NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Chan; Kim, Hobeom; Kim, Jungdo; Im, Seyoung
2017-06-01
Polyhedral elements with an arbitrary number of nodes or non-planar faces, obtained with an edge-based smoothed finite element method, retain good geometric adaptability and accuracy in solution. This work is intended to extend the polyhedral elements to nonlinear elastic analysis with finite deformations. In order to overcome the volumetric locking problem, a smoothing domain-based selective smoothed finite element method scheme and a three-field-mixed cell-based smoothed finite element method with nodal cells were developed. Using several numerical examples, their performance and the accuracy of their solutions were examined, and their effectiveness for practical applications was demonstrated as well.
Edge-based finite element method for shallow water equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribeiro, F. L. B.; Galeão, A. C.; Landau, L.
2001-07-01
This paper describes an edge-based implementation of the generalized residual minimum (GMRES) solver for the fully coupled solution of non-linear systems arising from finite element discretization of shallow water equations (SWEs). The gain in terms of memory, floating point operations and indirect addressing is quantified for semi-discrete and space-time analyses. Stabilized formulations, including Petrov-Galerkin models and discontinuity-capturing operators, are also discussed for both types of discretization. Results illustrating the quality of the stabilized solutions and the advantages of using the edge-based approach are presented at the end of the paper. Copyright
Edge-based finite element scheme for the Euler equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Hong; Baum, Joseph D.; Loehner, Rainald
1994-06-01
This paper describes the development, validation, and application of a new finite element scheme for the solution of the compressible Euler equations on unstructured grids. The implementation of the numerical scheme is based on an edge-based data structure, as opposed to a more element-based data structure. The use of this edge-based data structure not only improves the efficiency of the algorithm but also enables a straightforward implementation of the upwind schemes in the context of finite element methods. The algorithm has been tested and validated on some well documented configurations. A flow solution about a complete F-18 fighter is shown to demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed algorithm.
Edge-based finite element scheme for the Euler equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Hong; Baum, Joseph D.; Lohner, Rainald
1994-06-01
This paper describes the development, validation, and application of a new finite element scheme for the solution of the compressible Euler equations on unstructured grids. The implementation of the numerical scheme is based on an edge-based data structure, as opposed to a more traditional element-based data structure. The use of this edge-based data structure not only improves the efficiency of the algorithm but also enables a straightforward implementation of upwind schemes in the context of finite element methods. The algorithm has been tested and validated on some well-documented configurations. A flow solution about a complete F-18 fighter is shown to demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Gang; Hu, De'an; Long, Shuyao
2017-02-01
A reconstructed edge-based smoothed triangular element, which is incorporated with the discrete shear gap (DSG) method, is formulated based on the global coordinate for analysis of Reissner-Mindlin plates. A symbolic integration combined with the smoothing technique is implemented to calculate the smoothed finite element matrices, which is integrated along the boundaries of each smoothing cell. Numerical results show that the proposed element is free from shear locking, and its results are in good agreement with the exact solutions, even for very thin plates with extremely distorted elements. The proposed element gives more accurate results than the original DSG element without smoothing, and it can be taken as an alternative element for analysis of Reissner-Mindlin plates. The prominent feature of the present element is that the integration scheme is unified in the smoothed form for all of the finite element matrices.
An edge-based smoothed triangle element for non-linear explicit dynamic analysis of shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Gang; Cui, Xiangyang; Li, Guangyao; Wu, Suzhen
2011-07-01
The paper presents an edge-based smoothed triangular element (EST) for nonlinear analysis of shell structures using an explicit dynamic formulation. In order to improve the accuracy and the convergence of the shell element without additional parameters, the gradient smoothing operation is performed to the strain rates in the smoothing domains associated with the edges of triangular elements. An edge coordinate system is defined local on the edges of the triangular element for the strain smoothing operation. The material nonlinearities for the dynamic solution are treated by using the updated Lagrangian description and an elastic-plastic constitutive law. The shear strains in the element formulation are approximated using the discrete shear gap method to mitigate the shear locking, and this element can be applicable for both thin shells and thick shells. Numerical results for elastic and elastic-plastic problems show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed shell element.
Edge-based finite elements and vector ABCs applied to 3D scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chatterjee, A.; Jin, J. M.; Volakis, John L.
1992-01-01
An edge based finite element formulation with vector absorbing boundary conditions is presented for scattering by composite structures having boundaries satisfying impedance and/or transition conditions. Remarkably accurate results are obtained by placing the mesh a small fraction of a wavelength away from the scatterer.
Lipnikov, Konstantin; Agouzal, Abdellatif; Vassilevski, Yuri
2009-01-01
We present a new technology for generating meshes minimizing the interpolation and discretization errors or their gradients. The key element of this methodology is construction of a space metric from edge-based error estimates. For a mesh with N{sub h} triangles, the error is proportional to N{sub h}{sup -1} and the gradient of error is proportional to N{sub h}{sup -1/2} which are optimal asymptotics. The methodology is verified with numerical experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Hongzhu; Hu, Xiangyun; Li, Jianhui; Endo, Masashi; Xiong, Bin
2017-02-01
We solve the 3D controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) problem using the edge-based finite element method. The modeling domain is discretized using unstructured tetrahedral mesh. We adopt the total field formulation for the quasi-static variant of Maxwell's equation and the computation cost to calculate the primary field can be saved. We adopt a new boundary condition which approximate the total field on the boundary by the primary field corresponding to the layered earth approximation of the complicated conductivity model. The primary field on the modeling boundary is calculated using fast Hankel transform. By using this new type of boundary condition, the computation cost can be reduced significantly and the modeling accuracy can be improved. We consider that the conductivity can be anisotropic. We solve the finite element system of equations using a parallelized multifrontal solver which works efficiently for multiple source and large scale electromagnetic modeling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jahandari, Hormoz; Ansari, SeyedMasoud; Farquharson, Colin G.
2017-03-01
This study compares two finite-element (FE) and three finite-volume (FV) schemes which use unstructured tetrahedral grids for the modelling of electromagnetic (EM) data. All these schemes belong to a group of differential methods where the electric field is defined along the edges of the elements. The FE and FV schemes are based on both the EM-field and the potential formulations of Maxwell's equations. The EM-field FE scheme uses edge-based (vector) basis functions while the potential FE scheme uses vector and scalar basis functions. All the FV schemes use staggered tetrahedral-Voronoï grids. Three examples are used for comparisons in terms of accuracy and in terms of the computation resources required by generic iterative and direct solvers for solving the problems. Two of these examples represent survey scenarios with electric and magnetic sources and the results are compared with those from the literature while the third example is a comparison against analytical solutions for an electric dipole source. Exactly the same mesh is used for all examples to allow for direct comparison of the various schemes. The results show that while the FE and FV schemes are comparable in terms of accuracy and computation resources, the FE schemes are slightly more accurate but also more expensive than the FV schemes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González-Estrada, Octavio A.; Natarajan, Sundararajan; Ródenas, Juan José; Nguyen-Xuan, Hung; Bordas, Stéphane P. A.
2013-07-01
An error control technique aimed to assess the quality of smoothed finite element approximations is presented in this paper. Finite element techniques based on strain smoothing appeared in 2007 were shown to provide significant advantages compared to conventional finite element approximations. In particular, a widely cited strength of such methods is improved accuracy for the same computational cost. Yet, few attempts have been made to directly assess the quality of the results obtained during the simulation by evaluating an estimate of the discretization error. Here we propose a recovery type error estimator based on an enhanced recovery technique. The salient features of the recovery are: enforcement of local equilibrium and, for singular problems a "smooth + singular" decomposition of the recovered stress. We evaluate the proposed estimator on a number of test cases from linear elastic structural mechanics and obtain efficient error estimations whose effectivities, both at local and global levels, are improved compared to recovery procedures not implementing these features.
Accurate finite-difference time-domain simulation of anisotropic media by subpixel smoothing.
Oskooi, Ardavan F; Kottke, Chris; Johnson, Steven G
2009-09-15
Finite-difference time-domain methods suffer from reduced accuracy when discretizing discontinuous materials. We previously showed that accuracy can be significantly improved by using subpixel smoothing of the isotropic dielectric function, but only if the smoothing scheme is properly designed. Using recent developments in perturbation theory that were applied to spectral methods, we extend this idea to anisotropic media and demonstrate that the generalized smoothing consistently reduces the errors and even attains second-order convergence with resolution.
Finite difference micromagnetic simulation with self-consistent currents and smooth surfaces
Cerjan, C; Gibbons, M R; Hewett, D W; Parker, G
1999-05-27
A micromagnetic algorithm has been developed using the finite difference method (FDM). Elliptic field equations are solved on the mesh using the efficient Dynamic Alternating Direction Implicit method. Smooth surfaces have been included in the FDM formulation so structures of irregular shape can be modeled. The current distribution and temperature of devices are also calculated. Keywords: Micromagnetic simulation, Magnetic dots, Read heads, Thermal Effects
Face-based smoothed finite element method for real-time simulation of soft tissue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendizabal, Andrea; Bessard Duparc, Rémi; Bui, Huu Phuoc; Paulus, Christoph J.; Peterlik, Igor; Cotin, Stéphane
2017-03-01
In soft tissue surgery, a tumor and other anatomical structures are usually located using the preoperative CT or MR images. However, due to the deformation of the concerned tissues, this information suffers from inaccuracy when employed directly during the surgery. In order to account for these deformations in the planning process, the use of a bio-mechanical model of the tissues is needed. Such models are often designed using the finite element method (FEM), which is, however, computationally expensive, in particular when a high accuracy of the simulation is required. In our work, we propose to use a smoothed finite element method (S-FEM) in the context of modeling of the soft tissue deformation. This numerical technique has been introduced recently to overcome the overly stiff behavior of the standard FEM and to improve the solution accuracy and the convergence rate in solid mechanics problems. In this paper, a face-based smoothed finite element method (FS-FEM) using 4-node tetrahedral elements is presented. We show that in some cases, the method allows for reducing the number of degrees of freedom, while preserving the accuracy of the discretization. The method is evaluated on a simulation of a cantilever beam loaded at the free end and on a simulation of a 3D cube under traction and compression forces. Further, it is applied to the simulation of the brain shift and of the kidney's deformation. The results demonstrate that the method outperforms the standard FEM in a bending scenario and that has similar accuracy as the standard FEM in the simulations of the brain-shift and of the kidney's deformation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fourey, G.; Hermange, C.; Le Touzé, D.; Oger, G.
2017-08-01
An efficient coupling between Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) and Finite Element (FE) methods dedicated to violent fluid-structure interaction (FSI) modeling is proposed in this study. The use of a Lagrangian meshless method for the fluid reduces the complexity of fluid-structure interface handling, especially in presence of complex free surface flows. The paper details the discrete SPH equations and the FSI coupling strategy adopted. Both convergence and robustness of the SPH-FE coupling are performed and discussed. More particularly, the loss and gain in stability is studied according to various coupling parameters, and different coupling algorithms are considered. Investigations are performed on 2D academic and experimental test cases in the order of increasing complexity.
Immersed smoothed finite element method for fluid-structure interaction simulation of aortic valves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Jianyao; Liu, G. R.; Narmoneva, Daria A.; Hinton, Robert B.; Zhang, Zhi-Qian
2012-12-01
This paper presents a novel numerical method for simulating the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems when blood flows over aortic valves. The method uses the immersed boundary/element method and the smoothed finite element method and hence it is termed as IS-FEM. The IS-FEM is a partitioned approach and does not need a body-fitted mesh for FSI simulations. It consists of three main modules: the fluid solver, the solid solver and the FSI force solver. In this work, the blood is modeled as incompressible viscous flow and solved using the characteristic-based-split scheme with FEM for spacial discretization. The leaflets of the aortic valve are modeled as Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic materials and solved using smoothed finite element method (or S-FEM). The FSI force is calculated on the Lagrangian fictitious fluid mesh that is identical to the moving solid mesh. The octree search and neighbor-to-neighbor schemes are used to detect efficiently the FSI pairs of fluid and solid cells. As an example, a 3D idealized model of aortic valve is modeled, and the opening process of the valve is simulated using the proposed IS-FEM. Numerical results indicate that the IS-FEM can serve as an efficient tool in the study of aortic valve dynamics to reveal the details of stresses in the aortic valves, the flow velocities in the blood, and the shear forces on the interfaces. This tool can also be applied to animal models studying disease processes and may ultimately translate to a new adaptive methods working with magnetic resonance images, leading to improvements on diagnostic and prognostic paradigms, as well as surgical planning, in the care of patients.
Goode, D.J.; Appel, C.A.
1992-01-01
More accurate alternatives to the widely used harmonic mean interblock transmissivity are proposed for block-centered finite-difference models of ground-water flow in unconfined aquifers and in aquifers having smoothly varying transmissivity. The harmonic mean is the exact interblock transmissivity for steady-state one-dimensional flow with no recharge if the transmissivity is assumed to be spatially uniform over each finite-difference block, changing abruptly at the block interface. However, the harmonic mean may be inferior to other means if transmissivity varies in a continuous or smooth manner between nodes. Alternative interblock transmissivity functions are analytically derived for the case of steady-state one-dimensional flow with no recharge. The second author has previously derived the exact interblock transmissivity, the logarithmic mean, for one-dimensional flow when transmissivity is a linear function of distance in the direction of flow. We show that the logarithmic mean transmissivity is also exact for uniform flow parallel to the direction of changing transmissivity in a two- or three-dimensional model, regardless of grid orientation relative to the flow vector. For the case of horizontal flow in a homogeneous unconfined or water-table aquifer with a horizontal bottom and with areally distributed recharge, the exact interblock transmissivity is the unweighted arithmetic mean of transmissivity at the nodes. This mean also exhibits no grid-orientation effect for unidirectional flow in a two-dimensional model. For horizontal flow in an unconfined aquifer with no recharge where hydraulic conductivity is a linear function of distance in the direction of flow the exact interblock transmissivity is the product of the arithmetic mean saturated thickness and the logarithmic mean hydraulic conductivity. For several hypothetical two- and three-dimensional cases with smoothly varying transmissivity or hydraulic conductivity, the harmonic mean is shown to yield
Visual servo walking control for humanoids with finite-time convergence and smooth robot velocities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delfin, Josafat; Becerra, Hector M.; Arechavaleta, Gustavo
2016-07-01
In this paper, we address the problem of humanoid locomotion guided from information of a monocular camera. The goal of the robot is to reach a desired location defined in terms of a target image, i.e., a positioning task. The proposed approach allows us to introduce a desired time to complete the positioning task, which is advantageous in contrast to the classical exponential convergence. In particular, finite-time convergence is achieved while generating smooth robot velocities and considering the omnidirectional waking capability of the robot. In addition, we propose a hierarchical task-based control scheme, which can simultaneously handle the visual positioning and the obstacle avoidance tasks without affecting the desired time of convergence. The controller is able to activate or inactivate the obstacle avoidance task without generating discontinuous velocity references while the humanoid is walking. Stability of the closed loop for the two task-based control is demonstrated theoretically even during the transitions between the tasks. The proposed approach is generic in the sense that different visual control schemes are supported. We evaluate a homography-based visual servoing for position-based and image-based modalities, as well as for eye-in-hand and eye-to-hand configurations. The experimental evaluation is performed with the humanoid robot NAO.
Canny edge-based deformable image registration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kearney, Vasant; Huang, Yihui; Mao, Weihua; Yuan, Baohong; Tang, Liping
2017-02-01
This work focuses on developing a 2D Canny edge-based deformable image registration (Canny DIR) algorithm to register in vivo white light images taken at various time points. This method uses a sparse interpolation deformation algorithm to sparsely register regions of the image with strong edge information. A stability criterion is enforced which removes regions of edges that do not deform in a smooth uniform manner. Using a synthetic mouse surface ground truth model, the accuracy of the Canny DIR algorithm was evaluated under axial rotation in the presence of deformation. The accuracy was also tested using fluorescent dye injections, which were then used for gamma analysis to establish a second ground truth. The results indicate that the Canny DIR algorithm performs better than rigid registration, intensity corrected Demons, and distinctive features for all evaluation matrices and ground truth scenarios. In conclusion Canny DIR performs well in the presence of the unique lighting and shading variations associated with white-light-based image registration.
(In)stability of quasi-static paths of some finite dimensional smooth or elastic-plastic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martins, J. A. C.; Monteiro Marques, M. D. P.; Petrov, A.; Rebrova, N. V.; Sobolev, V. A.; Coelho, I.
2005-01-01
In this paper we discuss some mathematical issues related to the stability of quasistatic paths of finite dimensional mechanical systems that have a smooth or an elastic-plastic behavior. The concept of stability of quasi-static paths used here is essentially a continuity property relatively to the size of the initial perturbations (as in Lyapunov stability) and to the smallness of the rate of application of the external forces (which here plays the role of the small parameter in singular perturbation problems). A related concept of attractiveness is also proposed. Sufficient conditions for attractiveness or for instability of quasi-static paths of smooth systems are presented. The Ziegler column and other examples illustrate these situations. Mathematical formulations (plus existence and uniqueness results) for dynamic and quasi-static elastic-plastic problems with linear hardening are recalled. A stability result is proved for the quasi-static evolution of these systems.
A continuum model for excitation-contraction of smooth muscle under finite deformations.
Sharifimajd, Babak; Stålhand, Jonas
2014-08-21
The main focus in most of the continuum based muscle models is the mechanics of muscle contraction while other physiological processes governing muscle contraction, e.g., cell membrane excitation and activation, are ignored. These latter processes are essential to initiate contraction and to determine the amount of generated force, and by excluding them, the developed model cannot replicate the true behavior of the muscle in question. The aim of this study is to establish a thermodynamically and physiologically consistent framework which allows us to model smooth muscle contraction by including cell membrane excitability and kinetics of myosin phosphorylation, along with dynamics of smooth muscle contraction. The model accounts for these processes through a set of coupled dissipative constitutive equations derived by applying first principles. To show the performance of the derived model, it is evaluated for two different cases: a chemo-mechanical study of pig taenia coli cells where the excitation process is excluded, and an electro-chemo-mechanical study of rat myometrium. The results show that the model is able to replicate important aspects of the smooth muscle excitation-contraction process.
A Novel Three-Dimensional Contact Finite Element Based on Smooth Pressure Interpolations
Jones, R.E.; Papadopoulos, P.
2000-10-01
This article proposes a new three-dimensional contact finite element which employs continuous and weakly coupled pressure interpolations on each of the interacting boundaries. The resulting formulation circumvents the geometric bias of one-pass methods, as well as the surface locking of traditional two-pass node-on-surf ace methods. A Lagrange multiplier implementation of the proposed element is validated for frictionless quasi-static contact by a series of numerical simulations.
A collection of edge-based elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kempel, Leo C.; Volakis, John L.
1992-01-01
Edge-based elements have proved useful in solving electromagnetic problems since they are nondivergent. Previous authors have presented several two and three dimensional elements. Herein, we present four types of elements which are suitable for modeling several types of three dimensional geometries. Distorted brick and triangular prism elements are given in cartesian coordinates as well as the specialized cylindrical shell and pie-shaped prism elements which are suitable for problems best described in polar cylindrical coordinates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nordendale, Nikolas A.; Heard, William F.; Sherburn, Jesse A.; Basu, Prodyot K.
2016-03-01
The response of structural components of high-strength cementitious (HSC) materials to projectile impact is characterized by high-rate fragmentation resulting from strong compressive shock waves coupled with reflected tensile waves. Accurate modeling of armor panels of such brittle materials under high-velocity projectile impact is a complex problem requiring meticulous experimental characterization of material properties. In a recent paper by the authors, an approach to handle such problems based on a modified Advanced Fundamental Concrete (AFC) constitutive model was developed. In the HSC panels considered in this study, an analogous approach is applied, and the predictions are verified with ballistic impact test data. Traditional Lagrangian finite element analysis (FEA) of these problems tends to introduce errors and suffers from convergence issues resulting from large deformations at free surfaces. Also, FEA cannot properly account for the issues of secondary impact of spalled fragments when multiple armor panels are used. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is considered to be an attractive alternative to resolve these and other issues. However, SPH-based quantitative results have been found to be less accurate than the FEA-based ones when the deformations are not sufficiently large. This paper primarily focuses on a comparison of FEA and SPH models to predict high-velocity projectile impact on single and stacked HSC panels. Results are compared to recent ballistic experiments performed as a part of this research, and conclusions are drawn based on the findings.
An edge-based unstructured mesh discretisation in geospherical framework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szmelter, Joanna; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.
2010-07-01
An arbitrary finite-volume approach is developed for discretising partial differential equations governing fluid flows on the sphere. Unconventionally for unstructured-mesh global models, the governing equations are cast in the anholonomic geospherical framework established in computational meteorology. The resulting discretisation retains proven properties of the geospherical formulation, while it offers the flexibility of unstructured meshes in enabling irregular spatial resolution. The latter allows for a global enhancement of the spatial resolution away from the polar regions as well as for a local mesh refinement. A class of non-oscillatory forward-in-time edge-based solvers is developed and applied to numerical examples of three-dimensional hydrostatic flows, including shallow-water benchmarks, on a rotating sphere.
MPDATA: An edge-based unstructured-grid formulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.; Szmelter, Joanna
2005-07-01
We present an advancement in the evolution of MPDATA (multidimensional positive definite advection transport algorithm). Over the last two decades, MPDATA has proven successful in applications using single-block structured cuboidal meshes (viz. Cartesian meshes), while employing homeomorphic mappings to accommodate time-dependent curvilinear domains. Motivated by the strengths of the Cartesian-mesh MPDATA, we develop a new formulation in an arbitrary finite-volume framework with a fully unstructured polyhedral hybrid mesh. In MPDATA, as in any Taylor-series based integration method for PDE, the choice of data structure has a pronounced impact on the technical details of the algorithm. Aiming at a broad range of applications with a large number of control-volume cells, we select a general, compact and computationally efficient, edge-based data structure. This facilitates the use of MPDATA for problems involving complex geometries and/or inhomogeneous anisotropic flows where mesh adaptivity is advantageous. In this paper, we describe the theory and implementation of the basic finite-volume MPDATA, and document extensions important for applications: a fully monotone scheme, diffusion scheme, and generalization to complete flow solvers. Theoretical discussions are illustrated with benchmark results in two and three spatial dimensions.
Smoothed square well potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salamon, P.; Vertse, T.
2017-07-01
The classical square well potential is smoothed with a finite range smoothing function in order to get a new simple strictly finite range form for the phenomenological nuclear potential. The smoothed square well form becomes exactly zero smoothly at a finite distance, in contrast to the Woods-Saxon form. If the smoothing range is four times the diffuseness of the Woods-Saxon shape both the central and the spin-orbit terms of the Woods-Saxon shape are reproduced reasonably well. The bound single-particle energies in a Woods-Saxon potential can be well reproduced with those in the smoothed square well potential. The same is true for the complex energies of the narrow resonances.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasyliv, Yaroslav; Alexeev, Alexander
2015-11-01
In the meshfree family of methods, partial differential equations are solved on unstructured grids where a search radius establishes an implicit nodal connectivity used to determine whether to include or exclude neighboring nodes in the constructed approximation. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is widely attributed to be the eldest of the meshfree methods dating back to an astrophysics paper published in 1977 by Gingold and Monaghan. However, beating them by five years was Jensen when he published Finite Differences for Arbitrary Grids (FIDAG) in 1972. Ultimately this work and others were generalized by Liszka and Orkisz in 1979 as a weighted least squares formulation solving for the Taylor coefficients and is now commonly known as General Finite Differences (GFD). Shortly after in 1981, Lancaster and Salkauskas introduced the Moving Least Squares (MLS) approximation for surface reconstruction using a weighted least squares formulation where the unknown coefficients are treated as functions varying from node to node in the support domain. Here we examine important differences, similarities and limitations of each method by solving the 2D Poisson equation on unstructured grids. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1148903.
Fiske, Ian J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Gross, Kevin
2014-01-01
Ecologists and wildlife biologists increasingly use latent variable models to study patterns of species occurrence when detection is imperfect. These models have recently been generalized to accommodate both a more expansive description of state than simple presence or absence, and Markovian dynamics in the latent state over successive sampling seasons. In this paper, we write these multi-season, multi-state models as hidden Markov models to find both maximum likelihood estimates of model parameters and finite-sample estimators of the trajectory of the latent state over time. These estimators are especially useful for characterizing population trends in species of conservation concern. We also develop parametric bootstrap procedures that allow formal inference about latent trend. We examine model behavior through simulation, and we apply the model to data from the North American Amphibian Monitoring Program.
Jiang, Chen; Liu, Gui-Rong; Han, Xu; Zhang, Zhi-Qian; Zeng, Wei
2015-01-01
The smoothed FEM (S-FEM) is firstly extended to explore the behavior of 3D anisotropic large deformation of rabbit ventricles during the passive filling process in diastole. Because of the incompressibility of myocardium, a special method called selective face-based/node-based S-FEM using four-node tetrahedral elements (FS/NS-FEM-TET4) is adopted in order to avoid volumetric locking. To validate the proposed algorithms of FS/NS-FEM-TET4, the 3D Lame problem is implemented. The performance contest results show that our FS/NS-FEM-TET4 is accurate, volumetric locking-free and insensitive to mesh distortion than standard linear FEM because of absence of isoparametric mapping. Actually, the efficiency of FS/NS-FEM-TET4 is comparable with higher-order FEM, such as 10-node tetrahedral elements. The proposed method for Holzapfel myocardium hyperelastic strain energy is also validated by simple shear tests through the comparison outcomes reported in available references. Finally, the FS/NS-FEM-TET4 is applied in the example of the passive filling of MRI-based rabbit ventricles with fiber architecture derived from rule-based algorithm to demonstrate its efficiency. Hence, we conclude that FS/NS-FEM-TET4 is a promising alternative other than FEM in passive cardiac mechanics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakhvalov, P. A.; Kozubskaya, T. K.
2017-04-01
In this paper, 1-exact vertex-centered finite-volume schemes with an edge-based approximation of fluxes are constructed for numerically solving hyperbolic problems on hybrid unstructured meshes. The 1-exactness property is ensured by introducing a new type of control volumes, which are called semitransparent cells. The features of a parallel algorithm implementing the computations using semitransparent cells on modern supercomputers are described. The results of solving linear and nonlinear test problems are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, M.; Hao, J.; Twardzik, C.; Ji, C.
2016-12-01
The large uncertainties of some basic earthquake source parameters, such as average stress drop (Cotton et al., 2013), are largely caused by over-simplifications of the source (e.g., Madariaga, 1979). In contrast, the results of finite fault source inversions suffer from the uncertainties caused by over-parameterization. Hundreds of free parameters are often used to represent spatiotemporal rupture history, despite the fact that not all of them are well constrained by the available observations. The uncertainties of individual sub-fault parameters are often difficult to access because they are not only caused by the limited data but also the regularizations applied to stabilize the inversions. We develop a new finite fault inversion strategy to explore the uncertainty range for the energy based average stress drop (ΔτE) of large earthquakes. For a given earthquake, a series of modified finite fault inversions are conducted to search for the solution that not only best fits seismic and geodetic data but also has a ΔτE matching a given value. It results in a trade-off curve between the misfit to the observations and ΔτE, allowing the range of ΔτE constrained by the given geophysical dataset to be robustly defined. Our initial study of the 2014 Mw7.9 Rat Islands earthquake using teleseismic data revealed that only the lower bound of ΔτE could be constrained with far field seismic data (Adams et al., 2016). To investigate whether such a conclusion also holds for near field data, the slip distribution and ΔτE of the 2015 Mw7.9 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake is studied using near-source geodetic data. Our result reveals a similar pattern that the misfit gradually improves when the target ΔτE increases from 0.5 to 8 MPa; but becomes nearly constant from 10 MPa to 50 MPa. Hence, only the lower bound ( 8-10 MPa) of ΔτE can be constrained, even with such a comprehensive geodetic dataset. As ΔτE is proportional to the available seismic energy, our results imply
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Werner, C. L.; Wegmüller, U.; Strozzi, T.
2012-12-01
The Lost-Hills oil field located in Kern County,California ranks sixth in total remaining reserves in California. Hundreds of densely packed wells characterize the field with one well every 5000 to 20000 square meters. Subsidence due to oil extraction can be grater than 10 cm/year and is highly variable both in space and time. The RADARSAT-1 SAR satellite collected data over this area with a 24-day repeat during a 2 year period spanning 2002-2004. Relatively high interferometric correlation makes this an excellent region for development and test of deformation time-series inversion algorithms. Errors in deformation time series derived from a stack of differential interferograms are primarily due to errors in the digital terrain model, interferometric baselines, variability in tropospheric delay, thermal noise and phase unwrapping errors. Particularly challenging is separation of non-linear deformation from variations in troposphere delay and phase unwrapping errors. In our algorithm a subset of interferometric pairs is selected from a set of N radar acquisitions based on criteria of connectivity, time interval, and perpendicular baseline. When possible, the subset consists of temporally connected interferograms, otherwise the different groups of interferograms are selected to overlap in time. The maximum time interval is constrained to be less than a threshold value to minimize phase gradients due to deformation as well as minimize temporal decorrelation. Large baselines are also avoided to minimize the consequence of DEM errors on the interferometric phase. Based on an extension of the SVD based inversion described by Lee et al. ( USGS Professional Paper 1769), Schmidt and Burgmann (JGR, 2003), and the earlier work of Berardino (TGRS, 2002), our algorithm combines estimation of the DEM height error with a set of finite difference smoothing constraints. A set of linear equations are formulated for each spatial point that are functions of the deformation velocities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Clarmann, T.
2014-04-01
The difference due to the content of a priori information between a constrained retrieval and the true atmospheric state is usually represented by the so-called smoothing error. In this paper it is shown that the concept of the smoothing error is questionable because it is not compliant with Gaussian error propagation. The reason for this is that the smoothing error does not represent the expected deviation of the retrieval from the true state but the expected deviation of the retrieval from the atmospheric state sampled on an arbitrary grid, which is itself a smoothed representation of the true state. The idea of a sufficiently fine sampling of this reference atmospheric state is untenable because atmospheric variability occurs on all scales, implying that there is no limit beyond which the sampling is fine enough. Even the idealization of infinitesimally fine sampling of the reference state does not help because the smoothing error is applied to quantities which are only defined in a statistical sense, which implies that a finite volume of sufficient spatial extent is needed to meaningfully talk about temperature or concentration. Smoothing differences, however, which play a role when measurements are compared, are still a useful quantity if the involved a priori covariance matrix has been evaluated on the comparison grid rather than resulting from interpolation. This is, because the undefined component of the smoothing error, which is the effect of smoothing implied by the finite grid on which the measurements are compared, cancels out when the difference is calculated.
Nakamachi, Eiji; Uchida, Takahiro; Kuramae, Hiroyuki; Morita, Yusuke
2014-08-01
In this study, we developed a multi-scale finite element (FE) analysis code to obtain the stress and strain that occurred in the smooth muscle cell (SMC) at micro-scale, which was seeded in the real fabricated braid fibril artificial blood vessel. This FE code can predict the dynamic response of stress under the blood pressure loading. We try to establish a computer-aided engineering (CAE)-driven scaffold design technique for the blood vessel regeneration. Until now, there occurred the great progresses for the endothelial cell activation and intima layer regeneration in the blood vessel regeneration study. However, there remains the difficulty of the SMC activation and media layer regeneration. Therefore, many researchers are now studying to elucidate the fundamental mechanism of SMC activation and media layer regeneration by using the biomechanical technique. As the numerical tool, we used the dynamic-explicit FE code PAM-CRASH, ESI Ltd. For the material models, the nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive law was adapted for the human blood vessel, SMC and the extra-cellular matrix, and the elastic law for the polyglycolic acid (PGA) fiber. Through macro-FE and micro-FE analyses of fabricated braid fibril tubes by using PGA fiber under the combined conditions of the orientation angle and the pitch of fiber, we searched an appropriate structure for the stress stimulation for SMC functionalization. Objectives of this study are indicated as follows: 1. to analyze the stress and strain of the human blood vessel and SMC, and 2. to calculate stress and strain of the real fabricated braid fibril artificial blood vessel and SMC to search an appropriate PGA fiber structure under combined conditions of PGA fiber numbers, 12 and 24, and the helical orientation angles of fiber, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 degrees. Finally, we found a braid fibril tube, which has an angle of 15 degree and 12 PGA fibers, as a most appropriate artificial blood vessel for SMC functionalization. Copyright
A Novel Segmentation Approach Combining Region- and Edge-Based Information for Ultrasound Images.
Luo, Yaozhong; Liu, Longzhong; Huang, Qinghua; Li, Xuelong
2017-01-01
Ultrasound imaging has become one of the most popular medical imaging modalities with numerous diagnostic applications. However, ultrasound (US) image segmentation, which is the essential process for further analysis, is a challenging task due to the poor image quality. In this paper, we propose a new segmentation scheme to combine both region- and edge-based information into the robust graph-based (RGB) segmentation method. The only interaction required is to select two diagonal points to determine a region of interest (ROI) on the original image. The ROI image is smoothed by a bilateral filter and then contrast-enhanced by histogram equalization. Then, the enhanced image is filtered by pyramid mean shift to improve homogeneity. With the optimization of particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, the RGB segmentation method is performed to segment the filtered image. The segmentation results of our method have been compared with the corresponding results obtained by three existing approaches, and four metrics have been used to measure the segmentation performance. The experimental results show that the method achieves the best overall performance and gets the lowest ARE (10.77%), the second highest TPVF (85.34%), and the second lowest FPVF (4.48%).
2015-04-22
our inverse problem we need to know the characteristics of the defect for that field configuration. In design optimization, the problem geometry is...The computational process in inverse problem solution is shown in Fig.10. It requires solving for the vector of design parameters . We first...lines for the Numerical Model SMOOTH-SHAPED DEFECT In inverse problem design optimization, getting a practically manufacturable shape is
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Clarmann, T.
2014-09-01
The difference due to the content of a priori information between a constrained retrieval and the true atmospheric state is usually represented by a diagnostic quantity called smoothing error. In this paper it is shown that, regardless of the usefulness of the smoothing error as a diagnostic tool in its own right, the concept of the smoothing error as a component of the retrieval error budget is questionable because it is not compliant with Gaussian error propagation. The reason for this is that the smoothing error does not represent the expected deviation of the retrieval from the true state but the expected deviation of the retrieval from the atmospheric state sampled on an arbitrary grid, which is itself a smoothed representation of the true state; in other words, to characterize the full loss of information with respect to the true atmosphere, the effect of the representation of the atmospheric state on a finite grid also needs to be considered. The idea of a sufficiently fine sampling of this reference atmospheric state is problematic because atmospheric variability occurs on all scales, implying that there is no limit beyond which the sampling is fine enough. Even the idealization of infinitesimally fine sampling of the reference state does not help, because the smoothing error is applied to quantities which are only defined in a statistical sense, which implies that a finite volume of sufficient spatial extent is needed to meaningfully discuss temperature or concentration. Smoothing differences, however, which play a role when measurements are compared, are still a useful quantity if the covariance matrix involved has been evaluated on the comparison grid rather than resulting from interpolation and if the averaging kernel matrices have been evaluated on a grid fine enough to capture all atmospheric variations that the instruments are sensitive to. This is, under the assumptions stated, because the undefined component of the smoothing error, which is the
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Price, Beverley; Pincott, Maxine; Rebman, Ashley; Northcutt, Jen; Barsanti, Amy; Silkunas, Betty; Brighton, Susan K.; Reitz, David; Winkler, Maureen
1999-01-01
Presents discipline tips from several teachers to keep classrooms running smoothly all year. Some of the suggestions include the following: a bear-cave warning system, peer mediation, a motivational mystery, problem students acting as the teacher's assistant, a positive-behavior-reward chain, a hallway scavenger hunt (to ensure quiet passage…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Price, Beverley; Pincott, Maxine; Rebman, Ashley; Northcutt, Jen; Barsanti, Amy; Silkunas, Betty; Brighton, Susan K.; Reitz, David; Winkler, Maureen
1999-01-01
Presents discipline tips from several teachers to keep classrooms running smoothly all year. Some of the suggestions include the following: a bear-cave warning system, peer mediation, a motivational mystery, problem students acting as the teacher's assistant, a positive-behavior-reward chain, a hallway scavenger hunt (to ensure quiet passage…
A 3D finite-volume scheme for the Euler equations on adaptive tetrahedral grids
Vijayan, P.; Kallinderis, Y. )
1994-08-01
The paper describes the development and application of a new Euler solver for adaptive tetrahedral grids. Spatial discretization uses a finite-volume, node-based scheme that is of central-differencing type. A second-order Taylor series expansion is employed to march the solution in time according to the Lax-Wendroff approach. Special upwind-like smoothing operators for unstructured grids are developed for shock-capturing, as well as for suppression of solution oscillations. The scheme is formulated so that all operations are edge-based, which reduces the computational effort significantly. An adaptive grid algorithm is employed in order to resolve local flow features. This is achieved by dividing the tetrahedral cells locally, guided by a flow feature detection algorithm. Application cases include transonic flow around the ONERA M6 wing and transonic flow past a transport aircraft configuration. Comparisons with experimental data evaluate accuracy of the developed adaptive solver. 31 refs., 33 figs.
An adaptive data-smoothing routine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, Clayborne D.; Nicolas, David P.
1989-01-01
An adaptive noise reduction algorithm that can be implemented on a microcomputer is developed. Smoothing polynomials are used where the polynomial coefficients are chosen such that the mean-square-error between the noisy and smoothed data is minimized. This approach is equivalent to the implementation of a low-pass finite impulse response filter. The noise reduction depends on the order of the smoothing polynomial. A whiteness test on the error sequence is incorporated to search for the optimal smoothing. Expansion coefficients may be computed via the fast Fourier transform, and the resulting smoothing process is the equivalent of the implementation of an adaptive ideal low-pass filter. Results are obtained for an analytical signal with added white Gaussian noise. The routine may be applied to any smooth signal with additive random noise.
Pairwise and edge-based models of epidemic dynamics on correlated weighted networks.
Rattana, P; Miller, J C; Kiss, I Z
2014-04-24
In this paper we explore the potential of the pairwise-type modelling approach to be extended to weighted networks where nodal degree and weights are not independent. As a baseline or null model for weighted networks, we consider undirected, heterogenous networks where edge weights are randomly distributed. We show that the pairwise model successfully captures the extra complexity of the network, but does this at the cost of limited analytical tractability due the high number of equations. To circumvent this problem, we employ the edge-based modelling approach to derive models corresponding to two different cases, namely for degree-dependent and randomly distributed weights. These models are more amenable to compute important epidemic descriptors, such as early growth rate and final epidemic size, and produce similarly excellent agreement with simulation. Using a branching process approach we compute the basic reproductive ratio for both models and discuss the implication of random and correlated weight distributions on this as well as on the time evolution and final outcome of epidemics. Finally, we illustrate that the two seemingly different modelling approaches, pairwsie and edge-based, operate on similar assumptions and it is possible to formally link the two.
Pairwise and edge-based models of epidemic dynamics on correlated weighted networks
Rattana, P.; Miller, J.C.; Kiss, I.Z.
2014-01-01
In this paper we explore the potential of the pairwise-type modelling approach to be extended to weighted networks where nodal degree and weights are not independent. As a baseline or null model for weighted networks, we consider undirected, heterogenous networks where edge weights are randomly distributed. We show that the pairwise model successfully captures the extra complexity of the network, but does this at the cost of limited analytical tractability due the high number of equations. To circumvent this problem, we employ the edge-based modelling approach to derive models corresponding to two different cases, namely for degree-dependent and randomly distributed weights. These models are more amenable to compute important epidemic descriptors, such as early growth rate and final epidemic size, and produce similarly excellent agreement with simulation. Using a branching process approach we compute the basic reproductive ratio for both models and discuss the implication of random and correlated weight distributions on this as well as on the time evolution and final outcome of epidemics. Finally, we illustrate that the two seemingly different modelling approaches, pairwsie and edge-based, operate on similar assumptions and it is possible to formally link the two. PMID:25580064
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendrikse, Anne; Veldhuis, Raymond; Spreeuwers, Luuk
2013-12-01
Second-order statistics play an important role in data modeling. Nowadays, there is a tendency toward measuring more signals with higher resolution (e.g., high-resolution video), causing a rapid increase of dimensionality of the measured samples, while the number of samples remains more or less the same. As a result the eigenvalue estimates are significantly biased as described by the Marčenko Pastur equation for the limit of both the number of samples and their dimensionality going to infinity. By introducing a smoothness factor, we show that the Marčenko Pastur equation can be used in practical situations where both the number of samples and their dimensionality remain finite. Based on this result we derive methods, one already known and one new to our knowledge, to estimate the sample eigenvalues when the population eigenvalues are known. However, usually the sample eigenvalues are known and the population eigenvalues are required. We therefore applied one of the these methods in a feedback loop, resulting in an eigenvalue bias correction method. We compare this eigenvalue correction method with the state-of-the-art methods and show that our method outperforms other methods particularly in real-life situations often encountered in biometrics: underdetermined configurations, high-dimensional configurations, and configurations where the eigenvalues are exponentially distributed.
Accuracy-preserving source term quadrature for third-order edge-based discretization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Liu, Yi
2017-09-01
In this paper, we derive a family of source term quadrature formulas for preserving third-order accuracy of the node-centered edge-based discretization for conservation laws with source terms on arbitrary simplex grids. A three-parameter family of source term quadrature formulas is derived, and as a subset, a one-parameter family of economical formulas is identified that does not require second derivatives of the source term. Among the economical formulas, a unique formula is then derived that does not require gradients of the source term at neighbor nodes, thus leading to a significantly smaller discretization stencil for source terms. All the formulas derived in this paper do not require a boundary closure, and therefore can be directly applied at boundary nodes. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate third-order accuracy at interior and boundary nodes for one-dimensional grids and linear triangular/tetrahedral grids over straight and curved geometries.
Face recognition via edge-based Gabor feature representation for plastic surgery-altered images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chude-Olisah, Chollette C.; Sulong, Ghazali; Chude-Okonkwo, Uche A. K.; Hashim, Siti Z. M.
2014-12-01
Plastic surgery procedures on the face introduce skin texture variations between images of the same person (intra-subject), thereby making the task of face recognition more difficult than in normal scenario. Usually, in contemporary face recognition systems, the original gray-level face image is used as input to the Gabor descriptor, which translates to encoding some texture properties of the face image. The texture-encoding process significantly degrades the performance of such systems in the case of plastic surgery due to the presence of surgically induced intra-subject variations. Based on the proposition that the shape of significant facial components such as eyes, nose, eyebrow, and mouth remains unchanged after plastic surgery, this paper employs an edge-based Gabor feature representation approach for the recognition of surgically altered face images. We use the edge information, which is dependent on the shapes of the significant facial components, to address the plastic surgery-induced texture variation problems. To ensure that the significant facial components represent useful edge information with little or no false edges, a simple illumination normalization technique is proposed for preprocessing. Gabor wavelet is applied to the edge image to accentuate on the uniqueness of the significant facial components for discriminating among different subjects. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on the Georgia Tech (GT) and the Labeled Faces in the Wild (LFW) databases with illumination and expression problems, and the plastic surgery database with texture changes. Results show that the proposed edge-based Gabor feature representation approach is robust against plastic surgery-induced face variations amidst expression and illumination problems and outperforms the existing plastic surgery face recognition methods reported in the literature.
Krylov, N. V.
2008-12-15
We discuss the possibility to represent smooth nonnegative matrix-valued functions as finite linear combinations of fixed matrices with positive real-valued coefficients whose square roots are Lipschitz continuous. This issue is reduced to a similar problem for smooth functions with values in a polyhedron.
EVolution: an edge-based variational method for non-rigid multi-modal image registration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Senneville, B. Denis; Zachiu, C.; Ries, M.; Moonen, C.
2016-10-01
Image registration is part of a large variety of medical applications including diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and/or treatment effectiveness and, more recently, therapy guidance. Such applications usually involve several imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, x-ray or magnetic resonance imaging, either separately or combined. In the current work, we propose a non-rigid multi-modal registration method (namely EVolution: an edge-based variational method for non-rigid multi-modal image registration) that aims at maximizing edge alignment between the images being registered. The proposed algorithm requires only contrasts between physiological tissues, preferably present in both image modalities, and assumes deformable/elastic tissues. Given both is shown to be well suitable for non-rigid co-registration across different image types/contrasts (T1/T2) as well as different modalities (CT/MRI). This is achieved using a variational scheme that provides a fast algorithm with a low number of control parameters. Results obtained on an annotated CT data set were comparable to the ones provided by state-of-the-art multi-modal image registration algorithms, for all tested experimental conditions (image pre-filtering, image intensity variation, noise perturbation). Moreover, we demonstrate that, compared to existing approaches, our method possesses increased robustness to transient structures (i.e. that are only present in some of the images).
Mapping edge-based traffic measurements onto the internal links in MPLS network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Guofeng; Tang, Hong; Zhang, Yi
2004-09-01
Applying multi-protocol label switching techniques to IP-based backbone for traffic engineering goals has shown advantageous. Obtaining a volume of load on each internal link of the network is crucial for traffic engineering applying. Though collecting can be available for each link, such as applying traditional SNMP scheme, the approach may cause heavy processing load and sharply degrade the throughput of the core routers. Then monitoring merely at the edge of the network and mapping the measurements onto the core provides a good alternative way. In this paper, we explore a scheme for traffic mapping with edge-based measurements in MPLS network. It is supposed that the volume of traffic on each internal link over the domain would be mapped onto by measurements available only at ingress nodes. We apply path-based measurements at ingress nodes without enabling measurements in the core of the network. We propose a method that can infer a path from the ingress to the egress node using label distribution protocol without collecting routing data from core routers. Based on flow theory and queuing theory, we prove that our approach is effective and present the algorithm for traffic mapping. We also show performance simulation results that indicate potential of our approach.
EVolution: an edge-based variational method for non-rigid multi-modal image registration.
Denis de Senneville, B; Zachiu, C; Ries, M; Moonen, C
2016-10-21
Image registration is part of a large variety of medical applications including diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and/or treatment effectiveness and, more recently, therapy guidance. Such applications usually involve several imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, x-ray or magnetic resonance imaging, either separately or combined. In the current work, we propose a non-rigid multi-modal registration method (namely EVolution: an edge-based variational method for non-rigid multi-modal image registration) that aims at maximizing edge alignment between the images being registered. The proposed algorithm requires only contrasts between physiological tissues, preferably present in both image modalities, and assumes deformable/elastic tissues. Given both is shown to be well suitable for non-rigid co-registration across different image types/contrasts (T1/T2) as well as different modalities (CT/MRI). This is achieved using a variational scheme that provides a fast algorithm with a low number of control parameters. Results obtained on an annotated CT data set were comparable to the ones provided by state-of-the-art multi-modal image registration algorithms, for all tested experimental conditions (image pre-filtering, image intensity variation, noise perturbation). Moreover, we demonstrate that, compared to existing approaches, our method possesses increased robustness to transient structures (i.e. that are only present in some of the images).
Kazandjian, Serge; Kiliaridis, Stavros; Mavropoulos, Anestis
2006-07-01
To evaluate the validity and inter- and intraexaminer reliability when on-screen landmarks are digitized manually or when these are computer-assisted by means of a new cephalometric software feature. Twenty radiographs were digitized four times by two experienced orthodontists using a manual method and an edge-based algorithm that helps landmark identification by detecting the edges of anatomical structures. The computer-assisted method did not agree with manual digitization in 7 of 13 landmarks and 5 of 10 variables. With a tolerance of 0.5 mm or degrees, the two methods did not agree in cephalometric variables. Intraoperator reliability was improved for B point (x-axis), and Menton (x- and y-axis). It got worse for point A (y-axis). Interoperator reliability was improved for B point (x- and y-axis), Soft Labrale Inferior (x- and y-axis), Soft Pogonion (x-axis), and Menton (y-axis). It decreased for point A (y-axis). Intra- and interoperator reliability got better for only one cephalometric variable under study (SNB). The edge-locking feature seems to be a promising tool for increasing the reliability of on-screen cephalometric analysis. There seem to be difficulties in locating the appropriate edges when artifacts or soft tissue edges are located near the targeted landmark. The existence of very small, but systematic differences between the two digitization methods manifests the need for further improvement.
Edge-based a posteriori error estimators for generation of d-dimensional quasi-optimal meshes
Lipnikov, Konstantin; Agouzal, Abdellatif; Vassilevski, Yuri
2009-01-01
We present a new method of metric recovery for minimization of L{sub p}-norms of the interpolation error or its gradient. The method uses edge-based a posteriori error estimates. The method is analyzed for conformal simplicial meshes in spaces of arbitrary dimension d.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yushu; Xiao, Di; Wen, Wenying; Tian, Yuan
2013-12-01
In some special multimedia applications, only the regions with semantic information should be provided better protection whereas the other smooth regions can be free of encryption. However, most of the existing multimedia security schemes only consider bits and pixels rather than semantic information during their encryption. Motivated by this, we propose an edge-based lightweight image encryption scheme using chaos-based reversible hidden transform and multiple-order discrete fractional cosine transform. An image is first carried out by the edge detection based on advanced CNN structure with adaptive thresholds to assess data significance in the image. The detection output is a binary image, in which a “1” reflects the detected pixel whereas a “0” is opposite. Both the detected image and the original image are divided into non-overlapping pixel blocks in the same way, respectively. Whether each block is encrypted or not depends on the significance judged by the corresponding detected block. The significant block is performed by reversible hidden transform followed by multiple-order discrete fractional cosine transform parameters and orders of these two transforms are determined by a two dimensional cross chaotic map. Experiment results show the significant contour features of an image that have been largely hidden only by encrypting about half pixels in the average sense. The keys are extremely sensitive and the proposed scheme can resist noise attack to some extent.
