = 1.72), and the introduction of a pacifier (HR = 2.08), were inversely associated, while higher maternal education (HRuniversity/college vs primary/high school = 0.53, HRmaster’s vs primary/high school = 0.20), and being an immigrant (HR = 0.35) were positively associated with BD. CONCLUSION Public health interventions should focus on campaigns against smoking during lactation, target women of lower educational status, and endorse the delayed introduction of pacifiers. PMID:27610353

  18. Instability indices and unstable atmospheric conditions over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamperakis, Nikolaos; Matsangouras, Ioannis; Nastos, Panagiotis; Pytharoulis, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    Significant research has been carried out investigating the use of diagnostic variable sets or instability indices, as forecasting tools or parameters to identify favorable atmospheric conditions of severe convective weather. Indeed, the value of such variables is strongly associated with their capacity to summarize in a single number some characteristics of the severe storm environment, thus, operational forecasters use them to address the overall threat of severe weather associated with convective storms. In this paper a spatial and temporal analysis of specific instability indices over Greece during 2008-2014 period is presented. The energy helicity index (EHI), the bulk Richardson number (BRN) shear, the storm-relative environmental helicity (SRH), and the convective available potential energy (CAPE) were considered as principal diagnostic instability variables and employed in spatial and temporal analysis. The EHI, BRN, SRH and CAPE indices were calculated from ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. The lighting activity, recorded by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS) Precision Lighting Network (PLN), is employed to highlight favorable atmospheric conditions of severe convective weather.

  19. Temporal and spatial variability of rainfall over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markonis, Y.; Batelis, S. C.; Dimakos, Y.; Moschou, E.; Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have showed that there is a significant decrease in rainfall over Greece during the last half of the pervious century, following an overall decrease of the precipitation at the eastern Mediterranean. However, during the last decade an increase in rainfall was observed in most regions of the country, contrary to the general circulation climate models forecasts. An updated high-resolution dataset of monthly sums and annual daily maxima records derived from 136 stations during the period 1940-2012 allowed us to present some new evidence for the observed change and its statistical significance. The statistical framework used to determine the significance of the slopes in annual rain was not limited to the time independency assumption (Mann-Kendall test), but we also investigated the effect of short- and long-term persistence through Monte Carlo simulation. Our findings show that (a) change occurs in different scales; most regions show a decline since 1950, an increase since 1980 and remain stable during the last 15 years; (b) the significance of the observed decline is highly dependent to the statistical assumptions used; there are indications that the Mann-Kendall test may be the least suitable method; and (c) change in time is strongly linked with the change in space; for scales below 40 years, relatively close regions may develop even opposite trends, while in larger scales change is more uniform.

  20. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake estimate in Greece.

    PubMed

    Bratakos, Sotirios M; Lazou, Andriana E; Bratakos, Michael S; Lazos, Evangelos S

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium content of foods, as well as dietary aluminium intake of the Greek adult population, was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave sample digestion and food consumption data. Al content ranged from 0.02 to 741.2 mg kg⁻¹, with spices, high-spice foods, cereal products, vegetables and pulses found to be high in Al. Differences in aluminium content were found between different food classes from Greece and those from some other countries. Aluminium intake of Greeks is 3.7 mg/day based on DAFNE Food Availability Databank, which uses data from the Household Budget Surveys. On the other hand, according to the per capita food consumption data collected by both national and international organisations, Al intake is 6.4 mg day⁻¹. Greek adult population has an Al intake lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of 7 mg kg⁻¹ body weight established by EFSA. Cereals and vegetables are the main Al contributors, providing 72.4% of daily intake.

  1. Haoma-Soma in the world of ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Wohlberg, J

    1990-01-01

    Evidence of the worship of (nonalcoholic) Haoma-Soma in Iran and India (identified by Wasson as Amanita muscaria) can be found in Greece and its neighboring lands. While Iranian and India peoples preserved their original worship in their final settlements, Indo-European tribes, including the Thracians, the Phrygians, and the Greeks, after settling in Europe and Asia Minor, abandoned their ancestral worship of Soma (Sabazios) and substituted the Semitic (alcoholic) Dionysos. However, they retained traces of the original Soma worship in Dionysiac rituals. This modified Dionysiac worship spread throughout the Western world. Six formal criteria are used to establish the identify of Soma with Dionysos (Sabazios): (1) both cults had the same aim (to cause ecstatic behavior); (2) both cults required the attainment of the same spiritual state (purity); (3) both cults had an idiosyncratic myth in common; (4) both cults showed the identical word root in the name of the worshipped god; (5) both cults had identical zoological and botanical associations with their god; and (6) the alcoholic god (Dionysos) was depicted as having the same physical effects on human beings as that of the ancient nonalcoholic god (Soma).

  2. PM10 regional transport pathways in Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katragkou, E.; Kazadzis, S.; Amiridis, V.; Papaioannou, V.; Karathanasis, S.; Melas, D.

    In this study, the most dominant regional transport pathways for the city of Thessaloniki, Greece were identified and linked to air quality issues with respect to particulate matter (PM). Using air mass trajectories, cluster analysis techniques and PM10 measurements of a background-urban station of the greater Thessaloniki area during 2001-2004, it was found that north-eastern and southern flows were the most frequent in appearance with high potential to influence the city of Thessaloniki, especially when coinciding with biomass burning or Saharan dust events correspondingly. These incidents appeared to occur mostly during summer adding to a PM10 monthly mean up to 10 μg m -3. High concentrations of surface PM10 related to north-eastern flows were in most cases accompanied with high aerosol columnar optical depths implying that particulate matter transport from the North-East was multi-layered. South-southwesterly flows originating from N. Africa, though less frequent, seemed to affect decisively Thessaloniki's aerosol budget especially during transition seasons. These flows were related with an increase of the monthly PM10 average up to 20-30 μg m -3 for the time period studied. Finally, northerly flows were found to transport rather clean air masses that did not seem to contribute to the air quality deterioration of the city.

  3. Mothers' knowledge and practices related to sun protection in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kakourou, T; Bakoula, C; Kavadias, G; Gatos, A; Bilalis, L; Krikos, X; Matsaniotis, N

    1995-09-01

    We attempted to estimate the level of Greek mothers' knowledge relating to the harmful effects of sunlight and whether this knowledge led to protective measures for them and their children. Between September and November 1993, 315 mothers were randomly selected from the outpatient department of our hospital and interviewed by questionnaire about themselves and their children (56% boys, 44% girls, ages 1-12 yrs). Knowledge was estimated by an index score that for 28% of the mothers was considered poor, for 50% moderate, for 16% good, and for only 6% very good or excellent. The score was positively associated with parent education, urban residence, mother's job relevant to the cosmetics industry or the mass media, and history of sunburn in one or both parents. Scores were also established for sunlight-protective measures taken for themselves (28% poor, 45% moderate, 27% just good) and for their children (24% poor, 46% moderate, 30% just good). These scores were significantly associated only with mothers' knowledge of sun protection. Mothers who used sun protection for themselves also applied it to their children. This study shows that mothers in Greece should be encouraged both to increase their knowledge of sun protection and steadily incorporate it into their lifestyle.

  4. [Art-chance and art-experience in classical Greece].

    PubMed

    Ban, Deokjin

    2011-06-30

    In Classical Greece, works defining the nature of art appeared in the various disciplines like medicine, rhetoric, dietetics, architecture and painting. Hippocratic authors tried to show that an art of medicine existed indeed. They contrasted the concept of art with that of chance, not experience that Plato and Aristotle distinguished from art. In fact there are similarities and discrepancies between Hippocratic epistemology and Platoic epistemology. Hippocratic authors maintained that the products of chance were not captured by art. They distinguished the domain of art charactered by explanatory knowledge and prediction from the domain of chance ruled by the unexplained and the unforeseeable. They minimized the role of luck and believed the role of art. Hippocratic authors thought that professional ability contained both knowledge and experience. In Hippocratic corpus, experience is a synonym of competence and usually has a positive meaning. But Plato gave empirical knowledge the disdainful sense and decided a ranking between two types of knowledge. Both Hippocratic authors and Plato held that a genuine art had connection with explanatory knowledge of the nature of its subject matter. A common theme that goes through arguments about art-chance and art-chance is the connection between art and nature. Hippocratic authors and Plato regarded art as a highly systematic process. Art provides us with general and explanatory knowledge of human nature. Art and nature is a mutual relationship. The systematic understanding of nature helps us gain the exactness of art and an exact art helps us understand nature well.

  5. Transdermal opioid patches for pain treatment in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Adrian P; Hansen, Steen H; Bartels, Else M

    2012-11-01

    Pain treatment in ancient Greece, and through the middle ages in Europe, was to a great extent based on the expertise of the Greek physician Galen (c. 129-200 A.D.). Galen makes particular reference to "Olympic Victor's Dark Ointment" (OVDO), which is listed with a number of collyria. Galen states that OVDO can be useful for treating extreme pain and swellings, forming one of the best eye salves. Olympic Victor's Dark Ointment, an opium-based treatment, forms a "patch" when applied externally as an ointment, because it quickly dries to cover a localized region but still retains its elastic properties. This study has recreated OVDO and applied the ointment to abdominal mouse skin, in vitro. To assess the efficacy of OVDO, the transdermal transfer of morphine was measured when given as OVDO and compared to morphine administered in the form of a solution of Opium + PBS (ringer). Olympic Victor's Dark Ointment showed a transdermal transfer of morphine over time comparable to 25% of the most efficient modern transdermal opioid patches, while hardly any morphine was able to penetrate the skin when applied mixed in PBS. We conclude that OVDO is very efficient in its composition and may carry some forgotten abilities in terms of drug delivery, which could be transferred to modern medicine. Indeed, this may lead to a better choice of morphine use and controlled management in individual patient cases, taking both pain relief and anti-inflammatory aspects into account.

  6. An estimate of the burden of serious fungal diseases in Greece.

    PubMed

    Gamaletsou, M N; Drogari-Apiranthitou, M; Denning, D W; Sipsas, N V

    2016-07-01

    Data on the epidemiology of serious fungal infections in Greece are scarce. Our aim was to calculate the burden of serious fungal diseases in Greece. A thorough literature search for papers reporting epidemiological data on serious fungal diseases in Greece was performed. Where no Greek data existed, we used a structured set of assumptions to estimate fungal disease burden, based on specific high-risk populations. Of the 10.8 million population, 85.5 % are adults and 27 % are over 60 years of age. The annual fungal disease estimates are as follows: 142,337 Greek women get recurrent vaginal thrush (2,632 cases/100,000 females); there are 889 cases of esophageal candidiasis (8.2 cases/100,000); annual incidence of Pneumocystis pneumonia is 112 cases; chronic pulmonary aspergillosis prevalence is 386 cases; there are 20,843 patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and 27,744 with severe asthma with fungal sensitization; candidaemia incidence is 541 cases (5.0/100,000); there are 81 cases of Candida peritonitis; invasive aspergillosis occurs in 1,125 patients. According to our calculations, 194,067 individuals (1.79 cases/100,000) in Greece suffer from serious fungal diseases each year. This is the first attempt to determine the burden of fungal diseases in Greece, and provides a crude estimate on its impact on public health.

  7. Serological survey on the immunity to diphtheria of the northern Greek population.

    PubMed

    Souliou, E; Kyriazopoulou, V; Diza, E; Hatzistylianou, M; Frantzidou, F

    1997-07-01

    The recent outbreak of diphtheria in the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the former USSR and the immigration from these high risk areas to Greece prompted us to determine the diphtheria antitoxin levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in 509 healthy individuals (307 males and 202 females) from northern Greece. The population under study was divided in ten age groups from 1 day to > 60 years old. Diphtheria antitoxin levels of > or = 0.1 IU/ml were considered as protective ones. 44.6% of the examined people were found susceptible. The children up to their twenties seem to be immune to diphtheria in a high proportion (86-88.4%). The diphtheria antitoxin levels declined sharply above this age (17.6% in the age group 21-30 years old). The level of protection in adults appeared to be higher in the oldest group (49%). According to these results, the adults are not properly protected. Booster doses of vaccine for them are recommended to improve the resistance of the northern Greek population from possible infection by toxigenic stains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae, imported or endogenous.

  8. Radioactive pollution in Athens, Greece due to the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Kritidis, P; Florou, H; Eleftheriadis, K; Evangeliou, N; Gini, M; Sotiropoulou, M; Diapouli, E; Vratolis, S

    2012-12-01

    As a result of the nuclear accident in Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant, which started on March 11, 2011, radioactive pollutants were transferred by air masses to various regions of the Northern hemisphere, including Europe. Very low concentrations of (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs in airborne particulate matter were measured in Athens, Greece during the period of March 24 to April 28, 2011. The maximum air concentration of (131)I was measured on April 6, 2011 and equaled 490 ± 35 μBq m(-3). The maximum values of the two cesium isotopes were measured on the same day and equaled 180 ± 40 μBq m(-3) for (137)Cs and 160 ± 30 μBq m(-3) for (134)Cs. The average activity ratio of (131)I/(137)Cs in air was 3.0 ± 0.5, while the corresponding ratio of (137)Cs/(134)Cs equaled 1.1 ± 0.3. No artificial radionuclides could be detected in air after April 28, 2011. Traces of (131)I as a result of radioactive deposition were measured in grass, soil, sheep milk and meat. The total deposition of (131)I (dry + wet) was 34 ± 4 Bq m(-2), and of (137)Cs was less than 10 Bq m(-2). The maximum concentration of (131)I in grass was 2.1 ± 0.4 Bg kg(-1), while (134)Cs was not detected. The maximum concentrations of (131)I and (137)Cs in sheep milk were 1.7 ± 0.16 Bq kg(-1) and 0.6 ± 0.12 Bq kg(-1) respectively. Concentrations of (131)I up to 1.3 ± 0.2 Bq kg(-1) were measured in sheep meat. Traces of (131)I were found in a number of soil samples. The radiological impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident in Athens region was practically negligible, especially as compared to that of the Chernobyl accident and also to that of natural radioactivity.

  9. Structural Setting and Upper Quaternary landscape evolution at Delphi, Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranis, H.; Skourtsos, E.; Gouliotis, L.; Lozios, S.

    2012-04-01

    We present an alternative view of the active tectonics and landscape evolution of the Delphi archaeological site, located on the southern margin of Mt Parnassos, central Greece, based on detailed geological mapping. The tectonic grain of the area provides the key to understanding the nature and degree of tectonic activity and associated natural hazards in this worldwide famous site, on the northern margin of the Corinth Rift. The dominant structure is a gently north-dipping thrust fault (SPT), which marks the southern boundary of Mt Parnassos. This thrust brings the Mesozoic carbonates over the flysch members of the Parnassos Unit. Intense folding is observed at all scales and the hanging-wall of the thrust corresponds to an overturned anticline, thrusted over the flysch, the latter cropping out along the south-facing mountain slope and the adjacent valley of Pleistos. The hanging-wall block of the SPT is intensely fractured; a dominant set of steep discontinuities, east and west of the archaeological site has facilitated slope failure, with some of them accommodating minor amounts of dip-slip displacement. One of them is identified as an active structure ("Delphi Fault") exposed after road improvement works several years ago. This surface can be mapped for only ~150 m east and 1.3 km west of Delphi: detailed geological mapping showed that it invariably belongs to the hanging-wall of the SPT, which has a total length of ca 25 km. Slope failure processes, which appear to be dominant at least during the Upper Quaternary years have led to the accumulation of sizeable blocks (measuring from 0.2 - 3.5km2) which have slipped on the incompetent, impermeable clastics that form the footwall of the SPT. We therefore suggest that the structure identified as the "Delphi Fault" belongs to a set of subvertical discontinuities which have developed on the culmination of an overturned anticline, on the hanging-wall block of a major thrust fault. This surface is associated with

  10. Evaluation of tsunami risk in Heraklion city, Crete, Greece, by using GIS methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantafyllou, Ioanna; Fokaefs, Anna; Novikova, Tatyana; Papadopoulos, Gerasimos A.; Vaitis, Michalis

    2016-04-01

    The Hellenic Arc is the most active seismotectonic structure in the Mediterranean region. The island of Crete occupies the central segment of the arc which is characterized by high seismic and tsunami activity. Several tsunamis generated by large earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and landslides were reported that hit the capital city of Heraklion in the historical past. We focus our tsunami risk study in the northern coastal area of Crete (ca. 6 km in length and 1 km in maximum width) which includes the western part of the city of Heraklion and a large part of the neighboring municipality of Gazi. The evaluation of tsunami risk included calculations and mapping with QGIS of (1) cost for repairing buildings after tsunami damage, (2) population exposed to tsunami attack, (3) optimum routes and times for evacuation. To calculate the cost for building reparation after a tsunami attack we have determined the tsunami inundation zone in the study area after numerical simulations for extreme tsunami scenarios. The geographical distribution of buildings per building block, obtained from the 2011 census data of the Hellenic Statistical Authority (EL.STAT) and satellite data, was mapped. By applying the SCHEMA Damage Tool we assessed the building vulnerability to tsunamis according to the types of buildings and their expected damage from the hydrodynamic impact. A set of official cost rates varying with the building types and the damage levels, following standards set by the state after the strong damaging earthquakes in Greece in 2014, was applied to calculate the cost of rebuilding or repairing buildings damaged by the tsunami. In the investigation of the population exposed to tsunami inundation we have used the interpolation method to smooth out the population geographical distribution per building block within the inundation zone. Then, the population distribution was correlated with tsunami hydrodynamic parameters in the inundation zone. The last approach of tsunami risk

  11. Living the Volcano: A First-Year Study Abroad Experience to Santorini, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, L. A.; Miller, M.; Scarnati, B.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade, enrollment in Northern Arizona University's (NAU) Geologic Disasters (GLG112) class has grown to its current 840 students in 7 sections per semester (4% of NAU enrollment). Given this large audience composed of >50% freshmen, the course curriculum was re-designed in 2012 using standards set by NAU's First Year Learning Initiative (FYLI), which seeks to increase academic success early in college. FYLI pedagogical principles include active-learning, frequent feedback, low-stakes assessments, and increased guidance from professors & peer teaching assistants (PTAs). As a result of the successes measured in FYLI courses, we launched a FYLI study abroad experience in 2014. We posed the question, "How can an early-career study abroad experience further develop the attitudes, skills, & behaviors necessary for success?" The pioneering program was NAU in Greece: The Cataclysmic Eruption of Santorini Volcano. Enrollment was limited to freshman & sophomore students who have taken GLG112 (or equivalent). The 3-week program took 9 students, 1 PTA, & 1 faculty member to Santorini (via Athens, 2 days). A detailed itinerary addressed a set of disciplinary & non-disciplinary learning outcomes. Student learning about Santorini volcano and the tectonic setting & hazards of the Aegean Sea occurred on the go - on ferries & private boat trips and during hiking, snorkeling, and swimming. Classroom time was limited to 1 hr/day and frequent assessments were employed. Student products included a geologic field notebook, travel journal, and 3 blog posts pertaining to geologic hazards & life on Santorini. Geologic disasters are ideal topics for early career study abroad experiences because the curriculum is place-based. Student learning benefits immensely from interacting with the land & local populations, whose lives are affected daily by the dangers of living in such geologically hazardous environments. The needs of early career students are unique, however, and must be

  12. Syn-eruptive chaotic breccia on Kos, Greece, associated with an energetic pyroclastic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. R.; McPhie, J.

    2001-08-01

    The climax of the Kos Plateau Tuff (KPT) eruption (eastern Aegean, Greece) generated a highly energetic, coarse-grained, lithic-rich, pyroclastic flow. In most places on Kos, the deposit from this event is an ignimbrite (ignimbrite El) that comprises a basal, coarse-grained, lithic breccia and overlying pumiceous part, above a planar, strongly erosional lower contact. However, along the northern coast of central Kos, "normal" ignimbrite El overlies a hummocky, 6-m-thick layer of chaotic breccia comprising mingled-to-pervasively mixed ignimbrite El and unconsolidated sediment. The surface morphology of the chaotic breccia and its internal texture resemble those of a debris-avalanche deposit, but the breccia is neither proximal nor downcurrent of steep topography. The lower part of the chaotic breccia comprises distinct domains of unconsolidated sediment or lower KPT units that are deformed and/or mingled with pumiceous ignimbrite. The upper part is dominated by a matrix of mingled-to-pervasively mixed ignimbrite and sediment that contains sediment domains as large as 2-10 m in diameter. Such large intact allochthonous domains are best preserved at the top of the chaotic breccia and form the hummocks. The chaotic breccia formed synchronously with the passage of a highly energetic pyroclastic flow where it traversed wet, unconsolidated sediment. Shear-induced liquification, together with possible ground shaking associated with the eruption, probably caused failure. Part of the unconsolidated substrate and basal part of ignimbrite El were dislodged and resedimented a short distance (tens to hundreds of metres) downcurrent. The lower part records deformation and disintegration of the substrate induced by the overriding, shearing flow. Mingling and deformation of the poorly consolidated material occurred as a result of within-flow lateral shear. Attenuated worm burrows within the sediment domains, and pinch-and-swell and flame structures within the mingled domains

  13. Preferences for Select Band and Non-Band Instrument Timbres among Students in the United States and Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutietta, Robert A.; Foustalieraki, Maria

    1990-01-01

    Examines whether fourth grade students prefer band or nonband instrument timbre. Identifies differences between student preferences in the United States and Greece, examining how cultural differences influence instrumental timbre preferences. Reports that band instrument timbres often are preferred in the United States but are less so in Greece.…

  14. Is There a Need for a Higher Dance Institution in Greece? The Reality in Greek Contemporary Dance Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsompanaki, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    Is there a need for dance to enter higher education in Greece? Can contemporary dance be viewed as a discipline on its own right? These questions inspired the research conducted in three case study institutions (out of six that exist) in Greece, examining the reality within them as experienced by dance students, lecturers, course leaders and the…

  15. Check list and zoogeographic analysis of the scale insect fauna (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) of Greece.

    PubMed

    Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Chadzidimitriou, Evangelia; Milonas, Panagiotis; Stathas, George J; Kozár, Ferenc

    2015-09-02

    This paper presents an updated checklist of the Greek scale insect fauna and the results of the first zoogeographic analysis of the Greek scale insect fauna. According to the latest data, the scale insect fauna of the whole Greek territory includes 207 species; of which 187 species are recorded from mainland Greece and the minor islands, whereas only 87 species are known from Crete. The most rich families are the Diaspididae (with 86 species), followed by Coccidae (with 35 species) and Pseudococcidae (with 34 species). In this study the results of a zoogeographic analysis of scale insect fauna from mainland Greece and Crete are also presented. Five species, four from mainland Greece and one from Crete are considered to be endemic. Comparison with the scale insect fauna of other countries is provided.

