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Sample records for edge state dynamics

  1. Backscattering between helical edge states via dynamic nuclear polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Maestro, Adrian; Hyart, Timo; Rosenow, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    We show that the nonequilibrium spin polarization of one-dimensional helical edge states at the boundary of a two-dimensional topological insulator can dynamically induce a polarization of nuclei via the hyperfine interaction. When combined with a spatially inhomogeneous Rashba coupling, the steady-state polarization of the nuclei produces backscattering between the topologically protected edge states leading to a reduction in the conductance which persists to zero temperature. We study these effects in both short and long edges, uncovering deviations from Ohmic transport at finite temperature and a current noise spectrum which may hold the fingerprints for experimental verification of the backscattering mechanism.

  2. Giant edge state splitting at atomically precise graphene zigzag edges

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiyong; Talirz, Leopold; Pignedoli, Carlo A.; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Fasel, Roman; Ruffieux, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Zigzag edges of graphene nanostructures host localized electronic states that are predicted to be spin-polarized. However, these edge states are highly susceptible to edge roughness and interaction with a supporting substrate, complicating the study of their intrinsic electronic and magnetic structure. Here, we focus on atomically precise graphene nanoribbons whose two short zigzag edges host exactly one localized electron each. Using the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope, the graphene nanoribbons are transferred from the metallic growth substrate onto insulating islands of NaCl in order to decouple their electronic structure from the metal. The absence of charge transfer and hybridization with the substrate is confirmed by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, which reveals a pair of occupied/unoccupied edge states. Their large energy splitting of 1.9 eV is in accordance with ab initio many-body perturbation theory calculations and reflects the dominant role of electron–electron interactions in these localized states. PMID:27181701

  3. Giant edge state splitting at atomically precise graphene zigzag edges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiyong; Talirz, Leopold; Pignedoli, Carlo A; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Fasel, Roman; Ruffieux, Pascal

    2016-05-16

    Zigzag edges of graphene nanostructures host localized electronic states that are predicted to be spin-polarized. However, these edge states are highly susceptible to edge roughness and interaction with a supporting substrate, complicating the study of their intrinsic electronic and magnetic structure. Here, we focus on atomically precise graphene nanoribbons whose two short zigzag edges host exactly one localized electron each. Using the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope, the graphene nanoribbons are transferred from the metallic growth substrate onto insulating islands of NaCl in order to decouple their electronic structure from the metal. The absence of charge transfer and hybridization with the substrate is confirmed by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, which reveals a pair of occupied/unoccupied edge states. Their large energy splitting of 1.9 eV is in accordance with ab initio many-body perturbation theory calculations and reflects the dominant role of electron-electron interactions in these localized states.

  4. Saddle-node dynamics for edge detection

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Y.F.

    1994-09-01

    The author demonstrates how the formulation of a nonlinear scale-space filter can be used for edge detection and junction analysis. By casting edge-preserving filtering in terms of maximizing information content subject to an average cost function, the computed cost at each pixel location becomes a local measure of edgeness. This computation depends on a single scale parameter and the given image data. Unlike previous approaches which require careful tuning of the filter kernels for various types of edges, this scheme is general enough to be able to handle different edges, such as lines, step edges, corners and junctions. Anisotropy in the data is handled automatically by the nonlinear dynamics.

  5. BHZ model edge states on Mobius strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogni, Christopher; Vakaryuk, Victor; Tchernyshyov, Oleg

    2014-03-01

    We present analytical edge state solutions to the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang (BHZ) model of a quantum spin hall topological insulator with Mobius geometry. The edge state solutions are obtained by solving the differential equations governing the BHZ model. The edge states satisfy both inverted periodic boundary conditions and single-valuedness boundary conditions. Furthermore, we develop a classification of boundary conditions compatible with the BHZ model insulator with Mobius geometry. We demonstrate that in the limit of large strip length that there exists a finite energy gap between the edge states. This energy gap does not exist for strips with periodic boundary conditions.

  6. Preparation of edge states by shaking boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Z. C.; Hou, S. C.; Wang, L. C.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-10-01

    Preparing topological states of quantum matter, such as edge states, is one of the most important directions in condensed matter physics. In this work, we present a proposal to prepare edge states in Aubry-André-Harper (AAH) model with open boundaries, which takes advantage of Lyapunov control to design operations. We show that edge states can be obtained with almost arbitrary initial states. A numerical optimalization for the control is performed and the dependence of control process on the system size is discussed. The merit of this proposal is that the shaking exerts only on the boundaries of the model. As a by-product, a topological entangled state is achieved by elaborately designing the shaking scheme.

  7. Diagnosing Topological Edge States via Entanglement Monogamy.

    PubMed

    Meichanetzidis, K; Eisert, J; Cirio, M; Lahtinen, V; Pachos, J K

    2016-04-01

    Topological phases of matter possess intricate correlation patterns typically probed by entanglement entropies or entanglement spectra. In this Letter, we propose an alternative approach to assessing topologically induced edge states in free and interacting fermionic systems. We do so by focussing on the fermionic covariance matrix. This matrix is often tractable either analytically or numerically, and it precisely captures the relevant correlations of the system. By invoking the concept of monogamy of entanglement, we show that highly entangled states supported across a system bipartition are largely disentangled from the rest of the system, thus, usually appearing as gapless edge states. We then define an entanglement qualifier that identifies the presence of topological edge states based purely on correlations present in the ground states. We demonstrate the versatility of this qualifier by applying it to various free and interacting fermionic topological systems.

  8. Edge states in polariton honeycomb lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milićević, M.; Ozawa, T.; Andreakou, P.; Carusotto, I.; Jacqmin, T.; Galopin, E.; Lemaître, A.; Le Gratiet, L.; Sagnes, I.; Bloch, J.; Amo, A.

    2015-09-01

    The experimental study of edge states in atomically thin layered materials remains a challenge due to the difficult control of the geometry of the sample terminations, the stability of dangling bonds, and the need to measure local properties. In the case of graphene, localized edge modes have been predicted in zigzag and bearded edges, characterized by flat dispersions connecting the Dirac points. Polaritons in semiconductor microcavities have recently emerged as an extraordinary photonic platform to emulate 1D and 2D Hamiltonians, allowing the direct visualization of the wavefunctions in both real- and momentum-space as well as of the energy dispersion of eigenstates via photoluminescence experiments. Here we report on the observation of edge states in a honeycomb lattice of coupled micropillars. The lowest two bands of this structure arise from the coupling of the lowest energy modes of the micropillars, and emulate the π and π* bands of graphene. We show the momentum-space dispersion of the edge states associated with the zigzag and bearded edges, holding unidimensional quasi-flat bands. Additionally, we evaluate polarization effects characteristic of polaritons on the properties of these states.

  9. Floquet edge states in germanene nanoribbons

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, M.; Zhang, Q. Y.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically demonstrate versatile electronic properties of germanene monolayers under circularly, linearly, and elliptically polarized light. We show for the high frequency regime that the edge states can be controlled by tuning the amplitude of the light and by applying a static electric field. For circularly polarized light the band gap in one valley is reduced and in the other enhanced, enabling single valley edge states. For linearly polarized light spin-split states are found for both valleys, being connected by time reversal symmetry. The effects of elliptically polarized light are similar to those of circularly polarized light. The transport properties of zigzag nanoribbons in the presence of disorder confirm a nontrivial nature of the edge states under circularly and elliptically polarized light. PMID:27550632

  10. Floquet edge states in germanene nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Tahir, M; Zhang, Q Y; Schwingenschlögl, U

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically demonstrate versatile electronic properties of germanene monolayers under circularly, linearly, and elliptically polarized light. We show for the high frequency regime that the edge states can be controlled by tuning the amplitude of the light and by applying a static electric field. For circularly polarized light the band gap in one valley is reduced and in the other enhanced, enabling single valley edge states. For linearly polarized light spin-split states are found for both valleys, being connected by time reversal symmetry. The effects of elliptically polarized light are similar to those of circularly polarized light. The transport properties of zigzag nanoribbons in the presence of disorder confirm a nontrivial nature of the edge states under circularly and elliptically polarized light. PMID:27550632

  11. Floquet edge states in germanene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, M.; Zhang, Q. Y.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2016-08-01

    We theoretically demonstrate versatile electronic properties of germanene monolayers under circularly, linearly, and elliptically polarized light. We show for the high frequency regime that the edge states can be controlled by tuning the amplitude of the light and by applying a static electric field. For circularly polarized light the band gap in one valley is reduced and in the other enhanced, enabling single valley edge states. For linearly polarized light spin-split states are found for both valleys, being connected by time reversal symmetry. The effects of elliptically polarized light are similar to those of circularly polarized light. The transport properties of zigzag nanoribbons in the presence of disorder confirm a nontrivial nature of the edge states under circularly and elliptically polarized light.

  12. Edge states of periodically kicked quantum rotors.

    PubMed

    Floss, Johannes; Averbukh, Ilya Sh

    2015-05-01

    We present a quantum localization phenomenon that exists in periodically kicked three-dimensional rotors, but is absent in the commonly studied two-dimensional ones: edge localization. We show that under the condition of a fractional quantum resonance there are states of the kicked rotor that are strongly localized near the edge of the angular momentum space at J=0. These states are analogs of surface states in crystalline solids, and they significantly affect resonant excitation of molecular rotation by laser pulse trains.

  13. Topological edge Mott insulating state in two dimensions at finite temperatures: Bulk and edge analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Tsuneya; Kawakami, Norio

    2016-08-01

    We study a bilayer Kane-Mele-Hubbard model with lattice distortion and interlayer spin exchange interaction under cylinder geometry. Our analysis based on real-space dynamical mean field theory with continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo demonstrates the emergence of a topological edge Mott insulating (TEMI) state which hosts gapless edge modes only in collective spin excitations. This is confirmed by the numerical calculations at finite temperatures for the spin-Hall conductivity and the single-particle excitation spectrum; the spin-Hall conductivity is almost quantized, σspinx y˜2 (e /2 π ) , predicting gapless edge modes carrying the spin current, while the helical edge modes in the single-particle spectrum are gapped out with respecting symmetry. It is clarified how the TEMI state evolves from the ordinary spin-Hall insulating state with increasing the Hubbard interaction at a given temperature and then undergoes a phase transition to a trivial Mott insulating state. With a bosonization approach at zero temperature, we further address which collective modes host gapless edge modes in the TEMI state.

  14. Chiral thermoelectrics with quantum Hall edge states.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Rafael; Sothmann, Björn; Jordan, Andrew N

    2015-04-10

    The thermoelectric properties of a three-terminal quantum Hall conductor are investigated. We identify a contribution to the thermoelectric response that relies on the chirality of the carrier motion rather than on spatial asymmetries. The Onsager matrix becomes maximally asymmetric with configurations where either the Seebeck or the Peltier coefficients are zero while the other one remains finite. Reversing the magnetic field direction exchanges these effects, which originate from the chiral nature of the quantum Hall edge states. The possibility to generate spin-polarized currents in quantum spin Hall samples is discussed. PMID:25910147

  15. Chiral Thermoelectrics with Quantum Hall Edge States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Rafael; Sothmann, Björn; Jordan, Andrew N.

    2015-04-01

    The thermoelectric properties of a three-terminal quantum Hall conductor are investigated. We identify a contribution to the thermoelectric response that relies on the chirality of the carrier motion rather than on spatial asymmetries. The Onsager matrix becomes maximally asymmetric with configurations where either the Seebeck or the Peltier coefficients are zero while the other one remains finite. Reversing the magnetic field direction exchanges these effects, which originate from the chiral nature of the quantum Hall edge states. The possibility to generate spin-polarized currents in quantum spin Hall samples is discussed.

  16. Edge State and Intrinsic Hole Doping in Bilayer Phosphorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osada, Toshihito

    2015-01-01

    Using a simple LCAO model by Harrison, we have qualitatively studied the edge state of bilayer phosphorene, which is a unit structure of the layered crystal of black phosphorus. This model successfully reproduces the isolated edge state in the bulk gap in monolayer phosphorene. In bilayer phosphorene, however, it shows that edge states are almost buried in the valence band and there is no isolated midgap edge state at the zigzag edge. Since the buried edge state works as acceptor, holes are doped from the edge state into the bulk. This gives a possible explanation for p-type conduction in undoped black phosphorus. Under the vertical electric field, the intrinsic hole doping is reduced because a part of edge states move into the gap. These features of bilayer phosphorene might be better suited for device application.

  17. Observation of unconventional edge states in ‘photonic graphene’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnik, Yonatan; Rechtsman, Mikael C.; Song, Daohong; Heinrich, Matthias; Zeuner, Julia M.; Nolte, Stefan; Lumer, Yaakov; Malkova, Natalia; Xu, Jingjun; Szameit, Alexander; Chen, Zhigang; Segev, Mordechai

    2014-01-01

    Graphene, a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms, has been attracting much interest in recent years. Electrons therein behave as massless relativistic particles, giving rise to strikingly unconventional phenomena. Graphene edge states are essential for understanding the electronic properties of this material. However, the coarse or impure nature of the graphene edges hampers the ability to directly probe the edge states. Perhaps the best example is given by the edge states on the bearded edge that have never been observed—because such an edge is unstable in graphene. Here, we use the optical equivalent of graphene—a photonic honeycomb lattice—to study the edge states and their properties. We directly image the edge states on both the zigzag and bearded edges of this photonic graphene, measure their dispersion properties, and most importantly, find a new type of edge state: one residing on the bearded edge that has never been predicted or observed. This edge state lies near the Van Hove singularity in the edge band structure and can be classified as a Tamm-like state lacking any surface defect. The mechanism underlying its formation may counterintuitively appear in other crystalline systems.

  18. Anomalous Edge State in a Non-Hermitian Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tony E.

    2016-04-01

    We show that the bulk-boundary correspondence for topological insulators can be modified in the presence of non-Hermiticity. We consider a one-dimensional tight-binding model with gain and loss as well as long-range hopping. The system is described by a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian that encircles an exceptional point in momentum space. The winding number has a fractional value of 1 /2 . There is only one dynamically stable zero-energy edge state due to the defectiveness of the Hamiltonian. This edge state is robust to disorder due to protection by a chiral symmetry. We also discuss experimental realization with arrays of coupled resonator optical waveguides.

  19. Edge states in confined active fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souslov, Anton; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    Recently, topologically protected edge modes have been proposed and realized in both mechanical and acoustic metamaterials. In one class of such metamaterials, Time-Reversal Symmetry is broken, and, to achieve this TRS breaking in mechanical and acoustic systems, an external energy input must be used. For example, motors provide a driving force that uses energy and, thus, explicitly break TRS. As a result, motors have been used as an essential component in the design of topological metamaterials. By contrast, we explore the design of topological metamaterials that use a class of far-from-equilibrium liquids, called polar active liquids, that spontaneously break TRS. We thus envision the confinement of a polar active liquid to a prescribed geometry in order to realize topological order with broken time-reversal symmetry. We address the design of the requisite geometries, for example a regular honeycomb lattice composed of annular channels, in which the active liquid may be confined. We also consider the physical character of the active liquid that, when introduced into the prescribed geometry, will spontaneously form the flow pattern of a metamaterial with topologically protected edge states. Finally, we comment on potential experimental realizations of such metamaterials.

  20. Absence of edge states in covalently bonded zigzag edges of graphene on Ir(111).

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Subramaniam, Dinesh; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Lazić, Predrag; Caciuc, Vasile; Pauly, Christian; Georgi, Alexander; Busse, Carsten; Liebmann, Marcus; Blügel, Stefan; Pratzer, Marco; Morgenstern, Markus; Mazzarello, Riccardo

    2013-04-11

    The zigzag edges of graphene on Ir(111) are studied by ab initio simulations and low-temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy, providing information about their structural, electronic, and magnetic properties. No edge state is found to exist, which is explained in terms of the interplay between a strong geometrical relaxation at the edge and a hybridization of the d orbitals of Ir atoms with the graphene orbitals at the edge.

  1. Dynamic nuclear polarization and nuclear magnetic resonance in the vicinity of edge states of a 2DES in GaAs quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Clifford R; Caldwell, Joshua D; Gusev, Guennadi; Kovalev, Alexey E; Olshanetsky, Eugene; Reno, John L; Simmons, Jerry A; Vitkalov, Sergey A

    2006-02-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance is detected via the in-plane conductivity of a two-dimensional electron system at unity Landau level filling factor in the regime of the quantum Hall effect in narrow and wide quantum wells. The NMR is spatially selective to nuclei with a coupling to electrons in the current carrying edge states at the perimeter of the 2DES. Interpretation of the electron-nuclear double resonance signals is facilitated by numerical simulations. A new RF swept method for conductivity-detected NMR is introduced which offers more efficient signal averaging. The method is applied to the study of electric quadrupole interactions, weakly allowed overtone transitions, and evaluation of the extent of electron wave function delocalization in the wide quantum well.

  2. Observation of chiral edge states with neutral fermions in synthetic Hall ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, M.; Pagano, G.; Cappellini, G.; Livi, L.; Rider, M.; Catani, J.; Sias, C.; Zoller, P.; Inguscio, M.; Dalmonte, M.; Fallani, L.

    2015-09-01

    Chiral edge states are a hallmark of quantum Hall physics. In electronic systems, they appear as a macroscopic consequence of the cyclotron orbits induced by a magnetic field, which are naturally truncated at the physical boundary of the sample. Here we report on the experimental realization of chiral edge states in a ribbon geometry with an ultracold gas of neutral fermions subjected to an artificial gauge field. By imaging individual sites along a synthetic dimension, encoded in the nuclear spin of the atoms, we detect the existence of the edge states and observe the edge-cyclotron orbits induced during quench dynamics. The realization of fermionic chiral edge states opens the door for edge state interferometry and the study of non-Abelian anyons in atomic systems.

  3. Interference of topologically protected edge states in silicene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezawa, Motohiko; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2013-09-01

    Silicene is a graphene-like honeycomb structure made of silicon atoms. It is a two-dimensional quantum spin-Hall insulator due to the spin-orbit interaction. According to the bulk-edge correspondence we expect zero-energy edge channels to appear in silicene nanoribbons. The behaviors of the helical edge channels are completely different between the armchair and the zigzag edges. Zero-energy states disappear in armchair nanoribbons despite the bulk-edge correspondence, while they appear as zigzag nanoribbons even if the width is quite narrow. The difference originates in the penetration depth of the helical edge channel, which is antiproportional to the spin-orbit gap for the armchair edge, while it remains as short as the lattice constant for the zigzag edge. These properties make clear distinctions between silicene and graphene nanoribbons, especially for armchair edges: In silicene edge states emerge as required by its topology, though the zero-energy states disappear from the energy spectrum, whereas in graphene no edge states exist. The emergence of edge states in armchair nanoribbons must be experimentally detectable by scanning tunneling microscopy, and may well serve as an experimental signal that silicene is a topological insulator.

  4. Edge states in a honeycomb lattice: effects of anisotropic hopping and mixed edges

    SciTech Connect

    Dahal, Hari P; Balatsky, Alexander V; Sinistsyn, N A; Hu, Zi - Xiang; Yang, Kun

    2008-01-01

    We study the edge states in graphene in the presence of a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the lattice. Most of the work done so far discusses the edge states in either zigzag or armchair edge graphene considering an isotropic electron hopping. In practice, graphene can have a mixture of armchair and zigzag edges and the electron hopping can be anisotropic, which is the subject of this article. We predict that the mixed edges smear the enhanced local density of states (LDOS) at E=0 of the zigzag edge and, on the other hand, the anisotropic hopping gives rise to the enhanced LDOS at E=0 in the armchair edge. The behavior of the LDOS can be studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments. We suggest that care must be taken while interpreting the STM data, because the clear distinction between the zigzag edge (enhanced LDOS at E=0) and armchair edge (suppressed LDOS at E=0) can be lost if the hopping is not isotropic and if the edges are mixed.

  5. Green's function approach to edge states in transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanbar, Mojtaba; Amlaki, Taher; Brocks, Geert

    2016-05-01

    The semiconducting two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides MX 2 show an abundance of one-dimensional metallic edges and grain boundaries. Standard techniques for calculating edge states typically model nanoribbons, and require the use of supercells. In this paper, we formulate a Green's function technique for calculating edge states of (semi-)infinite two-dimensional systems with a single well-defined edge or grain boundary. We express Green's functions in terms of Bloch matrices, constructed from the solutions of a quadratic eigenvalue equation. The technique can be applied to any localized basis representation of the Hamiltonian. Here, we use it to calculate edge states of MX 2 monolayers by means of tight-binding models. Aside from the basic zigzag and armchair edges, we study edges with a more general orientation, structurally modifed edges, and grain boundaries. A simple three-band model captures an important part of the edge electronic structures. An 11-band model comprising all valence orbitals of the M and X atoms is required to obtain all edge states with energies in the MX 2 band gap. Here, states of odd symmetry with respect to a mirror plane through the layer of M atoms have a dangling-bond character, and tend to pin the Fermi level.

  6. Dynamic Stall Characteristics of Drooped Leading Edge Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Sahin, Mehmet; Gopal, Naveen

    2000-01-01

    Helicopters in high-speed forward flight usually experience large regions of dynamic stall over the retreating side of the rotor disk. The rapid variations in the lift and pitching moments associated with the stall process can result in vibratory loads, and can cause fatigue and failure of pitch links. In some instances, the large time lag between the aerodynamic forces and the blade motion can trigger stall flutter. A number of techniques for the alleviation of dynamic stall have been proposed and studied by researchers. Passive and active control techniques have both been explored. Passive techniques include the use of high solidity rotors that reduce the lift coefficients of individual blades, leading edge slots and leading edge slats. Active control techniques include steady and unsteady blowing, and dynamically deformable leading edge (DDLE) airfoils. Considerable amount of experimental and numerical data has been collected on the effectiveness of these concepts. One concept that has not received as much attention is the drooped-leading edge airfoil idea. It has been observed in wind tunnel studies and flight tests that drooped leading edge airfoils can have a milder dynamic stall, with a significantly milder load hysteresis. Drooped leading edge airfoils may not, however, be suitable at other conditions, e.g. in hover, or in transonic flow. Work needs to be done on the analysis and design of drooped leading edge airfoils for efficient operation in a variety of flight regimes (hover, dynamic stall, and transonic flow). One concept that is worthy of investigation is the dynamically drooping airfoil, where the leading edge shape is changed roughly once-per-rev to mitigate the dynamic stall.

  7. Edge states and phase diagram for graphene under polarized light

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Yi -Xiang; Li, Fuxiang

    2016-03-22

    In this paper, we investigate the topological phase transitions in graphene under the modulation of circularly polarized light, by analyzing the changes of edge states and its topological structures. A full phase diagram, with several different topological phases, is presented in the parameter space spanned by the driving frequency and light strength. We find that the high-Chern number behavior is very common in the driven system. While the one-photon resonance can create the chiral edge states in the π-gap, the two-photon resonance will induce the counter-propagating edge modes in the zero-energy gap. When the driving light strength is strong, themore » number and even the chirality of the edge states may change in the π-gap. The robustness of the edge states to disorder potential is also examined. We close by discussing the feasibility of experimental proposals.« less

  8. Edge states and phase diagram for graphene under polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Xiang; Li, Fuxiang

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we investigate the topological phase transitions in graphene under the modulation of circularly polarized light, by analyzing the changes of edge states and its topological structures. A full phase diagram, with several different topological phases, is presented in the parameter space spanned by the driving frequency and light strength. We find that the high-Chern number behavior is very common in the driven system. While the one-photon resonance can create the chiral edge states in the π-gap, the two-photon resonance will induce the counter-propagating edge modes in the zero-energy gap. When the driving light strength is strong, the number and even the chirality of the edge states may change in the π-gap. The robustness of the edge states to disorder potential is also examined. We close by discussing the feasibility of experimental proposals.

  9. Edge state and crisis in the Pierce diode

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, Pablo R.; Rempel, Erico L.; Chian, Abraham C.-L.

    2012-09-15

    We study the chaotic dynamics of the Pierce diode, a simple spatially extended system for collisionless bounded plasmas, focusing on the concept of edge of chaos, the boundary that separates transient from asymptotic dynamics. We fully characterize an interior crisis at the end of a periodic window, thereby showing direct evidence of the collision between a chaotic attractor, a chaotic saddle, and the edge of chaos, formed by a period-3 unstable periodic orbit and its stable manifold. The edge of chaos persists after the interior crisis, when the global attractor of the system increases its size in the phase space.

  10. Evolution of Landau levels into edge states in graphene.

    PubMed

    Li, Guohong; Luican-Mayer, Adina; Abanin, Dmitry; Levitov, Leonid; Andrei, Eva Y

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional electron systems in the presence of a magnetic field support topologically ordered states, in which the coexistence of an insulating bulk with conducting one-dimensional chiral edge states gives rise to the quantum Hall effect. For systems confined by sharp boundaries, theory predicts a unique edge-bulk correspondence, which is central to proposals of quantum Hall-based topological qubits. However, in conventional semiconductor-based two-dimensional electron systems, these elegant concepts are difficult to realize, because edge-state reconstruction due to soft boundaries destroys the edge-bulk correspondence. Here we use scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy to follow the spatial evolution of electronic (Landau) levels towards an edge of graphene supported above a graphite substrate. We observe no edge-state reconstruction, in agreement with calculations based on an atomically sharp boundary. Our results single out graphene as a system where the edge structure can be controlled and the edge-bulk correspondence is preserved.

  11. Thermoelectric transport of edge/surface states of topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Shuichi; Takahashi, Ryuji

    2011-03-01

    In my talk we theoretically study thermoelectric properties of topological insulators (TI), where novel properties of edge/surface states are expected to appear. As compared to the number of bulk states, the edge/surface states are very few; we therefore consider a narrow ribbon for 2D and a thin slab for 3D TI to make the edge/surface-state transport larger. By considering edge/surface and bulk transport together, we calculate the charge and heat conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient. We find that in 2D TI the bulk and edge transport compete each other in the thermoelectric transport. By lowering temperature, the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT has a minimum, corresponding to the bulk-to-edge crossover, and then increases again at low temperature where the edge state dominates. The crossover is estimated to be at around 5K-10K for 10nm-width ribbon. We also discuss surface state transport for 3D TI as well.

  12. Tunneling into and between helical edge states: Fermionic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristov, D. N.; Niyazov, R. A.

    2016-07-01

    We study the four-terminal junction of spinless Luttinger liquid wires, which describes either a corner junction of two helical edge states of topological insulators or the tunneling from the spinful wire into the helical edge state. We use the fermionic representation and the scattering state formalism, in order to compute the renormalization group (RG) equations for the linear response conductances. We establish our approach by considering a junction between two possibly nonequivalent helical edge states and find an agreement with the earlier analysis of this situation. Tunneling from the tip of the spinful wire to the edge state is further analyzed which requires some modification of our formalism. In the latter case we demonstrate (i) the existence of both fixed lines and conventional fixed points of RG equations, and (ii) certain proportionality relations holding for conductances during renormalization. The scaling exponents and phase portraits are obtained in all cases.

  13. Atomic level spatial variations of energy states along graphene edges.

    PubMed

    Warner, Jamie H; Lin, Yung-Chang; He, Kuang; Koshino, Masanori; Suenaga, Kazu

    2014-11-12

    The local atomic bonding of carbon atoms around the edge of graphene is examined by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). High-resolution 2D maps of the EELS combined with atomic resolution annular dark field STEM images enables correlations between the carbon K-edge EELS and the atomic structure. We show that energy states of graphene edges vary across individual atoms along the edge according to their specific C-C bonding, as well as perpendicular to the edge. Unique spectroscopic peaks from the EELS are assigned to specific C atoms, which enables unambiguous spectroscopic fingerprint identification for the atomic structure of graphene edges with unprecedented detail.

  14. Dynamic insight into protein structure utilizing red edge excitation shift.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Amitabha; Haldar, Sourav

    2014-01-21

    Proteins are considered the workhorses in the cellular machinery. They are often organized in a highly ordered conformation in the crowded cellular environment. These conformations display characteristic dynamics over a range of time scales. An emerging consensus is that protein function is critically dependent on its dynamics. The subtle interplay between structure and dynamics is a hallmark of protein organization and is essential for its function. Depending on the environmental context, proteins can adopt a range of conformations such as native, molten globule, unfolded (denatured), and misfolded states. Although protein crystallography is a well established technique, it is not always possible to characterize various protein conformations by X-ray crystallography due to transient nature of these states. Even in cases where structural characterization is possible, the information obtained lacks dynamic component, which is needed to understand protein function. In this overall scenario, approaches that reveal information on protein dynamics are much appreciated. Dynamics of confined water has interesting implications in protein folding. Interfacial hydration combines the motion of water molecules with the slow moving protein molecules. The red edge excitation shift (REES) approach becomes relevant in this context. REES is defined as the shift in the wavelength of maximum fluorescence emission toward higher wavelengths, caused by a shift in the excitation wavelength toward the red edge of absorption spectrum. REES arises due to slow rates (relative to fluorescence lifetime) of solvent relaxation (reorientation) around an excited state fluorophore in organized assemblies such as proteins. Consequently, REES depends on the environment-induced motional restriction imposed on the solvent molecules in the immediate vicinity of the fluorophore. In the case of a protein, the confined water in the protein creates a dipolar field that acts as the solvent for a fluorophore

  15. Dynamic insight into protein structure utilizing red edge excitation shift.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Amitabha; Haldar, Sourav

    2014-01-21

    Proteins are considered the workhorses in the cellular machinery. They are often organized in a highly ordered conformation in the crowded cellular environment. These conformations display characteristic dynamics over a range of time scales. An emerging consensus is that protein function is critically dependent on its dynamics. The subtle interplay between structure and dynamics is a hallmark of protein organization and is essential for its function. Depending on the environmental context, proteins can adopt a range of conformations such as native, molten globule, unfolded (denatured), and misfolded states. Although protein crystallography is a well established technique, it is not always possible to characterize various protein conformations by X-ray crystallography due to transient nature of these states. Even in cases where structural characterization is possible, the information obtained lacks dynamic component, which is needed to understand protein function. In this overall scenario, approaches that reveal information on protein dynamics are much appreciated. Dynamics of confined water has interesting implications in protein folding. Interfacial hydration combines the motion of water molecules with the slow moving protein molecules. The red edge excitation shift (REES) approach becomes relevant in this context. REES is defined as the shift in the wavelength of maximum fluorescence emission toward higher wavelengths, caused by a shift in the excitation wavelength toward the red edge of absorption spectrum. REES arises due to slow rates (relative to fluorescence lifetime) of solvent relaxation (reorientation) around an excited state fluorophore in organized assemblies such as proteins. Consequently, REES depends on the environment-induced motional restriction imposed on the solvent molecules in the immediate vicinity of the fluorophore. In the case of a protein, the confined water in the protein creates a dipolar field that acts as the solvent for a fluorophore

  16. Roles of edge weights on epidemic spreading dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Xiu-Xiu; Liu, Chuang; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Sun, Gui-Quan

    2016-08-01

    Epidemic spreading on complex networks has attracted much attention in recent years. A large number of studies have focused on investigating the impacts of network topology on spreading dynamics. However, the weighted network is very common in real systems, and we attempt to study the role of edge weights on epidemic spreading. In this work, the spreading process was presented as the SIS model and three edge-breaking strategies according to the weight of the SI links were performed simultaneously, which was used to illustrate the influence of the edge weights. Simulation results on three real networks showed the different spreading patterns of different edge-breaking strategies, which in turn indicated the influence of edge weights on the spreading process. Therefore we can take different measures at different periods according to the edge weights to impede the epidemic. In addition, the detailed analyses of relationship between the edge weight and the network structure was given to interpret the role of edge weights in the epidemic spreading process.

  17. Edge states as mediators of bypass transition in boundary-layer flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khapko, T.; Kreilos, T.; Schlatter, P.; Duguet, Y.; Eckhardt, B.; Henningson, D. S.

    2016-08-01

    The concept of edge state is investigated in the asymptotic suction boundary layer in relation with the receptivity process to noisy perturbations and the nucleation of turbulent spots. Edge tracking is first performed numerically, without imposing any discrete symmetry, in a large computational domain allowing for full spatial localisation of the perturbation velocity. The edge state is a three-dimensional localised structure recurrently characterised by a single low-speed streak that experiences erratic bursts and planar shifts. This recurrent streaky structure is then compared with predecessors of individual spot nucleation events, triggered by non-localised initial noise. The present results suggest a nonlinear picture, rooted in dynamical systems theory, of the nucleation process of turbulent spots in boundary-layer flows, in which the localised edge state play the role of state-space mediator.

  18. Dynamic fracture mechanics analysis for an edge delamination crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Doyle, James F.

    1994-01-01

    A global/local analysis is applied to the problem of a panel with an edge delamination crack subject to an impulse loading to ascertain the dynamic J integral. The approach uses the spectral element method to obtain the global dynamic response and local resultants to obtain the J integral. The variation of J integral along the crack front is shown. The crack behavior is mixed mode (Mode 2 and Mode 3), but is dominated by the Mode 2 behavior.

  19. Magnetic edge states and magnetotransport in graphene antidot barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, M. R.; Power, S. R.; Jauho, A.-P.; Pedersen, T. G.

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic fields are often used for characterizing transport in nanoscale materials. Recent magnetotransport experiments have demonstrated that ballistic transport is possible in graphene antidot lattices (GALs). These experiments have inspired the present theoretical study of GALs in a perpendicular magnetic field. We calculate magnetotransport through graphene antidot barriers (GABs), which are finite rows of antidots arranged periodically in a pristine graphene sheet, using a tight-binding model and the Landauer-Büttiker formula. We show that GABs behave as ideal Dirac mass barriers for antidots smaller than the magnetic length and demonstrate the presence of magnetic edge states, which are localized states on the periphery of the antidots due to successive reflections on the antidot edge in the presence of a magnetic field. We show that these states are robust against variations in lattice configuration and antidot edge chirality. Moreover, we calculate the transmittance of disordered GABs and find that magnetic edge states survive a moderate degree of disorder. Due to the long phase-coherence length in graphene and the robustness of these states, we expect magnetic edge states to be observable in experiments as well.

  20. Quantum pump in quantum spin Hall edge states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fang

    2016-09-01

    We present a theory for quantum pump in a quantum spin Hall bar with two quantum point contacts (QPCs). The pump currents can be generated by applying harmonically modulating gate voltages at QPCs. The phase difference between the gate voltages introduces an effective gauge field, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry and generates pump currents. The pump currents display very different pump frequency dependence for weak and strong e-e interaction. These unique properties are induced by the helical feature of the edge states, and therefore can be used to detect and control edge state transport.

  1. Anomalous Edge Transport in the Quantum Anomalous Hall State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Haijun

    2014-03-01

    We predict by first-principles calculations that thin films of a Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 magnetic topological insulator have gapless nonchiral edge states coexisting with the chiral edge state. Such gapless nonchiral states are not immune to backscattering, which would explain dissipative transport in the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state observed in this system experimentally. Here, we study the edge transport with both chiral and nonchiral states by the Landauer-Buttiker formalism and find that the longitudinal resistance is nonzero, whereas Hall resistance is quantized to h/e2. In particular, the longitudinal resistance can be greatly reduced by adding an extra floating probe even if it is not used, while the Hall resistance remains at the quantized value. We propose several transport experiments to detect the dissipative nonchiral edge channels. These results will facilitate the realization of pure dissipationless transport of QAH states in magnetic topological insulators. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, under contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  2. Slope Edge Deformation and Permafrost Dynamics Along the Arctic Shelf Edge, Beaufort Sea, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paull, C. K.; Dallimore, S.; Caress, D. W.; Gwiazda, R.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Riedel, M.; Melling, H.

    2015-12-01

    The shelf of the Canadian Beaufort Sea is underlain by relict offshore permafrost that formed in the long intervals of terrestrial exposure during glacial periods. At the shelf edge the permafrost thins rapidly and also warms. This area has a very distinct morphology that we attribute to both the formation and degradation of ice bearing permafrost. Positive relief features include circular to oval shaped topographic mounds, up to 10 m high and ~50 m in diameter which occur at a density of ~6 per km2. Intermixed are circular topographic depressions up to 20 m deep. This topography was investigated using an autonomous underwater vehicle that provides 1 m horizontal resolution bathymetry and chirp profiles, a remotely operated vehicle to document seafloor textures, and sediment cores to sample pore waters. A consistent down-core freshening at rates of 14 to 96 mM Cl- per meter was found in these pore waters near the shelf edge. Downward extrapolation of these trends indicates water with ≤335 mM Cl- should occur at 2.3 to 22.4 m sub-seafloor depths within this shelf edge deformation band. Pore water with 335 mM Cl- or less freezes at -1.4°C. As bottom water temperatures in this area are persistently (<-1.4°C) cold and ground ice was observed in some core samples, we interpret the volume changes associated with mound formation are in part due to pore water freezing. Thermal models (Taylor et al., 2014) predict brackish water along the shelf edge may be sourced in relict permafrost melting under the adjacent continental shelf. Buoyant brackish water is hypothesized to migrate along the base of the relict permafrost, to emerge at the shelf edge and then refreeze when it encounters the colder seafloor. Expansion generated by the formation of ice-bearing permafrost generates the positive relief mounds and ridges. The associated negative relief features may be related to permafrost dynamics also. Permafrost dynamics may have geohazard implications that are unique to the

  3. One-dimensional Topological Edge States of Bismuth Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, Ilya; Alexandradinata, Aris; Jeon, Sangjun; Nadj-Perge, Stevan; Ji, Huiwen; Cava, Robert; Bernevig, B. Andrei; Yazdani, Ali

    2014-03-01

    The hallmark of a time-reversal symmetry protected topologically insulating state of matter in two-dimensions (2D) is the existence of chiral edge modes propagating along the perimeter of the sample. Bilayers of bismuth (Bi), an elemental system theoretically predicted to be a Quantum Spin Hall (QSH) insulator1, has been studied with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and the electronic structure of its bulk and edge modes has been experimentally investigated. Spectroscopic mapping with STM reveals the presence of the state bound to the edges of the Bi-bilayer. By visualizing quantum interference of the edge state quasi-particles in confined geometries we characterize their dispersion and demonstrate that their properties are consistent with the absence of backscattering. Hybridization of the edge modes to the underlying substrate will be discussed. [1] Shuichi Murakami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 236805 (2006). The work at Princeton and the Princeton Nanoscale Microscopy Laboratory was supported by ARO MURI program W911NF-12-1-0461, DARPA-SPWAR Meso program N6601-11-1-4110, NSF-DMR1104612, and NSF-MRSEC programs through the Princeton Center for Complex Materials (DMR-0819860)

  4. Edge-soliton-mediated vortex-core reversal dynamics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Suk; Yoo, Myoung-Woo; Choi, Youn-Seok; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2011-04-01

    We report an additional reversal mechanism of magnetic vortex cores in nanodot elements driven by currents flowing perpendicular to the sample plane, occurring via dynamic transformations between two coupled edge solitons and bulk vortex solitons. This mechanism differs completely from the well-known switching process mediated by the creation and annihilation of vortex-antivortex pairs in terms of the associated topological solitons, energies, and spin-wave emissions. Strongly localized out-of-plane gyrotropic fields induced by the fast motion of the coupled edge solitons enable a magnetization dip that plays a crucial role in the formation of the reversed core magnetization. This work provides a deeper physical insight into the dynamic transformations of magnetic topological solitons in nanoelements.

  5. The effect of leading edge tubercles on dynamic stall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrynuk, John

    The effect of the leading edge tubercles of humpback whales has been heavily studied for their static benefits. These studies have shown that tubercles inhibit flow separation, limit spanwise flow, and extend the operating angle of a wing beyond the static stall point while maintaining lift, all while having a comparatively low negative impact on drag. The current study extends the prior work to investigating the effect of tubercles on dynamic stall, a fundamental flow phenomenon that occurs when wings undergo dynamic pitching motions. Flow fields around the wing models tested were studied using Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and Molecular Tagging Velocimetry (MTV).Resulting velocity fields show that the dynamics of the formation and separation of the leading edge vortex were fundamentally different between the straight wing and the tubercled wing. Tracking of the Dynamic Stall Vortex (DSV) and Shear Layer Vortices (SLVs), which may have a significant impact on the overall flow behavior, was done along with calculations of vortex circulation. Proximity to the wing surface and total circulation were used to evaluate potential dynamic lift increases provided by the tubercles. The effects of pitch rate on the formation process and benefits of the tubercles were also studied and were generally consistent with prior dynamic stall studies. However, tubercles were shown to affect the SLV formation and the circulation differently at higher pitch rates.

  6. Stabilization and dynamics of edge flames in narrow channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieri, Joanna A.

    The dynamics of edge flames in narrow channels is studied, first within the context of a reactive diffusive (or constant density) model and then in a variable density model which allows for the consideration of thermal expansion effects. Fuel and oxidizer, separated upstream by a thin plate of finite length, flow into a channel with a prescribed upstream velocity. At the end of the plate, the fuel and oxidizer mix and, when ignited, an edge flame is sustained at some distance from the tip of the plate. Typically, the flame, which is stabilized by heat conduction back to the cold plate, has a tribrachial structure. It consists of a leading edge, made up of lean and rich premixed segments, and an attached diffusion flame trailing behind. The flame can also have a hook-like shape, when one of the premixed branches is missing. This often happens for conditions away from stoichiometry and when the mass diffusivities of the fuel and oxidizer are unequal. Earlier work has determined the behavior of an edge flame in a mixing layer that develops downstream of a splitter plate with no boundaries in the lateral direction. This is relevant to the stabilization and liftoff of jet diffusion flames. The confined case has other possible applications, such as flames in mini-combustor systems, that have been recently tested experimentally. The objective in this work is to determine the effect that confinement has on the edge standoff distance, on the flame shape and on the flame stability. In particular, we examine the influence of channel width, wall temperature, and the effects of differential diffusion. We determine conditions under which the edge flame is stabilized near the tip of the splitter plate, is held near the tip but oscillates back and forth, or is blown-off. We consider a wide range of channel widths and boundary conditions at the walls.

  7. Measles on the edge: coastal heterogeneities and infection dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Nita; Xia, Yingcun; Bjornstad, Ottar N; Grenfell, Bryan T

    2008-01-01

    Mathematical models can help elucidate the spatio-temporal dynamics of epidemics as well as the impact of control measures. The gravity model for directly transmitted diseases is currently one of the most parsimonious models for spatial epidemic spread. This model uses distance-weighted, population size-dependent coupling to estimate host movement and disease incidence in metapopulations. The model captures overall measles dynamics in terms of underlying human movement in pre-vaccination England and Wales (previously established). In spatial models, edges often present a special challenge. Therefore, to test the model's robustness, we analyzed gravity model incidence predictions for coastal cities in England and Wales. Results show that, although predictions are accurate for inland towns, they significantly underestimate coastal persistence. We examine incidence, outbreak seasonality, and public transportation records, to show that the model's inaccuracies stem from an underestimation of total contacts per individual along the coast. We rescue this predicted 'edge effect' by increasing coastal contacts to approximate the number of per capita inland contacts. These results illustrate the impact of 'edge effects' on epidemic metapopulations in general and illustrate directions for the refinement of spatiotemporal epidemic models. PMID:18398467

  8. Statistical theory of relaxation of high-energy electrons in quantum Hall edge states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunde, Anders Mathias; Nigg, Simon E.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate theoretically the energy exchange between the electrons of two copropagating, out-of-equilibrium edge states with opposite spin polarization in the integer quantum Hall regime. A quantum dot tunnel coupled to one of the edge states locally injects electrons at high energy. Thereby a narrow peak in the energy distribution is created at high energy above the Fermi level. A second downstream quantum dot performs an energy-resolved measurement of the electronic distribution function. By varying the distance between the two dots, we are able to follow every step of the energy exchange and relaxation between the edge states, even analytically under certain conditions. In the absence of translational invariance along the edge, e.g., due to the presence of disorder, energy can be exchanged by non-momentum-conserving two-particle collisions. For weakly broken translational invariance, we show that the relaxation is described by coupled Fokker-Planck equations. From these we find that relaxation of the injected electrons can be understood statistically as a generalized drift-diffusion process in energy space for which we determine the drift velocity and the dynamical diffusion parameter. Finally, we provide a physically appealing picture in terms of individual edge-state heating as a result of the relaxation of the injected electrons.

  9. A General Theorem Relating the Bulk Topological Number to Edge States in Two-dimensional Insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Xiao-Liang; Wu, Yong-Shi; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Tsinghua U., Beijing

    2010-01-15

    We prove a general theorem on the relation between the bulk topological quantum number and the edge states in two dimensional insulators. It is shown that whenever there is a topological order in bulk, characterized by a non-vanishing Chern number, even if it is defined for a non-conserved quantity such as spin in the case of the spin Hall effect, one can always infer the existence of gapless edge states under certain twisted boundary conditions that allow tunneling between edges. This relation is robust against disorder and interactions, and it provides a unified topological classification of both the quantum (charge) Hall effect and the quantum spin Hall effect. In addition, it reconciles the apparent conflict between the stability of bulk topological order and the instability of gapless edge states in systems with open boundaries (as known happening in the spin Hall case). The consequences of time reversal invariance for bulk topological order and edge state dynamics are further studied in the present framework.

  10. Reconstruction of Chiral Edge States in Magnetic Chern Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Ryo; Udagawa, Masafumi; Akagi, Yutaka; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2014-03-01

    Surface and interface properties of spin-charge coupled systems are one of the central issues not only in fundamental physics but also in application to spintronics. In particular, in magnetically-ordered insulators with topological nature, topologically protected surface states may emerge. On the other hand, the magnetic state near the surface suffer from a reconstruction due to the local symmetry breaking, which may alter the surface states. It is of great interest to clarify how such a reconstruction occurs in a microscopic way. For this purpose, we consider an example of such magnetically-ordered topological insulators, i.e., a spin scalar chiral ordered phase characterized by a nonzero Chern number, recently discovered in the classical Kondo lattice model on a triangular lattice. We investigate this state numerically in finite-size systems with open edges by large scale simulation. As a result, we find that ferromagnetic spin correlations are induced near the edges. Surprisingly, at the same time, the chiral edge current is enhanced. We also clarify that the relation between penetration depth and bulk energy gap.

  11. Magnon edge states in the hardcore- Bose-Hubbard model.

    PubMed

    Owerre, S A

    2016-11-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulation has uncovered nonzero Berry curvature and bosonic edge states in the hardcore-Bose-Hubbard model on the gapped honeycomb lattice. The competition between the chemical potential and staggered onsite potential leads to an interesting quantum phase diagram comprising the superfluid phase, Mott insulator, and charge density wave insulator. In this paper, we present a semiclassical perspective of this system by mapping to a spin-1/2 quantum XY model. We give an explicit analytical origin of the quantum phase diagram, the Berry curvatures, and the edge states using semiclassical approximations. We find very good agreement between the semiclassical analyses and the QMC results. Our results show that the topological properties of the hardcore-Bose-Hubbard model are the same as those of magnon in the corresponding quantum spin system. Our results are applicable to systems of ultracold bosonic atoms trapped in honeycomb optical lattices. PMID:27603092

  12. Interplay between edge and bulk states in silicene nanoribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Xing-Tao; Zhang, Yan-Yang; Liu, Jian-Jun; Li, Shu-Shen

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the interplay between the edge and bulk states, induced by the Rashba spin-orbit coupling, in a zigzag silicene nanoribbon in the presence of an external electric field. The interplay can be divided into two kinds, one is the interplay between the edge and bulk states with opposite velocities, and the other is that with the same velocity direction. The former can open small direct spin-dependent subgaps. A spin-polarized current can be generated in the nanoribbon as the Fermi energy is in the subgaps. While the later can give rise to the spin precession in the nanoribbon. Therefore, the zigzag silicene nanoribbon can be used as an efficient spin filter and spin modulation device.

  13. Magnon edge states in the hardcore- Bose-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owerre, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulation has uncovered nonzero Berry curvature and bosonic edge states in the hardcore-Bose-Hubbard model on the gapped honeycomb lattice. The competition between the chemical potential and staggered onsite potential leads to an interesting quantum phase diagram comprising the superfluid phase, Mott insulator, and charge density wave insulator. In this paper, we present a semiclassical perspective of this system by mapping to a spin-1/2 quantum XY model. We give an explicit analytical origin of the quantum phase diagram, the Berry curvatures, and the edge states using semiclassical approximations. We find very good agreement between the semiclassical analyses and the QMC results. Our results show that the topological properties of the hardcore-Bose-Hubbard model are the same as those of magnon in the corresponding quantum spin system. Our results are applicable to systems of ultracold bosonic atoms trapped in honeycomb optical lattices.

  14. Thermodynamic signatures of edge states in topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quelle, A.; Cobanera, E.; Smith, C. Morais

    2016-08-01

    Topological insulators are states of matter distinguished by the presence of symmetry-protected metallic boundary states. These edge modes have been characterized in terms of transport and spectroscopic measurements, but a thermodynamic description has been lacking. The challenge arises because in conventional thermodynamics the potentials are required to scale linearly with extensive variables such as volume, which does not allow for a general treatment of boundary effects. In this paper, we overcome this challenge with Hill thermodynamics. In this extension of the thermodynamic formalism, the grand potential is split into an extensive, conventional contribution, and the subdivision potential, which is the central construct of Hill's theory. For topologically nontrivial electronic matter, the subdivision potential captures measurable contributions to the density of states and the heat capacity: it is the thermodynamic manifestation of the topological edge structure. Furthermore, the subdivision potential reveals phase transitions of the edge even when they are not manifested in the bulk, thus opening a variety of possibilities for investigating, manipulating, and characterizing topological quantum matter solely in terms of equilibrium boundary physics.

  15. Majorana edge states in superconductor-noncollinear magnet interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Schnyder, Andreas P.

    2015-12-01

    Through s -d coupling, a superconducting thin film interfaced to a noncollinear magnetic insulator inherits its magnetic order, which may induce unconventional superconductivity that hosts Majorana edge states. We present a unified formalism that covers the cycloidal, helical, and tilted conical order discovered in multiferroics, as well as Bloch and Neel domain walls of ferromagnetic insulators, and show that they induce (px+py )-wave pairing that supports Majorana edge modes. The advantages over one-dimensional proposals are that the Majorana states can exist without fine tuning of the chemical potential, can be stabilized in a much larger parameter space, and can be separated over the distance of long-range noncollinear order that is known to reach a macroscopic scale. A skyrmion spin texture, on the other hand, induces a nonuniform (pr+i pφ )-wave-like pairing under the influence of an emergent electromagnetic field, yielding a vortex state that displays both a bulk persistent current and a topological edge current.

  16. Thermodynamic signatures of edge states in Topological Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quelle, Anton; Cobanera, Emilio; Morais Smith, Cristinae

    Topological insulators are states of matter distinguished by the presence of symmetry protected metallic boundary modes. These edge modes have been characterised in terms of transport and spectroscopic measurements, but a thermodynamic description has been lacking. The challenge arises because in conventional thermodynamics the potentials are required to scale linearly with extensive variables like volume, which does not allow for a general treatment of boundary effects. In this paper, we overcome this challenge with Hill thermodynamics. In this extension of the thermodynamic formalism, the grand potential is split into an extensive, conventional contribution, and the subdivision potential, which is the central construct of Hill's theory. For topologically non-trivial electronic matter, the subdivision potential captures measurable contributions to the density of states and the heat capacity: it is the thermodynamic manifestation of the topological edge structure. Furthermore, the subdivision potential reveals phase transitions of the edge even when they are not manifested in the bulk, thus opening a variety of new possibilities for investigating, manipulating, and characterizing topological quantum matter solely in terms of equilibrium boundary physics.

  17. Artificial gauge fields and chiral edge states for ultracold fermions in synthetic dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallani, Leonardo

    2015-05-01

    I will report on very recent experiments performed at LENS with ultracold 173Yb Fermi gases in artificial gauge fields. We have engineered Raman transitions between different 173Yb nuclear spin states to synthesize an effective lattice dynamics in a finite-sized ``extra dimension,'' which is encoded in the internal degree of freedom of the atoms. By using this innovative approach, we have realized synthetic magnetic fields for effectively-charged fermions in ladder geometries with a variable number of legs. Direct imaging of the individual legs allowed us to demonstrate the emergence of chiral edge currents and to observe edge-cyclotron orbits propagating along the edges of the system, thus providing a direct evidence of a fundamental feature of quantum Hall physics in condensed-matter systems.

  18. Thermal Instability of Edge States in a 1D Topological Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viyuela, Oscar; Rivas, Angel; Martin-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2013-03-01

    The stability of topological phases of matter, also known as topological orders, against thermal noise has provided several surprising results in the context of topological codes used in topological quantum information. However, very little is known about the behavior of a topological insulator (TI) subjected to the disturbing thermal effect of its surrounding environment. This is of great relevance if we want to address key questions such as the robustness of TIs to thermal noise, existence of thermalization processes, use of TIs as platforms for quantum computation, etc. In this work, we have studied the dynamical thermal effects on the protected edge states of a TI when it is considered as an open quantum system in interaction with a noisy environment at a certain temperature T. Let us recall that stable edge states are a defining signature of topological insulators. Outstandingly, we find that the usual protection of edge states against quantum perturbations and randomness is lost in the case of thermal effects, despite the fermion-boson interaction with the thermal environment respects chiral symmetry, which is the symmetry responsible for the protection (robustness) of the edge states in this TI. We are able to compute decay rates for practical implementations. PRB (2012) Phys. Rev. B 86, 155140 (2012)

  19. Big-data-based edge biomarkers: study on dynamical drug sensitivity and resistance in individuals.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tao; Zhang, Wanwei; Yu, Xiangtian; Liu, Xiaoping; Li, Meiyi; Chen, Luonan

    2016-07-01

    Big-data-based edge biomarker is a new concept to characterize disease features based on biomedical big data in a dynamical and network manner, which also provides alternative strategies to indicate disease status in single samples. This article gives a comprehensive review on big-data-based edge biomarkers for complex diseases in an individual patient, which are defined as biomarkers based on network information and high-dimensional data. Specifically, we firstly introduce the sources and structures of biomedical big data accessible in public for edge biomarker and disease study. We show that biomedical big data are typically 'small-sample size in high-dimension space', i.e. small samples but with high dimensions on features (e.g. omics data) for each individual, in contrast to traditional big data in many other fields characterized as 'large-sample size in low-dimension space', i.e. big samples but with low dimensions on features. Then, we demonstrate the concept, model and algorithm for edge biomarkers and further big-data-based edge biomarkers. Dissimilar to conventional biomarkers, edge biomarkers, e.g. module biomarkers in module network rewiring-analysis, are able to predict the disease state by learning differential associations between molecules rather than differential expressions of molecules during disease progression or treatment in individual patients. In particular, in contrast to using the information of the common molecules or edges (i.e.molecule-pairs) across a population in traditional biomarkers including network and edge biomarkers, big-data-based edge biomarkers are specific for each individual and thus can accurately evaluate the disease state by considering the individual heterogeneity. Therefore, the measurement of big data in a high-dimensional space is required not only in the learning process but also in the diagnosing or predicting process of the tested individual. Finally, we provide a case study on analyzing the temporal expression

  20. Edge states at phase boundaries and their stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asorey, M.; Balachandran, A. P.; Pérez-Pardo, J. M.

    2016-10-01

    We analyze the effects of Robin-like boundary conditions on different quantum field theories of spin 0, 1/2 and 1 on manifolds with boundaries. In particular, we show that these conditions often lead to the appearance of edge states. These states play a significant role in physical phenomena like quantum Hall effect and topological insulators. We prove in a rigorous way the existence of spectral lower bounds on the kinetic term of different Hamiltonians, even in the case of Abelian gauge fields where it is a non-elliptic differential operator. This guarantees the stability and consistency of massive field theories with masses larger than the lower bound of the kinetic term. Moreover, we find an upper bound for the deepest edge state. In the case of Abelian gauge theories, we analyze a generalization of Robin boundary conditions. For Dirac fermions, we analyze the cases of Atiyah-Patodi-Singer and chiral bag boundary conditions. The explicit dependence of the bounds on the boundary conditions and the size of the system is derived under general assumptions.

  1. Entanglement and Majorana edge states in the Kitaev model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Saptarshi; Maiti, Moitri; Varma, Vipin Kerala

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the von Neumann entanglement entropy and Schmidt gap in the vortex-free ground state of the Kitaev model on the honeycomb lattice for square/rectangular and cylindrical subsystems. We find that, for both the subsystems, the free-fermionic contribution to the entanglement entropy SE exhibits signatures of the phase transitions between the gapless and gapped phases. However, within the gapless phase, we find that SE does not show an expected monotonic behavior as a function of the coupling Jz between the suitably defined one-dimensional chains for either geometry; moreover, the system generically reaches a point of minimum entanglement within the gapless phase before the entanglement saturates or increases again until the gapped phase is reached. This may be attributed to the onset of gapless modes in the bulk spectrum and the competition between the correlation functions along various bonds. In the gapped phase, on the other hand, SE always monotonically varies with Jz independent of the subregion size or shape. Finally, further confirming the Li-Haldane conjecture, we find that the Schmidt gap Δ defined from the entanglement spectrum also signals the topological transitions but only if there are corresponding zero-energy Majorana edge states that simultaneously appear or disappear across the transitions. We analytically corroborate some of our results on entanglement entropy, the Schmidt gap, and the bulk-edge correspondence using perturbation theory.

  2. The Seasonal Dynamics of Artificial Nest Predation Rates along Edges in a Mosaic Managed Reedbed.

    PubMed

    Malzer, Iain; Helm, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Boundaries between different habitats can be responsible for changes in species interactions, including modified rates of encounter between predators and prey. Such 'edge effects' have been reported in nesting birds, where nest predation rates can be increased at habitat edges. The literature concerning edge effects on nest predation rates reveals a wide variation in results, even within single habitats, suggesting edge effects are not fixed, but dynamic throughout space and time. This study demonstrates the importance of considering dynamic mechanisms underlying edge effects and their relevance when undertaking habitat management. In reedbed habitats, management in the form of mosaic winter reed cutting can create extensive edges which change rapidly with reed regrowth during spring. We investigate the seasonal dynamics of reedbed edges using an artificial nest experiment based on the breeding biology of a reedbed specialist. We first demonstrate that nest predation decreases with increasing distance from the edge of cut reed blocks, suggesting edge effects have a pivotal role in this system. Using repeats throughout the breeding season we then confirm that nest predation rates are temporally dynamic and decline with the regrowth of reed. However, effects of edges on nest predation were consistent throughout the season. These results are of practical importance when considering appropriate habitat management, suggesting that reed cutting may heighten nest predation, especially before new growth matures. They also contribute directly to an overall understanding of the dynamic processes underlying edge effects and their potential role as drivers of time-dependent habitat use. PMID:26448338

  3. The Seasonal Dynamics of Artificial Nest Predation Rates along Edges in a Mosaic Managed Reedbed

    PubMed Central

    Malzer, Iain; Helm, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Boundaries between different habitats can be responsible for changes in species interactions, including modified rates of encounter between predators and prey. Such ‘edge effects’ have been reported in nesting birds, where nest predation rates can be increased at habitat edges. The literature concerning edge effects on nest predation rates reveals a wide variation in results, even within single habitats, suggesting edge effects are not fixed, but dynamic throughout space and time. This study demonstrates the importance of considering dynamic mechanisms underlying edge effects and their relevance when undertaking habitat management. In reedbed habitats, management in the form of mosaic winter reed cutting can create extensive edges which change rapidly with reed regrowth during spring. We investigate the seasonal dynamics of reedbed edges using an artificial nest experiment based on the breeding biology of a reedbed specialist. We first demonstrate that nest predation decreases with increasing distance from the edge of cut reed blocks, suggesting edge effects have a pivotal role in this system. Using repeats throughout the breeding season we then confirm that nest predation rates are temporally dynamic and decline with the regrowth of reed. However, effects of edges on nest predation were consistent throughout the season. These results are of practical importance when considering appropriate habitat management, suggesting that reed cutting may heighten nest predation, especially before new growth matures. They also contribute directly to an overall understanding of the dynamic processes underlying edge effects and their potential role as drivers of time-dependent habitat use. PMID:26448338

  4. The Seasonal Dynamics of Artificial Nest Predation Rates along Edges in a Mosaic Managed Reedbed.

    PubMed

    Malzer, Iain; Helm, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Boundaries between different habitats can be responsible for changes in species interactions, including modified rates of encounter between predators and prey. Such 'edge effects' have been reported in nesting birds, where nest predation rates can be increased at habitat edges. The literature concerning edge effects on nest predation rates reveals a wide variation in results, even within single habitats, suggesting edge effects are not fixed, but dynamic throughout space and time. This study demonstrates the importance of considering dynamic mechanisms underlying edge effects and their relevance when undertaking habitat management. In reedbed habitats, management in the form of mosaic winter reed cutting can create extensive edges which change rapidly with reed regrowth during spring. We investigate the seasonal dynamics of reedbed edges using an artificial nest experiment based on the breeding biology of a reedbed specialist. We first demonstrate that nest predation decreases with increasing distance from the edge of cut reed blocks, suggesting edge effects have a pivotal role in this system. Using repeats throughout the breeding season we then confirm that nest predation rates are temporally dynamic and decline with the regrowth of reed. However, effects of edges on nest predation were consistent throughout the season. These results are of practical importance when considering appropriate habitat management, suggesting that reed cutting may heighten nest predation, especially before new growth matures. They also contribute directly to an overall understanding of the dynamic processes underlying edge effects and their potential role as drivers of time-dependent habitat use.

  5. Magnetic edge states in Aharonov-Bohm graphene quantum rings

    SciTech Connect

    Farghadan, R. Heidari Semiromi, E.; Saffarzadeh, A.

    2013-12-07

    The effect of electron-electron interaction on the electronic structure of Aharonov-Bohm (AB) graphene quantum rings (GQRs) is explored theoretically using the single-band tight-binding Hamiltonian and the mean-field Hubbard model. The electronic states and magnetic properties of hexagonal, triangular, and circular GQRs with different sizes and zigzag edge terminations are studied. The results show that, although the AB oscillations in the all types of nanoring are affected by the interaction, the spin splitting in the AB oscillations strongly depends on the geometry and the size of graphene nanorings. We found that the total spin of hexagonal and circular rings is zero and therefore, no spin splitting can be observed in the AB oscillations. However, the non-zero magnetization of the triangular rings breaks the degeneracy between spin-up and spin-down electrons, which produces spin-polarized AB oscillations.

  6. Organization and dynamics of membrane probes and proteins utilizing the red edge excitation shift.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Sourav; Chaudhuri, Arunima; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2011-05-19

    Dynamics of confined water has interesting implications in the organization and function of molecular assemblies such as membranes. A direct consequence of this type of organization is the restriction imposed on the mobility of the constituent structural units. Interestingly, this restriction (confinement) of mobility couples the motion of solvent (water) molecules with the slow moving molecules in the assembly. It is in this context that the red edge excitation shift (REES) represents a sensitive approach to monitor the environment and dynamics around a fluorophore in such organized assemblies. A shift in the wavelength of maximum fluorescence emission toward higher wavelengths, caused by a shift in the excitation wavelength toward the red edge of the absorption band, is termed REES. REES relies on slow solvent reorientation in the excited state of a fluorophore that can be used to monitor the environment and dynamics around a fluorophore in a host assembly. In this article, we focus on the application of REES to monitor organization and dynamics of membrane probes and proteins.

  7. Boundary-induced dynamics in one-dimensional topological systems and memory effects of edge modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yan; Chien, Chih-Chun

    2016-07-01

    Dynamics induced by a change of boundary conditions reveals rate-dependent signatures associated with topological properties in one-dimensional Kitaev chain and SSH model. While the perturbation from a change of the boundary propagates into the bulk, the density of topological edge modes in the case of transforming to open boundary condition reaches steady states. The steady-state density depends on the transformation rate of the boundary and serves as an illustration of quantum memory effects in topological systems. Moreover, while a link is physically broken as the boundary condition changes, some correlation functions can remain finite across the broken link and keep a record of the initial condition. By testing those phenomena in the nontopological regimes of the two models, none of the interesting signatures of memory effects can be observed. Our results thus contrast the importance of topological properties in boundary-induced dynamics.

  8. Dynamics of edge dislocations in a sheared lamellar mesophase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaran, V.