WE-D-9A-04: Improving Multi-Modality Image Registration Using Edge-Based Transformations
Wang, Y; Tyagi, N; Veeraraghavan, H; Deasy, J
2014-06-15
Purpose: Multi-modality deformable image registration (DIR) for head and neck (HN) radiotherapy is difficult, particularly when matching computed tomography (CT) scans with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We hypothesized that the ‘shared information’ between images of different modalities was to be found in some form of edge-based transformation, and that novel edge-based DIR methods might outperform standard DIR methods. Methods: We propose a novel method that combines gray-scale edge-based morphology and mutual information (MI) in two stages. In the first step, we applied a modification of a previously published mathematical morphology method as an efficient gray scale edge estimator, with denoising function. The results were fed into a MI-based solver (plastimatch). The method was tested on 5 HN patients with pretreatment CT and MR datasets and associated follow-up weekly MR scans. The followup MRs showed significant regression in tumor and normal structure volumes as compared to the pretreatment MRs. The MR images used in this study were obtained using fast spin echo based T2w images with a 1 mm isotropic resolution and FOV matching the CT scan. Results: In all cases, the novel edge-based registration method provided better registration quality than MI-based DIR using the original CT and MRI images. For example, the mismatch in carotid arteries was reduced from 3–5 mm to within 2 mm. The novel edge-based method with different registration regulation parameters did not show any distorted deformations as compared to the non-realistic deformations resulting from MI on the original images. Processing time was 1.3 to 2 times shorter (edge vs. non-edge). In general, we observed quality improvement and significant calculation time reduction with the new method. Conclusion: Transforming images to an ‘edge-space,’ if designed appropriately, greatly increases the speed and accuracy of DIR.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dendy, E. D.; Padial-Collins, N. T.; VanderHeyden, W. B.
2002-08-01
We present a new general-purpose advection scheme for unstructured meshes based on the use of a variation of the interface-tracking flux formulation recently put forward by O. Ubbink and R. I. Issa ( J. Comput. Phys.153, 26 (1999)), in combination with an extended version of the flux-limited advection scheme of J. Thuburn ( J. Comput. Phys.123, 74 (1996)), for continuous fields. Thus, along with a high-order mode for continuous fields, the new scheme presented here includes optional integrated interface-tracking modes for discontinuous fields. In all modes, the method is conservative, monotonic, and compatible. It is also highly shape preserving. The scheme works on unstructured meshes composed of any kind of connectivity element, including triangular and quadrilateral elements in two dimensions and tetrahedral and hexahedral elements in three dimensions. The scheme is finite-volume based and is applicable to control-volume finite-element and edge-based node-centered computations. An explicit-implicit extension to the continuous-field scheme is provided only to allow for computations in which the local Courant number exceeds unity. The transition from the explicit mode to the implicit mode is performed locally and in a continuous fashion, providing a smooth hybrid explicit-implicit calculation. Results for a variety of test problems utilizing the continuous and discontinuous advection schemes are presented.
Puso, M A; Laursen, T A
2002-05-02
Smoothing of contact surfaces can be used to eliminate the chatter typically seen with node on facet contact and give a better representation of the actual contact surface. The latter affect is well demonstrated for problems with interference fits. In this work we present two methods for the smoothing of contact surfaces for 3D finite element contact. In the first method, we employ Gregory patches to smooth the faceted surface in a node on facet implementation. In the second method, we employ a Bezier interpolation of the faceted surface in a mortar method implementation of contact. As is well known, node on facet approaches can exhibit locking due to the failure of the Babuska-Brezzi condition and in some instances fail the patch test. The mortar method implementation is stable and provides optimal convergence in the energy of error. In the this work we demonstrate the superiority of the smoothed versus the non-smoothed node on facet implementations. We also show where the node on facet method fails and some results from the smoothed mortar method implementation.
Missal, Marcus; Heinen, Stephen J
2017-04-19
If a visual object of interest suddenly starts to move, we will try to follow it with a smooth movement of the eyes. This smooth pursuit response aims to reduce image motion on the retina that could blur visual perception. In recent years, our knowledge of the neural control of smooth pursuit initiation has sharply increased. However, stopping smooth pursuit eye movements is less well understood and will be discussed in this paper. The most straightforward way to study smooth pursuit stopping is by interrupting image motion on the retina. This causes eye velocity to decay exponentially towards zero. However, smooth pursuit stopping is not a passive response, as shown by behavioural and electrophysiological evidence. Moreover, smooth pursuit stopping is particularly influenced by active prediction of the upcoming end of the target. Here, we suggest that a particular class of inhibitory neurons of the brainstem, the omnipause neurons, could play a central role in pursuit stopping. Furthermore, the role of supplementary eye fields of the frontal cortex in smooth pursuit stopping is also discussed.This article is part of the themed issue 'Movement suppression: brain mechanisms for stopping and stillness'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Nonequilibrium Flows with Smooth Particle Applied Mechanics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kum, Oyeon
Smooth particle methods are relatively new methods for simulating solid and fluid flows though they have a 20-year history of solving complex hydrodynamic problems in astrophysics, such as colliding planets and stars, for which correct answers are unknown. The results presented in this thesis evaluate the adaptability or fitness of the method for typical hydrocode production problems. For finite hydrodynamic systems, boundary conditions are important. A reflective boundary condition with image particles is a good way to prevent a density anomaly at the boundary and to keep the fluxes continuous there. Boundary values of temperature and velocity can be separately controlled. The gradient algorithm, based on differentiating the smooth particle expressions for (urho) and (Trho), does not show numerical instabilities for the stress tensor and heat flux vector quantities which require second derivatives in space when Fourier's heat -flow law and Newton's viscous force law are used. Smooth particle methods show an interesting parallel linking them to molecular dynamics. For the inviscid Euler equation, with an isentropic ideal gas equation of state, the smooth particle algorithm generates trajectories isomorphic to those generated by molecular dynamics. The shear moduli were evaluated based on molecular dynamics calculations for the three weighting functions, B spline, Lucy, and Cusp functions. The accuracy and applicability of the methods were estimated by comparing a set of smooth particle Rayleigh -Benard problems, all in the laminar regime, to corresponding highly-accurate grid-based numerical solutions of continuum equations. Both transient and stationary smooth particle solutions reproduce the grid-based data with velocity errors on the order of 5%. The smooth particle method still provides robust solutions at high Rayleigh number where grid-based methods fails. Considerably fewer smooth particles are required than atoms in a corresponding molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guevara, Ivonne; Wiseman, Howard
2015-10-01
Smoothing is an estimation method whereby a classical state (probability distribution for classical variables) at a given time is conditioned on all-time (both earlier and later) observations. Here we define a smoothed quantum state for a partially monitored open quantum system, conditioned on an all-time monitoring-derived record. We calculate the smoothed distribution for a hypothetical unobserved record which, when added to the real record, would complete the monitoring, yielding a pure-state "quantum trajectory." Averaging the pure state over this smoothed distribution yields the (mixed) smoothed quantum state. We study how the choice of actual unraveling affects the purity increase over that of the conventional (filtered) state conditioned only on the past record.
Guevara, Ivonne; Wiseman, Howard
2015-10-30
Smoothing is an estimation method whereby a classical state (probability distribution for classical variables) at a given time is conditioned on all-time (both earlier and later) observations. Here we define a smoothed quantum state for a partially monitored open quantum system, conditioned on an all-time monitoring-derived record. We calculate the smoothed distribution for a hypothetical unobserved record which, when added to the real record, would complete the monitoring, yielding a pure-state "quantum trajectory." Averaging the pure state over this smoothed distribution yields the (mixed) smoothed quantum state. We study how the choice of actual unraveling affects the purity increase over that of the conventional (filtered) state conditioned only on the past record.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Voronov, Oleg
2007-01-01
Diamond smoothing tools have been proposed for use in conjunction with diamond cutting tools that are used in many finish-machining operations. Diamond machining (including finishing) is often used, for example, in fabrication of precise metal mirrors. A diamond smoothing tool according to the proposal would have a smooth spherical surface. For a given finish machining operation, the smoothing tool would be mounted next to the cutting tool. The smoothing tool would slide on the machined surface left behind by the cutting tool, plastically deforming the surface material and thereby reducing the roughness of the surface, closing microcracks and otherwise generally reducing or eliminating microscopic surface and subsurface defects, and increasing the microhardness of the surface layer. It has been estimated that if smoothing tools of this type were used in conjunction with cutting tools on sufficiently precise lathes, it would be possible to reduce the roughness of machined surfaces to as little as 3 nm. A tool according to the proposal would consist of a smoothing insert in a metal holder. The smoothing insert would be made from a diamond/metal functionally graded composite rod preform, which, in turn, would be made by sintering together a bulk single-crystal or polycrystalline diamond, a diamond powder, and a metallic alloy at high pressure. To form the spherical smoothing tip, the diamond end of the preform would be subjected to flat grinding, conical grinding, spherical grinding using diamond wheels, and finally spherical polishing and/or buffing using diamond powders. If the diamond were a single crystal, then it would be crystallographically oriented, relative to the machining motion, to minimize its wear and maximize its hardness. Spherically polished diamonds could also be useful for purposes other than smoothing in finish machining: They would likely also be suitable for use as heat-resistant, wear-resistant, unlubricated sliding-fit bearing inserts.
Discrete square root smoothing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaminski, P. G.; Bryson, A. E., Jr.
1972-01-01
The basic techniques applied in the square root least squares and square root filtering solutions are applied to the smoothing problem. Both conventional and square root solutions are obtained by computing the filtered solutions, then modifying the results to include the effect of all measurements. A comparison of computation requirements indicates that the square root information smoother (SRIS) is more efficient than conventional solutions in a large class of fixed interval smoothing problems.
Nonequilibrium flows with smooth particle applied mechanics
Kum, Oyeon
1995-07-01
Smooth particle methods are relatively new methods for simulating solid and fluid flows through they have a 20-year history of solving complex hydrodynamic problems in astrophysics, such as colliding planets and stars, for which correct answers are unknown. The results presented in this thesis evaluate the adaptability or fitness of the method for typical hydrocode production problems. For finite hydrodynamic systems, boundary conditions are important. A reflective boundary condition with image particles is a good way to prevent a density anomaly at the boundary and to keep the fluxes continuous there. Boundary values of temperature and velocity can be separately controlled. The gradient algorithm, based on differentiating the smooth particle expression for (uρ) and (Tρ), does not show numerical instabilities for the stress tensor and heat flux vector quantities which require second derivatives in space when Fourier`s heat-flow law and Newton`s viscous force law are used. Smooth particle methods show an interesting parallel linking to them to molecular dynamics. For the inviscid Euler equation, with an isentropic ideal gas equation of state, the smooth particle algorithm generates trajectories isomorphic to those generated by molecular dynamics. The shear moduli were evaluated based on molecular dynamics calculations for the three weighting functions, B spline, Lucy, and Cusp functions. The accuracy and applicability of the methods were estimated by comparing a set of smooth particle Rayleigh-Benard problems, all in the laminar regime, to corresponding highly-accurate grid-based numerical solutions of continuum equations. Both transient and stationary smooth particle solutions reproduce the grid-based data with velocity errors on the order of 5%. The smooth particle method still provides robust solutions at high Rayleigh number where grid-based methods fails.
The smooth entropy formalism for von Neumann algebras
Berta, Mario; Furrer, Fabian; Scholz, Volkher B.
2016-01-15
We discuss information-theoretic concepts on infinite-dimensional quantum systems. In particular, we lift the smooth entropy formalism as introduced by Renner and collaborators for finite-dimensional systems to von Neumann algebras. For the smooth conditional min- and max-entropy, we recover similar characterizing properties and information-theoretic operational interpretations as in the finite-dimensional case. We generalize the entropic uncertainty relation with quantum side information of Tomamichel and Renner and discuss applications to quantum cryptography. In particular, we prove the possibility to perform privacy amplification and classical data compression with quantum side information modeled by a von Neumann algebra.
The smooth entropy formalism for von Neumann algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berta, Mario; Furrer, Fabian; Scholz, Volkher B.
2016-01-01
We discuss information-theoretic concepts on infinite-dimensional quantum systems. In particular, we lift the smooth entropy formalism as introduced by Renner and collaborators for finite-dimensional systems to von Neumann algebras. For the smooth conditional min- and max-entropy, we recover similar characterizing properties and information-theoretic operational interpretations as in the finite-dimensional case. We generalize the entropic uncertainty relation with quantum side information of Tomamichel and Renner and discuss applications to quantum cryptography. In particular, we prove the possibility to perform privacy amplification and classical data compression with quantum side information modeled by a von Neumann algebra.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2015-10-01
The world has agreed on 17 Sustainable Development Goals, to be adopted this week. This is great progress towards acknowledging that the planet's finite resources need to be managed carefully in the face of humanity's unlimited aspirations.
An edge-based temporal error concealment for MPEG-coded video
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yu-Len; Lien, Hsiu-Yi
2005-07-01
When transmitted over unreliable channels, the compressed video can suffer severe degradation. Some strategies were employed to make an acceptable quality of the decoded image sequence. Error concealment (EC) technique is one of effective approaches to diminish the quality degradation. A number of EC algorithms have been developed to combat the transmission errors for MPEG-coded video. These methods always work well to reconstruct the smooth or regular damaged macroblocks. However, for damaged macroblocks were irregular or high-detail, the reconstruction may follow noticeable blurring consequence or not match well with the surrounding macroblocks. This paper proposes an edgebased temporal EC model to conceal the errors. In the proposed method, both the spatial and the temporal contextual features in compressed video are measured by using an edge detector, i.e. Sobel operator. The edge information surrounding a damaged macroblock is utilized to estimate the lost motion vectors based on the boundary matching technique. Next, the estimated motion vectors are used to reconstruct the damaged macroblock by exploiting the information in reference frames. In comparison with traditional EC algorithms, the proposed method provides a significant improvement on both objective peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) measurement and subjective visual quality of MPEG-coded video.
Smooth Potential Chaos and N-Body Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kandrup, Henry E.; Sideris, Ioannis V.
2003-03-01
Integrations in fixed N-body realizations of smooth density distributions corresponding to a chaotic galactic potential can be used to derive reliable estimates of the largest (finite-time) Lyapunov exponent χS associated with an orbit in the smooth potential generated from the same initial condition, even though the N-body orbit is typically characterized by an N-body exponent χN>>χS. This can be accomplished by either comparing initially nearby orbits in a single N-body system or tracking orbits with the same initial condition evolved in two different N-body realizations of the same smooth density.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stenholm, Stig
1993-01-01
A single mode cavity is deformed smoothly to change its electromagnetic eigenfrequency. The system is modeled as a simple harmonic oscillator with a varying period. The Wigner function of the problem is obtained exactly by starting with a squeezed initial state. The result is evaluated for a linear change of the cavity length. The approach to the adiabatic limit is investigated. The maximum squeezing is found to occur for smooth change lasting only a fraction of the oscillational period. However, only a factor of two improvement over the adiabatic result proves to be possible. The sudden limit cannot be investigated meaningfully within the model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gong, J.; Volakis, J. L.; Chatterjee, A.; Jin, J. M.
1992-01-01
A hybrid finite element boundary integral formulation is developed using tetrahedral and/or triangular elements for discretizing the cavity and/or aperture of microstrip antenna arrays. The tetrahedral elements with edge based linear expansion functions are chosen for modeling the volume region and triangular elements are used for discretizing the aperture. The edge based expansion functions are divergenceless thus removing the requirement to introduce a penalty term and the tetrahedral elements permit greater geometrical adaptability than the rectangular bricks. The underlying theory and resulting expressions are discussed in detail together with some numerical scattering examples for comparison and demonstration.
Finite Time Blowup for Parabolic Systems in Two Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mooney, Connor
2017-03-01
We construct examples of finite time singularity from smooth data for linear uniformly parabolic systems in the plane. We obtain similar examples for quasilinear systems with coefficients that depend only on the solution.
Anisotropic properties of tracheal smooth muscle tissue.
Sarma, P A; Pidaparti, R M; Meiss, R A
2003-04-01
The anisotropic (directional-dependent) properties of contracting tracheal smooth muscle tissue are estimated from a computational model based on the experimental data of length-dependent stiffness. The area changes are obtained at different muscle lengths from experiments in which stimulated muscle undergoes unrestricted shortening. Then, through an interative process, the anisotropic properties are estimated by matching the area changes obtained from the finite element analysis to those derived from the experiments. The results obtained indicate that the anisotropy ratio (longitudinal stiffness to transverse stiffness) is about 4 when the smooth muscle undergoes 70% strain shortening, indicating that the transverse stiffness reduces as the longitudinal stiffness increases. It was found through a sensitivity analysis from the simulation model that the longitudinal stiffness and the in-plane shear modulus are not very sensitive as compared to major Poisson's ratio to the area changes of the muscle tissue. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic Simulator
2016-10-05
This code is a highly modular framework for developing smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations running on parallel platforms. The compartmentalization of the code allows for rapid development of new SPH applications and modifications of existing algorithms. The compartmentalization also allows changes in one part of the code used by many applications to instantly be made available to all applications.
2000-01-15
This image, from NASA Mariner 10 spacecraft which launched in 1974, is located about 500 km east of the Caloris basin and shows hummocky plains interpreted as Caloris ejecta in the upper half of the picture and smooth plains in the lower half.
Smoothing non-smooth systems with low-pass filters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hook, James
2014-02-01
Low pass filters, which are used to remove high frequency noise from time series data, smooth the signals they are applied to. In this paper we examine the action of low pass filters on discontinuous or non-differentiable signals from non-smooth dynamical systems. We show that the application of such a filter is equivalent to a change of variables, which transforms the non-smooth system into a smooth one. We examine this smoothing action on a variety of examples and demonstrate how it is useful in the calculation of a non-smooth system's Lyapunov spectrum.
Casimir energy of smooth compact surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Straley, Joseph P.; Kolomeisky, Eugene B.
2014-07-01
We discuss the formalism of Balian and Duplantier [Balian and Duplantier, Ann. Phys. (NY) 104, 300 (1977), 10.1016/0003-4916(77)90334-7; Balian and Duplantier, Ann. Phys. (NY) 112, 165 (1978), 10.1016/0003-4916(78)90083-0] for the calculation of the Casimir energy for an arbitrary smooth compact surface and use it to give some examples: a finite cylinder with hemispherical caps, a torus, an ellipsoid of revolution, a cube with rounded corners and edges, and a drum made of disks and part of a torus. We propose a model function that approximately captures the shape dependence of the Casimir energy.
Smoothed Analysis for the Conjugate Gradient Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menon, Govind; Trogdon, Thomas
2016-11-01
The purpose of this paper is to establish bounds on the rate of convergence of the conjugate gradient algorithm when the underlying matrix is a random positive definite perturbation of a deterministic positive definite matrix. We estimate all finite moments of a natural halting time when the random perturbation is drawn from the Laguerre unitary ensemble in a critical scaling regime explored in Deift et al. (2016). These estimates are used to analyze the expected iteration count in the framework of smoothed analysis, introduced by Spielman and Teng (2001). The rigorous results are compared with numerical calculations in several cases of interest.
Characteristics of Three-Node Smoothing Element under Penalty Constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sobel, Seth S.
1995-01-01
The project is based upon research of Tessler et al. (1994) on an improved variational formulation for post-processing stress predictions in Finite Element Analysis. The methodology, called Smoothing Element Analysis (SEA), employs a three-node smoothing finite element. The present effort focused on verifying the basic constant strain criterion for the three-node smoothing element subject to a set of internal penalty constraints. The convergence characteristics of the element are assessed by first deriving the constrained form of the assumed element stress and stress gradient fields, and then by verifying the validity of the constant strain criterion once the element penalty constraints are explicitly imposed. The analytical investigation is carried out with the use of the symbolic manipulation code 'Mathematica'.
Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion
Es, Bram van; Koren, Barry; Blank, Hugo J. de
2016-02-01
In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003531.htm Anti-smooth muscle antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the ...
Smooth Phase Interpolated Keying
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Borah, Deva K.
2007-01-01
Smooth phase interpolated keying (SPIK) is an improved method of computing smooth phase-modulation waveforms for radio communication systems that convey digital information. SPIK is applicable to a variety of phase-shift-keying (PSK) modulation schemes, including quaternary PSK (QPSK), octonary PSK (8PSK), and 16PSK. In comparison with a related prior method, SPIK offers advantages of better performance and less complexity of implementation. In a PSK scheme, the underlying information waveform that one seeks to convey consists of discrete rectangular steps, but the spectral width of such a waveform is excessive for practical radio communication. Therefore, the problem is to smooth the step phase waveform in such a manner as to maintain power and bandwidth efficiency without incurring an unacceptably large error rate and without introducing undesired variations in the amplitude of the affected radio signal. Although the ideal constellation of PSK phasor points does not cause amplitude variations, filtering of the modulation waveform (in which, typically, a rectangular pulse is converted to a square-root raised cosine pulse) causes amplitude fluctuations. If a power-efficient nonlinear amplifier is used in the radio communication system, the fluctuating-amplitude signal can undergo significant spectral regrowth, thus compromising the bandwidth efficiency of the system. In the related prior method, one seeks to solve the problem in a procedure that comprises two major steps: phase-value generation and phase interpolation. SPIK follows the two-step approach of the related prior method, but the details of the steps are different. In the phase-value-generation step, the phase values of symbols in the PSK constellation are determined by a phase function that is said to be maximally smooth and that is chosen to minimize the spectral spread of the modulated signal. In this step, the constellation is divided into two groups by assigning, to information symbols, phase values
A variational method for finite element stress recovery and error estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tessler, A.; Riggs, H. R.; Macy, S. C.
1993-01-01
A variational method for obtaining smoothed stresses from a finite element derived nonsmooth stress field is presented. The method is based on minimizing a functional involving discrete least-squares error plus a penalty constraint that ensures smoothness of the stress field. An equivalent accuracy criterion is developed for the smoothing analysis which results in a C sup 1-continuous smoothed stress field possessing the same order of accuracy as that found at the superconvergent optimal stress points of the original finite element analysis. Application of the smoothing analysis to residual error estimation is also demonstrated.
An Accuracy Evaluation of Unstructured Node-Centred Finite Volume Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Svard, Magnus; Gong, Jing; Nordstrom, Jan
2006-01-01
Node-centred edge-based finite volume approximations are very common in computational fluid dynamics since they are assumed to run on structured, unstructured and even on mixed grids. We analyse the accuracy properties of both first and second derivative approximations and conclude that these schemes can not be used on arbitrary grids as is often assumed. For the Euler equations first-order accuracy can be obtained if care is taken when constructing the grid. For the Navier-Stokes equations, the grid restrictions are so severe that these finite volume schemes have little advantage over structured finite difference schemes. Our theoretical results are verified through extensive computations.
Incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics
Ellero, Marco Serrano, Mar; Espanol, Pep
2007-10-01
We present a smoothed particle hydrodynamic model for incompressible fluids. As opposed to solving a pressure Poisson equation in order to get a divergence-free velocity field, here incompressibility is achieved by requiring as a kinematic constraint that the volume of the fluid particles is constant. We use Lagrangian multipliers to enforce this restriction. These Lagrange multipliers play the role of non-thermodynamic pressures whose actual values are fixed through the kinematic restriction. We use the SHAKE methodology familiar in constrained molecular dynamics as an efficient method for finding the non-thermodynamic pressure satisfying the constraints. The model is tested for several flow configurations.
Modeling the dispersion effects of contractile fibers in smooth muscles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murtada, Sae-Il; Kroon, Martin; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.
2010-12-01
Micro-structurally based models for smooth muscle contraction are crucial for a better understanding of pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, incontinence and asthma. It is meaningful that models consider the underlying mechanical structure and the biochemical activation. Hence, a simple mechanochemical model is proposed that includes the dispersion of the orientation of smooth muscle myofilaments and that is capable to capture available experimental data on smooth muscle contraction. This allows a refined study of the effects of myofilament dispersion on the smooth muscle contraction. A classical biochemical model is used to describe the cross-bridge interactions with the thin filament in smooth muscles in which calcium-dependent myosin phosphorylation is the only regulatory mechanism. A novel mechanical model considers the dispersion of the contractile fiber orientations in smooth muscle cells by means of a strain-energy function in terms of one dispersion parameter. All model parameters have a biophysical meaning and may be estimated through comparisons with experimental data. The contraction of the middle layer of a carotid artery is studied numerically. Using a tube the relationships between the internal pressure and the stretches are investigated as functions of the dispersion parameter, which implies a strong influence of the orientation of smooth muscle myofilaments on the contraction response. It is straightforward to implement this model in a finite element code to better analyze more complex boundary-value problems.
INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS IN SMOOTH MUSCLE
Tang, Dale D.
2008-01-01
The intermediate filament (IF) network is one of the three cytoskeletal systems in smooth muscle. The type III IF proteins vimentin and desmin are major constituents of the network in smooth muscle cells and tissues. Lack of vimentin or desmin impairs contractile ability of various smooth muscle preparations, implying their important role for smooth muscle force development. The IF framework has long been viewed as a fixed cytostructure that solely provides mechanical integrity for the cell. However, recent studies suggest that the IF cytoskeleton is dynamic in mammalian cells in response to various external stimulation. In this review, the structure and biological properties of IF proteins in smooth muscle are summarized. The role of IF proteins in the modulation of smooth muscle force development and redistribution/translocation of signaling partners (such as p130 Crk-associated substrate, CAS) is depicted. This review also summarizes our latest understanding on how the IF network may be regulated in smooth muscle. PMID:18256275
Nonanalyticities of entropy functions of finite and infinite systems.
Casetti, Lapo; Kastner, Michael
2006-09-08
In contrast to the canonical ensemble where thermodynamic functions are smooth for all finite system sizes, the microcanonical entropy can show nonanalytic points also for finite systems. The relation between finite and infinite system nonanalyticities is illustrated by means of a simple classical spinlike model which is exactly solvable for both finite and infinite system sizes, showing a phase transition in the latter case. The microcanonical entropy is found to have exactly one nonanalytic point in the interior of its domain. For all finite system sizes, this point is located at the same fixed energy value epsilon(c)(finite), jumping discontinuously to a different value epsilon(c)(infinite) in the thermodynamic limit. Remarkably, epsilon(c)(finite) equals the average potential energy of the infinite system at the phase transition point. The result indicates that care is required when trying to infer infinite system properties from finite system nonanalyticities.
Noise removal using smoothed normals and surface fitting.
Lysaker, Marius; Osher, Stanley; Tai, Xue-Cheng
2004-10-01
In this work, we use partial differential equation techniques to remove noise from digital images. The removal is done in two steps. We first use a total-variation filter to smooth the normal vectors of the level curves of a noise image. After this, we try to find a surface to fit the smoothed normal vectors. For each of these two stages, the problem is reduced to a nonlinear partial differential equation. Finite difference schemes are used to solve these equations. A broad range of numerical examples are given in the paper.
Finite element model for brittle fracture and fragmentation
Li, Wei; Delaney, Tristan J.; Jiao, Xiangmin; ...
2016-06-01
A new computational model for brittle fracture and fragmentation has been developed based on finite element analysis of non-linear elasticity equations. The proposed model propagates the cracks by splitting the mesh nodes alongside the most over-strained edges based on the principal direction of strain tensor. To prevent elements from overlapping and folding under large deformations, robust geometrical constraints using the method of Lagrange multipliers have been incorporated. In conclusion, the model has been applied to 2D simulations of the formation and propagation of cracks in brittle materials, and the fracture and fragmentation of stretched and compressed materials.
Finite element model for brittle fracture and fragmentation
Li, Wei; Delaney, Tristan J.; Jiao, Xiangmin; Samulyak, Roman; Lu, Cao
2016-06-01
A new computational model for brittle fracture and fragmentation has been developed based on finite element analysis of non-linear elasticity equations. The proposed model propagates the cracks by splitting the mesh nodes alongside the most over-strained edges based on the principal direction of strain tensor. To prevent elements from overlapping and folding under large deformations, robust geometrical constraints using the method of Lagrange multipliers have been incorporated. In conclusion, the model has been applied to 2D simulations of the formation and propagation of cracks in brittle materials, and the fracture and fragmentation of stretched and compressed materials.
SMACK - SMOOTHING FOR AIRCRAFT KINEMATICS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bach, R.
1994-01-01
The computer program SMACK (SMoothing for AirCraft Kinematics) is designed to provide flightpath reconstruction of aircraft forces and motions from measurements that are noisy or incomplete. Additionally, SMACK provides a check on instrument accuracy and data consistency. The program can be used to analyze data from flight-test experiments prior to their use in performance, stability and control, or aerodynamic modeling calculations. It can also be used in the analysis of aircraft accidents, where the actual forces and motions may have to be determined from a very limited data set. Application of a state-estimation method for flightpath reconstruction is possible because aircraft forces and motions are related by well-known equations of motion. The task of postflight state estimation is known as a nonlinear, fixed-interval smoothing problem. SMACK utilizes a backward-filter, forward-smoother algorithm to solve the problem. The equations of motion are used to produce estimates that are compared with their corresponding measurement time histories. The procedure is iterative, providing improved state estimates until a minimum squared-error measure is achieved. In the SMACK program, the state and measurement models together represent a finite-difference approximation for the six-degree-of-freedom dynamics of a rigid body. The models are used to generate time histories which are likely to be found in a flight-test measurement set. These include onboard variables such as Euler angles, angular rates, and linear accelerations as well as tracking variables such as slant range, bearing, and elevation. Any bias or scale-factor errors associated with the state or measurement models are appended to the state vector and treated as constant but unknown parameters. The SMACK documentation covers the derivation of the solution algorithm, describes the state and measurement models, and presents several application examples that should help the analyst recognize the potential
SMACK - SMOOTHING FOR AIRCRAFT KINEMATICS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bach, R.
1994-01-01
The computer program SMACK (SMoothing for AirCraft Kinematics) is designed to provide flightpath reconstruction of aircraft forces and motions from measurements that are noisy or incomplete. Additionally, SMACK provides a check on instrument accuracy and data consistency. The program can be used to analyze data from flight-test experiments prior to their use in performance, stability and control, or aerodynamic modeling calculations. It can also be used in the analysis of aircraft accidents, where the actual forces and motions may have to be determined from a very limited data set. Application of a state-estimation method for flightpath reconstruction is possible because aircraft forces and motions are related by well-known equations of motion. The task of postflight state estimation is known as a nonlinear, fixed-interval smoothing problem. SMACK utilizes a backward-filter, forward-smoother algorithm to solve the problem. The equations of motion are used to produce estimates that are compared with their corresponding measurement time histories. The procedure is iterative, providing improved state estimates until a minimum squared-error measure is achieved. In the SMACK program, the state and measurement models together represent a finite-difference approximation for the six-degree-of-freedom dynamics of a rigid body. The models are used to generate time histories which are likely to be found in a flight-test measurement set. These include onboard variables such as Euler angles, angular rates, and linear accelerations as well as tracking variables such as slant range, bearing, and elevation. Any bias or scale-factor errors associated with the state or measurement models are appended to the state vector and treated as constant but unknown parameters. The SMACK documentation covers the derivation of the solution algorithm, describes the state and measurement models, and presents several application examples that should help the analyst recognize the potential
Astrophysical smooth particle hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosswog, Stephan
2009-04-01
The paper presents a detailed review of the smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method with particular focus on its astrophysical applications. We start by introducing the basic ideas and concepts and thereby outline all ingredients that are necessary for a practical implementation of the method in a working SPH code. Much of SPH's success relies on its excellent conservation properties and therefore the numerical conservation of physical invariants receives much attention throughout this review. The self-consistent derivation of the SPH equations from the Lagrangian of an ideal fluid is the common theme of the remainder of the text. We derive a modern, Newtonian SPH formulation from the Lagrangian of an ideal fluid. It accounts for changes of the local resolution lengths which result in corrective, so-called "grad-h-terms". We extend this strategy to special relativity for which we derive the corresponding grad-h equation set. The variational approach is further applied to a general-relativistic fluid evolving in a fixed, curved background space-time. Particular care is taken to explicitly derive all relevant equations in a coherent way.
Lazarides, George; Vamvasakis, Achilleas
2007-10-15
We consider the extension of the supersymmetric Pati-Salam model which solves the b-quark mass problem of supersymmetric grand unified models with exact Yukawa unification and universal boundary conditions and leads to the so-called new shifted hybrid inflationary scenario. We show that this model can also lead to a new version of smooth hybrid inflation based only on renormalizable interactions provided that a particular parameter of its superpotential is somewhat small. The potential possesses valleys of minima with classical inclination, which can be used as inflationary paths. The model is consistent with the fitting of the three-year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe data by the standard power-law cosmological model with cold dark matter and a cosmological constant. In particular, the spectral index turns out to be adequately small so that it is compatible with the data. Moreover, the Pati-Salam gauge group is broken to the standard model gauge group during inflation and, thus, no monopoles are formed at the end of inflation. Supergravity corrections based on a nonminimal Kaehler potential with a convenient choice of a sign keep the spectral index comfortably within the allowed range without generating maxima and minima of the potential on the inflationary path. So, unnatural restrictions on the initial conditions for inflation can be avoided.
Ceramic coatings on smooth surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, R. A. (Inventor); Brindley, W. J. (Inventor); Rouge, C. J. (Inventor)
1991-01-01
A metallic coating is plasma sprayed onto a smooth surface of a metal alloy substitute or on a bond coating. An initial thin ceramic layer is low pressure sprayed onto the smooth surface of the substrate or bond coating. Another ceramic layer is atmospheric plasma sprayed onto the initial ceramic layer.
Ryanodine receptors in smooth muscle.
Guerrero-Hernández, Agustín; Gómez-Viquez, Leticia; Guerrero-Serna, Guadalupe; Rueda, Angélica
2002-07-01
The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of smooth muscle is endowed with two different types of Ca2+ release channels, i.e. inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). In general, both release channels mobilize Ca2+ from the same internal store in smooth muscle. While the importance of IP3Rs in agonist-induced contraction is well established, the role of RyRs in excitation-contraction coupling of smooth muscle is not clear. The participation of smooth muscle RyRs in the amplification of Ca2+ transients induced by either opening of Ca2+-permeable channels or IP3-triggered Ca2+ release has been studied. The efficacy of both processes to activate RyRs by calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is highly variable and not widely present in smooth muscle. Although RyRs in smooth muscle generate Ca2+ sparks that are similar to those observed in striated muscles, the contribution of these local Ca2+ events to depolarization-induced global rise in [Ca2+]i is rather limited. Recent data suggest that RyRs are involved in regulating the luminal [Ca2+] of SR and also in smooth muscle relaxation. This review summarizes studies that were carried out mainly in muscle strips or in freshly isolated myocytes, and that were aimed to determine the physiological role of RyRs in smooth muscle.
An analysis of smoothed particle hydrodynamics
Swegle, J.W.; Attaway, S.W.; Heinstein, M.W.; Mello, F.J.; Hicks, D.L.
1994-03-01
SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) is a gridless Lagrangian technique which is appealing as a possible alternative to numerical techniques currently used to analyze high deformation impulsive loading events. In the present study, the SPH algorithm has been subjected to detailed testing and analysis to determine its applicability in the field of solid dynamics. An important result of the work is a rigorous von Neumann stability analysis which provides a simple criterion for the stability or instability of the method in terms of the stress state and the second derivative of the kernel function. Instability, which typically occurs only for solids in tension, results not from the numerical time integration algorithm, but because the SPH algorithm creates an effective stress with a negative modulus. The analysis provides insight into possible methods for removing the instability. Also, SPH has been coupled into the transient dynamics finite element code PRONTO, and a weighted residual derivation of the SPH equations has been obtained.
Ye, Hao; Luo, Heng; Ng, Hui Wen; Meehan, Joe; Ge, Weigong; Tong, Weida; Hong, Huixiao
2016-01-01
ToxCast data have been used to develop models for predicting in vivo toxicity. To predict the in vivo toxicity of a new chemical using a ToxCast data based model, its ToxCast bioactivity data are needed but not normally available. The capability of predicting ToxCast bioactivity data is necessary to fully utilize ToxCast data in the risk assessment of chemicals. We aimed to understand and elucidate the relationships between the chemicals and bioactivity data of the assays in ToxCast and to develop a network analysis based method for predicting ToxCast bioactivity data. We conducted modularity analysis on a quantitative network constructed from ToxCast data to explore the relationships between the assays and chemicals. We further developed Nebula (neighbor-edges based and unbiased leverage algorithm) for predicting ToxCast bioactivity data. Modularity analysis on the network constructed from ToxCast data yielded seven modules. Assays and chemicals in the seven modules were distinct. Leave-one-out cross-validation yielded a Q(2) of 0.5416, indicating ToxCast bioactivity data can be predicted by Nebula. Prediction domain analysis showed some types of ToxCast assay data could be more reliably predicted by Nebula than others. Network analysis is a promising approach to understand ToxCast data. Nebula is an effective algorithm for predicting ToxCast bioactivity data, helping fully utilize ToxCast data in the risk assessment of chemicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Conservative smoothing versus artificial viscosity
Guenther, C.; Hicks, D.L.; Swegle, J.W.
1994-08-01
This report was stimulated by some recent investigations of S.P.H. (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method). Solid dynamics computations with S.P.H. show symptoms of instabilities which are not eliminated by artificial viscosities. Both analysis and experiment indicate that conservative smoothing eliminates the instabilities in S.P.H. computations which artificial viscosities cannot. Questions were raised as to whether conservative smoothing might smear solutions more than artificial viscosity. Conservative smoothing, properly used, can produce more accurate solutions than the von Neumann-Richtmyer-Landshoff artificial viscosity which has been the standard for many years. The authors illustrate this using the vNR scheme on a test problem with known exact solution involving a shock collision in an ideal gas. They show that the norms of the errors with conservative smoothing are significantly smaller than the norms of the errors with artificial viscosity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]
Released 19 June 2003
A flat-floored crater in central Arabia hosts an interior crater with interesting ejecta. The scrambled patterns in the ejecta suggest fluidized flow during emplacement. This contrasts with the much smoother terrain on the left side of the image. Although there is some ambiguity, it appears that the smooth material has lapped up onto the ejecta, which raises the question of where the source is for this more recent flow of material.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 2.8, Longitude 37 East (323 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Accurate interlaminar stress recovery from finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tessler, Alexander; Riggs, H. Ronald
1994-01-01
The accuracy and robustness of a two-dimensional smoothing methodology is examined for the problem of recovering accurate interlaminar shear stress distributions in laminated composite and sandwich plates. The smoothing methodology is based on a variational formulation which combines discrete least-squares and penalty-constraint functionals in a single variational form. The smoothing analysis utilizes optimal strains computed at discrete locations in a finite element analysis. These discrete strain data are smoothed with a smoothing element discretization, producing superior accuracy strains and their first gradients. The approach enables the resulting smooth strain field to be practically C1-continuous throughout the domain of smoothing, exhibiting superconvergent properties of the smoothed quantity. The continuous strain gradients are also obtained directly from the solution. The recovered strain gradients are subsequently employed in the integration o equilibrium equations to obtain accurate interlaminar shear stresses. The problem is a simply-supported rectangular plate under a doubly sinusoidal load. The problem has an exact analytic solution which serves as a measure of goodness of the recovered interlaminar shear stresses. The method has the versatility of being applicable to the analysis of rather general and complex structures built of distinct components and materials, such as found in aircraft design. For these types of structures, the smoothing is achieved with 'patches', each patch covering the domain in which the smoothed quantity is physically continuous.
Embedding smooth diffeomorphisms in flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiang
In this paper we study the problem on embedding germs of smooth diffeomorphisms in flows in higher dimensional spaces. First we prove the existence of embedding vector fields for a local diffeomorphism with its nonlinear term a resonant polynomial. Then using this result and the normal form theory, we obtain a class of local C diffeomorphisms for k∈N∪{∞,ω} which admit embedding vector fields with some smoothness. Finally we prove that for any k∈N∪{∞} under the coefficient topology the subset of local C diffeomorphisms having an embedding vector field with some smoothness is dense in the set of all local C diffeomorphisms.
Simple Robust Fixed Lag Smoothing
1988-12-02
SIMPLE ROBUST FIXED LAG SMOOTHING by ~N. D. Le R.D. Martin 4 TECHNICAL RlEPORT No. 149 December 1988 Department of Statistics, GN-22 Accesion For...frLsD1ist Special A- Z Simple Robust Fixed Lag Smoothing With Application To Radar Glint Noise * N. D. Le R. D. Martin Department of Statistics, GN...smoothers. The emphasis here is on fixed-lag smoothing , as opposed to the use of existing robust fixed interval smoothers (e.g., as in Martin, 1979
A variational method for finite element stress recovery: Applications in one-dimension
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riggs, H. Ronald
1992-01-01
It is well-known that stresses (and strains) calculated by a displacement-based finite element analysis are generally not as accurate as the displacements. In addition, the calculated stress field is typically discontinuous at element interfaces. Because the stresses are typically of more interest than the displacements, several procedures have been proposed to obtain a smooth stress field, given the finite element stresses, and to improve the accuracy. Hinton and Irons introduced global least squares smoothing of discrete data defined on a plane using a finite element formulation. Tessler and co-workers recently developed a conceptually similar formulation for smoothing of two-dimensional data based on a discrete least square approximation with a penalty constraint. The penalty constraint results in a stress field which is C(exp 1)-continuous, a result not previously obtained. The approach requires additional, 'smoothing' finite element analysis and for their two-dimensional application, they used a conforming C(exp 0)-continuous triangular finite element based on a conforming plate element. This paper presents the results of a detailed investigation into the application of Tessler's smoothing procedure to the smoothing of finite element stresses from one-dimensional problems. Although the one-dimensional formulation has some practical applicability, such as in truss, beam, axisymmetric mechanics, and one-dimensional heat conduction, the primary motivation for developing the one-dimensional smoothing case is to explore the characteristics of the general smoothing strategy. In particular, it is used to describe the behavior of the method and to explore the suitability of criteria proposed for the smoothing analysis. Prior to presenting numerical results, the variational formulation of the smoothing strategy is presented and a criterion for the smoothing analysis is described.
Young Craters on Smooth Plains
2000-01-15
This image, from NASA Mariner 10 spacecraft which launched in 1974, shows young craters superposed on smooth plains. Larger young craters have central peaks, flat floors, terraced walls, and radial ejecta deposits.
Impact Crater with Smoothed Rim
2012-03-01
This image from NASA Dawn spacecraft of asteroid Vesta shows hows a large impact crater whose rim is rather smoothed and degraded. There are many smaller, younger craters surrounding and inside of this crater and these have sharper, fresher rims.
Smooth electrode and method of fabricating same
Weaver, Stanton Earl; Kennerly, Stacey Joy; Aimi, Marco Francesco
2012-08-14
A smooth electrode is provided. The smooth electrode includes at least one metal layer having thickness greater than about 1 micron; wherein an average surface roughness of the smooth electrode is less than about 10 nm.
Radar data smoothing filter study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, J. V.
1984-01-01
The accuracy of the current Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) data smoothing techniques for a variety of radars and payloads is examined. Alternative data reduction techniques are given and recommendations are made for improving radar data processing at WFF. A data adaptive algorithm, based on Kalman filtering and smoothing techniques, is also developed for estimating payload trajectories above the atmosphere from noisy time varying radar data. This algorithm is tested and verified using radar tracking data from WFF.
Active controls for ride smoothing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Conner, D. W.; Thompson, G. O.
1976-01-01
Active controls technology offers great promise for significantly smoothing the ride, and thus improving public and air carrier acceptance, of certain types of transport aircraft. Recent findings which support this promise are presented in the following three pertinent areas: (1) Ride quality versus degree of traveler satisfaction; (2) significant findings from a feasibility study of a ride smoothing system; and (3) potential ride problems identified for several advanced transport concepts.
Blow-up of the smooth solution to quantum hydrodynamic models in Rd
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Boling; Wang, Guangwu
2016-10-01
In this paper we firstly investigate the local-in-time existence of smooth solution for the quantum hydrodynamic models (QHD) in Rd. Then we prove that any smooth solution of the QHD model which satisfies suitable conditions will blow up in finite time. The model can be derived from nonlinear Schrödinger equation by a Madelung transformation. The main idea is based on the construction of approximate solution and energy inequality.
Smooth and fast versus instantaneous quenches in quantum field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Sumit R.; Galante, Damián A.; Myers, Robert C.
2015-08-01
We examine in detail the relationship between smooth fast quantum quenches, characterized by a time scale δ t, and instantaneous quenches, within the framework of exactly solvable mass quenches in free scalar field theory. Our earlier studies [1, 2] highlighted that the two protocols remain distinct in the limit δ t → 0 because of the relation of the quench rate to the UV cut-off, i.e., 1 /δ t ≪ Λ always holds in the fast smooth quenches while 1 /δ t ˜ Λ for instantaneous quenches. Here we study UV finite quantities like correlators at finite spatial distances and the excess energy produced above the final ground state energy. We show that at late times and large distances (compared to the quench time scale) the smooth quench correlator approaches that for the instantaneous quench. At early times, we find that for small spatial separation and small δ t, the correlator scales universally with δ t, exactly as in the scaling of renormalized one point functions found in earlier work. At larger separation, the dependence on δ t drops out. The excess energy density is finite (for finite mδ t) and scales in a universal fashion for all d. However, the scaling behaviour produces a divergent result in the limit mδ t → 0 for d ≥ 4, just as in an instantaneous quench, where it is UV divergent for d ≥ 4. We argue that similar results hold for arbitrary interacting theories: the excess energy density produced is expected to diverge for scaling dimensions Δ > d/2.
On the Smoothness of the Noncommutative Pillow and Quantum Teardrops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brzeziński, Tomasz
2014-02-01
Recent results by Krähmer [Israel J. Math. 189 (2012), 237-266] on smoothness of Hopf-Galois extensions and by Liu [arXiv:1304.7117] on smoothness of generalized Weyl algebras are used to prove that the coordinate algebras of the noncommutative pillow orbifold [Internat. J. Math. 2 (1991), 139-166], quantum teardrops {O}({W}{P}_q(1,l)) [Comm. Math. Phys. 316 (2012), 151-170], quantum lens spaces {O}(L_q(l;1,l)) [Pacific J. Math. 211 (2003), 249-263], the quantum Seifert manifold {O}(Σ_q^3) [J. Geom. Phys. 62 (2012), 1097-1107], quantum real weighted projective planes {O}({R}{P}_q^2(l;±)) [PoS Proc. Sci. (2012), PoS(CORFU2011), 055, 10 pages] and quantum Seifert lens spaces {O}(Σ_q^3(l;-)) [Axioms 1 (2012), 201-225] are homologically smooth in the sense that as their own bimodules they admit finitely generated projective resolutions of finite length.
Hermite polynomial smoothing in beam-to-beam frictional contact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Musolff, A.; Leschik, S.; Reinstorf, F.; Strauch, G.; Schirmer, M.; Möder, M.
2007-10-01
In this paper a smoothing procedure is suggested for the 3D beam-to-beam contact. A smooth segment is defined basing on current position vectors of three nodes limiting two adjacent finite elements. The approximated fragment of a beam axis as a 3D curve spans between the centre points of these elements. The curve is described parametrically using three Hermite polynomials. The four boundary conditions necessary to determine the coefficients for each of these polynomials involve co-ordinates and slopes at the curve ends. The slopes are defined in terms of the element nodal co-ordinates, too. There is no dependence on nodal rotations so this formulation can be embedded in a beam analysis using any type of beam finite element. This geometric representation of the curve is incorporated into the 3D beam-to-beam frictional contact model with the penalty method used to enforce contact constraints. The residual vector and the corresponding tangent stiffness matrix are determined for the normal part of contact and for the stick or slip state of friction. A few numerical examples are presented to show the performance of the suggested smoothing procedure in the cases featuring large frictional sliding.
7 CFR 51.1159 - Smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.1159 Section 51.1159 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1159 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. ...
7 CFR 51.1159 - Smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.1159 Section 51.1159 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1159 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. ...
7 CFR 51.698 - Smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.698 Section 51.698 Agriculture..., California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.698 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. ...
7 CFR 51.1159 - Smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.1159 Section 51.1159 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.1159 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and...
7 CFR 51.636 - Smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.636 Section 51.636 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...) Definitions § 51.636 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and...
7 CFR 51.768 - Smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.768 Section 51.768 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.768 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. “Thin” means that the skin...
7 CFR 51.1159 - Smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.1159 Section 51.1159 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.1159 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and...
7 CFR 51.768 - Smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.768 Section 51.768 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.768 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. “Thin” means that the skin...
7 CFR 51.636 - Smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.636 Section 51.636 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...) Definitions § 51.636 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and...
7 CFR 51.1159 - Smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.1159 Section 51.1159 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1159 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. ...
7 CFR 51.636 - Smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.636 Section 51.636 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...) Definitions § 51.636 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and...
7 CFR 51.768 - Smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.768 Section 51.768 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.768 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. “Thin” means that the skin...
7 CFR 51.636 - Smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.636 Section 51.636 Agriculture... Florida, California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.636 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. ...
7 CFR 51.698 - Smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.698 Section 51.698 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.698 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size...
7 CFR 51.698 - Smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.698 Section 51.698 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.698 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size...
7 CFR 51.698 - Smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.698 Section 51.698 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.698 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size...
7 CFR 51.636 - Smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.636 Section 51.636 Agriculture... Florida, California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.636 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. ...
7 CFR 51.698 - Smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Smooth texture. 51.698 Section 51.698 Agriculture..., California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.698 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. ...