  16. Linking glacial melting to Late Quaternary sedimentation in climatically sensitive mountainous catchments of the Mount Chlemos compex, Kalavryta, southern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Richard; Hughes, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Compared to the mountainous areas of northern Greece (e.g. Woodward et al., 2008), the influence of deglaciation cycles on sedimentation in mountainous catchments in southern Greece remains poorly understood due to the poor preservation of small moraines and limited opportunities to date glacial and fluvial sediment dynamics fluvial sediments (Pope, unpublished data). Nevertheless, intriguing new insight into links between glacial cycles and sediment transfer/deposition phases in upland catchments have emerged by applying multiple dating techniques to well-preserved multiple generations of moraines and extensive glacio-fluvial fan systems on Mount Chelmos (2355 m a.s.l.). U-series dating of calcites within proximal fan sediments constrain the earliest phase of glacio-fluvial sedimentation to 490 (±21.0)(ka (MIS 12), while OSL dating of fine sands constrains the deposition of extensive medial glacio-fluvial gravels in (valley we walked down through trees) to between 250.99 (±20.67) and 160.82 (±11.08) ka. By comparison, cosmogenic dating of moraine boulders indicates that three generations of well-preserved moraines in the highest cirque areas date to 31-23 ka, 17-16 ka and 12-11.5 ka. OSL dating also provides ages of 18 and 17 (±11.08) for an extensive glacio-fluvial terrace in a major valley draining the southern flanksof Mount Chelmos. The initial Mount Chelmos geochronology suggests that the earliest and middle phases of glacio-fluvial sedimentation are coincident with the Middle Pleistocene glacial stages stages recorded in the Pindus range (Hughes et al, 2006). These include the Skamnellian (MIS 12) and the Vlasian (MIS 6) Stages as well as other cold stage between these (e.g. MIS 8).Evidence of glacio-fluvial outwash in MIS 8 is interesting since evidence for this in the moraine records has remained elusive although is suggested further north in the Balkans (Hughes et al., 2011). The valley moraines and glacio-fluvial terraces (late MIS 2) post-date the

  17. Tsunami Questionnaire Survey in Heraklion Test Site, Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papageorgiou, Antonia; Tsimi, Christina; Orfanogiannaki, Katerina; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Sachpazi, Maria; Lavigne, Franck; Grancher, Delphine

    2015-04-01

    The Heraklion city (Crete Island, Greece) has been chosen as one of the test-sites for the EU-FP7ASTARTE tsunami project. Heraklion is the biggest city in Crete Isl. and the fourth biggest in Greece with a population of about 120,000 which, however, during the summer vacation period nearly doubles. In the past, Heraklion was hit by strong, destructive tsunamis such as the ones of AD 8 August 1303, 10 October 1650 and 9 July 1956. The first and the third were caused by large tectonic earthquakes associated with the eastern segment of the Hellenic Arc the first and with the back-arc extensional regime the third. The one of 1650 was associated with the eruption of the Columbo submarine volcano in the Santorini volcanic complex. One of the activities scheduled for WP9 of ASTARTE project, which aims at building tsunami resilient societies in Europe, is dedicated to organize questionnaire surveys among the populations of the several ASTARTE test-sites. Although the questionnaire is comprised by more than 50 questions, the central concept is to better understand what people know about tsunamis and if they are ready to cope with risks associated with future tsunami occurrences. In Heraklion the survey was conducted during tourism peak season of July 2014, thus questionnaires were collected by both local people and tourists, thus representing a variety of countries. We attempted to keep balance between males and females, while the age ranged from 15 to 65. Totally, 113 persons were interviewed of which 62 were females and 51 males. From the point of view of origin, 58 out of 113 were local people and residents, 22 were Greek tourists and 29 foreign tourists. Generally, the questionnaire consists of four parts. In the first, people were asked about their relation with the area of Heraklion. In the second part, the questions considered the knowledge that people have on tsunamis as a natural, hazardous phenomenon. More precisely, people were asked questions such as what a

  18. Selenium content of sulfide ores related to ophiolites of Greece.

    PubMed

    Economou-Eliopoulos, M; Eliopoulos, D G

    1998-01-01

    Several deposits of sulfide mineralization have been described in the ophiolites of Greece. Based on their mineralogical and chemical composition and the host rocks, two types can be distinguished: (1) the Fe-Cu-Ni-Co type consisting of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, Co-pentlandite, pyrite, magnetite + arsenides, +/- chromite, hosted in serpentinites, gabbros or diabases, which have variable geochemical characteristics, and (2) sulfide mineralization of the Cyprus type containing variable proportions of pyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite, and sphalerite. The spatial association with shear zones and fault systems, which is a common feature in both types of mineralization, provided the necessary permeability for the circulation of the responsible mineralized hydrothermal fluids. The selenium (Se) content in representative samples of both types of mineralization from the ophiolites of Pindos (Kondro, Perivoli, and Neropriona), Othrys (Eretria and A. Theodoroi), Veria (Trilofon), and Argolis (Ermioni) shows a wide variation. The highest values of Se (130 to 1900 ppm) were found in massive Fe-Cu sulfide ores from Kondro, in particular the Cu-rich portions (average 1300 ppm Se). The average values of Se for the Othrys sulfides are low (< 40 ppm Se). The Se content in a diabase breccia pipe (50 x 200 m) with disseminated pyrite mineralization (Neropriona) ranges from < 1 to 35 ppm Se. The highest values were noted in strongly altered samples that also exhibited a significant enrichment in platinum (1 ppm Pt). Sulfide mineralization (irregular to lens-like masses and stringers) associated with magnetite, hosted in gabbros exposed in the Perivoli area (Tsouma hill), shows a content ranging from 40 to 350 ppm Se. The distribution of Se in the studied type of the sulfide mineralization may be of genetic significance, indicating that the Se level, which often is much higher than in typical magmatic sulfides related to mafic-ultramafic rocks (average 90-100 ppm Se), may positively affect

  19. Weather impacts on respiratory infections in Athens, Greece.

    PubMed

    Nastos, Panagiotis T; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2006-07-01

    In this study the contribution of meteorological parameters to the total variability of respiratory infections (RI) is analysed. For this purpose, data on the daily numbers of general practitioner (GP) consultations for RI during the year 2002 were used. This dataset has been compiled by the Local Health Service in the surroundings of Athens, Greece (Acharnes city). The meteorological data obtained by the Meteorological Station of the National Observatory of Athens comprise daily values of mean, maximum, and minimum air temperature, air temperature range, relative humidity, absolute humidity, sunshine, surface atmospheric pressure, wind speed, as well as day-to-day changes of these parameters. Furthermore, the following biometeorological parameters and thermal indices were also evaluated: mean radiant temperature (T (mrt)), predicted mean vote (PMV), physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and standard effective temperature (SET*) as well as their day-to-day changes. First, the relationship between every meteorological-biometeorological parameter and consultations for RI was examined by applying the Pearson Chi-Square Test (chi (2)) to the data of the 25 compiled contingency tables. In the second stage, the application of generalised linear models (GLM) with Poisson distribution to the data revealed how much the weather variability leads to statistically important changes in consultations for RI. The results of this study contribute to the evidence that there is an association between weather conditions and the number of GP consultations for RI. More specifically, the influence of air temperature and absolute humidity on consultations on the same day is weaker than the lag effect ( approximately 2 weeks) related to cold existence and absolute humidity, while a strong wind during the preceding 3 days drives a peak in GP consultations.

  20. Biogenicity of an Early Quaternary iron formation, Milos Island, Greece.

    PubMed

    Chi Fru, E; Ivarsson, M; Kilias, S P; Frings, P J; Hemmingsson, C; Broman, C; Bengtson, S; Chatzitheodoridis, E

    2015-05-01

    A ~2.0-million-year-old shallow-submarine sedimentary deposit on Milos Island, Greece, harbours an unmetamorphosed fossiliferous iron formation (IF) comparable to Precambrian banded iron formations (BIFs). This Milos IF holds the potential to provide clues to the origin of Precambrian BIFs, relative to biotic and abiotic processes. Here, we combine field stratigraphic observations, stable isotopes of C, S and Si, rock petrography and microfossil evidence from a ~5-m-thick outcrop to track potential biogeochemical processes that may have contributed to the formation of the BIF-type rocks and the abrupt transition to an overlying conglomerate-hosted IF (CIF). Bulk δ(13) C isotopic compositions lower than -25‰ provide evidence for biological contribution by the Calvin and reductive acetyl-CoA carbon fixation cycles to the origin of both the BIF-type and CIF strata. Low S levels of ~0.04 wt.% combined with δ(34) S estimates of up to ~18‰ point to a non-sulphidic depository. Positive δ(30) Si records of up to +0.53‰ in the finely laminated BIF-type rocks indicate chemical deposition on the seafloor during weak periods of arc magmatism. Negative δ(30) Si data are consistent with geological observations suggesting a sudden change to intense arc volcanism potentially terminated the deposition of the BIF-type layer. The typical Precambrian rhythmic rocks of alternating Fe- and Si-rich bands are associated with abundant and spatially distinct microbial fossil assemblages. Together with previously proposed anoxygenic photoferrotrophic iron cycling and low sedimentary N and C potentially connected to diagenetic denitrification, the Milos IF is a biogenic submarine volcano-sedimentary IF showing depositional conditions analogous to Archaean Algoma-type BIFs.

  1. Flexural uplift of rift flanks in central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulimenos, George; Doutsos, Theodor

    1997-12-01

    Uplifts, with elevations of up to 2000 m and short wavelengths (30-35 km), flank three major grabens in central Greece: the Rio, Sparta, and Atalanti grabens. They are bordered on their landward sides by narrow basins oriented parallel to the graben axes: the Manesi and Trichonis basins at the Rio graben and Copais and Istiea basins at the Atalanti graben. The flexural origin of these uplift profiles is investigated here by using thin, broken plate models. It is demonstrated that the observed topography of the graben flanks is consistent with the upward deflection of elastic and viscoelastic plates in response to upward directed forces applied at the graben flanks. In order to evaluate to applicability of each model, their predictions are checked against the observations. The elastic predictive modeling fits well with the observed flexural wavelengths and the flanking seismicity. However, it fails to predict the graben widths and the inferred elastic layer thickness. In contrast, the viscoelastic model successfully explains the graben widths and the "back" basins as flexural hinterland basins and matches the seismological data and the time constraints of rifting. It is therefore suggested that flexural uplift with viscoelastic relaxation accounts for the building of the graben flanks. The invoked viscoelastic models constrain the effective elastic thickness of the plates at 10 km for the Rio graben and 15 km for the Sparta and Atalanti grabens, suggesting a low-viscosity lower crust. Furthermore, they predict low rates of tectonic uplift of the order of 0.1 mm a-1 for the Atalanti graben, intermediate rates of 0.24-0.37 mm a-1 for the Rio graben, and high rates of 0.7-0.9 mm a-1 for the Sparta graben. The latter are quite possibly overestimated since napping events, capable of producing high local relief, are traced normal to the modeled profiles.

  2. A case of Opisthorchis felineus infestation in a pilot from Greece.

    PubMed

    Tselepatiotis, E; Mantadakis, E; Papoulis, S; Vassalou, E; Kotsakis, P; Samonis, G

    2003-12-01

    We describe the case of a 28-year-old man from Greece with Opistorchis felineus infestation. The patient presented with intense abdominal pain, bilious emesis and eosinophilia. He probably acquired the infection overseas, since he was a commercial airline pilot who used to fly to endemic areas and to consume raw or undercooked fish. He was successfully treated with praziquantel administered in divided doses over a single day. Opisthorchiasis is common to eastern Europe and areas of the former Soviet Union, but extremely rare in Greece. Medical personnel should be cognizant of this parasitic infection, since world travel can spread it to areas of the world unaccustomed to it.

  3. Big Events in Greece and HIV Infection Among People Who Inject Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios K.; Sypsa, Vana; Bonovas, Stefanos; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Malliori-Minerva, Melpomeni; Hatzakis, Angelos; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    Big Events are processes like macroeconomic transitions that have lowered social well-being in various settings in the past. Greece has been hit by the global crisis and experienced an HIV outbreak among people who inject drugs. Since the crisis began (2008), Greece has seen population displacement, inter-communal violence, cuts in governmental expenditures, and social movements. These may have affected normative regulation, networks, and behaviors. However, most pathways to risk remain unknown or unmeasured. We use what is known and unknown about the Greek HIV outbreak to suggest modifications in Big Events models and the need for additional research. PMID:25723309

  4. European brown hare syndrome in wild European brown hares from Greece.

    PubMed

    Billinis, Charalambos; Psychas, Vassilios; Tontis, Dimitrios K; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Birtsas, Periklis K; Sofia, Marina; Likotrafitis, Fotios; Maslarinou, Olga M; Kanteres, Dimitrios

    2005-10-01

    From 1999 to mid-2003, 97 European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) found dead throughout Greece were examined by necropsy, histopathology, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the presence of European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) and EBHS virus (EBHSV), respectively. Hare losses were sporadic, starting in the cold season and lasting for many months (December to May). The most prominent gross lesions were observed in the liver and included swelling and discoloration; congestion and hemorrhages were present mainly in lungs and tracheal mucosa. Necropsy findings were suggestive of EBHS, which was confirmed by histopathology and RT-PCR. This study documents, for the first time, EBHS in Greece.

  5. Salix transect of Europe: patterns in the most abundant chrysomelid beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) herbivores of willow from Greece to Arctic Norway

    PubMed Central

    Canty, Roy; Ruzzier, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Chrysomelid beetles associated with willow (Salix spp.) were surveyed at 41 sites across Europe, from Greece (lat. 38.8 °N) to arctic Norway (lat. 69.7 °N). New information In all, 34 willow-associated chrysomelid species were encountered, of which eight were very abundant. The abundant species were: Crepidodera aurata Marsham, 1802 at 27 sites, Phratora vitellinae (Linnaeus, 1758) at 21 sites, Galerucella lineola (Fabricius, 1781) at 19 sites, Crepidodera fulvicornis (Fabricius, 1792) at 19 sites, Plagiodera versicolora (Laicharting, 1781) at 11 sites, Crepidodera plutus (Latreille, 1804) at nine sites, Chrysomela vigintipunctata Scopoli, 1763 at nine sites and Gonioctena pallida (Linnaeus, 1758) at eight sites. The mean number of willow associated chrysomelid morphospecies at each site was 4.2. Around 20% of the total variance in chrysomelid distribution could be accounted for by latitude, but this is mainly due to distinctive occurrence patterns at the northern and southern parts of the transect. There was a paucity of chrysomelids at Greek sites and a distinctively northern faunal composition at sites north of Poland. Considerable site-to-site variation in colour was noted, except in G. lineola, which was chromatically invariant. PMID:27956853

  6. Northern Plains 'Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 December 2004 The lower left (southwest) corner of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the location of a somewhat filled and buried meteor impact crater on the northern plains of Mars. The dark dots are boulders. A portion of a similar feature is seen in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image. This picture, showing landforms (including the odd mound north/northeast of the crater) that are typical of the martian northern lowland plains, was obtained as part of the MGS MOC effort to support the search for a landing site for the Phoenix Mars Scout lander. Phoenix will launch in 2007 and land on the northern plains in 2008. This image is located near 68.0oN, 227.4oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  7. Northern Plains of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    22 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a typical view of the martian northern plains. Thousands of square kilometers of the northern middle and polar latitudes of Mars look similar to the scene in this image. In late spring and in summer, dust devils crisscross the northern plains, leaving a variety of dark streaks. The streaks do not survive from year to year, indicating their ephemeral nature. The circular features in this image, including the prominent bright circular feature near the bottom, are the locations of buried meteor impact craters. This image is located near 58.1oN, 207.6oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  8. The structures, stratigraphy and evolution of the Gulf of Corinth rift, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Brian; Weiss, Jonathan R.; Goodliffe, Andrew M.; Sachpazi, Maria; Laigle, Mireille; Hirn, Alfred

    2011-06-01

    A multichannel seismic and bathymetry survey of the central and eastern Gulf of Corinth (GoC), Greece, reveals the offshore fault geometry, seismic stratigraphy and basin evolution of one of Earths most active continental rift systems. Active, right-stepping, en-echelon, north-dipping border faults trend ESE along the southern Gulf margin, significantly overlapping along strike. The basement offsets of three (Akrata-Derveni, Sithas and Xylocastro) are linked. The faults are biplanar to listric: typically intermediate angle (˜35° in the centre and 45-48° in the east) near the surface but decreasing in dip and/or intersecting a low- or shallow-angle (15-20° in the centre and 19-30° in the east) curvi-planar reflector in the basement. Major S-dipping border faults were active along the northern margin of the central Gulf early in the rift history, and remain active in the western Gulf and in the subsidiary Gulf of Lechaio, but unlike the southern border faults, are without major footwall uplift. Much of the eastern rift has a classic half-graben architecture whereas the central rift has a more symmetric w- or u-shape. The narrower and shallower western Gulf that transects the >40-km-thick crust of the Hellenides is associated with a wider distribution of overlapping high-angle normal faults that were formerly active on the Peloponnesus Peninsula. The easternmost sector includes the subsidiary Gulfs of Lechaio and Alkyonides, with major faults and basement structures trending NE, E-W and NW. The basement faults that control the rift architecture formed early in the rift history, with little evidence (other than the Vrachonisida fault along the northern margin) in the marine data for plan view evolution by subsequent fault linkage. Several have maximum offsets near one end. Crestal collapse graben formed where the hanging wall has pulled off the steeper onto the shallower downdip segment of the Derveni Fault. The dominant strikes of the Corinth rift faults

  9. Northern Arizona University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Michael F.; Saltonstall, Margot; Bickel, Sarah; Brandel, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Northern Arizona University (NAU) is a public university nestled below the San Francisco Peaks in Flagstaff, Arizona. It enrolls more than 21,000 undergraduate and graduate students at its main campus in Flagstaff, through its 35 statewide sites, and via online program offerings. Within the university organizational system, Student Affairs has a…

  10. A multi-criteria approach for the dumping of dredged material in the Thermaikos Gulf, Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Kapsimalis, Vasilios; Panagiotopoulos, Ioannis; Kanellopoulos, Theodore; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Antoniou, Panayota; Anagnostou, Christos

    2010-12-01

    A multi-criteria approach was applied for the disposal into the sea of ∼1,100,000 m(3) of sediment, dredged from a coastal area in the northeastern part of the Thermaikos Gulf. This sediment (classified as muddy) is distributed vertically into two distinct Layers (A and B) with the thickness of the surficial sedimentary unit ranging from 7 to 54 cm. Its geochemistry reveals increased Cr and Ni concentrations, which may be attributed to natural enrichment through the erosion of the adjacent igneous and metamorphic rocks. In addition, a low to moderate contamination from urban-originated heavy metals, like Cu, Pb and Zn as well as from aliphatic and polycyclic hydrocarbons was identified for the upper Layer A. However, the limited proportion (5.5%) of the polluted Layer A in the total volume of the dredged material could not affect the good quality (assessed by the Sediment Quality Guidelines) of the bulk sediment. The identification of the optimum marine dumping site was based on (a) the physicochemical similarity (detected by the application of a cluster analysis) of the dredged material with the surficial deposits of potential dumping sites in the Outer Thermaikos Gulf, and (b) the consideration, based on previous studies, of various criteria related to the disposal area such as deep-water circulation, influence on living resources, impact on economical (aquaculture, fishing, navigation), recreational (fishing) and military activities.

  11. Imaging 3D geological structure of the Mygdonian basin (Northern Greece) with geological numerical modeling and geophysical methods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cédric, Guyonnet-Benaize; Fabrice, Hollender; Maria, Manakou; Alexandros, Savvaidis; Elena, Zargli; Cécile, Cornou; Nikolaos, Veranis; Dimitrios, Raptakis; Artemios, Atzemoglou; Pierre-Yves, Bard; Nikolaos, Theodulidis; Kyriazis, Pitilakis; Emmanuelle, Chaljub

    2013-04-01

    The Mygdonian basin, located 30 km E-NE close to Thessaloniki, is a typical active tectonic basin, trending E-NW, filled by sediments 200 to 400 m thick. This basin has been chosen as a European experimental site since 1993 (European Commission research projects - EUROSEISTEST). It has been investigated for experimental and theoretical studies on site effects. The Mygdonian basin is currently covered by a permanent seismological network and has been mainly characterized in 2D and 3D with geophysical and geotechnical studies (Bastani et al, 2011; Cadet and Savvaidis, 2011; Gurk et al, 2007; Manakou et al, 2007; Manakou et al, 2010; Pitilakis et al, 1999; Raptakis et al, 2000; Raptakis et al, 2005). All these studies allowed understanding the influence of geological structures and local site conditions on seismic site response. For these reasons, this site has been chosen for a verification exercise for numerical simulations in the framework of an ongoing international collaborative research project (Euroseistest Verification and Validation Project - E2VP). The verification phase has been made using a first 3D geophysical and geotechnical model (Manakou, 2007) about 5 km wide and 15 km long, centered on the Euroseistest site. After this verification phase, it has been decided to update, optimize and extend this model in order to obtain a more detailed model of the 3D geometry of the entire basin, especially the bedrock 3D geometry which can affect drastically the results of numerical simulations for site effect studies. In our study, we build a 3D geological model of the present-day structure of the entire Mygdonian basin. This "precise" model is 12 km wide, 65 km long and is 400 m deep in average. It has been built using geophysical, geotechnical and geological data. The database is heterogeneous and composed of hydrogeological boreholes, seismic refraction surveys, array microtremor measurements, electrical and geotechnical surveys. We propose an integrated workflow, adapted to heterogeneous geological, geophysical and geotechnical data in order to integrate this database in 3D. This database is integrated in 3D in a geomodelling software (gocad). We build 3D surfaces with constraining data, using DSI method (Discrete Smooth Interpolation). This 3D geological model led to the 3D geometry of the main geophysical/geological boundaries (bedrock, boundaries in the sedimentary filling) and to a precise quantification of the 3D volume of the sedimentary filling of the basin. The results of this study will be used in the second phase of the E2VP project for numerical simulations at the scale of the entire Mygdonian basin.

  12. Northern Pintail (Anas acuta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Miller, M.R.; Poole, A.; Gill, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Northern Pintail is a medium-sized dabbling duck of slender, elegant lines and conservative plumage coloration. It is circumpolar in distribution and abundant in North America, with core nesting habitat in Alaska and the Prairie Pothole Region of southern Canada and the northern Great Plains. Breeders favor shallow wetlands interspersed throughout prairie grasslands or arctic tundra. An early fall migrant, the species arrives on wintering areas beginning in August, after wing molt, often forming large roosting and feeding flocks on open, shallow wetlands and flooded agricultural fields. The birds consume grains, marsh plant seeds, and aquatic invertebrates throughout the fall and winter. Northern Pintails are among the earliest nesting ducks in North America, beginning shortly after ice-out in many northern areas. Individuals form new pair bonds each winter but are highly promiscuous during the nesting season, with mated and unmated males often involved in vigorous, acrobatic Pursuit Flights. Annual nest success and productivity vary with water conditions, predation, and weather. Females build nests on the ground, often long distances from water. Only the female incubates; her mate leaves shortly after incubation begins. Ducklings hatch together in one day, follow the female to water after a day in the nest, and fledge by July or August. Adults and ducklings consume mainly aquatic invertebrates during the breeding season. Predators and farming operations destroy many thousands of Northern Pintail nests annually; farming has also greatly reduced the amount of quality nesting cover available. Winter habitats are threatened by water shortages, agricultural development, contamination, and urbanization. Periods of extended drought in prairie nesting regions have caused dramatic population declines, usually followed by periods of recovery. Over the long term, however, the continental population of Northern Pintails has declined significantly from 6 million birds in

  13. Erosion problems in Alexandroupolis coastline, North-Eastern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xeidakis, G. S.; Delimani, P.; Skias, S.

    2007-12-01

    This paper deals with the coastal erosion processes and the related problems around the city of Alexandroupolis, NE Aegean Sea, N. Greece. The area is very fast developing, as the city is an important port and a summer resort center in SE Balkans, and will become soon a transportation and energy center, as well. The coastline under study exhibits an east west orientation and has a length of more than 50 km. The spatial distribution and the characteristics of the changes in the shoreline were studied by comparing old and new air photographs and topographic maps, as well as through repeated series of field observations and local measurements regarding the erosion process. From these studies it was concluded that the greater stretch of the western part of the coast, under consideration, is of moderate to high relief, with a considerable participation of coastal cliffs. It consists of conglomerates of varying granulometry and consistency and is under moderate to severe erosion process. The erosion phenomena in the western part of the coast may be attributed, primarily, to strong S, SW winds, blowing in the area and to trapping of sediments by Alexandroupolis’ port breakwaters; the port stops or/and diverts the sediments to the open sea; and to the east to west longshore sea current, prevailing in the area. The eastern stretch of the coast is a plain area, formed by sandy silty sediments; being a part of the river Evros’ Delta, it is under deposition and accretes seawards. The majority of the coasts under consideration are classified as coasts of high wave energy potential. Hard structures, as shore protection measures, have been constructed in some places, but they were proved, in rather short time-period, ineffective and suffered extensive failures. Thus, it is argued that for a long-term cost-effective tackling of the various erosion problems on any stretch, priority must be given to soft engineering measures; although, certain hard measures, carefully selected

  14. Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Coastal Geomorphologic Research in Western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmeister, D.; Tilly, N.; Curdt, C.; Aasen, H.; Ntageretzis, K.; Hadler, H.; Willershäuser, T.; Vött, A.; Bareth, G.

    2012-07-01

    We used terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) for (i) accurate volume estimations of dislocated boulders moved by high-energy impacts and for (ii) monitoring of annual coastal changes. In this contribution, we present three selected sites in Western Greece that were surveyed during a time span of four years (2008-2011). The Riegl LMS-Z420i laser scanner was used in combination with a precise DGPS system (Topcon HiPer Pro). Each scan position and a further target were recorded for georeferencing and merging of the point clouds. For the annual detection of changes, reference points for the base station of the DGPS system were marked. Our studies show that TLS is capable to accurately estimate volumes of boulders, which were dislocated and deposited inland from the littoral zone. The mass of each boulder was calculated from this 3D-reconstructed volume and according density data. The masses turned out to be considerably smaller than common estimated masses based on tape-measurements and according density approximations. The accurate mass data was incorporated into wave transport equations, which estimate wave velocities of high-energy impacts. As expected, these show smaller wave velocities, due to the incorporated smaller mass. Furthermore, TLS is capable to monitor annual changes on coastal areas. The changes are detected by comparing high resolution digital elevation models from every year. On a beach site, larger areas of sea-weed and sandy sediments are eroded. In contrast, bigger gravel with 30-50 cm diameter was accumulated. At the other area with bigger boulders and a different coastal configuration only slightly differences were detectable. In low-lying coastal areas and along recent beaches, post-processing of point clouds turned out to be more difficult, due to noise effects by water and shadowing effects. However, our studies show that the application of TLS in different littoral settings is an appropriate and promising tool. The combination of both instruments

  15. Complete structural analysis of the Upper plate of Attica metamorphic core complex (Sub-Pelagonian Zone, Internal Hellenides, Central Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamantopoulos, A.

    2009-04-01

    rocks constitute 2nd order structural features resulting by non-coaxial strain, e) Cataclastic rocks dominate along the boundaries of the involved rocks as well as in footwall and hangingwall rocks, forming a complicated mix of sedimentary, volcanic, serpentinic and carbonate protolith rocks, f) Geometric analysis and description of asymmetric structures proves that a prominent non-coaxial strain toward north-northwest prevails, producing a heterogeneous cataclastic fabric in the rocks, g) Quantitative and qualitative analysis of asymmetric structures among Triassic-Jurassic rocks and Permo-Triassic rocks determined that two strain domains are formed in the footwalls, including structures of different strain state, h) Field evaluation of the structural geology and the tectonics connote the conjugate character of the cataclastic zones, causing almost complete decomposition of the pre-existed geometries. Deformation of the Paleocene flysch sediments by the inferred non-coaxial strain field indicates a post-Paleocene age of the observed geometry. Multi-directed steep-angle faults in Alpine and Neogene rocks cut the former shear zones and define elongated post-Early Miocene basins, ascribed to post-Late Miocene faulting activity. Combined these data of structural geology, we connoted that brittle decomposition of the UP, late-stage exhumation of the ductile-deformed lithologies towards the upper rigid crust and the formation of Athens basin progressed during Neogene. Diamantopoulos A., 2005. A cardinal problem of the kinematic path of Internal Hellenides (Pelagonian Cordillera, Northern Central Greece): Field evidences from Askion and eastern Vernon mountain ranges. IESCA 2005, iZMIR-Turkey, Book Abstracts, page 32. Diamantopoulos A., 2006. Late-orogenic stretching of the Upper Plate of Attica metamorphic core complex (Internal Hellenides, Central Greece): Field evidences from Parnis, Pastra and Kitheron mountains. International Conference on Neogene Magmatism of the

  16. The Progressivity of Public Education in Greece: Empirical Findings and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsampelas, Christos; Tsakloglou, Panos

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the short-run distributional effects of publicly provided education services in Greece using static incidence analysis. Public education is found to be inequality-reducing but the progressivity of the system withers away as we move up to higher educational levels. We employ a framework of both relative and absolute inequality…

  17. Teachers' Opinions Concerning Microteachings as a Training Technique: A Case Study from ASPETE, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marios, Koutsoukos; Iosif, Fragoulis

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the present research is to investigate teachers' opinions concerning microteachings as a training technique. For research purposes, a case study was conducted, studying a sample of secondary education teachers in the School of Pedagogical and Technological Education (ASPETE) in Kozani, Greece. Among the research's main…

  18. EU Funding and Issues of "Marketisation" of Higher Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouvias, Dionysios

    2011-01-01

    In the last 10 years, tens of millions of euros from European Union (EU) funding have started to flow into Greece's state schools and universities. New departments of higher education have been established all over the country, and a new institutional framework for lifelong learning has been recently set up. Considering the above context, certain…

  19. Political and Pedagogical Dimensions in Holocaust Education: Teacher Seminars and Staff Development in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balodimas-Bartolomei, Angelyn

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines Holocaust education and professional teacher development in Greece. It briefly reviews the history of Greek Jewry and the stance and significance of Holocaust education within the Greek education system from historical, political, and pedagogical dimensions. The study also compares various approaches, themes, and…

  20. School Buildings in Greece: The Bioclimatic Challenge and a Photovoltaic Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patargias, Panagiotis A.; Angela, Kalianou; Galanis, George; Vassilopoulou, Marina; Drosou, Maria; Protogeropoulos, Christos

    2007-01-01

    Greece's School Buildings Organisation (SBO) is developing bioclimatic pilot schemes which are yielding positive results. Bioclimatic action has been one of the principal priorities of Greek school infrastructure planning since 2004. Among the activities undertaken by SBO to use renewable energy sources in school buildings is a pilot project to…

  1. Enhancing Students' Critical Awareness in a Second Chance School in Greece: Reality or Wishful Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efstathiou, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    This paper is about a case study investigating into a Second Chance School in Greece as an institution for raising students' social awareness along the principles of critical pedagogy. Through the prism of symbolic interactionism, students' and teachers' negotiated perspectives formulating school and classroom culture reveal that students'…

  2. The survival of the ritualistic over the 'scientific' element of hydrotherapy in Greece.

    PubMed

    Diamandopoulos, A; Vlachos, J; Marketos, S

    1997-03-01

    In this paper we present some elements of the history of 'scientific' psychiatric hydrotherapy and, moreover, of a particular form of the water-purifying ritual--that is, foot washing--among the populations living in Greece and in Orthodox communities in the Balkans. We speculate on the reasons that caused the virtual disappearance of the former, while the latter still flourishes.