    2013-10-01

    The dynamics and interactions of edge dislocations in a nearly aligned sheared lamellar mesophase is analysed to provide insights into the relationship between disorder and rheology. First, the mesoscale permeation and momentum equations for the displacement field in the presence of external forces are derived from the model H equations for the concentration and momentum field. The secondary flow generated due to the mean shear around an isolated defect is calculated, and the excess viscosity due to the presence of the defect is determined from the excess energy dissipation due to the secondary flow. The excess viscosity for an isolated defect is found to increase with system size in the cross-stream direction as L3/2 for an isolated defect, though this divergence is cut-off due to interactions in a defect suspension. As the defects are sheared past each other due to the mean flow, the Peach-Koehler force due to elastic interaction between pairs of defects is found to cause no net displacement relative to each other as they approach from large separation to the distance of closest approach. The equivalent force due to viscous interactions is found to increase the separation for defects of opposite sign, and decrease the separation for defects of same sign. During defect interactions, we find that there is no buckling instability due to dilation of layers for systems of realistic size. However, there is another mechanism, which is the velocity difference generated across a slightly deformed bilayer due to the mean shear, which could result in the creation of new defects.

  9. Effect of Trailing Edge Shape on the Unsteady Aerodynamics of Reverse Flow Dynamic Stall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Andrew; Jones, Anya

    2015-11-01

    This work considers dynamic stall in reverse flow, where flow travels over an oscillating airfoil from the geometric trailing edge towards the leading edge. An airfoil with a sharp geometric trailing edge causes early formation of a primary dynamic stall vortex since the sharp edge acts as the aerodynamic leading edge in reverse flow. The present work experimentally examines the potential merits of using an airfoil with a blunt geometric trailing edge to delay flow separation and dynamic stall vortex formation while undergoing oscillations in reverse flow. Time-resolved and phase-averaged flow fields and pressure distributions are compared for airfoils with different trailing edge shapes. Specifically, the evolution of unsteady flow features such as primary, secondary, and trailing edge vortices is examined. The influence of these flow features on the unsteady pressure distributions and integrated unsteady airloads provide insight on the torsional loading of rotor blades as they oscillate in reverse flow. The airfoil with a blunt trailing edge delays reverse flow dynamic stall, but this leads to greater downward-acting lift and pitching moment. These results are fundamental to alleviating vibrations of high-speed helicopters, where much of the rotor operates in reverse flow.

  10. Analysis of Band-Edge Dynamics in ZnO and MgZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canul, Amrah

    This work investigates the temperature dependence of electron states at the band-edge in ZnO and Mg0.07Zn0.93O thin films. To investigate the band-edge dynamics, we study in-gap states via temperature dependent absorption spectroscopy in the range 77-500K. The in-gap states at the band-edge were analyzed via the Urbach energy model, where the Urbach Energy is a measure of the extent of states into the bandgap. In parallel, we also analyze the temperature dependent Urbach energy via the Wasim model, which separates the relative contributions of defect states and temperature dependent phonon modes to the in-gap states. It was found that the defect contribution to in-gap states at the band-edge was significantly higher for Mg0.07Zn0.93O than in ZnO. Additionally, the phonon contribution to in-gap states was less in Mg 0.07Zn0.93O than in ZnO. The author gratefully acknowledges the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of Materials Science and Engineering under Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER46386.

  11. High dynamic range infrared images detail enhancement based on local edge preserving filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qiong; Wang, Yuehuan; Bai, Kun

    2016-07-01

    In the field of infrared (IR) image processing, displaying a high dynamic range (HDR) image on a low dynamic range display equipment with a natural visual effect, clear details on local areas and less artifacts is an important issue. In this paper, we present a new approach to display HDR IR images with contrast enhancement. First, the local edge-preserving filter (LEPF) is utilized to separate the image into a base layer and detail layer(s). After the filtering procedure, we use an adaptive Gamma transformation to adjust the gray distribution of the base layer, and stretch the detail layer based on a human visual effect principle. Then, we recombine the detail layer and base layer to obtain the enhance output. Finally, we adjust the luminance of output by applying multiple exposure fusion method. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method can provide a significant performance in terms of enhancing details and less artifacts than the state of the arts.

  12. The dynamics of an edge dislocation in a ferromagnetic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezhin, V. V.; Nechaev, V. N.

    2016-08-01

    The system of equations describing the bending vibrations of the dislocation in the ferromagnetic crystal is written. Elastic and magnetostrictive properties of the ferromagnetic crystals are considered isotropic. The linearization of the resulting system produced a relatively small contribution to the magnetization from the influence of dislocation. In the linear approximation of the dislocation displacement system of equation describing vibrations of a ferromagnetic crystal with an edge dislocation is obtained. The equation of motion of an edge dislocation in a ferromagnetic crystal is found.

  13. Topological Invariants of Edge States for Periodic Two-Dimensional Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Julio Cesar; Schulz-Baldes, Hermann; Villegas-Blas, Carlos

    2013-06-01

    Transfer matrix methods and intersection theory are used to calculate the bands of edge states for a wide class of periodic two-dimensional tight-binding models including a sublattice and spin degree of freedom. This allows to define topological invariants by considering the associated Bott-Maslov indices which can be easily calculated numerically. For time-reversal symmetric systems in the symplectic universality class this leads to a {Z}_2-invariant for the edge states. It is shown that the edge state invariants are related to Chern numbers of the bulk systems and also to (spin) edge currents, in the spirit of the theory of topological insulators.

  14. Hall response and edge current dynamics in Chern insulators out of equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caio, M. D.; Cooper, N. R.; Bhaseen, M. J.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the transport properties of Chern insulators following a quantum quench between topological and nontopological phases. Recent works have shown that this yields an excited state for which the Chern number is preserved under unitary evolution. However, this does not imply the preservation of other physical observables, as we stressed in our previous work. Here we provide an analysis of the Hall response following a quantum quench in an isolated system, with explicit results for the Haldane model. We show that the Hall conductance is no longer related to the Chern number in the postquench state, in agreement with previous work. We also examine the dynamics of the edge currents in finite-size systems with open boundary conditions along one direction. We show that the late-time behavior is captured by a Generalized Gibbs Ensemble, after multiple traversals of the sample. We discuss the effects of generic open boundary conditions and confinement potentials.

  15. Topological fate of edge states of single Bi bilayer on Bi(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Han Woong; Jin, Kyung-Hwan; Jhi, Seung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    We address the topological nature of electronic states of step edges of Bi(111) films by first-principles band structure calculations. We confirm that the dispersion of step-edge states reflects the topological nature of underlying films, which become topologically trivial at a thickness larger than eight bilayers. This result clearly conflicts with recent claims that the step-edge state at the surface of a bulk Bi(111) crystal or a sufficiently thick Bi(111) film represents nontrivial edge states of the two-dimensional topological insulator phase expected for a very thin Bi(111) film. The trivial step-edge states have a gigantic spin splitting of one-dimensional Rashba bands and substantial intermixing with electronic states of the bulk, which might be exploited further.

  16. Wideband trapping of light by edge states in honeycomb photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Chunfang; Han, Dezhuan; Zhao, Fangyuan; Hu, Xinhua; Liu, Xiaohan; Zi, Jian

    2012-12-12

    We study theoretically light propagations at the zigzag edge of a honeycomb photonic crystal consisting of dielectric rods in air, analogous to graphene. Within the photonic band gap of the honeycomb photonic crystal, a unimodal edge state may exist with a sharp confinement of optical fields. Its dispersion can be tuned simply by adjusting the radius of the edge rods. For the edge rods with a graded variation in radius along the edge direction, we show numerically that light beams of different frequencies can be trapped sharply in different spatial locations, yielding wideband trapping of light.

  17. Theoretical study of edge states in BC2N nanoribbons with zigzag edges

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, electronic properties of BC2N nanoribbons with zigzag edges are studied theoretically using a tight binding model and the first-principles calculations based on the density functional theories. The zigzag BC2N nanoribbons have the flat bands when the atoms are arranged as B-C-N-C along the zigzag lines. In this arrangement, the effect of charge transfer is averaged since B and N atoms are doped in same sublattice sites. This effect is important for not only the formation of flat bands but also for the validity of the tight binding model for such system. PMID:23902682

  18. Leading edge vortex dynamics on a pitching delta wing. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemay, Scott P.

    1988-01-01

    The leading edge flow structure was investigated on a 70 deg flat plate delta wing which was pitched about its 1/2 chord position, to increase understanding of the high angle of attack aerodynamics on an unsteady delta wing. The wing was sinusoidally pitched at reduced frequencies ranging from k being identical with 2pi fc/u = 0.05 to 0.30 at chord Reynolds numbers between 90,000 and 350,000, for angle of attack ranges of alpha = 29 to 39 deg and alpha = 0 to 45 deg. The wing was also impulsively pitched at an approximate rate of 0.7 rad/s. During these dynamic motions, visualization of the leading edge vorticies was obtained by entraining titanium tetrachloride into the flow at the model apex. The location of vortex breakdown was recorded using 16mm high speed motion picture photography. When the wing was sinusoidally pitched, a hysteresis was observed in the location of breakdown position. This hysteresis increased with reduced frequency. The velocity of breakdown propagation along the wing, and the phase lag between model motion and breakdown location were also determined. When the wing was impulsively pitched, several convective times were required for the vortex flow to reach a steady state. Detailed information was also obtained on the oscillation of breakdown position in both static and dynamic cases.

  19. Self-induced topological transitions and edge states supported by nonlinear staggered potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadad, Yakir; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Alò, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The canonical Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) array is one of the basic geometries that have spurred significant interest in topological band-gap modes. Here, we show that the judicious inclusion of third-order Kerr nonlinearities in SSH arrays opens rich physics in topological insulators, including the possibility of supporting self-induced topological transitions, as a function of the applied intensity. We highlight the emergence of a class of topological solutions in nonlinear SSH arrays localized at the array edges and with unusual properties. As opposed to their linear counterparts, these nonlinear states decay to a plateau of nonzero amplitude inside the array, highlighting the local nature of topologically nontrivial band gaps in nonlinear systems. We study the conditions under which these states can be excited and their temporal dynamics as a function of the applied excitation, paving the way to interesting directions in the physics of topological edge states with robust propagation properties based on nonlinear interactions in suitably designed periodic arrays.

  20. Construction of edge states in fractional quantum Hall systems by Jack polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki Hoon; Hu, Zi-Xiang; Wan, Xin

    2014-04-01

    We study the edge-mode excitations of a fractional quantum Hall droplet by expressing the edge-state wave functions as linear combinations of Jack polynomials with a negative parameter. We show that the exact diagonalization within a subspace of Jack polynomials can be used to generate the chiral edge-mode excitation spectrum in the Laughlin phase and the Moore-Read phase with realistic Coulomb interaction. The truncation technique for the edge excitations simplifies the procedure to reliably extract the edge-mode velocities, which avoids the otherwise complicated analysis of the full spectrum that contains both edge and bulk excitations. Generalization to the Read-Rezayi state is also discussed.

  1. Topological edge state with zero Hall conductivity in quasi-one dimensional system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiao-Shan

    2016-09-01

    We explore the structure of the energy spectra of quasi-one dimensional (Q1D) system subjected to spin-density-wave SDW states. The structure of the energy spectra opens energy gaps with Zeeman field. Theses gaps result in plateaus for the Quantum Hall conductivity which is associated with edge states. Different from the SSH Hofstadter model, here we show that there are a doublet of edge states contribution to zero Hall conductivity. These edge states are allowed for magnetic control of spin currents. The topological effects predicted here could be tested directly in organic conductors system.

  2. Instability of bosonic topological edge states in the presence of interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumer, Yaakov; Rechtsman, Mikael C.; Plotnik, Yonatan; Segev, Mordechai

    2016-08-01

    We analyze the stability of extended edge modes in a nonlinear (i.e., interacting) bosonic topological insulator. We see that these nonlinear modes are always unstable, despite the topological protection of edge modes in the linear system. For concreteness we use a photonic platform, but the results generalize to other bosonic systems. We give a detailed description of the system in two extreme cases, low nonlinearity and high nonlinearity, and discuss the breakup of the nonlinear edge states into solitons.

  3. Structural and Dynamical Properties of 2:1 Phyllosilicates Edges and Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, A. G.; Sposito, G.

    2012-12-01

    Classical mechanics simulations of bulk 2:1 phyllosilicate minerals provide atomic scale perspectives of the macroscopic sorption and diffusion phenomena in interlayer nanopores. An equivalent perspective of these interfacial phenomena in macropores bounded by the edges of stacked phyllosilicate particles is not possible due to the absence of a forcefield for the edges of phyllosilicate minerals. A valid forcefield to describe the phyllosilicate edge is essential to link the quantum and continuum mechanical models. The inherently disordered edge of 2:1 phyllosilicate minerals and rarity of well-crystallized samples further complicates the task of validating a forcefield for the phyllosilicate edge. Periodic bond chain theory identifies three tetrahedral-octahedral-tetrahedral (TOT) structures that parallel the edge faces of pseudohexagonal phyllosilicate particles. These TOT structures are the basis of atomistic models of the dominant edge interface and nanoparticles. The CLAYFF forcefield describes all pairwise atomic interactions with only minimal partial charge adjustments to maintain model neutrality, where necessary. Atomistic simulations in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble at nanosecond timescales predict equilibrium edge structures and dynamical properties of the aqueous interface. The CLAYFF forcefield and the limited adjustments to parameters predict edge and particle structures that are consistent with the results of ab initio MD simulations, support macroscopic observations of phyllosilicate reactivity, and provide legitimacy for disordered models of 2:1 phyllosilicates. The heterogeneous edge structures can be explained by the chemistry of the octahedral cation and surface charge anisotropy. In the plane of the octahedral sheet, the cations of the octahedral layer can assume four-, five-, and six-coordinate polyhedral geometries at the edge interface. These disordered edge structures create alternate alignments in the tetrahedral sheet. The structural

  4. Localization properties of graphene Landau levels: The role of edge states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis, Daniel; Paez, Carlos; Schulz, Peter; Pereira, Ana

    The observation of the quantum Hall effect for graphene in 2005 represented an important landmark, proving the genuine two-dimensional nature of graphene. Here we use a tight-binding approach to investigate the localization properties of quantum Hall edge states of graphene flakes with sharp edges. In order to identify which wave function is concentrated in the edges, or distributed in the bulk, we defined a quantity named ``Edge Fraction'',indicating the fraction of electronic probability densities over the atomic sites at distances from the edges limited to twice the magnetic length lB. We also calculate separately the fraction of the wave function amplitude over zigzag or armchair edges, observing an interesting and clear pattern for different energies between consecutive Landau levels. The edge states are manifested in the presence of states among the Landau levels. Here was explored the interplay of different square lattices sizes and disorder in the localization properties of the system. We observed that size variation do not affect the behavior of the Edge Fraction. Also it was found that exist a dependence between the behavior of the Edge Fraction for the armchair and zigzag contribution with respect to disorder.

  5. Edge-states ferromagnetism of WS{sub 2} nanosheets

    SciTech Connect

    Huo, Nengjie; Li, Yan; Kang, Jun; Li, Renxiong; Xia, Qinglin; Li, Jingbo

    2014-05-19

    The multilayer WS{sub 2} nanosheets prepared from WO{sub 3} nanowires exhibit strong ferromagnetic behavior with saturation magnetization (M{sub S}) of 0.0058 emu/g and coercive field (H{sub C}) of 92 Oe at room temperature. By decreasing the temperature down to 3 K the H{sub c} is increased up to 1115 Oe, revealing the existence of long-range magnetic ordering. Density functional theory spin-polarized calculations predict that strong ferromagnetic moments in WS{sub 2} nanosheets are attributed to the zigzag edge sulphur S and tungsten W atoms. Our findings also suggest that the WS{sub 2} nanosheets with a high density of edge spins could be used to fabricate spintronics devices, which are circuits utilizing the spin of the electron to process and store information.

  6. One-dimensional edge state of Bi thin film grown on Si(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, Naoya; Lin, Chun-Liang; Kawai, Maki; Takagi, Noriaki; Arafune, Ryuichi

    2015-07-20

    The geometric and electronic structures of the Bi thin film grown on Si(111) were investigated by using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. We have found two types of edges, one of which hosts an electronic state localized one-dimensionally. We also revealed the energy dispersion of the localized edge state from the evolution of quasiparticle interference patterns as a function of energy. These spectroscopic findings well reproduce those acquired for the cleaved surface of the bulk Bi crystal [I. K. Drozdov et al., Nat. Phys. 10, 664 (2014)]. The present results indicate that the deposited Bi film provides a tractable stage for further scrutiny of the one-dimensional edge state.

  7. Edge localized mode rotation and the nonlinear dynamics of filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, J. A.; Bécoulet, M.; Garbet, X.; Orain, F.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Hoelzl, M.; Pamela, S.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Cahyna, P.; Fil, A.; Nardon, E.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.

    2016-04-01

    Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) rotating precursors were reported few milliseconds before an ELM crash in several tokamak experiments. Also, the reversal of the filaments rotation at the ELM crash is commonly observed. In this article, we present a mathematical model that reproduces the rotation of the ELM precursors as well as the reversal of the filaments rotation at the ELM crash. Linear ballooning theory is used to establish a formula estimating the rotation velocity of ELM precursors. The linear study together with nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic simulations give an explanation to the rotations observed experimentally. Unstable ballooning modes, localized at the pedestal, grow and rotate in the electron diamagnetic direction in the laboratory reference frame. Approaching the ELM crash, this rotation decreases corresponding to the moment when the magnetic reconnection occurs. During the highly nonlinear ELM crash, the ELM filaments are cut from the main plasma due to the strong sheared mean flow that is nonlinearly generated via the Maxwell stress tensor.

  8. Direct imaging of topological edge states at a bilayer graphene domain wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Long-Jing; Jiang, Hua; Qiao, Jia-Bin; He, Lin

    2016-06-01

    The AB-BA domain wall in gapped graphene bilayers is a rare naked structure hosting topological electronic states. Although it has been extensively studied in theory, a direct imaging of its topological edge states is still missing. Here we image the topological edge states at the graphene bilayer domain wall by using scanning tunnelling microscope. The simultaneously obtained atomic-resolution images of the domain wall provide us unprecedented opportunities to measure the spatially varying edge states within it. The one-dimensional conducting channels are observed to be mainly located around the two edges of the domain wall, which is reproduced quite well by our theoretical calculations. Our experiment further demonstrates that the one-dimensional topological states are quite robust even in the presence of high magnetic fields. The result reported here may raise hopes of graphene-based electronics with ultra-low dissipation.

  9. Direct imaging of topological edge states at a bilayer graphene domain wall.

    PubMed

    Yin, Long-Jing; Jiang, Hua; Qiao, Jia-Bin; He, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The AB-BA domain wall in gapped graphene bilayers is a rare naked structure hosting topological electronic states. Although it has been extensively studied in theory, a direct imaging of its topological edge states is still missing. Here we image the topological edge states at the graphene bilayer domain wall by using scanning tunnelling microscope. The simultaneously obtained atomic-resolution images of the domain wall provide us unprecedented opportunities to measure the spatially varying edge states within it. The one-dimensional conducting channels are observed to be mainly located around the two edges of the domain wall, which is reproduced quite well by our theoretical calculations. Our experiment further demonstrates that the one-dimensional topological states are quite robust even in the presence of high magnetic fields. The result reported here may raise hopes of graphene-based electronics with ultra-low dissipation. PMID:27312315

  10. Direct imaging of topological edge states at a bilayer graphene domain wall

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Long-Jing; Jiang, Hua; Qiao, Jia-Bin; He, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The AB–BA domain wall in gapped graphene bilayers is a rare naked structure hosting topological electronic states. Although it has been extensively studied in theory, a direct imaging of its topological edge states is still missing. Here we image the topological edge states at the graphene bilayer domain wall by using scanning tunnelling microscope. The simultaneously obtained atomic-resolution images of the domain wall provide us unprecedented opportunities to measure the spatially varying edge states within it. The one-dimensional conducting channels are observed to be mainly located around the two edges of the domain wall, which is reproduced quite well by our theoretical calculations. Our experiment further demonstrates that the one-dimensional topological states are quite robust even in the presence of high magnetic fields. The result reported here may raise hopes of graphene-based electronics with ultra-low dissipation. PMID:27312315

  11. Heat diode and engine based on quantum Hall edge states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Rafael; Sothmann, Björn; Jordan, Andrew N.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate charge and energy transport in a three-terminal quantum Hall conductor. The peculiar properties of chiral propagation along the edges of the sample have important consequences on the response to thermal biases. Based on the separation of charge and heat flows, thermoelectric conversion and heat rectification can be manipulated by tuning the scattering at gate-modulated constrictions. Chiral motion in a magnetic field allows for a different behavior of left- and right-moving carriers giving rise to thermal rectification by redirecting the heat flows. We propose our system both as an efficient heat-to-work converter and as a heat diode.

  12. Identifying topological edge states in 2D optical lattices using light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Nathan; Beugnon, Jérôme; Gerbier, Fabrice

    2013-02-01

    We recently proposed in a Letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255303] a novel scheme to detect topological edge states in an optical lattice, based on a generalization of Bragg spectroscopy. The scope of the present article is to provide a more detailed and pedagogical description of the system - the Hofstadter optical lattice - and probing method. We first show the existence of topological edge states, in an ultra-cold gas trapped in a 2D optical lattice and subjected to a synthetic magnetic field. The remarkable robustness of the edge states is verified for a variety of external confining potentials. Then, we describe a specific laser probe, made from two lasers in Laguerre-Gaussian modes, which captures unambiguous signatures of these edge states. In particular, the resulting Bragg spectra provide the dispersion relation of the edge states, establishing their chiral nature. In order to make the Bragg signal experimentally detectable, we introduce a "shelving method", which simultaneously transfers angular momentum and changes the internal atomic state. This scheme allows to directly visualize the selected edge states on a dark background, offering an instructive view on topological insulating phases, not accessible in solid-state experiments.

  13. Electronic states of zigzag graphene nanoribbons with edges reconstructed with topological defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincak, R.; Smotlacha, J.; Osipov, V. A.

    2015-10-01

    The energy spectrum and electronic density of states (DOS) of zigzag graphene nanoribbons with edges reconstructed with topological defects are investigated within the tight-binding method. In case of the Stone-Wales zz(57) edge the low-energy spectrum is markedly changed in comparison to the pristine zz edge. We found that the electronic DOS at the Fermi level is different from zero at any width of graphene nanoribbons. In contrast, for ribbons with heptagons only at one side and pentagons at another one the energy gap at the Fermi level is open and the DOS is equal to zero. The reason is the influence of uncompensated topological charges on the localized edge states, which are topological in nature. This behavior is similar to that found for the structured external electric potentials along the edges.

  14. Bounds on probability of state transfer with respect to readout time and edge weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Whitney; Kirkland, Steve; Li, Chi-Kwong; Plosker, Sarah; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2016-02-01

    We analyze the sensitivity of a spin chain modeled by an undirected weighted connected graph exhibiting perfect state transfer to small perturbations in readout time and edge weight in order to obtain physically relevant bounds on the probability of state transfer. At the heart of our analysis is the concept of the numerical range of a matrix; our analysis of edge weight errors additionally makes use of the spectral and Frobenius norms.

  15. Finite size effects on the helical edge states on the Lieb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Chen; Bin, Zhou

    2016-06-01

    For a two-dimensional Lieb lattice, that is, a line-centered square lattice, the inclusion of the intrinsic spin-orbit (ISO) coupling opens a topologically nontrivial gap, and gives rise to the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect characterized by two pairs of gapless helical edge states within the bulk gap. Generally, due to the finite size effect in QSH systems, the edge states on the two sides of a strip of finite width can couple together to open a gap in the spectrum. In this paper, we investigate the finite size effect of helical edge states on the Lieb lattice with ISO coupling under three different kinds of boundary conditions, i.e., the straight, bearded and asymmetry edges. The spectrum and wave function of edge modes are derived analytically for a tight-binding model on the Lieb lattice. For a strip Lieb lattice with two straight edges, the ISO coupling induces the Dirac-like bulk states to localize at the edges to become the helical edge states with the same Dirac-like spectrum. Moreover, it is found that in the case with two straight edges the gapless Dirac-like spectrum remains unchanged with decreasing the width of the strip Lieb lattice, and no gap is opened in the edge band. It is concluded that the finite size effect of QSH states is absent in the case with the straight edges. However, in the other two cases with the bearded and asymmetry edges, the energy gap induced by the finite size effect is still opened with decreasing the width of the strip. It is also proposed that the edge band dispersion can be controlled by applying an on-site potential energy on the outermost atoms. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274102), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University of the Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. NCET-11-0960), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of the Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20134208110001).

  16. Finite size effects on the helical edge states on the Lieb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Chen; Bin, Zhou

    2016-06-01

    For a two-dimensional Lieb lattice, that is, a line-centered square lattice, the inclusion of the intrinsic spin–orbit (ISO) coupling opens a topologically nontrivial gap, and gives rise to the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect characterized by two pairs of gapless helical edge states within the bulk gap. Generally, due to the finite size effect in QSH systems, the edge states on the two sides of a strip of finite width can couple together to open a gap in the spectrum. In this paper, we investigate the finite size effect of helical edge states on the Lieb lattice with ISO coupling under three different kinds of boundary conditions, i.e., the straight, bearded and asymmetry edges. The spectrum and wave function of edge modes are derived analytically for a tight-binding model on the Lieb lattice. For a strip Lieb lattice with two straight edges, the ISO coupling induces the Dirac-like bulk states to localize at the edges to become the helical edge states with the same Dirac-like spectrum. Moreover, it is found that in the case with two straight edges the gapless Dirac-like spectrum remains unchanged with decreasing the width of the strip Lieb lattice, and no gap is opened in the edge band. It is concluded that the finite size effect of QSH states is absent in the case with the straight edges. However, in the other two cases with the bearded and asymmetry edges, the energy gap induced by the finite size effect is still opened with decreasing the width of the strip. It is also proposed that the edge band dispersion can be controlled by applying an on-site potential energy on the outermost atoms. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274102), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University of the Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. NCET-11-0960), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of the Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20134208110001).

  17. Time-of-Flight Measurements of Single-Electron Wave Packets in Quantum Hall Edge States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, M.; Johnson, N.; Emary, C.; See, P.; Griffiths, J. P.; Jones, G. A. C.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Pepper, M.; Janssen, T. J. B. M.

    2016-03-01

    We report time-of-flight measurements on electrons traveling in quantum Hall edge states. Hot-electron wave packets are emitted one per cycle into edge states formed along a depleted sample boundary. The electron arrival time is detected by driving a detector barrier with a square wave that acts as a shutter. By adding an extra path using a deflection barrier, we measure a delay in the arrival time, from which the edge-state velocity v is deduced. We find that v follows 1 /B dependence, in good agreement with the E →×B → drift. The edge potential is estimated from the energy dependence of v using a harmonic approximation.

  18. Decoherence of high-energy electrons in weakly disordered quantum Hall edge states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigg, Simon E.; Lunde, Anders Mathias

    2016-07-01

    We investigate theoretically the phase coherence of electron transport in edge states of the integer quantum Hall effect at filling factor ν =2 , in the presence of disorder and inter edge state Coulomb interaction. Within a Fokker-Planck approach, we calculate analytically the visibility of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of the current through an electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In agreement with recent experiments, we find that the visibility is independent of the energy of the current-carrying electrons injected high above the Fermi sea. Instead, it is the amount of disorder at the edge that sets the phase space available for inter edge state energy exchange and thereby controls the visibility suppression.

  19. Stability of graphene edges under electron beam: equilibrium energetics versus dynamic effects.

    PubMed

    Kotakoski, Jani; Santos-Cottin, David; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V

    2012-01-24

    Electron beam of a transmission electron microscope can be used to alter the morphology of graphene nanoribbons and create atomically sharp edges required for applications of graphene in nanoelectronics. Using density-functional-theory-based simulations, we study the radiation hardness of graphene edges and show that the response of the ribbons to irradiation is not determined by the equilibrium energetics as assumed in previous experiments, but by kinetic effects associated with the dynamics of the edge atoms after impacts of energetic electrons. We report an unexpectedly high stability of armchair edges, comparable to that of pristine graphene, and demonstrate that the electron energy should be below ~50 keV to minimize the knock-on damage.

  20. Island-dynamics model for mound formation: effect of a step-edge barrier.

    PubMed

    Papac, Joe; Margetis, Dionisios; Gibou, Frederic; Ratsch, Christian

    2014-08-01

    We formulate and implement a generalized island-dynamics model of epitaxial growth based on the level-set technique to include the effect of an additional energy barrier for the attachment and detachment of atoms at step edges. For this purpose, we invoke a mixed, Robin-type, boundary condition for the flux of adsorbed atoms (adatoms) at each step edge. In addition, we provide an analytic expression for the requisite equilibrium adatom concentration at the island boundary. The only inputs are atomistic kinetic rates. We present a numerical scheme for solving the adatom diffusion equation with such a mixed boundary condition. Our simulation results demonstrate that mounds form when the step-edge barrier is included, and that these mounds steepen as the step-edge barrier increases. PMID:25215739

  1. A numerical and experimental study of the effects of dynamic roughness on laminar leading edge separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, Peter D.

    The aircraft industry, as a whole, has been deeply concerned with improving the aerodynamic efficiency of current and future flight vehicles, particularly in the commercial and military markets. However, of particular interest to the field of aerodynamics is the elusive concept of a workable flow control mechanism. Effective flow control is a concept which if properly applied can increase aerodynamic efficiency. Various concepts and ideas to obtain successful flow control have been studied in an attempt to reap these rewards. Some examples include boundary layer blowing (steady and periodic), suction, and compliant walls for laminar flow control. The overall goal of flow control is to increase performance by increasing lift, reducing drag, and delaying or eliminating leading edge separation. The specific objectives of flow control are to (1) delay or eliminate flow separation, (2) delay boundary layer transition, and (3) and reduce skin friction drag. The purpose of this research is to investigate dynamic roughness as a novel method of flow control technology for external boundary layer flows. As opposed to standard surface roughness, dynamic roughness incorporates small time dependent perturbations to the surface of the airfoil. These surface perturbations are actual humps and/or ridges on the surface of the airfoil that are on the scale of the laminar boundary, and oscillate with an unsteady motion. Research has shown that this can provide a means to modify the instantaneous and mean velocity profile near the wall and favorably control the existing state of the boundary layer. Several flow control parameters were studied including dynamic roughness frequency, amplitude, and geometry. The results of this study have shown, both numerically and experimentally, that dynamic roughness can provide an effective means for eliminating both a short and long laminar separation bubble and possibly prove a viable alternative in effective flow control, hence reaping some of

  2. Generic helical edge states due to Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Laura; Molina, Rafael A.; Platero, Gloria; Lunde, Anders Mathias

    2016-05-01

    We study the helical edge states of a two-dimensional topological insulator without axial spin symmetry due to the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. Lack of axial spin symmetry can lead to so-called generic helical edge states, which have energy-dependent spin orientation. This opens the possibility of inelastic backscattering and thereby nonquantized transport. Here we find analytically the new dispersion relations and the energy dependent spin orientation of the generic helical edge states in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling within the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model, for both a single isolated edge and for a finite width ribbon. In the single-edge case, we analytically quantify the energy dependence of the spin orientation, which turns out to be weak for a realistic HgTe quantum well. Nevertheless, finite size effects combined with Rashba spin-orbit coupling result in two avoided crossings in the energy dispersions, where the spin orientation variation of the edge states is very significantly increased for realistic parameters. Finally, our analytical results are found to compare well to a numerical tight-binding regularization of the model.

  3. Electric field control of spin-resolved edge states in graphene quantum nanorings

    SciTech Connect

    Farghadan, R.; Saffarzadeh, A.

    2014-05-07

    The electric-field effect on the electronic and magnetic properties of triangular and hexagonal graphene quantum rings with zigzag edge termination is investigated by means of the single-band tight-binding Hamiltonian and the mean-field Hubbard model. It is shown how the electron and spin states in the nanoring structures can be manipulated by applying an electric field. We find different spin-depolarization behaviors with variation of electric field strength due to the dependence of spin densities on the shapes and edges of this kind of nanorings. In the case of triangular quantum rings, the magnetization on the inner and outer edges can be selectively tuned and the spin states depolarize gradually as the field strength is increased, while in the case of hexagonal nanorings, the transverse electric field reduces the magnetic moments on both inner and outer edges symmetrically and rapidly.

  4. Zero-field Dissipationless Chiral Edge Current in Quantum Anomalous Hall State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Cui-Zu; Zhao, Weiwei; Kim, Duk Y.; Wei, Peng; Jain, J. K.; Liu, Chaoxing; Chan, Moses H. W.; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.

    The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state is predicted to possess, at zero magnetic field, chiral edge channels that conduct spin polarized current without dissipation, and thus holds great promise for future high-performance information processing. In this talk, we will discuss our transport experiments that probe the QAH state with gate bias and temperature dependences, by local and nonlocal magnetoresistance measurements. This allows us to unambiguously distinguish the dissipationless edge transport from transport via other dissipative channels in the QAH system. Our experiments confirm a fundamental feature of the QAH state, namely the dissipationless transport by edge channels in zero applied fields, which will be crucial for future chiral interconnected electric and spintronic applications. This research is supported by the NSF Grants (DMR-1420620, Penn State MRSEC; in MIT by DMR-1207469 and the STC Center for Integrated Quantum Materials under NSF Grant DMR-1231319) and by ONR Grant N00014-13-1-0301.

  5. Dynamic vortex interactions with flexible fibers and edges for prediction of owl noise suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korykora, Sarah; Jaworski, Justin

    2015-11-01

    The compliant trailing-edge fringe of owls and the soft downy material on their upper wing surfaces are thought to enable their silent flight by weakening the interaction of boundary layer turbulence with these flexible structures. Previous analysis of turbulence noise generation by wave-bearing elastic edges have shown that the far-field acoustic power scaling can be weakened by up to the square of the Mach number relative to a rigid edge. However, it is unclear whether or not the wave-bearing feature or simply the flexible nature of the edge scatterer produces this noise suppression. To assess this distinction, a dynamic vortex interaction model is developed whereby the motion of a line vortex round a rigid but elastically-restrained wall-mounted fiber or trailing edge is determined numerically. Special attention is paid to the dynamic interaction between the flexible structure and vortex, which is accomplished via a conformal mapping relationship determined in closed form. Results from this analysis seek to develop a vortex sound model to discern the effect of flexible versus wave-bearing scatterers on turbulence noise suppression and help explain the mechanisms of silent owl flight.

  6. Shot noise in the edge states of two-dimensional topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aseev, P. P.; Nagaev, K. E.

    2016-07-01

    We calculate the resistance and shot noise in the edge states of a two-dimensional topological insulator that result from the exchange of electrons between these states and conducting puddles in the bulk of the insulator. The two limiting cases where the energy relaxation is either absent or very strong are considered. A finite time of spin relaxation in the puddles is introduced phenomenologically. Depending on this time and on the strength of coupling between the edge states and the puddles, the Fano factor F =SI/2 e I ranges from 0 to 1/3, which is in an agreement with the available experimental data.

  7. Quantum Hall edge states in topological insulator nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertsova, A.; Canali, C. M.; MacDonald, A. H.

    2016-09-01

    We present a microscopic theory of the chiral one-dimensional electron gas system localized on the sidewalls of magnetically doped Bi2Se3 -family topological insulator nanoribbons in the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) regime. Our theory is based on a simple continuum model of sidewall states whose parameters are extracted from detailed ribbon and film geometry tight-binding model calculations. In contrast to the familiar case of the quantum Hall effect in semiconductor quantum wells, the number of microscopic chiral channels depends simply and systematically on the ribbon thickness and on the position of the Fermi level within the surface state gap. We use our theory to interpret recent transport experiments that exhibit nonzero longitudinal resistance in samples with accurately quantized Hall conductances.

  8. Observation of helical edge states and fractional quantum Hall effect in a graphene electron-hole bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jason Yuanhong; Sanchez-Yamagishi, Javier; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    1D electronic systems are common theoretical building blocks for constructing quantum circuits, motivating a search for new experimental systems where 1D edge states of different quantum numbers can be coupled to each other by design. Twisted bilayer graphene allows for the stacking of two separate 1D quantum hall edge states, thus providing a natural sandbox for studying different types of edge state interactions. Via doping to form an electron-hole bilayer at moderate magnetic fields, we can induce edge modes of opposite chiralities and spin polarizations on different layers, thereby creating helical edge states reminiscent of a two-dimensional quantum spin Hall system. We report magnetotransport measurements of high-quality twisted bilayer graphene, showing how non-local measurements allow us to elucidate the nature and robustness of the helical edge states, as well as hints of fractional edge state interactions that are observable at higher magnetic fields.

  9. Properties of Edge States at the Graphene P-N Junction Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Son; Klimov, Nikolai; Newell, David; Yan, Jun; Lee, Ji Ung; Richter, Curt

    The Landau level edge states from the p- and the n-section of a graphene P/N junction (pnJ) interact with each other differently across the junction depending upon the properties of the junction and the graphene. Full equilibration was reported for a two terminal graphene pnJ device in Williams et al.. In our four-terminal device, however, only the lowest Landau level edge state is equilibrated across the pnJ. When the two devices are compared, the LL energy spacings, the length of the edge states along the pnJ interface, and the carrier mobility are similar. Electrostatic simulations for our device geometry and that of contrast the rate of change of the electrostatic potential across the pnJs. Edge states at an electrostatically smooth junction are spatially further apart than those at a relatively abrupt junction, which decreases the probability of edge states mixing. Thus, we attribute the difference in equilibration in our device and that of to the dramatic difference in the shape of the electrostatic junction.

  10. Peptide-induced membrane curvature in edge-stabilized open bilayers: A theoretical and molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannuzzo, Martina; Raudino, Antonio; Böckmann, Rainer A.

    2014-07-01

    Peptide- or protein-induced curvatures of lipid membranes may be studied in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In these, membranes are usually modeled as infinitely extended bilayers by using periodic boundary conditions. However, the enforced periodicity results in an underestimation of the bending power of peptides, unless the patch size is much larger than the induced curvature radii. In this letter, we propose a novel approach to evaluate the bending power of a given distribution and/or density of peptides based on the use of flat open-edged lipid patches. To ensure long-lived metastable structures, the patch rim is stabilized in MD simulations by a local enrichment with short-chain lipids. By combining the theory of continuum elastic media with MD simulations, we prove that open-edged patches evolve from a planar state to a closed vesicle, with a transition rate that strongly depends on the concentration of lipid soluble peptides. For close-to-critical values for the patch size and edge energy, the response to even small changes in peptide concentration adopts a transition-like behavior (buckling instability). The usage of open-edged membrane patches amplifies the bending power of peptides, thereby enabling the analysis of the structural properties of membrane-peptide systems. We applied the presented method to investigate the curvature induced by aggregating β -amyloid peptides, unraveling a strong sensitivity of membrane deformation to the peptide concentration.

  11. Image analysis tools to quantify cell shape and protein dynamics near the leading edge.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Gillian L; Watanabe, Naoki; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    We present a set of flexible image analysis tools to analyze dynamics of cell shape and protein concentrations near the leading edge of cells adhered to glass coverslips. Plugins for ImageJ streamline common analyses of microscopic images of cells, including the calculation of leading edge speeds, total and average intensities of fluorescent markers, and retrograde flow rate measurements of fluorescent single-molecule speckles. We also provide automated calculations of auto- and cross-correlation functions between velocity and intensity measurements. The application of the methods is illustrated on images of XTC cells.

  12. Adaptation to the edge of chaos and critical scaling in self-adjusting dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melby, Paul Christian

    We present a mechanism for adaptation in dynamical systems. Systems which have this mechanism are called self-adjusting systems. The control parameters in a self-adjusting system are slowly varying, rather than constant. The dynamics of the control parameters are governed by a low-pass filtered feedback from the dynamical variables. We apply this model to several systems, numerically, analytically, and experimentally, and examine the behavior of the control parameters. We observe a high probability of finding the parameter at the boundary between periodicity and chaos. We therefore find that self-adjusting systems adapt to the edge of chaos. In addition, we find that noise in the system drives the parameter away from the edge of chaos on very long timescales so that chaos is suppressed in the system. We show that, with the presence of noise, the parameter can re-enter the chaotic regime. This is called a chaotic outbreak in the system and we find that the distribution of outbreaks is a power-law with the duration of the outbreak. We then study the robustness of adaptation to the edge of chaos by examining the effect of a control force being applied to the parameter. We find the behavior to be very robust, except for very large control forces. Finally, we look at systems of coupled maps and show that, adaptation to the edge of chaos occurs in systems of higher dimensions, as well.

  13. State-dependent molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ciann-Dong; Weng, Hung-Jen

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new mixed quantum mechanics (QM)-molecular mechanics (MM) approach, where MM is replaced by quantum Hamilton mechanics (QHM), which inherits the modeling capability of MM, while preserving the state-dependent nature of QM. QHM, a single mechanics playing the roles of QM and MM simultaneously, will be employed here to derive the three-dimensional quantum dynamics of diatomic molecules. The resulting state-dependent molecular dynamics including vibration, rotation and spin are shown to completely agree with the QM description and well match the experimental vibration-rotation spectrum. QHM can be incorporated into the framework of a mixed quantum-classical Bohmian method to enable a trajectory interpretation of orbital-spin interaction and spin entanglement in molecular dynamics.

  14. Probing edge-localized states of graphene quantum dots on Co(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Daejin; Rim, Kwang; Zhou, Hui; Lefenfeld, Michael; Liu, Li; Xiao, Shengxiong; Nuckolls, Colin; Flynn, George; Heinz, Tony

    2008-03-01

    Two-dimensional graphene sheets of finite lateral extent are expected to show characteristic edge states at their boundaries. In particular, for zigzag edges, highly degenerate localized states have been predicted theoretically (Ref. 1) and probed by STM (Ref. 2). Such boundary effects are expected to be particularly prominent for nanometer-scale graphene quantum dots, structures for which the proportion of edge atoms is significant. In this paper we present investigations of graphene quantum dots that we have prepared by annealing carbon- bearing precursor molecules on a Co(0001) surface. Using scanning tunneling microscopy as a local probe of the physical and electronic structure, we report results on the nature of edge states for quantum dots of differing geometrical shape. We observed prominent edge-localized states for triangular quantum dots, whereas these features are suppressed for quantum dots of hexagonal shape. These observations are consistent with numerical simulations of the expected electronic structure. 1. M. Fujita et. al., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 65, 1920 (1996) 2. Y. Niimi et. al., Phys. Rev. B 73, 085421 (2006)

  15. Energy Bandgap and Edge States in an Epitaxially Grown Graphene/h-BN Heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Beomyong; Hwang, Jeongwoon; Yoon, Jong Keon; Lim, Sungjun; Kim, Sungmin; Lee, Minjun; Kwon, Jeong Hoon; Baek, Hongwoo; Sung, Dongchul; Kim, Gunn; Hong, Suklyun; Ihm, Jisoon; Stroscio, Joseph A; Kuk, Young

    2016-01-01

    Securing a semiconducting bandgap is essential for applying graphene layers in switching devices. Theoretical studies have suggested a created bulk bandgap in a graphene layer by introducing an asymmetry between the A and B sub-lattice sites. A recent transport measurement demonstrated the presence of a bandgap in a graphene layer where the asymmetry was introduced by placing a graphene layer on a hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) substrate. Similar bandgap has been observed in graphene layers on metal substrates by local probe measurements; however, this phenomenon has not been observed in graphene layers on a near-insulating substrate. Here, we present bulk bandgap-like features in a graphene layer epitaxially grown on an h-BN substrate using scanning tunneling spectroscopy. We observed edge states at zigzag edges, edge resonances at armchair edges, and bandgap-like features in the bulk. PMID:27503427

  16. Energy Bandgap and Edge States in an Epitaxially Grown Graphene/h-BN Heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Beomyong; Hwang, Jeongwoon; Yoon, Jong Keon; Lim, Sungjun; Kim, Sungmin; Lee, Minjun; Kwon, Jeong Hoon; Baek, Hongwoo; Sung, Dongchul; Kim, Gunn; Hong, Suklyun; Ihm, Jisoon; Stroscio, Joseph A.; Kuk, Young

    2016-08-01

    Securing a semiconducting bandgap is essential for applying graphene layers in switching devices. Theoretical studies have suggested a created bulk bandgap in a graphene layer by introducing an asymmetry between the A and B sub-lattice sites. A recent transport measurement demonstrated the presence of a bandgap in a graphene layer where the asymmetry was introduced by placing a graphene layer on a hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) substrate. Similar bandgap has been observed in graphene layers on metal substrates by local probe measurements; however, this phenomenon has not been observed in graphene layers on a near-insulating substrate. Here, we present bulk bandgap-like features in a graphene layer epitaxially grown on an h-BN substrate using scanning tunneling spectroscopy. We observed edge states at zigzag edges, edge resonances at armchair edges, and bandgap-like features in the bulk.

  17. PHYSICS. Observation of phononic helical edge states in a mechanical topological insulator.

    PubMed

    Süsstrunk, Roman; Huber, Sebastian D

    2015-07-01

    A topological insulator, as originally proposed for electrons governed by quantum mechanics, is characterized by a dichotomy between the interior and the edge of a finite system: The bulk has an energy gap, and the edges sustain excitations traversing this gap. However, it has remained an open question whether the same physics can be observed for systems obeying Newton's equations of motion. We conducted experiments to characterize the collective behavior of mechanical oscillators exhibiting the phenomenology of the quantum spin Hall effect. The phononic edge modes are shown to be helical, and we demonstrate their topological protection via the stability of the edge states against imperfections. Our results may enable the design of topological acoustic metamaterials that can capitalize on the stability of the surface phonons as reliable wave guides.

  18. Energy Bandgap and Edge States in an Epitaxially Grown Graphene/h-BN Heterostructure

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Beomyong; Hwang, Jeongwoon; Yoon, Jong Keon; Lim, Sungjun; Kim, Sungmin; Lee, Minjun; Kwon, Jeong Hoon; Baek, Hongwoo; Sung, Dongchul; Kim, Gunn; Hong, Suklyun; Ihm, Jisoon; Stroscio, Joseph A.; Kuk, Young

    2016-01-01

    Securing a semiconducting bandgap is essential for applying graphene layers in switching devices. Theoretical studies have suggested a created bulk bandgap in a graphene layer by introducing an asymmetry between the A and B sub-lattice sites. A recent transport measurement demonstrated the presence of a bandgap in a graphene layer where the asymmetry was introduced by placing a graphene layer on a hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) substrate. Similar bandgap has been observed in graphene layers on metal substrates by local probe measurements; however, this phenomenon has not been observed in graphene layers on a near-insulating substrate. Here, we present bulk bandgap-like features in a graphene layer epitaxially grown on an h-BN substrate using scanning tunneling spectroscopy. We observed edge states at zigzag edges, edge resonances at armchair edges, and bandgap-like features in the bulk. PMID:27503427

  19. Energy Bandgap and Edge States in an Epitaxially Grown Graphene/h-BN Heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Beomyong; Hwang, Jeongwoon; Yoon, Jong Keon; Lim, Sungjun; Kim, Sungmin; Lee, Minjun; Kwon, Jeong Hoon; Baek, Hongwoo; Sung, Dongchul; Kim, Gunn; Hong, Suklyun; Ihm, Jisoon; Stroscio, Joseph A; Kuk, Young

    2016-08-09

    Securing a semiconducting bandgap is essential for applying graphene layers in switching devices. Theoretical studies have suggested a created bulk bandgap in a graphene layer by introducing an asymmetry between the A and B sub-lattice sites. A recent transport measurement demonstrated the presence of a bandgap in a graphene layer where the asymmetry was introduced by placing a graphene layer on a hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) substrate. Similar bandgap has been observed in graphene layers on metal substrates by local probe measurements; however, this phenomenon has not been observed in graphene layers on a near-insulating substrate. Here, we present bulk bandgap-like features in a graphene layer epitaxially grown on an h-BN substrate using scanning tunneling spectroscopy. We observed edge states at zigzag edges, edge resonances at armchair edges, and bandgap-like features in the bulk.

  20. Robustness of topologically protected edge states in quantum walk experiments with neutral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, Thorsten; Brakhane, Stefan; Alt, Wolfgang; Meschede, Dieter; Asbóth, Janos K.; Alberti, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Discrete-time quantum walks allow Floquet topological insulator materials to be explored using controllable systems such as ultracold atoms in optical lattices. By numerical simulations, we study the robustness of topologically protected edge states in the presence of decoherence in one- and two-dimensional discrete-time quantum walks. We also develop a simple analytical model quantifying the robustness of these edge states against either spin or spatial dephasing, predicting an exponential decay of the population of topologically protected edge states. Moreover, we present an experimental proposal based on neutral atoms in spin-dependent optical lattices to realize spatial boundaries between distinct topological phases. Our proposal includes also a scheme to implement spin-dependent discrete shift operations in a two-dimensional optical lattice. We analyze under realistic decoherence conditions the experimental feasibility of observing unidirectional, dissipationless transport of matter waves along boundaries separating distinct topological domains.

  1. Edge state magnetism in zigzag-interfaced graphene via spin susceptibility measurements

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, T. L.; Shelankov, A. L.; Zyrianova, A. A.; Veinger, A. I.; Tisnek, T. V.; Lähderanta, E.; Shames, A. I.; Okotrub, A. V.; Bulusheva, L. G.; Chekhova, G. N.; Pinakov, D. V.; Asanov, I. P.; Šljivančanin, Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Development of graphene spintronic devices relies on transforming it into a material with a spin order. Attempts to make graphene magnetic by introducing zigzag edge states have failed due to energetically unstable structure of torn zigzag edges. Here, we report on the formation of nanoridges, i.e., stable crystallographically oriented fluorine monoatomic chains, and provide experimental evidence for strongly coupled magnetic states at the graphene-fluorographene interfaces. From the first principle calculations, the spins at the localized edge states are ferromagnetically ordered within each of the zigzag interface whereas the spin interaction across a nanoridge is antiferromagnetic. Magnetic susceptibility data agree with this physical picture and exhibit behaviour typical of quantum spin-ladder system with ferromagnetic legs and antiferromagnetic rungs. The exchange coupling constant along the rungs is measured to be 450 K. The coupling is strong enough to consider graphene with fluorine nanoridges as a candidate for a room temperature spintronics material. PMID:26307529

  2. Edge state magnetism in zigzag-interfaced graphene via spin susceptibility measurements.

    PubMed

    Makarova, T L; Shelankov, A L; Zyrianova, A A; Veinger, A I; Tisnek, T V; Lähderanta, E; Shames, A I; Okotrub, A V; Bulusheva, L G; Chekhova, G N; Pinakov, D V; Asanov, I P; Šljivančanin, Ž

    2015-01-01

    Development of graphene spintronic devices relies on transforming it into a material with a spin order. Attempts to make graphene magnetic by introducing zigzag edge states have failed due to energetically unstable structure of torn zigzag edges. Here, we report on the formation of nanoridges, i.e., stable crystallographically oriented fluorine monoatomic chains, and provide experimental evidence for strongly coupled magnetic states at the graphene-fluorographene interfaces. From the first principle calculations, the spins at the localized edge states are ferromagnetically ordered within each of the zigzag interface whereas the spin interaction across a nanoridge is antiferromagnetic. Magnetic susceptibility data agree with this physical picture and exhibit behaviour typical of quantum spin-ladder system with ferromagnetic legs and antiferromagnetic rungs. The exchange coupling constant along the rungs is measured to be 450 K. The coupling is strong enough to consider graphene with fluorine nanoridges as a candidate for a room temperature spintronics material.

  3. Impact of the pedestal plasma density on dynamics of edge localized mode crashes and energy loss scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X. Q.; Ma, J. F.; Li, G. Q.

    2014-12-15

    The latest BOUT++ studies show an emerging understanding of dynamics of edge localized mode (ELM) crashes and the consistent collisionality scaling of ELM energy losses with the world multi-tokamak database. A series of BOUT++ simulations are conducted to investigate the scaling characteristics of the ELM energy losses vs collisionality via a density scan. Linear results demonstrate that as the pedestal collisionality decreases, the growth rate of the peeling-ballooning modes decreases for high n but increases for low n (1 < n < 5), therefore the width of the growth rate spectrum γ(n) becomes narrower and the peak growth shifts to lower n. Nonlinear BOUT++ simulations show a two-stage process of ELM crash evolution of (i) initial bursts of pressure blob and void creation and (ii) inward void propagation. The inward void propagation stirs the top of pedestal plasma and yields an increasing ELM size with decreasing collisionality after a series of micro-bursts. The pedestal plasma density plays a major role in determining the ELM energy loss through its effect on the edge bootstrap current and ion diamagnetic stabilization. The critical trend emerges as a transition (1) linearly from ballooning-dominated states at high collisionality to peeling-dominated states at low collisionality with decreasing density and (2) nonlinearly from turbulence spreading dynamics at high collisionality into avalanche-like dynamics at low collisionality.

  4. Impact of the pedestal plasma density on dynamics of edge localized mode crashes and energy loss scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X. Q.; Ma, J. F.; Li, G. Q.

    2014-12-29

    The latest BOUT++ studies show an emerging understanding of dynamics of edge localized mode(ELM) crashes and the consistent collisionality scaling of ELMenergy losses with the world multi-tokamak database. A series of BOUT++ simulations are conducted to investigate the scaling characteristics of the ELMenergy losses vs collisionality via a density scan. Moreover, the linear results demonstrate that as the pedestal collisionality decreases, the growth rate of the peeling-ballooning modes decreases for high n but increases for low n (1 < n < 5), therefore the width of the growth rate spectrum γ(n) becomes narrower and the peak growth shifts to lower n. For nonlinear BOUT++ simulations show a two-stage process of ELM crash evolution of (i) initial bursts of pressure blob and void creation and (ii) inward void propagation. The inward void propagation stirs the top of pedestal plasma and yields an increasing ELM size with decreasing collisionality after a series of micro-bursts. The pedestal plasma density plays a major role in determining the ELMenergy loss through its effect on the edge bootstrap current and ion diamagnetic stabilization. Finally, the critical trend emerges as a transition (1) linearly from ballooning-dominated states at high collisionality to peeling-dominated states at low collisionality with decreasing density and (2) nonlinearly from turbulence spreading dynamics at high collisionality into avalanche-like dynamics at low collisionality.

  5. Impact of the pedestal plasma density on dynamics of edge localized mode crashes and energy loss scaling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, X. Q.; Ma, J. F.; Li, G. Q.

    2014-12-29

    The latest BOUT++ studies show an emerging understanding of dynamics of edge localized mode(ELM) crashes and the consistent collisionality scaling of ELMenergy losses with the world multi-tokamak database. A series of BOUT++ simulations are conducted to investigate the scaling characteristics of the ELMenergy losses vs collisionality via a density scan. Moreover, the linear results demonstrate that as the pedestal collisionality decreases, the growth rate of the peeling-ballooning modes decreases for high n but increases for low n (1 < n < 5), therefore the width of the growth rate spectrum γ(n) becomes narrower and the peak growth shifts to lowermore » n. For nonlinear BOUT++ simulations show a two-stage process of ELM crash evolution of (i) initial bursts of pressure blob and void creation and (ii) inward void propagation. The inward void propagation stirs the top of pedestal plasma and yields an increasing ELM size with decreasing collisionality after a series of micro-bursts. The pedestal plasma density plays a major role in determining the ELMenergy loss through its effect on the edge bootstrap current and ion diamagnetic stabilization. Finally, the critical trend emerges as a transition (1) linearly from ballooning-dominated states at high collisionality to peeling-dominated states at low collisionality with decreasing density and (2) nonlinearly from turbulence spreading dynamics at high collisionality into avalanche-like dynamics at low collisionality.« less

  6. Comparative dynamics of avian communities across edges and interiors of North American ecoregions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karanth, K.K.; Nichols, J.D.; Sauer, J.R.; Hines, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Aim Based on a priori hypotheses, we developed predictions about how avian communities might differ at the edges vs. interiors of ecoregions. Specifically, we predicted lower species richness and greater local turnover and extinction probabilities for regional edges. We tested these predictions using North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data across nine ecoregions over a 20-year time period. Location Data from 2238 BBS routes within nine ecoregions of the United States were used. Methods The estimation methods used accounted for species detection probabilities < 1. Parameter estimates for species richness, local turnover and extinction probabilities were obtained using the program COMDYN. We examined the difference in community-level parameters estimated from within exterior edges (the habitat interface between ecoregions), interior edges (the habitat interface between two bird conservation regions within the same ecoregion) and interior (habitat excluding interfaces). General linear models were constructed to examine sources of variation in community parameters for five ecoregions (containing all three habitat types) and all nine ecoregions (containing two habitat types). Results Analyses provided evidence that interior habitats and interior edges had on average higher bird species richness than exterior edges, providing some evidence of reduced species richness near habitat edges. Lower average extinction probabilities and turnover rates in interior habitats (five-region analysis) provided some support for our predictions about these quantities. However, analyses directed at all three response variables, i.e. species richness, local turnover, and local extinction probability, provided evidence of an interaction between habitat and region, indicating that the relationships did not hold in all regions. Main conclusions The overall predictions of lower species richness, higher local turnover and extinction probabilities in regional edge habitats, as opposed to

  7. Edge states of Sr2RuO4 detected by in-plane tunneling spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Kashiwaya, Hiromi; Kambara, Hiroshi; Furuta, Tsuyoshi; Yaguchi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yukio; Maeno, Yoshiteru

    2011-08-12

    Tunneling spectroscopy has been performed on Sr(2)RuO(4) searching for the edge states peculiar to topological superconductivity. Conductance spectra exhibit broad humps with three types of peak shape: domelike peak, split peak, and two-step peak. By comparing the experiments with predictions for unconventional superconductivity, these varieties are shown to originate from multiband chiral p-wave symmetry with weak anisotropy of pair amplitude. The broad hump in the conductance spectrum is a direct manifestation of the edge state due to chiral p-wave superconductivity.

  8. Tuning equilibration of quantum Hall edge states in graphene - Role of crossed electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Sudipta; Deshmukh, Mandar M.

    2016-07-01

    We probe quantum Hall effect in a tunable 1-D lateral superlattice (SL) in graphene created using electrostatic gates. Lack of equilibration is observed along edge states formed by electrostatic gates inside the superlattice. We create strong local electric field at the interface of regions of different charge densities. Crossed electric and magnetic fields modify the wavefunction of the Landau Levels (LLs) - a phenomenon unique to graphene. In the region of copropagating electrons and holes at the interface, the electric field is high enough to modify the Landau levels resulting in increased scattering that tunes equilibration of edge states and this results in large longitudinal resistance.

  9. Cascade of quantum phase transitions in tunnel-coupled edge states.

    PubMed

    Yang, I; Kang, W; Baldwin, K W; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W

    2004-02-01

    We report on the cascade of quantum phase transitions exhibited by tunnel-coupled edge states across a quantum Hall line junction. We identify a series of quantum critical points between successive strong and weak tunneling regimes in the zero-bias conductance. Scaling analysis shows that the conductance near the critical magnetic fields B(c) is a function of a single scaling argument /B-B(c)/T(-kappa), where the exponent kappa=0.42. This puzzling resemblance to a quantum Hall-insulator transition points to the importance of interedge correlation between the coupled edge states.

  10. LOGISTIC NETWORK REGRESSION FOR SCALABLE ANALYSIS OF NETWORKS WITH JOINT EDGE/VERTEX DYNAMICS

    PubMed Central

    Almquist, Zack W.; Butts, Carter T.

    2015-01-01

    Change in group size and composition has long been an important area of research in the social sciences. Similarly, interest in interaction dynamics has a long history in sociology and social psychology. However, the effects of endogenous group change on interaction dynamics are a surprisingly understudied area. One way to explore these relationships is through social network models. Network dynamics may be viewed as a process of change in the edge structure of a network, in the vertex set on which edges are defined, or in both simultaneously. Although early studies of such processes were primarily descriptive, recent work on this topic has increasingly turned to formal statistical models. Although showing great promise, many of these modern dynamic models are computationally intensive and scale very poorly in the size of the network under study and/or the number of time points considered. Likewise, currently used models focus on edge dynamics, with little support for endogenously changing vertex sets. Here, the authors show how an existing approach based on logistic network regression can be extended to serve as a highly scalable framework for modeling large networks with dynamic vertex sets. The authors place this approach within a general dynamic exponential family (exponential-family random graph modeling) context, clarifying the assumptions underlying the framework (and providing a clear path for extensions), and they show how model assessment methods for cross-sectional networks can be extended to the dynamic case. Finally, the authors illustrate this approach on a classic data set involving interactions among windsurfers on a California beach. PMID:26120218

  11. Spatially Resolving Spin-split Edge States of Chiral Graphene Nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crommie, M. F.

    2011-03-01

    A central question in the field of graphene-related research is how graphene behaves when it is patterned at the nanometer scale with different edge geometries. The most fundamental shape in this regard is the graphene nanoribbon (GNR), a narrow strip of graphene that is characterized by its width and chirality. GNRs have been predicted to exhibit a wide range of behavior that includes tunable energy gaps and unique 1D edge states with unusual magnetic structure. I will discuss a scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STS) study of GNRs that allows us to examine how GNR electronic structure depends on the chirality of atomically well-defined GNR edges. Our STS measurements reveal the presence of 1D GNR edge states that closely match theoretical expectations for GNRs of similar width and chirality. We additionally observe width-dependent energy splitting in GNR edge states, providing compelling evidence of their magnetic nature. This work performed in collaboration with Chenggang Tao, Liying Jiao, Oleg V. Yazyev, Yen-Chia Chen, Juanjuan Feng, Xiaowei Zhang, Rodrigo B. Capaz, James M. Tour, Alex Zettl, Steven G. Louie, and Hongjie Dai.

  12. Edge ion dynamics in H-mode discharges in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Groebner, R.J.; Burrell, K.H.; Gohil, P.; Kim, J.; Seraydarian, R.P.

    1992-05-01

    The goal of this paper is to present detailed measurements of T{sub i} and E{sub r} at the plasma edge in L- and H-mode with high spatial resolution in order the study the edge ion dynamics. Of primary interest is the relationship between T{sub i} and E{sub r} and the behavior of the edge T{sub i} profile in H-mode. The principle findings are: there appears to be a threshold temperature for T{sub i} required for the transition to occur with T{sub i} at the LCFS in the range of 0.2--0.3 keV at the transition; a correlation between the edge E{sub r} profile and the edge T{sub i} profile has been observed; and values of T{sub i} of 2--3 keV within a few cm of the LCFS and of dT{sub i}/dr of up to 1 keV/cm are observed in the transport barrier in H-mode, with the scale length for T{sub i} being of the order of a poloidal gyroradius.

  13. Topological phase transition and quantum spin Hall edge states of antimony few layers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hwan; Jin, Kyung-Hwan; Park, Joonbum; Kim, Jun Sung; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Yeom, Han Woong

    2016-01-01

    While two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TI’s) initiated the field of topological materials, only very few materials were discovered to date and the direct access to their quantum spin Hall edge states has been challenging due to material issues. Here, we introduce a new 2D TI material, Sb few layer films. Electronic structures of ultrathin Sb islands grown on Bi2Te2Se are investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy. The maps of local density of states clearly identify robust edge electronic states over the thickness of three bilayers in clear contrast to thinner islands. This indicates that topological edge states emerge through a 2D topological phase transition predicted between three and four bilayer films in recent theory. The non-trivial phase transition and edge states are confirmed for epitaxial films by extensive density-functional-theory calculations. This work provides an important material platform to exploit microscopic aspects of the quantum spin Hall phase and its quantum phase transition. PMID:27624972

  14. Topological Edge States with Zero Hall Conductivity in a Dimerized Hofstadter Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Alexander; Ortix, Carmine; van den Brink, Jeroen

    The Hofstadter model is one of the most celebrated models for the study of topological properties of matter and allows the study of the quantum Hall effect in a lattice system. Indeed, the Hofstadter Hamiltonian harbors the topological chiral edge states that are responsible for the quantized Hall conductivity. Here, we show that a lattice dimerization in the Hofstadter model opens an energy gap at half-filling. What is more, we demonstrate that even if the ensuing insulator has a Chern number equal to zero, concomitantly a doublet of edge states appear that are pinned to specific momenta. We show that the presence of these states can be understood from the topological properties of lower dimensional cuts of the system, using a mapping of the Hofstadter Hamiltonian to a collection of one-dimensional Aubry-André-Harper (AAH) models. A sub-set of AAH chains in this collection preserve inversion symmetry. This guarantees the presence of topologically protected doublets of end modes to which the edge states are pinned. To explicitly prove the robustness of the emerging edge states, we define and calculate the topological invariant that protects them, which turns out to be an integer invariant for inversion-symmetric AAH models.