Income Smoothing: Methodology and Models.
1986-05-01
that managers desire a pattern % of income that has low variability relative to a linear time trend. 2. Industry Trend. Target 2 assumes that firms...R167 55? INCOME SMOOTHING: METHODOLOGY ND NODELS(U) UMVL in1POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA 0 D HOSES "AY S6 UNCLASSIFIED NP5-604FO53 E * I* vu...California oCiD ELEC fl MAY 12 986 INCOME SMOOTHING - METHODOLOGY AND MODELS by 0. Douglas Moses May 1986 *Approved frpublic release; ditibto uniie
Beta-function B-spline smoothing on triangulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dechevsky, Lubomir T.; Zanaty, Peter
2013-03-01
In this work we investigate a novel family of Ck-smooth rational basis functions on triangulations for fitting, smoothing, and denoising geometric data. The introduced basis function is closely related to a recently introduced general method introduced in utilizing generalized expo-rational B-splines, which provides Ck-smooth convex resolutions of unity on very general disjoint partitions and overlapping covers of multidimensional domains with complex geometry. One of the major advantages of this new triangular construction is its locality with respect to the star-1 neighborhood of the vertex on which the said base is providing Hermite interpolation. This locality of the basis functions can be in turn utilized in adaptive methods, where, for instance a local refinement of the underlying triangular mesh affects only the refined domain, whereas, in other method one needs to investigate what changes are occurring outside of the refined domain. Both the triangular and the general smooth constructions have the potential to become a new versatile tool of Computer Aided Geometric Design (CAGD), Finite and Boundary Element Analysis (FEA/BEA) and Iso-geometric Analysis (IGA).
Smooth estimation of the survival function for interval censored data.
Pan, W
2000-10-15
Interval censored data arise naturally in large-scale panel studies where subjects can only be followed periodically and the event of interest can only be observed in some time intervals. To estimate the survival function the non-parametric maximum likelihood estimator (NPMLE) is commonly used, which is a step function having some large jumps. However, in many applications the underlying survival function can be reasonably assumed to be smooth, and then the NPMLE does not efficiently use this information. Two smooth estimators have been f the NPMLE; another is the logspline density model. However, to our knowledge there is no finite sample study yet to assess their performance in the literature. In this paper we first show by simulation that both smooth estimators improve over the NPMLE for smooth survival functions. We then apply these estimators to compare two survival curves. The test statistics based on the maximum difference between two survival functions (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test) and on the integrated weighted difference of two survival functions (IWDB test) are investigated via the bootstrap. From our simulation studies the IWDB test seems particularly promising for some stochastically ordered survival functions that do not satisfy the proportional hazards model. The methods are illustrated by reanalysing the Breast Cosmesis Study data set.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Pengcheng; Zhong, Zheqiang; Zhang, Bin
2016-11-01
In radial smoothing scheme, taking a super-Gaussian pulse train obtained by the pulse stacking scheme based on fibers and spatial shaping technology based on serrated-aperture apodizers as the pump laser, due to the hemispherical shape of the optical Kerr medium, the induced refraction index by the interaction of the optical Kerr medium and the pump laser is spherically distributed with periodical variation. Consequently, the transmission wavefront of the laser quads in the beamline is periodically modulated, resulting in the rapidly and periodic focal zooming in far field. This focal zooming smoothes the speckles on target plane in the radial direction in the sense of averaged over a finite time interval. The performance of the pump laser and the optical Kerr medium strongly affect the radial smoothing effect. In order to obtain better smoothing effect as that of smoothing by spectral dispersion, the propagation model of laser quads in the beamline with the radial smoothing scheme has been built up and further used to optimize the parameters of the pump laser and the optical Kerr medium. The beam smoothing effects of the joint use of continuous phase plate and polarization control plate with smoothing by spectral dispersion, as well as radial smoothing have been analyzed and compared in detail. Results indicate that, the delay time between each super-Gaussian pulse in the pump laser should be matched with the pulse width of each super-Gaussian pulse to achieve the best and stable radial smoothing effect, while the fluctuation of the peak intensity of each super-Gaussian pulse in the pump laser would degrade the radial smoothing effect. The selection of the optical Kerr medium directly determines its thickness and peak intensity of the pump laser to obtain the required wavefront modulation, which affects the feasibility of the radial smoothing scheme.
Finite-Element Fracture Analysis of Pins and Bolts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nord, K. J.
1986-01-01
Stress intensities calculated in bending and tension. Finite-element stress-analysis method gives stress-intensity estimates for surface flaws on smooth and threaded round bars. Calculations done for purely tensile and purely bending loads. Results, presented in dimensionless form, useful for determining fatigue lives of bolts and pins.
Higgs Boson, Magnetic Monopoles and Exotic Smoothness in 4D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asselmeyer-Maluga, Torsten; Król, Jerzy
We present a model where three incompatible smoothness structures on open 4-manifolds are partly responsible for different physical effects, like: i. the appearance of magnetic matter and Higgs field as non-perturbative solutions of Yang-Mills theory, ii. in cosmology: the inflation, its speed, finite time of the acceleration and the Higgs mass, iii. the perturbative quantum matter as in the standard model of particles. The corresponding 3 smoothness structures are: i. exotic {R}4s with its exotic end S3 × {R}, ii. the fake S3 × Θ (8_{10)}{R} of Freedman, iii. the standard {R}4. It is conjectured that the issue of quantum gravity relies on the incompatibility of the structures.
Quasispecies theory for finite populations
Park, Jeong-Man; Muñoz, Enrique; Deem, Michael W.
2015-01-01
We present stochastic, finite-population formulations of the Crow-Kimura and Eigen models of quasispecies theory, for fitness functions that depend in an arbitrary way on the number of mutations from the wild type. We include back mutations in our description. We show that the fluctuation of the population numbers about the average values are exceedingly large in these physical models of evolution. We further show that horizontal gene transfer reduces by orders of magnitude the fluctuations in the population numbers and reduces the accumulation of deleterious mutations in the finite population due to Muller’s ratchet. Indeed the population sizes needed to converge to the infinite population limit are often larger than those found in nature for smooth fitness functions in the absence of horizontal gene transfer. These analytical results are derived for the steady-state by means of a field-theoretic representation. Numerical results are presented that indicate horizontal gene transfer speeds up the dynamics of evolution as well. PMID:20365394
Quasispecies theory for finite populations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jeong-Man; Muñoz, Enrique; Deem, Michael W.
2010-01-01
We present stochastic, finite-population formulations of the Crow-Kimura and Eigen models of quasispecies theory, for fitness functions that depend in an arbitrary way on the number of mutations from the wild type. We include back mutations in our description. We show that the fluctuation of the population numbers about the average values is exceedingly large in these physical models of evolution. We further show that horizontal gene transfer reduces by orders of magnitude the fluctuations in the population numbers and reduces the accumulation of deleterious mutations in the finite population due to Muller’s ratchet. Indeed, the population sizes needed to converge to the infinite population limit are often larger than those found in nature for smooth fitness functions in the absence of horizontal gene transfer. These analytical results are derived for the steady state by means of a field-theoretic representation. Numerical results are presented that indicate horizontal gene transfer speeds up the dynamics of evolution as well.
Registration of 'Newell' Smooth Bromegrass
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
‘Newell’ (Reg. No. CV-xxxx, PI 671851) smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) is a steppe or southern type cultivar that is primarily adapted in the USA to areas north of 40o N lat. and east of 100o W long. that have 500 mm or more annual precipitation or in areas that have similar climate cond...
Anisotropic subvoxel-smooth conduction model for bioelectromagnetism analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Zhi Zhu; Liu, Jing
2016-01-01
The bioelectric conduction model plays a key role in bioelectromagnetism analysis, such as solving electromagnetic forward and inverse problems. This paper is aimed to develop an anisotropic subvoxel-smooth conduction model (ASCM) to characterize the electrical conductivity tensor jump across the tissue interface, which is derived based on the interfacial continuity condition with asymptotic analysis method. This conduction model is furthermore combined with finite volume method to improve the numerical accuracy for solving electromagnetic forward problem. The performance of ASCM for electrical potential analysis is verified by comparison with analytic solution. The method is also applied to investigate the effect of anisotropic conduction on EEG analysis in a realistic human head model.
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics with GRAPE-1A
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Umemura, Masayuki; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Sugimoto, Daiichiro; Turner, Edwin L.; Loeb, Abraham
1993-01-01
We describe the implementation of a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) scheme using GRAPE-1A, a special-purpose processor used for gravitational N-body simulations. The GRAPE-1A calculates the gravitational force exerted on a particle from all other particles in a system, while simultaneously making a list of the nearest neighbors of the particle. It is found that GRAPE-1A accelerates SPH calculations by direct summation by about two orders of magnitudes for a ten thousand-particle simulation. The effective speed is 80 Mflops, which is about 30 percent of the peak speed of GRAPE-1A. Also, in order to investigate the accuracy of GRAPE-SPH, some test simulations were executed. We found that the force and position errors are smaller than those due to representing a fluid by a finite number of particles. The total energy and momentum were conserved within 0.2-0.4 percent and 2-5 x 10 exp -5, respectively, in simulations with several thousand particles. We conclude that GRAPE-SPH is quite effective and sufficiently accurate for self-gravitating hydrodynamics.
Analytic elements of smooth shapes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strack, Otto D. L.; Nevison, Patrick R.
2015-10-01
We present a method for producing analytic elements of a smooth shape, obtained using conformal mapping. Applications are presented for a case of impermeable analytic elements as well as for head-specified ones. The mathematical operations necessary to use the elements in practical problems can be carried out before modeling of flow problems begins. A catalog of shapes, along with pre-determined coefficients could be established on the basis of the approach presented here, making applications in the field straight forward.
Tape-Smoothing Tool For Adhesion Tests
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, Peter B.
1992-01-01
Small tool smoothes adhesive tape uniformly to ensure consistency and repeatability of tape-peel tests of adhesion of paint to substrate. Includes resilient pad covered with tough, smooth fabric. Internal spring regulates force applied to tape.
Simple Finite Jordan Pseudoalgebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolesnikov, Pavel
2009-01-01
We consider the structure of Jordan H-pseudoalgebras which are linearly finitely generated over a Hopf algebra H. There are two cases under consideration: H = U(h) and H = U(h) # C[Γ], where h is a finite-dimensional Lie algebra over C, Γ is an arbitrary group acting on U(h) by automorphisms. We construct an analogue of the Tits-Kantor-Koecher construction for finite Jordan pseudoalgebras and describe all simple ones.
Finite difference methods for approximating Heaviside functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Towers, John D.
2009-05-01
We present a finite difference method for discretizing a Heaviside function H(u(x→)), where u is a level set function u:Rn ↦ R that is positive on a bounded region Ω⊂Rn. There are two variants of our algorithm, both of which are adapted from finite difference methods that we proposed for discretizing delta functions in [J.D. Towers, Two methods for discretizing a delta function supported on a level set, J. Comput. Phys. 220 (2007) 915-931; J.D. Towers, Discretizing delta functions via finite differences and gradient normalization, Preprint at http://www.miracosta.edu/home/jtowers/; J.D. Towers, A convergence rate theorem for finite difference approximations to delta functions, J. Comput. Phys. 227 (2008) 6591-6597]. We consider our approximate Heaviside functions as they are used to approximate integrals over Ω. We prove that our first approximate Heaviside function leads to second order accurate quadrature algorithms. Numerical experiments verify this second order accuracy. For our second algorithm, numerical experiments indicate at least third order accuracy if the integrand f and ∂Ω are sufficiently smooth. Numerical experiments also indicate that our approximations are effective when used to discretize certain singular source terms in partial differential equations. We mostly focus on smooth f and u. By this we mean that f is smooth in a neighborhood of Ω, u is smooth in a neighborhood of ∂Ω, and the level set u(x)=0 is a manifold of codimension one. However, our algorithms still give reasonable results if either f or u has jumps in its derivatives. Numerical experiments indicate approximately second order accuracy for both algorithms if the regularity of the data is reduced in this way, assuming that the level set u(x)=0 is a manifold. Numerical experiments indicate that dependence on the placement of Ω with respect to the grid is quite small for our algorithms. Specifically, a grid shift results in an O(hp) change in the computed solution
A SAS IML Macro for Loglinear Smoothing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moses, Tim; von Davier, Alina
2011-01-01
Polynomial loglinear models for one-, two-, and higher-way contingency tables have important applications to measurement and assessment. They are essentially regarded as a smoothing technique, which is commonly referred to as loglinear smoothing. A SAS IML (SAS Institute, 2002a) macro was created to implement loglinear smoothing according to…
7 CFR 51.768 - Smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. “Thin” means that the skin thickness does not average more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm), on a...
7 CFR 51.768 - Smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. “Thin” means that the skin thickness does not average more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm), on a...
Beamline smoothing of the Advanced Photon Source
Friedsam, H.; Penicka, M.; Zhao, S.
1995-06-01
This paper outlines a general beamline smoothing concept based on the use of First Principle Component analysis. Bean-dine smoothing is commonly used for the detection of blunders in the positioning of beam elements and to provide a smooth particle beam path with the fewest adjustments to individual beam components. It also provides the data for assessment of the achieved positioning quality.
Effectiveness of Analytic Smoothing in Equipercentile Equating.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kolen, Michael J.
1984-01-01
An analytic procedure for smoothing in equipercentile equating using cubic smoothing splines is described and illustrated. The effectiveness of the procedure is judged by comparing the results from smoothed equipercentile equating with those from other equating methods using multiple cross-validations for a variety of sample sizes. (Author/JKS)
A SAS IML Macro for Loglinear Smoothing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moses, Tim; von Davier, Alina
2011-01-01
Polynomial loglinear models for one-, two-, and higher-way contingency tables have important applications to measurement and assessment. They are essentially regarded as a smoothing technique, which is commonly referred to as loglinear smoothing. A SAS IML (SAS Institute, 2002a) macro was created to implement loglinear smoothing according to…
7 CFR 51.1910 - Fairly smooth.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1910 Section 51.1910 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... smooth. Fairly smooth means that the tomato is not conspicuously ridged or rough. ...
7 CFR 51.1910 - Fairly smooth.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1910 Section 51.1910 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Definitions § 51.1910 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that the...
7 CFR 51.1870 - Fairly smooth.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1870 Section 51.1870 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1870 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that the tomato is...
7 CFR 51.1910 - Fairly smooth.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1910 Section 51.1910 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Definitions § 51.1910 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that the...
7 CFR 51.1910 - Fairly smooth.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1910 Section 51.1910 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... smooth. Fairly smooth means that the tomato is not conspicuously ridged or rough. ...
7 CFR 51.1870 - Fairly smooth.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1870 Section 51.1870 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1870 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that the tomato is...
7 CFR 51.1910 - Fairly smooth.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1910 Section 51.1910 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Definitions § 51.1910 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that the...
7 CFR 51.1870 - Fairly smooth.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1870 Section 51.1870 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1870 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that the tomato is not conspicuously ridged or rough. ...
7 CFR 51.1870 - Fairly smooth.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1870 Section 51.1870 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1870 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that the tomato is not conspicuously ridged or rough. ...
Effectiveness of Analytic Smoothing in Equipercentile Equating.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kolen, Michael J.
1984-01-01
An analytic procedure for smoothing in equipercentile equating using cubic smoothing splines is described and illustrated. The effectiveness of the procedure is judged by comparing the results from smoothed equipercentile equating with those from other equating methods using multiple cross-validations for a variety of sample sizes. (Author/JKS)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Kum Young
2009-01-01
This thesis explores finite control in Korean. An overview of the previous studies of control shows that the mainstream literature on control has consistently argued that referential dependence between an overt matrix argument and an embedded null subject is characteristic of non-finite clauses which contain a PRO subject. Moreover, although some…
QUARKONIUM AT FINITE TEMPERATURE.
UMEDA, T.
2006-06-09
Lattice QCD studies on charmonium at finite temperature are presented After a discussion about problems for the Maximum Entropy Method applied to finite temperature lattice QCD, I show several results on charmonium spectral functions. The 'wave function' of charmonium is also discussed to study the spatial correlation between quark and anti-quark in deconfinement phase.
Boundary smoothness of analytic functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Farrell, Anthony G.
2014-06-01
We consider the behaviour of holomorphic functions on a bounded open subset of the plane, satisfying a Lipschitz condition with exponent , with , in the vicinity of an exceptional boundary point where all such functions exhibit some kind of smoothness. Specifically, we consider the relation between the abstract idea of a bounded point derivation on the algebra of such functions and the classical complex derivative evaluated as a limit of difference quotients. We obtain a result which applies, for example, when the open set admits an interior cone at the special boundary point.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Chi; Zhang, Xuejun; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Haifei; Zeng, Xuefeng
2017-06-01
A rigid conformal (RC) lap can smooth mid-spatial-frequency (MSF) errors, which are naturally smaller than the tool size, while still removing large-scale errors in a short time. However, the RC-lap smoothing efficiency performance is poorer than expected, and existing smoothing models cannot explicitly specify the methods to improve this efficiency. We presented an explicit time-dependent smoothing evaluation model that contained specific smoothing parameters directly derived from the parametric smoothing model and the Preston equation. Based on the time-dependent model, we proposed a strategy to improve the RC-lap smoothing efficiency, which incorporated the theoretical model, tool optimization, and efficiency limit determination. Two sets of smoothing experiments were performed to demonstrate the smoothing efficiency achieved using the time-dependent smoothing model. A high, theory-like tool influence function and a limiting tool speed of 300 RPM were o
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Chi; Zhang, Xuejun; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Haifei; Zeng, Xuefeng
2017-01-01
A rigid conformal (RC) lap can smooth mid-spatial-frequency (MSF) errors, which are naturally smaller than the tool size, while still removing large-scale errors in a short time. However, the RC-lap smoothing efficiency performance is poorer than expected, and existing smoothing models cannot explicitly specify the methods to improve this efficiency. We presented an explicit time-dependent smoothing evaluation model that contained specific smoothing parameters directly derived from the parametric smoothing model and the Preston equation. Based on the time-dependent model, we proposed a strategy to improve the RC-lap smoothing efficiency, which incorporated the theoretical model, tool optimization, and efficiency limit determination. Two sets of smoothing experiments were performed to demonstrate the smoothing efficiency achieved using the time-dependent smoothing model. A high, theory-like tool influence function and a limiting tool speed of 300 RPM were o
Smooth halos in the cosmic web
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaite, José
2015-04-01
Dark matter halos can be defined as smooth distributions of dark matter placed in a non-smooth cosmic web structure. This definition of halos demands a precise definition of smoothness and a characterization of the manner in which the transition from smooth halos to the cosmic web takes place. We introduce entropic measures of smoothness, related to measures of inequality previously used in economy and with the advantage of being connected with standard methods of multifractal analysis already used for characterizing the cosmic web structure in cold dark matter N-body simulations. These entropic measures provide us with a quantitative description of the transition from the small scales portrayed as a distribution of halos to the larger scales portrayed as a cosmic web and, therefore, allow us to assign definite sizes to halos. However, these ``smoothness sizes'' have no direct relation to the virial radii. Finally, we discuss the influence of N-body discreteness parameters on smoothness.
Smooth halos in the cosmic web
Gaite, José
2015-04-01
Dark matter halos can be defined as smooth distributions of dark matter placed in a non-smooth cosmic web structure. This definition of halos demands a precise definition of smoothness and a characterization of the manner in which the transition from smooth halos to the cosmic web takes place. We introduce entropic measures of smoothness, related to measures of inequality previously used in economy and with the advantage of being connected with standard methods of multifractal analysis already used for characterizing the cosmic web structure in cold dark matter N-body simulations. These entropic measures provide us with a quantitative description of the transition from the small scales portrayed as a distribution of halos to the larger scales portrayed as a cosmic web and, therefore, allow us to assign definite sizes to halos. However, these ''smoothness sizes'' have no direct relation to the virial radii. Finally, we discuss the influence of N-body discreteness parameters on smoothness.
s-SMOOTH: Sparsity and Smoothness Enhanced EEG Brain Tomography
Li, Ying; Qin, Jing; Hsin, Yue-Loong; Osher, Stanley; Liu, Wentai
2016-01-01
EEG source imaging enables us to reconstruct current density in the brain from the electrical measurements with excellent temporal resolution (~ ms). The corresponding EEG inverse problem is an ill-posed one that has infinitely many solutions. This is due to the fact that the number of EEG sensors is usually much smaller than that of the potential dipole locations, as well as noise contamination in the recorded signals. To obtain a unique solution, regularizations can be incorporated to impose additional constraints on the solution. An appropriate choice of regularization is critically important for the reconstruction accuracy of a brain image. In this paper, we propose a novel Sparsity and SMOOthness enhanced brain TomograpHy (s-SMOOTH) method to improve the reconstruction accuracy by integrating two recently proposed regularization techniques: Total Generalized Variation (TGV) regularization and ℓ1−2 regularization. TGV is able to preserve the source edge and recover the spatial distribution of the source intensity with high accuracy. Compared to the relevant total variation (TV) regularization, TGV enhances the smoothness of the image and reduces staircasing artifacts. The traditional TGV defined on a 2D image has been widely used in the image processing field. In order to handle 3D EEG source images, we propose a voxel-based Total Generalized Variation (vTGV) regularization that extends the definition of second-order TGV from 2D planar images to 3D irregular surfaces such as cortex surface. In addition, the ℓ1−2 regularization is utilized to promote sparsity on the current density itself. We demonstrate that ℓ1−2 regularization is able to enhance sparsity and accelerate computations than ℓ1 regularization. The proposed model is solved by an efficient and robust algorithm based on the difference of convex functions algorithm (DCA) and the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Numerical experiments using synthetic data demonstrate the
s-SMOOTH: Sparsity and Smoothness Enhanced EEG Brain Tomography.
Li, Ying; Qin, Jing; Hsin, Yue-Loong; Osher, Stanley; Liu, Wentai
2016-01-01
EEG source imaging enables us to reconstruct current density in the brain from the electrical measurements with excellent temporal resolution (~ ms). The corresponding EEG inverse problem is an ill-posed one that has infinitely many solutions. This is due to the fact that the number of EEG sensors is usually much smaller than that of the potential dipole locations, as well as noise contamination in the recorded signals. To obtain a unique solution, regularizations can be incorporated to impose additional constraints on the solution. An appropriate choice of regularization is critically important for the reconstruction accuracy of a brain image. In this paper, we propose a novel Sparsity and SMOOthness enhanced brain TomograpHy (s-SMOOTH) method to improve the reconstruction accuracy by integrating two recently proposed regularization techniques: Total Generalized Variation (TGV) regularization and ℓ1-2 regularization. TGV is able to preserve the source edge and recover the spatial distribution of the source intensity with high accuracy. Compared to the relevant total variation (TV) regularization, TGV enhances the smoothness of the image and reduces staircasing artifacts. The traditional TGV defined on a 2D image has been widely used in the image processing field. In order to handle 3D EEG source images, we propose a voxel-based Total Generalized Variation (vTGV) regularization that extends the definition of second-order TGV from 2D planar images to 3D irregular surfaces such as cortex surface. In addition, the ℓ1-2 regularization is utilized to promote sparsity on the current density itself. We demonstrate that ℓ1-2 regularization is able to enhance sparsity and accelerate computations than ℓ1 regularization. The proposed model is solved by an efficient and robust algorithm based on the difference of convex functions algorithm (DCA) and the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Numerical experiments using synthetic data demonstrate the
Rhythmicity in arterial smooth muscle
Haddock, Rebecca E; Hill, Caryl E
2005-01-01
Many arteries and arterioles exhibit rhythmical contractions which are synchronous over considerable distances. This vasomotion is likely to assist in tissue perfusion especially during periods of altered metabolism or perfusion pressure. While the mechanism underlying vascular rhythmicity has been investigated for many years, it has only been recently, with the advent of imaging techniques for visualizing intracellular calcium release, that significant advances have been made. These methods, when combined with mechanical and electrophysiological recordings, have demonstrated that the rhythm depends critically on calcium released from intracellular stores within the smooth muscle cells and on cell coupling via gap junctions to synchronize oscillations in calcium release amongst adjacent cells. While these factors are common to all vessels studied to date, the contribution of voltage-dependent channels and the endothelium varies amongst different vessels. The basic mechanism for rhythmical activity in arteries thus differs from its counterpart in non-vascular smooth muscle, where specific networks of pacemaker cells generate electrical potentials which drive activity within the otherwise quiescent muscle cells. PMID:15905215
Standard-smooth hybrid inflation
Lazarides, George; Vamvasakis, Achilleas
2007-12-15
We consider the extended supersymmetric Pati-Salam model which, for {mu}>0 and universal boundary conditions, succeeds to yield experimentally acceptable b-quark masses by moderately violating Yukawa unification. It is known that this model can lead to new shifted or new smooth hybrid inflation. We show that a successful two-stage inflationary scenario can be realized within this model based only on renormalizable superpotential interactions. The cosmological scales exit the horizon during the first stage of inflation, which is of the standard hybrid type and takes place along the trivial flat direction with the inflaton driven by radiative corrections. Spectral indices compatible with the recent data can be achieved in global supersymmetry or minimal supergravity by restricting the number of e-foldings of our present horizon during the first inflationary stage. The additional e-foldings needed for solving the horizon and flatness problems are naturally provided by a second stage of inflation, which occurs mainly along the built-in new smooth hybrid inflationary path appearing right after the destabilization of the trivial flat direction at its critical point. Monopoles are formed at the end of the first stage of inflation and are, subsequently, diluted by the second stage of inflation to become utterly negligible in the present universe for almost all (for all) the allowed values of the parameters in the case of global supersymmetry (minimal supergravity)
2009-04-30
This image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the spiral galaxy NGC 2841, located about 46 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Ursa Major. The galaxy is helping astronomers solve one of the oldest puzzles in astronomy: Why do galaxies look so smooth, with stars sprinkled evenly throughout? An international team of astronomers has discovered that rivers of young stars flow from their hot, dense stellar nurseries, dispersing out to form large, smooth distributions. This image is a composite of three different wavelengths from Spitzer's infrared array camera. The shortest wavelengths are displayed inblue, and mostly show the older stars in NGC 2841, as well as foreground stars in our own Milky Way galaxy. The cooler areas are highlighted in red, and show the dusty, gaseous regions of the galaxy. Blue shows infrared light of 3.6 microns, green represents 4.5-micron light and red, 8.0-micron light. The contribution from starlight measured at 3.6 microns has been subtracted from the 8.0-micron data to enhance the visibility of the dust features.The shortest wavelengths are displayed inblue, and mostly show the older stars in NGC 2841, as well as foreground stars in our own Milky Way galaxy. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA12001
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stein, David B.; Guy, Robert D.; Thomases, Becca
2017-04-01
The Immersed Boundary method is a simple, efficient, and robust numerical scheme for solving PDE in general domains, yet for fluid problems it only achieves first-order spatial accuracy near embedded boundaries for the velocity field and fails to converge pointwise for elements of the stress tensor. In a previous work we introduced the Immersed Boundary Smooth Extension (IBSE) method, a variation of the IB method that achieves high-order accuracy for elliptic PDE by smoothly extending the unknown solution of the PDE from a given smooth domain to a larger computational domain, enabling the use of simple Cartesian-grid discretizations. In this work, we extend the IBSE method to allow for the imposition of a divergence constraint, and demonstrate high-order convergence for the Stokes and incompressible Navier-Stokes equations: up to third-order pointwise convergence for the velocity field, and second-order pointwise convergence for all elements of the stress tensor. The method is flexible to the underlying discretization: we demonstrate solutions produced using both a Fourier spectral discretization and a standard second-order finite-difference discretization.
Spectral finite-element methods for parametric constrained optimization problems.
Anitescu, M.; Mathematics and Computer Science
2009-01-01
We present a method to approximate the solution mapping of parametric constrained optimization problems. The approximation, which is of the spectral finite element type, is represented as a linear combination of orthogonal polynomials. Its coefficients are determined by solving an appropriate finite-dimensional constrained optimization problem. We show that, under certain conditions, the latter problem is solvable because it is feasible for a sufficiently large degree of the polynomial approximation and has an objective function with bounded level sets. In addition, the solutions of the finite-dimensional problems converge for an increasing degree of the polynomials considered, provided that the solutions exhibit a sufficiently large and uniform degree of smoothness. Our approach solves, in the case of optimization problems with uncertain parameters, the most computationally intensive part of stochastic finite-element approaches. We demonstrate that our framework is applicable to parametric eigenvalue problems.
Power spectral density estimation by spline smoothing in the frequency domain.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
De Figueiredo, R. J. P.; Thompson, J. R.
1972-01-01
An approach, based on a global averaging procedure, is presented for estimating the power spectrum of a second order stationary zero-mean ergodic stochastic process from a finite length record. This estimate is derived by smoothing, with a cubic smoothing spline, the naive estimate of the spectrum obtained by applying Fast Fourier Transform techniques to the raw data. By means of digital computer simulated results, a comparison is made between the features of the present approach and those of more classical techniques of spectral estimation.-
Power spectral density estimation by spline smoothing in the frequency domain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Defigueiredo, R. J. P.; Thompson, J. R.
1972-01-01
An approach, based on a global averaging procedure, is presented for estimating the power spectrum of a second order stationary zero-mean ergodic stochastic process from a finite length record. This estimate is derived by smoothing, with a cubic smoothing spline, the naive estimate of the spectrum obtained by applying FFT techniques to the raw data. By means of digital computer simulated results, a comparison is made between the features of the present approach and those of more classical techniques of spectral estimation.
A Low Cross-Polarization Smooth-Walled Horn with Improved Bandwidth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeng, Lingzhen; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.
2009-01-01
Corrugated feed horns offer excellent beam symmetry, main beam efficiency, and cross-polar response over wide bandwidths, but can be challenging to fabricate. An easier-to-manufacture smooth-walled feed is explored that approximates these properties over a finite bandwidth. The design, optimization and measurement of a monotonically-profiled, smooth-walled scalar feedhorn with a diffraction-limited approximately 7 degrees full width at half maximum (FWHM) is presented. The feed was demonstrated to have low cross polarization (<-30 dB) across the frequency range 33-45 GHz (30% fractional bandwidth). A return loss better than -28 dB was measured across the band.
A Low Cross-Polarization Smooth-Walled Horn with Improved Bandwidth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeng, Lingzhen; Bennette, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.
2009-01-01
Corrugated feed horns offer excellent beam symmetry, main beam efficiency, and cross-polar response over wide bandwidths, but can be challenging to fabricate. An easier-to-manufacture smooth-walled feed is explored that approximates these properties over a finite bandwidth. The design, optimization and measurement of a monotonically-profiled, smooth-walled scalar feedhorn with a diffraction-limited approx. 14deg FWHM beam is presented. The feed was demonstrated to have low cross polarization (<-30 dB) across the frequency range 33-45 GHz (30% fractional bandwidth). A power reflection below -28 dB was measured across the band.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merriam, Marshal L.
1986-01-01
The technique of obtaining second order, oscillation free, total variation diminishing (TVD), scalar difference schemes by adding a limited diffusion flux (smoothing) to a second order centered scheme is explored. It is shown that such schemes do not always converge to the correct physical answer. The approach presented here is to construct schemes that numerically satisfy the second law of thermodynamics on a cell by cell basis. Such schemes can only converge to the correct physical solution and in some cases can be shown to be TVD. An explicit scheme with this property and second order spatial accuracy was found to have an extremely restrictive time step limitation (Delta t less than Delta x squared). Switching to an implicit scheme removed the time step limitation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merriam, Marshal L.
1987-01-01
The technique of obtaining second-order oscillation-free total -variation-diminishing (TVD), scalar difference schemes by adding a limited diffusive flux ('smoothing') to a second-order centered scheme is explored. It is shown that such schemes do not always converge to the correct physical answer. The approach presented here is to construct schemes that numerically satisfy the second law of thermodynamics on a cell-by-cell basis. Such schemes can only converge to the correct physical solution and in some cases can be shown to be TVD. An explicit scheme with this property and second-order spatial accuracy was found to have extremely restrictive time-step limitation. Switching to an implicit scheme removed the time-step limitation.
Autoregressive smoothing of GOMOS transmittances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fussen, D.; Vanhellemont, F.; Bingen, C.; Kyrölä, B.; Tamminen, J.; Sofieva, V.; Hassinen, S.; Seppälä, A.; Verronen, P. T.; Bertaux, J. L.; Hauchecorne, A.; Dalaudier, F.; d'Andon, O. Fanton; Barrot, G.; Mangin, A.; Theodore, B.; Guirlet, M.; Renard, J. B.; Fraisse, R.; Snoeij, P.; Koopman, R.; Saavedra, L.
GOMOS is a stellar occultation instrument onboard ENVISAT. It has already measured several hundreds of thousands occultations since March 2002. In some circumstances, the obliqueness of the star setting causes the remote sounding of possible horizontal turbulence that cannot be adequately corrected by using the fast photometer signals, leading to the presence of residual scintillation in the atmospheric transmittance. We investigate the mechanism that produces this spurious signal that may cause the retrieval of wavy constituent profiles. A special algorithm of vertical autoregressive smoothing (VAS) is proposed that takes into account the physical correlation between adjacent measurements at different tangent altitudes. A regularization parameter of the method may be optimized on basis of the minimal correlation between the residuals as prescribed by the Durbin-Watson statistics. The improvements obtained in the retrieval of both O 3 and NO 2 number density profiles is presented and discussed with respect to the results of the official data processing model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pioline, Boris
2015-04-01
In D = 4 , theories on , the index receives contributions not only from single-particle BPS states, counted by the BPS indices, but also from multi-particle states made of BPS constituents. In a recent work [1], a general formula expressing the index in terms of the BPS indices was proposed, which is smooth across walls of marginal stability and reproduces the expected single-particle contributions. In this note, I analyze the two-particle contributions predicted by this formula, and show agreement with the spectral asymmetry of the continuum of scattering states in the supersymmetric quantum mechanics of two non-relativistic, mutually non-local dyons. This may provide a physical justification for the error function profile used in the mathematics literature on indefinite theta series, and in the physics literature on black hole partition functions.
Lensing smoothing of BAO wiggles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Dio, Enea
2017-03-01
We study non-perturbatively the effect of the deflection angle on the BAO wiggles of the matter power spectrum in real space. We show that from redshift z~2 this introduces a dispersion of roughly 1 Mpc at BAO scale, which corresponds approximately to a 1% effect. The lensing effect induced by the deflection angle, which is completely geometrical and survey independent, smears out the BAO wiggles. The effect on the power spectrum amplitude at BAO scale is about 0.1 % for z~2 and 0.2 % for z~4. We compare the smoothing effects induced by the lensing potential and non-linear structure formation, showing that the two effects become comparable at z ~ 4, while the lensing effect dominates for sources at higher redshifts. We note that this effect is not accounted through BAO reconstruction techniques.
Mechanics of Vascular Smooth Muscle.
Ratz, Paul H
2015-12-15
Vascular smooth muscle (VSM; see Table 1 for a list of abbreviations) is a heterogeneous biomaterial comprised of cells and extracellular matrix. By surrounding tubes of endothelial cells, VSM forms a regulated network, the vasculature, through which oxygenated blood supplies specialized organs, permitting the development of large multicellular organisms. VSM cells, the engine of the vasculature, house a set of regulated nanomotors that permit rapid stress-development, sustained stress-maintenance and vessel constriction. Viscoelastic materials within, surrounding and attached to VSM cells, comprised largely of polymeric proteins with complex mechanical characteristics, assist the engine with countering loads imposed by the heart pump, and with control of relengthening after constriction. The complexity of this smart material can be reduced by classical mechanical studies combined with circuit modeling using spring and dashpot elements. Evaluation of the mechanical characteristics of VSM requires a more complete understanding of the mechanics and regulation of its biochemical parts, and ultimately, an understanding of how these parts work together to form the machinery of the vascular tree. Current molecular studies provide detailed mechanical data about single polymeric molecules, revealing viscoelasticity and plasticity at the protein domain level, the unique biological slip-catch bond, and a regulated two-step actomyosin power stroke. At the tissue level, new insight into acutely dynamic stress-strain behavior reveals smooth muscle to exhibit adaptive plasticity. At its core, physiology aims to describe the complex interactions of molecular systems, clarifying structure-function relationships and regulation of biological machines. The intent of this review is to provide a comprehensive presentation of one biomachine, VSM.
Neoclassical Radial Electric Field and Transport with Finite Orbits
Wang, W. X.; Hinton, F. L.; Wong, S. K.
2001-07-30
Neoclassical transport in a toroidal plasma with finite ion orbits is studied, including for the first time the self-consistent radial electric field. Using a low-noise {delta}f particle simulation, we demonstrate that a deep electric-field well develops in a region with a steep density gradient, because of the self-collision--driven ion flux. We find that the electric field agrees with the standard neoclassical expression, when the toroidal rotation is zero, even for a steep density gradient. Ion thermal transport is modified by the electric-field well in a way which is consistent with the orbit squeezing effect, but smoothed by the finite orbits.
Diffusive mesh relaxation in ALE finite element numerical simulations
Dube, E.I.
1996-06-01
The theory for a diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is developed for use in three-dimensional Arbitary Lagrange/Eulerian (ALE) finite element simulation techniques. This mesh relaxer is derived by a variational principle for an unstructured 3D grid using finite elements, and incorporates hourglass controls in the numerical implementation. The diffusive coefficients are based on the geometric properties of the existing mesh, and are chosen so as to allow for a smooth grid that retains the general shape of the original mesh. The diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is then applied to an ALE code system, and results from several test cases are discussed.
Competition for finite resources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cook, L. Jonathan; Zia, R. K. P.
2012-05-01
The resources in a cell are finite, which implies that the various components of the cell must compete for resources. One such resource is the ribosomes used during translation to create proteins. Motivated by this example, we explore this competition by connecting two totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes (TASEPs) to a finite pool of particles. Expanding on our previous work, we focus on the effects on the density and current of having different entry and exit rates.
Generating Smooth Motions For Robotic Manipulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bejczy, Antal K.; Szakaly, Zoltan F.
1993-01-01
In improved method for generating trajectory of robotic manipulator, each straight-line segment of trajectory composed of constant-velocity main portion sandwiched between smooth acceleration at start and smooth deceleration at finish. Algorithm implementing method computes velocity in each accelerating portion as sinusoidal function of position along line. This motion chosen for two reasons: closely approximates motion of human hand along straight-line trajectory, and provides very smooth transitions between constant-velocity portion and accelerated and decelerational end portions.
Smooth GERBS, orthogonal systems and energy minimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dechevsky, Lubomir T.; Zanaty, Peter
2013-12-01
New results are obtained in three mutually related directions of the rapidly developing theory of generalized expo-rational B-splines (GERBS) [7, 6]: closed-form computability of C∞-smooth GERBS in terms of elementary and special functions, Hermite interpolation and least-squares best approximation via smooth GERBS, energy minimizing properties of smooth GERBS similar to those of the classical cubic polynomial B-splines.
Smooth GERBS, orthogonal systems and energy minimization
Dechevsky, Lubomir T. E-mail: pza@hin.no; Zanaty, Peter E-mail: pza@hin.no
2013-12-18
New results are obtained in three mutually related directions of the rapidly developing theory of generalized expo-rational B-splines (GERBS) [7, 6]: closed-form computability of C{sup ∞}-smooth GERBS in terms of elementary and special functions, Hermite interpolation and least-squares best approximation via smooth GERBS, energy minimizing properties of smooth GERBS similar to those of the classical cubic polynomial B-splines.
MODELING OF FRICTION STIR WELDING (FSW) PROCESS USING SMOOTH PARTICLE HYDRODYNAMICS (SPH)
Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Grant, Glenn J.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.
2006-06-14
We present a novel modeling approach to simulate FSW process that may have significant advantages over current traditional finite element or finite difference based methods. The proposed model is based on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method, a fully Lagrangian particle method that can simulate the dynamics of interfaces, large material deformations, void formations and material's strain and temperature history without employing complex tracking schemes. Two- and three-dimensional simulations for different tool designs are presented. Preliminary numerical results are in good qualitative agreement with experimental observations.
The Relation of Finite Element and Finite Difference Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vinokur, M.
1976-01-01
Finite element and finite difference methods are examined in order to bring out their relationship. It is shown that both methods use two types of discrete representations of continuous functions. They differ in that finite difference methods emphasize the discretization of independent variable, while finite element methods emphasize the discretization of dependent variable (referred to as functional approximations). An important point is that finite element methods use global piecewise functional approximations, while finite difference methods normally use local functional approximations. A general conclusion is that finite element methods are best designed to handle complex boundaries, while finite difference methods are superior for complex equations. It is also shown that finite volume difference methods possess many of the advantages attributed to finite element methods.
Prediction of peak forces for a shortening smooth muscle tissue subjected to vibration.
Pidaparti, Ramana M; Dhanaraj, Nandhini; Meiss, Richard A
2008-01-01
The objective of the present study is to investigate the peak forces for a tracheal smooth muscle tissue subjected to an applied longitudinal vibration following isotonic shortening. A non-linear finite element analysis was carried out to simulate the vibratory response under experimental conditions that corresponds to forced length oscillations at 33 Hz for 1 second. The stiffness change and hysteresis estimated from the experimental data was used in the analysis. The finite element results of peak forces are compared to the experimental data obtained. The comparison of results indicate that the approach and the vibratory response obtained may be useful for describing the cross-bridge de-attachments within the cells as well as connective tissue connections characteristic of tracheal smooth muscle tissue.
Shah, D.K.; Chen, D.J.; Chan, W.S.
1994-12-31
This paper applies the finite element least-square extrapolation and smoothing technique to demonstrate its advantages in evaluation of interfacial stress distributions in composite laminates. The analysis uses the quasi-3D finite element modeling technique and complete 3-D analysis using ABAQUS to investigate the stress distributions in graphite/epoxy laminates. Linear (2 point integration) and quadratic (3 point integration) least square fits in 8-node quadrilaterals and 20 node solid isoparametric elements are demonstrated. The evaluation of transformation matrix from gaussian stresses to nodal stresses was performed using symbolic mathematics on `Mathematica`. The results show that use of extrapolation and smoothing offer better estimates of stress distributions and the interfacial stresses in composite laminates.
On the periodicity of symbolic observations of piecewise smooth discrete-time systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramadge, Peter J.
1990-01-01
A study is made of the behavior of discrete-time systems composed of a set of smooth transition maps coupled by a quantized feedback function. The feedback function partitions the state space into disjoint regions and assigns a smooth transition function to each region. The main result is that under a constraint on the norm of the derivative of the transition maps, a bounded state trajectory with limit points in the interior of the switching regions leads to a region index sequence that is eventually periodic. Under these assumptions, it is shown that eventually the feedback function is determined by a finite state automaton. A similar result is proved in the case of finite state dynamic feedback.
Spatial moving average risk smoothing.
Botella-Rocamora, P; López-Quílez, A; Martinez-Beneito, M A
2013-07-10
This paper introduces spatial moving average risk smoothing (SMARS) as a new way of carrying out disease mapping. This proposal applies the moving average ideas of time series theory to the spatial domain, making use of a spatial moving average process of unknown order to define dependence on the risk of a disease occurring. Correlation of the risks for different locations will be a function of m values (m being unknown), providing a rich class of correlation functions that may be reproduced by SMARS. Moreover, the distance (in terms of neighborhoods) that should be covered for two units to be found to make the correlation of their risks 0 is a quantity to be fitted by the model. This way, we reproduce patterns that range from spatially independent to long-range spatially dependent. We will also show a theoretical study of the correlation structure induced by SMARS, illustrating the wide variety of correlation functions that this proposal is able to reproduce. We will also present three applications of SMARS to both simulated and real datasets. These applications will show SMARS to be a competitive disease mapping model when compared with alternative proposals that have already appeared in the literature. Finally, the application of SMARS to the study of mortality for 21 causes of death in the Comunitat Valenciana will allow us to identify some qualitative differences in the patterns of those diseases. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Price, Daniel J.
2012-02-01
This paper presents an overview and introduction to smoothed particle hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics in theory and in practice. Firstly, we give a basic grounding in the fundamentals of SPH, showing how the equations of motion and energy can be self-consistently derived from the density estimate. We then show how to interpret these equations using the basic SPH interpolation formulae and highlight the subtle difference in approach between SPH and other particle methods. In doing so, we also critique several 'urban myths' regarding SPH, in particular the idea that one can simply increase the 'neighbour number' more slowly than the total number of particles in order to obtain convergence. We also discuss the origin of numerical instabilities such as the pairing and tensile instabilities. Finally, we give practical advice on how to resolve three of the main issues with SPMHD: removing the tensile instability, formulating dissipative terms for MHD shocks and enforcing the divergence constraint on the particles, and we give the current status of developments in this area. Accompanying the paper is the first public release of the NDSPMHD SPH code, a 1, 2 and 3 dimensional code designed as a testbed for SPH/SPMHD algorithms that can be used to test many of the ideas and used to run all of the numerical examples contained in the paper.
NDSPMHD Smoothed Particle Magnetohydrodynamics Code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Price, Daniel J.
2011-01-01
This paper presents an overview and introduction to Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics and Magnetohydrodynamics in theory and in practice. Firstly, we give a basic grounding in the fundamentals of SPH, showing how the equations of motion and energy can be self-consistently derived from the density estimate. We then show how to interpret these equations using the basic SPH interpolation formulae and highlight the subtle difference in approach between SPH and other particle methods. In doing so, we also critique several 'urban myths' regarding SPH, in particular the idea that one can simply increase the 'neighbour number' more slowly than the total number of particles in order to obtain convergence. We also discuss the origin of numerical instabilities such as the pairing and tensile instabilities. Finally, we give practical advice on how to resolve three of the main issues with SPMHD: removing the tensile instability, formulating dissipative terms for MHD shocks and enforcing the divergence constraint on the particles, and we give the current status of developments in this area. Accompanying the paper is the first public release of the NDSPMHD SPH code, a 1, 2 and 3 dimensional code designed as a testbed for SPH/SPMHD algorithms that can be used to test many of the ideas and used to run all of the numerical examples contained in the paper.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
This image was taken by the microscopic imager onboard NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 99 (April 13, 2004). It is a close-up look at a portion of the rock called 'Route 66,' which was brushed by the rover's rock abrasion tool.
This image intrigues scientists because it looks very different from the microscopic images taken of other brushed rocks at the Gusev Crater location. The surface of Route 66 is very shiny and specularly reflective, which may indicate a glassy surface, or perhaps a very smooth, discontinuous coating. The unique coating appears mottled and may be multi-layered.
Other interesting features in this brushed area of Route 66 are the very thin, arc-shaped lines that are visible in the upper left quadrant of the image. An initial hypothesis suggests that these arcs may have been caused by the rock abrasion tool when the instrument made its initial contact with the surface.
Scientists will use the combined data from the rover's Moessbauer spectrometer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometer along with color versions of this image to try to reach stronger conclusions about what they are seeing and what processes caused the features.
Smooth Passage For The Jetfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1978-01-01
The Flying Princess is a Boeing Jetfoil, one of a family of commercial waterjets built by Boeing Marine Systems, a division of The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington. The new Jetfoil offers a number of advantages over earlier hydrofoils, a major one being a smooth ride in rough waters. NASA technology contributed to jolt-free passenger comfort. Hydrofoils skim the surface at speeds considerably greater than those of conventional ships because there is little friction between hull and water. Hulls are raised above the water by the lift of the foils, which resemble and function like an airplane wing. The foils are attached to the hull by rigid struts, which ordinarily cause a vessel operating in coastal seas to follow the contour of the waves. In wind-whipped waters, this makes for a rough ride. Seeking to increase passenger acceptance, Boeing Marine System engineers looked for ways to improve rough-water ride quality. Langley Research Center conducts continuing ride quality research. Initially, it was aimed at improving aircraft ride; it was later expanded to include all modes of transportation. Research includes studies of vibration, acceleration, temperature, humidity, passenger seats and posture, and the psychological aspects of passenger reaction to vehicle ride. As part of the program, Langley developed instrumentation, ride quality models and methods of data analysis.
Smooth horizons and quantum ripples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golovnev, Alexey
2015-05-01
Black holes are unique objects which allow for meaningful theoretical studies of strong gravity and even quantum gravity effects. An infalling and a distant observer would have very different views on the structure of the world. However, a careful analysis has shown that it entails no genuine contradictions for physics, and the paradigm of observer complementarity has been coined. Recently this picture was put into doubt. In particular, it was argued that in old black holes a firewall must form in order to protect the basic principles of quantum mechanics. This AMPS paradox has already been discussed in a vast number of papers with different attitudes and conclusions. Here we want to argue that a possible source of confusion is the neglect of quantum gravity effects. Contrary to widespread perception, it does not necessarily mean that effective field theory is inapplicable in rather smooth neighbourhoods of large black hole horizons. The real offender might be an attempt to consistently use it over the huge distances from the near-horizon zone of old black holes to the early radiation. We give simple estimates to support this viewpoint and show how the Page time and (somewhat more speculative) scrambling time do appear.
Automated nonlinear system modeling with multiple fuzzy neural networks and kernel smoothing.
Yu, Wen; Li, Xiaoou
2010-10-01
This paper, presents a novel identification approach using fuzzy neural networks. It focuses on structure and parameters uncertainties which have been widely explored in the literatures. The main contribution of this paper is that an integrated analytic framework is proposed for automated structure selection and parameter identification. A kernel smoothing technique is used to generate a model structure automatically in a fixed time interval. To cope with structural change, a hysteresis strategy is proposed to guarantee finite times switching and desired performance.
A maximum principle for smooth optimal impulsive control problems with multipoint state constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dykhta, V. A.; Samsonyuk, O. N.
