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Sample records for edible mushroom flammulina

  1. Characteristics and Rheological Properties of Polysaccharide Nanoparticles from Edible Mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenhang; Li, Cong; Du, Guanhua; Zhang, Xiuling; Zhang, Hongjie

    2017-03-01

    Nanotechnology has become relevant in the food-related industries, and edible mushrooms can be a potential raw material for providing satisfied edible nanomaterial. In this study, by following 3 different pretreatments (hot water or cold alkali or hot alkali) insoluble polysaccharide nanoparticles were prepared from Flammulina velutipes by wet milling and high pressure homogenization and their properties were investigated. The resultant nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, GC-MS (for its main compositions), FTIR, XRD, and TG. The 1 wt% nanoparticle dispersions presented non-Newtonian, shear-thinning fluids with the viscosity in an increasing order for the hot water < cold alkali < hot alkali. Moreover, the dynamical rheological results showed differences of storage (G') and loss (G″) moduli of these particle dispersions. It was concluded that the Flammulina velutipes-derived polysaccharides nanoparticles have great potential applications in the food industry, for example, as emulsifiers, reinforcement agents, and bioactive carriers.

  2. Edible mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) extract inhibits melanosis in Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Encarnacion, Angel B; Fagutao, Fernand; Hirayama, Jinto; Terayama, Makoto; Hirono, Ikuo; Ohshima, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the potential of an aqueous extract of an edible mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) to prevent melanosis in cultured Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) with other antimelanosic compounds in vivo. The mushroom extract contained 9.1 mg/mL ergothioneine (ESH). Immersion of live full-grown shrimp in a 0.5% w/v solution of mushroom extract significantly reduced PPO activity in shrimp hemolymph. In addition, expression of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) gene decreased in hemocytes, suggesting that the extract blocked the activation of the proPO cascade. Consequently, the development of melanosis in the treated shrimp was significantly suppressed during ice storage. Treatment with a 0.05% w/v solution of sodium ascorbate and 4-hexyl-1,3-benzenediol had the same effect. In vitro experiments showed that ESH effectively inhibited PPO activity and activation of the proPO cascade in hemocyte lysate supernatant. This study suggests that in vivo application of F. velutipes mushroom extract is an effective natural alternative to synthetic antimelanosic agents to inhibit postmortem melanosis in shrimp. Practical Application: The extract of an edible mushroom (F. velutipes) containing ergothioneine can be a promising natural alternative to synthetic antimelanosic agents used to prevent postharvest melanosis in shrimp and other crustaceans. Furthermore, utilization of the mushroom trimmings could also help address the growing concerns on the disposal of such agricultural wastes and instead use it into a novel purpose as a source of antimelanosic and antioxidants for food and industrial application.

  3. Cloning and Expression Analysis of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Gene in the Mycelium and Fruit Body of the Edible Mushroom Flammulina velutipes

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Koo, Ja Sun

    2015-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene is known to be expressed in plants, and is involved in the differentiation, growth and synthesis of secondary metabolites. However, its expression in fungi remains to be explored. To understand its expression in mushroom fungi, the PAL gene of the edible mushroom Flammulina velutipes (Fvpal) was cloned and characterized. The cloned Fvpal consists of 2,175 bp, coding for a polypeptide containing 724 amino acids and having 11 introns. The translated amino acid sequence of Fvpal shares a high identity (66%) with that of ectomycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma matsutake. Distinctively, the Fvpal expression in the mycelium was higher in minimal medium supplemented with L-tyrosine than with other aromatic amino acids. During cultivation of the mushroom on sawdust medium, Fvpal expression in the fruit body correspondingly increased as the mushroom grew. In the fruiting body, Fvpal was expressed more in the stipe than in the pileus. These results suggest that F. velutipes PAL activity differs in the different organs of the mushroom. Overall, this is first report to show that the PAL gene expression is associated with mushroom growth in fungi. PMID:26539050

  4. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M; van Griensven, Leo

    2015-10-27

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  5. Antioxidant capacity and mineral contents of edible wild Australian mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Zeng, X; Suwandi, J; Fuller, J; Doronila, A; Ng, K

    2012-08-01

    Five selected edible wild Australian mushrooms, Morchella elata, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus eryngii, Cyttaria gunnii, and Flammulina velutipes, were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and mineral contents. The antioxidant capacities of the methanolic extracts of the dried caps of the mushrooms were determined using a number of different chemical reactions in evaluating multi-mechanistic antioxidant activities. These included the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, and ferrous ion chelating activity. Mineral contents of the dried caps of the mushrooms were also determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The results indicated that these edible wild mushrooms have a high antioxidant capacity and all, except C. gunnii, have a high level of several essential micro-nutrients such as copper, magnesium, and zinc. It can be concluded that these edible wild mushrooms are good sources of nutritional antioxidants and a number of mineral elements.

  6. Lectins from edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Singh, Senjam Sunil; Wang, Hexiang; Chan, Yau Sang; Pan, Wenliang; Dan, Xiuli; Yin, Cui Ming; Akkouh, Ouafae; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2014-12-31

    Mushrooms are famous for their nutritional and medicinal values and also for the diversity of bioactive compounds they contain including lectins. The present review is an attempt to summarize and discuss data available on molecular weights, structures, biological properties, N-terminal sequences and possible applications of lectins from edible mushrooms. It further aims to update and discuss/examine the recent advancements in the study of these lectins regarding their structures, functions, and exploitable properties. A detailed tabling of all the available data for N-terminal sequences of these lectins is also presented here.

  7. Selenium in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Selenium is vital to human health. This article is a compendium of virtually all the published data on total selenium concentrations, its distribution in fruitbody, bioconcentration factors, and chemical forms in wild-grown, cultivated, and selenium-enriched mushrooms worldwide. Of the 190 species reviewed (belonging to 21 families and 56 genera), most are considered edible, and a few selected data relate to inedible mushrooms. Most of edible mushroom species examined until now are selenium-poor (< 1 microg Se/g dry weight). The fruitbody of some species of wild-grown edible mushrooms is naturally rich in selenium; their occurrence data are reviewed, along with information on their suitability as a dietary source of selenium for humans, the impact of cooking and possible leaching out, the significance of traditional mushroom dishes, and the element's absorption rates and co-occurrence with some potentially problematic elements. The Goat's Foot (Albatrellus pes-caprae) with approximately 200 microg Se/g dw on average (maximum up to 370 microg/g dw) is the richest one in this element among the species surveyed. Several other representatives of the genus Albatrellus are also abundant in selenium. Of the most popular edible wild-grown mushrooms, the King Bolete (Boletus edulis) is considered abundant in selenium as well; on average, it contains approximately 20 microg Se/g dw (maximum up to 70 microg/g dw). Some species of the genus Boletus, such as B. pinicola, B. aereus, B. aestivalis, B. erythropus, and B. appendiculus, can also accumulate considerable amounts of selenium. Some other relatively rich sources of selenium include the European Pine Cone Lepidella (Amanita strobiliformis), which contains, on average, approximately 20 microg Se/g dw (up to 37 microg/g dw); the Macrolepiota spp., with an average range of approximately 5 to < 10 microg/g dw (an exception is M. rhacodes with < 10 microg/g dw); and the Lycoperdon spp., with an average of approximately 5

  8. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    PubMed Central

    Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

  9. WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS OF MEGHALAYA

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Paran; Adhikary, R.K; Kalita, Pabitra; Bordoloi, Dalimi; Gogoi, P.; Singh, R.S.; Ghosh, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Different flesh mushrooms grow widely in Meghalaya. Altogether fie edible species were collected and identified which were found abundantly in forest and are known to be consumed by local people for time immemorial, The species identified are lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing., Boletus edulis Bull ex Fr., Clavaria cinerea (Fr.) Schroet, Clavaria aurea (F) Quet and cantharellus floccosus Juss. PMID:22556840

  10. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Activity of Enoki Mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes)

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Wen-Ching; Lin, Li-Yun

    2014-01-01

    According to the literatures, Flammulina velutipes contains biologically active components such as dietary fiber, polysaccharide, and mycosterol, whose effects in reducing blood sugar, blood pressure, and cholesterol have been proven. This study used the active components extracted from Flammulina velutipes powder (FVP) and Flammulina velutipes extract (FVE) to investigate the impact of these active components on lipid metabolism of hamsters. The results show that the total dietary fiber content in FVP and FVE is 29.34 mg/100 g and 15.08 mg/100 g, respectively. The total mycosterol content is 46.57 ± 0.37 mg/100 g and 9.01 ± 0.17 mg/100 g, respectively. The male hamsters were subjected to lipid metabolism monitoring by adding 1, 2, and 3% FVP or FVE into their diets for a period of 8 weeks. The animal assay results show that the 3% FVP and FVE groups have the lowest concentration of TC (total cholesterol), TG (triacylglycerol), LDL (low density lipoprotein cholesterol), and LDL/HDL (high density lipoprotein cholesterol) in the serum and liver (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrate that the addition of 3% FVP or FVE has a significant effect on the lipid metabolism in hamsters whose increased level of HDL in the serum was induced by high fat diet. PMID:25250317

  11. Whole Genome and Global Gene Expression Analyses of the Model Mushroom Flammulina velutipes Reveal a High Capacity for Lignocellulose Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Jin; Baek, Jeong Hun; Lee, Seonwook; Kim, Changhoon; Rhee, Hwanseok; Kim, Hyungtae; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Park, Hae-Ran; Yoon, Dae-Eun; Nam, Jae-Young; Kim, Hong-Il; Kim, Jong-Guk; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kang, Hee-Wan; Cho, Jae-Yong; Song, Eun-Sung; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yoo, Young-Bok; Lee, Chang-Soo; Lee, Byoung-Moo; Kong, Won-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Flammulina velutipes is a fungus with health and medicinal benefits that has been used for consumption and cultivation in East Asia. F. velutipes is also known to degrade lignocellulose and produce ethanol. The overlapping interests of mushroom production and wood bioconversion make F. velutipes an attractive new model for fungal wood related studies. Here, we present the complete sequence of the F. velutipes genome. This is the first sequenced genome for a commercially produced edible mushroom that also degrades wood. The 35.6-Mb genome contained 12,218 predicted protein-encoding genes and 287 tRNA genes assembled into 11 scaffolds corresponding with the 11 chromosomes of strain KACC42780. The 88.4-kb mitochondrial genome contained 35 genes. Well-developed wood degrading machinery with strong potential for lignin degradation (69 auxiliary activities, formerly FOLymes) and carbohydrate degradation (392 CAZymes), along with 58 alcohol dehydrogenase genes were highly expressed in the mycelium, demonstrating the potential application of this organism to bioethanol production. Thus, the newly uncovered wood degrading capacity and sequential nature of this process in F. velutipes, offer interesting possibilities for more detailed studies on either lignin or (hemi-) cellulose degradation in complex wood substrates. The mutual interest in wood degradation by the mushroom industry and (ligno-)cellulose biomass related industries further increase the significance of F. velutipes as a new model. PMID:24714189

  12. Whole genome and global gene expression analyses of the model mushroom Flammulina velutipes reveal a high capacity for lignocellulose degradation.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Jin; Baek, Jeong Hun; Lee, Seonwook; Kim, Changhoon; Rhee, Hwanseok; Kim, Hyungtae; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Park, Hae-Ran; Yoon, Dae-Eun; Nam, Jae-Young; Kim, Hong-Il; Kim, Jong-Guk; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kang, Hee-Wan; Cho, Jae-Yong; Song, Eun-Sung; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yoo, Young-Bok; Lee, Chang-Soo; Lee, Byoung-Moo; Kong, Won-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Flammulina velutipes is a fungus with health and medicinal benefits that has been used for consumption and cultivation in East Asia. F. velutipes is also known to degrade lignocellulose and produce ethanol. The overlapping interests of mushroom production and wood bioconversion make F. velutipes an attractive new model for fungal wood related studies. Here, we present the complete sequence of the F. velutipes genome. This is the first sequenced genome for a commercially produced edible mushroom that also degrades wood. The 35.6-Mb genome contained 12,218 predicted protein-encoding genes and 287 tRNA genes assembled into 11 scaffolds corresponding with the 11 chromosomes of strain KACC42780. The 88.4-kb mitochondrial genome contained 35 genes. Well-developed wood degrading machinery with strong potential for lignin degradation (69 auxiliary activities, formerly FOLymes) and carbohydrate degradation (392 CAZymes), along with 58 alcohol dehydrogenase genes were highly expressed in the mycelium, demonstrating the potential application of this organism to bioethanol production. Thus, the newly uncovered wood degrading capacity and sequential nature of this process in F. velutipes, offer interesting possibilities for more detailed studies on either lignin or (hemi-) cellulose degradation in complex wood substrates. The mutual interest in wood degradation by the mushroom industry and (ligno-)cellulose biomass related industries further increase the significance of F. velutipes as a new model.

  13. Advances in Understanding Mating Type Gene Organization in the Mushroom-Forming Fungus Flammulina velutipes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Lian, Lingdan; Xu, Ping; Chou, Tiansheng; Mukhtar, Irum; Osakina, Aron; Waqas, Muhammad; Chen, Bingzhi; Liu, Xinrui; Liu, Fang; Xie, Baogui; van Peer, Arend F.

    2016-01-01

    The initiation of sexual development in the important edible and medicinal mushroom Flammulina velutipes is controlled by special genes at two different, independent, mating type (MAT) loci: HD and PR. We expanded our understanding of the F. velutipes mating type system by analyzing the MAT loci from a series of strains. The HD locus of F. velutipes houses homeodomain genes (Hd genes) on two separated locations: sublocus HD-a and HD-b. The HD-b subloci contained strain-specific Hd1/Hd2 gene pairs, and crosses between strains with different HD-b subloci indicated a role in mating. The function of the HD-a sublocus remained undecided. Many, but not all strains contained the same conserved Hd2 gene at the HD-a sublocus. The HD locus usually segregated as a whole, though we did detect one new HD locus with a HD-a sublocus from one parental strain, and a HD-b sublocus from the other. The PR locus of F. velutipes contained pheromone receptor (STE3) and pheromone precursor (Pp) genes at two locations, sublocus PR-a and PR-b. PR-a and PR-b both contained sets of strain-specific STE3 and Pp genes, indicating a role in mating. PR-a and PR-b cosegregated in our experiments. However, the identification of additional strains with identical PR-a, yet different PR-b subloci, demonstrated that PR subloci can recombine within the PR locus. In conclusion, at least three of the four MAT subloci seem to participate in mating, and new HD and PR loci can be generated through intralocus recombination in F. velutipes. PMID:27621376

  14. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted.

  15. Arsenic speciation in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Nearing, Michelle M; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2014-12-16

    The fruiting bodies, or mushrooms, of terrestrial fungi have been found to contain a high proportion of the nontoxic arsenic compound arsenobetaine (AB), but data gaps include a limited phylogenetic diversity of the fungi for which arsenic speciation is available, a focus on mushrooms with higher total arsenic concentrations, and the unknown formation and role of AB in mushrooms. To address these, the mushrooms of 46 different fungus species (73 samples) over a diverse range of phylogenetic groups were collected from Canadian grocery stores and background and arsenic-contaminated areas. Total arsenic was determined using ICP-MS, and arsenic speciation was determined using HPLC-ICP-MS and complementary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The major arsenic compounds in mushrooms were found to be similar among phylogenetic groups, and AB was found to be the major compound in the Lycoperdaceae and Agaricaceae families but generally absent in log-growing mushrooms, suggesting the microbial community may influence arsenic speciation in mushrooms. The high proportion of AB in mushrooms with puffball or gilled morphologies may suggest that AB acts as an osmolyte in certain mushrooms to help maintain fruiting body structure. The presence of an As(III)-sulfur compound, for the first time in mushrooms, was identified in the XAS analysis. Except for Agaricus sp. (with predominantly AB), inorganic arsenic predominated in most of the store-bought mushrooms (albeit with low total arsenic concentrations). Should inorganic arsenic predominate in these mushrooms from contaminated areas, the risk to consumers under these circumstances should be considered.

  16. Comparative Genomics of the Mating-Type Loci of the Mushroom Flammulina velutipes Reveals Widespread Synteny and Recent Inversions

    PubMed Central

    van Peer, Arend F.; Park, Soon-Young; Shin, Pyung-Gyun; Jang, Kab-Yeul; Yoo, Young-Bok; Park, Young-Jin; Lee, Byoung-Moo; Sung, Gi-Ho; James, Timothy Y.; Kong, Won-Sik

    2011-01-01

    Background Mating-type loci of mushroom fungi contain master regulatory genes that control recognition between compatible nuclei, maintenance of compatible nuclei as heterokaryons, and fruiting body development. Regions near mating-type loci in fungi often show adapted recombination, facilitating the generation of novel mating types and reducing the production of self-compatible mating types. Compared to other fungi, mushroom fungi have complex mating-type systems, showing both loci with redundant function (subloci) and subloci with many alleles. The genomic organization of mating-type loci has been solved in very few mushroom species, which complicates proper interpretation of mating-type evolution and use of those genes in breeding programs. Methodology/Principal Findings We report a complete genetic structure of the mating-type loci from the tetrapolar, edible mushroom Flammulina velutipes mating type A3B3. Two matB3 subloci, matB3a that contains a unique pheromone and matB3b, were mapped 177 Kb apart on scaffold 1. The matA locus of F. velutipes contains three homeodomain genes distributed over 73 Kb distant matA3a and matA3b subloci. The conserved matA region in Agaricales approaches 350 Kb and contains conserved recombination hotspots showing major rearrangements in F. velutipes and Schizophyllum commune. Important evolutionary differences were indicated; separation of the matA subloci in F. velutipes was diverged from the Coprinopsis cinerea arrangement via two large inversions whereas separation in S. commune emerged through transposition of gene clusters. Conclusions/Significance In our study we determined that the Agaricales have very large scale synteny at matA (∼350 Kb) and that this synteny is maintained even when parts of this region are separated through chromosomal rearrangements. Four conserved recombination hotspots allow reshuffling of large fragments of this region. Next to this, it was revealed that large distance subloci can exist in matB as

  17. Comparison of flavour qualities of mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes) packed with different packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Donglu, Fang; Wenjian, Yang; Kimatu, Benard Muinde; Liyan, Zhao; Xinxin, An; Qiuhui, Hu

    2017-10-01

    To clarify the dynamic changes of flavour components in mushrooms packed with different packaging materials during storage, comprehensive flavour characterization, non-volatile and volatile compounds of Flammulina velutipes were evaluated using electronic nose (E-nose), electronic tongue (E-tongue) technology and headspace solid phase micro-extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS), respectively. Results showed that volatile compounds of fresh F. velutipes mainly consisted of ketones and alcohols, with 3-octanone being the predominant compound. After storage, volatile components significantly changed in mushrooms packed with normal packaging material (Normal-PM) according to the GC-MS analysis and radar fingerprint chart of electronic nose. The ethanol accumulation was inhibited by nanocomposite packaging materials (Nano-PM). Besides, both radar graph and PCA of E-tongue signals could differentiate the samples from different packaging and storage time. In general, these results may provide a profile of flavour substances and explain mechanism of flavour changes in F. velutipes over storage period. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and other edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is the second most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide after Agaricus bisporus. It has economic and ecological values and medicinal properties. Mushroom culture has moved toward diversification with the production of other mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are able to colonize and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates and other wastes which are produced primarily through the activities of the agricultural, forest, and food-processing industries. Particularly, P. ostreatus requires a shorter growth time in comparison to other edible mushrooms. The substrate used for their cultivation does not require sterilization, only pasteurization, which is less expensive. Growing oyster mushrooms convert a high percentage of the substrate to fruiting bodies, increasing profitability. P. ostreatus demands few environmental controls, and their fruiting bodies are not often attacked by diseases and pests, and they can be cultivated in a simple and cheap way. All this makes P. ostreatus cultivation an excellent alternative for production of mushrooms when compared to other mushrooms.

  19. Recent developments on umami ingredients of edible mushrooms: A review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Umami is a pleasant savory taste which has been attributed mainly to the presence of MSG-like amino acids and flavor 5’- nucleotides and widely used in food industry. Edible mushrooms have a peculiar umami taste. The umami taste makes the edible mushrooms palatable and adaptable in most food prepara...

  20. A novel serine protease with caspase- and legumain-like activities from edible basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes.

    PubMed

    Iketani, Aya; Nakamura, Mayumi; Suzuki, Yuya; Awai, Koichiro; Shioi, Yuzo

    2013-03-01

    A serine protease with caspase- and legumain-like activities from basidiocarps of the edible basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes was characterized. The protease was purified to near homogeneity by three steps of chromatography using acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-4-methylcoumaryl-7-amide (Ac-YVAD-MCA) as a substrate. The enzyme was termed FvSerP (F. velutipes serine protease). This enzyme activity was completely inhibited by the caspase-specific inhibitor, Ac-YVAD-CHO, as well as moderately inhibited by serine protease inhibitors. Based on the N-terminal sequence, the cDNA of FvSerP was identified. The deduced protease sequence was a peptide composed of 325 amino acids with a molecular mass of 34.5 kDa. The amino acid sequence of FvSerP showed similarity to neither caspases nor to the plant subtilisin-like serine protease with caspase-like activity called saspase. FvSerP shared identity to the functionally unknown genes from class of Agaricomycetes, with similarity to the peptidase S41 domain of a serine protease. It was thus concluded that this enzyme is likely a novel serine protease with caspase- and legumain-like activities belonging to the peptidase S41 family and distributed in the class Agaricomycetes. This enzyme possibly functions in autolysis, a type of programmed cell death that occurs in the later stages of development of basidiocarps with reference to their enzymatic functions.

  1. Activity of Extracts from Submerged Cultured Mycelium of Winter Mushroom, Flammulina velutipes (Agaricomycetes), on the Immune System In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Kashina, Svetlana; Villavicencio, Lerida Liss Flores; Zaina, Silvio; Ordaz, Marco Balleza; Sabanero, Gloria Barbosa; Fujiyoshi, Victor Tsutsumi; Lopez, Myrna Sabanero

    2016-01-01

    Extracts from submerged cultured mycelium of two strains of Flammulina velutipes, a popular culinary mushroom, were obtained by ultrasound and tested in vitro to determine their activity in innate immunity (monocytes/ macrophages). In addition, polyclonal antibodies against the extracts were produced. Both extracts have similar glycoproteins that contain mannose and glucose but have different glycoproteins with galactoseamine units. Two novel immunogenic glycoproteins with molecular weights of 32 and 25 kDa have been revealed. It is thought that these proteins are produced only by submerged cultured mycelium. Both extracts show immune-enhancing activity based on the significant modification of various parameters such as cytokine production, phagocytosis, and reactive oxygen species production.

  2. Edible mushroom-related poisoning: A study on circumstances of mushroom collection, transport, and storage.

    PubMed

    Gawlikowski, T; Romek, M; Satora, L

    2015-07-01

    The American Association of Poison Control Center (AAPCC) shows that in 2012 there were 0.3% of human exposures involving mushrooms. Only 17% of 6600 cases were then identified by the species. The present retrospective study was designed to identify the epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in adults admitted to Krakow's Department of Clinical Toxicology (DCT) from 2002 to 2009. This study was conducted retrospectively after examining the files of 457 adult patients with wild mushroom poisoning. Mycological analysis was made and the species of the poisoning-inducing mushroom was determined. Furthermore, the circumstances related to the mushroom gathering, transport, storage, preparation, and consumption have been analyzed. The analysis revealed that in 400 (87.53%) out of 457 cases, the clinical symptoms were caused by ingestion of identified edible mushroom species. The main reason for edible mushroom poisoning is associated with their incorrect processing after harvest. The analysis of the circumstances of mushroom collection, transport, and storage shows that the largest percentage of poisoning was connected with long-term storage of mushroom dishes, collecting, and storing them in plastic bags, and long storage of mushrooms. Based on spore analysis of the gastric content, edible mushrooms were responsible for the great majority of mushroom poisoning cases admitted to the DCT. The toxicity of edible mushroom is associated with proceeding with them during collection, transport, and storage. The medical history should be supplemented by questions concerning these circumstances. The identification of the mushroom by a mycologist is highly desirable. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of biomatrixed-gold nanoparticles by the mushroom Flammulina velutipes and its heterogeneous catalytic potential.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Kannan Badri; Park, Hyun Ho; Han, Sung Soo

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable and greener synthesis of intracellular gold nanoparticles using mushroom Flammulina velutipes is reported. Incubation of a mushroom in chloroaurate solution resulted in the synthesis and immobilization of stable gold nanoparticles inside the mushroom mycelia. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis revealed the presence of gold nanoparticles (⩽20nm) inside the mycelia, primarily on the inner surface of the cell membrane. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) revealed that the accumulated gold concentration ranged from 64.4 to 330.5mgkg(-1) dry weight (DW) in the mushroom mycelia. The reduction of Au(3+) ions to Au(0) and stabilization of gold nanoparticles occurred within 1h, and the formation of fcc crystalline gold nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. This facile intracellular synthesis of gold nanoparticles by a mushroom without using any toxic chemicals or technologically expensive processes is used as a heterogeneous catalyst in the reduction of organic pollutants methylene blue (MB) and 4-nitrophenol (4NP). The reduction reaction follows pseudo-first order kinetics with a reaction rate constant of 0.0529min(-1) and 0.1236min(-1) for MB and 4NP, respectively. This biological process of biomatrixing of metal nanoparticles for heterogeneous catalytic reactions is simple, nontoxic, environmentally benign, and economically viable compared to the chemical synthetic routes.

  4. Understanding cultural significance, the edible mushrooms case

    PubMed Central

    Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Caballero, Javier; Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2007-01-01

    Background Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources. Methods In 2003 we applied 95 questionnaires to a random sample of informants. With this data we integrated the Edible Mushroom Cultural Significance Index. This index included eight variables: frequency of mention, perceived abundance, use frequency, taste, multifunctional food use, knowledge transmission, health and economy. Data were analyzed in an inductive perspective using ordination and grouping techniques to reveal the behavior of species in a cultural multivariate dimension. Results In each variable the species had different conducts. Cantharellus cibarius s.l. was the species with most frequency of mention. Pleurotus sp. had the highest perceived abundance. C. cibarius s.l. was the most frequently consumed species. Gomphus clavatus was the most palatable species and also ranked highest in the multifunctional food index. Cortinarius secc.Malacii sp. had the highest traditional importance. Only Tricholoma magnivelare was identified as a health enhancer. It also had the most economic importance. According to the compound index, C. cibarius s.l., the Amanita caesarea complex, Ramaria spp. and Neolentinus lepideus were the mushrooms with highest cultural significance. Multivariate analysis showed that interviewees identify three main groups of mushrooms: species with high traditional values, frequent consumption and known by the majority; species that are less known, infrequently consumed and without salient characteristics; and species with low traditional values, with high economic value and health enhancers. Conclusion The compound index divided the cultural significance into

  5. Compositional Differences of the Winter Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Flammulina velutipes (Agaricomycetes), under Three Types of Light Conditions.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shu-Yao; Huang, Erh-Wen; Lin, Chun-Ping

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the effect of light on the cultivation and the amounts of bio-active components in Flammulina velutipes. The mushrooms were cultivated under fluorescent tube (T8) grow lights, lightemitting diodes (LEDs), and cold-cathode fluorescent lamps. The biological efficiency of the T8 lights was the highest, at 92%. The crude fat content, crude fiber content, polysaccharide content, and ergosterol content were highest under the LEDs, at 2.9 g/100 g, 7.9 g/100 g, 3.9 g/100 g, and 1.4 mg/g, respectively. Moreover, vitamin D2 (1.9 μg/g) was generated only under light from LEDs. Principal component analysis showed that F. velutipes cultivated under the 3 different lighting conditions showed different profiles for proximate composition, nutritional compounds, and principal fatty acids.

  6. Proteomics of edible mushrooms: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaidi, Jameel R

    2016-05-01

    Mushrooms are considered an important food for their traditionally famous nutritional and medicinal values, although much information about their potential at the molecular level is unfortunately unknown. Edible mushrooms include fungi that are either collected wild or cultivated. Many important species are difficult to cultivate but attempts have been made with varying degrees of success, with the results showing unsatisfactory economical cultivation methods. Recently, proteomic analysis has been developed as a powerful tool to study the protein content of fungi, particularly basidiomycetes. This mini-review article highlights the contribution of proteomics platforms to the study of edible mushrooms, focusing on the molecular mechanisms involved in developmental stages. This includes extracellular and cytoplasmic effector proteins that have potential or are involved in the synthesis of anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antibiotic, in blood pressure control, in the supply of vitamins and minerals, and in other responses to environmental changes. The contribution of different proteomics techniques including classical and more advanced techniques is also highlighted.

  7. Antifatigue Functions and Mechanisms of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Ping; Siu, Ka-Chai; Wang, Zhaomei

    2017-01-01

    Fatigue is the symptom of tiredness caused by physical and/or psychological stresses. As fatigue is becoming a serious problem in the modern society affecting human health, work efficiency, and quality of life, effective antifatigue remedies other than pharmacological drugs or therapies are highly needed. Mushrooms have been widely used as health foods, because of their various bioactive constituents such as polysaccharides, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. This paper reviews the major findings from previous studies on the antifatigue effects, the active components of mushrooms, and the possible mechanisms. Many studies have demonstrated the antifatigue effects of edible and medicinal mushrooms. These mushrooms probably mitigate human fatigue through effects on the functional systems, including the muscular, cardiovascular, hormone, and immune system. The bioactive constituents that contribute to the antifatigue effects of mushrooms may include polysaccharides, peptides, nucleosides, phenolic compounds, and triterpenoids. Further research is still needed to identify the active ingredients and to investigate their mechanism of action on the antifatigue effects. Since most previous studies have been carried out in animal models, more human trials should be performed to verify the antifatigue function of edible and medicinal mushrooms. PMID:28890898

  8. Identification of molecular species of acylglycerols of Philippine wild edible mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild edible mushrooms are widely consumed in many countries. We successfully cultivated four edible, medicinal Philippine mushrooms in liquid culture. Recently, we identified the molecular species of acylglycerols in the lipid extract of mushroom G. lucidum NRRL66208. One hundred and three molecular...

  9. Genetic diversity and breeding history of Winter Mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) in China uncovered by genomic SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Bin; Feng, Bang; Li, Jing; Yan, Chen; Yang, Zhu L

    2016-10-10

    Flammulina velutipes is one of the most widely cultivated mushroom species in China. However, its genetic background remains poorly understood due to the limited sampling and poor molecular markers used. In this study, 124 F. velutipes strains were employed, including 110 cultivars and 14 wild strains, and 25 new SSR markers were developed based on the genome of F. velutipes. A total of 153 alleles were detected in 124 strains to investigate the improper cultivar naming, genetic diversity and breeding history of F. velutipes in China. Our fingerprinting analyses indicated that 65 strains can be differentiated from the total of 124 strains, and over 53% of the strains are labeled with improper commercial names. The genetic diversities of wild strains are higher than those of the cultivars, suggesting that wild strains may harbor a large "arsenal" gene pool in nature available for strain breeding. The white cultivars in China were originally introduced from Japan, while the yellow cultivars were directly domesticated from wild strains isolated from southeastern China or hybridized between the white cultivars and yellow strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic diversity and structure of core collection of winter mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) developed by genomic SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Bin; Li, Jing; Yang, Zhu L

    2018-01-01

    A core collection is a subset of an entire collection that represents as much of the genetic diversity of the entire collection as possible. The establishment of a core collection for crops is practical for efficient management and use of germplasm. However, the establishment of a core collection of mushrooms is still in its infancy, and no established core collection of the economically important species Flammulina velutipes has been reported. We established the first core collection of F. velutipes, containing 32 strains based on 81 genetically different F. veltuipes strains. The allele retention proportion of the core collection for the entire collection was 100%. Moreover, the genetic diversity parameters (the effective number of alleles, Nei's expected heterozygosity, the number of observed heterozygosity, and Shannon's information index) of the core collection showed no significant differences from the entire collection (p > 0.01). Thus, the core collection is representative of the genetic diversity of the entire collection. Genetic structure analyses of the core collection revealed that the 32 strains could be clustered into 6 groups, among which groups 1 to 3 were cultivars and groups 4 to 6 were wild strains. The wild strains from different locations harbor their own specific alleles, and were clustered stringently in accordance with their geographic origins. Genetic diversity analyses of the core collection revealed that the wild strains possessed greater genetic diversity than the cultivars. We established the first core collection of F. velutipes in China, which is an important platform for efficient breeding of this mushroom in the future. In addition, the wild strains in the core collection possess favorable agronomic characters and produce unique bioactive compounds, adding value to the platform. More attention should be paid to wild strains in further strain breeding.

  11. Determination of Mineral Components in the Cultivation Substrates of Edible Mushrooms and Their Uptake into Fruiting Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Yun; Park, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Bo-Bae; Kim, Sun-Mi

    2009-01-01

    The mineral contents of the cultivation substrates, fruiting bodies of the mushrooms, and the postharvest cultivation substrates were determined in cultivated edible mushrooms Pleurotus eryngii, Flammulina velutipes, and Hypsizigus marmoreus. The major mineral elements both in the cultivation substrates and in the fruiting bodies were K, Mg, Ca, and Na. Potassium was particularly abundant ranging 10~13 g/kg in the cultivation substrates and 26~30 g/kg in the fruiting bodies. On the contrary, the calcium content in the fruiting bodies was very low despite high concentrations in the cultivation substrates, indicating Ca in the cultivation substrates is in a less bio-available form or the mushrooms do not have efficient Ca uptake channels. Among the minor mineral elements determined in this experiment, Cu, Zn, and Ni showed high percentage of transfer from the cultivation substrates to the fruiting bodies. It is noteworthy that the mineral contents in the postharvest cultivation substrates were not changed significantly which implies that the spent cultivation substrates are nutritionally intact in terms of mineral contents and thus can be recycled as mineral sources and animal feeds. PMID:23983518

  12. Edible mushrooms: role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Guillamón, Eva; García-Lafuente, Ana; Lozano, Miguel; D'Arrigo, Matilde; Rostagno, Mauricio A; Villares, Ana; Martínez, José Alfredo

    2010-10-01

    Edible mushrooms are a valuable source of nutrients and bioactive compounds in addition to a growing appeal for humans by their flavors and culinary features. Recently, they have become increasingly attractive as functional foods for their potential beneficial effects on human health. Hence, food industry is especially interested in cultivated and wild edible mushrooms. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most prevalent causes of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Several investigations have shown the influence of mushrooms intake on some metabolic markers (total, LDL, HDL cholesterol, fasting triacylglycerol, homocysteine, blood pressure, homeostatic function and oxidative and inflammatory damage), which potentially may reduce the risk of suffering cardiovascular diseases. Relevant nutritional aspects of mushrooms include a high fiber supply, a low fat content with low trans isomers of unsaturated fatty acids and a low concentration of sodium as well as the occurrence of components such as eritadenine, phenolic compounds, sterols (such as ergosterol), chitosan, triterpenes, etc., which are considered as important responsible agents for some hitherto healthy properties. The aims of this review are to report putative positive effects of mushrooms consumption on cardiovascular diseases risk markers and to identify some putative bioactive compounds involved in these effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative study of wild edible mushrooms as sources of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Witkowska, Anna M; Zujko, Małgorzata E; Mirończuk-Chodakowska, Iwona

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore sixteen of the most popular edible species of wild-growing mushrooms as potential sources of antioxidants. Among the mushrooms tested, the highest total polyphenol contents, exceeding 100 mg/100 g fresh mass, were found in five mushrooms: Boletus chrysenteron, B. edulis, Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, and Macrolepiota procera. Antioxidant activity was measured with the FRAP, TEAC, DPPH scavenging ability and ferrous ions chelating ability assays. Results of the study show that wild mushrooms vary according to their antioxidant properties. The highest FRAP potentials, exceeding 1 mmol/100 g, were found in five species ofBoletales: Boletus edulis, B. chrysenteron, Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, and Suillus grevillei. TEAC values were from 1.07 to 4.01 mmol/100 g fresh mass. High TEAC values (>2.3 mmol/100 g) were found in Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, Macrolepiota procera, Boletus chrysenteron, and B. edulis. The DPPH radical scavenging effectiveness of mushroom extracts, expressed as EC50 values, was in range 2.91-13.86 mg/mL. Scavenging ability was the highest for B. edulis and B. chrysenteron. The metal chelating ability of mushroom extracts expressed as ECso values of chelating ability on ferrous ions were from 8.02 mg/mL in Cantharellus cibarius to 12.10 mg/mL in Suillus luteus. Among the mushrooms tested, Boletus chrysenteron and B. edulis were characterized by high scores of polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity in the FRAP, TEAC, and DPPH assays. These results place these culinary species of wild-growing mushrooms among products with considerable antioxidant potential.

  14. Identification of molecular species of acylglycerols of Philippine wild edible mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild edible mushrooms are widely consumed in many countries. Recently, we successfully cultivated four edible medicinal Philippine mushrooms in liquid cultures. One of these is Ganoderma lucidum. With the aim to elucidate the functional bioactive lipids, we identified the lipid species of the solven...

  15. Antiproliferative and immunostimulatory protein fraction from edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Swatilekha; Bhutia, Sujit K; Mallick, Sanjaya K; Kumar, Alok; Khadgi, Niyati; Maiti, Tapas K

    2008-09-01

    Fruit bodies and mycelia of various higher Basidiomycetes were studied in search of biological effector molecules. In this study, we evaluated the antiproliferative and immunomodulatory properties of a protein fraction designated as Cibacron blue affinity eluted protein (CBAEP) isolated from five different species of edible mushrooms (Termitomyces clypeatus, Pleurotus florida, Calocybe indica, Astraeus hygrometricus, and Volvariella volvacea). This protein fraction (10-100μg/ml) mediated antiproliferative activity on several tumor cell lines through the induction of apoptosis. Also the isolated protein fraction from all five mushrooms had a stimulatory effect on splenocytes, thymocytes and bone marrow cells. Further it enhanced mouse natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and stimulated macrophages to produce nitric oxide (NO). The highest immunostimulatory activity was determined in the CBAEP from T. clypeatus and the highest antiproliferative activity from C. indica.

  16. Radioactivity levels in some wild edible mushroom species in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turhan, Seref; Köse, Abdullah; Varinlioğlu, Ahmet

    2007-09-01

    Eleven different wild-growing edible mushroom species collected from various regions of Turkey were analysed for their content of 137Cs, 40K, 226Ra and 232Th using a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Specific activities of 226Ra and 232Th were generally below detection limits. The specific activities of 137Cs and 40K ranged from 2.4+/-0.3 to 109.0+/-7.3 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 28.4+/-27.2 Bq kg-1 (dry matter) and 715.5+/-50.1 to 1779.0+/-163.7 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 1150.8+/-315.2 Bq kg-1 (dry matter), respectively. The mean annual effective dose of 137Cs and 40K through mushrooms were estimated to be (7.0+/-6.0)x10(-3) microSv and 0.13+/-0.03 microSv, respectively. The overall intake of 137Cs is quite low and no significant contamination was found in collected mushroom species. The highest contents of 137Cs and 40K among the analysed mushrooms were in Morchella esculenta and Stropharia coronilla, respectively.

  17. Mineral element levels in wild edible mushrooms from Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Honggao; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Shi, Yundong; Wang, Yuanzhong

    2012-06-01

    Ten species of wild edible mushrooms (Boletus griseus, Boletus speciosus, Lactarius hygrophoroides, Leucopaxillus giganteus, Macrocybe gigantea, Melanoleuca arcuata, Morchella deliciosa, Mycena haematopus, Pulveroboletus ravenelii, and Tricholoma matsutake) collected from Yunnan province of China, were analyzed for ten mineral elements (calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, and zinc) contents using ICP-AES. The minimum and maximum element contents of mushrooms were determined as milligrams per kilograms dry weight for Ca (38-470), Cr (0.45-6.3), Co (0.29-2.3), Cu (13-58), Fe (22-510), Mg (84-550), Mn (1.4-70), K (1,300-4,600), Na (190-670), and Zn (16-160). The mushrooms species with the highest levels of mineral elements were B. griseus for K and Na, P. ravenelii for Cu, M. deliciosa for Mn, L. giganteus for Cr and Fe, M. gigantea for Ca, Mg and Zn, T. matsutake for Co. These results demonstrate that the mineral element contents in mushrooms are considerably species dependent and affected by environmental factors.

  18. Optimization of liquid culture conditions of Philippine wild edible mushrooms as potential source of bioactive lipids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With remarkable bioactivities and delightful taste, mushrooms have been a commercial nutraceutical around the world. Mushrooms are cultivated on solid materials. Here we report the successful cultivation of four Philippine edible mushrooms in liquid medium. This work highlights the optimal liquid cu...

  19. Wild growing mushrooms for the Edible City? Cadmium and lead content in edible mushrooms harvested within the urban agglomeration of Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Schlecht, Martin Thomas; Säumel, Ina

    2015-09-01

    Health effects by consuming urban garden products are discussed controversially due to high urban pollution loads. We sampled wild edible mushrooms of different habitats and commercial mushroom cultivars exposed to high traffic areas within Berlin, Germany. We determined the content of cadmium and lead in the fruiting bodies and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. EU standards for cultivated mushrooms were exceeded by 86% of the wild mushroom samples for lead and by 54% for cadmium but not by mushroom cultures. We revealed significant differences in trace metal content depending on species, trophic status, habitat and local traffic burden. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass of wild mushrooms, whereas cultivated mushrooms exposed to inner city high traffic areas had significantly lower trace metal contents. Based on these we discuss the consequences for the consumption of mushrooms originating from urban areas.

  20. Effects of fermented mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) by-product diets on growth performance and carcass traits in growing-fattening Berkshire pigs.

    PubMed

    Chu, Gyo Moon; Yang, Jeong Mo; Kim, Hoi Yun; Kim, Chung Hui; Song, Young Min

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate effects of fermented mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) by-product diets on the growth performance and carcass traits in growing-fattening Berkshire pigs. The fermented diets mainly contained 40.0% mushroom by-product, 20.0% formula feed, 26.0% rice bran and supplemental 0.1% probiotics. The mixed ingredients were fermented for 5days at room temperature. Berkshire pigs (n=225) were divided into five groups and three replications. The basal diets (C) were substituted by 10% (T1), 30% (T2), 50% (T3) and 70% (T4) fermented mushroom by-product diets. Crude protein concentration and total calorie in fermented diets were significantly increased (P<0.05) at the end of fermentation days compared with initial fermentation day. Body weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass weight were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the T2, T3 and T4 groups than in the control group. Carcass grade was significantly better (P<0.05) in the pigs fed fermented diets than in the pigs fed control diet and the ratio of high grade (1 plus 2 grades) was higher in the fermented diet groups compared with the control group. Therefore, although a diet of fermented mushroom by-product decreased growth performance and feed efficiency, it improved the carcass grade in Berkshire pigs.

  1. Heavy metal bioaccumulation by wild edible saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Širić, Ivan; Humar, Miha; Kasap, Ante; Kos, Ivica; Mioč, Boro; Pohleven, Franc

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metals cause serious problems in the environment, and they can be accumulated in organisms, especially in the higher fungi. The concentration of Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Hg in 10 species of edible mushrooms in Medvednica Nature Park, Croatia was therefore determined. In addition, the similarity between the studied species was determined by cluster analysis based on concentrations of the aforementioned metals in the fruiting bodies. The contents of nickel, chromium, lead, cadmium, and mercury in the fruiting bodies of mushrooms were obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The highest concentrations of Ni (3.62 mg kg(-1)), Cr (3.01 mg kg(-1)), and Cd (2.67 mg kg(-1)) were determined in Agaricus campestris. The highest concentration of Pb (1.67 mg kg(-1)) was determined in Macrolepiota procera, and the highest concentration of Hg (2.39 mg kg(-1)) was determined in Boletus edulis. The concentration of all heavy metals significantly differed (p < 0.001) between examined saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms. Considering anatomical part of the fruiting body (cap-stipe), a considerably higher concentration of the analyzed elements was found in the cap for all mushroom species. According to calculated bioconcentration factors, all the examined species were found to be bioexclusors of Ni, Cr, and Pb and bioaccumulators of Cd and Hg. Cluster analysis performed on the basis of the accumulation of the studied metals revealed great phenotypic similarity of mushroom species belonging to the same genus and partial similarity of species of the same ecological affiliation.

  2. Concentrations and health risks of lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury in rice and edible mushrooms in China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yong; Sun, Xinyang; Yang, Wenjian; Ma, Ning; Xin, Zhihong; Fu, Jin; Liu, Xiaochang; Liu, Meng; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Zhu, Xuefeng; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-03-15

    In this study, four common heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in rice and edible mushrooms of China were studied to evaluate contamination level and edible safety. Ninety two (92) rice samples were collected from the main rice growing regions in China, and 38 fresh and 21 dry edible mushroom samples were collected from typical markets in Nanjing City. The analyzed metal concentrations were significantly different between rice and edible mushroom samples (p<0.05). The results showed that Pb, Cd and As contents in 4.3%, 3.3% and 2.2% rice samples respectively, were above maximum allowable concentration (MAC). In fresh edible mushroom, Pb and Hg contents in 2.6% samples were above MAC, respectively. However, only Hg content in 4.8% dry edible mushroom samples was above its MAC. Therefore, more than 95% rice and edible mushroom samples in our test had high edible safety.

  3. Evaluation of lignocellulosic wastes for production of edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Rani, P; Kalyani, N; Prathiba, K

    2008-12-01

    The degradation of lignocellulosic wastes such as paddy straw, sorghum stalk, and banana pseudostem was investigated during solid-state fermentation by edible mushrooms Pleurotus eous and Lentinus connotus. Biological efficiency of 55-65% was observed in paddy straw followed by sorghum stalk (45%) and banana pseudostem (33%) for both fungal species. The activity of extracellular enzymes, namely cellulase, polyphenol oxidase, and laccase, together with the content of cellulose, lignin, and phenols, was studied in spent substrates on seventh, 17th, and 27th days of spawning, and these values were used as indicators of the extent of lignocellulosic degradation by mushroom. Both the mushroom species proved to be efficient degraders of lignocellulosic biomass of paddy straw and sorghum stalk, and the extent of cellulose degradation was 63-72% of dry weight (d.w.), and lignin degradation was 23-30% of the d.w. In banana pseudostem, the extent of the degradation was observed to be only 15-22% of the d.w. for both lignin and cellulose. Preferential removal of cellulose during initial growth period and delayed degradation of lignin were observed in all three substrates. This is associated with decrease in activity of cellulase and polyphenol oxidase and increase in laccase activity with spawn aging in spent substrates. Thus, bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass by P. eous and L. connotus offers a promising way to convert low-quality biomass into an improved human food.

  4. Accumulation of elements by edible mushroom species: part I. Problem of trace element toxicity in mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Rissmann, Iwona; Sobieralski, Krzysztof; Goliński, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn accumulation in six edible mushroom species and to assess their risk and benefits to human consumers. Mushrooms (Leccinium aurantiacum, Xerocomus badius, Lactarius deliciosus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius and Suillus luteus) were collected from selected regions of Poland during 1990-2010. The highest diversity between studied mushroom species was observed in terms of Cu and Zn accumulation. Significant differences in the accumulation efficiency were found among the six mushroom species examined. The most efficient were Boletus edulis (Cd and Hg), Suillus luteus (Cu and Sr), and Lactarius deliciosus (Pb and Zn). In the case of Co and Ni, the most effective were Xerocomus badius and Leccinium aurantiacum, respectively. The calculated bioconcentration factor (BCF) values of Cd, Cu, Hg, Sr and Zn were > 1 for all species in this study while Co, Ni and Pb usually were bioexcluded (BCF < 1). Additionally, based on the calculated daily intake rates of trace elements determined it can be concluded that occasional consumption of fruiting bodies of L. aurantiacum, X. badius, L. deliciosus, B. edulis, C. cibarius and S. luteus collected in Poland is safe and this finding largely agrees with results from recent studies by other authors.

  5. Edible wild mushrooms of the Western Ghats: Data on the ethnic knowledge.

    PubMed

    Karun, Namera C; Sridhar, Kandikere R

    2017-10-01

    The edible wild mushrooms are most important in food security of ethnic groups and tribals throughout the world. Various indigenous strategies are followed to trace wild mushrooms suitable for human consumption. Data presented in this article projects ethnic knowledge on 51 edible wild mushrooms (in 23 genera) in the Western Ghats region of India. Information collected with support of ethnic groups/tribals pertains to habitats, substrates, mutualistic association, extent of availability, extent of edibility and method of processing of wild mushrooms. Extensive field visits and interactions with ethnic groups were performed to collect the data on each mushroom. Initially, most of these mushrooms were identified based on the indigenous methods and designated with vernacular names (Are-Gowda, Kodava and Tulu). Based on macromorphology (in field) and micromorphology (in laboratory), each mushroom was identified with its systematic name. Among the 51 wild mushrooms irrespective of extent of availability, the most preferred include Astraeus hygrometricus, Clitocybe infundibuliformis, Fistulina hepatica, Lentinus sajor-caju, Pleurotus (5 spp.) and Scleroderma citrinum and Termitomyces (18 spp.). This data forecasts the importance of documentation of traditional knowledge, protection of habitats, management of resources (tree species and substrates) and sustainable exploitation of wild mushrooms.

  6. Determination of Glutathione, Selenium, and Malondialdehyde in Different Edible Mushroom Species.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Hacer; Coteli, Ebru; Karatas, Fikret

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the amount of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and selenium was determined by using the fluorescence spectrophotometer in eight different species of edible mushrooms. Brittlegill mushroom (Russula delica), meadow mushroom (Agaricus campestris), dryad's saddle mushroom (Polyporus squamosus), white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), Pleurotus spp., ink mushroom (Coprinus atramentarius), ebekari mushroom (slimy) (Elazığ local) and çaşır mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) (Tunceli local) were used for analysis. The amounts of GSH, GSSG, Se, and MDA with GSH/GSSG ratio in the eight different species of edible mushrooms were observed in between 269.10 ± 16.94-1554.83 ± 58.12 μg/g; 23.55 ± 1.89-841.90 ± 20.03 μg/g; 15.06 ± 1.56-82.10 ± 3.84 μg/g; 5.46 ± 0.50-27.45 ± 2.58 μg/g wet weight and 0.32-41.35, respectively. There is a weak correlation (R (2) = 0.389) between MDA and Se, on the other hand, the correlation (R (2) = 0.831) between GSH/GSSG ratio and selenium in mushrooms are reasonable well. In a similar manner, there is a weak correlation (R (2) = 0551) between GSH/GSSG and MDA ratios in mushrooms. It was found that these edible mushroom species are good source of glutathione (GSH, GSSG), and selenium (Se) in terms of quantities obtained; therefore, it can be said that mushrooms are a rich source of antioxidants.

  7. Selenium uptake by edible oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sp.) from selenium-hyperaccumulated wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Poonam; Prakash, Ranjana; Prakash, N Tejo

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to produce selenium (Se)-fortifying edible mushrooms, five species of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.), were cultivated on Se-rich wheat straw collected from a seleniferous belt of Punjab, India. Total selenium was analyzed in the selenium hyperaccumulated wheat straw and the fruiting bodies. Significantly high levels (p<0.0001) of Se uptake were observed in fruiting bodies of all mushrooms grown on Se-rich wheat straw. To the best of our knowledge, accumulation and quantification of selenium in mushrooms has hitherto not been reported with substrates naturally enriched with selenium. The results demonstrate the potential of selenium-rich agricultural residues as substrates for production of Se-enriched mushrooms and the ability of different species of oyster mushrooms to absorb and fortify selenium. The study envisages potential use of selenium-rich agricultural residues towards cultivation of Se-enriched mushrooms for application in selenium supplementation or neutraceutical preparations.