  15. Topological phase transition and quantum spin Hall edge states of antimony few layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Hwan; Jin, Kyung-Hwan; Park, Joonbum; Kim, Jun Sung; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Yeom, Han Woong

    2016-09-01

    While two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TI’s) initiated the field of topological materials, only very few materials were discovered to date and the direct access to their quantum spin Hall edge states has been challenging due to material issues. Here, we introduce a new 2D TI material, Sb few layer films. Electronic structures of ultrathin Sb islands grown on Bi2Te2Se are investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy. The maps of local density of states clearly identify robust edge electronic states over the thickness of three bilayers in clear contrast to thinner islands. This indicates that topological edge states emerge through a 2D topological phase transition predicted between three and four bilayer films in recent theory. The non-trivial phase transition and edge states are confirmed for epitaxial films by extensive density-functional-theory calculations. This work provides an important material platform to exploit microscopic aspects of the quantum spin Hall phase and its quantum phase transition.

  16. Selective Equilibration of Spin-Polarized Quantum Hall Edge States in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amet, F.; Williams, J. R.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.

    2014-05-01

    We report on transport measurements of dual-gated, single-layer graphene devices in the quantum Hall regime, allowing for independent control of the filling factors in adjoining regions. Progress in device quality allows us to study scattering between edge states when the fourfold degeneracy of the Landau level is lifted by electron correlations, causing edge states to be spin and/or valley polarized. In this new regime, we observe a dramatic departure from the equilibration seen in more disordered devices: edge states with opposite spins propagate without mixing. As a result, the degree of equilibration inferred from transport can reveal the spin polarization of the ground state at each filling factor. In particular, the first Landau level is shown to be spin polarized at half filling, providing an independent confirmation of a conclusion of Young et al. [Nat. Phys. 8, 550 (2012)]. The conductance in the bipolar regime is strongly suppressed, indicating that copropagating edge states, even with the same spin, do not equilibrate along PN interfaces. We attribute this behavior to the formation of an insulating ν =0 stripe at the PN interface.

  17. Topological phase transition and quantum spin Hall edge states of antimony few layers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Hwan; Jin, Kyung-Hwan; Park, Joonbum; Kim, Jun Sung; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Yeom, Han Woong

    2016-01-01

    While two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TI's) initiated the field of topological materials, only very few materials were discovered to date and the direct access to their quantum spin Hall edge states has been challenging due to material issues. Here, we introduce a new 2D TI material, Sb few layer films. Electronic structures of ultrathin Sb islands grown on Bi2Te2Se are investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy. The maps of local density of states clearly identify robust edge electronic states over the thickness of three bilayers in clear contrast to thinner islands. This indicates that topological edge states emerge through a 2D topological phase transition predicted between three and four bilayer films in recent theory. The non-trivial phase transition and edge states are confirmed for epitaxial films by extensive density-functional-theory calculations. This work provides an important material platform to exploit microscopic aspects of the quantum spin Hall phase and its quantum phase transition. PMID:27624972

  18. Filling the Bose sea: symmetric quantum Hall edge states and affine characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardonne, Eddy; Kedem, Rinat; Stone, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We explore the structure of the bosonic analogues of the k-clustered 'parafermion' quantum Hall states. We show how the many-boson wavefunctions of k-clustered quantum Hall droplets appear naturally as matrix elements of ladder operators in integrable representations of the affine Lie algebra \\widehat{su}(2)_k . Using results of Feigin and Stoyanovsky, we count the dimensions of spaces of symmetric polynomials with given k-clustering properties and show that as the droplet size grows the partition function of its edge excitations evolves into the character of the representation. This confirms that the Hilbert space of edge states coincides with the representation space of the \\widehat{su}(2)_k edge-current algebra. We also show that a spin-singlet, two-component k-clustered boson fluid is similarly related to integrable representations of \\widehat{su}(3) . Parafermions are not necessary for these constructions.

  19. Direct imaging of topological edge states in cold-atom systems.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Nathan; Dalibard, Jean; Dauphin, Alexandre; Gerbier, Fabrice; Lewenstein, Maciej; Zoller, Peter; Spielman, Ian B

    2013-04-23

    Detecting topological order in cold-atom experiments is an ongoing challenge, the resolution of which offers novel perspectives on topological matter. In material systems, unambiguous signatures of topological order exist for topological insulators and quantum Hall devices. In quantum Hall systems, the quantized conductivity and the associated robust propagating edge modes--guaranteed by the existence of nontrivial topological invariants--have been observed through transport and spectroscopy measurements. Here, we show that optical-lattice-based experiments can be tailored to directly visualize the propagation of topological edge modes. Our method is rooted in the unique capability for initially shaping the atomic gas and imaging its time evolution after suddenly removing the shaping potentials. Our scheme, applicable to an assortment of atomic topological phases, provides a method for imaging the dynamics of topological edge modes, directly revealing their angular velocity and spin structure.

  20. Shot-noise at a Fermi-edge singularity: Non-Markovian dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ubbelohde, N.; Maire, N.; Haug, R. J.; Roszak, K.; Hohls, F.; Novotný, T.

    2013-12-04

    For an InAs quantum dot we study the current shot noise at a Fermi-edge singularity in low temperature cross-correlation measurements. In the regime of the interaction effect the strong suppression of noise observed at zero magnetic field and the sequence of enhancement and suppression in magnetic field go beyond a Markovian master equation model. Qualitative and quantitative agreement can however be achieved by a generalized master equation model taking non-Markovian dynamics into account.

  1. Influence of the Geometry of Beveled Edges on the Stress-Strain State of Hydraulic Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyalich, G. B.; Anuchin, A. V.; Serikov, K. P.

    2016-04-01

    The studies were carried out to determine the influence of forms obtained when preparing edges for welding a cylinder for hydraulic legs; the maximum stresses were defined at the location of weld roots, depending on variable parameters. The stress-strain states were calculated using finite element method.

  2. Hierarchy of Floquet gaps and edge states for driven honeycomb lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Piskunow, P. M.; Foa Torres, L. E. F.; Usaj, Gonzalo

    2015-04-01

    Electromagnetic driving in a honeycomb lattice can induce gaps and topological edge states with a structure of increasing complexity as the frequency of the driving lowers. While the high-frequency case is the most simple to analyze we focus on the multiple photon processes allowed in the low-frequency regime to unveil the hierarchy of Floquet edge states. In the case of low intensities an analytical approach allows us to derive effective Hamiltonians and address the topological character of each gap in a constructive manner. At high intensities we obtain the net number of edge states, given by the winding number, with a numerical calculation of the Chern numbers of each Floquet band. Using these methods, we find a hierarchy that resembles that of a Russian nesting doll. This hierarchy classifies the gaps and the associated edge states in different orders according to the electron-photon coupling strength. For large driving intensities, we rely on the numerical calculation of the winding number, illustrated in a map of topological phase transitions. The hierarchy unveiled with the low-energy effective Hamiltonians, along with the map of topological phase transitions, discloses the complexity of the Floquet band structure in the low-frequency regime. The proposed method for obtaining the effective Hamiltonian can be easily adapted to other Dirac Hamiltonians of two-dimensional materials and even the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator.

  3. Transitions between dynamical behaviors of oscillator networks induced by diversity of nodes and edges.

    PubMed

    Werner, Sebastian; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2015-07-01

    We study the impact of dynamical and structural heterogeneity on the collective dynamics of large small-world networks of pulse-coupled integrate-and-fire oscillators endowed with refractory periods and time delay. Depending on the choice of homogeneous control parameters (here, refractoriness and coupling strength), these networks exhibit a large spectrum of dynamical behaviors, including asynchronous, partially synchronous, and fully synchronous states. Networks exhibit transitions between these dynamical behaviors upon introducing heterogeneity. We show that the probability for a network to exhibit a certain dynamical behavior (network susceptibility) is affected differently by dynamical and structural heterogeneity and depends on the respective homogeneous dynamics.

  4. Photonic simulation of topological superconductor edge state and zero-energy mode at a vortex.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei; Chen, Liang; Ji, Xia; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2014-12-09

    Photonic simulations of quantum Hall edge states and topological insulators have inspired considerable interest in recent years. Interestingly, there are theoretical predictions for another type of topological states in topological superconductors, but debates over their experimental observations still remain. Here we investigate the photonic analogue of the p(x) + ip(y) model of topological superconductor. Two essential characteristics of topological superconductor, particle-hole symmetry and p(x) + ip(y) pairing potentials, are well emulated in photonic systems. Its topological features are presented by chiral edge state and zero-energy mode at a vortex. This work may fertilize the study of photonic topological states, and open up the possibility for emulating wave behaviors in superconductors.

  5. Photonic simulation of topological superconductor edge state and zero-energy mode at a vortex

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wei; Chen, Liang; Ji, Xia; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Photonic simulations of quantum Hall edge states and topological insulators have inspired considerable interest in recent years. Interestingly, there are theoretical predictions for another type of topological states in topological superconductors, but debates over their experimental observations still remain. Here we investigate the photonic analogue of the px + ipy model of topological superconductor. Two essential characteristics of topological superconductor, particle-hole symmetry and px + ipy pairing potentials, are well emulated in photonic systems. Its topological features are presented by chiral edge state and zero-energy mode at a vortex. This work may fertilize the study of photonic topological states, and open up the possibility for emulating wave behaviors in superconductors. PMID:25488408

  6. Circularly polarized near-field optical mapping of spin-resolved quantum Hall chiral edge states.

    PubMed

    Mamyouda, Syuhei; Ito, Hironori; Shibata, Yusuke; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Masumi; Akazaki, Tatsushi; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Ootuka, Youiti; Nomura, Shintaro

    2015-04-01

    We have successfully developed a circularly polarized near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) that enables us to irradiate circularly polarized light with spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. As a demonstration, we perform real-space mapping of the quantum Hall chiral edge states near the edge of a Hall-bar structure by injecting spin polarized electrons optically at low temperature. The obtained real-space mappings show that spin-polarized electrons are injected optically to the two-dimensional electron layer. Our general method to locally inject spins using a circularly polarized NSOM should be broadly applicable to characterize a variety of nanomaterials and nanostructures.

  7. Dimensional and Mechanical Dynamics of Active and Stable Edges in Motile Fibroblasts Investigated by Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotsch, Christian; Jacobson, Ken; Radmacher, Manfred

    1999-02-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) was employed to investigate the extension and retraction dynamics of protruding and stable edges of motile 3T3 fibroblasts in culture. Such dynamics closely paralleled the results of earlier studies employing video microscopy that indicated that the AFM force-mapping technique does not appreciably perturb these dynamics. Force scans permitted height determinations of active and stable edges. Whereas the profiles of active edges are flat with average heights of 0.4-0.8 μ m, stable edges smoothly ascend to 2-3 μ m within about 6 μ m of the edge. In the region of the leading edge, the height fluctuates up to 50% (SD) of the mean value, much more than the stable edge; this fluctuation presumably reflects differences in underlying cytoskeletal activity. In addition, force mapping yields an estimate of the local Young's modulus or modulus of elasticity (E, the cortical stiffness). This stiffness will be related to "cortical tension," can be accurately calculated for the stable edges, and is ≈ 12 kPa in this case. The thinness of the leading edge precludes accurate estimation of the E values, but within 4 μ m of the margin it is considerably smaller than that for stable edges, which have an upper limit of 3-5 kPa. Although blebbing cannot absolutely be ruled out as a mechanism of extension, the data are consistent with an actin polymerization and/or myosin motor mechanism in which the average material properties of the extending margin would be nearly constant to the edge. Because the leading edge is softer than the stable edge, these data also are consistent with the notion that extension preferentially occurs in regions of lower cortical tension.

  8. On the dynamics of flame edges in diffusion-flame/vortex interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hermanns, Miguel; Linan, Amable; Vera, Marcos

    2007-04-15

    We analyze the local flame extinction and reignition of a counterflow diffusion flame perturbed by a laminar vortex ring. Local flame extinction leads to the appearance of flame edges separating the burning and extinguished regions of the distorted mixing layer. The dynamics of these edges is modeled based on previous numerical results, with heat release effects fully taken into account, which provide the propagation velocity of triple and edge flames in terms of the upstream unperturbed value of the scalar dissipation. The temporal evolution of the mixing layer is determined using the classical mixture fraction approach, with both unsteady and curvature effects taken into account. Although variable density effects play an important role in exothermic reacting mixing layers, in this paper the description of the mixing layer is carried out using the constant density approximation, leading to a simplified analytical description of the flow field. The mathematical model reveals the relevant nondimensional parameters governing diffusion-flame/vortex interactions and provides the parameter range for the more relevant regime of local flame extinction followed by reignition via flame edges. Despite the simplicity of the model, the results show very good agreement with previously published experimental results. (author)

  9. The effect of spin-orbit coupling in band structure and edge states of bilayer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Sahdan, Muhammad Fauzi; Darma, Yudi

    2015-04-16

    Topological insulators are predicted to be useful ranging from spintronics to quantum computation. Graphene was first predicted to be the precursor of topological insulator by Kane-Mele. They developed a Hamiltonian model to describe the gap opening in graphene. In this work, we investigate the band structure of bilayer grapheme and also its edge states by using this model with analytical approach. The results of our calculation show that the gap opening occurs at K and K’ point in bilayer graphene.In addition, a pair of gapless edge modes occurs both in the zigzag and arm-chair configurations are no longer exist. There are gap created at the edge even though thery are very small.

  10. Time-dependent simulation and analytical modelling of electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometry with edge-states wave packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beggi, Andrea; Bordone, Paolo; Buscemi, Fabrizio; Bertoni, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    We compute the exact single-particle time-resolved dynamics of electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometers based on Landau edge-states transport, and assess the effect of the spatial localization of carriers on the interference pattern. The exact carrier dynamics is obtained by solving numerically the time-dependent Schrödinger equation with a suitable 2D potential profile reproducing the interferometer design. An external magnetic field, driving the system to the quantum Hall regime with filling factor one, is included. The injected carriers are represented by a superposition of edge states, and their interference pattern—controlled via magnetic field and/or area variation—reproduces the one of (Ji et al 2003 Nature 422 415). By tuning the system towards different regimes, we find two additional features in the transmission spectra, both related to carrier localization, namely a damping of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations with increasing difference in the arms length, and an increased mean transmission that we trace to the energy-dependent transmittance of quantum point contacts. Finally, we present an analytical model, also accounting for the finite spatial dispersion of the carriers, able to reproduce the above effects.

  11. Time-dependent simulation and analytical modelling of electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometry with edge-states wave packets.

    PubMed

    Beggi, Andrea; Bordone, Paolo; Buscemi, Fabrizio; Bertoni, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    We compute the exact single-particle time-resolved dynamics of electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometers based on Landau edge-states transport, and assess the effect of the spatial localization of carriers on the interference pattern. The exact carrier dynamics is obtained by solving numerically the time-dependent Schrödinger equation with a suitable 2D potential profile reproducing the interferometer design. An external magnetic field, driving the system to the quantum Hall regime with filling factor one, is included. The injected carriers are represented by a superposition of edge states, and their interference pattern-controlled via magnetic field and/or area variation-reproduces the one of (Ji et al 2003 Nature 422 415). By tuning the system towards different regimes, we find two additional features in the transmission spectra, both related to carrier localization, namely a damping of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations with increasing difference in the arms length, and an increased mean transmission that we trace to the energy-dependent transmittance of quantum point contacts. Finally, we present an analytical model, also accounting for the finite spatial dispersion of the carriers, able to reproduce the above effects.

  12. Spatio-temporal co-ordination of RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42 activation during prototypical edge protrusion and retraction dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Katrin; Reimann, Andreas; Fritz, Rafael D.; Ryu, Hyunryul; Jeon, Noo Li; Pertz, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The three canonical Rho GTPases RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42 co-ordinate cytoskeletal dynamics. Recent studies indicate that all three Rho GTPases are activated at the leading edge of motile fibroblasts, where their activity fluctuates at subminute time and micrometer length scales. Here, we use a microfluidic chip to acutely manipulate fibroblast edge dynamics by applying pulses of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 (which lowers contractility). This induces acute and robust membrane protrusion and retraction events, that exhibit stereotyped cytoskeletal dynamics, allowing us to fairly compare specific morphodynamic states across experiments. Using a novel Cdc42, as well as previously described, second generation RhoA and Rac1 biosensors, we observe distinct spatio-temporal signaling programs that involve all three Rho GTPases, during protrusion/retraction edge dynamics. Our results suggest that Rac1, Cdc42 and RhoA regulate different cytoskeletal and adhesion processes to fine tune the highly plastic edge protrusion/retraction dynamics that power cell motility. PMID:26912264

  13. Formation and Development of the Dynamic Stall Vortex on a Wing with Leading Edge Tubercles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrynuk, John; Bohl, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    Humpback whales are unique in that their flippers have leading edge ``bumps'' or tubercles. Past work on airfoils inspired by whale flippers has centered on the static aerodynamic characteristics of these airfoils. The current study uses Molecular Tagging Velocimetry (MTV) to investigate the effects of tubercles on dynamically pitching NACA 0012 airfoils. A baseline (i.e. straight leading edge) wing and one modified with leading edge tubercles are investigated. Tracking of the Dynamic Stall Vortex (DSV) is performed to quantitatively compare the DSV formation location, path, and convective velocity for tubercled and baseline wings. The results show that there is a spanwise variation in the initial formation location and motion of the DSV on the modified wing. Once formed, the DSV aligns into a more uniform spanwise structure. As the pitching motion progresses, the DSV on the modified wing convects away from the airfoil surface later and slower than is observed for the baseline airfoil. The results indicate that the tubercles may delay stall when compared to the baseline airfoil. This work was supported by NSF Grant # 0845882.

  14. Long-distance entanglement of spin qubits via quantum Hall edge states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Hsu, Chen-Hsuan; Stano, Peter; Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    The implementation of a functional quantum computer involves entangling and coherent manipulation of a large number of qubits. For qubits based on electron spins confined in quantum dots, which are among the most investigated solid-state qubits at present, architectural challenges are often encountered in the design of quantum circuits attempting to assemble the qubits within the very limited space available. Here, we provide a solution to such challenges based on an approach to realizing entanglement of spin qubits over long distances. We show that long-range Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction of confined electron spins can be established by quantum Hall edge states, leading to an exchange coupling of spin qubits. The coupling is anisotropic and can be either Ising type or XY type, depending on the spin polarization of the edge state. Such a property, combined with the dependence of the electron spin susceptibility on the chirality of the edge state, can be utilized to gain valuable insights into the topological nature of various quantum Hall states.

  15. Long-distance entanglement of spin qubits via quantum Hall edge states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Hsu, Chen-Hsuan; Stano, Peter; Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel

    The implementation of a functional quantum computer involves entangling and coherent manipulation of a large number of qubits. For qubits based on electron spins confined in quantum dots, which are among the most investigated solid-state qubits at present, architectural challenges are often encountered in the design of quantum circuits attempting to assemble the qubits within the very limited space available. Here, we provide a solution to such challenges based on an approach to realizing entanglement of spin qubits over long distances. We show that long-range Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction of confined electron spins can be established by quantum Hall edge states, leading to an exchange coupling of spin qubits. The coupling is anisotropic and can be either Ising-type or XY-type, depending on the spin polarization of the edge state. Such a property, combined with the dependence of the electron-spin susceptibility on the chirality of the edge state, can be utilized to gain valuable insights into the topological nature of various quantum Hall states.

  16. Spectrally narrowed leaky waveguide edge emission and transient electrluminescent dynamics of OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhengqing, Gan

    2010-01-01

    In summary, there are two major research works presented in this dissertation. The first research project (Chapter 4) is spectrally narrowed edge emission from Organic Light Emitting Diodes. The second project (Chapter 5) is about transient electroluminescent dynamics in OLEDs. Chapter 1 is a general introduction of OLEDs. Chapter 2 is a general introduction of organic semiconductor lasers. Chapter 3 is a description of the thermal evaporation method for OLED fabrication. The detail of the first project was presented in Chapter 4. Extremely narrowed spectrum was observed from the edge of OLED devices. A threshold thickness exists, above which the spectrum is narrow, and below which the spectrum is broad. The FWHM of spectrum depends on the material of the organic thin films, the thickness of the organic layers, and length of the OLED device. A superlinear relationship between the output intensity of the edge emission and the length of the device was observed, which is probably due to the misalignment of the device edge and the optical fiber detector. The original motivation of this research is for organic semiconductor laser that hasn't been realized due to the extremely high photon absorption in OLED devices. Although we didn't succeed in fabricating an electrically pumped organic laser diode, we made a comprehensive research in edge emission of OLEDs which provides valuable results in understanding light distribution and propagation in OLED devices. Chapter 5 focuses on the second project. A strong spike was observed at the falling edge of a pulse, and a long tail followed. The spike was due to the recombination of correlated charge pair (CCP) created by trapped carriers in guest molecules of the recombination zone. When the bias was turned off, along with the decreasing of electric field in the device, the electric field induced quenching decreases and the recombination rate of the CCP increases which result in the spike. This research project provides a

  17. Seismic refraction study of the continental edge off the eastern united states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheridan, R.E.; Grow, J.A.; Behrendt, John C.; Bayer, K.C.

    1979-01-01

    Three long, strike-parallel, seismic-refraction profiles were made on the continental shelf edge, slope and upper rise off New Jersey during 1975. The shelf edge line lies along the axis of the East Coast Magnetic Anomaly (ECMA), while the continental rise line lies 80 km seaward of the shelf edge. Below the unconsolidated sediments (1.7-3.6 km/sec), high-velocity sedimentary rocks (4.2-6.2 km/sec) were found at depths of 2.6-8.2 km and are inferred to be cemented carbonates. Although multichannel seismic-reflection profiles and magnetic depth-to-source data predicted the top of oceanic basement at 6-8 km beneath the shelf edge and 10-11 km beneath the rise, no refracted events occurred as first arrivals from either oceanic basement (layer 2, approximately 5.5 km/ sec) or the upper oceanic crust (layer 3A, approximately 6.8 km/sec). Second arrivals from 10.5 km depth beneath the shelf edge are interpreted as events from a 5.9 km/sec refractor within igneous basement. Other refracted events from either layers 2 or 3A could not be resolved within the complex second arrivals. A well-defined crustal layer with a compressional velocity of 7.1-7.2 km/sec, which can be interpreted as oceanic layer 3B, occurred at 15.8 km depth beneath the shelf and 12.9 km beneath the upper rise. A well-reversed mantle velocity of 8.3 km/sec was measured at 18-22 km depth beneath the upper continental rise. Comparison with other deep-crustal profiles along the continental edge of the Atlantic margin off the United States, specifically in the inner magnetically quiet zone, indicates that the compressional wave velocities and layer depths determined on the U.S.G.S. profiles are very similar to those of nearby profiles. This suggests that the layers are continuous and that the interpretation of the oceanic layer 3B under the shelf edge east of New Jersey implies progradation of the shelf outward over the oceanic crust in that area. This agrees with magnetic anomaly evidence which shows the

  18. Dynamic Stall Measurements and Computations for a VR-12 Airfoil with a Variable Droop Leading Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, P. B.; McAlister, K. W.; Chandrasekhara, M. S.; Geissler, W.

    2003-01-01

    High density-altitude operations of helicopters with advanced performance and maneuver capabilities have lead to fundamental research on active high-lift system concepts for rotor blades. The requirement for this type of system was to improve the sectional lift-to-drag ratio by alleviating dynamic stall on the retreating blade while simultaneously reducing the transonic drag rise of the advancing blade. Both measured and computational results showed that a Variable Droop Leading Edge (VDLE) airfoil is a viable concept for application to a rotor high-lift system. Results are presented for a series of 2D compressible dynamic stall wind tunnel tests with supporting CFD results for selected test cases. These measurements and computations show a dramatic decrease in the drag and pitching moment associated with severe dynamic stall when the VDLE concept is applied to the Boeing VR-12 airfoil. Test results also show an elimination of the negative pitch damping observed in the baseline moment hysteresis curves.

  19. Pseudo-time-reversal symmetry and topological edge states in two-dimensional acoustic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Jun; Chen, Zeguo; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple two-dimensional acoustic crystal to realize topologically protected edge states for acoustic waves. The acoustic crystal is composed of a triangular array of core-shell cylinders embedded in a water host. By utilizing the point group symmetry of two doubly degenerate eigenstates at the Γ point, we can construct pseudo-time-reversal symmetry as well as pseudo-spin states in this classical system. We develop an effective Hamiltonian for the associated dispersion bands around the Brillouin zone center, and find the inherent link between the band inversion and the topological phase transition. With numerical simulations, we unambiguously demonstrate the unidirectional propagation of acoustic edge states along the interface between a topologically nontrivial acoustic crystal and a trivial one, and the robustness of the edge states against defects with sharp bends. Our work provides a new design paradigm for manipulating and transporting acoustic waves in a topologically protected manner. Technological applications and devices based on our design are expected in various frequency ranges of interest, spanning from infrasound to ultrasound. PMID:27587311

  20. Pseudo-time-reversal symmetry and topological edge states in two-dimensional acoustic crystals.

    PubMed

    Mei, Jun; Chen, Zeguo; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple two-dimensional acoustic crystal to realize topologically protected edge states for acoustic waves. The acoustic crystal is composed of a triangular array of core-shell cylinders embedded in a water host. By utilizing the point group symmetry of two doubly degenerate eigenstates at the Γ point, we can construct pseudo-time-reversal symmetry as well as pseudo-spin states in this classical system. We develop an effective Hamiltonian for the associated dispersion bands around the Brillouin zone center, and find the inherent link between the band inversion and the topological phase transition. With numerical simulations, we unambiguously demonstrate the unidirectional propagation of acoustic edge states along the interface between a topologically nontrivial acoustic crystal and a trivial one, and the robustness of the edge states against defects with sharp bends. Our work provides a new design paradigm for manipulating and transporting acoustic waves in a topologically protected manner. Technological applications and devices based on our design are expected in various frequency ranges of interest, spanning from infrasound to ultrasound. PMID:27587311

  1. Pseudo-time-reversal symmetry and topological edge states in two-dimensional acoustic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Jun; Chen, Zeguo; Wu, Ying

    2016-09-01

    We propose a simple two-dimensional acoustic crystal to realize topologically protected edge states for acoustic waves. The acoustic crystal is composed of a triangular array of core-shell cylinders embedded in a water host. By utilizing the point group symmetry of two doubly degenerate eigenstates at the Γ point, we can construct pseudo-time-reversal symmetry as well as pseudo-spin states in this classical system. We develop an effective Hamiltonian for the associated dispersion bands around the Brillouin zone center, and find the inherent link between the band inversion and the topological phase transition. With numerical simulations, we unambiguously demonstrate the unidirectional propagation of acoustic edge states along the interface between a topologically nontrivial acoustic crystal and a trivial one, and the robustness of the edge states against defects with sharp bends. Our work provides a new design paradigm for manipulating and transporting acoustic waves in a topologically protected manner. Technological applications and devices based on our design are expected in various frequency ranges of interest, spanning from infrasound to ultrasound.

  2. The use of bulk states to accelerate the band edge statecalculation of a semiconductor quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Vomel, Christof; Tomov, Stanimire Z.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Marques,Osni A.; Dongarra, Jack J.

    2006-05-10

    We present a new technique to accelerate the convergence of the folded spectrum method in empirical pseudopotential band edge state calculations for colloidal quantum dots. We use bulk band states of the materials constituent of the quantum dot to construct initial vectors and a preconditioner. We apply these to accelerate the convergence of the folded spectrum method for the interior states at the top of the valence and the bottom of the conduction band. For large CdSe quantum dots, the number of iteration steps until convergence decreases by about a factor of 4 compared to previous calculations.

  3. Theory of edge-state optical absorption in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide flakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trushin, Maxim; Kelleher, Edmund J. R.; Hasan, Tawfique

    2016-10-01

    We develop an analytical model to describe sub-band-gap optical absorption in two-dimensional semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide (s-TMD) nanoflakes. The material system represents an array of few-layer molybdenum disulfide crystals, randomly orientated in a polymer matrix. We propose that optical absorption involves direct transitions between electronic edge states and bulk bands, depends strongly on the carrier population, and is saturable with sufficient fluence. For excitation energies above half the band gap, the excess energy is absorbed by the edge-state electrons, elevating their effective temperature. Our analytical expressions for the linear and nonlinear absorption could prove useful tools in the design of practical photonic devices based on s-TMDs.

  4. Electrokinetic effects at the edge of silicon supported solid state nanopore membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulero, Rafael; Robiul Hossan, Mohammad; Dutta, Prashanta; Kim, Minjun

    2010-03-01

    The core motivation of research toward the use of nanopores as electrochemical transducers for genomic sequencing is the potential for rapid sequencing of minimally and inexpensively prepared nucleic acids of great length. Towards this, solid state nanopore arrays are anticipated to be incorporated in the completed solution because of their ability to parallelize the sequencing process resulting in extremely high throughput. Here we experimentally and numerically analyze the electrokinetic effects at the edge of the commonly used silicon supported solid state free standing membrane as a function of membrane chip's material properties and geometry. Experimentally we show regions of localized flow circulation near the edge of the freestanding membrane under commonly used DNA translocation experimental conditions. We investigate the circulation regions through numerical electrohydrodynamic flow simulation and postulate on its possible effect on long strand DNA experiments.

  5. Chiral and nonchiral edge states in quantum Hall systems with charge density modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumniak, Paweł; Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    We consider a system of weakly coupled wires with quantum Hall effect (QHE) and in the presence of a spatially periodic modulation of the chemical potential along the wire, equivalent to a charge density wave (CDW). We investigate the competition between the two effects which both open a gap. We show that by changing the ratio between the amplitudes of the CDW modulation and the tunneling between wires, one can switch between nontopological CDW-dominated phase to topological QHE-dominated phase. Both phases host edge states of chiral and nonchiral nature robust to on-site disorder. However, only in the topological phase, the edge states are immune to disorder in the phase shifts of the CDWs. We provide analytical solutions for filling factor ν =1 and study numerically effects of disorder as well as present numerical results for higher filling factors.

  6. Dynamical Instabilities in Relativistic Mean-Field Models and Inner Edge of the Compact Star Crust

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, Alexandre; Brito, Lucilia; Providencia, Constanca

    2010-04-26

    We take a dynamical spinodal approach to study the effects of different nuclear relativistic models on the instability zone of nuclear matter in beta equilibrium under the conditions expected to be found in the crust of neutron stars. In particular, we probe the predictive power of those models in the description of the inner edge of the crust. Pressure and the liquid-gas phase densities are evaluated and compared to the most recent 'pasta' phase results obtained with a Thomas-Fermi approach for the pasta phases. The collective response from n, p matter is also briefly commented.

  7. First principles calculation of oxygen K edge absorption spectrum of acetic acid: Relationship between the spectrum and molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Yoshiki; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu

    2016-04-01

    First principles calculation of the oxygen K-edge absorption near-edge structure of liquid acetic acid was performed to investigate the relationship between the spectrum and the molecular dynamics in a liquid. The single and double bonded oxygens gave strong peaks at different energies. A liquid model constructed using a molecular dynamics simulation reproduced the experimental spectrum. We revealed that the effect of the dynamic behavior of molecules in a liquid clearly appears in the particular peak from a single-bond oxygen. The relationship between the bonding nature and the dynamic information of a molecule in a spectrum was determined and presented.

  8. Effect of the edge states on the conductance and thermopower in zigzag phosphorene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, R.; Geng, H.; Deng, W. Y.; Chen, M. N.; Sheng, L.; Xing, D. Y.

    2016-09-01

    We study numerically the effect of the edge states on the conductance and thermopower in zigzag phosphorene nanoribbons (ZPNRs) based on the tight-binding model and the scattering-matrix method. It is interesting to find that the band dispersion, conductance, and thermopower can be modulated by applying a bias voltage and boundary potentials to the two layers of the ZPNRs. Under a certain bias voltage, the twofold-degenerate quasi-flat-edge bands split perfectly. The conductance can be switched off, and the thermopower around zero energy increases. In addition, when only the boundary potential of the top layer or bottom layer is adjusted, only one edge band bends and merges into the bulk band. The first conductance plateau is strongly decreased to e2/h around zero energy. In particular, when the two boundary potentials are adjusted, all the edge bands bend and fully merge into the bulk band, and the bulk energy gap is maximized. More interestingly, a pronounced conductance plateau with G =0 is found around zero energy, which is attributable to the opening of the bulk energy gap between the valence and conduction bands. Meanwhile, the thermopower can be enhanced more than twice compared to that of the perfect ZPNRs. The large magnitude of thermopower is ascribed to the appearance of the bulk energy gap around zero energy. Our results show that the modulated ZPNRs are more reliable in a thermoelectric application.

  9. Magnetic edge states and mixed-parity pairing in spin-triplet superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuoco, Mario; Gentile, Paola; Noce, Canio; Vekhter, Ilya; Romano, Alfonso

    2014-03-01

    We show that a spontaneous magnetic moment may appear at the edge of a spin-triplet superconductor if the system allows for pairing in a subdominant channel and non-uniform spatial profile. To unveil the microscopic mechanism behind such effect we combine numerical solution of the Bogoliubov-De Gennes equations for a tight-binding model with nearest-neighbor attraction, and the symmetry based Ginzburg-Landau approach. We find that a modulation of the electronic density near the edge of the system leads to a non-unitary superconducting state where spin-singlet pairing coexists with the dominant triplet superconducting order. We demonstrate that the spin polarization at the edge appears due to the inhomogeneity of the non-unitary state and originates in the lifting of the spin-degeneracy of the Andreev bound-states. For chiral spin-triplet superconductors spin current flows along the interface and surface charge currents exhibit anomalous dependence on the magnetization. - A. Romano, P. Gentile, C. Noce, I. Vekhter, M. Cuoco, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 267002 (2013). This research has received funding from the EU -FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement N. 264098 - MAMA, and was supported in part by US NSF via Grant No. DMR-1105339

  10. Dynamic representation of spectral edges in guinea pig primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Montejo, Noelia

    2015-01-01

    The central representation of a given acoustic motif is thought to be strongly context dependent, i.e., to rely on the spectrotemporal past and present of the acoustic mixture in which it is embedded. The present study investigated the cortical representation of spectral edges (i.e., where stimulus energy changes abruptly over frequency) and its dependence on stimulus duration and depth of the spectral contrast in guinea pig. We devised a stimulus ensemble composed of random tone pips with or without an attenuated frequency band (AFB) of variable depth. Additionally, the multitone ensemble with AFB was interleaved with periods of silence or with multitone ensembles without AFB. We have shown that the representation of the frequencies near but outside the AFB is greatly enhanced, whereas the representation of frequencies near and inside the AFB is strongly suppressed. These cortical changes depend on the depth of the AFB: although they are maximal for the largest depth of the AFB, they are also statistically significant for depths as small as 10 dB. Finally, the cortical changes are quick, occurring within a few seconds of stimulus ensemble presentation with AFB, and are very labile, disappearing within a few seconds after the presentation without AFB. Overall, this study demonstrates that the representation of spectral edges is dynamically enhanced in the auditory centers. These central changes may have important functional implications, particularly in noisy environments where they could contribute to preserving the central representation of spectral edges. PMID:25744885

  11. On the Connection Between Flap Side-Edge Noise and Tip Vortex Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casalino, D.; Hazir, A.; Fares, E.; Duda, B.; Khorrami, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present work is to investigate how the dynamics of the vortical flow about the flap side edge of an aircraft determine the acoustic radiation. A validated lattice- Boltzmann CFD solution of the unsteady flow about a detailed business jet configuration in approach conditions is used for the present analysis. Evidence of the connection between the noise generated by several segments of the inboard flap tip and the aerodynamic forces acting on the same segments is given, proving that the noise generation mechanism has a spatially coherent and acoustically compact character on the scale of the flap chord, and that the edge-scattering effects are of secondary importance. Subsequently, evidence of the connection between the kinematics of the tip vortex system and the aerodynamic force is provided. The kinematics of the dual vortex system are investigated via a core detection technique. Emphasis is placed on the mutual induction effects between the two main vortices rolling up from the pressure and suction sides of the flap edge. A simple heuristic formula that relates the far-field noise spectrum and the cross-spectrum of the unsteady vortical positions is developed.

  12. A New Dynamic Edge Detection toward Better Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz, Abdul Rahman; Alnajjar, Fady; Murase, Kazuyuki

    Robot’s vision plays a significant role in human-robot interaction, e.g., face recognition, expression understanding, motion tracking, etc. Building a strong vision system for the robot, therefore, is one of the fundamental issues behind the success of such an interaction. Edge detection, which is known as the basic units for measuring the strength of any vision system, has recently been taken attention from many groups of robotic researchers. Most of the reported works surrounding this issue have been based on designing a static mask, which sequentially move through the pixels in the image to extract edges. Despite the success of these works, such statically could restrict the model’s performance in some domains. Designing a dynamic mask by the inspiration from the basic principle of “retina”, and which supported by a unique distribution of photoreceptor, therefore, could overcome this problem. A human-like robot (RobovieR-2) has been used to examine the validity of the proposed model. The experimental results show the validity of the model, and it is ability to offer a number of advantages to the robot, such as: accurate edge detection and better attention to the front user, which is a step towards human-robot interaction.

  13. Edge-mediated skyrmion chain and its collective dynamics in a confined geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Haifeng; Che, Renchao; Kong, Lingyao; Zhao, Xuebing; Jin, Chiming; Wang, Chao; Yang, Jiyong; Ning, Wei; Li, Runwei; Jin, Changqing; Chen, Xianhui; Zang, Jiadong; Zhang, Yuheng; Tian, Mingliang

    2015-10-01

    The emergence of a topologically nontrivial vortex-like magnetic structure, the magnetic skyrmion, has launched new concepts for memory devices. Extensive studies have theoretically demonstrated the ability to encode information bits by using a chain of skyrmions in one-dimensional nanostripes. Here, we report experimental observation of the skyrmion chain in FeGe nanostripes by using high-resolution Lorentz transmission electron microscopy. Under an applied magnetic field, we observe that the helical ground states with distorted edge spins evolve into individual skyrmions, which assemble in the form of a chain at low field and move collectively into the interior of the nanostripes at elevated fields. Such a skyrmion chain survives even when the width of the nanostripe is much larger than the size of single skyrmion. This discovery demonstrates a way of skyrmion formation through the edge effect, and might, in the long term, shed light on potential applications.

  14. Edge-mediated skyrmion chain and its collective dynamics in a confined geometry

    PubMed Central

    Du, Haifeng; Che, Renchao; Kong, Lingyao; Zhao, Xuebing; Jin, Chiming; Wang, Chao; Yang, Jiyong; Ning, Wei; Li, Runwei; Jin, Changqing; Chen, Xianhui; Zang, Jiadong; Zhang, Yuheng; Tian, Mingliang

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of a topologically nontrivial vortex-like magnetic structure, the magnetic skyrmion, has launched new concepts for memory devices. Extensive studies have theoretically demonstrated the ability to encode information bits by using a chain of skyrmions in one-dimensional nanostripes. Here, we report experimental observation of the skyrmion chain in FeGe nanostripes by using high-resolution Lorentz transmission electron microscopy. Under an applied magnetic field, we observe that the helical ground states with distorted edge spins evolve into individual skyrmions, which assemble in the form of a chain at low field and move collectively into the interior of the nanostripes at elevated fields. Such a skyrmion chain survives even when the width of the nanostripe is much larger than the size of single skyrmion. This discovery demonstrates a way of skyrmion formation through the edge effect, and might, in the long term, shed light on potential applications. PMID:26446692

  15. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy of the electronic local density of states of graphite surfaces near monoatomic step edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niimi, Y.; Matsui, T.; Kambara, H.; Tagami, K.; Tsukada, M.; Fukuyama, Hiroshi

    2006-02-01

    We measured the electronic local density of states (LDOS) of graphite surfaces near monoatomic step edges, which consist of either the zigzag or armchair edge, with the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) techniques. The STM data reveal that the (3×3)R30° and honeycomb superstructures coexist over a length scale of 3-4nm from both the edges. By comparing with density-functional derived nonorthogonal tight-binding calculations, we show that the coexistence is due to a slight admixing of the two types of edges at the graphite surfaces. In the STS measurements, a clear peak in the LDOS at negative bias voltages from -100 to -20mV was observed near the zigzag edges, while such a peak was not observed near the armchair edges. We concluded that this peak corresponds to the graphite “edge state” theoretically predicted by Fujita [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 65, 1920 (1996)] with a tight-binding model for graphene ribbons. The existence of the edge state only at the zigzag type edge was also confirmed by our first-principles calculations with different edge terminations.

  16. Imaging of quantum Hall edge states under quasiresonant excitation by a near-field scanning optical microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, H.; Shibata, Y.; Mamyoda, S.; Ootuka, Y.; Nomura, S.; Kashiwaya, S.; Yamaguchi, M.; Akazaki, T.; Tamura, H.

    2013-12-04

    A high resolution mapping of quantum Hall edge states has been performed by locally creating electrons with small excess energies with a near-field scanning optical microscope in a dilution refrigerator. We have observed fine structures parallel to the edge in photovoltage signals, which appear only at low temperature. The observed fine structures near sample edges have been seen to shift inward with increase in magnetic field in accordance with Chklovskii Shklovskii, and Glazman model.

  17. Room-temperature ionic liquids: slow dynamics, viscosity, and the red edge effect.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhonghan; Margulis, Claudio J

    2007-11-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have recently attracted significant attention from academic and industrial sources. This is because, while their vapor pressures are negligible, many of them are liquids at room temperature and can dissolve a wide range of polar and nonpolar organic and inorganic molecules. In this Account, we discuss the progress of our laboratory in understanding the dynamics, spectroscopy, and fluid dynamics of selected imidazolium-based ILs using computational and analytical tools that we have recently developed. Our results indicate that the red edge effect, the non-Newtonian behavior, and the existence of locally heterogeneous environments on a time scale relevant to chemical and photochemical reactivity are closely linked to the viscosity and highly structured character of these liquids.

  18. Transverse Mode Dynamics of Broad-Area Edge- and Surface-Emitting Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ning, Cun-Zheng; Goorjian, Peter; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports new results of our recent theoretical and simulational research in broad-area diode lasers. In a broad-area edge- or surface-emitting laser, the large space dimension in the direction transverse to the propagation direction requires an adequate treatment of inhomogeneities of the relevant physical quantities, such as laser field intensity and electron-hole carrier densities. The density inhomogeneity requires gain and refractive index nonlinearities across the laser structure to be included. All these features can be captured by a set of space-time resolved partial differential equations, the so-called effective Bloch equations established recently. We have solved this set of equations for both edge-emitting and surface-emitting lasers. This allows us to investigate temporal dynamics of transverse mode structures in these lasers. The influence of the transverse pumping profile and geometrical structure of the devices will be reported for VCSELs, as well as the complex temporal competition dynamics of different modes.

  19. Dynamic scaling in thin-film growth with irreversible step-edge attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarão Reis, F. D. A.

    2010-04-01

    We study dynamic scaling in a model with collective diffusion (CD) of isolated atoms in terraces and irreversible aggregation at step edges. Simulations are performed in two-dimensional substrates with several diffusion to deposition ratios R≡D/F . Data collapse of scaled roughness distributions confirms that this model is in the class of the fourth-order nonlinear growth equation by Villain, Lai, and Das Sarma (VLDS) with negligible finite-size effects, while estimates of scaling exponents show some discrepancies. This result is consistent with the prediction of a recent renormalization group approach and improves previous numerical works on related models. The roughness follows dynamic scaling as W=Lα/R1/2f(ξ/L) , with correlation length ξ=(Rt)1/z , where z is the dynamic exponent. We also propose a limited mobility (LM) model where the incident atom executes up to G steps before a new atom is adsorbed, and irreversibly aggregates at step edges. This model is also shown to belong to the VLDS class. The size of the plateaus in the film surface increases as G1/2 and the lateral correlation scales as G1/2t1/z . The time evolution of the roughness reproduces that of the CD model if an equivalent parameter G˜R2/z is chosen. This suggests the possibility of using LM models with tunable diffusion length to simulate processes with simultaneous diffusion of many atoms. A scaling approach is used to justify exponent values and dynamic relations for both models, including the significant decrease of surface roughness as R or G increases.

  20. Linear response of a one-dimensional conductor coupled to a dynamical impurity with a Fermi edge singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyman, I.

    2014-02-01

    I study the dynamical correlations that a quantum impurity induces in the Fermi sea to which it is coupled. I consider a quantum transport setup in which the impurity can be realized in a double quantum dot. The same Hamiltonian describes tunneling states in metallic glasses, and can be mapped onto the Ohmic spin-boson model. It exhibits a Fermi edge singularity, i.e., many fermion correlations result in an impurity decay rate with a nontrivial power-law energy dependence. I show that there is a simple relation between temporal impurity correlations on the one hand and the linear response of the Fermi sea to external perturbations on the other. This results in a power-law singularity in the space and time dependence of the nonlocal polarizability of the Fermi sea, which can be detected in transport experiments.

  1. The dynamics of the outer edge of Saturn's A ring disturbed by Janus-Epimetheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Stéfan; Santos Araujo, Nilton Carlos; Cooper, Nicholas; El Moutamid, Maryame; Murray, Carl; Sicardy, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    We developed an analytical model to study the dynamics of the outer edge of Saturn's A ring. The latter is influenced by 7:6 mean motion resonances with Janus and Epimetheus. Because of the horseshoe motion of the two co-orbital moons, the location of the resonances shift inwards or outwards every four years, making the ring edge particles alternately trapped in a corotation eccentricity resonance (CER) or a Lindblad eccentricity resonance (LER). However, the oscillation periods of the resonances are longer than the four-year interval between the switches in the orbits of Janus and Epimetheus.Averaged equations of motion are used, and our model is numerically integrated to describe the effects of the periodic sweeping of the 7:6 CER and LER over the ring edge region.We show that four radial zones (ranges 136715-136723, 136738-136749, 136756-136768, 136783-136791 km) are chaotic on decadal timescales, within which particle semimajor axes have periodic changes due to partial libration motions around the CER fixed points. After a few decades, the maximum variation of semimajor axis is about eleven (resp. three) kilometers in the case of the CER with Janus (resp. Epimetheus).Similarly, particle eccentricities have partial oscillations forced by the LERs every four years, and are in good agreement with the observed eccentricities (Spitale and Porco 2009, El Moutamid et al. 2015). For initially circular orbits, the maximum eccentricity reached (~0.001) corresponds to the value obtained from the classical theory of resonance (proportional to the cube root of the satellite-to-planet mass ratio).We notice that the fitted semimajor axes for the object recently discovered at the ring edge (Murray et al. 2014) are just outside the chaotic zone of radial range 136756-136768 km.We compare our results to Cassini observations, and discuss how the periodic LER/CER perturbations by Janus/Epimetheus may help to aggregate ring edge particles into clumps, as seen in high

  2. Uncovering edge states and electrical inhomogeneity in MoS2 field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Li, Xiao; Luan, Lan; Wu, Xiaoyu; Li, Wei; Yogeesh, Maruthi N; Ghosh, Rudresh; Chu, Zhaodong; Akinwande, Deji; Niu, Qian; Lai, Keji

    2016-08-01

    The understanding of various types of disorders in atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), including dangling bonds at the edges, chalcogen deficiencies in the bulk, and charges in the substrate, is of fundamental importance for TMD applications in electronics and photonics. Because of the imperfections, electrons moving on these 2D crystals experience a spatially nonuniform Coulomb environment, whose effect on the charge transport has not been microscopically studied. Here, we report the mesoscopic conductance mapping in monolayer and few-layer MoS2 field-effect transistors by microwave impedance microscopy (MIM). The spatial evolution of the insulator-to-metal transition is clearly resolved. Interestingly, as the transistors are gradually turned on, electrical conduction emerges initially at the edges before appearing in the bulk of MoS2 flakes, which can be explained by our first-principles calculations. The results unambiguously confirm that the contribution of edge states to the channel conductance is significant under the threshold voltage but negligible once the bulk of the TMD device becomes conductive. Strong conductance inhomogeneity, which is associated with the fluctuations of disorder potential in the 2D sheets, is also observed in the MIM images, providing a guideline for future improvement of the device performance.

  3. Uncovering edge states and electrical inhomogeneity in MoS2 field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Li, Xiao; Luan, Lan; Wu, Xiaoyu; Li, Wei; Yogeesh, Maruthi N; Ghosh, Rudresh; Chu, Zhaodong; Akinwande, Deji; Niu, Qian; Lai, Keji

    2016-08-01

    The understanding of various types of disorders in atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), including dangling bonds at the edges, chalcogen deficiencies in the bulk, and charges in the substrate, is of fundamental importance for TMD applications in electronics and photonics. Because of the imperfections, electrons moving on these 2D crystals experience a spatially nonuniform Coulomb environment, whose effect on the charge transport has not been microscopically studied. Here, we report the mesoscopic conductance mapping in monolayer and few-layer MoS2 field-effect transistors by microwave impedance microscopy (MIM). The spatial evolution of the insulator-to-metal transition is clearly resolved. Interestingly, as the transistors are gradually turned on, electrical conduction emerges initially at the edges before appearing in the bulk of MoS2 flakes, which can be explained by our first-principles calculations. The results unambiguously confirm that the contribution of edge states to the channel conductance is significant under the threshold voltage but negligible once the bulk of the TMD device becomes conductive. Strong conductance inhomogeneity, which is associated with the fluctuations of disorder potential in the 2D sheets, is also observed in the MIM images, providing a guideline for future improvement of the device performance. PMID:27444021

  4. Topological phase and edge states dependence of the RKKY interaction in zigzag silicene nanoribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Moslem; Parhizgar, Fariborz; Asgari, Reza

    2016-07-01

    We propose versatile materials based on the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction in a zigzag silicene nanoribbon (ZSNR) on half filling in the presence of an out-of-plane electric field. We show that the topological phase transition in the band dispersion of ZSNR can be probed by using the RKKY interaction. We find that, due to the zero-energy edge states of the ZSNR, the exchange coupling is significantly enhanced when the impurities are located on the zigzag edges, and also explore that the strength of the interaction in the topological insulator phase is much greater than that when the system is in the band insulator region. We present a model to investigate the phase of a system of two magnetic impurities located on the edge of the ZSNR and find that three different magnetic phases, spiral, ferromagnetic, and antiferromagnetic, are possible for different values of the electric field. This electrical tunability of the magnetic phases in silicene can be explored by using current experimental techniques and can be of interest in the field of spintronics.

  5. Three Dimensional Mapping of Nicle Oxidation States Using Full Field Xray Absorption Near Edge Structure Nanotomography

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, G.J.; Chu, Y.; Harris, W.M.; Izzo, J.R.; Grew, K.N., Chiu, W.K.S.; Yi, J.; Andrews, J.C.; Liu, Y., Pierro, P.

    2011-04-28

    The reduction-oxidation cycling of the nickel-based oxides in composite solid oxide fuel cells and battery electrodes is directly related to cell performance. A greater understanding of nickel redox mechanisms at the microstructural level can be achieved in part using transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) to explore material oxidation states. X-ray nanotomography combined with x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been applied to study samples containing distinct regions of nickel and nickel oxide (NiO) compositions. Digitally processed images obtained using TXM demonstrate the three-dimensional chemical mapping and microstructural distribution capabilities of full-field XANES nanotomography.

  6. Evolution of Edge States and Critical Phenomena in the Rashba Superconductor with Magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakage, Ai; Tanaka, Yukio; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2012-02-01

    We study Andreev bound states (ABS) and the resulting charge transport of a Rashba superconductor (RSC) where two-dimensional semiconductor (2DSM) heterostructures are sandwiched by spin-singlet s-wave superconductor and ferromagnet insulator. ABS becomes a chiral Majorana edge mode in the topological phase (TP). We clarify two types of quantum criticality about the topological change of ABS near a quantum critical point (QCP), whether or not ABS exists at QCP. In the former type, ABS has an energy gap and does not cross at zero energy in the nontopological phase. These complex properties can be detected by tunneling conductance between normal metal-RSC junctions.

  7. Oscillating edge states in one-dimensional MoS2 nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hai; Liu, Shuanglong; Ding, Zijing; Tan, Sherman J. R.; Yam, Kah Meng; Bao, Yang; Nai, Chang Tai; Ng, Man-Fai; Lu, Jiong; Zhang, Chun; Loh, Kian Ping

    2016-10-01

    Reducing the dimensionality of transition metal dichalcogenides to one dimension opens it to structural and electronic modulation related to charge density wave and quantum correlation effects arising from edge states. The greater flexibility of a molecular scale nanowire allows a strain-imposing substrate to exert structural and electronic modulation on it, leading to an interplay between the curvature-induced influences and intrinsic ground-state topology. Herein, the templated growth of MoS2 nanowire arrays consisting of the smallest stoichiometric MoS2 building blocks is investigated using scanning tunnelling microscopy and non-contact atomic force microscopy. Our results show that lattice strain imposed on a nanowire causes the energy of the edge states to oscillate periodically along its length in phase with the period of the substrate topographical modulation. This periodic oscillation vanishes when individual MoS2 nanowires join to form a wider nanoribbon, revealing that the strain-induced modulation depends on in-plane rigidity, which increases with system size.

  8. Oscillating edge states in one-dimensional MoS2 nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hai; Liu, Shuanglong; Ding, Zijing; Tan, Sherman J. R.; Yam, Kah Meng; Bao, Yang; Nai, Chang Tai; Ng, Man-Fai; Lu, Jiong; Zhang, Chun; Loh, Kian Ping

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the dimensionality of transition metal dichalcogenides to one dimension opens it to structural and electronic modulation related to charge density wave and quantum correlation effects arising from edge states. The greater flexibility of a molecular scale nanowire allows a strain-imposing substrate to exert structural and electronic modulation on it, leading to an interplay between the curvature-induced influences and intrinsic ground-state topology. Herein, the templated growth of MoS2 nanowire arrays consisting of the smallest stoichiometric MoS2 building blocks is investigated using scanning tunnelling microscopy and non-contact atomic force microscopy. Our results show that lattice strain imposed on a nanowire causes the energy of the edge states to oscillate periodically along its length in phase with the period of the substrate topographical modulation. This periodic oscillation vanishes when individual MoS2 nanowires join to form a wider nanoribbon, revealing that the strain-induced modulation depends on in-plane rigidity, which increases with system size. PMID:27698478

  9. Dynamics Impact Tolerance of Shuttle RCC Leading Edge Panels Using LS-DYNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.; Lyle, Karen H.; Jones, Lisa E.; Hardy, Robin C.; Spellman, Regina L.; Carney, Kelly S.; Melis, Matthew E.; Stockwell, Alan E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a research program conducted to enable accurate prediction of the impact tolerance of the shuttle Orbiter leading-edge wing panels using physics-based codes such as LS-DYNA, a nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic finite element code. The shuttle leading-edge panels are constructed of Reinforced-Carbon-Carbon (RCC) composite material, which is used because of its thermal properties to protect the shuttle during reentry into the Earth's atmosphere. Accurate predictions of impact damage from insulating foam and other debris strikes that occur during launch required materials characterization of expected debris, including strain-rate effects. First, analytical models of individual foam and RCC materials were validated. Next, analytical models of foam cylinders impacting 6- in. x 6-in. RCC flat plates were developed and validated. LS-DYNA pre-test models of the RCC flat plate specimens established the impact velocity of the test for three damage levels: no-detectable damage, non-destructive evaluation (NDE) detectable damage, or visible damage such as a through crack or hole. Finally, the threshold of impact damage for RCC on representative Orbiter wing panels was predicted for both a small through crack and for NDE-detectable damage.

  10. Dynamic Impact Tolerance of Shuttle RCC Leading Edge Panels using LS-DYNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin; Jackson, Karen E.; Lyle, Karen H.; Jones, Lisa E.; Hardy, Robin C.; Spellman, Regina L.; Carney, Kelly S.; Melis, Matthew E.; Stockwell, Alan E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a research program conducted to enable accurate prediction of the impact tolerance of the shuttle Orbiter leading-edge wing panels using 'physics-based- codes such as LS-DYNA, a nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic finite element code. The shuttle leading-edge panels are constructed of Reinforced-Carbon-Carbon (RCC) composite material, which issued because of its thermal properties to protect the shuttle during re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere. Accurate predictions of impact damage from insulating foam and other debris strikes that occur during launch required materials characterization of expected debris, including strain-rate effects. First, analytical models of individual foam and RCC materials were validated. Next, analytical models of individual foam cylinders impacting 6-in. x 6-in. RCC flat plates were developed and validated. LS-DYNA pre-test models of the RCC flat plate specimens established the impact velocity of the test for three damage levels: no-detectable damage, non-destructive evaluation (NDE) detectable damage, or visible damage such as a through crack or hole. Finally, the threshold of impact damage for RCC on representative Orbiter wing panels was predicted for both a small through crack and for NDE-detectable damage.

  11. Edge effects in game-theoretic dynamics of spatially structured tumours.

    PubMed

    Kaznatcheev, Artem; Scott, Jacob G; Basanta, David

    2015-07-01

    Cancer dynamics are an evolutionary game between cellular phenotypes. A typical assumption in this modelling paradigm is that the probability of a given phenotypic strategy interacting with another depends exclusively on the abundance of those strategies without regard for local neighbourhood structure. We address this limitation by using the Ohtsuki-Nowak transform to introduce spatial structure to the go versus grow game. We show that spatial structure can promote the invasive (go) strategy. By considering the change in neighbourhood size at a static boundary--such as a blood vessel, organ capsule or basement membrane--we show an edge effect that allows a tumour without invasive phenotypes in the bulk to have a polyclonal boundary with invasive cells. We present an example of this promotion of invasive (epithelial-mesenchymal transition-positive) cells in a metastatic colony of prostate adenocarcinoma in bone marrow. Our results caution that pathologic analyses that do not distinguish between cells in the bulk and cells at a static edge of a tumour can underestimate the number of invasive cells. Although we concentrate on applications in mathematical oncology, we expect our approach to extend to other evolutionary game models where interaction neighbourhoods change at fixed system boundaries.

  12. Edge effects in game-theoretic dynamics of spatially structured tumours

    PubMed Central

    Kaznatcheev, Artem; Scott, Jacob G.; Basanta, David

    2015-01-01

    Cancer dynamics are an evolutionary game between cellular phenotypes. A typical assumption in this modelling paradigm is that the probability of a given phenotypic strategy interacting with another depends exclusively on the abundance of those strategies without regard for local neighbourhood structure. We address this limitation by using the Ohtsuki–Nowak transform to introduce spatial structure to the go versus grow game. We show that spatial structure can promote the invasive (go) strategy. By considering the change in neighbourhood size at a static boundary—such as a blood vessel, organ capsule or basement membrane—we show an edge effect that allows a tumour without invasive phenotypes in the bulk to have a polyclonal boundary with invasive cells. We present an example of this promotion of invasive (epithelial–mesenchymal transition-positive) cells in a metastatic colony of prostate adenocarcinoma in bone marrow. Our results caution that pathologic analyses that do not distinguish between cells in the bulk and cells at a static edge of a tumour can underestimate the number of invasive cells. Although we concentrate on applications in mathematical oncology, we expect our approach to extend to other evolutionary game models where interaction neighbourhoods change at fixed system boundaries. PMID:26040596

  13. Simulations of 4D edge transport and dynamics using the TEMPEST gyro-kinetic code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rognlien, T. D.; Cohen, B. I.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorr, M. R.; Hittinger, J. A. F.; Kerbel, G. D.; Nevins, W. M.; Xiong, Z.; Xu, X. Q.

    2006-10-01

    Simulation results are presented for tokamak edge plasmas with a focus on the 4D (2r,2v) option of the TEMPEST continuum gyro-kinetic code. A detailed description of a variety of kinetic simulations is reported, including neoclassical radial transport from Coulomb collisions, electric field generation, dynamic response to perturbations by geodesic acoustic modes, and parallel transport on open magnetic-field lines. Comparison is made between the characteristics of the plasma solutions on closed and open magnetic-field line regions separated by a magnetic separatrix, and simple physical models are used to qualitatively explain the differences observed in mean flow and electric-field generation. The status of extending the simulations to 5D turbulence will be summarized. The code structure used in this ongoing project is also briefly described, together with future plans.

  14. Dynamic spectra of radio frequency bursts associated with edge-localized modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatipamula, Shekar G.; Yun, G. S.; Leem, J.; Park, H. K.; Kim, K. W.; Akiyama, T.; Lee, S. G.

    2016-06-01

    Electromagnetic emissions in the radio frequency (RF) range are detected in the high-confinement-mode (H-mode) plasma using a fast RF spectrometer on the KSTAR tokamak. The emissions at the crash events of edge-localized modes (ELMs) are found to occur as strong RF bursts with dynamic features in intensity and spectrum. The RF burst spectra (obtained with frequency resolution better than 10 MHz) exhibit diverse spectral features and evolve in multiple steps before the onset and through the ELM crash: (1) a narrow-band spectral line around 200 MHz persistent for extended duration in the pre-ELM crash times, (2) harmonic spectral lines with spacing comparable to deuterium or hydrogen ion cyclotron frequency at the pedestal, (3) rapid onset (faster than ~1 μs) of intense RF burst with wide-band continuum in frequency which coincides with the onset of ELM crash, and (4) a few additional intense RF bursts with chirping-down narrow-band spectrum during the crash. These observations indicate plasma waves are excited in the pedestal region and strongly correlated with the ELM dynamics such as the onset of the explosive crash. Thus the investigation of RF burst occurrence and their dynamic spectral features potentially offers the possibility of exploring H-mode physics in great detail.

  15. Seasonal source-sink dynamics at the edge of a species' range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kanda, L.L.; Fuller, T.K.; Sievert, P.R.; Kellogg, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    The roles of dispersal and population dynamics in determining species' range boundaries recently have received theoretical attention but little empirical work. Here we provide data on survival, reproduction, and movement for a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) population at a local distributional edge in central Massachusetts (USA). Most juvenile females that apparently exploited anthropogenic resources survived their first winter, whereas those using adjacent natural resources died of starvation. In spring, adult females recolonized natural areas. A life-table model suggests that a population exploiting anthropogenic resources may grow, acting as source to a geographically interlaced sink of opossums using only natural resources, and also providing emigrants for further range expansion to new human-dominated landscapes. In a geographical model, this source-sink dynamic is consistent with the local distribution identified through road-kill surveys. The Virginia opossum's exploitation of human resources likely ameliorates energetically restrictive winters and may explain both their local distribution and their northward expansion in unsuitable natural climatic regimes. Landscape heterogeneity, such as created by urbanization, may result in source-sink dynamics at highly localized scales. Differential fitness and individual dispersal movements within local populations are key to generating regional distributions, and thus species ranges, that exceed expectations. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. Seasonal source-sink dynamics at the edge of a species' range.

    PubMed

    Kanda, L Leann; Fuller, Todd K; Sievert, Paul R; Kellogg, Robert L

    2009-06-01

    The roles of dispersal and population dynamics in determining species' range boundaries recently have received theoretical attention but little empirical work. Here we provide data on survival, reproduction, and movement for a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) population at a local distributional edge in central Massachusetts (USA). Most juvenile females that apparently exploited anthropogenic resources survived their first winter, whereas those using adjacent natural resources died of starvation. In spring, adult females recolonized natural areas. A life-table model suggests that a population exploiting anthropogenic resources may grow, acting as source to a geographically interlaced sink of opossums using only natural resources, and also providing emigrants for further range expansion to new human-dominated landscapes. In a geographical model, this source-sink dynamic is consistent with the local distribution identified through road-kill surveys. The Virginia opossum's exploitation of human resources likely ameliorates energetically restrictive winters and may explain both their local distribution and their northward expansion in unsuitable natural climatic regimes. Landscape heterogeneity, such as created by urbanization, may result in source-sink dynamics at highly localized scales. Differential fitness and individual dispersal movements within local populations are key to generating regional distributions, and thus species ranges, that exceed expectations.