2009-06-01
A nonlinear optimal impulsive control problem with trajectories of bounded variation subject to intermediate state constraints at a finite number on nonfixed instants of time is considered. Features of this problem are discussed from the viewpoint of the extension of the classical optimal control problem with the corresponding state constraints. A necessary optimality condition is formulated in the form of a smooth maximum principle; thorough comments are given, a short proof is presented, and examples are discussed.
7 CFR 51.1870 - Fairly smooth.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1870 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that the tomato...
Thermal smoothing of rough surfaces in vacuo
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wahl, G.
1986-01-01
The derivation of equations governing the smoothing of rough surfaces, based on Mullins' (1957, 1960, and 1963) theories of thermal grooving and of capillarity-governed solid surface morphology is presented. As an example, the smoothing of a one-dimensional sine-shaped surface is discussed.
Myosin filament structure in vertebrate smooth muscle
1996-01-01
The in vivo structure of the myosin filaments in vertebrate smooth muscle is unknown. Evidence from purified smooth muscle myosin and from some studies of intact smooth muscle suggests that they may have a nonhelical, side-polar arrangement of crossbridges. However, the bipolar, helical structure characteristic of myosin filaments in striated muscle has not been disproved for smooth muscle. We have used EM to investigate this question in a functionally diverse group of smooth muscles (from the vascular, gastrointestinal, reproductive, and visual systems) from mammalian, amphibian, and avian species. Intact muscle under physiological conditions, rapidly frozen and then freeze substituted, shows many myosin filaments with a square backbone in transverse profile. Transverse sections of fixed, chemically skinned muscles also show square backbones and, in addition, reveal projections (crossbridges) on only two opposite sides of the square. Filaments gently isolated from skinned smooth muscles and observed by negative staining show crossbridges with a 14.5-nm repeat projecting in opposite directions on opposite sides of the filament. Such filaments subjected to low ionic strength conditions show bare filament ends and an antiparallel arrangement of myosin tails along the length of the filament. All of these observations are consistent with a side-polar structure and argue against a bipolar, helical crossbridge arrangement. We conclude that myosin filaments in all smooth muscles, regardless of function, are likely to be side-polar. Such a structure could be an important factor in the ability of smooth muscles to contract by large amounts. PMID:8698822
Leiomodin and tropomodulin in smooth muscle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Conley, C. A.
2001-01-01
Evidence is accumulating to suggest that actin filament remodeling is critical for smooth muscle contraction, which implicates actin filament ends as important sites for regulation of contraction. Tropomodulin (Tmod) and smooth muscle leiomodin (SM-Lmod) have been found in many tissues containing smooth muscle by protein immunoblot and immunofluorescence microscopy. Both proteins cofractionate with tropomyosin in the Triton-insoluble cytoskeleton of rabbit stomach smooth muscle and are solubilized by high salt. SM-Lmod binds muscle tropomyosin, a biochemical activity characteristic of Tmod proteins. SM-Lmod staining is present along the length of actin filaments in rat intestinal smooth muscle, while Tmod stains in a punctate pattern distinct from that of actin filaments or the dense body marker alpha-actinin. After smooth muscle is hypercontracted by treatment with 10 mM Ca(2+), both SM-Lmod and Tmod are found near alpha-actinin at the periphery of actin-rich contraction bands. These data suggest that SM-Lmod is a novel component of the smooth muscle actin cytoskeleton and, furthermore, that the pointed ends of actin filaments in smooth muscle may be capped by Tmod in localized clusters.
Leiomodin and tropomodulin in smooth muscle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Conley, C. A.
2001-01-01
Evidence is accumulating to suggest that actin filament remodeling is critical for smooth muscle contraction, which implicates actin filament ends as important sites for regulation of contraction. Tropomodulin (Tmod) and smooth muscle leiomodin (SM-Lmod) have been found in many tissues containing smooth muscle by protein immunoblot and immunofluorescence microscopy. Both proteins cofractionate with tropomyosin in the Triton-insoluble cytoskeleton of rabbit stomach smooth muscle and are solubilized by high salt. SM-Lmod binds muscle tropomyosin, a biochemical activity characteristic of Tmod proteins. SM-Lmod staining is present along the length of actin filaments in rat intestinal smooth muscle, while Tmod stains in a punctate pattern distinct from that of actin filaments or the dense body marker alpha-actinin. After smooth muscle is hypercontracted by treatment with 10 mM Ca(2+), both SM-Lmod and Tmod are found near alpha-actinin at the periphery of actin-rich contraction bands. These data suggest that SM-Lmod is a novel component of the smooth muscle actin cytoskeleton and, furthermore, that the pointed ends of actin filaments in smooth muscle may be capped by Tmod in localized clusters.
Fourier smoothing of digital photographic spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anupama, G. C.
1990-03-01
Fourier methods of smoothing one-dimensional data are discussed with particular reference to digital photographic spectra. Data smoothed using lowpass filters with different cut-off frequencies are intercompared. A method to scale densities in order to remove the dependence of grain noise on density is described. Optimal filtering technique which models signal and noise in Fourier domain is also explained.
Smoothing the output from a DAC
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wagner, C.
1980-01-01
Circuit smooths stepped waveform from analog-to-digital converter without appreciable phase shift between stepped input signal and smoothed output signal and without any effect from stepping rate. Waveform produced is suitable for driving controls used in manufacturing processes, aerospace systems, and automobiles.
Smoothing splines: Regression, derivatives and deconvolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rice, J.; Rosenblatt, M.
1982-01-01
The statistical properties of a cubic smoothing spline and its derivative are analyzed. It is shown that unless unnatural boundary conditions hold, the integrated squared bias is dominated by local effects near the boundary. Similar effects are shown to occur in the regularized solution of a translation-kernel intergral equation. These results are derived by developing a Fourier representation for a smoothing spline.
Modeling nanoscale hydrodynamics by smoothed dissipative particle dynamics
Lei, Huan; Mundy, Christopher J.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Voulgarakis, Nikolaos
2015-05-21
Thermal fluctuation and hydrophobicity are two hallmarks of fluid hydrodynamics on the nano-scale. It is a challenge to consistently couple the small length and time scale phenomena associated with molecular interaction with larger scale phenomena. The development of this consistency is the essence of mesoscale science. In this study, we develop a nanoscale fluid model based on smoothed dissipative particle dynamics that accounts for the phenomena of associated with density fluctuations and hydrophobicity. We show consistency in the fluctuation spectrum across scales. In doing so, it is necessary to account for finite fluid particle size. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the present model can capture of the void probability and solvation free energy of apolar particles of different sizes. The present fluid model is well suited for a understanding emergent phenomena in nano-scale fluid systems.
A Very Smooth Ride in a Rough Sea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frisch, Uriel; Zheligovsky, Vladislav
2014-03-01
It has been known for some time that a 3D incompressible Euler flow that has initially a barely smooth velocity field nonetheless has Lagrangian fluid particle trajectories that are analytic in time for at least a finite time Serfati (C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Série I 320:175-180, 1995), Shnirelman (Glob. Stoch. Anal., http://arxiv.org/abs/1205.5837v1, 2012). Here an elementary derivation is given, based on Cauchy's form of the Euler equations in Lagrangian coordinates. This form implies simple recurrence relations among the time-Taylor coefficients of the Lagrangian map, used here to derive bounds for the C 1,γ Hölder norms of the coefficients and infer temporal analyticity of Lagrangian trajectories when the initial velocity is C 1,γ.
Lunar Smooth Plains Identification and Classification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyd, A. K.; Robinson, M. S.; Mahanti, P.; Lawrence, S. J.; Spudis, P.; Jolliff, B. L.
2012-12-01
Smooth plains are widespread on the Moon and have diverse origins. The maria comprise the majority of the smooth plains and are volcanic in origin. Highland smooth plains are patchy, and tend to fill large craters and basins; their origins have eluded unambiguous classification. Prior to the Apollo 16 mission, many workers thought that highland plains were volcanic, possibly more silicic than the maria. However, as the Apollo 16 samples are mostly impact breccias, the highland smooth plains were re-interpreted basin impact ejecta, most likely from the Imbrium and possibly Orientale basins. Conversely, some known non-mare volcanic units, such as the Apennine Bench Formation, contain light plains. These interpretations do not rule out alternate origins for a subset of highland smooth plains, including impact melt or volcanic origins (effusive or pyroclastic). We developed an algorithm to identify smooth plains using topographic parameters from the WAC Global Lunar Digital Terrain Model (DTM) (GLD100), sampled at 333 m/pixel. We classify the smooth plains using the Clementine UVVIS FeO map and photometrically corrected Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) images. Terrain with slopes less than 2° (1 km baseline) and standard deviation of slope less than 0.75° (1 km x 1 km box, n=9) are defined as smooth plains. Highland smooth plains are distinguished from basaltic smooth plains using the following criteria: LROC WAC 643 nm normalized reflectance > 0.056, LROC WAC 321 nm / 415 nm ratio < 0.74, and Clementine FeO < 12 wt.% (excluding Clementine non-coverage areas). The remaining smooth plains are classified as maria and are subdivided into two classes: LROC WAC 321 nm / 415 nm ratio > 0.77 is termed blue maria and a ratio ≤ 0.77 is termed red maria. The automatic classification was limited to the 87% of the Moon covered by photometrically normalized WAC data (60°S to 60°N). The differences between the maria and highland smooth plains
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, J. F.
1985-01-01
Experimental strain measurements have been made at the highly strained regions on notched plate specimens that were made of Hastelloy X. Tests were performed at temperatures up to 1,600 F. Variable load patterns were chosen so as to produce plastic and creep strains. Were appropriate, notch root stresses were experimentally estimated by subjecting a smooth specimen to the measured notch root strains. The results of three analysis techniques are presented and compared to the experimental data. The most accurate results were obtained from an analysis procedure that used a smooth specimen and the Neuber relation to simulate the notch root stress-strain response. When a generalized constitutive relation was used with the Neuber relation, good results were also obtained, however, these results were not as accurate as those obtained when the smooth specimen was used directly. Finally, a general finite element program, ANYSIS, was used which resulted in acceptable solutions, but, these were the least accurate predictions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feinsilver, Philip; Schott, René
2009-09-01
We discuss topics related to finite-dimensional calculus in the context of finite-dimensional quantum mechanics. The truncated Heisenberg-Weyl algebra is called a TAA algebra after Tekin, Aydin and Arik who formulated it in terms of orthofermions. It is shown how to use a matrix approach to implement analytic representations of the Heisenberg-Weyl algebra in univariate and multivariate settings. We provide examples for the univariate case. Krawtchouk polynomials are presented in detail, including a review of Krawtchouk polynomials that illustrates some curious properties of the Heisenberg-Weyl algebra, as well as presenting an approach to computing Krawtchouk expansions. From a mathematical perspective, we are providing indications as to how to implement infinite terms Rota's 'finite operator calculus'.
Finite-Temperature Micromagnetism
Skomski, R; Kumar, P; Hadjipanayis, GC; Sellmyer, DJ
2013-07-01
It is investigated how magnetic hysteresis is affected by finite-temperature excitations, using soft regions in hard-magnetic matrices as model systems. In lowest order, magnetization processes are described by the traditional approach of using finite-temperature materials constants such as K-1(T). Nanoscale excitations are usually small perturbations. For example, a Bloch summation over all magnon wave vectors shows that remanence is slightly enhanced, because long-wavelength excitations are suppressed. However, a reverse magnetic field enhances the effect of thermal excitations and causes a small reduction of the coercivity. To describe such effects, we advocate micromagnetic calculations where finite-temperature fluctuations are treated as small corrections to the traditional approach, as contrasted to full-scale Monte Carlo simulations.
Excimer Laser Smoothing of Endothelial Keratoplasty Grafts
Cleary, Catherine; Liu, Ying; Tang, Maolong; Li, Yan; Stoeger, Christopher; Huang, David
2011-01-01
Purpose To use excimer laser smoothing passes to reshape DSAEK endothelial grafts, and to evaluate the effect on the donor endothelium. Methods The stromal surface of microkeratome-cut DSAEK grafts was smoothed using excimer laser smoothing passes with masking fluid. Excimer laser hyperopic ablation was used to improve the uniformity of graft thickness within the optical zone. Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to measure endothelial graft pachymetry, plan ablations, and evaluate donor contour. Vital dye staining was performed to assess endothelial cell damage. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of stromal surfaces were graded on a 5-point scale by masked observers to evaluate surface roughness. Results Four grafts underwent excimer laser smoothing. Vital dye staining showed no endothelial damage. Microkeratome-cut surfaces treated with laser smoothing (mean grade=2.04) were smoother than non-smoothed microkeratome-cut surfaces (mean grade=4.07, p<0.01), surfaces which underwent dry laser ablation (mean grade=3.63, p<0.01), and manually dissected interfaces (mean grade=4.75, p<0.0001). No difference was observed between stromal beds created by peeling Descemet’s membrane (mean grade=1.64) compared to surfaces produced by microkeratome cutting followed by laser smoothing (mean grade=2.04, p=0.14). One graft underwent combined excimer smoothing and peripheral hyperopic ablation. The centre-periphery thickness difference was 15μm prior to ablation and 4μm afterward. Conclusion Laser smoothing passes can be used to improve the contour and smoothness of DSAEK grafts without damaging donor endothelial cells. Clinical trials are needed to determine whether reshaping donors using excimer laser can deliver improved visual outcomes following DSAEK. PMID:22322485
Steffen, Michael; Curtis, Sean; Kirby, Robert M; Ryan, Jennifer K
2008-01-01
Streamline integration of fields produced by computational fluid mechanics simulations is a commonly used tool for the investigation and analysis of fluid flow phenomena. Integration is often accomplished through the application of ordinary differential equation (ODE) integrators--integrators whose error characteristics are predicated on the smoothness of the field through which the streamline is being integrated--smoothness which is not available at the inter-element level of finite volume and finite element data. Adaptive error control techniques are often used to ameliorate the challenge posed by inter-element discontinuities. As the root of the difficulties is the discontinuous nature of the data, we present a complementary approach of applying smoothness-enhancing accuracy-conserving filters to the data prior to streamline integration. We investigate whether such an approach applied to uniform quadrilateral discontinuous Galerkin (high-order finite volume) data can be used to augment current adaptive error control approaches. We discuss and demonstrate through numerical example the computational trade-offs exhibited when one applies such a strategy.
ANALYSIS ON CENSORED QUANTILE RESIDUAL LIFE MODEL VIA SPLINE SMOOTHING.
Ma, Yanyuan; Wei, Ying
2012-01-01
We propose a general class of quantile residual life models, where a specific quantile of the residual life time, conditional on an individual has survived up to time t, is a function of certain covariates with their coefficients varying over time. The varying coefficients are assumed to be smooth unspecified functions of t. We propose to estimate the coefficient functions using spline approximation. Incorporating the spline representation directly into a set of unbiased estimating equations, we obtain a one-step estimation procedure, and we show that this leads to a uniformly consistent estimator. To obtain further computational simplification, we propose a two-step estimation approach in which we estimate the coefficients on a series of time points first, and follow this with spline smoothing. We compare the two methods in terms of their asymptotic efficiency and computational complexity. We further develop inference tools to test the significance of the covariate effect on residual life. The finite sample performance of the estimation and testing procedures are further illustrated through numerical experiments. We also apply the methods to a data set from a neurological study.
Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics model for polymer molecules in suspension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Litvinov, Sergey; Ellero, Marco; Hu, Xiangyu; Adams, Nikolaus A.
2008-06-01
We present a model for a polymer molecule in solution based on smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD) [Español and Revenga, Phys. Rev. E 67, 026705 (2003)]. This method is a thermodynamically consistent version of smoothed particle hydrodynamics able to discretize the Navier-Stokes equations and, at the same time, to incorporate thermal fluctuations according to the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. Within the framework of the method developed for mesoscopic multiphase flows by Hu and Adams [J. Comput. Phys. 213, 844 (2006)], we introduce additional finitely extendable nonlinear elastic interactions between particles that represent the beads of a polymer chain. In order to assess the accuracy of the technique, we analyze the static and dynamic conformational properties of the modeled polymer molecule in solution. Extensive tests of the method for the two-dimensional (2D) case are performed, showing good agreement with the analytical theory. Finally, the effect of confinement on the conformational properties of the polymer molecule is investigated by considering a 2D microchannel with gap H varying between 1 and 10μm , of the same order as the polymer gyration radius. Several SDPD simulations are performed for different chain lengths corresponding to N=20-100 beads, giving a universal behavior of the gyration radius RG and polymer stretch X as functions of the channel gap when normalized properly.
Spline-Based Smoothing of Airfoil Curvatures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, W.; Krist, S.
2008-01-01
Constrained fitting for airfoil curvature smoothing (CFACS) is a splinebased method of interpolating airfoil surface coordinates (and, concomitantly, airfoil thicknesses) between specified discrete design points so as to obtain smoothing of surface-curvature profiles in addition to basic smoothing of surfaces. CFACS was developed in recognition of the fact that the performance of a transonic airfoil is directly related to both the curvature profile and the smoothness of the airfoil surface. Older methods of interpolation of airfoil surfaces involve various compromises between smoothing of surfaces and exact fitting of surfaces to specified discrete design points. While some of the older methods take curvature profiles into account, they nevertheless sometimes yield unfavorable results, including curvature oscillations near end points and substantial deviations from desired leading-edge shapes. In CFACS as in most of the older methods, one seeks a compromise between smoothing and exact fitting. Unlike in the older methods, the airfoil surface is modified as little as possible from its original specified form and, instead, is smoothed in such a way that the curvature profile becomes a smooth fit of the curvature profile of the original airfoil specification. CFACS involves a combination of rigorous mathematical modeling and knowledge-based heuristics. Rigorous mathematical formulation provides assurance of removal of undesirable curvature oscillations with minimum modification of the airfoil geometry. Knowledge-based heuristics bridge the gap between theory and designers best practices. In CFACS, one of the measures of the deviation of an airfoil surface from smoothness is the sum of squares of the jumps in the third derivatives of a cubicspline interpolation of the airfoil data. This measure is incorporated into a formulation for minimizing an overall deviation- from-smoothness measure of the airfoil data within a specified fitting error tolerance. CFACS has been
Bessel smoothing filter for spectral-element mesh
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trinh, P. T.; Brossier, R.; Métivier, L.; Virieux, J.; Wellington, P.
2017-06-01
Smoothing filters are extremely important tools in seismic imaging and inversion, such as for traveltime tomography, migration and waveform inversion. For efficiency, and as they can be used a number of times during inversion, it is important that these filters can easily incorporate prior information on the geological structure of the investigated medium, through variable coherent lengths and orientation. In this study, we promote the use of the Bessel filter to achieve these purposes. Instead of considering the direct application of the filter, we demonstrate that we can rely on the equation associated with its inverse filter, which amounts to the solution of an elliptic partial differential equation. This enhances the efficiency of the filter application, and also its flexibility. We apply this strategy within a spectral-element-based elastic full waveform inversion framework. Taking advantage of this formulation, we apply the Bessel filter by solving the associated partial differential equation directly on the spectral-element mesh through the standard weak formulation. This avoids cumbersome projection operators between the spectral-element mesh and a regular Cartesian grid, or expensive explicit windowed convolution on the finite-element mesh, which is often used for applying smoothing operators. The associated linear system is solved efficiently through a parallel conjugate gradient algorithm, in which the matrix vector product is factorized and highly optimized with vectorized computation. Significant scaling behaviour is obtained when comparing this strategy with the explicit convolution method. The theoretical numerical complexity of this approach increases linearly with the coherent length, whereas a sublinear relationship is observed practically. Numerical illustrations are provided here for schematic examples, and for a more realistic elastic full waveform inversion gradient smoothing on the SEAM II benchmark model. These examples illustrate well the
Bessel smoothing filter for spectral-element mesh
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trinh, P. T.; Brossier, R.; Métivier, L.; Virieux, J.; Wellington, P.
2017-03-01
Smoothing filters are extremely important tools in seismic imaging and inversion, such as for travel-time tomography, migration and waveform inversion. For efficiency, and as they can be used a number of times during inversion, it is important that these filters can easily incorporate prior information on the geological structure of the investigated medium, through variable coherent lengths and orientation. In this study, we promote the use of the Bessel filter to achieve these purposes. Instead of considering the direct application of the filter, we demonstrate that we can rely on the equation associated with its inverse filter, which amounts to the solution of an elliptic partial differential equation. This enhances the efficiency of the filter application, and also its flexibility. We apply this strategy within a spectral-element-based elastic full waveform inversion framework. Taking advantage of this formulation, we apply the Bessel filter by solving the associated partial differential equation directly on the spectral-element mesh through the standard weak formulation. This avoids cumbersome projection operators between the spectral-element mesh and a regular Cartesian grid, or expensive explicit windowed convolution on the finite-element mesh, which is often used for applying smoothing operators. The associated linear system is solved efficiently through a parallel conjugate gradient algorithm, in which the matrix vector product is factorized and highly optimized with vectorized computation. Significant scaling behavior is obtained when comparing this strategy with the explicit convolution method. The theoretical numerical complexity of this approach increases linearly with the coherent length, whereas a sub-linear relationship is observed practically. Numerical illustrations are provided here for schematic examples, and for a more realistic elastic full waveform inversion gradient smoothing on the SEAM II benchmark model. These examples illustrate well the
Asymptotic analysis of numerical wave propagation in finite difference equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giles, M.; Thompkins, W. T., Jr.
1983-01-01
An asymptotic technique is developed for analyzing the propagation and dissipation of wave-like solutions to finite difference equations. It is shown that for each fixed complex frequency there are usually several wave solutions with different wavenumbers and the slowly varying amplitude of each satisfies an asymptotic amplitude equation which includes the effects of smoothly varying coefficients in the finite difference equations. The local group velocity appears in this equation as the velocity of convection of the amplitude. Asymptotic boundary conditions coupling the amplitudes of the different wave solutions are also derived. A wavepacket theory is developed which predicts the motion, and interaction at boundaries, of wavepackets, wave-like disturbances of finite length. Comparison with numerical experiments demonstrates the success and limitations of the theory. Finally an asymptotic global stability analysis is developed.
Convergence of finite difference transient response computations for thin shells.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sobel, L. H.; Geers, T. L.
1973-01-01
Numerical studies pertaining to the limits of applicability of the finite difference method in the solution of linear transient shell response problems are performed, and a computational procedure for the use of the method is recommended. It is found that the only inherent limitation of the finite difference method is its inability to reproduce accurately response discontinuities. This is not a serious limitation in view of natural constraints imposed by the extension of Saint Venant's principle to transient response problems. It is also found that the short wavelength limitations of thin shell (Bernoulli-Euler) theory create significant convergence difficulties in computed response to certain types of transverse excitations. These difficulties may be overcome, however, through proper selection of finite difference mesh dimensions and temporal smoothing of the excitation.
Approximation of Bivariate Functions via Smooth Extensions
Zhang, Zhihua
2014-01-01
For a smooth bivariate function defined on a general domain with arbitrary shape, it is difficult to do Fourier approximation or wavelet approximation. In order to solve these problems, in this paper, we give an extension of the bivariate function on a general domain with arbitrary shape to a smooth, periodic function in the whole space or to a smooth, compactly supported function in the whole space. These smooth extensions have simple and clear representations which are determined by this bivariate function and some polynomials. After that, we expand the smooth, periodic function into a Fourier series or a periodic wavelet series or we expand the smooth, compactly supported function into a wavelet series. Since our extensions are smooth, the obtained Fourier coefficients or wavelet coefficients decay very fast. Since our extension tools are polynomials, the moment theorem shows that a lot of wavelet coefficients vanish. From this, with the help of well-known approximation theorems, using our extension methods, the Fourier approximation and the wavelet approximation of the bivariate function on the general domain with small error are obtained. PMID:24683316
AFSMO/AFSCL- AIRFOIL SMOOTHING AND SCALING
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morgan, H. L
1994-01-01
Since its early beginnings, NASA has been actively involved in the design and testing of airfoil sections for a wide variety of applications. Recently a set of programs has been developed to smooth and scale arbitrary airfoil coordinates. The smoothing program, AFSMO, utilizes both least-squares polynomial and least-squares cubic-spline techniques to iteratively smooth the second derivatives of the y-axis airfoil coordinates with respect to a transformed x-axis system which unwraps the airfoil and stretches the nose and trailing-edge regions. The corresponding smooth airfoil coordinates are then determined by solving a tridiagonal matrix of simultaneous cubic-spline equations relating the y-axis coordinates and their corresponding second derivatives. The camber and thickness distribution of the smooth airfoil are also computed. The scaling program, AFSCL, may then be used to scale the thickness distribution generated by the smoothing program to a specified maximum thickness. Once the thickness distribution has been scaled, it is combined with the camber distribution to obtain the final scaled airfoil contour. The airfoil smoothing and scaling programs are written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and have been implemented on a CDC CYBER 170 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 70K (octal) of 60 bit words. Both programs generate plotted output via CALCOMP type plotting calls. These programs were developed in 1983.
Numerical Convergence In Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Qirong; Hernquist, Lars; Li, Yuexing
2015-02-01
We study the convergence properties of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) using numerical tests and simple analytic considerations. Our analysis shows that formal numerical convergence is possible in SPH only in the joint limit N → ∞, h → 0, and Nnb → ∞, where N is the total number of particles, h is the smoothing length, and Nnb is the number of neighbor particles within the smoothing volume used to compute smoothed estimates. Previous work has generally assumed that the conditions N → ∞ and h → 0 are sufficient to achieve convergence, while holding Nnb fixed. We demonstrate that if Nnb is held fixed as the resolution is increased, there will be a residual source of error that does not vanish as N → ∞ and h → 0. Formal numerical convergence in SPH is possible only if Nnb is increased systematically as the resolution is improved. Using analytic arguments, we derive an optimal compromise scaling for Nnb by requiring that this source of error balance that present in the smoothing procedure. For typical choices of the smoothing kernel, we find Nnb vpropN 0.5. This means that if SPH is to be used as a numerically convergent method, the required computational cost does not scale with particle number as O(N), but rather as O(N 1 + δ), where δ ≈ 0.5, with a weak dependence on the form of the smoothing kernel.
AFSMO/AFSCL- AIRFOIL SMOOTHING AND SCALING
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morgan, H. L
1994-01-01
Since its early beginnings, NASA has been actively involved in the design and testing of airfoil sections for a wide variety of applications. Recently a set of programs has been developed to smooth and scale arbitrary airfoil coordinates. The smoothing program, AFSMO, utilizes both least-squares polynomial and least-squares cubic-spline techniques to iteratively smooth the second derivatives of the y-axis airfoil coordinates with respect to a transformed x-axis system which unwraps the airfoil and stretches the nose and trailing-edge regions. The corresponding smooth airfoil coordinates are then determined by solving a tridiagonal matrix of simultaneous cubic-spline equations relating the y-axis coordinates and their corresponding second derivatives. The camber and thickness distribution of the smooth airfoil are also computed. The scaling program, AFSCL, may then be used to scale the thickness distribution generated by the smoothing program to a specified maximum thickness. Once the thickness distribution has been scaled, it is combined with the camber distribution to obtain the final scaled airfoil contour. The airfoil smoothing and scaling programs are written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and have been implemented on a CDC CYBER 170 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 70K (octal) of 60 bit words. Both programs generate plotted output via CALCOMP type plotting calls. These programs were developed in 1983.
Automatic finite element generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, P. S.
1984-01-01
The design and implementation of a software system for generating finite elements and related computations are described. Exact symbolic computational techniques are employed to derive strain-displacement matrices and element stiffness matrices. Methods for dealing with the excessive growth of symbolic expressions are discussed. Automatic FORTRAN code generation is described with emphasis on improving the efficiency of the resultant code.
Excimer laser smoothing of endothelial keratoplasty grafts.
Cleary, Catherine; Liu, Ying; Tang, Maolong; Li, Yan; Stoeger, Christopher; Huang, David
2012-04-01
To use excimer laser smoothing passes to reshape Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) endothelial grafts and to evaluate the effect on the donor endothelium. The stromal surface of microkeratome-cut DSAEK grafts was smoothed using excimer laser smoothing passes with masking fluid. Excimer laser hyperopic ablation was used to improve the uniformity of graft thickness within the optical zone. Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography was used to measure endothelial graft pachymetry, plan ablations, and evaluate donor contour. Vital dye staining was performed to assess endothelial cell damage. Scanning electron microscopy images of stromal surfaces were graded on a 5-point scale by masked observers to evaluate surface roughness. Four grafts underwent excimer laser smoothing. Vital dye staining showed no endothelial damage. Microkeratome-cut surfaces treated with laser smoothing (mean grade = 2.04) were smoother than nonsmoothed microkeratome-cut surfaces (mean grade = 4.07; P < 0.01), surfaces that underwent dry laser ablation (mean grade = 3.63; P < 0.01) and manually dissected interfaces (mean grade = 4.75; P < 0.0001). No difference was observed between stromal beds created by peeling Descemet membrane (mean grade = 1.64) compared with surfaces produced by microkeratome cutting followed by laser smoothing (mean grade = 2.04; P = 0.14). One graft underwent combined excimer smoothing and peripheral hyperopic ablation. The center-periphery thickness difference was 15 μm before ablation and 4 μm afterward. Laser smoothing passes can be used to improve the contour and smoothness of DSAEK grafts without damaging donor endothelial cells. Clinical trials are needed to determine whether reshaping donors using excimer laser can deliver improved visual outcomes after DSAEK.
Some new function spaces of variable smoothness
Tyulenev, A I
2015-06-30
A new Besov space of variable smoothness is introduced on which the norm is defined in terms of difference relations. This space is shown to be the trace of a weighted Sobolev space with a weight in the corresponding Muckenhoupt class. Methods of nonlinear spline approximation are applied to derive an atomic decomposition theorem for functions in a Besov space of variable smoothness. A complete description of traces on the hyperplane of a Besov space of variable smoothness and of a weighted Besov space with a weight in the corresponding Muckenhoupt class is given. Bibliography: 27 titles.
Smoothing analysis of HLSII storage ring magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wei; He, Xiao-Ye; Tang, Zheng; Yao, Qiu-Yang
2016-12-01
Hefei Light Source (HLS) has been upgraded to improve the quality and stability of the synchrotron light, and the new facility is named HLSII. However, a final accurate adjustment is required to smooth the beam orbit after the initial instalment and alignment of the magnets. We implement a reliable smoothing method for the beam orbit of the HLSII storage ring. In addition to greatly smoothing and stabilizing the beam orbit, this method also doubles the work efficiency and significantly reduces the number of magnets adjusted and the range of the adjustments. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275192) and the Upgrade Project of Hefei Light Source
Progress in smooth particle hydrodynamics
Wingate, C.A.; Dilts, G.A.; Mandell, D.A.; Crotzer, L.A.; Knapp, C.E.
1998-07-01
Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a meshless, Lagrangian numerical method for hydrodynamics calculations where calculational elements are fuzzy particles which move according to the hydrodynamic equations of motion. Each particle carries local values of density, temperature, pressure and other hydrodynamic parameters. A major advantage of SPH is that it is meshless, thus large deformation calculations can be easily done with no connectivity complications. Interface positions are known and there are no problems with advecting quantities through a mesh that typical Eulerian codes have. These underlying SPH features make fracture physics easy and natural and in fact, much of the applications work revolves around simulating fracture. Debris particles from impacts can be easily transported across large voids with SPH. While SPH has considerable promise, there are some problems inherent in the technique that have so far limited its usefulness. The most serious problem is the well known instability in tension leading to particle clumping and numerical fracture. Another problem is that the SPH interpolation is only correct when particles are uniformly spaced a half particle apart leading to incorrect strain rates, accelerations and other quantities for general particle distributions. SPH calculations are also sensitive to particle locations. The standard artificial viscosity treatment in SPH leads to spurious viscosity in shear flows. This paper will demonstrate solutions for these problems that they and others have been developing. The most promising is to replace the SPH interpolant with the moving least squares (MLS) interpolant invented by Lancaster and Salkauskas in 1981. SPH and MLS are closely related with MLS being essentially SPH with corrected particle volumes. When formulated correctly, JLS is conservative, stable in both compression and tension, does not have the SPH boundary problems and is not sensitive to particle placement. The other approach to
Caveolae in smooth muscles: nanocontacts
Popescu, LM; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Mandache, E; Cretoiu, D
2006-01-01
Smooth muscle cell (SMC) caveolae have been investigated by quantitative and qualitative analysis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of rat stomach, bladder and myometrium, guinea pig taenia coli, human ileum, and rat aortic SMCs. Ultrathin (below 30 nm) serial sections were used for examination of caveolar morphology and their connections with SMC organelles. Average caveolar diameter was smaller in vascular SMCs (70 nm, n=50) than in visceral SMCs (77 nm, n=100), but with the same morphology. Most of the caveolae, featured as flask-shaped plasma membrane (PM) invaginations, opened to the extracellular space through a 20 nm stoma (21, 3nm) having a 7 nm thick diaphragm. A small percentage of caveolae (3%), gathered as grape-like clusters, did not open directly to the extracellular space, but to irregular PM pockets having a 20-30 nm opening to the extracellular space. In visceral SMCs, caveolae were disposed in 4 - 6 rows, parallel to myofilaments, whilst aortic SMCs caveolae were arranged as clusters. This caveolar organization in rows or clusters minimizes the occupied volume, providing more space for the contractile machinery. The morphometric analysis of relative volumes (% of cell volume) showed that caveolae were more conspicuous in visceral than in vascular SMCs (myometrium - 2.40%; bladder - 3.66%, stomach - 2.61%, aorta - 1.43%). We also observed a higher number of caveolae per length unit of cell membrane in most visceral SMCs compared to vascular SMCs (myometrium - 1.06/μm, bladder - 0.74/μm, aorta - 0.57/μm, stomach - 0.48/μm). Caveolae increase the cellular perimeter up to 15% and enlarge the surface area of the plasma membrane about 80% in SMCs. Three-dimensional reconstructions (15μ3) showed that most caveolae, in both visceral and vascular SMCs, have nanocontacts with SR (87%), or with mitochondria (10%), and only 3%, apparently, have no contact with these organelles. Usually, 15 nm wide junctional spaces exist between caveolae
Nonlinear, finite deformation, finite element analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Nhung; Waas, Anthony M.
2016-06-01
The roles of the consistent Jacobian matrix and the material tangent moduli, which are used in nonlinear incremental finite deformation mechanics problems solved using the finite element method, are emphasized in this paper, and demonstrated using the commercial software ABAQUS standard. In doing so, the necessity for correctly employing user material subroutines to solve nonlinear problems involving large deformation and/or large rotation is clarified. Starting with the rate form of the principle of virtual work, the derivations of the material tangent moduli, the consistent Jacobian matrix, the stress/strain measures, and the objective stress rates are discussed and clarified. The difference between the consistent Jacobian matrix (which, in the ABAQUS UMAT user material subroutine is referred to as DDSDDE) and the material tangent moduli ( C e ) needed for the stress update is pointed out and emphasized in this paper. While the former is derived based on the Jaumann rate of the Kirchhoff stress, the latter is derived using the Jaumann rate of the Cauchy stress. Understanding the difference between these two objective stress rates is crucial for correctly implementing a constitutive model, especially a rate form constitutive relation, and for ensuring fast convergence. Specifically, the implementation requires the stresses to be updated correctly. For this, the strains must be computed directly from the deformation gradient and corresponding strain measure (for a total form model). Alternatively, the material tangent moduli derived from the corresponding Jaumann rate of the Cauchy stress of the constitutive relation (for a rate form model) should be used. Given that this requirement is satisfied, the consistent Jacobian matrix only influences the rate of convergence. Its derivation should be based on the Jaumann rate of the Kirchhoff stress to ensure fast convergence; however, the use of a different objective stress rate may also be possible. The error associated
Smoothing spline primordial power spectrum reconstruction
Sealfon, Carolyn; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul
2005-11-15
We reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum (PPS) using a smoothing spline. Our adapted smoothing spline technique provides a complementary method to existing efforts to search for smooth features in the PPS, such as a running spectral index. With this technique we find no significant indication with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe first-year data that the PPS deviates from a Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum and no evidence for loss of power on large scales. We also examine the effect on the cosmological parameters of the additional PPS freedom. Smooth variations in the PPS are not significantly degenerate with other cosmological parameters, but the spline reconstruction greatly increases the errors on the optical depth and baryon fraction.
Smooth Ground on Rosetta Destination Comet
2014-11-11
A patch of relatively smooth ground on the nucleus surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko appears in this image taken by the navigation camera on the European Space Agency Rosetta spacecraft in October 2014.
Refractory thermal insulation for smooth metal surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1964-01-01
To protect rocket metal surfaces from engine exhaust heat, a refractory thermal insulation mixture, which adheres to smooth metals, has been developed. Insulation protection over a wide temperature range can be controlled by thickness of the applied mixture.
Small Craters Engulfed by Smooth Plains
2000-08-05
This double ring basin top center of image was photographed during NASA Mariner 10 second encounter and shows two craters about 30 km in diameter which have been engulfed by smooth plains on the floor of the inner ring.
Smoothing Splines: Regression, Derivatives and Deconvolution.
1981-11-01
1977 ). Solutions of Ill - posed Problems . V. H. Winston and Sons. Wahba, G. (1975). Smoothing noisy data with spline functions. Num. Math., 24, 309...ds . (1.3) Many examples of this type may be found in Tikhonov and Arsenin ( 1977 ). The method of regularization is used to control the instability... solutions of certain minimax problems , Powell (1981) and Speckman (1981). It appears that flexibility is lost by guarding against worst cases. Smoothing
Mechanotransduction, asthma, and airway smooth muscle
Fabry, Ben; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.
2008-01-01
Excessive force generation by airway smooth muscle is the main culprit in excessive airway narrowing during an asthma attack. The maximum force the airway smooth muscle can generate is exquisitely sensitive to muscle length fluctuations during breathing, and is governed by complex mechanotransduction events that can best be studied by a hybrid approach in which the airway wall is modeled in silico so as to set a dynamic muscle load comparable to that experienced in vivo. PMID:18836522
LATTICE QCD AT FINITE TEMPERATURE.
PETRECZKY, P.
2005-03-12
I review recent progress in lattice QCD at finite temperature. Results on the transition temperature will be summarized. Recent progress in understanding in-medium modifications of interquark forces and quarkonia spectral functions at finite temperatures is discussed.
Beam-smoothing investigation on Heaven I
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Yi-huai; Gao, Zhi-xing; Tong, Xiao-hui; Dai, Hui; Tang, Xiu-zhang; Shan, Yu-sheng
2007-01-01
Directly driven targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) require laser beams with extremely smooth irradiance profiles to prevent hydrodynamic instabilities that destroy the spherical symmetry of the target during implosion. Such instabilities can break up and mix together the target's wall and fuel material, preventing it from reaching the density and temperature required for fusion ignition. 1,2 Measurements in the equation of state (EOS) experiments require laser beams with flat-roofed profiles to generate uniform shockwave 3. Some method for beam smooth, is thus needed. A technique called echelon-free induced spatial incoherence (EFISI) is proposed for producing smooth target beam profiles with large KrF lasers. The idea is basically an image projection technique that projects the desired time-averaged spatial profile onto the target via the laser system, using partially coherent broadband lighe. Utilize the technique, we developing beam- smoothing investigation on "Heaven I". At China Institute of Atomic Energy , a new angular multiplexing providing with beam-smoothing function has been developed, the total energy is 158J, the stability of energy is 4%, the pulse duration is 25ns, the effective diameter of focusing spot is 400um, and the ununiformity is about 1.6%, the power density on the target is about 3.7×10 12W/cm2. At present, the system have provided steady and smooth laser irradiation for EOS experiments.
Vascular smooth muscle phenotypic diversity and function
2010-01-01
The control of force production in vascular smooth muscle is critical to the normal regulation of blood flow and pressure, and altered regulation is common to diseases such as hypertension, heart failure, and ischemia. A great deal has been learned about imbalances in vasoconstrictor and vasodilator signals, e.g., angiotensin, endothelin, norepinephrine, and nitric oxide, that regulate vascular tone in normal and disease contexts. In contrast there has been limited study of how the phenotypic state of the vascular smooth muscle cell may influence the contractile response to these signaling pathways dependent upon the developmental, tissue-specific (vascular bed) or disease context. Smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle lineages are traditionally classified into fast or slow sublineages based on rates of contraction and relaxation, recognizing that this simple dichotomy vastly underrepresents muscle phenotypic diversity. A great deal has been learned about developmental specification of the striated muscle sublineages and their phenotypic interconversions in the mature animal under the control of mechanical load, neural input, and hormones. In contrast there has been relatively limited study of smooth muscle contractile phenotypic diversity. This is surprising given the number of diseases in which smooth muscle contractile dysfunction plays a key role. This review focuses on smooth muscle contractile phenotypic diversity in the vascular system, how it is generated, and how it may determine vascular function in developmental and disease contexts. PMID:20736412
Confinement at Finite Temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardoso, Nuno; Bicudo, Pedro; Cardoso, Marco
2017-05-01
We show the flux tubes produced by static quark-antiquark, quark-quark and quark-gluon charges at finite temperature. The sources are placed on the lattice with fundamental and adjoint Polyakov loops. We compute the squared strengths of the chromomagnetic and chromoelectric fields above and below the critical temperature. Our results are for pure gauge SU(3) gauge theory, they are invariant and all computations are done with GPUs using CUDA.
Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodrich, John W.
1996-01-01
Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.
Modelling the electromagnetic performance of moving rail gun launchers using finite elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodger, D.; Leonard, P. J.
1993-01-01
A finite element technique for modelling 3D transient eddy currents in 'smooth rotor' conductors moving at constant velocity is described. A method for joining discontinuous A fields at the interface between conductors in sliding electrical contact has been implemented in the MEGA software package for 2 and 3D electromagnetic field analysis.
Error analysis of mixed finite element methods for wave propagation in double negative metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jichun
2007-12-01
In this paper, we develop both semi-discrete and fully discrete mixed finite element methods for modeling wave propagation in three-dimensional double negative metamaterials. Optimal error estimates are proved for Nedelec spaces under the assumption of smooth solutions. To our best knowledge, this is the first error analysis obtained for Maxwell's equations when metamaterials are involved.
NUMERICAL CONVERGENCE IN SMOOTHED PARTICLE HYDRODYNAMICS
Zhu, Qirong; Li, Yuexing; Hernquist, Lars
2015-02-10
We study the convergence properties of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) using numerical tests and simple analytic considerations. Our analysis shows that formal numerical convergence is possible in SPH only in the joint limit N → ∞, h → 0, and N{sub nb} → ∞, where N is the total number of particles, h is the smoothing length, and N{sub nb} is the number of neighbor particles within the smoothing volume used to compute smoothed estimates. Previous work has generally assumed that the conditions N → ∞ and h → 0 are sufficient to achieve convergence, while holding N{sub nb} fixed. We demonstrate that if N{sub nb} is held fixed as the resolution is increased, there will be a residual source of error that does not vanish as N → ∞ and h → 0. Formal numerical convergence in SPH is possible only if N{sub nb} is increased systematically as the resolution is improved. Using analytic arguments, we derive an optimal compromise scaling for N{sub nb} by requiring that this source of error balance that present in the smoothing procedure. For typical choices of the smoothing kernel, we find N{sub nb} ∝N {sup 0.5}. This means that if SPH is to be used as a numerically convergent method, the required computational cost does not scale with particle number as O(N), but rather as O(N {sup 1} {sup +} {sup δ}), where δ ≈ 0.5, with a weak dependence on the form of the smoothing kernel.
Effects of hydrogen sulphide in smooth muscle.
Dunn, William R; Alexander, Stephen P H; Ralevic, Vera; Roberts, Richard E
2016-02-01
In recent years, it has become apparent that the gaseous pollutant, hydrogen sulphide (H2S) can be synthesised in the body and has a multitude of biological actions. This review summarizes some of the actions of this 'gasotransmitter' in influencing the smooth muscle that is responsible for controlling muscular activity of hollow organs. In the vasculature, while H2S can cause vasoconstriction by complex interactions with other biologically important gases, such as nitric oxide, the prevailing response is vasorelaxation. While most vasorelaxation responses occur by a direct action of H2S on smooth muscle cells, it has recently been proposed to be an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. H2S also promotes relaxation in other smooth muscle preparations including bronchioles, the bladder, gastrointestinal tract and myometrium, opening up the opportunity of exploiting the pharmacology of H2S in the treatment of conditions where smooth muscle tone is excessive. The original concept, that H2S caused smooth muscle relaxation by activating ATP-sensitive K(+) channels, has been supplemented with observations that H2S can also modify the activity of other potassium channels, intracellular pH, phosphodiesterase activity and transient receptor potential channels on sensory nerves. While the enzymes responsible for generating endogenous H2S are widely expressed in smooth muscle preparations, it is much less clear what the physiological role of H2S is in determining smooth muscle contractility. Clarification of this requires the development of potent and selective inhibitors of H2S-generating enzymes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Error Bounds for Finite-Difference Methods for Rudin-Osher-Fatemi Image Smoothing
2009-09-01
define the discrete functional Eh(v h) = 1 2λ ∑ i | vhi − g h i | 2 h2 + Jh(v h), (1.3) ∗This work was partially supported by the Office of Naval Research... vhi +(1,0) − v h i ) h )2 + ( vhi +(0,1) − v h i h )2 h2. Efficient algorithms have been developed to compute the discrete minimizer([2], [6], [3...functions. So for discrete functions vh = vhi , we define the discrete L p(Ωh) norms ‖vh‖Lp(Ωh) := ( ∑ i∈Ωh | vhi | p h2 ) 1 p for 1 ≤ p < ∞ and ‖vh‖L
Noether’s Theorem for Smooth, Discrete and Finite Element Models
2007-11-02
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NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Hongzhu; Hu, Xiangyun; Xiong, Bin; Auken, Esben; Han, Muran; Li, Jianhui
2017-10-01
We implemented an edge-based finite element time domain (FETD) modeling algorithm for simulating controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data. The modeling domain is discretized using unstructured tetrahedral mesh and we consider a finite difference discretization of time using the backward Euler method which is unconditionally stable. We solve the diffusion equation for the electric field with a total field formulation. The finite element system of equation is solved using the direct method. The solutions of electric field, at different time, can be obtained using the effective time stepping method with trivial computation cost once the matrix is factorized. We try to keep the same time step size for a fixed number of steps using an adaptive time step doubling (ATSD) method. The finite element modeling domain is also truncated using a semi-adaptive method. We proposed a new boundary condition based on approximating the total field on the modeling boundary using the primary field corresponding to a layered background model. We validate our algorithm using several synthetic model studies.
Contact problems for a finitely deformed incompressible elastic halfspace
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selvadurai, A. P. S.
2015-01-01
This paper examines the class of problems related to the interaction between a finitely deformed incompressible elastic halfspace and contacting elements that include smooth, flat rigid indenters with elliptical and circular shapes and a thick plate of infinite extent. The contact between the finitely deformed elastic halfspace and the contacting elements is assumed to be bilateral. The interaction between both the rigid circular indenter and the finitely deformed halfspace is induced by a Mindlin force that acts at the interior of the halfspace regions and by exterior loads. Similar considerations apply for the contact between the flexible plate of infinite extent and the finitely deformed elastic halfspace. The theory of small deformations superposed on large deformations proposed by Green et al. (Proc R Soc Ser A 211:128-155, 1952) is used as the basis for the formulation of the problem, and results of potential theory and integral transform techniques are used to develop the analytical results. In particular, explicit results are presented for the displacement of the rigid elliptical indenter and the maximum deflection of the flexible plate induced by the Mindlin forces, when the finitely deformed halfspace region has a strain energy function of the Mooney-Rivlin form.
Interstitial Cells: Regulators of Smooth Muscle Function
Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.; Koh, Sang Don
2014-01-01
Smooth muscles are complex tissues containing a variety of cells in addition to muscle cells. Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin interact with and form electrical connectivity with smooth muscle cells in many organs, and these cells provide important regulatory functions. For example, in the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα+ cells have been described, in detail, and represent distinct classes of cells with unique ultrastructure, molecular phenotypes, and functions. Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled to ICC and PDGFRα+ cells, forming an integrated unit called the SIP syncytium. SIP cells express a variety of receptors and ion channels, and conductance changes in any type of SIP cell affect the excitability and responses of the syncytium. SIP cells are known to provide pacemaker activity, propagation pathways for slow waves, transduction of inputs from motor neurons, and mechanosensitivity. Loss of interstitial cells has been associated with motor disorders of the gut. Interstitial cells are also found in a variety of other smooth muscles; however, in most cases, the physiological and pathophysiological roles for these cells have not been clearly defined. This review describes structural, functional, and molecular features of interstitial cells and discusses their contributions in determining the behaviors of smooth muscle tissues. PMID:24987007
Interstitial cells: regulators of smooth muscle function.
Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M; Koh, Sang Don
2014-07-01
Smooth muscles are complex tissues containing a variety of cells in addition to muscle cells. Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin interact with and form electrical connectivity with smooth muscle cells in many organs, and these cells provide important regulatory functions. For example, in the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα(+) cells have been described, in detail, and represent distinct classes of cells with unique ultrastructure, molecular phenotypes, and functions. Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled to ICC and PDGFRα(+) cells, forming an integrated unit called the SIP syncytium. SIP cells express a variety of receptors and ion channels, and conductance changes in any type of SIP cell affect the excitability and responses of the syncytium. SIP cells are known to provide pacemaker activity, propagation pathways for slow waves, transduction of inputs from motor neurons, and mechanosensitivity. Loss of interstitial cells has been associated with motor disorders of the gut. Interstitial cells are also found in a variety of other smooth muscles; however, in most cases, the physiological and pathophysiological roles for these cells have not been clearly defined. This review describes structural, functional, and molecular features of interstitial cells and discusses their contributions in determining the behaviors of smooth muscle tissues.
Manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit eye movements.
Niehorster, Diederick C; Siu, Wilfred W F; Li, Li
2015-01-01
Previous studies have reported that concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit eye movements only when tracking a self-driven or a predictable moving target. Here, we used a control-theoretic approach to examine whether concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit of an unpredictable moving target. In the eye-hand tracking condition, participants used their eyes to track a Gaussian target that moved randomly along a horizontal axis. In the meantime, they used their dominant hand to move a mouse to control the horizontal movement of a Gaussian cursor to vertically align it with the target. In the eye-alone tracking condition, the target and cursor positions recorded in the eye-hand tracking condition were replayed, and participants only performed eye tracking of the target. Catch-up saccades were identified and removed from the recorded eye movements, allowing for a frequency-response analysis of the smooth pursuit response to unpredictable target motion. We found that the overall smooth pursuit gain was higher and the number of catch-up saccades made was less when eye tracking was accompanied by manual tracking than when not. We conclude that concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit. This enhancement is a fundamental property of eye-hand coordination that occurs regardless of the predictability of the target motion.
Manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit eye movements
Niehorster, Diederick C.; Siu, Wilfred W. F.; Li, Li
2015-01-01
Previous studies have reported that concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit eye movements only when tracking a self-driven or a predictable moving target. Here, we used a control-theoretic approach to examine whether concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit of an unpredictable moving target. In the eye-hand tracking condition, participants used their eyes to track a Gaussian target that moved randomly along a horizontal axis. In the meantime, they used their dominant hand to move a mouse to control the horizontal movement of a Gaussian cursor to vertically align it with the target. In the eye-alone tracking condition, the target and cursor positions recorded in the eye-hand tracking condition were replayed, and participants only performed eye tracking of the target. Catch-up saccades were identified and removed from the recorded eye movements, allowing for a frequency-response analysis of the smooth pursuit response to unpredictable target motion. We found that the overall smooth pursuit gain was higher and the number of catch-up saccades made was less when eye tracking was accompanied by manual tracking than when not. We conclude that concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit. This enhancement is a fundamental property of eye-hand coordination that occurs regardless of the predictability of the target motion. PMID:26605840
Large eddy simulation of smooth-wall, transitional and fully rough-wall channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Namiko; Pullin, Dale I.; Inoue, Michio
2012-07-01
Large eddy simulation (LES) is reported for both smooth and rough-wall channel flows at resolutions for which the roughness is subgrid. The stretched vortex, subgrid-scale model is combined with an existing wall-model that calculates the local friction velocity dynamically while providing a Dirichlet-like slip velocity at a slightly raised wall. This wall model is presently extended to include the effects of subgrid wall roughness by the incorporation of the Hama's roughness function Δ U^+(k_{sinfty }^+) that depends on some geometric roughness height ks∞ scaled in inner variables. Presently Colebrook's empirical roughness function is used but the model can utilize any given function of an arbitrary number of inner-scaled, roughness length parameters. This approach requires no change to the interior LES and can handle both smooth and rough walls. The LES is applied to fully turbulent, smooth, and rough-wall channel flow in both the transitional and fully rough regimes. Both roughness and Reynolds number effects are captured for Reynolds numbers Reb based on the bulk flow speed in the range 104-1010 with the equivalent Reτ, based on the wall-drag velocity uτ varying from 650 to 108. Results include a Moody-like diagram for the friction factor f = f(Reb, ɛ), ɛ = ks∞/δ, mean velocity profiles, and turbulence statistics. In the fully rough regime, at sufficiently large Reb, the mean velocity profiles show collapse in outer variables onto a roughness modified, universal, velocity-deficit profile. Outer-flow stream-wise turbulence intensities scale well with uτ for both smooth and rough-wall flow, showing a log-like profile. The infinite Reynolds number limits of both smooth and rough-wall flows are explored. An assumption that, for smooth-wall flow, the turbulence intensities scaled on uτ are bounded above by the sum of a logarithmic profile plus a finite function across the whole channel suggests that the infinite Reb limit is inviscid slip flow without
Smooth muscle actin and myosin expression in cultured airway smooth muscle cells.
Wong, J Z; Woodcock-Mitchell, J; Mitchell, J; Rippetoe, P; White, S; Absher, M; Baldor, L; Evans, J; McHugh, K M; Low, R B
1998-05-01
In this study, the expression of smooth muscle actin and myosin was examined in cultures of rat tracheal smooth muscle cells. Protein and mRNA analyses demonstrated that these cells express alpha- and gamma-smooth muscle actin and smooth muscle myosin and nonmuscle myosin-B heavy chains. The expression of the smooth muscle specific actin and myosin isoforms was regulated in the same direction when growth conditions were changed. Thus, at confluency in 1 or 10% serum-containing medium as well as for low-density cells (50-60% confluent) deprived of serum, the expression of the smooth muscle forms of actin and myosin was relatively high. Conversely, in rapidly proliferating cultures at low density in 10% serum, smooth muscle contractile protein expression was low. The expression of nonmuscle myosin-B mRNA and protein was more stable and was upregulated only to a small degree in growing cells. Our results provide new insight into the molecular basis of differentiation and contractile function in airway smooth muscle cells.
Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis.
Helton, Jon Craig; Storlie, Curtis B.
2006-08-01
The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (1) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (2) additive models, (3) projection pursuit regression, and (4) recursive partitioning regression. The indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present.
Archetypal oscillator for smooth and discontinuous dynamics.
Cao, Qingjie; Wiercigroch, Marian; Pavlovskaia, Ekaterina E; Grebogi, Celso; Thompson, J Michael T
2006-10-01
We propose an archetypal system to investigate transitions from smooth to discontinuous dynamics. In the smooth regime, the system bears significant similarities to the Duffing oscillator, exhibiting the standard dynamics governed by the hyperbolic structure associated with the stationary state of the double well. At the discontinuous limit, however, there is a substantial departure in the dynamics from the standard one. In particular, the velocity flow suffers a jump in crossing from one well to another, caused by the loss of local hyperbolicity due to the collapse of the stable and unstable manifolds of the stationary state. In the presence of damping and external excitation, the system has coexisting attractors and also a chaotic saddle which becomes a chaotic attractor when a smoothness parameter drops to zero. This attractor can bifurcate to a high-period periodic attractor or a chaotic sea with islands of quasiperiodic attractors depending on the strength of damping.
Structured mesh generation with smoothness controls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yaoxin; Jia, Yafei; Wang, Sam S. Y.
2006-08-01
In geometrically complex domains, the Ryskin and Leal (RL) orthogonal mesh generation system may cause mesh distortion and overlapping problems when using the weak constraint method with specified boundary point distribution for all boundaries. To resolve these problems, an improved RL system with automatic smoothness control is proposed. In this improved RL system, the automatic smoothness control mechanism is based on five types of smoothness conditions and includes the self-adjustment mechanism and the auto-evaluation mechanism for an empirical parameter. The proposed system is illustrated using several test examples. Several applications to natural domains are also demonstrated. It is shown that the improved RL system is capable of resolving the above problems at little cost of orthogonality.
Airway epithelium stimulates smooth muscle proliferation.
Malavia, Nikita K; Raub, Christopher B; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Panettieri, Reynold A; George, Steven C
2009-09-01
Communication between the airway epithelium and stroma is evident during embryogenesis, and both epithelial shedding and increased smooth muscle proliferation are features of airway remodeling. Hence, we hypothesized that after injury the airway epithelium could modulate airway smooth muscle proliferation. Fully differentiated primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells at an air-liquid interface were co-cultured with serum-deprived normal primary human airway smooth muscle cells (HASM) using commercially available Transwells. In some co-cultures, the NHBE were repeatedly (x4) scrape-injured. An in vivo model of tracheal injury consisted of gently denuding the tracheal epithelium (x3) of a rabbit over 5 days and then examining the trachea by histology 3 days after the last injury. Our results show that HASM cell number increases 2.5-fold in the presence of NHBE, and 4.3-fold in the presence of injured NHBE compared with HASM alone after 8 days of in vitro co-culture. In addition, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and, more markedly, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 concentration increased in co-culture correlating with enhanced HASM growth. Inhibiting MMP-9 release significantly attenuated the NHBE-dependent HASM proliferation in co-culture. In vivo, the injured rabbit trachea demonstrated proliferation in the smooth muscle (trachealis) region and significant MMP-9 staining, which was absent in the uninjured control. The airway epithelium modulates smooth muscle cell proliferation via a mechanism that involves secretion of soluble mediators including potential smooth muscle mitogens such as IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1, but also through a novel MMP-9-dependent mechanism.
ibr: Iterative bias reduction multivariate smoothing
Hengartner, Nicholas W; Cornillon, Pierre-andre; Matzner - Lober, Eric
2009-01-01
Regression is a fundamental data analysis tool for relating a univariate response variable Y to a multivariate predictor X {element_of} E R{sup d} from the observations (X{sub i}, Y{sub i}), i = 1,...,n. Traditional nonparametric regression use the assumption that the regression function varies smoothly in the independent variable x to locally estimate the conditional expectation m(x) = E[Y|X = x]. The resulting vector of predicted values {cflx Y}{sub i} at the observed covariates X{sub i} is called a regression smoother, or simply a smoother, because the predicted values {cflx Y}{sub i} are less variable than the original observations Y{sub i}. Linear smoothers are linear in the response variable Y and are operationally written as {cflx m} = X{sub {lambda}}Y, where S{sub {lambda}} is a n x n smoothing matrix. The smoothing matrix S{sub {lambda}} typically depends on a tuning parameter which we denote by {lambda}, and that governs the tradeoff between the smoothness of the estimate and the goodness-of-fit of the smoother to the data by controlling the effective size of the local neighborhood over which the responses are averaged. We parameterize the smoothing matrix such that large values of {lambda} are associated to smoothers that averages over larger neighborhood and produce very smooth curves, while small {lambda} are associated to smoothers that average over smaller neighborhood to produce a more wiggly curve that wants to interpolate the data. The parameter {lambda} is the bandwidth for kernel smoother, the span size for running-mean smoother, bin smoother, and the penalty factor {lambda} for spline smoother.
Production of super-smooth articles
Duchane, D.V.
1983-03-15
Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(Methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.
Geometrical Wake of a Smooth Flat Collimator
Stupakov, G.V.; /SLAC
2011-09-09
A transverse geometrical wake generated by a beam passing through a smooth flat collimator with a gradually varying gap between the upper and lower walls is considered. Based on generalization of the approach recently developed for a smooth circular taper we reduce the electromagnetic problem of the impedance calculation to the solution of two much simpler static problems - a magnetostatic and an electrostatic ones. The solution shows that in the limit of not very large frequencies, the impedance increases with the ratio h/d where h is the width and d is the distance between the collimating jaws. Numerical results are presented for the NLC Post Linac collimator.
Hidden attractor in smooth Chua systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leonov, G. A.; Kuznetsov, N. V.; Vagaitsev, V. I.
2012-09-01
The hidden oscillations (a basin of attraction of which does not contain neighborhoods of equilibria) have been obtained first in the 50-60s of the 20th century in automatic control systems with scalar piecewise-linear nonlinearity. This brings up the question about the excitation nature of hidden oscillations. In the present paper it is shown that hidden oscillations can exist not only in systems with piecewise-linear nonlinearity but also in smooth systems. Here the possibility of the existence of a hidden chaotic attractor in a modified Chua’s system with a smooth characteristic of nonlinear element is demonstrated.
Production of super-smooth articles
Duchane, D.V.
1981-05-29
Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.
Several methods of smoothing motion capture data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Jingjing; Miao, Zhenjiang; Wang, Zhifei; Zhang, Shujun
2011-06-01
Human motion capture and editing technologies are widely used in computer animation production. We can acquire original motion data by human motion capture system, and then process it by motion editing system. However, noise embed in original motion data maybe introduced by extracting the target, three-dimensional reconstruction process, optimizing algorithm and devices itself in human motion capture system. The motion data must be modified before used to make videos, otherwise the animation figures will be jerky and their behavior is unnatural. Therefore, motion smoothing is essential. In this paper, we compare and summarize three methods of smoothing original motion capture data.
Smoothing of climate time series revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mann, Michael E.
2008-08-01
We present an easily implemented method for smoothing climate time series, generalizing upon an approach previously described by Mann (2004). The method adaptively weights the three lowest order time series boundary constraints to optimize the fit with the raw time series. We apply the method to the instrumental global mean temperature series from 1850-2007 and to various surrogate global mean temperature series from 1850-2100 derived from the CMIP3 multimodel intercomparison project. These applications demonstrate that the adaptive method systematically out-performs certain widely used default smoothing methods, and is more likely to yield accurate assessments of long-term warming trends.
Production of super-smooth articles
Duchane, David V.
1983-01-01
Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.
Mirror-type Boundary Condition in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marjani, A.; Edge, B. L.
2013-12-01
The main purpose of this study is to enhance the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method that can accurately simulate the hydrodynamic forces on a structure and can be used for determining efficient designs for wave energy devices. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics is a method used in various fields of study. Unlike the finite difference method (FDM), SPH is a Lagrangian mesh-free method in which each particle moves according to the property of the surrounding flow and governing conservation equations, and carries the properties of water such as density, pressure and mass. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics is recently applied to a wide range of fluid mechanics problems. Although it is known as a highly accurate model, slow performance in 3D interface is one of its drawbacks. Not only the computational time becomes very long but also the number of processors and required memory are not easily available. Practical applications deal with high Reynolds numbers that requires high resolution to achieve adequate accuracy. A large number of coastal engineering problems are geometrically symmetric; hence, as a solution, mirror boundary condition is introduced and applied to two different tests in this paper, one is the impact of solitary wave on a large circular cylinder and the other is the interaction of dam break wave and structure. Mirror boundary condition can either produce a remarkable speedup with the same number of processors or the same running time with less number of processors. Regarding the fact that SPH algorithm yields Np log(Np) particle interactions at each time step, reducing the number of particles by a factor of 2 decreases the total number of interactions by a factor greater than 2. In other words, the relation between computational time and the number of particles does not behave like a linear function. Results show that smaller number of particles results in fewer particle interactions and less communications between processors. We believe that this
Development of a non-linear smoothing filter for the processing of eye-movement signals.
Engelken, E J; Stevens, K W; Enderle, J D
1990-01-01
The analysis of eye-movement (EM) signals poses problems for the designer of smoothing filters since many of the interesting types of EMs are bimodal. For example, optokinetic and/or vestibular stimulation results in an EM pattern called nystagmus consisting of alternating fast- and slow-phase components. Also, saccadic (refixation) EMs do not occur continuously, but are interspersed with periods of fixation. Conventional linear, low-pass filters (both finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse response (IIR) types) smear the boundries between the fast- and slow-phases of nystagmus and the fixation and fast components of saccadic EMs. We have adapted a nonlinear smoothing filter (originally designed to optimize edge preservation in image processing applications) for the smoothing of EM signals. This filter is called a Predictive FIR-Median Hybrid (PFMH) filter. The PFMH filter operates on a moving window of data samples centered at the current point of interest. Several predictive FIR filters are applied to the "upper" and "lower" halves of the window and each are designed to predict the sample value at the center of the window. The median of these FIR filter outputs and the actual center data sample are taken as the PFMH filter output for each window position. By properly choosing the length and structure of the FIR subfilters, a PFMH filter can be designed to smooth a bimodal EM signal without blurring the boundries between the two signal components.
The global smooth symmetric solution to 2-D full compressible Euler system of Chaplygin gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Bingbing; Witt, Ingo; Yin, Huicheng
2015-01-01
For one dimensional or multidimensional compressible Euler system of polytropic gases, it is well known that the smooth solution will generally develop singularities in finite time. However, for three dimensional Chaplygin gases, due to the crucial role of "null condition" in the potential equation which is derived by the irrotational and isentropic flow, P. Godin in [9] has proved the global existence of a smooth 3-D spherically symmetric flow with variable entropy when the initial data are of small smooth perturbations with compact supports to a constant state. It is noted that there are some clear differences for the global solution or blowup problems between 2-D and 3-D hyperbolic equations or systems. In this paper, we will focus on the global symmetric solution problem of 2-D full compressible Euler system of Chaplygin gases. Through carrying out involved analysis and finding an appropriate weight we can derive some uniform weighted energy estimates on the small symmetric solution to 2-D compressible Euler system of Chaplygin gases and further establish the global existence of the smooth solution by the continuous induction method.
A three-dimensional chemo-mechanical continuum model for smooth muscle contraction.
Böl, Markus; Schmitz, André; Nowak, Götz; Siebert, Tobias
2012-09-01
Based on two fields, namely the placement and the calcium concentration, a chemo-mechanically coupled three-dimensional model, describing the contractile behaviour of smooth muscles, is presented by means of a strain energy function. The strain energy function (Schmitz and Böl, 2011) is additively decomposed into a passive part, relating to elastin and collagen, and an active calcium-driven part related to the chemical contraction of the smooth muscle cells. For the description of the calcium phase the four state cross-bridge model of Hai and Murphy (Hai and Murphy, 1988) has been implemented into the finite element method. Beside three-dimensional illustrative boundary-value problems demonstrating the features of the presented modelling concept, simulations on an idealised artery document the applicability of the model to more realistic geometries.
Autophagic regulation of smooth muscle cell biology.
Salabei, Joshua K; Hill, Bradford G
2015-01-01
Autophagy regulates the metabolism, survival, and function of numerous cell types, including those comprising the cardiovascular system. In the vasculature, changes in autophagy have been documented in atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions and in hypertensive vessels. The biology of vascular smooth muscle cells appears particularly sensitive to changes in the autophagic program. Recent evidence indicates that stimuli or stressors evoked during the course of vascular disease can regulate autophagic activity, resulting in modulation of VSMC phenotype and viability. In particular, certain growth factors and cytokines, oxygen tension, and pharmacological drugs have been shown to trigger autophagy in smooth muscle cells. Importantly, each of these stimuli has a redox component, typically associated with changes in the abundance of reactive oxygen, nitrogen, or lipid species. Collective findings support the hypothesis that autophagy plays a critical role in vascular remodeling by regulating smooth muscle cell phenotype transitions and by influencing the cellular response to stress. In this graphical review, we summarize current knowledge on the role of autophagy in the biology of the smooth muscle cell in (patho)physiology. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Resting calcium influx in airway smooth muscle.
Montaño, Luis M; Bazán-Perkins, Blanca
2005-01-01
Plasma membrane Ca2+ leak remains the most uncertain of the cellular Ca2+ regulation pathways. During passive Ca2+ influx in non-stimulated smooth muscle cells, basal activity of constitutive Ca2+ channels seems to be involved. In vascular smooth muscle, the 3 following Ca2+ entry pathways contribute to this phenomenon: (i) via voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, (ii) receptor gated Ca2+ channels, and (iii) store operated Ca2+ channels, although, in airway smooth muscle it seems only 2 passive Ca2+ influx pathways are implicated, one sensitive to SKF 96365 (receptor gated Ca2+ channels) and the other to Ni2+ (store operated Ca2+ channels). Resting Ca2+ entry could provide a sufficient amount of Ca2+ and contribute to resting intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), maintenance of the resting membrane potential, myogenic tone, and sarcoplasmic reticulum-Ca2+ refilling. However, further research, especially in airway smooth muscle, is required to better explore the physiological role of this passive Ca2+ influx pathway as it could be involved in airway hyperresponsiveness.
Endothelial and smooth muscle histamine receptors
Blank, R.S.; Hollis, T.M.
1986-03-01
Histamine is produced within the vascular wall and mediates a variety of normal and pathologic vascular responses. The interaction of histamine with its vascular cell receptors has been shown to affect factors such as actin cable formation, cyclase activities, prostacyclin synthesis, cell motility, and proliferation. In addition, abundant evidence exists to implicate an arterial nascent histamine pool in the control of vessel wall permeability under conditions of stress and injury. However, endothelial and smooth muscle cell histamine receptors have been only incompletely characterized. The authors report here the time-dependent, saturable, and trypsin sensitive binding of /sup 3/H-histamine to the endothelial cell surface. The K/sub d/ for endothelial and smooth muscle cell histamine receptors are 0.70 and 2.80 ..mu..M respectively. Histamine binding to smooth muscle cells also exhibited saturation with concentrations of /sup 3/H-histamine up to 4 ..mu..M. While the smooth muscle cell H/sub 1/ receptor binding was negligible, the H/sub 2/ receptor appeared to represent a relatively low affinity, high capacity site for histamine binding. The uptake of /sup 3/H-histamine in both cell types displayed kinetics consistent with that of fluid-phase pinocytosis.
Autonomic Modification of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contractility
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Montgomery, Laura E. A.; Tansey, Etain A.; Johnson, Chris D.; Roe, Sean M.; Quinn, Joe G.
2016-01-01
Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe…
Impact modeling with Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics
Stellingwerf, R.F.; Wingate, C.A.
1992-09-01
Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a new computational technique uniquely suited to computation of hypervelocity impact phenomena. This paper reviews the characteristics, philosophy, and a bit of the derivation of the method. As illustrations of the technique, several test case computations and several application computations are shown.
Impact modeling with Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics
Stellingwerf, R.F.; Wingate, C.A.
1992-01-01
Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a new computational technique uniquely suited to computation of hypervelocity impact phenomena. This paper reviews the characteristics, philosophy, and a bit of the derivation of the method. As illustrations of the technique, several test case computations and several application computations are shown.
PHANTOM: Smoothed particle hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Price, Daniel J.; Wurster, James; Nixon, Chris; Tricco, Terrence S.; Toupin, Stéven; Pettitt, Alex; Chan, Conrad; Laibe, Guillaume; Glover, Simon; Dobbs, Clare; Nealon, Rebecca; Liptai, David; Worpel, Hauke; Bonnerot, Clément; Dipierro, Giovanni; Ragusa, Enrico; Federrath, Christoph; Iaconi, Roberto; Reichardt, Thomas; Forgan, Duncan; Hutchison, Mark; Constantino, Thomas; Ayliffe, Ben; Mentiplay, Daniel; Hirsh, Kieran; Lodato, Giuseppe
2017-09-01
Phantom is a smoothed particle hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code focused on stellar, galactic, planetary, and high energy astrophysics. It is modular, and handles sink particles, self-gravity, two fluid and one fluid dust, ISM chemistry and cooling, physical viscosity, non-ideal MHD, and more. Its modular structure makes it easy to add new physics to the code.
Autonomic modification of intestinal smooth muscle contractility.
Montgomery, Laura E A; Tansey, Etain A; Johnson, Chris D; Roe, Sean M; Quinn, Joe G
2016-03-01
Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe this spontaneous activity and its modification by agents associated with parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activity. A section of the rabbit small intestine is suspended in an organ bath, and the use of a pressure transducer and data-acquisition software allows the measurement of tension generated by the smooth muscle of intestinal walls. The application of the parasympathetic neurotransmitter ACh at varying concentrations allows students to observe an increase in intestinal smooth muscle tone with increasing concentrations of this muscarinic receptor agonist. Construction of a concentration-effect curve allows students to calculate an EC50 value for ACh and consider some basic concepts surrounding receptor occupancy and activation. Application of the hormone epinephrine to the precontracted intestine allows students to observe the inhibitory effects associated with sympathetic nerve activation. Introduction of the drug atropine to the preparation before a maximal concentration of ACh is applied allows students to observe the inhibitory effect of a competitive antagonist on the physiological response to a receptor agonist. The final experiment involves the observation of the depolarizing effect of K(+) on smooth muscle. Students are also invited to consider why the drugs atropine, codeine, loperamide, and botulinum toxin have medicinal uses in the management of gastrointestinal problems.
Autonomic Modification of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contractility
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Montgomery, Laura E. A.; Tansey, Etain A.; Johnson, Chris D.; Roe, Sean M.; Quinn, Joe G.
2016-01-01
Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe…
Quantitative analysis of arm movement smoothness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szczesna, Agnieszka; Błaszczyszyn, Monika
2017-07-01
The paper deals with the problem of motion data quantitative smoothness analysis. We investigated values of movement unit, fluidity and jerk for healthy and paralyzed arm of patients with hemiparesis after stroke. Patients were performing drinking task. To validate the approach, movement of 24 patients were captured using optical motion capture system.
Least-squares finite element methods for quantum chromodynamics
Ketelsen, Christian; Brannick, J; Manteuffel, T; Mccormick, S
2008-01-01
A significant amount of the computational time in large Monte Carlo simulations of lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is spent inverting the discrete Dirac operator. Unfortunately, traditional covariant finite difference discretizations of the Dirac operator present serious challenges for standard iterative methods. For interesting physical parameters, the discretized operator is large and ill-conditioned, and has random coefficients. More recently, adaptive algebraic multigrid (AMG) methods have been shown to be effective preconditioners for Wilson's discretization of the Dirac equation. This paper presents an alternate discretization of the Dirac operator based on least-squares finite elements. The discretization is systematically developed and physical properties of the resulting matrix system are discussed. Finally, numerical experiments are presented that demonstrate the effectiveness of adaptive smoothed aggregation ({alpha}SA ) multigrid as a preconditioner for the discrete field equations resulting from applying the proposed least-squares FE formulation to a simplified test problem, the 2d Schwinger model of quantum electrodynamics.
Calcium Sensitization Mechanisms in Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscles.
Perrino, Brian A
2016-04-30
An increase in intracellular Ca(2+) is the primary trigger of contraction of gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscles. However, increasing the Ca(2+) sensitivity of the myofilaments by elevating myosin light chain phosphorylation also plays an essential role. Inhibiting myosin light chain phosphatase activity with protein kinase C-potentiated phosphatase inhibitor protein-17 kDa (CPI-17) and myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1) phosphorylation is considered to be the primary mechanism underlying myofilament Ca(2+) sensitization. The relative importance of Ca(2+) sensitization mechanisms to the diverse patterns of GI motility is likely related to the varied functional roles of GI smooth muscles. Increases in CPI-17 and MYPT1 phosphorylation in response to agonist stimulation regulate myosin light chain phosphatase activity in phasic, tonic, and sphincteric GI smooth muscles. Recent evidence suggests that MYPT1 phosphorylation may also contribute to force generation by reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. The mechanisms responsible for maintaining constitutive CPI-17 and MYPT1 phosphorylation in GI smooth muscles are still largely unknown. The characteristics of the cell-types comprising the neuroeffector junction lead to fundamental differences between the effects of exogenous agonists and endogenous neurotransmitters on Ca(2+) sensitization mechanisms. The contribution of various cell-types within the tunica muscularis to the motor responses of GI organs to neurotransmission must be considered when determining the mechanisms by which Ca(2+) sensitization pathways are activated. The signaling pathways regulating Ca(2+) sensitization may provide novel therapeutic strategies for controlling GI motility. This article will provide an overview of the current understanding of the biochemical basis for the regulation of Ca(2+) sensitization, while also discussing the functional importance to different smooth muscles of the GI tract.
Calcium Sensitization Mechanisms in Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscles
Perrino, Brian A
2016-01-01
An increase in intracellular Ca2+ is the primary trigger of contraction of gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscles. However, increasing the Ca2+ sensitivity of the myofilaments by elevating myosin light chain phosphorylation also plays an essential role. Inhibiting myosin light chain phosphatase activity with protein kinase C-potentiated phosphatase inhibitor protein-17 kDa (CPI-17) and myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1) phosphorylation is considered to be the primary mechanism underlying myofilament Ca2+ sensitization. The relative importance of Ca2+ sensitization mechanisms to the diverse patterns of GI motility is likely related to the varied functional roles of GI smooth muscles. Increases in CPI-17 and MYPT1 phosphorylation in response to agonist stimulation regulate myosin light chain phosphatase activity in phasic, tonic, and sphincteric GI smooth muscles. Recent evidence suggests that MYPT1 phosphorylation may also contribute to force generation by reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. The mechanisms responsible for maintaining constitutive CPI-17 and MYPT1 phosphorylation in GI smooth muscles are still largely unknown. The characteristics of the cell-types comprising the neuroeffector junction lead to fundamental differences between the effects of exogenous agonists and endogenous neurotransmitters on Ca2+ sensitization mechanisms. The contribution of various cell-types within the tunica muscularis to the motor responses of GI organs to neurotransmission must be considered when determining the mechanisms by which Ca2+ sensitization pathways are activated. The signaling pathways regulating Ca2+ sensitization may provide novel therapeutic strategies for controlling GI motility. This article will provide an overview of the current understanding of the biochemical basis for the regulation of Ca2+ sensitization, while also discussing the functional importance to different smooth muscles of the GI tract. PMID:26701920
Methods and framework for visualizing higher-order finite elements.
Schroeder, William J; Bertel, François; Malaterre, Mathieu; Thompson, David; Pébay, Philippe P; O'Bara, Robert; Tendulkar, Saurabh
2006-01-01
The finite element method is an important, widely used numerical technique for solving partial differential equations. This technique utilizes basis functions for approximating the geometry and the variation of the solution field over finite regions, or elements, of the domain. These basis functions are generally formed by combinations of polynomials. In the past, the polynomial order of the basis has been low-typically of linear and quadratic order. However, in recent years so-called p and hp methods have been developed, which may elevate the order of the basis to arbitrary levels with the aim of accelerating the convergence of the numerical solution. The increasing complexity of numerical basis functions poses a significant challenge to visualization systems. In the past, such systems have been loosely coupled to simulation packages, exchanging data via file transfer, and internally reimplementing the basis functions in order to perform interpolation and implement visualization algorithms. However, as the basis functions become more complex and, in some cases, proprietary in nature, it becomes increasingly difficult if not impossible to reimplement them within the visualization system. Further, most visualization systems typically process linear primitives, in part to take advantage of graphics hardware and, in part, due to the inherent simplicity of the resulting algorithms. Thus, visualization of higher-order finite elements requires tessellating the basis to produce data compatible with existing visualization systems. In this paper, we describe adaptive methods that automatically tessellate complex finite element basis functions using a flexible and extensible software framework. These methods employ a recursive, edge-based subdivision algorithm driven by a set of error metrics including geometric error, solution error, and error in image space. Further, we describe advanced pretessellation techniques that guarantees capture of the critical points of the
Finite elements and finite differences for transonic flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hafez, M. M.; Murman, E. M.; Wellford, L. C.
1978-01-01
The paper reviews the chief finite difference and finite element techniques used for numerical solution of nonlinear mixed elliptic-hyperbolic equations governing transonic flow. The forms of the governing equations for unsteady two-dimensional transonic flow considered are the Euler equation, the full potential equation in both conservative and nonconservative form, the transonic small-disturbance equation in both conservative and nonconservative form, and the hodograph equations for the small-disturbance case and the full-potential case. Finite difference methods considered include time-dependent methods, relaxation methods, semidirect methods, and hybrid methods. Finite element methods include finite element Lax-Wendroff schemes, implicit Galerkin method, mixed variational principles, dual iterative procedures, optimal control methods and least squares.
Smooth particle hydrodynamics: theory and application to the origin of the moon
Benz, W.
1986-01-01
The origin of the moon is modeled by the so-called smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method (Lucy, 1977, Monaghan 1985) which substitutes to the fluid a finite set of extended particles, the hydrodynamics equations reduce to the equation of motion of individual particles. These equations of motion differ only from the standard gravitational N-body problem insofar that pressure gradients and viscosity terms have to be added to the gradient of the potential to derive the forces between the particles. The numerical tools developed for ''classical'' N-body problems can therefore be readily applied to solve 3 dimensional hydroynamical problems. 12 refs., 1 fig.
Local Composite Quantile Regression Smoothing for Harris Recurrent Markov Processes
Li, Degui; Li, Runze
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study the local polynomial composite quantile regression (CQR) smoothing method for the nonlinear and nonparametric models under the Harris recurrent Markov chain framework. The local polynomial CQR regression method is a robust alternative to the widely-used local polynomial method, and has been well studied in stationary time series. In this paper, we relax the stationarity restriction on the model, and allow that the regressors are generated by a general Harris recurrent Markov process which includes both the stationary (positive recurrent) and nonstationary (null recurrent) cases. Under some mild conditions, we establish the asymptotic theory for the proposed local polynomial CQR estimator of the mean regression function, and show that the convergence rate for the estimator in nonstationary case is slower than that in stationary case. Furthermore, a weighted type local polynomial CQR estimator is provided to improve the estimation efficiency, and a data-driven bandwidth selection is introduced to choose the optimal bandwidth involved in the nonparametric estimators. Finally, we give some numerical studies to examine the finite sample performance of the developed methodology and theory. PMID:27667894
Smooth Wilson loops in N=4 non-chiral superspace
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beisert, Niklas; Müller, Dennis; Plefka, Jan; Vergu, Cristian
2015-12-01
We consider a supersymmetric Wilson loop operator for 4d N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory which is the natural object dual to the AdS 5 × S 5 superstring in the AdS/CFT correspondence. It generalizes the traditional bosonic 1 /2 BPS Maldacena-Wilson loop operator and completes recent constructions in the literature to smooth (non-light-like) loops in the full N=4 non-chiral superspace. This Wilson loop operator enjoys global super-conformal and local kappa-symmetry of which a detailed discussion is given. Moreover, the finiteness of its vacuum expectation value is proven at leading order in perturbation theory. We determine the leading vacuum expectation value for general paths both at the component field level up to quartic order in anti-commuting coordinates and in the full non-chiral superspace in suitable gauges. Finally, we discuss loops built from quadric splines joined in such a way that the path derivatives are continuous at the intersection.
Regular and chaotic dynamics of a piecewise smooth bouncer
Langer, Cameron K. Miller, Bruce N.
2015-07-15
The dynamical properties of a particle in a gravitational field colliding with a rigid wall moving with piecewise constant velocity are studied. The linear nature of the wall's motion permits further analytical investigation than is possible for the system's sinusoidal counterpart. We consider three distinct approaches to modeling collisions: (i) elastic, (ii) inelastic with constant restitution coefficient, and (iii) inelastic with a velocity-dependent restitution function. We confirm the existence of distinct unbounded orbits (Fermi acceleration) in the elastic model, and investigate regular and chaotic behavior in the inelastic cases. We also examine in the constant restitution model trajectories wherein the particle experiences an infinite number of collisions in a finite time, i.e., the phenomenon of inelastic collapse. We address these so-called “sticking solutions” and their relation to both the overall dynamics and the phenomenon of self-reanimating chaos. Additionally, we investigate the long-term behavior of the system as a function of both initial conditions and parameter values. We find the non-smooth nature of the system produces novel bifurcation phenomena not seen in the sinusoidal model, including border-collision bifurcations. The analytical and numerical investigations reveal that although our piecewise linear bouncer is a simplified version of the sinusoidal model, the former not only captures essential features of the latter but also exhibits behavior unique to the discontinuous dynamics.
An extension of the finite cell method using boolean operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abedian, Alireza; Düster, Alexander
2017-01-01
In the finite cell method, the fictitious domain approach is combined with high-order finite elements. The geometry of the problem is taken into account by integrating the finite cell formulation over the physical domain to obtain the corresponding stiffness matrix and load vector. In this contribution, an extension of the FCM is presented wherein both the physical and fictitious domain of an element are simultaneously evaluated during the integration. In the proposed extension of the finite cell method, the contribution of the stiffness matrix over the fictitious domain is subtracted from the cell, resulting in the desired stiffness matrix which reflects the contribution of the physical domain only. This method results in an exponential rate of convergence for porous domain problems with a smooth solution and accurate integration. In addition, it reduces the computational cost, especially when applying adaptive integration schemes based on the quadtree/octree. Based on 2D and 3D problems of linear elastostatics, numerical examples serve to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.
An extension of the finite cell method using boolean operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abedian, Alireza; Düster, Alexander
2017-05-01
In the finite cell method, the fictitious domain approach is combined with high-order finite elements. The geometry of the problem is taken into account by integrating the finite cell formulation over the physical domain to obtain the corresponding stiffness matrix and load vector. In this contribution, an extension of the FCM is presented wherein both the physical and fictitious domain of an element are simultaneously evaluated during the integration. In the proposed extension of the finite cell method, the contribution of the stiffness matrix over the fictitious domain is subtracted from the cell, resulting in the desired stiffness matrix which reflects the contribution of the physical domain only. This method results in an exponential rate of convergence for porous domain problems with a smooth solution and accurate integration. In addition, it reduces the computational cost, especially when applying adaptive integration schemes based on the quadtree/octree. Based on 2D and 3D problems of linear elastostatics, numerical examples serve to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.
Coarse-grained molecular dynamics: Nonlinear finite elements and finite temperature
Rudd, R E; Broughton, J Q
2005-05-30
Coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) is a technique developed as a concurrent multiscale model that couples conventional molecular dynamics (MD) to a more coarse-grained description of the periphery. The coarse-grained regions are modeled on a mesh in a formulation that generalizes conventional finite element modeling (FEM) of continuum elasticity. CGMD is derived solely from the MD model, however, and has no continuum parameters. As a result, it provides a coupling that is smooth and provides control of errors that arise at the coupling between the atomistic and coarse-grained regions. In this article, we elaborate on the formulation of CGMD, describing in detail how CGMD is applied to anharmonic solids and finite temperature simulations. As tests of CGMD, we present in detail the calculation of the phonon spectra for solid argon and tantalum in 3D, demonstrating how CGMD provides a better description of the elastic waves than that provided by FEM. We also present elastic wave scattering calculations that show the elastic wave scattering is more benign in CGMD than FEM. We also discuss the dependence of scattering on the properties of the mesh. We introduce a rigid approximation to CGMD that eliminates internal relaxation, similar to the Quasicontinuum technique, and compare it to the full CGMD.
Finite elements of nonlinear continua.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oden, J. T.
1972-01-01
The finite element method is extended to a broad class of practical nonlinear problems, treating both theory and applications from a general and unifying point of view. The thermomechanical principles of continuous media and the properties of the finite element method are outlined, and are brought together to produce discrete physical models of nonlinear continua. The mathematical properties of the models are analyzed, and the numerical solution of the equations governing the discrete models is examined. The application of the models to nonlinear problems in finite elasticity, viscoelasticity, heat conduction, and thermoviscoelasticity is discussed. Other specific topics include the topological properties of finite element models, applications to linear and nonlinear boundary value problems, convergence, continuum thermodynamics, finite elasticity, solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations, and discrete models of the nonlinear thermomechanical behavior of dissipative media.
Finite elements of nonlinear continua.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oden, J. T.
1972-01-01
The finite element method is extended to a broad class of practical nonlinear problems, treating both theory and applications from a general and unifying point of view. The thermomechanical principles of continuous media and the properties of the finite element method are outlined, and are brought together to produce discrete physical models of nonlinear continua. The mathematical properties of the models are analyzed, and the numerical solution of the equations governing the discrete models is examined. The application of the models to nonlinear problems in finite elasticity, viscoelasticity, heat conduction, and thermoviscoelasticity is discussed. Other specific topics include the topological properties of finite element models, applications to linear and nonlinear boundary value problems, convergence, continuum thermodynamics, finite elasticity, solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations, and discrete models of the nonlinear thermomechanical behavior of dissipative media.
Brezina, M; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J; Sanders, G; Vassilevski, P S
2007-05-31
Consider the linear system Ax = b, where A is a large, sparse, real, symmetric, and positive definite matrix and b is a known vector. Solving this system for unknown vector x using a smoothed aggregation multigrid (SA) algorithm requires a characterization of the algebraically smooth error, meaning error that is poorly attenuated by the algorithm's relaxation process. For relaxation processes that are typically used in practice, algebraically smooth error corresponds to the near-nullspace of A. Therefore, having a good approximation to a minimal eigenvector is useful to characterize the algebraically smooth error when forming a linear SA solver. This paper discusses the details of a generalized eigensolver based on smoothed aggregation (GES-SA) that is designed to produce an approximation to a minimal eigenvector of A. GES-SA might be very useful as a standalone eigensolver for applications that desire an approximate minimal eigenvector, but the primary aim here is for GES-SA to produce an initial algebraically smooth component that may be used to either create a black-box SA solver or initiate the adaptive SA ({alpha}SA) process.
Finite difference computation of Casimir forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinto, Fabrizio
2016-09-01
In this Invited paper, we begin by a historical introduction to provide a motivation for the classical problems of interatomic force computation and associated challenges. This analysis will lead us from early theoretical and experimental accomplishments to the integration of these fascinating interactions into the operation of realistic, next-generation micro- and nanodevices both for the advanced metrology of fundamental physical processes and in breakthrough industrial applications. Among several powerful strategies enabling vastly enhanced performance and entirely novel technological capabilities, we shall specifically consider Casimir force time-modulation and the adoption of non-trivial geometries. As to the former, the ability to alter the magnitude and sign of the Casimir force will be recognized as a crucial principle to implement thermodynamical nano-engines. As to the latter, we shall first briefly review various reported computational approaches. We shall then discuss the game-changing discovery, in the last decade, that standard methods of numerical classical electromagnetism can be retooled to formulate the problem of Casimir force computation in arbitrary geometries. This remarkable development will be practically illustrated by showing that such an apparently elementary method as standard finite-differencing can be successfully employed to numerically recover results known from the Lifshitz theory of dispersion forces in the case of interacting parallel-plane slabs. Other geometries will be also be explored and consideration given to the potential of non-standard finite-difference methods. Finally, we shall introduce problems at the computational frontier, such as those including membranes deformed by Casimir forces and the effects of anisotropic materials. Conclusions will highlight the dramatic transition from the enduring perception of this field as an exotic application of quantum electrodynamics to the recent demonstration of a human climbing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alimonti, L.; Atalla, N.
2017-02-01
This work is concerned with the hybrid finite element-transfer matrix methodology recently proposed by the authors. The main assumption behind this hybrid method consists in neglecting the actual finite lateral extent of the acoustic treatment. Although a substantial increase of the computational efficiency can be achieved, the effect of the reflected field (i.e. finite size effects) may be sometimes important, preventing the hybrid model from giving quantitative meaningful results. For this reason, a correction to account for wave reflections at the lateral boundaries of the acoustic treatment is sought. It is shown in the present paper that the image source method can be successfully employed to retrieve such finite size effects. Indeed, such methodology is known to be effective when the response of the system is a smooth function of the frequency, like in the case of highly dissipative acoustic treatments. The main concern of this paper is to assess accuracy and feasibility of the image source method in the context of acoustic treatments modeling. Numerical examples show that the performance of the standard hybrid model can be substantially improved by the proposed correction without deteriorating excessively the computational efficiency.
Molecular memory with atomically smooth graphene contacts
2013-01-01
We report the use of bilayer graphene as an atomically smooth contact for nanoscale devices. A two-terminal bucky-ball (C60) based molecular memory is fabricated with bilayer graphene as a contact on the polycrystalline nickel electrode. Graphene provides an atomically smooth covering over an otherwise rough metal surface. The use of graphene additionally prohibits the electromigration of nickel into the C60 layer. The devices exhibit a low-resistance state in the first sweep cycle and irreversibly switch to a high-resistance state at 0.8 to 1.2 V bias. In the subsequent cycles, the devices retain the high-resistance state, thus making it write-once read-many memory. PMID:24225345
The paradox of smooth muscle physiology.
Woodrum, D A; Brophy, C M
2001-05-25
Vascular smooth muscle tone is controlled by a balance between the cellular signaling pathways that mediate the generation of force (contraction) and the release of force (relaxation). The signaling events that activate contraction include Ca(2+)-dependent myosin light chain phosphorylation. The signaling events that mediate relaxation include the removal of a contractile agonist (passive relaxation) and activation of cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling pathways in the continued presence of a contractile agonist (active relaxation). The major questions that remain in contractile physiology include (1) how is tonic force maintained when intracellular Ca(2+) levels and myosin light chain phosphorylation have returned to basal levels; and (2) what is the mechanism of cyclic nucleotide-dependent relaxation? This review focuses on these specific controversies surrounding the molecular mechanisms of contraction and relaxation of vascular smooth muscle.
SPHGR: Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics Galaxy Reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, Robert
2015-02-01
SPHGR (Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics Galaxy Reduction) is a python based open-source framework for analyzing smoothed-particle hydrodynamic simulations. Its basic form can run a baryonic group finder to identify galaxies and a halo finder to identify dark matter halos; it can also assign said galaxies to their respective halos, calculate halo & galaxy global properties, and iterate through previous time steps to identify the most-massive progenitors of each halo and galaxy. Data about each individual halo and galaxy is collated and easy to access. SPHGR supports a wide range of simulations types including N-body, full cosmological volumes, and zoom-in runs. Support for multiple SPH code outputs is provided by pyGadgetReader (ascl:1411.001), mainly Gadget (ascl:0003.001) and TIPSY (ascl:1111.015).
Compensating for estimation smoothing in kriging
Olea, R.A.; Pawlowsky, Vera
1996-01-01
Smoothing is a characteristic inherent to all minimum mean-square-error spatial estimators such as kriging. Cross-validation can be used to detect and model such smoothing. Inversion of the model produces a new estimator-compensated kriging. A numerical comparison based on an exhaustive permeability sampling of a 4-fr2 slab of Berea Sandstone shows that the estimation surface generated by compensated kriging has properties intermediate between those generated by ordinary kriging and stochastic realizations resulting from simulated annealing and sequential Gaussian simulation. The frequency distribution is well reproduced by the compensated kriging surface, which also approximates the experimental semivariogram well - better than ordinary kriging, but not as well as stochastic realizations. Compensated kriging produces surfaces that are more accurate than stochastic realizations, but not as accurate as ordinary kriging. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.
A smoothing algorithm using cubic spline functions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, R. E., Jr.; Price, J. M.; Howser, L. M.
1974-01-01
Two algorithms are presented for smoothing arbitrary sets of data. They are the explicit variable algorithm and the parametric variable algorithm. The former would be used where large gradients are not encountered because of the smaller amount of calculation required. The latter would be used if the data being smoothed were double valued or experienced large gradients. Both algorithms use a least-squares technique to obtain a cubic spline fit to the data. The advantage of the spline fit is that the first and second derivatives are continuous. This method is best used in an interactive graphics environment so that the junction values for the spline curve can be manipulated to improve the fit.
Mimetic finite difference method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lipnikov, Konstantin; Manzini, Gianmarco; Shashkov, Mikhail
2014-01-01
The mimetic finite difference (MFD) method mimics fundamental properties of mathematical and physical systems including conservation laws, symmetry and positivity of solutions, duality and self-adjointness of differential operators, and exact mathematical identities of the vector and tensor calculus. This article is the first comprehensive review of the 50-year long history of the mimetic methodology and describes in a systematic way the major mimetic ideas and their relevance to academic and real-life problems. The supporting applications include diffusion, electromagnetics, fluid flow, and Lagrangian hydrodynamics problems. The article provides enough details to build various discrete operators on unstructured polygonal and polyhedral meshes and summarizes the major convergence results for the mimetic approximations. Most of these theoretical results, which are presented here as lemmas, propositions and theorems, are either original or an extension of existing results to a more general formulation using polyhedral meshes. Finally, flexibility and extensibility of the mimetic methodology are shown by deriving higher-order approximations, enforcing discrete maximum principles for diffusion problems, and ensuring the numerical stability for saddle-point systems.
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics: Applications Within DSTO
2006-10-01
that the velocities and forces obtained from their numerical code were in excellent agreement with model laboratory measurements. Fontaine [19] has...Continuum Mechanics", Air Force Armament Laboratory AFATL-TR-78- 125 (1978). 19. Fontaine , E. "On the use of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics to model...Laboratory, Japan 1 National Aerospace Laboratory, Netherlands 1 Mr. Jean -Louis Barillon, France 1 printed Dr. Elaine Oran, Naval Research Laboratory
Rotorcraft Smoothing Via Linear Time Periodic Methods
2007-07-01
Optimal Control Methodology for Rotor Vibration Smoothing . . 30 vii Page IV. Mathematic Foundations of Linear Time Periodic Systems . . . . 33 4.1 The...62 6.3 The Maximum Likelihood Estimator . . . . . . . . . . . 63 6.4 The Cramer-Rao Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 6.4.1 Statistical ...adjustments for vibration reduction. 2.2.2.4 1980’s to late 1990’s. Rotor vibrational reduction methods during the 1980’s began to adopt a mathematical
Wrench for smooth or damaged fasteners
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carrillo, R.
1981-01-01
Smooth-surfaced or damaged fasteners that cannot be gripped by conventional wrench can be unscrewed by special wrench. It can be used in tight spaces and will not damage adjacent structures. Wrench consists of central handle and 2 independent jaws with serrated teeth. Teeth are placed on fastener to be removed, and handle is rotated until fastener is gripped with positive locking action. Rotation of wrench handle removes fastener.
Performance Bounds in Robust Filtering and Smoothing.
1982-10-20
fashion. Specifically, we consider the problem of extracting the data generated by a stationary information process with memory, from noisy observations, in...if present) is well known, and we allow the information process to vary within a prespecified convex and closed family of stationary prccesses. We...stationary channel [R,v,Rj. In the filtering and smoothing problems, [I,R,X] represents the information process whose data sequences must be extracted
Generation of Surfaces with Smooth Highlight Lines
2000-01-01
2 (s)ds/ si. (2) 0=i i=1 §3. Concept of Surface Generation Based on Evolute A surface is generated by moving a generatrix along two directrices . When...Fig. 1(a) shows an object surface Surfaces with Smooth Highlight Lines 147 Sgeneratrices v generated surface S u directrices evoluteseolesufc (a...the directrices , and suffix u denotes partial differentiation. Fig. 1(b) shows an evolute surface and a generated surface satisfying the constraints
Structure-Preserving Smoothing of Biomedical Images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gil, Debora; Hernàndez-Sabaté, Aura; Burnat, Mireia; Jansen, Steven; Martínez-Villalta, Jordi
Smoothing of biomedical images should preserve gray-level transitions between adjacent tissues, while restoring contours consistent with anatomical structures. Anisotropic diffusion operators are based on image appearance discontinuities (either local or contextual) and might fail at weak inter-tissue transitions. Meanwhile, the output of block-wise and morphological operations is prone to present a block structure due to the shape and size of the considered pixel neighborhood.