  8. Study of heavy metal concentrations in wild edible mushrooms in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Borui; Huang, Qing; Cai, Huajie; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Tingting; Gui, Mingying

    2015-12-01

    Contamination with heavy metals in several species of edible mushrooms from the Yunnan Province in China was determined. Samples were collected from 16 locations in the Yunnan Province, and the contamination levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of essential elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the mushrooms were at typical levels. The concentrations of potentially toxic metals (As, Pb and Cd) were higher than the national standard values of China (1.0 mg/kg for As, 0.2 mg/kg for Cd, and 2.0 mg/kg for Pb) in most cases. Bio-concentration factors suggested that it was easier for As and Cd to be accumulated in mushrooms than Pb, and a Health Risk Index assessment also suggested that As and Cd are greater risks to health than Pb. In conclusion, heavy metal pollution in wild edible mushrooms is a serious problem in the Yunnan Province. Among the toxic metals, As and Cd in the edible mushrooms in the area are the main sources of risk, as they may cause severe health problems. The local government needs to take measures in the form of concrete policies to protect the wild edible mushroom resources in the Yunnan Province.

  9. Toxicological profiles of poisonous, edible, and medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Jo, Woo-Sik; Hossain, Md Akil; Park, Seung-Chun

    2014-09-01

    Mushrooms are a recognized component of the human diet, with versatile medicinal properties. Some mushrooms are popular worldwide for their nutritional and therapeutic properties. However, some species are dangerous because they cause toxicity. There are many reports explaining the medicinal and/or toxic effects of these fungal species. Cases of serious human poisoning generally caused by the improper identification of toxic mushroom species are reported every year. Different substances responsible for the fatal signs and symptoms of mushroom toxicity have been identified from various poisonous mushrooms. Toxicity studies of mushroom species have demonstrated that mushroom poisoning can cause adverse effects such as liver failure, bradycardia, chest pain, seizures, gastroenteritis, intestinal fibrosis, renal failure, erythromelalgia, and rhabdomyolysis. Correct categorization and better understanding are essential for the safe and healthy consumption of mushrooms as functional foods as well as for their medicinal use.

  10. Toxicological Profiles of Poisonous, Edible, and Medicinal Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Woo-Sik; Hossain, Md. Akil

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms are a recognized component of the human diet, with versatile medicinal properties. Some mushrooms are popular worldwide for their nutritional and therapeutic properties. However, some species are dangerous because they cause toxicity. There are many reports explaining the medicinal and/or toxic effects of these fungal species. Cases of serious human poisoning generally caused by the improper identification of toxic mushroom species are reported every year. Different substances responsible for the fatal signs and symptoms of mushroom toxicity have been identified from various poisonous mushrooms. Toxicity studies of mushroom species have demonstrated that mushroom poisoning can cause adverse effects such as liver failure, bradycardia, chest pain, seizures, gastroenteritis, intestinal fibrosis, renal failure, erythromelalgia, and rhabdomyolysis. Correct categorization and better understanding are essential for the safe and healthy consumption of mushrooms as functional foods as well as for their medicinal use. PMID:25346597

  11. Studies concerning heavy metals bioaccumulation of wild edible mushrooms from industrial area by using spectrometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Radulescu, Cristiana; Stihi, Claudia; Busuioc, Gabriela; Gheboianu, Anca Irina; Popescu, Ion V

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the heavy metal content of the fruiting bodies of four species of wild edible mushrooms and their respective substrates. The samples were collected from Dambovita County, Romania, at various distances from of a metal smelter, to asses the concentration of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se and Cd in the wild edible mushrooms and their substrate using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry together with Flame Atomic Absorption (FAAS) spectrometry. A quantitative evaluation of the relationship of element uptake by mushrooms from substrate was made by calculating the coefficient accumulation (K(a)). A high accumulation of Zn (K(a) range 1.01 to 2.01) was observed in mushrooms growing in the vicinity of the metal smelter.

  12. Expression of C-5 sterol desaturase from an edible mushroom in fisson yeast enhances its ethanol and thermotolerance.

    PubMed

    Kamthan, Ayushi; Kamthan, Mohan; Datta, Asis

    2017-01-01

    Bioethanol is an environment friendly and renewable source of energy produced by the fermentation of agricultural raw material by a variety of microorganisms including yeast. Obtaining yeast strains that are tolerant to stresses like high levels of ethanol and high temperature is highly desirable as it reduces cost and increases yield during bioethanol production. Here, we report that heterologous expression of C-5 Sterol desaturase (FvC5SD)-an ergosterol biosynthesis enzyme from an edible mushroom Flammulina velutipes in fission yeast, not only imparts increased thermotolerance but also tolerance towards high ethanol concentration and low pH. This tolerance could be attributed to an increase of ≈1.5 fold in the level of ergosterol and oleic acid (C-18 unsaturated fatty acid) as analysed by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. FvC5SD is a membrane localized iron binding enzyme that introduces double bond at C-5 position into the Δ7-sterol substrates to yield Δ5, 7- sterols as products. In F. velutipes, FvC5SD transcript was observed to be upregulated by ≈5 fold under low pH condition and by ≈ 9 folds and ≈5 fold at 40°C and 4°C respectively when compared to normal growth temperature of 23°C. Besides, susceptibility to cell wall inhibiting drugs like Congo red and Calcoflour white was also found to increase in FvC5SD expressing S. pombe strain. Alteration in membrane sterol and fatty acid composition could also lead to increase in susceptibility to cell wall inhibiting drugs. Thus, this study has immense industrial application and can be employed to ensure competitiveness of fermentation process.

  13. Expression of C-5 sterol desaturase from an edible mushroom in fisson yeast enhances its ethanol and thermotolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kamthan, Ayushi; Kamthan, Mohan; Datta, Asis

    2017-01-01

    Bioethanol is an environment friendly and renewable source of energy produced by the fermentation of agricultural raw material by a variety of microorganisms including yeast. Obtaining yeast strains that are tolerant to stresses like high levels of ethanol and high temperature is highly desirable as it reduces cost and increases yield during bioethanol production. Here, we report that heterologous expression of C-5 Sterol desaturase (FvC5SD)—an ergosterol biosynthesis enzyme from an edible mushroom Flammulina velutipes in fission yeast, not only imparts increased thermotolerance but also tolerance towards high ethanol concentration and low pH. This tolerance could be attributed to an increase of ≈1.5 fold in the level of ergosterol and oleic acid (C-18 unsaturated fatty acid) as analysed by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. FvC5SD is a membrane localized iron binding enzyme that introduces double bond at C-5 position into the Δ7-sterol substrates to yield Δ5, 7- sterols as products. In F. velutipes, FvC5SD transcript was observed to be upregulated by ≈5 fold under low pH condition and by ≈ 9 folds and ≈5 fold at 40°C and 4°C respectively when compared to normal growth temperature of 23°C. Besides, susceptibility to cell wall inhibiting drugs like Congo red and Calcoflour white was also found to increase in FvC5SD expressing S. pombe strain. Alteration in membrane sterol and fatty acid composition could also lead to increase in susceptibility to cell wall inhibiting drugs. Thus, this study has immense industrial application and can be employed to ensure competitiveness of fermentation process. PMID:28278249

  14. DNA barcoding of wild edible mushrooms consumed by the ethnic tribes of India.

    PubMed

    Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

    2014-10-15

    Wild edible mushrooms are consumed by the tribes of Meghalaya in the North-Eastern region of India, as part of their ethnic cuisine because of their favored organoleptic characteristics and traditionally known health benefits. Majority of these mushrooms have not yet been characterized in detail and are slowly shrinking in their natural habitats owing to anthropogenic factors and climate change. In the present study, representative specimens of ten morphologically distinct groups of wild edible mushrooms available in the traditional markets and their respective forest habitats, were subjected to multi-loci molecular characterization using SSU, ITS, RPB1 and RPB2 markers. The species identities inferred for the ten mushroom types using the SSU marker matched their morphological description in the case of four morphological groups only whereas the ITS marker successfully resolved the species identity for nine out of the ten mushroom groups under study. Both the protein coding gene markers RPB1 and RPB2 successfully resolved the species identity for three out of the ten morphologically distinct groups. Finally the most likely identity of the wild edible mushrooms under study has been suggested by matching their unique morphological characteristics with the generated DNA barcoding data. The present molecular characterization reveals the ten widely consumed wild mushroom types of Meghalaya, India to be Gomphus floccosus, Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius volemus, Cantharellus cibarius, Tricholoma viridiolivaceum, Inocybe aff. sphaerospora, Laccaria vinaceoavellanea, Albatrellus ellisii, Ramaria maculatipes and Clavulina cristata. The final species identity generated by the ITS marker matched more accurately with the morphological characteristics/appearance of the specimens indicating the ITS region as a reliable barcode for identifying wild edible mushrooms.

  15. Artificial and natural radioactivity in edible mushrooms from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Castro, L P; Maihara, V A; Silva, P S C; Figueira, R C L

    2012-11-01

    Environmental biomonitoring has demonstrated that organisms such as crustaceans, fish and mushrooms are useful to evaluate and monitor both ecosystem contamination and quality. Particularly, some mushroom species have a high capacity to retain radionuclides and some toxic elements from the soil and the air. The potential of mushrooms to accumulate radionuclides in their fruit-bodies has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide composition in edible mushrooms, in Brazil. Artificial ((137)Cs) and natural radioactivity ((40)K, (22)(6)Ra, (2)(28)Ra) were determined in 17 mushroom samples from 3 commercialized edible mushroom species. The edible mushrooms collected were Agaricus sp., Pleurotus sp. and Lentinula sp. species. The activity measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry. The levels of (137)Cs varied from 1.45 ± 0.04 to 10.6 ± 0.3 Bq kg(-1), (40)K levels varied from 461 ± 2 to 1535 ± 10 Bq kg(-1), (2)(26)Ra levels varied from 14 ± 3 to 66 ± 12 Bq kg(-1) and (228)Ra levels varied from 6.2 ± 0.2 to 54.2 ± 1.7 Bq kg(-1). (137)Cs levels in Brazilian mushrooms are in accordance with the radioactive fallout in the Southern Hemisphere. The artificial and natural activities determined in this study were found to be below the maximum permissible levels as established by national legislation. Thus, these mushroom species can be normally consumed by the population without any apparent risks to human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioactive microconstituents and antioxidant properties of wild edible mushrooms from the island of Lesvos, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Yanni, Amalia E; Koutrotsios, Georgios; Aloupi, Maria

    2013-05-01

    Crude composition, fatty acids, sterols, total phenolic content (TPC), individual polyphenols and terpenic acids were determined in five wild edible mushrooms species (Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius sanguifluus, Lactarius semisanguifluus, Russula delica, Suillus bellinii) from Lesvos Island, Greece. In addition, the DPPH scavenging capacity, the ferric ion reducing power (FRAP) and the ferrous ion chelating activity of mushroom methanolic extracts were assessed. Among sterols, ergosterol predominated at concentrations 9.2-18.0mg/100g fw. Total phenolic content of mushroom extracts ranged from 6.0 to 20.8mg GAE/100g fw. Up to 19 simple polyphenols were determined in mushrooms extracts, the more abundant being p-OH-benzoic acid, p-OH-phenylacetic acid, o-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and chrysin. In addition, the triterpenic acids oleanolic and ursolic were detected for the first time in mushrooms. All species exerted antioxidant activity and ferrous ion chelating capacity. Principal component analysis revealed good correlations between TPC, DPPH and FRAP but not with metal chelating activity. It seems that mushrooms polyphenols exert antiradical and reducing activities, but they are not strong metal chelators, the observed chelating ability being probably due to other classes of compounds. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the bioactive microconstituents and antioxidant activity of wild Greek edible mushrooms.

  17. A Critical Review on Health Promoting Benefits of Edible Mushrooms through Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Jayachandran, Muthukumaran; Xiao, Jianbo; Xu, Baojun

    2017-09-08

    Mushrooms have long been used for medicinal and food purposes for over a thousand years, but a complete elucidation of the health-promoting properties of mushrooms through regulating gut microbiota has not yet been fully exploited. Mushrooms comprise a vast, and yet largely untapped, source of powerful new pharmaceutical substances. Mushrooms have been used in health care for treating simple and common diseases, like skin diseases and pandemic diseases like AIDS. This review is aimed at accumulating the health-promoting benefits of edible mushrooms through gut microbiota. Mushrooms are proven to possess anti-allergic, anti-cholesterol, anti-tumor, and anti-cancer properties. Mushrooms are rich in carbohydrates, like chitin, hemicellulose, β and α-glucans, mannans, xylans, and galactans, which make them the right choice for prebiotics. Mushrooms act as a prebiotics to stimulate the growth of gut microbiota, conferring health benefits to the host. In the present review, we have summarized the beneficial activities of various mushrooms on gut microbiota via the inhibition of exogenous pathogens and, thus, improving the host health.

  18. Edible mushrooms: improving human health and promoting quality life.

    PubMed

    Valverde, María Elena; Hernández-Pérez, Talía; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2015-01-01

    Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the "Food of the Gods." For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an "elixir of life." They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements.

  19. Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, María Elena; Hernández-Pérez, Talía; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2015-01-01

    Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the “Food of the Gods.” For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an “elixir of life.” They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements. PMID:25685150

  20. Characterization of Species of Cladobotryum which Cause Cobweb Disease in Edible Mushrooms Grown in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Back, Chang-Gi; Lee, Chang-Yun; Seo, Geon-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Four Cladobotryum isolates were collected from four different commercially grown mushroom types infected with cobweb disease in Cheongdo-gun and Chilgok-gun of Gyeongbuk Province, Korea in 2010. The isolates were identified as C. mycophilum from Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus eryngii, C. varium from Flammulina velutipes and Hypsizygus marmoreus. The cultural characteristics of the four isolates were investigated using potato dextrose agar (PDA) media under nine different temperatures ranging from 5~32℃. Rapid growth of the isolates to colony diameters of 47~82 mm was observed at conditions of 18~22℃. No growth was observed at 32℃. C. mycophilum produced a yellowish red pigment while C. varium produced a cream colored pigment after cultivation for 25 days on PDA. Phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and partial 28S rDNA from the four isolates confirmed they were C. mycophilum and C. varium. Cross pathogenicity tests revealed that the two isolates of C. mycophilum were highly pathogenic toward three mushroom types, but not toward H. marmoreus. The two isolates of C. varium were less pathogenic than those of C. mycophilum, but were pathogenic toward all mushroom types evaluated. PMID:23115512

  1. Structural Characterization of Melanin Pigments from Commercial Preparations of the Edible Mushroom Auricularia auricula.

    PubMed

    Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Toriola, Stacy; Nakouzi, Antonio; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Stark, Ruth; Gerfen, Gary; Tumpowsky, Paul; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-08-26

    Many of the most widely consumed edible mushrooms are pigmented, and these have been associated with some beneficial health effects. Nevertheless, the majority of the reported compounds associated with these desirable properties are non-pigmented. We have previously reported that melanin pigment from the edible mushroom Auricularia auricula can protect mice against ionizing radiation, although no physicochemical characterization was reported. Consequently, in this study we have characterized commercial A. auricula mushroom preparations for melanin content and carried out structural characterization of isolated insoluble melanin materials using a panel of sophisticated spectroscopic and physical/imaging techniques. Our results show that approximately 10% of the dry mass of A. auricula is melanin and that the pigment has physicochemical properties consistent with those of eumelanins, including hosting a stable free radical population. Electron microscopy studies show that melanin is associated with the mushroom cell wall in a manner similar to that of melanin from the model fungus C. neoformans. Elemental analysis of melanin indicated C, H, and N ratios consistent with 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid/5,6-dihydroxyindole and 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene eumelanin. Validation of the identity of the isolated product as melanin was achieved by EPR analysis. A. auricula melanin manifested structural differences, relative to the C. neoformans melanin, with regard to the variable proportions of alkyl chains or oxygenated carbons. Given the necessity for new oral and inexpensive radioprotective materials coupled with the commercial availability of A. auricula mushrooms, this product may represent an excellent source of edible melanin.

  2. Conversion of conifer wastes into edible and medicinal mushrooms.

    Treesearch

    Suki C. Croan

    2004-01-01

    Mushroom-producing white-rot fungi can be used to convert woodwaste into gourmet and medicinal mushrooms. White-rot fungi do not always readily colonize on conifer wood because of its extractives content. This study evaluated the resinous extractive content of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and an unknown species of southern yellow pine...

  3. Wild edible mushrooms in the Blue Mountains: resource and issues.

    Treesearch

    Catherine G. Parks; Craig L. Schmitt

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the wild mushroom resource of the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington and summarizes issues and concerns for regulation, monitoring, and management. Existing biological information on the major available commercial mushrooms in the area, with emphasis on morels, is presented. Brief descriptions of the most commonly...

  4. Flammulina velutipes: An option for "alperujo" use.

    PubMed

    Rugolo, Maximiliano; Levin, Laura; Lechner, Bernardo Ernesto

    Two-phase olive-mill wastes (or "alperujo") exhibit highly phytotoxic properties, mainly due to phenols. A valuable option for alperujo is its agricultural use, provided that no phytotoxic effects occur. The present investigation was aimed at evaluating the efficacy of two strains of the lignin-degrading fungus Flammulina velutipes to colonize alperujo in order to produce edible mushrooms and to achieve its detoxification. Some important cultural characters related to mushroom production (earliness, biological efficiency and quality of basidiomes) were estimated. The production of lignocellulolytic enzymes, phenol removal and detoxification of the substrate was evaluated. High biological efficiencies (70.8%) were obtained at 12°C with F. velutipes strain BAFC 670/06 in a substrate containing poplar wood shavings and 90% of alperujo. The nature of the substrate did not seem to exert an important influence on pileus and stem morphology; nevertheless shortest stems were observed at higher temperatures. Endo-β-1,4-glucanase, endo-β-1,4-xylanase, laccase and Mn-peroxidase activities were detected in the extracts recovered from the solid-state cultures. Both F. velutipes strains were effective in removing the phenolic compounds. The initial concentration in the substrate with 90% alperujo was reduced in the case of F. velutipes BAFC 1763 by 84.31%, and 40.15% by F. velutipes BAFC 670/06. Germinability experiments on Raphanus sativus, showed that alperujo phytotoxicity was significantly reduced by F. velutipes cultures. The experimented changes by the spent mushroom substrate resulting from F. velutipes cultivation with high amount of alperujo would allow its reuse for agricultural purposes. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Cadmium in edible mushrooms from NW Spain: Bioconcentration factors and consumer health implications.

    PubMed

    Melgar, M Julia; Alonso, Julián; García, M Angeles

    2016-02-01

    Mushrooms do not constitute a significant portion of the human diet, but the consumption of wild and cultivated mushrooms has become increasingly in recent years. Some species accumulate high levels of toxic metals, both in unpolluted and polluted areas. In this study, we examined the accumulation capacity of cadmium in edible mushrooms in relation to certain factors and their possible toxicological implications. Cadmium concentrations were determined by an ICP-MS spectrometer in 238 samples of the fruiting bodies of 28 wild and cultivated growing edible mushrooms species and the underlying soil. The hymenophore (H) and the rest of the fruiting body (RFB) were analysed separately. The highest mean cadmium concentration (mg/kg dry weight) was found in Agaricus macrosporus (52.9 in H and 28.3 in RFB). All mushroom species accumulated cadmium in relation to the underlying soils. There were statistically significant differences between the hymenophore and the rest of the fruiting body (p < 0.001). Cadmium concentrations were compared to data in the literature and to levels set by legislation. It was concluded that consumption of our studied mushrooms is not a toxicological risk as far as cadmium content is concerned, although the species A. macrosporus should not be consumed.

  6. The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

  7. The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

  8. Ethnomycological studies of edible and medicinal mushrooms in the Mount Cameroon region (Cameroon, Africa).

    PubMed

    Kinge, Tonjock R; Tabi, Ebai M; Mih, Afui M; Enow, Egbe A; Njouonkou, L; Nji, T M

    2011-01-01

    Inhabitants of the Mount Cameroon region depend on the forest resources of the region for their livelihood, including the diverse use of macrofungi. With the increasing loss of forest due to exploitation and urbanization, they are liable to rapidly lose their indigenous knowledge of the forest resources, especially of mushrooms. An ethnomycological survey was conducted with the aim of documenting the indigenous knowledge of mushrooms as a prelude to conservation efforts. We also sought to assess the mycophilic and mycophobic tendencies of the inhabitants. It was revealed that traditionally, mushrooms were used as food, medicine, for mythological purposes, for aesthetics, and some poisonous species were also recorded. At least 15 different species were identified to be edible among the Bakweri people. Species used for ethnomedicine among the Bakweris belonged to several genera, including Termitomyces, Auricularia, Agaricus, Daldinia, Dictyophora, Pleurotus, Russula, Trametes, Chlorophyllum, and Ganoderma. Mushrooms were used as love charms, for dispelling evil spirits, and as part of cultural festivals.

  9. Metal concentrations in edible mushrooms following municipal sludge application on forest land.

    PubMed

    Benbrahim, Mohammed; Denaix, Laurence; Thomas, Anne-Laure; Balet, Julie; Carnus, Jean-Michel

    2006-12-01

    In the context of biosolids utilisation in forestry, effects of sludge application on mushroom metal concentration were studied in six sites of maritime pine forests in the South-West of France. Municipal sludge were applied at a rate of 6 T dry matter per hectare. Edible mushrooms were collected two years after sludge application. As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se and Zn concentrations were determined. Results showed a high variability for trace element concentrations in mushrooms collected from control areas. No significant correlation was found between soil parameters (pH and trace elements concentrations) and mushroom trace element concentrations. Even if the concentration of trace metals increased in the soils, sludge application did not affect As, Cu, Se and Zn concentrations in carpophores but slightly increased Cd, Pb and Hg concentrations on some sites. This effect is dependent on sludge type and sites.

  10. Comparative study of antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of selected edible wild mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Yim, Hip Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Lee, Mee Yee; Matanjun, Patricia; How, Siew Eng; Ho, Chun Wai

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the antioxidant activities (AOA) and total phenolic content (TPC) of water extracts of selected edible wild mushrooms: Pleurotus porrigens, Schizophyllum commune, Hygrocybe conica, and Lentinus ciliatus. The AOA were evaluated against DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation scavenging ability, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching (beta-CB) assays, and the Folin-Ciocalteu method for TPC. BHA was used as reference. P. porrigens showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) DPPH* scavenging ability (90.78 +/- 0.30%) and FRAP (6.37 +/- 0.22 mM FE/100g), while Sch. commune showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) ABTS*+ inhibition activity (94.96 +/- 0.70%) and beta-CB inhibition activity (94.18 +/- 0.17%), respectively. TPC was found in a descending order of P. poriggens > L. ciliatus = Pleurotus ostreatus (cultivated) > H. conica = Sch. commune. Positive correlation was observed between the AOA and TPC. When compared to BHA (2 mM), P. porrigens showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) DPPH* scavenging ability and reducing power, while Sch. commune showed comparable DPPH* scavenging ability and ABTS*+ inhibition activity. All the mushrooms have better ABTS*+ inhibition activity than BHA (1 mM). The beta-CB inhibition activity of BHA was significantly higher than those of edible wild mushrooms. The water extracts of edible wild mushrooms showed potent antioxidant activities compared to BHA to a certain extent.

  11. Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms: Emerging Brain Food for the Mitigation of Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Phan, Chia-Wei; David, Pamela; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2017-01-01

    There is an exponential increase in dementia in old age at a global level because of increasing life expectancy. The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) will continue to rise steadily, and is expected to reach 42 million cases worldwide in 2020. Despite the advancement of medication, the management of these diseases remains largely ineffective. Therefore, it is vital to explore novel nature-based nutraceuticals to mitigate AD and other age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Mushrooms and their extracts appear to hold many health benefits, including immune-modulating effects. A number of edible mushrooms have been shown to contain rare and exotic compounds that exhibit positive effects on brain cells both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we summarize the scientific information on edible and culinary mushrooms with regard to their antidementia/AD active compounds and/or pharmacological test results. The bioactive components in these mushrooms and the underlying mechanism of their activities are discussed. In short, these mushrooms may be regarded as functional foods for the mitigation of neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. Bioactive capacity of some Romanian wild edible mushrooms consumed mainly by local communities.

    PubMed

    Vamanu, Emanuel

    2017-03-28

    Wild edible mushrooms are considered as a cheap food source, but rich in bioactive compounds, especially in phenolic compounds. The purpose of the study was to determine the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity and the content of polyphenolcarboxylic acids in 10 species of mushrooms commonly used (consumed) in Romania and two controls. The effect against free radicals, lipid peroxidation and reducing power were determined. The antimicrobial effect was revealed on some strains with pathogenic effect by disk diffusion assay. The antioxidant capacity expressed in vitro was correlated both with the presence of the main polyphenolcarboxylic acids, and also with the presence of other bioactive molecules (flavonoids, carotenoid compounds, etc.).

  13. Functional nutraceutical profiling of wild edible and medicinal mushrooms consumed by ethnic tribes in India.

    PubMed

    Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

    2015-01-01

    Wild edible mushrooms occupy an important place in the traditional food habits of the ethnic tribes of India. Specimens collected from the forests and local markets of Meghalaya, India were affiliated to ten different species. The mushroom extracts were analyzed for nutrient and mineral compositions along with phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, and lycopene. These extracts were also investigated for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. Fungal extracts were found to be rich in nutrients and minerals, and exhibited potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities under assay conditions. The nutrient profiles generated for each of these ten species revealed them to be rich sources of functional nutraceuticals.

  14. Identification of the molecular species of acylglycerols containing hydroxy fatty acids in wild edible mushroom Ganoderma lucidum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Edible Philippine mushrooms including Ganoderma lucidum have many health benefits. Seventy-two molecular species of triacylglycerols and five molecular species of diacylglycerols containing hydroxy fatty acids (FA) in the lipid extract of this mushroom were identified by HPLC and MS. The mono-, di- ...

  15. Recycling of Vineyard and Winery Wastes as Nutritive Composts for Edible Mushroom Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petre, Marian; Teodorescu, Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    Every year, in Romania huge amounts of wine and vine wastes cause serious environmental damages in vineyards as well as nearby winery factories, for instance, by their burning on the soil surface or their incorporation inside soil matrix. The optimal and efficient way to solve these problems is to recycle these biomass wastes as main ingredients in nutritive composts preparation that could be used for edible mushrooms cultivation. In this respect, the main aim of this work was to establish the best biotechnology of winery and vine wastes recycling by using them as appropriate growth substrata for edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, two mushroom species of Basidiomycetes, namely Lentinula edodes as well as Pleurotus ostreatus were used as pure mushroom cultures in experiments. The experiments of inoculum preparation were set up under the following conditions: constant temperature, 23° C; agitation speed, 90-120 rev min-1 pH level, 5.0-6.0. All mycelia mushroom cultures were incubated for 120-168 h. In the next stage of experiments, the culture composts for mushroom growing were prepared from the lignocellulose wastes as vine cuttings and marc of grapes in order to be used as substrata in mycelia development and fruit body formation. The tested culture variants were monitored continuously to keep constant the temperature during the incubation as well as air humidity, air pressure and a balanced ratio of the molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide. In every mushroom culture cycle all the physical and chemical parameters that could influence the mycelia growing as well as fruit body formation of L. edodes and P. ostreatus were compared to the same fungal cultures that were grown on poplar logs used as control samples.

  16. Process and dynamics of traditional selling wild edible mushrooms in tropical Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ruán-Soto, Felipe; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2006-01-01

    Background More than twelve temperate-inhabitant Mexican ethnic groups are considered to be mycophilic and to have extensive traditional mycological knowledge. In contrast, inhabitants of tropical lands have been studied only superficially and their mycological knowledge is less well known. In this paper, we report the results of an ethnomycological research in markets of a wide area of the Mexican tropics. Our aims were to describe the dynamics related to the traditional selling process of wild mushrooms and to determine the tendencies of informants toward mushrooms (mycophily vs. mycophoby). Methods We visited 25 markets of 12 different settlements in the states of Oaxaca, Tabasco and Veracruz and collected information by participant observation as well as by 291 non-structured and semi-structured interviews. Results Mushroom selling was observed in four towns in Oaxaca and in two in Tabasco. Women represented 81.82% of sellers, while indigenous people (Chinantecos, Chontales, Ch'oles and Zoques) comprised 68.18%. Mushroom commercialization took place in secondary mobile markets and only in peasant stands. Mushroom collectors gather the resource in places with secondary vegetation, farmed areas and cattle fields. Because of land tenure restrictions mushroom sellers did not normally collect mushrooms themselves. In Oaxaca, we observed economic dynamics not based on capitalism, such as exchange, reciprocity and barter. Conclusion The sale of some wild edible mushrooms, the large amounts of commercialization of Schizophyllum commune, the complicated intermediary process, as well as the insertion of mushrooms into different informal economic practices are all evidence of an existent mycophily in a sector of the population of this region of the Mexican tropics. Among our informants, urban mestizo people were mycophobic, rural mestizo people were non-mycophilic and indigenous people were true mycophilic. PMID:16393345

  17. Characterization of phytase activity from cultivated edible mushrooms and their production substrates.

    PubMed

    Collopy, Patrick D; Royse, Daniel J

    2004-12-15

    Phytase is used commercially to maximize phytic acid degradation and to decrease phosphorus levels in poultry and swine manure. To determine phytase content in edible mushrooms, basidiomata of Agaricus bisporus and three specialty mushrooms (Grifola frondosa, Lentinula edodes, and Pleurotus cornucopiae) and spent mushroom substrate (SMS) were surveyed. Enzyme activity ranged from 0.046 to 0.074 unit/g of tissue for four A. bisporus types (closed and open whites and closed and open browns) grown at The Pennsylvania State University's Mushroom Test Demonstration Facility (MTDF). The addition of various nutrient supplements to phase II mushroom production substrate did not alter phytase activity in A. bisporus. Portabella mushrooms (open brown) obtained from a commercial farm had significantly higher levels of phytase activity (0.211 unit/g of tissue) compared to A. bisporus grown at the MTDF. Of the specialty mushrooms surveyed, maitake (G. frondosa) had 20% higher phytase activity (0.287 unit/g of tissue) than commercial portabella mushrooms. The yellow oyster mushroom (P. cornucopiae) ranked second in level of phytase activity (0.213 unit/g of tissue). Shiitake (L. edodes) contained the least amount of phytase in basidiomata (0.107 unit/g of tissue). Post-crop steam treatment (60 degrees C, 24 h) of SMS reduced phytase activity from 0.074 to 0.018 unit/g. Phytase was partially purified from commercially grown portabella basidiomata 314-fold with an estimated molecular mass of 531 kDa by gel filtration chromatography. The optimum pH for activity was 5.5, but appreciable phytase activity was observed over the range of pH 5.0-8.0. Partially purified A. bisporus phytase was inactivated following a 10-min incubation at > or =60 degrees C.

  18. Process and dynamics of traditional selling wild edible mushrooms in tropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruán-Soto, Felipe; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2006-01-05

    More than twelve temperate-inhabitant Mexican ethnic groups are considered to be mycophilic and to have extensive traditional mycological knowledge. In contrast, inhabitants of tropical lands have been studied only superficially and their mycological knowledge is less well known. In this paper, we report the results of an ethnomycological research in markets of a wide area of the Mexican tropics. Our aims were to describe the dynamics related to the traditional selling process of wild mushrooms and to determine the tendencies of informants toward mushrooms (mycophily vs. mycophoby). We visited 25 markets of 12 different settlements in the states of Oaxaca, Tabasco and Veracruz and collected information by participant observation as well as by 291 non-structured and semi-structured interviews. Mushroom selling was observed in four towns in Oaxaca and in two in Tabasco. Women represented 81.82% of sellers, while indigenous people (Chinantecos, Chontales, Ch'oles and Zoques) comprised 68.18%. Mushroom commercialization took place in secondary mobile markets and only in peasant stands. Mushroom collectors gather the resource in places with secondary vegetation, farmed areas and cattle fields. Because of land tenure restrictions mushroom sellers did not normally collect mushrooms themselves. In Oaxaca, we observed economic dynamics not based on capitalism, such as exchange, reciprocity and barter. The sale of some wild edible mushrooms, the large amounts of commercialization of Schizophyllum commune, the complicated intermediary process, as well as the insertion of mushrooms into different informal economic practices are all evidence of an existent mycophily in a sector of the population of this region of the Mexican tropics. Among our informants, urban mestizo people were mycophobic, rural mestizo people were non-mycophilic and indigenous people were true mycophilic.

  19. Isolation, Identification, and Bioactivity of Monoterpenoids and Sesquiterpenoids from the Mycelia of Edible Mushroom Pleurotus cornucopiae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaojuan; Bao, Li; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Quanxin; Li, Shaojie; Ren, Jinwei; Li, Li; Wen, Huaan; Guo, Liangdong; Liu, Hongwei

    2013-05-29

    Edible mushroom is a profilic source of bioactive metabolites for the development of drugs and nutraceuticals. In this work, four new monoterpenoids (1-4) and one new sesquiterpenoid (6) were isolated from the mycelia of edible mushroom Pleurotus cornucopiae fermented on rice. Their structures were established by nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism (CD) data analysis. Compound 1 possesses an unusual spiro[benzofuran-3,2'-oxiran] skeleton. The absolute configuration of the 6,7-diol moieties in compounds 1, 2, and 6 was assigned using the in situ dimolybdenum CD method. Compounds 1-5, 7, and 8 showed moderate inhibitory activity against nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccaride-activated macrophages, with IC50 values in the range of 60-90 μM. Compounds 6 and 7 also exhibited slight cytotoxicity against HeLa and HepG2 cells.

  20. An immunostimulating water insoluble β-glucan of an edible hybrid mushroom: isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Maity, Kousik; Samanta, Surajit; Bhanja, Sunil K; Maity, Saikat; Sen, Ipsita K; Maiti, Swatilekha; Behera, Birendra; Maiti, Tapas K; Sikdar, Samir R; Islam, Syed S

    2013-01-01

    An immunostimulating water-insoluble β-glucan isolated from hot alkaline extract of the fruiting bodies of an edible somatic hybrid mushroom of Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica var. APK2 showed significant macrophage, splenocyte, and thymocyte activations. On the basis of total hydrolysis, methylation analysis, and NMR experiments ((1)H, (13)C, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, DEPT-135, and HSQC), the repeating unit of the polysaccharide is established.

  1. Structural Characterization of Melanin Pigments from Commercial Preparations of the Edible Mushroom Auricularia auricula

    PubMed Central

    Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Toriola, Stacy; Nakouzi, Antonio; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Stark, Ruth; Gerfen, Gary; Tumpowsky, Paul; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Many of the most widely consumed edible mushrooms are pigmented, and these have been associated with some beneficial health effects. Nevertheless, the majority of the reported compounds associated with these desirable properties are non-pigmented. We have previously reported that melanin pigment from the edible mushroom Auricularia auricula can protect mice against ionizing radiation, although no physicochemical characterization was reported. Consequently, in this study we have characterized commercial A. auricula mushroom preparations for melanin content and carried out structural characterization of isolated insoluble melanin materials using a panel of sophisticated spectroscopic and physical/imaging techniques. Our results show that approximately 10% of the dry mass of A. auricula is melanin and that the pigment has physicochemical properties consistent with those of eumelanins, including hosting a stable free radical population. Electron microscopy studies show that melanin is associated with the mushroom cell wall in a manner similar to that of melanin from the model fungus C. neoformans. Elemental analysis of melanin indicated C, H, and N ratios consistent with 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid/5,6-dihydroxyindole and 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene eumelanin. Validation of the identity of the isolated product as melanin was achieved by EPR analysis. A. auricula melanin manifested structural differences, relative to the C. neoformans melanin, with regard to the variable proportions of alkyl chains or oxygenated carbons. Given the necessity for new oral and inexpensive radioprotective materials coupled with the commercial availability of A. auricula mushrooms, this product may represent an excellent source of edible melanin. PMID:26244793

  2. Nutritional values and antioxidant potential of some edible mushrooms of Kashmir valley.

    PubMed

    Boda, Rouf Hamza; Wani, Abdul Hamid; Zargar, Mohammad Afzal; Ganie, Bashir Ahmad; Wani, Bilal Ahmad; Ganie, Showkat Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    Mushrooms are considered rich in proteins, carbohydrates and other nutrients. The present study was carried out to evaluate some edible mushrooms of Kashmir valley for their protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents. The highest protein content was found in Boletus edulis (2.20g) followed by Agaricus bisporus (1.80g), Pleurotus ostreatus (1.68g), Morchella esculenta (1.62g) and Pleurotus sajor caju (1.6g). Carbohydrate content also showed variation in all the five tested edible mushroom species, the highest carbohydrate content observed in Boletus edulis (6.0g) followed by Agaricus bisporus (4.85g), Pleurotus ostreatus (4.30g), Morchella esculenta (4.25g) and Pleurotus sajor caju (3.35g) respectively. Similar results were observed for lipid content. The present study was also investigated for the antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of mushroom species by the methods of DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity. All these in vitro antioxidant activities were concentration dependent, which were compared with standard antioxidant Catechin.

  3. Mercury in edible mushrooms and underlying soil: bioconcentration factors and toxicological risk.

    PubMed

    Melgar, M J; Alonso, J; García, M A

    2009-10-01

    Wild growing mushrooms are a popular delicacy in many countries, but some species accumulate high levels of toxic heavy metals, e.g., mercury, both in unpolluted and mildly polluted areas. In this study, we examined the accumulation capacity of mercury in edible mushrooms in relation to certain factors and their possible toxicological implications. Total concentrations of mercury were determined by an anodic stripping voltammetric technique using a gold disc as the working electrode in 238 samples of the fruiting bodies of 28 wild growing edible mushrooms species and the underlying soil. The mushrooms were collected from different sites in the province of Lugo (NW Spain). The hymenophore (H) and the rest of the fruiting body (RFB) were analysed separately. The highest mean mercury concentrations (mg/kg dry weight) were found in Boletus pinophilus (6.9 in H and 4.5 in RFB), Agaricus macrosporus (5.1 in H and 3.7 in RFB), Lepista nuda (5.1 in H and 3.1 in RFB) and Boletus aereus (4.6 in H and 3.3 in RFB), while the lowest was found in Agrocybe cylindrica (0.34 in H and 0.26 in RFB) and Fistulina hepatica (0.30 in H and 0.22 in RFB). All mushroom species accumulated mercury (BCF>1) in relation to the underlying soils. There were no statistically significant differences between the mercury levels in the hymenophore and in the rest of the fruiting body. The total mercury concentrations were compared to data in the literature and to levels set by legislation. It was concluded that consumption of the majority of the studied mushrooms is not a toxicological risk as far as mercury content is concerned, although the species B.pinophilus, A.macrosporus, L.nuda and B.aereus should be consumed in low amounts.

  4. Screening of antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds of some edible mushrooms cultivated in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Mohammed; Kubra, Khadizatul; Ahmed, Sheikh

    2015-02-07

    For a long time mushrooms have been playing an important role in several aspects of the human activity. Recently edible mushrooms are used extensively in cooking and make part of new food in Bangladesh for their beneficial properties. The aim of this study is to screen some values of mushrooms used in Bangladesh. Methanolic extracts of 3 edible mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinula edodes, Hypsizigus tessulatus) isolated from Chittagong, Bangladesh were used in this study. Phenolic compounds in the mushroom methanolic extracts were estimated by a colorimetric assay. The antioxidant activity was determined by radical 1, 1-diphenyl;-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Eight microbial isolates were used for antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of mushrooms by the agar well diffusion method with slight modification. Determination of antimicrobial activity indicated considerable activity against all bacteria and fungi reveling zone of inhibition ranged from 7 ± 0.2 to 20 ± 0.1 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration values of the extracts showed that they are also active even in least concentrations ranged from 1 mg/ml to 9 mg/ml. Lentinula edodes showed the best antimicrobial activity than others. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was quite resistant and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was more sensitive than others microbial isolates. Antioxidant efficiency by inhibitory concentration on 1,1-Diphenly-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was found significant when compared to standard antioxidant like ascorbic Acid . The concentration (IC50) ranged from 100 ± 1.20 to 110 ± 1.24 μg/ml. Total phenols are the major bioactive component found in extracts of isolates expressed as mg of GAE per gram of fruit body, which ranged from 3.20 ± 0.05 to 10.66 ± 0.52 mg/ml. Average concentration of flavonoid ranged from 2.50 ± 0.008 mg/ml to 4.76 ± 0.11 mg/ml; followed by very small concentration of ascorbic acid (range, 0.06 ± 0.00 mg/ml to 0

  5. [Nutrient transfer and growth of Pinus greggii Engelm. inoculated with edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms in two substrates].

    PubMed

    Rentería-Chávez, María C; Pérez-Moreno, Jesús; Cetina-Alcalá, Víctor M; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz

    An ectomycorrhiza is a mutualistic symbiosis of paramount importance in forestry and tree production. One of the selection criteria of ectomycorrhizal fungi that has currently gained importance is their edibility due to the economic, ecological and cultural relevance of edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms as a non-timber forest product. The effect of the inoculation with three edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms: Laccaria laccata, Laccaria bicolor y Hebeloma leucosarx, which are widely sold in Mexico, on the growth and nutrient contents of Pinus greggii grown in an experimental substrate and a commercial substrate enriched with a slow-release fertilizer, was evaluated. Two years after sowing, differences in terms of shoot and root biomass and macro and micronutrient contents between inoculated and non-inoculated plants, were recorded independently of the fungal species and the substrate. Despite the fact that plants grown in the commercial substrate had higher growth and nutrient contents, their ectomycorrhizal colonization percentages were smaller than those of the plants grown in the experimental substrate. The differences in the nutrient transfer to the inoculated plant shoots among the evaluated fungal species were recorded. Ca mobilization by L. laccata, Na by L. bicolor and Mn by H. leucosarx were observed in the plants growing in the experimental substrate. It has been demonstrated that the selection of substrates constitutes an important factor in the production of ectomycorrhizal plants and that the three evaluated species of edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms have an enormous potential in the controlled mycorrhization of P. greggii. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Metal concentration and antioxidant activity of edible mushrooms from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Kocak, Mehmet Sefa; Uren, Mehmet Cemil

    2015-05-15

    This study presents information on the antioxidant activity and heavy metal concentrations of Polyporus sulphureus, Macrolepiota procera, Lycoperdon perlatum and Gomphus clavatus mushrooms collected from the province of Mugla in the South-Aegean Region of Turkey. Antioxidant activities of mushroom samples were evaluated by four complementary tests. All tests showed L. perlatum and G. clavatus to possess extremely high antioxidant potential. Antioxidant activity of the samples was strongly correlated with total phenolic-flavonoid content. In terms of heavy metal content, L. perlatum exceeded the legal limits for daily intake of Pb, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni and Co contents (0.461, 738.00, 14.52, 1.27, 1.65, 0.417 mg/day, respectively) by a 60-kg consumer. Co contents of M. procera (0.026 mg/day) and P. sulphureus (0.030 mg/day) and Cd contents of G. clavatus (0.071 mg/day) were also above the legal limits. According to these results, L. perlatum should not be consumed, despite the potentially beneficial antioxidant activity. Additionally, M. procera and G. clavatus should not be consumed daily due to their high levels of Cd and Co. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of Free Total Amino Acid Compositions and Their Functional Classifications in 13 Wild Edible Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liping; Liu, Qiuming; Bao, Changjun; Fan, Jian

    2017-02-24

    Thirteen popular wild edible mushroom species in Yunnan Province, Boletus bicolor, Boletus speciosus, Boletus sinicus, Boletus craspedius, Boletus griseus, Boletus ornatipes, Xerocomus, Suillus placidus, Boletinus pinetorus, Tricholoma terreum, Tricholomopsis lividipileata, Termitomyces microcarpus, and Amanita hemibapha, were analyzed for their free amino acid compositions by online pre-column derivazation reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis. Twenty free amino acids, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, alanine, praline, cysteine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, histidine, threonine, asparagines, glutamine, arginine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, were determined. The total free amino acid (TAA) contents ranged from 1462.6 mg/100 g in B. craspedius to 13,106.2 mg/100 g in T. microcarpus. The different species showed distinct free amino acid profiles. The ratio of total essential amino acids (EAA) to TAA was 0.13-0.41. All of the analyzed species showed high contents of hydrophobic amino acids, at 33%-54% of TAA. Alanine, cysteine, glutamine, and glutamic acid were among the most abundant amino acids present in all species. The results showed that the analyzed mushrooms possessed significant free amino acid contents, which may be important compounds contributing to the typical mushroom taste, nutritional value, and potent antioxidant properties of these wild edible mushrooms. Furthermore, the principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the accumulative variance contribution rate of the first four principal components reached 94.39%. Cluster analysis revealed EAA composition and content might be an important parameter to separate the mushroom species, and T. microcarpus and A. hemibapha showed remarkable EAA content among the 13 species.

  8. Comparative nutrient composition of selected wild edible mushrooms from two agro-ecological zones, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nakalembe, Immaculate; Kabasa, John David; Olila, Deogratias

    2015-01-01

    In Uganda, wild mushrooms are mainly collected during the rainy season and valued as a traditionally nutritious food by the rural poor. However, their nutritional attributes have not been adequately studied and documented. Comparative nutrient composition of five wild edible mushroom species was determined, namely: P. tenucuilus, T. tyleranus, T. clypeatus, V. speciosa and T. microcarpus of sub-humid and humid agro-ecological zones. Standard analytical techniques following the AOAC were used for proximate and mineral contents determinations. Vitamins determination followed the established standard protocols of the laboratories where the analyses were conducted. Combined use of nutrient concentration and scores were used to compare the level of the contents in the mushroom species. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in nutrient values were demonstrated between and among the mushroom species obtained from the two agro-ecological zones. On dry weight basis, all proximate compositions were high in mushroom species obtained from the humid zone with exception of the total carbohydrates and energy values. Irrespective of the source of the mushrooms, significant amounts were demonstrated in protein, dry matter, ash and total carbohydrates ranging between 11.56-27.42%, 82.34-99.76%, 10.79-16.87%, and 37.12-61.05%, respectively. In comparison with recommended dietary daily intakes, the K, P, Se, Mn, Cu and Fe contents were relatively high with low Ca, Mg, Zn and Na. Thiamin, folic acid, vitamin C, and niacin levels were high but below the recommended FAO references. Considering mushrooms from different agro-ecological zones, significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in all mushroom species in P except in T. clypeatus, T. tyleranus, T. microcarpus and T. clypeatus in potassium, T. clypeatus and T. microcarpus in Mg. Mushrooms from humid agro-ecological zones had relatively high overall mineral and vitamin supply potential. In conclusion, consumption of these

  9. Knowledge and use of edible mushrooms in two municipalities of the Sierra Tarahumara, Chihuahua, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Quiñónez-Martínez, Miroslava; Ruan-Soto, Felipe; Aguilar-Moreno, Ivonne Estela; Garza-Ocañas, Fortunato; Lebgue-Keleng, Toutcha; Lavín-Murcio, Pablo Antonio; Enríquez-Anchondo, Irma Delia

    2014-09-17

    The Sierra Madre Occidental of Chihuahua in Northern Mexico is inhabited by indigenous Raramuris, mestizos, and other ethnic groups. The territory consists of canyons and ravines with pine, oak and pine-oak forests in the higher plateaus. A great diversity of potentially edible mushrooms is found in forests of the Municipalities of Bocoyna and Urique. Their residents are the only consumers of wild mushrooms in the Northern Mexico; they have a long tradition of collecting and eating these during the "rainy season." However, despite the wide diversity of edible mushrooms that grow in these areas, residents have a selective preference. This paper aims to record evidence of the knowledge and use of wild potentially edible mushroom species by inhabitants of towns in the Sierra Tarahumara of Chihuahua, Mexico. Using a semi-structured technique, we surveyed 197 habitants from seven locations in Urique, Bocoyna, and the Cusarare area from 2010 to 2012. Known fungi, local nomenclature, species consumed, preparation methods, appreciation of taste, forms of preservation, criteria for differentiating toxic and edible fungi, other uses, economic aspects, and traditional teaching were recorded. To identify the recognized species, photographic stimuli of 22 local edible species and two toxic species were used. The respondents reported preference for five species: Amanita rubescens, Agaricus campestris, Ustilago maydis, Hypomyces lactifluorum, and the Amanita caesarea complex. No apparent differences were found between ethnic groups in terms of preference, although mestizos used other species in Bocoyna (Boletus edulis and B. pinophilus). Some different uses of fungi are recognized by respondents, i.e. home decorations, medicine, as food in breeding rams, etc. The studied population shows a great appreciation towards five species, mainly the A. caesarea complex, and an apparent lack of knowledge of nearly 20 species which are used as food in other areas of Mexico. There are no

  10. Metal concentrations of wild edible mushrooms from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Solak, Mehmet Halil; Cetinkaya, Serap

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the contents of Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Co, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Al, Ca, Mg, and K in Agaricus campestris, Agrocybe cylindracea, Collybia dryophila, Helvella leucopus, Russula delica, Tricholoma auratum, Amanita ovoidea, Melanoleuca excissa, Rhizopogon roseolus, Russula chloroides, Volvoriella gloiocephala, Lyophyllum decastes, Morcella angusticeps, Morchella esculenta and Morcella eximia collected from Isparta, Mugla, and Osmaniye provinces (Turkey) were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave digestion. The intake of heavy metals (Pb, Cd) and other metals (Fe, Cu, Zn) by consumption of 30 g dry weight of mushrooms daily poses no risk at all except in A. cylindracea and H. leucopus (for Cd) for the consumer.

  11. Characterization, molecular cloning, and differential expression analysis of laccase genes from the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Kwan, H S

    1999-11-01

    The effect of different substrates and various developmental stages (mycelium growth, primordium appearance, and fruiting-body formation) on laccase production in the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes was studied. The cap of the mature mushroom showed the highest laccase activity, and laccase activity was not stimulated by some well-known laccase inducers or sawdust. For our molecular studies, two genomic DNA sequences, representing allelic variants of the L. edodes lac1 gene, were isolated, and DNA sequence analysis demonstrated that lac1 encodes a putative polypeptide of 526 amino acids which is interrupted by 13 introns. The two allelic genes differ at 95 nucleotides, which results in seven amino acid differences in the encoded protein. The copper-binding domains found in other laccase enzymes are conserved in the L. edodes Lac1 proteins. A fragment of a second laccase gene (lac2) was also isolated, and competitive PCR showed that expression of lac1 and lac2 genes was different under various conditions. Our results suggest that laccases may play a role in the morphogenesis of the mushroom. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the cloning of genes involved in lignocellulose degradation in this economically important edible fungus.