  17. Interplay between snake and quantum edge states in a graphene Hall bar with a pn-junction

    SciTech Connect

    Milovanović, S. P. Peeters, F. M.; Ramezani Masir, M.

    2014-09-22

    The magneto- and Hall resistance of a locally gated cross shaped graphene Hall bar is calculated. The edge of the top gate is placed diagonally across the center of the Hall cross. Four-probe resistance is calculated using the Landauer-Büttiker formalism, while the transmission coefficients are obtained using the non-equilibrium Green's function approach. The interplay between transport due to edge channels and snake states is investigated. When two edge channels are occupied, we predict oscillations in the Hall and the bend resistance as function of the magnetic field, which are a consequence of quantum interference between the occupied snake states.

  18. One-dimensional edge state transport in a topological Kondo insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Yasuyuki; Syers, Paul; Wang, Xiangfeng; Wang, Renxiong; Paglione, Johnpierre

    2016-03-01

    Topological insulators, with metallic boundary states protected against time-reversal-invariant perturbations, are a promising avenue for realizing exotic quantum states of matter, including various excitations of collective modes predicted in particle physics, such as Majorana fermions and axions. According to theoretical predictions, a topological insulating state can emerge from not only a weakly interacting system with strong spin-orbit coupling, but also in insulators driven by strong electron correlations. The Kondo insulator compound SmB6 is an ideal candidate for realizing this exotic state of matter, with hybridization between itinerant conduction electrons and localized f-electrons driving an insulating gap and metallic surface states at low temperatures. Here we exploit the existence of surface ferromagnetism in SmB6 to investigate the topological nature of metallic surface states by studying magnetotransport properties at very low temperatures. We find evidence of one-dimensional surface transport with a quantized conductance value of e2/h originating from the chiral edge channels of ferromagnetic domain walls, providing strong evidence that topologically non-trivial surface states exist in SmB6.

  19. Phase diagram and edge excitations of the ν = 0 quantum Hall state in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharitonov, Maxim

    2013-03-01

    The interaction-induced broken-symmetry incompressible quantum Hall states in graphene at integer and fractional filling factors have by now been firmly established in transport and compressibility measurements. However, identifying their precise nature (e.g., how the symmetry is broken) still remains a tough challenge: on the experimental side, transport and compressibility probes do not provide direct information about the physical order; on the theoretical side, the presence of additional to spin discrete degrees of freedom, valleys, results in a variety of competing phases in this multicomponent system. As the prime example of this rich behavior, I will present a generic phase diagram for the intriguing ν = 0 state, obtained within the framework of quantum Hall ``ferromagnetism.'' The diagram consists of the canted antiferromagnetic, ferromagnetic, charge-density-wave (charge-layer-polarized), and Kekulé (interlayer-coherent) phases in monolayer (bilayer). I will then discuss the edge excitations of the ν = 0 state. Remarkably, the edge excitations are nonuniversal (e.g., can be gapped or gapless) and crucially depend on which phase is realized in the bulk of the system. Besides being of considerable theoretical interest, these unprecedented properties simultaneously allow one to infer about the nature of the phases from the transport experiments. I will present arguments based on this analysis and existing data why the insulating ν = 0 state realized in real bilayer (and possibly, monolayer) graphene is likely to be canted antiferromagnetic. Finally, I will mention how this theoretical framework can be generalized to fractional quantum Hall states in graphene, which could shed light on some of the puzzling features of the recent experiments. This research was supported by the U.S. DOE under contracts No. DE-FG02-99ER45790 and No. DE- AC02-06CH11357.

  20. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in band edge and broad deep defect emission ZnSe nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othonos, Andreas; Lioudakis, Emmanouil; Philipose, U.; Ruda, Harry E.

    2007-12-01

    Ultrafast carrier dynamics of ZnSe nanowires grown under different growth conditions have been studied. Transient absorption measurements reveal the dependence of the competing effects of state filling and photoinduced absorption on the probed energy states. The relaxation of the photogenerated carriers occupying defect states in the stoichiometric and Se-rich samples are single exponentials with time constants of 3-4ps. State filling is the main contribution for probe energies below 1.85eV in the Zn-rich grown sample. This ultrafast carrier dynamics study provides an important insight into the role that intrinsic point defects play in the observed photoluminescence from ZnSe nanowires.

  1. Emergence of helical edge conduction in graphene at the ν =0 quantum Hall state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonov, Pavel; Shimshoni, Efrat; Fertig, H. A.; Murthy, Ganpathy

    2016-03-01

    The conductance of graphene subject to a strong, tilted magnetic field exhibits a dramatic change from insulating to conducting behavior with tilt angle, regarded as evidence for the transition from a canted antiferromagnetic (CAF) to a ferromagnetic (FM) ν =0 quantum Hall state. We develop a theory for the electric transport in this system based on the spin-charge connection, whereby the evolution in the nature of collective spin excitations is reflected in the charge-carrying modes. To this end, we derive an effective field-theoretical description of the low-energy excitations, associated with quantum fluctuations of the spin-valley domain-wall ground-state configuration which characterizes the two-dimensional (2D) system with an edge. This analysis yields a model describing a one-dimensional charged edge mode coupled to charge-neutral spin-wave excitations in the 2D bulk. Focusing particularly on the FM phase, naively expected to exhibit perfect conductance, we study a mechanism whereby the coupling to these bulk excitations assists in generating backscattering. Our theory yields the conductance as a function of temperature and the Zeeman energy—the parameter that tunes the transition between the FM and CAF phases—with behavior in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  2. Tunable spin-orbit coupling and symmetry-protected edge states in graphene/WS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bowen; Tu, Min-Feng; Kim, Jeongwoo; Wu, Yong; Wang, Hui; Alicea, Jason; Wu, Ruqian; Bockrath, Marc; Shi, Jing

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate clear weak anti-localization (WAL) effect arising from induced Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in WS2-covered single-layer and bilayer graphene devices. Contrary to the uncovered region of a shared single-layer graphene flake, WAL in WS2-covered graphene occurs over a wide range of carrier densities on both electron and hole sides. At high carrier densities, we estimate the Rashba SOC relaxation rate to be ˜ 0.2 {{ps}}-1 and show that it can be tuned by transverse electric fields. In addition to the Rashba SOC, we also predict the existence of a‘valley-Zeeman’ SOC from first-principles calculations. The interplay between these two SOC’s can open a non-topological but interesting gap in graphene; in particular, zigzag boundaries host four sub-gap edge states protected by time-reversal and crystalline symmetries. The graphene/WS2 system provides a possible platform for these novel edge states.

  3. Finite-size effect on the dynamic and sensing performances of graphene resonators: the role of edge stress

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang-Wan; Dai, Mai Duc

    2016-01-01

    Summary We have studied the finite-size effect on the dynamic behavior of graphene resonators and their applications in atomic mass detection using a continuum elastic model such as modified plate theory. In particular, we developed a model based on von Karman plate theory with including the edge stress, which arises from the imbalance between the coordination numbers of bulk atoms and edge atoms of graphene. It is shown that as the size of a graphene resonator decreases, the edge stress depending on the edge structure of a graphene resonator plays a critical role on both its dynamic and sensing performances. We found that the resonance behavior of graphene can be tuned not only through edge stress but also through nonlinear vibration, and that the detection sensitivity of a graphene resonator can be controlled by using the edge stress. Our study sheds light on the important role of the finite-size effect in the effective design of graphene resonators for their mass sensing applications. PMID:27335758

  4. Finite-size effect on the dynamic and sensing performances of graphene resonators: the role of edge stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Wan; Dai, Mai Duc; Eom, Kilho

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the finite-size effect on the dynamic behavior of graphene resonators and their applications in atomic mass detection using a continuum elastic model such as modified plate theory. In particular, we developed a model based on von Karman plate theory with including the edge stress, which arises from the imbalance between the coordination numbers of bulk atoms and edge atoms of graphene. It is shown that as the size of a graphene resonator decreases, the edge stress depending on the edge structure of a graphene resonator plays a critical role on both its dynamic and sensing performances. We found that the resonance behavior of graphene can be tuned not only through edge stress but also through nonlinear vibration, and that the detection sensitivity of a graphene resonator can be controlled by using the edge stress. Our study sheds light on the important role of the finite-size effect in the effective design of graphene resonators for their mass sensing applications. PMID:27335758

  5. Effective Wess Zumino Witten action for edge states of quantum Hall systems on Bergman ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, Mohammed; Jellal, Ahmed

    2007-03-01

    Using a group theory approach, we investigate the basic features of the Landau problem on the Bergman ball B. This can be done by considering a system of particles living on B in the presence of an uniform magnetic field B and realizing the ball as the coset space SU(k,1)/U(k). In quantizing the theory on B, we define the wavefunctions as the Wigner D-functions satisfying a set of suitable constraints. The corresponding Hamiltonian is mapped in terms of the right translation generators. In the lowest Landau level, we obtain the wavefunctions as the SU(k,1) coherent states. This are used to define the star product, density matrix and excitation potential in higher dimensions. With these ingredients, we construct a generalized effective Wess-Zumino-Witten action for the edge states and discuss their nature.

  6. Complex oscillatory redox dynamics with signaling potential at the edge between normal and pathological mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Kembro, Jackelyn M.; Cortassa, Sonia; Aon, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    The time-keeping properties bestowed by oscillatory behavior on functional rhythms represent an evolutionarily conserved trait in living systems. Mitochondrial networks function as timekeepers maximizing energetic output while tuning reactive oxygen species (ROS) within physiological levels compatible with signaling. In this work, we explore the potential for timekeeping functions dependent on mitochondrial dynamics with the validated two-compartment mitochondrial energetic-redox (ME-R) computational model, that takes into account (a) four main redox couples [NADH, NADPH, GSH, Trx(SH)2], (b) scavenging systems (glutathione, thioredoxin, SOD, catalase) distributed in matrix and extra-matrix compartments, and (c) transport of ROS species between them. Herein, we describe that the ME-R model can exhibit highly complex oscillatory dynamics in energetic/redox variables and ROS species, consisting of at least five frequencies with modulated amplitudes and period according to power spectral analysis. By stability analysis we describe that the extent of steady state—as against complex oscillatory behavior—was dependent upon the abundance of Mn and Cu, Zn SODs, and their interplay with ROS production in the respiratory chain. Large parametric regions corresponding to oscillatory dynamics of increasingly complex waveforms were obtained at low Cu, Zn SOD concentration as a function of Mn SOD. This oscillatory domain was greatly reduced at higher levels of Cu, Zn SOD. Interestingly, the realm of complex oscillations was located at the edge between normal and pathological mitochondrial energetic behavior, and was characterized by oxidative stress. We conclude that complex oscillatory dynamics could represent a frequency- and amplitude-modulated H2O2 signaling mechanism that arises under intense oxidative stress. By modulating SOD, cells could have evolved an adaptive compromise between relative constancy and the flexibility required under stressful redox

  7. Robustness of the Edge States in Graphene Quantum Hall System: Does the Chiral Symmetry Degraded by t' Matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Arikawa, Mitsuhiro; Aoki, Hideo; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro

    2011-12-23

    While usual edge states in the quantum Hall effect reside between adjacent Landau levels, QHE in graphene has a peculiar edge mode at E = 0 that resides right within the n = 0 Landau level as protected by the chiral symmetry. In real graphene, small but finite second-neighbor hopping exists, which degrades the chiral symmetry in the bipartite lattice. Here we have found that the edge mode is again embedded in the n = 0 bulk Landau level despite the broken chiral symmetry due to the second-neighbor hopping, where the charge is accumulated along the zigzag edge. Hence the behavior of the zero mode has turned out to be distinguished from the case of zero magnetic field, which is related to the stability of topological compensation. This charge density accumulated along the zigzag edge can be measured with an STM imaging in magnetic fields.

  8. Evaluating the Oxidation State of Fe in Oxide Minerals using Fe K-edge XANES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    Synchrotron based X-ray absorption spectroscopy has proven to be a useful tool for examining the chemical state of various elements in earth and space materials, ranging from soils to ferromanganese ocean nodules to meteorites. Iron is the most common redox-active element in the Earth's crust, and determining its oxidation state in-situ is vital in many applications. XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy) promises to provide the sought-for information, but it is surprisingly difficult to inspect a spectrum and read off the average oxidation state. In general, even for oxide minerals, the energy or shape of a single feature isn't enough to yield a reliable figure. Methods have been proposed in the past for the interpretation of Fe XANES spectra (1-3), but they tend to rely either on a detailed analysis of the weak pre-edge features, or on very accurate measurements of the energies of features. These requirements often make it impossible to use data of ordinary quality to determine the oxidation state of an unknown. Therefore, a new method is proposed which is usable with only ordinary levels of energy resolution, signal/noise, and energy calibration accuracy. The inflection point of the pre-edge feature is taken as the energy zero, thus rendering the method self-calibrating. Then, the energy positions of the "white-line" maximum and the halfway-up points are plotted. When this procedure is done with a variety of Fe2+, Fe3+ and mixed-valent standards, it becomes clear that contours of constant valence can be drawn. A polynomial fit of valence to these energy coordinates is done, which can then be applied to any unknown. This method is accurate to about 0.25 valence units for all available divalent, trivalent and mixed- valent oxide standards. We found that the Fe sulfides such as pyrite occupy a different area on the graph than do the oxides. Examples of the use of this method with unknowns will be presented. 1) M. Wilke, F. Farges, P.-E. Petit, G. E. Brown

  9. Dynamics of a pneumatic artificial muscle actuation system driving a trailing edge flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Benjamin K. S.; Kothera, Curt S.; Wang, Gang; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-09-01

    This study presents a time domain dynamic model of an antagonistic pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) driven trailing edge flap (TEF) system for next generation active helicopter rotors. Active rotor concepts are currently being widely researched in the rotorcraft community as a means to provide a significant leap forward in performance through primary aircraft control, vibration mitigation and noise reduction. Recent work has shown PAMs to be a promising candidate for active rotor actuation due to their combination of high force, large stroke, light weight, and suitable bandwidth. When arranged into biologically inspired agonist/antagonist muscle pairs they can produce bidirectional torques for effectively driving a TEF. However, there are no analytical dynamic models in the literature that can accurately capture the behavior of such systems across the broad range of frequencies required for this demanding application. This work combines mechanical, pneumatic, and aerodynamic component models into a global flap system model developed for the Bell 407 rotor system. This model can accurately predict pressure, force, and flap angle response to pneumatic control valve inputs over a range of operating frequencies from 7 to 35 Hz (1/rev to 5/rev for the Bell 407) and operating pressures from 30 to 90 psi.

  10. State of manganese in the photosynthetic apparatus. 2. X-ray absorption edge studies on manganese in photosynthetic membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, J. A.; Goodin, D. B.; Wydrzynski, T.; Robertson, A. S.; Klein, M. P.

    1981-09-01

    X-ray absorption spectra at the Manganese K-edge are presented for spinach chloroplasts, and chloroplasts which have been Tris treated and hence unable to evolve oxygen. A significant change in the electronic environment of manganese is observed and is attributed to the release of manganese from the thylakoid membranes with a concomitant change in oxidation state. A correlation of the K-edge energy, defined as the energy at the first inflection point, with coordination charge has been established for a number of manganese compounds of known structure and oxidation state. In this study, comparison of the manganese K-edge energies of the chloroplast samples with the reference compounds places the average oxidation state of the chloroplasts between 2+ and 3+. Using the edge spectra for Tris treated membranes which were osmotically shocked to remove the released manganese, difference edge spectra were synthesized to approximate the active pool of manganese. Coordination charge predictions for this fraction are consistent with an average resting oxidation state higher than 2+. The shape at the edge is also indicative of heterogeneity of the manganese site, of low symmetry, or both.

  11. Effect of annealing ambient on anisotropic retraction of film edges during solid-state dewetting of thin single crystal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gye Hyun; Ma, Wen; Yildiz, Bilge; Thompson, Carl V.

    2016-08-01

    During solid-state dewetting of thin single crystal films, film edges retract at a rate that is strongly dependent on their crystallographic orientations. Edges with kinetically stable in-plane orientations remain straight as they retract, while those with other in-plane orientations develop in-plane facets as they retract. Kinetically stable edges have retraction rates that are lower than edges with other orientations and thus determine the shape of the natural holes that form during solid-state dewetting. In this paper, measurements of the retraction rates of kinetically stable edges for single crystal (110) and (100) Ni films on MgO are presented. Relative retraction rates of kinetically stable edges with different crystallographic orientations are observed to change under different annealing conditions, and this accordingly changes the initial shapes of growing holes. The surfaces of (110) and (100) films were also characterized using low energy electron diffraction, and different surface reconstructions were observed under different ambient conditions. The observed surface structures were found to correlate with the observed changes in the relative retraction rates of the kinetically stable edges.

  12. Can ocean acidification affect population dynamics of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides at its southern range edge?

    PubMed

    Findlay, Helen S; Burrows, Michael T; Kendall, Michael A; Spicer, John I; Widdicombe, Stephen

    2010-10-01

    The global ocean and atmosphere are warming. There is increasing evidence suggesting that, in addition to other environmental factors, climate change is affecting species distributions and local population dynamics. Additionally, as a consequence of the growing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), the oceans are taking up increasing amounts of this CO2, causing ocean pH to decrease (ocean acidification). The relative impacts of ocean acidification on population dynamics have yet to be investigated, despite many studies indicating that there will be at least a sublethal impact on many marine organisms, particularly key calcifying organisms. Using empirical data, we forced a barnacle (Semibalanus balanoides) population model to investigate the relative influence of sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean acidification on a population nearing the southern limit of its geographic distribution. Hindcast models were compared to observational data from Cellar Beach (southwestern United Kingdom). Results indicate that a declining pH trend (-0.0017 unit/yr), indicative of ocean acidification over the past 50 years, does not cause an observable impact on the population abundance relative to changes caused by fluctuations in temperature. Below the critical temperature (here T(crit) = 13.1 degrees C), pH has a more significant affect on population dynamics at this southern range edge. However, above this value, SST has the overriding influence. At lower SST, a decrease in pH (according to the National Bureau of Standards, pHNBs) from 8.2 to 7.8 can significantly decrease the population abundance. The lethal impacts of ocean acidification observed in experiments on early life stages reduce cumulative survival by approximately 25%, which again will significantly alter the population level at this southern limit. Furthermore, forecast predictions from this model suggest that combined acidification and warming cause this local population to die out 10 years earlier than

  13. Exactly Solvable Model for Impurity Scattering at the Edge of the ν = 2 / 3 FQH State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Chris; Levin, Michael

    We present an exactly solvable model for impurity scattering on the edge of a ν = 2 / 3 FQH state that is valid in the strong scattering limit. For this model we obtain exact mode expansions for the charge density and current operators, as well as the exact low energy spectrum. Importantly, we find that the low energy theory of the model consists of decoupled and counterpropagating charge and neutral modes, agreeing with the earlier work of Kane, Fisher, and Polchinski. Unlike the previous derivation, which relied on perturbative renormalization group arguments, our approach allows us to derive the emergence of decoupled charge and neutral modes from a microscopic model which is initially far from the decoupled fixed point.

  14. Magnetic-flux-driven topological quantum phase transition and manipulation of perfect edge states in graphene tube

    PubMed Central

    Lin, S.; Zhang, G.; Li, C.; Song, Z.

    2016-01-01

    We study the tight-binding model for a graphene tube with perimeter N threaded by a magnetic field. We show exactly that this model has different nontrivial topological phases as the flux changes. The winding number, as an indicator of topological quantum phase transition (QPT) fixes at N/3 if N/3 equals to its integer part [N/3], otherwise it jumps between [N/3] and [N/3] + 1 periodically as the flux varies a flux quantum. For an open tube with zigzag boundary condition, exact edge states are obtained. There exist two perfect midgap edge states, in which the particle is completely located at the boundary, even for a tube with finite length. The threading flux can be employed to control the quantum states: transferring the perfect edge state from one end to the other, or generating maximal entanglement between them. PMID:27554930

  15. Magnetic-flux-driven topological quantum phase transition and manipulation of perfect edge states in graphene tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, S.; Zhang, G.; Li, C.; Song, Z.

    2016-08-01

    We study the tight-binding model for a graphene tube with perimeter N threaded by a magnetic field. We show exactly that this model has different nontrivial topological phases as the flux changes. The winding number, as an indicator of topological quantum phase transition (QPT) fixes at N/3 if N/3 equals to its integer part [N/3], otherwise it jumps between [N/3] and [N/3] + 1 periodically as the flux varies a flux quantum. For an open tube with zigzag boundary condition, exact edge states are obtained. There exist two perfect midgap edge states, in which the particle is completely located at the boundary, even for a tube with finite length. The threading flux can be employed to control the quantum states: transferring the perfect edge state from one end to the other, or generating maximal entanglement between them.

  16. Peer pressure is a double-edged sword in vaccination dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhi-Xi; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2013-10-01

    Whether or not to change behavior depends not only on the personal success of each individual, but also on the success and/or behavior of others. Using this as motivation, we incorporate the impact of peer pressure into a susceptible-vaccinated-infected-recovered (SVIR) epidemiological model, where the propensity to adopt a particular vaccination strategy depends both on individual success as well as on the strategies of neighbors. We show that plugging into the peer pressure is a double-edged sword, which, on the one hand, strongly promotes vaccination when its cost is below a critical value, but, on the other hand, it can also strongly impede it if the critical value is exceeded. We explain this by revealing a facilitated cluster formation process that is induced by the peer pressure. Due to this, the vaccinated individuals are inclined to cluster together and therefore become unable to efficiently inhibit the spread of the infectious disease if the vaccination is costly. If vaccination is cheap, however, they reinforce each other in using it. Our results are robust to variations of the SVIR dynamics on different population structures.

  17. Suppression of dynamic stall with a leading-edge slat on a VR-7 airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcalister, K. W.; Tung, C.

    1993-01-01

    The VR-7 airfoil was experimentally studied with and without a leading-edge slat at fixed angles of attack from 0 deg to 30 deg at Re = 200,000 and for unsteady pitching motions described by alpha equals alpha(sub m) + 10 deg(sin(wt)). The models were two dimensional, and the test was performed in a water tunnel at Ames Research Center. The unsteady conditions ranged over Re equals 100,000 to 250,000, k equals 0.001 to 0.2, and alpha(sub m) = 10 deg to 20 deg. Unsteady lift, drag, and pitching-moment measurements were obtained along with fluorescent-dye flow visualizations. The addition of the slat was found to delay the static-drag and static-moment stall by about 5 degrees and to eliminate completely the development of a dynamic-stall vortex during unsteady motions that reached angles as high as 25 degrees. In all of the unsteady cases studied, the slat caused a significant reduction in the force and moment hysteresis amplitudes. The reduced frequency was found to have the greatest effect on the results, whereas the Reynolds number had little effect on the behavior of either the basic or the slatted airfoil. The slat caused a slight drag penalty at low angles of attack, but generally increased the lift/drag ratio when averaged over the full cycle of oscillation.

  18. Dynamic edge warping - An experimental system for recovering disparity maps in weakly constrained systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, K. L.; Wuescher, D. M.; Sarkar, S.

    1991-01-01

    Dynamic edge warping (DEW), a technique for recovering reasonably accurate disparity maps from uncalibrated stereo image pairs, is presented. No precise knowledge of the epipolar camera geometry is assumed. The technique is embedded in a system including structural stereopsis on the front end and robust estimation in digital photogrammetry on the other for the purpose of self-calibrating stereo image pairs. Once the relative camera orientation is known, the epipolar geometry is computed and the system can use this information to refine its representation of the object space. Such a system will find application in the autonomous extraction of terrain maps from stereo aerial photographs, for which camera position and orientation are unknown a priori, and for online autonomous calibration maintenance for robotic vision applications, in which the cameras are subject to vibration and other physical disturbances after calibration. This work thus forms a component of an intelligent system that begins with a pair of images and, having only vague knowledge of the conditions under which they were acquired, produces an accurate, dense, relative depth map. The resulting disparity map can also be used directly in some high-level applications involving qualitative scene analysis, spatial reasoning, and perceptual organization of the object space. The system as a whole substitutes high-level information and constraints for precise geometric knowledge in driving and constraining the early correspondence process.

  19. Evidence of a Shockley-Read-Hall Defect State Independent of Band-Edge Energy in InAs /In (As ,Sb ) Type-II Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aytac, Y.; Olson, B. V.; Kim, J. K.; Shaner, E. A.; Hawkins, S. D.; Klem, J. F.; Flatté, M. E.; Boggess, T. F.

    2016-05-01

    A set of seven InAs /In (As ,Sb ) type-II superlattices (T2SLs) are designed to have specific band-gap energies between 290 meV (4.3 μ m ) and 135 meV (9.2 μ m ) in order to study the effects of the T2SL band-gap energy on the minority-carrier lifetime. A temperature-dependent optical pump-probe technique is used to measure the carrier lifetimes, and the effect of a midgap defect level on the carrier-recombination dynamics is reported. The Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) defect state is found to be at energy of approximately -250 ±12 meV relative to the valence-band edge of bulk GaSb for the entire set of T2SL structures, even though the T2SL valence-band edge shifts by 155 meV on the same scale. These results indicate that the SRH defect state in InAs /In (As ,Sb ) T2SLs is singular and is nearly independent of the exact position of the T2SL band-gap or band-edge energies. They also suggest the possibility of engineering the T2SL structure such that the SRH state is removed completely from the band gap, a result that should significantly increase the minority-carrier lifetime.

  20. Evidence of a Shockley-Read-Hall Defect State Independent of Band-Edge Energy in InAs/In(As,Sb) Type-II Superlattices

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aytac, Y.; Olson, B. V.; Kim, J. K.; Shaner, E. A.; Hawkins, S. D.; Klem, J. F.; Flatté, M. E.; Boggess, T. F.

    2016-06-01

    A set of seven InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattices (T2SLs) were designed to have speci c bandgap energies between 290 meV (4.3 m) and 135 meV (9.2 m) in order to study the e ects of the T2SL bandgap energy on the minority carrier lifetime. A temperature dependent optical pump-probe technique is used to measure the carrier lifetimes, and the e ect of a mid-gap defect level on the carrier recombination dynamics is reported. The Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) defect state is found to be at energy of approximately -250 12 meV relative to the valence band edge of bulk GaSb for the entiremore » set of T2SL structures, even though the T2SL valence band edge shifts by 155 meV on the same scale. These results indicate that the SRH defect state in InAs/InAsSb T2SLs is singular and is nearly independent of the exact position of the T2SL bandgap or band edge energies. They also suggest the possibility of engineering the T2SL structure such that the SRH state is removed completely from the bandgap, a result that should signi cantly increase the minority carrier lifetime.« less

  1. State-to-state dynamics of molecular energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, W.R.; Giese, C.F.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this research program is to elucidate the elementary dynamical mechanisms of vibrational and rotational energy transfer between molecules, at a quantum-state resolved level of detail. Molecular beam techniques are used to isolate individual molecular collisions, and to control the kinetic energy of collision. Lasers are used both to prepare specific quantum states prior to collision by stimulated-emission pumping (SEP), and to measure the distribution of quantum states in the collision products by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The results are interpreted in terms of dynamical models, which may be cast in a classical, semiclassical or quantum mechanical framework, as appropriate.

  2. Screening and edge states in two-dimensional metals in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Shikin, V. B. Nazin, S. S.

    2011-08-15

    The length {lambda}{sub 0} at which the lateral electric-field component E{sub Up-Tack} perpendicular to the boundary is conserved near the boundary of two-dimensional (2D) samples, which is covered by 2D electrons, has been determined. The existence of the finite such length follows from the self-consistent process of the screening of the external fields forming the boundaries of real 2D systems by the electrons of the metal. The effect of E{sub Up-Tack} on the structure of magnetic edge states has been taken into account in the mean field approximation in a wide range of the external field from the semiclassical limit ({epsilon}{sub F} Much-Greater-Than h{omega}{sub c}), where {epsilon}{sub F} is the Fermi energy of the 2D system and h{omega}{sub c} is the cyclotron energy to the quantum Hall effect (QHE) region ({epsilon}{sub F} Much-Less-Than h{omega}{sub c}). The positions of the magnetic edge state peaks against the background of their ideal distribution along the perimeter of the 2D circle in the known problem of transverse magnetic focusing have been determined in the semiclassical limit. The systematic description of the structure of the skin layer with {lambda}{sub H} {>=} {lambda}{sub 0}, consisting of the set of the so-called integer strips (overlapping or independent), which are carriers of the universal quantum conductance, has been proposed in the QHE regime. A relatively large probability of the overlapping of the fields of adjacent strips, as well as the possibility of describing coupled integer cascades, is remarkable. The existing data on the tunneling current through integer strips in the {lambda}{sub H} layer providing suitable information on the actual state of the boundary of the 2D system have been commented. A natural analogy between the properties of magnetic edge states and a well-known problem of the details of the ballistic conductance {sigma}{sub Double-Vertical-Line }(H) of narrow electron channels in the magnetic field H has been

  3. ACCRETION THROUGH THE INNER EDGES OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS BY A GIANT SOLID STATE PUMP

    SciTech Connect

    Kelling, T.; Wurm, G.

    2013-09-01

    At the inner edge of a protoplanetary disk, solids are illuminated by stellar light. This illumination heats the solids and creates temperature gradients along their surfaces. Interactions with ambient gas molecules lead to a radial net gas flow. Every illuminated solid particle within the edge is an individual small gas pump transporting gas inward. In total, the inner edge can provide local mass flow rates as high as M-dot = 10{sup -5} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}.

  4. A Bayesian state-space formulation of dynamic occupancy models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Kery, M.

    2007-01-01

    Species occurrence and its dynamic components, extinction and colonization probabilities, are focal quantities in biogeography and metapopulation biology, and for species conservation assessments. It has been increasingly appreciated that these parameters must be estimated separately from detection probability to avoid the biases induced by nondetection error. Hence, there is now considerable theoretical and practical interest in dynamic occupancy models that contain explicit representations of metapopulation dynamics such as extinction, colonization, and turnover as well as growth rates. We describe a hierarchical parameterization of these models that is analogous to the state-space formulation of models in time series, where the model is represented by two components, one for the partially observable occupancy process and another for the observations conditional on that process. This parameterization naturally allows estimation of all parameters of the conventional approach to occupancy models, but in addition, yields great flexibility and extensibility, e.g., to modeling heterogeneity or latent structure in model parameters. We also highlight the important distinction between population and finite sample inference; the latter yields much more precise estimates for the particular sample at hand. Finite sample estimates can easily be obtained using the state-space representation of the model but are difficult to obtain under the conventional approach of likelihood-based estimation. We use R and Win BUGS to apply the model to two examples. In a standard analysis for the European Crossbill in a large Swiss monitoring program, we fit a model with year-specific parameters. Estimates of the dynamic parameters varied greatly among years, highlighting the irruptive population dynamics of that species. In the second example, we analyze route occupancy of Cerulean Warblers in the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) using a model allowing for site

  5. Mapping quantum state dynamics in spontaneous emission

    PubMed Central

    Naghiloo, M.; Foroozani, N.; Tan, D.; Jadbabaie, A.; Murch, K. W.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of a quantum state undergoing radiative decay depends on how its emission is detected. If the emission is detected in the form of energy quanta, the evolution is characterized by a quantum jump to a lower energy state. In contrast, detection of the wave nature of the emitted radiation leads to different dynamics. Here, we investigate the diffusive dynamics of a superconducting artificial atom under continuous homodyne detection of its spontaneous emission. Using quantum state tomography, we characterize the correlation between the detected homodyne signal and the emitter's state, and map out the conditional back-action of homodyne measurement. By tracking the diffusive quantum trajectories of the state as it decays, we characterize selective stochastic excitation induced by the choice of measurement basis. Our results demonstrate dramatic differences from the quantum jump evolution associated with photodetection and highlight how continuous field detection can be harnessed to control quantum evolution. PMID:27167893

  6. Mapping quantum state dynamics in spontaneous emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghiloo, M.; Foroozani, N.; Tan, D.; Jadbabaie, A.; Murch, K. W.

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of a quantum state undergoing radiative decay depends on how its emission is detected. If the emission is detected in the form of energy quanta, the evolution is characterized by a quantum jump to a lower energy state. In contrast, detection of the wave nature of the emitted radiation leads to different dynamics. Here, we investigate the diffusive dynamics of a superconducting artificial atom under continuous homodyne detection of its spontaneous emission. Using quantum state tomography, we characterize the correlation between the detected homodyne signal and the emitter's state, and map out the conditional back-action of homodyne measurement. By tracking the diffusive quantum trajectories of the state as it decays, we characterize selective stochastic excitation induced by the choice of measurement basis. Our results demonstrate dramatic differences from the quantum jump evolution associated with photodetection and highlight how continuous field detection can be harnessed to control quantum evolution.

  7. Mapping quantum state dynamics in spontaneous emission.

    PubMed

    Naghiloo, M; Foroozani, N; Tan, D; Jadbabaie, A; Murch, K W

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of a quantum state undergoing radiative decay depends on how its emission is detected. If the emission is detected in the form of energy quanta, the evolution is characterized by a quantum jump to a lower energy state. In contrast, detection of the wave nature of the emitted radiation leads to different dynamics. Here, we investigate the diffusive dynamics of a superconducting artificial atom under continuous homodyne detection of its spontaneous emission. Using quantum state tomography, we characterize the correlation between the detected homodyne signal and the emitter's state, and map out the conditional back-action of homodyne measurement. By tracking the diffusive quantum trajectories of the state as it decays, we characterize selective stochastic excitation induced by the choice of measurement basis. Our results demonstrate dramatic differences from the quantum jump evolution associated with photodetection and highlight how continuous field detection can be harnessed to control quantum evolution. PMID:27167893

  8. Charge transfer of edge states in zigzag silicene nanoribbons with Stone-Wales defects from first-principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Xie; Rui, Wang; Shaofeng, Wang; Xiaozhi, Wu

    2016-10-01

    Stone-Wales (SW) defects are favorably existed in graphene-like materials with honeycomb lattice structure and potentially employed to change the electronic properties in band engineering. In this paper, we investigate structural and electronic properties of SW defects in silicene sheet and its nanoribbons as a function of their concentration using the methods of periodic boundary conditions with first-principles calculations. We first calculate the formation energy, structural properties, and electronic band structures of SW defects in silicene sheet, with dependence on the concentration of SW defects. Our results show a good agreement with available values from the previous first-principles calculations. The energetics, structural aspects, and electronic properties of SW defects with dependence on defect concentration and location in edge-hydrogenated zigzag silicene nanoribbons are obtained. For all calculated concentrations, the SW defects prefer to locate at the edge due to the lower formation energy. The SW defects at the center of silicene nanoribbons slightly influence on the electronic properties, whereas the SW defects at the edge of silicene nanoribbons split the degenerate edge states and induce a sizable gap, which depends on the concentration of defects. It is worth to find that the SW defects produce a perturbation repulsive potential, which leads the decomposed charge of edge states at the side with defect to transfer to the other side without defect.

  9. Markov state models of biomolecular conformational dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Chodera, John D.; Noé, Frank

    2014-01-01

    It has recently become practical to construct Markov state models (MSMs) that reproduce the long-time statistical conformational dynamics of biomolecules using data from molecular dynamics simulations. MSMs can predict both stationary and kinetic quantities on long timescales (e.g. milliseconds) using a set of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations that are individually much shorter, thus addressing the well-known sampling problem in molecular dynamics simulation. In addition to providing predictive quantitative models, MSMs greatly facilitate both the extraction of insight into biomolecular mechanism (such as folding and functional dynamics) and quantitative comparison with single-molecule and ensemble kinetics experiments. A variety of methodological advances and software packages now bring the construction of these models closer to routine practice. Here, we review recent progress in this field, considering theoretical and methodological advances, new software tools, and recent applications of these approaches in several domains of biochemistry and biophysics, commenting on remaining challenges. PMID:24836551

  10. Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher tunneling effects and edge states in double-barrier structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bogachek, E.N.; Landman, U. )

    1994-07-15

    The simultaneous occurrence of Aharonov-Bohm (AB) and Aharonov-Casher (AC) effects due to edge states in double-barrier two-dimensional wires formed by an electrostatic confinement potential, in the quantum Hall effect regime, is discussed. The AC effect is manifested via a shift of the AB conductance oscillations, and a method for measurement of the effect is proposed.

  11. Magnetic field effects on edge and bulk states in topological insulators based on HgTe/CdHgTe quantum wells with strong natural interface inversion asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durnev, M. V.; Tarasenko, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present a theory of the electron structure and the Zeeman effect for the helical edge states emerging in two-dimensional topological insulators based on HgTe/HgCdTe quantum wells with strong natural interface inversion asymmetry. The interface inversion asymmetry, reflecting the real atomistic structure of the quantum well, drastically modifies both bulk and edge states. For the in-plane magnetic field, this asymmetry leads to a strong anisotropy of the edge-state effective g factor, which becomes dependent on the edge orientation. The interface inversion asymmetry also couples the counterpropagating edge states in the out-of-plane magnetic field leading to the opening of the gap in the edge-state spectrum by arbitrary small fields.

  12. Automatic Generation of Wide Dynamic Range Image without Pseudo-Edge Using Integration of Multi-Steps Exposure Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migiyama, Go; Sugimura, Atsuhiko; Osa, Atsushi; Miike, Hidetoshi

    Recently, digital cameras are offering technical advantages rapidly. However, the shot image is different from the sight image generated when that scenery is seen with the naked eye. There are blown-out highlights and crushed blacks in the image that photographed the scenery of wide dynamic range. The problems are hardly generated in the sight image. These are contributory cause of difference between the shot image and the sight image. Blown-out highlights and crushed blacks are caused by the difference of dynamic range between the image sensor installed in a digital camera such as CCD and CMOS and the human visual system. Dynamic range of the shot image is narrower than dynamic range of the sight image. In order to solve the problem, we propose an automatic method to decide an effective exposure range in superposition of edges. We integrate multi-step exposure images using the method. In addition, we try to erase pseudo-edges using the process to blend exposure values. Afterwards, we get a pseudo wide dynamic range image automatically.

  13. Few-electron edge-state quantum dots in a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Voisin, Benoit; Nguyen, Viet-Hung; Renard, Julien; Jehl, Xavier; Barraud, Sylvain; Triozon, François; Vinet, Maud; Duchemin, Ivan; Niquet, Yann-Michel; de Franceschi, Silvano; Sanquer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the gate-induced onset of few-electron regime through the undoped channel of a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. By combining low-temperature transport measurements and self-consistent calculations, we reveal the formation of one-dimensional conduction modes localized at the two upper edges of the channel. Charge traps in the gate dielectric cause electron localization along these edge modes, creating elongated quantum dots with characteristic lengths of ∼10 nm. We observe single-electron tunneling across two such dots in parallel, specifically one in each channel edge. We identify the filling of these quantum dots with the first few electrons, measuring addition energies of a few tens of millielectron volts and level spacings of the order of 1 meV, which we ascribe to the valley orbit splitting. The total removal of valley degeneracy leaves only a 2-fold spin degeneracy, making edge quantum dots potentially promising candidates for silicon spin qubits.

  14. Slide fastener reduction of graphene-oxide edges by calcium: insight from ab initio molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Xie, Sheng-Yi; Li, Xian-Bin; Tian, Wei Quan; Wang, Dan; Chen, Nian-Ke; Han, Dong; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2014-09-15

    The reduction of graphene oxide can be used as a simple way to produce graphene on a large scale. However, the numerous edges produced by the oxidation of graphite seriously degrade the quality of the graphene and its carrier transport property. In this work, the reduction of oxygen-passivated graphene edges and the subsequent linking of separated graphene sheets by calcium are investigated by using first-principles calculations. The calculations show that calcium can effectively remove the oxygen groups from two adjacent edges. The joining point of the edges serves as the starting point of the reduction and facilitates the reaction. Once the oxygen groups are removed, the crack is sutured. If the joining point is lacking, it becomes difficult to zip the separated fragments. A general electron-reduction model and a random atom-reduction model are suggested for these two situations. The present study sheds light on the reduction of graphene-oxide edges by using reactive metals to give large-sized graphene through a simple chemical reaction.

  15. Edge states, spin transport, and impurity-induced local density of states in spin-orbit coupled graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadri, Ranjani; Sengupta, K.; Sen, Diptiman

    2016-01-01

    We study graphene, which has both spin-orbit coupling (SOC), taken to be of the Kane-Mele form, and a Zeeman field induced due to proximity to a ferromagnetic material. We show that a zigzag interface of graphene having SOC with its pristine counterpart hosts robust chiral edge modes in spite of the gapless nature of the pristine graphene; such modes do not occur for armchair interfaces. Next we study the change in the local density of states (LDOS) due to the presence of an impurity in graphene with SOC and Zeeman field, and demonstrate that the Fourier transform of the LDOS close to the Dirac points can act as a measure of the strength of the spin-orbit coupling; in addition, for a specific distribution of impurity atoms, the LDOS is controlled by a destructive interference effect of graphene electrons which is a direct consequence of their Dirac nature. Finally, we study transport across junctions, which separates spin-orbit coupled graphene with Kane-Mele and Rashba terms from pristine graphene both in the presence and absence of a Zeeman field. We demonstrate that such junctions are generally spin active, namely, they can rotate the spin so that an incident electron that is spin polarized along some direction has a finite probability of being transmitted with the opposite spin. This leads to a finite, electrically controllable, spin current in such graphene junctions. We discuss possible experiments that can probe our theoretical predictions.

  16. Investigation of ELM [edge localized mode] Dynamics with the Resonant Magnetic Perturbation Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Pankin, Alexei Y.; Kritz, Arnold H.

    2011-07-19

    Topics covered are: anomalous transport and E x B flow shear effects in the H-mode pedestal; RMP (resonant magnetic perturbation) effects in NSTX discharges; development of a scaling of H-mode pedestal in tokamak plasmas with type I ELMs (edge localized modes); and divertor heat load studies.

  17. Motorcycle state estimation for lateral dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teerhuis, A. P.; Jansen, S. T. H.

    2012-08-01

    The motorcycle lean (or roll) angle development is one of the main characteristics of motorcycle lateral dynamics. Control of motorcycle motions requires an accurate assessment of this quantity and for safety applications also the risk of sliding needs to be considered. Direct measurement of the roll angle and tyre slip is not available; therefore, a method of model-based estimation is developed to estimate the state of a motorcycle. This paper investigates the feasibility of such a motorcycle state estimator (MCSE). A simplified analytic model of a motorcycle is developed by comparison to an extended multi-body model of the motorcycle, designed in Matlab/SimMechanics. The analytic model is used inside an extended Kalman filter. Experimental results of an instrumented Yamaha FJR1300 motorcycle show that the MCSE is a feasible concept for obtaining signals related to the lateral dynamics of the motorcycle.

  18. Design and longitudinal dynamic stability analysis of a slender delta kite for high altitudes using leading edge suction analogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madduri, Bharath

    In this thesis, the longitudinal dynamic stability modes, namely Phugoid and Short-period of delta kite with single tether are examined, for different aspect ratios (A) and flow conditions. The equations of motion, of kite are solved in polar-inertial wind frame and the tether is approximated by straight line elements. The vortex lift and induced drag due to leading edge vortices are calculated using Polhamus leading edge suction analogy. The Polhamus proportionality constants (Kp, Kv) are used to estimate the overall coefficient of lift and drag (C L, CD) and are computed using Multhopp lifting surface theory. The values of total coefficient of lift and drag (CL, CD) are examined for a wide variety of aspect ratio of delta kite and are validated by comparing with the experimental data. Linear stability analysis is performed for the chosen design variables to ensure the nominal design has stable longitudinal dynamics. A plot of the root locus of the system matrix for longitudinal dynamics as a function of geometry and flight conditions, provided an intuitive understanding of the flight modes of the kite, with respect to design parameters of interest.

  19. Dynamical masses of a nova-like variable on the edge of the period gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Shahbaz, T.; Marsh, T. R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Steeghs, D.; Long, K. S.; Martínez-Pais, I. G.; Armas Padilla, M.; Schwarz, R.; Schreiber, M. R.; Torres, M. A. P.; Koester, D.; Dhillon, V. S.; Castellano, J.; Rodríguez, D.

    2015-09-01

    We present the first dynamical determination of the binary parameters of an eclipsing SW Sextantis star in the 3-4 h orbital period range during a low state. We obtained time-resolved optical spectroscopy and photometry of HS 0220+0603 during its 2004-2005 low-brightness state, as revealed in the combined Small & Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System, IAC80 and M1 Group long-term optical light curve. The optical spectra taken during primary eclipse reveal a secondary star spectral type of M5.5 ± 0.5 as derived from molecular band-head indices. The spectra also provide the first detection of a DAB white dwarf in a cataclysmic variable. By modelling its optical spectrum we estimate a white dwarf temperature of 30 000 ± 5000 K. By combining the results of modelling the white dwarf eclipse from ULTRACAM light curves with those obtained by simultaneously fitting the emission- and absorption-line radial velocity curves and I-band ellipsoidal light curves, we measure the stellar masses to be M1 = 0.87 ± 0.09 M⊙ and M2 = 0.47 ± 0.05 M⊙ for the white dwarf and the M dwarf, respectively, and an inclination of the orbital plane of i ≈ 79°. A radius of 0.0103 ± 0.0007 R⊙ is obtained for the white dwarf. The secondary star in HS 0220+0603 is likely too cool and undersized for its mass.

  20. Intermolecular bonding of hemin in solution and in solid state probed by N K-edge X-ray spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Golnak, Ronny; Xiao, Jie; Atak, Kaan; Stevens, Joanna S; Gainar, Adrian; Schroeder, Sven L M; Aziz, Emad F

    2015-11-21

    X-ray absorption/emission spectroscopy (XAS/XES) at the N K-edge of iron protoporphyrin IX chloride (FePPIX-Cl, or hemin) has been carried out for dissolved monomers in DMSO, dimers in water and for the solid state. This sequence of samples permits identification of characteristic spectral features associated with the hemin intermolecular bonding. These characteristic features are further analyzed and understood at the molecular orbital (MO) level based on the DFT calculations.

  1. Nickel L-edge and K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of non-innocent Ni[S₂C₂(CF₃)₂]₂(n) series (n = -2, -1, 0): direct probe of nickel fractional oxidation state changes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Weiwei; Wang, Hongxin; Wang, Kun

    2014-05-01

    A series of nickel dithiolene complexes Ni[S2C2(CF3)2]2(n) (n = -2, -1, 0) has been investigated using Ni L- and K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The L3 centroid shifts about 0.3 eV for a change of one unit in the formal oxidation state (or 0.3 eV per oxi), corresponding to ~33% of the shift for Ni oxides or fluorides (about 0.9 eV per oxi). The K-edge XAS edge position shifts about 0.7 eV per oxi, corresponding to ~38% of that for Ni oxides (1.85 eV per oxi). In addition, Ni L sum rule analysis found the Ni(3d) ionicity in the frontier orbitals being 50.5%, 44.0% and 38.5% respectively (for n = -2, -1, 0), in comparison with their formal oxidation states (of Ni(II), Ni(III), and Ni(IV)). For the first time, direct and quantitative measurement of the Ni fractional oxidation state changes becomes possible for Ni dithiolene complexes, illustrating the power of L-edge XAS and L sum rule analysis in such a study. The Ni L-edge and K-edge XAS can be used in a complementary manner to better assess the oxidation states for Ni.

  2. Dynamics of electrostatic fluctuations in the edge plasma in the U-3M torsatron

    SciTech Connect

    Olshansky, V. V.; Stepanov, K. N.; Tarasov, M. I.; Sitnikov, D. A.

    2010-10-15

    Results are presented from experimental and theoretical investigations of oscillatory and wave phenomena observed in the edge region in the U-3M torsatron during plasma creation and heating by an RF discharge in the ICR frequency range, accompanied by a transition to improved confinement. The main results are reported of diagnostic measurements of the spectral composition of oscillations, as well as of how the phase and amplitude relationships depend on time and on the RF power during its injection into the plasma. The measurements were carried out with electrostatic probes positioned at the edge of the plasma confinement region. The experimental results are interpreted using the kinetic theory of the electron-ion parametric instability of a plasma in the ion cyclotron frequency range and are compared with the results of numerical simulations.

  3. Few-electron edge-state quantum dots in a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Voisin, Benoit; Nguyen, Viet-Hung; Renard, Julien; Jehl, Xavier; Barraud, Sylvain; Triozon, François; Vinet, Maud; Duchemin, Ivan; Niquet, Yann-Michel; de Franceschi, Silvano; Sanquer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the gate-induced onset of few-electron regime through the undoped channel of a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. By combining low-temperature transport measurements and self-consistent calculations, we reveal the formation of one-dimensional conduction modes localized at the two upper edges of the channel. Charge traps in the gate dielectric cause electron localization along these edge modes, creating elongated quantum dots with characteristic lengths of ∼10 nm. We observe single-electron tunneling across two such dots in parallel, specifically one in each channel edge. We identify the filling of these quantum dots with the first few electrons, measuring addition energies of a few tens of millielectron volts and level spacings of the order of 1 meV, which we ascribe to the valley orbit splitting. The total removal of valley degeneracy leaves only a 2-fold spin degeneracy, making edge quantum dots potentially promising candidates for silicon spin qubits. PMID:24611581

  4. 12 CFR 211.6 - Permissible activities of Edge and agreement corporations in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and other depository institutions (as described in Regulation D (12 CFR part 204)); or (G) Are... depository institutions (as described in Regulation D (12 CFR part 204)); (ii) Issue obligations to the... Regulation D (12 CFR part 204). (3) Credit activities. An Edge or agreement corporation may: (i) Finance...

  5. 12 CFR 211.6 - Permissible activities of Edge and agreement corporations in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and other depository institutions (as described in Regulation D (12 CFR part 204)); or (G) Are... depository institutions (as described in Regulation D (12 CFR part 204)); (ii) Issue obligations to the... Regulation D (12 CFR part 204). (3) Credit activities. An Edge or agreement corporation may: (i) Finance...

  6. 12 CFR 211.6 - Permissible activities of Edge and agreement corporations in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., and other depository institutions (as described in Regulation D (12 CFR part 204)); or (G) Are... depository institutions (as described in Regulation D (12 CFR part 204)); (ii) Issue obligations to the... Regulation D (12 CFR part 204). (3) Credit activities. An Edge or agreement corporation may: (i) Finance...

  7. 12 CFR 211.6 - Permissible activities of Edge and agreement corporations in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., and other depository institutions (as described in Regulation D (12 CFR part 204)); or (G) Are... depository institutions (as described in Regulation D (12 CFR part 204)); (ii) Issue obligations to the... Regulation D (12 CFR part 204). (3) Credit activities. An Edge or agreement corporation may: (i) Finance...

  8. 12 CFR 211.6 - Permissible activities of Edge and agreement corporations in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and other depository institutions (as described in Regulation D (12 CFR part 204)); or (G) Are... depository institutions (as described in Regulation D (12 CFR part 204)); (ii) Issue obligations to the... Regulation D (12 CFR part 204). (3) Credit activities. An Edge or agreement corporation may: (i) Finance...

  9. Dynamic edge effects in small mammal communities across a conservation-agricultural interface in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Zachary M; McCleery, Robert A; Collier, Bret A; Fletcher, Robert J; Silvy, Nova J; Taylor, Peter J; Monadjem, Ara

    2013-01-01

    Across the planet, high-intensity farming has transformed native vegetation into monocultures, decreasing biodiversity on a landscape scale. Yet landscape-scale changes to biodiversity and community structure often emerge from processes operating at local scales. One common process that can explain changes in biodiversity and community structure is the creation of abrupt habitat edges, which, in turn, generate edge effects. Such effects, while incredibly common, can be highly variable across space and time; however, we currently lack a general analytical framework that can adequately capture such spatio-temporal variability. We extend previous approaches for estimating edge effects to a non-linear mixed modeling framework that captures such spatio-temporal heterogeneity and apply it to understand how agricultural land-uses alter wildlife communities. We trapped small mammals along a conservation-agriculture land-use interface extending 375 m into sugarcane plantations and conservation land-uses at three sites during dry and wet seasons in Swaziland, Africa. Sugarcane plantations had significant reductions in species richness and heterogeneity, and showed an increase in community similarity, suggesting a more homogenized small mammal community. Furthermore, our modeling framework identified strong variation in edge effects on communities across sites and seasons. Using small mammals as an indicator, intensive agricultural practices appear to create high-density communities of generalist species while isolating interior species in less than 225 m. These results illustrate how agricultural land-use can reduce diversity across the landscape and that effects can be masked or magnified, depending on local conditions. Taken together, our results emphasize the need to create or retain natural habitat features in agricultural mosaics.

  10. Dynamic Edge Effects in Small Mammal Communities across a Conservation-Agricultural Interface in Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Zachary M.; McCleery, Robert A.; Collier, Bret A.; Fletcher, Robert J.; Silvy, Nova J.; Taylor, Peter J.; Monadjem, Ara

    2013-01-01

    Across the planet, high-intensity farming has transformed native vegetation into monocultures, decreasing biodiversity on a landscape scale. Yet landscape-scale changes to biodiversity and community structure often emerge from processes operating at local scales. One common process that can explain changes in biodiversity and community structure is the creation of abrupt habitat edges, which, in turn, generate edge effects. Such effects, while incredibly common, can be highly variable across space and time; however, we currently lack a general analytical framework that can adequately capture such spatio-temporal variability. We extend previous approaches for estimating edge effects to a non-linear mixed modeling framework that captures such spatio-temporal heterogeneity and apply it to understand how agricultural land-uses alter wildlife communities. We trapped small mammals along a conservation-agriculture land-use interface extending 375 m into sugarcane plantations and conservation land-uses at three sites during dry and wet seasons in Swaziland, Africa. Sugarcane plantations had significant reductions in species richness and heterogeneity, and showed an increase in community similarity, suggesting a more homogenized small mammal community. Furthermore, our modeling framework identified strong variation in edge effects on communities across sites and seasons. Using small mammals as an indicator, intensive agricultural practices appear to create high-density communities of generalist species while isolating interior species in less than 225 m. These results illustrate how agricultural land-use can reduce diversity across the landscape and that effects can be masked or magnified, depending on local conditions. Taken together, our results emphasize the need to create or retain natural habitat features in agricultural mosaics. PMID:24040269

  11. Topological edge states in a high-temperature superconductor FeSe/SrTiO3(001) film.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z F; Zhang, Huimin; Liu, Defa; Liu, Chong; Tang, Chenjia; Song, Canli; Zhong, Yong; Peng, Junping; Li, Fangsen; Nie, Caina; Wang, Lili; Zhou, X J; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Q K; Liu, Feng

    2016-09-01

    Superconducting and topological states are two most intriguing quantum phenomena in solid materials. The entanglement of these two states, the topological superconducting state, will give rise to even more exotic quantum phenomena. While many materials are found to be either a superconductor or a topological insulator, it is very rare that both states exist in one material. Here, we demonstrate by first-principles theory as well as scanning tunnelling spectroscopy and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments that the recently discovered 'two-dimensional (2D) superconductor' of single-layer FeSe also exhibits 1D topological edge states within an energy gap of ∼40 meV at the M point below the Fermi level. It is the first 2D material that supports both superconducting and topological states, offering an exciting opportunity to study 2D topological superconductors through the proximity effect. PMID:27376684

  12. Topological edge states in a high-temperature superconductor FeSe/SrTiO3(001) film.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z F; Zhang, Huimin; Liu, Defa; Liu, Chong; Tang, Chenjia; Song, Canli; Zhong, Yong; Peng, Junping; Li, Fangsen; Nie, Caina; Wang, Lili; Zhou, X J; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Q K; Liu, Feng

    2016-09-01

    Superconducting and topological states are two most intriguing quantum phenomena in solid materials. The entanglement of these two states, the topological superconducting state, will give rise to even more exotic quantum phenomena. While many materials are found to be either a superconductor or a topological insulator, it is very rare that both states exist in one material. Here, we demonstrate by first-principles theory as well as scanning tunnelling spectroscopy and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments that the recently discovered 'two-dimensional (2D) superconductor' of single-layer FeSe also exhibits 1D topological edge states within an energy gap of ∼40 meV at the M point below the Fermi level. It is the first 2D material that supports both superconducting and topological states, offering an exciting opportunity to study 2D topological superconductors through the proximity effect.

  13. Topological edge states in a high-temperature superconductor FeSe/SrTiO3(001) film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. F.; Zhang, Huimin; Liu, Defa; Liu, Chong; Tang, Chenjia; Song, Canli; Zhong, Yong; Peng, Junping; Li, Fangsen; Nie, Caina; Wang, Lili; Zhou, X. J.; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Q. K.; Liu, Feng

    2016-09-01

    Superconducting and topological states are two most intriguing quantum phenomena in solid materials. The entanglement of these two states, the topological superconducting state, will give rise to even more exotic quantum phenomena. While many materials are found to be either a superconductor or a topological insulator, it is very rare that both states exist in one material. Here, we demonstrate by first-principles theory as well as scanning tunnelling spectroscopy and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments that the recently discovered `two-dimensional (2D) superconductor' of single-layer FeSe also exhibits 1D topological edge states within an energy gap of ~40 meV at the M point below the Fermi level. It is the first 2D material that supports both superconducting and topological states, offering an exciting opportunity to study 2D topological superconductors through the proximity effect.

  14. Liprin-α1 and ERC1 control cell edge dynamics by promoting focal adhesion turnover

    PubMed Central

    Astro, Veronica; Tonoli, Diletta; Chiaretti, Sara; Badanai, Sabrina; Sala, Kristyna; Zerial, Marino; de Curtis, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Liprin-α1 and ERC1 are interacting scaffold proteins regulating the motility of normal and tumor cells. They act as part of plasma membrane-associated platforms at the edge of motile cells to promote protrusion by largely unknown mechanisms. Here we identify an amino-terminal region of the liprin-α1 protein (liprin-N) that is sufficient and necessary for the interaction with other liprin-α1 molecules. Similar to liprin-α1 or ERC1 silencing, expression of the liprin-N negatively affects tumor cell motility and extracellular matrix invasion, acting as a dominant negative by interacting with endogenous liprin-α1 and causing the displacement of the endogenous ERC1 protein from the cell edge. Interfering with the localization of ERC1 at the cell edge inhibits the disassembly of focal adhesions, impairing protrusion. Liprin-α1 and ERC1 proteins colocalize with active integrin β1 clusters distinct from those colocalizing with cytoplasmic focal adhesion proteins, and influence the localization of peripheral Rab7-positive endosomes. We propose that liprin-α1 and ERC1 promote protrusion by displacing cytoplasmic adhesion components to favour active integrin internalization into Rab7-positive endosomes. PMID:27659488

  15. Pairwise and edge-based models of epidemic dynamics on correlated weighted networks

    PubMed Central

    Rattana, P.; Miller, J.C.; Kiss, I.Z.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore the potential of the pairwise-type modelling approach to be extended to weighted networks where nodal degree and weights are not independent. As a baseline or null model for weighted networks, we consider undirected, heterogenous networks where edge weights are randomly distributed. We show that the pairwise model successfully captures the extra complexity of the network, but does this at the cost of limited analytical tractability due the high number of equations. To circumvent this problem, we employ the edge-based modelling approach to derive models corresponding to two different cases, namely for degree-dependent and randomly distributed weights. These models are more amenable to compute important epidemic descriptors, such as early growth rate and final epidemic size, and produce similarly excellent agreement with simulation. Using a branching process approach we compute the basic reproductive ratio for both models and discuss the implication of random and correlated weight distributions on this as well as on the time evolution and final outcome of epidemics. Finally, we illustrate that the two seemingly different modelling approaches, pairwsie and edge-based, operate on similar assumptions and it is possible to formally link the two. PMID:25580064

  16. Edge turbulence during the static dynamic ergodic divertor experiments in TEXTOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Van Schoor, M.; Weynants, R. R.; Jachmich, S.; Vergote, M.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Beyer, P.; Mitri, M.; Schweer, B.; Reiser, D.; Unterberg, B.; Finken, K. H.; Lehnen, M.; Jaspers, R.; TEXTOR Team

    2007-12-01

    The influence of the magnetic ergodization on edge turbulence and turbulence-induced transport has been investigated by Langmuir probes in TEXTOR under three different static DED configurations. Common features are observed. With DED, the edge equilibrium profiles are altered and the resultant positive Er is in agreement with modelling. In the ergodic zone, the potential fluctuations are strongly reduced and the local turbulent flux changes direction from radially outwards to inwards. In the same zone, the turbulence properties are profoundly modified by energy redistribution in frequency spectra, suppression of large-scale structures and reduction of the radial and poloidal correlation lengths for all frequencies. Meanwhile, the fluctuation poloidal phase velocity changes sign from the electron to ion diamagnetic drift, consistent with the change of the Er × B flow, whereas the slight radially outward propagation of fluctuations is hindered by the DED. In the laminar region, the turbulence correlation is found to react to the observed reduced flow shear. Before the DED the Reynolds stress displays a radial gradient at the plasma edge while during DED the profile is suppressed, suggesting a rearrangement by the DED on the flow momentum profile.

  17. Toward integrated multi-scale pedestal simulations including edge-localized-mode dynamics, evolution of edge-localized-mode cycles, and continuous fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. Q.; Xia, T. Y.; Yan, N.; Liu, Z. X.; Kong, D. F.; Diallo, A.; Groebner, R. J.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.

    2016-05-01

    The high-fidelity BOUT++ two-fluid code suite has demonstrated significant recent progress toward integrated multi-scale simulations of tokamak pedestal, including Edge-Localized-Mode (ELM) dynamics, evolution of ELM cycles, and continuous fluctuations, as observed in experiments. Nonlinear ELM simulations show three stages of an ELM event: (1) a linear growing phase; (2) a fast crash phase; and (3) a slow inward turbulence spreading phase lasting until the core heating flux balances the ELM energy loss and the ELM is terminated. A new coupling/splitting model has been developed to perform simulations of multi-scale ELM dynamics. Simulation tracks five ELM cycles for 10 000 Alfvén times for small ELMs. The temporal evolution of the pedestal pressure is similar to that of experimental measurements for the pedestal pressure profile collapses and recovers to a steep gradient during ELM cycles. To validate BOUT++ simulations against experimental data and develop physics understanding of the fluctuation characteristics for different tokamak operation regimes, both quasi-coherent fluctuations (QCFs) in ELMy H-modes and Weakly Coherent Modes in I-modes have been simulated using three dimensional 6-field 2-fluid electromagnetic model. The H-mode simulation results show that (1) QCFs are localized in the pedestal region having a predominant frequency at f ≃300 -400 kHz and poloidal wavenumber at kθ≃0.7 cm-1 , and propagate in the electron diamagnetic direction in the laboratory frame. The overall signatures of simulation results for QCFs show good agreement with C-Mod and DIII-D measurements. (2) The pedestal profiles giving rise to QCFs are near the marginal instability threshold for ideal peeling-ballooning modes for both C-Mod and DIII-D, while the collisional electromagnetic drift-Alfvén wave appears to be dominant for DIII-D. (3) Particle diffusivity is either smaller than the heat diffusivity for DIII-D or similar to the heat diffusivity for C-Mod. Key I

  18. Photodissociation Dynamics of Diacetylene Rydberg States.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongzhen; Yu, Shengrui; Su, Shu; Dai, Dongxu; Yuan, Kaijun; Yang, Xueming

    2015-11-19

    The state-selective photodissociation of diacetylene (C4H2) was studied in the wavelength range of 127.5-164.4 nm by high-resolution Rydberg H atom time-of-flight spectroscopy measurements. In the wavelength region, two Rydberg series nR and nR' were state-selectively excited using tunable vacuum-ultraviolet laser radiation. In all photolysis wavelengths, two decay channels with different dissociation dynamics were observed. In one channel, the characteristic and isotropic translational energy distributions with a peak around 1800 cm(-1) can be found, suggesting statistical dissociation through internal conversion (IC) from the Rydberg state to the ground state and then dissociation on the ground-state surface. In contrast to this, in the second channel, nonstatistical and anisotropic translational energy distributions were observed, possibly through IC to the excited repulsive state. The vibrational progressions of C4H (A(2)Π) products have also been observed and assigned to the CCC bend and C≡C stretch progressions in the second channel at 3R Rydberg states.