Variational algorithms for nonlinear smoothing applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bach, R. E., Jr.
1977-01-01
A variational approach is presented for solving a nonlinear, fixed-interval smoothing problem with application to offline processing of noisy data for trajectory reconstruction and parameter estimation. The nonlinear problem is solved as a sequence of linear two-point boundary value problems. Second-order convergence properties are demonstrated. Algorithms for both continuous and discrete versions of the problem are given, and example solutions are provided.
Wrench for smooth or damaged fasteners
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carrillo, R.
1981-01-01
Smooth-surfaced or damaged fasteners that cannot be gripped by conventional wrench can be unscrewed by special wrench. It can be used in tight spaces and will not damage adjacent structures. Wrench consists of central handle and 2 independent jaws with serrated teeth. Teeth are placed on fastener to be removed, and handle is rotated until fastener is gripped with positive locking action. Rotation of wrench handle removes fastener.
On the thermodynamics of smooth muscle contraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stålhand, Jonas; McMeeking, Robert M.; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.
2016-09-01
Cell function is based on many dynamically complex networks of interacting biochemical reactions. Enzymes may increase the rate of only those reactions that are thermodynamically consistent. In this paper we specifically treat the contraction of smooth muscle cells from the continuum thermodynamics point of view by considering them as an open system where matter passes through the cell membrane. We systematically set up a well-known four-state kinetic model for the cross-bridge interaction of actin and myosin in smooth muscle, where the transition between each state is driven by forward and reverse reactions. Chemical, mechanical and energy balance laws are provided in local forms, while energy balance is also formulated in the more convenient temperature form. We derive the local (non-negative) production of entropy from which we deduce the reduced entropy inequality and the constitutive equations for the first Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, the heat flux, the ion and molecular flux and the entropy. One example for smooth muscle contraction is analyzed in more detail in order to provide orientation within the established general thermodynamic framework. In particular the stress evolution, heat generation, muscle shorting rate and a condition for muscle cooling are derived.
Notch Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.
Baeten, J T; Lilly, B
2017-01-01
The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved pathway involved in cell fate determination in embryonic development and also functions in the regulation of physiological processes in several systems. It plays an especially important role in vascular development and physiology by influencing angiogenesis, vessel patterning, arterial/venous specification, and vascular smooth muscle biology. Aberrant or dysregulated Notch signaling is the cause of or a contributing factor to many vascular disorders, including inherited vascular diseases, such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, associated with degeneration of the smooth muscle layer in cerebral arteries. Like most signaling pathways, the Notch signaling axis is influenced by complex interactions with mediators of other signaling pathways. This complexity is also compounded by different members of the Notch family having both overlapping and unique functions. Thus, it is vital to fully understand the roles and interactions of each Notch family member in order to effectively and specifically target their exact contributions to vascular disease. In this chapter, we will review the Notch signaling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells as it relates to vascular development and human disease.
Smooth muscle differentiation in scleroderma fibroblastic cells.
Sappino, A. P.; Masouyé, I.; Saurat, J. H.; Gabbiani, G.
1990-01-01
Using antibodies to alpha-smooth muscle actin and desmin on paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tissue sections, the authors demonstrate that fibroblastic cells of localized and systemic scleroderma lesions express features of smooth muscle differentiation. Eleven of eleven skin specimens of systemic sclerosis patients and two of four skin specimens of localized scleroderma displayed the presence of fibroblasts expressing alpha-smooth muscle actin, a cell population that predominated in areas of prominent collagen deposition. A similar fibroblastic phenotype was found in the esophagus, the liver, and the lung specimens obtained from four patients who died of progressive systemic sclerosis. Immunostaining for desmin, performed on adjacent tissue sections, demonstrated that a minority of these fibroblastic cells present in skin and visceral lesions contained this protein. The authors' observations indicate that scleroderma fibroblasts are phenotypically related to the stromal cells previously identified in hypertrophic scars, fibromatoses, and desmoplasia; they might provide novel criteria for the characterization of scleroderma lesions and help to identify the factors responsible for phenotypic modulations in fibroblastic cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1698026
Smooth muscle tumours of the alimentary tract.
Diamond, T.; Danton, M. H.; Parks, T. G.
1990-01-01
Neoplasms arising from smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are uncommon, comprising only 1% of gastrointestinal tumours. A total of 51 cases of smooth muscle tumour of the GI tract were analysed; 44 leiomyomas and 7 leiomyosarcomas. Lesions occurred in all areas from the oesophagus to the rectum, the stomach being the commonest site. Thirty-six patients had clinical features referable to the tumour. The tumour was detected during investigation or management of an unrelated disease process in 15 patients. The clinical presentation varied depending on tumour location, but abdominal pain and GI bleeding were the commonest presenting symptoms. The lesion was demonstrated preoperatively, mainly by endoscopy and barium studies, in 27 patients. Surgical excision was the treatment of choice, where possible. There was no recurrence in the leiomyoma group but four patients died in the leiomyosarcoma group. Although rare, smooth muscle tumours should be considered in situations where clinical presentation and investigations are not suggestive of any common GI disorder. The preoperative assessment and diagnosis is difficult because of the variability in clinical features and their inaccessibility to routine GI investigation. It is recommended that, where possible, the lesion, whether symptomatic or discovered incidentally, should be excised completely to achieve a cure and prevent future complications. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2221768
Symmetric smoothing filters from global consistency constraints.
Haque, Sheikh Mohammadul; Pai, Gautam P; Govindu, Venu Madhav
2015-05-01
Many patch-based image denoising methods can be viewed as data-dependent smoothing filters that carry out a weighted averaging of similar pixels. It has recently been argued that these averaging filters can be improved using their doubly stochastic approximation, which are symmetric and stable smoothing operators. In this paper, we introduce a simple principle of consistency that argues that the relative similarities between pixels as imputed by the averaging matrix should be preserved in the filtered output. The resultant consistency filter has the theoretically desirable properties of being symmetric and stable, and is a generalized doubly stochastic matrix. In addition, we can also interpret our consistency filter as a specific form of Laplacian regularization. Thus, our approach unifies two strands of image denoising methods, i.e., symmetric smoothing filters and spectral graph theory. Our consistency filter provides high-quality image denoising and significantly outperforms the doubly stochastic version. We present a thorough analysis of the properties of our proposed consistency filter and compare its performance with that of other significant methods for image denoising in the literature.
A finite-volume module for all-scale Earth-system modelling at ECMWF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kühnlein, Christian; Malardel, Sylvie; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr
2017-04-01
We highlight recent advancements in the development of the finite-volume module (FVM) (Smolarkiewicz et al., 2016) for the IFS at ECMWF. FVM represents an alternative dynamical core that complements the operational spectral dynamical core of the IFS with new capabilities. Most notably, these include a compact-stencil finite-volume discretisation, flexible meshes, conservative non-oscillatory transport and all-scale governing equations. As a default, FVM solves the compressible Euler equations in a geospherical framework (Szmelter and Smolarkiewicz, 2010). The formulation incorporates a generalised terrain-following vertical coordinate. A hybrid computational mesh, fully unstructured in the horizontal and structured in the vertical, enables efficient global atmospheric modelling. Moreover, a centred two-time-level semi-implicit integration scheme is employed with 3D implicit treatment of acoustic, buoyant, and rotational modes. The associated 3D elliptic Helmholtz problem is solved using a preconditioned Generalised Conjugate Residual approach. The solution procedure employs the non-oscillatory finite-volume MPDATA advection scheme that is bespoke for the compressible dynamics on the hybrid mesh (Kühnlein and Smolarkiewicz, 2017). The recent progress of FVM is illustrated with results of benchmark simulations of intermediate complexity, and comparison to the operational spectral dynamical core of the IFS. C. Kühnlein, P.K. Smolarkiewicz: An unstructured-mesh finite-volume MPDATA for compressible atmospheric dynamics, J. Comput. Phys. (2017), in press. P.K. Smolarkiewicz, W. Deconinck, M. Hamrud, C. Kühnlein, G. Mozdzynski, J. Szmelter, N.P. Wedi: A finite-volume module for simulating global all-scale atmospheric flows, J. Comput. Phys. 314 (2016) 287-304. J. Szmelter, P.K. Smolarkiewicz: An edge-based unstructured mesh discretisation in geospherical framework, J. Comput. Phys. 229 (2010) 4980-4995.
7 CFR 51.772 - Fairly smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... Definitions § 51.772 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety and size of the fruit. “Fairly thin” means that the skin thickness does...
7 CFR 51.772 - Fairly smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... Definitions § 51.772 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety and size of the fruit. “Fairly thin” means that the skin thickness does...
A Kalman Filter with Smoothing for Hurricane Tracking and Prediction
1989-12-01
algorithms were categorized into three groups by Meditch [Ref. 51; Fixed Point Smoothing smooths the estimate iox at a fixed point k as K increases... Smoothing , Storm Trackig. I bstract (continue on reiersc if necr!:ry and ldetif by block number) T-he Performance of a Kalmnan filter used to track a...hurricane was substantially improved by implementing a fixed interval smoothing algofitin. This tracking routine was designed and imiplemencrted in a
Finite element computational fluid mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, A. J.
1983-01-01
Finite element analysis as applied to the broad spectrum of computational fluid mechanics is analyzed. The finite element solution methodology is derived, developed, and applied directly to the differential equation systems governing classes of problems in fluid mechanics. The heat conduction equation is used to reveal the essence and elegance of finite element theory, including higher order accuracy and convergence. The algorithm is extended to the pervasive nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. A specific fluid mechanics problem class is analyzed with an even mix of theory and applications, including turbulence closure and the solution of turbulent flows.
Finite element computational fluid mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, A. J.
1983-01-01
Finite element analysis as applied to the broad spectrum of computational fluid mechanics is analyzed. The finite element solution methodology is derived, developed, and applied directly to the differential equation systems governing classes of problems in fluid mechanics. The heat conduction equation is used to reveal the essence and elegance of finite element theory, including higher order accuracy and convergence. The algorithm is extended to the pervasive nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. A specific fluid mechanics problem class is analyzed with an even mix of theory and applications, including turbulence closure and the solution of turbulent flows.
Visual Short-Term Memory During Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kerzel, Dirk; Ziegler, Nathalie E.
2005-01-01
Visual short-term memory (VSTM) was probed while observers performed smooth pursuit eye movements. Smooth pursuit keeps a moving object stabilized in the fovea. VSTM capacity for position was reduced during smooth pursuit compared with a condition with eye fixation. There was no difference between a condition in which the items were approximately…
The Optimal Degree of Smoothing in Equipercentile Equating with Postsmoothing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zeng, Lingjia
1995-01-01
The effects of different degrees of smoothing on results of equipercentile equating in random groups design using a postsmoothing method based on cubic splines were investigated, and a computer-based procedure was introduced for selecting a desirable degree of smoothing. Results suggest that no particular degree of smoothing was always optimal.…
Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy of Smooth Pursuit in Humans
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lencer, Rebekka; Trillenberg, Peter
2008-01-01
Smooth pursuit eye movements enable us to focus our eyes on moving objects by utilizing well-established mechanisms of visual motion processing, sensorimotor transformation and cognition. Novel smooth pursuit tasks and quantitative measurement techniques can help unravel the different smooth pursuit components and complex neural systems involved…
Alternative Smoothing and Scaling Strategies for Weighted Composite Scores
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moses, Tim
2014-01-01
In this study, smoothing and scaling approaches are compared for estimating subscore-to-composite scaling results involving composites computed as rounded and weighted combinations of subscores. The considered smoothing and scaling approaches included those based on raw data, on smoothing the bivariate distribution of the subscores, on smoothing…
Infant Attention and the Development of Smooth Pursuit Tracking.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Richards, John E.; Holley, Felecia B.
1999-01-01
Studied effect of attention on smooth pursuit and saccadic tracking in infants at 8, 14, 20, and 26 weeks old. Found an increase across age in overall tracking, gain of smooth-pursuit eye movements, and increased amplitude of compensatory saccades at faster tracking speeds. Findings show that development of smooth pursuit, targeted saccadic eye…
Alternative Smoothing and Scaling Strategies for Weighted Composite Scores
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moses, Tim
2014-01-01
In this study, smoothing and scaling approaches are compared for estimating subscore-to-composite scaling results involving composites computed as rounded and weighted combinations of subscores. The considered smoothing and scaling approaches included those based on raw data, on smoothing the bivariate distribution of the subscores, on smoothing…
7 CFR 51.641 - Fairly smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.641 Section 51.641 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.641 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth...
7 CFR 51.641 - Fairly smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.641 Section 51.641 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.641 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth...
7 CFR 51.641 - Fairly smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.641 Section 51.641 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.641 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is...
7 CFR 51.701 - Fairly smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.701 Section 51.701 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.701 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth...
7 CFR 51.772 - Fairly smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.772 Section 51.772... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.772 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety and size...
7 CFR 51.1008 - Fairly smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1008 Section 51.1008 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....1008 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the fruit is comparatively free from...
7 CFR 51.772 - Fairly smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.772 Section 51.772... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.772 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety and size...
7 CFR 51.1162 - Fairly smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1162 Section 51.1162 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety...
7 CFR 51.701 - Fairly smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.701 Section 51.701 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.701 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is...
7 CFR 51.1162 - Fairly smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1162 Section 51.1162 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Definitions § 51.1162 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not...
7 CFR 51.1008 - Fairly smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1008 Section 51.1008 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....1008 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the fruit is comparatively free from...
7 CFR 51.641 - Fairly smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.641 Section 51.641 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.641 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is...
7 CFR 51.1162 - Fairly smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1162 Section 51.1162 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Definitions § 51.1162 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not...
7 CFR 51.1162 - Fairly smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1162 Section 51.1162 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety...
7 CFR 51.1008 - Fairly smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1008 Section 51.1008... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1008 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the fruit is comparatively free from lumpiness and that pebbling is not...
7 CFR 51.1008 - Fairly smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1008 Section 51.1008... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1008 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the fruit is comparatively free from lumpiness and that pebbling is not...
7 CFR 51.1162 - Fairly smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1162 Section 51.1162 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety...
7 CFR 51.701 - Fairly smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.701 Section 51.701 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.701 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth...
7 CFR 51.701 - Fairly smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.701 Section 51.701 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.701 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is...
Visual Short-Term Memory During Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kerzel, Dirk; Ziegler, Nathalie E.
2005-01-01
Visual short-term memory (VSTM) was probed while observers performed smooth pursuit eye movements. Smooth pursuit keeps a moving object stabilized in the fovea. VSTM capacity for position was reduced during smooth pursuit compared with a condition with eye fixation. There was no difference between a condition in which the items were approximately…
7 CFR 51.641 - Fairly smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.641 Section 51.641 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.641 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is...
7 CFR 51.701 - Fairly smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.701 Section 51.701 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.701 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is...
7 CFR 51.1008 - Fairly smooth texture.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1008 Section 51.1008... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1008 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the fruit is comparatively free from lumpiness and that pebbling is not...
Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy of Smooth Pursuit in Humans
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lencer, Rebekka; Trillenberg, Peter
2008-01-01
Smooth pursuit eye movements enable us to focus our eyes on moving objects by utilizing well-established mechanisms of visual motion processing, sensorimotor transformation and cognition. Novel smooth pursuit tasks and quantitative measurement techniques can help unravel the different smooth pursuit components and complex neural systems involved…
The Optimal Degree of Smoothing in Equipercentile Equating with Postsmoothing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zeng, Lingjia
1995-01-01
The effects of different degrees of smoothing on results of equipercentile equating in random groups design using a postsmoothing method based on cubic splines were investigated, and a computer-based procedure was introduced for selecting a desirable degree of smoothing. Results suggest that no particular degree of smoothing was always optimal.…
Toward automatic finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kela, Ajay; Perucchio, Renato; Voelcker, Herbert
1987-01-01
Two problems must be solved if the finite element method is to become a reliable and affordable blackbox engineering tool. Finite element meshes must be generated automatically from computer aided design databases and mesh analysis must be made self-adaptive. The experimental system described solves both problems in 2-D through spatial and analytical substructuring techniques that are now being extended into 3-D.
Smooth and Fractured Deposits in Eridania Valleys
2017-01-13
The ancient highland channels in this image empty into the Eridania Basin (not visible), a large topographically low enclosure with smooth-appearing terrains that may have once contained a large paleolake or ancient sea. Water in these channels flowed to the east into Ariadnes Basin, a smaller basin located within the confines of Eridiana. Light-toned knobs are exposed in the northern channel, while the other channels are partially filled with smooth appearing lobe-shaped surface flows that are extensively fractured when viewed at high-resolution. Although the origin of these knobs is not known, interpretations include fumarolic mounds, erosional remnants, pingos, mud volcanoes and spring mounds. The movement of the once ice-rich, channel-filling flows over the knobby terrains likely created radial tension stresses producing the cracks that we see on the surface of these deposits. As the material slowly thinned, it eventually led to the formation of an elephant skin-like texture. This texture is different from the surrounding eroding mantling deposit that has become pitted as the ice sublimated causing the overlying surface to collapse. The combination of such knobby terrain and smooth, channel-filling deposits are seen only in a few places on Mars. One such example is the Navua Valles channels northeast of the Hellas Basin that may have also hosted a large, ice-covered lake in the past. Their morphological similarities, particularly in their surface materials, suggest that they formed under similar paleoclimatic conditions. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA12968
Su, Wen; Xie, Zhongwen; Liu, Shu; Calderon, Lindsay E.; Guo, Zhenheng
2013-01-01
Recent data revealed that protein kinase C-potentiated myosin phosphatase inhibitor of 17 kDa (CPI-17), a myosin phosphatase inhibitory protein preferentially expressed in smooth muscle, is upregulated/activated in several diseases but whether this CPI-17 increase plays a causal role in pathologically enhanced vascular smooth muscle contractility and blood pressure remains unclear. To address this possibility, we generated a smooth muscle-specific CPI-17 transgenic mouse model (CPI-17-Tg) and demonstrated that the CPI-17 transgene was selectively expressed in smooth muscle-enriched tissues, including mesenteric arteries. The isometric contractions in the isolated second-order branch of mesenteric artery helical strips from CPI-17-Tg mice were significantly enhanced compared with controls in response to phenylephrine, U-46619, serotonin, ANG II, high potassium, and calcium. The perfusion pressure increases in isolated perfused mesenteric vascular beds in response to norepinephrine were also enhanced in CPI-17-Tg mice. The hypercontractility was associated with increased phosphorylation of CPI-17 and 20-kDa myosin light chain under basal and stimulated conditions. Surprisingly, the protein levels of rho kinase 2 and protein kinase Cα/δ were significantly increased in CPI-17-Tg mouse mesenteric arteries. Radiotelemetry measurements demonstrated that blood pressure was significantly increased in CPI-17-Tg mice. However, no vascular remodeling was detected by morphometric analysis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that increased CPI-17 expression in smooth muscle promotes vascular smooth muscle contractility and increases blood pressure, implicating a pathological significant role of CPI-17 upregulation. PMID:23604714
Airway smooth muscle growth in asthma: proliferation, hypertrophy, and migration.
Bentley, J Kelley; Hershenson, Marc B
2008-01-01
Increased airway smooth muscle mass is present in fatal and non-fatal asthma. However, little information is available regarding the cellular mechanism (i.e., hyperplasia vs. hypertrophy). Even less information exists regarding the functional consequences of airway smooth muscle remodeling. It would appear that increased airway smooth muscle mass would tend to increase airway narrowing and airflow obstruction. However, the precise effects of increased airway smooth muscle mass on airway narrowing are not known. This review will consider the evidence for airway smooth muscle cell proliferation and hypertrophy in asthma, potential functional effects, and biochemical mechanisms.
Method for producing smooth inner surfaces
Cooper, Charles A.
2016-05-17
The invention provides a method for preparing superconducting cavities, the method comprising causing polishing media to tumble by centrifugal barrel polishing within the cavities for a time sufficient to attain a surface smoothness of less than 15 nm root mean square roughness over approximately a 1 mm.sup.2 scan area. The method also provides for a method for preparing superconducting cavities, the method comprising causing polishing media bound to a carrier to tumble within the cavities. The method also provides for a method for preparing superconducting cavities, the method comprising causing polishing media in a slurry to tumble within the cavities.
Compressive Sensing via Nonlocal Smoothed Rank Function
Fan, Ya-Ru; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Xi-Le
2016-01-01
Compressive sensing (CS) theory asserts that we can reconstruct signals and images with only a small number of samples or measurements. Recent works exploiting the nonlocal similarity have led to better results in various CS studies. To better exploit the nonlocal similarity, in this paper, we propose a non-convex smoothed rank function based model for CS image reconstruction. We also propose an efficient alternating minimization method to solve the proposed model, which reduces a difficult and coupled problem to two tractable subproblems. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method performs better than several existing state-of-the-art CS methods for image reconstruction. PMID:27583683
Compressive Sensing via Nonlocal Smoothed Rank Function.
Fan, Ya-Ru; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Xi-Le
2016-01-01
Compressive sensing (CS) theory asserts that we can reconstruct signals and images with only a small number of samples or measurements. Recent works exploiting the nonlocal similarity have led to better results in various CS studies. To better exploit the nonlocal similarity, in this paper, we propose a non-convex smoothed rank function based model for CS image reconstruction. We also propose an efficient alternating minimization method to solve the proposed model, which reduces a difficult and coupled problem to two tractable subproblems. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method performs better than several existing state-of-the-art CS methods for image reconstruction.
Irregular Wave Runup on Smooth Slopes.
1981-12-01
CERC- CETA -81-17 N. IE D CETA 81-17 Z Irregular Wave Runup on Smooth Slopes by ot John P. Ahrens COASTAL ENGINEERING TECHNICAL AID NO. 81-17 DECEMBER...GOVT ACCESSION NO, 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER CETA 811 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Coastal Engineering IRREGULAR...Coastal Engineering Research Center, 1977); CETA 77-2 "Prediction of Irregular Wave Runup" by John P. Ahrens; and CETA 78-2 "Revised Wave Runup
Workshop on advances in smooth particle hydrodynamics
Wingate, C.A.; Miller, W.A.
1993-12-31
This proceedings contains viewgraphs presented at the 1993 workshop held at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Discussed topics include: negative stress, reactive flow calculations, interface problems, boundaries and interfaces, energy conservation in viscous flows, linked penetration calculations, stability and consistency of the SPH method, instabilities, wall heating and conservative smoothing, tensors, tidal disruption of stars, breaking the 10,000,000 particle limit, modelling relativistic collapse, SPH without H, relativistic KSPH avoidance of velocity based kernels, tidal compression and disruption of stars near a supermassive rotation black hole, and finally relativistic SPH viscosity and energy.
Size consistency in smoothed dissipative particle dynamics.
Faure, Gérôme; Maillet, Jean-Bernard; Roussel, Julien; Stoltz, Gabriel
2016-10-01
Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD) is a mesoscopic method that allows one to select the level of resolution at which a fluid is simulated. In this work, we study the consistency of the resulting thermodynamic properties as a function of the size of the mesoparticles, both at equilibrium and out of equilibrium. We also propose a reformulation of the SDPD equations in terms of energy variables. This increases the similarities with dissipative particle dynamics with energy conservation and opens the way for a coupling between the two methods. Finally, we present a numerical scheme for SDPD that ensures the conservation of the invariants of the dynamics. Numerical simulations illustrate this approach.
Old Basin Filled by Smooth Plains
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
Old basin, 190 km in diameter, filled by smooth plains at 43 degrees S, 55 degrees W. The basin's hummocky rim is partly degraded and cratered by later events. Mariner 10 frame 166607.
The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.
Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University
Impact modeling with Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics
Stellingwerf, R.F.; Wingate, C.A.
1993-07-01
Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) can be used to model hypervelocity impact phenomena via the addition of a strength of materials treatment. SPH is the only technique that can model such problems efficiently due to the combination of 3-dimensional geometry, large translations of material, large deformations, and large void fractions for most problems of interest. This makes SPH an ideal candidate for modeling of asteroid impact, spacecraft shield modeling, and planetary accretion. In this paper we describe the derivation of the strength equations in SPH, show several basic code tests, and present several impact test cases with experimental comparisons.
A semi-implicit gas-kinetic scheme for smooth flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Peng; Guo, Zhaoli
2016-08-01
In this paper, a semi-implicit gas-kinetic scheme (SIGKS) is derived for smooth flows based on the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation. As a finite-volume scheme, the evolution of the average flow variables in a control volume is under the Eulerian framework, whereas the construction of the numerical flux across the cell interface comes from the Lagrangian perspective. The adoption of the Lagrangian aspect makes the collision and the transport mechanisms intrinsically coupled together in the flux evaluation. As a result, the time step size is independent of the particle collision time and solely determined by the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition. An analysis of the reconstructed distribution function at the cell interface shows that the SIGKS can be viewed as a modified Lax-Wendroff type scheme with an additional term. Furthermore, the addition term coming from the implicitness in the reconstruction is expected to be able to enhance the numerical stability of the scheme. A number of numerical tests of smooth flows with low and moderate Mach numbers are performed to benchmark the SIGKS. The results show that the method has second-order spatial accuracy, and can give accurate numerical solutions in comparison with benchmark results. It is also demonstrated that the numerical stability of the proposed scheme is better than the original GKS for smooth flows.
Brozovich, F.V.; Nicholson, C.J.; Degen, C.V.; Gao, Yuan Z.; Aggarwal, M.
2016-01-01
The smooth muscle cell directly drives the contraction of the vascular wall and hence regulates the size of the blood vessel lumen. We review here the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which agonists, therapeutics, and diseases regulate contractility of the vascular smooth muscle cell and we place this within the context of whole body function. We also discuss the implications for personalized medicine and highlight specific potential target molecules that may provide opportunities for the future development of new therapeutics to regulate vascular function. PMID:27037223
A generalized smoothness criterion for acoustic-to-articulatory inversion
Ghosh, Prasanta Kumar; Narayanan, Shrikanth
2010-01-01
The many-to-one mapping from representations in the speech articulatory space to acoustic space renders the associated acoustic-to-articulatory inverse mapping non-unique. Among various techniques, imposing smoothness constraints on the articulator trajectories is one of the common approaches to handle the non-uniqueness in the acoustic-to-articulatory inversion problem. This is because, articulators typically move smoothly during speech production. A standard smoothness constraint is to minimize the energy of the difference of the articulatory position sequence so that the articulator trajectory is smooth and low-pass in nature. Such a fixed definition of smoothness is not always realistic or adequate for all articulators because different articulators have different degrees of smoothness. In this paper, an optimization formulation is proposed for the inversion problem, which includes a generalized smoothness criterion. Under such generalized smoothness settings, the smoothness parameter can be chosen depending on the specific articulator in a data-driven fashion. In addition, this formulation allows estimation of articulatory positions recursively over time without any loss in performance. Experiments with the MOCHA TIMIT database show that the estimated articulator trajectories obtained using such a generalized smoothness criterion have lower RMS error and higher correlation with the actual measured trajectories compared to those obtained using a fixed smoothness constraint. PMID:20968386
On smoothing trends in population index modeling.
Mazzetta, Chiara; Brooks, Steve; Freeman, Stephen N
2007-12-01
In this article, we consider the U.K. Common Birds Census counts and their use in monitoring bird abundance. We use a state-space modeling approach within a Bayesian framework to describe population level trends over time and contribute to the alert system used by the British Trust for Ornithology. We account for potential overdispersion and excess zero counts by modeling the observation process with a zero-inflated negative binomial, while the system process is described by second-order polynomial growth models. In order to provide a biological motivation for the amount of smoothing applied to the observed series the system variance is related to the demographic characteristics of the species, so as to help the specification of its prior distribution. In particular, the available information on productivity and survival is used to formulate prior expectations on annual percentage changes in the population level and then used to constrain the variance of the system process. We discuss an example of how to interpret alternative choices for the degree of smoothing and how these relate to the classification of species, over time, into conservation lists.
Smooth blasting with the electronic delay detonator
Yamamoto, Masaaki; Ichijo, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Yoshiharu
1995-12-31
The authors utilized electronic detonators (EDs) to investigate the effect of high detonator delay accuracy on overbreak, remaining rock damage, and surface smoothness, in comparison with that of long-period delay detonators (0.25 sec interval) PDs. The experiments were conducted in a deep mine, in a test site region composed of very hard granodiorite with a seismic wave velocity of about 6.0 km/sec and a uniaxial compressive strength, uniaxial tensile strength, and Young`s modulus of 300 MPa, 12 MPa, and 73 GPa, respectively. The blasting design was for a test tunnel excavation of 8 m{sup 2} in cross section, with an advance per round of 2.5 m. Five rounds were performed, each with a large-hole cut and perimeter holes in a 0.4-m spacing charged with 20-mm-diameter water gel explosive to obtain low charge concentration. EDs were used in the holes on the perimeter of the right half, and PDs were used in all other holes. Following each shot, the cross section was measured by laser to determine amount of overbreak and surface smoothness. In situ seismic prospecting was used to estimate the depth of damage in the remaining rock, and the damage was further investigated by boring into both side walls.
Sympathetic innervation promotes vascular smooth muscle differentiation.
Damon, Deborah H
2005-06-01
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is an important modulator of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) growth and function. Several lines of evidence suggest that the SNS also promotes VSM differentiation. The present study tests this hypothesis. Expression of smooth muscle myosin (SM2) and alpha-actin were assessed by Western analysis as indexes of VSM differentiation. SM2 expression (normalized to alpha-actin) in adult innervated rat femoral and tail arteries was 479 +/- 115% of that in noninnervated carotid arteries. Expression of alpha-actin (normalized to GAPDH or total protein) in 30-day-innervated rat femoral arteries was greater than in corresponding noninnervated femoral arteries from guanethidine-sympathectomized rats. SM2 expression (normalized to alpha-actin) in neonatal femoral arteries grown in vitro for 7 days in the presence of sympathetic ganglia was greater than SM2 expression in corresponding arteries grown in the absence of sympathetic ganglia. In VSM-endothelial cell cultures grown in the presence of dissociated sympathetic neurons, alpha-actin (normalized to GAPDH) was 300 +/- 66% of that in corresponding cultures grown in the absence of neurons. This effect was inhibited by an antibody that neutralized the activity of transforming growth factor-beta2. All of these data indicate that sympathetic innervation increased VSM contractile protein expression and thereby suggest that the SNS promotes and/or maintains VSM differentiation.
Smooth Tubercle Bacilli: Neglected Opportunistic Tropical Pathogens
Aboubaker Osman, Djaltou; Bouzid, Feriel; Canaan, Stéphane; Drancourt, Michel
2016-01-01
Smooth tubercle bacilli (STB) including “Mycobacterium canettii” are members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), which cause non-contagious tuberculosis in human. This group comprises <100 isolates characterized by smooth colonies and cordless organisms. Most STB isolates have been obtained from patients exposed to the Republic of Djibouti but seven isolates, including the three seminal ones obtained by Georges Canetti between 1968 and 1970, were recovered from patients in France, Madagascar, Sub-Sahara East Africa, and French Polynesia. STB form a genetically heterogeneous group of MTBC organisms with large 4.48 ± 0.05 Mb genomes, which may link Mycobacterium kansasii to MTBC organisms. Lack of inter-human transmission suggested a yet unknown environmental reservoir. Clinical data indicate a respiratory tract route of contamination and the digestive tract as an alternative route of contamination. Further epidemiological and clinical studies are warranted to elucidate areas of uncertainty regarding these unusual mycobacteria and the tuberculosis they cause. PMID:26793699
Algebraic Multigrid by Smoothed Aggregation for Second and Fourth Order Elliptic Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanek, Petr; Mandel, Jan; Brezina, Marian
1996-01-01
Multigrid methods are very efficient iterative solvers for system of algebraic equations arising from finite element and finite difference discretization of elliptic boundary value problems. The main principle of multigrid methods is to complement the local exchange of information in point-wise iterative methods by a global one utilizing several related systems, called coarse levels, with a smaller number of variables. The coarse levels are often obtained as a hierarchy of discretizations with different characteristic meshsizes, but this requires that the discretization is controlled by the iterative method. To solve linear systems produced by existing finite element software, one needs to create an artificial hierarchy of coarse problems. The principal issue is then to obtain computational complexity and approximation properties similar to those for nested meshes, using only information in the matrix of the system and as little extra information as possible. Such algebraic multigrid method that uses the system matrix only was developed by Ruge. The prolongations were based on the matrix of the system by partial solution from given values at selected coarse points. The coarse grid points were selected so that each point would be interpolated to via so-called strong connections. Our approach is based on smoothed aggregation introduced recently by Vanek. First the set of nodes is decomposed into small mutually disjoint subsets. A tentative piecewise constant interpolation (in the discrete sense) is then defined on those subsets as piecewise constant for second order problems, and piecewise linear for fourth order problems. The prolongation operator is then obtained by smoothing the output of the tentative prolongation and coarse level operators are defined variationally.
Algebraic Multigrid by Smoothed Aggregation for Second and Fourth Order Elliptic Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanek, Petr; Mandel, Jan; Brezina, Marian
1996-01-01
Multigrid methods are very efficient iterative solvers for system of algebraic equations arising from finite element and finite difference discretization of elliptic boundary value problems. The main principle of multigrid methods is to complement the local exchange of information in point-wise iterative methods by a global one utilizing several related systems, called coarse levels, with a smaller number of variables. The coarse levels are often obtained as a hierarchy of discretizations with different characteristic meshsizes, but this requires that the discretization is controlled by the iterative method. To solve linear systems produced by existing finite element software, one needs to create an artificial hierarchy of coarse problems. The principal issue is then to obtain computational complexity and approximation properties similar to those for nested meshes, using only information in the matrix of the system and as little extra information as possible. Such algebraic multigrid method that uses the system matrix only was developed by Ruge. The prolongations were based on the matrix of the system by partial solution from given values at selected coarse points. The coarse grid points were selected so that each point would be interpolated to via so-called strong connections. Our approach is based on smoothed aggregation introduced recently by Vanek. First the set of nodes is decomposed into small mutually disjoint subsets. A tentative piecewise constant interpolation (in the discrete sense) is then defined on those subsets as piecewise constant for second order problems, and piecewise linear for fourth order problems. The prolongation operator is then obtained by smoothing the output of the tentative prolongation and coarse level operators are defined variationally.
A Finite Speed Curzon-Ahlborn Engine
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Agrawal, D. C.
2009-01-01
Curzon and Ahlborn achieved finite power output by introducing the concept of finite rate of heat transfer in a Carnot engine. The finite power can also be achieved through a finite speed of the piston on the four branches of the Carnot cycle. The present paper combines these two approaches to study the behaviour of output power in terms of…
A Finite Speed Curzon-Ahlborn Engine
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Agrawal, D. C.
2009-01-01
Curzon and Ahlborn achieved finite power output by introducing the concept of finite rate of heat transfer in a Carnot engine. The finite power can also be achieved through a finite speed of the piston on the four branches of the Carnot cycle. The present paper combines these two approaches to study the behaviour of output power in terms of…
Control of Finite-State, Finite Memory Stochastic Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sandell, Nils R.
1974-01-01
A generalized problem of stochastic control is discussed in which multiple controllers with different data bases are present. The vehicle for the investigation is the finite state, finite memory (FSFM) stochastic control problem. Optimality conditions are obtained by deriving an equivalent deterministic optimal control problem. A FSFM minimum principle is obtained via the equivalent deterministic problem. The minimum principle suggests the development of a numerical optimization algorithm, the min-H algorithm. The relationship between the sufficiency of the minimum principle and the informational properties of the problem are investigated. A problem of hypothesis testing with 1-bit memory is investigated to illustrate the application of control theoretic techniques to information processing problems.
A four-color beam smoothing irradiation system for laser-plasma interaction experiments at LLNL
Pennington, D.M.; Henesian, M.A.; Wilcox, R.B.; Weiland, T.L.; Eimerl, D.; Ehrlich, R.B.; Laumann, C.W.; Miller, J.L.
1995-06-26
A novel four-color beam smoothing scheme with a capability similar to that planned for the proposed National Ignition Facility has been deployed on the Nova laser, and has been successfully used for laser fusion experiments. Wavefront aberrations in high power laser systems produce nonuniformities in the energy distribution of the focal spot that can significantly degrade the coupling of the energy into a fusion target, driving various plasma instabilities. The introduction of temporal and spatial incoherence over the face of the beam using techniques such as smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) can reduce these variation in the focal irradiance when averaged over a finite time interval. We developed a multiple frequency source that is spatially separated into four quadrants, each containing a different central frequency. Each quadrant is independently converted to the third harmonic in a four-segment Type I/ Type II KDP crystal array with independent phase-matching for efficient frequency conversion. Up to 2.3 kJ of third harmonic light is generated in a 1 ns pulse, corresponding to up to 65% conversion efficiency. SSD is implemented by adding limited frequency modulated bandwidth to each frequency component. Smoothing by spectral dispersion is implemented during the spatial separation of the FM modulated beams to provide additional smoothing, reaching a 16% rms intensity variation level. The four- color system was successfully used to probe NIF-like plasmas, producing {lt} 1% SBS backscatter at {gt} 2x10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. This paper discusses the detailed implementation and performance of the segmented four-color system on the Nova laser system.
Implementation and performance of beam smoothing on 10 beams of the Nova laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pennington, Deanna M.; Dixit, Sham N.; Weiland, Timothy L.; Ehrlich, Robert B.; Rothenberg, Joshua E.
1997-12-01
Recent simulations and experiments on Nova indicate that some level of smoothing may be required to suppress filamentation in plasmas on the National Ignition Facility, resulting in the addition of 1D smoothing capability to the current baseline design. Control of stimulated Brillouin scattering and filamentation is considered essential to the success of laser fusion because they affect the amount and location of laser energy delivered to the x-ray conversion region (holhraum wall) for indirect drive and to the absorptive region for direct drive. Smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD), reduces these instabilities by reducing nonuniformities in the focal irradiance when averaged over a finite time interval. We have installed SSD on Nova to produce beam smoothing on all 10 beam lines. A single dispersion grating is located in a position common to all 10 beam lines early in the preamplifier chain. This location limits the 1(omega) bandwidth to 2.2 angstroms with sufficient dispersion to displace the speckle field of each frequency component at the target plane by one half speckle diameter. Several beam lines were modified to allow orientation of the dispersion on each arm relative to the holhraum wall. After conversion to the third harmonic the beam passes through a kinoform phase plate (KPP) designed to produce an elliptical spot at best focus. The KPPs produce a focal spot having an elliptical flat-top envelope with a superimposed speckle pattern. Over 93% of the energy is contained in the central 400 micrometers . Calculations indicate a 16% rms intensity variance will be reached after 330 ps for a single beam.
Implementation and performance of beam smoothing on 10 beams of the Nova Laser
Pennington, D. M.; Dixit, S. N.; Weiland, T. L.; Ehrlich, R.; Rothenberg, J. E.
1997-03-11
Recent simulations and experiments on Nova indicate that some level of smoothing may be required to suppress filamentation in plasmas on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), resulting in the addition of 1-D smoothing capability to the current baseline design. Control of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and filamentation is considered essential to the success of laser fusion because they affect the amount and location of laser energy delivered to the x-ray conversion region (hohlraum wall) for indirect drive and to the absorptive region for direct drive, Smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD)[1], reduces these instabilities by reducing nonuniformities in the focal irradiance when averaged over a finite time interval. We have installed SSD on Nova to produce beam smoothing on all 10 beam lines. A single dispersion grating is located in a position common to all 10 beam lines early in the preamplifier chain. This location limits the 1{omega} bandwidth to 2.2 {angstrom} with sufficient dispersion to displace the speckle field of each frequency component at the target plane by one half speckle diameter. Several beam lines were modified to allow orientation of the dispersion on each arm relative to the hohlraum wall. After conversion to the third harmonic the beam passes through a kinoform phase plate (KPP) designed to produce an elliptical spot at best focus. The KPPs produce a focal spot having an elliptical flat-top envelope with a superimposed speckle pattern. Over 93% of the energy is contained in the central 400 km. Calculations indicate a 16% rms. intensity variance will be reached after 330 ps for a single beam.
Sparse Representation of Smooth Linear Operators
1990-08-01
received study by many authors, resulting in constructions with a variety of properties. Meyer [13] constructed orthonormal wavelets for which h E CI(R...Lemmas 2.3 and 2.4; in fact, substitution of the finite sums which determine the elements of UTUT for the integrals in those lemmas yields the...some k the orthogonal matrices U1,..., U, defined in Section 4.1 have been computed (1 = log2(n/k)). We now present a procedure for computation of UTUT
Second order tensor finite element
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oden, J. Tinsley; Fly, J.; Berry, C.; Tworzydlo, W.; Vadaketh, S.; Bass, J.
1990-01-01
The results of a research and software development effort are presented for the finite element modeling of the static and dynamic behavior of anisotropic materials, with emphasis on single crystal alloys. Various versions of two dimensional and three dimensional hybrid finite elements were implemented and compared with displacement-based elements. Both static and dynamic cases are considered. The hybrid elements developed in the project were incorporated into the SPAR finite element code. In an extension of the first phase of the project, optimization of experimental tests for anisotropic materials was addressed. In particular, the problem of calculating material properties from tensile tests and of calculating stresses from strain measurements were considered. For both cases, numerical procedures and software for the optimization of strain gauge and material axes orientation were developed.
Finite elements: Theory and application
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dwoyer, D. L. (Editor); Hussaini, M. Y. (Editor); Voigt, R. G. (Editor)
1988-01-01
Recent advances in FEM techniques and applications are discussed in reviews and reports presented at the ICASE/LaRC workshop held in Hampton, VA in July 1986. Topics addressed include FEM approaches for partial differential equations, mixed FEMs, singular FEMs, FEMs for hyperbolic systems, iterative methods for elliptic finite-element equations on general meshes, mathematical aspects of FEMS for incompressible viscous flows, and gradient weighted moving finite elements in two dimensions. Consideration is given to adaptive flux-corrected FEM transport techniques for CFD, mixed and singular finite elements and the field BEM, p and h-p versions of the FEM, transient analysis methods in computational dynamics, and FEMs for integrated flow/thermal/structural analysis.
Finite elements: Theory and application
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dwoyer, D. L. (Editor); Hussaini, M. Y. (Editor); Voigt, R. G. (Editor)
1988-01-01
Recent advances in FEM techniques and applications are discussed in reviews and reports presented at the ICASE/LaRC workshop held in Hampton, VA in July 1986. Topics addressed include FEM approaches for partial differential equations, mixed FEMs, singular FEMs, FEMs for hyperbolic systems, iterative methods for elliptic finite-element equations on general meshes, mathematical aspects of FEMS for incompressible viscous flows, and gradient weighted moving finite elements in two dimensions. Consideration is given to adaptive flux-corrected FEM transport techniques for CFD, mixed and singular finite elements and the field BEM, p and h-p versions of the FEM, transient analysis methods in computational dynamics, and FEMs for integrated flow/thermal/structural analysis.
An upwind vertex centred Finite Volume solver for Lagrangian solid dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aguirre, Miquel; Gil, Antonio J.; Bonet, Javier; Lee, Chun Hean
2015-11-01
A vertex centred Jameson-Schmidt-Turkel (JST) finite volume algorithm was recently introduced by the authors (Aguirre et al., 2014 [1]) in the context of fast solid isothermal dynamics. The spatial discretisation scheme was constructed upon a Lagrangian two-field mixed (linear momentum and the deformation gradient) formulation presented as a system of conservation laws [2-4]. In this paper, the formulation is further enhanced by introducing a novel upwind vertex centred finite volume algorithm with three key novelties. First, a conservation law for the volume map is incorporated into the existing two-field system to extend the range of applications towards the incompressibility limit (Gil et al., 2014 [5]). Second, the use of a linearised Riemann solver and reconstruction limiters is derived for the stabilisation of the scheme together with an efficient edge-based implementation. Third, the treatment of thermo-mechanical processes through a Mie-Grüneisen equation of state is incorporated in the proposed formulation. For completeness, the study of the eigenvalue structure of the resulting system of conservation laws is carried out to demonstrate hyperbolicity and obtain the correct time step bounds for non-isothermal processes. A series of numerical examples are presented in order to assess the robustness of the proposed methodology. The overall scheme shows excellent behaviour in shock and bending dominated nearly incompressible scenarios without spurious pressure oscillations, yielding second order of convergence for both velocities and stresses.
Numerical computation of transonic flows by finite-element and finite-difference methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hafez, M. M.; Wellford, L. C.; Merkle, C. L.; Murman, E. M.
1978-01-01
Studies on applications of the finite element approach to transonic flow calculations are reported. Different discretization techniques of the differential equations and boundary conditions are compared. Finite element analogs of Murman's mixed type finite difference operators for small disturbance formulations were constructed and the time dependent approach (using finite differences in time and finite elements in space) was examined.
PV output smoothing with energy storage.
Ellis, Abraham; Schoenwald, David Alan
2012-03-01
This report describes an algorithm, implemented in Matlab/Simulink, designed to reduce the variability of photovoltaic (PV) power output by using a battery. The purpose of the battery is to add power to the PV output (or subtract) to smooth out the high frequency components of the PV power that that occur during periods with transient cloud shadows on the PV array. The control system is challenged with the task of reducing short-term PV output variability while avoiding overworking the battery both in terms of capacity and ramp capability. The algorithm proposed by Sandia is purposely very simple to facilitate implementation in a real-time controller. The control structure has two additional inputs to which the battery can respond. For example, the battery could respond to PV variability, load variability or area control error (ACE) or a combination of the three.
On the dynamic smoothing of mountains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonetti, S.; Porporato, A.
2017-06-01
After their formation, mountainous landscapes gradually evolve toward smoother geometries controlled by the interplay of erosion and sedimentation. The statistical mechanical properties of this process and the link between topography and geology have remained largely unexplored. We analyze the slope statistics of different mountains worldwide, showing that landscape age is fingerprinted in their distribution tails. Data reveal a universal relaxation process, through an algebraic decay progressively replaced by an exponential one, with exponents described by a global monotonic function. We then investigate the dominant components of this dynamic smoothing using a landscape evolution model, showing that the time evolution of slope statistics results from a delicate balance between diffusive soil creep, noise, and advective river incision, with the relaxation phase mainly dominated by diffusion. Results may suggest ways to formulate reduced order topographic evolution models for geomorphological and climatological applications, and to explore similarities in surface evolution in different contexts.
How a Nanodroplet Diffuses on Smooth Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chu; Huang, Jizu; Li, Zhigang
2016-11-01
In this study, we investigate how nanodroplets diffuse on smooth surfaces through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and theoretical analyses. The simulations results show that the surface diffusion of nanodroplet is different from that of single molecules and solid nanoparticles. The dependence of nanodroplet diffusion coefficient on temperature is surface wettability dependent, which undergoes a transition from linear to nonlinear as the surface wettability is weakened due to the coupling of temperature and surface energy. We also develop a simple relation for the diffusion coefficient by using the contact angle and contact radius of the droplet. It works well for different surface wettabilities and sized nanodroplets, as confirmed by MD simulations. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region under Grant No. 615312.
Video tonal stabilization via color states smoothing.
Wang, Yinting; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xiang; Song, Mingli; Bu, Jiajun; Tan, Ping
2014-11-01
We address the problem of removing video color tone jitter that is common in amateur videos recorded with hand-held devices. To achieve this, we introduce color state to represent the exposure and white balance state of a frame. The color state of each frame can be computed by accumulating the color transformations of neighboring frame pairs. Then, the tonal changes of the video can be represented by a time-varying trajectory in color state space. To remove the tone jitter, we smooth the original color state trajectory by solving an L1 optimization problem with PCA dimensionality reduction. In addition, we propose a novel selective strategy to remove small tone jitter while retaining extreme exposure and white balance changes to avoid serious artifacts. Quantitative evaluation and visual comparison with previous work demonstrate the effectiveness of our tonal stabilization method. This system can also be used as a preprocessing tool for other video editing methods.
Cobalt contraction of vascular smooth muscle
Dominiczak, A.; Clyde, E.; Bohr, D. )
1991-03-11
Although it has been reported that cobalt causes contraction of vascular smooth muscle, the mechanism responsible for this contraction has not been defined. The authors studied these contractions in rat aortic rings. Concentration-response studies indicated that the threshold for contraction was 10{sup {minus}8}M, maximum contraction occurred at 3 {times} 10{sup 7}M and relaxation began at 10{sup {minus}6}M. No contraction occurred in a calcium-free physiological salt solution and the contraction was not inhibited by H-7, a protein kinase C inhibitor. The authors conclude the cobalt in low concentrations causes contraction by activating calcium channels and that in high concentrations it causes relaxation by inactivating these same channels.
Computational brittle fracture using smooth particle hydrodynamics
Mandell, D.A.; Wingate, C.A.; Schwalbe, L.A.
1996-10-01
We are developing statistically based, brittle-fracture models and are implementing them into hydrocodes that can be used for designing systems with components of ceramics, glass, and/or other brittle materials. Because of the advantages it has simulating fracture, we are working primarily with the smooth particle hydrodynamics code SPBM. We describe a new brittle fracture model that we have implemented into SPBM. To illustrate the code`s current capability, we have simulated a number of experiments. We discuss three of these simulations in this paper. The first experiment consists of a brittle steel sphere impacting a plate. The experimental sphere fragment patterns are compared to the calculations. The second experiment is a steel flyer plate in which the recovered steel target crack patterns are compared to the calculated crack patterns. We also briefly describe a simulation of a tungsten rod impacting a heavily confined alumina target, which has been recently reported on in detail.