  12. Assessment of heavy metals in some wild edible mushrooms collected from Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fangkun; Qu, Li; Fan, Wenxiu; Qiao, Meiying; Hao, Hailing; Wang, Xuejing

    2011-08-01

    Eight heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) in 14 different wild-growing edible mushroom species (Coprinus comatus, Voluariella volvacea, Pleurotus nebrodensis, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Hericium erinaceus, Agrocybe aegerita, Lenfinus edodes, Collybia velutipes, Agaricus bisporus, Russula albida, Clitocybe conglobata, Pleurotus eryngii, Lepista sordida, and Pleurotus ostreatus) collected from Yunnan province, China, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry after microwave digestion. All element concentrations were determined on a dry weight basis. The ranges of element concentrations for copper, zinc, iron, manganese, cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead were 6.8-31.9, 42.9-94.3, 67.5-843, 13.5-113, 0.06-0.58, 10.7-42.7, 0.76-5.1, and 0.67-12.9 mg/kg, respectively. In general, iron content was higher than other metals in all mushroom species. The levels of zinc, cadmium, and lead in some edible mushroom samples were found to be higher than legal limits. The relative standard deviations were found below 10%. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference material.

  13. Assessment of the chlorinated hydrocarbons residues contamination in edible mushrooms from the North-Eastern part of Poland.

    PubMed

    Gałgowska, Michalina; Pietrzak-Fiećko, Renata; Felkner-Poźniakowska, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the content of chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in edible mushrooms from the north-eastern part of Poland. Material consisted of two species of fungi: Xerocomus mushrooms (Xerocomus badius), Boletus mushrooms (Boletus edulis). The dried samples (cups and cut-up material) were extracted with Soxhlet method in order to obtain lipid substances. In the fat chlorinated hydrocarbons were determined by Ludwicki et al. (1996) method. The separation and quantitative determination of DDT, DDE, DDD and γ-HCH were conducted with the method of gas chromatography using an electron capture detector - ECD. In all tested samples the presence of γ-HCH, DDT and its metabolites (DDE, DDD) was detected. The higher content of γ-HCH was found in Xerocomus mushrooms (average 0.125 μg/kg of mushrooms); in the Boletus mushrooms -0.11 μg/kg of mushrooms. The content of ΣDDT in cups of Xerocomus mushrooms was more than 2-fold higher than in those of Boletus mushrooms (3.78:1.71 mg/kg of mushrooms). The opposite relationship was observed for cut-up material. The higher concentration of ΣDDT was found in Boletus mushrooms (2.26 mg/kg of mushrooms) while in Xerocomus mushrooms this content was 0.91 mg/kg of mushrooms. Despite the fact that chlorinated hydrocarbons were determined in all samples under study, their contents do not exceed acceptable levels indicating that the consumption of mushrooms does not pose a health risk to consumers from the organochlorine compounds.

  14. Release of feruloylated oligosaccharides from wheat bran through submerged fermentation by edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chunyan; Wu, Zhiyan; Guo, Hongzhen; Gu, Zhenxin

    2014-07-01

    Wheat bran, a by-product of the flour industry, is believed to be a raw material for the production of feruloylated oligosaccharides (FOs) because of its high content of conjiont ferulic acid (FA). Studies were carried out to identify edible mushrooms that are able to release FOs from wheat bran. All the six tested mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus, Hericium erinaceum, Auricularia auricula, Cordyceps militaris, Agrocybe chaxingu, and Ganoderma lucium) were found to release FOs, and Agrocybe chaxingu had the highest yield, reaching 35.4 µM in wheat bran broth. Enzymes detection showed that these species secreted extracellular enzymes during fermentation, including cellulase and xylanase. Agrocybe chaxingu secreted the significant amount of xylanase (180 mU ml(-1) ), which was responsible for the release of FOs from wheat bran, while Hericium erinaceum secreted FA esterase which could disassemble FOs.

  15. Characterization of biosynthesized zinc sulphide nanoparticles using edible mushroom Pleurotuss ostreatu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senapati, U. S.; Sarkar, D.

    2014-06-01

    We report here green synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles using the extract of an edible mushroom ( Pleurotuss ostreatu). The obtained ZnS nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, UV-Vis optical absorption, photoluminescence and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. XRD analysis confirms ZnS nanoparticles have cubic structure and also there is decrease of particle size and increase of dislocation density and strain with increase of amount of mushroom extract. The variation of crystallite size is in conformity with the results obtained from SEM and TEM. UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectra give the characteristic peak for ZnS nano where as Fourier transform infrared spectra confirm the presence of microbial proteins.

  16. The heavy metal content of wild edible mushroom samples collected in canakkale province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cayir, Akin; Coşkun, Münevver; Coşkun, Mahmut

    2010-05-01

    In this study, concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) were determined in three edible mushroom species (Lactarius deliciosus, Russula delica, and Rhizopogon roseolus) collected in five sampling sites in Canakkale province, Turkey. Mean values of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were 0.72, 0.26, 28.34, 1.53, and 64.62 mg/kg, respectively. The highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were determined in species R. delica, while Cr was observed in L. deliciosus. In terms of the nutritional aspect, taking into account the concentration of Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake recommended by FAO/WHO, the maximum concentration of Cd is a restrictive factor for consumption of the collected mushroom species. The concentrations of the other elements have no health risks when consumed at optimal levels.

  17. Levels of eight trace elements in edible mushrooms from a rural area.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Lubomír; Chrastný, Vladislav

    2008-01-01

    Eight trace elements were determined using ICP-MS in 78 fruiting body samples of 22 edible mushroom species. The mushrooms were collected from four sites in a rural area, unpolluted by human activity. Median values (dry matter) were as follows: Arsenic (As) 1.45 mg kg(-1), barium (Ba) 1.41 mg kg(-1), cobalt (Co) 0.28 mg kg(-1), copper (Cu) 47.0 mg kg(-1), rubidium (Rb) 130 mg kg(-1), silver (Ag) 2.95 mg kg(-1), thallium (Tl) 0.02 mg kg(-1) and vanadium (V) 0.25 mg kg(-1). Higher trace element accumulation was observed in samples of Macrolepiota procera, Macrolepiota rhacodes, Lycoperdon perlatum, Lycoperdon gigantea and Xerocomus chrysenteron for As and Cu, and in samples of Cantharellus cibarius and of genera Boletus and Suillus for Rb.

  18. Evaluation of heavy metal concentrations of edible wild-grown mushrooms from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuemei; Liu, Honggao; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Wang, Yuanzhong

    2017-03-04

    The heavy metal contents (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn) of eight species of wild edible mushrooms from China were determined. The analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry after microwave digestion. The contents of Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn in caps of mushroom samples were 0.7-7.2, 16.2-70.4, 371-1315, 12.5-29.8, 7.1-58.5, and 77.8-187.4 mg kg(-1) dry matter (dm), respectively, while considerable differences were found to be 1.8-25.9, 9.8-36.3, 288-6762, 13.3-103.9, 5.9-78.7, and 38.7-118 mg kg(-1) dm for stipes. The results indicated that higher levels of Co, Fe, and Ni were found in the mushrooms samples analyzed. Zinc and manganese levels were similar to previous reports, whereas Cu was lower than literature values. Correlation analysis suggested that significant correlations were found between the minerals determined and the greatest amount of contamination is associated with Co, Mn, Ni, and Fe. The results of this study indicate that heavy metal contents in mushroom species are mainly related to the mineral resources of sampling sites.

  19. Microsatellites in the Genome of the Edible Mushroom, Volvariella volvacea

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Hong; Bao, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    Using bioinformatics software and database, we have characterized the microsatellite pattern in the V. volvacea genome and compared it with microsatellite patterns found in the genomes of four other edible fungi: Coprinopsis cinerea, Schizophyllum commune, Agaricus bisporus, and Pleurotus ostreatus. A total of 1346 microsatellites have been identified, with mono-nucleotides being the most frequent motif. The relative abundance of microsatellites was lower in coding regions with 21 No./Mb. However, the microsatellites in the V. volvacea gene models showed a greater tendency to be located in the CDS regions. There was also a higher preponderance of trinucleotide repeats, especially in the kinase genes, which implied a possible role in phenotypic variation. Among the five fungal genomes, microsatellite abundance appeared to be unrelated to genome size. Furthermore, the short motifs (mono- to tri-nucleotides) outnumbered other categories although these differed in proportion. Data analysis indicated a possible relationship between the most frequent microsatellite types and the genetic distance between the five fungal genomes. PMID:24575404

  20. Extracts from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Edible Mushrooms Enriched with Vitamin D Exert an Anti-Inflammatory Hepatoprotective Effect.

    PubMed

    Drori, Ariel; Shabat, Yehudit; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Danay, Ofer; Levanon, Dan; Zolotarov, Lidya; Ilan, Yaron

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D has been known for its anti-inflammatory properties. Extracts derived from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) edible mushroom exert an anti-inflammatory effect. These extracts contain high levels of ergosterol, which converts into ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) following exposure to ultraviolet light, followed by absorption and hydroxylation into the active form 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. To determine the anti-inflammatory effect of overexpression of vitamin D in edible mushrooms, L. edodes mushrooms were exposed to ultraviolet-B light, freeze-dried, followed by measurement of vitamin D2 contents, in their dry weight. C57B1/6 mice were orally treated with vitamin D2-enriched or nonenriched mushroom extract prior and during concanavalin A-immune-mediated liver injury. Exposure to ultraviolet light increased vitamin D2 content in Shiitake edible mushrooms. Following feeding of vitamin D-enriched mushroom extracts to mice with immune-mediated hepatitis, a significant decrease in liver damage was noted. This was shown by a decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels, a decrease in proportion of mice with severe liver injury, and by improvement in liver histology. These effects were associated with a decrease in serum interferon gamma levels. A synergistic effect was noted between the anti-inflammatory effect of the mushroom extracts and that of vitamin D. Oral administration of vitamin D-enriched L. edodes edible mushroom exerts a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect in the immune-mediated hepatitis. The data support its potential use as safe immunomodulatory adjuvant for the treatment of HCV and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

  1. Purification and characterization of phytase with a wide pH adaptation from common edible mushroom Volvariella volvacea (Straw mushroom).

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijing; Zhang, Guoqing; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2012-02-01

    A novel phytase with a molecular mass of 14 kDa was isolated from fresh fruiting bodies of the common edible mushroom Volvariella volvacea (Straw mushroom). The isolation procedure involved successive chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose, Affi-gel blue gel, Q-Sepharose and Superdex-75. The enzyme was a monomeric protein and was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose and Affi-gel blue gel, but was adsorbed on Q-Sepharose. The enzyme was purified 51.6-fold from the crude extract with 25.9% yield. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence GEDNEHDTQA exhibited low homology to the other reported phytases. The optimal pH and temperature of the purified enzyme was 5 and 45 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme was quite stable over the pH range of 3.0 to 9.0 with less than 30% change in its activity, suggesting that it can be used in a very wide pH range. The enzyme exhibited broad substrate selectivity towards various phosphorylated compounds, but lacked antifungal activity against tested plant pathogens.

  2. Bioremediation of vegetable and agrowastes by Pleurotus ostreatus: a novel strategy to produce edible mushroom with enhanced yield and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Singh, V K; Singh, M P

    2014-12-24

    Pleurotus ostreatus was grown on paddy straw as well as other vegetable and agricultural wastes i.e. pea pod shell, cauliflower leaves, radish leaves and brassica straw in various combinations with paddy straw. The mushroom did not grow on the vegetable wastes separately. The cumulative yield and biological efficiency of the edible oyster mushroom P. ostreatus grown on substrate containing paddy straw in various combinations with different vegetable wastes i.e. 20% and 30 % vegetable wastes mixed with 80% and 70% (w/w) of paddy straw was found to be better, when compared with yield and biological efficiency obtained on paddy straw (100%) alone. The protein content and six essential amino acid contents (Leu, Ile, Val, Thr, Met, Phe) showed a significant increase and total sugar and reducing sugar contents showed decrease in the mushroom fruit bodies grown at different combinations of vegetable wastes with paddy straw as compared to paddy straw alone. However, there was not any significant change in moisture content of mushroom cultivated on different groups of wastes. Hence, results of this investigation suggest that the vegetable wastes which are generally left to rot in situ in many cities and villages causing outbreak of diseases can be bioremediated by edible mushroom P. ostreatus. The added advantage is that we get edible mushroom fruit body with improved nutrition.

  3. Antioxidant activity, anti-proliferative activity, and amino acid profiles of ethanolic extracts of edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Panthong, S; Boonsathorn, N; Chuchawankul, S

    2016-10-17

    Biological activities of various mushrooms have recently been discovered, particularly, immunomodulatory and antitumor activities. Herein, three edible mushrooms, Auricularia auricula-judae (AA), Pleurotus abalonus (PA) and Pleurotus sajor-caju (PS) extracted using Soxhlet ethanol extraction were evaluated for their antioxidative, anti-proliferative effects on leukemia cells. Using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay, phenolics and antioxidant activity were found in all sample mushrooms. Additionally, anti-proliferative activity of mushroom extracts against U937 leukemia cells was determined using a viability assay based on mitochondrial activity. PA (0.5 mg/mL) and AA (0.25-0.5 mg/mL) significantly reduced cell viability. Interestingly, PS caused a hormetic-like biphasic dose-response. Low doses (0-0.25 mg/L) of PS promoted cell proliferation up to 140% relative to control, whereas higher doses (0.50 mg/mL) inhibited cell proliferation. Against U937 cells, AA IC50 was 0.28 ± 0.04 mg/mL, which was lower than PS or PA IC50 (0.45 ± 0.01 and 0.49 ± 0.001 mg/mL, respectively). Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage conferred cytotoxicity. PS and PA were not toxic to U937 cells at any tested concentration; AA (0.50 mg/mL) showed high LDH levels and caused 50% cytotoxicity. Additionally, UPLC-HRMS data indicated several phytochemicals known to support functional activities as either antioxidant or anti-proliferative. Glutamic acid was uniquely found in ethanolic extracts of AA, and was considered an anti-cancer amino acid with potent anti-proliferative effects on U937 cells. Collectively, all mushroom extracts exhibited antioxidant effects, but their anti-proliferative effects were dose-dependent. Nevertheless, the AA extract, with highest potency, is a promising candidate for future applications.

  4. Correlation between the pattern volatiles and the overall aroma of wild edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    de Pinho, P Guedes; Ribeiro, Bárbara; Gonçalves, Rui F; Baptista, Paula; Valentão, Patrícia; Seabra, Rosa M; Andrade, Paula B

    2008-03-12

    Volatile and semivolatile components of 11 wild edible mushrooms, Suillus bellini, Suillus luteus, Suillus granulatus, Tricholomopsis rutilans, Hygrophorus agathosmus, Amanita rubescens, Russula cyanoxantha, Boletus edulis, Tricholoma equestre, Fistulina hepatica, and Cantharellus cibarius, were determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and by liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifty volatiles and nonvolatiles components were formally identified and 13 others were tentatively identified. Using sensorial analysis, the descriptors "mushroomlike", "farm-feed", "floral", "honeylike", "hay-herb", and "nutty" were obtained. A correlation between sensory descriptors and volatiles was observed by applying multivariate analysis (principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchic cluster analysis) to the sensorial and chemical data. The studied edible mushrooms can be divided in three groups. One of them is rich in C8 derivatives, such as 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, trans-2-octen-1-ol, 3-octanone, and 1-octen-3-one; another one is rich in terpenic volatile compounds; and the last one is rich in methional. The presence and contents of these compounds give a considerable contribution to the sensory characteristics of the analyzed species.

  5. Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Wild Edible Mushrooms from Native Nothofagus spp. Forest, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Carolina V; Barroetaveña, Carolina; Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-09-08

    This study addresses issues regarding chemical and bioactive properties of nine wild edible mushrooms from native Nothofagus forest from Patagonia, Argentina. Macronutrients, sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties were determined. Protein was found in high levels and varied between 3.35 g/100 g dw in Cyttaria hariotii and 22.29 g/100 g dw in Lepista nuda. All of them presented mannitol and trehalose as main sugars. Mannitol was significantly higher in Ramaria patagonica, although absent in Fistulina endoxantha, whereas trehalose predominated in Aleurodiscus vitellinus, Hydropus dusenii, Cortinarius magellanicus, C. hariotii, Grifola gargal and L. nuda, ranging from 1.15 to 10.26 g/100 g dw; it was absent in R. patagonica. The major fatty acid found was linoleic acid, followed by oleic acid and palmitic acid. All species presented oxalic and fumaric acids, while some also had malic, quinic and citric acids. Tocopherols composition was variable. Cortinarius magellanicus presented significantly higher contents of both α-tocopherol and β-tocopherol. R. patagonica presented the best results in all the antioxidant activity assays (EC50 values ≤ 1 mg/mL) and the highest content of phenolic compounds presenting gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric and cinnamic acids. This study constitutes the first report on chemical composition and nutritional value of most of these edible mushroom species. Furthermore, it provides important information necessary to characterize and define the use of these species as gastronomic delicacies, functional foods and sources of bioactive compounds.

  6. Olive Mill Waste Enhances α-Glucan Content in the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus eryngii

    PubMed Central

    Avni, Sharon; Ezove, Nirit; Hanani, Hilla; Yadid, Itamar; Karpovsky, Michal; Hayby, Hilla; Gover, Ofer; Hadar, Yitzhak; Schwartz, Betty; Danay, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    Mushroom polysaccharides are edible polymers that have numerous reported biological functions; the most common effects are attributed to β-glucans. In recent years, it became apparent that the less abundant α-glucans also possess potent effects in various health conditions. Here we explore several Pleurotus species for their total, β and α-glucan content. Pleurotus eryngii was found to have the highest total glucan concentrations and the highest α-glucans proportion. We also found that the stalks (stipe) of the fruit body contained higher glucan content then the caps (pileus). Since mushrooms respond markedly to changes in environmental and growth conditions, we developed cultivation methods aiming to increase the levels of α and β-glucans. Using olive mill solid waste (OMSW) from three-phase olive mills in the cultivation substrate. We were able to enrich the levels mainly of α-glucans. Maximal total glucan concentrations were enhanced up to twice when the growth substrate contained 80% of OMSW compared to no OMSW. Taking together this study demonstrate that Pleurotus eryngii can serve as a potential rich source of glucans for nutritional and medicinal applications and that glucan content in mushroom fruiting bodies can be further enriched by applying OMSW into the cultivation substrate. PMID:28718825

  7. Protein quality of four types of edible mushrooms found in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Takruri, Hamed R

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the protein quality of four types of edible mushrooms, Terfezia claveryi, Pleurotus ostreatus, Tricholoma terreum and Agaricus macrosporus that are common in Jordan. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein utilization methods (NPU) were used. The four mushroom types failed to support growth as reflected by negative values for PER; -1.76 for T. claveryi; -0.23 for P. ostreatus; -0.98 for T. terreum and -0.41 for A. macrosporus. The NPU(op), NPU(st) and NdpE% for T. claveryi were 32.6, 33.9 and 3.89%, respectively. The respective values for P. ostreatus were 38.5, 40.7 and 4.35%; T. terreum 29.1, 29.8 and 3.63%; and A. macrosporus 31.5, 32.9 and 3.91%. The results showed that the four mushrooms were significantly (p < or = 0.05) lower in protein quality compared with casein results (NPU(op), NPU(st) and NDpE% of 78.5, 86.4 and 7.16%, respectively.

  8. Olive Mill Waste Enhances α-Glucan Content in the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus eryngii.

    PubMed

    Avni, Sharon; Ezove, Nirit; Hanani, Hilla; Yadid, Itamar; Karpovsky, Michal; Hayby, Hilla; Gover, Ofer; Hadar, Yitzhak; Schwartz, Betty; Danay, Ofer

    2017-07-18

    Mushroom polysaccharides are edible polymers that have numerous reported biological functions; the most common effects are attributed to β-glucans. In recent years, it became apparent that the less abundant α-glucans also possess potent effects in various health conditions. Here we explore several Pleurotus species for their total, β and α-glucan content. Pleurotus eryngii was found to have the highest total glucan concentrations and the highest α-glucans proportion. We also found that the stalks (stipe) of the fruit body contained higher glucan content then the caps (pileus). Since mushrooms respond markedly to changes in environmental and growth conditions, we developed cultivation methods aiming to increase the levels of α and β-glucans. Using olive mill solid waste (OMSW) from three-phase olive mills in the cultivation substrate. We were able to enrich the levels mainly of α-glucans. Maximal total glucan concentrations were enhanced up to twice when the growth substrate contained 80% of OMSW compared to no OMSW. Taking together this study demonstrate that Pleurotus eryngii can serve as a potential rich source of glucans for nutritional and medicinal applications and that glucan content in mushroom fruiting bodies can be further enriched by applying OMSW into the cultivation substrate.

  9. Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of dried wild edible mushrooms from Poland.

    PubMed

    Radzki, Wojciech; Sławińska, Aneta; Jabłońska-Ryś, Ewa; Gustaw, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    In this study 6 species of wild edible mushrooms were evaluated in terms of their total phenolic content and antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay methods. The mushrooms, namely Armillaria mellea, Cantharellus cibarius, Lactarius deliciosus, Leccinum aurantiacum, Suillus luteus, and Boletus badius, were dried using both freeze drying and convection drying at 50°C. The amounts of phenolic compounds varied from 3.0 ± 0.1 to 12.8 ± 0.4 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (for water extracts) and from 2.4 ± 0.1 to 11 ± 0.5 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (for ethanolic extracts). The species that presented the highest antioxidant potential were B. badius and S. luteus. The impact of hot-air drying on the antioxidant activity of water and ethanolic extracts was evaluated. We demonstrated that hot-air drying may have either a negative or positive influence on phenolics and antioxidant activity, depending on the mushroom species. However, a negative effect was more frequent.

  10. Storage temperature and UV-irradiation influence on the ergosterol content in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Villares, Ana; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; García-Lafuente, Ana; Guillamón, Eva

    2014-03-15

    Ergosterol (5,7,22-ergostatrien-3β-ol) and ergosteryl derivatives from different genera of edible mushrooms were separated and quantified by an isocratic reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The technique allowed a rapid separation of free ergosterol and two ergosteryl derivatives occurring in mushrooms. The ergosterol content varied considerably depending on the fungus. Thus, the species Agaricus bisporus and Hygrophorus marzuolus presented high quantities of ergosterol (6.4-6.8 mg/g, dry matter) followed by Pleurotus ostreatus, Calocybe gambosa, Lentinus edodes, and Boletus edulis (3.3-4.0mg/g). In contrast, other species, such as Cantharellus cibarius, Lactarius deliciosus and Craterellus cornucopioides, contained significantly lower ergosterol amounts (0.2-0.4 mg/g). Two ergosteryl derivatives were found in mushrooms and also the content depended on the fungus. The stability of ergosterol, in terms of the formation of ergosterol peroxide, was evaluated under different storage temperatures and UV radiation. The lower the temperature (-20°C) and the radiation time (10 min), the lower ergosterol oxidation was observed.

  11. Lead, cadmium and mercury contents and bioaccumulation potential of wild edible saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Širić, Ivan; Kasap, Ante; Bedeković, Dalibor; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2017-03-04

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) contents in ten species of edible mushrooms in Trakošćan, Croatia were determined. In addition, the similarity between the studied species was determined by cluster analysis. The caps and stipes of the fruiting bodies were analysed separately. The analyses were carried out by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The greatest mean lead concentrations of 1.91 and 1.60 mg kg (-1) were determined in caps and stipes of Macrolepiota procera. The greatest mean concentrations of cadmium (3.23 and 2.24 mg kg(-1)) were determined in caps and stipes of Agaricus campestris and of mercury (2.56 and 2.35 mg kg(-1)) in Boletus edulis. In terms of the anatomical parts of the fruiting body (cap-stipe), a considerably greater concentration of the analysed elements was found in the cap for all mushroom species. According to calculated bio-concentration factors, all the examined species were found to be bio-accumulators of Cd and Hg. On the basis of the accumulation of the studied metals, great similarity of mushroom species belonging to the same genus and partial similarity of species of the same ecological affiliation was obtained by cluster analysis.

  12. Valorization of solid olive mill wastes by cultivation of a local strain of edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Mansour-Benamar, Malika; Savoie, Jean-Michel; Chavant, Louis

    2013-08-01

    Olive oil industry generates huge quantities of solid olive mill wastes (SOMW), causing environmental damage. Cultivation of edible mushrooms, such as Pleurotus ostreatus is a valuable approach for SOMW valorization. A local strain mycelium (Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria) of P. ostreatus (LPO) was isolated from castor oil plants. Oyster mushroom spawn, produced on barley grains, was used to inoculate wet SOMW, steamed in a traditional steamer during 45 min. The mycelium growth rate on SOMW was first estimated in Petri dish by measuring the surface colonized by the mycelium. The fruit body yields were estimated on culture bags containing 2 kg each of SOMW inoculated at 7% (w/w). The local strain potential was compared with that of a commercial one. Both strains produced high-quality mushrooms, but with low yields. The supplementation of the SOMW with wheat straw at the rate of 10% and 2% of CaCO3 had significantly enhanced the productivity of the two strains, multiplying it by 3.2 for LPO and by 2.6 for CPO.

  13. Two sarcoviolins with antioxidative and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity from the edible mushroom Sarcodon leucopus collected in Tibet.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ke; Han, Junjie; Bao, Li; Wei, Tiezheng; Liu, Hongwei

    2014-04-25

    Edible mushrooms are known as an important source of natural antioxidants. The ethyl acetate extract of the edible mushroom Sarcodon leucopus (Zangzi mushroom) possesses strong antioxidative activity. Bioactivity-guided isolation afforded 10 compounds from its fruiting bodies, including two new sarcoviolins, sarcoviolin β (1) and episarcoviolin β (2), and one new p-terphenyl derivative (3) along with seven known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and comparison with the known compounds. Compounds 1-10 were found to have antioxidant effects in the DPPH scavenging assay, the total antioxidant capacity assay, the reducing power assay, and the lipid peroxidation assay. Further study indicated that they could protect DNA strands from free radical-induced cleavage at 200 μM. Compounds 1-10 also presented strong α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Of all tested compounds, compound 1 exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity, with an IC50 value of 0.58 μM.

  14. Non-targeted and targeted analysis of wild toxic and edible mushrooms using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luís Miguel; Carvalho, Félix; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Baptista, Paula; Moreira, Nathalie; Monforte, Ana Rita; da Silva Ferreira, António César; de Pinho, Paula Guedes

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms are known all over the world both due to the remarkable gastronomic value of some species and for severe intoxications mediated by other species that are frequently difficult to distinguish from the edible ones, by the common user. Therefore, it is important to develop strategies to discover molecules that can identify mushroom species. In the present work, two GC-MS methodologies were applied in the chemical characterization of 22 mushroom species (12 edible, 3 toxic and 7 potentially toxic) - a multi-target procedure to simultaneously determine amino acids (AA), fatty acids (FA) and sterols by previous derivatization procedure with MSTFA, and a Head Space-Solid Phase Microextraction method to determine volatiles. For both methods, two approaches to data analysis were used: (I) targeted analysis, to identify and quantify AA, FA sterols and volatiles; (II) untargeted analysis, including Principal Component Analysis and Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis, in order to identify metabolites/metabolite pattern with potential species identification and/or differentiation. Multi-target experiment allowed the identification and quantification of twenty one primary metabolites (9 AA, 11 FA and 1 sterol). Furthermore, through untargeted data analysis, it was possible to identify a 5-carbon sugar alcohol structure molecule, which was tentatively identified as xylitol or adonitol, with potential to be a species-marker of the edible Suillus bovinus mushrooms. Volatile profiling studies resulted in the identification of the main volatiles in mushrooms. Untargeted analysis allowed the identification of 6 molecules that can be species- or genus-specific: one secondary metabolite specific to the edible species Lycoperdon perlatum, an ester of hexanoic acid, tentatively identified as allyl or vinyl caproate; and five other secondary metabolites, whose identification was not achieved, which were only detected in Lactarius aurantiacus specimens (edibility

  15. Trace metal contents in wild edible mushrooms growing on serpentine and volcanic soils on the island of Lesvos, Greece.

    PubMed

    Aloupi, M; Koutrotsios, G; Koulousaris, M; Kalogeropoulos, N

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this survey were (1) to assess for the first time the Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn contents in wild edible mushrooms (Russula delica, Lactarius sanguifluus, Lactarius semisanguifluus, Lactarius deliciosus, Suillus bellinii) from the island of Lesvos, (2) to investigate the metals' variability among the species, as well as in relation to the chemical composition of the underlying soil, comparing mushrooms collected from volcanic and serpentine substrates and (3) to estimate metal intake by the consumption of the mushrooms under consideration. The trace metals in 139 samples were determined by flame or flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy. The median metal concentrations were as follows: Cd: 0.14; Cr: 0.10; Cu: 8.51; Fe: 30.3; Mn: 5.26; Ni: 0.34; Pb: 0.093 and Zn: 64.50, all in mgkg(-1) dry weight. The observed concentrations are among the lowest reported for mushrooms from Europe or Turkey, while Pb and Cd values did not exceed the limits set by the European Union. Significant species- and substrate-related differences in the metal contents were found, but the variability did not follow a uniform pattern for all the metals in all mushroom species. As a general trend, the mushrooms growing in serpentine sites contained higher Cd, Cr and Ni than those from volcanic sites. The calculated bioconcentration factors (BCFs) showed that none of the mushrooms can be regarded as a metal bioaccumulator, although BCF values slightly above unity were found for Zn in the three Lactarius species, and for Cu in R. delica. The studied mushrooms could supply considerable amounts of essential metals such as Zn and Cr. On the other hand, the consumption of R. delica collected from volcanic soils could provide 12% of the Cd daily tolerable intake and as high as 53% when collected from serpentine soils. Nonetheless, our results indicate that the regular consumption of wild edible mushrooms from Lesvos is quite safe for human health.

  16. Structural Characterization and Immunological Activities of a Novel Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from the Fruiting Bodies of Culinary-Medicinal Winter Mushroom, Flammulina velutipes (Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Feng, Ting; Jia, Wei; Wang, Wen-Han; Lin, Chi-Chung; Fan, Hua; Zhang, Jing-Song; Bao, Hai-Ying

    2016-01-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide, designated FVPA2, was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Flammulina velutipes using DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow and gel-permeation chromatography. Its structure was elucidated by monosaccharide composition and methylation analysis, ultraviolet, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results showed that FVPA2 was a homogeneous heteropolysaccharide containing galactose, fucose, and mannose in a molar ratio of 5:1:1. High-performance liquid chromatography indicated its molecular weight as 3.4 × 104 Da. FVPA2 also has a repeating unit. In vitro immunomodulatory studies showed that Raw264.7 cells were stimulated to secret nitric oxide upon administration of 200-500 µg/mL FVPA2. FVPA2 also stimulated the proliferation of mouse spleen lymphocytes and B lymphocytes.

  17. Genome-wide functional analysis of SSR for an edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jibin; Huang, Chenyang; Zhang, Jinxia

    2016-01-10

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) play specific roles in many biological activities. In this paper, we focused on SSRs in the genome of Pleurotus ostreatus, which is a widely cultivated edible mushroom. The distribution curves of SSRs and exons are opposite throughout the genome, which means that SSRs are mostly located in non-coding regions. A comparative analysis of nine fungi suggests that Agaricomycotina fungi have similar SSR distributions. Functional enrichment analysis on the SSR-containing gene set uncovers enriched functions about environmental interactions and important cellular functions for life. Trinucleotide SSRs account for an extremely high fraction of all SSRs, and in exonic regions, they are equivalent to inserting repeating amino acids (RAAs) into the protein sequences. The RAA indel could partly explain some enriched functions of the genes they modify. Agaricomycotina fungi have similar distributions of RAAs, indicating that this may be a potential common mechanism for some specific functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Calcium sensitizers isolated from the edible pine mushroom, Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito & Imai) Sing.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yunlong; Sun, Shichao; Wu, Lijun; Wang, Xiaodan; Li, Ting; Zhang, Minyun; Wang, Jianwei; Wang, Libo

    2013-01-01

    Three lactam compounds were isolated from the fruiting body of Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito & Imai) Sing., an edible mushroom, and their structures were identified as cyclo-S-proline-R-leucine (1), hexahydro-2H-azepin-2-one (2), and butyl 5-oxo-2-pyrrolidine carboxylate (3) by chemical, physicochemical, and spectral evidence. In in vitro screening tests, compounds 1 and 2 acted as calcium sensitizers in ventricular cells from rat. Further studies on compounds 1 and 2 in ex vivo isolated right atria showed positive inotropic effects without disturbing the spontaneous beating rate. The inotropic effect of compounds 1 and 2 could be greatly abolished by pretreating the myocardium in Ca(2+)-free solution. These findings indicate that compounds 1 and 2 can significantly increase the calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) in myocytes, which is greatly dependent on the influx of extracellular Ca2+.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of crude fractions and morel compounds from wild edible mushrooms of North western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Shameem, Nowsheen; Kamili, Azra N; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Masoodi, F A; Parray, Javid A

    2017-04-01

    The antimicrobial properties of morel compounds from wild edible mushrooms (Morchella esculenta and Verpa bohemica) from Kashmir valley was investigated against different clinical pathogens. The butanol crude fraction of most popular or true morel M. esculenta showed highest 19 mm IZD against E.coli while as same fraction of Verpa bohemica exhibited 15 mm IZD against same strain. The ethyl acetate and butanol crude fractions of both morels also exhibited good antifungal activity with highest IZD shown against A. fumigates. The three morel compounds showed quite impressive anti bacterial and fungal activities. The Cpd 3 showed highest inhibitory activity almost equivalent to the synthetic antibiotics used as control. The MIC/MBC values revealed the efficiency of isolated compounds against the pathogenic strains. In the current study significant inhibitory activity of morel compounds have been obtained paying the way for their local use from ancient times.

  20. Production of mycelial biomass by the Amazonian edible mushroom Pleurotus albidus.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Larissa de Souza; de Macedo, Ana Júlia Porto; Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas

    2016-01-01

    Edible mushroom species are considered as an adequate source of food in a healthy diet due to high content of protein, fiber, vitamins, and a variety of minerals. The representatives of Pleurotus genus are characterized by distinct gastronomic, nutritional, and medicinal properties among the edible mushrooms commercialized worldwide. In the present study, the growth of mycelial biomass of Pleurotus albidus cultivated in submerged fermentation was evaluated. Saccharose, fructose, and maltose were the three main carbon sources for mycelial biomass formation with corresponding yields of 7.28gL(-1), 7.07gL(-1), and 6.99gL(-1). Inorganic nitrogen sources did not stimulate growth and the optimal yield was significantly higher with yeast extract (7.98gL(-1)). The factorial design used to evaluate the influence of saccharose and yeast extract concentration, agitation speed, and initial pH indicated that all variables significantly influenced the production of biomass, especially the concentration of saccharose. The greater amount of saccharose resulted in the production of significantly more biomass. The highest mycelial biomass production (9.81gL(-1)) was reached in the medium formulated with 30.0gL(-1) saccharose, 2.5gL(-1) yeast extract, pH 7.0, and a speed of agitation at 180rpm. Furthermore, P. albidus manifested different aspects of morphology and physiology under the growth conditions employed. Media composition affected mycelial biomass production indicating that the diversification of carbon sources promoted its improvement and can be used as food or supplement. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Biology, ecology, and social aspects of wild edible mushrooms in the forests of the Pacific northwest: A preface to managing commercial harvest. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, R.; O'Dell, T.; Luoma, D.; Amaranthus, M.; Costellano, M.

    1993-02-01

    The commercial harvest of edible, forest fungi has a multimillion dollar industry with several thousand tons harvested annually. The primary objectives of the overview paper are to provide information on the biology of forest fungi, describe the major edible fungi harvested in the Pacific Northwest, integrate a perspective on the social aspects of the mushroom harvest issue, summarize the development of the commercial mushroom industry, and suggest research and monitoring protocols for developing management guidelines.

  2. Effect of Casing Layer on Growth Promotion of the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young Sub; Weon, Hang Yeon; Joh, Jung Ho; Lim, Jong Hyun; Kim, Kyung Yun; Son, Eun Suk; Lee, Chang Soo

    2008-01-01

    Various bacteria were isolated from the casing layer soil of the culture bed of P. ostreatus and their role in fruiting body induction of the edible mushroom, P. ostreatus, was investigated. Analysis of the bacterial community isolated from the casing layer soil revealed that the composition of genera and number of cultivable bacteria were different for each sterilizing treatment. Bordetella was predominant in the bulk soil whereas Flavobacterium was predominant after sterilization of the casing layer soil. Fluorescent Pseudomonas was predominant in the non-sterilized casing layer soil. Total number of the bacterial genera in the casing layer soil was higher than that in the bulk soil. In particular, an increase in the fluorescent Pseudomonas population was observed in the non-sterilized casing layer accompanied by induction of fruiting body and enhanced mushroom production yield. The results suggested that specific bacterial populations in the casing layer play an important role in the formation of primodia and the development of basidiome in P. ostreatus. PMID:23997606

  3. Effect of the Polysaccharide Extract from the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Selegean, Mircea; Putz, Mihai V.; Rugea, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    The polysaccharide-containing extracellular fractions (EFs) of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus have immunomodulating effects. Being aware of these therapeutic effects of mushroom extracts, we have investigated the synergistic relations between these extracts and BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines. These vaccines target the stimulation of the immune system in commercial poultry, which are extremely vulnerable in the first days of their lives. By administrating EF with polysaccharides from P. ostreatus to unvaccinated broilers we have noticed slow stimulation of maternal antibodies against infectious bursal disease (IBD) starting from four weeks post hatching. For the broilers vaccinated with BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines a low to almost complete lack of IBD maternal antibodies has been recorded. By adding 5% and 15% EF in the water intake, as compared to the reaction of the immune system in the previous experiment, the level of IBD antibodies was increased. This has led us to believe that by using this combination of BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccine and EF from P. ostreatus we can obtain good results in stimulating the production of IBD antibodies in the period of the chicken first days of life, which are critical to broilers’ survival. This can be rationalized by the newly proposed reactivity biological activity (ReBiAc) principles by examining the parabolic relationship between EF administration and recorded biological activity. PMID:20111675

  4. Effect of the polysaccharide extract from the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus against infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Selegean, Mircea; Putz, Mihai V; Rugea, Tatiana

    2009-08-18

    The polysaccharide-containing extracellular fractions (EFs) of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus have immunomodulating effects. Being aware of these therapeutic effects of mushroom extracts, we have investigated the synergistic relations between these extracts and BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines. These vaccines target the stimulation of the immune system in commercial poultry, which are extremely vulnerable in the first days of their lives. By administrating EF with polysaccharides from P. ostreatus to unvaccinated broilers we have noticed slow stimulation of maternal antibodies against infectious bursal disease (IBD) starting from four weeks post hatching. For the broilers vaccinated with BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines a low to almost complete lack of IBD maternal antibodies has been recorded. By adding 5% and 15% EF in the water intake, as compared to the reaction of the immune system in the previous experiment, the level of IBD antibodies was increased. This has led us to believe that by using this combination of BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccine and EF from P. ostreatus we can obtain good results in stimulating the production of IBD antibodies in the period of the chicken first days of life, which are critical to broilers' survival. This can be rationalized by the newly proposed reactivity biological activity (ReBiAc) principles by examining the parabolic relationship between EF administration and recorded biological activity.

  5. Analysis of several heavy metals in wild edible mushrooms from regions of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin-Hua; Zhou, Hong-Bo; Qiu, Guan-Zhou

    2009-08-01

    The metal (Cu, Ni, Cd, Hg, As, Pb) contents in wild edible mushrooms collected from three different sites in China were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry. All element concentrations were determined on a dry weight basis. A total of 11 species was studied, five being from the urban area and six from rural areas in China. The As content ranged from 0.44 to 1.48 mg/kg. The highest As content was seen in Macrolepiota crustosa from the urban area, and the lowest in Russula virescens from rural areas. A high Ni concentration (1.35 mg/kg) was found in Calvatia craniiformis from the urban area. The lowest Ni level was 0.11 mg/kg, for the species R. virescens and Cantharellus cibarius. The Cu content ranged from 39.0 to 181.5 mg/kg. The highest Cu content was seen in Agaricus silvaticus and the lowest in C. cibarius. The Pb content ranged from 1.9 to 10.8 mg/kg. The highest Pb value was found in C. craniiformis. The Cd content ranged from 0.4 to 91.8 mg/kg. The highest Cd value was found in M. crustosa. The Hg content ranged from 0.28 to 3.92 mg/kg. The highest Hg level was found in Agaricus species. The levels of the heavy metals Cd, Pb, and Hg in the studied mushroom species from urban area can be considered high. The metal-to-metal correlation analysis supported they were the same source of contamination. High automobile traffic was identified as the most likely source of the contamination. Based upon the present safety standards, consumption of those mushrooms that grow in the polluted urban area should be avoided.

  6. Growth, fruiting and lignocellulolytic enzyme production by the edible mushroom Grifola frondosa (maitake).

    PubMed

    Montoya, Sandra; Orrego, Carlos Eduardo; Levin, Laura

    2012-04-01

    Cultivation of specialty mushrooms on lignocellulosic wastes represents one of the most economical organic recycling processes. Compared with other cultivated mushrooms, very little is known about the nature of the lignocellulolytic enzymes produced by the edible and medicinal fungus Grifola frondosa, the parameters affecting their production, and enzyme activity profiles during different stages of the developmental cycle. In this work we investigated the enzymes that enable G. frondosa, to colonize and deconstruct two formulations based on industrial lignocellulosic by-products. G. frondosa degraded both substrates (oak-sawdust plus corn bran, and oak/corn bran supplemented with coffee spent-ground) decreasing 67 and 50% of their lignin content, along with 44 and 37% of the polysaccharides (hemicellulose and cellulose) respectively. 35.3% biological efficiency was obtained when using oak sawdust plus corn bran as substrate. Coffee spent-ground addition inhibited mushroom production, decreased growth, xylanase and cellulase activities. However, taking into account that G. frondosa successfully colonized this residue; this substrate formula might be considered for its growth and medicinal polysaccharide production. Although G. frondosa tested positive for Azure B plate degradation, a qualitative assay for lignin-peroxidase, attempts to detect this activity during solid state fermentation were unsuccessful. Enzyme activities peaked during colonization but declined drastically during fruiting body formation. Highest activities achieved were: endoglucanase 12.3, exoglucanase 16.2, β-glucosidase 2.3, endoxylanase 20.3, amylase 0.26, laccase 14.8 and Mn-peroxidase 7.4 U/g dry substrate.

  7. Whole genome de novo sequencing and genome annotation of the world popular cultivated edible mushroom, Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Shim, Donghwan; Park, Sin-Gi; Kim, Kangmin; Bae, Wonsil; Lee, Gir Won; Ha, Byeong-Suk; Ro, Hyeon-Su; Kim, Myungkil; Ryoo, Rhim; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Nou, Ill-Sup; Koo, Chang-Duck; Hong, Chang Pyo; Ryu, Hojin

    2016-04-10

    Lentinula edodes, the popular shiitake mushroom, is one of the most important cultivated edible mushrooms. It is used as a food and for medicinal purposes. Here, we present the 46.1 Mb draft genome of L. edodes, comprising 13,028 predicted gene models. The genome assembly consists of 31 scaffolds. Gene annotation provides key information about various signaling pathways and secondary metabolites. This genomic information should help establish the molecular genetic markers for MAS/MAB and increase our understanding of the genome structure and function.

  8. Death by Edible Mushroom: First Report of Volvariella volvacea as an Etiologic Agent of Invasive Disease in a Patient following Double Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation▿

    PubMed Central

    Salit, R. B.; Shea, Y. R.; Gea-Banacloche, J.; Fahle, G. A.; Abu-Asab, M.; Sugui, J. A.; Carpenter, A. E.; Quezado, M. M.; Bishop, M. R.; Kwon-Chung, K. J.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a case of invasive fungal infection caused by Volvariella volvacea following double umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). Although infections caused by several mushroom species have been documented, we believe this to be the first published report of invasive infection with Volvariella volvacea, an edible mushroom belonging to Agaricales. PMID:20826647

  9. Chemical analysis of an immunostimulating (1→4)-, (1→6)-branched glucan from an edible mushroom, Calocybe indica.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Eshita Kar; Maity, Kousik; Maity, Saikat; Gantait, Sanjoy K; Behera, Birendra; Maiti, Tapas K; Sikdar, Samir R; Islam, Syed S

    2012-01-10

    An immunostimulating water-soluble glucan was isolated from hot aqueous extract of fruit bodies of an edible mushroom Calocybe indica. Structural investigation of the glucan was carried out using acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT-135, TOCSY, DQF-COSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC). On the basis of above-mentioned experiments, the structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide was established as [see figure in text]. This glucan stimulated the splenocytes and thymocytes.

  10. Mushrooms

    MedlinePlus

    ... kinds of mushrooms contain substances that can cause hallucinations. Hallucinogenic mushrooms contain psilocybin and psilocyn . These substances, ... higher doses or stronger mushrooms can bring on hallucinations, anxiety, paranoia, and nervousness. The person may have ...

  11. Photo-bio-synthesis of irregular shaped functionalized gold nanoparticles using edible mushroom Pleurotus florida and its anticancer evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ravishankar; Sharanabasava, V G; Deshpande, Raghunandan; Shetti, Ullas; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Venkataraman, A

    2013-08-05

    A green chemistry approach to the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using edible mushroom Pleurotus florida (Oyster mushroom) by photo-irradiation method has been attempted. The mixture containing the aqueous gold ions and the mushroom extract was exposed to sunlight; this resulted in the formation of biofunctionalized gold nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were characterized using various techniques like UV-visible spectroscopy; X-ray diffraction studies, Energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Atomic force microscopy, Transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The obtained biofunctionalized gold nanoparticles showed effective anti-cancer property against four different cancer cell lines A-549 (Human lung carcinoma), K-562 (Human chronic myelogenous leukemia bone marrow), HeLa (Human cervix) and MDA-MB (Human adenocarcinoma mammary gland) and no lethal effect is observed in Vero (African green monkey kidney normal cell) cell lines.

  12. Alternative method of inoculum and spawn production for the cultivation of the edible brazilian mushroom Pleurotus ostreatoroseus SING.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Fábio Rogério; Kemmelmeier, Carlos; Da Costa, Sandra Maria Gomes

    2002-01-01

    Efficiency of solid and liquid inocula and their use for spawn production were compared so that improved cultivation conditions for the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatoroseus could be tested. Solid and liquid inocula were prepared respectively with Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and Liquid Potato Dextrose (LPD). Wheat grains and cotton residues were used as substrates for spawn preparation. Inoculum types did not affect the development of P. ostreatoroseus, and LPD spawns were cheaper, more homogenous, less contaminated. Decomposition activity of mushroom growth, as a percentage of organic matter loss (OML), was higher in the wheat grain spawn and was not influenced by the inoculum type. Advantages in the use of cotton residue for spawn production were longer storage time, lower contamination and reduced costs. The cotton residue substrate may be also used for the production of mushroom fruiting bodies.

  13. Cytotoxicity of some edible mushrooms extracts over liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells in conjunction with their antioxidant and antibacterial properties

    PubMed Central

    Sadi, Gökhan; Emsen, Buğrahan; Kaya, Abdullah; Kocabaş, Aytaç; Çınar, Seval; Kartal, Deniz İrtem

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mushrooms have been valued for their nutritive content and as traditional medicines; several important medicinal properties of mushrooms have been recognized worldwide. Objective: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the cell growth inhibitory potential of four edible mushrooms; Coprinus comatus (O.F. Mull.) Pers. (Agaricaceae), Tricholoma fracticum (Britzelm.) Kreisel (Tricholomataceae), Rhizopogon luteolus Fr. and Nordholm (Rhizopogonaceae), Lentinus tigrinus (Bull.) Fr. (Polyporaceae) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells in conjunction with their antioxidant and antibacterial capacities. Materials and Methods: Five different extracts of edible mushrooms were obtained using water, methanol, acetone, n-hexane and chloroform as solvent systems for cytotoxic, antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Results: C. comatus showed substantial in vitro cytotoxic activity against HepG2 cell lines with all extracts especially with chloroform 50% inhibition (IC50 value of 0.086 mg/ml) and acetone (IC50 value of 0.420 mg/ml). Chloroform extract of C. comatus had maximum amount of β-carotene (25.94 μg/mg), total phenolic content (76.32 μg/mg) and lycopene (12.00 μg/mg), and n-hexane extract of L. tigrinus had maximum amount of flavonoid (3.67 μg/mg). While chloroform extract of C. comatus showed the highest 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) capturing activity (1.579 mg/ml), the best result for metal chelating activity was obtained from methanolic extract (0.842 mg/ml). Moreover, all tested mushrooms demonstrated antibacterial activity and n-hexane extract of L. tigrinus and acetone extracts of T. fracticum were the most active against tested microorganism. Conclusion: These results indicate that different extracts of investigated mushroom have considerable cytotoxic, antioxidant and antibacterial properties and may be utilized as a promising source of therapeutics. PMID:26109775

  14. Bacterial components are the major contributors to the macrophage stimulating activity exhibited by extracts of common edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Heather L; Haron, Mona H; Pugh, Nirmal D; Zhang, Jin; Jackson, Colin R; Pasco, David S

    2016-10-12

    Recent studies have indicated that a major contributor to the innate immune enhancing properties of some medicinal plants is derived from the cell wall components of bacteria colonizing these plants. The purpose of the current study was to assess if the bacteria present within edible and medicinal mushrooms substantially contribute to the innate immune stimulating potential of these mushrooms. Whole mushrooms from thirteen types of edible fungi and individual parts from Agaricus bisporus were analyzed for in vitro macrophage activation as well as bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) content, cell load, and community composition. Substantial variation between samples was observed in macrophage activation (over 500-fold), total bacterial load (over 200-fold), and LPS content (over 10 million-fold). Both LPS content (ρ = 0.832, p < 0.0001) and total bacterial load (ρ = 0.701, p < 0.0001) correlated significantly with macrophage activation in the whole mushroom extracts. Extract activity was negated by treatment with NaOH, conditions that inactivate LPS and other bacterial components. Significant correlations between macrophage activation and total bacterial load (ρ = 0.723, p = 0.0001) and LPS content (ρ = 0.951, p < 0.0001) were also observed between different tissues of Agaricus bisporus. Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium were the most prevalent genera identified in the different tissue parts and these taxa were significantly correlated with in vitro macrophage activation (ρ = 0.697, p < 0.0001 and ρ = 0.659, p = 0.0001, respectively). These results indicate that components derived from mushroom associated bacteria contribute substantially to the innate immune enhancing activity exhibited by mushrooms and may result in similar therapeutic actions as reported for ingestion of bacterial preparations such as probiotics.