  3. The Development of B2C E-Commerce in Greece: Current Situation and Future Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kardaras, Dimitris; Papathanassiou, Eleutherios

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the results of a survey of 120 companies in Greece that evaluated the potential of business to customer (B2C) Internet applications and investigated how the Internet and e-commerce can offer new opportunities for businesses to improve their customers' satisfaction. Discusses electronic commerce problems and future technology. (Contains…

  4. Local Directors of School Education in Greece: Their Role and Main Sources of Job Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lainas, Athanassios

    2010-01-01

    Directors of education in Greece operate at prefectural level and are the heads of the local directorates or bureaus of primary/secondary education. Because of the centralized character of the educational system, their role is restricted to facilitating the smooth operation of the local school system and implementing the national policy on school…

  5. Agora VII: Working Time, Training Time (Thessaloniki, Greece, October 7-8, 1999). CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guggenheim, Eric Fries, Ed.

    This document contains the agenda and papers on work and training presented at the Agora VII meeting in Thessaloniki, Greece in October, 1999. The Foreword describes each session with a list of the topics and papers, along with a brief introduction to the topics. The three sessions are: Work and Training in Society in the 21st Century; Working…

  6. Science Education and the Emergence of the Specialized Scientist in Nineteenth Century Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampakis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I describe the strong and reciprocal relations between the emergence of the specialized expert in the natural sciences and the establishment of science education, in early Modern Greece. Accordingly, I show how science and public education interacted within the Greek state from its inception in the early 1830, to the first decade of…

  7. EU Strategies to Encourage Youth Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Higher Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karanassios, Nikolaos; Pazarskis, Michail; Mitsopoulos, Konstantinos; Christodoulou, Petros

    2006-01-01

    The authors present and discuss significant aspects of youth entrepreneurship in the European Union (EU) and, especially, in higher education institutions in Greece. The structure of this paper is as follows. First, the study introduces a conceptual basis for entrepreneurship as defined in the EU and looks at entrepreneurship in the context of…

  8. Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Sea Turtles in Elementary Students on Zakynthos, Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimopoulos, Dimitrios I.; Pantis, John D.

    2003-01-01

    Utilizes a 32-item survey instrument to measure knowledge and attitudes of 5th and 6th grade students regarding sea turtle conservation on Zakynthos, Greece. Results indicate low knowledge scores and high scores for attitudes, but an overall positive correlation between knowledge and attitudes. Knowledge, understanding and/or concern, and locus of…

  9. Tracking Changes in Pre-Service EFL Teacher Beliefs in Greece: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheoudakis, Marina

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal study that aims to investigate pre-service EFL teacher beliefs about learning and teaching in Greece. The study attempts to track possible changes in those beliefs during a 3-year teacher education program and explores the impact of teaching practice, in particular, on student teachers' beliefs. The results…

  10. Exploring the Transition to Higher Education in Greece: Issues of Intergenerational Educational Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symeonaki, Maria A.; Stamatopoulou, Glykeria A.

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the study of intergenerational educational mobility in Greece. The primary purpose is to represent quantitatively the transitions of individuals, in order to determine whether and to what extent the educational levels attained are influenced by parental education. The authors use data drawn from the European Union…

  11. Developmental, Familial and Educational Characteristics of a Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Papatrecha, Virginia; Polychronopoulou, Stavroula; Mavronas, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the developmental, familial and educational characteristics of 91 children with a clinical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), from one educational district of Athens, Greece. Records of the 91 children, aged 4-14 years old, were examined with respect to sex, age of diagnosis, type of ASDs, school…

  12. Wage Returns to University Disciplines in Greece: Are Greek Higher Education Degrees Trojan Horses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livanos, Ilias; Pouliakas, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the wage returns to qualifications and academic disciplines in the Greek labour market. Exploring wage responsiveness across various degree subjects in Greece is interesting, as it is characterised by high levels of graduate unemployment, which vary considerably with the field of study, and relatively low levels of wage…

  13. Identification, Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal Learning in Greece. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline

    This report describes a study to provide a picture of the stage of development, level, and nature of the debate on nonformal learning in Greece. It describes the national debate on questions of identification, assessment, and recognition of nonformal learning, including means, motives, and areas of agreement and conflict. Then, it describes…

  14. Library and Information Science Education in Greece: Institutional Changes and Current Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moniarou-Papaconstantinou, Valentini; Tsatsaroni, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the historical development of Library and Information Science (LIS) Education in Greece, in order to understand its current position within the field of higher education, and to assess its future prospects. In particular, in tracing changes that LIS Education as an institution has undergone, it argues that institutional…

  15. Child Health-Related Quality of Life and Parental Social Capital in Greece: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Dardiry, Giulia; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Tzavara, Chara; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Tountas, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examined dimensions of child health-related quality of life in Greece in relation to parental assessments of neighbourhood social capital and social support networks. For the analysis, two main measures were used: (1) child self-reported health-related quality of life in ten dimensions, as measured by the KIDSCREEN questionnaire;…

  16. Spatial and temporal variability of wind speed and energy over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappa, Ioanna; Dimakos, Yiannis; Dimas, Panagiotis; Kossieris, Panagiotis; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    To appraise the wind potential over Greece we analyse the main statistical properties of wind speed through time. To this end, we use 66 time series from 1932 to 2013 on daily and monthly time scale and examine the spatial variability of wind speed over Greece. To depict the main statistical behavior and potential of the wind over Greece, maps have been created illustrating the basic statistical characteristics of wind speed on monthly to annual time scale. We also examine time series of energy production from the currently developed system of key wind parks and we compare the theoretical potential with the actually produced energy. Finally, we explore a methodology to simulate wind energy production in a stochastic framework. In that context we generate hourly wind speed synthetic data using a modified Bartlett-Lewis model implemented in Hyetos. The results of our analysis offer an improved overall picture of wind speed variability over Greece and help us clarify to which extent Hyetos is applicable in the stochastic generation of wind speed time series.

  17. Greece: a Balkan subrefuge for a remnant red deer (cervus elaphus) population.

    PubMed

    Karaiskou, Nikoleta; Tsakogiannis, Alexander; Gkagkavouzis, Konstantinos; Papika, Sylvia; Latsoudis, Panagiotis; Kavakiotis, Ioannis; Pantis, John; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J; Triantaphyllidis, Costas; Triantafyllidis, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A number of phylogeographic studies have revealed the existence of multiple ice age refugia within the Balkan Peninsula, marking it as a biodiversity hotspot. Greece has been reported to harbor genetically differentiated lineages from the rest of Balkans for a number of mammal species. We therefore searched for distinct red deer lineages in Greece, by analyzing 78 samples originating from its last population in Parnitha Mountain (Central Greece). Additionally, we tested the impact of human-induced practices on this population. The presence of 2 discrete mtDNA lineages was inferred: 1) an abundant one not previously sampled in the Balkans and 2) a more restricted one shared with other Balkan populations, possibly the result of successful translocations of Eastern European individuals. Microsatellite-based analyses of 14 loci strongly support the existence of 2 subpopulations with relative frequencies similar to mitochondrial analyses. This study stresses the biogeographic importance of Central Greece as a separate Last Glacial Maximum period refugium within the Balkans. It also delineates the possible effects that recent translocations of red deer populations had on the genetic structuring within Parnitha. We suggest that the Greek red deer population of Parnitha is genetically distinct, and restocking programs should take this genetic evidence into consideration.

  18. The 22nd annual meeting of the European Tissue Repair Society (ETRS) in Athens, Greece

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The 22nd Annual Meeting of the European Tissue Repair Society, Athens, Greece, October 4 to 5, 2012 informed about pathophysiological mechanisms in tissue repair and on the development of clinical treatments of chronic wounds, fibrosis, and cancer, considering recent advances in molecular biology and biotechnology. PMID:23374673

  19. Standardization of the Gordon Primary Measures of Music Audiation in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamou, Lelouda; Schmidt, Charles P.; Humphreys, Jere T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to standardize the Primary Measures of Music Audiation in Greece ( N = 1,188). Split-halves reliability was acceptable across grade levels (K through 3) for the Tonal and Rhythm subtests, but test-retest reliability was generally unacceptable, especially for the Rhythm subtest. Concurrent validity was mixed, with…

  20. 20+ Years of Environmental Education Centers in Greece: Teachers' Perceptions and Future Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanniris, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    For the first time after decades of expansion and systematic innovative practice, environmental education in Greece faces an uncertain future as a result of the contemporary political and economic crisis. This research aims to contribute to the international exchange of good practices by focusing on the effects and functions of the Greek network…

  1. Social Pedagogy and Bullying in Schools: The Views of University Students in England, Greece and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriacou, Chris; Mylonakou-Keke, Iro; Stephens, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which a social pedagogic perspective is evident in the views of bullying in schools held by a sample of university students in England, Greece and Norway studying in the area of the education, care and welfare of children. A total of 469 university students completed a questionnaire in which they were asked to…

  2. Survey of medico-legal investigation of homicide in the region of Epirus (Northwest Greece).

    PubMed

    Fragkouli, Kleio; Boumba, Vassiliki; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the forensic features of homicides in North-West Greece (Epirus) from 1998 to 2013, a borderland area between Greece and Albania. Although Greece is critically influenced by both the increasing flow of refugees and the current socioeconomic crisis, very little information has been published regarding the patterns of homicide in the country. Fifty-eight autopsied victims (36 males; 22 females) were investigated. The median age was 37 years old. The average annual homicide rate was 0.85 per 100,000 inhabitants and showed remarkable fluctuation, with largest increase during Greek financial downturn. Sixteen victims were not Greek citizens. The most common method of commitment was the use of firearm (40%). The main motives were economical causes (26%) and passion (14%). Four cases were categorized as matricide (7%), 3 as homicide-suicide (5%), 2 as patricide (3%) and 1 as infanticide (2%). Toxicological analysis proved negative for ethanol and other psychotropic substances in the majority of the victims (50%). There is an urgent need for public actions both in Epirus and in Greece, with the application of effective strategies against criminality.

  3. Extension for Organic Agriculture: A Comparative Study between Baden-Württemberg, Germany and Crete, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Österle, Nina; Koutsouris, Alex; Livieratos, Yannis; Kabourakis, Emmanuil

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to compare the extension services offered in the field of organic agriculture (OA) in Baden-Württemberg (BW), Germany and Crete, Greece. Design/methodology approach: 16 in-depth interviews, 10 in BW and 6 in Crete, were carried out with representatives of OA extension providers; interviews were qualitatively…

  4. Three new species of the genus Leptonetela from Greece (Araneae, Leptonetidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi; Wang, Chunxia; Zheng, Guo; Li, Shuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of the spider genus Leptonetela collected from caves in Greece are described: Leptonetela arvanitidisi sp. n. (male & female), Leptonetela paragamiani sp. n. (male & female) and Leptonetela penevi sp. n. (male & female). Detailed illustrations of the new species are provided. DNA barcodes were obtained for future use. PMID:27110148

  5. Situation Report - Bulgaria, Greece, Finland, Hungary, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bulgaria, Greece, Finland, Hungary, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics on population, birth…

  6. Molecular and morphological characterization of the corn cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae, from Greece

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The corn cyst nematode Heterodera zeae was first detected in India, where it has wide distribution. This nematode has also been reported from Pakistan, Egypt, Thailand, Nepal, the United States, and Portugal. There is limited information regarding nematodes attacking cereals in Greece, and thus far ...

  7. How "Intercultural" Is Education in Greece? Insights from Policymakers and Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palaiologou, Nektaria; Faas, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Schools in Greece particularly in inner-city areas, have seen a considerable increase in the number of migrant students over the past two decades. In this article, we discuss the intercultural education policy, which was introduced in 1996, in response to the migration and diversity the country has seen since the mid-1980s. We explore how…

  8. Detection and early warning of WNV circulation in Central Macedonia, Greece using sentinel chickens and mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following West Nile Virus (WNV) epidemic in 2010 in Central Macedonia, Greece, which resulted in 197 human neuroinvasive disease cases, we determined the seasonal appearance and prevalence of the virus in 2011 by testing weekly for WNV genomic RNA in mosquitoes collected in carbon-dioxide baited tra...

  9. Malaria and the Decline of Ancient Greece: Revisiting the Jones Hypothesis in an Era of Interdisciplinarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Christopher; Hamlin, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Between 1906 and 1909 the biologist Ronald Ross and the classicist W.H.S. Jones pioneered interdisciplinary research in biology and history in advancing the claim that malaria had been crucial in the decline of golden-age Greece (fourth century BCE). The idea had originated with Ross, winner of the Nobel Prize for demonstrating the importance of…

  10. Crisis Management for Secondary Education: A Survey of Secondary Education Directors in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savelides, Socrates; Mihiotis, Athanassios; Koutsoukis, Nikitas-Spiros

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The Greek secondary education system lacks a formal crisis management system. The purpose of this paper is to address this problem as follows: elicit current crisis management practices, outline features for designing a formal crisis management system in Greece. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a survey conducted with…

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus VH3, Isolated from an Aquaculture Environment in Greece.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Daniel; Jun, Jin Woo; D'Alvise, Paul; Middelboe, Mathias; Gram, Lone; Liu, Siyang; Katharios, Pantelis

    2015-07-02

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important foodborne pathogen responsible for gastroenteritis outbreaks globally. It has also been identified as an important pathogen in aquatic organisms. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of V. parahaemolyticus, strain VH3, isolated from farmed juvenile greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili, in Greece.

  12. Evaluation of the Willingness for Cadaveric Donation in Greece: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halou, Heidi; Chalkias, Athanasios; Mystrioti, Dimitra; Iacovidou, Nicoletta; Vasileiou, Panagiotis V.S.; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of body donation for medical education and the advancement of medical science, cadaveric donation remains suboptimal worldwide. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the willingness of body donation in Greece and determine the characteristics of donors. This cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted from January…

  13. Elements of Gender-Related Variability in the Selection of School Advisors in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiou, Sophia; Papakonstantinou, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In many countries, including Greece, women are underrepresented in school management positions. Modern societies recognize sex inequalities in management as a significant social problem and implement human resource policies intended to reduce such problems. The purpose of this paper is to assess the level of gender inequality in the…

  14. Measuring the Attitudes of Adult Learners: A First Application of RAACES in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamouli, Lamprini; Valkanos, Efthymios; Economou, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This article made use of the model "Revised adult attitudes toward continuing education scale" (RAACES) to investigate the attitudes of adult learners in Vocational Training Centers (VTC/KEK) in Greece. The work aims to confirm the scale-measuring attitudes of adults resulting from the adoption of the RAACES model. Based on the results…

  15. Photovoltaic energy production map of Greece based on simulated and measured data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokas, Georgios A.; Lagogiannis, Konstantinos V.; Papageorgas, Panagiotis; Salame, Takla

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this research is in one hand to reveal the real energy production of a medium scale Photovoltaic (PV) plant located at different sites in Greece and on the other to compare measured data to the predicted ones resulted from one well-known, PV simulation software. During the last ten years a capacity of more than 2,5 GWp of PV systems has been installed in Greece. Almost 37% of the installations are ranged from 10 to 100 kWp due to favorable Feed-in-Tariff policy pricing, according to the Greek regulation. Previous investigations proved a remarkable difference between measured and predicted energy production in Greece regarding all PV systems technologies. For the purposes of this study more than 250 medium scale PV plants have been measured and more than 850 annually energy production data series for those parks have been collected. Those data constitute a great sample that has been compared to more than 225 simulations data resulted by a well-known web software for PV systems energy yield calculations with improved solar radiation database. Additionally, in order to have a visual feeling concerning the real PV energy yield footprint in Greece, an updated map has been developed and illustrated, providing a useful tool for both business and academic purposes.

  16. Zoonotic Onchocerca lupi infection in dogs, Greece and Portugal, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Giannelli, Alessio; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Papadopoulos, Elias; Cardoso, Luís; Cortes, Helder

    2013-12-01

    Onchocerca lupi infection is reported primarily in symptomatic dogs. We aimed to determine the infection in dogs from areas of Greece and Portugal with reported cases. Of 107 dogs, 9 (8%) were skin snip-positive for the parasite. DNA sequences of parasites in specimens from distinct dog populations differed genetically from those in GenBank.

  17. "Them and Us": Teachers' and Tutors' Experiences of a "New" Professional Development Course in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravani, Maria N.; John, Peter D.

    2005-01-01

    The research reported in this paper compares the experiences of twentytwo secondary teachers and twelve university tutors as they embark on a course of a "new" in-service professional development programme in Greece, in relation to adult learning. It harnesses a qualitative methodology and draws upon a set of ideas that cohere under the…

  18. Demographic Profile and Athletic Identity of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injured Wheelchair Basketball Athletes in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasiliadis, Angelo; Evaggelinou, Christina; Avourdiadou, Sevastia; Grekinis, Petros

    2010-01-01

    An epidemiological study conducted across the country of Greece was conducted in order to determine the profile and the athletic identity of spinal cord injured (SCI) wheelchair basketball athletes who participated to the 13th Greek Wheelchair Basketball Championship and Cup. The Disability Sport Participation questionnaire was used for data…

  19. Classroom Observation Ability among Pre-Service Music Educators in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Androutsos, Polyvios; Humphreys, Jere T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the classroom observation ability of pre-service music teachers in Greece (N = 62). Two groups of undergraduates, one near the beginning and one near the end of a two-year course sequence in teaching methods that included in-class and in-school training in observation ("juniors" and…

  20. Occupational Stress, Negative Affectivity and Physical Health in Special and General Education Teachers in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazuras, Lambros

    2006-01-01

    Teacher stress has attracted considerable attention, yet few studies have focused on special education teachers. This article, by Lambros Lazuras of the South-East European Research Centre (SEERC) in Thessaloniki, reports research designed to explore differences in the stress levels of general and special educators in Greece and provides…

  1. Rationality, Information Search and Choice in Higher Education: Evidence from Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou; Saiti, Anna; Socratous, Michalis

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of a study of the decision-making process which precedes the choice of a university in Greece. Specifically, the degree of rationality exhibited by prospective students is assessed in an attempt to provide a test for the economic approach to the explanation of human behaviour. Information search is used as an…

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus VH3, Isolated from an Aquaculture Environment in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Daniel; Jun, Jin Woo; D’Alvise, Paul; Middelboe, Mathias; Gram, Lone; Liu, Siyang

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important foodborne pathogen responsible for gastroenteritis outbreaks globally. It has also been identified as an important pathogen in aquatic organisms. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of V. parahaemolyticus, strain VH3, isolated from farmed juvenile greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili, in Greece. PMID:26139725

  3. Western Greece unconventional hydrocarbon potential from oil shale and shale gas reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakitsios, Vasileios; Agiadi, Konstantina

    2013-04-01

    It is clear that we are gradually running out of new sedimentary basins to explore for conventional oil and gas and that the reserves of conventional oil, which can be produced cheaply, are limited. This is the reason why several major oil companies invest in what are often called unconventional hydrocarbons: mainly oil shales, heavy oil, tar sand and shale gas. In western Greece exist important oil and gas shale reservoirs which must be added to its hydrocarbon potential1,2. Regarding oil shales, Western Greece presents significant underground immature, or close to the early maturation stage, source rocks with black shale composition. These source rock oils may be produced by applying an in-situ conversion process (ICP). A modern technology, yet unproven at a commercial scale, is the thermally conductive in-situ conversion technology, developed by Shell3. Since most of western Greece source rocks are black shales with high organic content, those, which are immature or close to the maturity limit have sufficient thickness and are located below 1500 meters depth, may be converted artificially by in situ pyrolysis. In western Greece, there are several extensive areas with these characteristics, which may be subject of exploitation in the future2. Shale gas reservoirs in Western Greece are quite possibly present in all areas where shales occur below the ground-water level, with significant extent and organic matter content greater than 1%, and during their geological history, were found under conditions corresponding to the gas window (generally at depths over 5,000 to 6,000m). Western Greece contains argillaceous source rocks, found within the gas window, from which shale gas may be produced and consequently these rocks represent exploitable shale gas reservoirs. Considering the inevitable increase in crude oil prices, it is expected that at some point soon Western Greece shales will most probably be targeted. Exploration for conventional petroleum reservoirs

  4. Assessment of seismic loading on structures based on airborne LiDAR data from the Kalochori urban area (N. Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovithis, Emmanouil; Kirtas, Emmanouil; Marini, Eleftheria; Bliziotis, Dimitris; Maltezos, Evangelos; Pitilakis, Dimitris; Makra, Konstantia; Savvaidis, Alexandros

    2016-08-01

    Airborne LiDAR monitoring integrated with field data is employed to assess the fundamental period and the seismic loading of structures composing an urban area under prescribed earthquake scenarios. Α piecewise work-flow is adopted by combining geometrical data of the building stock derived from a LiDAR-based 3D city model, structural data from in-situ inspections on representative city blocks and results of soil response analyses. The procedure is implemented in the residential area of Kalochori, (west of Thessaloniki in Northern Greece). Special attention is paid to the in-situ inspection of the building stock in order to discriminate recordings between actual buildings and man-made constructions that do not conform to seismic design codes and to acquire additional building stock data on structural materials, typologies and number of stories which is not feasible by the LiDAR process. The processed LiDAR and field data are employed to compute the fundamental period of each building by means of code-defined formulas. Knowledge of soil conditions in the Kalochoti area allows for soil response analyses to obtain free-field at ground surface under earthquake scenarios with varying return period. Upon combining the computed vibrational characteristics of the structures with the free-field response spectra, the seismic loading imposed on the structures of the urban area under investigation is derived for each one of the prescribed seismic motions. Results are presented in GIS environment in the form of spatially distributed spectral accelerations with direct implications in seismic vulnerability studies of an urban area.

  5. Garden soil and house dust as exposure media for lead uptake in the mining village of Stratoni, Greece.

    PubMed

    Argyraki, Ariadne

    2014-08-01

    The relationships between two exposure media, garden soil and house dust, were studied for Pb uptake in Stratoni village in northern Greece, an industrial area of mining and processing of sulphide ore. Lead data for the two media were assessed in terms of total and bioaccessible content, measurement and geochemical variability, and mineralogical composition. It was found that total Pb was enriched in house dust samples by a factor of 2 on average. Total Pb concentration in soil samples had a maximum of 2,040 mg/kg and reached a maximum of 7,000 mg/kg in house dust samples. The estimated variability due to measurement uncertainty was dominated by the sampling process, and the proportion of sampling variance was greater for soil samples, indicating a higher degree of Pb heterogeneity in soil on the given spatial scale of sampling strata. Although the same general spatial trend was observed for both sampling media with decreasing Pb concentration by increasing distance from the ore-processing plant, Pb in dust samples displayed the highest concentrations within a 300-600-m zone from the ore-processing facility. The significant differences which were observed in Pb speciation between the studied media were explained by differences in mineralogical composition of outdoor soil and indoor dust. Lead-enriched Fe and Mn oxides predominated in soil samples while fine galena grains (<10-20 μm diameter) were the major Pb-bearing phase in dust samples. The integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model was used to predict the risk of elevated blood lead levels in children of Stratoni. Model prediction indicated an average probability of 61 % for blood-Pb to exceed 10 μg/dl. The results underline the importance of house dust in risk assessment and highlight the effect of outdoor and indoor conditions on the fate of Pb in the particular environment of Stratoni.

  6. Concentration and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticide residues in herons and their prey in wetlands of Thermaikos Gulf, Macedonia, Greece.

    PubMed

    Albanis, T A; Hela, D; Papakostas, G; Goutner, V

    1996-04-05

    Concentrations of the principal organochlorine insecticides were determined in eggs and freshly dead chicks of the Squacco heron (Ardeola ralloides), Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) and Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), as well as in frogs (Rana sp.), the main heron prey. Material was collected from the wetlands of the Thermaikos Gulf (Macedonia, northern Greece) in 1992 and 1993. Residues of the organochlorine pesticides alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, lindane, 4,4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, heptachlor and dieldrin were found in the eggs, chicks and prey of the herons. alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, and lindane had highest concentration in the Night Heron and lowest in the Little Egret. In all samples examined, the bioconcentration factors (BCF) of these compounds had very high values. BCF of pollutants for the eggs of the Squacco Heron were at lower levels than those of its chicks. BCF for frogs were in almost all cases lower than those for the other samples. Biomagnification factor (BMF) for 4,4'-DDE and beta-BHC had the highest values of all other compounds (except in the Night Heron). BMF for the eggs of the Squacco Heron were greater than for its chicks. Variation in the pesticide contents in the different heron species is attributed to different feeding habits; the exception being the occurrence of dieldrin in eggs only and 4,4'-DDE as a remnant of past spraying. Amounts of pesticides detected in this study are too low to affect eggshell thickness in the Squacco Heron or have other effects on the wildlife of the area.