  19. Composition of quantum states and dynamical subadditivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roga, Wojciech; Fannes, Mark; Życzkowski, Karol

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a composition of quantum states of a bipartite system which is based on the reshuffling of density matrices. This non-Abelian product is associative and stems from the composition of quantum maps acting on a simple quantum system. It induces a semi-group in the subset of states with maximally mixed partial traces. Subadditivity of the von Neumann entropy with respect to this product is proved. It is equivalent to subadditivity of the entropy of bistochastic maps with respect to their composition, where the entropy of a map is the entropy of the corresponding state under the Jamiołkowski isomorphism. Strong dynamical subadditivity of a concatenation of three bistochastic maps is established. Analogous bounds for the entropy of a composition are derived for general stochastic maps. In the classical case they lead to new bounds for the entropy of a product of two stochastic matrices.

  20. Kondo effect in the helical edge liquid of the quantum spin Hall state.

    PubMed

    Maciejko, Joseph; Liu, Chaoxing; Oreg, Yuval; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Wu, Congjun; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2009-06-26

    Following the recent observation of the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect in HgTe quantum wells, an important issue is to understand the effect of impurities on transport in the QSH regime. Using linear response and renormalization group methods, we calculate the edge conductance of a QSH insulator as a function of temperature in the presence of a magnetic impurity. At high temperatures, Kondo and/or two-particle scattering give rise to a logarithmic temperature dependence. At low temperatures, for weak Coulomb interactions in the edge liquid, the conductance is restored to unitarity with unusual power laws characteristic of a "local helical liquid," while for strong interactions, transport proceeds by weak tunneling through the impurity where only half an electron charge is transferred in each tunneling event. PMID:19659109

  1. Topological edge states in correlated honeycomb materials with strong spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catuneanu, Andrei; Kim, Heung-Sik; Can, Oguzhan; Kee, Hae-Young

    2016-09-01

    We study the topological nature of single layers of correlated honeycomb materials α -RuCl3 and A2IrO3 (A =Li,Na) with strong spin-orbit coupling. An effective tight-binding model based on first principles band structure calculations including Hubbard and spin-orbit coupling is derived. Two pairs of propagating edge modes centered at the zone center and zone boundary are found when their one-dimensional boundary forms a zigzag shape, while the bulk has a gap with trivial time-reversal Z2 invariants. The effects of strong electronic interactions and doping on the edge modes in these Mott insulators are discussed. We further suggest a heterostructure of α -RuCl3/IrCl3 to search for the proposed topological Mott phase.

  2. Estimating Power System Dynamic States Using Extended Kalman Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Schneider, Kevin P.; Nieplocha, Jaroslaw; Zhou, Ning

    2014-10-31

    Abstract—The state estimation tools which are currently deployed in power system control rooms are based on a steady state assumption. As a result, the suite of operational tools that rely on state estimation results as inputs do not have dynamic information available and their accuracy is compromised. This paper investigates the application of Extended Kalman Filtering techniques for estimating dynamic states in the state estimation process. The new formulated “dynamic state estimation” includes true system dynamics reflected in differential equations, not like previously proposed “dynamic state estimation” which only considers the time-variant snapshots based on steady state modeling. This new dynamic state estimation using Extended Kalman Filter has been successfully tested on a multi-machine system. Sensitivity studies with respect to noise levels, sampling rates, model errors, and parameter errors are presented as well to illustrate the robust performance of the developed dynamic state estimation process.

  3. Real-space imaging of a topologically protected edge state with ultracold atoms in an amplitude-chirped optical lattice

    PubMed Central

    Leder, Martin; Grossert, Christopher; Sitta, Lukas; Genske, Maximilian; Rosch, Achim; Weitz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    To describe a mobile defect in polyacetylene chains, Su, Schrieffer and Heeger formulated a model assuming two degenerate energy configurations that are characterized by two different topological phases. An immediate consequence was the emergence of a soliton-type edge state located at the boundary between two regions of different configurations. Besides giving first insights in the electrical properties of polyacetylene materials, interest in this effect also stems from its close connection to states with fractional charge from relativistic field theory. Here, using a one-dimensional optical lattice for cold rubidium atoms with a spatially chirped amplitude, we experimentally realize an interface between two spatial regions of different topological order in an atomic physics system. We directly observe atoms confined in the edge state at the intersection by optical real-space imaging and characterize the state as well as the size of the associated energy gap. Our findings hold prospects for the spectroscopy of surface states in topological matter and for the quantum simulation of interacting Dirac systems. PMID:27767054

  4. Broadband spectrally dynamic solid state illumination source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicol, David B.; Asghar, Ali; Gupta, Shalini; Kang, Hun; Pan, Ming; Strassburg, Martin; Summers, Chris; Ferguson, Ian T.

    2006-06-01

    Solid state lighting has done well recently in niche markets such as signage and displays, however, no available SSL technologies incorporate all the necessary attributes for general illumination. Development of a novel solid state general illumination source is discussed here. Two LEDs emitting at two distinct wavelengths can be monolithically grown and used to excite two or more phosphors with varied excitation spectra. The combined phosphorescence spectrum can then be controlled by adjusting the relative intensities of the two LED emissions. Preliminary phosphor analysis shows such a scheme to be viable for use in a spectrally dynamic broadband general illumination source. A tunnel junction is envisioned as a means of current spreading in a buried layer for three terminal operation. However, tunnel junction properties in GaN based materials are not well understood, and require further optimization to be practical devices. Preliminary results on GaN tunnel junctions are presented here as well.

  5. Dynamics of Liquids in Edges and Corners (DYLCO): IML-2 Experiment for the BDPU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langbein, D.; Weislogel, M.

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of the behavior of fluids possessing free surfaces is important to many fluid systems, particularly in space, where the normally subtle effects of surface wettability play a more dramatic and often surprising role. DYLCO for the IML-2 mission was proposed as a simple experiment to probe the particular behavior of capillary surfaces in containers of irregular cross section. Temperature control was utilized to vary the fluid-solid contact angle, a questionable thermodynamic parameter of the system, small changes in which can dramatically influence the configuration, stability, and flow of a capillary surface. Container shapes, test fluid, and temperature ranges were selected for observing both local changes in interface curvature as well as a global change in fluid orientation due to a critical wetting phenomenon. The experiment hardware performed beyond what was expected and fluid interfaces could be readily digitized post flight to show the dependence of the interface curvature on temperature. For each of the containers tested surfaces were observed which did not satisfy the classic equations for the prediction of interface shape with constant contact angle boundary condition. This is explained by the presence of contact angle hysteresis arising from expansion and contraction of the liquid during the heating and cooling steps of the test procedure. More importantly, surfaces exceeding the critical surface curvature required for critical wetting were measured, yet no wetting was observed. These findings are indeed curious and pose key questions concerning the role of hysteresis for this critical wetting phenomena. The stability of such surfaces was determined numerically and it is shown that stability is enhance (reduced) when a surface is in its 'advancing' ('receding') state, The analysis shows complete instability as the critical wetting condition is reached. The case of ideal dynamic wetting is addressed analytically in detail with results of

  6. Landscape changes and colony site dynamics: How gull-billed terns cope at the sea's edge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Williams, B.; Watts, B.; Truitt, B.; Stotts, D.; Eyler, B.

    1996-01-01

    Gull-billed Terns have declined dramatically in coastal Virginia over the past 20 years, with apparently low reproductive success. They nest, usually in mixed-species colonies, in two discrete habitat types: large, sandy barrier islands or shell/sandbars on the edges of marsh islands in the lagoon systems. The smaller shell/sandbars seem to provide more consistent nestling habitat and predation pressures than do barrier islands among years. We hypothesize that colony site turnover (between years) should be higher in the more uncertain barrier island habitats than among the shell/sandbar colonies. Our results do not corroborate the prediction. We postulate that social (and other) factors may explain these differences.

  7. Numerical and experimental study on the ability of dynamic roughness to alter the development of a leading edge vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Christopher D.

    Dynamic stall is an unsteady aerodynamic phenomenon garnering much research interest because it occurs in a variety of applications. For example, dynamic stall is known to occur on helicopter rotor blades, wind turbines, high maneuvering military aircraft, and flapping wings. Dynamic stall occurs when an aerodynamic lifting device, such as an airfoil, wing, or turbomachine blade, undergoes a rapid pitching motion. It also occurs on lifting devices that are impulsively started at high angles of attack. Dynamic stall can "delay" aerodynamic stall to angles of attack that are significantly beyond the static stall angle of attack. During dynamic stall a large leading edge vortex (LEV) is formed, which creates greater fluid acceleration over the wing or airfoil, thus sustaining lift. As this vortex is shed downstream stall eventually occurs and there is an abrupt increase in drag and a large shift in pitching moment. Research has been performed to better understand the mechanisms occurring during dynamic stall in an effort to find ways to best take advantage of the increased lift associated with dynamic stall, but avoid the downfalls that occur once stall is initiated. Few attempts have been made to alter the LEV, and these attempts have used methods associated with laminar boundary layer separation control. Although these methods have shown promise, they suffer from the drawback that they exhaust more energy than is gained by flow control, while also only being effective at certain flight regimes. The research described herein documents the first study on the ability of dynamic roughness to alter the LEV encountered on a rapidly pitching airfoil. Both numerical and experimental studies were performed, including two-dimensional and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations as well as stereo and planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments. Evidence for the ability of small scale dynamic roughness to alter the development of the LEV was

  8. Three-dimensional mapping of nickel oxidation states using full field x-ray absorption near edge structure nanotomography

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, George J.; Harris, William M.; Izzo, John R. Jr.; Grew, Kyle N.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.; Chu, Yong S.; Yi, Jaemock; Andrews, Joy C.; Liu Yijin; Pianetta, Piero

    2011-04-25

    The reduction-oxidation cycling of the nickel-based oxides in composite solid oxide fuel cells and battery electrodes is directly related to cell performance. A greater understanding of nickel redox mechanisms at the microstructural level can be achieved in part using transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) to explore material oxidation states. X-ray nanotomography combined with x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been applied to study samples containing distinct regions of nickel and nickel oxide (NiO) compositions. Digitally processed images obtained using TXM demonstrate the three-dimensional chemical mapping and microstructural distribution capabilities of full-field XANES nanotomography.

  9. Three-dimensional mapping of nickel oxidation states using full field x-ray absorption near edge structure nanotomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, George J.; Harris, William M.; Izzo, John R.; Grew, Kyle N.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.; Chu, Yong S.; Yi, Jaemock; Andrews, Joy C.; Liu, Yijin; Pianetta, Piero

    2011-04-01

    The reduction-oxidation cycling of the nickel-based oxides in composite solid oxide fuel cells and battery electrodes is directly related to cell performance. A greater understanding of nickel redox mechanisms at the microstructural level can be achieved in part using transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) to explore material oxidation states. X-ray nanotomography combined with x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been applied to study samples containing distinct regions of nickel and nickel oxide (NiO) compositions. Digitally processed images obtained using TXM demonstrate the three-dimensional chemical mapping and microstructural distribution capabilities of full-field XANES nanotomography.

  10. Grand canonical finite size numerical approaches in one and two dimensions: Real space energy renormalization and edge state generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, Chisa; Nishimoto, Satoshi; Shibata, Naokazu

    2013-03-01

    The grand canonical numerical analysis recently developed for quantum many-body systems on a finite cluster [C. Hotta and N. Shibata, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.86.041108 86, 041108(R) (2012)] is the technique to efficiently obtain the physical quantities in an applied field. There, the observables are the continuous and real functions of fields, mimicking their thermodynamic limit, even when a small cluster is adopted. We develop a theory to explain the mechanism of this analysis based on the deformation of the Hamiltonian. The deformation spatially scales down the energy unit from the system center toward zero at the open edge sites, which introduces the renormalization of the energy levels in a way reminiscent of Wilson's numerical renormalization group. However, compared to Wilson's case, our deformation generates a number of far well-localized edge states near the chemical potential level, which are connected via a very small quantum fluctuation in k space with the “bulk” states which spread at the center of the system. As a response to the applied field, the particles on the cluster are self-organized to tune the particle number of the bulk states to their thermodynamic limit by using the “edges” as a buffer. We demonstrate the present analysis in two-dimensional quantum spin systems on square and triangular lattices, and determine the smooth magnetization curve with a clear (1)/(3) plateau structure in the latter.

  11. Fractional quantum Hall effect at ν=5/2 : Ground states, non-Abelian quasiholes, and edge modes in a microscopic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xin; Hu, Zi-Xiang; Rezayi, E. H.; Yang, Kun

    2008-04-01

    We present a comprehensive numerical study of a microscopic model of the fractional quantum Hall system at filling fraction ν=5/2 , based on the disk geometry. Our model includes Coulomb interaction and a semirealistic confining potential. We also mix in a three-body interaction in some cases to help elucidate the physics. We obtain a phase diagram, discuss the conditions under which the ground state can be described by the Moore-Read state, and study its competition with neighboring stripe phases. We also study quasihole excitations and edge excitations in the Moore-Read-like state. From the evolution of the edge spectrum, we obtain the velocities of the charge and neutral edge modes, which turn out to be very different. This separation of velocities is a source of decoherence for a non-Abelian quasihole and/or quasiparticle (with charge ±e/4 ) when propagating at the edge; using numbers obtained from a specific set of parameters, we estimate the decoherence length to be around 4μm . This sets an upper bound for the separation of the two point contacts in a double point-contact interferometer, designed to detect the non-Abelian nature of such quasiparticles. We also find a state that is a potential candidate for the recently proposed anti-Pfaffian state. We find the speculated anti-Pfaffian state is favored in weak confinement (smooth edge), while the Moore-Read Pfaffian state is favored in strong confinement (sharp edge).

  12. Identification of the existence of quantum Hall edge-state in graphene field-effect transistor at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joong Gyu; Kang, Haeyong; Park, Jeongmin; Yun, Yoojoo; Truong, Thuy Kieu; Kim, Jeong-Gyun; Park, Nahee; Lee, Yourack; Yun, Hoyeol; Lee, Sang Wook; Lee, Young Hee; Suh, Dongseok

    2015-03-01

    Quantum Hall effect (QHE) is one of the unique properties of two-dimensional electronic systems providing the universal standard of electrical resistance. Due to edge-state transport features in quantum Hall regime, the two-terminal graphene field-effect transistor (FET) is frequently examined for the study of the integer as well as the fractional QHEs of graphene. In this work, we present a simple method to identify the existence of quantum Hall state in the graphene FET especially at high temperatures. Using the monolayer graphene FET sample with fully broken degeneracy, we modified the equipotential line inside graphene FET by the addition of extra electrode for the clear identification of the quantum Hall state formation at given temperature and magnetic field. We suggest a simple model to explain the difference and similarity between two-terminal and multi-terminal configurations, including the discussion about the QHE devices connected in series.

  13. Strong reflection and periodic resonant transmission of helical edge states in topological-insulator stub-like resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Takagaki, Y.

    2015-08-07

    The helical edge states of two-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) experience appreciable quantum mechanical scattering in narrow channels when the width changes abruptly. The interference of the geometry scattering in narrow-wide-narrow waveguide structures is shown to give rise to the strong suppression of transmission when the incident energy is barely above the propagation threshold. Periodic resonant transmission takes place in this high reflection regime while the length of the wide section is varied. The resonance condition is governed by the transverse confinement in the wide section, where the form of quantization is manifested to differ for the two orthogonal directions. The confined energy levels in TI quantum dots are derived based on this observation. In addition, the off-diagonal spin-orbit term is found to produce an anomalous resonance state, which merges with the bottom ordinary resonance state to annihilate.

  14. Fragility of Nonlocal Edge-Mode Transport in the Quantum Spin Hall State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Arjun; Benjamin, Colin

    2016-07-01

    Nonlocal currents and voltages are better at withstanding the deleterious effects of dephasing than local currents and voltages in nanoscale systems. This hypothesis is known to be true in quantum Hall setups. We test this hypothesis in a four-terminal quantum spin Hall setup wherein we compare the local resistance measurement with the nonlocal one. In addition to inelastic-scattering-induced dephasing, we also test the resilience of the resistance measurements in the aforesaid setups to disorder and spin-flip scattering. We find the axiom that nonlocal resistance is less affected by the detrimental effects of disorder and dephasing to be untrue, in general, for the quantum spin Hall case. This has important consequences since it is widely communicated that nonlocal transport through edge channels in topological insulators have potential applications in low-power information processing.

  15. Time-Reversal-Violating Photonic Topological Insulators with Helical Edge States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochiai, Tetsuyuki

    2015-05-01

    We theoretically demonstrate the realization of photonic topological insulators in photonic crystals made of circular cylinders with the Tellegen-type magnetoelectric coupling as a photospin-orbit interaction. Although the magnetoelectric coupling breaks the conventional (bosonic) time-reversal symmetry for photons, the electromagnetic duality between permittivity and permeability gives rise to a fermionic time-reversal symmetry. This symmetry along with the space-inversion symmetry enables us to imitate the Kane-Mele model of two-dimensional topological insulators in a photonics platform. Even if the space-inversion symmetry is broken, a photonic topological insulator can emerge owing to the photospin-orbit interaction. We present bulk and edge properties of the photonic topological insulators and discuss their possible realization.

  16. Identifying low-dimensional dynamics in type-I edge-localised-mode processes in JET plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, F. A.; Chapman, S. C.; Nicol, R. M.; Dendy, R. O.; Webster, A. J.; Alper, B. [EURATOM Collaboration: JET EFDA Contributors

    2013-04-15

    Edge localised mode (ELM) measurements from reproducibly similar plasmas in the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak, which differ only in their gas puffing rate, are analysed in terms of the pattern in the sequence of inter-ELM time intervals. It is found that the category of ELM defined empirically as type I-typically more regular, less frequent, and having larger amplitude than other ELM types-embraces substantially different ELMing processes. By quantifying the structure in the sequence of inter-ELM time intervals using delay time plots, we reveal transitions between distinct phase space dynamics, implying transitions between distinct underlying physical processes. The control parameter for these transitions between these different ELMing processes is the gas puffing rate.

  17. Radiative-dynamical equilibrium states for Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trafton, L. M.; Stone, P. H.

    1974-01-01

    In order to obtain accurate estimates of the radiative heating that drives motions in Jupiter's atmosphere, previous radiative equilibrium calculations are improved by including the NH3 opacities and updated results for the pressure-induced opacities. These additions increase the radiative lapse rate near the top of the statically unstable region and lead to a fairly constant radiative lapse rate below the tropopause. The radiative-convective equilibrium temperature structure consistent with these changes is calculated, but it differs only slightly from earlier calculations. The radiative equilibrium calculations are used to calculate whether equilibrium states can occur on Jupiter which are similar to the baroclinic instability regimes on the earth and Mars. The results show that Jupiter's dynamical regime cannot be of this kind, except possibly at very high latitudes, and that its regime must be a basically less stable one than this kind.

  18. Dynamical States of Low Temperature Cirrus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barahona, D.; Nenes, A.

    2011-01-01

    Low ice crystal concentration and sustained in-cloud supersaturation, commonly found in cloud observations at low temperature, challenge our understanding of cirrus formation. Heterogeneous freezing from effloresced ammonium sulfate, glassy aerosol, dust and black carbon are proposed to cause these phenomena; this requires low updrafts for cirrus characteristics to agree with observations and is at odds with the gravity wave spectrum in the upper troposphere. Background temperature fluctuations however can establish a dynamical equilibrium between ice production and sedimentation loss (as opposed to ice crystal formation during the first stages of cloud evolution and subsequent slow cloud decay) that explains low temperature cirrus properties. This newly-discovered state is favored at low temperatures and does not require heterogeneous nucleation to occur (the presence of ice nuclei can however facilitate its onset). Our understanding of cirrus clouds and their role in anthropogenic climate change is reshaped, as the type of dynamical forcing will set these clouds in one of two preferred microphysical regimes with very different susceptibility to aerosol.

  19. Detecting Interplanetary Dust Particles with Radars to Study the Dynamics at the Edge of the Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janches, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's mesosphere is the region of the atmosphere between approximately 60-120 km altitude, where the transition from hydrodynamic flow to molecular diffusion occurs. It is highly dynamic region where turbulence by wave braking is produced and energy is deposited from sources from both, below and above this altitude range. Because aircraft and nearly all balloons reach altitudes below approximately 50 km and orbital spacecrafts are well above approximately 400 km, the mesosphere has only been accessed through the use of sounding rockets or remote sensing techniques, and as a result, it is the most poorly understood part of the atmosphere. In addition, millions of Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) enter the atmosphere. Within the mesosphere most of these IDPs melt or vaporize as a result of collisions with the air particles producing meteors that can be detected with radars. This provides a mean to study the dynamics of this region. In this lecture the basic principles of the utilization of meteor radars to study the dynamics of the mesosphere will be presented. A system overview of these systems will be provided as well as discuss the advantages/disadvantages of these systems, provide details of the data processing methodology and give a brief overview of the current status of the field as well as the vision for the next decade.

  20. Kane-Mele Hubbard model on a zigzag ribbon: Stability of the topological edge states and quantum phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chung-Hou; Lee, Der-Hau; Chao, Sung-Po

    2014-07-01

    We study the quantum phases and phase transitions of the Kane-Mele Hubbard (KMH) model on a zigzag ribbon of honeycomb lattice at a finite size via the weak-coupling renormalization group (RG) approach. In the noninteracting limit, the Kane-Mele (KM) model is known to support topological edge states where electrons show helical property with orientations of the spin and momentum being locked. The effective interedge hopping terms are generated due to finite-size effect. In the presence of an on-site Coulomb (Hubbard) interaction and the interedge hoppings, special focus is put on the stability of the topological edge states (TI phase) in the KMH model against (i) the charge and spin gaped (II) phase, (ii) the charge gaped but spin gapless (IC) phase, and (iii) the spin gaped but charge gapless (CI) phase depending on the number (even/odd) of the zigzag ribbons, doping level (electron filling factor) and the ratio of the Coulomb interaction to the interedge tunneling. We discuss different phase diagrams for even and odd numbers of zigzag ribbons. We find the TI-CI, II-IC, and II-CI quantum phase transitions are of the Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) type. By computing various correlation functions, we further analyze the nature and leading instabilities of these phases. The relevance of our results for graphene is discussed.

  1. Dynamics of convergent plate boundaries: Insights from subduction-related serpentinite melanges from the northern edge of the Caribbean plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Casco, A.

    2012-04-01

    MORB-derived eclogite) incorporated late in the convergent history when oceanic subduction was completed. Hence, incorporation of tectonic slices of the subduction channel into the shallow (low-P, low-T) melanges and subducted/accreted continental margins occur when collision-related dynamics imposed by subduction of buoyant continental or oceanic lithosphere affected the plate margin. Aqueous fluid, sourced from both subducted sediment and metamafic/ultramafic material, was available in large quantity in the subduction environment, as indicated by massive antigoritite, rinds of metasomatic rocks around included HP metamafic rocks, retrogressed eclogite, jadeitite and hydrothermal veins within antigoritite. Such a vigorous hydrology (fluid-flow) deep in the subduction environment point to the development of wide subduction channels and explain the abundance of accreted blocks. It can also explain the scarcity of large scale (>km) slices of the subducted oceanic lithosphere in the belt, for these are likely the result of focalized distribution of deformation occurring when forearc peridotite is barely hydrated (Agard et al., Long-term coupling along the subduction plate interface: Insights from exhumed rocks and models. This session, EGU 2012). Alternatively, these large tectonic slices may have been formed by the collision dynamics caused by late-stage subduction/accretion of the continental margin (or buoyant -thick- oceanic crust). Except maturation (cooling) of the subduction zone with time at orogenic belt-scale, no other simple generalization can be reached on the thermal state of the subducting plate and the exhumation process of the subduction channel. P-T-t paths of HP rocks indicate that slab fragments ranging from cold to hot coexisted during relatively short time intervals (ca. 10 Myr), and some fragments of the subduction channel were exhumed shortly after formation while others lasted several tens of Myr to arrive to the near-surface forearc

  2. Nonequilibrium Probabilistic Dynamics of the Logistic Map at the Edge of Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, Ernesto P.; Tsallis, Constantino; Añaños, Garín F.; de Oliveira, Paulo Murilo

    2002-12-01

    We consider nonequilibrium probabilistic dynamics in logisticlike maps xt+1=1-a|xt|z, (z>1) at their chaos threshold: We first introduce many initial conditions within one among W>>1 intervals partitioning the phase space and focus on the unique value qsen<1 for which the entropic form Sq≡(1- ∑i=1Wpqi)/(q-1) linearly increases with time. We then verify that Sqsen(t)-Sqsen(∞) vanishes like t-1/[qrel(W)-1] [qrel(W)>1]. We finally exhibit a new finite-size scaling, qrel(∞)-qrel(W)~W- |qsen|. This establishes quantitatively, for the first time, a long pursued relation between sensitivity to the initial conditions and relaxation, concepts which play central roles in nonextensive statistical mechanics.

  3. Blob Dynamics in 3D BOUT Simulations of Tokamak Edge Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, D; D'Ippolito, D; Myra, J; Nevins, W; Xu, X

    2004-08-23

    Propagating filaments of enhanced plasma density, or blobs, observed in 3D numerical simulations of a diverted, neutral-fueled tokamak are studied. Fluctuations of vorticity, electrical potential {phi}, temperature T{sub e} and current density J{sub {parallel}} associated with the blobs have a dipole structure perpendicular to the magnetic field and propagate radially with large E {center_dot} B drift velocities (> 1 km/s). The simulation results are consistent with a 3D blob dynamics model that incorporates increased parallel plasma resistivity (from neutral cooling of the X-point region), blob disconnection from the divertor sheath, X-point closure of the current loops, and collisional physics to sustain the {phi}, T{sub e}, J{sub {parallel}} dipoles.

  4. On the impact of multi-axial stress states on trailing edge bondlines in wind turbine rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noever Castelos, Pablo; Balzani, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    For a reliable design of wind turbine systems all of their components have to be designed to withstand the loads appearing in the turbine's lifetime. When performed in an integral manner this is called systems engineering, and is exceptionally important for components that have an impact on the entire wind turbine system, such as the rotor blade. Bondlines are crucial subcomponents of rotor blades, but they are not much recognized in the wind energy research community. However, a bondline failure can lead to the loss of a rotor blade, and potentially of the entire turbine, and is extraordinarily relevant to be treated with strong emphasis when designing a wind turbine. Modern wind turbine rotor blades with lengths of 80 m and more offer a degree of flexibility that has never been seen in wind energy technology before. Large deflections result in high strains in the adhesive connections, especially at the trailing edge. The latest edition of the DNV GL guideline from end of 2015 demands a three-dimensional stress analysis of bondlines, whereas before an isolated shear stress proof was sufficient. In order to quantify the lack of safety from older certification guidelines this paper studies the influence of multi-axial stress states on the ultimate and fatigue load resistance of trailing edge adhesive bonds. For this purpose, detailed finite element simulations of the IWES IWT-7.5-164 reference wind turbine blades are performed. Different yield criteria are evaluated for the prediction of failure and lifetime. The results show that the multi-axial stress state is governed by span-wise normal stresses. Those are evidently not captured in isolated shear stress proofs, yielding non-conservative estimates of lifetime and ultimate load resistance. This finding highlights the importance to include a three-dimensional stress state in the failure analysis of adhesive bonds in modern wind turbine rotor blades, and the necessity to perform a three-dimensional characterization

  5. A Simulation Study Comparing Epidemic Dynamics on Exponential Random Graph and Edge-Triangle Configuration Type Contact Network Models

    PubMed Central

    Rolls, David A.; Wang, Peng; McBryde, Emma; Pattison, Philippa; Robins, Garry

    2015-01-01

    We compare two broad types of empirically grounded random network models in terms of their abilities to capture both network features and simulated Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) epidemic dynamics. The types of network models are exponential random graph models (ERGMs) and extensions of the configuration model. We use three kinds of empirical contact networks, chosen to provide both variety and realistic patterns of human contact: a highly clustered network, a bipartite network and a snowball sampled network of a “hidden population”. In the case of the snowball sampled network we present a novel method for fitting an edge-triangle model. In our results, ERGMs consistently capture clustering as well or better than configuration-type models, but the latter models better capture the node degree distribution. Despite the additional computational requirements to fit ERGMs to empirical networks, the use of ERGMs provides only a slight improvement in the ability of the models to recreate epidemic features of the empirical network in simulated SIR epidemics. Generally, SIR epidemic results from using configuration-type models fall between those from a random network model (i.e., an Erdős-Rényi model) and an ERGM. The addition of subgraphs of size four to edge-triangle type models does improve agreement with the empirical network for smaller densities in clustered networks. Additional subgraphs do not make a noticeable difference in our example, although we would expect the ability to model cliques to be helpful for contact networks exhibiting household structure. PMID:26555701

  6. Excited state structural dynamics in higher lying electronic states: S2 state of malachite green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laptenok, Sergey P.; Addison, Kiri; Heisler, Ismael A.; Meech, Stephen R.

    2014-06-01

    The S2 fluorescence of malachite green is measured with sub 100 fs time resolution. Ultrafast spectral dynamics in the S2 state preceding S2 decay are resolved. Measurements in different solvents show that these sub 100 fs dynamics are insensitive to medium polarity and viscosity. They are thus assigned to ultrafast structural evolution between the S2 Franck-Condon and equilibrium configurations.

  7. ON EDGE CHIPPING TESTING AND SOME PERSONAL PERSPECTIVES ON THE STATE OF THE ART OF MECHANICAL TESTING

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, G. D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The edge chipping test is used to measure the fracture resistance of dental restoration ceramics and resin composites. This paper focuses on the progress of evaluating chipping resistance of these materials and also on the progress of standardization of this test method. This paper also makes observations about the state of the art of mechanical testing of ceramic and composite restorative materials in general. Interlaboratory comparative studies (“round robins”) are recommended. Methods An edge chipping machine was used to evaluate dozens of materials including porcelains, glass ceramics, aluminas, zirconias, filled resin-composites, new hybrid ceramic-resin composites, laminated composite ceramics, and even polymethyl methacrylate based denture materials. Force versus distance data were collected over a broad range with different indenters. Several chipping resistance parameters were quantified. Results Older restorative materials such as feldspathic porcelains and veneering materials had limited chipping resistance, but more modern ceramics and filled composites show significant improvements. A yttria-partially stabilized zirconia had the greatest resistance to chipping. Much of the early work on edge chipping resistance of brittle materials emphasized linear force versus distance trends obtained with relatively blunt Rockwell C indenters. More recently, trends for dental restorative materials with alternative sharper indenters have been nonlinear. A new phenomenological model with a simple quadratic function fits all data exceptionally well. It is loosely based on an energy balance between indenter work and fracture and deformation energies in the chipped material. Significance Although a direct comparison of our laboratory scale tests on idealized simple geometries to clinical outcomes has not yet been done, anecdotal evidence suggests the procedure does produce clinically relevant rankings and outcomes. Despite the variations in the trends and

  8. Thomas Edison State College and Colorado State University: Using Cutting-Edge Technology to Enhance CE Unit Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zyl, Henry; Powell, Albert, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Thomas Edison State College (TESC) and Colorado State University (CSU) offer significant contrasts in institutional culture, student demographics, faculty and institutional priorities and approaches to distance education course development and delivery. This article offers case studies showing that widely disparate program design and delivery…

  9. Edge remap for solids

    SciTech Connect

    Kamm, James R.; Love, Edward; Robinson, Allen C.; Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis

    2013-12-01

    We review the edge element formulation for describing the kinematics of hyperelastic solids. This approach is used to frame the problem of remapping the inverse deformation gradient for Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations of solid dynamics. For hyperelastic materials, the stress state is completely determined by the deformation gradient, so remapping this quantity effectively updates the stress state of the material. A method, inspired by the constrained transport remap in electromagnetics, is reviewed, according to which the zero-curl constraint on the inverse deformation gradient is implicitly satisfied. Open issues related to the accuracy of this approach are identified. An optimization-based approach is implemented to enforce positivity of the determinant of the deformation gradient. The efficacy of this approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  10. Rhythmic and dysrhythmic thalamocortical dynamics: GABA systems and the edge effect.

    PubMed

    Llinás, Rodolfo; Urbano, Francisco J; Leznik, Elena; Ramírez, Rey R; van Marle, Hein J F

    2005-06-01

    Brain function is fundamentally related in the most general sense to the richness of thalamocortical interconnectivity, and in particular to the rhythmic oscillatory properties of thalamocortical loops. Such rhythmicity is involved in the genesis of cognition, in the sleep-wake cycle, and in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. The role of GABA-mediated transmission in regulating these functional states is addressed here. At the cortical level, inhibition determines the spread of cortical activation by sculpting the precise activity patterns that underlie the details of cognition and motor control. At the thalamic level, GABA-mediated inhibition modulates and resets distribution of the ongoing thalamocortical rhythmic oscillations that bind multisensory inputs into a single cognitive experience and regulate arousal levels.

  11. Spectroscopic signature for bundling, edge states and impurities in 1D and 0D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingam, Kiran Kumar

    Study of nanomaterials has gained interest of researchers from various fields of science and technology due to their unique electronic and vibrational properties as compared to their bulk counterparts. In particular, carbon nanotechnology has evolved rapidly over the past few decades and nowadays, carbon nanotubes are used in various fields such as energy storage, electronics etc. However, the quest for new properties of this material is never ending and the invention of graphene generated enormous interest in the scientific community due to its excellent properties such as strength, high electron mobility, thermal conductivity etc. In this thesis, I aim at gaining better understanding of the electronic properties of carbon nanostructures and also discuss the effect of impurities on the vibrational properties of Bismuth nanorods. In the case of SWNTs, I have studied the effect of surrounding environment on their electronic properties, in particular Sub-nm SWNTs. Due to their unique electronic and vibrational properties, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with sub-nanometer diameters d ˜ 0.5-0.9 nm have recently gained interest in the carbon community. Using UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy and ultra-centrifugation, we have conducted a detailed study of the π plasmon energy (present at˜5-7 eV) in sub-nm SWCNTs as a function of the size of the bundle. We find that the energy of the π plasmon peak E varies with the bundle diameter Dh as E = (0.023 eV )*ln(Dh/do) + 5.3 7 eV, where do = 0.5 nm and corresponds to the smallest tube diameter. This is compared with the same data for HiPCo and Carbolex SWCNTs of larger diameter (1-1.4 nm) confirming a clear dependence of E on the bundle size, which is present in addition to the previously reported dependence of E on SWCNT diameter d. In case of graphene, the carbon atoms at the edges of graphene sheet contribute to its electronic properties. This effect becomes more prominent in confined structures such as graphene

  12. Core structure of a dissociated edge dislocation and pipe diffusion in copper investigated by molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Meyer, M.; Pontikis, V.

    1991-06-01

    The atomic core structure of two Schockley partial dislocations in copper has been investigated as a function of temperature using molecular dynamics. We employed a resonant model pseudopotential adapted to copper. Our results show that at increasing temperature, the core of the partials becomes increasingly extended and invades entirely the fault ribbon, yet, the separation distance between the partials remains unchanged. At high temperatures vibrational amplitudes of atoms are much larger in the core of the partials than in the bulk of the perfect crystal and the local atomic structure becomes highly disordered. Although disordered, the core structure remains solid-like up to temperatures close to the melting point. Pipe diffusion along this dissociated dislocation has also been investigated. The formation energies of a vacancy and an interstitial are obtained by quasi-dynamics relaxation at T = 0 K while the migration energies for pipe diffusion are calculated at high temperature. Contrary to current assumptions in favour of a vacancy mechanism, we found that in our model the two types of defects may contribute comparably to pipe diffusion since their activation energies are very close. The trajectories of the migrating defects involve not only the partials' cores but also the stacking fault ribbon extending between them, thus explaining why pipe diffusion is slower when the dislocations are dissociated. La structure de coeur de deux dislocations partielles de Schockley a été étudiée, par dynamique moléculaire, en fonction de la température. Nous avons utilisé un pseudopotentiel calculé pour le cuivre à l'aide d'un modèle de résonance. Nos résultats montrent que le coeur des partielles s'étend de plus en plus à mesure que la température augmente et qu'il recouvre complètement le ruban de faute. Cependant la distance de dissociation entre les partielles ne change pas. A haute température, les amplitudes de vibration atomique sont nettement plus

  13. 3D Imaging of Nickel Oxidation States using Full Field X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure Nanotomography

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, George; Harris, William; Izzo, John; Grew, Kyle N.

    2012-01-20

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) cycling of the nickel electrocatalyst phase in the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode can lead to performance degradation and cell failure. A greater understanding of nickel redox mechanisms at the microstructural level is vital to future SOFC development. Transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) provides several key techniques for exploring oxidation states within SOFC electrode microstructure. Specifically, x-ray nanotomography and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy have been applied to study samples of varying nickel (Ni) and nickel oxide (NiO) compositions. The imaged samples are treated as mock SOFC anodes containing distinct regions of the materials in question. XANES spectra presented for the individual materials provide a basis for the further processing and analysis of mixed samples. Images of composite samples obtained are segmented, and the distinct nickel and nickel oxide phases are uniquely identified using full field XANES spectroscopy. Applications to SOFC analysis are discussed.

  14. Final State Projection Method in Charge-Transfer Multiplet Calculations: An analysis of Ti L-edge Absorption Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Thomas; Solomon, Edward I.; de Groot, Frank M. F.

    2016-01-01

    A projection method to determine the final state configuration character of all peaks in a charge transfer multiplet calculation of a 2p X-ray absorption spectrum is presented using a d0 system as an example. The projection method is used to identify the most important influences on spectral shape and to map out the configuration weights. The spectral shape of a 2p X-ray absorption or L2,3-edge spectrum is largely determined by the ratio of the 2p core-hole interactions relative to the 2p3d atomic multiplet interaction. This leads to a non-trivial spectral assignment, which makes a detailed theoretical description of experimental spectra valuable for the analysis of bonding. PMID:26226507

  15. Final-State Projection Method in Charge-Transfer Multiplet Calculations: An Analysis of Ti L-Edge Absorption Spectra.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Thomas; Solomon, Edward I; de Groot, Frank M F

    2015-10-29

    A projection method to determine the final-state configuration character of all peaks in a charge transfer multiplet calculation of a 2p X-ray absorption spectrum is presented using a d(0) system as an example. The projection method is used to identify the most important influences on spectral shape and to map out the configuration weights. The spectral shape of a 2p X-ray absorption or L2,3-edge spectrum is largely determined by the ratio of the 2p core-hole interactions relative to the 2p3d atomic multiplet interaction. This leads to a nontrivial spectral assignment, which makes a detailed theoretical description of experimental spectra valuable for the analysis of bonding. PMID:26226507

  16. Spurious and realistic solutions for the quantum spin Hall edge states in InAs/GaSb/AlSb quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipstein, P. C.

    2016-09-01

    A solution of the 4  ×  4 k · p Hamiltonian for the quantum spin Hall (QSH) edge states in ideal semiconductor topological insulator (TI) quantum wells (QWs) was recently demonstrated by the author using standard boundary conditions for the wave function and its derivative, in order to address unphysical behavior associated with open boundary conditions (Klipstein 2015 Phys. Rev. B 91 035310). For HgTe/CdTe QWs which have strong s-p hybridization, there are two non-degenerate solutions in each spin direction with a finite amplitude at the edge, one of which was shown to be spurious. For the case of weakly hybridized InAs/GaSb/AlSb QWs, the solutions near the zone center are degenerate, and the question is now settled of which solution is spurious. The physical solutions for the ideal QW are then used as the basis for a perturbation treatment of the edge state dispersions in realistic QWs, where interface, bulk and structural asymmetries are also present. Interactions are included with more remote states than considered previously, as required for a consistent treatment of the TI bulk states, where a large difference exists in the spin splittings of the conduction and valence band edges. The asymmetry perturbations induce only minor changes to the edge state dispersions, which no longer merge smoothly with the bulk band extrema.

  17. Window Spacers and Edge Seals in Insulating Glass Units: A State-of-the-Art Review and Future Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    SINTEF Building and Infrastructure; Norwegian University of Science and Technology; Bergh, Sofie Van Den; Hart, Robert; Jelle, Bjrn Petter; Gustavsen, Arild

    2013-01-31

    Insulating glass (IG) units typically consist of multiple glass panes that are sealed and held together structurally along their perimeters. This report describes a study of edge seals in IG units. First, we summarize the components, requirements, and desired properties of edge construction in IG units, based on a survey of the available literature. Second, we review commercially available window edge seals and describe their properties, to provide an easily accessible reference for research and commercial purposes. Finally, based on the literature survey and review of current commercial edge seal systems, we identify research opportunities for future edge seal improvements and solutions.

  18. Chiral edge states and fractional charge separation in a system of interacting bosons on a kagome lattice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Feng; Eggert, Sebastian

    2013-10-01

    We consider the extended hard-core Bose-Hubbard model on a kagome lattice with boundary conditions on two edges. We find that the sharp edges lift the degeneracy and freeze the system into a striped order at 1/3 and 2/3 filling for zero hopping. At small hopping strengths, holes spontaneously appear and separate into fractional charges which move to the edges of the system. This leads to a novel edge liquid phase, which is characterized by fractional charges near the edges and a finite edge compressibility but no superfluid density. The compressibility is due to excitations on the edge which display a chiral symmetry breaking that is reminiscent of the quantum Hall effect and topological insulators. Large scale Monte Carlo simulations confirm the analytical considerations.

  19. Chiral Edge States and Fractional Charge Separation in a System of Interacting Bosons on a Kagome Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue-Feng; Eggert, Sebastian

    2013-10-01

    We consider the extended hard-core Bose-Hubbard model on a kagome lattice with boundary conditions on two edges. We find that the sharp edges lift the degeneracy and freeze the system into a striped order at 1/3 and 2/3 filling for zero hopping. At small hopping strengths, holes spontaneously appear and separate into fractional charges which move to the edges of the system. This leads to a novel edge liquid phase, which is characterized by fractional charges near the edges and a finite edge compressibility but no superfluid density. The compressibility is due to excitations on the edge which display a chiral symmetry breaking that is reminiscent of the quantum Hall effect and topological insulators. Large scale Monte Carlo simulations confirm the analytical considerations.

  20. Interaction of run-in edge dislocations with twist grain boundaries in Al-a molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, S.; Naveen Kumar, N.; Samal, M. K.; Chavan, V. M.; Patel, R. J.

    2016-06-01

    Grain boundaries play an important role in outlining the mechanical properties of crystalline materials. They act as sites for absorption/nucleation of dislocations, which are the main carriers of plastic deformation. In view of this, the interactions between edge dislocations and twist grain boundaries-dislocation pileup, dislocation absorption and dislocation emission were explored by performing molecular dynamics simulations in face-centered cubic Al using embedded atom method. The ?1 1 0? twist grain boundaries with various misorientation angles were selected for this purpose. It was found that the misorientation angle of boundary and stress anomalies arising from repeated dislocation absorption at the grain boundaries are the important parameters in determining the ability of the boundary to emit dislocations. Complex network of dislocations results in later stages of deformation, which may have a significant effect on the mechanical properties of the material. The peculiarities of dislocation nucleation, their emission from twist grain boundaries and the ramifications of this study towards development of higher length scale material models are discussed.

  1. A dynamic analysis of net migration and state employment change.

    PubMed

    Gruidl, J S; Pulver, G C

    1991-01-01

    "The dynamic relationship of net migration and employment change is examined for ten selected states of the U.S. using a multivariate time series approach--a vector autoregression (VAR) model. Granger causality tests and dynamic multipliers provide information on the dynamic process. The results suggest a state-level process in which employment change occurs first, and net migration follows with a lag. The procedure appears promising in investigating the timing of net migration and regional employment change."

  2. The discovery and dynamical evolution of 'Peggy', an object at the outer edge of Saturn's A ring (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, C.; Cooper, N. J.; Attree, N.; Williams, G. A.; Boyer, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Images obtained by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) in April 2013 have revealed the presence of an unusual object orbiting close to the outer edge of Saturn's A ring. The object, nicknamed "Peggy", is perturbing local ring material and can be detected in ISS images as far back as early 2012. The presence of the object is usually indicated by a localised, ~10 km, discontinuity or clump in the ring although the object itself has not been resolved and is likely to have a radius <1km. Several images show evidence of the "mini-jet" phenomenon observed in Saturn's F ring [1] and this is consistent with low velocity (~5 m/s) collisions between "Peggy" and nearby ring material. Images obtained at opposite ansae of the same orbit have a different appearance suggesting that the morphology of the structures created by "Peggy" may depend on orbital phase. This is in agreement with the known perturbing effect of embedded objects close to the outer edge of a ring. Searches for similar objects in the Cassini image archive have shown that "Peggy"-like objects are rare although they have been detected in images as early as 2005. The recent detections show evidence for a change in the object's semi-major axis by ~1.5 km in December 2012, perhaps as a result of a collision. The existence of 100 m-diameter moonlets in the A ring has been inferred from observations of "propellor" structures in the rings [2] and one of these has been observed to be undergoing non-keplerian orbital evolution [3]. "Peggy" could be the typical end product of the dynamical evolution of such a "propellor", caught in the act of escaping from the A ring. References: [1] N.O. Attree, C.D. Murray, N.J. Cooper, and G.A. Williams. Detection of low velocity collisions in Saturn's rings. Ap. J. Lett. 755, L27-L31 (2012) [2] M. S. Tiscareno, et al. 100-metre-diameter moonlets in Saturn's A ring from observations of "propeller" structures. Nature 440, 648-650 (2006) [3] M. S. Tiscareno, et al. Physical

  3. Destination state screening of active spaces in spin dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzystyniak, M.; Edwards, Luke J.; Kuprov, Ilya

    2011-06-01

    We propose a novel avenue for state space reduction in time domain Liouville space spin dynamics simulations, using detectability as a selection criterion - only those states that evolve into or affect other detectable states are kept in the simulation. This basis reduction procedure (referred to as destination state screening) is formally exact and can be applied on top of the existing state space restriction techniques. As demonstrated below, in many cases this results in further reduction of matrix dimension, leading to considerable acceleration of many spin dynamics simulation types. Destination state screening is implemented in the latest version of the Spinach library (http://spindynamics.org).

  4. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering on iso-C{sub 2}H{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} around the chlorine K-edge: Structural and dynamical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Kawerk, Elie E-mail: ekawerk@units.it; Carniato, Stéphane; Journel, Loïc; Marchenko, Tatiana; Simon, Marc; Piancastelli, Maria Novella; Žitnik, Matjaž; Bučar, Klemen; Bohnic, Rok; and others

    2014-10-14

    We report a theoretical and experimental study of the high resolution resonant K{sub α} X-ray emission lines around the chlorine K-edge in gas phase 1,1-dichloroethylene. With the help of ab initio electronic structure calculations and cross section evaluation, we interpret the lowest lying peak in the X-ray absorption and emission spectra. The behavior of the K{sub α} emission lines with respect to frequency detuning highlights the existence of femtosecond nuclear dynamics on the dissociative Potential Energy Surface of the first K-shell core-excited state.

  5. A model of cerebellar computations for dynamical state estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulin, M. G.; Hoffman, L. F.; Assad, C.

    2001-01-01

    The cerebellum is a neural structure that is essential for agility in vertebrate movements. Its contribution to motor control appears to be due to a fundamental role in dynamical state estimation, which also underlies its role in various non-motor tasks. Single spikes in vestibular sensory neurons carry information about head state. We show how computations for optimal dynamical state estimation may be accomplished when signals are encoded in spikes. This provides a novel way to design dynamical state estimators, and a novel way to interpret the structure and function of the cerebellum.

  6. Climate-Induced Dynamics of Periglacial Landscapes in NE Siberia: The Western Edge of Beringia During the Late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, G.; Schirrmeister, L.; Siegert, C.; Meyer, H.; Andreev, A. A.; Kunitsky, V. V.; Derevyagin, A. Y.; Hubberten, H.

    2006-12-01

    Periglacial landscape dynamics have direct impacts on energy and matter cycles as well as ecosystems in large parts of the Arctic. Over the last decade, modern processes and past environments of periglacial landscapes in the Laptev Sea coastal lowlands were intensively studied within Russian and joint German- Russian research projects. A variety of palaeo-environmental records exists now for assessing the Late Quaternary dynamics of permafrost-dominated landscapes of this westernmost edge of Beringia. The main focus of this presentation is on the spatial and temporal dimensions of regional landscape changes in the Laptev Sea region induced by climatic change, especially by Holocene climate warming. For this purpose, we combine a variety of palaeo-environmental studies with remote sensing, terrain modelling, and GIS-based analyses of the modern landscape composition. We assess the landscape dynamics at the study site level and then draw conclusions for the whole region. Due to the low global sea level during the Late Weichselian cold stage, the Laptev Sea lowlands extended far on the shelf forming part of the unique continental environment of Western Beringia. The special periglacial environmental conditions of this period are recorded in frozen sediment sequences with palaeo-proxies ranging from lithology, ground ice, plant and animal fossils, to geomorphology. The Late Weichselian depositional environment there was characterized by ice-rich permafrost deposits (so-called Yedoma or Ice Complex formation) with up to 75 wt% absolute ice content. The Yedoma accumulated in lowland plains with polygonal tundra surrounding bedrock hills and mountain ridges. Additionally, the tundra plains were segmented by large river systems depositing fluvial sandy sediments. Major environmental changes affecting hydrology, geocryology, accumulation, and ecosystems in the region took place during the climate warming at the Late-Glacial Holocene transition. Within a short period in the

  7. Interaction-enhanced magnetically ordered insulating state at the edge of a two-dimensional topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharitonov, Maxim

    2012-10-01

    We develop a theory of the correlated magnetically ordered insulating state at the edge of a two-dimensional topological insulator. We demonstrate that the gapped spin-polarized state, induced by the application of the magnetic field B, is naturally facilitated by electron interactions, which drive the critical easy-plane ferromagnetic correlations in the helical liquid. As the key manifestation, the gap Δ in the spectrum of collective excitations, which carry both spin and charge, is enhanced and exhibits a scaling dependence Δ∝B1/(2-K), controlled by the Luttinger liquid parameter K. This scaling dependence could be probed through the activation behavior G˜(e2/h)exp(-Δ/T) of the longitudinal conductance of a Hall-bar device at lower temperatures, providing a straightforward way to extract the parameter K experimentally. Our findings thus suggest that the signatures of the interaction-driven quantum criticality of the helical liquid could be revealed already in a standard Hall-bar measurement.

  8. The Edge, Fall 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, 1999

    1999-01-01

    "The Edge" is a Canadian publication for youth. The mandate of the Edge is to support and celebrate all career journeys embraced by youth. This issue contains career profile articles covering three jobs: crane operator, indoor climbing instructor, and product certification tester. Career trends and the state of today's workplace are also…

  9. Spatial and temporal dynamics of fucoid populations (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus serratus): a comparison between central and range edge populations.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Rita M; Serrão, Ester A; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Åberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    Persistence of populations at range edges relies on local population dynamics and fitness, in the case of geographically isolated populations of species with low dispersal potential. Focusing on spatial variations in demography helps to predict the long-term capability for persistence of populations across the geographical range of species' distribution. The demography of two ecological and phylogenetically close macroalgal species with different life history characteristics was investigated by using stochastic, stage-based matrix models. Populations of Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus serratus were sampled for up to 4 years at central locations in France and at their southern range limits in Portugal. The stochastic population growth rate (λ(s)) of A. nodosum was lower and more variable in central than in southern sites whilst for F. serratus this trend was reversed with λ(s) much lower and more variable in southern than in central populations. Individuals were larger in central than in southern populations for both species, which was reflected in the lower transition probabilities of individuals to larger size classes and higher probability of shrinkage in the southern populations. In both central and southern populations elasticity analysis (proportional sensitivity) of population growth rate showed that fertility elements had a small contribution to λ(s) that was more sensitive to changes in matrix transitions corresponding to survival. The highest elasticities were found for loop transitions in A. nodosum and for growth to larger size classes in F. serratus. Sensitivity analysis showed high selective pressure on individual growth for both species at both locations. The results of this study highlight the deterministic role of species-specific life-history traits in population demography across the geographical range of species. Additionally, this study demonstrates that individuals' life-transitions differ in vulnerability to environmental variability and

  10. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Fucoid Populations (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus serratus): A Comparison between Central and Range Edge Populations

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Rita M.; Serrão, Ester A.; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Åberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    Persistence of populations at range edges relies on local population dynamics and fitness, in the case of geographically isolated populations of species with low dispersal potential. Focusing on spatial variations in demography helps to predict the long-term capability for persistence of populations across the geographical range of species’ distribution. The demography of two ecological and phylogenetically close macroalgal species with different life history characteristics was investigated by using stochastic, stage-based matrix models. Populations of Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus serratus were sampled for up to 4 years at central locations in France and at their southern range limits in Portugal. The stochastic population growth rate (λs) of A. nodosum was lower and more variable in central than in southern sites whilst for F. serratus this trend was reversed with λs much lower and more variable in southern than in central populations. Individuals were larger in central than in southern populations for both species, which was reflected in the lower transition probabilities of individuals to larger size classes and higher probability of shrinkage in the southern populations. In both central and southern populations elasticity analysis (proportional sensitivity) of population growth rate showed that fertility elements had a small contribution to λs that was more sensitive to changes in matrix transitions corresponding to survival. The highest elasticities were found for loop transitions in A. nodosum and for growth to larger size classes in F. serratus. Sensitivity analysis showed high selective pressure on individual growth for both species at both locations. The results of this study highlight the deterministic role of species-specific life-history traits in population demography across the geographical range of species. Additionally, this study demonstrates that individuals’ life-transitions differ in vulnerability to environmental variability and shows

  11. Automated and simultaneous fovea center localization and macula segmentation using the new dynamic identification and classification of edges model.

    PubMed

    Onal, Sinan; Chen, Xin; Satamraju, Veeresh; Balasooriya, Maduka; Dabil-Karacal, Humeyra

    2016-07-01

    Detecting the position of retinal structures, including the fovea center and macula, in retinal images plays a key role in diagnosing eye diseases such as optic nerve hypoplasia, amblyopia, diabetic retinopathy, and macular edema. However, current detection methods are unreliable for infants or certain ethnic populations. Thus, a methodology is proposed here that may be useful for infants and across ethnicities that automatically localizes the fovea center and segments the macula on digital fundus images. First, dark structures and bright artifacts are removed from the input image using preprocessing operations, and the resulting image is transformed to polar space. Second, the fovea center is identified, and the macula region is segmented using the proposed dynamic identification and classification of edges (DICE) model. The performance of the method was evaluated using 1200 fundus images obtained from the relatively large, diverse, and publicly available Messidor database. In 96.1% of these 1200 cases, the distance between the fovea center identified manually by ophthalmologists and automatically using the proposed method remained within 0 to 8 pixels. The dice similarity index comparing the manually obtained results with those of the model for macula segmentation was 96.12% for these 1200 cases. Thus, the proposed method displayed a high degree of accuracy. The methodology using the DICE model is unique and advantageous over previously reported methods because it simultaneously determines the fovea center and segments the macula region without using any structural information, such as optic disc or blood vessel location, and it may prove useful for all populations, including infants. PMID:27660803

  12. Distributed Dynamic State Estimation with Extended Kalman Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Pengwei; Huang, Zhenyu; Sun, Yannan; Diao, Ruisheng; Kalsi, Karanjit; Anderson, Kevin K.; Li, Yulan; Lee, Barry

    2011-08-04

    Increasing complexity associated with large-scale renewable resources and novel smart-grid technologies necessitates real-time monitoring and control. Our previous work applied the extended Kalman filter (EKF) with the use of phasor measurement data (PMU) for dynamic state estimation. However, high computation complexity creates significant challenges for real-time applications. In this paper, the problem of distributed dynamic state estimation is investigated. One domain decomposition method is proposed to utilize decentralized computing resources. The performance of distributed dynamic state estimation is tested on a 16-machine, 68-bus test system.

  13. Restricted active space calculations of L-edge X-ray absorption spectra: from molecular orbitals to multiplet states.

    PubMed

    Pinjari, Rahul V; Delcey, Mickaël G; Guo, Meiyuan; Odelius, Michael; Lundberg, Marcus

    2014-09-28

    The metal L-edge (2p → 3d) X-ray absorption spectra are affected by a number of different interactions: electron-electron repulsion, spin-orbit coupling, and charge transfer between metal and ligands, which makes the simulation of spectra challenging. The core restricted active space (RAS) method is an accurate and flexible approach that can be used to calculate X-ray spectra of a wide range of medium-sized systems without any symmetry constraints. Here, the applicability of the method is tested in detail by simulating three ferric (3d(5)) model systems with well-known electronic structure, viz., atomic Fe(3+), high-spin [FeCl6](3-) with ligand donor bonding, and low-spin [Fe(CN)6](3-) that also has metal backbonding. For these systems, the performance of the core RAS method, which does not require any system-dependent parameters, is comparable to that of the commonly used semi-empirical charge-transfer multiplet model. It handles orbitally degenerate ground states, accurately describes metal-ligand interactions, and includes both single and multiple excitations. The results are sensitive to the choice of orbitals in the active space and this sensitivity can be used to assign spectral features. A method has also been developed to analyze the calculated X-ray spectra using a chemically intuitive molecular orbital picture.

  14. π Spin Berry Phase in a Quantum-Spin-Hall-Insulator-Based Interferometer: Evidence for the Helical Spin Texture of the Edge States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Deng, Wei-Yin; Hou, Jing-Min; Shi, D. N.; Sheng, L.; Xing, D. Y.

    2016-08-01

    The quantum spin Hall insulator is characterized by helical edge states, with the spin polarization of the electron being locked to its direction of motion. Although the edge-state conduction has been observed, unambiguous evidence of the helical spin texture is still lacking. Here, we investigate the coherent edge-state transport in an interference loop pinched by two point contacts. Because of the helical character, the forward interedge scattering enforces a π spin rotation. Two successive processes can only produce a nontrivial 2 π or trivial 0 spin rotation, which can be controlled by the Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The nontrivial spin rotation results in a geometric π Berry phase, which can be detected by a π phase shift of the conductance oscillation relative to the trivial case. Our results provide smoking gun evidence for the helical spin texture of the edge states. Moreover, it also provides the opportunity to all electrically explore the trajectory-dependent spin Berry phase in condensed matter.

  15. π Spin Berry Phase in a Quantum-Spin-Hall-Insulator-Based Interferometer: Evidence for the Helical Spin Texture of the Edge States.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Deng, Wei-Yin; Hou, Jing-Min; Shi, D N; Sheng, L; Xing, D Y

    2016-08-12

    The quantum spin Hall insulator is characterized by helical edge states, with the spin polarization of the electron being locked to its direction of motion. Although the edge-state conduction has been observed, unambiguous evidence of the helical spin texture is still lacking. Here, we investigate the coherent edge-state transport in an interference loop pinched by two point contacts. Because of the helical character, the forward interedge scattering enforces a π spin rotation. Two successive processes can only produce a nontrivial 2π or trivial 0 spin rotation, which can be controlled by the Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The nontrivial spin rotation results in a geometric π Berry phase, which can be detected by a π phase shift of the conductance oscillation relative to the trivial case. Our results provide smoking gun evidence for the helical spin texture of the edge states. Moreover, it also provides the opportunity to all electrically explore the trajectory-dependent spin Berry phase in condensed matter. PMID:27563984

  16. Propagating confined states in phase dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, Helmut R.; Deissler, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    Theoretical treatment is given to the possibility of the existence of propagating confined states in the nonlinear phase equation by generalizing stationary confined states. The nonlinear phase equation is set forth for the case of propagating patterns with long wavelengths and low-frequency modulation. A large range of parameter values is shown to exist for propagating confined states which have spatially localized regions which travel on a background with unique wavelengths. The theoretical phenomena are shown to correspond to such physical systems as spirals in Taylor instabilities, traveling waves in convective systems, and slot-convection phenomena for binary fluid mixtures.

  17. At the Edge of Chaos: How Cerebellar Granular Layer Network Dynamics Can Provide the Basis for Temporal Filters.

    PubMed

    Rössert, Christian; Dean, Paul; Porrill, John

    2015-10-01

    Models of the cerebellar microcircuit often assume that input signals from the mossy-fibers are expanded and recoded to provide a foundation from which the Purkinje cells can synthesize output filters to implement specific input-signal transformations. Details of this process are however unclear. While previous work has shown that recurrent granule cell inhibition could in principle generate a wide variety of random outputs suitable for coding signal onsets, the more general application for temporally varying signals has yet to be demonstrated. Here we show for the first time that using a mechanism very similar to reservoir computing enables random neuronal networks in the granule cell layer to provide the necessary signal separation and extension from which Purkinje cells could construct basis filters of various time-constants. The main requirement for this is that the network operates in a state of criticality close to the edge of random chaotic behavior. We further show that the lack of recurrent excitation in the granular layer as commonly required in traditional reservoir networks can be circumvented by considering other inherent granular layer features such as inverted input signals or mGluR2 inhibition of Golgi cells. Other properties that facilitate filter construction are direct mossy fiber excitation of Golgi cells, variability of synaptic weights or input signals and output-feedback via the nucleocortical pathway. Our findings are well supported by previous experimental and theoretical work and will help to bridge the gap between system-level models and detailed models of the granular layer network.

  18. Access to a New Plasma Edge State with High Density and Pressures using Quiescent H-mode

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, Wayne M.; Snyder, P. B.; Burrell, K. H.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Garofalo, A. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Loarte, A.; McKee, G. R.; Nazikian, R; Osborne, T. H.

    2014-07-01

    A path to a new high performance regime has been discovered in tokamaks that could improve the attractiveness of a fusion reactor. Experiments on DIII-D using a quiescent H-mode edge have navigated a valley of improved edge peeling-ballooning stability that opens up with strong plasma shaping at high density, leading to a doubling of the edge pressure over standard edge localized mode (ELM)ing H-mode at these parameters. The thermal energy confinement time increases both as a result of the increased pedestal height and improvements in the core transport and reduced low-k turbulence. Calculations of the pedestal height and width as a function of density using constraints imposed by peeling-ballooning and kinetic-ballooning theory are in quantitative agreement with the measurements.

  19. Understanding the Current Dynamical States of Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pooley, David

    2008-09-01

    We appear to be on the verge of a major paradigm shift in our understanding of the current dynamical states of Galactic globular clusters. Fregeau (2008) brought together two recent theoretical breakthroughs as well as an observational breakthrough made possible by Chandra -- that a globular cluster's X-ray source population scales with its dynamical encounter frequency -- to persuasively argue that we have misunderstood the dynamical states of Galactic globular clusters. The observational evidence hinges on Chandra results from clusters which are classified as "core collapsed," of which there are only a handful of observations. I propose a nearly complete census with Chandra of the rest of the "core collapsed" globular clusters.

  20. Chaotic dynamics near steep transition states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Jason R.; Hofer, Thomas S.; Wales, David J.; Berry, R. Stephen

    2012-08-01

    Classical molecular motion near potential energy saddles can be more or less chaotic relative to motion near minima. The relative degree of chaos depends on the extent of coupling between the degrees of freedom and on the curvature of the potential energy landscape. Here, we explore these effects using constant energy molecular dynamics simulations and independent criteria associated with locally chaotic behavior - namely, the constancy of the local mode action and the magnitude of finite-time Lyapunov exponents. These criteria reconcile the chaotic basins and relatively ordered saddles of the Lennard-Jones trimer, with the chaotic saddles and ordered basins for reactive, all-atom H2O described by the Garofalini H2O potential. By modifying the Garofalini and Lennard-Jones models we separate the compounding effects of nonlinear three-body interactions and steep reaction path curvature on the local degree of chaos near saddles and minima.