  15. Spawn viability in edible mushrooms after freezing in liquid nitrogen without a cryoprotectant.

    PubMed

    Mata, Gerardo; Pérez-Merlo, Rosalía

    2003-08-01

    Five strains of edible mushrooms (Lentinula boryana, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus djamor, Pleurotus pulmonarius, and Volvariella volvacea) were studied. Spawn were prepared from sorghum seeds and then incubated for 14 days under optimum conditions for each species. Once covered by mycelia, the sorghum seeds were placed in polycarbonate vials for freezing in liquid nitrogen. The effect of adding a cryoprotective solution before freezing (either 10% glycerol v/v or 5% dimethylsulfoxide v/v) was evaluated as a function of mycelial growth and percent viability. Three main treatments were undertaken: (1) freezing with a glycerol or dimethylsulfoxide cryoprotectant, (2) freezing with water and (3) freezing without cryoprotectant or water. Samples were maintained frozen for a week, after which time they were thawed (10 min at 30 degrees C) and the seeds placed in Petri dishes with a culture medium. A recovery rate of 96.8% was obtained for the total number of samples summed over all strains and treatments. In contrast, 99.2% of the samples frozen without cryoprotectant were recovered. The recovery of frozen mycelia was delayed with respect to a control group, which was not frozen. However, no difference was observed in percent recovery and mycelial diameter when a new series of spawn was prepared from mycelia that had been previously frozen. Results obtained from this experiment demonstrate that an adequate recovery of mycelia can be obtained without using a cryoprotectant. This capacity might enable large quantities of commercial mushroom strains to be handled at reduced production costs. It is suggested that the mycelia survived freezing without cryoprotectants because they were embedded and protected within the sorghum seeds used to elaborate the spawn.

  16. Total contents of arsenic and associated health risks in edible mushrooms, mushroom supplements and growth substrates from Galicia (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Melgar, M J; Alonso, J; García, M A

    2014-11-01

    The levels of arsenic (As) in the main commercial species of mushrooms present in Galicia, in their growth substrates, and mushroom supplements have been analysed by ICP-MS, with the intention of assessing potential health risks involved with their consumption. The mean concentrations of As in wild and cultivated mushrooms was 0.27mg/kg dw, in mushroom supplements 0.40mg/kg dw, in soils 5.10mg/kg dw, and in growth substrate 0.51mg/kg dw. No significant differences were observed between species, although the species Lactarius deliciosus possessed a slightly more elevated mean concentration (at 0.49mg/kg dw) than the other species investigated. In soils, statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were observed according to geographic origin. Levels in mushroom supplements, although low, were higher than in wild or cultivated mushrooms. Measured arsenic levels were within the normal range in samples analysed in unpolluted areas. Because of the low As concentrations found in fungi and mushroom supplements from Galicia, and considering the relatively small inclusion of these foods in people's diet, it can be concluded that there is no toxicological risk of arsenic associated with the consumption of the species of mushrooms analysed or at the dosages indicated for mushroom supplements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 210Po, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms and ingestion doses to man from high consumption rates of these wild foods.

    PubMed

    Gwynn, Justin P; Nalbandyan, Anna; Rudolfsen, Geir

    2013-02-01

    This paper discusses activity concentrations of (210)Po, (210)Pb, (40)K and (137)Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms collected from Øvre Dividalen national park, Northern Norway and derives committed effective ingestion doses to man based on high consumption rates of these wild foods. Edible wild berries and mushrooms accumulated similar levels of (210)Pb, but mushrooms accumulated higher levels of (210)Po and (40)K than berries. There appears to be a clear difference in the ability of Leccinum spp. of fungi to accumulate (210)Po and/or translocate (210)Po to mushrooms compared to Russula spp. of fungi. Activity concentrations of (137)Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms from Øvre Dividalen national park reflected the lower levels of fallout of this radionuclide in Northern Norway compared to more central areas following the Chernobyl accident. For mushrooms, ingestion doses are dominated by (210)Po, while for berries, (40)K is typically the main contributor to dose. Based on high consumption rates, ingestion doses arising from the combination of (210)Po, (210)Pb and (40)K were up to 0.05 mSv/a for berries and 0.50 mSv/a for mushrooms. Consumption of such wild foods may result in a significant contribution to total annual doses when consumed in large quantities, particularly when selecting mushrooms species that accumulate high activity concentrations of (210)Po.

  18. Physical Interaction of T Cells with Dendritic Cells Is Not Required for the Immunomodulatory Effects of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens

    PubMed Central

    Wilbers, Ruud H. P.; Westerhof, Lotte B.; van de Velde, Jan; Smant, Geert; van Raaij, Debbie R.; Sonnenberg, Anton S. M.; Bakker, Jaap; Schots, Arjen

    2016-01-01

    Mushrooms are well known for their immunomodulating capacities. However, little is known about how mushroom-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) affect T cells. Therefore, we investigated the effect of mushroom compounds derived from seven edible mushroom species on DCs, their fate in DCs, and the effect of the mushroom-stimulated DCs on T cells. Each mushroom species stimulated DCs in a different manner as was revealed from the DC’s cytokine response. Assessing DC maturation revealed that only one mushroom species, Agaricus subrufescens, induced complete DC maturation. The other six mushroom species upregulated MHC-II and CD86 expression, but did not significantly affect the expression of CD40 and CD11c. Nevertheless, mushroom compounds of all investigated mushroom species are endocytosed by DCs. Endocytosis is most likely mediated by C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) because CLR binding is Ca2+ dependent, and EGTA reduces TNF-α secretion with more than 90%. Laminarin partly inhibited TNF-α secretion indicating that the CLR dectin-1, among other CLRs, is involved in binding mushroom compounds. Stimulated DCs were shown to stimulate T cells; however, physical contact of DCs and T cells is not required. Because CLRs seem to play a prominent role in DC stimulation, mushrooms may function as a carbohydrate containing adjuvant to be used in conjunction with anti-fungal vaccines. PMID:27920777

  19. Physical Interaction of T Cells with Dendritic Cells Is Not Required for the Immunomodulatory Effects of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens.

    PubMed

    Wilbers, Ruud H P; Westerhof, Lotte B; van de Velde, Jan; Smant, Geert; van Raaij, Debbie R; Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Bakker, Jaap; Schots, Arjen

    2016-01-01

    Mushrooms are well known for their immunomodulating capacities. However, little is known about how mushroom-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) affect T cells. Therefore, we investigated the effect of mushroom compounds derived from seven edible mushroom species on DCs, their fate in DCs, and the effect of the mushroom-stimulated DCs on T cells. Each mushroom species stimulated DCs in a different manner as was revealed from the DC's cytokine response. Assessing DC maturation revealed that only one mushroom species, Agaricus subrufescens, induced complete DC maturation. The other six mushroom species upregulated MHC-II and CD86 expression, but did not significantly affect the expression of CD40 and CD11c. Nevertheless, mushroom compounds of all investigated mushroom species are endocytosed by DCs. Endocytosis is most likely mediated by C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) because CLR binding is Ca(2+) dependent, and EGTA reduces TNF-α secretion with more than 90%. Laminarin partly inhibited TNF-α secretion indicating that the CLR dectin-1, among other CLRs, is involved in binding mushroom compounds. Stimulated DCs were shown to stimulate T cells; however, physical contact of DCs and T cells is not required. Because CLRs seem to play a prominent role in DC stimulation, mushrooms may function as a carbohydrate containing adjuvant to be used in conjunction with anti-fungal vaccines.

  20. Accumulation of elements by edible mushroom species II. A comparison of aluminium, barium and nutritional element contents.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Sobieralski, Krzysztof; Magdziak, Zuzanna; Goliński, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare accumulation efficiency of Al, Ba and nutritional elements (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na) exhibited by six edible mushrooms collected in particular regions of Poland during the last 20 years. The studied mushroom species were Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Lactarius deliciosus, Leccinum aurantiacum, Suillus luteus and Xerocomus badius. The highest and the lowest concentrations of the elements in tested mushroom species were 11 - 410, 34 - 337, 16785 - 34600, 140 - 607, 12 - 75 and 16 - 143 mg kg(-1)d.m., respectively. The highest average concentrations of Al, Mg and Mn were observed in Suillus luteus fruiting bodies, while for Ba, Ca, K and Na it was in Lactarius deliciosus. BCF >1 was found for K and Mg in all tested mushroom species and additionally for the highest Ca and Na concentrations of all tested mushroom species except for C. cibarius and S. luteus, respectively. For the other tested elements (Al, Ba, Fe and Mn) BCF values < 1 were recorded.

  1. Chemical composition of five wild edible mushrooms collected from Southwest China and their antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun-Tao; Sun, Jun; Luo, Ze-Yu; Rao, Sheng-Qi; Su, Yu-Jie; Xu, Rong-Rong; Yang, Yan-Jun

    2012-05-01

    Evaluation of the chemical composition and antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity of five wild edible mushrooms (Clitocybe maxima, Catathelasma ventricosum, Stropharia rugoso-annulata, Craterellus cornucopioides and Laccaria amethystea) from Southwest China. The chemical composition assay includes proximate analysis (moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fat, total carbohydrates and total energy), bioactive compounds analysis (total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, ergosterol, tocopherol), fatty acid analysis, amino acid analysis, phenolic compounds analysis and mineral analysis of these mushrooms. Furthermore, assays of α-glucosidase inhibitory and α-amylase inhibitory activity were used for evaluating antihyperglycemic activity of the mushrooms, and assays of reducing power, chelating effect on ferrous ions, scavenging effect on hydroxyl free radicals and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity were used for evaluating antioxidant activity of the mushrooms. Based on the results, ethanolic and aqueous extract of these mushroom all showed antihyperglycemic and antioxidant potential. In particular, the aqueous extract of C. ventricosum revealed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (EC50 value 2.74 μg/mL), DPPH radical scavenging activity (EC50 value 2.86 mg/mL) and reducing power (EC50 value 0.96 mg/mL), while the aqueous extract of L. amethystea showed the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity (EC50 value 4.37 μg/mL) and metal chelating activity (EC50 value 2.13 mg/mL).

  2. Popular species of edible mushrooms as a good source of zinc to be released to artificial digestive juices.

    PubMed

    Zajac, M; Muszynska, B; Kala, K; Sikora, A; Opoka, W

    2015-10-01

    Because fruiting bodies of edible mushrooms accumulate elements very effectively, in this study for the first time we aimed at determining the degree of the release of zinc(II) ions to artificial digestive juices imitating the human gastrointestinal tract from freeze-dried popular edible mushroom fruiting bodies, such as Agaricus bisporus, Boletus badius and Cantharellus cibarius. For the analysis, anodic stripping voltammetry method was used. The amount of zinc released to artificial saliva within 1 minute ranged from 0.03 to 1.14 mg/100 g d.w. In gastric juice, the amounts were higher and ranged from 0.75 to 2.07 mg/100 g d.w. depending on the incubation time. After incubation of the freeze-dried edible mushroom fruiting bodies for 1 minute in artificial saliva, 15 in artificial gastric juice and then 150 minutes in artificial intestinal juice, it was found that the concentration of the released zinc in artificial intestinal juice was the highest and amounted to 6.44 mg/100 g d.w. The total average amount of zinc released from Boletus badius was the highest and this was estimated at 4.13 mg/100 g d.w. For the remaining two investigated species of A. bisporus and C. cibarius, the total amounts of zinc released into artificial digestive juices were only slightly lower and were estimated at 2.23 and 3.29 mg/100 g d.w. on average, respectively. It was demonstrated for the first time that mushrooms release zinc to artificial digestive juices imitating conditions in the human digestive tract and are a good source of this element.

  3. A water soluble β-glucan of an edible mushroom Termitomyces heimii: Structural and biological investigation.

    PubMed

    Manna, Dilip K; Nandi, Ashis K; Pattanayak, Manabendra; Maity, Prasenjit; Tripathy, Satyajit; Mandal, Amit K; Roy, Somenath; Tripathy, Sushri S; Gupta, Nibha; Islam, Syed S

    2015-12-10

    A water soluble β-glucan (PS-I) with an average molecular weight ∼ 1.48 × 10(5)Da was isolated from the alkaline extract of an edible mushroom Termitomyces heimii. PS-I contained (1 → 3)-, (1 → 6)-, (1 → 3, 6)-linked and terminal β-d-glucopyranosyl moieties in a ratio of nearly 2:1:1:1. Based on the total hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, partial hydrolysis and 1D/2D NMR experiments the structure of the PS-I was elucidated. On the basis of these experiments, the repeating unit of the polysaccharide was found to consist of a backbone chain of two (1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl residues, one of which was branched at O-3 position with the side chain consisting of two (1 → 3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl and a terminal β-D-glucopyranosyl residue. Cytotoxic effect of PS-I on human blood lymphocytes at varied concentrations was studied. Moreover, it also exhibited potent antioxidant activities by diminishing the ROS and NO in the nicotine stimulated lymphocytes up to 200 μg/ml. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural, immunological, and antioxidant studies of β-glucan from edible mushroom Entoloma lividoalbum.

    PubMed

    Maity, Prasenjit; Sen, Ipsita K; Maji, Praloy K; Paloi, Soumitra; Devi, K Sanjana P; Acharya, Krishnendu; Maiti, Tapas K; Islam, Syed S

    2015-06-05

    A water soluble β-glucan having molecular weight ∼2×10(5)Da was isolated from hot water extract of the fruit bodies of an edible mushroom Entoloma lividoalbum (Kühner & Romagn) Kubička. This polysaccharide (ELPS) contains (1→3,6)-β-D-Glcp, (1→3)-β-D-Glcp, (1→6)-β-D-Glcp, and terminal β-D-Glcp moieties in a molar ratio of nearly 1:1:3:1. Chemical and spectroscopic analysis showed that the backbone of glucan consists of three (1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl and two (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl residues, out of which one (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl moiety was branched at O-6 with a terminal β-D-glucopyranosyl residue. This β-glucan exhibited macrophage, splenocyte, and thymocyte stimulations. It possesses promising antioxidant activities as evidenced from its hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activities and reducing properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Purification and characterization of a ribonuclease from the wild edible mushroom Armillaria luteo-virens.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Jing; Chen, Qing-Jun; Wang, He-Xiang; Zhang, Guo-Qing

    2013-06-01

    A 15 kDa ribonuclease (RNase) was purified from dried fruiting bodies of the wild edible mushroom Armillaria luteo-virens. The simple 4-step purification protocol involved ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion-exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose and a final gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex-75. The RNase was unadsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel, but adsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and SP-Sepharose. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of purified RNase was AGVQYKLTILLV, which showed low sequence homology to those of previously reported RNases. The optimal pH and temperature of the enzyme were very close to 4.0 and 70 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme showed considerably high ribonucleolytic activity and broad specificity towards polyhomoribonucleotides, with a specificity of poly(U) > poly(C) > poly (G) > poly(A). The ribonucleolytic activities towards poly(U), poly(C), poly(G) and poly(A) were 279.5, 184.1, 69.9 and 52.3 U/mg, respectively.

  6. Agaricicola taiwanensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an alphaproteobacterium isolated from the edible mushroom Agaricus blazei.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jiunn-Nan; Arun, A B; Chen, Wen-Ming; Chou, Jui-Hsing; Shen, Fo-Ting; Rekha, P D; Kämpfer, P; Young, Li-Sen; Lin, Shih-Yao; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2010-09-01

    A Gram-negative, beige-pigmented, aerobic, motile, club-shaped bacterium, designated strain CC-SBABM117(T), was isolated from the stipe of the edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that the strain shared <93 % similarity with the type strains of species in the genera Pannonibacter, Methylopila, Nesiotobacter and Stappia. The organism was unable to produce acid from carbohydrates, but utilized a number of organic acids and amino acids. Ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) was the major respiratory quinone and C(18 : 1) ω 7c, C(19 : 0) cyclo ω 8c, C(16 : 0) and C(18 : 0) were the predominant fatty acids. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The DNA G+C content of strain CC-SBABM117(T) was 62.7 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and chemotaxonomic and physiological data, strain CC-SBABM117(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Agaricicola taiwanensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Agaricicola taiwanensis is CC-SBABM117(T) (=BCRC 17964(T) =CCM 7684(T)).

  7. Antioxidant and immunostimulant β-glucan from edible mushroom Russula albonigra (Krombh.) Fr.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Ashis K; Samanta, Surajit; Maity, Saikat; Sen, Ipsita K; Khatua, Somanjana; Devi, K Sanjana P; Acharya, Krishnendu; Maiti, Tapas K; Islam, Syed S

    2014-01-01

    A water soluble β-glucan (PS) with an average molecular weight ∼1.95 × 10(5)Da was isolated from the alkaline extract of ectomycorrhizal edible mushroom, Russula albonigra (Krombh.) Fr. and found to consist of terminal, (1 → 3)-, (1 → 6)-, and (1 → 3,6)-linked β-D-glucopyranosyl moieties in a ratio of nearly 1:2:2:1. The structure of this PS was elucidated on the basis of total hydrolysis, methylation analysis, Smith degradation, partial hydrolysis, and 1D/2D NMR experiments. On the basis of these experiments, the repeating unit of the PS was found to contain a backbone of three (1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl residues, one of which was branched at O-3 position with the side chain consisting of two (1 → 3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl and a terminal β-D-glucopyranosyl residue. This PS showed in vitro macrophage activation by NO production as well as splenocytes and thymocytes proliferation. Moreover, it also exhibited potent antioxidant activities.

  8. Genome Sequence of the Edible Cultivated Mushroom Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Reveals Insights into Lignocellulose Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lianfu; Gong, Yuhua; Cai, Yingli; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yan; Xiao, Yang; Xu, Zhangyi; Liu, Yin; Lei, Xiaoyu; Wang, Gangzheng; Guo, Mengpei; Ma, Xiaolong; Bian, Yinbing

    2016-01-01

    Lentinula edodes, one of the most popular, edible mushroom species with a high content of proteins and polysaccharides as well as unique aroma, is widely cultivated in many Asian countries, especially in China, Japan and Korea. As a white rot fungus with lignocellulose degradation ability, L. edodes has the potential for application in the utilization of agriculture straw resources. Here, we report its 41.8-Mb genome, encoding 14,889 predicted genes. Through a phylogenetic analysis with model species of fungi, the evolutionary divergence time of L. edodes and Gymnopus luxurians was estimated to be 39 MYA. The carbohydrate-active enzyme genes in L. edodes were compared with those of the other 25 fungal species, and 101 lignocellulolytic enzymes were identified in L. edodes, similar to other white rot fungi. Transcriptome analysis showed that the expression of genes encoding two cellulases and 16 transcription factor was up-regulated when mycelia were cultivated for 120 minutes in cellulose medium versus glucose medium. Our results will foster a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of lignocellulose degradation and provide the basis for partial replacement of wood sawdust with agricultural wastes in L. edodes cultivation. PMID:27500531

  9. Structural elucidation and immunostimulating property of a novel polysaccharide extracted from an edible mushroom Lentinus fusipes.

    PubMed

    Manna, Dilip K; Maity, Prasenjit; Nandi, Ashis K; Pattanayak, Manabendra; Panda, Bibhash C; Mandal, Amit K; Tripathy, Satyajit; Acharya, Krishnendu; Sahoo, Atish K; Gupta, Nibha; Roy, Somnath; Islam, Syed S

    2017-02-10

    A water soluble heteroglycan (PS-II) with an average molecular weight∼60kDa was isolated from the hot aqueous extract of an edible mushroom Lentinus fusipes. The structural characterization of PS-II was carried out using total acid hydrolysis, methylation analyses, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation and 1D/2D NMR experiments. Total acid hydrolysis indicated the presence of D-galactose and D-glucose in a molar ratio of approximately 1:1. The chemical and NMR analyses revealed that the proposed repeating unit of the PS-II had a backbone chain consisting of three (1→6)-linked α-d-galactopyranosyl residue and two (1→6)-linked β-d-glucopyranosyl residues, one of the β-d-glucopyranosyl residue was branched at O-3 position with a terminal β-d-glucopyranosyl. The PS-II exhibited significant in vitro splenocyte and macrophage activations with optimum dose of 20μg/ml and 80μg/ml respectively. Flow cytometry study revealed the protective role of the PS-II against nicotine stimulated lymphocytes. Moreover, the ROS scavenging property of PS-II was also established using DPPH radical scavenging assay.

  10. In vivo immunomodulatory effect of the lectin from edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Ditamo, Yanina; Rupil, Lucia L; Sendra, Victor G; Nores, Gustavo A; Roth, German A; Irazoqui, Fernando J

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are glycan-binding proteins that are resistant to digestion in the gastrointestinal tract and enter intact to blood circulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus lectin (ABL) on innate and adaptive immune responses as well as its effect in two different experimental pathologies that involve the immune system. ABL inhibited in vitro nitric oxide (NO) production by mouse peritoneal macrophages in response to the pro-inflammatory stimuli lipopolysaccharides (LPS). However, it did not modify the activity of arginase, showing that while ABL downregulates M1 activation, it does not affect M2 activation. ABL also inhibited mononuclear cell proliferation in response to mitogen Con A, or in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. During the in vivo studies, oral administration of ABL to BALB/c mice induced a marked inhibition of NO production by peritoneal macrophages after LPS stimuli. The influence of ABL on tumor growth was studied in BALB/c mice receiving daily oral doses of ABL and implanted with CT26 tumor cells. ABL treatment induced significantly higher rate of tumor growth when compared with control mice. On the other hand, oral ABL administration in Wistar rats induced a marked diminution of the incidence of the disease and the severity of the clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We can conclude that ABL has an in vivo immunomodulatory effect reducing the innate and adaptive responses. This food lectin shows potential therapeutic application on control of inflammatory autoimmune pathologies.

  11. Evaluation of edible mushroom Oudemansiella canarii cultivation on different lignocellulosic substrates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Li, Zhiming; Liu, Yu; Rong, Chengbo; Wang, Shouxian

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the mycelial growth rate, mycelial colonization time, yield, and biological efficiency of the edible mushroom Oudemansiella canarii were determined, and the effects of different substrate combinations on productivity, chemical contents and amino acids were evaluated. Lignocellulosic wastes, such as cottonseed hull, sawdust, corncob, and their combinations supplemented with 18% wheat bran and 2% lime, were used for the cultivation of O. canarii. The biological efficiency (BE) and essential amino acid content of treatment T1, which consisted of 80% cottonseed hull, were the highest among all the tested treatments. Mixtures that included sawdust, such as treatments T2 (80% sawdust), T4 (40% sawdust + 40% cottonseed hull), and T6 (40% sawdust + 40% corncob), exhibited lower yield and BE. Corncob was good for O. canarii production in terms of yield and BE, whereas the mycelial growth rate and colonization time were lower compared to those on other substrates. Comparing the BE, essential amino acids, and other traits of the six treatments, treatment T1 (80% cottonseed hull) was the best formula for O. canarii cultivation and should be extended in the future.

  12. Effect of packaging materials on the chemical composition and microbiological quality of edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) grown on cassava peels.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Oluwakemi; Obadina, Adewale; Idowu, Micheal; Adegunwa, Mojisola; Kajihausa, Olatundun; Sanni, Lateef; Asagbra, Yemisi; Ashiru, Bolanle; Tomlins, Keith

    2015-07-01

    Edible fungi such as mushrooms are highly perishable and deteriorate few days after harvest due to its high moisture content and inability to maintain their physiological status. In this study, the effect of packaging materials on the nutritional composition of mushroom cultivated from cassava peels was investigated. Mushroom samples were dried at 50°C in a cabinet dryer for 8 h. The dried mushroom samples packaged in four different packaging materials; high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), laminated aluminum foil (LAF), high density polyethylene under vacuum (HDPEV) were stored at freezing (0°C) temperatures for 12 weeks. Samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analyzed for proximate composition (carbohydrate, protein, fat, fiber, ash, moisture), mineral content (calcium, potassium), vitamin C content, and microbiological qualities (total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, Coliform count, Staphylococcal count, Salmonella count) using the standard laboratory procedures. Carbohydrate, protein, fat content of dried mushrooms packaged in HDPE at freezing temperature ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.0% to 20.3%, and 3.2% to 4.3%, while mushrooms in polypropylene ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.5% to 20.3%, 2.6% to 4.3%. Carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in LAF ranged from 47.8% to 53.5%, 17.3% to 20.3%, and 3.3% to 4.3%, respectively, while carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in HDPEV ranged from 51.1% to 53.5%, 19.5% to 20.3%, and 3.5% to 4.3%. Microbiological analysis showed that total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, and Staphyloccocal count of dried mushroom ranged from 2.3 to 3.8 log cfu/g, 0.6 to 1.1 log cfu/g, and 0.4 to 0.5 log cfu/g, respectively. In conclusion, dried mushroom in HDPE packaged under vacuum at freezing temperature retained the nutritional constituents than those packaged with other packaging materials.

  13. Effect of packaging materials on the chemical composition and microbiological quality of edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) grown on cassava peels

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Oluwakemi; Obadina, Adewale; Idowu, Micheal; Adegunwa, Mojisola; Kajihausa, Olatundun; Sanni, Lateef; Asagbra, Yemisi; Ashiru, Bolanle; Tomlins, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Edible fungi such as mushrooms are highly perishable and deteriorate few days after harvest due to its high moisture content and inability to maintain their physiological status. In this study, the effect of packaging materials on the nutritional composition of mushroom cultivated from cassava peels was investigated. Mushroom samples were dried at 50°C in a cabinet dryer for 8 h. The dried mushroom samples packaged in four different packaging materials; high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), laminated aluminum foil (LAF), high density polyethylene under vacuum (HDPEV) were stored at freezing (0°C) temperatures for 12 weeks. Samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analyzed for proximate composition (carbohydrate, protein, fat, fiber, ash, moisture), mineral content (calcium, potassium), vitamin C content, and microbiological qualities (total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, Coliform count, Staphylococcal count, Salmonella count) using the standard laboratory procedures. Carbohydrate, protein, fat content of dried mushrooms packaged in HDPE at freezing temperature ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.0% to 20.3%, and 3.2% to 4.3%, while mushrooms in polypropylene ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.5% to 20.3%, 2.6% to 4.3%. Carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in LAF ranged from 47.8% to 53.5%, 17.3% to 20.3%, and 3.3% to 4.3%, respectively, while carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in HDPEV ranged from 51.1% to 53.5%, 19.5% to 20.3%, and 3.5% to 4.3%. Microbiological analysis showed that total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, and Staphyloccocal count of dried mushroom ranged from 2.3 to 3.8 log cfu/g, 0.6 to 1.1 log cfu/g, and 0.4 to 0.5 log cfu/g, respectively. In conclusion, dried mushroom in HDPE packaged under vacuum at freezing temperature retained the nutritional constituents than those packaged with other packaging materials. PMID:26288720

  14. Chemical constituents from the rice fermented with the edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii and their quinone oxidoreductase 1 inducing effect.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shun; Dong, Yanan; Li, Yongxia; Bao, Li; Liu, Hongwei; Li, Heran

    2013-12-01

    The fruiting bodies or mycelia of mushrooms have been used as food and food-flavoring material for centuries due to their nutritional and medicinal values and the diversity of their bioactive components. The present research was the first to study the chemical components in rice fermented with the edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii and the quinone oxidoreductase 1 inducing effect of these compounds. Through chemical investigation, one new compound, ((6S,7S)-6,7-dihydroxy-6-methyl-2-(3-methylbutanoyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzofuran-3-yl)methyl acetate (1) and eight known compounds (2-9) were isolated from the P. eryngii-fermented rice. All of these compounds were isolated from rice fermented with the edible mushroom P. eryngii for the first time. Their structures were elucidated by MS and NMR data analyses. Alternariol-5-O-methyl ether (2) showed strong quinone oxidoreductase 1 inducing effect with an IR value of 2.58 at the concentration of 20 μg/ml. The content of adenosine (8) in the fermented rice (175.64 μg/g) is much higher than that of non-fermented rice (14.38 μg/g). © 2013.

  15. Antioxidant activity via DPPH, gram-positive and gram-negative antimicrobial potential in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Mahmood, Fazal; Khalil, Shahid Akbar; Zamir, Roshan; Fazal, Hina; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

    2014-10-01

    Edible mushrooms (EMs) are nutritionally rich source of proteins and essential amino acids. In the present study, the antioxidant activity via 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and antimicrobial potential in EMs (Pleurotus ostreatus, Morchella esculenta, P. ostreatus (Black), P. ostreatus (Yellow) and Pleurotus sajor-caju) were investigated. The DPPH radical scavenging activity revealed that the significantly higher activity (66.47%) was observed in Morchella esculenta at a maximum concentration. Similarly, the dose-dependent concentrations (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 µg) were also used for other four EMs. Pleurotus ostreatus exhibited 36.13% activity, P. ostreatus (Black (B)) exhibited 30.64%, P. ostreatus (Yellow (Y)) exhibited 40.75% and Pleurotus sajor-caju exhibited 47.39% activity at higher concentrations. Furthermore, the antimicrobial potential were investigated for its toxicity against gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, Erwinia carotovora and Agrobacterium tumifaciens), gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus atrophaeus and Staphylococcus aureus) and a fungal strain (Candida albicans) in comparison with standard antibiotics. Antimicrobial screening revealed that the ethanol extract of P. ostreatus was active against all microorganism tested except E. coli. Maximum zone of inhibition (13 mm) was observed against fungus and A. tumifaciens. P. sajor-caju showed best activities (12.5 mm) against B. subtilis, B. atrophaeus and K. pneumonia. P. ostreatus (Y) showed best activities against P. aeroginosa (21.83 mm), B. atrophaeus (20 mm) and C. albicans (21 mm). P. ostreatus (B) exhibited best activities against C. albicans (16 mm) and slightly lower activities against all other microbes except S. typhi. M. esculenta possess maximum activities in terms of inhibition zone against all microorganisms tested except S. typhi.

  16. Biosynthesis of Au, Ag and Au-Ag nanoparticles using edible mushroom extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Daizy

    2009-07-01

    Integration of green chemistry principles to nanotechnology is one of the key issues in nanoscience research. There is growing need to develop environmentally benign metal nanoparticle synthesis process that do not use toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocols to avoid adverse effects in medical applications. Here, it is a report on extracellular synthesis method for the preparation of Au, Ag and Au-Ag nanoparticles in water, using the extract of Volvariella volvacea, a naturally occurring edible mushroom, as reducing and protecting agents. Gold nanoparticles of different sizes (20-150 nm) and shapes from triangular nanoprisms to nearly spherical and hexagonal are obtained by this novel method. The size and shape of gold nanoparticles are also found to depend on temperature of the extract. The silver nanoparticles are spherical with size ˜15 nm. There is increased productivity of nanoparticles as shown by sharp and intense surface plasmon resonance bands for the nanoparticles prepared using an excess of the extract. The Au-Ag nanoparticles prepared by co-reduction has only one plasmon band due to alloying of the constituents. All the synthesized nanoparticles are found to be photoluminescent and are highly crystalline as shown by SAED and XRD patterns with fcc phase oriented along the (1 1 1) plane. FTIR measurements were carried out to identify the possible biomolecules responsible for capping and efficient stabilization of the nanoparticles. It is found that Au nanoparticles are bound to proteins through free amino groups and silver nanoparticles through the carboxylate group of the amino acid residues. The position and intensity of the emission band is found to depend on composition of the nanoparticles indicating the possible use in therapeutic applications.

  17. Renoprotective chemical constituents from an edible mushroom, Pleurotus cornucopiae in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seoung Rak; Lee, Dahae; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Noh, Hyung Jun; Jung, Kiwon; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2017-01-19

    Pleurotus cornucopiae (Pleurotaceae) is an edible and medicinal mushroom widely distributed in Korea, China, and Japan. The MeOH extract of the fruiting bodies of P. cornucopiae showed renoprotective effects against cisplatin-induced kidney cell damage. Chemical investigation of the MeOH extract led to the isolation and identification of 12 compounds including noransine (1), uridine (2), uracil (3), (3β, 5α, 6β, 22E, 24S) -ergosta-7, 22-diene-3, 5, 6, 9-tetrol (4), (22E,24S)-ergosta-7,22-diene-3β,5α,6β-triol (5), (22E,24R)-ergosta-8(14),22-diene-3β,5α,6β,7α-tetrol (6), cerebroside B (7), (2R) -N- [(1S, 2R, 3E, 7E) -1- [(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy) methyl] -2-hydroxy-8-methyl-3, 7-heptadecadien-1-yl] -2-hydroxy-heptadecanamide (8), cerebroside D (9), nicotinamide (10), 1,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-4,5-dimethoxybenzene (11), and benzoic acid (12). Among them, compounds 1 and 11 were isolated as naturally occurring products for the first time, though they were reported as synthetic products in previous papers. All of the compounds (except 8 and 11) abrogated cisplatin-induced LLC-PK1 cell damage in a dose-dependent manner. Of special note, compounds 2, 5, 6, and 12 ameliorated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity to 80% of the control value at 10μM. The protective effects of compounds 2, 5, 6, and 12 were mediated via the deactivation of JNK-caspase 3 apoptotic cascade. This study is the first to demonstrate that the chemical constituents of P. cornucopiae display renoprotective effects against anticancer drug-induced damage in kidney cells.

  18. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Two Wild Edible Mushrooms from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ekin, Suat; Uzun, Yusuf; Demirel, Kenan; Bayramoglu, Mahire; Kiziltas, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the antioxidant and antiradical activities in methanol extracts of two edible mushrooms from Turkey, Agaricus urinascens (Jul. Schäff. & F.H. Møller) Singer and Volvopluteus gloiocephala (DC.) Vizzini, Contu & Justo, as well as to examine trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Co, Cr, Cd, Pb), minerals (Mg, Ca, K, Na) and vitamin C content. The levels of trace elements and minerals were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Vitamin C and antioxidant properties were measured with a spectrophotometer. According to the results, total antioxidant activity and phenolic and flavonoid contents of A. urinascens and V. gloiocephala were 67.53 ± 2.54 mM ascorbic acid/g and 31.68 ± 2.27 mM ascorbic acid/g, 6.88 ± 0.31 mg GA/g and 5.22 ± 0.53 mg GA/g, and 3.80 ± 0.04 mg QE/g and 2.60 ± 0.20 mg QE/g, respectively. The findings of this study indicated that methanol extract of A. urinascens has a significant antioxidant activity and contents of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds. However, V. gloiocephala contains high levels of Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, and Na, whereas A. urinascens contains higher levels of Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, and Zn than that of V. gloiocephala. Some trace elements that are in the compound of macrofungi may contribute the antioxidant capacity of macrofungi. A. urinascens has the ability to accumulate some heavy metals that prevent environmental metal pollution and can be used as a biomonitor. A. urinascens is expected to be used as an antioxidant in future studies of experimental animal models, against free radicals generated in response to oxidative stress.

  19. Structural characterization of an immunoenhancing cytotoxic heteroglycan isolated from an edible mushroom Calocybe indica var. APK2.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Eshita Kar; Maity, Kousik; Maity, Saikat; Gantait, Sanjoy K; Maiti, Swatilekha; Maiti, Tapas K; Sikdar, Samir R; Islam, Syed S

    2011-10-18

    A water-soluble polysaccharide of an edible mushroom Calocybe indica var. APK2 showed immunoenhancing (macrophage, splenocyte, thymocyte, and bone marrow activation) and cytotoxic activity toward HeLa cell lines and found to consist of D-glucose, D-galactose, and L-fucose in a molar ratio of nearly 3:1:1. On the basis of acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT-135, TOCSY, DQF-COSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC), the structure of the repeating unit of the fuco-galacto-glucan was established as: [see formula in text].

  20. Application of edible coating and acidic washing for extending the storage life of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    PubMed

    Sedaghat, Naser; Zahedi, Younes

    2012-12-01

    Hydrocolloid-based materials have been extensively used to coat fruit and vegetables to prolong shelf-life. The effects of different concentrations of acidic washing (acetic, ascorbic, citric and malic acids) followed by coating with gum arabic (GA), carboxymethyl cellulose and emulsified gum arabic (EGA) were evaluated on the weight loss (WL), firmness and color of mushroom. The WL of the uncoated mushrooms was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than that of the coated ones, and the minimum WL was obtained with EGA coating. The mushrooms washed with malic and ascorbic acids showed minimum and maximum of WL, respectively. Loss in firmness of the EGA-coated mushrooms was by 21% (the minimum of loss), while loss value of the uncoated ones was by 39% (the maximum of loss). Firmness of mushrooms was not influenced by the acid type. Concentration of the acid significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the firmness of mushrooms, and at the lowest concentration of acid (1%), the mushrooms tissue was firmest. The L* value of the mushrooms coated with GA was higher than that of others. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in L* value and a significant (p < 0.05) increase in a* and b* values occurred in the mushrooms washed with acetic acid. Overall, washing with 1% citric or malic acid followed by coating with EGA resulted in minimum decrease in WL and firmness of the mushrooms.

  1. Contamination of wild-grown edible mushrooms by heavy metals in a former mercury-mining area.

    PubMed

    Árvay, Július; Tomáš, Ján; Hauptvogl, Martin; Kopernická, Miriama; Kováčik, Anton; Bajčan, Daniel; Massányi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination of six edible wild species of mushrooms (Boletus pulverulentus, Cantharellus cibarius, Lactarius quietus, Macrolepiota procera, Russula xerampelina and Suillus grevillei) by heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Co, Mn and Fe). Mushroom samples were collected from sites contaminated by emissions from mining and processing of polymetallic ores in operation during the period 1969-1993 in Rudňany, southeast Slovakia. The four study sites spanned up to a 5-km distance from the emission source. The collected mushroom samples were analyzed using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry and/or Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry with graphite furnace. Mercury, Cd and, in some samples, also Pb present the highest risks in terms of contamination of the food chain following subsequent consumption. The content of two metals in the dry matter (dm) of the mushrooms exceeded the limits set by the European Union (EU; Cd: 0.5 mg/kg dm, Pb: 1.0 mg/kg dm). The highest mean contents of the eight metals recorded for S. grevillei were 52.2, 2.15, 107, 104, 2.27, 2.49, 81.6 and 434 mg/kg dm for Hg, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Mn and Fe, respectively. The highest content of Cd was recorded in M. procera (3.05 mg/kg dm) and that of Co in L. quietus (0.90 mg/kg dm). The calculated weekly intake for Hg, Pb and Cd shows that regular consumption of mushrooms from the studied area poses risks to human health.

  2. Characterization of vitamin B₁₂compounds in the wild edible mushrooms black trumpet (Craterellus cornucopioides) and golden chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius).

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumio; Schwarz, Joachi; Takenaka, Shigeo; Miyamoto, Emi; Ohishi, Noriharu; Nelle, Esther; Hochstrasser, Rahel; Yabuta, Yukinori

    2012-01-01

    This study determined the vitamin B₁₂ content of six wild edible mushrooms which are consumed by European vegetarians. Zero or trace levels (0.01-0.09 µg/100 g dry weight) of vitamin B₁₂ were determined in porcini mushrooms (Boletus spp.), parasol mushrooms (Macrolepiota procera), oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), and black morels (Morchella conica). By contrast, black trumpet (Craterellus cornucopioides) and golden chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius) mushrooms contained considerable levels (1.09-2.65 µg/100 g dry weight) of vitamin B₁₂. To determine whether C. cornucopioides or C. cibarius contained vitamin B₁₂ or other corrinoid compounds that are inactive in humans, we purified a corrinoid compound using an immunoaffinity column and identified it as vitamin B₁₂ based on LC/ESI-MS/MS chromatograms.

  3. Direct accumulation pathway of radioactive cesium to fruit-bodies of edible mushroom from contaminated wood logs

    PubMed Central

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Aiba, Yukitoshi; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Niizato, Tadafumi; Sasaki, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the accumulation process of radioactive Cs in edible mushrooms. We here first report the direct accumulation pathway of radioactive Cs from contaminated wood logs to the fruit-bodies of shiitake mushrooms through the basal portion of the stipe. In this pathway, radioactive Cs is not transported through the hyphae. This pathway results in a high accumulation of radioactive Cs in the fruit-body, more by the excess accumulation of radioactive Cs from the wood logs than that through the hyphae. We grew the fruit-bodies of Shiitake mushroom from radioactive-Cs-contaminated wood logs. The spatial distributions of radioactive Cs and Prussian blue as a tracer of interstitial water in the cross section of the wood log measured after the harvest of the fruit-body from the inoculated sawdust spawn area indicated that some fraction of the radioactive Cs and Prussian blue were transported directly to the basal portion of the stipe during the growth of the fruit-bodies. PMID:27430163

  4. Study of silver, selenium and arsenic concentration in wild edible mushroom Macrolepiota procera, health benefit and risk.

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Violeta; Trifković, Jelena; Djurdjić, Sladjana; Vukojević, Vesna; Tešić, Živoslav; Mutić, Jelena

    2016-11-01

    The content and bioaccumulation of trace (Ag, Se, As) and major elements (Ca, Mg, Na and K) in wild edible mushroom Macrolepiota procera and its corresponding soil substrates, collected from five sites in the Rasina region in central Serbia, were investigated. The content of Ag, As and Se was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) while the amount of Ca, Mg, Na and K was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The concentrations of major elements in the mushrooms were at typical levels. As far as trace elements are concerned, M. procera bioaccumulates silver although all samples were collected from unpolluted sites. It was found that the content of Ag depended on the geographical origin and the density of fruiting body on the certain site. Principal component analysis distinguished the mushroom samples from different geographical areas and revealed the influence of soil composition on metal content in fruiting bodies. Also, a linear regression correlation test was performed to investigate correlations between Ag, Cd, Se, Pb and As in caps and stipes at different geographic sites separately. In addition, our results indicated that M. procera could serve as a good dietary source of Mg, K and Se. The content of Ag and As was low, so it could not pose a health risk for consumers.

  5. Direct accumulation pathway of radioactive cesium to fruit-bodies of edible mushroom from contaminated wood logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Aiba, Yukitoshi; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Niizato, Tadafumi; Sasaki, Yoshito

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the accumulation process of radioactive Cs in edible mushrooms. We here first report the direct accumulation pathway of radioactive Cs from contaminated wood logs to the fruit-bodies of shiitake mushrooms through the basal portion of the stipe. In this pathway, radioactive Cs is not transported through the hyphae. This pathway results in a high accumulation of radioactive Cs in the fruit-body, more by the excess accumulation of radioactive Cs from the wood logs than that through the hyphae. We grew the fruit-bodies of Shiitake mushroom from radioactive-Cs-contaminated wood logs. The spatial distributions of radioactive Cs and Prussian blue as a tracer of interstitial water in the cross section of the wood log measured after the harvest of the fruit-body from the inoculated sawdust spawn area indicated that some fraction of the radioactive Cs and Prussian blue were transported directly to the basal portion of the stipe during the growth of the fruit-bodies.

  6. Centesimal composition and physical-chemistry analysis of the edible mushroom Lentinus strigosus occurring in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Sales-Campos, Ceci; Araujo, Lidia M; Minhoni, Marli T A; Andrade, Meire C N

    2013-01-01

    The centesimal composition and the physical and chemical analyses of Lentinus strigosus, an edible mushroom occurring in the Brazilian Amazon and produced in alternative substrates based on wood and agroindustrial residues, were evaluated. For this purpose, the C, N, pH, soluble solids, water activity, protein, lipids, total fiber, ash, carbohydrate, and energy levels were determined. The substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. ("marupá"), Ochroma piramidale Cav. Ex. Lam. ("pau-de-balsa") and Anacardium giganteum ("cajuí") sawdust and Bactris gasipaes Kunth ("pupunheira") stipe and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane bagasse). The results indicated that the nutritional composition of L. strigosus varied with the substrate of cultivation; the protein levels found in mushrooms grown in the different substrates (18-21.5%) varied with the substrate and was considered high; the soluble solids present in the mushrooms could have a relation with complex B hydrosoluble vitamins. L. strigosus could be considered as important food owing to its nutritional characteristics such as high protein content, metabolizable carbohydrates and fibers, and low lipids and calories content.

  7. Biology, ecology, and social aspects of wild edible mushrooms in the forests of the Pacific Northwest: a preface to managing commercial harvest.

    Treesearch

    Randy Molina; Thomas O' Dell; Daniel Luoma; Michael Amaranthus; Michael Castellano; Kenelm. Russell

    1993-01-01

    The commercial harvest of edible forest fungi has mushroomed into a multimillion dollar industry with several thousand tons harvested annually. The development of this special forest product industry has raised considerable controversy about how this resource should be managed, especially on public lands. Concerns center around destruction of forest habitat by repeated...

  8. Ethnomycological studies of some wild medicinal and edible mushrooms in the Kashmir Himalayas (India).

    PubMed

    Pala, Shauket Ahmed; Wani, Abdul Hamid; Bhat, Mohmmad Yaqoub

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal use of mushrooms has a very long tradition in Asian countries because of their use as a valuable tonic, food, and in herbal medicines. A study was carried out to document the indigenous uses of various mushrooms growing in the Kashmir Himalayas. After consulting local herbal healers (Hakims) and people from tribal communities inhabiting inaccessible hinterlands of the region regarding the use of mushrooms growing in their locality, it was found that 35 species of mushrooms belonging to different ecological and taxonomical groups were used for their nutritional and medicinal values. These mushrooms were used for their activities against a broad spectrum of diseases, ranging from simple skin diseases to present-day complex diseases such as diabetes and tumors.

  9. Assessment of arsenic bioaccessibility in raw and cooked edible mushrooms by a PBET method.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Mirandes, Toni; Llorens-Muñoz, Mariona; Funes-Collado, Virginia; Sahuquillo, Àngels; López-Sánchez, José Fermín

    2016-03-01

    The present study reports arsenic analysis in Lentinula edodes, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus before and after being cooked. Furthermore, arsenic in raw and cooked mushroom was determined in the gastric and gastrointestinal bioaccessible fractions obtained after simulating human digestion by means of an in vitro physiologically based extraction test (PBET). Several certified reference materials (SRM 1568a, SRM 1570a, CRM 7503-a, BC211 and IPE-120) were analysed to evaluate the proposed methods. Total arsenic content was 1393, 181 and 335μgAskg(-1) for L. edodes, A. bisporus and P. ostreatus, respectively, and decreased by between 53% and 71% in boiled mushroom and less than 11% in griddled mushroom. High bioaccessibility was observed in raw, boiled and griddled mushroom, ranging from 74% to 89% and from 80% to 100% for gastric and gastrointestinal extracts, respectively, suggesting the need to consider the potential health risk of consumption of the mushrooms analysed.

  10. Mushrooms

    MedlinePlus

    ... When someone takes mushrooms, the body converts the psilocybin into psilocyn. Scientists believe that psilocyn affects serotonin, one of the chemicals in our brains. Increased amounts of serotonin can create feelings of ...

  11. Photo-irradiated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using edible mushroom pleurotus Florida and their antibacterial activity studies.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ravishankar; Deshpande, Raghunandan; Ganachari, Sharanabasava V; Huh, Do Sung; Venkataraman, A

    2011-01-01

    This is a report on photo-irradiated extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of edible oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) as a reducing agent. The appearance, size, and shape of the silver nanoparticles are understood by UV-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The X-ray diffraction studies, energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicate that particles are crystalline in nature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that the nanoparticles are covered with biomoieties on their surface. As can be seen from our studies, the biofunctionalized silver nanoparticles thus produced have shown admirable antimicrobial effects, and the synthetic procedure involved is eco-friendly and simple, and hence high range production of the same can be considered for using them in many pharmaceutical applications.

  12. ICP/MS and ICP/AES elemental analysis (38 elements) of edible wild mushrooms growing in Poland.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, J; Szymczyk, K; Ichihashi, H; Bielawski, L; Gucia, M; Frankowska, A; Yamasaki, S

    2001-06-01

    Thirty-eight elements, including toxic cadmium, lead, mercury, silver and thallium, were determined in 18 species of wild edible mushrooms collected from several sites in Pomorskie Voivodeship in northern Poland in 1994. Elements were determined by double focused high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), after wet digestion of the dried samples with concentrated nitric acid in closed PTFE vessels using a microwave oven. K, P and Mg were present at levels of mg/g dry matter; Na, Zn, Ca, Fe, Cu, Mn, Rb, Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cs, Sr, Al and Si were present at microg/g levels, while Tl, In, Bi, Th, U, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, La, Lu and Ba were present at ng/g levels.

  13. Photo-Irradiated Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Edible Mushroom Pleurotus florida and Their Antibacterial Activity Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Ravishankar; Deshpande, Raghunandan; Ganachari, Sharanabasava V.; Huh, Do Sung; Venkataraman, A.

    2011-01-01

    This is a report on photo-irradiated extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of edible oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) as a reducing agent. The appearance, size, and shape of the silver nanoparticles are understood by UV-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The X-ray diffraction studies, energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicate that particles are crystalline in nature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that the nanoparticles are covered with biomoieties on their surface. As can be seen from our studies, the biofunctionalized silver nanoparticles thus produced have shown admirable antimicrobial effects, and the synthetic procedure involved is eco-friendly and simple, and hence high range production of the same can be considered for using them in many pharmaceutical applications. PMID:22190895

  14. Effects of conservation treatment and cooking on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Portuguese wild edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Barros, Lillian; Baptista, Paula; Correia, Daniela M; Morais, Jorge Sá; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2007-06-13

    The effects of processing and cooking practices on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Portuguese wild edible mushroom species (Lactarius deliciosus, Macrolepiota mastoidea, Macrolepiota procera, and Sarcodon imbricatus) were investigated. Dried, frozen, and cooked samples were analyzed for proximate constituents (moisture, fat, crude protein, ash, and carbohydrates) and nutritional value. Fatty acid and sugar profiles were also obtained by gas-liquid chromatography/flame ionization detection and high-performance liquid chromatography/refraction index, respectively. The antioxidant properties were evaluated by several biochemical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity, reducing power, inhibition of beta-carotene bleaching, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in brain tissue using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results of this study show that mushroom species and processing and cooking practices are all effective determinants for either chemical composition or antioxidant properties. Cooked samples proved to have lower nutrient concentrations and lower antioxidant activities than either dried or frozen samples. In what concerns fatty acids and sugar individual profiles, only cooking proved to be relevant: The cooked samples presented higher monounsaturated fatty acid and lower polyunsaturated fatty acid and sugars contents.

  15. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using a glucan of an edible mushroom and study of catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sen, Ipsita K; Maity, Kousik; Islam, Syed S

    2013-01-16

    Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by reducing chloroauric acid with a glucan, isolated from an edible mushroom Pleurotus florida, cultivar Assam Florida. Here, glucan acts as reducing as well as stabilizing agent. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, HR-TEM, XRD, SEM, and FT-IR analysis. The results indicated that the size distribution of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) changed with the change in concentration of chloroauric acid (HAuCl(4)). The resulting Au NPs-glucan bioconjugates function as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP), in the presence of sodium borohydride. The reduction of 4-nitrophenol with Au NPs-glucan bioconjugates followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The effect of particle size and gold loading on reduction rate of 4-NP was studied with Au NPs-glucan bioconjugates prepared with different concentrations of HAuCl(4). The synthesis of catalytically active Au NPs using a pure mushroom polysaccharide of known structure is reported for the first time.

  16. Pesticide contaminants in selected species of edible wild mushrooms from the north-eastern part of Poland.

    PubMed

    Gałgowska, Michalina; Pietrzak-Fiećko, Renata

    2017-03-04

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in selected edible mushrooms from north-eastern Poland. The experiment was carried out on 45 samples consisting of 15 fruiting bodies each of the following species: Boletus edulis, Imleria badia and Cantharellus cibarius. Dried samples were subjected to extraction of lipids with a Soxhlet and a standard procedure-based on the decomposition of lipids by concentrated sulfuric acid and the release of organic insecticides to the hexane layer-was used to determine chlorinated hydrocarbons. The quantitative determination of DDT, DDE, DDD and γ-HCH were conducted using gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were found in all tested samples. The contents of these compounds varied between all three species. Mean content of γ-HCH in B. edulis, I. badia and C. cibarius was: 2.60; 4.83; 7.52 µg kg(-1) of lipids, while the content of ΣDDT was: 57.02; 25.20; 127.10 µg kg(-1) of lipids, respectively. These results show that mushrooms from the north-eastern part of Poland can be used as potential bio-indicators of environmental contamination with chlorinated hydrocarbons. Moreover, the studied fungi could still be used as food due to the low levels of analyzed organochlorine compounds.