  7. Land Change in Eastern Mediterranean Wood-Pasture Landscapes: The Case of Deciduous Oak Woodlands in Lesvos (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaich, Harald; Kizos, Thanasis; Schneider, Stefan; Plieninger, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    In Mediterranean Europe, wood-pasture landscapes with oak woodlands as emblematic ecosystems are undergoing rapid land-use change, which may threaten their legacy as hotspots of biodiversity, ecosystem services, and cultural heritage. The objective of this study was to quantify land cover changes and transitions as well as the dynamics of oak woodland patterns and densities over 50 years in two municipalities at the center and edges of Quercus macrolepis distribution in Northern Lesvos (Greece). We used aerial photographs from 1960 and WorldView-2 satellite images from 2010 to process land cover maps and metrics, and to calculate oak canopy cover with a point-grid sampling approach. Spatiotemporal dynamics of land cover change were generally high—especially between oak woodlands and grass- and shrub-lands, resulting in a more heterogeneous and fragmented landscape in 2010. Surprisingly, oak woodland area remained stable with marginal losses in one study site and gains in the other one. Oak canopy cover increased by 8 and 9 %. Spatial hotspots of change were mountainous and peripheral phrygana areas with expanding oak stands, as well as river valleys and near urban areas with expanding olive groves and grass- and shrublands in former complex cultivation and oak stands. We conclude that the parallel processes of abandonment of crop cultivation and intensification of livestock grazing have been less detrimental to oak woodlands than supposed. To ensure long-term persistence of oak woodlands in the face of ongoing rural depopulation and land-use intensification, environmental and agricultural policies should better address their specificities as anthropogenic habitats.

  8. Influence of hydrothermal venting on water column properties in the crater of the Kolumbo submarine volcano, Santorini volcanic field (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopoulou, Maria E.; Mertzimekis, Theo J.; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Carey, Steven; Mandalakis, Manolis

    2016-02-01

    The Kolumbo submarine volcano, located 7 km northeast of the island of Santorini, is part of Santorini's volcanic complex in the south Aegean Sea, Greece. Kolumbo's last eruption was in 1650 AD. However, a unique and active hydrothermal vent field has been revealed in the northern part of its crater floor during an oceanographic survey by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) in 2006. In the present study, conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) data collected by ROV Hercules during three oceanographic surveys onboard E/V Nautilus in 2010 and 2011 have served to investigate the distribution of physicochemical properties in the water column, as well as their behavior directly over the hydrothermal field. Additional CTD measurements were carried out in volcanic cone 3 (VC3) along the same volcanic chain but located 3 km northeast of Kolumbo where no hydrothermal activity has been detected to date. CTD profiles exhibit pronounced anomalies directly above the active vents on Kolumbo's crater floor. In contrast, VC3 data revealed no such anomalies, essentially resembling open-sea (background) conditions. Steep increases of temperature (e.g., from 16 to 19 °C) and conductivity near the maximum depth (504 m) inside Kolumbo's cone show marked spatiotemporal correlation. Vertical distributions of CTD signatures suggest a strong connection to Kolumbo's morphology, with four distinct zones identified (open sea, turbid flow, invariable state, hydrothermal vent field). Additionally, overlaying the near-seafloor temperature measurements on an X-Y coordinate grid generates a detailed 2D distribution of the hydrothermal vent field and clarifies the influence of fluid discharges in its formation.

  9. Land change in eastern Mediterranean wood-pasture landscapes: the case of deciduous oak woodlands in Lesvos (Greece).

    PubMed

    Schaich, Harald; Kizos, Thanasis; Schneider, Stefan; Plieninger, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    In Mediterranean Europe, wood-pasture landscapes with oak woodlands as emblematic ecosystems are undergoing rapid land-use change, which may threaten their legacy as hotspots of biodiversity, ecosystem services, and cultural heritage. The objective of this study was to quantify land cover changes and transitions as well as the dynamics of oak woodland patterns and densities over 50 years in two municipalities at the center and edges of Quercus macrolepis distribution in Northern Lesvos (Greece). We used aerial photographs from 1960 and WorldView-2 satellite images from 2010 to process land cover maps and metrics, and to calculate oak canopy cover with a point-grid sampling approach. Spatiotemporal dynamics of land cover change were generally high--especially between oak woodlands and grass- and shrub-lands, resulting in a more heterogeneous and fragmented landscape in 2010. Surprisingly, oak woodland area remained stable with marginal losses in one study site and gains in the other one. Oak canopy cover increased by 8 and 9%. Spatial hotspots of change were mountainous and peripheral phrygana areas with expanding oak stands, as well as river valleys and near urban areas with expanding olive groves and grass- and shrublands in former complex cultivation and oak stands. We conclude that the parallel processes of abandonment of crop cultivation and intensification of livestock grazing have been less detrimental to oak woodlands than supposed. To ensure long-term persistence of oak woodlands in the face of ongoing rural depopulation and land-use intensification, environmental and agricultural policies should better address their specificities as anthropogenic habitats.

  10. Impact of intensive agricultural practices on drinking water quality in the Evros region (NE Greece) by GIS analysis.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, C; Mandalos, P; Vantarakis, A

    2008-08-01

    Chemical fertilizers are used extensively in modern agriculture, in order to improve yield and productivity of agricultural products. However, nutrient leaching from agricultural soil into groundwater resources poses a major environmental and public health concern. The Evros region is one of the largest agricultural areas in Northern Greece, extending over 1.5 million acres of cultivated land. Many of its drinking water resources are of groundwater origin and lie within agricultural areas. In order to assess the impact of agricultural fertilizers on drinking water quality in this region, tap-water samples from 64 different locations were collected and analyzed for the presence of nitrates (NO(3)(-)), nitrites (NO(2)(-)), ammonium (NH(4)(+)), sulfate (SO(4)(-2)) and phosphate (PO(4)(-3)). These chemicals were selected based on the information that ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and inorganic phosphate were the primary fertilizers used in local crop production. NO(3)(-), SO(4)(-2) and PO(4)(-3) levels exceeding accepted values were recorded in 6.25, 4.70 and 9.38% of all sampling points, respectively. NO(2)(-) and NH(4)(+) concentrations, on the other hand, were inside the permitted range. The data generated were introduced into a geographic information system (GIS) program for computer analysis and projection maps representing afflicted areas were created. Our results indicate a profound geographic correlation in the surface distribution of primary contaminants in areas of intensified agricultural production. Thus, drinking water pollution in these areas can be attributed to excessive fertilizer use from agricultural sources.

  11. Relationship between acidity and ionic composition of wet precipitation: A two years study at an urban site, Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anatolaki, Ch.; Tsitouridou, R.

    2009-03-01

    Wet precipitation samples were collected in the city center of Thessaloniki, northern Greece, for two years with different rainfall amount (April 2002-March 2004). All samples were analyzed for major anions and cations (Cl -, NO 3-, SO 42-, NH 4+, Na +, K +, Ca 2+ and Mg 2+). HCO 3- concentrations were calculated through pH measurements. Arithmetic mean pH values of 6.06 and 6.57 were found for the two periods. 10.5% of the first year rain events (April 2002-March 2003) and 2.5% of the second (April 2003-March 2004) exhibited pH ≤ 4.5. The quite typical, for Mediterranean areas, trend Ca 2+ > SO 42- > NH 4+ > Cl - > NO 3- was observed in the majority of the samples. The study of the relationship between the ionic concentrations and the precipitation amount gave information about the scavenging mechanism of ions (below or in-cloud). 67% of the rain acidity was found to be due to sulfuric acid and the rest 33% to nitric acid. The calculation of Neutralization Factors (NF) and the application of Multiple Linear Regression Analysis (MLR), showed the higher Ca 2+ contribution to the neutralization process. The impact of maritime sources was extracted from the SSF of Cl - and Mg 2+, while the anthropogenic origin of SO 42- was supported by the high NSSF (~ 98%). The local calcareous soil dust and possible long-range transport are the main sources of Ca 2+ in the area. A case study by using trajectory analysis to predict a long-range transport of pollutants from Etnean volcano, Italy, to the study area, is described.

  12. Private expenditure and the role of private health insurance in Greece: status quo and future trends.

    PubMed

    Siskou, Olga; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Economou, Charalampos; Kostagiolas, Peter; Liaropoulos, Lycourgos

    2009-10-01

    The health care system in Greece is financed in almost equal proportions by public and private sources. Private expenditure, consists mostly of out-of-pocket and under-the-table payments. Such payments strongly suggest dissatisfaction with the public system, due to under financing during the last 25 years. This gap has been filled rapidly by the private sector. From this point of view, one might suggest that the flourishing development of private provision may lead in turn to a corresponding growth in private health insurance (PHI). This paper aims to examine the role of PHI in Greece, to identify the factors influencing its development, and to make some suggestions about future policies and trends. In the decade of 1985-1995 PHI show increasing activity, reflecting the intention of some citizens to seek health insurance solutions in the form of supplementary cover in order to ensure faster access, better quality of services, and increased consumer choice. The benefits include programs covering hospital expenses, cash benefits, outpatient care expenses, disability income insurance, as well as limited managed care programs. However, despite recent interest, PHI coverage remains low in Greece compared to other EU countries. Economic, social and cultural factors such as low average household income, high unemployment, obligatory and full coverage by social insurance, lead to reluctance to pay for second-tier insurance. Instead, there is a preference to pay a doctor or hospital directly even in the form of under-the-table payments (which are remarkably high in Greece), when the need arises. There are also factors endogenous to the PHI industry, related to market policies, low organisational capacity, cream skimming, and the absence of insurance products meeting consumer requirements, which explain the relatively low state of development of PHI in Greece.

  13. Epidemiology and genetic diversity of criniviruses associated with tomato yellows disease in Greece.

    PubMed

    Orfanidou, C G; Dimitriou, C; Papayiannis, L C; Maliogka, V I; Katis, N I

    2014-06-24

    Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) and Tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV) are two whitefly transmitted viruses which are classified in the genus Crinivirus of the family Closteroviridae. Both induce similar yellowing symptoms in tomato and are responsible for severe economic losses. ToCV is transmitted by Bemisia tabaci Gennadious, Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood and Trialeurodes abutilonea Haldeman, whereas TICV is transmitted only by T. vaporariorum. An extensive study was conducted during 2009-2012 in order to identify the virus species involved in tomato yellowing disease in Greece. Samples from tomato, other crops and weeds belonging to 44 species from 26 families were collected and analyzed using molecular methods. In addition, adult whiteflies were collected and analyzed using morphological characters and DNA markers. Results showed that TICV prevailed in tomato crops (62.5%), while ToCV incidence was lower (20.5%) and confined in southern Greece. ToCV was also detected in lettuce plants showing mild yellowing symptoms for the first time in Greece. Approximately 13% of the tested weeds were found to be infected, with TICV being the predominant virus with an incidence of 10.8%, whereas ToCV was detected only in 2.2% of the analyzed samples. These results indicate that the host range of TICV and ToCV in Greece is far more extensive than previously believed. T. vaporariorum was the most widespread whitefly species in Greece (80%), followed by B. tabaci (biotypes B and Q) (20%). Sequence analysis of the CP and CPm genes from Greek tomato and weed isolates of ToCV and TICV showed that even though both viruses have very wide host ranges their populations show very low molecular divergence.

  14. Payments and quality of care in private for-profit and public hospitals in Greece

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Empirical evidence on how ownership type affects the quality and cost of medical care is growing, and debate on these topics is ongoing. Despite the fact that the private sector is a major provider of hospital services in Greece, little comparative information on private versus public sector hospitals is available. The aim of the present study was to describe and compare the operation and performance of private for-profit (PFP) and public hospitals in Greece, focusing on differences in nurse staffing rates, average lengths of stay (ALoS), and Social Health Insurance (SHI) payments for hospital care per patient discharged. Methods Five different datasets were prepared and analyzed, two of which were derived from information provided by the National Statistical Service (NSS) of Greece and the other three from data held by the three largest SHI schemes in the country. All data referred to the 3-year period from 2001 to 2003. Results PFP hospitals in Greece are smaller than public hospitals, with lower patient occupancy, and have lower staffing rates of all types of nurses and highly qualified nurses compared with public hospitals. Calculation of ALoS using NSS data yielded mixed results, whereas calculations of ALoS and SHI payments using SHI data gave results clearly favoring the public hospital sector in terms of cost-efficiency; in all years examined, over all specialties and all SHI schemes included in our study, unweighted ALoS and SHI payments for hospital care per discharge were higher for PFP facilities. Conclusions In a mixed healthcare system, such as that in Greece, significant performance differences were observed between PFP and public hospitals. Close monitoring of healthcare provision by hospital ownership type will be essential to permit evidence-based decisions on the future of the public/private mix in terms of healthcare provision. PMID:21943020

  15. Northern Plains Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-513, 14 October 2003

    Patterns are common on the northern plains of Mars. Like their terrestrial counterparts in places like Siberia, Alaska, and northern Canada, patterned ground on Mars might be an indicator of the presence of ground ice. Whether it is true that the patterns on Mars are related to ground ice and whether the ice is still present beneath the martian surface are unknown. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows an example of patterned ground on the martian northern plains near 72.4oN, 252.6oW. The dark dots and lines are low mounds and chains of mounds. The circular feature near the center of the image is the location of a buried meteor impact crater; its presence today is marked only by the dark boulders on its rim and ejecta blanket that have managed to remain uncovered at the martian surface. The area shown is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  16. Dermatophytosis in northern Africa.

    PubMed

    Nweze, E I; Eke, I

    2016-03-01

    Infections caused by dermatophytes are a global problem and a major public health burden in the world today. In Africa, especially in the northern geographical zone, dermatophytic infections are being reported at an alarming rate. This is mostly because of some local but unique cultural practices, socioeconomic and environmental conditions, lack of reliable diagnostic personnel and facilities and ineffective treatment. Interestingly, the pathogen spectrum and the clinical manifestation are most times different from what is seen in other continents. Several epidemiological studies have been performed on the incidence and aetiology of dermatophytoses in northern Africa. However, there is currently no review article with up-to-date information on the relevant findings reported so far in this region. This information is necessary for clinicians who treat dermatophytic infections all over the world since agents of dermatophytes are no longer restricted because of the rapid mobility of humans from one part of the world to another. Moreover, the epidemiology of dermatophytoses is known to change over time, thus requiring the update of information from time to time. A review of relevant studies published on dermatophytoses in northern Africa is presented. This covers all of old Sudan, Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia and Morocco.

  17. Preliminary palaeoseismological results from the Kaparelli fault (Central Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlides, S.; Koukouvelas, I.; Ganas, A.; Kokkalas, S.; Tsodoulos, I.; Stamatopoulos, L.; Goyntromichou, C.; Valkaniotis, S.

    2003-04-01

    trenches KAP1 and KAP2 show that colluvium sedimentation is 8,330 ρ 50, 6,280 ρ 40, 4,870 ρ 40, 1,410 ρ 40, and 1,250 ρ 40 yr YBP+1 (Radiocarbon analysis results and Stable Isotope Ratio analysis -13C) and they are associated with colluvial earthquake-related wedges. We suggest that the dated colluvium represents successive horizons of earthquake wedges. Sediment thickness of ‰2 is about 2.7 m and calibrated age is B.C. 7540-7300 (86.8% 2© interval) suggesting an averange slip rate at 0.28 mm/year. Acknowledgements: This work, which is in progress, has been supported by OASP (Earthquake Planning and Protection Organization of Greece).

  18. Carbonate pseudotachylite? from a Miocene extensional detachment, W. Cyclades, Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, A. Hugh N.; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Most pseudotachylites, both impact- and fault-related, occur in silicate-rich rocks, typically with 'granitoid' compositions. Examples of melting in carbonate rocks, excluding magmatic sources, are restricted to impact-events, except for a carbonate pseudotachylite in the Canalone Fault, S. Italy (Viganò et al. 2011). Another potential example of carbonate pseudotachylite, shown here, comes from the Miocene-aged W. Cycladic Detachment System, in Greece. Top-SSE ductile to brittle movement on this detachment, with a maximum displacement estimated at tens of kilometers, exhumed of HP-rocks. The carbonate pseudotachylite occurs within an <200 mm thick zone of cataclasites developed between footwall carbonate ultramylonites, containing thin layers and cm-scale boudins of quartzite, and hanging wall breccias; no contacts with the footwall ultramylonites or hanging wall breccias has been found (yet). The cataclasite zone, which can be traced along-strike for at least 90 m, over ~20 m elevation, comprises several distinct layers. In the sample described, five layers occur. The lowest (A; >43 mm thick), consists of dark (hematitic) red, ultra-fine grained unlayered carbonate with up to 40x10 mm rather rounded clasts of earlier generations of cataclasite, many with a quartzite composition. These clasts are fractured and partially separated, with a fine red carbonate matrix. No layering of the matrix or clasts is apparent. The clasts become finer and more abundant towards the boundary with Layer B. Layers B and D (~57 & ~20 mm thick) dominantly comprises protocataclasite with greyish quartz fragments separated by a carbonate matrix along narrow fractures. Zone C and E (~23 m & >15 mm thick) comprise pale pink carbonate-dominated rocks with abundant <30x5 mm-sized red carbonate clasts (+/- quartz fragments) of earlier cataclasite generations. These elongate clasts lie parallel to the overall banding, which is parallel to the ultramylonitic foliation (detachment surface

  19. Assessment of relative tectonic activity in the Trichonis Lake graben (Western Greece) using geomorphometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karymbalis, Efthimios; Valkanou, Kanella; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Ferentinou, Maria; Giles, Philip; Papanastassiou, Dimitris; Gaki-Papanastassiou, Kalliopi; Tsanakas, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    In tectonically active areas fluvial systems and mountain fronts are controlled by the type, geometry, and recent activity of faults. The aim of this study is to investigate the contribution of neotectonics to the development of the fluvial landscape of the broader Trichonis Lake area (located in western continental Greece) through quantitative geomorphological analysis. The Trichonis Lake graben is a well-known tectonic depression of Quaternary age, which cuts across the early Tertiary NW-SE fold and thrust structures of the Pindos Mountain belt. It strikes WNW-ESE for a distance of 32 km and has a width of 10 km. The graben at the north and south flanks of the lake is bounded by E-W and NW-SE trending faults. Recent seismic activity (a shallow earthquake sequence in 1975 and a 2007 earthquake swarm) showed the existence of a NNW-SSE normal fault that dips to the NE and bounds the south-eastern shore of the lake. The studied catchments are developed on the hanging walls of these active normal faults. To evaluate the relative tectonic activity in the study area, various morphometric indices were measured for 35 catchments (slope of the valley sides of the catchment, hypsometric integral, catchment asymmetry factor, relief ratio, Melton's ruggedness number, stream-gradient index, ratio of valley floor width to valley height, and catchment shape) and 20 mountain fronts (mountain-front sinuosity index) around the lake. For the measurement of the geomorphometric variables a digital elevation model (DEM) with 2-m spatial resolution was derived from topographic maps at 1:5000 scale with 4-m contour lines, and a series of maps showing the spatial distribution of the variables were produced in a GIS environment. For each morphometric variable the catchments were classified into three classes. The combination of these morphometric variables allowed us to yield two new indices of relative tectonic activity (named IRTA - Index of Relative Tectonic Activity and IAT - Index of

  20. Major depression amid financial crisis in Greece: Will unemployment narrow existing gender differences in the prevalence of the disorder in Greece?

    PubMed

    Economou, Marina; Angelopoulos, E; Peppou, Lily Evangelia; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Stefanis, Costas

    2016-08-30

    Rises in unemployment as a corollary to the global economic crisis may impinge on the prevalence of depression disproportionally for the two genders. Therefore, differences in the prevalence of the disorder as a function of gender and age were explored in four nationwide surveys in Greece in 2008, 2009, 2011 and 2013. Results indicate that in 2013, men of productive age had a higher prevalence of major depression than women, in contrast to the epidemiology of the disorder. The psychiatry community should be in tune to future changes in the mental health landscape elicited by the social fermentation processes of the global recession.

  1. Prevalence of Legionella spp. in water systems of hospitals and hotels in South Western Greece.

    PubMed

    Fragou, K; Kokkinos, P; Gogos, C; Alamanos, Y; Vantarakis, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Legionella spp. in water systems of hospitals and hotels located in South Western Greece, to study the molecular epidemiology of the isolated strains and their possible association with bacterial contamination (total count and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), the water pH, and temperature. A prevalence survey for Legionella spp. by culturing techniques in water distribution systems of eight hospitals and nine hotels occurred in South Western Greece. Water sampling and microbiological analysis were carried out following the ISO methods. Legionella pneumophila was detected in 33% and 36% of the distribution systems of hospitals and hotels, respectively. Our survey results suggest a frequent prevalence of elevated concentrations of Legionella spp. in water systems of hospitals and hotels. Our investigation has confirmed the need to regularly monitor the microbiological condition of water systems in hospitals and hotels.

  2. Temporary agency work, migration and the crisis in Greece: labour market segmentation intensified

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the under-researched temporary agency employment in Greece. It shows that the development of the temporary employment agency sector has gone hand in hand with the flow of undocumented and exploitable migrant labour in Greece over the past 25 years, reflecting the segmentation of the Greek labour market along ethnic lines. Using empirical research evidence on the operation of temporary employment agencies in the Greek hospitality and health care sectors, the article highlights the precarious or even illicit nature of agency employment in a context in which labour outsourcing and flexible employment are promoted by policy-makers. Last but not least, it suggests that the segmented landscape of the Greek labour market has become more complex during the economic crisis, with more and more Greeks drawn to agency-mediated precarious employment. PMID:27499601

  3. The October 1988 Elia Prefecture Earthquake (SW Greece): Seismic Environment, Building Types and Damage Patterns.

    PubMed

    Pomonis, A

    1989-06-01

    Earthquake disasters occur frequently in Greece, causing serious building damage and considerable loss of life. The latest event, on 16 October 1988, though not one of the most destructive, caused considerable damage. Strong motion records have been obtained near to the damaged region and this provides the opportunity to assess the extent of damage to various building types, and compare it with damage caused during another recent earthquake. The common characteristics of each building type are given, along with the typical damage patterns. Comments are also made about the seismicity of Greece and earthquake damage during this century. The building type distribution in various parts of the country is also discussed, with a view to future earthquake disaster prevention and mitigation.

  4. The "effects" of Rev-1 vaccination of sheep and goats on human brucellosis in Greece.

    PubMed

    Minas, A; Minas, M; Stournara, A; Tselepidis, S

    2004-06-10

    Vaccination of young animals (3-6-month-old sheep and goats) with Rev-1 vaccine for 15 years in Greece, importantly decreased the abortions in sheep and goats as well as the incidence of brucellosis in humans. After the stop of vaccination in 1994, all over Greece, the prevalence of brucellosis in animals and the incidence in humans quickly increased. It was a positive rank correlation (0.90) among these variables. Once an emergency mass-vaccination programme of young and adult animals with Rev-1 vaccine was started in 1998, the human incidence again decreased. The association of the vaccination coverage of animals and incidence of brucellosis in humans was not linear; the decrease in human brucellosis incidence was observed when the vaccination coverage of animals was >30%.

  5. The healthcare system and provision of oral healthcare in European Union member states. Part 4: Greece.

    PubMed

    Damaskinos, P; Koletsi-Kounari, H; Economou, C; Eaton, K A; Widström, E

    2016-03-11

    This paper presents a description of the healthcare system and how oral healthcare is organised and provided in Greece, a country in a deep economic and social crisis. The national health system is underfunded, with severe gaps in staffing levels and the country has a large private healthcare sector. Oral healthcare has been largely provided in the private sector. Most people are struggling to survive and have no money to spend on general and oral healthcare. Unemployment is rising and access to healthcare services is more difficult than ever. Additionally, there has been an overproduction of dentists and no development of team dentistry. This has led to under or unemployment of dentists in Greece and their migration to other European Union member states, such as the United Kingdom, where over 600 Greek dentists are currently working.

  6. Temporary agency work, migration and the crisis in Greece: labour market segmentation intensified.

    PubMed

    Maroukis, Thanos

    2016-05-01

    This article focuses on the under-researched temporary agency employment in Greece. It shows that the development of the temporary employment agency sector has gone hand in hand with the flow of undocumented and exploitable migrant labour in Greece over the past 25 years, reflecting the segmentation of the Greek labour market along ethnic lines. Using empirical research evidence on the operation of temporary employment agencies in the Greek hospitality and health care sectors, the article highlights the precarious or even illicit nature of agency employment in a context in which labour outsourcing and flexible employment are promoted by policy-makers. Last but not least, it suggests that the segmented landscape of the Greek labour market has become more complex during the economic crisis, with more and more Greeks drawn to agency-mediated precarious employment.

  7. Epidemiology of human brucellosis in a defined area of Northwestern Greece.

    PubMed Central

    Avdikou, I.; Maipa, V.; Alamanos, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Despite a European co-financial programme for control and eradication of brucellosis in Southern Europe, there is evidence that foci of brucellosis still exists in Greece and other Southern European countries. Human brucellosis cases are probably underreported in these countries. A local surveillance system was implemented in a defined region of Northwestern Greece, in order to record and study all human brucellosis cases, using several sources of retrieval. A total of 152 newly diagnosed cases were recorded during a 2-year study period (from 1 April 2002 to 31 March 2004). The age- and sex-adjusted mean annual incidence rate for the population of the study area was 17.3 cases/10(5) inhabitants. Incomplete application of the control and eradication programme in livestock, and the possible illegal trafficking of animals and their products across the Greek-Albanian border could be responsible for the persistence of foci of brucellosis in the area. PMID:16181512

  8. An analysis of photovoltaic irrigation system for olive orchards in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taousanidis, N.; Gavros, K.

    2016-11-01

    Olive tree cultivation is of major importance in Greece. It has been proved that irrigation of olive orchards increases their production. The classic method followed is diesel pump irrigation. Since Greece favours high insolation the alternative of photovoltaic pumping is proposed. A case study for an olive orchard in Crete is studied with the two alternatives. The photovoltaic pumping system is a direct pumping system as olive trees tolerate even deficit irrigation and storage tank increases the cost. A comparison using the Life Cycle Costing method is proposed. Considerations about climate and economic conditions are taken into account and the study concludes with the profound advantage of the renewable system over the conventional one in strict economic terms.