Relating Lexicographic Smoothness and Directed Subdifferentiability
Khan, Kamil A.
2016-06-03
Lexicographic derivatives developed by Nesterov and directed subdifferentials developed by Baier, Farkhi, and Roshchina are both essentially nonconvex generalized derivatives for nonsmooth nonconvex functions and satisfy strict calculus rules and mean-value theorems. This article aims to clarify the relationship between the two generalized derivatives. In particular, for scalar-valued functions that are locally Lipschitz continuous, lexicographic smoothness and directed subdifferentiability are shown to be equivalent, along with the necessary optimality conditions corresponding to each. For such functions, the visualization of the directed subdifferential-the Rubinov subdifferential-is shown to include the lexicographic subdifferential, and is also shown to be included in its closed convex hull. As a result, various implications of these results are discussed.
Relating Lexicographic Smoothness and Directed Subdifferentiability
Khan, Kamil A.
2016-06-03
Lexicographic derivatives developed by Nesterov and directed subdifferentials developed by Baier, Farkhi, and Roshchina are both essentially nonconvex generalized derivatives for nonsmooth nonconvex functions and satisfy strict calculus rules and mean-value theorems. This article aims to clarify the relationship between the two generalized derivatives. In particular, for scalar-valued functions that are locally Lipschitz continuous, lexicographic smoothness and directed subdifferentiability are shown to be equivalent, along with the necessary optimality conditions corresponding to each. For such functions, the visualization of the directed subdifferential-the Rubinov subdifferential-is shown to include the lexicographic subdifferential, and is also shown to be included in its closedmore » convex hull. As a result, various implications of these results are discussed.« less
Smooth Teeth: Why Multipoles Are Perfect Gears
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schönke, Johannes
2015-12-01
A type of gear is proposed based on the interaction of individual multipoles. The underlying principle relies on previously unknown continuous degenerate ground states for pairs of interacting multipoles which are free to rotate around specific axes. These special rotation axes, in turn, form a one-parameter family of possible configurations. This allows for the construction of magnetic bevel gears with any desired inclination angle between the in- and output axes. Further, the design of gear systems with more than two multipoles is possible and facilitates tailored applications. Ultimately, an analogy between multipoles and mechanical gears is revealed. In contrast to the mechanical case, the multipole "teeth" mesh smoothly. As an illustrative application, the example of a quadrupole-dipole interaction is then used to construct a 1 ∶2 gear ratio.
Surface consistent finite frequency phase corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimman, W. P.
2016-07-01
Static time-delay corrections are frequency independent and ignore velocity variations away from the assumed vertical ray path through the subsurface. There is therefore a clear potential for improvement if the finite frequency nature of wave propagation can be properly accounted for. Such a method is presented here based on the Born approximation, the assumption of surface consistency and the misfit of instantaneous phase. The concept of instantaneous phase lends itself very well for sweep-like signals, hence these are the focus of this study. Analytical sensitivity kernels are derived that accurately predict frequency-dependent phase shifts due to P-wave anomalies in the near surface. They are quick to compute and robust near the source and receivers. An additional correction is presented that re-introduces the nonlinear relation between model perturbation and phase delay, which becomes relevant for stronger velocity anomalies. The phase shift as function of frequency is a slowly varying signal, its computation therefore does not require fine sampling even for broad-band sweeps. The kernels reveal interesting features of the sensitivity of seismic arrivals to the near surface: small anomalies can have a relative large impact resulting from the medium field term that is dominant near the source and receivers. Furthermore, even simple velocity anomalies can produce a distinct frequency-dependent phase behaviour. Unlike statics, the predicted phase corrections are smooth in space. Verification with spectral element simulations shows an excellent match for the predicted phase shifts over the entire seismic frequency band. Applying the phase shift to the reference sweep corrects for wavelet distortion, making the technique akin to surface consistent deconvolution, even though no division in the spectral domain is involved. As long as multiple scattering is mild, surface consistent finite frequency phase corrections outperform traditional statics for moderately large
Parallel, Implicit, Finite Element Solver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lowrie, Weston; Shumlak, Uri; Meier, Eric; Marklin, George
2007-11-01
A parallel, implicit, finite element solver is described for solutions to the ideal MHD equations and the Pseudo-1D Euler equations. The solver uses the conservative flux source form of the equations. This helps simplify the discretization of the finite element method by keeping the specification of the physics separate. An implicit time advance is used to allow sufficiently large time steps. The Portable Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) is implemented for parallel matrix solvers and parallel data structures. Results for several test cases are described as well as accuracy of the method.
Evolutionary processes in finite populations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lorenz, Dirk M.; Park, Jeong-Man; Deem, Michael W.
2013-02-01
We consider the evolution of large but finite populations on arbitrary fitness landscapes. We describe the evolutionary process by a Markov-Moran process. We show that to O(1/N), the time-averaged fitness is lower for the finite population than it is for the infinite population. We also show that fluctuations in the number of individuals for a given genotype can be proportional to a power of the inverse of the mutation rate. Finally, we show that the probability for the system to take a given path through the fitness landscape can be nonmonotonic in system size.
Local, smooth, and consistent Jacobi set simplification
Bhatia, Harsh; Wang, Bei; Norgard, Gregory; Pascucci, Valerio; Bremer, Peer -Timo
2014-10-31
The relation between two Morse functions defined on a smooth, compact, and orientable 2-manifold can be studied in terms of their Jacobi set. The Jacobi set contains points in the domain where the gradients of the two functions are aligned. Both the Jacobi set itself as well as the segmentation of the domain it induces, have shown to be useful in various applications. In practice, unfortunately, functions often contain noise and discretization artifacts, causing their Jacobi set to become unmanageably large and complex. Although there exist techniques to simplify Jacobi sets, they are unsuitable for most applications as they lack fine-grained control over the process, and heavily restrict the type of simplifications possible. In this paper, we introduce a new framework that generalizes critical point cancellations in scalar functions to Jacobi set in two dimensions. We present a new interpretation of Jacobi set simplification based on the perspective of domain segmentation. Generalizing the cancellation of critical points from scalar functions to Jacobi sets, we focus on simplifications that can be realized by smooth approximations of the corresponding functions, and show how these cancellations imply simultaneous simplification of contiguous subsets of the Jacobi set. Using these extended cancellations as atomic operations, we introduce an algorithm to successively cancel subsets of the Jacobi set with minimal modifications to some user-defined metric. We show that for simply connected domains, our algorithm reduces a given Jacobi set to its minimal configuration, that is, one with no birth–death points (a birth–death point is a specific type of singularity within the Jacobi set where the level sets of the two functions and the Jacobi set have a common normal direction).
Local, smooth, and consistent Jacobi set simplification
Bhatia, Harsh; Wang, Bei; Norgard, Gregory; ...
2014-10-31
The relation between two Morse functions defined on a smooth, compact, and orientable 2-manifold can be studied in terms of their Jacobi set. The Jacobi set contains points in the domain where the gradients of the two functions are aligned. Both the Jacobi set itself as well as the segmentation of the domain it induces, have shown to be useful in various applications. In practice, unfortunately, functions often contain noise and discretization artifacts, causing their Jacobi set to become unmanageably large and complex. Although there exist techniques to simplify Jacobi sets, they are unsuitable for most applications as they lackmore » fine-grained control over the process, and heavily restrict the type of simplifications possible. In this paper, we introduce a new framework that generalizes critical point cancellations in scalar functions to Jacobi set in two dimensions. We present a new interpretation of Jacobi set simplification based on the perspective of domain segmentation. Generalizing the cancellation of critical points from scalar functions to Jacobi sets, we focus on simplifications that can be realized by smooth approximations of the corresponding functions, and show how these cancellations imply simultaneous simplification of contiguous subsets of the Jacobi set. Using these extended cancellations as atomic operations, we introduce an algorithm to successively cancel subsets of the Jacobi set with minimal modifications to some user-defined metric. We show that for simply connected domains, our algorithm reduces a given Jacobi set to its minimal configuration, that is, one with no birth–death points (a birth–death point is a specific type of singularity within the Jacobi set where the level sets of the two functions and the Jacobi set have a common normal direction).« less
Smooth Pursuit of Flicker-Defined Motion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Stevenson, Scott B.
2014-01-01
We examined the pursuit response to stimuli defined by space-variant flicker of a dense random dot carrier pattern. On each frame, every element of the pattern could change polarity, with a probability given by a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution. A normal distribution produces a circular region of twinkle, while inverting the distribution results in a spot of static texture in a twinkling surround. In this latter case, the carrier texture could be stationary, or could move with the twinkle modulator, thereby producing first-order motion in the region of the spot. While the twinkle-defined spot produces a strong sensation of motion, the complementary stimulus defined by the absence of twinkle does not, when viewed peripherally, it appears to move in steps even when the generating distribution moves smoothly. We examined pursuit responses to these stimuli using two techniques: 1) the eye movement correlogram, obtained by cross-correlating eye velocity with the velocity of a randomly-moving stimulus; and 2) delayed visual feedback, where transient stabilization of a target can produce spontaneous oscillations of the eye, with a period empirically observed to vary linearly with the applied delay. Both techniques provide an estimate of the internal processing time, which can be as short as 100 milliseconds for a first-order target. Assessed by the correlogram method, the response to flicker-defined motion is delayed by more than 100 milliseconds, and significantly weaker (especially in the vertical dimension). When initially presented in the delayed feedback condition, purely saccadic oscillation is observed. One subject eventually developed smooth oscillations (albeit with significant saccadic intrusions), showing a period-versus-delay slope similar to that observed for first-order targets. This result is somewhat surprising, given that we interpret the slope of the period-versus-delay-function as reflecting the balance between position- and velocity
Binocular Depth Judgments on Smoothly Curved Surfaces.
Hornsey, Rebecca L; Hibbard, Paul B; Scarfe, Peter
2016-01-01
Binocular disparity is an important cue to depth, allowing us to make very fine discriminations of the relative depth of objects. In complex scenes, this sensitivity depends on the particular shape and layout of the objects viewed. For example, judgments of the relative depths of points on a smoothly curved surface are less accurate than those for points in empty space. It has been argued that this occurs because depth relationships are represented accurately only within a local spatial area. A consequence of this is that, when judging the relative depths of points separated by depth maxima and minima, information must be integrated across separate local representations. This integration, by adding more stages of processing, might be expected to reduce the accuracy of depth judgements. We tested this idea directly by measuring how accurately human participants could report the relative depths of two dots, presented with different binocular disparities. In the first, Two Dot condition the two dots were presented in front of a square grid. In the second, Three Dot condition, an additional dot was presented midway between the target dots, at a range of depths, both nearer and further than the target dots. In the final, Surface condition, the target dots were placed on a smooth surface defined by binocular disparity cues. In some trials, this contained a depth maximum or minimum between the target dots. In the Three Dot condition, performance was impaired when the central dot was presented with a large disparity, in line with predictions. In the Surface condition, performance was worst when the midpoint of the surface was at a similar distance to the targets, and relatively unaffected when there was a large depth maximum or minimum present. These results are not consistent with the idea that depth order is represented only within a local spatial area.
Binocular Depth Judgments on Smoothly Curved Surfaces
Hornsey, Rebecca L.; Scarfe, Peter
2016-01-01
Binocular disparity is an important cue to depth, allowing us to make very fine discriminations of the relative depth of objects. In complex scenes, this sensitivity depends on the particular shape and layout of the objects viewed. For example, judgments of the relative depths of points on a smoothly curved surface are less accurate than those for points in empty space. It has been argued that this occurs because depth relationships are represented accurately only within a local spatial area. A consequence of this is that, when judging the relative depths of points separated by depth maxima and minima, information must be integrated across separate local representations. This integration, by adding more stages of processing, might be expected to reduce the accuracy of depth judgements. We tested this idea directly by measuring how accurately human participants could report the relative depths of two dots, presented with different binocular disparities. In the first, Two Dot condition the two dots were presented in front of a square grid. In the second, Three Dot condition, an additional dot was presented midway between the target dots, at a range of depths, both nearer and further than the target dots. In the final, Surface condition, the target dots were placed on a smooth surface defined by binocular disparity cues. In some trials, this contained a depth maximum or minimum between the target dots. In the Three Dot condition, performance was impaired when the central dot was presented with a large disparity, in line with predictions. In the Surface condition, performance was worst when the midpoint of the surface was at a similar distance to the targets, and relatively unaffected when there was a large depth maximum or minimum present. These results are not consistent with the idea that depth order is represented only within a local spatial area. PMID:27824895
Subjective scaling of smooth surface friction.
Smith, A M; Scott, S H
1996-05-01
1. Six men and four women, 30-51 yr of age, were asked to use the tip of the washed and dried index finger to stroke six different featureless, flat surfaces mounted on a three-dimensional force platform. The six surfaces were rosin-coated glass, glass, satin-finished aluminum, poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) plastic, Teflon, and nyloprint (polyamide plastic). The subjects were requested to indicate where the sensation produced by each surface should be placed on an unidimensional scale represented by an 18cm line labeled at one end by the words "most slippery" and at the other end by the words "most sticky." The coefficients of friction for each surface and for each subject were subsequently assessed by asking each subject to stroke the surfaces as if they were assessing its slipperiness for 5 s. 2. The finger forces normal and tangential to the stroked surfaces were digitized at 250 Hz and stored on a laboratory computer. The ratio of the mean tangential force to the mean perpendicular force during stroking was used to calculate the mean coefficient of kinetic friction. The mean friction for all subjects ranged from 0.43 for the nyloprint surface to 2.79 for the rosin-coated glass. Correlation coefficients calculated between the subjective estimates of friction and the measured coefficients of friction for each subject individually resulted in a mean correlation of 0.85 (n = 10, P < 0.001). 3. These data indicate that subjects can accurately scale relative differences in the friction of macroscopically smooth, flat surfaces, by modulating the tangential force applied to the finger while keeping the normal force relatively constant. The fact that subjects maintained a relatively constant normal force and instead varied the tangential force across different surfaces suggests that receptors sensitive to these tangential forces are important in the perception of smooth surface friction.
Diffusion tensor smoothing through weighted Karcher means
Carmichael, Owen; Chen, Jun; Paul, Debashis; Peng, Jie
2014-01-01
Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quantifies the spatial distribution of water Diffusion at each voxel on a regular grid of locations in a biological specimen by Diffusion tensors– 3 × 3 positive definite matrices. Removal of noise from DTI is an important problem due to the high scientific relevance of DTI and relatively low signal to noise ratio it provides. Leading approaches to this problem amount to estimation of weighted Karcher means of Diffusion tensors within spatial neighborhoods, under various metrics imposed on the space of tensors. However, it is unclear how the behavior of these estimators varies with the magnitude of DTI sensor noise (the noise resulting from the thermal e!ects of MRI scanning) as well as the geometric structure of the underlying Diffusion tensor neighborhoods. In this paper, we combine theoretical analysis, empirical analysis of simulated DTI data, and empirical analysis of real DTI scans to compare the noise removal performance of three kernel-based DTI smoothers that are based on Euclidean, log-Euclidean, and affine-invariant metrics. The results suggest, contrary to conventional wisdom, that imposing a simplistic Euclidean metric may in fact provide comparable or superior noise removal, especially in relatively unstructured regions and/or in the presence of moderate to high levels of sensor noise. On the contrary, log-Euclidean and affine-invariant metrics may lead to better noise removal in highly structured anatomical regions, especially when the sensor noise is of low magnitude. These findings emphasize the importance of considering the interplay of sensor noise magnitude and tensor field geometric structure when assessing Diffusion tensor smoothing options. They also point to the necessity for continued development of smoothing methods that perform well across a large range of scenarios. PMID:25419264
Caveolar nanospaces in smooth muscle cells
Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Popescu, L M
2006-01-01
Caveolae, specialized membrane nanodomains, have a key role in signaling processes, including calcium handling in smooth muscle cells (SMC). We explored the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of peripheral cytoplasmic space at the nanoscale level and the close spatial relationships between caveolae, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), and mitochondria, as ultrastructural basis for an excitation-contraction coupling system and, eventually, for excitation - transcription coupling. About 150 electron micrographs of SMC showed that superficial SR and peripheral mitochondria are rigorously located along the caveolar domains of plasma membrane, alternating with plasmalemmal dense plaques. Electron micrographs made on serial ultrathin sections were digitized, then computer-assisted organellar profiles were traced on images, and automatic 3D reconstruction was obtained using the ‘Reconstruct’ software. The reconstruction was made for 1 μm3 in rat stomach (muscularis mucosae) and 10 μm3 in rat urinary bladder (detrusor smooth muscle). The close appositions (about 15 nm distance) of caveolae, peripheral SR, and mitochondria create coherent cytoplasmic nanoscale subdomains. Apparently, 80% of caveolae establish close contacts with SR and about 10% establish close contacts with mitochondria in both types of SMC. Thus, our results show that caveolae and peripheral SR build Ca2+release units in which mitochondria often could play a part. The caveolae-SR couplings occupy 4.19% of the cellular volume in stomach and 3.10% in rat urinary bladder, while caveolae-mitochondria couplings occupy 3.66% and 3.17%, respectively. We conclude that there are strategic caveolae-SR or caveolae-mitochondria contacts at the nanoscale level in the cortical cytoplasm of SMC, presumably responsible for a vectorial control of free Ca2+ cytoplasmic concentrations in definite nanospaces. This may account for slective activation of specific Ca2+ signaling pathways. PMID:16796817
Image segmentation on adaptive edge-preserving smoothing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Kun; Wang, Dan; Zheng, Xiuqing
2016-09-01
Nowadays, typical active contour models are widely applied in image segmentation. However, they perform badly on real images with inhomogeneous subregions. In order to overcome the drawback, this paper proposes an edge-preserving smoothing image segmentation algorithm. At first, this paper analyzes the edge-preserving smoothing conditions for image segmentation and constructs an edge-preserving smoothing model inspired by total variation. The proposed model has the ability to smooth inhomogeneous subregions and preserve edges. Then, a kind of clustering algorithm, which reasonably trades off edge-preserving and subregion-smoothing according to the local information, is employed to learn the edge-preserving parameter adaptively. At last, according to the confidence level of segmentation subregions, this paper constructs a smoothing convergence condition to avoid oversmoothing. Experiments indicate that the proposed algorithm has superior performance in precision, recall, and F-measure compared with other segmentation algorithms, and it is insensitive to noise and inhomogeneous-regions.
Anisotropic Smoothing Improves DT-MRI-Based Muscle Fiber Tractography
Buck, Amanda K. W.; Ding, Zhaohua; Elder, Christopher P.; Towse, Theodore F.; Damon, Bruce M.
2015-01-01
Purpose To assess the effect of anisotropic smoothing on fiber tracking measures, including pennation angle, fiber tract length, and fiber tract number in the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle in healthy subjects using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). Materials and Methods 3T DW-MRI data were used for muscle fiber tractography in the MG of healthy subjects. Anisotropic smoothing was applied at three levels (5%, 10%, 15%), and pennation angle, tract length, fiber tract number, fractional anisotropy, and principal eigenvector orientation were quantified for each smoothing level. Results Fiber tract length increased with pre-fiber tracking smoothing, and local heterogeneities in fiber direction were reduced. However, pennation angle was not affected by smoothing. Conclusion Modest anisotropic smoothing (10%) improved fiber-tracking results, while preserving structural features. PMID:26010830
Inversion method of seismic forces at fault using finite element
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, D.; Xie, Z.; Geng, W.; Cai, Y.
2013-12-01
Fault slip inversion using seismic dislocation model has been discussed a lot. In this model, seismogenic fault is considered as an interface. However, geological surveys and seismic channel waves reveal that the fault usually possesses thickness. Rock compression tests also show that micro-cracks develop into a belt in which shear fracture plane takes place. Therefore, to simulate the fault as a narrow belt may be more reasonable to reflect mechanical behavior of earthquake source. This study proposes a method to inverse seismic forces at the fault with thickness. The fault is modeled by transversely isotropic material. Three-dimensional finite element models (FEMs) is used to calculate numerical Green's functions for displacements. The Green's functions are generated by imposing unit couples directly to the node pairs at the fault instead of dislocation. The unit couples are added separately in x, y, z directions of the finite element global coordinate system. A pure thrust earthquake is modeled by reducing shear modulus under tectonic stress field. Selected surface displacements induced by this earthquake are used as 'observation data' of the inversion. We combine numerical Green's functions with standard linear inverse methods with Laplace smoothing constraints to estimate seismic forces at the fault. The earthquake which is simulated by damage of shear modulus has the fault model with transversely isotropic material, therefore there exist no normal forces. When the fault material is isotropic and the earthquake is caused by the reduction of shear or Young's modulus, there are normal forces at the fault. This study shows that we can directly inverse three-dimensional seismic forces with the surface deformation caused by earthquakes. This method is feasible for heterogeneous materials and complicated geometry model. [1] Xie, Zhoumin, Inversion method of seismic stress drop by finite element scheme, Doctor Thesis, Peking University, 2013. [2] Hu, C., Zhou, Y
The Laguerre finite difference one-way equation solver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terekhov, Andrew V.
2017-05-01
This paper presents a new finite difference algorithm for solving the 2D one-way wave equation with a preliminary approximation of a pseudo-differential operator by a system of partial differential equations. As opposed to the existing approaches, the integral Laguerre transform instead of Fourier transform is used. After carrying out the approximation of spatial variables it is possible to obtain systems of linear algebraic equations with better computing properties and to reduce computer costs for their solution. High accuracy of calculations is attained at the expense of employing finite difference approximations of higher accuracy order that are based on the dispersion-relationship-preserving method and the Richardson extrapolation in the downward continuation direction. The numerical experiments have verified that as compared to the spectral difference method based on Fourier transform, the new algorithm allows one to calculate wave fields with a higher degree of accuracy and a lower level of numerical noise and artifacts including those for non-smooth velocity models. In the context of solving the geophysical problem the post-stack migration for velocity models of the types Syncline and Sigsbee2A has been carried out. It is shown that the images obtained contain lesser noise and are considerably better focused as compared to those obtained by the known Fourier Finite Difference and Phase-Shift Plus Interpolation methods. There is an opinion that purely finite difference approaches do not allow carrying out the seismic migration procedure with sufficient accuracy, however the results obtained disprove this statement. For the supercomputer implementation it is proposed to use the parallel dichotomy algorithm when solving systems of linear algebraic equations with block-tridiagonal matrices.
Simulating finger phenomena in porous media with a moving finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Guanghui; Zegeling, Paul Andries
2011-04-01
The non-equilibrium Richards equation is solved using a moving finite element method in this paper. The governing equation is discretized spatially with a standard finite element method, and temporally with second-order Runge-Kutta schemes. A strategy of the mesh movement is based on the work by Li et al. [R.Li, T.Tang, P.W. Zhang, A moving mesh finite element algorithm for singular problems in two and three space dimensions, Journal of Computational Physics, 177 (2002) 365-393]. A Beckett and Mackenzie type monitor function is adopted. To obtain high quality meshes around the wetting front, a smoothing method which is based on the diffusive mechanism is used. With the moving mesh technique, high mesh quality and high numerical accuracy are obtained successfully. The numerical convergence and the advantage of the algorithm are demonstrated by a series of numerical experiments.
I-spline Smoothing for Calibrating Predictive Models.
Wu, Yuan; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Kim, Jihoon; Ohno-Machado, Lucila
2012-01-01
We proposed the I-spline Smoothing approach for calibrating predictive models by solving a nonlinear monotone regression problem. We took advantage of I-spline properties to obtain globally optimal solutions while keeping the computational cost low. Numerical studies based on three data sets showed the empirical evidences of I-spline Smoothing in improving calibration (i.e.,1.6x, 1.4x, and 1.4x on the three datasets compared to the average of competitors-Binning, Platt Scaling, Isotonic Regression, Monotone Spline Smoothing, Smooth Isotonic Regression) without deterioration of discrimination.
Finite element shell instability analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
Formulation procedures and the associated computer program for finite element thin shell instability analysis are discussed. Data cover: (1) formulation of basic element relationships, (2) construction of solution algorithms on both the conceptual and algorithmic levels, and (3) conduction of numerical analyses to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the theory and related programs therein are described.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tou, Erik R
2013-01-01
This project classifies groups of small order using a group's center as the key feature. Groups of a given order "n" are typed based on the order of each group's center. Students are led through a sequence of exercises that combine proof-writing, independent research, and an analysis of specific classes of finite groups…
Finite length Taylor Couette flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1987-01-01
Axisymmetric numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for flow between concentric rotating cylinders of finite length are obtained by a spectral collocation method. These representative results pertain to two-cell/one-cell exchange process, and are compared with recent experiments.
Finite simple groups as expanders
Kassabov, Martin; Lubotzky, Alexander; Nikolov, Nikolay
2006-01-01
We prove that there exist k ∈ ℕ and 0 < ε ∈ ℝ such that every non-abelian finite simple group G, which is not a Suzuki group, has a set of k generators for which the Cayley graph Cay(G; S) is an ε-expander. PMID:16601101
Finite length Taylor Couette flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1987-01-01
Axisymmetric numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for flow between concentric rotating cylinders of finite length are obtained by a spectral collocation method. These representative results pertain to two-cell/one-cell exchange process, and are compared with recent experiments.
Upwind Compact Finite Difference Schemes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christie, I.
1985-07-01
It was shown by Ciment, Leventhal, and Weinberg ( J. Comput. Phys.28 (1978), 135) that the standard compact finite difference scheme may break down in convection dominated problems. An upwinding of the method, which maintains the fourth order accuracy, is suggested and favorable numerical results are found for a number of test problems.
Moschetti, Morgan P.; Mueller, Charles S.; Boyd, Oliver S.; Petersen, Mark D.
2014-01-01
In anticipation of the update of the Alaska seismic hazard maps (ASHMs) by the U. S. Geological Survey, we report progress on the comparison of smoothed seismicity models developed using fixed and adaptive smoothing algorithms, and investigate the sensitivity of seismic hazard to the models. While fault-based sources, such as those for great earthquakes in the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone and for the ~10 shallow crustal faults within Alaska, dominate the seismic hazard estimates for locations near to the sources, smoothed seismicity rates make important contributions to seismic hazard away from fault-based sources and where knowledge of recurrence and magnitude is not sufficient for use in hazard studies. Recent developments in adaptive smoothing methods and statistical tests for evaluating and comparing rate models prompt us to investigate the appropriateness of adaptive smoothing for the ASHMs. We develop smoothed seismicity models for Alaska using fixed and adaptive smoothing methods and compare the resulting models by calculating and evaluating the joint likelihood test. We use the earthquake catalog, and associated completeness levels, developed for the 2007 ASHM to produce fixed-bandwidth-smoothed models with smoothing distances varying from 10 to 100 km and adaptively smoothed models. Adaptive smoothing follows the method of Helmstetter et al. and defines a unique smoothing distance for each earthquake epicenter from the distance to the nth nearest neighbor. The consequence of the adaptive smoothing methods is to reduce smoothing distances, causing locally increased seismicity rates, where seismicity rates are high and to increase smoothing distances where seismicity is sparse. We follow guidance from previous studies to optimize the neighbor number (n-value) by comparing model likelihood values, which estimate the likelihood that the observed earthquake epicenters from the recent catalog are derived from the smoothed rate models. We compare likelihood
The Existence of Smooth Densities for the Prediction, Filtering and Smoothing Problems
1990-12-20
identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Prediction, filtering, smoothing, stochastic control,I adjoint process, minimum principle, minimum risk ...minimize expected risk . Using integration by parts reverse time representations of Jump processes are obtained. These results have applications in, for...optimal control. Martingale representation results to minimize expected risk are described in [14] and [26]. Full details of results obtained during
Smooth Muscle Titin Zq Domain Interaction with the Smooth Muscle α-Actinin Central Rod*
Chi, Richard J.; Simon, Alanna R.; Bienkiewicz, Ewa A.; Felix, Augustine; Keller, Thomas C. S.
2008-01-01
Actin-myosin II filament-based contractile structures in striated muscle, smooth muscle, and nonmuscle cells contain the actin filament-cross-linking protein α-actinin. In striated muscle Z-disks, α-actinin interacts with N-terminal domains of titin to provide a structural linkage crucial for the integrity of the sarcomere. We previously discovered a long titin isoform, originally smitin, hereafter sm-titin, in smooth muscle and demonstrated that native sm-titin interacts with C-terminal EF hand region and central rod R2-R3 spectrin-like repeat region sites in α-actinin. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis of RNA from human adult smooth muscles and cultured rat smooth muscle cells and Western blot analysis with a domain-specific antibody presented here revealed that sm-titin contains the titin gene-encoded Zq domain that may bind to the α-actinin R2-R3 central rod domain as well as Z-repeat domains that bind to the EF hand region. We investigated whether the sm-titin Zq domain binds to α-actinin R2 and R3 spectrin repeat-like domain loops that lie in proximity with two-fold symmetry on the surface of the central rod. Mutations in α-actinin R2 and R3 domain loop residues decreased interaction with expressed sm-titin Zq domain in glutathione S-transferase pull-down and solid phase binding assays. Alanine mutation of a region of the Zq domain with high propensity for α-helix formation decreased apparent Zq domain dimer formation and decreased Zq interaction with the α-actinin R2-R3 region in surface plasmon resonance assays. We present a model in which two sm-titin Zq domains interact with each other and with the two R2-R3 sites in the α-actinin central rod. PMID:18519573
Finite volume model for two-dimensional shallow environmental flow
Simoes, F.J.M.
2011-01-01
This paper presents the development of a two-dimensional, depth integrated, unsteady, free-surface model based on the shallow water equations. The development was motivated by the desire of balancing computational efficiency and accuracy by selective and conjunctive use of different numerical techniques. The base framework of the discrete model uses Godunov methods on unstructured triangular grids, but the solution technique emphasizes the use of a high-resolution Riemann solver where needed, switching to a simpler and computationally more efficient upwind finite volume technique in the smooth regions of the flow. Explicit time marching is accomplished with strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta methods, with additional acceleration techniques for steady-state computations. A simplified mass-preserving algorithm is used to deal with wet/dry fronts. Application of the model is made to several benchmark cases that show the interplay of the diverse solution techniques.
Zhang, Rong; Jack, Gregory S; Rao, Nagesh; Zuk, Patricia; Ignarro, Louis J; Wu, Benjamin; Rodríguez, Larissa V
2012-03-01
Human adipose-derived stem cells hASC have been isolated and were shown to have multilineage differentiation capacity. Although both plasticity and cell fusion have been suggested as mechanisms for cell differentiation in vivo, the effect of the local in vivo environment on the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells has not been evaluated. We previously reported the in vitro capacity of smooth muscle differentiation of these cells. In this study, we evaluate the effect of an in vivo smooth muscle environment in the differentiation of hASC. We studied this by two experimental designs: (a) in vivo evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation of hASC injected into a smooth muscle environment and (b) in vitro evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation capacity of hASC exposed to bladder smooth muscle cells. Our results indicate a time-dependent differentiation of hASC into mature smooth muscle cells when these cells are injected into the smooth musculature of the urinary bladder. Similar findings were seen when the cells were cocultured in vitro with primary bladder smooth muscle cells. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated that microenvironment cues rather than nuclear fusion are responsible for this differentiation. We conclude that cell plasticity is present in hASCs, and their differentiation is accomplished in the absence of nuclear fusion. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Eric G.; Louko, Jorma
2015-08-01
We present and utilize a simple formalism for the smooth creation of boundary conditions within relativistic quantum field theory. We consider a massless scalar field in (1 + 1)-dimensional flat spacetime and imagine smoothly transitioning from there being no boundary condition to there being a two-sided Dirichlet mirror. The act of doing this, expectantly, generates a flux of real quanta that emanates from the mirror as it is being created. We show that the local stress-energy tensor of the flux is finite only if an infrared cutoff is introduced, no matter how slowly the mirror is created, in agreement with the perturbative results of Obadia and Parentani. In the limit of instaneous mirror creation the total energy injected into the field becomes ultraviolet divergent, but the response of an Unruh-DeWitt particle detector passing through the infinite burst of energy nevertheless remains finite. Implications for vacuum entanglement extraction and for black hole firewalls are discussed.
Smooth cubic commensurate oxides on gallium nitride
Paisley, Elizabeth A.; Gaddy, Benjamin E.; LeBeau, James M.; Shelton, Christopher T.; Losego, Mark D.; Mita, Seiji; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko; Irving, Douglas L.; Maria, Jon-Paul; Biegalski, Michael D.; Christen, Hans M.
2014-02-14
Smooth, commensurate alloys of 〈111〉-oriented Mg{sub 0.52}Ca{sub 0.48}O (MCO) thin films are demonstrated on Ga-polar, c+ [0001]-oriented GaN by surfactant-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and pulsed laser deposition. These are unique examples of coherent cubic oxide|nitride interfaces with structural and morphological perfection. Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures were fabricated on n-type GaN. A comparison of leakage current density for conventional and surfactant-assisted growth reveals a nearly 100× reduction in leakage current density for the surfactant-assisted samples. HAADF-STEM images of the MCO|GaN interface show commensurate alignment of atomic planes with minimal defects due to lattice mismatch. STEM and DFT calculations show that GaN c/2 steps create incoherent boundaries in MCO over layers which manifest as two in-plane rotations and determine consequently the density of structural defects in otherwise coherent MCO. This new understanding of interfacial steps between HCP and FCC crystals identifies the steps needed to create globally defect-free heterostructures.
"Nonparametric Local Smoothing" is not image registration.
Rohlfing, Torsten; Avants, Brian
2012-11-01
Image registration is one of the most important and universally useful computational tasks in biomedical image analysis. A recent article by Xing & Qiu (IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 33(10):2081-2092, 2011) is based on an inappropriately narrow conceptualization of the image registration problem as the task of making two images look alike, which disregards whether the established spatial correspondence is plausible. The authors propose a new algorithm, Nonparametric Local Smoothing (NLS) for image registration, but use image similarities alone as a measure of registration performance, although these measures do not relate reliably to the realism of the correspondence map. Using data obtained from its authors, we show experimentally that the method proposed by Xing & Qiu is not an effective registration algorithm. While it optimizes image similarity, it does not compute accurate, interpretable transformations. Even judged by image similarity alone, the proposed method is consistently outperformed by a simple pixel permutation algorithm, which is known by design not to compute valid registrations. This study has demonstrated that the NLS algorithm proposed recently for image registration, and published in one of the most respected journals in computer science, is not, in fact, an effective registration method at all. Our results also emphasize the general need to apply registration evaluation criteria that are sensitive to whether correspondences are accurate and mappings between images are physically interpretable. These goals cannot be achieved by simply reporting image similarities.
Shared attention for smooth pursuit and saccades
Jin, Zhenlan; Reeves, Adam; Watamaniuk, Scott N. J.; Heinen, Stephen J.
2013-01-01
Identification of brief luminance decrements on parafoveal stimuli presented during smooth pursuit improves when a spot pursuit target is surrounded by a larger random dot cinematogram (RDC) that moves with it (Heinen, Jin, & Watamaniuk, 2011). This was hypothesized to occur because the RDC provided an alternative, less attention-demanding pursuit drive, and therefore released attentional resources for visual perception tasks that are shared with those used to pursue the spot. Here, we used the RDC as a tool to probe whether spot pursuit also shares attentional resources with the saccadic system. To this end, we set out to determine if the RDC could release attention from pursuit of the spot to perform a saccade task. Observers made a saccade to one of four parafoveal targets that moved with the spot pursuit stimulus. The targets either moved alone or were surrounded by an RDC (100% coherence). Saccade latency decreased with the RDC, suggesting that the RDC released attention needed to pursue the spot, which was then used for the saccade task. Additional evidence that attention was released by the RDC was obtained in an experiment in which attention was anchored to the fovea by requiring observers to detect a brief color change applied 130 ms before the saccade target appeared. This manipulation eliminated the RDC advantage. The results imply that attentional resources used by the pursuit and saccadic eye movement control systems are shared. PMID:23487159
An implicit Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic code
Knapp, Charles E.
2000-05-01
An implicit version of the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) code SPHINX has been written and is working. In conjunction with the SPHINX code the new implicit code models fluids and solids under a wide range of conditions. SPH codes are Lagrangian, meshless and use particles to model the fluids and solids. The implicit code makes use of the Krylov iterative techniques for solving large linear-systems and a Newton-Raphson method for non-linear corrections. It uses numerical derivatives to construct the Jacobian matrix. It uses sparse techniques to save on memory storage and to reduce the amount of computation. It is believed that this is the first implicit SPH code to use Newton-Krylov techniques, and is also the first implicit SPH code to model solids. A description of SPH and the techniques used in the implicit code are presented. Then, the results of a number of tests cases are discussed, which include a shock tube problem, a Rayleigh-Taylor problem, a breaking dam problem, and a single jet of gas problem. The results are shown to be in very good agreement with analytic solutions, experimental results, and the explicit SPHINX code. In the case of the single jet of gas case it has been demonstrated that the implicit code can do a problem in much shorter time than the explicit code. The problem was, however, very unphysical, but it does demonstrate the potential of the implicit code. It is a first step toward a useful implicit SPH code.
A Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics approach for poroelasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osorno, Maria; Steeb, Holger
2016-04-01
Within the framework of the SHynergie project we look to investigate hydraulic fracturing and crack evolving in poroelastic media. We model biphasic media assuming incompressible solid grain and incompressible pore liquid. Modeling evolving fractures and fracture networks in elastic and poroelastic media by mesh-based numerical approaches, like X-FEM, is especially in 3-dim a challenging task. Therefore, we propose a meshless particle method for fractured media based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) approach. SPH is a meshless Lagrangian method highly suitable for the simulation of large deformations including free surfaces and/or interfaces. Within the SPH method, the computational domain is discretized with particles, avoiding the computational expenses of meshing. Our SPH solution is implemented in a parallel computational framework, which allows to simulate large domains more representative of the scale of our study cases. Our implementation is carefully validated against classical mesh-based approaches and compared with classical solutions for consolidation problems. Furthermore, we discuss fracture initiation and propagation in poroelastic rocks at the reservoir scale.
A rough end for smooth microstate geometries
Marolf, Donald; Michel, Ben; Puhm, Andrea
2017-05-03
Supersymmetric microstate geometries with five non-compact dimensions have recently been shown by Eperon, Reall, and Santos (ERS) to exhibit a non-linear instability featuring the growth of excitations at an “evanescent ergosurface” of infinite redshift. We argue that this growth may be treated as adiabatic evolution along a family of exactly supersymmetric solutions in the limit where the excitations are Aichelburg-Sexl-like shockwaves. In the 2-charge system such solutions may be constructed explicitly, incorpo-rating full backreaction, and are in fact special cases of known microstate geometries. In a near-horizon limit, they reduce to Aichelburg-Sexl shockwaves in AdS3 × S3 propagating along onemore » of the angular directions of the sphere. Noting that the ERS analysis is valid in the limit of large microstate angular momentum j, we use the above identification to interpret their instability as a transition from rare smooth microstates with large angular momentum to more typical microstates with smaller angular momentum. This entropic driving terminates when the angular momentum decreases to j~√n1n5 where the density of microstates is maximal. Finally, we argue that, at this point, the large stringy corrections to such microstates will render them non-linearly stable. We identify a possible mechanism for this stabilization and detail an illustrative toy model.« less
A rough end for smooth microstate geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marolf, Donald; Michel, Ben; Puhm, Andrea
2017-05-01
Supersymmetric microstate geometries with five non-compact dimensions have recently been shown by Eperon, Reall, and Santos (ERS) to exhibit a non-linear instability featuring the growth of excitations at an "evanescent ergosurface" of infinite redshift. We argue that this growth may be treated as adiabatic evolution along a family of exactly supersymmetric solutions in the limit where the excitations are Aichelburg-Sexl-like shockwaves. In the 2-charge system such solutions may be constructed explicitly, incorpo-rating full backreaction, and are in fact special cases of known microstate geometries. In a near-horizon limit, they reduce to Aichelburg-Sexl shockwaves in AdS 3 × S 3 propagating along one of the angular directions of the sphere. Noting that the ERS analysis is valid in the limit of large microstate angular momentum j, we use the above identification to interpret their instability as a transition from rare smooth microstates with large angular momentum to more typical microstates with smaller angular momentum. This entropic driving terminates when the angular momentum decreases to j˜ √{n_1{n}_5} where the density of microstates is maximal. We argue that, at this point, the large stringy corrections to such microstates will render them non-linearly stable. We identify a possible mechanism for this stabilization and detail an illustrative toy model.
Drop splash on a smooth, dry surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riboux, Guillaume; Gordillo, Jose Manuel; Korobkin, Alexander
2013-11-01
It is our purpose here to determine the conditions under which a drop of a given liquid with a known radius R impacting against a smooth impermeable surface at a velocity V, will either spread axisymmetrically onto the substrate or will create a splash, giving rise to usually undesired star-shaped patterns. In our experimental setup, drops are generated injecting low viscosity liquids falling under the action of gravity from a stainless steel hypodermic needle. The experimental observations using two high speed cameras operating simultaneously and placed perpendicularly to each other reveal that, initially, the drop deforms axisymmetrically, with A (T) the radius of the wetted area. For high enough values of the drop impact velocity, a thin sheet of liquid starts to be ejected from A (T) at a velocity Vjet > V for instants of time such that T >=Tc . If Vjet is above a certain threshold, which depends on the solid wetting properties as well as on the material properties of both the liquid and the atmospheric gas, the rim of the lamella dewets the solid to finally break into drops. Using Wagner's theory we demonstrate that A (T) =√{ 3 RVT } and our results also reveal that Tc We - 1 / 2 =(ρV2 R / σ) - 1 / 2 and Vjet We 1 / 4 .
Mast Cell-Airway Smooth Muscle Crosstalk
Kaur, Davinder; Doe, Camille; Woodman, Lucy; Heidi Wan, Wing-Yan; Sutcliffe, Amanda; Hollins, Fay
2012-01-01
Background: The mast cell localization to airway smooth muscle (ASM) bundle in asthma is important in the development of disordered airway physiology. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is expressed by airway structural cells. Whether it has a role in the crosstalk between these cells is uncertain. We sought to define TSLP expression in bronchial tissue across the spectrum of asthma severity and to investigate the TSLP and TSLP receptor (TSLPR) expression and function by primary ASM and mast cells alone and in coculture. Methods: TSLP expression was assessed in bronchial tissue from 18 subjects with mild to moderate asthma, 12 with severe disease, and nine healthy control subjects. TSLP and TSLPR expression in primary mast cells and ASM was assessed by immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and its function was assessed by calcium imaging. The role of TSLP in mast cell and ASM proliferation, survival, differentiation, synthetic function, and contraction was examined. Results: TSLP expression was increased in the ASM bundle in mild-moderate disease. TSLP and TSLPR were expressed by mast cells and ASM and were functional. Mast cell activation by TSLP increased the production of a broad range of chemokines and cytokines, but did not affect mast cell or ASM proliferation, survival, or contraction. Conclusions: TSLP expression by the bronchial epithelium and ASM was upregulated in asthma. TSLP promoted mast cell synthetic function, but did not contribute to other functional consequences of mast cell-ASM crosstalk. PMID:22052771
Programming smooth muscle plasticity with chromatin dynamics.
McDonald, Oliver G; Owens, Gary K
2007-05-25
Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) possess remarkable phenotypic plasticity that allows rapid adaptation to fluctuating environmental cues. For example, vascular SMCs undergo profound changes in their phenotype during neointimal formation in response to vessel injury or within atherosclerotic plaques. Recent studies have shown that interaction of serum response factor (SRF) and its numerous accessory cofactors with CArG box DNA sequences within promoter chromatin of SMC genes is a nexus for integrating signals that influence SMC differentiation in development and disease. During development, SMC-restricted sets of posttranslational histone modifications are acquired within the CArG box chromatin of SMC genes. These modifications in turn control the chromatin-binding properties of SRF. The histone modifications appear to encode a SMC-specific epigenetic program that is used by extracellular cues to influence SMC differentiation, by regulating binding of SRF and its partners to the chromatin template. Thus, SMC differentiation is dynamically regulated by the interplay between SRF accessory cofactors, the SRF-CArG interaction, and the underlying histone modification program. As such, the inherent plasticity of the SMC lineage offers unique glimpses into how cellular differentiation is dynamically controlled at the level of chromatin within the context of changing microenvironments. Further elucidation of how chromatin regulates SMC differentiation will undoubtedly yield valuable insights into both normal developmental processes and the pathogenesis of several vascular diseases that display detrimental SMC phenotypic behavior.
Neuroeffector apparatus in gastrointestinal smooth muscle organs.
Sanders, Kenton M; Hwang, Sung Jin; Ward, Sean M
2010-12-01
Control of gastrointestinal (GI) movements by enteric motoneurons is critical for orderly processing of food, absorption of nutrients and elimination of wastes. Work over the past several years has suggested that motor neurotransmission is more complicated than simple release of transmitter from nerve terminals and binding of receptors on smooth muscle cells. In fact the 'neuro-effector' junction in the tunica muscularis might consist of synaptic-like connectivity with specialized cells, and contributions from multiple cell types in integrated post-junctional responses. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) were proposed as potential mediators in motor neurotransmission based on reduced post-junctional responses observed in W mutants that have reduced populations of ICC. More recent studies on W mutants have contradicted the original findings, and suggested that ICC may not be significant players in motor neurotransmission. This review examines the evidence for and against the role of ICC in motor neurotransmission and outlines areas for additional investigation that would help further resolve this controversy.
Smoothing Rotation Curves and Mass Profiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berrier, Joel C.; Sellwood, J. A.
2015-02-01
We show that spiral activity can erase pronounced features in disk galaxy rotation curves. We present simulations of growing disks, in which the added material has a physically motivated distribution, as well as other examples of physically less realistic accretion. In all cases, attempts to create unrealistic rotation curves were unsuccessful because spiral activity rapidly smoothed away features in the disk mass profile. The added material was redistributed radially by the spiral activity, which was itself provoked by the density feature. In the case of a ridge-like feature in the surface density profile, we show that two unstable spiral modes develop, and the associated angular momentum changes in horseshoe orbits remove particles from the ridge and spread them both inward and outward. This process rapidly erases the density feature from the disk. We also find that the lack of a feature when transitioning from disk to halo dominance in the rotation curves of disk galaxies, the so called "disk-halo conspiracy," could also be accounted for by this mechanism. We do not create perfectly exponential mass profiles in the disk, but suggest that this mechanism contributes to their creation.
Immortalization of primary human smooth muscle cells.
Perez-Reyes, N; Halbert, C L; Smith, P P; Benditt, E P; McDougall, J K
1992-01-01
Primary human aortic and myometrial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were immortalized using an amphotropic recombinant retroviral construct containing the E6 and E7 open reading frames (ORFs) of human papillomavirus type 16. The SMCs expressing the E6/E7 ORFs have considerably elevated growth rates when compared with nonimmortalized control cells and show no signs of senescence with long-term passage. The first SMC line derived in this study has been maintained in continuous tissue culture for greater than 1 year (greater than 180 population doublings). The immortalized SMCs have decreased cell size and decreased content of muscle-specific alpha-actin filaments as determined by indirect immunofluorescence. Southern blot analysis has demonstrated the stable integration of the E6/E7 ORFs in the retrovirally infected cells, and radioimmunoprecipitation has confirmed the continued expression of the E6 and E7 genes. Cytogenetic studies of the SMC lines have revealed essentially diploid populations except for the myometrial clonal line, which became aneuploid at late passage (greater than 125 doublings). These cell lines were not tumorigenic in nude mice. Images PMID:1311088
Smooth cubic commensurate oxides on gallium nitride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paisley, Elizabeth A.; Gaddy, Benjamin E.; LeBeau, James M.; Shelton, Christopher T.; Biegalski, Michael D.; Christen, Hans M.; Losego, Mark D.; Mita, Seiji; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko; Irving, Douglas L.; Maria, Jon-Paul
2014-02-01
Smooth, commensurate alloys of ⟨111⟩-oriented Mg0.52Ca0.48O (MCO) thin films are demonstrated on Ga-polar, c+ [0001]-oriented GaN by surfactant-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and pulsed laser deposition. These are unique examples of coherent cubic oxide|nitride interfaces with structural and morphological perfection. Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures were fabricated on n-type GaN. A comparison of leakage current density for conventional and surfactant-assisted growth reveals a nearly 100× reduction in leakage current density for the surfactant-assisted samples. HAADF-STEM images of the MCO|GaN interface show commensurate alignment of atomic planes with minimal defects due to lattice mismatch. STEM and DFT calculations show that GaN c/2 steps create incoherent boundaries in MCO over layers which manifest as two in-plane rotations and determine consequently the density of structural defects in otherwise coherent MCO. This new understanding of interfacial steps between HCP and FCC crystals identifies the steps needed to create globally defect-free heterostructures.