  17. Antioxidant and antigenotoxic potential of Ramaria largentii Marr & D. E. Stuntz, a wild edible mushroom collected from Northeast Romania.

    PubMed

    Aprotosoaie, Ana Clara; Zavastin, Daniela Elena; Mihai, Cosmin-Teodor; Voichita, Gabriela; Gherghel, Daniela; Silion, Mihaela; Trifan, Adriana; Miron, Anca

    2017-02-05

    Ramaria largentii Marr & D. E. Stuntz (orange coral mushroom) is a wild edible mushroom whose chemical composition and bioactivity have not been investigated. Herein, we present a study on the phenolic constituents, antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of a hydromethanolic extract of the fruiting bodies. Total phenolic content, estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, was found to be 42.33 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g. Protocatechuic and vanillic acids were detected by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. The extract showed good free radical scavenging and reducing capacities (EC50 = 64.3 ± 0.2 and 61.54 ± 0.46 μg/mL, respectively). In normal Vero cells, the extract (100, 200 and 300 μg/mL) showed no genotoxic potential and moreover, almost completely protected DNA against H2O2-induced damage (2.09-7.91% tail DNA) (24 and 48 h pre-treatment). Taken together, the results of our study show that Ramaria largentii extract is devoid of genotoxicity and has a remarkable DNA protective activity against H2O2-induced damage.

  18. Study of heavy metals in wild edible mushrooms under different pollution conditions by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M L; Pimentel, A C; Fernandes, B

    2005-07-01

    In this work we studied and compared the metal uptake in edible mushrooms (Lepiota procera, Boletus badius, Boletus edulis, Tricholoma equestry, Lactarius deliciosus, Cantarelus tubalformis and Cantarelus edulis), relative to sampling sites submitted to different pollution conditions: car traffic, soil pollution due to pesticides and fertilizers used in old vineyards, and incineration of hospital waste. Soil was also collected in some places, and its content was correlated to the corresponding one in some mushrooms species. All samples, without any chemical treatment, were analyzed by an X-ray fluorescence set-up. This technique is based on a monochromatic X-ray beam ionizing the atoms of the sample. Following this ionization, the emitted radiation is characteristic of the element, allowing its identification and quantification. Vineyards are normally submitted to very high amounts of sulfating, containing high copper concentrations. This metal is accumulated on the soil, and can be up-taken by vegetation. Very high levels of Fe and Cu were found in Lepiota procera species in old vineyards. Zinc was found to be always higher than Cu by factors ranging from 1.5 to 8 in clean wood taken as a reference for the whole analyzed species, while in old vineyards the ratio Zn/Cu reach 0.25 for Lepiota procera. This is correlated to the soil content for both elements. In addition, pollution induced by car traffic was checked in some samples, collected in the proximity of highways. Pb was the main contaminant in these areas, and presenting values 10 times higher than the corresponding ones in sites not submitted to pollution, for some species. Mushrooms contamination due to incineration of hospital waste was also studied, but we did not observe any contamination involving heavy metals in the several analyzed species around these areas. This is in agreement with what was expected, taking into account that hospital waste is mostly organic and, in principle, no heavy metals would

  19. Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K in edible mushrooms collected in Japan and radiation dose due to their consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi

    1997-03-01

    To estimate radiocesium intake due to eating mushrooms, about 100 samples belonging to 11 species were analyzed to establish to establish representative values for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K in common edible mushrooms available in food markets. Concentration ranges were <0.047-39 Bq kg{sup -1} (wet wt) for {sup 137}Cs and 30-210 Bq kg{sup -1} (wet wt) for {sup 40}K. The median concentrations were 1.3 Bq kg{sup -1} (wet wt) for {sup 137}Cs and 97 Bq kg{sup -1} (wet wt) for {sup 40}K. The {sup 137}Cs concentration is cultivated mushrooms were markedly lower than those in wild mushrooms. The annual intake of {sup 137}Cs per person through mushrooms was calculated (using analytical results and food consumption data in Japan) to be 6.0 Bq for {sup 137}Cs, which is about 32% of the total dietary intake of this nuclide. The effective dose equivalent of {sup 137}Cs through mushroom was estimated to be 7.7 X 10{sup -8} Sv (range estimated from the standard deviation: 3.0 x 10{sup -8}-1.0 x 10{sup -7}). 19 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Glucan from hot aqueous extract of an ectomycorrhizal edible mushroom, Russula albonigra (Krombh.) Fr.: structural characterization and study of immunoenhancing properties.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Ashis K; Sen, Ipsita K; Samanta, Surajit; Maity, Kousik; Devi, K Sanjana P; Mukherjee, Shreemoyee; Maiti, Tapas K; Acharya, Krishnendu; Islam, Syed S

    2012-12-01

    A water soluble glucan (PS-I) was isolated from the hot aqueous extract of the fruit bodies of an ectomycorrhizal edible mushroom, Russula albonigra (Krombh.) Fr. The total hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, and NMR ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT-135, TOCSY, DQF-COSY, NOESY, ROESY, HSQC, and HMBC) studies revealed the presence of the following repeating unit in the polysaccharide: This glucan showed excellent activation of macrophages as well as splenocytes and thymocytes in vitro.

  1. Human exposure to heavy metals and possible public health risks via consumption of wild edible mushrooms from Slovak Paradise National Park, Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Árvay, Július; Tomáš, Ján; Hauptvogl, Martin; Massányi, Peter; Harangozo, Ľuboš; Tóth, Tomáš; Stanovič, Radovan; Bryndzová, Štefánia; Bumbalová, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The contamination level of 92 samples (12 species) of wild edible mushrooms and underlying substrates with heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn) in the Slovak Paradise National Park that borders with a region of historical mining and processing of polymetallic ores, were determined. The collected samples were analyzed using of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The metals were determined separately in hymenophore (H) and rest of fruit bodies (RFB). Bioaccumulation factor as well as ratio of metal content in H and RFB were calculated. Cadmium and lead contents in hymenophore exceeded statutory limits of the EU (Cd: 0.5 mg/kg dry weight (dw), Pb: 1.0 mg/kg dw) for edible mushrooms in 96% and 83% of the samples, respectively. The risk from the consumption of the collected mushroom species was calculated based on the provisionally tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) values, and the highest health risk arising with consumption of particularly Macrolepiota procera, Marasmius oreades and Russula vesca from the observed area was demonstrated. It was shown that average weekly consumption of tested mushrooms species results the threat of exceeding of PTWI limits in the case of cadmium values (by 164%, 86% and 4% of PTWI for M. oreades, R. vesca and R. puellaris, respectively) and of mercury (by 96% of PTWI for M. procera) but not lead.

  2. Isolation of Fungal Pathogens to an Edible Mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii, and Development of Specific ITS Primers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Sinil; Lee, Hyun-Jun; Park, Ju-Wan; Ro, Hyeon-Su

    2013-12-01

    Fungal pathogens have caused severe damage to the commercial production of Pleurotus eryngii, the king oyster mushroom, by reducing production yield, causing deterioration of commercial value, and shortening shelf-life. Four strains of pathogenic fungi, including Trichoderma koningiopsis DC3, Phomopsis sp. MP4, Mucor circinelloides MP5, and Cladosporium bruhnei MP6, were isolated from the bottle culture of diseased P. eryngii. A species-specific primer set was designed for each fungus from the ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 sequences. PCR using the ITS primer set yielded a unique DNA band for each fungus without any cross-reaction, proving the validity of our method in detection of mushroom fungal pathogens.

  3. Antimicrobial properties, antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds from six wild edible mushrooms of western ghats of Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Ch.; Pattar, Manohar G.

    2010-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of 6 wild edible mushrooms isolated from the Western Ghats of Karnataka were used in this study. Among the isolates (Lycoperdon perlatum, Cantharellus cibarius, Clavaria vermiculris, Ramaria formosa, Marasmius oreades, Pleurotus pulmonarius), only 4 showed satisfactory results. Quantitative analysis of bioactive components revealed that total phenols are the major bioactive component found in extracts of isolates expressed as mg of GAE per gram of fruit body, which ranged from 3.20 ± 0.05 mg/mL to 6.25 ± 0.08 mg/mL. Average concentration of flavonoid ranged from 0.40 ± 0.052 mg/mL to 2.54 ± 0.08 mg/mL; followed by very small concentration of ascorbic acid (range, 0.06 ± 0.01 mg/mL to 0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL) in all the isolates. All the isolates showed high phenol and flavonoid content, but ascorbic acid content was found in traces. Antioxidant efficiency by inhibitory concentration on 1,1-Diphenly-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was found significant when compared to standard antioxidant like Buthylated hydroxyanisol (BHA). The concentration (IC50) ranged from 0.94 ± 0.27 mg/mL to 7.57 ± 0.21 mg/mL. Determination of antimicrobial activity profile of all the isolates tested against a panel of standard pathogenic bacteria and fungi indicated that the concentrations of bioactive components directly influence the antimicrobial capability of the isolates. Agar diffusion assay showed considerable activity against all bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration values of the extracts of 4 isolates showed that they are also active even in least concentrations. These results are discussed in relation to therapeutic value of the studied mushrooms. PMID:21808550

  4. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Edible Mushrooms from Niger Delta, Nigeria: Carcinogenic and Non-Carcinogenic Health Risk Assessment

    PubMed

    Igbiri, Sorbari; Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze; Ekhator, Osazuwa Clinton; Asomugha, Rose Ngozi; Igweze, Zelinjo Nkeiruka; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2017-02-01

    In the oil-rich Niger Delta, hydrocarbon pollution and oil spillages, gas flaring and sundry anthropogenic activities constitute sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with food contamination playing a major role in human exposure. In this study we assessed PAH levels in wild and cultivated edible mushroom species consumed by the general population from the oil producing Niger Delta, Nigeria. The concentrations of USEPA-16 PAHs were determined by gas chromatography and carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks were calculated. The concentrations of USEPA-16 PAHs ranged from 0.02 mg/kg – 3.37 mg/kg. The dietary intake of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic USEPA-16 PAHs (Naphthalene, Acenaphthylene, Acenaphthene, Anthracene, Phenanthrene, Flourene, Flouranthene, Pyrene, Benzo[a]Anthracene, Chrysene, Benzo[a]Pyrene, Benzo[b]Flouranthene, Benzo[K]Flouranthene, Benzo[g,h,i] Perylene, Dibenz[a,h]Anthracene and Ideno[1,2,3-cd]Pyrene) for adults, adolescents and seniors ranged from 0.00 – 0.05 mg/kg/day, 0.00 – 0.06 mg/kg/day and 0.00 – 0.07 mg/kg/day. The BaPeq ranged from 0.02 – 2.76 with margin of exposure MOE values of BaP ranging from 3,500,000 to 700,000, 3,500,000 and 3,500,000 to 7,000,000 for adults, adolescents and seniors indicating very insignificant health risk. The incremental lifetime cancer risk was within the safe range of 1.56x10-8 – 1.73x10-6 with the highest calculated risk found for wild Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom species from the study area.

  5. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Edible Mushrooms from Niger Delta, Nigeria: Carcinogenic and Non-Carcinogenic Health Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Igbiri, Sorbari; Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze; Ekhator, Osazuwa Clinton; Asomugha, Rose Ngozi; Igweze, Zelinjo Nkeiruka; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2017-01-01

    In the oil-rich Niger Delta, hydrocarbon pollution and oil spillages, gas flaring and sundry anthropogenic activities constitute sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with food contamination playing a major role in human exposure. In this study we assessed PAH levels in wild and cultivated edible mushroom species consumed by the general population from the oil producing Niger Delta, Nigeria. The concentrations of USEPA-16 PAHs were determined by gas chromatography and carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks were calculated. The concentrations of USEPA-16 PAHs ranged from 0.02 mg/kg – 3.37 mg/kg. The dietary intake of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic USEPA-16 PAHs (Naphthalene, Acenaphthylene, Acenaphthene, Anthracene, Phenanthrene, Flourene, Flouranthene, Pyrene, Benzo[a]Anthracene, Chrysene, Benzo[a]Pyrene, Benzo[b]Flouranthene, Benzo[K]Flouranthene, Benzo[g, h, i]Perylene, Dibenz[a, h]Anthracene and Ideno[1,2,3-cd]Pyrene) for adults, adolescents and seniors ranged from 0.00 – 0.05 mg/kg/day, 0.00 – 0.06 mg/kg/day and 0.00 – 0.07 mg/kg/day. The BaPeq ranged from 0.02 – 2.76 with margin of exposure MOE values of BaP ranging from 3,500,000 to 700,000, 3,500,000 and 3,500,000 to 7,000,000 for adults, adolescents and seniors indicating very insignificant health risk. The incremental lifetime cancer risk was within the safe range of 1.56x10-8 – 1.73x10-6 with the highest calculated risk found for wild Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom species from the study area. PMID:28345827

  6. Bio- and toxic elements in edible wild mushrooms from two regions of potentially different environmental conditions in eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Brzezicha-Cirocka, Justyna; Mędyk, Małgorzata; Falandysz, Jerzy; Szefer, Piotr

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the composition of bio-elements (K, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn) and toxic elements (Ag, Cd) in seven edible mushrooms from the rural and woodland region of Morąg (north-eastern Poland) and the rural and industrial region of the Tarnobrzeska Upland (south-eastern Poland) were investigated using a validated method. The species examined were Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Leccinum aurantiacum, Leccinum versipelle, Lycoperdon perlatum, Suillus luteus, and Xerocomus subtomentosus. Final determination was carried out by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) after microwave-assisted decomposition of sample matrices with solutions of concentrated nitric acid in the pressurized polytetrafluoroethylene vessels. The contents of the alkali elements and alkali earth elements were determined in the species surveyed. The alkali elements, earth alkali elements, and transition metals (Ag, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn) were at typical concentrations as was determined for the same or similar species elsewhere in Poland and Europe. The results may suggest a lack of local and regional emissions of those metallic elements from industrialization of some sites in the Tarnobrzeska Plain. Cadmium was at elevated concentrations in L. versipelle from the Tarnobrzeska Plain but the reason-pollution or geogenic source-was unknown, while it was at typical concentrations in other species.

  7. Heteroglycan of an edible mushroom Entoloma lividoalbum: structural characterization and study of its protective role for human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Maity, Prasenjit; Nandi, Ashis K; Sen, Ipsita K; Pattanayak, Manabendra; Chattopadhyay, Sourav; Dash, Sandeep Kumar; Roy, Somenath; Acharya, Krishnendu; Islam, Syed S

    2014-12-19

    A water soluble heteroglycan (PS-II) of an average molecular weight ∼5.2×10(4)Da was isolated from the alkaline extract of an edible mushroom Entoloma lividoalbum (Kühner & Romagn) Kubička. Structural characterization of PS-II was carried out using sugar and methylation analysis, periodate oxidation study, and 1D/2D NMR experiments. Sugar analysis indicated the presence of glucose, mannose, galactose, and fucose in a molar ratio of nearly 5:1:2:1. The repeating unit of the PS-II had a backbone consisting of two (1→3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl, one (1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl, one (1→2)-α-L-fucopyranosyl, one (1→6)-α-d-glucopyranosyl, and two (1→6)-α-d-galactopyranosyl residues, out of which one (1→3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl residue was branched at O-6 position with terminal β-d-glucopyranosyl residue and one (1→6)-α-d-galactopyranosyl residue was branched at O-2 position with terminal β-d-mannopyranosyl residue. PS-II showed ameliorative activities at different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400μg/ml) and maintained the redox balance as well as reduced the lipid peroxidation to protect the cell destruction.

  8. Isolation of a phytase with distinctive characteristics from an edible mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii.

    PubMed

    Li, Miao; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2013-04-01

    From the fresh fruiting bodies of the mushroom Pleurotus eryngii a phytase with a molecular mass of 14 kDa was isolated. The isolation protocol entailed ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and CM-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, and ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose. The phytase was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose and Affi-gel blue gel, and adsorbed on Q-Sepharose. It appeared as a single band in SDSPAGE. It exhibited maximal activity at around 37°C. Its activity underwent little changes over the range of pH 3.0 to 9.0. The aforementioned characteristics are different from those of animal, plant and bacterial phytases. The low molecular mass and pH stability of P. eryngii phytase also distinguish it from mushroom phytases and other fungal phytases reported earlier. The purified enzyme exhibited a broad substrate specificity on a range of phosphorylated compounds, and the phytase demonstrated the N-terminal sequence ADNVYRHDNN which shows little homology to known phytases. It inhibited proliferation of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cells, hepatoma HepG2 cells and breast cancer MCF7 cells with an IC(50) of 1.9 μM, 2.9 μM, and 1.0 μM, respectively.

  9. Modulation of Cholesterol-Related Gene Expression by Dietary Fiber Fractions from Edible Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Caz, Víctor; Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Largo, Carlota; Tabernero, María; Santamaría, Mónica; Martín-Hernández, Roberto; Marín, Francisco R; Reglero, Guillermo; Soler-Rivas, Cristina

    2015-08-26

    Mushrooms are a source of dietary fiber (DF) with a cholesterol-lowering effect. However, their underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The effect of DF-enriched fractions from three mushrooms species on cholesterol-related expression was studied in vitro. The Pleurotus ostreatus DF fraction (PDF) was used in mice models to assess its potential palliative or preventive effect against hypercholesterolemia. PDF induced a transcriptional response in Caco-2 cells, suggesting a possible cholesterol-lowering effect. In the palliative setting, PDF reduced hepatic triglyceride likely because Dgat1 was downregulated. However, cholesterol-related biochemical data showed no changes and no relation with the observed transcriptional modulation. In the preventive setting, PDF modulated cholesterol-related genes expression in a manner similar to that of simvastatin and ezetimibe in the liver, although no changes in plasma and liver biochemical data were induced. Therefore, PDF may be useful reducing hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Because it induced a molecular response similar to hypocholesterolemic drugs in liver, further dose-dependent studies should be carried out.

  10. Golden Needle Mushroom: A Culinary Medicine with Evidenced-Based Biological Activities and Health Promoting Properties.

    PubMed

    Tang, Calyn; Hoo, Pearl Ching-Xin; Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Pusparajah, Priyia; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-01-01

    Flammulina velutipes (enoki, velvet shank, golden needle mushroom or winter mushroom), one of the main edible mushrooms on the market, has long been recognized for its nutritional value and delicious taste. In recent decades, research has expanded beyond detailing its nutritional composition and delved into the biological activities and potential health benefits of its constituents. Many bioactive constituents from a range of families have been isolated from different parts of the mushroom, including carbohydrates, protein, lipids, glycoproteins, phenols, and sesquiterpenes. These compounds have been demonstrated to exhibit various biological activities, such as antitumour and anticancer activities, anti-atherosclerotic and thrombosis inhibition activity, antihypertensive and cholesterol lowering effects, anti-aging and antioxidant properties, ability to aid with restoring memory and overcoming learning deficits, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-bacterial, ribosome inactivation and melanosis inhibition. This review aims to consolidate the information concerning the phytochemistry and biological activities of various compounds isolated from F. velutipes to demonstrate that this mushroom is not only a great source of nutrients but also possesses tremendous potential in pharmaceutical drug development.

  11. Golden Needle Mushroom: A Culinary Medicine with Evidenced-Based Biological Activities and Health Promoting Properties

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Calyn; Hoo, Pearl Ching-Xin; Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Pusparajah, Priyia; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-01-01

    Flammulina velutipes (enoki, velvet shank, golden needle mushroom or winter mushroom), one of the main edible mushrooms on the market, has long been recognized for its nutritional value and delicious taste. In recent decades, research has expanded beyond detailing its nutritional composition and delved into the biological activities and potential health benefits of its constituents. Many bioactive constituents from a range of families have been isolated from different parts of the mushroom, including carbohydrates, protein, lipids, glycoproteins, phenols, and sesquiterpenes. These compounds have been demonstrated to exhibit various biological activities, such as antitumour and anticancer activities, anti-atherosclerotic and thrombosis inhibition activity, antihypertensive and cholesterol lowering effects, anti-aging and antioxidant properties, ability to aid with restoring memory and overcoming learning deficits, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-bacterial, ribosome inactivation and melanosis inhibition. This review aims to consolidate the information concerning the phytochemistry and biological activities of various compounds isolated from F. velutipes to demonstrate that this mushroom is not only a great source of nutrients but also possesses tremendous potential in pharmaceutical drug development. PMID:28003804

  12. Evaluation of metal concentration and antioxidant activity of three edible mushrooms from Mugla, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Semiz, Deniz Karsli; Solak, M Halil

    2010-05-01

    This study is designed for the determination of metal concentrations, antioxidant activity potentials and total phenolics of Amanita caesarea, Clitocybe geotropa and Leucoagaricus pudicus. Concentrations of four heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni) and five minor elements (Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Co) are determined. In the case of A. caesarea, Cr and Ni concentrations are found in a high level. Concentrations of the metals are found to be within safe limits for C. geotropa. In beta-carotene/linoleic acid test, L. pudicus showed the highest activity potential. In DPPH system, A. caesarea showed 79.4% scavenging ability. Additionally, reducing power and chelating capacity of the mushrooms increased with concentration. The strongest super-oxide anion scavenger was A. caesarea. In the case of total phenolics, L. pudicus found to have the highest content. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antioxidant Capacity and the Correlation with Major Phenolic Compounds, Anthocyanin, and Tocopherol Content in Various Extracts from the Wild Edible Boletus edulis Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Vamanu, Emanuel; Nita, Sultana

    2013-01-01

    Boletus edulis is a wild edible mushroom habitually consumed by rural populations. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts was obtained in cold and hot water from dried fruit bodies. The antioxidant activity of freeze-dried extracts from B. edulis were investigated using free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, metal chelating effect, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and the identification of antioxidant compounds. The levels of different compounds with antioxidant properties were higher in alcoholic extracts compared with aqueous extracts. Rosmarinic acid was the major phenolic compound, it being identified in a concentration between 7 ± 0.23 and 56 ± 0.15 mg/100 g extract. A positive correlation between the content of total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tocopherols, and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of Romanian wild mushroom B. edulis represents a natural source of functional compounds. PMID:23509707

  14. Proteomic insights into the stimulatory effect of Tween 80 on mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production of an edible mushroom Pleurotus tuber-regium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo-Bo; Chen, Lei; Cheung, Peter C K

    2012-10-01

    Proteomic analysis was applied to investigate the mechanism of the stimulatory effect of Tween 80 on the mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production by an edible mushroom Pleurotus tuber-regium. 32 differentially expressed proteins were identified by one-dimension gel electrophoresis. Combined with our previous findings, the up-regulation of heat shock proteins might help to maintain cellular viability under environmental stress. The up-regulation of ATP:citrate lyase isoform 2 could suppress the activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle and, consequently, stimulate exopolysaccharide production. The present results provide important insight to the mechanism by which stimulatory agents (Tween 80) can increase the production of useful fungal metabolites and also fill the gap of our knowledge on the under-developed mushroom proteomics.

  15. Determination of Selenium and Arsenic Ions in Edible Mushroom Samples by Novel Chloride-Oxalic Acid Deep Eutectic Solvent Extraction Using Graphite Furnace-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zounr, Rizwan Ali; Tuzen, Mustafa; Khuhawar, Muhammad Yar

    2017-08-18

    In present study, we proposed the application of a deep eutectic solvent (DES) made up of choline chloride (ChCl) and oxalic acid (Ox) for the dissolution of different edible mushroom samples for the determination of selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) ions. Therefore, an innovative, green, novel, and inexpensive method based on ChCl–Ox as the DES was developed for the determination of Se and As ions in mushroom species by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometry. The important analytical parameters were also optimized. The LODs for Se and As ions were found to be 0.32 and 0.50 µg/L, respectively. The LOQs for Se and As ions were found to be 1.06 and 1.65 µg/L, respectively. The RSD was observed to be less than 5% for both analyte ions. The accuracy of the developed method was confirmed by analyzing mushroom powder Certified Reference Material CS-M-3 (Boletus edulis). The developed technique was effectively useful for the determination of Se and As ions in different species of mushroom samples from Turkey.

  16. Biodegradation of agro-industrial wastes by a edible mushroom Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fr.).

    PubMed

    Kuforiji, O O; Fasidi, I O

    2009-05-01

    When Pleurotus tuber-regium was cultivated on cotton waste, rice straw, cocoyam peels and sawdusts of Mansonia altissima, Boscia angustifolia and Khaya ivorensis, the highest crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrate contents in sporophores were 29.4 (M. altissima) , 1.4 (rice straw) and 61.3% (cocoyam peels), respectively. Sporophores produced on rice straw had the greatest energy value and those on B. angustifolia the least i.e. 3147.6 and 709.1 kcal g(-1) substrates, respectively. The greatest degradation of the components of the substrates as a result of the cultivation was 62.4 and 71.5% for cellulose and hemicellulose in cotton wastes and 60.2% for lignin in K. ivorensis, with the greatest reduction in energy value of the substrate being 2667.9 kcal g(-1) substrate in K. ivorensis. There was no correlation between the extent of the degradation of these components and the yield of of sporophores, while the energy recovery of substrate in the mushroom was highest for cocoyam peels and least for sawdust of B. angustifolia, 3.7 and 0.5%, respectively.

  17. Antioxidant properties and electrochemical behavior of cultivated commercial Indian edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Babu, Dandamudi Rajesh; Rao, G Nageswara

    2013-04-01

    Methanolic extracts of cap and stipe of commercially obtained mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Hypsizygus ulmarius, and Calocybe indica were analyzed for their antioxidant activity in different chemical systems including reducing power, free radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), superoxide scavenging, peroxide scavenging, metal chelating activities and electrochemical behavior. Scavenging effects on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals were moderate (43.5-59.0%) at 1.5 mg/ml. Chelating effects on ferrous ions were moderate to excellent (40.6-96.1%) at 20 mg/ml. At 12 mg/ml, the reducing powers were excellent (2.54-1.71). FRAP results were in the range 2.15-0.98 at 16 mg/ml. The ability to scavenge H2O2 was moderate to excellent (48.9-97.7%) at 1.5 mg/ml. At 10 mg/ml, Agaricus bisporus cap proved to be better at scavenging superoxide radicals than others. Similar electrochemical responses of all extracts suggested similar electroactive chemical composition. The total phenols in the extracts ranged from 14.73-26.72 mg/g.The total flavonoid content ranged from 1.12-2.17 μg/g.

  18. Hypolipidemic effect of the edible mushroom Agaricus blazei in rats subjected to a hypercholesterolemic diet.

    PubMed

    de Miranda, Aline M; Ribeiro, Gustavo M; Cunha, Aureliano C; Silva, Lorena S; dos Santos, Rinaldo C; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia; Silva, Marcelo E

    2014-03-01

    The effects of Agaricus blazei intake on the lipid profile of animals fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were evaluated. Thirty-two female Fisher rats were divided into four groups and given the standard AIN-93 M diet (C), this diet + 1 % A. blazei (CAb), a hypercholesterolemic diet with 25 % soybean oil and 1 % cholesterol (H) or this diet + 1 % A. blazei (HAb) for 6 weeks. Food intake, weight gain, liver and serum lipid profiles, activity of aminotransferases [alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)], and creatinine and urea levels as well as abdominal fat weight were measured. Histological analysis of kidney and liver tissue was also performed. The HAb group had a higher food intake, but a lower weight gain as compared to group H. This resulted in a significant decrease in abdominal fat weight, to values close to those of groups C and CAb. Supplementing the hypercholesterolemic diet with A. blazei promoted a significant reduction in total and non-HDL cholesterol, as well as in the atherogenic index, as compared to group H, and this effect was more pronounced in the serum. There was no hepatotoxic effect caused by the supplementation of the diets with the mushroom. We conclude that in our experimental model and in the concentration used, A. blazei was effective in improving the lipid profile of the animals.

  19. Bioaccumulation of iron, zinc, cadmium and chromium by juvenile snail Limicolaria aurora J., fed edible mushroom Pleurotus spp from Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ebenso, I E; Solomon, I P; Akoje, C C; Akpan, I P; Eko, P M; Akpan, E A; Omole, A J

    2013-03-01

    The effects of uptake of metals (iron, zinc, cadmium and chromium) by juvenile snail Limicolaria aurora fed edible mushroom Pleurotus spp from 3 contaminated farm sites and a laboratory grown species (control) respectively were investigated. The 120 snails were fed in plastic snaileries for 4 weeks in the laboratory. Control site was risk free. Metal uptake was low and bioaccumulation in L. aurora tissue was below FAO/WHO standard of 1 mg/kg for chromium and cadmium. Snails were considered safe for consumption.

  20. Antioxidant components of selected indigenous edible mushrooms of the obsolete order Aphyllophorales.

    PubMed

    Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna; Muszyńska, Bożena; Szewczyk, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Species of phylum Basidiomycota are of great interest in many studies as a source of valuable biological compounds. To estimate the levels of antioxidant compounds (phenolic acids, indole compounds and sterols) in edible species of Aphyllophorales (sensu lato): Hydnum repandum L. and Sparassis crispa (Wulf.) Fr. A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was used for the quantitative and qualitative analyses of antioxidant components (phenolic acids, indole compounds, and sterols). Analysis of phenolic acids revealed that 8 out of the 10 analyzed compounds were present. The quantitatively predominant in Hydnum repandum was protocatechuic acid (75.23 mg/100 g DW), and in Sparassis crispa it was p-hydroxybenzoic acid (43.92 mg/100 g DW). In turn, analysis of indole compounds identified 5 out of the 12 analyzed compounds: indole, melatonin, serotonin, tryptamine, and l-tryptophan. Moreover, ergosterol was also identified and quantitatively determined (150.37 mg/100 g DW) in Sparassis crispa extracts. The data presented in this paper confirm the significant potential of chemical components with recognized antioxidant activity. The species can be considered as an alternative source of phenolic acids and ergosterol. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel ribonuclease with antiproliferative activity from fresh fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Hypsizigus marmoreus.

    PubMed

    Guan, G P; Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2007-12-01

    An 18-kDa ribonuclease (RNase) with a novel N-terminal sequence was purified from fresh fruiting bodies of the mushroom Hypsizigus marmoreus. The purification protocol comprised ion exchange chromatography on DEAE cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose and Q-Sepharose and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The starting buffer was 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.2), 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.2), 10 mM NH(4)OAc buffer (pH 5), 10 mM NH(4)HCO(3) buffer (pH 9.4) and 200 mM NH(4)HCO(3) (pH 8.5), respectively. Absorbed proteins were desorbed using NaCl added to the starting buffer. A 42-fold purification of the enzyme was achieved. The RNase was unadsorbed on DEAE cellulose, Affi-gel blue gel and CM-cellulose but adsorbed on Q-Sepharose. It exhibited maximal RNase activity at pH 5 and 70 degrees C. Some RNase activity was detectable at 100 degrees C. It demonstrated the highest ribonucleolytic activity (196 U/mg) toward poly C, the next highest activity (126 U/mg) toward poly A, and much weaker activity toward poly U (48 U/mg) and poly G (41 U/mg). The RNase inhibited [(3)H-methyl]-thymidine uptake by leukemia L1210 cells with an IC(50) of 60 microM.

  2. Anti-inflammatory activity of edible oyster mushroom is mediated through the inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mushrooms are well recognized for their culinary properties as well as for their potency to enhance immune response. In the present study, we evaluated anti-inflammatory properties of an edible oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in vitro and in vivo. Methods RAW264.7 murine macrophage cell line and murine splenocytes were incubated with the oyster mushroom concentrate (OMC, 0-100 μg/ml) in the absence or presence of lipopolysacharide (LPS) or concanavalin A (ConA), respectively. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay. Expression of cytokines and proteins was measured by ELISA assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. DNA-binding activity was assayed by the gel-shift analysis. Inflammation in mice was induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Results OMC suppressed LPS-induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-12p40 from RAW264.7 macrophages. OMC inhibited LPS-induced production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) through the down-regulation of expression of COX-2 and iNOS, respectively. OMC also inhibited LPS-dependent DNA-binding activity of AP-1 and NF-κB in RAW264.7 cells. Oral administration of OMC markedly suppressed secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 in mice challenged with LPS in vivo. Anti-inflammatory activity of OMC was confirmed by the inhibition of proliferation and secretion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-2, and IL-6 from concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated mouse splenocytes. Conclusions Our study suggests that oyster mushroom possesses anti-inflammatory activities and could be considered a dietary agent against inflammation. The health benefits of the oyster mushroom warrant further clinical studies. PMID:21575254

  3. Effect of Pseudomonas sp. P7014 on the growth of edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii in bottle culture for commercial production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Keun; Math, Renukaradhya K; Cho, Kye Man; Shin, Ki Jae; Kim, Jong Ok; Ryu, Jae San; Lee, Young Han; Yun, Han Dae

    2008-05-01

    Addition of bacterial culture strain P7014 and its supernatant to the mushroom growing media resulted in mushroom mycelia run faster. Mycelial growth rate of Pleurotus eryngii was increased up to 1.6 fold and primordial formation was induced one day earlier. Moreover, it was supposed that addition of bacteria had beneficial applications for commercial mushroom production, which appreciably reduced total number of days for cultivation of about 5+/-2 days compared with uninoculated, which took 55+/-2 days.

  4. Utilization of chicken feather hydrolysate as a novel fermentation substrate for production of exopolysaccharide and mycelial biomass from edible mushroom Morchella esculenta.

    PubMed

    Taskin, Mesut; Ozkan, Behzat; Atici, Okkes; Aydogan, Mehmet Nuri

    2012-08-01

    This study was performed to investigate the usability of chicken feather hydrolysate (Chicken feather peptone (CFP)) as substrate for mycelial biomass and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) production from edible mushroom Morchella esculenta. The ability of CFP to support biomass and EPS production in edible mushroom M. esculenta was compared to those of two commercial peptones (Tryptone peptone (TP) and Fish peptone (FP)). The maximum biomass (16.3 g/l) and EPS (4.8 g/l) concentrations were achieved with TP. Second, high biomass (15.9 g/l) and EPS (4.6 g/l) concentrations were obtained with CFP. Also, biomass and EPS concentrations in CFP medium were statistically near to those in the TP medium. CFP and TP resulted in not only uniform pellets with smaller size (5 mm) but also faster mycelial growth compared to FP. This study showed for the first time that CFP could be effectively used as a novel EPS production substrate.

  5. A rapid HPLC post-column reaction analysis for the quantification of ergothioneine in edible mushrooms and in animals fed a diet supplemented with extracts from the processing waste of cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, The Han; Giri, Anupam; Ohshima, Toshiaki

    2012-07-15

    For establishing an efficient and sensitive method for the quantitative determination of 2-thiol-l-histidine-betaine (ergothioneine, ERG) in edible mushrooms and the blood and muscles of animals, a technique using reversed-phase separation and post-column reaction between 2'-dipyridyl disulphide and ERG was developed. A corresponding derivative 2-thiopyridone, detected at 343 nm, was used for estimating ERG concentration. The flow rate, temperature, pH, and composition of the solution were optimised. A low limit of quantification (1.41 ppm) and a simpler sample preparation made this technique more rapid compared to other methods using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The coefficient of variation (CV) values for the reproducibility and recovery of ERG were within the acceptable values of 6% and 97.5-100.0%, respectively. The efficiency of this methodology was compared with that of spectrophotometric and mass-spectrometric quantitative methods, and was assessed in the light of previous studies. The ERG contents in different mushrooms were 12.69-234.85 mg/kg wet weight basis. Dietary supplementation with extracts from mushroom processing waste significantly improved ERG bioavailability in the blood of yellowtail fish and muscle tissue of cattle.

  6. Assessment of selected antioxidants in tomato pomace subsequent to treatment with the edible oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, under solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Assi, Jamal A; King, Annie J

    2007-10-31

    Tomato pomace, delignified by the edible oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, could be used as a poultry feed ingredient to provide alpha-tocopherol for retardation of lipid oxidation in postmortem meat if the antioxidant were retained in pomace after fungal fermentation. Experiments were conducted to investigate changes in the content of alpha-tocopherol, lycopene, and beta-carotene in tomato pomace after sterilization and treatment with P. ostreatus from 0 to 104 days. alpha-Tocopherol (39.26 to 31.15 microg/g) and lycopene (17.42 to 11.19 microg/g) significantly decreased during sterilization while beta-carotene (42.56 to 35.44 microg/g) did not. The content of carotenoids decreased by day 26 as compared to 0 day for the control and for treated samples. alpha-Tocopherol decreased during fungal fermentation at day 26 as compared to 0 day for the control and increased during the same period for treated samples. By 104 days, only alpha-tocopherol in control pomace was present in a significant amount. The alpha-tocopherol content of mushroom fruit grown in pomace (74.10 microg/g) and in wheat straw (51.36 microg/g) was not significantly different. Tomato pomace could be used as a substrate to successfully grow edible mushrooms; however, the initial level of selected antioxidants and their reduction during fungal fermentation must be considered when delignified pomace is utilized for selected nutrient content in animal feed or products for human consumption.

  7. Content of selected elements and low-molecular-weight organic acids in fruiting bodies of edible mushroom Boletus badius (Fr.) Fr. from unpolluted and polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Magdziak, Zuzanna; Gąsecka, Monika; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Kalač, Pavel; Siwulski, Marek; Rzymski, Piotr; Zalicka, Sylwia; Sobieralski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to (i) investigate the potential of edible mushroom Boletus badius (Fr.) Fr. to accumulate 53 elements from unpolluted acidic sandy soil and polluted alkaline flotation tailing sites in Poland, (ii) to estimate the low-molecular-weight organic acid (LMWOA) profile and contents in fruit bodies, and finally (iii) to explore the possible relationship between elements and LMWOA content in mushrooms. The content of most elements in fruiting bodies collected from the flotation tailings was significantly higher than in mushrooms from the unpolluted soils. The occurrence of elements determined in fruiting bodies of B. badius has been varied (from 0.01 mg kg(-1) for Eu, Lu, and Te up to 18,932 mg kg(-1) for K). The results established the high importance of element contents in substrate. Among ten organic acids, nine have been found in wide range: from below 0.01 mg kg(-1) for fumaric acid to 14.8 mg g(-1) for lactic acid. Lactic and succinic acids were dominant in both areas, and citric acid was also in high content in polluted area. The correlation between element contents and the individual and total content of LMWOAs was confirmed.

  8. Detoxification of Olive Mill Wastewater and Bioconversion of Olive Crop Residues into High-Value-Added Biomass by the Choice Edible Mushroom Hericium erinaceus.

    PubMed

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Larou, Evangelia; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2016-09-01

    Environmentally acceptable disposal of olive cultivation residues (e.g., olive prunings; olive pruning residues (OLPR)) and olive mill wastes is of paramount importance since they are generated in huge quantities within a short time. Moreover, olive mill wastewater (OMW) or sludge-like effluents ("alperujo"; two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW)) are highly biotoxic. Hericium erinaceus is a white-rot fungus which produces choice edible mushrooms on substrates rich in lignocellulosics, and its suitability for the treatment of olive by-products was examined for the first time. Fungal growth resulted in a notable reduction of OMW's pollution parameters (i.e., 65 % decolorization, 47 % total phenolic reduction, and 52 % phytotoxicity decrease) and correlated with laccase and manganese peroxidase activities. Solid-state fermentation of various mixtures of OLPR, TPOMW, and beech sawdust (control) by H. erinaceus qualified OLPR in subsequent cultivation experiments, where it exhibited high mushroom yields and biological efficiency (31 %). Analyses of proximate composition and bioactive compound content revealed that mushrooms deriving from OLPR substrates showed significantly higher crude fat, total glucan, β-glucan, total phenolics, and ferric-reducing antioxidant potential values than the control. H. erinaceus demonstrated the potential to detoxify OMW and bioconvert OLPR into high-quality biomass, and hence, this fungus could be successfully exploited for the treatment of such by-products.

  9. Wild Edible Mushrooms from Turkey as Possible Anticancer Agents on HepG2 Cells Together with Their Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Sadi, Gokhan; Kaya, Abdullah; Yalcin, Hicret Asli; Emsen, Bugrahan; Kocabas, Aytac; Kartal, Deniz Irtem; Altay, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to reveal cell growth inhibitory potential of six different edible mushrooms: Ramaria flava, Agrocybe molesta, Volvopluteus gloiocephalus, Lactarius deliciosus, Bovista plumbea, and Tricholoma terreum on HepG2 cells together with their antioxidant and antibacterial power. Methanolic extracts of V gloiocephalus and aqueous extracts of R. flava had the most potential cytotoxic effects over HepG2 cells. The best results for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities were obtained from both aqueous and methanolic extracts of R. flava. Methanolic extracts of T. terreum (IC50 = 1.62 mg/mL) and aqueous extracts of B. plumbea (IC50 = 0.49 mg/mL) showed maximum metal chelating activity. The highest reducing capacities were observed among the methanolic extracts of R. flava (EC50 = 1.65 mg/mL) and aqueous extracts of B. plumbea (EC50 = 1.71 mg/ mL). High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed the presence of many phenolic compounds in macrofungi; gallic acid and p-coumaric acid were the two main phenolics identified in all extracts. Antibacterial studies indicated that all six tested mushrooms showed antibacterial activity on at least three microorganisms. These results indicate that different extracts of the investigated mushrooms have considerable cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties and may be utilized as a promising source of therapeutics.

  10. Diversity of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms Used in the Noun Division of the West Region of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Njouonkou, André Ledoux; De Crop, Eske; Mbenmoun, Abdoulayi Mbouombouo; Kinge, Tonjock Rosemary; Biyé, Elvire Hortense; Verbeken, Annemieke

    2016-01-01

    This article presents discussions of mushrooms as a source of food, income, as well as medicine among the Bamoun people of the highlands of West Cameroon, where the vegetation is mainly savannah mixed with forest galleries. Like most tribes in tropical Africa, the Bamoun people use a wide range of natural products as mushrooms. This study attempts to identify the various mushrooms exploited by the Bamoun. Ethnomycological surveys and field trips were conducted over 4 years in several villages in the Noun Division. Samples of wild mushrooms were collected from both the savannah and the forest galleries. These were described, preserved, and identified. The study shows that the Bamoun people use at least 40 species of mushrooms for either food or medicine. These species belong to 8 genera: Auricularia, Cantharellus, Ganoderma, Pleurotus, Lactarius, Lactifluus, Russula, and Termitomyces. Species of genera Lactarius, Lactifluus, Russula, and Termitomyces are most often used for food, whereas Ganoderma spp. and Pleurotus tuber-regium are mainly exploited for medicinal purposes. This survey provides an overview of the diversity of mushrooms and their importance to the local people of this area. Since some of the species mentioned by the local population were not fruiting at the time of our field trips, additional investigations are needed to further clarify the diversity and the usage of mushrooms in this region.

  11. [Biotechnological cultivation of edible macrofungi: an alternative for obtaining nutraceutics].

    PubMed

    Suárez Arango, Carolina; Nieto, Ivonne Jeannette

    2013-01-03

    Macromycetes have been part of the human culture for thousand years, and have been reported as food in the most important civilizations in history. Many nutraceutical properties of macromycetes have been described, such as anti-cancer, anti-tumour, cholesterol lowering, antiviral, antibacterial, or immunomodulatory, among others. Given that production of mushrooms by traditional cultivation and extraction of bioactive metabolites is very difficult in some cases, biotechnology is essential for the development of profitable and productive techniques for obtaining these metabolites. It is the development of this technology, and the ease in which it enables the use of its variables that has allowed mycelium to be cultivated in liquid medium of macrofungi, with a significant reduction in time and an increased production of metabolites. This increased production has led to the study of compounds that have medicinal, nutriceutical and quasi-farmaceutical potential, in the exhausted media and the mycelium. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the use of liquid-state fermentation as a technological tool for obtaining edible fungi, and the study of these and their metabolites, by describing the different cultivation conditions used in recent years, as well as the results obtained. The relevance of Agaricus, Flammulina, Grifola, Pleurotus and Lentinula genera, will also be discussed, with emphasis on the last one, since Shiitake has been always considered as the ultimate medicinal mushroom. Copyright © 2011 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. The Role of Polyphenols, β-Carotene, and Lycopene in the Antioxidative Action of the Extracts of Dried, Edible Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Robaszkiewicz, A.; Bartosz, G.; Ławrynowicz, M.; Soszyński, M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the nutritional benefits of mushrooms is the presence of bioactive secondary metabolites which have been reported to exert various beneficial effects in vivo. Therefore, we selected thirteen frequently consumed species of Polish mushrooms and determined the concentration of polyphenols, flavonoids, β-carotene, and lycopene in aqueous and methanolic extracts of dried fruiting bodies as well as their reducing power and ability to scavenge ABTS cation radical. We found that the concentration of antioxidants is different in different species and in various parts of the fruiting body of mushrooms. We observed a strong correlation (r > 0.9) between the concentration of total phenolics and reducing power/scavenging effects in both aqueous and methanolic extracts, while this correlation was moderate for flavonoids. Beta-carotene did not contribute discernibly to the antioxidative properties of the extracts, while lycopene had a significant contribution to the scavenging activity of methanolic mushroom extracts. PMID:21234347

  13. Submerged fermentation of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus in a batch stirred tank bioreactor as a promising alternative for the effective production of bioactive metabolites.

    PubMed

    Papaspyridi, Lefki-Maria; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Topakas, Evangelos; Christakopoulos, Paul; Skaltsounis, Alexandros-Leandros; Fokialakis, Nikolas

    2012-03-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of the submerged fermentation procedure in the production of bioactive metabolites of the common edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. The biomass of the mushroom strain was produced by submerged fermentation in a batch stirred tank bioreactor and extracted by solvents of increasing polarity. The dichloromethane and methanol extract were fractioned by different techniques including Adsorption Chromatography and Fast Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (FCPC). The structures of pure compounds were elucidated with 1D/2D NMR-spectroscopic analyses, and chemical correlations combined with GC/MS and LC/MS experiments. Nineteen metabolites (e.g., fatty acids, phenolic metabolites, nucleotides and alkaloids) were isolated. Beyond the production of known metabolites, we report herein the production also of trans-3,4-dihydro-3,4,8-trihydroxynapthalen-1(2H)-one, indolo-3-carboxylic acid, 3-formylpyrrole and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, that have pharmaceutical interest and are isolated for the first time from Pleurotus strains. This work indicates the great potential of the established bioprocess for the production of P. ostreatus mycelia with enhanced metabolic profile.

  14. Occurrence of the (2R,3S)-Isomer of 2-Amino-3,4-dihydroxybutanoic Acid in the Mushroom Hypsizygus marmoreus.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomokazu; Yu, Zhuoer; Yoshino, Issei; Hirozawa, Yurina; Yamamoto, Kana; Shinoda, Kiyotugu; Watanabe, Akira; Hemmi, Hisashi; Asada, Yasuhiko; Yoshimura, Tohru

    2017-08-02

    Here, we report the occurrence of the (2R,3S)-isomer of 2-amino-3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (d-ADHB) in the fruiting body of an edible mushroom, Hypsizygus marmoreus. This is an unusual example of the accumulation of a d-amino acid whose enantiomer is not a proteinogenic amino acid. We show that d-ADHB occurs specifically in the mushroom H. marmoreus. Other edible mushrooms examined, including Pholiota microspora, Pleurotus eryngii, Mycena chlorophos, Sparassis crispa, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Flammulina velutipes, do not contain detectable levels of d-ADHB. The concentration of d-ADHB in the fruiting body of H. marmoreus is relatively high (approximately 1.3 mg/g of fruiting body) and is comparable to the concentration of some of the most abundant free proteinogenic amino acids. Quantitative analysis of d-ADHB during fruiting body development demonstrated that the amino acid is synthesized during the fruiting body formation period. The absence of the putative precursors of d-ADHB, the (2S,3S)-isomer of ADHB and 2-oxo-tetronate, and the enzyme activities of d-ADHB racemase (2-epimerase) and transaminase suggested that d-ADHB is synthesized by a unique mechanism in this organism. Our data also suggested that the lack of or low expression of a d-ADHB degradation enzyme is a key determinant of d-ADHB accumulation in H. marmoreus.

  15. Medicinal Mushrooms in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Sommerkamp, Yvonne; Paz, Ana Margarita; Guzmán, Gastón

    2016-01-01

    Guatemala, located in Central America, has a long and rich history in the traditional use of edible, medicinal, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. This article describes the use of these mushrooms and presents studies on the scientific validation of native and foreign species.

  16. Comparative studies on the diversity of the edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii: ITS sequence analysis, RAPD fingerprinting, and physiological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ro, Hyeon-Su; Kim, Sung Soon; Ryu, Jae San; Jeon, Che-Ok; Lee, Tae Soo; Lee, Hyun-Sook

    2007-06-01

    Verification of Pleurotus eryngii strains was assessed using ITS sequence analysis and RAPD fingerprinting. Sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 region of 24 strains of Pleurotus sp., which consisted of 22 strains of P. eryngii and the control strains P. ostreatus and P. ferulae, demonstrated that the DNA regions share mostly 99% sequence identity, indicating that sequence-based analysis is not applicable for the verification of closely related mushroom strains. To verify the mushroom strains using RAPD, we amplified DNA fragments from the total cellular DNA of 24 mushroom strains with 18 different random primers, yielding 538 distinct DNA fragments ranging from 200-4000bp. Analysis of the DNA fragment pattern showed that the 22 P. eryngii strains were clearly distinguished from the control strains P. ostreatus and P. ferulae, and could be categorized into five subgroups. Subsequent physiological studies on the development of fruiting bodies demonstrated the close correlation of the RAPD-based grouping with the phenotypical characteristics of mushroom fruiting bodies.

  17. Mushrooms and poisoning.

    PubMed

    Varma, Amit; Gaur, K J B S; Bhatia, Payal

    2011-11-01

    The mushrooms are probably one of the oldest consumption of mankind having mythological and spiritual significance apart from being a great delicacy. Its poisoning is a common yet poorly recognised. There are more than 2000 varieties which are edible, and nearly 80 varieties are non-edible (or poisonous) type. Not only they resemble some of the edible types, they even grow long with them. Most of the toxic events go unnoticed, yet, sometimes it may be life threatening as some mushrooms are one of the most toxic fungi known to manking. Awareness is pobably the only prevention.