  9. Iatrosophia and an eighteenth-century oneirokritēs in the National Library of Greece.

    PubMed

    Oberhelman, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    Medical dreams were not discussed by Greek popular dream interpreters, but were the domain of physicians like Hippocrates, Galen, and Rufus of Ephesus, or the followers of the healing god Asclepius. An exception is an oneirokrites (dreambook) in Codex 1350 of the National Library of Greece in Athens. This eighteenth-century text reflects Ottoman Greek iatrosophia. An iatrosophion, widely used in Byzantine and Ottoman Greece, was a physician's notebook of recipes and treatments or was the collective compendium of classical and Byzantine medical and pharmacological texts consulted in hospital settings. Some iatrosophia included medical cures and drugs, but also spells, exorcisms, magic, astrology, and practical advice. The writer of our oneirokrites used such a magico-medical iatrosophion. After interpreting a dream symbol, he often advises a prophylactic (usually dietary) cure or treatment for restoring or maintaining health, or recommends religious prayers and spells, or apotropaic magic.

  10. The Diabetic foot: A global threat and a huge challenge for Greece

    PubMed Central

    Papanas, N; Maltezos, E

    2009-01-01

    The diabetic foot continues to be a major cause of morbidity, posing a global threat. Substantial progress has been now accomplished in the treatment of foot lesions, but further improvement is required. Treatment options may be classified into established measures (revascularisation, casting and debridement) and new modalities. All therapeutic measures should be provided by specialised dedicated multidisciplinary foot clinics. In particular, the diabetic foot is a huge challenge for Greece. There is a dramatic need to increase the number of engaged foot care teams and their resources throughout the country. It is also desirable to continue education of both physicians and general diabetic population on the magnitude of the problem and on the suitable preventative measures. At the same time, more data on the prevalence and clinical manifestations of the diabetic foot in Greece should be carefully collected. Finally, additional research should investigate feasible ways of implementing current knowledge in everyday clinical practice. PMID:20011082

  11. Evaluation of the EIA system performance in Greece, using quality indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Androulidakis, Ioannis . E-mail: iandroul@civil.auth.gr; Karakassis, Ioannis

    2006-04-15

    Greece was among the last countries in the European Union to adopt the EU Directives on Environmental Impact Assessment, upgrading the previously existing legislative framework. The aim of the present paper was to appraise the quality of a randomly selected sample of EISs using non-obligatory but quality-related indicators and to evaluate the overall quality of these studies produced in Greece during the last decade (1993-2003). It was found that the majority of these EISs performed rather poorly in respect of most indicators used and there was little evidence of improvement with time. It is concluded that the authorities in charge still have little experience in coping with the increasing bulk of project submissions and are primarily interested in conformity with formal requirements rather than in reliable predictions and in overall quality of the EIA procedure.

  12. Detection and zoonotic potential of Trichinella spp. from free-range pig farming in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papatsiros, V G; Boutsini, S; Ntousi, D; Stougiou, D; Mintza, D; Bisias, A

    2012-06-01

    Trichinellosis is a serious parasitic zoonosis, which is widely distributed around the world. Pork meat is still the predominant source of outbreaks of human trichinellosis in many countries. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of Trichinella spp. as an important risk factor on the free-range pig farming sector in Greece. In 2009, during routine testing for the detection of Trichinella larvae at slaughterhouses and the National Reference Laboratory for Parasites (NRL), a total of 826,426 pigs were tested with the magnetic stirrer method for Trichinella spp. at slaughterhouses, including 2,892 samples from free-range pigs. Two positive samples were detected: one positive for Trichinella britovi and one positive for Trichinella spp. (unspecified) in the samples from wild farmed free-range pigs. It is alarming that one of these cases was connected with clinical signs of trichinellosis in five persons of the same family in northeastern Greece, who consumed undercooked pork meat from a free-range pig farm. During 2010, a total number of 1,295,034 pigs were tested with same method, including 4,159 samples from free-range pig farms. Five positive samples for Trichinella spp. (unspecified) were detected from 4,159 free-range pigs tested by the Greek NRL. Moreover, 363 serum samples from free-range pigs were serologically tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, 363 serum samples from farmed free-range pigs were serologically tested with ELISA, and 15 samples were found positive. Finally, the present study is the first report of detection of T. britovi in Greece. In conclusion, based on the results of the present study, Trichinella spp. is a high-risk factor for the free-range pig farming in Greece.

  13. A qualitative study on discrimination and ethical implications in stroke care in contemporary Greece.

    PubMed

    Theofanidis, Dimitrios

    2015-12-01

    Contemporary stroke care is diverse, contributing to complex ethical dilemmas and controversies. In Greece, continuing austerity measures and an ageing population are expected to increase the burden of stroke on health care delivery. We sought to explore ethical views and stances of health care professionals caring for stroke patients in Greece. Forms of discrimination against elderly hospitalized patients were also addressed. A qualitative design was adopted whereby an informal focus group interview and follow-up, face-to-face individual interviews were undertaken. The sample consisted of 12 nurses working in clinical areas with stroke patients. Their mean age was 31 years with a mean work experience of 10 years. Individual discussions were audio taped after subject consent and were transcribed verbatim subsequently for keywords-in-context analysis. Analysis of the focus interview revealed several recurring themes, namely, ward destination, admission policies, the concepts of age as related to stroke. Individual interviews highlighted several other topics, such as preferences for specific types of patients, communication capacity of the patient's condition, and his or her individual characteristics as a favoring or limiting factors, and challenges to age-related criteria for treatment. There is an age-related criteria of 65 years for ward destination after stroke as set by a ministerial decree, which is still practiced. Moreover, younger stroke patients may be offered more thorough assessments and clinical tests and therapies. Discrepancies in the level of care pose an ethical concern regarding levels of care for older stroke patients in Greece. A longstanding, age-related national policy in Greece regarding hospital admission criteria is shown to be a detrimental influence on ward admission for stroke patients. This policy, coupled with prehospital care protocols, was shown to promote ageism against this patient group. The age-related agenda in the Greek health

  14. Integrated volcanologic and petrologic analysis of the 1650 AD eruption of Kolumbo submarine volcano, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantner, Kathleen; Carey, Steven; Nomikou, Paraskevi

    2014-01-01

    Kolumbo submarine volcano, located 7 km northeast of Santorini, Greece in the Aegean Sea, last erupted in 1650 AD. Submarine and subaerial explosive activity lasted for a period of about four months and led to the formation of thick (~ 250 m) highly stratified pumice deposits on the upper crater walls as well as extensive pumice rafts that were dispersed throughout the southern Aegean Sea. Subaerial tephra fallout from eruption columns that breached the surface occurred as far east as Turkey.

  15. Greece and Oman: Successful Anglo/American Counterinsurgencies Viewed from Current American Counterinsurgency Doctrine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-12

    the second half of the 20th century, in the face of occupation by those powers, the mountains and the seas had separated the majority of the Greeks...from the urban centers along the coast. This separation allowed Greeks living in the mountains separate, unique, and independent identity to...formations of mountainous terrain that covers three quarters of the nation’s surface, Greece sits on the southern side of the European continent and

  16. Spatial database for the management of "urban geology" geothematic information: the case of Drama City, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantelias, Eustathios; Zervakou, Alexandra D.; Tsombos, Panagiotis I.; Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.

    2008-10-01

    The aggregation of population in big cities leads to the concentration of human activities, economic wealth, over consumption of natural resources and urban growth without planning and sustainable management. As a result, urban societies are exposed to various dangers and threats with economical, social, ecological - environmental impacts on the urban surroundings. Problems associated with urban development are related to their geological conditions and those of their surroundings, e.g. flooding, land subsidence, groundwater pollution, soil contamination, earthquakes, landslides, etc. For these reasons, no sustainable urban planning can be done without geological information support. The first systematic recording, codification and documentation of "urban geology" geothematic information in Greece is implemented by the Institute of Geological and Mineral Exploration (I.G.M.E.) in the frame of project "Collection, codification and documentation of geothematic information for urban and suburban areas in Greece - pilot applications". Through the implementation of this project, all geothematic information derived from geological mapping, geotechnical - geochemical - geophysical research and measurements in four pilot areas of Greece Drama (North Greece), Nafplio & Sparti (Peloponnesus) and Thrakomakedones (Attica) is stored and processed in specially designed geodatabases in GIS environment containing vector and raster data. For the specific GIS application ArcGIS Personal Geodatabase is used. Data is classified in geothematic layers, grouped in geothematic datasets (e.g. Topography, Geology - Tectonics, Submarine Geology, Technical Geology, Hydrogeology, Soils, Radioactive elements, etc) and being processed in order to produced multifunctional geothematic maps. All compiled data constitute the essential base for land use planning and environmental protection in specific urban areas. With the termination of the project the produced geodatabase and other digital data

  17. Adolescent Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Sweden, Italy and Greece: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Olivari, Maria Giulia; Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Katerina; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Confalonieri, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents’ retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES and these perceptions. Swedish, Italian and Greek adolescents (N = 702; 30.9% Swedish, 39.6% Italian and 29.5% Greek) participated in the study. To test the principal effects three mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVAs were conducted separately for each parenting style. To verify the interaction effects, a mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVA was tested on authoritative style. Regarding authoritarian and permissive two mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece) ANOVAs were tested. Mothers, as compared to fathers, were perceived as more authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. Moreover, boys perceived their parents as more authoritarian and more permissive than girls. Swedish parents were perceived as significantly less authoritarian than Italian and Greek parents and more permissive than Italian parents; Greek parents were perceived as less authoritarian and more permissive than Italian parents. The study provides an interesting contribution to parenting styles literature, showing how country legislation concerning family matters and SES are related the perception of parenting behaviours. PMID:27247655

  18. Adolescent Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Sweden, Italy and Greece: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Olivari, Maria Giulia; Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Katerina; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Confalonieri, Emanuela

    2015-05-01

    Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents' retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES and these perceptions. Swedish, Italian and Greek adolescents (N = 702; 30.9% Swedish, 39.6% Italian and 29.5% Greek) participated in the study. To test the principal effects three mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVAs were conducted separately for each parenting style. To verify the interaction effects, a mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVA was tested on authoritative style. Regarding authoritarian and permissive two mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece) ANOVAs were tested. Mothers, as compared to fathers, were perceived as more authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. Moreover, boys perceived their parents as more authoritarian and more permissive than girls. Swedish parents were perceived as significantly less authoritarian than Italian and Greek parents and more permissive than Italian parents; Greek parents were perceived as less authoritarian and more permissive than Italian parents. The study provides an interesting contribution to parenting styles literature, showing how country legislation concerning family matters and SES are related the perception of parenting behaviours.

  19. Trace metal residues in soil as markers of ancient site occupance in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.E.; Bintliff, J.L.; Gaffney, C.F.; Waters, A.T.

    1988-01-01

    Modern evidence shows that wherever people work or live the concentrations of heavy metals rise in nearby soils and these residues persist for many years. This paper reports similar accumulations of Cu and Pb in soils at sites of ancient occupation in Greece. It is proposed that such accumulations can act as markers of such occupation and complement evidence derived from other archaeological survey methods.

  20. Comparative analysis of near-present and future synoptic conditions and their contribution to precipitation in central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karacostas, Theodore S.; Bampzelis, Dimitrios; Karipidou, Symela; Pytharoulis, Ioannis; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Kartsios, Stergios; Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Pakalidou, Nikoletta

    2015-04-01

    The objective on this study is to identify and categorize the daily synoptic circulation patterns encountered between the two periods, in near-present (2001-2010) and future (2041-2050), over the greater area of central and northern Greece, under the "DAPHNE" project (www.daphne-meteo.gr). The followed up statistical analyses and comparisons are focus on the demonstration of the differences in the frequency of occurrences of the synoptic situations between the two time periods, aiming at mitigating drought in central Greece by means of Weather Modification. Actually, within the context of the project, the daily synoptic circulation patterns encountered during the near-present ten-year period are identified and classified according to Karacostas et al. (1992) synoptic classification, into ten distinct synoptic conditions, based on the isobaric level of 500hPa. A similar procedure is adopted for the future period 2041-2050, by developing the mid-tropospheric synoptic circulation patterns through the RegCM3 regional climate model, under the IPCC scenario A1B. Results indicate that certain differences exist between near-present and future frequency distribution of occurrences of the synoptic situations over the study area. The northwest (NW) and southwest (SW) synoptic circulation patterns remain the most frequent synoptic conditions observed for both examined periods. The low pressure system activity over the area exhibit significant decrease during the future period, as it is depicted from the inter-comparison of the frequencies of the closed low (L-2) and cut-off low (L-3) systems. On the other hand, the unorganized synoptic conditions, which are mostly identified as high-low patterns (H-L), appear to increase considerably. The frequencies of zonal flow (ZON) and those of synoptic conditions associated with the presence of high-pressure system over the area, that is (H-1) and (H-2), remain almost unchanged between the two periods. The impact of the aforementioned

  1. Using bioassays for testing seawater quality in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kungolos, A; Samaras, P; Koutseris, E

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this work was the assessment of seawater quality in Thermaikos Gulf, Pagassitikos Gulf and Skiathos island in Northern Aegean Sea by the use of bioassays. Two bioassays using marine organisms as indicators of seawater quality were applied in this study; the invertebrate Artemia franciscana and the marine bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Bioassays are required for the integrated evaluation of water pollution, as physical and chemical tests alone are not sufficient enough for the assessment of potential effects on aquatic organisms. According to the result of this study, improvement in coastal water quality of Thermaikos Gulf was observed between September 1997 and April-May 2000. However, coastal water quality of Pagassitikos Gulf varied during the test period; it was generally good during April-May 2000, while in October 1999 it was generally poor. Between the two bioassays that have been applied in this study, the Microtox test, where the marine bacterium V. fischeri was used as a test organism, was more sensitive in detecting toxicity in seawater.

  2. Classification of topography using DEM data and its correlation with the geology of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zargli, Eleni; Liodakis, Stelios; Kyriakidis, Phaedon; Savvaidis, Alexandros

    2013-08-01

    Continuous topography from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data is frequently segmented into terrain classes based on local morphological characteristics of terrain elevation, e.g., local slope gradient and convexity. The resulting classes are often used as proxies for the average shear wave velocity up to 30 m, and the determination of ground types as required by the Eurocode (EC8) for computing elastic design spectra. In this work, we investigate the links between terrain related variables, particularly slope gradient, extracted for the area of Greece from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 30 arc second global topographic data available from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), with: (a) the global terrain classification product of Iwahashi and Pike (2007) in which 16 terrain types are identified for the same spatial resolution, and (b) information on geological units extracted at the same resolution from the geological map of Greece at a scale of 1/500000 as published from the Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration (IGME). An interpretation of these links is presented within the context of understanding the reliability of using geology, slope and terrain classes for site characterizations of earthquake risk in a high seismicity area like Greece. Our results indicate that slope is a somewhat biased proxy for solid rocks, whereas in Alluvial deposits the distance to and type of the nearest geological formation appears to provide qualitative information on the size of the sedimentary deposit.

  3. Imported Chikungunya fever case in Greece in June 2014 and public health response.

    PubMed

    Tsiodras, Sotirios; Pervanidou, Danai; Papadopoulou, Elpida; Kavatha, Dimitra; Baka, Agoritsa; Koliopoulos, George; Badieritakis, Evangelos; Michaelakis, Antonios; Gavana, Elpida; Patsoula, Eleni; Tsimpos, Ioannis; Gioksari, Thalia; Kyriazopoulou, Evdoxia; Vakali, Annita; Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Kremastinou, Jenny; Papa, Anna

    2016-03-01

    We report about the first imported case of Chikungunya fever in Greece in a Greek traveler returning from the Dominican Republic and the associated public health response. We investigated the case and performed focused epidemiological and entomological investigation in all areas the patient visited during the infectious period, to identify the targeted interventions needed. Entomological investigation revealed the occurrence of the competent vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the environment surrounding the hospital where the patient was admitted and in her workplace. All captured mosquitoes tested negative for Chikungunya virus. We further conducted clinical and laboratory examination of the patient's co-travelers, gave advice on appropriate personal preventive measures against mosquito bites to the patient and co-travelers and on vector control, and raised awareness among health professionals throughout Greece. The risk of introduction and local transmission of Chikungunya and other arboviruses in Greece and other European countries is present, as the competent vector exists in many parts of Europe. Public health professionals, travel medicine specialists and clinicians should maintain awareness regarding this possibility of importation of arbovirus cases in order to provide the appropriate advice, seek the prompt diagnosis, and implement appropriate interventions. Mobilization of various stakeholders will lead to enhanced epidemiological and entomological surveillance that will allow for improved risk assessment in each area.

  4. Exploring health care reform in a changing Europe: lessons from Greece.

    PubMed

    Kousoulis, Antonis A; Angelopoulou, Konstantina-Eleni; Lionis, Christos

    2013-09-01

    The economic crisis is the major theme in the Eurozone and its impact on public health and outcomes is largely discussed. Under this pressure, concerns of further inequalities exist that may have an impact on the burden of several diseases in certain European countries. In this context, Greece is currently an issue of top interest in any international economic discussion. Although the background of the recession has been largely discussed as a political crisis, its health effects on the population, as well as the key role of primary care and general practice/family medicine in health care reform remain to be explored. Serving both the worldwide trend of orienting health care systems towards strengthened primary care and the inner need for minimizing the demand and lessening the burden from the dysfunctional and costly hospital-care system, the economic crisis sets the perfect timing for prioritizing primary health care. In this article a unique window of opportunity for health care reform in Greece is examined, attempting to establish the axes of an example of how health care system can be reshaped amidst the economic crisis. Equity, quality, value framework, medical professionalism, information technology and decentralization emerge as topics of central interest. There is no doubt that Europe is transitioning under challenging social, economic and public health perspectives. However, taking Greece as an example, the current economic situation sets a good timing for health care reform and the key messages of this paper could be used by other countries facing similar problems.

  5. Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation for projection of end stage renal disease patients in Greece.

    PubMed

    Rodina-Theocharaki, A; Bliznakova, K; Pallikarakis, N

    2012-07-01

    End stage renal disease (ESRD) treatment methods are considered to be among the most expensive procedures for chronic conditions worldwide which also have severe impact on patients' quality of life. During the last decade, Greece has been among the countries with the highest incidence and prevalence, while at the same time with the lowest kidney transplantation rates. Predicting future patients' number on Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) is essential for health care providers in order to achieve more effective resource management. In this study a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation is presented for predicting the future number of ESRD patients for the period 2009-2020 in Greece. The MCMC model comprises Monte Carlo sampling techniques applied on probability distributions of the constructed Markov Chain. The model predicts that there will be 15,147 prevalent patients on RRT in Greece by 2020. Additionally, a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed on a scenario of gradually reducing the hemodialysis patients in favor of increasing the transplantation number by 2020. The proposed scenario showed net savings of 86.54 million Euros for the period 2009-2020 compared to the base-case prediction.

  6. A national registry of haemoglobinopathies in Greece: deducted demographics, trends in mortality and affected births.

    PubMed

    Voskaridou, Ersi; Ladis, Vasilis; Kattamis, Antonis; Hassapopoulou, Eleni; Economou, Marina; Kourakli, Alexandra; Maragkos, Konstantinos; Kontogianni, Kalliopi; Lafioniatis, Stilianos; Vrettou, Eleni; Koutsouka, Freideriki; Papadakis, Alexandros; Mihos, Andreas; Eftihiadis, Eftihios; Farmaki, Kallistheni; Papageorgiou, Ourania; Tapaki, Georgia; Maili, Polixeni; Theohari, Maria; Drosou, Marouso; Kartasis, Zafeiris; Aggelaki, Maria; Basileiadi, Artemis; Adamopoulos, Ioannis; Lafiatis, Ioannis; Galanopoulos, Athanasios; Xanthopoulidis, Georgios; Dimitriadou, Efthimia; Mprimi, Agapi; Stamatopoulou, Maria; Haile, Elanso Damba; Tsironi, Maria; Anastasiadis, Athanasios; Kalmanti, Maria; Papadopoulou, Margarita; Panori, Evaggelia; Dimoxenou, Peristera; Tsirka, Antigoni; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios; Drandrakis, Pantelis; Dionisopoulou, Dionisia; Ntalamaga, Androniki; Davros, Ioannis; Karagiorga, Markisia

    2012-09-01

    Haemoglobinopathies are the most common hereditary disorders in Greece. Although there is a successful national prevention program, established 35 years ago, there is lack of an official registry and collection of epidemiological data for haemoglobinopathies. This paper reports the results of the first National Registry for Haemoglobinopathies in Greece (NRHG), recently organized by the Greek Society of Haematology. NRHG records all patients affected by thalassaemia major (TM), thalassaemia intermedia (TI), "H" Haemoglobinopathy (HH) and sickle cell disease (SCD). Moreover, data about the annual rate of new affected births along with deaths, between 2000 and 2010, are reported. A total of 4,506 patients are registered all over the country while the number of affected newborns was significantly decreased during the last 3 years. Main causes for still having affected births are: (1) lack of medical care due to financial reasons or low educational level; (2) unawareness of time limitations for prenatal diagnosis (PD); due either to obstetricians' malpractice or to delayed demand of medical care of couples at risk; and (3) religious, social or bioethical reasons. Cardiac and liver disorders consist main causes for deaths while life expectancy of patients lengthened after 2005 (p < 0.01). The NRHG of patients affected by haemoglobinopathies in Greece provides useful data about the haemoglobinopathies in the Greek population and confirms the efficacy of the National Thalassaemia Prevention Program on impressively decreasing the incidence of TM and sickle cell syndromes.

  7. Malaria in Greece: historical and current reflections on a re-emerging vector borne disease.

    PubMed

    Danis, Kostas; Lenglet, Annick; Tseroni, Maria; Baka, Agoritsa; Tsiodras, Sotiris; Bonovas, Stefanos

    2013-01-01

    Between 2009 and September 2012, locally acquired cases of P. vivax infection were reported in Greece, mostly from the agricultural area of Evrotas, Lakonia (n = 48), but also sporadically from five other regions (n = 14), suggesting that conditions in these areas are favourable for local transmission of malaria. The risk of re-establishment of malaria in Greece will depend on whether the receptivity for disease transmission (presence of the mosquito vector and adequate ecological and climatic factors) and the vulnerability (importation of the parasite in human reservoirs or presence of infected mosquito vectors) continue to be present in the country. The continuous implementation of the integrated preparedness and response plan for malaria that covers all aspects from surveillance and laboratory diagnosis to vector control and the reorganization of public health infrastructures are necessary to prevent transmission and control the disease in the long term. However, the impact of the severe economic crisis on current health-care, public health infrastructures and vector control constitute a great challenge for the future. The current threat of renewed sustained local malaria transmission in Greece (and thus in continental Europe) merits an international response, including financial and technical support, from European and international stakeholders.

  8. Imported Chikungunya fever case in Greece in June 2014 and public health response

    PubMed Central

    Pervanidou, Danai; Papadopoulou, Elpida; Kavatha, Dimitra; Baka, Agoritsa; Koliopoulos, George; Badieritakis, Evangelos; Michaelakis, Antonios; Gavana, Elpida; Patsoula, Eleni; Tsimpos, Ioannis; Gioksari, Thalia; Kyriazopoulou, Evdoxia; Vakali, Annita; Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C.; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Kremastinou, Jenny; Papa, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We report about the first imported case of Chikungunya fever in Greece in a Greek traveler returning from the Dominican Republic and the associated public health response. We investigated the case and performed focused epidemiological and entomological investigation in all areas the patient visited during the infectious period, to identify the targeted interventions needed. Entomological investigation revealed the occurrence of the competent vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the environment surrounding the hospital where the patient was admitted and in her workplace. All captured mosquitoes tested negative for Chikungunya virus. We further conducted clinical and laboratory examination of the patient’s co-travelers, gave advice on appropriate personal preventive measures against mosquito bites to the patient and co-travelers and on vector control, and raised awareness among health professionals throughout Greece. The risk of introduction and local transmission of Chikungunya and other arboviruses in Greece and other European countries is present, as the competent vector exists in many parts of Europe. Public health professionals, travel medicine specialists and clinicians should maintain awareness regarding this possibility of importation of arbovirus cases in order to provide the appropriate advice, seek the prompt diagnosis, and implement appropriate interventions. Mobilization of various stakeholders will lead to enhanced epidemiological and entomological surveillance that will allow for improved risk assessment in each area. PMID:27159571

  9. The cultural dimension of tightness-looseness: An analysis of situational constraint in Estonia and Greece.

    PubMed

    Realo, Anu; Linnamägi, Karmen; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-06-01

    The importance of tightness-looseness as a dimension that explains a considerable amount of variance between cultures was demonstrated by Gelfand et al. (2011). Tight nations have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behaviour, whereas loose nations have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behaviour. The main aim of the current studies was to examine situational constraint in Estonia and Greece: that is, how the cultural dimension of tightness-looseness is manifested in everyday situations in those two countries. The findings of a questionnaire study (Study 1) suggested that, in general, there is higher constraint across everyday situations in Greece than in Estonia, but situational constraint in Greece is especially strong in school and organisational settings where people have hierarchically structured roles. The results of an observational study (Study 2) revealed a relatively high agreement between appropriateness of certain behaviours as judged by the respondents in Study 1 and the frequencies of observed behaviours in the two countries. Our findings suggest that the strength of situations may substantially vary both within and across cultures, and that the attitudes of the members about situational strength in their respective cultures are in concordance with observations of situations by neutral observers in how people in general behave in their culture.

  10. Biodiversity and ITS-RFLP Characterisation of Aspergillus Section Nigri Isolates in Grapes from Four Traditional Grape-Producing Areas in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Kizis, Dimosthenis; Natskoulis, Pantelis; Nychas, George-John E.; Panagou, Efstathios Z.