Cl− channels in smooth muscle cells
Bulley, Simon
2013-01-01
In smooth muscle cells (SMCs), the intracellular chloride ion (Cl−) concentration is high due to accumulation by Cl−/HCO3− exchange and Na+, K+, Cl− cotransportation. The equilibrium potential for Cl− (ECl) is more positive than physiological membrane potentials (Em), with Cl− efflux inducing membrane depolarization. Early studies used electrophysiology and non-specific antagonists to study the physiological relevance of Cl− channels in SMCs. More recent reports have incorporated molecular biological approaches to identify and determine the functional significance of several different Cl− channels. Both “classic” and cGMP-dependent calcium (Ca2+)-activated (ClCa) channels and volume-sensitive Cl− channels are present, with TMEM16A/ANO1, bestrophins and ClC-3, respectively, proposed as molecular candidates for these channels. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) has also been described in SMCs. This review will focus on discussing recent progress made in identifying each of these Cl− channels in SMCs, their physiological functions, and contribution to diseases that modify contraction, apoptosis and cell proliferation. PMID:24077695
Hidden Degeneracies in Piecewise Smooth Dynamical Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeffrey, Mike R.
When a flow suffers a discontinuity in its vector field at some switching surface, the flow can cross through or slide along the surface. Sliding along the switching surface can be understood as the flow along an invariant manifold inside a switching layer. It turns out that the usual method for finding sliding modes — the Filippov convex combination or Utkin equivalent control — results in a degeneracy in the switching layer whenever the flow is tangent to the switching surface from both sides. We derive the general result and analyze the simplest case here, where the flow curves parabolically on either side of the switching surface (the so-called fold-fold or two-fold singularities). The result is a set of zeros of the fast switching flow inside the layer, which is structurally unstable to perturbation by terms nonlinear in the switching parameter, terms such as (signx)2 [where the superscript does mean “squared”]. We provide structurally stable forms, and show that in this form the layer system is equivalent to a generic singularity of a two timescale system. Finally we show that the same degeneracy arises when a discontinuity is smoothed using standard regularization methods.
SMOOTHING ROTATION CURVES AND MASS PROFILES
Berrier, Joel C.; Sellwood, J. A.
2015-02-01
We show that spiral activity can erase pronounced features in disk galaxy rotation curves. We present simulations of growing disks, in which the added material has a physically motivated distribution, as well as other examples of physically less realistic accretion. In all cases, attempts to create unrealistic rotation curves were unsuccessful because spiral activity rapidly smoothed away features in the disk mass profile. The added material was redistributed radially by the spiral activity, which was itself provoked by the density feature. In the case of a ridge-like feature in the surface density profile, we show that two unstable spiral modes develop, and the associated angular momentum changes in horseshoe orbits remove particles from the ridge and spread them both inward and outward. This process rapidly erases the density feature from the disk. We also find that the lack of a feature when transitioning from disk to halo dominance in the rotation curves of disk galaxies, the so called ''disk-halo conspiracy'', could also be accounted for by this mechanism. We do not create perfectly exponential mass profiles in the disk, but suggest that this mechanism contributes to their creation.
Cognitive Processes Involved in Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barnes, G. R.
2008-01-01
Ocular pursuit movements allow moving objects to be tracked with a combination of smooth movements and saccades. The principal objective is to maintain smooth eye velocity close to object velocity, thus minimising retinal image motion and maintaining acuity. Saccadic movements serve to realign the image if it falls outside the fovea, the area of…
Regulation of Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscle Function by Interstitial Cells.
Sanders, Kenton M; Kito, Yoshihiko; Hwang, Sung Jin; Ward, Sean M
2016-09-01
Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin form gap junctions with smooth muscle cells in visceral smooth muscles and provide important regulatory functions. In gastrointestinal (GI) muscles, there are two distinct classes of interstitial cells, c-Kit(+) interstitial cells of Cajal and PDGFRα(+) cells, that regulate motility patterns. Loss of these cells may contribute to symptoms in GI motility disorders.
Smoothness Evaluation of Expedient Repairs at Avon Park
2009-11-01
after expedient crater repairs). takeoff and landing simulations, expedient repairs to runways, pavement response, shock loading, short wavelength...5 Pavement Smoothness Assessment Tools ...........................................................................7 Profile...provide this report of profile measurements and assessments of pavement smoothness for Runway 05-23 at the Avon Park Florida test range. Tony
Cognitive Processes Involved in Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barnes, G. R.
2008-01-01
Ocular pursuit movements allow moving objects to be tracked with a combination of smooth movements and saccades. The principal objective is to maintain smooth eye velocity close to object velocity, thus minimising retinal image motion and maintaining acuity. Saccadic movements serve to realign the image if it falls outside the fovea, the area of…
Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy of Smooth Pursuit: Lesion Studies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sharpe, James A.
2008-01-01
Smooth pursuit impairment is recognized clinically by the presence of saccadic tracking of a small object and quantified by reduction in pursuit gain, the ratio of smooth eye movement velocity to the velocity of a foveal target. Correlation of the site of brain lesions, identified by imaging or neuropathological examination, with defective smooth…
Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy of Smooth Pursuit: Lesion Studies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sharpe, James A.
2008-01-01
Smooth pursuit impairment is recognized clinically by the presence of saccadic tracking of a small object and quantified by reduction in pursuit gain, the ratio of smooth eye movement velocity to the velocity of a foveal target. Correlation of the site of brain lesions, identified by imaging or neuropathological examination, with defective smooth…
Smooth Constrained Heuristic Optimization of a Combinatorial Chemical Space
2015-05-01
ARL-TR-7294•MAY 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Smooth ConstrainedHeuristic Optimization of a Combinatorial Chemical Space by Berend Christopher...7294•MAY 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Smooth ConstrainedHeuristic Optimization of a Combinatorial Chemical Space by Berend Christopher...
Scattering and bound states of fermions in a mixed vector–scalar smooth step potential
Castilho, W.M. Castro, A.S. de
2014-07-15
The scattering of a fermion in the background of a smooth step potential is considered with a general mixing of vector and scalar Lorentz structures with the scalar coupling stronger than or equal to the vector coupling. Charge-conjugation and chiral-conjugation transformations are discussed and it is shown that a finite set of intrinsically relativistic bound-state solutions appears as poles of the transmission amplitude. It is also shown that those bound solutions disappear asymptotically as one approaches the conditions for the realization of the so-called spin and pseudospin symmetries in a four-dimensional space–time. - Highlights: • Scattering and bound states of fermions in a kink-like potential. • No pair production despite the high localization. • No bounded solution under exact spin and pseudospin symmetries.
Finite-volume WENO scheme for viscous compressible multicomponent flows
Coralic, Vedran; Colonius, Tim
2014-01-01
We develop a shock- and interface-capturing numerical method that is suitable for the simulation of multicomponent flows governed by the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical method is high-order accurate in smooth regions of the flow, discretely conserves the mass of each component, as well as the total momentum and energy, and is oscillation-free, i.e. it does not introduce spurious oscillations at the locations of shockwaves and/or material interfaces. The method is of Godunov-type and utilizes a fifth-order, finite-volume, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for the spatial reconstruction and a Harten-Lax-van Leer contact (HLLC) approximate Riemann solver to upwind the fluxes. A third-order total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta (RK) algorithm is employed to march the solution in time. The derivation is generalized to three dimensions and nonuniform Cartesian grids. A two-point, fourth-order, Gaussian quadrature rule is utilized to build the spatial averages of the reconstructed variables inside the cells, as well as at cell boundaries. The algorithm is therefore fourth-order accurate in space and third-order accurate in time in smooth regions of the flow. We corroborate the properties of our numerical method by considering several challenging one-, two- and three-dimensional test cases, the most complex of which is the asymmetric collapse of an air bubble submerged in a cylindrical water cavity that is embedded in 10% gelatin. PMID:25110358
Finite-volume WENO scheme for viscous compressible multicomponent flows.
Coralic, Vedran; Colonius, Tim
2014-10-01
We develop a shock- and interface-capturing numerical method that is suitable for the simulation of multicomponent flows governed by the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical method is high-order accurate in smooth regions of the flow, discretely conserves the mass of each component, as well as the total momentum and energy, and is oscillation-free, i.e. it does not introduce spurious oscillations at the locations of shockwaves and/or material interfaces. The method is of Godunov-type and utilizes a fifth-order, finite-volume, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for the spatial reconstruction and a Harten-Lax-van Leer contact (HLLC) approximate Riemann solver to upwind the fluxes. A third-order total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta (RK) algorithm is employed to march the solution in time. The derivation is generalized to three dimensions and nonuniform Cartesian grids. A two-point, fourth-order, Gaussian quadrature rule is utilized to build the spatial averages of the reconstructed variables inside the cells, as well as at cell boundaries. The algorithm is therefore fourth-order accurate in space and third-order accurate in time in smooth regions of the flow. We corroborate the properties of our numerical method by considering several challenging one-, two- and three-dimensional test cases, the most complex of which is the asymmetric collapse of an air bubble submerged in a cylindrical water cavity that is embedded in 10% gelatin.
Infinite Possibilities for the Finite Element.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Finlayson, Bruce A.
1981-01-01
Describes the uses of finite element methods in solving problems of heat transfer, fluid flow, etc. Suggests that engineers should know the general concepts and be able to apply the principles of finite element methods. (Author/WB)
SUPG Finite Element Simulations of Compressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kirk, Brnjamin, S.
2006-01-01
The Streamline-Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) finite element simulations of compressible flows is presented. The topics include: 1) Introduction; 2) SUPG Galerkin Finite Element Methods; 3) Applications; and 4) Bibliography.
Regeneration and Maintenance of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Phenotypes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walthers, Christopher M.
Tissue engineering is an emerging field of biomedical engineering that involves growing artificial organs to replace those lost to disease or injury. Within tissue engineering, there is a demand for artificial smooth muscle to repair tissues of the digestive tract, bladder, and vascular systems. Attempts to develop engineered smooth muscle tissues capable of contracting with sufficient strength to be clinically relevant have so far proven unsatisfactory. The goal of this research was to develop and sustain mature, contractile smooth muscle. Survival of implanted SMCs is critical to sustain the benefits of engineered smooth muscle. Survival of implanted smooth muscle cells was studied with layered, electrospun polycaprolactone implants with lasercut holes ranging from 0--25% porosity. It was found that greater angiogenesis was associated with increased survival of implanted cells, with a large increase at a threshold between 20% and 25% porosity. Heparan sulfate coatings improved the speed of blood vessel infiltration after 14 days of implantation. With these considerations, thicker engineered tissues may be possible. An improved smooth muscle tissue culture technique was utilized. Contracting smooth muscle was produced in culture by maintaining the native smooth muscle tissue organization, specifically by sustaining intact smooth muscle strips rather than dissociating tissue in to isolated smooth muscle cells. Isolated cells showed a decrease in maturity and contained fewer enteric neural and glial cells. Muscle strips also exhibited periodic contraction and regular fluctuation of intracellular calclium. The muscle strip maturity persisted after implantation in omentum for 14 days on polycaprolactone scaffolds. A low-cost, disposable bioreactor was developed to further improve maturity of cultured smooth muscle cells in an environment of controlled cyclical stress.The bioreactor consistently applied repeated mechanical strain with controllable inputs for strain
Kinematics, structural mechanics, and design of origami structures with smooth folds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peraza Hernandez, Edwin Alexander
model for the structural mechanics of origami continuum bodies with smooth folds is presented. Such a model entails the integration of the presented kinematic model and existing plate theories in order to obtain a structural representation for folds having non-zero thickness and comprised of arbitrary materials. The model is validated against finite element analysis. The last contribution addresses the design and analysis of active material-based self-folding structures that morph via simultaneous folding towards a given three-dimensional goal shape starting from a planar configuration. Implementation examples including shape memory alloy (SMA)-based self-folding structures are provided.
Reversible watermarking using edge based difference modification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, Xiaochao; Kim, Suah; Kim, Hyoungjoong
2014-01-01
Reversible watermarking can embed data into the cover image and extract data from stego image, where the original cover image can be recovered perfectly after the extraction of data. Difference expansion (DE) and prediction error expansion (PEE) are two popular reversible watermarking methods. DE has the advantage of small distortion while PEE has the advantage of large embedding capacity and smaller prediction error compared with pixel difference. In this paper, we proposed a novel method that combines the advantages of DE and PEE, where the difference calculated between two pixels is combined with the edge information near this pixel pair. The proposed difference calculation can produce smaller pixel difference compared with the original simple pixel difference calculation. Overlapping embedding is then used to increase the embedding capacity. Our proposed method gives excellent results which is shown by several experiments.
On numerically accurate finite element
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nagtegaal, J. C.; Parks, D. M.; Rice, J. R.
1974-01-01
A general criterion for testing a mesh with topologically similar repeat units is given, and the analysis shows that only a few conventional element types and arrangements are, or can be made suitable for computations in the fully plastic range. Further, a new variational principle, which can easily and simply be incorporated into an existing finite element program, is presented. This allows accurate computations to be made even for element designs that would not normally be suitable. Numerical results are given for three plane strain problems, namely pure bending of a beam, a thick-walled tube under pressure, and a deep double edge cracked tensile specimen. The effects of various element designs and of the new variational procedure are illustrated. Elastic-plastic computation at finite strain are discussed.
On PAC learning of functions with smoothness properties using feedforward sigmoidal networks
Rao, N.S.V.; Protopopescu, V.A.
1996-04-01
We consider Probably and Approximately Corrct (PAC) learning of an unknown function f: [0,1]{sup d} {r_arrow} [0,1], based on finite samples using feedforward sigmoidal networks. The unknown function f is chosen from the family F{intersection}C([0,1]{sup d}) or F{intersection}L{sup {infinity}}([0,1]{sup d}), where F has either bounded modulus of smoothness or bounded capacity or both. The learning sample is given by (X{sub 1},f(X{sub 1})),(X{sub 2},f(X{sub 2})),{hor_ellipsis},(X{sub n},f(X{sub n})), where X{sub 1},X{sub 2},{hor_ellipsis},X{sub n} are independently and identically distributed according to an unknown distribution. We consider the feedforward networks with a a single hidden layer of 1/(1 + e{sup {minus}{gamma}z})-units and bounded parameters, but the results can be extended to other neural networks where the hidden units satisfy suitable smoothness conditions. We analyze three function estimators based on nearest neighbor rule, local averaging, and Nadaraya-Watson estimator, all computed using the Haar system. It is shown that given a sufficiently large sample, each of these estimators approximates the best neural network to any given error with arbitrarily high probability. This result is crucical for establishing the essentially equivalent capabilities of neural networks and the above estimators for PAC learning from finite samples. Practical importance of this ``equivalence`` stems from the fact that computing a neural network which approximates the best possible one is computationally difficult, whereas the three estimators are linear-time computable in terms of sample size.
Finite temperature instability for compactification
Accetta, F.S.; Kolb, E.W.
1986-03-01
We consider finite temperature effects upon theories with extra dimensions compactified via vacuum stress energy (Casimir) effects. For sufficiently high temperature, a static configuration for the internal space is impossible. At somewhat lower temperatures, there is an instability due to thermal fluctuations of radius of the compact dimensions. For both cases, the Universe can evolve to a de Sitter-like expansion of all dimensions. Stability to late times constrains the initial entropy of the universe. 28 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Finite element model and identification procedure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
How, Jonathan P.; Blackwood, Gary; Anderson, Eric; Balmes, Etienne
1992-01-01
Viewgraphs on finite element model and identification procedure are presented. Topics covered include: interferometer finite element model; testbed mode shapes; finite element model update; identification procedure; shaker locations; data analysis; modal frequency and damping comparison; computational procedure; fit comparison; residue analysis; typical residues; identification/FEM residual comparison; and pathlength control using isolation mounts.
Finite formulations of renormalizable theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henderson, Robert James
1997-10-01
In this thesis we attempt to understand renormalization and effective field theories at a deeper level than has been achieved in the past. By finding ways to construct for renormalizable theories finite formulations which avoid the necessity of the renormalization procedure altogether, we hope to gain insight into the structure of these field theories. More than this it is our hope that finite formulations may ease calculations and the effort to make physical predictions based on such theories. Toward this end we first investigate quantum mechanical systems of bosons interacting via attractive 'contact' (δ-function) interactions in two-dimensional space. In the Hamiltonian picture of the quantum dynamics, we find that the proper way to encode the renormalized interaction is through a boundary condition on wavefunctions, i.e. a choice of Hamiltonian domain. In the path integral picture the finite formulation of the interaction comes as a subtle modification to the Wiener measure. We also investigate a renormalizable quantum field theory describing the dynamics of fermions in one space dimension. We consider this system in the limit N/rightarrow/infty, where N is the number of fermion colors, and show that in this limit the theory transforms into a bilocal, renormalizable classical field theory. We renormalize this theory and find a class of solitons solutions which are proved to be the large-N limits of particles in the original quantum theory.
Finite groups and quantum physics
Kornyak, V. V.
2013-02-15
Concepts of quantum theory are considered from the constructive 'finite' point of view. The introduction of a continuum or other actual infinities in physics destroys constructiveness without any need for them in describing empirical observations. It is shown that quantum behavior is a natural consequence of symmetries of dynamical systems. The underlying reason is that it is impossible in principle to trace the identity of indistinguishable objects in their evolution-only information about invariant statements and values concerning such objects is available. General mathematical arguments indicate that any quantum dynamics is reducible to a sequence of permutations. Quantum phenomena, such as interference, arise in invariant subspaces of permutation representations of the symmetry group of a dynamical system. Observable quantities can be expressed in terms of permutation invariants. It is shown that nonconstructive number systems, such as complex numbers, are not needed for describing quantum phenomena. It is sufficient to employ cyclotomic numbers-a minimal extension of natural numbers that is appropriate for quantum mechanics. The use of finite groups in physics, which underlies the present approach, has an additional motivation. Numerous experiments and observations in the particle physics suggest the importance of finite groups of relatively small orders in some fundamental processes. The origin of these groups is unclear within the currently accepted theories-in particular, within the Standard Model.
Evolutionary dynamics in finite populations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hauert, Christoph
2013-03-01
Traditionally, evolutionary dynamics has been studied based on infinite populations and deterministic frameworks such as the replicator equation. Only more recently the focus has shifted to the stochastic dynamics arising in finite populations. Over the past years new concepts have been developed to describe such dynamics and has lead to interesting results that arise from the stochastic, microscopic updates, which drive the evolutionary process. Here we discuss a transparent link between the dynamics in finite and infinite populations. The focus on microscopic processes reveals interesting insights into (sometimes implicit) assumptions in terms of biological interactions that provide the basis for deterministic frameworks and the replicator equation in particular. More specifically, we demonstrate that stochastic differential equations can provide an efficient approach to model evolutionary dynamics in finite populations and we use the rock-scissors-paper game with mutations as an example. For sufficiently large populations the agreement with individual based simulations is excellent, with the interesting caveat that mutation events may not be too rare. In the absence of mutations, the excellent agreement extends to small population sizes.
CPI-17-deficient smooth muscle of chicken
Kitazawa, Toshio; Polzin, Atsuko N; Eto, Masumi
2004-01-01
Ca2+ sensitivity of arterial contractility is governed by regulating myosin phosphatase activity in response to agonist stimuli. CPI-17, a myosin phosphatase inhibitor phosphoprotein, is phosphorylated concomitantly with agonist-induced contractile Ca2+ sensitization in mammalian artery. CPI-17 has not been detected in chicken artery, but is readily detectable in pigeon artery. To evaluate a role of CPI-17, we compared contractility of the arteries of ‘CPI-17-deficient’ chicken with those of CPI-17-rich rabbit and pigeon, and studied the effect of CPI-17-reconstitution in chicken artery. Other major regulatory/contractile proteins for Ca2+ sensitization are expressed in both chicken and rabbit arteries. Agonists, such as an α1-agonist and endothelin-1, produced significant contraction in arteries of all species under physiological Ca2+-containing conditions. Depletion of Ca2+ abolished these contractions in chicken but partially inhibited them in rabbit and pigeon arteries. Unlike CPI-17-rich tissues, chicken arteries exerted little Ca2+ sensitization in response to α1-agonist or endothelin-1. GTPγS produced a slight Ca2+ sensitizing effect in chicken artery, but this was significantly smaller compared with CPI-17-rich tissues. A PKC activator (PDBu) did not generate but rather reduced a contraction in both intact and α-toxin-permeabilized chicken artery in contrast to a large contraction in CPI-17-rich arteries. Myosin light chain phosphorylation was reduced by PDBu in chicken but elevated in rabbit artery. Addition of recombinant CPI-17 into β-escin-permeabilized chicken artery restored PDBu-induced and enhanced GTPγS-induced Ca2+ sensitization. Thus, CPI-17 is essential for G protein/PKC-mediated Ca2+ sensitization in smooth muscle. PMID:15090608
Neptune's Orbital Migration Was Grainy, Not Smooth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David
2016-07-01
The Kuiper Belt is a population of icy bodies beyond the orbit of Neptune. The complex orbital structure of the Kuiper Belt, including several categories of objects inside and outside of resonances with Neptune, emerged as a result of Neptune’s migration into an outer planetesimal disk. An outstanding problem with the existing migration models is that they invariably predict excessively large resonant populations, while observations show that the non-resonant orbits are in fact common (e.g., the main belt population is ≃2-4 times larger than Plutinos in the 3:2 resonance). Here we show that this problem can be resolved if it is assumed that Neptune’s migration was grainy, as expected from scattering encounters of Neptune with massive planetesimals. The grainy migration acts to destabilize resonant bodies with large libration amplitudes, a fraction of which ends up on stable non-resonant orbits. Thus, the non-resonant-to-resonant ratio obtained with the grainy migration is higher, up to ˜10 times higher for the range of parameters investigated here, than in a model with smooth migration. In addition, the grainy migration leads to a narrower distribution of the libration amplitudes in the 3:2 resonance. The best fit to observations is obtained when it is assumed that the outer planetesimal disk below 30 au contained 1000-4000 Plutos. We estimate that the combined mass of Pluto-class objects in the original disk represented 10%-40% of the estimated disk mass ({M}{{disk}}≃ 20 {M}{{Earth}}). This constraint can be used to better understand the accretion processes in the outer solar system.
Smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monaghan, J. J.
2006-01-01
This paper is concerned with the smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulation of shear flow and the recent claim by Imaeda & Inutsuka that SPH has a fundamental flaw that is revealed by shear flow simulations. In order to clarify the SPH simulations, we study several representative shear flows. First, to compare against realistic exact time-dependent solutions, we simulate steady, periodic, low Mach number, inviscid shear flow in rectangular domains and the time-dependent, viscous, low Mach number evolution of both Couette flow in a rectangular domain and axisymmetric spin-down in a cylinder. These simulations are in good agreement with exact solutions. Secondly, to determine how well SPH simulates astrophysical discs, we simulate a differentially rotating, adiabatic, self-gravitating disc using as initial states variable-mass particles on a lattice, equal-mass particles on rings and on a lattice, and particles placed at random. The results show that the SPH results agree well with theory and are independent of the initial particle setup provided they are settled to equilibrium. Thirdly, we simulate a thin, two-dimensional, gaseous torus orbiting a gravitating mass and show that it is stable for at least the time integrated, and that when strongly perturbed the motion conserves circulation. None of these systems shows the huge density fluctuations found by Imaeda & Inutsuka. The flaw in the argument of Imaeda & Inutsuka may be the way they set up the initial configurations, but this is not certain because they do not describe their initial setup in sufficient detail to allow their simulations to be repeated. The conclusions of the present paper are in agreement with those obtained recently by Price, who simulated some of the systems considered by Imaeda & Inutsuka and found that the SPH results were in good agreement with theory.
Anoctamins and gastrointestinal smooth muscle excitability.
Sanders, Kenton M; Zhu, Mei Hong; Britton, Fiona; Koh, Sang Don; Ward, Sean M
2012-02-01
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) generate electrical pacemaker activity in gastrointestinal smooth muscles. We investigated whether Tmem16a, which encodes anoctamin 1 (ANO1), a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel, might be involved in pacemaker activity in ICC. The Tmem16a transcripts and ANO1 were expressed robustly in GI muscles, specifically in ICC in murine, non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and human GI tracts. Splice variants of Tmem16a, as well as other paralogues of the Tmem16 family, were expressed in gastrointestinal muscles. Calcium-activated Cl(-) channel blocking drugs, niflumic acid and DIDS blocked slow waves in intact muscles of mouse, primate and human small intestine and stomach. Slow waves failed to develop in Tmem16a knock-out mice (Tmem16a(tm1Bdh/tm1Bdh)). The pacemaker mechanism was investigated in isolated ICC from transgenic mice with constitutive expression of copepod super green fluorescent protein (copGFP). Depolarization of ICC activated inward currents due to a Cl(-)-selective conductance. Removal of extracellular Ca(2+), replacement of Ca(2+) with Ba(2+), or extracellular Ni(2+) (30 μM) blocked the inward current. Single Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels with a unitary conductance of 7.8 pS were resolved in excised patches from ICC. The inward current was blocked in a concentration-dependent manner by niflumic acid (IC(50) = 4.8 μM). The role of ANO1 in cholinergic responses in ICC was also investigated. Carbachol activated Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents in ICC, and responses to cholinergic nerve stimulation were blocked by niflumic acid in intact muscles. Anoctamin 1 is a prominent conductance in ICC, and these channels appear to be involved in pacemaker activity and in responses to enteric excitatory neurotransmitters.
Caffeine relaxes smooth muscle through actin depolymerization
Tazzeo, Tracy; Bates, Genevieve; Roman, Horia Nicolae; Lauzon, Anne-Marie; Khasnis, Mukta D.; Eto, Masumi
2012-01-01
Caffeine is sometimes used in cell physiological studies to release internally stored Ca2+. We obtained evidence that caffeine may also act through a different mechanism that has not been previously described and sought to examine this in greater detail. We ruled out a role for phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition, since the effect was 1) not reversed by inhibiting PKA or adenylate cyclase; 2) not exacerbated by inhibiting PDE4; and 3) not mimicked by submillimolar caffeine nor theophylline, both of which are sufficient to inhibit PDE. Although caffeine is an agonist of bitter taste receptors, which in turn mediate bronchodilation, its relaxant effect was not mimicked by quinine. After permeabilizing the membrane using β-escin and depleting the internal Ca2+ store using A23187, we found that 10 mM caffeine reversed tone evoked by direct application of Ca2+, suggesting it functionally antagonizes the contractile apparatus. Using a variety of molecular techniques, we found that caffeine did not affect phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) by MLC kinase, actin-filament motility catalyzed by MLC kinase, phosphorylation of CPI-17 by either protein kinase C or RhoA kinase, nor the activity of MLC-phosphatase. However, we did obtain evidence that caffeine decreased actin filament binding to phosphorylated myosin heads and increased the ratio of globular to filamentous actin in precontracted tissues. We conclude that, in addition to its other non-RyR targets, caffeine also interferes with actin function (decreased binding by myosin, possibly with depolymerization), an effect that should be borne in mind in studies using caffeine to probe excitation-contraction coupling in smooth muscle. PMID:22683573
Eosinophils induce airway smooth muscle cell proliferation.
Halwani, Rabih; Vazquez-Tello, Alejandro; Sumi, Yuki; Pureza, Mary Angeline; Bahammam, Ahmed; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; Soussi-Gounni, Abdelillah; Mahboub, Bassam; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Hamid, Qutayba
2013-04-01
Asthma is characterized by eosinophilic airway inflammation and remodeling of the airway wall. Features of airway remodeling include increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. However, little is known about the interaction between inflammatory eosinophils and ASM cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of eosinophils on ASM cell proliferation. Eosinophils were isolated from peripheral blood of mild asthmatics and non-asthmatic subjects and co-cultured with human primary ASM cells. ASM proliferation was estimated using Ki-67 expression assay. The expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) mRNA in ASM cells was measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The role of eosinophil derived Cysteinyl Leukotrienes (CysLTs) in enhancing ASM proliferation was estimated by measuring the release of leukotrienes from eosinophils upon their direct contact with ASM cells using ELISA. This role was confirmed either by blocking eosinophil-ASM contact or co-culturing them in the presence of leukotrienes antagonist. ASM cells co-cultured with eosinophils, isolated from asthmatics, but not non-asthmatics, had a significantly higher rate of proliferation compared to controls. This increase in ASM proliferation was independent of their release of ECM proteins but dependent upon eosinophils release of CysLTs. Eosinophil-ASM cell to cell contact was required for CysLTs release. Preventing eosinophil contact with ASM cells using anti-adhesion molecules antibodies, or blocking the activity of eosinophil derived CysLTs using montelukast inhibited ASM proliferation. Our results indicated that eosinophils contribute to airway remodeling during asthma by enhancing ASM cell proliferation and hence increasing ASM mass. Direct contact of eosinophils with ASM cells triggers their release of CysLTs which enhance ASM proliferation. Eosinophils, and their binding to ASM cells, constitute a potential therapeutic target to interfere with the series of biological events leading to airway remodeling
Nie, Xuqing; Li, Shengyi; Shi, Feng; Hu, Hao
2014-02-20
The smoothing effect of the rigid lap plays an important role in controlling midspatial frequency errors (MSFRs). At present, the pressure distribution between the polishing pad and processed surface is mainly calculated by Mehta's bridging model. However, this classic model does not work for the irregular MSFR. In this paper, a generalized numerical model based on the finite element method (FEM) is proposed to solve this problem. First, the smoothing polishing (SP) process is transformed to a 3D elastic structural FEM model, and the governing matrix equation is gained. By virtue of the boundary conditions applied to the governing matrix equation, the nodal displacement vector and nodal force vector of the pad can be attained, from which the pressure distribution can be extracted. In the partial contact condition, the iterative method is needed. The algorithmic routine is shown, and the applicability of the generalized numerical model is discussed. The detailed simulation is given when the lap is in contact with the irregular surface of different morphologies. A well-designed SP experiment is conducted in our lab to verify the model. A small difference between the experimental data and simulated result shows that the model is totally practicable. The generalized numerical model is applied on a Φ500 mm parabolic surface. The calculated result and measured data after the SP process have been compared, which indicates that the model established in this paper is an effective method to predict the SP process.
Smooth gauge strings and /D>=2 lattice Yang-Mills theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubin, Andrey Yu.
2000-08-01
Employing the nonabelian duality transformation [A. Dubin, hep-th/9910264], I derive the gauge string form of certain D≥3 lattice Yang-Mills (YM D) theories in the strong coupling (SC) phase. With the judicious choice of the actions, in D≥3 our construction generalizes the Gross-Taylor stringy reformulation of the continuous YM 2 on a 2d manifold. Using the Eguchi-Kawai model as an example, we develop the algorithm to determine the weights w[ M˜] for connected YM-flux worldsheets M˜ immersed into the 2d skeleton of a D≥3 base-lattice. Owing to the invariance of w[ M˜] under a continuous group of area-preserving worldsheet homeomorphisms, the set of weights {w[ M˜]} can be used to define the theory of the smooth YM-fluxes which unambiguously refers to a particular continuous YM D system. I argue that the latter YM D models (with a finite ultraviolet cut-off) for sufficiently large coupling constant(s) are reproduced, to all orders in 1/N, by the smooth gauge string thus associated. The asserted YM D/ String duality allows to make a concrete prediction for the `bare' string tension σ 0 which implies that (in the large N SC regime) the continuous YM D systems exhibit confinement for D≥2. The resulting pattern is qualitatively consistent (in the extreme D=4 SC limit) with the Witten's proposal motivated by the AdS /CFT correspondence.
Strictly finite-range potential for light and heavy nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salamon, P.; Lovas, R. G.; Betan, R. M. Id; Vertse, T.; Balkay, L.
2014-05-01
Strictly finite-range (SFR) potentials are exactly zero beyond their finite range. Single-particle energies and densities, as well as S-matrix pole trajectories, are studied in a few SFR potentials suited for the description of neutrons interacting with light and heavy nuclei. The SFR potentials considered are the standard cutoff Woods-Saxon (CWS) potentials and two potentials approaching zero smoothly: the SV potential introduced by Salamon and Vertse [Phys. Rev. C 77, 037302 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevC.77.037302] and the SS potential of Sahu and Sahu [Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 21, 1250067 (2012), 10.1142/S021830131250067X]. The parameters of these latter potentials were set so that the potentials may be similar to the CWS shape. The range of the SV and SS potentials scales with the cube root of the mass number of the core like the nuclear radius itself. For light nuclei a single term of the SV potential (with a single parameter) is enough for a good description of the neutron-nucleus interaction. The trajectories are compared with a benchmark for which the starting points (belonging to potential depth zero) can be determined independently. Even the CWS potential is found to conform to this benchmark if the range is identified with the cutoff radius. For the CWS potentials some trajectories show irregular shapes, while for the SV and SS potentials all trajectories behave regularly.
Finite-temperature screening of U (1) fractons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pretko, Michael
2017-09-01
We investigate the finite-temperature screening behavior of three-dimensional U (1 ) spin-liquid phases with fracton excitations. Several features are shared with the conventional U (1 ) spin liquid. The system can exhibit spin-liquid physics over macroscopic length scales at low temperatures, but screening effects eventually lead to a smooth finite-temperature crossover to a trivial phase at sufficiently large distances. However, unlike more conventional U (1 ) spin liquids, we find that complete low-temperature screening of fractons requires not only very large distances, but also very long time scales. At the longest time scales, a charged disturbance (fracton) will acquire a screening cloud of other fractons, resulting in only short-range correlations in the system. At intermediate time scales, on the other hand, a fracton can only be partially screened by a cloud of mobile excitations, leaving weak power-law correlations in the system. Such residual power-law correlations may be a useful diagnostic in an experimental search for U (1 ) fracton phases.
The mixed finite element multigrid method for stokes equations.
Muzhinji, K; Shateyi, S; Motsa, S S
2015-01-01
The stable finite element discretization of the Stokes problem produces a symmetric indefinite system of linear algebraic equations. A variety of iterative solvers have been proposed for such systems in an attempt to construct efficient, fast, and robust solution techniques. This paper investigates one of such iterative solvers, the geometric multigrid solver, to find the approximate solution of the indefinite systems. The main ingredient of the multigrid method is the choice of an appropriate smoothing strategy. This study considers the application of different smoothers and compares their effects in the overall performance of the multigrid solver. We study the multigrid method with the following smoothers: distributed Gauss Seidel, inexact Uzawa, preconditioned MINRES, and Braess-Sarazin type smoothers. A comparative study of the smoothers shows that the Braess-Sarazin smoothers enhance good performance of the multigrid method. We study the problem in a two-dimensional domain using stable Hood-Taylor Q2-Q1 pair of finite rectangular elements. We also give the main theoretical convergence results. We present the numerical results to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the multigrid method and confirm the theoretical results.
Surface roughness effect on finite oil journal bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, B. C.; Hamrock, B. J.
1981-01-01
A theoretical study of the performance of finite oil journal bearings is made, considering the surface roughness effect. The total load supporting ability under such a condition derives from the hydrodynamic as well as asperity contact pressure. These two components of load are calculated separately. The average Reynolds equation for partially lubricated surfaces is used to evaluate hydrodynamic pressure. An analytical expression for average film thickness is obtained and introduced to modify the average Reynolds equation. The resulting differential equation is then solved numerically by finite difference methods for mean hydrodynamic pressure, which in turn gives the hydrodynamic load. Assuming the surface height distribution as Gaussian, the asperity contact pressure is found. The effect of surface roughness parameter, surface pattern, eccentricity ratio, and length to diameter ratio on hydrodynamic load and on side leakage is investigated. It is shown that hydrodynamic load increases with increasing surface roughness when both journal and bearing surfaces have identical roughness structures or when the journal only has a rough surface. The trend of hydrodynamic load is reversed if the journal surface is smooth and the bearing surface is rough.
The Mixed Finite Element Multigrid Method for Stokes Equations
Muzhinji, K.; Shateyi, S.; Motsa, S. S.
2015-01-01
The stable finite element discretization of the Stokes problem produces a symmetric indefinite system of linear algebraic equations. A variety of iterative solvers have been proposed for such systems in an attempt to construct efficient, fast, and robust solution techniques. This paper investigates one of such iterative solvers, the geometric multigrid solver, to find the approximate solution of the indefinite systems. The main ingredient of the multigrid method is the choice of an appropriate smoothing strategy. This study considers the application of different smoothers and compares their effects in the overall performance of the multigrid solver. We study the multigrid method with the following smoothers: distributed Gauss Seidel, inexact Uzawa, preconditioned MINRES, and Braess-Sarazin type smoothers. A comparative study of the smoothers shows that the Braess-Sarazin smoothers enhance good performance of the multigrid method. We study the problem in a two-dimensional domain using stable Hood-Taylor Q2-Q1 pair of finite rectangular elements. We also give the main theoretical convergence results. We present the numerical results to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the multigrid method and confirm the theoretical results. PMID:25945361
Efficient parallel algorithms for elastic plastic finite element analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, K. Z.; Qin, Q.-H.; Cardew-Hall, M.; Kalyanasundaram, S.
2008-03-01
This paper presents our new development of parallel finite element algorithms for elastic plastic problems. The proposed method is based on dividing the original structure under consideration into a number of substructures which are treated as isolated finite element models via the interface conditions. Throughout the analysis, each processor stores only the information relevant to its substructure and generates the local stiffness matrix. A parallel substructure oriented preconditioned conjugate gradient method, which is combined with MR smoothing and diagonal storage scheme are employed to solve linear systems of equations. After having obtained the displacements of the problem under consideration, a substepping scheme is used to integrate elastic plastic stress strain relations. The procedure outlined controls the error of the computed stress by choosing each substep size automatically according to a prescribed tolerance. The combination of these algorithms shows a good speedup when increasing the number of processors and the effective solution of 3D elastic plastic problems whose size is much too large for a single workstation becomes possible.
Seydewitz, Robert; Menzel, Robin; Siebert, Tobias; Böl, Markus
2017-04-12
The urinary bladder is a central organ of vertebrates and imposes, based on its extreme deformation (volume changes up to several 100%), special requirements on the overall bladder tissue. However, studies focusing on three-dimensional modelling of bladder deformation and bladder function during micturition are rare. Based on three fields, namely, the membrane potential, calcium concentration, and placement, a mechano-electrochemical-coupled, three-dimensional model describing the contractile behaviour of urinary bladder smooth muscle is presented using a strain energy function. The strain energy functions for the different layers of the bladder wall are additively decomposed into a passive part comprising elastin, the extracellular matrix (ECM), and collagen and an active electrochemical-driven part comprising the contraction of smooth muscle cells (SMC). While the two-variable FitzHugh-Nagumo-type membrane model (FitzHugh, 1961; Nagumo et al., 1962) has been used to describe the membrane potential characteristics, the four-state, cross-bridge model of Hai and Murphy (1988) is implemented into the finite element method for the quantification of the calcium phase. Appropriate model parameters were determined experimentally using 40 tissue strips isolated from porcine bladders. Characteristic orientation-dependent passive and active stress-stretch relationships were identified for muscle strips, including the entire bladder wall structure and those featuring the isolated muscle layer only. Active experiments on the smooth muscle layers revealed higher stresses in the longitudinal (28.9kPa) direction than in the transversal (22.7kPa) one. Additionally, three-dimensional deformation characteristics were recorded from single muscle strips to qualitatively confirm the strip simulations. Three-dimensional simulations at the tissue strip level and the organ level were performed to analyse the interaction among the electrical action potential, calcium distribution
Finite-size key in the Bennett 1992 quantum-key-distribution protocol for Rényi entropies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mafu, Mhlambululi; Garapo, Kevin; Petruccione, Francesco
2013-12-01
A realistic quantum-key-distribution protocol necessarily runs with finite resources. Usually, security proofs for existing quantum key distribution are asymptotic in the sense that certain parameters are exceedingly large compared to practical realistic values. In this paper, we derive bounds on the secret key rates for the Bennett 1992 protocol, which includes a preprocessing step. The derivation for a finite-size key is expressed as an optimization problem by using results from the uncertainty relations and the smooth Rényi entropies.
The use of Ixaru's method in locating the poles of the S-matrix in strictly finite-range potentials
Vertse, Tamas; Lovas, R. G.; Racz, A.; Salamon, P.
2012-09-26
Energies of the S-matrix poles are calculated by solving the radial Schroedinger equation numerically by using Ixaru's CPM(2) method. The trajectories of the poles in the complex wave number plane are determined for two nuclear potentials that are zero beyond finite distances. These are the Woods-Saxon form with cutoff and the Salamon-Vertse potential, which goes to zero smoothly at a finite distance. Properties of the trajectories are analyzed for real and complex values of the depths of the corresponding potentials.
Method to geometrically personalize a detailed finite-element model of the spine.
Lalonde, Nadine Michèle; Petit, Yvan; Aubin, Carl-Eric; Wagnac, Eric; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean
2013-07-01
To date, developing geometrically personalized and detailed solid finite-element models (FEMs) of the spine remains a challenge, notably due to multiple articulations and complex geometries. To answer this problem, a methodology based on a free-form deformation technique (kriging) was developed to deform a detailed reference finite-element mesh of the spine (including discs and ligaments) to the patient-specific geometry of 10- and 82-year-old asymptomatic spines. Different kriging configurations were tested: with or without smoothing, and control points on or surrounding the entire mesh. Based on the results, it is recommended to use surrounding control points and smoothing. The mean node to surface distance between the deformed and target geometries was 0.3±1.1 mm. Most elements met the mesh quality criteria (95%) after deformation, without interference at the articular facets. The method's novelty lies in the deformation of the entire spine at once, as opposed to deforming each vertebra separately, with surrounding control points and smoothing. This enables the transformation of reference vertebrae and soft tissues to obtain complete and personalized FEMs of the spine with minimal postprocessing to optimize the mesh.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lohmann, Christoph; Kuzmin, Dmitri; Shadid, John N.; Mabuza, Sibusiso
2017-09-01
This work extends the flux-corrected transport (FCT) methodology to arbitrary order continuous finite element discretizations of scalar conservation laws on simplex meshes. Using Bernstein polynomials as local basis functions, we constrain the total variation of the numerical solution by imposing local discrete maximum principles on the Bézier net. The design of accuracy-preserving FCT schemes for high order Bernstein-Bézier finite elements requires the development of new algorithms and/or generalization of limiting techniques tailored for linear and multilinear Lagrange elements. In this paper, we propose (i) a new discrete upwinding strategy leading to local extremum bounded low order approximations with compact stencils, (ii) high order variational stabilization based on the difference between two gradient approximations, and (iii) new localized limiting techniques for antidiffusive element contributions. The optional use of a smoothness indicator, based on a second derivative test, makes it possible to potentially avoid unnecessary limiting at smooth extrema and achieve optimal convergence rates for problems with smooth solutions. The accuracy of the proposed schemes is assessed in numerical studies for the linear transport equation in 1D and 2D.
All-DNA finite-state automata with finite memory
Wang, Zhen-Gang; Elbaz, Johann; Remacle, F.; Levine, R. D.; Willner, Itamar
2010-01-01
Biomolecular logic devices can be applied for sensing and nano-medicine. We built three DNA tweezers that are activated by the inputs H+/OH-; ; nucleic acid linker/complementary antilinker to yield a 16-states finite-state automaton. The outputs of the automata are the configuration of the respective tweezers (opened or closed) determined by observing fluorescence from a fluorophore/quencher pair at the end of the arms of the tweezers. The system exhibits a memory because each current state and output depend not only on the source configuration but also on past states and inputs. PMID:21135212
All-DNA finite-state automata with finite memory.
Wang, Zhen-Gang; Elbaz, Johann; Remacle, F; Levine, R D; Willner, Itamar
2010-12-21
Biomolecular logic devices can be applied for sensing and nano-medicine. We built three DNA tweezers that are activated by the inputs H(+)/OH(-); ; nucleic acid linker/complementary antilinker to yield a 16-states finite-state automaton. The outputs of the automata are the configuration of the respective tweezers (opened or closed) determined by observing fluorescence from a fluorophore/quencher pair at the end of the arms of the tweezers. The system exhibits a memory because each current state and output depend not only on the source configuration but also on past states and inputs.
Smooth pursuit eye movements and schizophrenia: literature review.
Franco, J G; de Pablo, J; Gaviria, A M; Sepúlveda, E; Vilella, E
2014-09-01
To review the scientific literature about the relationship between impairment on smooth pursuit eye movements and schizophrenia. Narrative review that includes historical articles, reports about basic and clinical investigation, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis on the topic. Up to 80% of schizophrenic patients have impairment of smooth pursuit eye movements. Despite the diversity of test protocols, 65% of patients and controls are correctly classified by their overall performance during this pursuit. The smooth pursuit eye movements depend on the ability to anticipate the target's velocity and the visual feedback, as well as on learning and attention. The neuroanatomy implicated in smooth pursuit overlaps to some extent with certain frontal cortex zones associated with some clinical and neuropsychological characteristics of the schizophrenia, therefore some specific components of smooth pursuit anomalies could serve as biomarkers of the disease. Due to their sedative effect, antipsychotics have a deleterious effect on smooth pursuit eye movements, thus these movements cannot be used to evaluate the efficacy of the currently available treatments. Standardized evaluation of smooth pursuit eye movements on schizophrenia will allow to use specific aspects of that pursuit as biomarkers for the study of its genetics, psychopathology, or neuropsychology. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Computer programs for smoothing and scaling airfoil coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morgan, H. L., Jr.
1983-01-01
Detailed descriptions are given of the theoretical methods and associated computer codes of a program to smooth and a program to scale arbitrary airfoil coordinates. The smoothing program utilizes both least-squares polynomial and least-squares cubic spline techniques to smooth interatively the second derivatives of the y-axis airfoil coordinates with respect to a transformed x-axis system which unwraps the airfoil and stretches the nose and trailing-edge regions. The corresponding smooth airfoil coordinates are then determined by solving a tridiagonal matrix of simultaneous cubic-spline equations relating the y-axis coordinates and their corresponding second derivatives. A technique for computing the camber and thickness distribution of the smoothed airfoil is also discussed. The scaling program can then be used to scale the thickness distribution generated by the smoothing program to a specific maximum thickness which is then combined with the camber distribution to obtain the final scaled airfoil contour. Computer listings of the smoothing and scaling programs are included.
An invertebrate smooth muscle with striated muscle myosin filaments.
Sulbarán, Guidenn; Alamo, Lorenzo; Pinto, Antonio; Márquez, Gustavo; Méndez, Franklin; Padrón, Raúl; Craig, Roger
2015-10-20
Muscle tissues are classically divided into two major types, depending on the presence or absence of striations. In striated muscles, the actin filaments are anchored at Z-lines and the myosin and actin filaments are in register, whereas in smooth muscles, the actin filaments are attached to dense bodies and the myosin and actin filaments are out of register. The structure of the filaments in smooth muscles is also different from that in striated muscles. Here we have studied the structure of myosin filaments from the smooth muscles of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. We find, surprisingly, that they are indistinguishable from those in an arthropod striated muscle. This structural similarity is supported by sequence comparison between the schistosome myosin II heavy chain and known striated muscle myosins. In contrast, the actin filaments of schistosomes are similar to those of smooth muscles, lacking troponin-dependent regulation. We conclude that schistosome muscles are hybrids, containing striated muscle-like myosin filaments and smooth muscle-like actin filaments in a smooth muscle architecture. This surprising finding has broad significance for understanding how muscles are built and how they evolved, and challenges the paradigm that smooth and striated muscles always have distinctly different components.
An invertebrate smooth muscle with striated muscle myosin filaments
Sulbarán, Guidenn; Alamo, Lorenzo; Pinto, Antonio; Márquez, Gustavo; Méndez, Franklin; Padrón, Raúl; Craig, Roger
2015-01-01
Muscle tissues are classically divided into two major types, depending on the presence or absence of striations. In striated muscles, the actin filaments are anchored at Z-lines and the myosin and actin filaments are in register, whereas in smooth muscles, the actin filaments are attached to dense bodies and the myosin and actin filaments are out of register. The structure of the filaments in smooth muscles is also different from that in striated muscles. Here we have studied the structure of myosin filaments from the smooth muscles of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. We find, surprisingly, that they are indistinguishable from those in an arthropod striated muscle. This structural similarity is supported by sequence comparison between the schistosome myosin II heavy chain and known striated muscle myosins. In contrast, the actin filaments of schistosomes are similar to those of smooth muscles, lacking troponin-dependent regulation. We conclude that schistosome muscles are hybrids, containing striated muscle-like myosin filaments and smooth muscle-like actin filaments in a smooth muscle architecture. This surprising finding has broad significance for understanding how muscles are built and how they evolved, and challenges the paradigm that smooth and striated muscles always have distinctly different components. PMID:26443857
Neurotrophin and Neurotrophin Receptors in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells
Donovan, Michael J.; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Kraemer, Rosemary; McCaffrey, Timothy A.; Tessarollo, Lino; Mahadeo, Debbie; Sharif, Setareh; Kaplan, David R.; Tsoulfas, Pantelis; Parada, Luis; Toran-Allerand, C. Dominique; Hajjar, David P.; Hempstead, Barbara L.
1995-01-01
The neurotrophins, a family of related polypeptide growth factors including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin (NT)-3 and NT-4/5 promote the survival and differentiation of distinctive sets of embryonic neurons. Here we define a new functional role for neurotrophins, as autocrine or local paracrine mediators of vascular smooth muscle cell migration. We have identified neurotrophins, and their cognate receptors, the trk tyrosine kinases, in human and rat vascular smooth muscle cells in vivo. In vitro, cultured human smooth muscle cells express BDNF; NT-3; and trk A, B, and C Similarly, rat smooth muscle cells expressed all three trk receptors as well as all four neurotrophins. Moreover, NGF induces cultured human smooth muscle cell migration at subnanomolar concentrations. In the rat aortic balloon deendothelialization model of vascular injury, the expression of NGF, BDNF, and their receptors trk A and trk B increased dramatically in the area of injury within 3 days and persisted during the formation of the neointima. In human coronary atherosclerotic lesions, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4/5, and the trk B and trk C receptors could be demonstrated in smooth muscle cells. These findings suggest that neurotrophins play an important role in regulating the response of vascular smooth muscle cells to injury. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:7639328