  18. Intrastrain Comparison of the Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of an Edible Mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus, and Its Potent Neuritogenic Properties

    PubMed Central

    David, Pamela; Tan, Yee-Shin; Wong, Kah-Hui; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2014-01-01

    Two strains of Pleurotus giganteus (commercial and wild) were tested for their ability to induce neurite outgrowth in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) and mouse neuroblastoma-2a (N2a) cells. Treatment with the mushroom extracts resulted in neuronal differentiation and neuronal elongation, but not nerve growth factor (NGF) production. Linoleic acid (4.5–5.0%, w/w) which is a major fatty acid present in the ethanol extract promoted NGF biosynthesis when augmented with low concentration of NGF (5 ng/mL). The two strains of mushroom were found to be high in protein (154–192 g kg−1), total polysaccharides, phenolics, and flavonoids as well as vitamins B1, B2, and B3. The total phenolics present in the mushroom extracts were positively correlated to the antioxidant activity (free radical scavenging, ferric reducing power, and lipid peroxidation inhibition). To conclude, P. giganteus could potentially be used in well-balanced diet and as a source of dietary antioxidant to promote neuronal health. PMID:25121118

  19. Intrastrain comparison of the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of an edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus, and its potent neuritogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Phan, Chia-Wei; David, Pamela; Tan, Yee-Shin; Naidu, Murali; Wong, Kah-Hui; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2014-01-01

    Two strains of Pleurotus giganteus (commercial and wild) were tested for their ability to induce neurite outgrowth in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) and mouse neuroblastoma-2a (N2a) cells. Treatment with the mushroom extracts resulted in neuronal differentiation and neuronal elongation, but not nerve growth factor (NGF) production. Linoleic acid (4.5-5.0%, w/w) which is a major fatty acid present in the ethanol extract promoted NGF biosynthesis when augmented with low concentration of NGF (5 ng/mL). The two strains of mushroom were found to be high in protein (154-192 g kg(-1)), total polysaccharides, phenolics, and flavonoids as well as vitamins B1, B2, and B3. The total phenolics present in the mushroom extracts were positively correlated to the antioxidant activity (free radical scavenging, ferric reducing power, and lipid peroxidation inhibition). To conclude, P. giganteus could potentially be used in well-balanced diet and as a source of dietary antioxidant to promote neuronal health.

  20. Viral Effects of a dsRNA Mycovirus (PoV-ASI2792) on the Vegetative Growth of the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ha-Yeon; Choi, Hyo-Jin; Jeong, Hansaem; Choi, Dahye

    2016-01-01

    A double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus was detected in malformed fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus strain ASI2792, one of bottle cultivated commercial strains of the edible oyster mushroom. The partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene of the P. ostreatus ASI2792 mycovirus (PoV-ASI2792) was cloned, and a cDNA sequences alignment revealed that the sequence was identical to the RdRp gene of a known PoSV found in the P. ostreatus strain. To investigate the symptoms of PoV-ASI2792 infection by comparing the isogenic virus-free P. ostreatus strains with a virus-infected strain, isogenic virus-cured P. ostreatus strains were obtained by the mycelial fragmentation method for virus curing. The absence of virus was verified with gel electrophoresis after dsRNA-specific virus purification and Northern blot analysis using a partial RdRp cDNA of PoV-ASI2792. The growth rate and mycelial dry weight of virus-infected P. ostreatus strain with PoV-ASI2792 mycovirus were compared to those of three virus-free isogenic strains on 10 different media. The virus-cured strains showed distinctly higher mycelial growth rates and dry weights on all kinds of experimental culture media, with at least a 2.2-fold higher mycelial growth rate on mushroom complete media (MCM) and Hamada media, and a 2.7-fold higher mycelial dry weight on MCM and yeastmalt-glucose agar media than those of the virus-infected strain. These results suggest that the infection of PoV mycovirus has a deleterious effect on the vegetative growth of P. ostreatus. PMID:28154486

  1. Viral Effects of a dsRNA Mycovirus (PoV-ASI2792) on the Vegetative Growth of the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Song, Ha-Yeon; Choi, Hyo-Jin; Jeong, Hansaem; Choi, Dahye; Kim, Dae-Hyuk; Kim, Jung-Mi

    2016-12-01

    A double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus was detected in malformed fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus strain ASI2792, one of bottle cultivated commercial strains of the edible oyster mushroom. The partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene of the P. ostreatus ASI2792 mycovirus (PoV-ASI2792) was cloned, and a cDNA sequences alignment revealed that the sequence was identical to the RdRp gene of a known PoSV found in the P. ostreatus strain. To investigate the symptoms of PoV-ASI2792 infection by comparing the isogenic virus-free P. ostreatus strains with a virus-infected strain, isogenic virus-cured P. ostreatus strains were obtained by the mycelial fragmentation method for virus curing. The absence of virus was verified with gel electrophoresis after dsRNA-specific virus purification and Northern blot analysis using a partial RdRp cDNA of PoV-ASI2792. The growth rate and mycelial dry weight of virus-infected P. ostreatus strain with PoV-ASI2792 mycovirus were compared to those of three virus-free isogenic strains on 10 different media. The virus-cured strains showed distinctly higher mycelial growth rates and dry weights on all kinds of experimental culture media, with at least a 2.2-fold higher mycelial growth rate on mushroom complete media (MCM) and Hamada media, and a 2.7-fold higher mycelial dry weight on MCM and yeastmalt-glucose agar media than those of the virus-infected strain. These results suggest that the infection of PoV mycovirus has a deleterious effect on the vegetative growth of P. ostreatus.

  2. Rapid strain classification and taxa delimitation within the edible mushroom genus Pleurotus through the use of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zervakis, Georgios I; Bekiaris, Georgios; Tarantilis, Petros Α; Pappas, Christos S

    2012-06-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has been successfully applied for the identification of bacteria and yeasts, but only to a limited extent for discriminating specific groups of filamentous fungi. In the frame of this study, 73 strains - from different associated hosts/substrates and geographic regions - representing 16 taxa of the edible mushroom genus Pleurotus (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) were examined through the use of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. A binary matrix, elaborated on the basis of presence/absence of specific absorbance peaks combined with cluster analysis, demonstrated that the spectral region 1800-600 cm(-1) permitted clear delimitation of individual strains into Pleurotus species. In addition, closely related species (e.g., Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus pulmonarius) or taxa of the subgenus Coremiopleurotus demonstrated high similarity in their absorbance patterns, whereas genetically distinct entities such as Pleurotus dryinus, Pleurotus djamor, and Pleurotus eryngii provided spectra with noteworthy differences. When specific regions (1800-1700, 1360-1285, 1125-1068, and 950-650 cm(-1)) were evaluated in respect to the absorbance values demonstrated by individual strains, it was evidenced that this methodology could be eventually exploited for the identification of unknown Pleurotus specimens with a stepwise process and with the aid of a dichotomous key developed for this purpose. Moreover, it was shown that the nature of original fungal material examined (mycelium, basidiomata, and basidiospores) had an effect on the outcome of such analyses, and so did the use of different mycelium growth substrates. In conclusion, application of FT-IR spectroscopy provided a fast, reliable, and cost-efficient solution for the classification of pure cultures from closely related mushroom species.

  3. Evaluation of umami taste in mushroom extracts by chemical analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue system.

    PubMed

    Phat, Chanvorleak; Moon, BoKyung; Lee, Chan

    2016-02-01

    Seventeen edible mushrooms commercially available in Korea were analysed for their umami taste compounds (5'-nucleotides: AMP, GMP, IMP, UMP, XMP; free amino acids: aspartic, glutamic acid) and subjected to human sensory evaluation and electronic tongue measurements. Amanita virgineoides featured the highest total 5'-nucleotide content (36.9 ± 1.50 mg/g), while monosodium glutamate-like components (42.4 ± 6.90 mg/g) were highest in Agaricus bisporus. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) ranged from 1.51 ± 0.42 to 3890 ± 833 mg MSG/g dry weight; most mushrooms exhibited a high umami taste. Pleurotus ostreatus scored the highest in the human sensory evaluation, while Flammulina velutipes obtained the maximum score in the electronic tongue measurement. The EUC and the sensory score from the electronic tongue test were highly correlated, and also showed significant correlation with the human sensory evaluation score. These results suggest that the electronic tongue is suitable to determine the characteristic umami taste of mushrooms.

  4. Comment on "Chemical and Toxicological Investigations of a Previously Unknown Poisonous European Mushroom Tricholoma terreum".

    PubMed

    Davoli, Paolo; Floriani, Marco; Assisi, Francesca; Kob, Karl; Sitta, Nicola

    2016-04-11

    Recent findings casting doubts over the edibility of the European mushroom Tricholoma terreum are questioned on the basis of mycological and mycotoxicological considerations. Accordingly, T. terreum should remain listed among edible mushroom species.

  5. Characterization of volatile components and odor-active compounds in the oil of edible mushroom Boletopsis leucomelas.

    PubMed

    Nosaka, Sota; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    The volatile oil from Boletopsis leucomelas (Pers.) Fayod was extracted by hydrodistillation with diethylether, and the volatile components of the oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The oil contained 86 components, representing 87.5% of the total oil. The main components of the oil were linoleic acid (15.0%), phenylacetaldehyde (11.2%), and palmitic acid (9.4%). Furthermore, sulfur-containing compounds including 3-thiophenecarboxaldehyde, 2-acetylthiazole, S-methyl methanethiosulfonate, and benzothiazole were detected using gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detection. The odor components were evaluated by the odor activity value, and aroma extract dilution analysis was performed through gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis. The oil had a mushroom-like, fatty, and burnt odor. The main components contributing to the mushroom-like and fatty odor were hexanal, nonanal, 1-octen-3-ol, and (2E)-nonenal, while the burnt odor was due to furfuryl alcohol, benzaldehyde, 5-methyl furfural, 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine, 2-acethylthiazole, and indole.

  6. New sesquiterpenoids from the edible mushroom Pleurotus cystidiosus and their inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and PTP1B.

    PubMed

    Tao, Qiao-Qiao; Ma, Ke; Bao, Li; Wang, Kai; Han, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Jin-Xia; Huang, Chen-Yang; Liu, Hong-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Nine new sesquiterpenoids, clitocybulol derivatives, clitocybulols G-O (1-9) and three known sesquiterpenoids, clitocybulols C-E (10-12), were isolated from the solid culture of the edible fungus Pleurotus cystidiosus. The structures of compounds 1-12 were determined by spectroscopic methods. The absolute configurations of compounds 1-9 were assigned via the circular dichroism (CD) data analysis. Compounds 1, 6 and 10 showed moderate inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) with IC50 values of 49.5, 38.1 and 36.0μM, respectively.

  7. Primary and secondary metabolites of an European edible mushroom and its nutraceutical value: Suillus bellinii (Inzenga) Kuntze.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Alessandro; Frezza, Claudio; Sciubba, Fabio; Serafini, Mauro; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2016-12-26

    In this work, we report the study on the composition in primary and secondary metabolites of the polar and less-polar fractions obtained from the fruiting bodies of Suillus bellinii (Inzenga) Kuntze collected from Central Italy. Thirteen compounds were identified through a series of classical chromatographic methods and through spectroscopic techniques (nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS)), namely suillin (1), ergosterol (2), glutamic acid (3), isoleucine (4), leucine (5), threonine (6), tyrosine (7), valine (8), D-mannitol (9), sucrose (10), D-sorbitol (11), fumaric acid (12) and alanine (13). These results allowed us to make specific considerations about the possible applications of this mushroom, which vary from medicine, due to the high cytotoxic and antitumor properties of suillin (1), to nutritional values, due to the presence of essential nutrients as amino acids and pre-vitamin D2 (ergosterol), together with low-calories sweeteners, confirming the close association between the identified components and the health-promoting properties of this species.

  8. [Factors determining students' knowledge on wild mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Chwaluk, Paweł; Parnicki, Florian; Cisoń-Apanasewicz, Urszula; Potok, Halina; Kiełtyka, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted among students of university schools in Nowy Sacz, Biała Podlaska and Zamość to determine the guidelines of mushroom poisoning prevention. The study included 580 people. The dependence of knowledge about mushrooms from the place of origin of students, frequency of participation in mushrooming, preferred sources of information about mushrooms, major of study and self-competence in discsriminating of mushrooms was determined. Mushrooms gathered nearly 80% of respondents. Residents of large cities more often that those living in villages and small towns have difficulites in distinguishing the edible and poisonous mushrooms. People often participating in mushrooming retain proper habits during the harvesting and processing of mushrooms. Irrational ways of distinguishing edible mushrooms from poisonous are often rejected by inexperienced people than by frequently gathering mushrooms. Nearly 20% of respondents, regardless of their own experience and self-assessment of their competence in discriminating mushrooms belive that after culinary preparation can by safely consume even deadly poisonous species. The primary source of knowledge on mushrooms for the majority of responents are parents. There was no correlation between the preferred source of information about mushrooms and belief in the myths about them. Knowledge on the mushrooms of medical students (nursing, emergency medical service) is not greater than students other courses.

  9. Selenium uptake, tolerance and reduction in Flammulina velutipes supplied with selenite

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, selenium (Se) enriched mushrooms have been exploited as dietary Se supplements, but our knowledge of the metabolic process during the Se enrichment process is far from complete. In this study, the uptake, tolerance and reduction of selenite in a widely cultivated mushroom, Flammulina velutipes, was investigated. The results showed that pH variation (from 5.5–7.5), metabolic inhibitor (0.1 mM 2,4-DNP) and P or S starvation led to 11–26% decreases in the selenite uptake rate of F. velutipes. This indicates that a minor portion of the selenite uptake was metabolism dependent, whereas a carrier-facilitated passive transport may be crucial. Growth inhibition of F. velutipes initiated at 0.1 mM selenite (11% decrease in the growth rate) and complete growth inhibition occurred at 3 mM selenite. A selenite concentration of 0.03–0.1 mM was recommended to maintain the balance between mycelium production and Se enrichment. F. velutipes was capable of reducing selenite to elemental Se [Se(0)] including Se(0) nanoparticles, possibly as a detoxification mechanism. This process depended on both selenite concentration and metabolism activity. Overall, the data obtained provided some basic information for the cultivation of the selenized F. velutipes, and highlighted the opportunity of using mushrooms for the production of Se(0) nanoparticles. PMID:27547513

  10. Arsenic and its compounds in mushrooms: A review.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Rizal, Leela M

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the detail concentration of arsenic in some species of mushrooms as well as organic and inorganic forms of arsenic in the substrates where wild and cultivated edible mushrooms grow. We also briefly review the molecular forms of arsenic in mushrooms. There is still a lack of experimental data from the environment for a variety of species from different habitats and for different levels of geogenic arsenic in soil. This information will be useful for mushrooms consumers, nutritionists, and food regulatory agencies by describing ways to minimize arsenic content in edible mushrooms and arsenic intake from mushroom meals.

  11. Properties of ethanol fermentation by Flammulina velutipes.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ryoji; Ichinose, Hitomi; Maehara, Tomoko; Takabatake, Koji; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2009-10-01

    Basidiomycetes have the ability to degrade lignocellulosic biomass, and some basidiomycetes produce alcohol dehydrogenase. These characteristics may be useful in the direct production of ethanol from lignocellulose. Ethanol fermentation by basidiomycetes was investigated to examine the possibility of ethanol production by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) using Flammulina velutipes. F. velutipes converted D-glucose to ethanol with a high efficiency (a theoretical ethanol recovery rate of 88%), but ethanol production from pentose was not observed. These properties of F. velutipes are similar to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but the basidiomycete converted not only sucrose, but also maltose, cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose to ethanol, with almost the same efficiency as that for D-glucose. From these results, we concluded that F. velutipes possesses advantageous characteristics for use in CBP.

  12. Characteristics of wine produced by mushroom fermentation.

    PubMed

    Okamura, T; Ogata, T; Minamimoto, N; Takeno, T; Noda, H; Fukuda, S; Ohsugi, M

    2001-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main microorganism used in wine brewing, because this microbe has potent ability to produce alcohol dehydrogenase. We have recently discovered that some genera of mushroom produced alcohol dehydrogenase, and made wine by using a mushroom in place of S. cerevisiae. The highest alcohol concentration in this wine was achieved with Pleurotus ostreatus (2.6 M, 12.2%). In the case of Agaricus blazei, the same alcohol concentration (1.7 M, 8%) was produced under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This wine produced by A. blazei contained about 0.68% beta-D-glucan, which is known to have a preventive effects against cancer. The wine made by using Flammulina velutipes showed thrombosis-preventing activity, giving a prolonged thrombin clotting time 2.2-fold that of the control. Thus, the wine made by using mushroom seems to be a functional food which can be expected to have preventive effects against cancer and thrombosis.

  13. Assessment of the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the wild edible mushroom Agaricus lanipes (F.H. Møller & Jul. Schäff.) Hlaváček.

    PubMed

    Kaygusuz, Oğuzhan; Kaygusuz, Meruyert; Dodurga, Yavuz; Seçme, Mücahit; Herken, Emine Nur; Gezer, Kutret

    2017-02-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the wild edible mushroom Agaricus lanipes, and also to investigate its cytotoxicity and potential and possible apoptotic effect against the A549 lung cancer cell line in in vitro conditions. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, total oxidant status, total antioxidant status, lipid hydroperoxides, and total free -SH levels of A. lanipes were found to be 4.55 mg T/g, 14.6 mg GA equivalent/g, 3.10 mg H2O2 equivalent/g, 2.25 mg H2O2 equivalent/g, and 1.90 µmol/g, respectively. The methanolic extract of A. lanipes had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against seven tested microorganism strains. It also had high anti-proliferative potency and strong pro-apoptotic effects, and this mushroom used as a daily nutrient could be a source for new drug developments and treatment in cancer therapies, and could be a guide for studies in this area.

  14. Symbiosis and synergy: Can mushrooms and timber be managed together?

    Treesearch

    Sally. Duncan

    2000-01-01

    Recreational and tribal use of mushrooms has been historically important, and during the last two decades, commercial demand for mushrooms has burgeoned. A large nontimber forest product market in the Pacific Northwest is for various species of wild edible mushrooms. Many of these species grow symbiotically with forest trees by forming nutrient exchange structures...

  15. The effects of whole mushrooms during inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sanhong; Weaver, Veronika; Martin, Keith; Cantorna, Margherita T

    2009-01-01

    Background Consumption of edible mushrooms has been suggested to improve health. A number of isolated mushroom constituents have been shown to modulate immunity. Five commonly consumed edible mushrooms were tested to determine whether whole mushrooms stimulate the immune system in vitro and in vivo. Results The white button (WB) extracts readily stimulated macrophage production of TNF-α. The crimini, maitake, oyster and shiitake extracts also stimulated TNF-α production in macrophage but the levels were lower than from WB stimulation. Primary cultures of murine macrophage and ovalbumin (OVA) specific T cells showed that whole mushroom extracts alone had no effect on cytokine production but co-stimulation with either lipopolysacharide or OVA (respectively) induced TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β while decreasing IL-10. Feeding mice diets that contained 2% WB mushrooms for 4 weeks had no effect on the ex vivo immune responsiveness or associated toxicity (changes in weight or pathology of liver, kidney and gastrointestinal tract). Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) stimulation of mice that were fed 1% WB mushrooms were protected from DSS induced weight loss. In addition, 2% WB feeding protected the mice from transient DSS induced colonic injury. The TNF-α response in the colon and serum of the DSS challenged and 2% WB fed mice was higher than controls. Conclusion The data support a model whereby edible mushrooms regulate immunity in vitro. The in vivo effects of edible mushrooms required a challenge with DSS to detect small changes in TNF-α and transient protection from colonic injury. There are modest effects of in vivo consumption of edible mushrooms on induced inflammatory responses. The result is not surprising since it would certainly be harmful to strongly induce or suppress immune function following ingestion of a commonly consumed food. PMID:19232107

  16. Induction of a T-Helper 1 (Th1) immune response in mice by an extract from the Pleurotus eryngii (Eringi) mushroom.

    PubMed

    Ike, Kazunori; Kameyama, Natsuko; Ito, Akira; Imai, Soichi

    2012-12-01

    To assess the effect of edible mushroom extracts on the induction of T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity, we examined differences in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-4 production in mice induced by hot-water extracts of 15 species of edible mushroom. Extracts from Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Lentinula edodes, and Lyophyllum decastes induced both IFN-γ and IL-4 production in mice, whereas extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus only induced IL-4. In contrast, extracts from Agaricus blazei, Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta, Pholiota nameko, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Pleurotus eryngii induced only IFN-γ production. In particular, the extract from P. eryngii induced high levels of IFN-γ and reduced levels of IL-4. We further investigated the use of a trial immunogen using the P. eryngii extract as a Th1 immunostimulator. An oil-in-water emulsion of the hot-water extract from P. eryngii (immunostimulator) and ovalbumin (OVA; antigen) was used as a trial immunogen. This immunogen induced strong OVA-specific IgG2a antibody production in mice compared with the negative controls. In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 antibody levels were lower than those for the negative controls. Marked increases in serum IFN-γ levels and high-level production of IFN-γ in the culture supernatant from the CD4(+) spleen cells in the trial immunogen group mice were observed. Our results suggested that the hot-water extract from P. eryngii induced Th1 immunity by acting as an immunostimulator.

  17. Induction of a T-Helper 1 (Th1) Immune Response in Mice by an Extract from the Pleurotus eryngii (Eringi) Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Kameyama, Natsuko; Ito, Akira; Imai, Soichi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To assess the effect of edible mushroom extracts on the induction of T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity, we examined differences in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-4 production in mice induced by hot-water extracts of 15 species of edible mushroom. Extracts from Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Lentinula edodes, and Lyophyllum decastes induced both IFN-γ and IL-4 production in mice, whereas extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus only induced IL-4. In contrast, extracts from Agaricus blazei, Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta, Pholiota nameko, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Pleurotus eryngii induced only IFN-γ production. In particular, the extract from P. eryngii induced high levels of IFN-γ and reduced levels of IL-4. We further investigated the use of a trial immunogen using the P. eryngii extract as a Th1 immunostimulator. An oil-in-water emulsion of the hot-water extract from P. eryngii (immunostimulator) and ovalbumin (OVA; antigen) was used as a trial immunogen. This immunogen induced strong OVA-specific IgG2a antibody production in mice compared with the negative controls. In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 antibody levels were lower than those for the negative controls. Marked increases in serum IFN-γ levels and high-level production of IFN-γ in the culture supernatant from the CD4+ spleen cells in the trial immunogen group mice were observed. Our results suggested that the hot-water extract from P. eryngii induced Th1 immunity by acting as an immunostimulator. PMID:23134464

  18. Muscarinic toxicity among family members after consumption of mushrooms.

    PubMed

    George, Peter; Hegde, Narasimha

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are commercially cultivated over the world and safe for human consumption, except in those with known allergies. Among the thousands of mushroom species identified, few are considered to be edible. Mushroom hunting has emerged as an adventure and recreational activity in recent decades. Wild forms of mushrooms are often poisonous and visually mimic the edible ones, thus leading to mistaken harvesting, consumption, and toxicities. In literature, various systemic toxic syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning have been described. We report four members of a family with muscarinic manifestations after accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. The Clitocybe species of mushrooms they consumed resulted in their muscarinic toxicity. Patients with muscarinic mushroom toxicity have early onset of symptoms and they respond well to atropine and symptomatic supportive care.

  19. Muscarinic Toxicity Among Family Members After Consumption of Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    George, Peter; Hegde, Narasimha

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are commercially cultivated over the world and safe for human consumption, except in those with known allergies. Among the thousands of mushroom species identified, few are considered to be edible. Mushroom hunting has emerged as an adventure and recreational activity in recent decades. Wild forms of mushrooms are often poisonous and visually mimic the edible ones, thus leading to mistaken harvesting, consumption, and toxicities. In literature, various systemic toxic syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning have been described. We report four members of a family with muscarinic manifestations after accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. The Clitocybe species of mushrooms they consumed resulted in their muscarinic toxicity. Patients with muscarinic mushroom toxicity have early onset of symptoms and they respond well to atropine and symptomatic supportive care. PMID:23833447

  20. The mushroom message.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M

    1992-04-28

    A basic law of ecology is that living things are tightly dependent on one another, often in ways that are not easy to imagine. Who, for example, would have predicted that when the last dodo was killed in 1675, that death would lead to the slow extermination of the tambalocoque tree, whose fruits germinate only after passing through the dodo's digestive system? Now no natural strands of tambalocoque younger than 300 years can be found. Or who would have predicted that clear-cutting tropical rainforests would so significantly alter local weather patterns that the tropical rainforest biome itself and its vast diversity of life might not survive? Such interactions are worth noting because of the possible ramifications of a phenomenon that ecologists have just begun to document. Mushrooms worldwide appear to be in a catastrophic state of decline. Throughout Europe, in countries with terrains as diverse as Holland, Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland and England, wild mushrooms are becoming increasingly difficult to find. Those fungi that are found are significantly smaller than those found years ago. Preliminary data suggest that the same troubling situation is occurring throughout North American as well. The decline has been so precipitous that biologists have begun to refer to it as a mass extinction. The 2 obvious explanations for the demise of the mushrooms--habitat destruction and overpicking of edible types by an ever growing human population--have been ruled out. Sophisticated sampling schemes designed by ecologists control for the fact that there is less land available for wild mushrooms; they have been declining at a rate that far exceeds the rate at which land is being developed. The fact that the decline has affected both edible and inedible mushrooms equally indicates that humans hunting for tasty treats are not the main cause of the problem. The loss of wild mushrooms worldwide might not seem like that big a deal, but the consequences may well be grave

  1. A Jacalin-Related Lectin Regulated the Formation of Aerial Mycelium and Fruiting Body in Flammulina velutipes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yuan-Ping; Chen, Ren-Liang; Long, Ying; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Yu-Ji; Xie, Bao-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Flammulina velutipes, one of the most popular mushroom species in the world, has been recognized as a useful model system to study the biochemical and physiological aspects of the formation and elongation of fruit body. However, few reports have been published on the regulation of fruiting body formation in F. velutipes at the molecular level. In this study, a jacalin-related lectin gene from F. velutipes was characterized. The phylogenetic tree revealed that Fv-JRL1 clustered with other basidiomycete jacalin-like lectins. Moreover, the transcriptional pattern of the Fv-JRL1 gene in different developmental stages of F. velutipes implied that Fv-JRL1 could be important for formation of fruit body. Additionally, RNA interference (RNAi) and overexpression analyses provided powerful evidence that the lectin gene Fv-JRL1 from F. velutipes plays important roles in fruiting body formation. PMID:27916794

  2. A Jacalin-Related Lectin Regulated the Formation of Aerial Mycelium and Fruiting Body in Flammulina velutipes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan-Ping; Chen, Ren-Liang; Long, Ying; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Yu-Ji; Xie, Bao-Gui

    2016-11-28

    Flammulina velutipes, one of the most popular mushroom species in the world, has been recognized as a useful model system to study the biochemical and physiological aspects of the formation and elongation of fruit body. However, few reports have been published on the regulation of fruiting body formation in F. velutipes at the molecular level. In this study, a jacalin-related lectin gene from F. velutipes was characterized. The phylogenetic tree revealed that Fv-JRL1 clustered with other basidiomycete jacalin-like lectins. Moreover, the transcriptional pattern of the Fv-JRL1 gene in different developmental stages of F. velutipes implied that Fv-JRL1 could be important for formation of fruit body. Additionally, RNA interference (RNAi) and overexpression analyses provided powerful evidence that the lectin gene Fv-JRL1 from F. velutipes plays important roles in fruiting body formation.

  3. Furlough Mushrooms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The manuscript provides a protocol for preserving two species of mushroom (Agaricus campestris or meadow mushroom, and A. arvensis or horse mushroom) in strong wine. Mushrooms are kept at a low boil for 10 minutes, placed in clean canning jars, and covered with wine (12% ethanol) or fortified wine (...

  4. Radioactive artificial (137)Cs and natural (40)K activity in 21 edible mushrooms of the genus Boletus species from SW China.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zhang, Ji; Zalewska, Tamara

    2017-03-01

    This study, for the first time, presents the results of activity concentration determinations for (137)Cs and (40)K in a high number (21 species, 87 composite samples, and 807 fruiting bodies) of mushrooms of the genus Boletus from across Yunnan in 2011-2014 and Sichuan (Boletus tomentipes) using high-resolution high-purity germanium detector. Activity concentrations of (137)Cs demonstrated some variability and range from <4.4 to 83 ± 3 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in caps and from <3.8 to 37 ± 3 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in stipes, and of (40)K, respectively, from 420 ± 41 to 1300 ± 110 and from 520 ± 61 to 1300 ± 140 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. No significant variations were observed regarding (137)Cs and (40)K activity concentrations among the same Boletus species from different sampling sites. No activity concentrations from (134)Cs were detected in any mushrooms. Internal dose rates estimated were from intake of 1 kg of mushrooms per annum for (137)Cs range for species and regions from around <0.0031 to 0.047 ± 0.003 μSv, while those for (40)K were from around 0.22 ± 0.04 to 1.2 ± 0.1 μSv. The overall intake of (137)Cs was low since low contamination was found in Boletus species.

  5. A new colorimetric method to quantify β-1,3-1,6-glucans in comparison with total β-1,3-glucans in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Nitschke, Jörg; Modick, Hendrik; Busch, Ekkehard; von Rekowski, Reimund Wantoch; Altenbach, Hans-Josef; Mölleken, Helga

    2011-07-15

    Mushroom β-glucans are known for their activity as biological response modifiers and anticarcinogenic agents. β-1,3-1,6 Branched glucans with a triple helix tertiary structure are recognised as the most potent ones. In the present work, a colorimetric method for β-1,3-1,6-glucan quantification based on the dye Congo red is introduced. This method is specific for β-glucans with a triple helix. The β-1,3-1,6-glucan content of mycelia and fruiting bodies from various mushrooms was determined and compared with the total β-1,3-glucan content, measured by a fluorimetric method. The results show equal amounts of β-1,3-1,6- and total β-1,3-glucans in the analysed species but obvious differences between mycelia and fruiting bodies. On the average, 3% of mycelia and 8% of fruiting body dry mass consist of β-1,3-1,6-glucans. The average percentage of β-1,3-1,6-glucans in the total β-1,3-glucan content differs between mycelia (46%) and fruiting bodies (87%). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Wild mushroom poisoning in north India: case series with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Verma, Nipun; Bhalla, Ashish; Kumar, Susheel; Dhiman, Radha K; Chawla, Yogesh K

    2014-12-01

    Mushroom is an important constituent of diet in many ethnic tribes in India. Ethnic Indian tribes are known to consume nearly 283 species of wild mushrooms out of 2000 species recorded world over. Although they are experts in distinguishing the poisonous from edible mushrooms, yet occasional cases of toxicity are reported due to accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. We report amanita like toxicity in a family after consumption of wild mushrooms resulting in fatal outcome.

  7. Wild Mushroom Poisoning in North India: Case Series with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Nipun; Bhalla, Ashish; Kumar, Susheel; Dhiman, Radha K.; Chawla, Yogesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom is an important constituent of diet in many ethnic tribes in India. Ethnic Indian tribes are known to consume nearly 283 species of wild mushrooms out of 2000 species recorded world over. Although they are experts in distinguishing the poisonous from edible mushrooms, yet occasional cases of toxicity are reported due to accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. We report amanita like toxicity in a family after consumption of wild mushrooms resulting in fatal outcome. PMID:25755582

  8. Pb tolerance and bioaccumulation by the mycelia of Flammulina velutipes in artificial enrichment medium.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Changwei; Li, Zhengpeng; Li, Decai; Xin, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms have the ability to accumulate high concentrations of heavy metals, which gives them potential for use as bioremediators of environmental contamination. The Pb(2+) tolerance and accumulation ability of living mycelia of Flammulina velutipes were studied in this work. Mycelial growth was inhibited when exposed to 1 mM Pb(2+). The colony diameter on solid medium decreased almost 10% compared with the control. Growth decreased almost 50% when the Pb(2+) concentration increased to 4 mM in the medium, with the colony diameter decreasing from 80 mm to 43.4 mm, and dry biomass production in liquid cultures decreasing from 9.23±0.55 to 4.27±0.28 g/L. Lead ions were efficiently accumulated in the mycelia. The amount of Pb(2+) in the mycelia increased with increasing Pb(2+) concentration in the medium, with the maximum concentration up to 707±91.4 mg/kg dry weight. We also show evidence that a large amount of the Pb(2+) was adsorbed to the mycelial surface, which may indicate that an exclusion mechanism is involved in Pb tolerance. These results demonstrate that F. velutipes could be useful as a remediator of heavy metal contamination because of the characteristics of high tolerance to Pb(2+) and efficient accumulation of Pb(2+) ions by the mycelia.

  9. An aqueous polysaccharide extract from the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus induces anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lavi, Iris; Friesem, Dana; Geresh, Shimona; Hadar, Yitzhak; Schwartz, Betty

    2006-11-28

    Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of fractions of Pleurotus ostreatus were examined using HT-29 colon cancer cells in vitro. A hot-water-soluble fraction of the mycelium of the liquid cultured mushroom was partially isolated and chemically characterized as a low-molecular-weight alpha-glucan. HT-29 cells were exposed to the different isolates and significant inhibition of proliferation was obtained in a dose-dependent manner. Proliferation inhibition was shown to be the result of apoptotic induction because the pro-apoptotic molecules Bax and cytosolic cytochrome-c were upregulated. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analyses of polysaccharide-treated HT-29 cells showed a high percentage of Annexin-positive cells. Here, we describe a newly identified low-molecular-weight alpha-glucan with promising anti-tumorigenic properties, and demonstrate its direct effect on colon cancer cell proliferation via induction of programmed cell death.

  10. Toxic mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Tegzes, John H; Puschner, Birgit

    2002-03-01

    Poisonous mushrooms contain toxins that are as diverse as the mushrooms themselves. Clinical syndromes often involve multiple organ systems, and progression of clinical signs is often directly related to the quantity eaten. Diagnostic detection of the toxins is rarely an option; rather, diagnosis is based on a history of possible exposure and identification of mushroom species in the stomach contents and environment. Treatments are usually based on clinical signs, as most mushroom toxins are without an antidote. There are exceptions, however, and prompt identification of mushroom species involved is vital whenever possible. Collection of the toxicologic minimum database and gastrointestinal decontamination are important in all cases where mushroom ingestion is suspected.

  11. Concentrations of mercury, cadmium, lead and copper in fruiting bodies of edible mushrooms in an emission area of a copper smelter and a mercury smelter.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, L; Zimmermannová, K; Kalac, P

    2000-01-31

    Four metals were determined by AAS techniques in 56 samples of 23 wild mushroom species collected in a heavily polluted area in eastern Slovakia in 1997 and 1998. The area has been contaminated from historical polymetallic ores mining and smelting and by emissions from a mercury smelter between 1969 and 1993 and from a copper smelter since 1951. No significant differences in metal concentrations (P < 0.05) were found in four species when comparing the periods 1992-1993 and 1997-1998. Considerable contamination of most species was observed mainly for mercury and cadmium. The highest levels of mercury, up to 50 mg kg-1 dry matter, were found in Boletus reticulatus, Lycoperdon perlatum and Marasmius oreades, and of cadmium up to 20 mg kg-1 dry matter in Xerocomus chrysenteron and Lycoperdon perlatum. The latter species also had extremely high lead and copper concentrations in hundreds of milligrams per kilogram dry matter. Concentrations of mercury and copper in caps of four Boletaceae species were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those in stipes.

  12. In vitro antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activity studies on three Agaricus species with fatty acid compositions and iron contents: a comparative study on the three most edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Mehmet; Duru, Mehmet Emin; Kivrak, Seyda; Mercan-Doğan, Nazime; Türkoglu, Aziz; Özler, Mehmet Ali

    2011-06-01

    The fatty acids of Agaricus essettei, Agaricus bitorquis and Agaricus bisporus were investigated by using GC and GC-MS. The dominant fatty acids were found to be linoleic (61.82-67.29%) and palmitic (12.67-14.71%) acids among the 13 fatty acids detected in the oils. Total unsaturation for the oils was calculated as 77.50%, 77.44%, and 79.72%, respectively. In vitro antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities were also studied. The ethyl acetate extract of Agaricus bitorquis showed the highest activity in β-carotene-linoleic acid, DPPH(·) and ABTS(·)(+) assays, while the hexane extract of Agaricus bisporus exhibited the best metal chelating activity. The ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Agaricus bitorquis and the hexane extract of Agaricus essettei showed meaningful butyrylcholinesterase activity being close to that of galantamine. The extracts were found to be effective on Gram (+) bacteria, especially against Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus flavus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. In conclusion, Agaricus bitorquis and Agaricus essettei demonstrated higher iron content, and better antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities than those of Agaricus bisporus commonly consumed mushroom. Hence, Agaricus species, particularly Agaricus bitorquis might be useful as antioxidant agents and moderate anticholinesterase agents, and their extracts will probably be used for development of dietary foods, food products and additives.

  13. Polysaccharides from the edible mushroom Calocybe gambosa: structure and chain conformation of a (1→4),(1→6)-linked glucan.

    PubMed

    Villares, Ana

    2013-06-28

    Three polysaccharides were isolated from the fruiting bodies of the mushroom Calocybe gambosa by cold water (PS-Cg fC), hot water (PS-Cg fH), and hot aqueous NaOH (PS-Cg fB) extractions. The size exclusion chromatograms presented in all cases a single peak showing a molecular weight of 145kDa. On the basis of acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, and NMR analysis, the structure of the three polysaccharides appeared to be equivalent. The three carbohydrates were composed of glucose and the methylation analysis showed that the units were (1→4),(1→6)-linked with a degree of branching (DB) of 4%. NMR experiments showed that the three fractions contained the same polysaccharide. (1)H NMR spectroscopy revealed that the linkages were β-type in all cases. The complexation with Congo red demonstrated that the polysaccharides displayed a triple-strand helical conformation. The polysaccharides were composed of a repeating unit with a structure as below: [structure: see text]. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuronal health - can culinary and medicinal mushrooms help?

    PubMed

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets.

  15. Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?

    PubMed Central

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets. PMID:24716157

  16. Antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of a polysaccharide from Flammulina velutipes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming; Luo, Xia; Xu, Xiaoyan; Wei, Wei; Yu, Mengyao; Jiang, Nan; Ye, Liming; Yang, Zhirong; Fei, Xiaofan

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of a unique polysaccharide from the medicinal fungus Flammulina velutipes in vitro. Using water extraction and alcohol precipitation, crude polysaccharides were obtained. After purification by DEAE-cellulose 52 ion exchange chromatography and Sephacryl S-300 HR gel filtration chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography equipped with evaporative light-scattering detector, Infrared radiation and Nuclear magnetic resonance were used to evaluate the structure of the polysaccharide. Its immunomodulatory activity was measured by examining the production of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine secretion, and via lymphocyte proliferation experiments. Its effects on the scavenging activities of hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion and reducing power were also measured. A water-soluble polysaccharide, Flammulina velutipes polysaccharide I-A (FVP I-A), was obtained with a molecular mass of 8.14 x 10(4) Da determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography. An in vitro antioxidant assay indicated that FVP I-A could scavenge hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion and possessed reducing power and could largely promote NO production and augment the interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α secretion by RAW264.7 macrophages (P < 0.05). Moreover, FVP I-A could promote lymphocyte proliferation (P < 0.05), and synergistically enhance the augmentation of the proliferation of mouse lymphocytes by concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharides (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). The FVP I-A obtained from Flammulina velutipes possessed antioxidant activity and could enhance non-specific and specific immune responses in vitro.

  17. Explaining Dioscorides' "double difference": why are some mushrooms poisonous, and do they signal their unprofitability?

    PubMed

    Sherratt, Thomas N; Wilkinson, David M; Bain, Roderick S

    2005-12-01

    The adaptive significance of toxins in mushrooms has received very little consideration, although it is clear that poisons have appeared (and/or disappeared) many times in mushrooms' evolutionary history. One possibility is that poisons have evolved in some mushroom species to deter their consumption by would-be fungivores before spore dispersal. If this is so, then one might expect poisonous mushrooms to signal their unprofitability in some way. In this study, we have conducted the first formal analysis of the ecological and morphological traits associated with edible and poisonous mushrooms in North America and Europe. Poisonous mushrooms do not tend to be more colorful or aggregated than edible mushrooms, but they are more likely to exhibit distinctive odors even when phylogenetic relationships are accounted for. This raises the intriguing possibility that some poisonous species of mushrooms have evolved warning odors (and perhaps tastes) to enhance avoidance learning by fungivores.

  18. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activities of 18 different wild Cantharellus mushrooms of northwestern Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Kumari, D; Reddy, M S; Upadhyay, R C

    2011-12-01

    A total of 18 wild edible mushrooms of Cantharellus species were collected from northwestern Himalayan region of India. The basic composition (moisture, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, crude fat, ash, nitrogen and protein) and amino acid contents (by high-performance liquid chromatography) of these wild edible mushrooms were determined. The macronutrient profile in general revealed that the wild mushrooms were rich sources of protein and carbohydrates, and had low amounts of fat. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity from water and methanolic extracts of these mushrooms were also determined. These wild mushrooms also had significant amount of phenol content and antioxidant capacity. Studies also provide the precise antioxidant status of 18 indigenous species of mushrooms, which can serve as a useful database for the selection of mushrooms for the function of preparation of mushroom-based nutraceutics.

  19. [Mercury content of mushrooms (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Seeger, R

    1976-01-01

    The mercury content of 236 species of wild mushrooms was determined by flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy. Of each species several samples--altogether 616--were tested. The mercury content was between 0.04 and 21.60 mg/kg dry weight, equivalent to 0.002 and 3.090 mg/kg fresh weight. The mercury content was clearly species-dependent. Mercury-rich species particularly were found in Tricholomataceae, Agaricaceae and Lycoperdaceae, whereas in Boletaceae, Amanitaceae and Russulaceae mercury-rich species were rather rare. There was a considerable variability within species, too; hence, other factors, yet unknown, must also determine the mercury content. Geographical influences were not demonstrable. All mushrooms grown on wood had a very low mercury content. Storing over several years did not diminish the mercury content of dried mushrooms. The highest mercury content was found in a poisonous mushroom, but on the average, poisonous mushrooms contained less mercury than edible ones.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the Basidiomycetous Fungus Flammulina velutipes TR19

    PubMed Central

    Kurata, Atsushi; Fukuta, Yasuhisa; Mori, Miho; Kishimoto, Noriaki

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Flammulina velutipes TR19, which was newly isolated from commercial strains in Japan. The genes related to fruiting body formation in the basidiomycete were identified by whole-genome analysis. PMID:27284132

  1. [Hallucinogenic mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Reingardiene, Dagmara; Vilcinskaite, Jolita; Lazauskas, Robertas

    2005-01-01

    The group of hallucinogenic mushrooms (species of the genera Conocybe, Gymnopilus, Panaeolus, Pluteus, Psilocybe, and Stropharia) is psilocybin-containing mushrooms. These "magic", psychoactive fungi have the serotonergic hallucinogen psilocybin. Toxicity of these mushrooms is substantial because of the popularity of hallucinogens. Psilocybin and its active metabolite psilocin are similar to lysergic acid diethylamide. These hallucinogens affect the central nervous system rapidly (within 0.5-1 hour after ingestion), producing ataxia, hyperkinesis, and hallucinations. In this review article there are discussed about history of use of hallucinogenic mushrooms and epidemiology; pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, somatic effects and pharmacokinetics of psilocybin, the clinical effects of psilocybin and psilocin, signs and symptoms of ingestion of hallucinogenic mushrooms, treatment and prognosis.

  2. Edible Electrochemistry: Food Materials Based Electrochemical Sensors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jayoung; Jeerapan, Itthipon; Ciui, Bianca; Hartel, Martin C; Martin, Aida; Wang, Joseph

    2017-08-07

    This study demonstrates the first example of completely food-based edible electrochemical sensors. The new edible composite electrodes consist of food materials and supplements serving as the edible conductor, corn, and olive oils as edible binders, vegetables as biocatalysts, and food-based packing sleeves. These edible composite electrodes are systematically characterized for their attractive electrochemical properties, such as potential window, capacitance, redox activity using various electrochemical techniques. The sensing performance of the edible carbon composite electrodes compares favorably with that of "traditional" carbon paste electrodes. Well defined voltammetric detection of catechol, uric acid, ascorbic acid, dopamine, and acetaminophen is demonstrated, including sensitive measurements in simulated saliva, gastric fluid, and intestinal fluid. Furthermore, successful biosensing applications are realized by incorporating a mushroom and horseradish vegetable tissues with edible carbon pastes for imparting biocatalytic activity toward the biosensing of phenolic and peroxide compounds. The attractive sensing performance of the new edible sensors indicates considerable promise for physiological monitoring applications and for developing edible and ingestible devices for diverse biomedical applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Vitamin D4 in Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Katherine M.; Horst, Ronald L.; Koszewski, Nicholas J.; Simon, Ryan R.

    2012-01-01

    An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D2 as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D4 (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D4 was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [3H] itamin D3 as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D4 was present (>0.1 µg/100 g) in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2–7.0 and 22.5–35.4 µg/100 g, respectively). Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D4 in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D4 content was more than twice that of D2 (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g). Vitamin D4 exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D4, but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D4 precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49–16.5 mg/100 g). Vitamin D4 should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D4 coeluted with D3 in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D2 and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D2 in mushrooms and using D3 as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D3 and D4. PMID:22870201

  4. Vitamin D4 in mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Katherine M; Horst, Ronald L; Koszewski, Nicholas J; Simon, Ryan R

    2012-01-01

    An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D(2) as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D(4) (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D(4) was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [(3)H] itamin D(3) as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D(4) was present (>0.1 µg/100 g) in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2-7.0 and 22.5-35.4 µg/100 g, respectively). Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D(4) in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D(4) content was more than twice that of D(2) (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D(4), but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D(4) precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49-16.5 mg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D(4) coeluted with D(3) in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D(2) and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D(2) in mushrooms and using D(3) as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D(3) and D(4).

  5. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Karahan, Samet; Erden, Abdulsamet; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Ortakoyluoglu, Adile Irfan; Karagoz, Hatice; Bulut, Kadir; Basak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactarius volemus, an edible type of mushroom. The patients reported that they had been collecting this mushroom from the mountains and eating them for several years but had never developed any clinicopathology to date. Further examination of the patients revealed a very rare case of acute pancreatitis due to mushroom intoxication. The male patient was admitted to the intensive care unit while his wife was followed in the internal medicine service, because of her relative mild clinical symptoms. Both patients recovered without sequelae and were discharged. In this article, we aimed to emphasize that gastrointestinal symptoms are often observed in mushroom intoxications and can be confused with acute pancreatitis, thus leading to misdiagnosis of patients. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve patients’ prognosis and prevent the development of complications. PMID:26835473

  6. Macro and trace mineral constituents and radionuclides in mushrooms: health benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Borovička, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews and updates data on macro and trace elements and radionuclides in edible wild-grown and cultivated mushrooms. A huge biodiversity of mushrooms and spread of certain species over different continents makes the study on their multi-element constituents highly challenging. A few edible mushrooms are widely cultivated and efforts are on to employ them (largely Agaricus spp., Pleurotus spp., and Lentinula edodes) in the production of selenium-enriched food (mushrooms) or nutraceuticals (by using mycelia) and less on species used by traditional medicine, e.g., Ganoderma lucidum. There are also attempts to enrich mushrooms with other elements than Se and a good example is enrichment with lithium. Since minerals of nutritional value are common constituents of mushrooms collected from natural habitats, the problem is however their co-occurrence with some hazardous elements including Cd, Pb, Hg, Ag, As, and radionuclides. Discussed is also the problem of erroneous data on mineral compounds determined in mushrooms.

  7. Antioxidative activities of hydrophilic extracts prepared from the fruiting body and spent culture medium of Flammulina velutipes.

    PubMed

    Bao, Huynh N D; Ochiai, Yoshihiro; Ohshima, Toshiaki

    2010-08-01

    Antioxidative properties of hydrophilic extracts prepared from the fruiting body and spent culture medium of Flammulina velutipes were evaluated by monitoring the total reducing power ability (RPA) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity (RSA), together with antioxidative activities against lipid oxidation in homogenates of yellowtail dark muscle and autoxidation of oxymyoglobin (oxyMb) purified from yellowtail dark muscle. Generally, all of the extracts had RPA, RSA and antioxidative activities against lipid oxidation and oxyMb autoxidation. Extracts prepared from the fruiting body of F. velutipes with a higher ergothioneine (ESH) content exhibited a stronger delay of the autoxidation activity of oxyMb, whereas extracts prepared from the spent culture medium of F. velutipes with higher phenolics content showed more efficient antioxidant capacity against lipid oxidation. On the other hand, the amount of ESH was distributed highest in the inedible (base and mycelium) parts of the mushroom. These results suggest that the inedible parts and spent culture medium of F. velutipes could potentially be considered as a potent and readily available source of natural antioxidants. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical analysis of new water-soluble (1→6)-, (1→4)-α, β-glucan and water-insoluble (1→3)-, (1→4)-β-glucan (Calocyban) from alkaline extract of an edible mushroom, Calocybe indica (Dudh Chattu).

    PubMed

    Mandal, Soumitra; Maity, Kankan K; Bhunia, Sanjoy K; Dey, Biswajit; Patra, Sukesh; Sikdar, Samir R; Islam, Syed S

    2010-12-10

    Two different glucans (PS-I, water-soluble; and PS-II, water-insoluble) were isolated from the alkaline extract of fruit bodies of an edible mushroom Calocybe indica. On the basis of acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, and NMR analysis ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT-135, TOCSY, DQF-COSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC), the structure of the repeating unit of these polysaccharides were established as: PS-I: →6)-β-D-Glcp-(1→6)-β-D-glcp-(1→6)-)-β-D-Glcp-(1→ α-D=Glcp (Water-soluble glucan). PS-II: →3)-β-D-Glcp-(1→3)-β-D-glcp-(1→3)-)-β-D-Glcp-(1→3)-β-D-Glcp-(1→ β-D-Glcp (Water-insoluble glucan, Calocyban).

  9. Hallucinogenic mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; Smith, D E

    1988-02-01

    Ingestion of mushrooms containing psilocybin produces hallucinogenic effects and has become a popular form of substance abuse among some adolescents and young adults. We have reviewed the medical literature on psilocybin mushrooms and describe current patterns of use, provide background material on the botony and pharmacology of these crude drugs, and report results of a small study on usage patterns among identified adolescent drug abusers. Among 174 adolescents already identified as substance abusers, 45 (26%) reported having used hallucinogenic mushrooms, frequently in conjunction with alcohol or other drugs. An average intake of 2-4 mushrooms was obtained for about +8, and led to intoxication for 5-6 hours. Mixing of intoxicants such as alcohol, marijuana, and psilocybin mushrooms was the rule. The acute adverse reactions may have been the result of drug synergy. Pediatricians should become aware of the specific patterns of the use of hallucinogenic drugs by adolescents and consider the possibility of such use when evaluating a delirious or psychotic adolescent.

  10. Equilibrium and kinetic studies on biosorption of Pb(II) by common edible macrofungi: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuan; Hao, Ruixia; Yang, Shiqin

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we studied the natural bioaccumulation and biosorption of Pb(II) in several common edible macrofungi. The macrofungi include the following species: Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus eryngii, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizygus marmoreus, and Agrocybe cylindracea. The present analysis of Pb(II) revealed distinct capabilities of metal accumulation among individual species. Moreover, the natural concentrations of lead did not reach a health risk level when cultivated in uncontaminated soil. In the biosorption experiment by edible macrofungi, we found that the equilibrium data of living sporocarp (P. eryngii and H. marmoreus) and the homogenate of L. edodes and F. velutipes fit the Freundlich model well. Other data samples exhibited a better fit to the Langmuir model. The edible macrofungi showed a higher lead removal capacity than did other biosorbents. Furthermore, the pseudo-second-order kinetics model exhibited the best fit to the biosorption processes. The effectiveness of edible macrofungi as biosorbents for Pb(II) was confirmed.