    2014-01-01

    A study on the occurrence of Aspergillus section Nigri species on grapes from four traditional grape-producing areas in Greece during the 2011/2012 vintage, and their capability to produce OTA was conducted. One hundred and twenty-eight black aspergilli isolates were characterised at the species level initially by the use of morphological criteria in accordance with appropriate keys, followed by molecular characterisation performed with Polymerase Chain Reaction–Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the 5.8 ribosomal RNA gene Internal Transcribed Spacer region (5.8 rRNA ITS). Restriction enzyme digestion of the ITS amplicons using the HhaI, HinfI and RsaI, endonucleases distinguished eleven different patterns of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), four for each of the HhaI and RsaI digests and three for HinfI. From a total number of 128 individual isolates, 124 were classified into four Aspergillus species corresponding to A. carbonarius, A. tubingensis, A. japonicus and A. ibericus, and the remaining 4 were classified as members of the A. niger aggregate. A. carbonarius and A. tubingensis being the main representative species were equally counted, with higher geographical representation of the former in southern and the latter in northern regions, respectively. All isolates were tested for their ochratoxigenic potential by use of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA), resulting in significant interspecies differences in OTA production. PMID:24710283

  11. Effects of different boundary conditions and palaeotopographies on the onshore response of tsunamis in a numerical model - A case study from western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röbke, B. R.; Schüttrumpf, H.; Vött, A.

    2016-08-01

    Hydrodynamic numerical models are essential in modern tsunami hazard assessment. They allow the economical simulation of possible tsunami scenarios for areas at risk and provide reliable and detailed insights into local onshore dynamics. This is especially true when simulations are calibrated with field traces of past tsunami inundation events. Following this approach, the current study focuses on palaeotsunami events indicated by sedimentary and geomorphological field traces in the northern Gulf of Kyparissia (NW Greece). Based on three different digital elevation models (DEM) - reflecting the recent and two palaeotopographies - various tsunami wave constellations according to the solitary and N-wave theory are numerically simulated. The main objective is to investigate the effects of both, different palaeotopographies and boundary conditions on the tsunami onshore response in the numerical model. Tsunami landfall related to N-waves is found to be considerably stronger compared to solitary waves. This phenomenon, known as the N-wave effect, is demonstrated for the first time in a specific study area. Inundation dynamics are even stronger affected by the different palaeotopographies, which is due to substantial vertical crust movements in the northern Gulf of Kyparissia considered in the palaeo-DEMs. By applying different waveforms and palaeotopographies, the model achieves close agreement with field observations, altogether revealing a significant tsunami hazard for the Gulf of Kyparissia, which is in contrast to conventional numerical studies of the area. The marked differences between the presented scenarios emphasise the need to consider a wide variety of possible hydrodynamic boundary conditions and probable topographical conditions in order to find scenarios in plausible accordance with palaeotsunami field traces. Once a plausible scenario is found it can be applied to the recent topography in view of a reliable modern hazard assessment.

  12. Bridging knowledge to develop an action plan for integrated care for chronic diseases in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Lionis, Christos; Yfantopoulos, John

    2015-01-01

    The health, social and economic impact of chronic diseases is well documented in Europe. However, chronic diseases threaten relatively more the ‘memorandum and peripheral’ Eurozone countries (i.e., Greece, Spain, Portugal and Ireland), which were under heavy recession after the economic crisis in 2009. Especially in Greece, where the crisis was the most severe across Europe, the austerity measures affected mainly people with chronic diseases. As a result, the urgency to tackle the threat of chronic diseases in Greece by promoting public health and providing effective chronic care while flattening the rising health care expenditure is eminent. In many European countries, integrated care is seen as a means to achieve this. The aim of this paper was to support Greek health policy makers to develop an action plan from 2015 onwards, to integrate care by bridging local policy context and needs with knowledge and experience from other European countries. To achieve this aim, we adopted a conceptual framework developed by the World Health Organization on one hand to analyse the status of integrated care in Greece, and on the other to develop an action plan for reform. The action plan was based on an analysis of the Greek health care system regarding prerequisite conditions to integrate care, a clear understanding of its context and successful examples of integrated care from other European countries. This study showed that chronic diseases are poorly addressed in Greece and integrated care is in embryonic stage. Greek policy makers have to realise that this is the opportunity to make substantial reforms in chronic care. Failing to reform towards integrated care would lead to the significant risk of collapse of the Greek health care system with all associated negative consequences. The action plan provided in this paper could support policy makers to make the first serious step to face this challenge. The details and specifications of the action plan can only be decided

  13. Mitigating Radicalism in Northern Nigeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    radicalization in northern Nigeria. u Active engagement of youth and communities in peacebuilding programs that facilitate interactions among individuals...leaders, sustained development investments in marginalized communities , promotion of values of inclusivity to mitigate the spread of extremist ideology...claiming to have repelled Boko Haram, the militants return, regroup, and seek revenge. As a result, social and economic activities in the northern

  14. Report on Ontario's Northern Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    Ontario's funding formula fails to recognize the unique needs of northern school boards, which cover immense geographic areas, have many small schools, and enroll a high proportion of Aboriginal students. This report examines school size, enrollment, and staffing in northern Ontario schools, drawing on 2002-03 tracking reports of provincial…

  15. Northern Sinus Meridiani Stereo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-341, 25 April 2003

    This is a stereo (3-d anaglyph) composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle images of northern Sinus Meridiani near 2oN, 0oW. The light-toned materials at the south (bottom) end of the picture are considered to be thick (100-200 meters; 300-600 ft) exposures of sedimentary rock. Several ancient meteor impact craters are being exhumed from within these layered materials. To view in stereo, use '3-d' glasses with red over the left eye, and blue over the right. The picture covers an area approximately 113 km (70 mi) wide; north is up.

  16. Glyphosate in northern ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Helander, Marjo; Saloniemi, Irma; Saikkonen, Kari

    2012-10-01

    Glyphosate is the main nonselective, systemic herbicide used against a wide range of weeds. Its worldwide use has expanded because of extensive use of certain agricultural practices such as no-till cropping, and widespread application of glyphosate-resistant genetically modified crops. Glyphosate has a reputation of being nontoxic to animals and rapidly inactivated in soils. However, recent evidence has cast doubts on its safety. Glyphosate may be retained and transported in soils, and there may be cascading effects on nontarget organisms. These processes may be especially detrimental in northern ecosystems because they are characterized by long biologically inactive winters and short growing seasons. In this opinion article, we discuss the potential ecological, environmental and agricultural risks of intensive glyphosate use in boreal regions.

  17. The impact of economic austerity and prosperity events on suicide in Greece: a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C; Kastanaki, Anastasia E; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Tzougas, John; Kranioti, Elena F; Theodorakis, Pavlos N; Carr, Brendan G; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To complete a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis of the impact of austerity-related and prosperity-related events on the occurrence of suicide across Greece. Setting Greece from 1 January 1983 to 31 December 2012. Participants A total of 11 505 suicides, 9079 by men and 2426 by women, occurring in Greece over the study period. Primary and secondary outcomes National data from the Hellenic Statistical Authority assembled as 360 monthly counts of: all suicides, male suicides, female suicides and all suicides plus potentially misclassified suicides. Results In 30 years, the highest months of suicide in Greece occurred in 2012. The passage of new austerity measures in June 2011 marked the beginning of significant, abrupt and sustained increases in total suicides (+35.7%, p<0.001) and male suicides (+18.5%, p<0.01). Sensitivity analyses that figured in undercounting of suicides also found a significant, abrupt and sustained increase in June 2011 (+20.5%, p<0.001). Suicides by men in Greece also underwent a significant, abrupt and sustained increase in October 2008 when the Greek recession began (+13.1%, p<0.01), and an abrupt but temporary increase in April 2012 following a public suicide committed in response to austerity conditions (+29.7%, p<0.05). Suicides by women in Greece also underwent an abrupt and sustained increase in May 2011 following austerity-related events (+35.8%, p<0.05). One prosperity-related event, the January 2002 launch of the Euro in Greece, marked an abrupt but temporary decrease in male suicides (−27.1%, p<0.05). Conclusions This is the first multidecade, national analysis of suicide in Greece using monthly data. Select austerity-related events in Greece corresponded to statistically significant increases for suicides overall, as well as for suicides among men and women. The consideration of future austerity measures should give greater weight to the unintended mental health consequences that may follow and the public

  18. Late Quaternary rates of stream incision in Northeast Peloponnese, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karymbalis, Efthimios; Papanastassiou, Dimitrios; Gaki-Papanastassiou, Kalliopi; Ferentinou, Maria; Chalkias, Christos

    2016-09-01

    This study focuses on defining rates of fluvial incision for the last 580±5 kyr along valley systems of eight streams that drain the eastern part of the northern Peloponnese. The streams are developed on the uplifted block of the offshore-running Xylokastro normal fault, one of the main faults bounding the southern edge of the Gulf of Corinth half-graben, and have incised a set of ten uplifted marine terraces having an amphitheatric shape. These terraces range in age from 60±5 kyr to 580±5 kyr and have been mapped in detail and correlated with late Pleistocene oxygen-isotope stages of high sea-level stands by previous studies. The terraces were used in this paper as reference surfaces in order to define fluvial incision rates at the lower reaches of the studied streams. To evaluate incision rates, thirty-three topographic valley cross-sections were drawn using fieldwork measurements as well as using a highly accurate (2×2 cell size) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) at specific locations where streams cut down the inner edges of the marine terraces. For each cross-section the ratio of valley floor width to valley height (Vf) and long-term mean stream incision rates were estimated for the last 580±5 kyr, while rock uplift rates were estimated for the last 330±5 kyr. The geomorphic evolution of the valleys on the uplifted block of the Xylokastro fault has been mainly driven by the lithology of the bedrock, sea level fluctuations during the late Quaternary, and incision of the channels due to the tectonic uplift. Stream incision rates range from 0.10±0.1 mm/yr for the last 123±7 kyr to 1.14±0.1 mm/yr for the last 310±5 kyr and are gradually greater from east to west depending on the distance from the trace of the fault. Downcutting rates are comparable with the rock uplift rates, which range from 0.4±0.02 mm/yr to 1.49±0.12 mm/yr, over the last 330±5 kyr.

  19. Understanding the oversupply of physicians in Greece: the role of human resources planning, financing policy, and physician power.

    PubMed

    Kaitelidou, Daphne; Mladovsky, Philipa; Leone, Tiziana; Kouli, Eugenia; Siskou, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Planning of the workforce has emerged as a critical issue in European health policy, as the need for human resources for health is changing in light of demographic, epidemiological, and socio-cultural trends and patterns of supply and demand in service provision. Greece represents a country with an oversupply of physicians, having the highest concentration of physicians among European Union countries. The study aims to analyze the factors influencing the high number of physicians in Greece and make policy recommendations. The analysis was conducted through international literature review and database searches. Neither the demography of the physician population in terms of age, gender composition, and geographic dispersion, nor the epidemiology of the Greek population, can explain the relatively high number of physicians in Greece. Despite the physician surplus, Greece faces serious geographical inequities regarding the distribution of physicians. There are also imbalances within the specialist category, with certain specialists (e.g., cardiologists) being in oversupply compared to other European countries, while others (e.g., general practitioners) remain weakly represented. Inadequate planning of human resources for health, inadequate health financing policy regarding primary care, gatekeeping mechanisms, and medical power constitute the primary themes explaining the trends of physicians' population in Greece.

  20. Interactions between extensional shear zones and syn-tectonic granitic intrusions: the example of Ikaria Island (Cyclades, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Valentin; Beaudoin, Alexandre; Jolivet, Laurent; Arbaret, Laurent; Augier, Romain; Rabillard, Aurelien

    2014-05-01

    The Aegean domain is an ideal place to investigate the development of Metamorphic Core Complex (MCC) and to study the role of syn-tectonic granites on their development. MCCs of the Aegean domain are dynamically associated with a few major detachments, especially the North Cycladic Detachment System (NCDS) and the West Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS), which have accommodated a large part of the crustal thinning during the Oligocene and Miocene. The NCDS extends toward the East within the Simav Detachment that has exhumed the northern high-temperature part of the Menderes massif. The transition between the NCDS and the Simav Detachments is located above a major tear in the Aegean slab whose effects on lithospheric deformation are far from understood. The Aegean granitoids were emplaced during the Middle Miocene within a zone of high-temperature during the episode of slab tearing and recorded increments of extensional tectonics within this complex zone. Ikaria Island (Cyclades, Greece) is a metamorphic dome intruded by three Miocene granitoid plutons (one I-type intrusion, two S-type ones) including the largest pluton of the Aegean domain. However, geometry, structures and kinematics are still debated with several recent yet conflicting studies. We have reconsidered the geology of Ikaria to settle the geological and structural context of these plutons. The intrusion depth of the Raches granite has been estimated at 10-15 km by the Al-in-hornblende barometer. Our field study has led to the identification of two major structures: the Gialiskari and Kalamos detachments, which we interpret as belonging to the NCDS. A study of deformation in the granites has highlighted a continuum during cooling that can be described in three stages: i) magmatic deformation, ii) high-temperature ductile deformation from late magmatic stage until complete crystallization of the granite, iii) low-temperature brittle deformation. Throughout this evolution, the same top-to-the-NE shearing

  1. "These Things Don't Happen in Greece": A Qualitative Study of Greek Young People's Attitudes to Smoking, Secondhand Smoke and the Smokefree Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamvakas, Ioannis; Amos, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Greece has the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union, with adolescents having high levels of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). In July 2009, national smokefree legislation was implemented in Greece. This study explored Greek young people's attitudes to smoking, SHS and the impending legislation. Semi-structured qualitative interviews…

  2. Two new species of the genus Neoseiulus Hughes (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from greece with re-description of Neoseiulus leucophaeus (Athias-Henriot).

    PubMed

    Stathakis, Theodoros I; Kapaxidi, Eleftheria V; Papadoulis, Georgios Th

    2013-01-01

    Two new species, Neoseiulus elisiensis n. sp. and Neoseiulus neomarginatus n. sp., are described from Greece. Neoseiulus leucophaeus (Athias-Henriot) is re-described and illustrated based on specimens collected on Thymelaea hirsuta (L.) Endl. A key to all species of the genus Neoseiulus Hughes reported from Greece is provided.

  3. The impact of the uncertainty in the initial soil moisture condition of irrigated areas on the spatiotemporal characteristics of convective activity in Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Ioannis, Tegoulias; Ioannis, Pytharoulis; Stergios, Kartsios; Dimitrios, Bampzelis; Theodore, Karacostas

    2015-04-01

    The region of Thessaly is the second largest plain in Greece and has a vital role in the financial life of the country, because of its significant agricultural production. The intensive and extensive cultivation of irrigated crops, in combination with the population increase and the alteration of precipitation patterns due to climate change, often leading the region to experience severe drought conditions, especially during the warm period of the year. The aim of the DAPHNE project is to tackle the problem of drought in this area by means of Weather Modification.In the framework of the project DAPHNE, the numerical weather prediction model WRF-ARW 3.5.1 is used to provide operational forecasts and hindcasts for the region of Thessaly. The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of the uncertainty in the initial soil moisture condition of irrigated areas, on the spatiotemporal characteristics of convective activity in the region of interest. To this end, six cases under the six most frequent synoptic conditions, which are associated with convective activity in the region of interest, are utilized, considering six different soil moisture initialization scenarios. In the first scenario (Control Run), the model is initialized with the surface soil moisture of the ECMWF analysis data, that usually does not take into account the modification of soil moisture due to agricultural activity in the area of interest. In the other five scenarios (Experiment 1,2,3,4,5) the soil moisture in the upper soil layers of the study area are modified from -50% to 50% of field capacity (-50%FC, -25%FC, FC, 25%FC, 50%FC),for the irrigated cropland.Three model domains, covering Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa (d01), the wider area of Greece (d02) and central Greece - Thessaly region (d03) are used at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km respectively. ECMWF operational analyses at 6-hourly intervals (0.25ox0.25o lat.-long.) are imported as initial and

  4. The differential impact of the financial crisis on Health in Ireland and Greece: A quasi-experimental approach

    PubMed Central

    Hessel, P; Vandoros, S; Avendano, M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Greece and Ireland suffered an economic recession of similar magnitude, but whether their health has deteriorated as a result has not yet been well established. Study design Based on five waves (2006-2010) of the European Union Statistics of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey we implemented a difference-in-differences (DID) approach that compared trends in self-rated health in Greece and Ireland before and after the crisis with trends in a control population (Poland) that did not experience a recession and had health trends comparable to both countries before the crisis. Methods Logistic regression using a difference-in-differences (DID) approach. Results A simple examination of trends suggests that there was no significant change in health in Greece or Ireland following the onset of the financial crisis. However, DID estimates that incorporated a control population suggest an increase in the prevalence of poor-self rated health in Greece (OR=1.216; CI=1.11 - 1.32). Effects were most pronounced for older individuals and those living in high-density areas, but effects in Greece were overwhelmingly consistent in different population sub-groups. In contrast, DID estimates revealed no effect of the financial crisis in Ireland (OR=0.97; CI=0.81-1.16). Conclusions Contradicting results from a simple comparison of single-country trends, DID estimates suggest that the financial crisis has led to deterioration of population health trends in Greece but not in Ireland, where policies may have prevented a worsening of health as a result of the recent economic crisis. PMID:25369355

  5. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Natura 2000 Network for Wolf Conservation: A Case-Study in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votsi, Nefta-Eleftheria P.; Zomeni, Maria S.; Pantis, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    The wolf ( Canis lupus) is used as a case study to rate Natura 2000 sites in Greece based on preferred wolf habitat characteristics and test whether the network is suitable for their conservation. Road density, agricultural area, site area, connectivity, food availability (i.e., presence of natural prey), and elevation in 237 sites are combined in a logistic regression model. The occurrence of the wolf's natural prey was the most prevalent factor determining wolf presence, followed by agricultural cover. Considering the current status of these features at N2K site level, most sites currently hosting wolves (85.7 %) have good or excellent prospects for the long-term presence of the wolf. On the contrary, 11 sites which now have wolves are predicted to be ineffective in keeping them in the future due to the absence of wild ungulates and their high agricultural coverage. Four sites with no wolf presence currently have excellent prospects to host wolves in the future. Roadless sites are a priority for protection and retaining their current condition is strongly suggested. The proposed approach aims to detect gaps in protection for the wolf and identify priority sites in need of mitigation actions. It can also assist the assessment of conservation policies in Greece and elsewhere toward accomplishing set goals in protected areas. By focusing on wolf protection, we hope to increase agencies' attention to deal with conservation effectiveness, especially in cases like Greece, where a number of sites are insufficiently known and protected and management measures are not properly implemented.

  6. State-space based analysis and forecasting of macroscopic road safety trends in Greece.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, macroscopic road safety trends in Greece are analyzed using state-space models and data for 52 years (1960-2011). Seemingly unrelated time series equations (SUTSE) models are developed first, followed by richer latent risk time-series (LRT) models. As reliable estimates of vehicle-kilometers are not available for Greece, the number of vehicles in circulation is used as a proxy to the exposure. Alternative considered models are presented and discussed, including diagnostics for the assessment of their model quality and recommendations for further enrichment of this model. Important interventions were incorporated in the models developed (1986 financial crisis, 1991 old-car exchange scheme, 1996 new road fatality definition) and found statistically significant. Furthermore, the forecasting results using data up to 2008 were compared with final actual data (2009-2011) indicating that the models perform properly, even in unusual situations, like the current strong financial crisis in Greece. Forecasting results up to 2020 are also presented and compared with the forecasts of a model that explicitly considers the currently on-going recession. Modeling the recession, and assuming that it will end by 2013, results in more reasonable estimates of risk and vehicle-kilometers for the 2020 horizon. This research demonstrates the benefits of using advanced state-space modeling techniques for modeling macroscopic road safety trends, such as allowing the explicit modeling of interventions. The challenges associated with the application of such state-of-the-art models for macroscopic phenomena, such as traffic fatalities in a region or country, are also highlighted. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that it is possible to apply such complex models using the relatively short time-series that are available in macroscopic road safety analysis.

  7. Levels and profiles of brominated and chlorinated contaminants in human breast milk from Thessaloniki, Greece.

    PubMed

    Dimitriadou, Lida; Malarvannan, Govindan; Covaci, Adrian; Iossifidou, Eleni; Tzafettas, John; Zournatzi-Koiou, Vassiliki; Kalantzi, Olga-Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk samples (n=87) collected between July 2004 and July 2005 from primipara and multipara mothers from Thessaloniki, Greece were analysed for six groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs): polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). DDTs [median: 410ng/g lipid weight (lw)], PCBs (median: 90ng/g lw) and HCHs (median: 40ng/g lw) were the predominantly identified compounds in all the breast milk samples. Levels of PBDEs (median: 1.5ng/g lw) in human breast milk samples from Thessaloniki, Greece were lower compared to other countries. Maternal age had a positive correlation with most compounds, but not with PBDEs. Women with a higher occupational exposure to PBDEs (i.e., working in office environments) had higher PBDE concentrations than all others and showed strong correlations, especially for BDE 47 and BDE 153. None of the analysed compounds showed any correlation with parity. Based on these levels, the daily intake of each group of POPs via human milk was calculated and compared with the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) or the reference doses (RfD). For the majority of samples (85 out of 87) a higher daily intake of PCBs than the TDI was calculated, while 11 out of 87 samples had a higher HCB intake than the TDI. The TDI and the RfD were not exceeded for DDTs and PBDEs, respectively. This is the first report of brominated flame retardants in human breast milk from Greece.

  8. A qualitative and quantitative study of mites in similar alfalfa fields in Greece.

    PubMed

    Badieritakis, Evangelos G; Fantinou, Argyro A; Emmanouel, Nikolaos G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the mite fauna and the relative abundance of mites present in foliage and litter of two adjacent and similar alfalfa fields, differing only in the number of cuttings, in Kopais Valley (Central Greece) through 2008-2010. We also examined the relationship between assemblage patterns of Mesostigmata, Oribatida and Prostigmata by comparing their population fluctuation, population density, species richness and diversity. Spatial distribution of common dominant and influent mite species was also estimated. Our results showed that both fields supported a very rich and similar mite fauna with eight new species records for alfalfa of Greece, although these species have been previously reported from other habitats in Greece. The pattern of population fluctuation in foliage was similar in both fields, unlike the fluctuation in litter. Population density significantly differed between fields, being higher in the less harvested field, except Prostigmata. Species richness in litter was higher in the less harvested field, whereas it was higher in the foliage of the more harvested field, apart from that of prostigmatic mites in litter, which was higher in the more harvested field, and that of oribatid mites in foliage, which was higher in the less harvested field. The diversity of mites was higher in the more harvested field, with the exception of prostigmatic mites. The spatial distribution of mites in foliage and litter was aggregated in both fields. Our results indicate that despite the considerable similarity of the study fields, the different harvesting frequency might have disturbed differently the mite communities hosted in foliage and litter.

  9. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Natura 2000 Network for Wolf Conservation: A Case-Study in Greece.

    PubMed

    Votsi, Nefta-Eleftheria P; Zomeni, Maria S; Pantis, J D

    2016-02-01

    The wolf (Canis lupus) is used as a case study to rate Natura 2000 sites in Greece based on preferred wolf habitat characteristics and test whether the network is suitable for their conservation. Road density, agricultural area, site area, connectivity, food availability (i.e., presence of natural prey), and elevation in 237 sites are combined in a logistic regression model. The occurrence of the wolf's natural prey was the most prevalent factor determining wolf presence, followed by agricultural cover. Considering the current status of these features at N2K site level, most sites currently hosting wolves (85.7%) have good or excellent prospects for the long-term presence of the wolf. On the contrary, 11 sites which now have wolves are predicted to be ineffective in keeping them in the future due to the absence of wild ungulates and their high agricultural coverage. Four sites with no wolf presence currently have excellent prospects to host wolves in the future. Roadless sites are a priority for protection and retaining their current condition is strongly suggested. The proposed approach aims to detect gaps in protection for the wolf and identify priority sites in need of mitigation actions. It can also assist the assessment of conservation policies in Greece and elsewhere toward accomplishing set goals in protected areas. By focusing on wolf protection, we hope to increase agencies' attention to deal with conservation effectiveness, especially in cases like Greece, where a number of sites are insufficiently known and protected and management measures are not properly implemented.

  10. Investigation of PPCPs in wastewater treatment plants in Greece: occurrence, removal and environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kosma, Christina I; Lambropoulou, Dimitra A; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, an extensive study on the presence of eighteen pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in eight wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of Greece has been conducted. The study covered four sampling periods over 1-year, where samples (influents; effluents) from eight WWTPs of various cities in Greece were taken. All WWTPs investigated are equipped with conventional activated sludge treatment. A common pre-concentration step based on SPE was applied, followed by LC-UV/Vis-ESI-MS. Further confirmation of positive findings was accomplished by using LC coupled to a high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The results showed the occurrence of all target compounds in the wastewater samples with concentrations up to 96.65 μg/L. Paracetamol, caffeine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, diclofenac and salicylic acid were the dominant compounds, while tolfenamic acid, fenofibrate and simvastatin were the less frequently detected compounds with concentrations in effluents below the LOQ. The removal efficiencies showed that many WWTPs were unable to effectively remove most of the PPCPs investigated. Finally, the study provides an assessment of the environmental risk posed by their presence in wastewaters by means of the risk quotient (RQ). RQs were more than unity for various compounds in the effluents expressing possible threat for the aquatic environment. Triclosan was found to be the most critical compound in terms of contribution and environmental risk, concluding that it should be seriously considered as a candidate for regulatory monitoring and prioritization on a European scale on the basis of realistic PNECs. The results of the extensive monitoring study contributed to a better insight on PPCPs in Greece and their presence in influent and effluent wastewaters. Furthermore, the unequivocal identification of two transformation products of trimethoprim in real wastewaters by using the advantages of the LTQ Orbitrap capabilities

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of the MBT plant in Ano Liossia, Athens, Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Abeliotis, Konstadinos; Kalogeropoulos, Alexandros; Lasaridi, Katia

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model the operation of an MBT plant in Greece based on LCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compare four different MBT operating scenarios (among them and with landfilling). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Even the current operation of the MBT plant is preferable to landfilling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Utilization of the MBT compost and metals generates the most environmental gains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal exploitation of RDF improves further the environmental performance of the plant. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is the application of Life Cycle Assessment to the operation of the MBT facility of Ano Liossia in the region of Attica in Greece. The region of Attica is home to almost half the population of Greece and the management of its waste is a major issue. In order to explicitly analyze the operation of the MBT plant, five scenarios were generated. Actual operation data of the MBT plant for the year 2008 were provided by the region of Attica and the LCA modeling was performed via the SimaPro 5.1 software while impact assessment was performed utilizing the Eco-indicator'99 method. The results of our analysis indicate that even the current operation of the MBT plant is preferable to landfilling. Among the scenarios of MBT operation, the one with complete utilization of the MBT outputs, i.e. compost, RDF, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, is the one that generates the most environmental gains. Our analysis indicates that the exploitation of RDF via incineration is the key factor towards improving the environmental performance of the MBT plant. Our findings provide a quantitative understanding of the MBT plant. Interpretation of results showed that proper operation of the modern waste management systems can lead to substantial reduction of environmental impacts and savings of resources.