  1. Cascades and cognitive state: focused attention incurs subcritical dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fagerholm, Erik D; Lorenz, Romy; Scott, Gregory; Dinov, Martin; Hellyer, Peter J; Mirzaei, Nazanin; Leeson, Clare; Carmichael, David W; Sharp, David J; Shew, Woodrow L; Leech, Robert

    2015-03-18

    The analysis of neuronal avalanches supports the hypothesis that the human cortex operates with critical neural dynamics. Here, we investigate the relationship between cascades of activity in electroencephalogram data, cognitive state, and reaction time in humans using a multimodal approach. We recruited 18 healthy volunteers for the acquisition of simultaneous electroencephalogram and functional magnetic resonance imaging during both rest and during a visuomotor cognitive task. We compared distributions of electroencephalogram-derived cascades to reference power laws for task and rest conditions. We then explored the large-scale spatial correspondence of these cascades in the simultaneously acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Furthermore, we investigated whether individual variability in reaction times is associated with the amount of deviation from power law form. We found that while resting state cascades are associated with approximate power law form, the task state is associated with subcritical dynamics. Furthermore, we found that electroencephalogram cascades are related to blood oxygen level-dependent activation, predominantly in sensorimotor brain regions. Finally, we found that decreased reaction times during the task condition are associated with increased proximity to power law form of cascade distributions. These findings suggest that the resting state is associated with near-critical dynamics, in which a high dynamic range and a large repertoire of brain states may be advantageous. In contrast, a focused cognitive task induces subcritical dynamics, which is associated with a lower dynamic range, which in turn may reduce elements of interference affecting task performance. PMID:25788679

  2. Capturing Dynamics in the Power Grid: Formulation of Dynamic State Estimation through Data Assimilation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ning; Huang, Zhenyu; Meng, Da; Elbert, Stephen T.; Wang, Shaobu; Diao, Ruisheng

    2014-03-31

    With the increasing complexity resulting from uncertainties and stochastic variations introduced by intermittent renewable energy sources, responsive loads, mobile consumption of plug-in vehicles, and new market designs, more and more dynamic behaviors are observed in everyday power system operation. To operate a power system efficiently and reliably, it is critical to adopt a dynamic paradigm so that effective control actions can be taken in time. The dynamic paradigm needs to include three fundamental components: dynamic state estimation; look-ahead dynamic simulation; and dynamic contingency analysis (Figure 1). These three components answer three basic questions: where the system is; where the system is going; and how secure the system is against accidents. The dynamic state estimation provides a solid cornerstone to support the other 2 components and is the focus of this study.

  3. Observation of ice-rule violation and monopole dynamics via edge nucleation of domain walls in artificial spin ice lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnia, S.; Purnama, I.; Lew, W. S.

    2016-12-01

    In a patterned Co honeycomb spin ice structure, we show that violation in the ice-rule or magnetic monopoles, can be observed during a magnetization reversal process in 430 Oe≤H≤760 Oe magnetic field (H) range. The monopoles are shown to originate from the nucleation of domain walls at the edges, and they hop towards the other edge via the propagation of magnetic domain walls. The paths that the domain walls traveled or the Dirac strings, are shown to increase in length with magnetic fields increment and no random flipping of the bars are observed in the structure.

  4. Family dynamics in the United States, Finland and Iceland.

    PubMed

    White, Marjorie A; Elder, Jennifer H; Paavilainen, Eija; Joronen, Katja; Helgadóttir, Helga L; Seidl, Ann

    2010-03-01

    Understanding the dynamics of contemporary, postmodern families and how these relate to health is critically important to nurses and other health care providers throughout the world. Much can be learned by studying not only one's own culture but also other countries. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare family dynamics of families in the United States, Finland and Iceland. To date relatively little has been published related to families in these Nordic countries. Six family dimensions in Barnhill's Family Health Cycle served as the theoretical framework. Adult respondents (n = 567) purposively selected from varied community groups, completed the Family Dynamics Measure II (FDM II) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Main findings from the three countries were positive family dynamics, with mutuality contributing the strongest factor to partially confirm the theoretical propositions in Barnhill's Family Health Cycle. Respondents from all countries reported (1) clear communication and flexibility that contribute to mutuality; (2) younger age of respondents and increased education that were associated with more positive family dynamics; and (3) larger families associated with more negative dynamics. Mixed reports occurred according to gender, with Nordic men tending to perceive some negative dimensions. Marriage was important for more positive family dynamics only in the United States. Families in the United States and in Iceland had in common more negative family dynamics during illnesses. Problems and changes affected mostly families in the United States. In general, families in Finland and Iceland had greater strengths than in the United States. This benchmark study offers information for health practitioners to assist families, as well as contribute to the improvement of family social policies, especially in the United States.

  5. The effect of site geometry, Ti content and Ti oxidation state on the Ti K-edge XANES spectrum of synthetic hibonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, P. M.; Berry, A. J.; Schofield, P. F.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.

    2016-08-01

    The Al-rich oxide hibonite (CaAl12O19) is modeled to be the second mineral to condense from a gas of solar composition and is found within calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions and the matrix of chondritic meteorites. Both Ti3+ and Ti4+ are reported in meteoritic hibonite, so hibonite has been proposed as a single mineral oxybarometer that could be used to elucidate conditions within the first 0.2 Myrs of the Solar System. Synthetic hibonites with Ti3+/(Ti3+ + Ti4+) (hereafter Ti3+/ΣTi) ranging between 0 and 1 were prepared as matrix-matched standards for meteoritic hibonite. The largest yield of both Ti-free and Ti-bearing hibonite at ∼1300 and ∼1400 °C was obtained by a single sinter under reducing conditions. In situ micro-beam Ti K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra were recorded from the synthetic hibonites, as well as from terrestrial hibonite. Spectral features in the post-crest region were shown to correlate with the Ti4+ content. Furthermore, Ti4+ on the M2 trigonal bipyramidal and the adjoining M4 octahedral sites appears to cause variability in the post-crest region as a function of orientation. For this suite of synthetic hibonites it was observed that the pre-edge peak region is not influenced by orientation, but is controlled by Ti3+/ΣTi, site geometry and/or Ti concentration. In particular, the pre-edge peak intensities reflect Ti coordination environment and distortion of the M4 octahedral site. Therefore, although pre-edge peak intensities have previously been used to determine Ti3+/ΣTi in meteoritic minerals, we excluded use of the pre-edge peak intensities for quantifying Ti valence states in hibonite. The energy of the absorption edge at a normalized intensity of 0.8 (E0.8) and the energy of the minimum between the pre-edge region and the absorption edge (Em1) were found to vary systematically with Ti3+/ΣTi. Ti3+/ΣTi in hibonite as a function of Em1 was modeled by a quadratic function that may be used to quantify Ti3

  6. The effect of pure state structure on nonequilibrium dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, C. M.; Stein, D. L.

    2008-06-01

    Motivated by short-range Ising spin glasses, we review some rigorous results and their consequences for the relation between the number/nature of equilibrium pure states and nonequilibrium dynamics. Two of the consequences for spin glass dynamics following an instantaneous deep quench to a temperature with broken spin flip symmetry are: (1) almost all initial configurations lie on the boundary between the basins of attraction of multiple pure states; (2) unless there are uncountably many pure states with almost all pairs having zero overlap, there can be no equilibration to a pure state as time t \\to \\infty . We discuss the relevance of these results to the difficulty of equilibration of spin glasses. We also review some results concerning the 'nature versus nurture' problem of whether the large-t behavior of both ferromagnets and spin glasses following a deep quench is determined more by the initial configuration (nature) or by the dynamics realization (nurture).

  7. Dynamic State Estimation Utilizing High Performance Computing Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Huang, Zhenyu; Yang, Bo; Hauer, Matthew L.; Nieplocha, Jaroslaw

    2009-03-18

    The state estimation tools which are currently deployed in power system control rooms are based on a quasi-steady-state assumption. As a result, the suite of operational tools that rely on state estimation results as inputs do not have dynamic information available and their accuracy is compromised. This paper presents an overview of the Kalman Filtering process and then focuses on the implementation of the predication component on multiple processors.

  8. Dynamical generation of maximally entangled states in two identical cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Alexanian, Moorad

    2011-11-15

    The generation of entanglement between two identical coupled cavities, each containing a single three-level atom, is studied when the cavities exchange two coherent photons and are in the N=2,4 manifolds, where N represents the maximum number of photons possible in either cavity. The atom-photon state of each cavity is described by a qutrit for N=2 and a five-dimensional qudit for N=4. However, the conservation of the total value of N for the interacting two-cavity system limits the total number of states to only 4 states for N=2 and 8 states for N=4, rather than the usual 9 for two qutrits and 25 for two five-dimensional qudits. In the N=2 manifold, two-qutrit states dynamically generate four maximally entangled Bell states from initially unentangled states. In the N=4 manifold, two-qudit states dynamically generate maximally entangled states involving three or four states. The generation of these maximally entangled states occurs rather rapidly for large hopping strengths. The cavities function as a storage of periodically generated maximally entangled states.

  9. Configuration and Heating Power Dependence of Edge Parameters and H-mode Dynamics in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Bush; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; J. Boedo; E.D. Fredrickson; S.M. Kaye; S. Kubota; B.P. LeBlanc; R. Maingi; R.J. Maqueda; S.A. Sabbagh; V.A. Soukhanovskii; D. Stutman; D.W. Swain; J.B. Wilgen; S.J. Zweben; W.M. Davis; D.A. Gates; D.W. Johnson; R. Kaita; H.W. Kugel; D. Mastrovito; S. Medley; J.E. Menard; D. Mueller; M. Ono; F. Paoletti; S.J. Paul; Y-K.M. Peng; R. Raman; P.G. Roney; A.L. Roquemore; C.H. Skinner; E.J. Synakowski; G. Taylor; the NSTX Team

    2003-01-09

    Edge parameters play a critical role in H-mode (high-confinement mode) access, which is a key component of plasma discharge optimization in present-day toroidal confinement experiments and the design of next-generation devices. Because the edge magnetic topology of a spherical torus (ST) differs from a conventional aspect ratio tokamak, H-modes in STs exhibit important differences compared with tokamaks. The dependence of the NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment) edge plasma on heating power, including the L-H transition requirements and the occurrence of edge-localized modes (ELMs), and on divertor configuration is quantified. Comparisons between good L-modes (low-confinement modes) and H-modes show greater differences in the ion channel than the electron channel. The threshold power for the H-mode transition in NSTX is generally above the predictions of a recent ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) scaling. Correlations of transition and ELM phenomena with turbulent fluctuations revealed by Gas Puff Imaging (GPI) and reflectometry are observed. In both single-null and double-null divertor discharges, the density peaks off-axis, sometimes developing prominent ''ears'' which can be sustained for many energy confinement times, tau subscript ''E'', in the absence of ELMs. A wide variety of ELM behavior is observed, and ELM characteristics depend on configuration and fueling.

  10. Task-Related Edge Density (TED)—A New Method for Revealing Dynamic Network Formation in fMRI Data of the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Lohmann, Gabriele; Stelzer, Johannes; Zuber, Verena; Buschmann, Tilo; Margulies, Daniel; Bartels, Andreas; Scheffler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The formation of transient networks in response to external stimuli or as a reflection of internal cognitive processes is a hallmark of human brain function. However, its identification in fMRI data of the human brain is notoriously difficult. Here we propose a new method of fMRI data analysis that tackles this problem by considering large-scale, task-related synchronisation networks. Networks consist of nodes and edges connecting them, where nodes correspond to voxels in fMRI data, and the weight of an edge is determined via task-related changes in dynamic synchronisation between their respective times series. Based on these definitions, we developed a new data analysis algorithm that identifies edges that show differing levels of synchrony between two distinct task conditions and that occur in dense packs with similar characteristics. Hence, we call this approach “Task-related Edge Density” (TED). TED proved to be a very strong marker for dynamic network formation that easily lends itself to statistical analysis using large scale statistical inference. A major advantage of TED compared to other methods is that it does not depend on any specific hemodynamic response model, and it also does not require a presegmentation of the data for dimensionality reduction as it can handle large networks consisting of tens of thousands of voxels. We applied TED to fMRI data of a fingertapping and an emotion processing task provided by the Human Connectome Project. TED revealed network-based involvement of a large number of brain areas that evaded detection using traditional GLM-based analysis. We show that our proposed method provides an entirely new window into the immense complexity of human brain function. PMID:27341204

  11. Task-Related Edge Density (TED)-A New Method for Revealing Dynamic Network Formation in fMRI Data of the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Gabriele; Stelzer, Johannes; Zuber, Verena; Buschmann, Tilo; Margulies, Daniel; Bartels, Andreas; Scheffler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The formation of transient networks in response to external stimuli or as a reflection of internal cognitive processes is a hallmark of human brain function. However, its identification in fMRI data of the human brain is notoriously difficult. Here we propose a new method of fMRI data analysis that tackles this problem by considering large-scale, task-related synchronisation networks. Networks consist of nodes and edges connecting them, where nodes correspond to voxels in fMRI data, and the weight of an edge is determined via task-related changes in dynamic synchronisation between their respective times series. Based on these definitions, we developed a new data analysis algorithm that identifies edges that show differing levels of synchrony between two distinct task conditions and that occur in dense packs with similar characteristics. Hence, we call this approach "Task-related Edge Density" (TED). TED proved to be a very strong marker for dynamic network formation that easily lends itself to statistical analysis using large scale statistical inference. A major advantage of TED compared to other methods is that it does not depend on any specific hemodynamic response model, and it also does not require a presegmentation of the data for dimensionality reduction as it can handle large networks consisting of tens of thousands of voxels. We applied TED to fMRI data of a fingertapping and an emotion processing task provided by the Human Connectome Project. TED revealed network-based involvement of a large number of brain areas that evaded detection using traditional GLM-based analysis. We show that our proposed method provides an entirely new window into the immense complexity of human brain function. PMID:27341204

  12. In-plane magnetic-field effect on transport properties of the chiral edge state in a quasi-three-dimensional quantum well structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, B.; Brooks, J.; Wang, Z.; Simmons, J.; Reno, J.; Lumpkin, N.; OBrien, J.; Clark, R.

    1999-09-01

    The transport properties of a quasi-three-dimensional, 200-layer quantum-well structure are investigated at integer filling in the quantum Hall state, concomitant with the chiral edge state condition. We find that the transverse magnetoresistance R{sub xx}, the Hall resistance R{sub xy}, and the vertical resistance R{sub zz} all follow a similar behavior with {ital both} temperature and in-plane magnetic field. A general characteristic of the influence of increasing in-plane field B{sub in} is that the quantization condition first improves, but above a critical value B{sub in}{sup C}, the quantization is systematically removed. We consider the interplay of the chiral edge state transport and the bulk (quantum Hall) transport properties. This mechanism may arise from the competition of the cyclotron energy with the superlattice band-structure energies. A comparison of the results with existing theories of the chiral edge state transport with in-plane field is also discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Imaging the equilibrium state and magnetization dynamics of partially built hard disk write heads

    SciTech Connect

    Valkass, R. A. J. Yu, W.; Shelford, L. R.; Keatley, P. S.; Loughran, T. H. J.; Hicken, R. J.; Cavill, S. A.; Laan, G. van der; Dhesi, S. S.; Bashir, M. A.; Gubbins, M. A.; Czoschke, P. J.; Lopusnik, R.

    2015-06-08

    Four different designs of partially built hard disk write heads with a yoke comprising four repeats of NiFe (1 nm)/CoFe (50 nm) were studied by both x-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM) and time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy (TRSKM). These techniques were used to investigate the static equilibrium domain configuration and the magnetodynamic response across the entire structure, respectively. Simulations and previous TRSKM studies have made proposals for the equilibrium domain configuration of similar structures, but no direct observation of the equilibrium state of the writers has yet been made. In this study, static XPEEM images of the equilibrium state of writer structures were acquired using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism as the contrast mechanism. These images suggest that the crystalline anisotropy dominates the equilibrium state domain configuration, but competition with shape anisotropy ultimately determines the stability of the equilibrium state. Dynamic TRSKM images were acquired from nominally identical devices. These images suggest that a longer confluence region may hinder flux conduction from the yoke into the pole tip: the shorter confluence region exhibits clear flux beaming along the symmetry axis, whereas the longer confluence region causes flux to conduct along one edge of the writer. The observed variations in dynamic response agree well with the differences in the equilibrium magnetization configuration visible in the XPEEM images, confirming that minor variations in the geometric design of the writer structure can have significant effects on the process of flux beaming.

  14. Engineering applications of a dynamical state feedback chaotification method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Savaş; Güzeliş, Cüneyt

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents two engineering applications of a chaotification method which can be applied to any inputstate linearizable (nonlinear) system including linear controllable ones as special cases. In the used chaotification method, a reference chaotic and linear system can be combined into a special form by a dynamical state feedback increasing the order of the open loop system to have the same chaotic dynamics with the reference chaotic system. Promising dc motor applications of the method are implemented by the proposed dynamical state feedback which is based on matching the closed loop dynamics to the well known Chua and also Lorenz chaotic systems. The first application, which is the chaotified dc motor used for mixing a corn syrup added acid-base mixture, is implemented via a personal computer and a microcontroller based circuit. As a second application, a chaotified dc motor with a taco-generator used in the feedback is realized by using fully analog circuit elements.

  15. Efficient DMFT impurity solver using real-time dynamics with matrix product states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganahl, Martin; Aichhorn, Markus; Evertz, Hans Gerd; Thunström, Patrik; Held, Karsten; Verstraete, Frank

    2015-10-01

    We propose to calculate spectral functions of quantum impurity models using the time evolving block decimation (TEBD) for matrix product states. The resolution of the spectral function is improved by a so-called linear prediction approach. We apply the method as an impurity solver within the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) for the single- and two-band Hubbard model on the Bethe lattice. For the single-band model, we observe sharp features at the inner edges of the Hubbard bands. A finite-size scaling shows that they remain present in the thermodynamic limit. We analyze the real time-dependence of the double occupation after adding a single electron and observe oscillations at the same energy as the sharp feature in the Hubbard band, indicating a long-lived coherent superposition of states that correspond to the Kondo peak and the side peaks. For a two-band Hubbard model, we observe an even richer structure in the Hubbard bands, which cannot be related to a multiplet structure of the impurity, in addition to sharp excitations at the band edges of a type similar to the single-band case.

  16. Dynamics of open bosonic quantum systems in coherent state representation

    SciTech Connect

    Dalvit, D. A. R.; Berman, G. P.; Vishik, M.

    2006-01-15

    We consider the problem of decoherence and relaxation of open bosonic quantum systems from a perspective alternative to the standard master equation or quantum trajectories approaches. Our method is based on the dynamics of expectation values of observables evaluated in a coherent state representation. We examine a model of a quantum nonlinear oscillator with a density-density interaction with a collection of environmental oscillators at finite temperature. We derive the exact solution for dynamics of observables and demonstrate a consistent perturbation approach.

  17. Unified EDGE

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-18

    UEDGE is an interactive suite of physics packages using the Python or BASIS scripting systems. The plasma is described by time-dependent 2D plasma fluid equations that include equations for density, velocity, ion temperature, electron temperature, electrostatic potential, and gas density in the edge region of a magnetic fusion energy confinement device. Slab, cylindrical, and toroidal geometries are allowed, and closed and open magnetic field-line regions are included. Classical transport is assumed along magnetic field lines, and anomalous transport is assumed across field lines. Multi-charge state impurities can be included with the corresponding line-radiation energy loss. Although UEDGE is written in Fortran, for efficient execution and analysis of results, it utilizes either Python or BASIS scripting shells. Python is easily available for many platforms (http://www.Python.org/). The features and availability of BASIS are described in “Basis Manual Set” by P.F. Dubois, Z.C. Motteler, et al., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory report UCRL-MA-1 18541, June, 2002 and http://basis.llnl.gov. BASIS has been reviewed and released by LLNL for unlimited distribution. The Python version utilizes PYBASIS scripts developed by D.P. Grote, LLNL. The Python version also uses MPPL code and MAC Perl script, available from the public-domain BASIS source above. The Forthon version of UEDGE uses the same source files, but utilizes Forthon to produce a Python-compatible source. Forthon has been developed by D.P. Grote at LBL (see http://hifweb.lbl.gov/Forthon/ and Grote et al. in the references below), and it is freely available. The graphics can be performed by any package importable to Python, such as PYGIST.

  18. Unified EDGE

    2007-06-18

    UEDGE is an interactive suite of physics packages using the Python or BASIS scripting systems. The plasma is described by time-dependent 2D plasma fluid equations that include equations for density, velocity, ion temperature, electron temperature, electrostatic potential, and gas density in the edge region of a magnetic fusion energy confinement device. Slab, cylindrical, and toroidal geometries are allowed, and closed and open magnetic field-line regions are included. Classical transport is assumed along magnetic field lines,more » and anomalous transport is assumed across field lines. Multi-charge state impurities can be included with the corresponding line-radiation energy loss. Although UEDGE is written in Fortran, for efficient execution and analysis of results, it utilizes either Python or BASIS scripting shells. Python is easily available for many platforms (http://www.Python.org/). The features and availability of BASIS are described in “Basis Manual Set” by P.F. Dubois, Z.C. Motteler, et al., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory report UCRL-MA-1 18541, June, 2002 and http://basis.llnl.gov. BASIS has been reviewed and released by LLNL for unlimited distribution. The Python version utilizes PYBASIS scripts developed by D.P. Grote, LLNL. The Python version also uses MPPL code and MAC Perl script, available from the public-domain BASIS source above. The Forthon version of UEDGE uses the same source files, but utilizes Forthon to produce a Python-compatible source. Forthon has been developed by D.P. Grote at LBL (see http://hifweb.lbl.gov/Forthon/ and Grote et al. in the references below), and it is freely available. The graphics can be performed by any package importable to Python, such as PYGIST.« less

  19. Disentangling intrinsic ultrafast excited-state dynamics of cytosine tautomers.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jr-Wei; Yen, Hung-Chien; Chou, Wei-Kuang; Weng, Chih-Nan; Cheng, Li-Hao; Shi, Hui-Qi; Lai, Szu-Hsueh; Cheng, Po-Yuan

    2011-08-01

    Gas-phase ultrafast excited-state dynamics of cytosine, 1-methylcytosine, and 5-fluorocytosine were investigated in molecular beams using femtosecond pump-probe photoionization spectroscopy to identify the intrinsic dynamics of the major cytosine tautomers. The results indicate that, upon photoexcitation in the first absorption band, the cytosine enol tautomer exhibits a significantly longer excited-state lifetime than its keto and imino counterparts. The initially excited states of the cytosine keto and imino tautomers decay with sub-picosecond dynamics for excitation wavelengths shorter than 300 nm, whereas that of the cytosine enol tautomer decays with time constants ranging from 3 to 45 ps for excitation between 260 and 285 nm.

  20. Co K-edge magnetic circular dichroism across the spin state transition in LaCoO3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, V.; Ignatov, A.; Troyanchuk, I. O.; Sikolenko, V. V.; Rogalev, A.; Wilhelm, F.; Efimova, E.; Tiutiunnikov, S. I.; Karpinsky, D.; Kriventsov, V.; Yakimchuk, E.; Molodtsov, S.; Sainctavit, P.; Prabhakaran, D.

    2016-05-01

    We report on Co K-edge x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements of LaCoO3 single crystal in temperature range from 5 to 300 K and external magnetic field of 17 T. The response consists of pre-edge (at 7712 eV) and bi-polar peak (up at 7727, down at 7731 eV) with amplitudes, respectively, less than 10-3 and 10-2 of the Co K-edge jump. Using the sum rule the orbital magnetic moment of 4p Co is evaluated. Its temperature dependence reaches a maximum of (2.7 ± 0.9) x10-3 μB at 120 K, following the trend for the total magnetic moment on the Co obtained from the superconducting quantum interference device measurements. However, on warming from 25 to 120 K, the orbital magnetic moment of the 4p Co doubles while total magnetic moment of Co increases 10 times. First principle calculations are in order to relate the Co K-edge XMCD results to the orbital and spin moment of 3d Co.

  1. Instability-related delamination growth of embedded and edge delaminations. Ph.D. Thesis - Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitcomb, John D.

    1988-01-01

    Compressive loads can cause local buckling in composite laminates that have a near surface delamination. This buckling causes load redistribution and secondary loads, which in turn cause interlaminar stresses and delamination growth. The goal of this research was to enhance the understanding of this instability-related delamination growth in laminates containing either an embedded or an edge delamination.

  2. Identification of the iron oxidation state and coordination geometry in iron oxide- and zeolite-based catalysts using pre-edge XAS analysis.

    PubMed

    Boubnov, Alexey; Lichtenberg, Henning; Mangold, Stefan; Grunwaldt, Jan Dierk

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of the oxidation state and coordination geometry using pre-edge analysis is attractive for heterogeneous catalysis and materials science, especially for in situ and time-resolved studies or highly diluted systems. In the present study, focus is laid on iron-based catalysts. First a systematic investigation of the pre-edge region of the Fe K-edge using staurolite, FePO4, FeO and α-Fe2O3 as reference compounds for tetrahedral Fe(2+), tetrahedral Fe(3+), octahedral Fe(2+) and octahedral Fe(3+), respectively, is reported. In particular, high-resolution and conventional X-ray absorption spectra are compared, considering that in heterogeneous catalysis and material science a compromise between high-quality spectroscopic data acquisition and simultaneous analysis of functional properties is required. Results, which were obtained from reference spectra acquired with different resolution and quality, demonstrate that this analysis is also applicable to conventionally recorded pre-edge data. For this purpose, subtraction of the edge onset is preferentially carried out using an arctangent and a first-degree polynomial, independent of the resolution and quality of the data. For both standard and high-resolution data, multiplet analysis of pre-edge features has limitations due to weak transitions that cannot be identified. On the other hand, an arbitrary empirical peak fitting assists the analysis in that non-local transitions can be isolated. The analysis of the oxidation state and coordination geometry of the Fe sites using a variogram-based method is shown to be effective for standard-resolution data and leads to the same results as for high-resolution spectra. This method, validated by analysing spectra of reference compounds and their well defined mixtures, is finally applied to track structural changes in a 1% Fe/Al2O3 and a 0.5% Fe/BEA zeolite catalyst during reduction in 5% H2/He. The results, hardly accessible by other techniques, show that Fe(3+) is

  3. The dynamic distribution of fluorescent analogues of actin and myosin in protrusions at the leading edge of migrating Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The formation of protrusions at the leading edge of the cell is an essential step in fibroblast locomotion. Using fluorescent analogue cytochemistry, ratio imaging, multiple parameter analysis, and fluorescence photobleaching recovery, the distribution of actin and myosin was examined in the same protrusions at the leading edge of live, locomoting cells during wound-healing in vitro. We have previously defined two temporal stages of the formation of protrusions: (a) initial protrusion and (b) established protrusion (Fisher et al., 1988). Actin was slightly concentrated in initial protrusions, while myosin was either totally absent or present at extremely low levels at the base of the initial protrusions. In contrast, established protrusions contained diffuse actin and actin microspikes, as well as myosin in both diffuse and structured forms. Actin and myosin were also localized along concave transverse fibers near the base of initial and established protrusions. The dynamics of myosin penetration into a relatively stable, established protrusion was demonstrated by recording sequential images over time. Myosin was shown to be absent from an initial protrusion, but diffuse and punctate myosin was detected in the same protrusion within 1-2 min. Fluorescence photobleaching recovery indicated that myosin was 100% immobile in the region behind the leading edge containing transverse fibers, in comparison to the 21% immobile fraction detected in the perinuclear region. Possible explanations of the delayed penetration of myosin into established protrusions and the implications on the mechanism of protrusion are discussed. PMID:3204122

  4. Lithium-modulated conduction band edge shifts and charge-transfer dynamics in dye-sensitized solar cells based on a dicyanamide ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Min; Wang, Peng

    2011-04-19

    Lithium ions are known for their potent function in modulating the energy alignment at the oxide semiconductor/dye/electrolyte interface in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), offering the opportunity to control the associated multichannel charge-transfer dynamics. Herein, by optimizing the lithium iodide content in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide-based ionic liquid electrolytes, we present a solvent-free DSC displaying an impressive 8.4% efficiency at 100 mW cm(-2) AM1.5G conditions. We further scrutinize the origins of evident impacts of lithium ions upon current density-voltage characteristics as well as photocurrent action spectra of DSCs based thereon. It is found that, along with a gradual increase of the lithium content in ionic liquid electrolytes, a consecutive diminishment of the open-circuit photovoltage arises, primarily owing to a noticeable downward movement of the titania conduction band edge. The conduction band edge displacement away from vacuum also assists the formation of a more favorable energy offset at the titania/dye interface, and thereby leads to a faster electron injection rate and a higher exciton dissociation yield as implied by transient emission measurements. We also notice that the adverse influence of the titania conduction band edge downward shift arising from lithium addition upon photovoltage is partly compensated by a concomitant suppression of the triiodide involving interfacial charge recombination.

  5. Imaging the dynamics of free-electron Landau states.

    PubMed

    Schattschneider, P; Schachinger, Th; Stöger-Pollach, M; Löffler, S; Steiger-Thirsfeld, A; Bliokh, K Y; Nori, Franco

    2014-08-08

    Landau levels and states of electrons in a magnetic field are fundamental quantum entities underlying the quantum Hall and related effects in condensed matter physics. However, the real-space properties and observation of Landau wave functions remain elusive. Here we report the real-space observation of Landau states and the internal rotational dynamics of free electrons. States with different quantum numbers are produced using nanometre-sized electron vortex beams, with a radius chosen to match the waist of the Landau states, in a quasi-uniform magnetic field. Scanning the beams along the propagation direction, we reconstruct the rotational dynamics of the Landau wave functions with angular frequency ~100 GHz. We observe that Landau modes with different azimuthal quantum numbers belong to three classes, which are characterized by rotations with zero, Larmor and cyclotron frequencies, respectively. This is in sharp contrast to the uniform cyclotron rotation of classical electrons, and in perfect agreement with recent theoretical predictions.

  6. Transition state theory and the dynamics of hard disks.

    PubMed

    Barnett-Jones, M; Dickinson, P A; Godfrey, M J; Grundy, T; Moore, M A

    2013-11-01

    The dynamics of two- and five-disk systems confined in a square has been studied using molecular dynamics simulations and compared with the predictions of transition state theory. We determine the partition functions Z and Z(‡) of transition state theory using a procedure first used by Salsburg and Wood for the pressure. Our simulations show this procedure and transition state theory are in excellent agreement with the simulations. A generalization of the transition state theory to the case of a large number of disks N is made and shown to be in full agreement with simulations of disks moving in a narrow channel. The same procedure for hard spheres in three dimensions leads to the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann formula for their alpha relaxation time.

  7. Edge absorption and circular photogalvanic effect in 2D topological insulator edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entin, M. V.; Magarill, L. I.

    2016-06-01

    The electron absorption on the edge states and the edge photocurrent of a 2D topological insulator (TI) are studied. We consider the optical transitions within linear edge branches of the energy spectrum. The interaction with impurities is taken into account. The circular polarization is found to produce the edge photocurrent, the direction of which is determined by light polarization and edge orientation.

  8. Magnetic vortex state stability, reversal and dynamics in restricted geometries.

    PubMed

    Guslienko, K Yu

    2008-06-01

    Magnetic vortices are typically the ground states in geometrically confined ferromagnets with small magnetocrystalline anisotropy. In this article I review static and dynamic properties of the magnetic vortex state in small particles with nanoscale thickness and sub-micron and micron lateral sizes (magnetic dots). Magnetic dots made of soft magnetic material shaped as flat circular and elliptic cylinders are considered. Such mesoscopic dots undergo magnetization reversal through successive nucleation, displacement and annihilation of magnetic vortices. The reversal process depends on the stability of different possible zero-field magnetization configurations with respect to the dot geometrical parameters and application of an external magnetic field. The interdot magnetostatic interaction plays an important role in magnetization reversal for dot arrays with a small dot-to-dot distance, leading to decreases in the vortex nucleation and annihilation fields. Magnetic vortices reveal rich, non-trivial dynamical properties due to existance of the vortex core bearing topological charges. The vortex ground state magnetization distribution leads to a considerable modification of the nature of spin excitations in comparison to those in the uniformly magnetized state. A magnetic vortex confined in a magnetically soft ferromagnet with micron-sized lateral dimensions possesses a characteristic dynamic excitation known as a translational mode that corresponds to spiral-like precession of the vortex core around its equilibrium position. The translation motions of coupled vortices are considered. There are, above the vortex translation mode eigenfrequencies, several dynamic magnetization eigenmodes localized outside the vortex core whose frequencies are determined principally by dynamic demagnetizing fields appearing due to restricted dot geometry. The vortex excitation modes are classified as translation modes and radially or azimuthally symmetric spin waves over the vortex

  9. The architecture of dynamic reservoir in the echo state network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hongyan; Liu, Xiang; Li, Lixiang

    2012-09-01

    Echo state network (ESN) has recently attracted increasing interests because of its superior capability in modeling nonlinear dynamic systems. In the conventional echo state network model, its dynamic reservoir (DR) has a random and sparse topology, which is far from the real biological neural networks from both structural and functional perspectives. We hereby propose three novel types of echo state networks with new dynamic reservoir topologies based on complex network theory, i.e., with a small-world topology, a scale-free topology, and a mixture of small-world and scale-free topologies, respectively. We then analyze the relationship between the dynamic reservoir structure and its prediction capability. We utilize two commonly used time series to evaluate the prediction performance of the three proposed echo state networks and compare them to the conventional model. We also use independent and identically distributed time series to analyze the short-term memory and prediction precision of these echo state networks. Furthermore, we study the ratio of scale-free topology and the small-world topology in the mixed-topology network, and examine its influence on the performance of the echo state networks. Our simulation results show that the proposed echo state network models have better prediction capabilities, a wider spectral radius, but retain almost the same short-term memory capacity as compared to the conventional echo state network model. We also find that the smaller the ratio of the scale-free topology over the small-world topology, the better the memory capacities.

  10. The architecture of dynamic reservoir in the echo state network.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongyan; Liu, Xiang; Li, Lixiang

    2012-09-01

    Echo state network (ESN) has recently attracted increasing interests because of its superior capability in modeling nonlinear dynamic systems. In the conventional echo state network model, its dynamic reservoir (DR) has a random and sparse topology, which is far from the real biological neural networks from both structural and functional perspectives. We hereby propose three novel types of echo state networks with new dynamic reservoir topologies based on complex network theory, i.e., with a small-world topology, a scale-free topology, and a mixture of small-world and scale-free topologies, respectively. We then analyze the relationship between the dynamic reservoir structure and its prediction capability. We utilize two commonly used time series to evaluate the prediction performance of the three proposed echo state networks and compare them to the conventional model. We also use independent and identically distributed time series to analyze the short-term memory and prediction precision of these echo state networks. Furthermore, we study the ratio of scale-free topology and the small-world topology in the mixed-topology network, and examine its influence on the performance of the echo state networks. Our simulation results show that the proposed echo state network models have better prediction capabilities, a wider spectral radius, but retain almost the same short-term memory capacity as compared to the conventional echo state network model. We also find that the smaller the ratio of the scale-free topology over the small-world topology, the better the memory capacities.

  11. The architecture of dynamic reservoir in the echo state network.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongyan; Liu, Xiang; Li, Lixiang

    2012-09-01

    Echo state network (ESN) has recently attracted increasing interests because of its superior capability in modeling nonlinear dynamic systems. In the conventional echo state network model, its dynamic reservoir (DR) has a random and sparse topology, which is far from the real biological neural networks from both structural and functional perspectives. We hereby propose three novel types of echo state networks with new dynamic reservoir topologies based on complex network theory, i.e., with a small-world topology, a scale-free topology, and a mixture of small-world and scale-free topologies, respectively. We then analyze the relationship between the dynamic reservoir structure and its prediction capability. We utilize two commonly used time series to evaluate the prediction performance of the three proposed echo state networks and compare them to the conventional model. We also use independent and identically distributed time series to analyze the short-term memory and prediction precision of these echo state networks. Furthermore, we study the ratio of scale-free topology and the small-world topology in the mixed-topology network, and examine its influence on the performance of the echo state networks. Our simulation results show that the proposed echo state network models have better prediction capabilities, a wider spectral radius, but retain almost the same short-term memory capacity as compared to the conventional echo state network model. We also find that the smaller the ratio of the scale-free topology over the small-world topology, the better the memory capacities. PMID:23020466

  12. Edge Bioinformatics

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Chien-Chi

    2015-08-03

    Edge Bioinformatics is a developmental bioinformatics and data management platform which seeks to supply laboratories with bioinformatics pipelines for analyzing data associated with common samples case goals. Edge Bioinformatics enables sequencing as a solution and forward-deployed situations where human-resources, space, bandwidth, and time are limited. The Edge bioinformatics pipeline was designed based on following USE CASES and specific to illumina sequencing reads. 1. Assay performance adjudication (PCR): Analysis of an existing PCR assay in a genomic context, and automated design of a new assay to resolve conflicting results; 2. Clinical presentation with extreme symptoms: Characterization of a known pathogen or co-infection with a. Novel emerging disease outbreak or b. Environmental surveillance

  13. Edge Bioinformatics

    2015-08-03

    Edge Bioinformatics is a developmental bioinformatics and data management platform which seeks to supply laboratories with bioinformatics pipelines for analyzing data associated with common samples case goals. Edge Bioinformatics enables sequencing as a solution and forward-deployed situations where human-resources, space, bandwidth, and time are limited. The Edge bioinformatics pipeline was designed based on following USE CASES and specific to illumina sequencing reads. 1. Assay performance adjudication (PCR): Analysis of an existing PCR assay in amore » genomic context, and automated design of a new assay to resolve conflicting results; 2. Clinical presentation with extreme symptoms: Characterization of a known pathogen or co-infection with a. Novel emerging disease outbreak or b. Environmental surveillance« less

  14. Dynamical instability of the XY spiral state of ferromagnetic condensates.

    PubMed

    Cherng, R W; Gritsev, V; Stamper-Kurn, D M; Demler, E

    2008-05-01

    We calculate the spectrum of collective excitations of the XY spiral state prepared adiabatically or suddenly from a uniform ferromagnetic F=1 condensate. For spiral wave vectors past a critical value, spin wave excitation energies become imaginary indicating a dynamical instability. We construct phase diagrams as functions of spiral wave vector and quadratic Zeeman energy. PMID:18518354

  15. Dynamical Instability of the XY Spiral State of Ferromagnetic Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Cherng, R. W.; Gritsev, V.; Demler, E.; Stamper-Kurn, D. M.

    2008-05-09

    We calculate the spectrum of collective excitations of the XY spiral state prepared adiabatically or suddenly from a uniform ferromagnetic F=1 condensate. For spiral wave vectors past a critical value, spin wave excitation energies become imaginary indicating a dynamical instability. We construct phase diagrams as functions of spiral wave vector and quadratic Zeeman energy.

  16. Combined Steady-State and Dynamic Heat Exchanger Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal; Bader, Paul N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a heat-transfer experiment that combines steady-state analysis and dynamic control. A process-water stream is circulated through two tube-in-shell heat exchangers in series. In the first, the process water is heated by steam. In the second, it is cooled by cooling water. The equipment is pilot-plant size: heat-transfer areas…

  17. Optimal PMU Placement Evaluation for Power System Dynamic State Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jinghe; Welch, Greg; Bishop, Gary; Huang, Zhenyu

    2010-10-10

    Abstract - The synchronized phaor measurements unit (PMU), developed in the 1980s, is concidered to be one of the most important devices in the future of power systems. The recent development of PMU technology provides high-speed, precisely synchronized sensor data, which has been found to be usefule for dynamic, state estimation of power the power grid.

  18. Complete dissociation branching fractions and Coulomb explosion dynamics of SO2 induced by excitation of O 1s pre-edge resonances.

    PubMed

    Salén, Peter; Yatsyna, Vasyl; Schio, Luca; Feifel, Raimund; Af Ugglas, Magnus; Richter, Robert; Alagia, Michele; Stranges, Stefano; Zhaunerchyk, Vitali

    2015-10-01

    Fragmentation processes of SO2 following excitation of the six main O 1s pre-edge resonances, as well as above the ionization threshold and below the resonances, are studied using a position-sensitive time-of-flight ion imaging detector, and the associated dissociation branching ratios and break-up dynamics are determined. In order to distinguish between the O(+) and S(2+) fragments of equal mass-to-charge ratio, the measurements have been performed with the isotopically enriched S(18)O2 sample. By analysis of the complete set of the fragment momentum vectors, the β values for the fragments originating from the SO(+) + O(+) break-up and the kinetic energy release for fragmentation channels of both SO2 (2+) and SO2 (3+) parent ions are determined. We also present results on the three-body break-up dynamics.

  19. Ultrafast demagnetization dynamics at the M edges of magnetic elements observed using a tabletop high-harmonic soft x-ray source.

    PubMed

    La-O-Vorakiat, Chan; Siemens, Mark; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Mathias, Stefan; Aeschlimann, Martin; Grychtol, Patrik; Adam, Roman; Schneider, Claus M; Shaw, Justin M; Nembach, Hans; Silva, T J

    2009-12-18

    We use few-femtosecond soft x-ray pulses from high-harmonic generation to extract element-specific demagnetization dynamics and hysteresis loops of a compound material for the first time. Using a geometry where high-harmonic beams are reflected from a magnetized Permalloy grating, large changes in the reflected intensity of up to 6% at the M absorption edges of Fe and Ni are observed when the magnetization is reversed. A short pump pulse is used to destroy the magnetic alignment, which allows us to measure the fastest, elementally specific demagnetization dynamics, with 55 fs time resolution. The use of high harmonics for probing magnetic materials promises to combine nanometer spatial resolution, elemental specificity, and femtosecond-to-attosecond time resolution, making it possible to address important fundamental questions in magnetism. PMID:20366281

  20. Dependence of the L- to H-mode Power Threshold on Toroidal Rotation and the Link to Edge Turbulence Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, G; Gohil, P; Schlossberg, D; Boedo, J; Burrell, K; deGrassie, J; Groebner, R; Makowski, M; Moyer, R; Petty, C; Rhodes, T; Schmitz, L; Shafer, M; Solomon, W; Umansky, M; Wang, G; White, A; Xu, X

    2008-10-13

    The injected power required to induce a transition from L-mode to H-mode plasmas is found to depend strongly on the injected neutral beam torque and consequent plasma toroidal rotation. Edge turbulence and flows, measured near the outboard midplane of the plasma (0.85 < r/a < 1.0) on DIII-D with the high-sensitivity 2D beam emission spectroscopy (BES) system, likewise vary with rotation and suggest a causative connection. The L-H power threshold in plasmas with the ion {del}B drift away from the X-point decreases from 4-6 MW with co-current beam injection, to 2-3 MW with near zero net injected torque, and to <2 MW with counter injection. Plasmas with the ion {del}B drift towards the X-point exhibit a qualitatively similar though less pronounced power threshold dependence on rotation. 2D edge turbulence measurements with BES show an increasing poloidal flow shear as the L-H transition is approached in all conditions. At low rotation, the poloidal flow of turbulent eddies near the edge reverses prior to the L-H transition, generating a significant poloidal flow shear that exceeds the measured turbulence decorrelation rate. This increased poloidal turbulence velocity shear may facilitate the L-H transition. No such reversal is observed in high rotation plasmas. The poloidal turbulence velocity spectrum exhibits a transition from a Geodesic Acoustic Mode zonal flow to a higher-power, lower frequency, zero-mean-frequency zonal flow as rotation varies from co-current to balanced during a torque scan at constant injected neutral beam power, perhaps also facilitating the L-H transition. This reduced power threshold at lower toroidal rotation may benefit inherently low-rotation plasmas such as ITER.

  1. Coupled Vortex-Lattice Flight Dynamic Model with Aeroelastic Finite-Element Model of Flexible Wing Transport Aircraft with Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap for Drag Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Daniel; Dao, Tung; Trinh, Khanh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a coupled vortex-lattice flight dynamic model with an aeroelastic finite-element model to predict dynamic characteristics of a flexible wing transport aircraft. The aircraft model is based on NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with representative mass and stiffness properties to achieve a wing tip deflection about twice that of a conventional transport aircraft (10% versus 5%). This flexible wing transport aircraft is referred to as an Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC) which is equipped with a Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system for active wing shaping control for drag reduction. A vortex-lattice aerodynamic model of the ESAC is developed and is coupled with an aeroelastic finite-element model via an automated geometry modeler. This coupled model is used to compute static and dynamic aeroelastic solutions. The deflection information from the finite-element model and the vortex-lattice model is used to compute unsteady contributions to the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients. A coupled aeroelastic-longitudinal flight dynamic model is developed by coupling the finite-element model with the rigid-body flight dynamic model of the GTM.

  2. Enhanced control of saddle steady states of dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Tamaševičius, Arūnas; Tamaševičiūtė, Elena; Mykolaitis, Gytis; Bumelienė, Skaidra

    2013-09-01

    An adaptive feedback technique for stabilizing a priori unknown saddle steady states of dynamical systems is described. The method is based on an unstable low-pass filter combined with a stable low-pass filter. The cutoff frequencies of both filters can be set relatively high. This allows considerable increase in the rate of convergence to the steady state. We demonstrate numerically and experimentally that the technique is robust to the influence of unknown external forces, which change the position of the steady state in the phase space. Experiments have been performed using electrical circuits imitating the damped Duffing-Holmes and chaotic Lindberg systems. PMID:24125322

  3. Alphaherpesvirus Latency: A Dynamic State of Transcription and Reactivation.

    PubMed

    Bloom, David C

    2016-01-01

    Alphaherpesviruses infect a variety of species from sea turtles to man and can cause significant disease in mammals including humans and livestock. These viruses are characterized by a lytic and latent state in nerve ganglia, with the ability to establish a lifelong latent infection that is interrupted by periodic reactivation. Previously, it was accepted that latency was a dominant state and that only during relatively infrequent reactivation episodes did latent genomes within ganglia become transcriptionally active. Here, we review recent data, focusing mainly on Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 which indicate that the latent state is more dynamic than recently appreciated. PMID:26997590

  4. State machine analysis of sensor data from dynamic processes

    DOEpatents

    Cook, William R.; Brabson, John M.; Deland, Sharon M.

    2003-12-23

    A state machine model analyzes sensor data from dynamic processes at a facility to identify the actual processes that were performed at the facility during a period of interest for the purpose of remote facility inspection. An inspector can further input the expected operations into the state machine model and compare the expected, or declared, processes to the actual processes to identify undeclared processes at the facility. The state machine analysis enables the generation of knowledge about the state of the facility at all levels, from location of physical objects to complex operational concepts. Therefore, the state machine method and apparatus may benefit any agency or business with sensored facilities that stores or manipulates expensive, dangerous, or controlled materials or information.

  5. Quantum dynamics of charge state in silicon field evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silaeva, Elena P.; Uchida, Kazuki; Watanabe, Kazuyuki

    2016-08-01

    The charge state of an ion field-evaporating from a silicon-atom cluster is analyzed using time-dependent density functional theory coupled to molecular dynamics. The final charge state of the ion is shown to increase gradually with increasing external electrostatic field in agreement with the average charge state of silicon ions detected experimentally. When field evaporation is triggered by laser-induced electronic excitations the charge state also increases with increasing intensity of the laser pulse. At the evaporation threshold, the charge state of the evaporating ion does not depend on the electrostatic field due to the strong contribution of laser excitations to the ionization process both at low and high laser energies. A neutral silicon atom escaping the cluster due to its high initial kinetic energy is shown to be eventually ionized by external electrostatic field.

  6. Edge-edge interactions in stacked graphene nanoplatelets

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz Silva, Eduardo; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio; Jia, Xiaoting; Sumpter, Bobby G; Dresselhaus, M; Meunier, V.

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies show the dynamics of small graphene platelets on larger graphene layers. The platelets move nearly freely to eventually lock in at well-defined positions close to the edges of the larger underlying graphene sheet. While such movement is driven by a shallow potential energy surface described by an interplane interaction, the lock-in position occurs by via edge-edge interactions of the platelet and the graphene surface located underneath. Here we quantitatively study this behavior using van der Waals density functional calculations. Local interactions at the open edges are found to dictate stacking configurations that are different from Bernal (AB) stacking. These stacking configurations are known to be otherwise absent in edge-free two-dimensional (2D) graphene. The results explain the experimentally observed platelet dynamics and provide a detailed account of the new electronic properties of these combined systems.

  7. Attractor dynamics of network UP states in the neocortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossart, Rosa; Aronov, Dmitriy; Yuste, Rafael

    2003-05-01

    The cerebral cortex receives input from lower brain regions, and its function is traditionally considered to be processing that input through successive stages to reach an appropriate output. However, the cortical circuit contains many interconnections, including those feeding back from higher centres, and is continuously active even in the absence of sensory inputs. Such spontaneous firing has a structure that reflects the coordinated activity of specific groups of neurons. Moreover, the membrane potential of cortical neurons fluctuates spontaneously between a resting (DOWN) and a depolarized (UP) state, which may also be coordinated. The elevated firing rate in the UP state follows sensory stimulation and provides a substrate for persistent activity, a network state that might mediate working memory. Using two-photon calcium imaging, we reconstructed the dynamics of spontaneous activity of up to 1,400 neurons in slices of mouse visual cortex. Here we report the occurrence of synchronized UP state transitions (`cortical flashes') that occur in spatially organized ensembles involving small numbers of neurons. Because of their stereotyped spatiotemporal dynamics, we conclude that network UP states are circuit attractors-emergent features of feedback neural networks that could implement memory states or solutions to computational problems.

  8. Anharmonic densities of states: A general dynamics-based solution.

    PubMed

    Jellinek, Julius; Aleinikava, Darya

    2016-06-01

    Density of states is a fundamental physical characteristic that lies at the foundation of statistical mechanics and theoretical constructs that derive from them (e.g., kinetic rate theories, phase diagrams, and others). Even though most real physical systems are anharmonic, the vibrational density of states is customarily treated within the harmonic approximation, or with some partial, often limited, account for anharmonicity. The reason for this is that the problem of anharmonic densities of states stubbornly resisted a general and exact, yet convenient and straightforward in applications, solution. Here we formulate such a solution within both classical and quantum mechanics. It is based on actual dynamical behavior of systems as a function of energy and as observed, or monitored, on a chosen time scale, short or long. As a consequence, the resulting anharmonic densities of states are fully dynamically informed and, in general, time-dependent. As such, they lay the ground for formulation of new statistical mechanical frameworks that incorporate time and are ergodic, by construction, with respect to actual dynamical behavior of systems. PMID:27276941

  9. Photoionization dynamics of the C2+ ion in Rydberg states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancalie, Viorica

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this work is to examine in detail the ionization dynamics of Be-like C ion in Rydberg states. An initial calculation has been done to output the lifetime due to spontaneous decay for unperturbed 1s22sns (1Se) Rydberg states using the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method with configuration interaction option implemented in the general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package (GRASP). Both the C2+ ground state and the C3+ target state energies have been carefully calculated. We report results from a detailed and systematic study of the behaviour of complex photoionization amplitudes, the lifetime due to spontaneous decay for unperturbed 1s22sns (1Se) Rydberg states, the `resonant' phase shift and the rapidly increasing of this shift from well below to well above the resonance position. The sum-over-state method is used to calculate the static dipole polarizability, while the frequency-dependent polarizability values of C2+ ion in these Rydberg states are obtained from two-state model calculation results. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Elementary Processes with Atoms and Molecules in Isolated and Aggregated States", edited by Friedrich Aumayr, Bratislav Marinkovic, Stefan Matejcik, John Tanis and Kurt H. Becker.

  10. Quantum walks with dynamical control: graph engineering, initial state preparation and state transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsche, Thomas; Elster, Fabian; Novotný, Jaroslav; Gábris, Aurél; Jex, Igor; Barkhofen, Sonja; Silberhorn, Christine

    2016-06-01

    Quantum walks are a well-established model for the study of coherent transport phenomena and provide a universal platform in quantum information theory. Dynamically influencing the walker’s evolution gives a high degree of flexibility for studying various applications. Here, we present time-multiplexed finite quantum walks of variable size, the preparation of non-localised input states and their dynamical evolution. As a further application, we implement a state transfer scheme for an arbitrary input state to two different output modes. The presented experiments rely on the full dynamical control of a time-multiplexed quantum walk, which includes adjustable coin operation as well as the possibility to flexibly configure the underlying graph structures.

  11. How to Direct the Edges of the Connectomes: Dynamics of the Consensus Connectomes and the Development of the Connections in the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Kerepesi, Csaba; Szalkai, Balázs; Varga, Bálint; Grolmusz, Vince

    2016-01-01

    The human braingraph or the connectome is the object of an intensive research today. The advantage of the graph-approach to brain science is that the rich structures, algorithms and definitions of graph theory can be applied to the anatomical networks of the connections of the human brain. In these graphs, the vertices correspond to the small (1-1.5 cm2) areas of the gray matter, and two vertices are connected by an edge, if a diffusion-MRI based workflow finds fibers of axons, running between those small gray matter areas in the white matter of the brain. One main question of the field today is discovering the directions of the connections between the small gray matter areas. In a previous work we have reported the construction of the Budapest Reference Connectome Server http://connectome.pitgroup.org from the data recorded in the Human Connectome Project of the NIH. The server generates the consensus braingraph of 96 subjects in Version 2, and of 418 subjects in Version 3, according to selectable parameters. After the Budapest Reference Connectome Server had been published, we recognized a surprising and unforeseen property of the server. The server can generate the braingraph of connections that are present in at least k graphs out of the 418, for any value of k = 1, 2, …, 418. When the value of k is changed from k = 418 through 1 by moving a slider at the webserver from right to left, certainly more and more edges appear in the consensus graph. The astonishing observation is that the appearance of the new edges is not random: it is similar to a growing shrub. We refer to this phenomenon as the Consensus Connectome Dynamics. We hypothesize that this movement of the slider in the webserver may copy the development of the connections in the human brain in the following sense: the connections that are present in all subjects are the oldest ones, and those that are present only in a decreasing fraction of the subjects are gradually the newer connections in the

  12. How to Direct the Edges of the Connectomes: Dynamics of the Consensus Connectomes and the Development of the Connections in the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Kerepesi, Csaba; Szalkai, Balázs; Varga, Bálint; Grolmusz, Vince

    2016-01-01

    The human braingraph or the connectome is the object of an intensive research today. The advantage of the graph-approach to brain science is that the rich structures, algorithms and definitions of graph theory can be applied to the anatomical networks of the connections of the human brain. In these graphs, the vertices correspond to the small (1-1.5 cm2) areas of the gray matter, and two vertices are connected by an edge, if a diffusion-MRI based workflow finds fibers of axons, running between those small gray matter areas in the white matter of the brain. One main question of the field today is discovering the directions of the connections between the small gray matter areas. In a previous work we have reported the construction of the Budapest Reference Connectome Server http://connectome.pitgroup.org from the data recorded in the Human Connectome Project of the NIH. The server generates the consensus braingraph of 96 subjects in Version 2, and of 418 subjects in Version 3, according to selectable parameters. After the Budapest Reference Connectome Server had been published, we recognized a surprising and unforeseen property of the server. The server can generate the braingraph of connections that are present in at least k graphs out of the 418, for any value of k = 1, 2, …, 418. When the value of k is changed from k = 418 through 1 by moving a slider at the webserver from right to left, certainly more and more edges appear in the consensus graph. The astonishing observation is that the appearance of the new edges is not random: it is similar to a growing shrub. We refer to this phenomenon as the Consensus Connectome Dynamics. We hypothesize that this movement of the slider in the webserver may copy the development of the connections in the human brain in the following sense: the connections that are present in all subjects are the oldest ones, and those that are present only in a decreasing fraction of the subjects are gradually the newer connections in the

  13. Localization and topology protected quantum coherence at the edge of hot matter.

    PubMed

    Bahri, Yasaman; Vosk, Ronen; Altman, Ehud; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2015-07-10

    Topological phases are characterized by edge states confined near the boundaries by a bulk energy gap. On raising temperature, these edge states are typically lost due to mobile thermal excitations. However, disorder can localize an isolated many-body system, potentially allowing for a sharply defined topological phase even in a highly excited state. We explicitly demonstrate this in a model of a disordered, one-dimensional magnet with spin one-half edge excitations. Furthermore, we show that the time evolution of a simple, highly excited state reveals quantum coherent edge spins. In particular, we demonstrate the coherent revival of an edge spin over a time scale that grows exponentially with system size. This is in sharp contrast to the general expectation that quantum bits strongly coupled with a hot many-body system will rapidly lose coherence. This result opens new directions in the study of topologically protected quantum dynamics.

  14. Comparison between knife-edge and frisbee-shaped surrogate surfaces for making dry deposition measurements: Wind tunnel experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiaoyan; Liu, Ying; Holsen, Thomas M.

    2011-08-01

    Dry deposition is a major pathway for atmospheric contaminant movement from the atmosphere to the earth surface. Despite its importance, there is no generally accepted direct method to measure dry deposition. Recently, the interest in using surrogate surfaces to measure dry deposition is growing, primarily because of their ease of use. However, a problem with these surfaces is extrapolating the results obtained to natural surfaces. There are two popular surrogate plates used to measure dry deposition. One had a sharp leading edge (knife-edge) (KSS), and the other has a smooth-edge (frisbee-shaped) (FSS). In this study, the performances of these two surrogate surfaces to directly measure gas dry deposition were explored using wind tunnel experiments and two-dimensional (2D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models. Although the fluid fields above these two plates were different, both created laminar boundary layers (distance above the surface where the velocity gradient is constant) with a constant thickness after approximately five cm. In the wind tunnel, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) deposition to gold-coated filters was used to measure deposition velocities ( Vd) in part because for this combination deposition is air-side controlled. The GEM Vd to both surfaces increased with increasing wind speeds. Based on both measurements and CFD simulations, the Vds to the FSS were approximately 30% higher and more variable than to the KSS when the wind flow was parallel to the surfaces. However, when the angle between the surfaces and the wind was varied the Vds to the FSS were less dependent on the incident angle than to the KSS.

  15. Excited state nucleon spectrum with two flavors of dynamical fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Bulava, John M.; Foley, Justin; Morningstar, Colin; Edwards, Robert G.; Joo, Balint; Lin, Huey-Wen; Richards, David G.; Engelson, Eric; Wallace, Stephen J.; Lichtl, Adam; Mathur, Nilmani

    2009-02-01

    Highly excited states for isospin (1/2) baryons are calculated for the first time using lattice QCD with two flavors of dynamical quarks. Anisotropic lattices are used with two pion masses, m{sub {pi}}=416(36) MeV and 578(29) MeV. The lowest four energies are reported in each of the six irreducible representations of the octahedral group at each pion mass. The lattices used have dimensions 24{sup 3}x64, spatial lattice spacing a{sub s}{approx_equal}0.11 fm, and temporal lattice spacing a{sub t}=(1/3)a{sub s}. Clear evidence is found for a (5{sup -}/2) state in the pattern of negative-parity excited states. This agrees with the pattern of physical states and spin (5/2) has been realized for the first time on the lattice.

  16. Direct molecular dynamics observation of protein folding transition state ensemble.

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Feng; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Stanley, H Eugene; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2002-01-01

    The concept of the protein transition state ensemble (TSE), a collection of the conformations that have 50% probability to convert rapidly to the folded state and 50% chance to rapidly unfold, constitutes the basis of the modern interpretation of protein engineering experiments. It has been conjectured that conformations constituting the TSE in many proteins are the expanded and distorted forms of the native state built around a specific folding nucleus. This view has been supported by a number of on-lattice and off-lattice simulations. Here we report a direct observation and characterization of the TSE by molecular dynamic folding simulations of the C-Src SH3 domain, a small protein that has been extensively studied experimentally. Our analysis reveals a set of key interactions between residues, conserved by evolution, that must be formed to enter the kinetic basin of attraction of the native state. PMID:12496119

  17. Entanglement dynamics in three-qubit X states

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, Yaakov S.

    2010-09-15

    I explore the entanglement dynamics of a three-qubit system in an initial X state undergoing decoherence including the possible exhibition of entanglement sudden death. To quantify entanglement I utilize negativity measures and make use of appropriate entanglement witnesses. The negativity results are then extended to X states with an arbitraty number of qubits. I also demonstrate nonstandard behavior of the tripartite negativity entanglement metric: its sudden appearance after some amount of decoherence, followed quickly by its disappearance. Finally, I solve for a lower bound on the three-qubit X-state concurrence, demonstrate when this bound goes to 0, and outline simplifcations for the calculation of higher-order X-state concurrences.

  18. Electronic defect states at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterointerface revealed by O K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Palina, Natalia; Annadi, Anil; Asmara, Teguh Citra; Diao, Caozheng; Yu, Xiaojiang; Breese, Mark B H; Venkatesan, T; Ariando; Rusydi, Andrivo

    2016-05-18

    Interfaces of two dissimilar complex oxides exhibit exotic physical properties that are absent in their parent compounds. Of particular interest is insulating LaAlO3 films on an insulating SrTiO3 substrate, where transport measurements have shown a metal-insulator transition as a function of LaAlO3 thickness. Their origin has become the subject of intense research, yet a unifying consensus remains elusive. Here, we report evidence for the electronic reconstruction in both insulating and conducting LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterointerfaces revealed by O K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. For the insulating samples, the O K-edge XAS spectrum exhibits features characteristic of electronically active point defects identified as noninteger valence states of Ti. For conducting samples, a new shape-resonance at ∼540.5 eV, characteristic of molecular-like oxygen (empty O-2p band), is observed. This implies that the concentration of electronic defects has increased in proportion with LaAlO3 thickness. For larger defect concentrations, the electronic defect states are no longer localized at the Ti orbitals and exhibit pronounced O 2p-O 2p character. Our results demonstrate that, above a critical thickness, the delocalization of O 2p electronic states can be linked to the presence of oxygen vacancies and is responsible for the enhancement of conductivity at the oxide heterointerfaces.

  19. Ultrafast excited-state dynamics of copper(I) complexes.

    PubMed

    Iwamura, Munetaka; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Tahara, Tahei

    2015-03-17

    Bis-diimine Cu(I) complexes exhibit strong absorption in the visible region owing to the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transitions, and the triplet MLCT ((3)MLCT) states have long lifetimes. Because these characteristics are highly suitable for photosensitizers and photocatalysts, bis-diimine Cu(I) complexes have been attracting much interest. An intriguing feature of the Cu(I) complexes is the photoinduced structural change called "flattening". Bis-diimine Cu(I) complexes usually have tetrahedron-like D2d structures in the ground (S0) state, in which two ligands are perpendicularly attached to the Cu(I) ion. With MLCT excitation, the central Cu(I) ion is formally oxidized to Cu(II), which induces the structural change to the "flattened" square-planar-like structure that is seen for usual Cu(II) complexes. In this Account, we review our recent studies on ultrafast excited-state dynamics of bis-diimine Cu(I) complexes carried out using femtosecond time-resolved optical spectroscopy. Focusing on three prototypical bis-diimine Cu(I) complexes that have 1,10-phenanthroline ligands with different substituents at the 2,9-positions, i.e., [Cu(phen)2](+) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline), [Cu(dmphen)2](+) (dmphen = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline), and [Cu(dpphen)2](+) (dpphen = 2,9-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline), we examined their excited-state dynamics by time-resolved emission and absorption spectroscopies with 200 fs time resolution, observed the excited-state coherent nuclear motion with 30 fs time resolution and performed complementary theoretical calculations. This combined approach vividly visualizes excited-state processes in the MLCT state of bis-diimine Cu(I) complexes. It was demonstrated that flattening distortion, internal conversion, and intersystem crossing occur on the femtosecond-early picosecond time scale, and their dynamics is clearly identified separately. The flattening distortion predominantly occurs in the S1 state on the subpicosecond time

  20. Hydrodynamics of stratified epithelium: Steady state and linearized dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Wei-Ting; Chen, Hsuan-Yi

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical model for stratified epithelium is presented. The viscoelastic properties of the tissue are assumed to be dependent on the spatial distribution of proliferative and differentiated cells. Based on this assumption, a hydrodynamic description of tissue dynamics at the long-wavelength, long-time limit is developed, and the analysis reveals important insights into the dynamics of an epithelium close to its steady state. When the proliferative cells occupy a thin region close to the basal membrane, the relaxation rate towards the steady state is enhanced by cell division and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, when the region where proliferative cells reside becomes sufficiently thick, a flow induced by cell apoptosis close to the apical surface enhances small perturbations. This destabilizing mechanism is general for continuous self-renewal multilayered tissues; it could be related to the origin of certain tissue morphology, tumor growth, and the development pattern.