  11. New Strategies Toward Edible Vaccines: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Aryamvally, Anjali; Gunasekaran, Vignesh; Narenthiran, Keerthana Ragavi; Pasupathi, Rathinasabapathi

    2016-04-11

    With the ever growing population, advancements in edible vaccines and related technologies have seen a rise in popularity. Antigenic peptides incorporated into an edible part of a plant can be administered raw as a vaccine. While conventional vaccines have improved the quality of life by drastically reducing the onset of diseases, edible vaccines are able to perform the same with greater accessibility and at an affordable price. Low cost of production, ease of storage, transportation and administration are some of the many reasons behind the push for the development of edible vaccines. This article aims at giving an overview of the different plant systems used to produce vaccines in various experiments, as well as the merits and demerits of using that particular expression system. Further, the article elaborates on the problems faced in the production of edible vaccines and the measures adopted to surpass them. The major obstacle in the process is attaining a sufficiently large concentration of foreign antigen in the plant system. The article discusses various plant expression systems like banana, rice, alfalfa, mushroom, potato, tomato, pea, tobacco, and maize. When these were reviewed, it was found that the inability to produce the desired antigen concentration was one of the primary reasons why edible vaccines sometimes fail to generate the desired level of immune response in the recipient. We conclude with a promising solution to the problem by incorporating nano-technological advancements to the already existing protocols for edible vaccine development.

  12. Mushroom polysaccharides: chemistry and antiobesity, antidiabetes, anticancer, and antibiotic properties in cells, rodents, and humans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mushrooms are widely consumed for their nutritional and health benefits. More than 2,000 species of edible and/or medicinal mushrooms have been identified to date, stimulating much research on their health-promoting properties. These properties are associated with bioactive compounds produced by the...

  13. [Studies on chemical constituents in the mycelia from fermented culture of Flammulina velutipes].

    PubMed

    Kang, Jie; Chen, Ruo-yun

    2005-02-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the mycelia of Flammulina velutipes. The compounds were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical evidences and spectral analysis (IR, EI-MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR). Five compounds were identified as 5alpha,8alpha-epidioxy-(22E,24R)-ergost-6,22-dien-3beta-ol (1), ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (2), sterpuric acid (3), mannitol (4), ribitol (5). The compounds (2)-(5) were isolated for the first time from the mycelia of Flammulina velutipes.

  14. Separation and speciation analysis of zinc from Flammulina velutipes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Pei, Fei; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Gao, Le; Chen, Guitang; Zhao, Liyan

    2015-12-01

    Orthogonal experiment was applied to optimize the water extraction parameters of zinc from Flammulina velutipes, and then the extracts were separated by membrane filter (0.45 μm) and D101 macroporous resin. Six different species of Zn were obtained and the Zn content of various species were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimized conditions for the extraction of Zn were: ratio of dried material to water, 1:30; extraction temperature, 75°C; extraction time, 120 minutes. About 34.43 μg Zn was extracted from 1 g dried F. velutipes powder under the optimal conditions. The recovery value for Zn was 96.5% with a low relative standard deviation. In addition, the content of the organic state of Zn was more than that of the inorganic state, and most of the organic state Zn was found in the polysaccharide and protein fractions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Laccase production and metabolic diversity among Flammulina velutipes strains.

    PubMed

    Janusz, Grzegorz; Czuryło, Aleksandra; Frąc, Magdalena; Rola, Beata; Sulej, Justyna; Pawlik, Anna; Siwulski, Marek; Rogalski, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Twelve Flammulina velutipes strains originating from Poland were identified using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequencing. Based on the sequences obtained, the genomic relationship of the analyzed strains was determined. All F. velutipes strains were also characterized using Biolog FF MicroPlates to obtain data on C-substrate utilization and mitochondrial activity. The ability to decompose various substrates differed among the F. velutipes strains up to five times. The highest catabolic activities were characteristic for only two strains with capabilities to decompose up to 22 carbon sources. The correlation between carbon repression and laccase production by F. velutipes was analyzed based on glucose assimilation by these strains. Moreover, the influence of metal ions (Cu(2+), Cd(2+)), veratric and ferulic acids, and temperature on laccase activities in the analyzed strains was determined. The results obtained proved that all the inducers influenced laccase expression in almost all the analyzed strains. However, the degree of induction depended not only on the strain used but also on the day of the induction.

  16. Edible vaccines.

    PubMed

    Meloen, R H; Hamilton, W D; Casal, J I; Dalsgaard, K; Langeveld, J P

    1998-01-01

    The ultimate vaccine is an oral vaccine which given once protects against a multitude of diseases. Furthermore this ultimate vaccine needs to be very stable and inexpensive to produce. Probably this latter condition can be met only if the vaccines are produced in plants. Such vaccines are called 'edible vaccines'. Edible vaccines can be produced in plants in many ways. Using recombinant plantvirus, CPMV, it was shown that plants can produce massive amounts of chimaeric virus particles which protect after a single injection the target animal against disease. The final step, oral administration, is being addressed at present. Preliminary experiments by others suggest that this step may be solved sooner than expected.

  17. Carnivorous mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Thorn, R G; Barron, G L

    1984-04-06

    Ten species of gilled fungi, including the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), have been shown to attack and consume nematodes. It is suggested that these wood-decay fungi utilize the nutrients in their prey to supplement the low levels of nitrogen available in wood. This mode of nutrition is similar in principle to that of carnivorous higher plants.

  18. Recent developments in mushrooms as anti-cancer therapeutics: a review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seema; Goyal, Arun

    2012-03-01

    From time immemorial, mushrooms have been valued by humankind as a culinary wonder and folk medicine in Oriental practice. The last decade has witnessed the overwhelming interest of western research fraternity in pharmaceutical potential of mushrooms. The chief medicinal uses of mushrooms discovered so far are as anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, hypocholesterolemic, anti-tumor, anti-cancer, immunomodulatory, anti-allergic, nephroprotective, and anti-microbial agents. The mushrooms credited with success against cancer belong to the genus Phellinus, Pleurotus, Agaricus, Ganoderma, Clitocybe, Antrodia, Trametes, Cordyceps, Xerocomus, Calvatia, Schizophyllum, Flammulina, Suillus, Inonotus, Inocybe, Funlia, Lactarius, Albatrellus, Russula, and Fomes. The anti-cancer compounds play crucial role as reactive oxygen species inducer, mitotic kinase inhibitor, anti-mitotic, angiogenesis inhibitor, topoisomerase inhibitor, leading to apoptosis, and eventually checking cancer proliferation. The present review updates the recent findings on the pharmacologically active compounds, their anti-tumor potential, and underlying mechanism of biological action in order to raise awareness for further investigations to develop cancer therapeutics from mushrooms. The mounting evidences from various research groups across the globe, regarding anti-tumor application of mushroom extracts unarguably make it a fast-track research area worth mass attention.

  19. Identification of Amanita mushrooms by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dezhang; Liu, Gang; Song, Dingshan; Liu, Jian-hong; Zhou, Yilan; Ou, Jiaming; Sun, Shizhong

    2006-09-01

    Amanita is one of cosmopolitan genera of basidiomycetes. This genus contains some of the most poisonous toadstools, as well as several species of the most favorite edible mushrooms. In this paper, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for obtaining vibrational spectra of the fruiting bodies of wild growing Amanita mushrooms. The results show that the mushrooms exhibit characteristic spectra, whose strong absorption bands appear at about 1655, 1076, and 1040 cm -1. The vibrational spectra indicate that the main compositions of the Amanita mushrooms are proteins and polysaccharides. The observed spectral differences might be used to discriminate different species of Amanita. It is showed that FTIR spectroscopic method is a valuable tool for rapid and nondestructive identification of Amanita mushrooms.

  20. A Comprehensive Review of Tropical Milky White Mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C).

    PubMed

    Subbiah, Krishnamoorthy Akkanna; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-09-01

    A compressive description of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C var. APK2) is provided in this review. This mushroom variety was first identified in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal and can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates, at a high temperature range (30~38℃). However, no commercial cultivation was made until 1998. Krishnamoorthy 1997 rediscovered the fungus from Tamil Nadu, India and standardized the commercial production techniques for the first time in the world. This edible mushroom has a long shelf life (5~7 days) compared to other commercially available counterparts. A comprehensive and critical review on physiological and nutritional requirements viz., pH, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio, best carbon source, best nitrogen source, growth period, growth promoters for mycelia biomass production; substrate preparation; spawn inoculation; different supplementation and casing requirements to increase the yield of mushrooms has been outlined. Innovative and inexpensive methods developed to commercially cultivate milky white mushrooms on different lignocellulosic biomass is also described in this review. The composition profiles of milky white mushroom, its mineral contents and non-enzymatic antioxidants are provided in comparison with button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Antioxidant assay results using methanol extract of milky white mushroom has been provided along with the information about the compounds that are responsible for flavor profile both in fresh and dry mushrooms. Milky white mushroom extracts are known to have anti-hyperglycemic effect and anti-lipid peroxidation effect. The advantage of growing at elevated temperature creates newer avenues to explore milky white mushroom cultivation economically around the world, especially, in humid tropical and sub-tropical zones. Because of its incomparable productivity and shelf life to any other cultivated mushrooms in the

  1. A Comprehensive Review of Tropical Milky White Mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C)

    PubMed Central

    Subbiah, Krishnamoorthy Akkanna

    2015-01-01

    A compressive description of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C var. APK2) is provided in this review. This mushroom variety was first identified in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal and can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates, at a high temperature range (30~38℃). However, no commercial cultivation was made until 1998. Krishnamoorthy 1997 rediscovered the fungus from Tamil Nadu, India and standardized the commercial production techniques for the first time in the world. This edible mushroom has a long shelf life (5~7 days) compared to other commercially available counterparts. A comprehensive and critical review on physiological and nutritional requirements viz., pH, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio, best carbon source, best nitrogen source, growth period, growth promoters for mycelia biomass production; substrate preparation; spawn inoculation; different supplementation and casing requirements to increase the yield of mushrooms has been outlined. Innovative and inexpensive methods developed to commercially cultivate milky white mushrooms on different lignocellulosic biomass is also described in this review. The composition profiles of milky white mushroom, its mineral contents and non-enzymatic antioxidants are provided in comparison with button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Antioxidant assay results using methanol extract of milky white mushroom has been provided along with the information about the compounds that are responsible for flavor profile both in fresh and dry mushrooms. Milky white mushroom extracts are known to have anti-hyperglycemic effect and anti-lipid peroxidation effect. The advantage of growing at elevated temperature creates newer avenues to explore milky white mushroom cultivation economically around the world, especially, in humid tropical and sub-tropical zones. Because of its incomparable productivity and shelf life to any other cultivated mushrooms in the

  2. [Knowledge of students of tourism and recreation Academy of Physical Education on wild mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Chwaluk, Paweł; Parnicki, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Prophylaxis of acute poisoning with mushrooms is justified because of the relatively high risk of death associated with these intoxications. Mushrooming in Poland has a long tradition and knowledge about mushrooms is usually passed on in families. In recent years the mushrooming becomes an organized form of recreation. Graduates of tourism and recreation should have a minimum of reliable knowledge about mushrooms, to ensure the safety of persons entrusted to their care. The knowledge of wild mushrooms among students of tourism and recreation was tested by means of questionnaire. Mushrooms gathered 108 out of 125 respondents. The primary source of knowledge about mushrooms for 84% of the mushrooms pickers were the parents. Up to 70% of respondents considered at least one of irrational methods useful to distinguish edible mushrooms from the poisonous. Thirteen percent of those polled believed that by simple means mushrooms may be deprived of their toxic properties. Knowledge of the only one deadly poisonous mushrooms growing in Poland was 53%. The tourism and recreation students must pass basic knowledge about mushrooms and identify reliable sources of knowledge in this field.

  3. A novel orellanine containing mushroom Cortinarius armillatus.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dahai; Tang, Shusheng; Healy, Rosanne A; Imerman, Paula M; Schrunk, Dwayne E; Rumbeiha, Wilson K

    2016-05-01

    Orellanine (3,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxy-2,2'-bipyridine-1,1'-dioxide) is a tetrahydroxylated di-N-oxidized bipyridine compound. The toxin, present in certain species of Cortinarius mushrooms, is structurally similar to herbicides Paraquat and Diquat. Cortinarius orellanus and Cortinarius rubellus are the major orellanine-containing mushrooms. Cortinarius mushrooms are widely reported in Europe where they have caused human poisoning and deaths through accidental ingestion of the poisonous species mistaken for the edible ones. In North America, Cortinarius orellanosus mushroom poisoning was recently reported to cause renal failure in a Michigan patient. Cortinarius mushroom poisoning is characterized by delayed acute renal failure, with some cases progressing to end-stage kidney disease. There is debate whether other Cortinarius mushroom contain orellanine or not, especially in North America. Currently, there are no veterinary diagnostic laboratories in North America with established test methods for detection and quantitation of orellanine. We have developed two diagnostic test methods based on HPLC and LC-MSMS for identification and quantitation of orellanine in mushrooms. Using these methods, we have identified Cortinarius armillatus as a novel orellanine-containing mushroom in North America. The mean toxin concentration of 145 ug/g was <1% of that of the more toxic C. rubellus. The HPLC method can detect orellanine at 17 μg g(-1) while the LC-MSMS method is almost 2000 times more sensitive and can detect orellanine at 30 ng g(-1). Both tests are quantitative, selective and are now available for veterinary diagnostic applications.

  4. Chemical composition and nutritional value of the most widely appreciated cultivated mushrooms: an inter-species comparative study.

    PubMed

    Reis, Filipa S; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-02-01

    Herein, it was reported and compared the chemical composition and nutritional value of the most consumed species as fresh cultivated mushrooms: Agaricus bisporus (white and brown mushrooms), Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom), Pleurotus eryngii (King oyster mushroom), Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) and Flammulina velutipes (Golden needle mushroom). Shiitake revealed the highest levels of macronutrients, unless proteins, as also the highest sugars, tocopherols and PUFA levels, and the lowest SFA content. White and brown mushrooms showed similar macronutrients composition, as also similar values of total sugars, MUFA, PUFA and total tocopherols. Oyster and king oyster mushrooms gave the highest MUFA contents with similar contents in PUFA, MUFA and SFA in both samples. They also revealed similar moisture, ash, carbohydrates and energy values. This study contributes to the elaboration of nutritional databases of the most consumed fungi species worldwide, allowing comparison between them. Moreover it was reported that cultivated and the wild samples of the same species have different chemical composition, including sugars, fatty acids and tocopherols profiles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The oldest fossil mushroom.

    PubMed

    Heads, Sam W; Miller, Andrew N; Crane, J Leland; Thomas, M Jared; Ruffatto, Danielle M; Methven, Andrew S; Raudabaugh, Daniel B; Wang, Yinan

    2017-01-01

    A new fossil mushroom is described and illustrated from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of northeast Brazil. Gondwanagaricites magnificus gen. et sp. nov. is remarkable for its exceptional preservation as a mineralized replacement in laminated limestone, as all other fossil mushrooms are known from amber inclusions. Gondwanagaricites represents the oldest fossil mushroom to date and the first fossil mushroom from Gondwana.

  6. The oldest fossil mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Andrew N.; Crane, J. Leland; Thomas, M. Jared; Ruffatto, Danielle M.; Methven, Andrew S.; Raudabaugh, Daniel B.; Wang, Yinan

    2017-01-01

    A new fossil mushroom is described and illustrated from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of northeast Brazil. Gondwanagaricites magnificus gen. et sp. nov. is remarkable for its exceptional preservation as a mineralized replacement in laminated limestone, as all other fossil mushrooms are known from amber inclusions. Gondwanagaricites represents the oldest fossil mushroom to date and the first fossil mushroom from Gondwana. PMID:28591180

  7. Acute liver failure caused by mushroom poisoning: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Erden, Abdulsamet; Esmeray, Kübra; Karagöz, Hatice; Karahan, Samet; Gümüşçü, Hasan Hüseyin; Başak, Mustafa; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avcı, Deniz; Poyrazoğlu, Orhan Kürşat

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that there are over 5,000 species of mushrooms worldwide. Some of them are edible and some are poisonous due to containing significant toxins. In more than 95% of mushroom toxicity cases, poisoning occurs as a result of misidentification of the mushroom by an amateur mushroom hunter. The severity of mushroom poisoning may vary, depending on the geographic location where the mushroom is grown, growth conditions, the amount of toxin delivered, and the genetic characteristics of the mushroom. Amanita phalloides is the most common and fatal cause of mushroom poisoning. This mushroom contains amanitins, which are powerful hepatotoxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II in liver. Mushroom poisoning is a relatively rare cause of acute liver failure. A 63-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with weakness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. He reported ingesting several wild mushrooms about 36 hours earlier. In this article we report a case of lethal Amanita phalloides intoxication from stored mushrooms.

  8. Rare earth elements in parasol mushroom Macrolepiota procera.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Sapkota, Atindra; Mędyk, Małgorzata; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate occurrence and distribution of 16 rare earth elements (REEs) in edible saprobic mushroom Macrolepiota procera, and to estimate possible intake and risk to human consumer. Mushrooms samples were collected from sixteen geographically diverse sites in the northern regions of Poland. The results showed that for Ce as the most abundant among the RREs in edible caps, the mean concentration was at 0.18±0.29mgkg(-1)dry biomass. The mean concentration for Σ16 REEs determined in caps of fungus was 0.50mgkg(-1)dry biomass and in whole fruiting bodies was 0.75mgkg(-1)dry biomass. From a point of view by consumer, the amounts of REEs contained in edible caps of M. procera could be considered small. Hence, eating a tasty caps of this fungus would not result in a health risk for consumer because of exposure to the REEs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of antioxidant and antiproliferation activities of polysaccharides from eight species of medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiying; Yong, Yangyang; Gu, Yifan; Wang, Zeliang; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharides from mushrooms including Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus, P. nebrodensis, Lentinus edodes, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Hericium erinaceus were isolated by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Our results suggest that all tested polysaccharides have the significant antioxidant capacities of scavenging free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals). Among them, the H. erinaceus polysaccharide exhibits the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, whereas the L. edodes polysaccharide shows the strongest scavenging ability for hydroxyl radicals. Furthermore, using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and HeLa cells, all 8 selected polysaccharides are able to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, but the strength of inhibition varied depending on the mushroom species and the concentration used. Notably, G. lucidum polysaccharide shows the highest inhibition activity on MCF-7 cells. By comparison, H. erinaceus polysaccharide has the strongest inhibitory effect on HeLa cells. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography with a carbohydrate analysis column showed significant differences in polysaccharide components among these mushrooms. Thus our data suggest that the different species of mushrooms have the variable functions because of their own specific polysaccharide components. The 8 mushroom polysaccharides have the potential to be used as valuable functional food additives or sources of therapeutic agents for antioxidant and cancer treatments, especially polysaccharides from H. erinaceus, L. edodes, and G. lucidum.

  10. Poisonous mushrooms: a review of the most common intoxications.

    PubMed

    Lima, A D L; Costa Fortes, R; Carvalho Garbi Novaes, M R; Percário, S

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms have been used as components of human diet and many ancient documents written in oriental countries have already described the medicinal properties of fungal species. Some mushrooms are known because of their nutritional and therapeutical properties and all over the world some species are known because of their toxicity that causes fatal accidents every year mainly due to misidentification. Many different substances belonging to poisonous mushrooms were already identified and are related with different symptoms and signs. Carcinogenicity, alterations in respiratory and cardiac rates, renal failure, rhabidomyolisis and other effects were observed in toxicity studies with various species including edible and therapeutic ones. Proper identification is important to avoid accidents and toxicity studies are necessary to assure the safe use of mushrooms as food and for medicinal purposes.

  11. A mushroom-derived amino acid, ergothioneine, is a potential inhibitor of inflammation-related DNA halogenation.

    PubMed

    Asahi, Takashi; Wu, Xiaohong; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Hisaka, Shinsuke; Harada, Etsuko; Kanno, Tomomi; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Kato, Yoji; Osawa, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO)-generated halogenating molecules, such as hypochlorous acid and hypobromous acid (HOBr), in inflammatory regions are postulated to contribute to disease progression. In this study, we showed that ergothioneine (EGT), derived from an edible mushroom, inhibited MPO activity as well as the formation of 8-bromo-2'-deoxyguanosine in vitro. The HOBr scavenging effect of EGT is higher than those of ascorbic acid and glutathione. We initially observed that the administration of Coprinus comatus, an edible mushroom containing a high amount of EGT, inhibited the UV-B-induced inflammatory responses and DNA halogenation, suggesting that EGT is a promising anti-inflammatory agent from mushrooms.

  12. Elongation growth and gravitropic curvature in the Flammulina velutipes (Agaricales) fruiting body.

    PubMed

    Haindl, E; Monzer, J

    1994-06-01

    Differential elongation of stipe hyphae drives the gravitropic reorientation of Flammulina velutipes (Agaricales) fruiting bodies. The gravitropic curvature is strictly dependent on the presence of the transition zone between pileus and stipe. Elongation growth, providing the driving force for curvature, is also promoted by the pileus. Gravitropic curvature is successfully suppressed by clinostatic rotation, but the elongation rate is not affected. Explantation of fruiting body stipes lowers curvature and elongation rates corresponding to explant size reduction. In Flammulina, 25 mm length of transition zone explants is an efficient size for reproducible curvature and elongation during 48- to 72-h curvature tests. Submersion of specimens in aqueous medium causes cessation of the gravitropic curvature, but does not affect elongation. Thus the involvement of a diffusible factor in transmission of the curvature signal is probable. Splitting the fruiting body stipe in segments of 1/8 diameter does not suppress the gravitropic response, and the segments are individually reoriented to the vertical. It is concluded that the graviresponse of the Flammulina fruiting body is based on cellular perception of the gravistimulus and that a differential growth signal is transmitted in the stipe by a soluble factor that regulates hyphal elongation.

  13. Content and bioconcentration of mercury in mushrooms from northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, J; Gucia, M; Brzostowski, A; Kawano, M; Bielawski, L; Frankowska, A; Wyrzykowska, B

    2003-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) was quantified using cold vapour-atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) in the fruiting bodies of nine edible and five inedible mushrooms and in underlying soil substrate samples. In total, 404 samples comprising caps and stalks and 202 samples of soil substrate (0-10 cm layer) were collected in 1996 from Trójmiejski Landscape Park, northern Poland. Mean Hg concentrations in the soil substrate for different species varied between 10 +/- 3 and 780 +/- 500 ng x g(-1) dry wt (range 2.3-1700). Among edible mushroom species, Horse Mushroom (Agaricus arvensis), Brown Birch Scaber Stalk (Leccinum scabrum), Parasol Mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), King Bolete (Boletus edulis) and Yellow-cracking Bolete (Xerocomus subtomentosus) contained elevated concentrations of Hg ranging from 1600 +/- 930 to 6800 +/- 4000 ng x g(-1) dry wt in the caps. Concentrations of Hg in the stalks were 2.6 +/- 1.1 to 1.7 +/- 1.0 times lower than those in the caps. Some mushroom species investigated had high Hg levels when compared with specimens collected from the background reference sites elsewhere (located far away from the big cities) in northern Poland. Bioconcentration factors of Hg in the caps of Horse Mushroom, Parasol Mushroom and Brown Birch Scaber Stalk were between 150 +/- 58 and 230 +/- 150 ng x g(-1) dry wt, respectively, and for inedible Pestle-shaged Puffball (Claviata excipulformis) was 960 +/- 300 ng x g(-1) dry wt. Linear regression coefficients between Hg in caps and in stalks and Hg soil concentrations showed a positive relationship for A. arvensis and Horse mushroom (p < 0.05) and a negative correlation for the caps of Death Caps (Amanita phalloides) and Woolly Milk Cap (Lactarius torminosus) (p < 0.05), while for other species no clear trend was found.

  14. A polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against a Salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Endotoxemia (sepsis, septic shock) is an inflammatory, virulent disease that results mainly from bacterial infection. The present study investigates the inhibitory effect of the bio-processed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from the edible Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial mushroom culture supplemented...

  15. [Poisonous mushrooms, mushroom poisons and mushroom poisoning. A review].

    PubMed

    Holsen, D S; Aarebrot, S

    1997-09-30

    Of 1,500 different types of Norwegian mushrooms, 60-100 are considered poisonous. Fatal intoxications occur very infrequently. Lack of knowledge of picking and preparing mushrooms and accidental or deliberate consumption are recognised causes of mushroom poisoning. Delayed onset of symptoms (> 5-6 hrs) indicates serious poisoning, and these patients must be admitted to hospital. Cytotoxic toxins (e.g. amatoxin, orellanin) cause serious damage to the visceral organs (liver, kidney) and require intensive treatment, including hemoperfusion. Neurotoxic toxins may cause dramatic, but less harmful peripheral or central symptoms affecting the peripheral and central nervous systems, including hallucinations. Some mushrooms cause gastroenteritis of low clinical significance within a few hours after consumption. Interaction between mushrooms and alcohol may lead to a disulfiram-like effect. Induced vomiting and activated charcoal are important initial therapeutic measures. The precise history of the patient and the collecting of mushroom remnants, including vomitus, may help to identify the particular mushroom. In Norway, the National Poison Information Centre may be contacted for further advice.

  16. An Overview of Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms in Neurodegeneration and Neurotrauma Research.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kah-Hui; Ng, Chai-Chee; Kanagasabapathy, Gowri; Yow, Yoon-Yen; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2017-01-01

    Culinary and medicinal mushrooms have been appreciated since prehistoric times as valuable resources for food and medicine. Edible mushrooms represent an untapped source of nutraceuticals and valuable palatable food. Long considered tonics, they are now treasured as functional foods that can improve human health and quality of life. Numerous studies have provided insights into the neuroprotective effects of edible mushrooms, which are attributed to their antioxidant, antineuroinflammatory, and cholinesterase inhibitory properties, and their ability to prevent neuronal death. Here we review the recent literature on the role of culinary and medicinal mushrooms in the management of neurodegenerative diseases and neurotrauma. We highlight some of the molecular mechanisms for how these alternative medicines provide health benefits that could help us to harness their neuroprotective effects.

  17. [Acute renal failure after intake of mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Rojas Feria, P; González Rodríguez, J D; Canalejo González, D; Sánchez Moreno, A; Cabrera, R; Martín Govantes, J

    2008-01-01

    The picking and consumption of wild mushrooms is a frequent practice in our region and may lead to accidental poisoning when confused with edible mushrooms. We describe the case of a 9-year-old boy who, following the ingestion of a poisonous mushroom, presented with uncontrollable vomiting and subsequent hepatic, haematological and renal failure some hours later. The patient required haemodialysis. The clinical course, laboratory findings and renal histology, which showed tubular necrosis with basal membrane preserved and lymphocytic interstitial infiltrate, confirmed the diagnosis of a severe mixed syndrome. The patient evolved favourably after the poisoning, recovering renal and liver function. In any case of acute renal failure of unknown cause in children, it would be necessary to rule out ingestion of mushrooms, since the patient could benefit from early treatment with haemoperfusion and thus prevent the deterioration of the renal function and other organs. In our patient, haemoperfusion was not carried out due to the lengthy period of latency since the ingestion of the toxic substance until diagnosis.

  18. Trypsin-specific Inhibitors from the Macrolepiota procera, Armillaria mellea and Amanita phalloides wild mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Lukanc, Tjaša; Brzin, Jože; Kos, Janko; Sabotič, Jerica

    2017-01-01

    Wild growing mushrooms are a rich source of novel proteins with unique features. We have isolated and characterized trypsin inhibitors from two edible mushrooms, the honey fungus (Armillaria mellea) and the parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), and from the poisonous death cap (Amanita phalloides). The trypsin inhibitors isolated: armespin, macrospin and amphaspin, have similar molecular masses, acidic isoelectric points and are not N-glycosylated. They are very strong trypsin inhibitors and weak chymotrypsin inhibitors. They are resistant to exposure to high temperatures and withstand extreme pH values. These exceptional characteristics are advantageous for their potential use in biotechnology, agriculture and medicine.

  19. Discrimination method of the volatiles from fresh mushrooms by an electronic nose using a trapping system and statistical standardization to reduce sensor value variation.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Kouki; Shimizu, Nobuo; Manome, Yoshinobu; Ikeda, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2013-11-13

    Electronic noses have the benefit of obtaining smell information in a simple and objective manner, therefore, many applications have been developed for broad analysis areas such as food, drinks, cosmetics, medicine, and agriculture. However, measurement values from electronic noses have a tendency to vary under humidity or alcohol exposure conditions, since several types of sensors in the devices are affected by such variables. Consequently, we show three techniques for reducing the variation of sensor values: (1) using a trapping system to reduce the infering components; (2) performing statistical standardization (calculation of z-score); and (3) selecting suitable sensors. With these techniques, we discriminated the volatiles of four types of fresh mushrooms: golden needle (Flammulina velutipes), white mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), shiitake (Lentinus edodes), and eryngii (Pleurotus eryngii) among six fresh mushrooms (hen of the woods (Grifola frondosa), shimeji (Hypsizygus marmoreus) plus the above mushrooms). Additionally, we succeeded in discrimination of white mushroom, only comparing with artificial mushroom flavors, such as champignon flavor and truffle flavor. In conclusion, our techniques will expand the options to reduce variations in sensor values.

  20. Discrimination Method of the Volatiles from Fresh Mushrooms by an Electronic Nose Using a Trapping System and Statistical Standardization to Reduce Sensor Value Variation

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Kouki; Shimizu, Nobuo; Manome, Yoshinobu; Ikeda, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2013-01-01

    Electronic noses have the benefit of obtaining smell information in a simple and objective manner, therefore, many applications have been developed for broad analysis areas such as food, drinks, cosmetics, medicine, and agriculture. However, measurement values from electronic noses have a tendency to vary under humidity or alcohol exposure conditions, since several types of sensors in the devices are affected by such variables. Consequently, we show three techniques for reducing the variation of sensor values: (1) using a trapping system to reduce the infering components; (2) performing statistical standardization (calculation of z-score); and (3) selecting suitable sensors. With these techniques, we discriminated the volatiles of four types of fresh mushrooms: golden needle (Flammulina velutipes), white mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), shiitake (Lentinus edodes), and eryngii (Pleurotus eryngii) among six fresh mushrooms (hen of the woods (Grifola frondosa), shimeji (Hypsizygus marmoreus) plus the above mushrooms). Additionally, we succeeded in discrimination of white mushroom, only comparing with artificial mushroom flavors, such as champignon flavor and truffle flavor. In conclusion, our techniques will expand the options to reduce variations in sensor values. PMID:24233028

  1. [The amount of sulphites in wild mushrooms from Iaşi and Suceava districts].

    PubMed

    Butnaru, Claudia; Agoroaei, Luminiţa; Mircea, Cornelia; Tănase, C; Chinan, V; Bârsan, C; Butnaru, Elena

    2006-01-01

    As a part of a larger study regarding the contamination of mushrooms from Moldavia by chemical pollutants, we aimed at proposing sulphites determination in samples harvested from different zones from Iaşi and Suceava districts, from April to September 2005. We analysed elements (gills, cap, stem) of 68 mushrooms (48 different species). The sulphites were extracted with water, and were analysed spectrophotometrically in the aqueous extract by West-Gaeke method. Results were expressed in microg SO2/g dried product at 105 degrees C. Higher levels of sulphites were found in Clitopilus prunulus (865.36-stem) and Cantharelus cibarius (444.49-cap) for very good edible mushrooms; in Chalciporus piperatus (1016.13-stem) and Pseudohydnum gelatinosum (737.17-all mushroom) for mediocre edible mushrooms; in Panaeolus sphinctrinus (490.11-stem) for toxic ones. In 34 samples (50.74%), the highest level of sulphites was noted mostly in the mushroom stem than in its cap. The mushrooms capacity of sulphite accumulation is very varied, and the results do not allow a correlation between the amount of sulphites found in stem and the one found in cap or gills.

  2. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)-based method for rapid mushroom species identification.

    PubMed

    Vaagt, Franziska; Haase, Ilka; Fischer, Markus

    2013-02-27

    Toxic mushroom species, such as the death cap ( Amanita phalloides ), are responsible for most mushroom poisonings. In the present work, novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays were used for the differentiation of even closely related edible and toxic mushroom species. The applicability of these methods was tested by cross-reaction studies and analysis of spiked mushroom samples (raw and fried material). Contaminations at the level of 2% (w/w) could be detected in different mushroom blends. Three detection methods were used: agarose gel analysis, fluorimetric real-time detection, and visual detection by lateral flow dipsticks (LFD). The LAMP assay combined with LFD detection allows the identification of A. phalloides in about 2 h (including DNA extraction) at a very low level of technical equipment (micropestle, water bath, and mobile centrifuge), which makes this technique perfectly suited for on-site applications.

  3. [Psychoactive mushrooms - an update].

    PubMed

    Supprian, T; Frey, U; Supprian, R; Rösler, M; Wanke, K

    2001-12-01

    Psychoactive mushrooms ("magic mushrooms") have been consumed in northern Europe since the late seventies. Recently, the use of hallucinogenic fungi has become popular among young people again. In autumn, psychoactive mushrooms can be collected from their natural habitats throughout Europe. Some species are cultivated in the Netherlands and are sold in "smart-shops" or via Internet. In Germany, dried specimens are sold as "Duftkissen" (aroma pads). The article reviews the common psychoactive species and illustrates medical risks.

  4. CANTHARELLUS CIBARIUS - CULINARY-MEDICINAL MUSHROOM CONTENT AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY.

    PubMed

    Muszyńska, Bozena; Kała, Katarzyna; Firlej, Anna; Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    One of the most frequently harvested mushrooms in Polish forests is Yellow chanterelle (chanterelle) - Cantharellus cibarius Fr. from the Cantharellaceae family. Chanterelle is an ectomycorrhizal mushroom occurring in Poland. Chanterelle lives in symbiosis with pine, spruce, oak and hombeam. In cookery, chanterelle is appreciated because of the aroma, taste, firmness and crunchiness of its fruiting bodies. Wild edible mushrooms are widely consumed in Asia, Western Europe and Central America. Chanterelle contains a great number of carbohydrates and proteins and a low amount of fat. Actual review presents the main groups of physiologically active primary and secondary metabolites in the fruiting bodies of chanterelle such as indole and phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, fatty acids, proteins, free amino acids, sterols, carotenoids, enzymes, vitamins and elements with biological activity. The presence of these compounds and elements conditions the nutrient and therapeutic activity of chanterelle, e.g., immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antimicrobial and antigenotoxic properties.

  5. Mushroom growing project at the Los Humeros, Mexico geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, M.E.R.

    1998-12-01

    There are several projects of direct (non-electrical) use of geothermal energy in Mexico. Personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have experience in various of these projects, like drying of timber and fruits, space heating, food processing, etc. Taking this in consideration, CFE built the Los Humeros mushroom plant using for heat source the geothermal steam from Well H-1. The main purpose of the project was to take advantage of residual geothermal energy in a food production operation and to develop the appropriate technology. In 1992, existing installations were renovated, preparing appropriate areas for pasteurization, inoculation and production. The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida and columbinus was used. A year later, CFE proposed the construction of improved facilities for growing edible mushrooms. New materials and equipment, as well as different operation conditions, were proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the initial project. The construction and renovation activities were completed in 1994.

  6. Use of whole crop sorghums as a raw material in consolidated bioprocessing bioethanol production using Flammulina velutipes.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ryoji; Ichinose, Hitomi; Honda, Mariko; Takabatake, Koji; Sotome, Itaru; Takai, Tomoyuki; Maehara, Tomoko; Okadome, Hiroshi; Isobe, Seiichiro; Gau, Mitsuru; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2009-07-01

    The possibility of using two kinds of sorghum as raw materials in consolidated bioprocessing bioethanol production using Flammulina velutipes was investigated. Enzymatic saccharification of sweet sorghum was not as high as in brown mid-rib (bmr) mutated sorghum, but the amount of ethanol production was higher. Ethanol production from bmr mutated sorghum significantly increased when saccharification enzymes were added to the culture.

  7. Mycophilic or Mycophobic? Legislation and Guidelines on Wild Mushroom Commerce Reveal Different Consumption Behaviour in European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Peintner, Ursula; Schwarz, Stefanie; Mešić, Armin; Moreau, Pierre-Arthur; Moreno, Gabriel; Saviuc, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Mycophiles forage for and pick vast quantities of a wide variety of wild mushroom species. As a result, mushroom intoxications are comparatively frequent in such countries with mycophiles. Thus, national governments are forced to release guidelines or enact legislation in order to ensure the safe commerce of wild mushrooms due to food safety concerns. It is in these guidelines and laws that one can observe whether a country is indeed mycophobic or mycophilic. Furthermore, these laws and guidelines provide valuable information on mushroom preferences and on the consumption habits of each country. As such we were interested in the questions as to whether mushroom consumption behaviour was different within Europe, and if it was possible to discover the typical or distinctive culinary preferences of Slavic or Romanic speaking people, people from special geographical regions or from different zones. This work is based on the analysis of edible mushroom lists available in specific guidelines or legislation related to the consumption and commerce of mushrooms in 27 European countries. The overall diversity of edible mushrooms authorised to be commercialised in Europe is very high. However, only 60 out of a total 268 fungal species can be cultivated. This highlights the importance of guidelines or legislation for the safe commerce of wild mushrooms. The species richness and composition of the mushrooms listed for commerce is very heterogeneous within Europe. The consumption behaviour is not only language-family-related, but is strongly influenced by geographical location and neighbouring countries. Indicator species were detected for different European regions; most of them are widespread fungi, and thus prove culture-specific preferences for these mushrooms. Our results highlight tradition and external input such as trade and cultural exchange as strong factors shaping mushroom consumption behaviour. PMID:23704957

  8. Mycophilic or mycophobic? Legislation and guidelines on wild mushroom commerce reveal different consumption behaviour in European countries.

    PubMed

    Peintner, Ursula; Schwarz, Stefanie; Mešić, Armin; Moreau, Pierre-Arthur; Moreno, Gabriel; Saviuc, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Mycophiles forage for and pick vast quantities of a wide variety of wild mushroom species. As a result, mushroom intoxications are comparatively frequent in such countries with mycophiles. Thus, national governments are forced to release guidelines or enact legislation in order to ensure the safe commerce of wild mushrooms due to food safety concerns. It is in these guidelines and laws that one can observe whether a country is indeed mycophobic or mycophilic. Furthermore, these laws and guidelines provide valuable information on mushroom preferences and on the consumption habits of each country. As such we were interested in the questions as to whether mushroom consumption behaviour was different within Europe, and if it was possible to discover the typical or distinctive culinary preferences of Slavic or Romanic speaking people, people from special geographical regions or from different zones. This work is based on the analysis of edible mushroom lists available in specific guidelines or legislation related to the consumption and commerce of mushrooms in 27 European countries. The overall diversity of edible mushrooms authorised to be commercialised in Europe is very high. However, only 60 out of a total 268 fungal species can be cultivated. This highlights the importance of guidelines or legislation for the safe commerce of wild mushrooms. The species richness and composition of the mushrooms listed for commerce is very heterogeneous within Europe. The consumption behaviour is not only language-family-related, but is strongly influenced by geographical location and neighbouring countries. Indicator species were detected for different European regions; most of them are widespread fungi, and thus prove culture-specific preferences for these mushrooms. Our results highlight tradition and external input such as trade and cultural exchange as strong factors shaping mushroom consumption behaviour.

  9. Cerebellar effects after consumption of edible morels (Morchella conica, Morchella esculenta).

    PubMed

    Pfab, R; Haberl, B; Kleber, J; Zilker, T

    2008-03-01

    Morchella esculenta and Morchella conica are well known edible morels, which seldom induce clinical symptoms. We report six persons who developed cerebellar effects 6-12 hours after consumption of these mushrooms. The symptoms were self-limited and disappeared after one day.

  10. Selenium bioaccessibility and speciation in biofortified Pleurotus mushrooms grown on selenium-rich agricultural residues.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Poonam; Aureli, Federica; D'Amato, Marilena; Prakash, Ranjana; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Nagaraja, Tejo Prakash; Cubadda, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    Cultivation of saprophytic fungi on selenium-rich substrates can be an effective means to produce selenium-fortified food. Pleurotus florida, an edible species of oyster mushrooms, was grown on wheat straw from the seleniferous belt of Punjab (India) and its potential to mobilize and accumulate selenium from the growth substrate was studied. Selenium concentration in biofortified mushrooms was 800 times higher compared with control samples grown on wheat straw from non selenium-rich areas (141 vs 0.17 μg Se g(-1) dry weight). Seventy-five percent of the selenium was extracted after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion and investigation of the selenium molecular fractions by size exclusion HPLC-ICP-MS revealed that proteins and any other high molecular weight selenium-containing molecule were hydrolyzed to peptides and low molecular weight selenocompounds. Analysis of the gastrointestinal hydrolysates by anion exchange HPLC-ICP-MS showed that the bioaccessible selenium was mainly present as selenomethionine, a good bioavailable source of selenium, which accounted for 73% of the sum of the detected species. This study demonstrates the feasibility of producing selenium-biofortified edible mushrooms using selenium-rich agricultural by-products as growth substrates. The proposed approach can be used to evaluate whether selenium-contaminated plant waste materials harvested from high-selenium areas may be used to produce selenium-biofortified edible mushrooms based on the concentration, bioaccessibility and speciation of selenium in the mushrooms.

  11. Mushroom Use by College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, John P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed 1,507 college students to investigate the extent of hallucinogenic mushroom use and compared mushroom users to nonusers. Results showed that among the respondents who reported use of hallucinogenic drugs (17 percent), over 85 percent had used hallucinogenic (psilocybin) mushrooms and over half had used mushrooms but no other…

  12. Mushroom Use by College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, John P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed 1,507 college students to investigate the extent of hallucinogenic mushroom use and compared mushroom users to nonusers. Results showed that among the respondents who reported use of hallucinogenic drugs (17 percent), over 85 percent had used hallucinogenic (psilocybin) mushrooms and over half had used mushrooms but no other…

  13. Elemental distribution in selected Agaricus and Rhizina mushrooms in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, S B; Pienaar, D H; Haripersad, K

    2006-01-01

    The levels of calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, lead, chromium and cadmium in four prevalent mushroom species in South Africa, namely two edible Agaricus bisporus species, one inedible Agaricus xanthodermus species and a poisonous type mushroom, Rezhina undulata are reported. Analytical results from the open vessel and microwave digestion approaches were compared. While higher levels of Ca and Mg were found in the edible types, the inedible and poisonous type mushrooms had relatively high levels of manganese, chromium, cadmium and lead. Agaricus xanthodermus had Ca (204), Mg (660), Fe (306), Mn (30), Cr (16.2), Pb (50.6) and Cd (29.5) mg kg(-1) by dry weight, while Rhizina undulata, which grows on dead wood recorded Ca (121), Mg (517), Fe (130), Mn (30.7), Cr (32.1), Pb (49.5) and Cd (20) mg kg(-1) by dry weight.

  14. Folk taxonomy and use of mushrooms in communities around Ngorongoro and Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Maasai and Kurya form two main communities around the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania which are mainly pastoralists. Changing climate to excessive drought, have recently forced them to start practicing subsistence farming which is severely affected by wild animals. This study explored status of the folk taxonomy and uses of mushrooms in the two communities as a pave way for possibilities of introducing mushroom cultivation, an alternative crop which is hardly affected by wild animals. Methods Folk taxonomy and use mushrooms by the Kurya and Maasai communities were investigated. Information was collected by face to face interviews with 150 individuals in 6 selected villages. Using descriptive statistics by Statistic Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 17.0, the demographic characteristics of informants were evaluated and cross relationships with the recorded data were analysed. Results Kurya are mycophilic with 94% of the informants recognizing utilization of the wild mushroom either as foodstuff or as tonics while the Maasai are mycophobic with 99% being unaware of the edibility of mushroom although 28% recognized mushrooms as tonic. For both communities, the knowledge of mushroom utilization and folk taxonomy increased with age of the informants, while it decreases with formal education level of the informants which imply that the basis of knowledge is mainly traditional. Comparing the two communities, the Maasai use mushrooms only for medicinal purposes and never sought them for food while the Kurya were well knowledgeable on the edibility and folk classification especially the Termitomyces species. Characters used in folkal taxonomy included color and size of the basidiomata, shape and size of the pseudorrhiza, habitats and edibility information. A new use of ascospores whereby they anaesthaesia bees during honey harvesting was discovered, and mushroom cultivation was widely welcomed (94.7%) as an alternative crop which is rarely

  15. Anticancer substances of mushroom origin.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, T S; Krupodorova, T A; Barshteyn, V Y; Artamonova, A B; Shlyakhovenko, V A

    2014-06-01

    The present status of investigations about the anticancer activity which is inherent to medicinal mushrooms, as well as their biomedical potential and future prospects are discussed. Mushroom products and extracts possess promising immunomodulating and anticancer effects, so the main biologically active substances of mushrooms responsible for immunomodulation and direct cytoto-xicity toward cancer cell lines (including rarely mentioned groups of anticancer mushroom proteins), and the mechanisms of their antitumor action were analyzed. The existing to date clinical trials of mushroom substances are mentioned. Mushroom anticancer extracts, obtained by the different solvents, are outlined. Modern approaches of cancer treatment with implication of mushroom products, including DNA vaccinotherapy with mushroom immunomodulatory adjuvants, creation of prodrugs with mushroom lectins that can recognize glycoconjugates on the cancer cell surface, development of nanovectors etc. are discussed. The future prospects of mushroom anticancer substances application, including chemical modification of polysaccharides and terpenoids, gene engineering of proteins, and implementation of vaccines are reviewed.

  16. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori effects of medicinal mushroom extracts, with special emphasis on the Lion's Mane mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Shang, Xiaodong; Tan, Qi; Liu, Ruina; Yu, Kangying; Li, Pingzuo; Zhao, Guo-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Although the medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus is used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine to treat chronic superficial gastritis, the underlining pharmaceutical mechanism is yet to be fully understood. In this study, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of extracts prepared from the fruiting bodies of 14 mushroom species (H. erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, Cordyceps militaris, Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus, Agrocybe aegerita, Lentinus edodes, Agaricus brasiliensis, A. bisporus, Coprinus comatus, Grifola frondosa, Phellinus igniarius, Flammulina velutipes, and Hypsizygus marmoreus) were determined against Helicobacter pylori using laboratory strains of ATCC 43504 and SS1 as well as 9 clinical isolates via an in vitro microplate agar diffusion assay. Ethanol extracts (EEs) of 12 mushrooms inhibited the growth of H. pylori in vitro, with MIC values <3 mg/mL. EEs of H. erinaceus and G. lucidum also inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 7360;10 mg/mL) but had no effect on the growth of two Escherichia coli test strains (MIC >10 mg/mL). MIC values of ethyl acetate fractions (EAFs) of H. erinaceus against 9 clinical isolates of H. pylori ranged between 62.5 and 250 µg/mL. The bacteriostatic activity of EAFs was found to be concentration-dependant, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values for H. pylori ATCC 43504 were 73.0 and 200 µg/mL, respectively. The direct inhibitory effect of EEs and EAFs of H. erinaceus against H. pylori could be another pharmaceutical mechanism of medicinal mushrooms-besides the immunomodulating effect of polysaccharides, suggested previously-in the treatment of H. pylori-associated gastrointestinal disorders. Further research to identify the active component(s) is currently undertaking in our laboratory.

  17. Nucleotide sequencing and identification of some wild mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudip Kumar; Mandal, Aninda; Datta, Animesh K; Gupta, Sudha; Paul, Rita; Saha, Aditi; Sengupta, Sonali; Dubey, Priyanka Kumari

    2013-01-01

    The rDNA-ITS (Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers) fragment of the genomic DNA of 8 wild edible mushrooms (collected from Eastern Chota Nagpur Plateau of West Bengal, India) was amplified using ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacers 1) and ITS2 primers and subjected to nucleotide sequence determination for identification of mushrooms as mentioned. The sequences were aligned using ClustalW software program. The aligned sequences revealed identity (homology percentage from GenBank data base) of Amanita hemibapha [CN (Chota Nagpur) 1, % identity 99 (JX844716.1)], Amanita sp. [CN 2, % identity 98 (JX844763.1)], Astraeus hygrometricus [CN 3, % identity 87 (FJ536664.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 4, % identity 90 (JF746992.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 5, % identity 99 (GU001667.1)], T. microcarpus [CN 6, % identity 82 (EF421077.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 7, % identity 76 (JF746993.1)], and Volvariella volvacea [CN 8, % identity 100 (JN086680.1)]. Although out of 8 mushrooms 4 could be identified up to species level, the nucleotide sequences of the rest may be relevant to further characterization. A phylogenetic tree is constructed using Neighbor-Joining method showing interrelationship between/among the mushrooms. The determined nucleotide sequences of the mushrooms may provide additional information enriching GenBank database aiding to molecular taxonomy and facilitating its domestication and characterization for human benefits.

  18. Nucleotide Sequencing and Identification of Some Wild Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sudip Kumar; Mandal, Aninda; Datta, Animesh K.; Gupta, Sudha; Paul, Rita; Saha, Aditi; Sengupta, Sonali; Dubey, Priyanka Kumari

    2013-01-01

    The rDNA-ITS (Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers) fragment of the genomic DNA of 8 wild edible mushrooms (collected from Eastern Chota Nagpur Plateau of West Bengal, India) was amplified using ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacers 1) and ITS2 primers and subjected to nucleotide sequence determination for identification of mushrooms as mentioned. The sequences were aligned using ClustalW software program. The aligned sequences revealed identity (homology percentage from GenBank data base) of Amanita hemibapha [CN (Chota Nagpur) 1, % identity 99 (JX844716.1)], Amanita sp. [CN 2, % identity 98 (JX844763.1)], Astraeus hygrometricus [CN 3, % identity 87 (FJ536664.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 4, % identity 90 (JF746992.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 5, % identity 99 (GU001667.1)], T. microcarpus [CN 6, % identity 82 (EF421077.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 7, % identity 76 (JF746993.1)], and Volvariella volvacea [CN 8, % identity 100 (JN086680.1)]. Although out of 8 mushrooms 4 could be identified up to species level, the nucleotide sequences of the rest may be relevant to further characterization. A phylogenetic tree is constructed using Neighbor-Joining method showing interrelationship between/among the mushrooms. The determined nucleotide sequences of the mushrooms may provide additional information enriching GenBank database aiding to molecular taxonomy and facilitating its domestication and characterization for human benefits. PMID:24489501

  19. Differences in Cu content in selected mushroom species growing in the same unpolluted areas in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Mikołajczak, Patrycja; Gąsecka, Monika; Rissmann, Iwona; Goliński, Piotr; Sobieralski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate copper (Cu) accumulation efficiency in whole-fruiting bodies of 18 edible and non-edible wild growing mushrooms collected from 27 places in the Wielkopolska Voivodeship. Mushrooms were collected each time from the same places to estimate the diversity in Cu accumulation between tested mushroom species within 3 consecutive years of study (2011-2013). The study results revealed various accumulation of Cu in the whole-tested mushroom fruiting bodies. The highest mean accumulation of Cu was observed in Macrolepiota procera (119.4 ± 20.0 mg kg(-1) dm), while the lowest was in Suillus luteus and Russula fellea fruiting bodies (16.1 ± 3.0 and 18.8 ± 4.6 mg kg(-1) dm, respectively). Significant differences in Cu accumulation between mushroom species collected in 2011 and in the two following years (2012 and 2013) were observed. The results indicated that sporadic consumption of these mushrooms was not related to excessive intake of Cu for the human body (no toxic influence on health).