  12. Flexible Removable Partial Denture Prosthesis: A Survey of Dentists’ Attitudes and Knowledge in Greece and Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Lagouvardos, Panagiotis; Kranjcic, Josip; Vojvodic, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate through a questionnaire the knowledge, attitudes and possible differences in the use of flexible RPDPs among dentists in Greece and Croatia. Material and Methods A questionnaire of 16 questions was originally created in English, translated into Greek and Croatian language following a two way translation and tested for apprehension, precision, clarity and homogeneity by a number of native English speaking Greek and Croatian dentists. Following the necessary corrections, the questionnaires replicated in two online surveys and their addresses with an informed consent were sent by emails to nearly 4000 dentists in each country to participate. Collected data were analyzed by chi-square tests at a= .05 level of significance. Results 378 dentists from Greece and 304 from Croatia participated in the study. 137(36.2%) dentists from Greece and 56(18.4%) from Croatia provided flexible RPDPs to their patients. Statistical analysis for all providers indicated no significant difference between genders (P>.05), significant differences between age groups (P<.01), years of practice (P<.05), specialization (P <.001), and instruction on flexible prostheses (P <.001). The analysis between the two countries showed differences for gender and age groups (P<.01) but no differences between experienced, specialized or instructed groups (P >.05). Conclusion The survey indicated differences between the two countries in the percentages of dentists using, selecting and providing RPDPs for their patients. Practitioners’ age, years in practice and instruction were associated with the provision of the prostheses, while comfort, esthetics and cost were the reasons for deciding to use the flexible RPDPs. Conclusion Although dentists are not educated in their schools about flexible RPDPs, almost a third of them offer this treatment to their patients. Long term success of these devices depends on clinical education, more experience and definitely more

  13. Seismicity study in Pournari reservoir area (W. Greece) 1981-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlou, K.; Drakatos, G.; Kouskouna, V.; Makropoulos, K.; Kranis, H.

    2016-04-01

    The spatial-temporal evolution of seismicity is examined, during the initial impoundment of Pournari reservoir located on Arachthos River (Western Greece), as well as for the next 30 years. The results show that, despite the relatively moderate-to-high seismicity from west to east, there is no remarkable earthquake in the vicinity before the first reservoir impoundment. Immediately after the impoundment (January 1981), and during the first 4 months, a considerable number of low-magnitude seismic events were recorded in the broader area of the dam. Moreover, two independent major events occurred on March 10, 1981 ( M L = 5.6) and April 10, 1981 ( M L = 4.7) with focal depths 13 and 10 km, respectively. The detailed analysis of the two corresponding aftershock sequences shows that they present different behaviors (e.g., larger b-value and lower magnitude of the main aftershock) than that of other aftershock sequences in Greece. This seismicity is probably due to triggering, via the water loading mechanism and the undrained response due to a flysch appearance on the reservoir basement. The activation of the thrust fault may be attributed to the bulging of evaporites that characterize the disordered structure of W. Greece, via possible water intake. The detailed processing of the recorded seismicity during the period 1982-2010, in comparison with the variations of Pournari Dam water level, shows an increase of shallow seismicity ( h ≤ 5 km) in the vicinity of the reservoir up to a 10-km distance—in contrast to the initial period, characterized by a number of deeper events due to the background response change from undrained to drained status.

  14. Heavy metal contents of refined and unrefined table salts from Turkey, Egypt and Greece.

    PubMed

    Soylak, Mustafa; Peker, Dondu Serpil Kacar; Turkoglu, Orhan

    2008-08-01

    Trace metal contents of 28 of refined and unrefined table salt samples from Turkey, Egypt and Greece have been determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after coprecipitation by dysprosium(III) hydroxide. Copper, nickel, cobalt, manganese, lead and cadmium levels were found in the range of 0.17-0.47, 0.16-1.57, 0.22-0.48, 0.26-4.68, 0.50-1.64 and 0.14-0.30 microg g(-1), respectively. The results found in the presented work were compared with literature values.

  15. Fatal chest injury with lung evisceration during athletic games in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Menenakos, Evangelos; Alexakis, Nicholas; Leandros, Emmanuel; Laskaratos, Gerasimos; Nikiteas, Nikolaos; Bramis, John; Fingerhut, Abe

    2005-10-01

    The "Olympic idealism" that dominates modern athletic culture is a myth. The true aims of the athletes in ancient Greece were rewards and life-long appointments to various positions in the military or the city administration. Competitions in the athletic games included, among others, wrestling, boxing, and pangration (a combination of wrestling and boxing). Occasionally, these games resulted in severe trauma or death. Two cases of extreme violence resulting in fatal chest trauma are presented and commented on from both surgical and social points of view.

  16. Extending TAM to Understand E-Governance Adoption by Teachers in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavasilis, Ioannis; Zafiropoulos, Kostas; Vrana, Vasiliki

    The study uses the Technology Acceptance Model, the Diffusion of innovation model and constructs of trust, risk and personal innovativeness in order to build a model for teachers' adoption of e-governance in Greece. Primary and secondary education teachers responded to an online survey resulting to 230 questionnaires. A SEM validation of the proposed model reveals that Personal Innovativeness, Compatibility and Relative advantage are stronger predictors of intention to use, compared to trust, and perceived risk. Even though the study offers the first piece of evidence on e-governance website adoption by teachers, the recommendations would be helpful in developing and implementing new e-governance plans.

  17. Persistent Giardia spp. and Trichuris spp. infection in maras (Dolichotis patagonum) at a zoo in Greece.

    PubMed

    Tahas, Stamatios Alan; Diakou, Anastasia

    2013-06-01

    The mara (Dolichotis patagonum) is a species classified as "Near Threatened" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. In the wild, it inhabits only Argentina, but it is also kept in zoos around the world. In order to investigate the endoparasites of the maras kept in the Attica Zoological Park, Greece, four fecal examinations were performed in a period of 4 yr (2008-2011) by standard parasitologic methods. Cysts of the protozoan parasite Giardia spp. and eggs of the nematode Trichuris spp. were found in all four examinations. The possible routes of infection of the maras and the importance of these parasites to other animals and to humans are discussed.

  18. Integrated protecting plan for beach erosion. A case study in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Kozyrakis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are among the most active areas on Earth, being subjected to extreme wind / wave conditions, thus vulnerable to erosion. In Greece and Crete in particular, beach zones are extremely important for the welfare of the inhabitants, since, apart for the important biological and archaeological value of the beach zones, the socio-economic value is critical since a great number of human activities are concentrated in such areas (touristic facilities, fishing harbors etc.). The present study investigates the erosional procedures observed in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece, a highly touristic developed area with great archaeological interest and proposes a cost-effective solution. The factors taken into consideration for the proposed solution in reducing the erosion of the beach were the study of the climatological, geological and geomorphological regime of the area, the recent (~70 years) shifting of the coastline through the study of topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite images, the creation of detailed bathymetric and seabed classification maps of the area and finally, a risk analysis in terms of erosional phenomena. On the basis of the above, it is concluded that the area under investigation is subjected to an erosional rate of about 1 m/10 years and the total land-loss for the past 70 years is about 4600 m2. Through the simulation of the wave regime we studied 3 possible scenarios, the "do-nothing" scenario, the construction of a detached submerged breakwater at the depth of 3 meters and, finally, the armoring of the existing beach-wall through the placement of appropriate size and material boulders, forming an artificial slope for the reducing of the wave breaking energy and a small scale nourishment plan. As a result, through the modeling of the above, the most appropriate and cost-effective solution was found to be the third, armoring of the existing coastal wall and nourishment of the beach periodically, thus the further undermining of the

  19. Prevalence of leptospira species among farmed and domestic animals in Greece.

    PubMed

    Burriel, A R; Dalley, C; Woodward, M J

    2003-08-02

    A total of 1527 serum samples from pigs, goats, sheep, cattle and dogs in Greece were examined by the microscopic agglutination test and 11-8 per cent of them had antibodies against one or more Leptospira serovars at titres of 1/100 or more. The predominant serovar affecting farm animal species was Bratislava, and Copenhageni was common among dogs and the second most important serovar when all animals were considered together. Another prevalent serovar was Australis, but antibodies to Pomona were detected only in goats and cattle.

  20. On the characteristics of atmospheric circulation associated with snowfall in NW Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houssos, E. E.; Lolis, C. J.; Bartzokas, A.

    2009-09-01

    In this work the main atmospheric circulation types, associated with snowfall events in NW Greece, are examined. Also, a validation procedure is followed in order to investigate to what extent the circulation types revealed are related with snowfall in NW Greece. For this purpose, two datasets are used. The first one consists of 6-hourly values of mean sea level pressure, temperature at 850hPa level and 500hPa height in 273 grid-points covering Europe and the Mediterranean, for the 45-year period 1/9/1957 to 31/8/2002. The second one comprises all the 6-hourly observations at the meteorological station of Ioannina (NW Greece). From the first dataset and for each meteorological parameter a data matrix is constructed consisting of 65,744 rows and 273 columns. Each column represents the time series of the parameter at each grid point and each row represents the space series (map) of the parameter at the time of each observation (4 observations per day for the 45-year period). Then, a new matrix is created by merging the matrices of MSL pressure, T-850hPa and Z-500hPa in a united matrix of 65,744 rows x 819 columns. In this way, each row represents the 3-dimensional structure of the atmosphere (based on the 3 parameters used) at the time of each observation. Next, Factor Analysis is applied on this united matrix in order to reduce the dimensionality of the data set. The 819 columns are reduced to 8 (uncorrelated Factors), describing satisfactorily the 3-dimensional structure of the atmosphere, as they explain approximately 86% of the total variance. From the second data set the observations reporting snowfall in Ioannina are found out and then a new data matrix is constructed consisting of the Factor scores rows corresponding to these observations only. In the new matrix (235 rows x 8 columns) each row describes the structure of the atmosphere over Europe and the Mediterranean in the cases of snowfall in Ioannina. Cluster Analysis (K-Means) is applied in this final

  1. Sickness absence in the private sector of Greece: comparing shipyard industry and national insurance data.

    PubMed

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Merekoulias, Georgios; Tanagra, Dimitra; Konstantinou, Eleni C; Mikelatou, Efi; Jelastopulu, Eleni

    2012-04-01

    Approximately 3% of employees are absent from work due to illness daily in Europe, while in some countries sickness absence exceeds 20 days per year. Based on a limited body of reliable studies, Greek employees in the private sector seem to be absent far less frequently (<5 days/year) compared to most of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece, using shipyard and national insurance data. Detailed data on absenteeism of employees in a large shipyard company during the period 1999-2006 were utilized. National data on compensated days due to sickness absence concerning all employees (around 2 million) insured by the Social Insurance Institute (IKA, the largest insurance scheme in Greece) were retrieved from the Institute's annual statistical reports for the period 1987-2006. Sick-leave days per employee and sick-leave rate (%) were calculated, among other indicators. In the shipyard cohort, the employment time loss due to sick leave was 1%. The mean number of sick-leave days per employee in shipyards ranged between 4.6 and 8.7 and sick-leave rate (sickness absenteeism rate) varied among 2% and 3.7%. The corresponding indicators for IKA were estimated between 5 and 6.3 sick-leave days per insured employee (median 5.8), and 2.14-2.72% (median 2.49%), respectively. Short sick-leave spells (<4 days) may account at least for the 25% of the total number of sick-leave days, currently not recorded in national statistics. The level of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece was found to be higher than the suggested by previous reports and international comparative studies, but still remains one of the lowest in the industrialized world. In the 20-years national data, the results also showed a 7-year wave in sickness absence indexes (a decrease during the period 1991-1997 and an increase in 1998-2004) combined with a small yet significant decline as a general trend. These

  2. Novel plasmid-encoded class C beta-lactamase (MOX-2) in Klebsiella pneumoniae from Greece.

    PubMed

    Raskine, Laurent; Borrel, Isabelle; Barnaud, Guilène; Boyer, Sophie; Hanau-Berçot, Béatrice; Gravisse, Jérome; Labia, Roger; Arlet, Guillaume; Sanson-Le-Pors, Marie-José

    2002-07-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae KOL, a clinical strain resistant to various beta-lactams, was isolated from the stools of a patient from Greece. This strain harbored a new pI 9.1 plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase with unusually high levels of hydrolytic activity for cefoxitin and cefotetan that we named MOX-2. Sequencing of bla(MOX-2) revealed 93.2, 92.9, 92.7, and 73.1% identities with the deduced amino acid sequences of CMY-8, MOX-1, CMY-1, and the AmpC beta-lactamase of Aeromonas sobria, respectively.

  3. Legal aspects of public health: how law frames communicable disease control in Greece.

    PubMed

    Hatzianastasiou, Sophia; Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C

    2011-11-01

    We reviewed Greek law (legislation, historic Royal Decrees, and modern Presidential ones, 1833-2010) pertinent to control of communicable diseases and compared this body of Greek law with the revised International Health Regulations. Greece authorizes and regulates communicable disease control commensurate with public health risks, and integrates the principles of equality, objectivity, and respect for human rights. Despite strength at the level of principles, Greek law lacks coherence, clarity, and systematization. An inadequate body of regulations means legislation falls short of adequate implementing authority and guidelines; public health authorities often cannot find or understand the laws, nor are they certain about allocation of jurisdictional authority. We identified areas for improvement.

  4. Behavior study of trace elements in pulverized lignite, bottom ash, and fly ash of Amyntaio power station, Greece.

    PubMed

    Megalovasilis, Pavlos; Papastergios, Georgios; Filippidis, Anestis

    2013-07-01

    The Kozani-Ptolemais-Amyntaio basin constitutes the principal coal field of Greece. Approximately 50% of the total power production of Greece is generated by five power stations operating in the area. Lignite samples, together with the corresponding fly ash and bottom ash were collected, over a period of 3 months, from the power plant of Amyntaio and analyzed for their content in 16 trace elements. The results indicate that Y, Nb, U, Rb, Zr, Ni, Pb, Ba, Zn, Sr, Cu, and Th demonstrate an organic affinity during the combustion of lignite, while V has an inorganic affinity. Three elements (Co, Cr, and Sc) show an intermediate affinity.

  5. Two new infraspecific taxa of Verbascum delphicum (Scrophulariaceae, Scrophularieae) from mainland Greece and the island of Evvia

    PubMed Central

    Zografidis, Aris

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Verbascum delphicum Boiss. & Heldr. subsp. cervi Zografidis (Scrophulariaceae, Scrophularieae) is described as a subspecies new to science and illustrated. It is narrowly distributed in the Greek National Park of Mt Parnitha (Attica, Greece) with a very small population size. The new subspecies is a seldom-collected taxon, previously overlooked and misidentified as consubspecific with the autonymous subspecies, an endemic of the island of Evvia (Greece). Also described in this study is a new variety of subsp. delphicum from Mt Ochi of southern Evvia. PMID:28127239

  6. Dimitrios Mavrokordatos (1811-1839), the eve of the Hellenic School of Anatomy in modern era Greece.

    PubMed

    Sgantzos, Markos; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Laios, Konstantinos; Androutsos, George; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Dimitrios Alexandrou Mavrokordatos was the first regular professor of Anatomy and Physiology of the Hellenic "Othonian" University of Athens. He had completed his studies in Germany and thus he had been chosen to stimulate the empirical physicians of Greece to awaken. He died young, but his passion was so great that he had published a masterpiece in the new Greece, "On the anatomy of the human body", and left his fortune for his pupils, even though they had rebelled against him sometime before his death. With his teaching and book he established a kind of Greek "nomina anatomica" which formed the basis for medicine in the newly born country.

  7. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  8. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  9. Isolated Northern Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 81 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. In this region, the dunes are isolated from each other. The dunes are just starting to emerge from the winter frost covering appearing dark with bright crests. These dunes are located on top of ice.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.1, Longitude 191.3 East (168.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Northern Sand Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Evaluation of Tuberculosis Underreporting in Greece through Comparison with Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Lytras, Theodore; Spala, Georgia; Bonovas, Stefanos; Panagiotopoulos, Takis

    2012-01-01

    Surveillance is an integral part of tuberculosis (TB) control. Greece has a low TB notification rate, but there are doubts about underreporting. Examining anti-TB drug consumption is a way to validate the results of surveillance and estimate TB burden in the country. We used surveillance data from 2004 to 2008 to calculate the average prescribed treatment duration with the first-line anti-TB drugs isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide. We then obtained the best available data on consumption of these drugs, and calculated the number of treated cases to which these quantities correspond. We thus estimated underreporting at around 80% (77–81%), and annual TB incidence at about 30 cases per 100,000 population, five times over the notification rate. Underreporting was found to be constant over the study period, while incidence followed a decreasing trend. In addition we estimated that one person receives chemoprophylaxis for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) for every three TB cases. These results indicate the need for a comprehensive plan to improve TB surveillance and TB contact tracing in Greece, especially in light of the economic crisis affecting the country since 2009. PMID:23185524

  12. Crowdsourcing and mobile services for a fit-for-purpose Cadastre in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkeli, Maria; Apostolopoulos, Konstantinos; Mourafetis, George; Ioannidis, Charalabos; Potsiou, Chryssy

    2016-08-01

    A `fit-for-purpose' approach is suggested by FIG, the UN and the World Bank as the appropriate methodology for implementing a land administration system depending on a country's urgent priorities. In this paper, the current official process for the implementation of the Hellenic Cadastre is analyzed and compared to the "fit-for-purpose" model. Some amendments are proposed to replace the initial stage of the data collection official procedure, to make it more fast, efficient and complete. These amendments are tested by a team of researchers of NTUA and the achieved results are presented. The methodology aims to save time, avoid gross errors and additional funds, and provide fast solutions for the completion of the National Cadastral reliably and affordably, during the period of the economic crisis in Greece, with increased citizens' participation and the use of modern IT tools for the adjudication of the owners, the property rights and the other cadastral data acquisition. New m-services are proposed for the compilation of the cadastral surveys, supported by crowdsourcing techniques. A case study for a suburban area is reported. For the new procedure an open source, self-developed application named BoundGeometry, is used. The new procedure is compared to the official one in terms of time, quality, accuracy and gross errors avoidance. Legal matters related to the adoption of the proposed amendments by the National Cadastral Agency of Greece are also taken into account.

  13. Changing patterns of attempted suicide in Greece: clinicoepidemiological and psychodynamic data.

    PubMed

    Ierodiakonou, C S; Iacovides, A; Ierodiakonou-Benou, I

    1998-01-01

    Greece is known to have one of the lowest rates of both completed and attempted suicides. Yet during the last three decades the pattern of suicide attempts has shown some differentiations, which point to possible changes in family structure and social behavior, bringing the pattern closer to that of western countries. While in 1971-72 the ratio of male to female attempters was 1:4.6, in 1994-96 it was 1:2.3 - the mean age rose from early to middle adulthood - more married people attempted suicide than before - more attempters took alcohol before the act etc. There are, nevertheless, many steady features, e.g. the low rates of attempters in old age (above 65 years: 7.9% of the total), the methods used, the type of preceding stressful life events (more financial than emotional in males), no drug abuse etc. Since the low rates of suicide attempts in Greece have been attributed to cultural parameters and the close bonds in the family, psychodynamic studies were also carried out, which showed that adolescent attempters preserve the ability for outward aggression and their self-destructive act is due to other than intrapsychic factors (usually social and relational problems).

  14. Characteristics of psoriasis in Greece: an epidemiological study of a population in a sunny Mediterranean climate.

    PubMed

    Rigopoulos, Dimitris; Gregoriou, Stamatis; Katrinaki, Aimilia; Korfitis, Chrysovalantis; Larios, Giorgos; Stamou, Christos; Mourellou, Olympia; Petridis, Athanasios; Rallis, Efstathios; Sotiriadis, Dimitris; Katsambas, Andreas D; Antoniou, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with important socioeconomic consequences. Data on psoriasis prevalence in Greece is scarce and circumstantially reported. The aim of this study was the recording of psoriatic patients' demographic data, clinical characteristics of the disease, and exacerbating factors. Seven hundred and eighty four patients were enrolled in 6 centres (4 in Athens and 2 in Thessaloniki) in a multicenter epidemiologic prospective study. The mean age of patients was 43.2 (standard deviation, SD 17.44) years (median 42 years), while the men: women ratio was 1.8:1. Additionally, 35% of patients reported a positive family history of psoriasis. The mean age of patients at the first episode of psoriasis was 31.3 (SD 16.39) years (median 28 years). Psoriasis vulgaris was the most common form of psoriasis in the population participating in this study. Flares of psoriasis occurred 2.6 times per year on average. The patients considered stress as the main cause for psoriasis exacerbation. Most frequent target points of psoriasis included elbows, legs, scalp and knees. The most common symptoms reported were scaling, and itching. On average, patients visited dermatologists 2.4 times per year for issues related to psoriasis. This study provides epidemiological information regarding psoriasis in Greece. Results of this survey could assist in delineation of patient profiles, and improve communication between doctors and patients.

  15. Holocene evolution and sedimentation rate of Alikes Lagoon, Zakynthos island, Western Greece - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramidis, P.; Kontopoulos, N.

    2009-03-01

    In the present study we present preliminary results of Zakynthos Alikes lagoon, which is one of the most seismically active regions of Greece. In order to estimate - interpret the Holocene evolution of the area and to reconstruct the palaeonvironmental changes, we based on the data of a 21 m sediment core. Sediment types, structure, colour, as well as contact depths and bed characteristics, were recorded in the field. Standarised sedimentological analysis were carried out, on 46 samples including grain size analysis, calculation of moment measures, and micro- and molluscan fossils of 17 selected samples. Moreover, radiocarbon age determinations have been made on individual Cardium shells from two horizons and whole - core Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) measurements were taken. The interpretation of depositional environments suggests a coastal environment (restricted-shallow) with reduced salinity such as a lagoon margin and in a tidal flat and/or marsh particularly. The maximum age of the study sediments is about 8500 BP. The rate of sedimentation between 8280 BP and 5590 BP was 5.3 mm/yr and between 5590 BP and modern times 1.03 mm/yr. The rate of sedimentation was higher until mid-Holocene while decrease after to 1.03 mm/yr, results which are similar to other coastal areas of western Greece.

  16. Holocene evolution and sedimentation rate of Alikes Lagoon, Zakynthos island, Western Greece: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramidis, P.; Kontopoulos, N.

    2009-07-01

    In the present study we present preliminary results from Alikes lagoon in Zakynthos island, an area that is one of the most seismically active regions of Greece. In order to estimate - interpret the Holocene evolution of the area and to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental changes, we based on data derived from a 21 m sediment core. Sediment types, structure, colour, as well as contact depths and bed characteristics were recorded in the field. Standarised sedimentological analysis was carried out, on 46 samples including grain size analysis, calculation of moment measures, and micro- and molluscan fossils of 17 selected samples. Moreover, radiocarbon age determinations have been made on individual Cardium shells from two horizons and whole - core Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) measurements were taken. The interpretation of depositional environments suggests a coastal environment (restricted-shallow) with reduced salinity such as a lagoon margin and in a tidal flat and/or marsh particularly. The maximum age of the studied sediments is about 8500 BP. The rate of sedimentation between 8280 BP while 5590 BP was 5.3 mm/yr and between 5590 BP and modern times is on the order of 1.03 mm/yr. These sedimentation rates results are similar to other coastal areas of western Greece.

  17. Assessing odour nuisance from wastewater treatment and composting facilities in Greece.

    PubMed

    Lasaridi, Katia; Katsabanis, George; Kyriacou, Adamantini; Maggos, Thomas; Manios, Thrassyvoulos; Fountoulakis, Mihalis; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Karageorgos, Petros; Stentiford, Edward Ian

    2010-11-01

    The problem of odour nuisances in Greece was explored using: (a) field measurements of a range of malodorous compounds (hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, benzene, toluene, xylenes, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, methyl-mercaptan and carbonyl sulfide) from selected wastewater treatment plants and composting facilities; and (b) questionnaires, completed by wastewater treatment plant operators, to investigate potential odour problems, the odour abatement technologies used, and potential interest and motives for adopting such technologies. The sparse information available in the literature is also exploited. Results indicate that on several occasions there was an odour problem, often stemming from the uncontrolled city sprawl, which results in mixed and often conflicting land uses. This is particularly true for wastewater treatment plants, which tend to be built close to built-up areas and highlights the importance of town planning as a tool to minimize odour problems. Measurement of odours and/or odour related gases is not commonly practised in Greece, while the odour abatement systems currently used are often considered inadequate by plant managers who do have an active interest in using more efficient and effective technologies. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic effort to monitor the odour nuisance in the country.

  18. Outreach of Astronomy with emphasis to the Solar System by the Space group in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussas, X.; Dialynas, K.; Babasides, G.; Fasoulopoulos, G.; Dimitropoulou, V.; Prassopoulos, D.; Kouphos, S.; Spandagos, E.; Strikis, J.