  1. Dynamical Buildup of a Quantized Hall Response from Nontopological States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ying; Zoller, Peter; Budich, Jan Carl

    2016-09-01

    We consider a two-dimensional system initialized in a topologically trivial state before its Hamiltonian is ramped through a phase transition into a Chern insulator regime. This scenario is motivated by current experiments with ultracold atomic gases aimed at realizing time-dependent dynamics in topological insulators. Our main findings are twofold. First, considering coherent dynamics, the non-equilibrium Hall response is found to approach a topologically quantized time averaged value in the limit of slow but non-adiabatic parameter ramps, even though the Chern number of the state remains trivial. Second, adding dephasing, the destruction of quantum coherence is found to stabilize this Hall response, while the Chern number generically becomes undefined. We provide a geometric picture of this phenomenology in terms of the time-dependent Berry curvature.

  2. Accelerated Superposition State Molecular Dynamics for Condensed Phase Systems.

    PubMed

    Ceotto, Michele; Ayton, Gary S; Voth, Gregory A

    2008-04-01

    An extension of superposition state molecular dynamics (SSMD) [Venkatnathan and Voth J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2005, 1, 36] is presented with the goal to accelerate timescales and enable the study of "long-time" phenomena for condensed phase systems. It does not require any a priori knowledge about final and transition state configurations, or specific topologies. The system is induced to explore new configurations by virtue of a fictitious (free-particle-like) accelerating potential. The acceleration method can be applied to all degrees of freedom in the system and can be applied to condensed phases and fluids. PMID:26620930

  3. Dynamic states of a unidirectional ring of chen oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, Ana

    2015-03-10

    We study curious dynamical patterns appearing in a network of a unidirectional ring of Chen oscillators coupled to a ‘buffer’ cell. The network has Z{sub 3} exact symmetry group. We simulate the coupled cell systems associated to the two networks and obtain steady-states, rotating waves, quasiperiodic behavior, and chaos. The different patterns appear to arise through a sequence of Hopf, period-doubling and period-halving bifurcations. The network architecture appears to explain some patterns, whereas the properties of the chaotic oscillator may explain others. We use XPPAUT and MATLAB to compute numerically the relevant states.

  4. Topology of Sustainable Management of Dynamical Systems with Desirable States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitzig, Jobst; Kittel, Tim

    2015-04-01

    To keep the Earth System in a desirable region of its state space, such as the recently suggested 'tolerable environment and development window', 'planetary boundaries', or 'safe (and just) operating space', in addition to the identification of the quantitative internal dynamics and the available options for influencing it (management), there is an urgent need to understand the systems' state space structure with regard to questions such as (i) which of its parts can be reached from which others with or without leaving the desirable region, (ii) which parts are in a variety of senses 'safe' to stay in when management options break away, and which qualitative decision problems may occur as a consequence of this structure. To complement existing approaches from optimal control focusing on quantitative optimization and being much applied in both engineering and integrated assessment, we develop a mathematical theory of the qualitative topology that partitions the state space of a dynamical system with management options and desirable states including terminology suggestions for the various resulting parts. Our detailed formal classification of the possible states and management options with respect to the possibility of avoiding or leaving the undesired region indicates that before performing some form of quantitative optimization, the sustainable management of the Earth System may require decisions of a more discrete type, e.g. choosing between ultimate safety and permanent desirability, or between permanent safety and increasing future options.

  5. Reconstructing dynamic molecular states from single-cell time series.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lirong; Pauleve, Loic; Zechner, Christoph; Unger, Michael; Hansen, Anders S; Koeppl, Heinz

    2016-09-01

    The notion of state for a system is prevalent in the quantitative sciences and refers to the minimal system summary sufficient to describe the time evolution of the system in a self-consistent manner. This is a prerequisite for a principled understanding of the inner workings of a system. Owing to the complexity of intracellular processes, experimental techniques that can retrieve a sufficient summary are beyond our reach. For the case of stochastic biomolecular reaction networks, we show how to convert the partial state information accessible by experimental techniques into a full system state using mathematical analysis together with a computational model. This is intimately related to the notion of conditional Markov processes and we introduce the posterior master equation and derive novel approximations to the corresponding infinite-dimensional posterior moment dynamics. We exemplify this state reconstruction approach using both in silico data and single-cell data from two gene expression systems in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where we reconstruct the dynamic promoter and mRNA states from noisy protein abundance measurements. PMID:27605167

  6. Dynamic recruitment of resting state sub-networks

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, George C.; Bauer, Markus; Woolrich, Mark W.; Morris, Peter G.; Barnes, Gareth R.; Brookes, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Resting state networks (RSNs) are of fundamental importance in human systems neuroscience with evidence suggesting that they are integral to healthy brain function and perturbed in pathology. Despite rapid progress in this area, the temporal dynamics governing the functional connectivities that underlie RSN structure remain poorly understood. Here, we present a framework to help further our understanding of RSN dynamics. We describe a methodology which exploits the direct nature and high temporal resolution of magnetoencephalography (MEG). This technique, which builds on previous work, extends from solving fundamental confounds in MEG (source leakage) to multivariate modelling of transient connectivity. The resulting processing pipeline facilitates direct (electrophysiological) measurement of dynamic functional networks. Our results show that, when functional connectivity is assessed in small time windows, the canonical sensorimotor network can be decomposed into a number of transiently synchronising sub-networks, recruitment of which depends on current mental state. These rapidly changing sub-networks are spatially focal with, for example, bilateral primary sensory and motor areas resolved into two separate sub-networks. The likely interpretation is that the larger canonical sensorimotor network most often seen in neuroimaging studies reflects only a temporal aggregate of these transient sub-networks. Our approach opens new frontiers to study RSN dynamics, showing that MEG is capable of revealing the spatial, temporal and spectral signature of the human connectome in health and disease. PMID:25899137

  7. Enhanced repertoire of brain dynamical states during the psychedelic experience.

    PubMed

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Carhart-Harris, Robin; Leech, Robert; Nutt, David; Chialvo, Dante R

    2014-11-01

    The study of rapid changes in brain dynamics and functional connectivity (FC) is of increasing interest in neuroimaging. Brain states departing from normal waking consciousness are expected to be accompanied by alterations in the aforementioned dynamics. In particular, the psychedelic experience produced by psilocybin (a substance found in "magic mushrooms") is characterized by unconstrained cognition and profound alterations in the perception of time, space and selfhood. Considering the spontaneous and subjective manifestation of these effects, we hypothesize that neural correlates of the psychedelic experience can be found in the dynamics and variability of spontaneous brain activity fluctuations and connectivity, measurable with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Fifteen healthy subjects were scanned before, during and after intravenous infusion of psilocybin and an inert placebo. Blood-Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) temporal variability was assessed computing the variance and total spectral power, resulting in increased signal variability bilaterally in the hippocampi and anterior cingulate cortex. Changes in BOLD signal spectral behavior (including spectral scaling exponents) affected exclusively higher brain systems such as the default mode, executive control, and dorsal attention networks. A novel framework enabled us to track different connectivity states explored by the brain during rest. This approach revealed a wider repertoire of connectivity states post-psilocybin than during control conditions. Together, the present results provide a comprehensive account of the effects of psilocybin on dynamical behavior in the human brain at a macroscopic level and may have implications for our understanding of the unconstrained, hyper-associative quality of consciousness in the psychedelic state. PMID:24989126

  8. Learning to Estimate Dynamical State with Probabilistic Population Codes

    PubMed Central

    Sabes, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    Tracking moving objects, including one’s own body, is a fundamental ability of higher organisms, playing a central role in many perceptual and motor tasks. While it is unknown how the brain learns to follow and predict the dynamics of objects, it is known that this process of state estimation can be learned purely from the statistics of noisy observations. When the dynamics are simply linear with additive Gaussian noise, the optimal solution is the well known Kalman filter (KF), the parameters of which can be learned via latent-variable density estimation (the EM algorithm). The brain does not, however, directly manipulate matrices and vectors, but instead appears to represent probability distributions with the firing rates of population of neurons, “probabilistic population codes.” We show that a recurrent neural network—a modified form of an exponential family harmonium (EFH)—that takes a linear probabilistic population code as input can learn, without supervision, to estimate the state of a linear dynamical system. After observing a series of population responses (spike counts) to the position of a moving object, the network learns to represent the velocity of the object and forms nearly optimal predictions about the position at the next time-step. This result builds on our previous work showing that a similar network can learn to perform multisensory integration and coordinate transformations for static stimuli. The receptive fields of the trained network also make qualitative predictions about the developing and learning brain: tuning gradually emerges for higher-order dynamical states not explicitly present in the inputs, appearing as delayed tuning for the lower-order states. PMID:26540152

  9. Enhanced repertoire of brain dynamical states during the psychedelic experience.

    PubMed

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Carhart-Harris, Robin; Leech, Robert; Nutt, David; Chialvo, Dante R

    2014-11-01

    The study of rapid changes in brain dynamics and functional connectivity (FC) is of increasing interest in neuroimaging. Brain states departing from normal waking consciousness are expected to be accompanied by alterations in the aforementioned dynamics. In particular, the psychedelic experience produced by psilocybin (a substance found in "magic mushrooms") is characterized by unconstrained cognition and profound alterations in the perception of time, space and selfhood. Considering the spontaneous and subjective manifestation of these effects, we hypothesize that neural correlates of the psychedelic experience can be found in the dynamics and variability of spontaneous brain activity fluctuations and connectivity, measurable with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Fifteen healthy subjects were scanned before, during and after intravenous infusion of psilocybin and an inert placebo. Blood-Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) temporal variability was assessed computing the variance and total spectral power, resulting in increased signal variability bilaterally in the hippocampi and anterior cingulate cortex. Changes in BOLD signal spectral behavior (including spectral scaling exponents) affected exclusively higher brain systems such as the default mode, executive control, and dorsal attention networks. A novel framework enabled us to track different connectivity states explored by the brain during rest. This approach revealed a wider repertoire of connectivity states post-psilocybin than during control conditions. Together, the present results provide a comprehensive account of the effects of psilocybin on dynamical behavior in the human brain at a macroscopic level and may have implications for our understanding of the unconstrained, hyper-associative quality of consciousness in the psychedelic state.

  10. Atomistic simulations of the Fe K-edge EXAFS in FeF3 using molecular dynamics and reverse Monte Carlo methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonane, Inga; Timoshenko, Janis; Kuzmin, Alexei

    2016-10-01

    Atomistic simulations of the experimental Fe K-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) of rhombohedral (space group R\\bar{3}c) FeF3 at T = 300 K were performed using classical molecular dynamics and reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) methods. The use of two complementary theoretical approaches allowed us to account accurately for thermal disorder effects in EXAFS and to validate the developed force-field model, which was constructed as a sum of two-body Buckingham-type (Fe-F and F-F), three-body harmonic (Fe-F-Fe) and Coulomb potentials. We found that the shape of the Fe K-edge EXAFS spectrum of FeF3 is a more sensitive probe for the determination of potential parameters than the values of structural parameters (a, c, x(F)) available from diffraction studies. The best overall agreement between the experimental and theoretical EXAFS spectra calculated using ab initio multiple-scattering approach was obtained for the iron effective charge q(Fe) = 1.71. The RMC method coupled with the evolutionary algorithm was used for more elaborate analysis of the EXAFS data. The obtained results suggest that our force-field model slightly underestimates the amplitude of thermal vibrations of fluorine atoms in the direction perpendicular to the Fe-F bonds.

  11. Modeling species occurrence dynamics with multiple states and imperfect detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacKenzie, D.I.; Nichols, J.D.; Seamans, M.E.; Gutierrez, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent extensions of occupancy modeling have focused not only on the distribution of species over space, but also on additional state variables (e.g., reproducing or not, with or without disease organisms, relative abundance categories) that provide extra information about occupied sites. These biologist-driven extensions are characterized by ambiguity in both species presence and correct state classification, caused by imperfect detection. We first show the relationships between independently published approaches to the modeling of multistate occupancy. We then extend the pattern-based modeling to the case of sampling over multiple seasons or years in order to estimate state transition probabilities associated with system dynamics. The methodology and its potential for addressing relevant ecological questions are demonstrated using both maximum likelihood (occupancy and successful reproduction dynamics of California Spotted Owl) and Markov chain Monte Carlo estimation approaches (changes in relative abundance of green frogs in Maryland). Just as multistate capture-recapture modeling has revolutionized the study of individual marked animals, we believe that multistate occupancy modeling will dramatically increase our ability to address interesting questions about ecological processes underlying population-level dynamics. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Dynamic models for problems of species occurrence with multiple states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacKenzie, D.I.; Nichols, J.D.; Seamans, M.E.; Gutierrez, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent extensions of occupancy modeling have focused not only on the distribution of species over space, but also on additional state variables (e.g., reproducing or not, with or without disease organisms, relative abundance categories) that provide extra information about occupied sites. These biologist-driven extensions are characterized by ambiguity in both species presence and correct state classification, caused by imperfect detection. We first show the relationships between independently published approaches to the modeling of multistate occupancy. We then extend the pattern-based modeling to the case of sampling over multiple seasons or years in order to estimate state transition probabilities associated with system dynamics. The methodology and its potential for addressing relevant ecological questions are demonstrated using both maximum likelihood (occupancy and successful reproduction dynamics of California Spotted Owl) and Markov chain Monte Carlo estimation approaches (changes in relative abundance of green frogs in Maryland). Just as multistate capture?recapture modeling has revolutionized the study of individual marked animals, we believe that multistate occupancy modeling will dramatically increase our ability to address interesting questions about ecological processes underlying population-level dynamics.

  13. Framed BPS states, moduli dynamics, and wall-crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungjay; Yi, Piljin

    2011-04-01

    We formulate supersymmetric low energy dynamics for BPS dyons in strongly-coupled N = 2 Seiberg-Witten theories, and derive wall-crossing formulae thereof. For BPS states made up of a heavy core state and n probe (halo) dyons around it, we derive a reliable supersymmetric moduli dynamics with 3 n bosonic coordinates and 4 n fermionic superpartners. Attractive interactions are captured via a set of supersymmetric potential terms, whose detail depends only on the charges and the special Kähler data of the underlying N = 2 theories. The small parameters that control the approximation are not electric couplings but the mass ratio between the core and the probe, as well as the distance to the marginal stability wall where the central charges of the probe and of the core align. Quantizing the dynamics, we construct BPS bound states and derive the primitive and the semi-primitive wall-crossing formulae from the first principle. We speculate on applications to line operators and Darboux coordinates, and also about extension to supergravity setting.

  14. Modeling species occurrence dynamics with multiple states and imperfect detection.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Darryl I; Nichols, James D; Seamans, Mark E; Gutiérrez, R J

    2009-03-01

    Recent extensions of occupancy modeling have focused not only on the distribution of species over space, but also on additional state variables (e.g., reproducing or not, with or without disease organisms, relative abundance categories) that provide extra information about occupied sites. These biologist-driven extensions are characterized by ambiguity in both species presence and correct state classification, caused by imperfect detection. We first show the relationships between independently published approaches to the modeling of multistate occupancy. We then extend the pattern-based modeling to the case of sampling over multiple seasons or years in order to estimate state transition probabilities associated with system dynamics. The methodology and its potential for addressing relevant ecological questions are demonstrated using both maximum likelihood (occupancy and successful reproduction dynamics of California Spotted Owl) and Markov chain Monte Carlo estimation approaches (changes in relative abundance of green frogs in Maryland). Just as multistate capture-recapture modeling has revolutionized the study of individual marked animals, we believe that multistate occupancy modeling will dramatically increase our ability to address interesting questions about ecological processes underlying population-level dynamics. PMID:19341151

  15. Dynamics of Pertussis Transmission in the United States.

    PubMed

    Magpantay, F M G; Rohani, P

    2015-06-15

    Past patterns of infectious disease transmission set the stage on which modern epidemiologic dynamics are played out. Here, we present a comprehensive account of pertussis (whooping cough) transmission in the United States during the early vaccine era. We analyzed recently digitized weekly incidence records from Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports from 1938 to 1955, when the whole-cell pertussis vaccine was rolled out, and related them to contemporary patterns of transmission and resurgence documented in monthly incidence data from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. We found that, during the early vaccine era, pertussis epidemics in US states could be categorized as 1) annual, 2) initially annual and later multiennial, or 3) multiennial. States with predominantly annual cycles tended to have higher per capita birth rates, more household crowding, more children per family, and lower rates of school attendance than the states with multiennial cycles. Additionally, states that exhibited annual epidemics during 1938-1955 have had the highest recent (2001-2010) incidence, while those states that transitioned from annual cycles to multiennial cycles have had relatively low recent incidence. Our study provides an extensive picture of pertussis epidemiology in the United States dating back to the onset of vaccination, a back-story that could aid epidemiologists in understanding contemporary transmission patterns.

  16. Nonadiabatic Excited-State Molecular Dynamics Modeling of Photoinduced Dynamics in Conjugated Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Tammie; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian; Chernyak, Vladimir; Roitberg, Adrian E.; Tretiak, Sergei

    2011-01-10

    Nonadiabatic dynamics generally defines the entire evolution of electronic excitations in optically active molecular materials. It is commonly associated with a number of fundamental and complex processes such as intraband relaxation, energy transfer, and light harvesting influenced by the spatial evolution of excitations and transformation of photoexcitation energy into electrical energy via charge separation (e.g., charge injection at interfaces). To treat ultrafast excited-state dynamics and exciton/charge transport we have developed a nonadiabatic excited-state molecular dynamics (NA-ESMD) framework incorporating quantum transitions. Our calculations rely on the use of the Collective Electronic Oscillator (CEO) package accounting for many-body effects and actual potential energy surfaces of the excited states combined with Tully’s fewest switches algorithm for surface hopping for probing nonadiabatic processes. This method is applied to model the photoinduced dynamics of distyrylbenzene (a small oligomer of polyphenylene vinylene, PPV). Our analysis shows intricate details of photoinduced vibronic relaxation and identifies specific slow and fast nuclear motions that are strongly coupled to the electronic degrees of freedom, namely, torsion and bond length alternation, respectively. Nonadiabatic relaxation of the highly excited mA{sub g} state is predicted to occur on a femtosecond time scale at room temperature and on a picosecond time scale at low temperature.

  17. Nonadiabatic excited-state molecular dynamics modeling of photoinduced dynamics in conjugated molecules.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Tammie; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian; Chernyak, Vladimir; Roitberg, Adrian E; Tretiak, Sergei

    2011-05-12

    Nonadiabatic dynamics generally defines the entire evolution of electronic excitations in optically active molecular materials. It is commonly associated with a number of fundamental and complex processes such as intraband relaxation, energy transfer, and light harvesting influenced by the spatial evolution of excitations and transformation of photoexcitation energy into electrical energy via charge separation (e.g., charge injection at interfaces). To treat ultrafast excited-state dynamics and exciton/charge transport we have developed a nonadiabatic excited-state molecular dynamics (NA-ESMD) framework incorporating quantum transitions. Our calculations rely on the use of the Collective Electronic Oscillator (CEO) package accounting for many-body effects and actual potential energy surfaces of the excited states combined with Tully's fewest switches algorithm for surface hopping for probing nonadiabatic processes. This method is applied to model the photoinduced dynamics of distyrylbenzene (a small oligomer of polyphenylene vinylene, PPV). Our analysis shows intricate details of photoinduced vibronic relaxation and identifies specific slow and fast nuclear motions that are strongly coupled to the electronic degrees of freedom, namely, torsion and bond length alternation, respectively. Nonadiabatic relaxation of the highly excited mA(g) state is predicted to occur on a femtosecond time scale at room temperature and on a picosecond time scale at low temperature. PMID:21218841

  18. Analysis and Modelling of the Steady-State and Dynamic-State Discharge in SMES System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao Yuan; Jin, Jian Xun

    The steady-state and dynamic-state discharge processes have been discussed to develop a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) model in the paper. The SMES model allows the integrated analysis and optimization of the SMES devices, and their control systems, and can also serve as an independent storage module in the practical SMES application circuits, thus provide a method to link superconductivity technology to conventional power electronics in a SMES device.

  19. Bell states and entanglement dynamics on two coupled quantum molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, P.A.; Sanz, L.

    2015-05-15

    This work provides a complete description of entanglement properties between electrons inside coupled quantum molecules, nanoestructures which consist of two quantum dots. Each electron can tunnel between the two quantum dots inside the molecule, being also coupled by Coulomb interaction. First, it is shown that Bell states act as a natural basis for the description of this physical system, defining the characteristics of the energy spectrum and the eigenstates. Then, the entanglement properties of the eigenstates are discussed, shedding light on the roles of each physical parameters on experimental setup. Finally, a detailed analysis of the dynamics shows the path to generate states with a high degree of entanglement, as well as physical conditions associated with coherent oscillations between separable and Bell states.

  20. [Soil moisture dynamics and water balance of Salix psammophila shrubs in south edge of Mu Us Sandy Land].

    PubMed

    An, Hui; An, Yu

    2011-09-01

    Taking the artificial sand-fixing Salix psammophila shrubs with different plant density (0.2, 0.6, and 0.8 plants x m(-2)) in Mu Us Sandy Land as test objects, this paper studied the soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspiration during growth season. There existed obvious differences in the soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspiration among the shrubs. The soil moisture content changed in single-hump-shape with the increase of plant density, and in "S" shape during growth season, being closely correlated with precipitation. The evapotranspiration was the highest (114.5 mm) in the shrubs with a density 0.8 plants x m(-1), accounting for 90.8% of the total precipitation during growth season, and the lowest (109.7 mm) in the shrubs with a density 0.6 plants x m(-2) Based on the soil moisture dynamics and water balance characteristics, the appropriate planting density of S. psammophila shrubs in Mu Us Sandy Land could be 0.6 plants x m(-2).

  1. Edge Localized Mode Dynamics and Transport in the Scrape-Off Layer of the DIII-D Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Boedo, J A; Rudakov, D L; Hollmann, E; Gray, D S; Burrell, K H; Moyer, R A; McKee, G R; Fonck, R; Stangeby, P C; Evans, T E; Snyder, P B; Leonard, A W; Mahdavi, M A; Schaffer, M J; West, W P; Fenstermacher, M E; Groth, M; Allen, S L; Porter, G D; Wolf, N S; Colchin, R J; Zeng, L; Wang, G; Watkins, J G; Takahashi, T

    2004-12-03

    High temporal and spatial resolution measurements in the boundary of the DIII-D tokamak show that edge localized modes (ELMs) are produced in the low field side, are poloidally localized and are composed of fast bursts ({approx}20 to 40 {micro}s long) of hot, dense plasma on a background of less dense, colder plasma ({approx}5 x 10{sup 18} m{sup {+-}3}, 50 eV) possibly created by the bursts themselves. The ELMs travel radially in the scrapeoff layer (SOL), starting at the separatrix at {approx}450 m/s, and slow down to {approx}150 m/s near the wall, convecting particles and energy to the SOL and walls. The temperature and density in the ELM plasma initially correspond to those at the top of the density pedestal but quickly decay with radius in the SOL. The temperature decay length ({approx}1.2 to 1.5 cm) is much shorter than the density decay length ({approx}3 to 8 cm), and the latter decreases with increasing pedestal (and SOL) density. The local particle and energy flux at the midplane wall during the bursts are 10% to 50% ({approx}1 to 2 x 10{sup 21} m{sup {+-}2} s{sup {+-}1}) and 1% to 2 % ({approx}20 to 30 kW/m{sup 2}) respectively of the LCFS average fluxes, indicating that particles are transported radially much more efficiently than heat. Evidence is presented suggesting toroidal rotation of the ELM plasma in the SOL. The ELM plasma density and temperature increase linearly with discharge/pedestal density up to a Greenwald fraction of {approx}0.6, and then decrease resulting in more benign (grassier) ELMs.

  2. Edge detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildreth, E. C.

    1985-09-01

    For both biological systems and machines, vision begins with a large and unwieldly array of measurements of the amount of light reflected from surfaces in the environment. The goal of vision is to recover physical properties of objects in the scene such as the location of object boundaries and the structure, color and texture of object surfaces, from the two-dimensional image that is projected onto the eye or camera. This goal is not achieved in a single step: vision proceeds in stages, with each stage producing increasingly more useful descriptions of the image and then the scene. The first clues about the physical properties of the scene are provided by the changes of intensity in the image. The importance of intensity changes and edges in early visual processing has led to extensive research on their detection, description and use, both in computer and biological vision systems. This article reviews some of the theory that underlies the detection of edges, and the methods used to carry out this analysis.

  3. Electronic excited states and relaxation dynamics in polymer heterojunction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramon, John Glenn Santos

    The potential for using conducting polymers as the active material in optoelectronic devices has come to fruition in the past few years. Understanding the fundamental photophysics behind their operations points to the significant role played by the polymer interface in their performance. Current device architectures involve the use of bulk heterojunctions which intimately blend the donor and acceptor polymers to significantly increase not only their interfacial surface area but also the probability of exciton formation within the vicinity of the interface. In this dissertation, we detail the role played by the interface on the behavior and performance of bulk heterojunction systems. First, we explore the relation between the exciton binding energy to the band offset in determining device characteristics. As a general rule, when the exciton binding energy is greater than the band offset, the exciton remains the lowest energy excited state leading to efficient light-emitting properties. On the other hand, if the offset is greater than the binding energy, charge separation becomes favorable leading to better photovoltaic behavior. Here, we use a Wannier function, configuration interaction based approach to examine the essential excited states and predict the vibronic absorption and emission spectra of the PPV/BBL, TFB/F8BT and PFB/F8BT heterojunctions. Our results underscore the role of vibrational relaxation in the formation of charge-transfer states following photoexcitation. In addition, we look at the relaxation dynamics that occur upon photoexcitation. For this, we adopt the Marcus-Hush semiclassical method to account for lattice reorganization in the calculation of the interconversion rates in TFB/F8BT and PFB/F8BT. We find that, while a tightly bound charge-transfer state (exciplex) remains the lowest excited state, a regeneration pathway to the optically active lowest excitonic state in TFB/F8BT is possible via thermal repopulation from the exciplex. Finally

  4. Living on the Leading Edge. State Policy Issues for Education and Economic Dvelopment in a Global Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    Three papers presented to The Task Force on Education and Economic Development of The National Conference of Lieutenant Governors are as follows: "Education and American Resurgence" (Frank Newman); "State Economic Development and Education: A Framework for Policy Development" (Mark S. Tucker); and "State Policy on Partnerships Between Higher…

  5. Edge phonons in black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, H. B.; Villegas, C. E. P.; Bahamon, D. A.; Muraca, D.; Castro Neto, A. H.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Rocha, A. R.; Pimenta, M. A.; de Matos, C. J. S.

    2016-07-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements.

  6. Edge phonons in black phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, H B; Villegas, C E P; Bahamon, D A; Muraca, D; Castro Neto, A H; de Souza, E A T; Rocha, A R; Pimenta, M A; de Matos, C J S

    2016-01-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements. PMID:27412813

  7. Edge phonons in black phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, H. B.; Villegas, C. E. P.; Bahamon, D. A.; Muraca, D.; Castro Neto, A. H.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Rocha, A. R.; Pimenta, M. A.; de Matos, C. J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements. PMID:27412813

  8. Signatures of discrete breathers in coherent state quantum dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Igumenshchev, Kirill; Ovchinnikov, Misha; Prezhdo, Oleg; Maniadis, Panagiotis

    2013-02-07

    In classical mechanics, discrete breathers (DBs) - a spatial time-periodic localization of energy - are predicted in a large variety of nonlinear systems. Motivated by a conceptual bridging of the DB phenomena in classical and quantum mechanical representations, we study their signatures in the dynamics of a quantum equivalent of a classical mechanical point in phase space - a coherent state. In contrast to the classical point that exhibits either delocalized or localized motion, the coherent state shows signatures of both localized and delocalized behavior. The transition from normal to local modes have different characteristics in quantum and classical perspectives. Here, we get an insight into the connection between classical and quantum perspectives by analyzing the decomposition of the coherent state into system's eigenstates, and analyzing the spacial distribution of the wave-function density within these eigenstates. We find that the delocalized and localized eigenvalue components of the coherent state are separated by a mixed region, where both kinds of behavior can be observed. Further analysis leads to the following observations. Considered as a function of coupling, energy eigenstates go through avoided crossings between tunneling and non-tunneling modes. The dominance of tunneling modes in the high nonlinearity region is compromised by the appearance of new types of modes - high order tunneling modes - that are similar to the tunneling modes but have attributes of non-tunneling modes. Certain types of excitations preferentially excite higher order tunneling modes, allowing one to study their properties. Since auto-correlation functions decrease quickly in highly nonlinear systems, short-time dynamics are sufficient for modeling quantum DBs. This work provides a foundation for implementing modern semi-classical methods to model quantum DBs, bridging classical and quantum mechanical signatures of DBs, and understanding spectroscopic experiments that

  9. Signatures of discrete breathers in coherent state quantum dynamics.

    PubMed

    Igumenshchev, Kirill; Ovchinnikov, Misha; Maniadis, Panagiotis; Prezhdo, Oleg

    2013-02-01

    In classical mechanics, discrete breathers (DBs) - a spatial time-periodic localization of energy - are predicted in a large variety of nonlinear systems. Motivated by a conceptual bridging of the DB phenomena in classical and quantum mechanical representations, we study their signatures in the dynamics of a quantum equivalent of a classical mechanical point in phase space - a coherent state. In contrast to the classical point that exhibits either delocalized or localized motion, the coherent state shows signatures of both localized and delocalized behavior. The transition from normal to local modes have different characteristics in quantum and classical perspectives. Here, we get an insight into the connection between classical and quantum perspectives by analyzing the decomposition of the coherent state into system's eigenstates, and analyzing the spacial distribution of the wave-function density within these eigenstates. We find that the delocalized and localized eigenvalue components of the coherent state are separated by a mixed region, where both kinds of behavior can be observed. Further analysis leads to the following observations. Considered as a function of coupling, energy eigenstates go through avoided crossings between tunneling and non-tunneling modes. The dominance of tunneling modes in the high nonlinearity region is compromised by the appearance of new types of modes - high order tunneling modes - that are similar to the tunneling modes but have attributes of non-tunneling modes. Certain types of excitations preferentially excite higher order tunneling modes, allowing one to study their properties. Since auto-correlation functions decrease quickly in highly nonlinear systems, short-time dynamics are sufficient for modeling quantum DBs. This work provides a foundation for implementing modern semi-classical methods to model quantum DBs, bridging classical and quantum mechanical signatures of DBs, and understanding spectroscopic experiments that

  10. Connecting exact coherent states to turbulent dynamics in channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae Sung; Graham, Michael D.

    2015-11-01

    The discovery of nonlinear traveling wave solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations or exact coherent states has greatly advanced the understanding of the nature of turbulent shear flows. These solutions are unstable saddle points in state space, while the time evolution of a turbulent flow is a dynamical trajectory wandering around them. In this regard, it is of interest to investigate how closely the turbulent trajectories approach these invariant states. Here, we present connections between turbulent trajectories and one intriguing solution family in channel flow. A state space visualization of turbulent trajectories is presented in a three-dimensional space. The lifetime of the trajectories is well represented by closeness to two distinct solutions resembling in many ways the active and hibernating phases of minimal channel turbulence (Xi & Graham PRL 2010). The connections are then examined by comparing mean profiles and flow structures. More importantly, the connections are confirmed by calculating the L2 distance between the trajectories and the traveling waves. Lastly, paths of an intermittent bursting phenomenon are identified in state space and the relationship between bursting paths and the traveling waves or hibernating turbulence is further discussed. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research through grant FA9550-15-1-0062 (Flow Interactions and Control Program).

  11. Excited-state dynamics of 3-hydroxyflavone anion in alcohols.

    PubMed

    Dereka, Bogdan; Letrun, Romain; Svechkarev, Denis; Rosspeintner, Arnulf; Vauthey, Eric

    2015-02-12

    The electronic absorption spectrum of 3-hydroxyflavone (3HF) in various solvents exhibits a long-wavelength (LW) band, whose origin has been debated. The excited-state dynamics of neutral and basic solutions of 3HF in alcohols upon excitation in this LW band has been investigated using a combination of fluorescence up-conversion and transient electronic and vibrational absorption spectroscopies. The ensemble of results reveals that, in neutral solutions, LW excitation results in the population of two excited species with similar fluorescence spectra but very different lifetimes, namely 40-100 ps and 2-3 ns, depending on the solvent. In basic solutions, the relative concentrations of these species change considerably in favor of that with the short-lived excited state. On the basis of the spectroscopic data and quantum chemistry calculations, the short lifetime is attributed to the excited state of 3HF anion, whereas the long one is tentatively assigned to an excited hydrogen-bonded complex with the solvent. Excited-state intermolecular proton transfer from the solvent to the anion yielding the tautomeric form of 3HF is not operative, as the excited anion decays to the ground state via an efficient nonradiative transition.

  12. Linear modeling of steady-state behavioral dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Palya, William L; Walter, Donald; Kessel, Robert; Lucke, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The observed steady-state behavioral dynamics supported by unsignaled periods of reinforcement within repeating 2,000-s trials were modeled with a linear transfer function. These experiments employed improved schedule forms and analytical methods to improve the precision of the measured transfer function, compared to previous work. The refinements include both the use of multiple reinforcement periods that improve spectral coverage and averaging of independently determined transfer functions. A linear analysis was then used to predict behavior observed for three different test schedules. The fidelity of these predictions was determined. PMID:11831782

  13. Involvement of Sub-Bandgap States in Subpicosecond Exciton and Biexciton Dynamics of Ternary AgInS2 Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Dana, Jayanta; Debnath, Tushar; Ghosh, Hirendra N

    2016-08-18

    We have synthesized three AgxInS2 (AIS) ternary nanocrystals (NCs), where x varies from 0.25 to 1, and reported their biexcitonic feature which depends on the stoichiometry ratio of Ag/In. The broadening of absorption band and dual photoluminescence in different AIS NCs indicates the existence of Ag-related sub-bandgap (S-states) and antisite states. Ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in AIS NCs that involve multiple states like higher excited state, band-edge, Ag-related sub-bandgap, and antisite states have been carried out by employing femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, which strongly depends on Ag/In ratio. The probe-induced biexcitonic feature that originated from antisite state has been observed in these AIS NCs even at low pump fluency ( = ∼0.2). The enhancement of binding energy of biexciton and slow down of electron cooling dynamics has been demonstrated by gradual increment of pump fluence as well as with different stoichiometry of Ag and In. PMID:27472249

  14. Dynamics of an N-vortex state at small distances

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, Yu. N.

    2013-01-15

    We investigate the dynamics of a state of N vortices, placed at the initial instant at small distances from some point, close to the 'weight center' of vortices. The general solution of the time-dependent Ginsburg-Landau equation for N vortices in a large time interval is found. For N = 2, the position of the 'weight center' of two vortices is time independent. For N {>=} 3, the position of the 'weight center' weakly depends on time and is located in the range of the order of a{sup 3}, where a is a characteristic distance of a single vortex from the 'weight center.' For N = 3, the time evolution of the N-vortex state is fixed by the position of vortices at any time instant and by the values of two small parameters. For N {>=} 4, a new parameter arises in the problem, connected with relative increases in the number of decay modes.

  15. Dynamic control of metastable remanent states in mesoscale magnetic elements

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, J.; Jain, S.; Pearson, J. E.; Novosad, V.; Lendinez, S.; Khovaylo, V.

    2015-05-07

    The formation of the vortex-antivortex-vortex (v-av-v) metastable remanent states in elongated magnetic elements have been systematically investigated using micromagnetic modeling. It is demonstrated that the v-av-v magnetization pattern can be effectively stabilized by exciting the single vortex state with an external RF field. Furthermore, we show that a set of different polarity combinations of the vortex cores can be achieved by adjusting the frequency and amplitude of the excitation field. The corresponding dynamic response in time- and frequency-domain has also been presented. Owing to the diversity of the collective modes with different vortex-antivortex combinations, this system may open promising perspectives in the area of spin transfer torque oscillators.

  16. Semiclassical Dynamics of Electron Wave Packet States with Phase Vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Bliokh, Konstantin Yu.; Bliokh, Yury P.; Savel'ev, Sergey; Nori, Franco

    2007-11-09

    We consider semiclassical higher-order wave packet solutions of the Schroedinger equation with phase vortices. The vortex line is aligned with the propagation direction, and the wave packet carries a well-defined orbital angular momentum (OAM) ({Dirac_h}/2{pi})l (l is the vortex strength) along its main linear momentum. The probability current coils around the momentum in such OAM states of electrons. In an electric field, these states evolve like massless particles with spin l. The magnetic-monopole Berry curvature appears in momentum space, which results in a spin-orbit-type interaction and a Berry/Magnus transverse force acting on the wave packet. This brings about the OAM Hall effect. In a magnetic field, there is a Zeeman interaction, which, can lead to more complicated dynamics.

  17. Role of structural inhomogeneities in resting-state brain dynamics.

    PubMed

    Vuksanović, Vesna; Hövel, Philipp

    2016-08-01

    Brain imaging methods allow a non-invasive assessment of both structural and functional connectivity. However, the mechanism of how functional connectivity arises in a structured network of interacting neural populations is as yet poorly understood. Here we use a modeling approach to explore the way in which functional correlations arise from underlying structural connections taking into account inhomogeneities in the interactions between the brain regions of interest. The local dynamics of a neural population is assumed to be of phase-oscillator type. The considered structural connectivity patterns describe long-range anatomical connections between interacting neural elements. We find a dependence of the simulated functional connectivity patterns on the parameters governing the dynamics. We calculate graph-theoretic measures of the functional network topology obtained from numerical simulations. The effect of structural inhomogeneities in the coupling term on the observed network state is quantified by examining the relation between simulated and empirical functional connectivity. Importantly, we show that simulated and empirical functional connectivity agree for a narrow range of coupling strengths. We conclude that identification of functional connectivity during rest requires an analysis of the network dynamics.

  18. On the Dynamical State of the HD 82943 Planetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xianyu; Lee, M. H.; Howard, A. W.; Marcy, G. W.; Johnson, J. A.; Wright, J. T.

    2012-05-01

    We present new results from an analysis of radial velocity data of the HD 82943 planetary system based on 10 years of measurements obtained with the Keck telescope. Previous study has shown that the HD 82943 system has two planets that are likely in 2:1 mean-motion resonance (MMR), with the orbital periods about 220 and 440 days (Lee et al. 2006). However, alternative fits that are qualitatively different have also been suggested, with the two planets in 1:1 resonance or the addition of a third planet possibly in a Laplace 4:2:1 resonance with the other two (Gozdziewski & Konacki 2006; Beague et al. 2008). Here we use the chi-square minimization method combined with parameter grid search to investigate the orbital parameters and dynamical states of the qualitatively different types of fits. Our results tend to support the 2:1 MMR configuration for this system. The fits of coplanar 2:1 MMR show a chi-square minimum at 20 degree inclination that is dynamically stable with both resonant angles librating around 0 degree. The fits of 1:1 resonance and 3-planet Laplace resonance are ruled out according to chi-square statistic and dynamical instability. This work is supported in part by Hong Kong RGC grant HKU 7034/09P.

  19. Model for Vortex Ring State Influence on Rotorcraft Flight Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    The influence of vortex ring state (VRS) on rotorcraft flight dynamics is investigated, specifically the vertical velocity drop of helicopters and the roll-off of tiltrotors encountering VRS. The available wind tunnel and flight test data for rotors in vortex ring state are reviewed. Test data for axial flow, nonaxial flow, two rotors, unsteadiness, and vortex ring state boundaries are described and discussed. Based on the available measured data, a VRS model is developed. The VRS model is a parametric extension of momentum theory for calculation of the mean inflow of a rotor, hence suitable for simple calculations and real-time simulations. This inflow model is primarily defined in terms of the stability boundary of the aircraft motion. Calculations of helicopter response during VRS encounter were performed, and good correlation is shown with the vertical velocity drop measured in flight tests. Calculations of tiltrotor response during VRS encounter were performed, showing the roll-off behavior characteristic of tiltrotors. Hence it is possible, using a model of the mean inflow of an isolated rotor, to explain the basic behavior of both helicopters and tiltrotors in vortex ring state.

  20. Model for Vortex Ring State Influence on Rotorcraft Flight Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    The influence of vortex ring state (VRS) on rotorcraft flight dynamics is investigated, specifically the vertical velocity drop of helicopters and the roll-off of tiltrotors encountering VRS. The available wind tunnel and flight test data for rotors in vortex ring state are reviewed. Test data for axial flow, non-axial flow, two rotors, unsteadiness, and vortex ring state boundaries are described and discussed. Based on the available measured data, a VRS model is developed. The VRS model is a parametric extension of momentum theory for calculation of the mean inflow of a rotor, hence suitable for simple calculations and real-time simulations. This inflow model is primarily defined in terms of the stability boundary of the aircraft motion. Calculations of helicopter response during VRS encounter were performed, and good correlation is shown with the vertical velocity drop measured in flight tests. Calculations of tiltrotor response during VRS encounter were performed, showing the roll-off behavior characteristic of tiltrotors. Hence it is possible, using a model of the mean inflow of an isolated rotor, to explain the basic behavior of both helicopters and tiltrotors in vortex ring state.

  1. 12 CFR 225.121 - Acquisition of Edge corporation affiliate by State member banks of registered bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... State member banks of registered bank holding company. 225.121 Section 225.121 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations §...

  2. L-Edge Xanes Measurements of the Oxidation State of Tungsten in Iron Bearing and Iron Free Silicate Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Newville, M.

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten is important in constraining core formation of the Earth because this element is a moderately siderophile element (depleted 10 relative to chondrites) and, as a member of the Hf-W isotopic system, it is useful in constraining the timing of core formation. A number of previous experimental studies have been carried out to determine the silicate solubility and metal-silicate partitioning behavior of W, including its concomitant oxidation state. However, results of previous studies are inconsistent on whether W occurs as W(4+) or W(6+). It is assumed that W(4+) is the cation valence relevant to core formation. Given the sensitivity to silicate composition of high valence cations, knowledge of the oxidation state of W over a wide range of fO2 is critical to understanding the oxidation state of the mantle and core formation processes. This study seeks to measure the W valence and change in valence state over the range of fO2 most relevant to core formation, around IW-2.

  3. L-edge XANES measurements of the oxidation state of tungsten in iron bearing and iron free silicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Danielson, L.R.; Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Newville, M.; Le, L.

    2008-04-28

    W{sup 4+} is relevant to core formation but W{sup 6+} may also occur. Silicate glasses show W{sup 6+} above IW and mixed valence below IW. The transition to W{sup 4+} only, appears to happen at or below IW-2 for iron free systems, but below IW-3 for iron bearing systems. Tungsten is important in constraining core formation of the Earth because this element is a moderately siderophile element (depleted {approx} 10 relative to chondrites) and, as a member of the Hf-W isotopic system, it is useful in constraining the timing of core formation. A number of previous experimental studies have been carried out to determine the silicate solubility and metal-silicate partitioning behavior of W, including its concomitant oxidation state. However, results of previous studies (Fig. 1) are inconsistent on whether W occurs as W{sup 4+} or W{sup 6+}. It is assumed that W{sup 4+} is the cation valence relevant to core formation. Given the sensitivity to silicate composition of high valence cations, knowledge of the oxidation state of W over a wide range of fO{sub 2} is critical to understanding the oxidation state of the mantle and core formation processes. This study seeks to measure the W valence and change in valence state over the range of fO{sub 2} most relevant to core formation, around IW-2.

  4. Separating Real and Apparent Effects of Cloud, Humidity, and Dynamics on Aerosol Optical Thickness near Cloud Edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Li, Zhanqing

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) is one of aerosol parameters that can be measured on a routine basis with reasonable accuracy from Sun-photometric observations at the surface. However, AOT-derived near clouds is fraught with various real effects and artifacts, posing a big challenge for studying aerosol and cloud interactions. Recently, several studies have reported correlations between AOT and cloud cover, pointing to potential cloud contamination and the aerosol humidification effect; however, not many quantitative assessments have been made. In this study, various potential causes of apparent correlations are investigated in order to separate the real effects from the artifacts, using well-maintained observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network, Total Sky Imager, airborne nephelometer, etc., over the Southern Great Plains site operated by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. It was found that aerosol humidification effects can explain about one fourth of the correlation between the cloud cover and AOT. New particle genesis, cloud-processed particles, atmospheric dynamics, and aerosol indirect effects are likely to be contributing to as much as the remaining three fourth of the relationship between cloud cover and AOT.

  5. Excited-State Dynamics in Colloidal Semiconductor Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Rabouw, Freddy T; de Mello Donega, Celso

    2016-10-01

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals have attracted continuous worldwide interest over the last three decades owing to their remarkable and unique size- and shape-, dependent properties. The colloidal nature of these nanomaterials allows one to take full advantage of nanoscale effects to tailor their optoelectronic and physical-chemical properties, yielding materials that combine size-, shape-, and composition-dependent properties with easy surface manipulation and solution processing. These features have turned the study of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals into a dynamic and multidisciplinary research field, with fascinating fundamental challenges and dazzling application prospects. This review focuses on the excited-state dynamics in these intriguing nanomaterials, covering a range of different relaxation mechanisms that span over 15 orders of magnitude, from a few femtoseconds to a few seconds after photoexcitation. In addition to reviewing the state of the art and highlighting the essential concepts in the field, we also discuss the relevance of the different relaxation processes to a number of potential applications, such as photovoltaics and LEDs. The fundamental physical and chemical principles needed to control and understand the properties of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals are also addressed. PMID:27573500

  6. A technique for determining Urbach edge, midgap states and electric field in a-Si:H and a-(Si,Ge):H devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalal, Vikram L.; Knox, Ralph D.; Moradi, Behnam

    1990-01-01

    A technique for measuring the Urbach energy of valence band tail states and midgap defect densities in a-Si:H and a-(Si,Ge):H devices is described. The Urbach energy is determined by measuring the quantum efficiency (QE) of delocalized holes in the devices, whereas the midgap state density (DOS) is estimated by measuring the QE of localized holes. The distinction between delocalized and localized holes is obtained from the behavior of the QE upon the application of reverse bias to the device. The QE of holes localized in midgap states increases significantly upon the application of reverse bias because of Frenkel-Poole tunneling, whereas the QE of holes in tail states does not show such an increase. It is shown that upon light soaking the Urbach edge does not change, but the midgap DOS does increase significantly. A primary consequence of the increase in DOS is a decrease in electric field in the low-field middle i region of the p-i-n cell. The decrease in electric field is experimentally estimated by fitting the increase in the reverse bias QE to Frenkel-Poole tunneling.

  7. Fluctuations in Electronic Energy Affecting Singlet Fission Dynamics and Mixing with Charge-Transfer State: Quantum Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Fujihashi, Yuta; Ishizaki, Akihito

    2016-02-01

    Singlet fission is a spin-allowed process by which a singlet excited state is converted to two triplet states. To understand mechanisms of the ultrafast fission via a charge transfer (CT) state, one has investigated the dynamics through quantum-dynamical calculations with the uncorrelated fluctuation model; however, the electronic states are expected to experience the same fluctuations induced by the surrounding molecules because the electronic structure of the triplet pair state is similar to that of the singlet state except for the spin configuration. Therefore, the fluctuations in the electronic energies could be correlated, and the 1D reaction coordinate model may adequately describe the fission dynamics. In this work we develop a model for describing the fission dynamics to explain the experimentally observed behaviors. We also explore impacts of fluctuations in the energy of the CT state on the fission dynamics and the mixing with the CT state. The overall behavior of the dynamics is insensitive to values of the reorganization energy associated with the transition from the singlet state to the CT state, although the coherent oscillation is affected by the fluctuations. This result indicates that the mixing with the CT state is rather robust under the fluctuations in the energy of the CT state as well as the high-lying CT state. PMID:26732701

  8. Tunable skewed edges in puckered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujić, Marko M.; Ezawa, Motohiko; Tadić, Milan Ž.; Peeters, François M.

    2016-06-01

    We propose a type of edges arising due to the anisotropy inherent in the puckered structure of a honeycomb system such as in phosphorene. Skewed-zigzag and skewed-armchair nanoribbons are semiconducting and metallic, respectively, in contrast to their normal edge counterparts. Their band structures are tunable, and a metal-insulator transition is induced by an electric field. We predict a field-effect transistor based on the edge states in skewed-armchair nanoribbons, where the edge state is gapped by applying arbitrary small electric field Ez. A topological argument is presented, revealing the condition for the emergence of such edge states.

  9. State selective dynamics of molecules, clusters, and nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Keto, John W.

    2005-06-01

    Early objectives of this grant were: (1) Measure two-photon excitation of even parity excitons in liquid an solid xenon, (2) Study state-to-state energy transver between two-photon laser excited states or rare-gas atoms to other rare has atoms, (3) study reactive half-collisions between xenon and chlorine leading to the XeCl* B state, (4) measure the spectra of ro-vibrational states of cluster ions and radicals formed in high-pressure discharges and to study their dynamics, (5) measure the surface and bulk electronic states of nanoparticles produced by a unique method of synthesis--laser ablation of microspheres (LAM). Using near-field and microluminescence techniques, we obtained spectra of single nanocrystals to compare with spectra obtained in a supersonic jet apparatus using resonance excitation followed by photoionization (REMPI) with time-of-flight mass analysis. These materials combine the functional advantages obtained from the size-tunable properties of nanocomposite materials with the fabrication and direct-write advantages of NPs manufactured by LAM. We demostrated that CdSe nanoparticles produced by LAM were efficiient fluorescers, even when deposited dry on sapphire substrates. Si nanoparticles were fluorescent when captured in ethylene glycol. We also obtiained efficient fluorescence from Er doped phosphate glass nanopartiicles which have application to gain wafeguides in integrated optics or to nanoslush lasers. We used a femptosecond laser to study the nonlinear spectra of NC composites. We are currently measuring fluorescence and second and third-order susceptibilities of composites of Ag, Si, and GaN nanoparticles encapsulated within thin films of sapphire or SiO 2.

  10. Ultrafast excited state dynamics of S2 and S1 states of triphenylmethane dyes.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Pallavi; Ghosh, Hirendra N

    2014-08-21

    Excited state dynamics of S2 and S1 states for a series of TPM dyes, pyrogallol red (PGR), bromopyrogallol red (Br-PGR) and aurin tricarboxylic acid (ATC), have been monitored by using ultrafast transient absorption and fluorescence up-conversion techniques. Optical absorption studies indicate that all the TPM dyes exist as keto-enol tautomers depending upon the pH of the solution. Interestingly, all the TPM dyes give S2 emission (major emitting state) in addition to weak S1 emission. S2 emission lifetimes as fast as ∼150-300 fs and S1 emission lifetimes of 2-5 ns were observed depending upon the molecular structure of the dyes. Femtosecond transient absorption studies suggest the presence of an ultrafast non-radiative decay channel from the S2 state in addition to S2 luminescence. The vibrational relaxation time from hot S1 state is found to be 2-6 ps. The heavy atom effect has been observed in ultrafast relaxation dynamics of Br-PGR.

  11. Seasonal Population Dynamics of Three Potato Pests in Washington State.

    PubMed

    D'Auria, Elizabeth M; Wohleb, Carrie H; Waters, Timothy D; Crowder, David W

    2016-08-01

    Pest phenology models allow producers to anticipate pest outbreaks and deploy integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. Phenology models are particularly useful for cropping systems with multiple economically damaging pests throughout a season. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) crops of Washington State, USA, are attacked by many insect pests including the potato tuberworm (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller), the beet leafhopper (Circulifer tenellus Baker), and the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer). Each of these pests directly damages potato foliage or tubers; C. tenellus and M. persicae also transmit pathogens that can drastically reduce potato yields. We monitored the seasonal population dynamics of these pests by conducting weekly sampling on a network of commercial farms from 2007 to 2014. Using these data, we developed phenology models to characterize the seasonal population dynamics of each pest based on accumulated degree-days (DD). All three pests exhibited consistent population dynamics across seasons that were mediated by temperature. Of the three pests, C. tenellus was generally the first detected in potato crops, with 90% of adults captured by 936 DD. In contrast, populations of P. operculella and M. persicae built up more slowly over the course of the season, with 90% cumulative catch by 1,590 and 2,634 DD, respectively. Understanding these seasonal patterns could help potato producers plan their IPM strategies while allowing them to move away from calendar-based applications of insecticides. More broadly, our results show how long-term monitoring studies that explore dynamics of multiple pest species can aid in developing IPM strategies in crop systems. PMID:27271946

  12. Seasonal Population Dynamics of Three Potato Pests in Washington State.

    PubMed

    D'Auria, Elizabeth M; Wohleb, Carrie H; Waters, Timothy D; Crowder, David W

    2016-08-01

    Pest phenology models allow producers to anticipate pest outbreaks and deploy integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. Phenology models are particularly useful for cropping systems with multiple economically damaging pests throughout a season. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) crops of Washington State, USA, are attacked by many insect pests including the potato tuberworm (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller), the beet leafhopper (Circulifer tenellus Baker), and the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer). Each of these pests directly damages potato foliage or tubers; C. tenellus and M. persicae also transmit pathogens that can drastically reduce potato yields. We monitored the seasonal population dynamics of these pests by conducting weekly sampling on a network of commercial farms from 2007 to 2014. Using these data, we developed phenology models to characterize the seasonal population dynamics of each pest based on accumulated degree-days (DD). All three pests exhibited consistent population dynamics across seasons that were mediated by temperature. Of the three pests, C. tenellus was generally the first detected in potato crops, with 90% of adults captured by 936 DD. In contrast, populations of P. operculella and M. persicae built up more slowly over the course of the season, with 90% cumulative catch by 1,590 and 2,634 DD, respectively. Understanding these seasonal patterns could help potato producers plan their IPM strategies while allowing them to move away from calendar-based applications of insecticides. More broadly, our results show how long-term monitoring studies that explore dynamics of multiple pest species can aid in developing IPM strategies in crop systems.

  13. Living on the Edge: Contrasted Wood-Formation Dynamics in Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris under Mediterranean Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Martinez del Castillo, Edurne; Longares, Luis A.; Gričar, Jožica; Prislan, Peter; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Čufar, Katarina; de Luis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Wood formation in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was intra-annually monitored to examine plastic responses of the xylem phenology according to altitude in one of the southernmost areas of their distribution range, i.e., in the Moncayo Natural Park, Spain. The monitoring was done from 2011 to 2013 at 1180 and 1580 m a.s.l., corresponding to the lower and upper limits of European beech forest in this region. Microcores containing phloem, cambium and xylem were collected biweekly from twenty-four trees from the beginning of March to the end of November to assess the different phases of wood formation. The samples were prepared for light microscopy to observe the following phenological phases: onset and end of cell production, onset and end of secondary wall formation in xylem cells and onset of cell maturation. The temporal dynamics of wood formation widely differed among years, altitudes and tree species. For Fagus sylvatica, the onset of cambial activity varied between the first week of May and the third week of June. Cambial activity then slowed down and stopped in summer, resulting in a length of growing season of 48–75 days. In contrast, the growing season for P. sylvestris started earlier and cambium remained active in autumn, leading to a period of activity varying from 139-170 days. The intra-annual wood-formation pattern is site and species-specific. Comparison with other studies shows a clear latitudinal trend in the duration of wood formation, positive for Fagus sylvatica and negative for P. sylvestris. PMID:27047534

  14. The Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    6 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the edge (running diagonally from the lower left to the upper right) of a trough, which is part of a large pit crater complex in Noachis Terra. This type of trough forms through the collapse of surface materials into the subsurface, and often begins as a series of individual pit craters. Over time, continued collapse increases the diameter of individual pits until finally, adjacent pits merge to form a trough such as the one captured in this image. The deep shadowed area is caused in part by an overhang; layered rock beneath this overhang is less resistant to erosion, and thus has retreated tens of meters backward, beneath the overhang. A person could walk up inside this 'cave' formed by the overhanging layered material.

    Location near: 47.0oS, 355.7oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  15. Spectroscopy and excited state dynamics of the HNF (DNF) molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Dagdigian, Paul J.

    1992-05-01

    Laser fluorescence excitation has been employed to detect HNF and its isotopomer DNF in the F/HN3(DN3) system. The observation of this molecule in the F+HN3 reaction has confirmed that this reaction proceeds to form HNF+N2, as well as the well-known HF+N3 products. Laser fluorescence excitation scans were taken for a number of HNF and DNF à 2A'(0,v'2,0)-X˜ 2A`(0,0,0) bands. For DNF, excitation of the à (0,2,1) and (0,3,1) levels were also detected. A partial rotational analysis of the DNF bands was carried out. With the derived A rotational constants and previously determined HNF rotational constants, it was possible to derive ground and excited state vibrationally averaged geometries. The K structure of the bands was observed to become simpler with increasing v2, reflecting the reduction in the highest K' levels observable by fluorescence excitation. Decay lifetimes for a variety of HNF and DNF à 2A' excited levels were determined. It was found that the decay rate, scaled approximately by the ν3 factor, increases abruptly at an energy of 23 800±500 cm-1 above the HNF(X˜ 2A`) zero-point level. This threshold is tentatively assigned to the onset of a predissociation channel. The ground and excited states of HNF form a Renner-Teller pair, whose energies become degenerate at linear geometries. The excited state dynamics of HNF (DNF) is compared with the dynamics of the well-studied Renner-Teller molecules HCO and HNO.

  16. Band edge identification and carrier dynamics of CVD MoS2 monolayer measured by broadband Femtosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleithan, Shrouq; Livshits, Maksim; Rack, Jeffrey; Kordesch, Martin; Stinaff, Eric

    Two-dimensional atomic crystals of transition metal dichalcogenides are considered promising candidates for optoelectronics, valleytronics, and energy harvesting devices. These materials exhibit excitonic features with high binding energy as a result of confinement effect and reduced screening when the material is thinned to monolayer. However, previous theoretical and experimental studies report different binding energy results. This work further examines the electronic structure and binding energy in this material using broadband Femtosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy. Samples of MoS2 were grown by chemical vapor deposition, pumped with femtosecond laser, and probed by femtosecond white light resulting in broadband differential absorption spectra with three distinct features related to the three dominant absorption peaks in the material: A, B, and C. The dependence of the transient absorption spectra on excitation wavelength and layer number provides evidence of a band gap located at C (2.9 eV) and therefore an excitonic binding energy of 1 eV. Additional features in the spectra identified as a broadening of the absorption features caused by carrier scattering, surface defects and trap states.

  17. LT-STM/STS studies of clean armchair edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Zheng; Zhang, Wenhan; Wu, Weida; Weida Wu Team

    It was predicted and observed that the passivated zigzag edges of graphene host highly localized edge state. This edge state is predicted to be spin-polarized, which is appealing for spintronic applications. In contrast, no edge state was expected at passivated armchair graphene edge. Here we report low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS) studies of electronic properties of clean monoatomic step edges on cleaved surface of HOPG. Most of step edges are armchair edges, in agreement with previous STM results. We observed only (√{ 3} ×√{ 3}) R30° superstructure near armchair edges, which has been reported in previous STM studies. On the other hand, no honeycomb superstructure was observed in our STM data. In addition, our STM results reveal an intriguing localized electronic state at clean armchair edges. Spectroscopic and spatial evolution of this edge state will be presented. This work is supported by NSF DMR-1506618.

  18. Cloning a real d-dimensional quantum state on the edge of the no-signaling condition

    SciTech Connect

    Navez, Patrick; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2003-09-01

    We investigate the class of quantum cloning machines that equally duplicate all real states in a Hilbert space of arbitrary dimension. By using the no-signaling condition, namely, that cloning cannot make superluminal communication possible, we derive an upper bound on the fidelity of this class of quantum cloning machines. Then, for each dimension d, we construct an optimal symmetric cloner whose fidelity saturates this bound. Similar calculations can also be performed in order to recover the fidelity of the optimal universal cloner in d dimensions.

  19. Edge instabilities of topological superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Johannes S.; Assaad, Fakher F.; Schnyder, Andreas P.

    2016-05-01

    Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground-state degeneracy. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry-broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. We examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of dx y-wave superconductors by performing a mean-field analysis in the Majorana basis of the edge states. The leading instabilities are Majorana mass terms, which correspond to coherent superpositions of particle-particle and particle-hole channels in the fermionic language. We find that attractive interactions induce three different mass terms. One is a coherent superposition of imaginary s -wave pairing and current order, and another combines a charge-density-wave and finite-momentum singlet pairing. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism together with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. Our quantum Monte Carlo simulations confirm these findings and demonstrate that these instabilities occur even in the presence of strong quantum fluctuations. We discuss the implications of our results for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.

  20. Hugoniot equation of state and dynamic strength of boron carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, Dennis E.

    2015-04-01

    Boron carbide ceramics have been particularly problematic in attempts to develop adequate constitutive model descriptions for purposes of analysis of dynamic response in the shock and impact environment. Dynamic strength properties of boron carbide ceramic differ uniquely from comparable ceramics. Furthermore, boron carbide is suspected, but not definitely shown, to undergoing polymorphic phase transformation under shock compression. In the present paper, shock-wave compression measurements conducted over the past 40 years are assessed for the purpose of achieving improved understanding of the dynamic equation of state and strength of boron carbide. In particular, attention is focused on the often ignored Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hugoniot measurements performed on porous sintered boron carbide ceramic. The LANL data are shown to exhibit two compression anomalies on the shock Hugoniot within the range of 20-60 GPa that may relate to crystallographic structure transitions. More recent molecular dynamics simulations on the compressibility of the boron carbide crystal lattice reveal compression transitions that bear similarities to the LANL Hugoniot results. The same Hugoniot data are complemented with dynamic isentropic compression data for boron carbide extracted from Hugoniot measurements on boron carbide and copper granular mixtures. Other Hugoniot measurements, however, performed on near-full-density boron carbide ceramic differ markedly from the LANL Hugoniot data. These later data exhibit markedly less compressibility and tend not to show comparable anomalies in compressibility. Alternative Hugoniot anomalies, however, are exhibited by the near-full-density data. Experimental uncertainty, Hugoniot strength, and phase transformation physics are all possible explanations for the observed discrepancies. It is reasoned that experimental uncertainty and Hugoniot strength are not likely explanations for the observed differences. The notable mechanistic

  1. Hugoniot equation of state and dynamic strength of boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, Dennis E.

    2015-04-28

    Boron carbide ceramics have been particularly problematic in attempts to develop adequate constitutive model descriptions for purposes of analysis of dynamic response in the shock and impact environment. Dynamic strength properties of boron carbide ceramic differ uniquely from comparable ceramics. Furthermore, boron carbide is suspected, but not definitely shown, to undergoing polymorphic phase transformation under shock compression. In the present paper, shock-wave compression measurements conducted over the past 40 years are assessed for the purpose of achieving improved understanding of the dynamic equation of state and strength of boron carbide. In particular, attention is focused on the often ignored Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hugoniot measurements performed on porous sintered boron carbide ceramic. The LANL data are shown to exhibit two compression anomalies on the shock Hugoniot within the range of 20–60 GPa that may relate to crystallographic structure transitions. More recent molecular dynamics simulations on the compressibility of the boron carbide crystal lattice reveal compression transitions that bear similarities to the LANL Hugoniot results. The same Hugoniot data are complemented with dynamic isentropic compression data for boron carbide extracted from Hugoniot measurements on boron carbide and copper granular mixtures. Other Hugoniot measurements, however, performed on near-full-density boron carbide ceramic differ markedly from the LANL Hugoniot data. These later data exhibit markedly less compressibility and tend not to show comparable anomalies in compressibility. Alternative Hugoniot anomalies, however, are exhibited by the near-full-density data. Experimental uncertainty, Hugoniot strength, and phase transformation physics are all possible explanations for the observed discrepancies. It is reasoned that experimental uncertainty and Hugoniot strength are not likely explanations for the observed differences. The notable

  2. Post-transition State Dynamics for Propene Ozonolysis: Intramolecular and Unimolecular Dynamics of Molozonide

    SciTech Connect

    Vayner, Grigoriy; Addepalli, Srirangam V.; Song, Kihyung; Hase, William L.