    We have a long tradition in Space and Solar System outreach at the University of Athens (Space Group). We have contributed with many popular science articles in encyclopaedias (a total of some 200000 words), magazines and newspapers, public lectures around Greece and radio and TV programmes. We contribute in exhibitions for the public on many occasions (e.g. The British Exploration of the Planets, an exhibition organized by the British Council, at Eugenides Foundation and The Planetarium, where I prepared some 15 posters). We are preparing an outreach site of Astrophysics with sections for the planets, the exploration of the solar system and solar terrestrial relations. I am preparing several posters for the planets. We organize with the Hellenic Physical Union a series of Astrophysics Lectures at the University of Athens. Together with the Hellenic Physical Union we are planning to produce a theatrical play and CD or DVD concerning the planets. We have excellent collaboration with the amateur astronomers allover Greece and Cyprus. We organize, together with Physics or mathematics teachers in high schools several events related to astronomical observations (e.g. Venus transit, solar eclipe, astronomy nights). 1 We also organize popular science programmes in TV channels. I brief we consider Astronomy and especially the planetary system as a "Great Attractor" of pupil and the general public to science and we use it on every occasion for the benefit of the pupil and science. 2

  19. A Case-Control Study on the Risk Factors for Meningococcal Disease among Children in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Mpalaouras, George; Vasilopoulou, Vasiliki; Katsioulis, Antonios; Rachiotis, George; Theodoridou, Kalliopi; Tzanakaki, Georgia; Syriopoulou, Vassiliki; Theodoridou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to identify environmental or genetic risk factors that are associated with invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in children in Greece. Methods A case-control study was performed in 133 children (44 cases and 89 controls) aged between 0–14 years, who were hospitalized in a children's hospital in Athens. Demographics and possible risk factors were collected by the use of a structured questionnaire. To investigate the association of mannose binding lectin (MBL) with IMD, a frequency analysis of the haplotypes of the MBL2 gene and quantitative measurement of MBL serum protein levels were performed using Nanogen NanoChipR 400 technology and immuno-enzyme techniques, respectively. Results The multivariate analysis revealed that changes in a child's life setting (relocation or vacation, OR = 7.16), paternal smoking (OR = 4.51), upper respiratory tract infection within the previous month (OR = 3.04) and the density of people in the house/100m2 (OR = 3.16), were independent risk factors associated with IMD. Overall 18.8% of patients had a MBL2 genotype with low functionality compared to 10.1% of healthy controls, but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.189). Conclusion Prevention strategies aimed at reducing parental smoking and other risk factors identified in this study could decrease the risk of IMD among children in Greece. PMID:27351742

  20. Drought episodes over Greece as simulated by dynamical and statistical downscaling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulou, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Drought over the Greek region is characterized by a strong seasonal cycle and large spatial variability. Dry spells longer than 10 consecutive days mainly characterize the duration and the intensity of Greek drought. Moreover, an increasing trend of the frequency of drought episodes has been observed, especially during the last 20 years of the 20th century. Moreover, the most recent regional circulation models (RCMs) present discrepancies compared to observed precipitation, while they are able to reproduce the main patterns of atmospheric circulation. In this study, both a statistical and a dynamical downscaling approach are used to quantify drought episodes over Greece by simulating the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for different time steps (3, 6, and 12 months). A statistical downscaling technique based on artificial neural network is employed for the estimation of SPI over Greece, while this drought index is also estimated using the RCM precipitation for the time period of 1961-1990. Overall, it was found that the drought characteristics (intensity, duration, and spatial extent) were well reproduced by the regional climate models for long term drought indices (SPI12) while ANN simulations are better for the short-term drought indices (SPI3).

  1. Popular Medicine and Empirics in Greece, 1900–1950: An Oral History Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hionidou, Violetta

    2016-01-01

    Western literature has focused on medical plurality but also on the pervasive existence of quacks who managed to survive from at least the eighteenth to the twentieth century. Focal points of their practices have been their efforts at enrichment and their extensive advertising. In Greece, empirical, untrained healers in the first half of the twentieth century do not fit in with this picture. They did not ask for payment, although they did accept ‘gifts’; they did not advertise their practice; and they had fixed places of residence. Licensed physicians did not undertake a concerted attack against them, as happened in the West against the quacks, and neither did the state. In this paper, it is argued that both the protection offered by their localities to resident popular healers and the healers’ lack of demand for monetary payment were jointly responsible for the lack of prosecutions of popular healers. Moreover, the linking of popular medicine with ancient traditions, as put forward by influential folklore studies, also reduced the likelihood of an aggressive discourse against the popular healers. Although the Greek situation in the early twentieth century contrasts with the historiography on quacks, it is much more in line with that on wise women and cunning-folk. It is thus the identification of these groups of healers in Greece and elsewhere, mostly through the use of oral histories but also through folklore studies, that reveals a different story from that of the aggressive discourse of medical men against quacks. PMID:27628859

  2. The economic burden of treating neonates in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Geitona, Mary; Hatzikou, Magdalini; Hatzistamatiou, Zoi; Anastasiadou, Aggeliki; Theodoratou, Theodora D

    2007-01-01

    Background In a period when a public-private mix in Greece is under consideration and hospital budgets become restrained, economic assessment is important for rational decision making. The study aimed to estimate the hospitalization cost of neonates admitted to the ICUs and demonstrate discrepancies with reimbursement. Methods Chosen methodology was based on the selection of medical records of all NICUs and intermediate care admissions within February to April 2004. Neonates (n = 99) were classified according to birthweight and gestational age. Results Mean cost per infant was estimated at €5.485 while reimbursement from social funds arises to €3.952. Costs per birthweight or gestational age show an inverse relationship. Personnel costs accounted for 59.9%, followed by enteral/parenteral feeding (16.14%) and pharmaceuticals expenses (11.10%) of all resources consumed. Sensitivity analysis increases the robustness of the results Conclusion Neonatal intensive care in Greece is associated with significant costs that exceed reimbursement from social funds. Reimbursement should be adjusted to make neonatal intensive care economically viable to private hospitals and thus, increase capacity of the services provided. PMID:17634126

  3. Unraveling the evolutionary history of the Chilostoma Fitzinger, 1833 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata) lineages in Greece.

    PubMed

    Psonis, Nikolaos; Vardinoyannis, Katerina; Mylonas, Moisis; Poulakakis, Nikos

    2015-10-01

    The land snails of the genus Chilostoma Fitzinger, 1833 that includes, in Greece, the (sub)genera Cattania, Josephinella and Thiessea, are highly diversified and present high levels of endemism. However, their evolutionary history is unknown and their taxonomy is complex and continuously revised. The aim of this study is to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of the lineages of the genus Chilostoma distributed in Greece based on partial DNA sequences of two mitochondrial DNA (16S rRNA and COI) genes. Complete sequences of one nuclear gene (ITS1) representing the major mitochondrial lineages were also analyzed. The phylogenetic trees revealed three distinct major clades that correspond to the three (sub)genera. Several taxonomical incongruencies were made obvious, thus, raising questions about the "true" number of species in each clade, while rendering a taxonomic re-evaluation necessary. From a phylogeographic point of view, it seems that the three major phylogenetic clades were separated in the late Miocene. They started differentiating into distinct species during the Pliocene and Pleistocene through several vicariance and dispersal events.

  4. LifeWatch Greece data-services: Discovering Biodiversity Data using Semantic Web Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Marketakis, Yannis; Doerr, Martin; Bekiari, Chryssoula; Papadakos, Panagiotis; Gougousis, Alexandros; Bailly, Nicolas; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Biodiversity data is characterized by its cross-disciplinary character, the extremely broad range of data types and structures, and the variety of semantic concepts that it encompasses. Furthermore there is a plethora of different data sources providing resources for the same piece of information in a heterogeneous way. Even if we restrict our attention to Greek biodiversity domain, it is easy to see that biodiversity data remains unconnected and widely distributed among different sources. New information To cope with these issues, in the context of the LifeWatch Greece project, i) we supported cataloguing and publishing of all the relevant metadata information of the Greek biodiversity domain, ii) we integrated data from heterogeneous sources by supporting the definitions of appropriate models, iii) we provided means for efficiently discovering biodiversity data of interest and iv) we enabled the answering of complex queries that could not be answered from the individual sources. This work has been exploited, evaluated and scientificaly confirmed by the biodiversity community through the services provided by the LifeWatch Greece portal. PMID:27932908

  5. Agricultural management change effects on river nutrient yields in a catchment of Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagopoulos, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Modelling efforts are strongly recommended nowadays by European legislation for investigating non-structural mitigation measures against water pollution on catchment scale. Agricultural diffuse pollution is considered to be the main responsible human activity for the Eutrophication of inland waters with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). The physically-based water quality model SWAT is implemented in an agricultural medium-size agricultural catchment of Central Greece with the purpose to simulate the baseline situation and subsequently to predict the effects that realistic non-structural interventions, applied on the agricultural land, have on water quality and crop yields. SWAT was successfully calibrated according to measured flows and water quality data and subsequently scenarios were developed by changing chemical fertilizer application rates and timing on corn, cotton and wheat cultivations. All scenarios resulted in a decrease of nutrient emissions to surface waters but with a simultaneous small decrease in crop yields. The model predicted explicitly the consequences of non-structural mitigation measures against water pollution sustaining that the understanding of land management changes in relation to its driving factors provides essential information for sustainable management of the agricultural sector in an agricultural country like Greece.

  6. Characteristics of wastes from electric and electronic equipment in Greece: results of a field survey.

    PubMed

    Karagiannidis, Avraam; Perkoulidis, George; Papadopoulos, Agis; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Tsatsarelis, Thomas

    2005-08-01

    The lifespan of electric and electronic equipment is becoming shorter and the amount of related waste is increasing. This study aimed to contribute to the knowledge about qualitative and quantitative characteristics of such wastes in Greece. Specifically, results are presented from a field survey, which took place in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece, during the year 2002. The survey was conducted with suitable questionnaires in department stores and in households of various municipalities. Household appliances were grouped as follows: (A) large (refrigerator, freezer, washing machine, clothes dryer, electric cooker, microwave oven, electric heater), (B) small (vacuum cleaner, electric iron, hair dryer), (C) information technology and telecommunication equipment (PC, laptop, printer, phone) and (D) consumer equipment (radio, TV, video, DVD, console). The analysis indicated that the lifespan of all new goods is gradually reducing (apart from refrigerators, for which the lifespan was surprisingly found to be increasing) and provided linearized functions for predicting the lifespan, according to the year of manufacture, for certain large appliances.

  7. Detection of Leishmania Infantum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Central Greece.

    PubMed

    Karayiannis, Stelios; Ntais, Pantelis; Messaritakis, Ippokratis; Tsirigotakis, Nikolaos; Dokianakis, Emmanouil; Antoniou, Maria

    2015-11-01

    This is the first record of Leishmania detection in foxes in Greece. Spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow and blood samples were collected from 47 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) found dead or captured, narcotized and freed after bleeding, from November 2009 to 2011, in Fthiotida prefecture, central Greece. This is an endemic for canine leishmaniasis area with several human visceral leishmaniasis cases. The samples were tested for Leishmania infantum and Leishmania tropica by molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism) and serology (indirect immunofluorescent antibody test; when blood samples were available). Leishmania infantum DNA was detected in 28 animals (59·5%). PCR positivity was related to animal age, sex, weight, characteristics of the area trapped, presence of leishmaniasis symptoms and presence of endo- and ecto-parasites. The results were related to dog seropositivity obtained earlier in the area. The findings support the hypothesis that this wild canid may serve as a reservoir for Leishmania in areas where the sandfly vectors are found. In the prefectures of Larisa and Magnisia, adjacent to Fthiotida, Phlebotomus perfiliewi and Phlebotomus tobbi (known vectors of L. infantum) have been reported.

  8. The Villafranchian carnivoran guild of Greece: implications for the fauna, biochronology and paleoecology.

    PubMed

    Koufos, George D

    2014-08-01

    Knowledge on the Villafranchian faunas of Greece was limited for a long time, but over the past 3 decades several new fossiliferous sites have been discovered and new material has been unearthed. The carnivores constitute a remarkable part of this material and their study has provided useful information for the taxonomy, chronology and palaeoecology. The Villafranchian carnivoran guild includes numerous taxa belonging to various families. Some of them are interesting as they are differentiated from the other Eurasian families. They cover the entire Villafranchian but the mass is known from the Middle to the Epi-Villafranchian (EVC). Despite the discontinuous data, they provide useful biochronological results. The coexistence of Pliocrocuta perrieri and Pachycrocuta brevirostris in the locality of Gerakarou 1 is strong evidence for the Middle Villafranchian (MVC)/Late Villafranchian (LVC) boundary. The composition of the Villafranchian carnivores suggests that the canids predominate, while the felids, hyenids and mustelids are well represented; the ursids are represented by a single taxon, the well-known Ursus etruscus, which seems to be common during the entire Villafranchian. The carnivoran guild structure and the multivariate analysis of the Greek Villafranchian carnivoran assemblages (MVC, LVC and EVC) in comparison with modern assembalges from open and closed environments indicate a relatively open landscape, which is in agreement with previous results for the Villafranchian of Greece. During the EVC there is a faunal renewal that is related to a more open and dry environment, like savannah bushland/grassland.

  9. Hydro- and morphodynamic tsunami simulations for the Ambrakian Gulf (Greece) and comparison with geoscientific field traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röbke, Björn Roman; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Vött, Andreas; Werner, Vera

    2016-04-01

    The Ambrakian Gulf is a marine inlet of the Ionian Sea in north-western Greece, covering an approximate area of 500 km². Historical accounts as well as sedimentary and geomorphological traces document repeated tsunami influence on the area during the past millennia, as is the case for the entire west coast of Greece. Vibracore and geoelectrical data allow an approximate reconstruction of tsunami inundation dynamics in the gulf including inland penetration, run-up heights and other hydrodynamic characteristics. Based on a hydro- and morphodynamic numerical model, several tsunami scenarios were calculated for the study area in high resolution. The numerical model takes account of different wave boundary conditions and morphodynamic processes. This approach allows a direct comparison and calibration of the model with vibracore and geoelectrical field data. Our results show several plausible scenarios for a tsunami-related flooding of the gulf. Regarding the frequency of past tsunami events and their spatial dimensions indicated by both field and simulation data, a significant tsunami hazard has to be derived for the Ambrakian Gulf, including Aktio Headland, the international airport and the city of Preveza.

  10. Economic crisis detected from space: Air quality observations over Athens/Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrekoussis, M.; Richter, A.; Hilboll, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Lelieveld, J.; Barrie, L.; Zerefos, C.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2013-01-01

    Using both satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns and a number of economic metrics, we investigate the impact of the economic crisis (from 2008 onward) on air quality over Greece, and Athens in particular. The multiannual analysis shows that NO2 columns over Athens have been significantly reduced in the range 30-40%. This decline is further supported by surface measurements of atmospheric NO2 mixing ratios. Additionally, the declining local concentrations of NO, CO, and SO2 are associated with an increase in ozone due to reduced titration by NO. In particular, regression analysis revealed that the reduction of NO2 (0.3 ± 0.2 ppbv y-1) and SO2 (0.2 ± 0.1 ppbv y-1) during the period 2000-2007, significantly accelerated during the economic crisis period (from 2008 onward), reaching 2.3 ± 0.2 ppbv y-1 and 0.7 ± 0.1 ppbv y-1, respectively. The strong correlations between pollutant concentrations and economic indicators show that the economic recession has resulted in proportionally lower levels of pollutants in large parts of Greece.

  11. Evaluation of the willingness for cadaveric donation in Greece: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Halou, Heidi; Chalkias, Athanasios; Mystrioti, Dimitra; Iacovidou, Nicoletta; Vasileiou, Panagiotis V S; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of body donation for medical education and the advancement of medical science, cadaveric donation remains suboptimal worldwide. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the willingness of body donation in Greece and determine the characteristics of donors. This cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted from January to June 2011. A specially designed questionnaire was distributed to 1,700 individuals who were randomly selected from five major Greek cities. It was found that higher educational levels (P = 0.002), annual family income below 30,000 Euros (P = 0.001), guaranteed employment status (P = 0.02), and the presence of comorbid conditions (P = 0.004) seemed to affect potential donors' willingness for cadaveric donation. Those with strong religious beliefs were found to be unwilling to donate their bodies to medical science. Interestingly, the majority of participants who believed that hospitalized patients are deceived or are used for harmful experiments were willing to become whole body donors (P = 0.043). In Greece, the rate of body donation to medical science remains low, and most Greek citizens are not willing to become body donors. Efforts to encourage discussions about whole body donation should be implemented in order to improve current low levels of donation.

  12. Prescription of antibiotics and awareness of antibiotic costs by paediatricians in two hospitals in Greece.

    PubMed

    Maltezou, Helena C; Mougkou, Katerina; Iosifidis, Elias; Katerelos, Panos; Roilides, Emmanuel; Theodoridou, Maria

    2014-02-01

    Our aim was to study the antibiotic prescription practices and the knowledge about antibiotic costs, brand and generic drugs of paediatricians working in two hospitals in Greece. The 2007 national guidelines were used as the gold standard for antibiotic prescription. A total of 126 paediatricians participated in the study (50.4% response rate). The mean compliance rate with the guidelines was 50.1% (range per infection: 10.6-84.7%). The mean scores of knowledge about antibiotic costs and about brand name and generic drugs were 35.6 and 60.3%, respectively. Linear regression analysis found a significant association between the mean compliance rate with the national guidelines and the paediatricians' age (mean compliance rates were 49.1, 53.0, and 43.0% in the ≤ 30, 31-40, and > 40 years age-groups, respectively; P  =  0.003). In conclusion, five years after the first national guidelines were issued in Greece only half of the paediatricians working in hospitals comply fully with them.

  13. Assessing groundwater quality in Greece based on spatial and temporal analysis.

    PubMed

    Dokou, Zoi; Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Karatzas, George P

    2015-12-01

    The recent industrial growth together with the urban expansion and intensive agriculture in Greece has increased groundwater contamination in many regions of the country. In order to design successful remediation strategies and protect public health, it is very important to identify those areas that are most vulnerable to groundwater contamination. In this work, an extensive contamination database from monitoring wells that cover the entire Greek territory during the last decade (2000-2008) was used in order to study the temporal and spatial distribution of groundwater contamination for the most common and serious anionic and cationic trace element pollutants (heavy metals). Spatial and temporal patterns and trends in the occurrence of groundwater contamination were also identified highlighting the regions where the higher groundwater contamination rates have been detected across the country. As a next step, representative contaminated aquifers in Greece, which were identified by the above analysis, were selected in order to analyze the specific contamination problem in more detail. To this end, geostatistical techniques (various types of kriging, co-kriging, and indicator kriging) were employed in order to map the contaminant values and the probability of exceeding critical thresholds (set as the parametric values of the contaminant of interest in each case). The resulting groundwater contamination maps could be used as a useful tool for water policy makers and water managers in order to assist the decision-making process.

  14. Popular Medicine and Empirics in Greece, 1900-1950: An Oral History Approach.

    PubMed

    Hionidou, Violetta

    2016-10-01

    Western literature has focused on medical plurality but also on the pervasive existence of quacks who managed to survive from at least the eighteenth to the twentieth century. Focal points of their practices have been their efforts at enrichment and their extensive advertising. In Greece, empirical, untrained healers in the first half of the twentieth century do not fit in with this picture. They did not ask for payment, although they did accept 'gifts'; they did not advertise their practice; and they had fixed places of residence. Licensed physicians did not undertake a concerted attack against them, as happened in the West against the quacks, and neither did the state. In this paper, it is argued that both the protection offered by their localities to resident popular healers and the healers' lack of demand for monetary payment were jointly responsible for the lack of prosecutions of popular healers. Moreover, the linking of popular medicine with ancient traditions, as put forward by influential folklore studies, also reduced the likelihood of an aggressive discourse against the popular healers. Although the Greek situation in the early twentieth century contrasts with the historiography on quacks, it is much more in line with that on wise women and cunning-folk. It is thus the identification of these groups of healers in Greece and elsewhere, mostly through the use of oral histories but also through folklore studies, that reveals a different story from that of the aggressive discourse of medical men against quacks.

  15. Multi-vulnerability assessment for flash flood risk management in East Attica, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Thaler, Thomas; Hübl, Johannes; Maris, Fotios; Mallinis, Giorgos; Fuchs, Sven

    2015-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment implies a quantitative evaluation of the individual vulnerability components such as elements at risk, their physical exposure and social characteristics. Current approaches in vulnerability research are driven by a divide between social scientists who tend to view vulnerability as representing a set of socio-economic factors, and scientists who view vulnerability in terms of the degree of loss to an element at risk. To close this gap, a multi-dimensional vulnerability analysis has been undertaken focusing on flash flood hazards in Greece. To represent physical vulnerability, an empirical relation between the process intensity and the degree of loss was established. With respect to social vulnerability, an assessment was undertaken by means of empirical data collection based on a door-to-door survey. In general, both physical and social vulnerability was comparable low, which is interpreted as a result from (a) specific building regulations in Greece as well as general design principles leading to less structural susceptibility of elements at risk exposed, and (b) a relatively low economic loss leading to less social vulnerability of citizens exposed. It is shown that a combination of different perspectives of vulnerability will lead to a better understanding of perceptions of actors regarding their vulnerabilities and capacities.

  16. New Neanderthal remains from Mani peninsula, Southern Greece: the Kalamakia Middle Paleolithic cave site.

    PubMed

    Harvati, Katerina; Darlas, Andreas; Bailey, Shara E; Rein, Thomas R; El Zaatari, Sireen; Fiorenza, Luca; Kullmer, Ottmar; Psathi, Eleni

    2013-06-01

    The Kalamakia cave, a Middle Paleolithic site on the western coast of the Mani peninsula, Greece, was excavated in 1993-2006 by an interdisciplinary team from the Ephoreia of Paleoanthropology and Speleology (Greek Ministry of Culture) and the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris). The site is dated to between ca. 100,000 and >39,000 years BP (Before Present) and has yielded Mousterian lithics, a rich fauna, and human remains from several layers. The latter include 10 isolated teeth, a cranial fragment and three postcranial elements. The remains represent at least eight individuals, two of them subadults, and show both carnivore and anthropogenic modifications. They can be identified as Neanderthal on the basis of diagnostic morphology on most specimens. A diet similar to that of Neanderthals from mixed habitat is suggested by our analysis of dental wear (occlusal fingerprint analysis) and microwear (occlusal texture microwear analysis), in agreement with the faunal and palynological analyses of the site. These new fossils significantly expand the Neanderthal sample known from Greece. Together with the human specimens from Lakonis and Apidima, the Kalamakia human remains add to the growing evidence of a strong Neanderthal presence in the Mani region during the Late Pleistocene.

  17. Spatial analysis of electricity demand patterns in Greece: Application of a GIS-based methodological framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyralis, Hristos; Mamassis, Nikos; Photis, Yorgos N.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate various uses of electricity demand in Greece (agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial use as well as use for public and municipal authorities and street lightning) and we examine their relation with variables such as population, total area, population density and the Gross Domestic Product. The analysis is performed on data which span from 2008 to 2012 and have annual temporal resolution and spatial resolution down to the level of prefecture. We both visualize the results of the analysis and we perform cluster and outlier analysis using the Anselin local Moran's I statistic as well as hot spot analysis using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. The definition of the spatial patterns and relationships of the aforementioned variables in a GIS environment provides meaningful insight and better understanding of the regional development model in Greece and justifies the basis for an energy demand forecasting methodology. Acknowledgement: This research has been partly financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: ARISTEIA II: Reinforcement of the interdisciplinary and/ or inter-institutional research and innovation (CRESSENDO project; grant number 5145).

  18. Regional asynchronicity in dairy production and processing in early farming communities of the northern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Debono Spiteri, Cynthianne; Gillis, Rosalind E; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Castells Navarro, Laura; Guilaine, Jean; Manen, Claire; Muntoni, Italo M; Saña Segui, Maria; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Whelton, Helen L; Craig, Oliver E; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evershed, Richard P

    2016-11-29

    In the absence of any direct evidence, the relative importance of meat and dairy productions to Neolithic prehistoric Mediterranean communities has been extensively debated. Here, we combine lipid residue analysis of ceramic vessels with osteo-archaeological age-at-death analysis from 82 northern Mediterranean and Near Eastern sites dating from the seventh to fifth millennia BC to address this question. The findings show variable intensities in dairy and nondairy activities in the Mediterranean region with the slaughter profiles of domesticated ruminants mirroring the results of the organic residue analyses. The finding of milk residues in very early Neolithic pottery (seventh millennium BC) from both the east and west of the region contrasts with much lower intensities in sites of northern Greece, where pig bones are present in higher frequencies compared with other locations. In this region, the slaughter profiles of all domesticated ruminants suggest meat production predominated. Overall, it appears that milk or the by-products of milk was an important foodstuff, which may have contributed significantly to the spread of these cultural groups by providing a nourishing and sustainable product for early farming communities.

  19. First evidence of Leishmania infection in European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) in Greece: GIS analysis and phylogenetic position within the Leishmania spp.

    PubMed

    Tsokana, C N; Sokos, C; Giannakopoulos, A; Mamuris, Z; Birtsas, P; Papaspyropoulos, K; Valiakos, G; Spyrou, V; Lefkaditis, M; Chatzopoulos, D C; Kantere, M; Manolakou, K; Touloudi, A; Burriel, A Rodi; Ferroglio, E; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Billinis, C

    2016-01-01

    Although the existence of a sylvatic transmission cycle of Leishmania spp., independent from the domestic cycle, has been proposed, data are scarce on Leishmania infection in wild mammals in Greece. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of Leishmania infection in the European brown hare in Greece, to infer the phylogenetic position of the Leishmania parasites detected in hares in Greece, and to identify any possible correlation between Leishmania infection in hares with environmental parameters, using the geographical information system (GIS). Spleen samples from 166 hares were tested by internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1)-nested PCR for the detection of Leishmania DNA. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on Leishmania sequences from hares in Greece in conjunction with Leishmania sequences from dogs in Greece and 46 Leishmania sequences retrieved from GenBank. The Leishmania DNA prevalence in hares was found to be 23.49 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 17.27-30.69). The phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the Leishmania sequences from hares in Greece belong in the Leishmania donovani complex. The widespread Leishmania infection in hares should be taken into consideration because under specific circumstances, this species can act as a reservoir host. This study suggests that the role of wild animals, including hares, in the epidemiology of Leishmania spp. in Greece deserves further elucidation.

  20. Family Medicine/Northern Medical Services Involvement in Northern Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, James

    1988-01-01

    To address the problems of recruitment and retention of family physicians in various remote locations in northern Saskatchewan, the University of Saskatchewan became involved through Northern Medical Services, a division of the Department of Family Medicine. The University's involvement consists of the provision of resident family-physician services, visiting consultant services, family-practise resident training, research, and a consulting role of the Medical Health Officer. This paper reviews the context in which this program was created, its role in health care in the area, and its involvement with the communities in health promotion and research. PMID:21253032