    2006-07-07

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A direct chemical dynamics simulation, at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory, was used to study the post-transition state intramolecular and unimolecular dynamics for the O₃+propene reaction. Comparisons of B3LYP/6-31G(d) with CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ and other levels of theory show that the former gives accurate structures and energies for the reaction’s stationary points. The direct dynamics simulations are initiated at the anti and syn O₃+propene transition states (TSs) and the TS symmetries are preserved in forming the molozonide intermediates. Anti↔syn molozonide isomerization has a very low barrier of 2–3 kcal/mol and its Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) lifetime is 0.3 ps. However, the trajectory isomerization is slower and it is unclear whether this anti↔syn equilibration is complete when the trajectories are terminated at 1.6 ps. The syn (anti) molozonides dissociate to CH₃CHO+H₂COO and H₂CO+syn (anti) CH₃CHOO. The kinetics for the latter reactions are in overall good agreement with RRKM theory, but there is a symmetry preserving non-RRKM dynamical constraint for the former. Dissociation of anti molozonide to CH₃CHO+H₂COO is enhanced and suppressed, respectively, for the trajectory ensembles initiated at the anti and syn O₃+propene TSs. The dissociation of syn molozonide to CH₃CHO+H₂COO may also be enhanced for trajectories initiated at the syn O₃+propene TS. At the time the trajectories are terminated at 1.6 ps, the ratio of the trajectory and RRKM values of the CH₃CHO+H₂COO product yield is 1.6 if the symmetries of the initiation and dissociation TSs are the same and 0.6 if their symmetries are different. There are coherences in the

  3. Crossover from Majorana edge- to end-states in quasi-one-dimensional p-wave superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Shen, Shun-Qing

    2011-08-01

    In a recent work [Potter and Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.105.227003 105, 227003 (2010)], it was demonstrated by means of numerical diagonalization that the Majorana end states can be localized at opposite ends of a sample of an ideal spinless p-wave superconductor with the strip geometry beyond the strict one-dimensional limit. Here, we reexamine this issue and study the topological quantum phase transition in the same system. We give the phase diagrams of the presence of Majorana end modes by using of Z2 topological index. It is found that the topological property of a strip geometry will change in an oscillatory way with respect of the sample width.

  4. Theoretical description of excited state dynamics in nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio, Angel

    2009-03-01

    There has been much progress in the synthesis and characterization of nanostructures however, there remain immense challenges in understanding their properties and interactions with external probes in order to realize their tremendous potential for applications (molecular electronics, nanoscale opto-electronic devices, light harvesting and emitting nanostructures). We will review the recent implementations of TDDFT to study the optical absorption of biological chromophores, one-dimensional polymers and layered materials. In particular we will show the effect of electron-hole attraction in those systems. Applications to the optical properties of solvated nanostructures as well as excited state dynamics in some organic molecules will be used as text cases to illustrate the performance of the approach. Work done in collaboration with A. Castro, M. Marques, X. Andrade, J.L Alonso, Pablo Echenique, L. Wirtz, A. Marini, M. Gruning, C. Rozzi, D. Varsano and E.K.U. Gross.

  5. Baryon content and dynamic state of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.

    2016-06-01

    We are carrying out a panchromatic observing program to study the baryon content and dynamic state of galaxy clusters. In this talk, I will present results primarily from XMM-Newton observations of optically-selected clusters in the redshift range of 0.1-0.4. These clusters are selected because of their fortuitous alignment with background far-UV-bright QSOs, which thus allows for Ly-alpha and O VI absorption line spectroscopy with HST/COS, probing physical processes of the evolving intracluster medium, freshly accreted from the intergalactic medium and/or stripped out of individual galaxies, as well as the gaseous halos of individual cluster galaxies. Interestingly, such clusters tend to be dynamically young and often consist of merging subcluster pairs at similar redshifts. These subclusters themselves typically show substantial substructures, including strongly distorted radio lobes, as well as large position offsets between the diffuse X-ray centroids and the brightest galaxies. A comparison of the hot gas and stellar masses of each cluster with the expected cosmological baryonic mass fraction indicates a significant room for other gas components. I will also briefly examine the limitations of both optically and X-ray selected clusters, as well as how they may be used in a complementary fashion.

  6. Dynamic shared state maintenance in distributed virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza-Lup, Felix George

    Advances in computer networks and rendering systems facilitate the creation of distributed collaborative environments in which the distribution of information at remote locations allows efficient communication. Particularly challenging are distributed interactive Virtual Environments (VE) that allow knowledge sharing through 3D information. The purpose of this work is to address the problem of latency in distributed interactive VE and to develop a conceptual model for consistency maintenance in these environments based on the participant interaction model. An area that needs to be explored is the relationship between the dynamic shared state and the interaction with the virtual entities present in the shared scene. Mixed Reality (MR) and VR environments must bring the human participant interaction into the loop through a wide range of electronic motion sensors, and haptic devices. Part of the work presented here defines a novel criterion for categorization of distributed interactive VE and introduces, as well as analyzes, an adaptive synchronization algorithm for consistency maintenance in such environments. As part of the work, a distributed interactive Augmented Reality (AR) testbed and the algorithm implementation details are presented. Currently the testbed is part of several research efforts at the Optical Diagnostics and Applications Laboratory including 3D visualization applications using custom built head-mounted displays (HMDs) with optical motion tracking and a medical training prototype for endotracheal intubation and medical prognostics. An objective method using quaternion calculus is applied for the algorithm assessment. In spite of significant network latency, results show that the dynamic shared state can be maintained consistent at multiple remotely located sites. In further consideration of the latency problems and in the light of the current trends in interactive distributed VE applications, we propose a hybrid distributed system architecture for

  7. Role of ion-pair states in the predissociation dynamics of Rydberg states of molecular iodine.

    PubMed

    von Vangerow, J; Bogomolov, A S; Dozmorov, N V; Schomas, D; Stienkemeier, F; Baklanov, A V; Mudrich, M

    2016-07-28

    Using femtosecond pump-probe ion imaging spectroscopy, we establish the key role of I(+) + I(-) ion-pair (IP) states in the predissociation dynamics of molecular iodine I2 excited to Rydberg states. Two-photon excitation of Rydberg states lying above the lowest IP state dissociation threshold (1st tier) is found to be followed by direct parallel transitions into IP states of the 1st tier asymptotically correlating to a pair of I ions in their lowest states I(+)((3)P2) + I(-)((1)S0), of the 2nd tier correlating to I(+)((3)P0) + I(-)((1)S0), and of the 3rd tier correlating to I(+)((1)D2) + I(-)((1)S0). Predissociation via the 1st tier proceeds presumably with a delay of 1.6-1.7 ps which is close to the vibrational period in the 3rd tier state (3rd tier-mediated process). The 2nd tier IP state is concluded to be the main precursor for predissociation via lower lying Rydberg states proceeding with a characteristic time of 7-8 ps and giving rise to Rydberg atoms I(5s(2)5p(4)6s(1)). The channel generating I((2)P3/2) + I((2)P1/2) atoms with total kinetic energy corresponding to one-photon excitation is found to proceed via a pump - dump mechanism with dramatic change of angular anisotropy of this channel as compared with earlier nanosecond experiments. PMID:27353150

  8. State-to-state spectroscopy and dynamics of ions and neutrals by photoionization and photoelectron methods.

    PubMed

    Ng, Cheuk-Yiu

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in high-resolution photoionization, photoelectron, and photodissociation studies based on single-photon vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and two-color infrared (IR)-VUV, visible (Vis)-ultraviolet (UV), and VUV-VUV laser excitations are illustrated with selected examples. VUV laser photoionization coupled with velocity-map-imaging threshold photoelectron (VMI-TPE) detection can achieve comparable energy resolution but has higher-detection sensitivities than those observed in VUV laser pulsed field ionization photoelectron (PFI-PE) measurements. For molecules with known intermediate states, IR-VUV and Vis-UV excitation schemes are highly sensitive for rovibronically selected and resolved PFI-PE studies. The successful applications of the VUV-PFI-PE, VUV-VMI-TPE, and Vis-UV-PFI-PE methods to state-resolved and state-to-state photoelectron studies of transient radicals and transitional metal-containing molecules are highlighted. The most recently established VUV-VUV pump-probe time-slice VMI photoion method is shown to be promising for state-to-state photodissociation studies of small molecules relevant to planetary atmospheres and for the fundamental understanding of photodissociation dynamics. PMID:24328445

  9. State-to-State Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Ions and Neutrals by Photoionization and Photoelectron Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Cheuk-Yiu

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in high-resolution photoionization, photoelectron, and photodissociation studies based on single-photon vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and two-color infrared (IR)-VUV, visible (Vis)-ultraviolet (UV), and VUV-VUV laser excitations are illustrated with selected examples. VUV laser photoionization coupled with velocity-map-imaging threshold photoelectron (VMI-TPE) detection can achieve comparable energy resolution but has higher-detection sensitivities than those observed in VUV laser pulsed field ionization photoelectron (PFI-PE) measurements. For molecules with known intermediate states, IR-VUV and Vis-UV excitation schemes are highly sensitive for rovibronically selected and resolved PFI-PE studies. The successful applications of the VUV-PFI-PE, VUV-VMI-TPE, and Vis-UV-PFI-PE methods to state-resolved and state-to-state photoelectron studies of transient radicals and transitional metal-containing molecules are highlighted. The most recently established VUV-VUV pump-probe time-slice VMI photoion method is shown to be promising for state-to-state photodissociation studies of small molecules relevant to planetary atmospheres and for the fundamental understanding of photodissociation dynamics.

  10. Edge magnetoplasmons in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petković, Ivana; Williams, F. I. B.; Glattli, D. Christian

    2014-03-01

    We have observed propagation of edge magnetoplasmon (EMP) modes in graphene in the quantum Hall regime by performing picosecond time-of-flight measurements between narrow contacts on the perimeter of micrometric exfoliated graphene. We find the propagation to be chiral with low attenuation and to have a velocity which is quantized on Hall plateaus. The velocity has two contributions, one arising from the Hall conductivity and the other from carrier drift along the edge, which we were able to separate by their different filling factor dependence. The drift component is found to be slightly less than the Fermi velocity as expected for graphene dynamics in an abrupt edge potential. The Hall conduction contribution is slower than expected and indicates a characteristic length in the Coulomb potential from the Hall charge of about 500 nm. The experiment illustrates how EMP can be coupled to the electromagnetic field, opening the perspective of GHz to THz chiral plasmonics applications to devices such as voltage controlled phase shifters, circulators, switches and compact, tunable ring resonators.

  11. Vibrational State Dependent Large Amplitude Tunneling Dynamics in Malonaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckingham, Grant; Nesbitt, David J.

    2011-06-01

    The quantum dynamics of intramolecular proton transfer in malonaldehyde has represented a major challenge for first principles theoretical calculation, in large measure due to the highly concerted motion of all 9 nuclei throughout the tunneling event. This talk describes efforts to predict quantum state dependent tunneling rates from high level ab initio calculations, exploiting the large amplitude motion (LAM) Hamiltonian methods of Hougen, Bunker and Johns.A An effective adiabatic potential surface for the tunneling path is constructed from CCSD(T)/AVnZ-F12 calculations using explicitly correlated basis set methods and extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit. This potential is adiabatically corrected by zero point excitation in the remaining 3N-7 = 20 vibrational modes, with the multidimensional tunneling dependence of the effective mass explicitly taken into AccountB and numerically solved with Numerov methods. Of special importance, this method permits calculation of mode dependent tunneling splittings as a function of vibrational quantum state, which offers interesting prospects for comparison with recent FTIR slit jet cooled data of Suhm and coworkers.C A J. T. Hougen, P. R. Bunker and J. W. C. Johns, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 34, 136 (1970). B D. J. Rush and K. B. Wiberg, J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 3143 (1997). C N. O. B. Luttschwager, T. N. Wassermann, S. Coussan and M. A. Suhm, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., DOI: 10.1039/c002345k (2010)

  12. Aragonite saturation state dynamics in a coastal upwelling zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Katherine E.; Degrandpre, Michael D.; Hales, Burke

    2013-06-01

    upwelling zones may be at enhanced risk from ocean acidification as upwelling brings low aragonite saturation state (ΩAr) waters to the surface that are further suppressed by anthropogenic CO2. ΩAr was calculated with pH, pCO2, and salinity-derived alkalinity time series data from autonomous pH and pCO2 instruments moored on the Oregon shelf and shelf break during different seasons from 2007 to 2011. Surface ΩAr values ranged between 0.66 ± 0.04 and 3.9 ± 0.04 compared to an estimated pre-industrial range of 1.0 ± 0.1 to 4.7 ± 0.1. Upwelling of high-CO2 water and subsequent removal of CO2 by phytoplankton imparts a dynamic range to ΩAr from ~1.0 to ~4.0 between spring and autumn. Freshwater input also suppresses saturation states during the spring. Winter ΩAr is less variable than during other seasons and is controlled primarily by mixing of the water column.

  13. Surface hopping investigation of benzophenone excited state dynamics.

    PubMed

    Favero, Lucilla; Granucci, Giovanni; Persico, Maurizio

    2016-04-21

    We present a simulation of the photodynamics of benzophenone for the first 20 ps after n →π* excitation, performed by trajectory surface hopping calculations with on-the-fly semiempirical determination of potential energy surfaces and electronic wavefunctions. Both the dynamic and spin-orbit couplings are taken into account, and time-resolved fluorescence emission is also simulated. The computed decay time of the S1 state is in agreement with experimental observations. The direct S1→ T1 intersystem crossing (ISC) accounts for about 2/3 of the S1 decay rate. The remaining 1/3 goes through T2 or higher triplets. The nonadiabatic transitions within the triplet manifold are much faster than ISC and keep the population of T1 at about 3/4 of the total triplet population, and that of the other states (mainly T2) at 1/4. Two internal coordinates are vibrationally active immediately after n →π* excitation: one is the C[double bond, length as m-dash]O stretching and the other one is a combination of the conrotatory torsion of phenyl rings and of bending involving the carbonyl C atom. The period of the torsion-bending mode coincides with oscillations in the time-resolved photoelectron spectra of Spighi et al. and substantially confirms their assignment. PMID:27031566

  14. Nonlocal free vibration in the pre- and post-buckled states of magneto-electro-thermo elastic rectangular nanoplates with various edge conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, R.; Gholami, R.

    2016-09-01

    Considering the small scale effect together with the influences of transverse shear deformation, rotary inertia and the magneto-electro-thermo-mechanical coupling, the linear free vibration of magneto-electro-thermo-elastic (METE) rectangular nanoplates with various edge supports in pre- and post-buckled states is investigated herein. It is assumed that the METE nanoplate is subjected to the external in-plane compressive loads in combination with magnetic, electric and thermal loads. The Mindlin plate theory, von Kármán hypothesis and the nonlocal theory are utilized to develop a size-dependent geometrically nonlinear plate model for describing the size-dependent linear and nonlinear mechanical characteristics of moderately thick METE rectangular nanoplates. The nonlinear governing equations and the corresponding boundary conditions are derived using Hamilton’s principle which are then discretized via the generalized differential quadrature method. The pseudo-arc length continuation approach is used to obtain the equilibrium postbuckling path of METE nanoplates. By the obtained postbuckling response, and taking a time-dependent small disturbance around the buckled configuration, and inserting them into the nonlinear governing equations, an eigenvalue problem is achieved from which the frequencies of pre- and post-buckled METE nanoplates can be calculated. The effects of nonlocal parameter, electric, magnetic and thermal loadings, length-to-thickness ratio and different boundary conditions on the free vibration response of METE rectangular nanoplates in the pre- and post-buckled states are highlighted.

  15. Low-temperature spin-state transition in LaCoO{sub 3} investigated using resonant x-ray absorption at the Co K edge

    SciTech Connect

    Medarde, M.; Pomjakushina, E.; Conder, K.; Dallera, C.; Grioni, M.; Voigt, J.; Podlesnyak, A.; Neisius, Th.; Tjernberg, O.; Barilo, S. N.

    2006-02-01

    LaCoO{sub 3} displays two broad anomalies in the DC magnetic susceptibility {chi}{sup DC}, occurring, respectively, around 50 K and 500 K. We have investigated the first of them within the 10 Kedge XAS reports, our data show the existence of abrupt changes around 50 K which can be nicely correlated with the anomaly in {chi}{sup DC}. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a clear, quantitative relationship between the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and that of the XAS spectra is reported. The intensity changes in the preedge region, which are consistent with a transition from a lower to a higher spin state, have been analyzed using a minimal model including the Co 3d and O 2p hybridization in the initial state. The temperature dependence of the Co magnetic moment obtained from the estimated e{sub g} and t{sub 2g} occupations could be satisfactorily reproduced. Also, the decrease of the Co 3d and O 2p hybridization by increasing temperature obtained from this simple model compares favorably with the values estimated from thermal evolution of the crystallographic structure.

  16. In situ X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy investigation of the state of charge of all-vanadium redox flow batteries.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chuankun; Liu, Qi; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Yang, Fan; Ren, Yang; Heald, Steve M; Liu, Yadong; Li, Zhe-Fei; Lu, Wenquan; Xie, Jian

    2014-10-22

    Synchrotron-based in situ X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy (XANES) has been used to study the valence state evolution of the vanadium ion for both the catholyte and anolyte in all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRB) under realistic cycling conditions. The results indicate that, when using the widely used charge-discharge profile during the first charge process (charging the VRB cell to 1.65 V under a constant current mode), the vanadium ion valence did not reach V(V) in the catholyte and did not reach V(II) in the anolyte. Consequently, the state of charge (SOC) for the VRB cell was only 82%, far below the desired 100% SOC. Thus, such incompletely charged mix electrolytes results in not only wasting the electrolytes but also decreasing the cell performance in the following cycles. On the basis of our study, we proposed a new charge-discharge profile (first charged at a constant current mode up to 1.65 V and then continuously charged at a constant voltage mode until the capacity was close to the theoretical value) for the first charge process that achieved 100% SOC after the initial charge process. Utilizing this new charge-discharge profile, the theoretical charge capacity and the full utilization of electrolytes has been achieved, thus having a significant impact on the cost reduction of the electrolytes in VRB. PMID:25191695

  17. In situ X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy investigation of the state of charge of all-vanadium redox flow batteries.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chuankun; Liu, Qi; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Yang, Fan; Ren, Yang; Heald, Steve M; Liu, Yadong; Li, Zhe-Fei; Lu, Wenquan; Xie, Jian

    2014-10-22

    Synchrotron-based in situ X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy (XANES) has been used to study the valence state evolution of the vanadium ion for both the catholyte and anolyte in all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRB) under realistic cycling conditions. The results indicate that, when using the widely used charge-discharge profile during the first charge process (charging the VRB cell to 1.65 V under a constant current mode), the vanadium ion valence did not reach V(V) in the catholyte and did not reach V(II) in the anolyte. Consequently, the state of charge (SOC) for the VRB cell was only 82%, far below the desired 100% SOC. Thus, such incompletely charged mix electrolytes results in not only wasting the electrolytes but also decreasing the cell performance in the following cycles. On the basis of our study, we proposed a new charge-discharge profile (first charged at a constant current mode up to 1.65 V and then continuously charged at a constant voltage mode until the capacity was close to the theoretical value) for the first charge process that achieved 100% SOC after the initial charge process. Utilizing this new charge-discharge profile, the theoretical charge capacity and the full utilization of electrolytes has been achieved, thus having a significant impact on the cost reduction of the electrolytes in VRB.

  18. Feasibility Studies of Applying Kalman Filter Techniques to Power System Dynamic State Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Schneider, Kevin P.; Nieplocha, Jarek

    2007-08-01

    Abstract—Lack of dynamic information in power system operations mainly attributes to the static modeling of traditional state estimation, as state estimation is the basis driving many other operations functions. This paper investigates the feasibility of applying Kalman filter techniques to enable the inclusion of dynamic modeling in the state estimation process and the estimation of power system dynamic states. The proposed Kalman-filter-based dynamic state estimation is tested on a multi-machine system with both large and small disturbances. Sensitivity studies of the dynamic state estimation performance with respect to measurement characteristics – sampling rate and noise level – are presented as well. The study results show that there is a promising path forward to implementation the Kalman-filter-based dynamic state estimation with the emerging phasor measurement technologies.

  19. Transition state dynamics of N2O4⇌2NO2 in liquid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katō, Toshiko

    2004-06-01

    Transition state dynamics of dissociation and association reactions N2O4⇌2NO2 in liquid state are studied by classical molecular dynamics simulations of reactive liquid NO2 at 298 K. An OSPP+LJ potential between NO2 molecules proposed in paper I [J. Chem. Phys. 115, 10852 (2001)], which takes into account the orientational sensitivity of the chemical bond, has been used in the simulation. The trajectory and energy evolution of various reactions are studied in the OSPP+LJ liquid, which reproduces both the observed liquid phase equilibrium constant and Raman band shape of the dissociation mode. It is found that a NO2 pair in reactive liquid NO2 is bound when ET<0 and dissociates when ET>0, and the dissociation of a reactant pair occurs when the transition state (TS) surface of ET=0 is crossed from negative to positive, where ET is the sum of the potential and kinetic energies of intermolecular motion of the pair. Two types of dissociation are found depending on the source of energy for dissociation; the first type D is the dissociation via collisional activation of the reactive mode by solvent molecules, and the second type T is the dissociation via bond transfer from a dimer to a monomer NO2 through the TS of NO2 trimer. It is concluded that the type T dissociation is found to be much more probable than the type D dissociation because of easy energy conservation. The reactant experiences the TS of NO2 trimer for a long time (1-10 ps) in NO2 mediated bond transfer reactions, and crossing and recrossing trajectories and dynamics in the TS neighborhood are studied.

  20. Communication: Smoothing out excited-state dynamics: Analytical gradients for dynamically weighted complete active space self-consistent field

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, W. J.

    2014-11-07

    State averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) is a workhorse for determining the excited-state electronic structure of molecules, particularly for states with multireference character; however, the method suffers from known issues that have prevented its wider adoption. One issue is the presence of discontinuities in potential energy surfaces when a state that is not included in the state averaging crosses with one that is. In this communication I introduce a new dynamical weight with spline (DWS) scheme that mimics SA-CASSCF while removing energy discontinuities due to unweighted state crossings. In addition, analytical gradients for DWS-CASSCF (and other dynamically weighted schemes) are derived for the first time, enabling energy-conserving excited-state ab initio molecular dynamics in instances where SA-CASSCF fails.

  1. Bistability and State Transition of a Delay Differential Equation Model of Neutrophil Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Suqi; Zhu, Kaiyi; Lei, Jinzhi

    This paper studies the existence of bistable states and control strategies to induce state transitions of a delay differential equation model of neutrophil dynamics. We seek the conditions that a stable steady state and an oscillatory state coexist in the neutrophil dynamical system. Physiologically, stable steady state represents the healthy state, while oscillatory state is usually associated with diseases such as cyclical neutropenia. We study the control strategies to induce the transitions from the disease state to the healthy state by introducing temporal perturbations to system parameters. This study is valuable in designing clinical protocols for the treatment of cyclical neutropenia.

  2. Quantum dynamics with fermion coupled coherent states: Theory and application to electron dynamics in laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kirrander, Adam; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V.

    2011-09-15

    We present an alternate version of the coupled-coherent-state method, specifically adapted for solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for multielectron dynamics in atoms and molecules. This theory takes explicit account of the exchange symmetry of fermion particles, and it uses fermion molecular dynamics to propagate trajectories. As a demonstration, calculations in the He atom are performed using the full Hamiltonian and accurate experimental parameters. Single- and double-ionization yields by 160-fs and 780-nm laser pulses are calculated as a function of field intensity in the range 10{sup 14}-10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}, and good agreement with experiments by Walker et al. is obtained. Since this method is trajectory based, mechanistic analysis of the dynamics is straightforward. We also calculate semiclassical momentum distributions for double ionization following 25-fs and 795-nm pulses at 1.5x10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}, in order to compare them with the detailed experiments by Rudenko et al. For this more challenging task, full convergence is not achieved. However, major effects such as the fingerlike structures in the momentum distribution are reproduced.

  3. Navigating sensory conflict in dynamic environments using adaptive state estimation.

    PubMed

    Klein, Theresa J; Jeka, John; Kiemel, Tim; Lewis, M Anthony

    2011-12-01

    Most conventional robots rely on controlling the location of the center of pressure to maintain balance, relying mainly on foot pressure sensors for information. By contrast,humans rely on sensory data from multiple sources, including proprioceptive, visual, and vestibular sources. Several models have been developed to explain how humans reconcile information from disparate sources to form a stable sense of balance. These models may be useful for developing robots that are able to maintain dynamic balance more readily using multiple sensory sources. Since these information sources may conflict, reliance by the nervous system on any one channel can lead to ambiguity in the system state. In humans, experiments that create conflicts between different sensory channels by moving the visual field or the support surface indicate that sensory information is adaptively reweighted. Unreliable information is rapidly down-weighted,then gradually up-weighted when it becomes valid again.Human balance can also be studied by building robots that model features of human bodies and testing them under similar experimental conditions. We implement a sensory reweighting model based on an adaptive Kalman filter in abipedal robot, and subject it to sensory tests similar to those used on human subjects. Unlike other implementations of sensory reweighting in robots, our implementation includes vision, by using optic flow to calculate forward rotation using a camera (visual modality), as well as a three-axis gyro to represent the vestibular system (non-visual modality), and foot pressure sensors (proprioceptive modality). Our model estimates measurement noise in real time, which is then used to recompute the Kalman gain on each iteration, improving the ability of the robot to dynamically balance. We observe that we can duplicate many important features of postural sw ay in humans, including automatic sensory reweighting,effects, constant phase with respect to amplitude, and a temporal

  4. The oxidation state of tungsten in iron bearing and iron free silicate glasses: Initial results from W L-edge XANES measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Newville, M.; Le, L.

    2006-12-01

    Tungsten is important in constraining core formation of the Earth because this element is a moderately siderophile element (depleted ~ 10 relative to chondrites) and, as a member of the Hf-W isotopic system, it is useful in constraining the timing of core formation. A number of experimental studies have been carried out to determine the silicate solubility and metal-silicate partitioning behavior of W, including its concomitant oxidation state. However, results are inconsistent on whether W occurs as W^{4+} or W^{6+}. Results of Hillgren et al. (1996) and Walter and Thibault (1995) suggest W6+ for oxygen fugacities of IW-1 to -2, whereas Ertel et al. (1996) show W^{4+} for all oxygen fugacities below IW-1. The multiple linear regression analyses of Schmitt et al. (1989) (IW to IW-3) support W^{6+}, while similar analyses by Jones (1998), Lauer and Jones (1999), and Wade and Wood (2005) support W^{4+}, though it was suggested past discrepancies were due to iron-bearing vs. iron free systems. It is assumed that W^{4+} is the cation valence relevant to core formation (Jaeger and Drake, 2000). Given the sensitivity to silicate composition of high valence cations (Jaeger and Drake, 2000), knowledge of the oxidation state of W over a wide range of fO2 is critical to understanding the oxidation state of the mantle and core formation processes. Controlled fO2 experiments were carried out using two compositions to determine the effects of iron content. Experiments were conducted at 1300 °C, for durations of 24 to 72 hours, and air quenched. One series was conducted using the An-Di eutectic, from log fO2 -7.25 to -18. Experiments using an ankaramite starting composition were conducted from log fO2 -1.65 to -18.3. Experiments were doped with 1wt% of WO3. For both starting compositions, at IW-1, one set of experiments was doped with 1wt% of WO2, and at IW+1, one set of experiments was quenched in water. Analyses were conducted using the X-ray absorption near edge structure

  5. Mn K-Edge XANES and Kβ XES Studies of Two Mn–Oxo Binuclear Complexes: Investigation of Three Different Oxidation States Relevant to the Oxygen-Evolving Complex of Photosystem II

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Hendrik; Anxolabéhère-Mallart, Elodie; Bergmann, Uwe; Glatzel, Pieter; Robblee, John H.; Cramer, Stephen P.; Girerd, Jean-Jacques; Sauer, Kenneth; Klein, Melvin P.; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2014-01-01

    Two structurally homologous Mn compounds in different oxidation states were studied to investigate the relative influence of oxidation state and ligand environment on Mn K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and Mn Kβ X-ray emission spectroscopy (Kβ XES). The two manganese compounds are the di-μ-oxo compound [L′2MnIIIO2MnIVL′2](ClO4)3, where L′ is 1,10-phenanthroline (Cooper, S. R.; Calvin, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1977, 99, 6623–6630) and the linear mono-μ-oxo compound [LMnIIIOMnIIIL](ClO4)2, where L− is the monoanionic N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-N′-salicylidene-1,2-diaminoethane ligand (Horner, O.; Anxolabéhère-Mallart, E.; Charlot, M. F.; Tchertanov, L.; Guilhem, J.; Mattioli, T. A.; Boussac, A.; Girerd, J.-J. Inorg. Chem. 1999, 38, 1222–1232). Preparative bulk electrolysis in acetonitrile was used to obtain higher oxidation states of the compounds: the MnIVMnIV species for the di-μ-oxo compound and the MnIIIMnIV and MnIVMnIV species for the mono-μ-oxo compound. IR, UV/vis, EPR, and EXAFS spectra were used to determine the purity and integrity of the various sample solutions. The Mn K-edge XANES spectra shift to higher energy upon oxidation when the ligand environment remains similar. However, shifts in energy are also observed when only the ligand environment is altered. This is achieved by comparing the di-μ-oxo and linear mono-μ-oxo Mn–Mn moieties in equivalent oxidation states, which represent major structural changes. The magnitude of an energy shift due to major changes in ligand environment can be as large as that of an oxidation-state change. Therefore, care must be exercised when correlating the Mn K-edge energies to manganese oxidation states without taking into account the nature of the ligand environment and the overall structure of the compound. In contrast to Mn K-edge XANES, Kβ XES spectra show less dependence on ligand environment. The Kβ1,3 peak energies are comparable for the di-μ-oxo and mono

  6. Dynamical disentanglement across a point contact in a non-Abelian quantum Hall state.

    PubMed

    Fendley, Paul; Fisher, Matthew P A; Nayak, Chetan

    2006-07-21

    We analyze the tunneling of non-Abelian quasiparticles between the edges of a quantum Hall droplet at the Landau level filling fraction nu=5/2, assuming that the electrons in the first excited Landau level organize themselves in the non-Abelian Moore-Read Pfaffian state. By bosonizing the edge theory, we show that an effective spin-1/2 degree of freedom emerges in the description of a point contact. We show how the crossover from the high-temperature regime of weak quasiparticle tunneling between the edges of the droplet, with the 4-terminal Rxx approximately T(-3/2), to the low-temperature limit, with Rxx(-1/10)(h/e2) approximately-T4, is closely related to the two-channel Kondo effect. We give a physical interpretation for the entropy loss of ln(2[square root of 2) in this crossover.

  7. Internal dynamics of DNA - a solid state deuterium NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Wen-Chang.

    1989-01-01

    In this dissertation, solid state {sup 2}H NMR spectroscopy has been used to investigate the dynamics of the sodium salt oligonucleotide, (d(CGCGAATTCGCG)){sub 2}, which contains the Eco R1 binding site. Deuterium quadrupole echo line shape and spin-lattice relaxation times were obtained as a function of hydration on three different deuterated samples. In the first sample, (d{sub 12}-(d(CG*CG*A*A*TTCG*CG*)){sub 2}), the C8 proton of all purine in the self-complementary dodecamer were exchanged for deuterons. Specifically labeled thymidine (C6 deuterated) was also synthetically incorporated at the seventh position (counting 5{prime} to 3{prime}) in the sequence (d{sub 2}-(d(CGCGAAT*TCGCG)){sub 2}). In the third sample the C2{double prime} position of the furanose ring of adenosine at the fifth and sixth positions in the same sequence (d{sub 4}-(d(CGCGA*A*TTCGCG)){sub 2}) was deuterium labeled. The static quadrupole coupling constant (e{sup 2}qQ/h) and asymmetry parameter ({eta}) were obtained through the analysis of appropriative motional models from the corresponding monomers studies.

  8. Steady state solutions to dynamically loaded periodic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalinowski, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    The general problem of solving for the steady state (time domain) dynamic response (i.e., NASTRAN rigid format-8) of a general elastic periodic structure subject to a phase difference loading of the type encountered in traveling wave propagation problems was studied. Two types of structural configurations were considered; in the first type, the structure has a repeating pattern over a span that is long enough to be considered, for all practical purposes, as infinite; in the second type, the structure has structural rotational symmetry in the circumferential direction. The theory and a corresponding set of DMAP instructions which permits the NASTRAN user to automatically alter the rigid format-8 sequence to solve the intended class of problems are presented. Final results are recovered as with any ordinary rigid format-8 solution, except that the results are only printed for the typical periodic segment of the structure. A simple demonstration problem having a known exact solution is used to illustrate the implementation of the procedure.

  9. Equation of state of dense plasmas with pseudoatom molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starrett, C. E.; Saumon, D.

    2016-06-01

    We present an approximation for calculating the equation of state (EOS) of warm and hot dense matter that is built on the previously published pseudoatom molecular dynamics (PAMD) model of dense plasmas [Starrett et al., Phys. Rev. E 91, 013104 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.91.013104]. While the EOS calculation with PAMD was previously limited to orbital-free density functional theory (DFT), the new approximation presented here allows a Kohn-Sham DFT treatment of the electrons. The resulting EOS thus includes a quantum mechanical treatment of the electrons with a self-consistent model of the ionic structure, while remaining tractable at high temperatures. The method is validated by comparisons with pressures from ab initio simulations of Be, Al, Si, and Fe. The EOS in the Thomas-Fermi approximation shows remarkable thermodynamic consistency over a wide range of temperatures for aluminum. We calculate the principal Hugoniots of aluminum and silicon up to 500 eV. We find that the ionic structure of the plasma has a modest effect that peaks at temperatures of a few eV and that the features arising from the electronic structure agree well with ab initio simulations.

  10. Theoretical formalism for collective spin-wave edge excitations in arrays of dipolarly interacting magnetic nanodots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenkov, Ivan; Tyberkevych, Vasyl; Nikitov, Sergey; Slavin, Andrei

    2016-06-01

    A general theory of collective spin-wave edge modes in semi-infinite and finite periodic arrays of magnetic nanodots having uniform dynamic magnetization (macrospin approximation) is developed. The theory is formulated using a formalism of multivectors of magnetization dynamics, which allows one to study edge modes in arrays having arbitrarily complex primitive cells and lattice structure. The developed formalism can describe spin-wave edge modes localized both at the physical edges of the array and at the internal "domain walls" separating the array regions existing in different static magnetization states. Using a perturbation theory, in the framework of the developed formalism, it is possible to calculate damping of the edge modes and to describe their excitation by external variable magnetic fields. The theory is illustrated on the following practically important examples: (i) calculation of the FMR absorption in a finite nanodot array having the shape of a right triangle; (ii) calculation of the spectra of nonreciprocal spin-wave edge modes, including the modes at the physical edges of an array and modes at the domain walls inside the array; and (iii) study of the influence of the domain wall modes on the FMR spectrum of an array existing in a nonideal chessboard antiferromagnetic ground state.

  11. An Efficient Ant-Based Edge Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydın, Doğan

    An efficient ant-based edge detector is presented. It is based on the distribution of ants on an image, ants try to find possible edges by using a state transition function based on 5x5 edge structures. Visual comparisons show that the proposed method gives finer details and thinner edges at lesser computational times when compared to earlier ant-based approaches. When compared to standard edge detectors, it shows robustness to Gaussian and Salt & Pepper noise and provides finer details than others with same parameter set in both clear and noisy images.

  12. Optically detecting the edge-state of a three-dimensional topological insulator under ambient conditions by ultrafast infrared photoluminescence spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Maezawa, Shun-ya; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Takeda, Masahiro; Kuroda, Kenta; Someya, Takashi; Matsuda, Iwao; Suemoto, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast infrared photoluminescence spectroscopy was applied to a three-dimensional topological insulator TlBiSe2 under ambient conditions. The dynamics of the luminescence exhibited bulk-insulating and gapless characteristics bounded by the bulk band gap energy. The existence of the topologically protected surface state and the picosecond-order relaxation time of the surface carriers, which was distinguishable from the bulk response, were observed. Our results provide a practical method applicable to topological insulators under ambient conditions for device applications. PMID:26552784

  13. Analysis problems for sequential dynamical systems and communicating state machines

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Hunt, H. B.; Marathe, M. V.; Ravi, S. S.; Rosenkrantz, D. J.; Stearns, R. E.

    2001-01-01

    A simple sequential dynamical system (SDS) is a triple (G, F, {pi}), where (i) G(V, E) is an undirected graph with n nodes with each node having a 1-bit state, (ii) F = {l_brace} f{sub 1},f{sub 2},...,f{sub n}{r_brace} is a set of local transition functions with f{sub i} denoting a Boolean function associated with node Vv{sub i} and (iii) {pi} is a fixed permutation of (i.e., a total order on) the nodes in V. A single SDS transition is obtained by updating the states of the nodes in V by evaluating the function associated with each of them in the order given by {pi}. Such a (finite) SDS is a mathematical abstraction of simulation systems [BMR99, BR99]. In this paper, we characterize the computational complexity of determining several phase space properties of SDSs. The properties considered are t-REACHABILITY ('Can a given SDS starting from configuration I reach configuration B in t or fewer transitions?'), REACHABILITY('Can a given SDS starting from configuration I ever reach configuration B?') and FIXED POINT REACHABILITY ('Can a given SDS starting from configuration I ever reach configuration in which it stays for ever?'). Our main result is a sharp dichotomy between classes of SDSs whose behavior is 'easy' to predict and those whose behavior is 'hard' to predict. Specifically, we show the following. (1) The t-REACHABILITY, REACHABILITY and the FIXED POINT REACHABILITY problems for SDSs are PSPACE-complete, even when restricted to graphs of bounded bandwidth (and hence of bounded pathwidth and treewidth) and when the function associated with each node is symmetric. The result holds even for regular graphs of constant degree where all the nodes compute the same symmetric Boolean function. (2) In contrast, the t-REACHABILITYm REACHABILITY and FIXED POINT REACHABILITY problems are solvable in polynomial time for SDSs when the Boolean function associated with each node is symmetric and monotone. Two important consequences of our results are the following: (i) The

  14. Investigating hydroxide anion interfacial activity by classical and multi-state empirical valence bond molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, Liem X.; Wick, Collin D.

    2009-06-04

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to understand the propensity of the hydroxide anion for the air-water interface. Two classes of molecular models were used, a classical polarizable model, and a polarizable multi-state empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) potential. The latter model was parameterized to reproduce the structures of small hydroxide-water clusters based on proton reaction coordinates. Furthermore, nuclear quantum effects were introduced into the MS-EVB model implicitly by refitting its potential energy function to account for them. The final MS-EVB model showed reasonable agreement with experiment and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations for dynamical and structural properties. The free energy profiles for both the classical and MS-EVB models were mapped out across the air-water interface, and the classical model gave a higher free energy at the interface with respect to bulk. The MS-EVB model gave a hydroxide anion that approached very close to the interface before it had a sharp increase in free energy at the Gibbs dividing surface. This showed a hydroxide anion that was present at the interface, but strongly repelled from its outer edge near the air. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy's Office of Basec Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program. Pacific northwest national Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  15. Magnetism of zigzag edge phosphorene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zhili E-mail: jiayu@zzu.edu.cn; Li, Chong; Yu, Weiyang; Chang, Dahu; Sun, Qiang; Jia, Yu E-mail: jiayu@zzu.edu.cn

    2014-09-15

    We have investigated, by means of ab initio calculations, the electronic and magnetic structures of zigzag edge phosphorene nanoribbons (ZPNRs) with various widths. The stable magnetic state was found in pristine ZPNRs by allowing the systems to be spin-polarized. The ground state of pristine ZPNRs prefers ferromagnetic order in the same edge but antiferromagnetic order between two opposite edges. The magnetism arises from the dangling bond states as well as edge localized π-orbital states. The presence of a dangling bond is crucial to the formation of the magnetism of ZPNRs. The hydrogenated ZPNRs get nonmagnetic semiconductors with a direct band gap. While, the O-saturated ZPNRs show magnetic ground states due to the weak P-O bond in the ribbon plane between the p{sub z}-orbitals of the edge O and P atoms.

  16. Nonequilibrium solvent effects in Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics for ground and excited electronic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorgaard, J. A.; Velizhanin, K. A.; Tretiak, S.

    2016-04-01

    The effects of solvent on molecular processes such as excited state relaxation and photochemical reaction often occurs in a nonequilibrium regime. Dynamic processes such as these can be simulated using excited state molecular dynamics. In this work, we describe methods of simulating nonequilibrium solvent effects in excited state molecular dynamics using linear-response time-dependent density functional theory and apparent surface charge methods. These developments include a propagation method for solvent degrees of freedom and analytical energy gradients for the calculation of forces. Molecular dynamics of acetaldehyde in water or acetonitrile are demonstrated where the solute-solvent system is out of equilibrium due to photoexcitation and emission.

  17. Numerical Investigation of the Dynamic Mechanical State of a Coal Pillar During Longwall Mining Panel Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongwei; Jiang, Yaodong; Zhao, Yixin; Zhu, Jie; Liu, Shuai

    2013-09-01

    This study presents a numerical investigation on the dynamic mechanical state of a coal pillar and the assessment of the coal bump risk during extraction using the longwall mining method. The present research indicates that there is an intact core, even when the peak pillar strength has been exceeded under uniaxial compression. This central portion of the coal pillar plays a significant role in its loading capacity. In this study, the intact core of the coal pillar is defined as an elastic core. Based on the geological conditions of a typical longwall panel from the Tangshan coal mine in the City of Tangshan, China, a numerical fast Lagrangian analysis of continua in three dimensions (FLAC3D) model was created to understand the relationship between the volume of the elastic core in a coal pillar and the vertical stress, which is considered to be an important precursor to the development of a coal bump. The numerical results suggest that, the wider the coal pillar, the greater the volume of the elastic core. Therefore, a coal pillar with large width may form a large elastic core as the panel is mined, and the vertical stress is expected to be greater in magnitude. Because of the high stresses and the associated stored elastic energy, the risk of coal bumps in a coal pillar with large width is greater than for a coal pillar with small width. The results of the model also predict that the peak abutment stress occurs near the intersection between the mining face and the roadways at a distance of 7.5 m from the mining face. It is revealed that the bump-prone zones around the longwall panel are within 7-10 m ahead of the mining face and near the edge of the roadway during panel extraction.

  18. Nonadiabatic evolution of electronic states by electron nuclear dynamics theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagelberg, Frank

    The problem of how to determine the nonadiabatic content of any given dynamic process involving molecular motion is addressed in the context of Electron Nuclear Dynamics (END) theory. Specifically, it is proposed to cast the dynamic END wave function into the language of static electronic configurations with time dependent complex-valued amplitudes. This is achieved by adiabatic transport of an electronic basis along the classical nuclear trajectories of the studied molecular system, as yielded by END simulation. Projecting the dynamic wave function on this basis yields a natural distinction between adiabatic and nonadiabatic components of the motion considered. Tracing the evolution of the leading configurations is shown to be a helpful device for clarifying the physical nature of electronic excitation processes. For illustration of these concepts, dynamic configuration analysis is applied to the scattering of a proton by a lithium atom.

  19. The edges of graphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuyun; Xin, John; Ding, Feng

    2013-04-01

    The edge of two dimensional (2D) graphene, as the surface of a three dimensional (3D) crystal, plays a crucial role in the determination of its physical, electronic and chemical properties and thus has been extensively studied recently. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the study of graphene edges, including edge formation energy, edge reconstruction, method of graphene edge synthesis and the recent progress on metal-passivated graphene edges and the role of edges in graphene CVD growth. We expect this review to provide a guideline for readers to gain a clear picture of graphene edges from several aspects, especially the catalyst-passivated graphene edges and their role in graphene CVD growth.

  20. Dynamic control of spin states in interacting magnetic elements

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Shikha; Novosad, Valentyn

    2014-10-07

    A method for the control of the magnetic states of interacting magnetic elements comprising providing a magnetic structure with a plurality of interacting magnetic elements. The magnetic structure comprises a plurality of magnetic states based on the state of each interacting magnetic element. The desired magnetic state of the magnetic structure is determined. The active resonance frequency and amplitude curve of the desired magnetic state is determined. Each magnetic element of the magnetic structure is then subjected to an alternating magnetic field or electrical current having a frequency and amplitude below the active resonance frequency and amplitude curve of said desired magnetic state and above the active resonance frequency and amplitude curve of the current state of the magnetic structure until the magnetic state of the magnetic structure is at the desired magnetic state.

  1. Excited state dynamics of thulium ions in yttrium aluminum garnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armagan, G.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Dibartolo, B.

    1991-01-01

    The processes that take place in the excited states of a trivalent Thulium (Tm) ion in an Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) crystal, being relevant to the use of this system for laser applications, have been the object of several studies. We have reexamined this system focusing our attention on the dynamics of Tm following its excitation in the H-3(sub 4) level. Under these conditions the system relaxes through a cross-relaxation process. H-3(sub 4) yields F-3(sub 4), H-3(sub 6) yields F-3(sub 4), whose rate depends upon both the concentration of the Tm ion and the temperature of the crystal. The excitation spectrum obtained by monitoring the 1.8 micron emission of Tm (due to the F-3(sub 4) yields H-3(sub 6) transition) indicates an increase in the contribution to this emission from the H-3(sub 4) level relative to the H-3(sub 5) level as the Tm concentration increases; this shows the increased role played by the H-3(sub 4) level in pumping the infrared emission. Correspondingly, the duration of the luminescence originating in the H-3(sub 4) level is shortened as the concentration of Tm increases. The concentration quenching of this lifetime can be fit to a model which assumes that the cross-relaxation is due to a dipole-dipole interaction; from this fit, the intrinsic Tm lifetime in the absence of cross relaxation can be derived. We have used this lifetime to calculate the rate of the cross-relaxation process. We have evaluated this rate as a function of the temperature and found it to be fastest at 77 K. We have also calculated the microscopic interaction parameters for the cross-relaxation process by using two independent experimental features: (1) the time evolution of the emission from the H-3(sub 4) level; and (2) the spectral overlap between the H-3(sub 4) yields F-3(sub 4) emission and the H-3(sub 6) yields F-3(sub 4) absorption. We have also considered the migration of excitation among the Tm ions in the F-3(sub 4) level and calculated the relevant

  2. Distribution and oxidation state of Ge, Cu and Fe in sphalerite by μ-XRF and K-edge μ-XANES: insights into Ge incorporation, partitioning and isotopic fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belissont, Rémi; Muñoz, Manuel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Luais, Béatrice; Mathon, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    Synchrotron-based microscale X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (μ-XANES) has been combined with X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) mapping to investigate Ge, Cu and Fe oxidation states in compositionally zoned Ge-rich sphalerite from the Saint-Salvy deposit (France). The present study aims at improving our understanding of substitution mechanisms and trace element uptake relative to Ge isotope fractionation in sphalerite. K-Edge XANES records of various Ge-, Cu- and Fe-bearing sulphides are presented for comparison with sphalerite, and ab initio calculations at the Ge K-edge complete our experimental data. The Ge K-edge spectra of the Ge-bearing sphalerite are identical to those of germanite, renierite and briartite, indicating the presence of tetrahedrally-coordinated Ge4+. In addition, Cu and Fe K-edge spectra suggest the presence of Cu+ and Fe2+, respectively, in the tetrahedral site. No significant differences in the oxidation states of Ge, Cu and Fe were observed within or between the zoning types or between the samples. The intake of Ge4+ in sphalerite may therefore occur in the tetrahedral divalent metal site via coupled substitutions charge-balanced by monovalent elements such as 3Zn2+ ↔ Ge4+ + 2Cu+, resulting in a strong Ge-Cu elemental correlation, or, when Ge does not correlate with monovalent elements, through the creation of lattice vacancies such as 2Zn2+ ↔ Ge4+ + □ (vacancy). The tetravalent state of Ge is compatible with temperature-related Ge isotopic fractionation and can explain the large range of δ74Ge measured in the Saint-Salvy sphalerite. Moreover, the exceptional enrichment in Ge and the large variations in the 'bulk' Ge contents in these sphalerites do not appear to be related to charge effects but would instead result from the effect of temperature-related partitioning.

  3. Dynamics of the L {yields} H transition, VH-mode evolution, edge localized modes and R.F. driven confinement control in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, P.H.; Lebedev, V.B.; Liang, Y.M.; Gruzinov, A.V.; Gruzinov, I.; Medvedev, M.; Carreras, B.A.; Newman, D.E.; Charlton, L.; Sidikman, K.L.

    1995-02-01

    Several novel theoretical results related to L {yields} H transition physics, VH-mode evolution, Edge Localized Modes and active confinement control are presented. Critical issues are identified, results are discussed and important unresolved questions are listed. The basic physics is discussed in the contexts of current experiments and of ITER.

  4. Speciation and Long- and Short-term Molecular-level Dynamics of Soil Organic Sulfur Studied by X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    D Solomon; J Lehmann; K Knoth de Zarruk; J Dathe; J Kinyangi; B Liang; S Machado

    2011-12-31

    We investigated speciation, oxidative state changes, and long- and short-term molecular-level dynamics of organic S after 365 d of aerobic incubation with and without the addition of sugarcane residue using XANES spectroscopy. Soil samples were collected from the upper 15 cm of undisturbed grasslands since 1880, from undisturbed grasslands since 1931, and from cultivated fields since 1880 in the western United States. We found three distinct groups of organosulfur compounds in these grassland-derived soils: (i) strongly reduced (S{sup 0} to S{sup 1+}) organic S that encompasses thiols, monosulfides, disulfides, polysulfides, and thiophenes; (ii) organic S in intermediate oxidation (S{sup 2+} to S{sup 5+}) states, which include sulfoxides and sulfonates; and (iii) strongly oxidized (S{sup 6+}) organic S, which comprises ester-SO{sub 4}-S. The first two groups represent S directly linked to C and accounted for 80% of the total organic S detected by XANES from the undisturbed soils. Aerobic incubation without the addition of sugarcane residue led to a 21% decline in organanosulfur compounds directly linked to C and to up to an 82% increase inorganic S directly bonded to O. Among the C-bonded S compounds, low-valence thiols, sulfides, thiophenic S, and intermediate-valence sulfoxide S seem to be highly susceptible to microbial attack and may represent the most reactive components of organic S pool in these grassland soils. Sulfonate S exhibited a much lower short-term reactivity. The incorporation of sugarcane residue resulted in an increase in organosulfur compounds directly bonded to C at the early stage of incubation. However, similar to soils incubated without residue addition, the proportion of organic S directly linked to C continued to decline with increasing duration of aerobic incubation, whereas the proportion of organic S directly bonded to O showed a steady rise.

  5. Emerging of Stochastic Dynamical Equalities and Steady State Thermodynamics from Darwinian Dynamics*

    PubMed Central

    Ao, P.

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary dynamics first conceived by Darwin and Wallace, referring to as Darwinian dynamics in the present paper, has been found to be universally valid in biology. The statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, while enormous successful in physics, have been in an awkward situation of wanting a consistent dynamical understanding. Here we present from a formal point of view an exploration of the connection between thermodynamics and Darwinian dynamics and a few related topics. We first show that the stochasticity in Darwinian dynamics implies the existence temperature, hence the canonical distribution of Boltzmann–Gibbs type. In term of relative entropy the Second Law of thermodynamics is dynamically demonstrated without detailed balance condition, and is valid regardless of size of the system. In particular, the dynamical component responsible for breaking detailed balance condition does not contribute to the change of the relative entropy. Two types of stochastic dynamical equalities of current interest are explicitly discussed in the present approach: One is based on Feynman–Kac formula and another is a generalization of Einstein relation. Both are directly accessible to experimental tests. Our demonstration indicates that Darwinian dynamics represents logically a simple and straightforward starting point for statistical mechanics and thermodynamics and is complementary to and consistent with conservative dynamics that dominates the physical sciences. Present exploration suggests the existence of a unified stochastic dynamical framework both near and far from equilibrium. PMID:21949462

  6. Universality in exact quantum state population dynamics and control

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Lian-Ao; Segal, Dvira; Brumer, Paul; Egusquiza, Inigo L.

    2010-09-15

    We consider an exact population transition, defined as the probability of finding a state at a final time that is exactly equal to the probability of another state at the initial time. We prove that, given a Hamiltonian, there always exists a complete set of orthogonal states that can be employed as time-zero states for which this exact population transition occurs. The result is general: It holds for arbitrary systems, arbitrary pairs of initial and final states, and for any time interval. The proposition is illustrated with several analytic models. In particular, we demonstrate that in some cases, by tuning the control parameters, a complete transition might occur, where a target state, vacant at t=0, is fully populated at time {tau}.

  7. Dynamics and control of state-dependent networks for probing genomic organization

    PubMed Central

    Rajapakse, Indika; Groudine, Mark; Mesbahi, Mehran

    2011-01-01

    A state-dependent dynamic network is a collection of elements that interact through a network, whose geometry evolves as the state of the elements changes over time. The genome is an intriguing example of a state-dependent network, where chromosomal geometry directly relates to genomic activity, which in turn strongly correlates with geometry. Here we examine various aspects of a genomic state-dependent dynamic network. In particular, we elaborate on one of the important ramifications of viewing genomic networks as being state-dependent, namely, their controllability during processes of genomic reorganization such as in cell differentiation. PMID:21911407

  8. Dynamic modeling and sensitivity analysis of dAFM in the transient and steady state motions.

    PubMed

    Payam, Amir Farokh

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, based on the slow time varying function theory, dynamical equations for the amplitude and phase of the dynamic atomic force microscope are derived. Then, the sensitivity of the amplitude and phase to the dissipative and conservative parts of interaction force is investigated. The most advantage of this dynamical model is the ability to simulate and analysis the dynamics behavior of amplitude and phase of the AFM tip motion not only in the steady state but also in the transient regime. Using numerical analysis the transient and steady state behavior of amplitude and phase is studied and the sensitivity of amplitude and phase to the interaction force is analyzed. PMID:27448201

  9. Comparisons of classical and quantum dynamics for initially localized states

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.J.; Heller, E.J.

    1984-05-15

    We compare the dynamics of quantum wave packets with the dynamics of classical trajectory ensembles. The wave packets are Gaussian with expectation values of position and momenta which centers them in phase space. The classical trajectory ensembles are generated directly from the quantum wave packets via the Wigner transform. Quantum and classical dynamics are then compared using several quantum measures and the analogous classical ones derived from the Wigner equivalent formalism. Comparisons are made for several model potentials and it is found that there is generally excellent classical--quantum correspondence except for certain specific cases of tunneling and interference. In general, this correspondence is also very good in regions of phase space where there is classical chaos.

  10. Structural basis for catalytically restrictive dynamics of a high-energy enzyme state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovermann, Michael; Ådén, Jörgen; Grundström, Christin; Elisabeth Sauer-Eriksson, A.; Sauer, Uwe H.; Wolf-Watz, Magnus

    2015-07-01

    An emerging paradigm in enzymology is that transient high-energy structural states play crucial roles in enzymatic reaction cycles. Generally, these high-energy or `invisible' states cannot be studied directly at atomic resolution using existing structural and spectroscopic techniques owing to their low populations or short residence times. Here we report the direct NMR-based detection of the molecular topology and conformational dynamics of a catalytically indispensable high-energy state of an adenylate kinase variant. On the basis of matching energy barriers for conformational dynamics and catalytic turnover, it was found that the enzyme's catalytic activity is governed by its dynamic interconversion between the high-energy state and a ground state structure that was determined by X-ray crystallography. Our results show that it is possible to rationally tune enzymes' conformational dynamics and hence their catalytic power--a key aspect in rational design of enzymes catalysing novel reactions.

  11. Structural basis for catalytically restrictive dynamics of a high-energy enzyme state

    PubMed Central

    Kovermann, Michael; Ådén, Jörgen; Grundström, Christin; Elisabeth Sauer-Eriksson, A.; Sauer, Uwe H.; Wolf-Watz, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    An emerging paradigm in enzymology is that transient high-energy structural states play crucial roles in enzymatic reaction cycles. Generally, these high-energy or ‘invisible' states cannot be studied directly at atomic resolution using existing structural and spectroscopic techniques owing to their low populations or short residence times. Here we report the direct NMR-based detection of the molecular topology and conformational dynamics of a catalytically indispensable high-energy state of an adenylate kinase variant. On the basis of matching energy barriers for conformational dynamics and catalytic turnover, it was found that the enzyme's catalytic activity is governed by its dynamic interconversion between the high-energy state and a ground state structure that was determined by X-ray crystallography. Our results show that it is possible to rationally tune enzymes' conformational dynamics and hence their catalytic power—a key aspect in rational design of enzymes catalysing novel reactions. PMID:26138143

  12. Effect of electron spin dynamics on solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization performance.

    PubMed

    Siaw, Ting Ann; Fehr, Matthias; Lund, Alicia; Latimer, Allegra; Walker, Shamon A; Edwards, Devin T; Han, Song-I

    2014-09-21

    For the broadest dissemination of solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization (ssDNP) enhanced NMR as a material characterization tool, the ability to employ generic mono-nitroxide radicals as spin probes is critical. A better understanding of the factors contributing to ssDNP efficiency is needed to rationally optimize the experimental condition for the practically accessible spin probes at hand. This study seeks to advance the mechanistic understanding of ssDNP by examining the effect of electron spin dynamics on ssDNP performance at liquid helium temperatures (4-40 K). The key observation is that bi-radicals and mono-radicals can generate comparable nuclear spin polarization at 4 K and 7 T, which is in contrast to the observation for ssDNP at liquid nitrogen temperatures (80-150 K) that finds bi-radicals to clearly outperform mono-radicals. To rationalize this observation, we analyze the change in the DNP-induced nuclear spin polarization (Pn) and the characteristic ssDNP signal buildup time as a function of electron spin relaxation rates that are modulated by the mono- and bi-radical spin concentration. Changes in Pn are consistent with a systematic variation in the product of the electron spin-lattice relaxation time and the electron spin flip-flop rate that constitutes an integral saturation factor of an inhomogeneously broadened EPR spectrum. We show that the comparable Pn achieved with both radical species can be reconciled with a comparable integral EPR saturation factor. Surprisingly, the largest Pn is observed at an intermediate spin concentration for both mono- and bi-radicals. At the highest radical concentration, the stronger inter-electron spin dipolar coupling favors ssDNP, while oversaturation diminishes Pn, as experimentally verified by the observation of a maximum Pn at an intermediate, not the maximum, microwave (μw) power. At the maximum μw power, oversaturation reduces the electron spin population differential that must be upheld between

  13. Network Analysis of the State Space of Discrete Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shreim, Amer; Grassberger, Peter; Nadler, Walter; Samuelsson, Björn; Socolar, Joshua E. S.; Paczuski, Maya

    2007-05-01

    We study networks representing the dynamics of elementary 1D cellular automata (CA) on finite lattices. We analyze scaling behaviors of both local and global network properties as a function of system size. The scaling of the largest node in-degree is obtained analytically for a variety of CA including rules 22, 54, and 110. We further define the path diversity as a global network measure. The coappearance of nontrivial scaling in both the hub size and the path diversity separates simple dynamics from the more complex behaviors typically found in Wolfram’s class IV and some class III CA.

  14. State space approximation for general fractional order dynamic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shu; Peng, Cheng; Liao, Zeng; Wang, Yong

    2014-10-01

    Approximations for general fractional order dynamic systems are of much theoretical and practical interest. In this paper, a new approximate method for fractional order integrator is proposed. The poles of the approximate model are unrelated to the order of integrator. This feature shows benefits on extending the algorithm to the systems containing various fractional orders. Then a unified approximate method is derived for general fractional order linear or nonlinear dynamic systems via combining the proposed new method with the distributed frequency model approach. Numerical examples are given to show the wide applicability of our method and to illustrate the acceptable accuracy for approximations as well.

  15. Jet formation at the sea ice edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltham, D. L.; Heorton, H. D.

    2014-12-01

    The sea ice edge presents a region of many feedback processes between the atmosphere, ocean and sea ice, which are inadequately represented in current climate models. Here we focus on on-ice atmospheric and oceanic flows at the sea ice edge. Mesoscale jet formation due to the Coriolis effect is well understood over sharp changes in surface roughness such as coastlines. This sharp change in surface roughness is experienced by the atmosphere flowing over, and ocean flowing under, a compacted sea ice edge. We have studied a dynamic sea ice edge responding to atmospheric and oceanic jet formation. The shape and strength of atmospheric and oceanic jets during on-ice flows is calculated from existing studies of the sea ice edge and prescribed to idealised models of the sea ice edge. An idealised analytical model of sea ice drift is developed and compared to a sea ice climate model (the CICE model) run on an idealised domain. The response of the CICE model to jet formation is tested at various resolutions. We find that the formation of atmospheric jets during on-ice winds at the sea ice edge increases the wind speed parallel to the sea ice edge and results in the formation of a sea ice edge jet. The modelled sea ice edge jet is in agreement with an observed jet although more observations are needed for validation. The increase in ice drift speed is dependent upon the angle between the ice edge and wind and can result in a 40% increase in ice transport along the sea ice edge. The possibility of oceanic jet formation during on-ice currents and the resultant effect upon the sea ice edge is less conclusive. Observations and climate model data of the polar oceans has been analysed to show areas of likely atmospheric jet formation, with the Fram Strait being of particular interest.

  16. Formation and nonlinear dynamics of the squeezed state of a helical electron beam with additional deceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, E. N. Koronovskii, A. A.; Kurkin, S. A.; Hramov, A. E.

    2013-11-15

    Results of numerical simulations and analysis of the formation and nonlinear dynamics of the squeezed state of a helical electron beam in a vircator with a magnetron injection gun as an electron source and with additional electron deceleration are presented. The ranges of control parameters where the squeezed state can form in such a system are revealed, and specific features of the system dynamics are analyzed. It is shown that the formation of a squeezed state of a nonrelativistic helical electron beam in a system with electron deceleration is accompanied by low-frequency longitudinal dynamics of the space charge.

  17. Cross-site comparisons of state-change dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in the state of a system, for example from grasslands to shrublands or from dominance by one fish species to another species, with associated changes in other parts of the system, are often irreversible. Most of these state changes bring forth negative impacts on ecosystem, resulting in alte...

  18. Political and Organizational Dynamics in Urban-State Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Roald F.; Wagstaff, Lonnie H.

    This chapter notes organizational and political constraints that have prevented productive urban-State relationships and suggests policies and strategies for eliminating these constraints. The report posits an emerging role for State education agencies in establishing collaboration relationships with cities. The authors suggest that those…

  19. How Forest Inhomogeneities Affect the Edge Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreault, Louis-Étienne; Dupont, Sylvain; Bechmann, Andreas; Dellwik, Ebba

    2016-09-01

    Most of our knowledge on forest-edge flows comes from numerical and wind-tunnel experiments where canopies are horizontally homogeneous. To investigate the impact of tree-scale heterogeneities ({>}1 m) on the edge-flow dynamics, the flow in an inhomogeneous forest edge on Falster island in Denmark is investigated using large-eddy simulation. The three-dimensional forest structure is prescribed in the model using high resolution helicopter-based lidar scans. After evaluating the simulation against wind measurements upwind and downwind of the forest leading edge, the flow dynamics are compared between the scanned forest and an equivalent homogeneous forest. The simulations reveal that forest inhomogeneities facilitate flow penetration into the canopy from the edge, inducing important dispersive fluxes in the edge region as a consequence of the flow spatial variability. Further downstream from the edge, the forest inhomogeneities accentuate the canopy-top turbulence and the skewness of the wind-velocity components while the momentum flux remains unchanged. This leads to a lower efficiency in the turbulent transport of momentum within the canopy. Dispersive fluxes are only significant in the upper canopy. Above the canopy, the mean flow is less affected by the forest inhomogeneities. The inhomogeneities induce an increase in the mean wind speed that was found to be equivalent to a decrease in the aerodynamic height of the canopy. Overall, these results highlight the importance of forest inhomogeneities when looking at canopy-atmosphere exchanges in forest-edge regions.

  20. TMS-evoked changes in brain-state dynamics quantified by using EEG data.

    PubMed

    Mutanen, Tuomas; Nieminen, Jaakko O; Ilmoniemi, Risto J

    2013-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) method in general, it is important to study how the dynamics of the TMS-modulated brain activity differs from the dynamics of spontaneous activity. In this paper, we introduce two quantitative measures based on EEG data, called mean state shift (MSS) and state variance (SV), for evaluating the TMS-evoked changes in the brain-state dynamics. MSS quantifies the immediate TMS-elicited change in the brain state, whereas SV shows whether the rate at which the brain state changes is modulated by TMS. We report a statistically significant increase for a period of 100-200 ms after the TMS pulse in both MSS and SV at the group level. This indicates that the TMS-modulated brain state differs from the spontaneous one. Moreover, the TMS-modulated activity is more vigorous than the natural activity.