  20. The Edible Schoolyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capra, Fritjof; Comnes, Leslie; Cook, Esther; Hawkins, David; Jackson, Wes; McCullough, Yvette; Waters, Alice

    This document introduces the Edible Schoolyard Project (ESP) in which students create a garden, watch it grow, and develop a bond with nature. Chapters include: (1) "Implications of the Edible Schoolyard Project" (Wes Jackson); (2) "A World of Possibilities" (Alice Waters); (3) "The Garden Experience" (David Hawkins);…

  1. The Edible Schoolyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capra, Fritjof; Comnes, Leslie; Cook, Esther; Hawkins, David; Jackson, Wes; McCullough, Yvette; Waters, Alice

    This document introduces the Edible Schoolyard Project (ESP) in which students create a garden, watch it grow, and develop a bond with nature. Chapters include: (1) "Implications of the Edible Schoolyard Project" (Wes Jackson); (2) "A World of Possibilities" (Alice Waters); (3) "The Garden Experience" (David Hawkins);…

  2. Heat-stable components of wood ear mushroom, Auricularia polytricha (higher Basidiomycetes), inhibit in vitro activity of beta secretase (BACE1).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Louise; Sheean, Paul; Zabaras, Dimitrios; Head, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of mushrooms has been linked with protection against dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), by several biological pathways including inhibiting beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1), which is responsible for releasing toxic β-amyloid peptide in the brain. We have investigated the capacity of several medicinal mushroom species-Auricularia polytricha (wood ear mushroom), Agaricus bisporus (button mushroom), Flammulina velutipes (winter or enoki mushroom), and Lentinus edodes (shiitake mushroom)-in the regulation of BACE1. Mushrooms were subjected to a generic food-compatible processing method to detect process-stable or process-modified products; the effects of processing were interpreted to infer the chemical classes associated with bioactivity. We have shown previously that in addition to enzyme inhibition, in the presence of the BACE1 proenzyme, heteropolymeric species such as heparin can activate BACE1 by modulating access to the catalytic site. We observed both inhibitory and activating components of the various mushrooms. Only BACE1 inhibitory species were detected in unprocessed and processed forms of A. polytricha, whereas the dominant extracted species from A. bisporus, F. velutipes, and L. edodese were activators of BACE1. It is not known whether activating species were masking the presence of inhibitory species in A. bisporus, F. velutipes, and L. edodes. Inhibitory species were attributed to hispidin-derived polyphenols, whereas activating species were attributed to soluble polysaccharides and possibly low-mass Maillard products produced during processing. Larger molecular BACE1-activating species are unlikely to be bioavailable to brain in contrast with possible brain bioavailability of smaller, lipophilic hispidins.

  3. Edible packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  4. Are mushrooms medicinal?

    PubMed

    Money, Nicholas P

    2016-04-01

    Despite the longstanding use of dried mushrooms and mushroom extracts in traditional Chinese medicine, there is no scientific evidence to support the effectiveness of these preparations in the treatment of human disease. Consumers should evaluate assertions made by companies about the miraculous properties of medicinal mushrooms very critically. The potential harm caused by these natural products is another important consideration. In a more positive vein, the presence of potent toxins and neurotropic compounds in basidiomycete fruit bodies suggests that secondary metabolites with useful pharmacological properties are widespread in these fungi. Major investment in controlled experiments and objective clinical trials is necessary to develop this natural pharmacopeia.

  5. Purification, characterization, antioxidant activity and anti-aging of exopolysaccharides by Flammulina velutipes SF-06.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhao; Cui, Fangyuan; Gao, Xia; Zhang, Jianjun; Zheng, Lan; Jia, Le

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to purify the exopolysaccharides (EPS) of Flammulina velutipes SF-06 and investigate the relationship between the different purified fractions and bioactive activity. Two fractions (EPS-1 and EPS-2) were separated and purified by DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100 cellulose column chromatography. Monosaccharides composition analysis by gas chromatography indicated that EPS, EPS-1 and EPS-2 were heteropolysaccharides in which rhamnose was a major component. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis detected furanose-ring in EPS-1 and EPS-2. All fractions possessed considerable antioxidant activity, while EPS-2 has stronger antioxidant activity than EPS and EPS-1 in vitro. The EPS also exhibited potent anti-aging activation in mice, such as increased catalase and total antioxidant capacity, and decreasing the malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Both the antioxidant in vitro and anti-aging in vivo potentials of EPS could be further utilized in the food industry.

  6. Enzymatic and acidic degradation effect on intracellular polysaccharide of Flammulina velutipes SF-08.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhao; Zhang, Chen; Gao, Xia; Cui, Fangyuan; Zhang, Jianjun; Jia, Mengshi; Jia, Shouhua; Jia, Le

    2015-02-01

    The intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) from Flammulina velutipes SF-08 mycelia was isolated and degraded by enzyme and acid. IPS and its derivative were purified by DEAE-52 cellulose chromatography, and five fractions were obtained. The structural features and antioxidant activities in vitro of the isolated fractions were evaluated. On the basis of chemical composition and antioxidant ability analyses, rhamnose as the main monosaccharide might contribute to the strongest antioxidant capacity. The in vivo results showed that IPS significantly enhanced the activities of anti-aging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, and reduced the content of lipid peroxidantion (LPO). These results suggested that IPS should be a potent natural polymer and can be developed to be novel functional food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Biodegradation of polyvinyl alcohol by Flammulina velutipes in an unsubmerged culture.

    PubMed

    Tsujiyama, Sho-ichi; Nitta, Tomoko; Maoka, Takashi

    2011-07-01

    To examine the biodegradation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), Flammulina velutipes (Enokitake) was cultivated in both liquid and quartz sand cultures. After incubation, discoloration of an iodide solution was observed in the filtrate recovered from the quartz sand culture, whereas discoloration was not observed in the filtrate recovered from the liquid culture. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the PVA recovered from the quartz sand culture was depolymerized and yielded low-molecular-weight portions. Infrared and ultraviolet spectrometry indicated that there was formation of carbonyl groups, and NMR analysis showed that the syndiotactic portions of PVA were preferably attacked. Based on these results, an unsubmerged cultivation of F. velutipes was considered suitable for the biodegradation of PVA, probably because the mycelium was sufficiently developed to produce PVA-degrading enzymes. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Antifreeze Activity of Xylomannan from the Mycelium and Fruit Body of Flammulina velutipes.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Hidehisa; Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Sakaguchi, Takuya; Arai, Naoki; Koide, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    An identified class of antifreeze, a xylomannan-based thermal hysteresis (TH)-producing glycolipid, has been discovered from diverse taxa, including plants, insects, and amphibians. We isolated xylomannan from the mycelium and fruit body of the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes using successive hot extraction with water, 2% and 25% aqueous KOH, and gel filtration chromatography. The xylomannan from the fruit body had a recrystallization inhibiting (RI) activity (RI=0.44) at 0.5 mg/mL. The dried weight yield of the fruit body (7.7×10(-2)%, w/w) was higher than that of the mycelium. Although the purified xylomannan from both soures were composed of mannose and xylose in a 2 : 1 molar ratio, the molecular weight of the xylomannan from the mycelium and fruit body was 320,000 and 240,000, respectively. The RI activity of mycelial xylomannan was higher than that from the fruit body (RI=0.57) at 45 µg/mL. Although this RI activity was able to remain constant after exposure to various conditions, we confirmed that the decrease of RI activity was stimulated by the decrease of molecular weight that was caused by heating during the alkaline condition. The survival rate of the CHO cells at -20℃ for two days increased to 97% due to the addition of 20 µg/mL of purified xylomannan. This was the first report to indicate that xylomannan from the mycelium of Flammulina velutipes had a high level of ice recrystallization inhibiting activity like antifreeze proteins from plants and had rhe potential to become a new material for cell storage.

  9. Screening of beta-glucan contents in commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sari, Miriam; Prange, Alexander; Lelley, Jan I; Hambitzer, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Mushrooms have unique sensory properties and nutritional values as well as health benefits due to their bioactive compounds, especially beta-glucans. Well-known edible and medicinal mushroom species as well as uncommon or unknown species representing interesting sources of bioactive beta-glucans have been widely studied. Commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms were analysed for their beta-glucan contents. Enzymatic determinations of all glucans, alpha-glucans and beta-glucans in 39 mushrooms species were performed, leading to very remarkable results. Many wild growing species present high beta-glucan contents, especially Bracket fungi. The well-known cultivated species Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Cantharellus cibarius as well as most screened wild growing species show higher glucan contents in their stipes than caps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fungal volatiles - a survey from edible mushrooms to moulds.

    PubMed

    Dickschat, Jeroen S

    2017-03-17

    Covering: up to January 2017This review gives a comprehensive overview of the production of fungal volatiles, including the history of the discovery of the first compounds and their distribution in the various investigated strains, species and genera, as unravelled by modern analytical methods. Biosynthetic aspects and the accumulated knowledge about the bioactivity and biological functions of fungal volatiles are also covered. A total number of 325 compounds is presented in this review, with 247 cited references.

  11. Comparative study of contents of several bioactive components in fruiting bodies and mycelia of culinary-medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shin-Yi; Chen, Yu-Kai; Yu, Hui-Tzu; Barseghyan, Gayane S; Asatiani, Mikheil D; Wasser, Solomon P; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms (including fruiting bodies and mycelia) contain several bioactive components such as lovastatin, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and ergothioneine. This article reports the results of 49 samples, including 9 fruiting bodies, 39 mycelia, and 1 vegetative cell, of 35 species of culinary-medicinal mushrooms from 18 genera: Agaricus, Agrocybe, Coprinus, Cordyceps, Cyathus, Daedalia, Flammulina, Fomes, Ganoderma, Grifola, Laetiporus, Lentinus, Morchella, Ophiocordyceps, Pleurotus, Trametes, Tremella, and Verpa. The results show that Cyathus striatus strain 978 contained the highest amount of lovastatin (995.66 mg/kg) in mycelia. Among fruiting bodies, 6 samples contained a high amount of GABA (274.86-822.45 mg/kg), whereas among mycelia, contents of GABA in 27 samples ranged from 215.36 to 2811.85 mg/kg. Among mycelia, Pleurotus cornucopiae strain 1101 contained the highest amount of ergothioneine (3482.09 mg/kg). Overall, these 3 bioactive components were commonly found in most mushrooms, and the results obtained might be related to their beneficial effects.

  12. Nutrient compositions of culinary-medicinal mushroom fruiting bodies and mycelia.

    PubMed

    Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2011-01-01

    Mushrooms (including fruiting bodies and mycelia) are a food with high nutritional value. This article summarizes the results of proximate composition studies of 38 fruiting bodies and 19 mycelia of 32 species of culinary-medicinal mushrooms from genera Agaricus, Agrocybe, Antrodia, Auricularia, Boletus, Clitocybe, Coprinus, Cordyceps, Trametes, Dictyophora, Flammulina, Ganoderma, Grifola, Hericium, Hypsizygus, Inonotus, Lentinus, Morchella, Pleurotus, Sparassis, Termitomyces, Tremella, and Tricholoma. Based on the proximate composition, most fruiting bodies and mycelia are low in fat and rich in protein and dietary fiber (DF); however, some are rich in soluble polysaccharides and others are rich in crude fiber. Due to the high amount of DF present, the energy provided by 100 g of dry fruiting bodies and mycelia is 46.96-292.37 kcal and 195.84-373.22 kcal, respectively. The energy (100 g) is classified into four levels: first level of >300 kcal, second level of 200-300 kcal, third level of 100-200 kcal, and fourth level of <100 kcal. Most fruiting bodies are listed in the third level; nine mycelia are listed in the first level and ten in the second level. Overall, the information about the proximate composition and energy are of great interest for fruiting bodies and mycelia to be used as foods or food-flavoring materials or in the formulation of health foods.

  13. Baba Yaga and the Mushrooms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nineteenth and early twentieth century artists portray the Russian witch Baba Yaga with mushrooms, especially with Amanita muscaria, the fly agaric. Fairy tales about Baba Yaga, as well as other Slavic folktales, repeatedly contain passing reference to mushrooms, but mushrooms are not integral to st...

  14. The Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    This review describes pharmacologically active compounds from mushrooms. Compounds and complex substances with antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antiallergic, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and central activities are covered, focusing on the review of recent literature. The production of mushrooms or mushroom compounds is discussed briefly. PMID:16136207

  15. Therapeutic properties of mushrooms in managing adverse effects in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kundaković, Tatjana; Kolundžić, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a modern medical condition characterized by central obesity, hyperglycaemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. The beneficial effects of mushrooms in lowering the symptoms of MS were known from both traditional and conventional medicine. Edible mushrooms, their extracts, polysaccharide fractions and isolated compounds possessed hypoglycaemic, cholesterol and triglyceride lowering ability, hypotensive effects, as well as weight managing activity by influencing satiety. The most active compounds are polysaccharides, called β-glucans, as well as lectines and small compounds such as eritadenin, triterpenes, sterols and phenolic compounds.

  16. Shiitake Mushroom Dermatitis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Stephany, Mathew Paul; Chung, Stella; Handler, Marc Zachary; Handler, Nancy Stefanie; Handler, Glenn A; Schwartz, Robert A

    2016-10-01

    Shiitake mushroom dermatitis is a cutaneous reaction caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked shiitake mushrooms. Symptoms include linear erythematous eruptions with papules, papulovesicles or plaques, and severe pruritus. It is likely caused by lentinan, a heat-inactivated beta-glucan polysaccharide. Cases were initially reported in Japan but have now been documented in other Asian countries, North America, South America, and Europe, as this mushroom is now cultivated and consumed worldwide. Shiitake mushroom dermatitis may result from mushroom ingestion or from handling, which can result in an allergic contact dermatitis.

  17. Vitamin D2, Ergosterol, and Vitamin B2 Content in Commercially Dried Mushrooms Marketed in China and Increased Vitamin D2 Content Following UV-C Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guocheng; Cai, Weixi; Xu, Baojun

    2016-11-21

    Mushrooms are a great source of vitamin D and vitamin B2; however, the content of these vitamins in dried mushrooms has not fully been investigated. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the contents of vitamin D2, ergosterol, and vitamin B2 in commercially dried edible mushrooms in China and to investigate the effect of UV-C irradiation on fresh mushrooms. Among the 35 species of dried mushrooms considered for this study, the average ergosterol content was 1.98 mg/g, while the average vitamin D2 content was 16.88 µg/g. The average vitamin B2 content in dried mushrooms was 12.68 µg/g. Fresh shaggy ink caps and oyster mushrooms, when exposed to UV-C at 254 nm at a dose of 0.25 J/cm(2) for 10, 30, and 60 min, showed significantly (p < 0.05) increased vitamin D2 content (229.7 and 67.0 µg/g, respectively) as compared to its fresh counterparts. The conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D2 induced by UV-C irradiation at 0.25 J/cm(2) was significant (p < 0.05). In conclusion, dried commercial mushrooms have higher contents of ergosterol and vitamin D2 than fresh mushrooms. UV-C radiation can be used to increase vitamin D2 content in mushrooms.

  18. Compton scattering by internal shields based on melanin-containing mushrooms provides protection of gastrointestinal tract from ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Revskaya, Ekaterina; Chu, Peter; Howell, Robertha C; Schweitzer, Andrew D; Bryan, Ruth A; Harris, Matthew; Gerfen, Gary; Jiang, Zewei; Jandl, Thomas; Kim, Kami; Ting, Li-Min; Sellers, Rani S; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2012-11-01

    There is a need for radioprotectors that protect normal tissues from ionizing radiation in patients receiving high doses of radiation and during nuclear emergencies. We investigated the possibility of creating an efficient oral radioprotector based on the natural pigment melanin that would act as an internal shield and protect the tissues via Compton scattering followed by free radical scavenging. CD-1 mice were fed melanin-containing black edible mushrooms Auricularia auricila-judae before 9 Gy total body irradiation. The location of the mushrooms in the body before irradiation was determined by in vivo fluorescent imaging. Black mushrooms protected 80% of mice from the lethal dose, while control mice or those given melanin-devoid mushrooms died from gastrointestinal syndrome. The crypts of mice given black mushrooms showed less apoptosis and more cell division than those in control mice, and their white blood cell and platelet counts were restored at 45 days to preradiation levels. The role of melanin in radioprotection was proven by the fact that mice given white mushrooms supplemented with melanin survived at the same rate as mice given black mushrooms. The ability of melanin-containing mushrooms to provide remarkable protection against radiation suggests that they could be developed into oral radioprotectors.

  19. Compton Scattering by Internal Shields Based on Melanin-Containing Mushrooms Provides Protection of Gastrointestinal Tract from Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Revskaya, Ekaterina; Chu, Peter; Howell, Robertha C.; Schweitzer, Andrew D.; Bryan, Ruth A.; Harris, Matthew; Gerfen, Gary; Jiang, Zewei; Jandl, Thomas; Kim, Kami; Ting, Li-Min; Sellers, Rani S.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There is a need for radioprotectors that protect normal tissues from ionizing radiation in patients receiving high doses of radiation and during nuclear emergencies. We investigated the possibility of creating an efficient oral radioprotector based on the natural pigment melanin that would act as an internal shield and protect the tissues via Compton scattering followed by free radical scavenging. CD-1 mice were fed melanin-containing black edible mushrooms Auricularia auricila-judae before 9 Gy total body irradiation. The location of the mushrooms in the body before irradiation was determined by in vivo fluorescent imaging. Black mushrooms protected 80% of mice from the lethal dose, while control mice or those given melanin-devoid mushrooms died from gastrointestinal syndrome. The crypts of mice given black mushrooms showed less apoptosis and more cell division than those in control mice, and their white blood cell and platelet counts were restored at 45 days to preradiation levels. The role of melanin in radioprotection was proven by the fact that mice given white mushrooms supplemented with melanin survived at the same rate as mice given black mushrooms. The ability of melanin-containing mushrooms to provide remarkable protection against radiation suggests that they could be developed into oral radioprotectors. PMID:23113595

  20. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Flammulina velutipes polysacchrides and polysacchride-iron(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ya-Ru; Cheng, Shu-Jie; Qi, Guo-Hong; Yang, Zhi-Ping; Yin, Shi-Yu; Chen, Gui-Tang

    2017-04-01

    FVP is polysacchrides obtained from Flammulina velutipes. A polysacchride named FVP2 was isolated from FVP by DEAE cellulose-52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 size-exclusion chromatography. FVP-Fe and FVP2-Fe were synthesized by neutralization of FeCl3 carbohydrate solution. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of FVP, FVP2, FVP-Fe, FVP2-Fe were investigated and their antioxidant effects on hydroxyl, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anion, 2,2'-azobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, reducing power, inhibition of malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed in vitro. The results suggested that FVP-Fe and FVP2-Fe significantly suppressed the growth of bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis, and have relatively strong antioxidant activity to scavenge superoxide anion radical. In addition, FVP exhibited strong antioxidant activity to eliminate hydroxyl, DPPH, ABTS radicals, had high reducing power and inhibited the MDA production of health mice liver homogenate induced by auto-oxidation and Fe(2+)-H2O2 system.

  1. Activation effects of polysaccharides of Flammulina velutipes mycorrhizae on the T lymphocyte immune function.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zheng-Fei; Liu, Nai-Xu; Mao, Xin-Xin; Li, Yu; Li, Chang-Tian

    2014-01-01

    Flammulina velutipes mycorrhizae have increasingly been produced with increasing of F. velutipes production. A mouse model was thus used to examine potential effect of F. velutipes mycorrhizae on the immune function. Fifty female Wistar mice (5-weeks-old) weighed 15-20 g were randomly allocated into five groups. Polysaccharide of F. velutipes mycorrhizae were treated with mice and mice spleen lymphocytes. The levels of CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) T lymphocyte, interleukin-2 (IL-2), and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) were determined. The results showed that the proportions of CD3(+), and CD4(+) T lymphocyte, the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+), and the levels of IL-2 and TNF-a were significantly increased in polysaccharide of F. velutipes mycorrhizae, while the proportion of CD8(+) T lymphocyte was decreased in polysaccharide of F. velutipes mycorrhizae-dose dependent manner. Our findings indicated that a long term exposure of polysaccharide of F. velutipes mycorrhizae could activate the T lymphocyte immune function. Polysaccharide of F. velutipes mycorrhizae was expected to develop into the immune health products.

  2. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D. A.

    2006-08-01

    By using astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients, I have been able to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students. I will present some of the edible demonstrations I have created including using popcorn to simulate radioactivity; using chocolate, nuts, and marshmallows to illustrate density and differentiation during the formation of the planets; and making big-bang brownies or chocolate chip-cookies to illustrate the expansion of the Universe. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented.

  3. Mushrooms and Health Summit proceedings.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Dwyer, Johanna; Hasler-Lewis, Clare M; Milner, John A; Noakes, Manny; Rowe, Sylvia; Wach, Mark; Beelman, Robert B; Caldwell, Joe; Cantorna, Margherita T; Castlebury, Lisa A; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Clemens, Roger; Drescher, Greg; Fulgoni, Victor L; Haytowitz, David B; Hubbard, Van S; Law, David; Myrdal Miller, Amy; Minor, Bart; Percival, Susan S; Riscuta, Gabriela; Schneeman, Barbara; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Toner, Cheryl D; Woteki, Catherine E; Wu, Dayong

    2014-07-01

    The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9-10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Mushroom Consumption and Incident Dementia in Elderly Japanese: The Ohsaki Cohort 2006 Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Tomata, Yasutake; Sugiyama, Kemmyo; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2017-07-01

    Both in vivo and in vitro studies have indicated that edible mushrooms may have preventive effects against cognitive impairment. However, few cohort studies have yet examined the relationship between mushroom consumption and incident dementia. We examined the relationship between mushroom consumption and incident dementia in a population of elderly Japanese subjects. Prospective cohort study. Ohsaki Cohort 2006 Study. 13,230 individuals aged ≥65 years living in Ohsaki City, northeastern Japan. Daily mushroom consumption, other lifestyle factors, and dementia incidence. The 5.7 years incidence of dementia was 8.7%. In comparison with participants who consumed mushrooms <1 time/wk, the multi-adjusted HRs (95% CI) for incident dementia among those did so 1-2 times/week and ≥3 times/week were 0.95 (0.81, 1.10) and 0.81 (0.69, 0.95), respectively (P-trend <.01). The inverse association persisted after excluding participants whose dementia event occurred in the first 2 years of follow-up and whose baseline cognitive function was lower. The inverse association did not differ statistically in terms of vegetable consumption (P-interaction = .10). This cohort study suggests that frequent mushroom consumption is significantly associated with a lower risk of incident dementia, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Edible grain legumes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Edible grain legumes including dry bean, dry pea, chickpeas, and lentils, have served as important sources of protein for human diets for thousands of years. In the US, these crops are predominately produced for export markets. The objective of this study was to examine yield gains in these crops ov...

  6. Lead and cadmium in mushrooms from the vicinity of two large emission sources in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Petkovšek, Samar Al Sayegh; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2013-01-15

    Cd and Pb contents were determined in 699 samples of fruiting bodies of 55 mushrooms species, collected in the period 2000-2007 in the vicinity of the largest Slovenian thermal power plant (the Šalek Valley) and near an abandoned lead smelter (the Upper Meža Valley). The present study is the first regarding lead and cadmium in mushrooms from those exposed areas. Therefore, there was a significant lack of prior data. Among 55 studied mushroom species 36 species are edible and important from an ecotoxicological perspective. However, the remaining non-edible species are important for bioindication and allowed us to compare our results with other studies carried out in other polluted areas in Europe. The highest contents of Cd were found in Agaricus arvensis Schff.: Fr. (117 mg/kg dw) and Agaricus silvicola L.: Fr. (67.9 mg/kg dw), while the highest contents of Pb were found in Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer (53.8 mg/kg dw) and Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. (50 mg/kg dw), respectively. Considering the high contents of both metals in fruiting bodies of edible fungi, together with FAO/WHO directives on tolerable levels of weekly intake of Pb/Cd by humans, it is evident that consumption of some mushroom species originating from both study areas may pose a significant human health risk. A. arvensis Schff.: Fr., A. silvicola L.: Fr. and Cortinarius caperatus (Pers.) Fr. originating from the Šalek Valley, and Armillaria mellea Vahl. P. Kumm., Boletus edulis Bull., L. perlatum Pers., Leccinum versipelle (Fr. & Hök) Snell, and M. procera (Scop.) Singer originating from the Upper Meža Valley should not be consumed at all. Our findings are consistent with some other studies, which emphasized that mushrooms from heavily polluted areas, such as in the vicinity of smelters, accumulate extremely high amounts of metals, and should therefore be omitted from human consumption.

  7. Garbage Composting for Mushroom Production

    PubMed Central

    Block, S. S.

    1965-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot-plant composting of garbage mixtures of newspaper and vegetable waste has demonstrated that garbage can be converted to a medium that produces mushrooms (Agaricus campestris) in good yield. Sewage sludge was less satisfactory than newspaper, gumwood sawdust, or vegetable waste as a compost material for growing mushrooms. A sample of commercially produced compost was found to yield mushrooms in the same quantity as was produced in the laboratory experiments. Images Fig. 3 PMID:14264848

  8. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of mycelia of 10 wild mushroom species.

    PubMed

    Kalyoncu, Fatih; Oskay, Mustafa; Sağlam, Hüsniye; Erdoğan, Tuğçe Fafal; Tamer, A Usame

    2010-04-01

    Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of mycelia obtained from 10 wild edible mushrooms-Armillaria mellea, Meripilus giganteus, Morchella costata, Morchella elata, Morchella esculenta var. vulgaris, Morchella hortensis, Morchella rotunda, Paxillus involutus, Pleurotus eryngii, and Pleurotus ostreatus-were investigated. For determination of antimicrobial activities of these mushrooms, ethanol extracts were examined with 11 test microorganisms by the agar well diffusion method. P. ostreatus and M. giganteus were the most active species against both bacteria and yeast. Antioxidant properties of ethanol extracts were studied by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging method. Among the mushroom extracts, M. elata showed the most potent radical scavenging activity. This research has shown that these 10 wild macrofungi have potential as natural antioxidants and antibiotics.

  9. Cholesterol-lowering effect of the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus in hereditary hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Bobek, P; Ginter, E; Jurcovicová, M; Kuniak, L

    1991-01-01

    We studied the effect of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (4% in diet containing 1% of cholesterol) on serum and liver lipids in female rats with hereditary enhanced sensitivity to alimentary cholesterol. We found that the consumption of the mushroom-containing diet prevented serum cholesterol increase which was manifested at the end of the 4th week of the experiment. At the end of the 7th week of the experiment the cholesterolemia was lowered by almost 40% as compared with control animals kept on the same diet but without the mushroom. The decrease in serum cholesterol levels is a consequence of the decreased cholesterol concentrations of very-low-density lipoproteins and of low-density lipoproteins.

  10. Experimental evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of Oyster mushroom Pleurotus florida

    PubMed Central

    Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Rai, Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Background: Edible mushrooms have been used as flavorful foods and as health nutritional supplements for several centuries. A number of bioactive molecules have been identified in numerous mushroom species Objective: To evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus florida using various experimental models in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity studies were performed whereby dose of 250 mg/ kg and 500 mg/kg was selected for present study, Analgesic activity was determined using hot plate method, tail flick method, acetic acid induced writhing and formalin induced pain in rats, while carrageenan was used to induce inflammation and anti-inflammatory studies were performed. Results: HEE showed significant (P < 0.01) analgesic and anti-inflammatory response against all experimental models. Conclusion: These studies conclude that Pleurotus florida possesses analgesic and anti- inflammatory potential which might be due to presence of myochemicals like flavonoids, phenolics and polysaccharides. PMID:23543896

  11. Experimental evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of Oyster mushroom Pleurotus florida.

    PubMed

    Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Rai, Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Edible mushrooms have been used as flavorful foods and as health nutritional supplements for several centuries. A number of bioactive molecules have been identified in numerous mushroom species. To evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus florida using various experimental models in Wistar rats. Acute toxicity studies were performed whereby dose of 250 mg/ kg and 500 mg/kg was selected for present study, Analgesic activity was determined using hot plate method, tail flick method, acetic acid induced writhing and formalin induced pain in rats, while carrageenan was used to induce inflammation and anti-inflammatory studies were performed. HEE showed significant (P < 0.01) analgesic and anti-inflammatory response against all experimental models. These studies conclude that Pleurotus florida possesses analgesic and anti- inflammatory potential which might be due to presence of myochemicals like flavonoids, phenolics and polysaccharides.

  12. Structural analysis and antioxidant activities of polysaccharide isolated from Jinqian mushroom.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Du, Yi-Qun; Wang, Jun-Hui; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Bo

    2014-03-01

    Jinqian mushroom is a precious edible mushroom with delicious taste and high nutritional value. In this paper, a polysaccharide fraction JQPs was isolated and purified from the fruiting body of Jinqian mushroom. The chemical structure, chain conformation and antioxidant activities of JQPs were investigated. The results indicated that JQPs was mainly composed of glucose with trace amounts of xylose. The backbone of JQPs consisted of β-(1 → 3)-D-glucan with β-(1 → 6)-glucosyl side chain. The chain conformation analysis showed that JQPs was a triple helical polysaccharide. The antioxidant activity tests in vitro revealed that JQPs exhibited high DPPH radical and ABTS radical scavenging activities, moderate superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, low reducing power and Fe(2+) chelating activities. The results suggested that JQPs could be used as a potential natural antioxidant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioaccumulation of Hg in the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bressa, G.; Cima, L.; Costa, P.

    1988-10-01

    The possibility of utilizing industrial, urban, and other wastes for the growth of a product which is directly edible by humans is fascinating. However, it is possible that many wastes containing toxic substances, for example, heavy metals, could reach the food chain and produce adverse effects on human health. To this end, we studied the possibility of bioaccumulation of Hg by a mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, grown on an artificial compost containing this element. Concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg of Hg as Hg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/.H/sub 2/O were added to three groups of the same compost, successively inoculated with the mycelia of the mushroom. Higher concentrations strongly reduced the growth of the mycelia and therefore were not utilized. The concentrations of Hg in the substrate and in the mushroom were evaluated by AAS. The range of the accumulation factor was found to be 65-140, i.e., very marked. This finding suggests that the cultivation of P. ostreatus on substrates containing Hg from industrial and urban wastes could involve possible risks to human health.

  14. Ligninolytic peroxidase genes in the oyster mushroom genome: heterologous expression, molecular structure, catalytic and stability properties, and lignin-degrading ability

    Treesearch

    Elena Fernández-Fueyo; Francisco J Ruiz-Dueñas; María Jesús Martinez; Antonio Romero; Kenneth E Hammel; Francisco Javier Medrano; Angel T. Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Background: The genome of Pleurotus ostreatus, an important edible mushroom and a model ligninolytic organism of interest in lignocellulose biorefineries due to its ability to delignify agricultural wastes, was sequenced with the purpose of identifying and characterizing the enzymes responsible for lignin degradation. ...

  15. Hericium erinaceus (Lion’s Mane) mushroom extracts inhibit metastasis of cancer cells to the lung in CT-26 colon cancer-transplanted mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We investigated the anti-metastatic activity of four Hericium erinaceus edible mushroom extracts using CT-26 murine colon carcinoma cells as an indicator of inhibition of cell migration to the lung. Hot water (HWE) and microwaved 50% ethanol (MWE) extracts of Hericium erinaceus strongly elicited ca...

  16. Hericium erinaceus mushroom extracts protect infected mice against Salmonella typhimurium induced liver damage and mortality by activation of innate immune cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study investigated the antibacterial effect of four extracts from the fruitbody of the edible medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Hot water extract, HWE; Microwave/50% ethanol extract, MWE; Acid extract, ACE; and Alkaline extract, AKE) against murine salmonellosis. The extracts had no...

  17. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1437.307 Section 1437.307 Agriculture... Coverage Using Value § 1437.307 Mushrooms. (a) Eligible mushrooms is a value loss crop and is only compensable in accord with the restrictions of this section. To be eligible, the mushrooms must be grown as a...

  18. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1437.307 Section 1437.307 Agriculture... Coverage Using Value § 1437.307 Mushrooms. (a) Eligible mushrooms is a value loss crop and is only compensable in accord with the restrictions of this section. To be eligible, the mushrooms must be grown as a...

  19. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1437.307 Section 1437.307 Agriculture... Coverage Using Value § 1437.307 Mushrooms. (a) Eligible mushrooms is a value loss crop and is only compensable in accord with the restrictions of this section. To be eligible, the mushrooms must be grown as a...

  20. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1437.307 Section 1437.307 Agriculture... Coverage Using Value § 1437.307 Mushrooms. (a) Eligible mushrooms is a value loss crop and is only compensable in accord with the restrictions of this section. To be eligible, the mushrooms must be grown as...

  1. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1437.307 Section 1437.307 Agriculture... Coverage Using Value § 1437.307 Mushrooms. (a) Eligible mushrooms is a value loss crop and is only compensable in accord with the restrictions of this section. To be eligible, the mushrooms must be grown as...

  2. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus...

  3. Enrichment of Bread with Nutraceutical-Rich Mushrooms: Impact of Auricularia auricula (Mushroom) Flour Upon Quality Attributes of Wheat Dough and Bread.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Biao; Zhao, Liyan; Yang, Wenjian; McClements, David Julian; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-09-01

    Edible mushrooms contain a variety of bioactive molecules that may enhance human health and wellbeing. Consequently, there is increasing interest in fortifying functional foods with these nutraceutical-rich substances. However, incorporation of mushroom-based ingredients into foods should not adversely affect the quality attributes of the final product. In this study, the impact of incorporating powdered Auricularia auricula, a widely consumed edible mushroom, into bread products was examined. The rheological and structural properties of wheat dough and bread supplemented with 0% to 10% (w/w) A. auricula flour were measured. Supplementation of wheat doughs with A. auricula flour increased the peak viscosity and enhanced their water holding capacity. Rapid viscosity analysis showed that peak and final viscosities of the blended flour (wheat flour with A. auricula flour) were higher than wheat flour alone. However, dough stability and elastic modulus were reduced by blending wheat flour with A. auricula flour. SEM observation showed that doughs with up to 5% (w/w) A. auricula flour had acceptable gluten network microstructure. Characterization of the quality attributes of bread indicated that incorporation of A. auricula flour at levels >5% negatively impacted bread volume, height, texture, and appearance. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. Extracts from Flammulina velutipes Inhibit the Adhesion of Pathogenic Fungi to Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kashina, Svetlana; Villavicencio, Lérida Liss Flores; Balleza, Marco; Sabanero, Gloria Barbosa; Tsutsumi, Víctor; López, Myrna Sabanero

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, extracts from natural sources have been tested for their antifungal properties. In this aspect, Flammulina velutipes extracts possess a significant amount of branch-chained carbohydrates with mannose moieties that, hypothetically, can reduce the adhesion. Objective: In this study, we assessed the capacity of extracts from F. velutipes (wild-type AQF-1 and ATCC 34574 as the reference strain) to inhibit the adhesion of S. schenkii and C. albicans to epithelial cells. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extracts from F. velutipes strains were obtained by sonication, total carbohydrate and protein was analyzed by Dubois and Lowry methods respectively. Effect of the extracts (50, 100 and 150 μg/mL) on the fungi adhesion to host cells was evaluated after 1 h interaction, and the percentage of inhibition of adhesion was measured. After of interaction the cytoskeleton from cell was analyzed with phalloidin-FITC. Results: The extract from strain AQF-1 (50, 100 and 150 μg/mL) inhibited the adhesion of: S. schenkii in a dose-dependent manner (4.9, 7.5 and 12.7%, respectively) and C. albicans in a dose-independent manner (5.2%). The percentage of inhibition by extracts from the strain ATCC34574 at the same concentrations, shown that are dose independent for both fungi: 3.9% for S. schenkii and 2.6% for C. albicans. Conclusion: The extracts from F. velutipes inhibit the adhesion of pathogenic fungi to host cells. The mechanism molecular is unknown; however, is probably an interaction between the polysaccharides from extracts with the fungi receptors. This aspect is currently analyzed. SUMMARY The yields of mycelium from two strains of F. velutipes and the extract from it were similar.Extracts from both strains have inhibited adhesion of S. schenkii and C. albicans to epithelial cells in vitro, but the extract from strain AQF-1 was more effective.The extracts have not prevented damage to epithelial cells caused by pathogenic fungi. Abbreviation Used: YPG

  5. [Mushroom poisoning in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Brandão, José Luís; Pinheiro, J; Pinho, D; Correia da Silva, D; Fernandes, E; Fragoso, G; Costa, M I; Silva, A

    2011-12-01

    The renewed interest in mycology has been reflected in growing use of wild mushrooms in culinary, driven by its nutritional, organoleptic and commercial value. However, the international scientific literature describes several syndromes of poisoning by mushrooms. We live, therefore, a paradigm conducive to an increase of mycetism, whose diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and knowledge of clinical profiles. In Portugal, the real dimension of this problem is unknown. Although some mycetisms, such as the hepatotoxic syndrome, have high morbidity and mortality, their relative incidences are unknown. Add up to the shortage of international scientific literature, often outdated and inappropriate to clinical practice. In this context, this article provides an updated epidemiological and clinical perspective emphasizing a narrative and descriptive information on the forms of presentation, differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach, with the ultimate goal of the elaboration of a national diagram-oriented approach to decision-making diagnosis. We analyzed all the clinical records of patients admitted into ten hospitals between 1990 and 2008, notified with the code 988.1 of GDH (acute poisoning by mushrooms). There were registered demographic data, way of presentation, time between ingestion and onset of symptoms, the annual distribution, clinical profile, clinical and analytical treatment performed and complications. We identified 93 cases of acute poisoning by mushrooms, with equal gender distribution and inclusion of individuals of all age groups (from 1 to 85 years), but with greater representation from 21 to 50 years. There was a bimodal seasonal pattern, with a higher peak between September and December and a second in the spring. The hepatotoxic profile presentation corresponded to 63.4% and 31.7% of the cases to gastroenteritis syndrome. The mortality in cases of hepatotoxicity was 11.8%. The developmental profile of the rate of prothrombin time (PT

  6. Accidental mushroom poisoning mimicking stroke. A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Comelli, Ivan; Lippi, Giuseppe; De Blasio, Attilio; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2014-01-23

    We describe here a paradigmatic case of mushroom poisoning mimicking a stroke. A 64-year old male was referred to the emergency department (ED) for a car accident. He was found diaphoretic, hypotensive, bradycardic, and slightly confused at presentation. No signs of trauma were observed on physical examination. The patient had weakness of the right limbs and bilateral severe myosis. The lab tests were normal, except for leukocytosis, mild hyperglycemia, mild hyperazotemia and moderate hypokalemia. The clinical picture, with the exception of miosis, was thereby suggestive for a stroke, which was also considered the cause of the car accident. The patients' wife, who was brought later to the ED, reported that the husband had suffered a stroke 4 years earlier, with residual right hemiparesis. She also referred that the patient showed signs of diaphoresis and confusion, and the car was intentionally driven into the ditch. Among other details, she referred that the husband ate mushrooms that she had personally collected 2 hours before taking the drive. Two mg of atropine, intravenous rehydration and potassium were hence administered in the suspicion of a cholinergic toxydrome, and complete clinical remission was rapidly obtained. Among the mixture of mushrooms eaten by the patient, a mycologist identified Armillaria Mellea (an edible mushroom) and notably Inocybe Fastigiata, a toxic muscarine-containing mushroom, easily confounded with Armillaria. After observation and oral rehydration, the patient was discharged.

  7. Mushroom Polysaccharides: Chemistry and Antiobesity, Antidiabetes, Anticancer, and Antibiotic Properties in Cells, Rodents, and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Mendel

    2016-01-01

    More than 2000 species of edible and/or medicinal mushrooms have been identified to date, many of which are widely consumed, stimulating much research on their health-promoting properties. These properties are associated with bioactive compounds produced by the mushrooms, including polysaccharides. Although β-glucans (homopolysaccharides) are believed to be the major bioactive polysaccharides of mushrooms, other types of mushroom polysaccharides (heteropolysaccharides) also possess biological properties. Here we survey the chemistry of such health-promoting polysaccharides and their reported antiobesity and antidiabetic properties as well as selected anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and antiviral effects that demonstrate their multiple health-promoting potential. The associated antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulating activities in fat cells, rodents, and humans are also discussed. The mechanisms of action involve the gut microbiota, meaning the polysaccharides act as prebiotics in the digestive system. Also covered here are the nutritional, functional food, clinical, and epidemiological studies designed to assess the health-promoting properties of polysaccharides, individually and as blended mixtures, against obesity, diabetes, cancer, and infectious diseases, and suggestions for further research. The collated information and suggested research needs might guide further studies needed for a better understanding of the health-promoting properties of mushroom polysaccharides and enhance their use to help prevent and treat human chronic diseases. PMID:28231175

  8. Mushroom Polysaccharides: Chemistry and Antiobesity, Antidiabetes, Anticancer, and Antibiotic Properties in Cells, Rodents, and Humans.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel

    2016-11-29

    More than 2000 species of edible and/or medicinal mushrooms have been identified to date, many of which are widely consumed, stimulating much research on their health-promoting properties. These properties are associated with bioactive compounds produced by the mushrooms, including polysaccharides. Although β-glucans (homopolysaccharides) are believed to be the major bioactive polysaccharides of mushrooms, other types of mushroom polysaccharides (heteropolysaccharides) also possess biological properties. Here we survey the chemistry of such health-promoting polysaccharides and their reported antiobesity and antidiabetic properties as well as selected anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and antiviral effects that demonstrate their multiple health-promoting potential. The associated antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulating activities in fat cells, rodents, and humans are also discussed. The mechanisms of action involve the gut microbiota, meaning the polysaccharides act as prebiotics in the digestive system. Also covered here are the nutritional, functional food, clinical, and epidemiological studies designed to assess the health-promoting properties of polysaccharides, individually and as blended mixtures, against obesity, diabetes, cancer, and infectious diseases, and suggestions for further research. The collated information and suggested research needs might guide further studies needed for a better understanding of the health-promoting properties of mushroom polysaccharides and enhance their use to help prevent and treat human chronic diseases.

  9. Evaluation of indigenous potent mushroom growth promoting bacteria (MGPB) on Agaricus bisporus production.

    PubMed

    Zarenejad, F; Yakhchali, B; Rasooli, I

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms such as Agaricus bisporus, are cultivated for food worldwide. Fruit body initiation in Agaricus bisporus is a phase change from the vegetative to the reproductive stage which depends on the presence of a casing layer with particular physical, chemical and microbiological properties. The phase change is achieved practically by environmental manipulation and the presence of naturally occurring bacteria such as Pseuodomonas putida. In this study, 274 individual bacterial isolates were collected by screening the casing layer of 14 edible mushroom farms. The isolates were analysed with respect to biochemical properties, organic and inorganic phosphate solubilization, production of siderophore and growth in the presence of volatile compound of 1-octen-3-ol. It was found that approximately 97% of the strains were able to grow in the presence of 1-octen-3-ol and 36% were able to solubilize phosphorus. Among the isolates, 23 strains were selected as potent mushroom growth promoting bacteria (MGPB) for inoculation of the casing layer. Field experiments using these strains showed various promoting effects on production of mushroom. Finally, 2 strains (strains Bt4 and Ps7) showing the highest increase in A. bisporus production, were characterized as Pseuodomonas putida by molecular methods and identified as the best suited growth promoting inoculants for application in production farms for increasing the mushroom yield.

  10. Patterns of major metabolites biosynthesis by different mushroom fungi grown on glucose-based submerged cultures.

    PubMed

    Diamantopoulou, Panagiota; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Komaitis, Michael; Aggelis, George; Philippoussis, Antonios

    2014-07-01

    The biosynthetic potential of four basidiomycetes (Agrocybe aegerita, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma applanatum and Pleurotus pulmonarius) and one ascomycete (Morchella esculenta) was examined in regard to biomass, intracellular (endopolysaccharides and lipids) and extracellular (exopolysaccharides) compounds' production in liquid media with glucose as substrate, in static and agitated cultures. Exopolysaccharides' production presented significant negative correlation with biomass, endopolysaccharides and lipids, while biomass was positively related to the production of endopolysaccharides and lipids. Maximum values of biomass, endo- and exo-polysaccharides obtained were quite impressive: P. pulmonarius produced 22.5 g/L of biomass, A. aegerita 60.4 % (w/w) of endopolysaccharides and F. velutipes 1.2 g/L of exopolysaccharides. Polysaccharides and lipids synthesized at the early growth stages were subjected to degradation as the fermentation proceeded. Mycelial lipids of all strains were highly unsaturated, dominated by linoleic acid, whereas glucose was the main building block of endopolysaccharides. The ability of the examined mushroom fungi to synthesize in high quantities biomass and polysaccharides, products with biotechnological and medicinal interest, renders these fungi as potential candidates in sugar-based bio-refineries.

  11. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2007-12-01

    Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  12. Influence of customized cooking methods on the phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of selected species of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus spp.).

    PubMed

    Tan, Yee-Shin; Baskaran, Asweni; Nallathamby, Neeranjini; Chua, Kek-Heng; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-05-01

    Nutritional value of cooked food has been considered to be lower compared to the fresh produce. However, many reports showed that processed fruits and vegetables including mushrooms may retain antioxidant activity. Pleurotus spp. as one of the edible mushroom are in great demand globally and become one of the most popular mushrooms grown worldwide with 25-fold increase in production from 1960-2009. The effects of three different cooking methods (boiling, microwave and pressure cooking) on the antioxidant activities of six different types of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus eryngii, P citrinopileatus, P. cystidiosus P. flabellatus, P. floridanus and P. pulmonarius) were assessed. Free radical scavenging (DPPH) and reducing power (TEAC) were used to evaluate the antioxidant activities and the total phenolic contents were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Pressure cooking improved the scavenging abilities of P. floridanus (>200 %), P. flabellatus (117.6 %), and P. pulmonarius (49.1 %) compared to the uncooked samples. On the other hand, the microwaved Pleurotus eryngii showed 17 % higher in the TEAC value when compared to the uncooked sample. There was, however, no correlation between total phenolic content and antioxidant activities. There could be presence of other bioactive components in the processed mushrooms that may have contributed to the antioxidant activity. These results suggested that customized cooking method can be used to enhance the nutritional value of mushrooms and promote good health.

  13. Biodegradation of vegetable and agrowastes by Pleurotus sapidus: a novel strategy to produce mushroom with enhanced yield and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Singh, M P; Singh, V K

    2012-12-22

    Edible oyster mushroom Pleurotus sapidus was cultivated, on pea pod shell, cauliflower leaves, radish leaves, brassica straw in various combinations of paddy straw. The mushroom failed to grow on these vegetable wastes separately. However, it grew very well on these vegetable wastes when mixed with various combinations of paddy straw as substrate. Total yield and biological efficiency of the mushroom cultivated on substrate containing 20% and 30% vegetable wastes mixed with 70% and 80% (w/w) of paddy straw was found to be better, when compared with yield and efficiency obtained with paddy straw alone (100%). The protein content in the fruit bodies was found to be higher in the mushroom grown on paddy straw mixed with vegetable wastes than that obtained with paddy straw alone. Similarly, six amino acids (Leu, Ile, Val, Thr, Met and Phe) showed a significant increase when the mushroom was grown on a mixed substrate containing both vegetable wastes and paddy straw. On the contrary, the total sugar and reducing sugar content declined in the mushroom grown on the mixture of paddy straw and other wastes, when compared with the results obtained with paddy straw alone.

  14. Identification of phenolic compounds by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in seventeen species of wild mushrooms in Central Mexico and determination of their antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Yahia, Elhadi M; Gutiérrez-Orozco, Fabiola; Moreno-Pérez, Marco A

    2017-07-01

    Wild mushrooms are important for the diet of some communities in Mexico. However, limited information exists on their chemical composition, contribution to the diet, and health effects. We characterized seventeen wild mushroom species growing in the state of Queretaro in Central Mexico. Most species analyzed were edible, but also included nonedible, medicinal, poisonous and toxic specimens. Whole mushrooms (caps and stipes) were characterized for water content, color, and total content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanins. In vitro antioxidant capacity was measured by FRAP and DPPH assays. Phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by HPLC-mass spectrometry. All species analyzed were found to possess antioxidant activity in vitro and a wide range of phenolic and organic compounds were identified. Our results add to the limited information available on the composition and potential nutritional and health value of wild mushrooms. Further analyses of their bioactivities are warranted.

  15. Profile of trace elements in Parasol Mushroom (Macrolepiota procera) from Tucholskie Forest.

    PubMed

    Jarzyńska, Grażyna; Gucia, Magdalena; Kojta, Anna K; Rezulak, Katarzyna; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine 19 elements contents and bioconcentration potential in fruiting bodies of Parasol Mushroom (Macrolepiota procera) collected from the Tucholskie Forest complex in Poland. Also discussed were Cd, Pb and Hg contents of edible caps in relation to the current regulatory standards. K, P and Mg were particularly abundant in caps and stipes, median values were 38-49, 13, and 1.6-1.6 mg/g dry weight, and followed by Ca, Na and Rb at 110-540, 44-240 and 20-50 μg/g dw, respectively. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn were from less than 50 to 180 μg/g dw, while concentrations of other elements were ∼l.0 μg/g dw or less. Cu, K, Ag, Cd, Na, Rb, Zn and Hg were bioconcentrated (BCF >1), while Al, Ba, Fe, Mn, Co, Sr, Pb and Cr were not bioaccumulated (BCF <1). Cd and Pb content of Parasol Mushroom's edible caps collected from some sites in the Tucholskie Forest exceed the maximum levels set in the EU for cultivated mushrooms.

  16. Effect of superfine grinding on the physico-chemical, morphological and thermogravimetric properties of Lentinus edodes mushroom powders.

    PubMed

    Ming, Jian; Chen, Long; Hong, Hui; Li, Jinlong

    2015-09-01

    Lentinus edodes is an edible mushroom commonly known as shiitake, which is the second most produced and consumed edible mushroom in the world and is an important nutrient source in the human diet. To fully use L. edodes, the mushrooms are occasionally ground into powder as a flavourful and functional food additive. This study produces powders from the cap and stipe of Lentinus edodes mushrooms through superfine grinding. These powders are composed of sub-micron range particles with various size distributions. The superfine grinding process is then compared with shear pulverisation to determine the different effects on both the cap and stipe powders in terms of particle size and physico-chemical, morphological and thermogravimetric properties. When average particle size was reduced to 0.54 and 0.46 µm, respectively, the moisture and protein content, angles of repose and slide, and water holding capacity of the powders decreased to varied extents. However, soluble dietary fibre, water solubility index, and swelling capacity increased. Scanning electron microscope images suggested that the superfine grinding process effectively changed the original surface structure of the L. edodes powders. The curves of thermogravimetric analysis and those of the derivatives of thermogravimetry indicated that superfine grinding can improve the thermostability of L. edodes powders. Furthermore, superfinely ground L. edodes powders may be used as pharmaceutical or food additives in various fields. The present study suggests that superfinely ground L. edodes powders may be applied in various fields as pharmaceutical or food additives. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Edible Acid-Base Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mebane, Robert C.; Rybolt, Thomas R.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on the colors observed during titrations of 15 natural indicators obtained from common fruits and vegetables. These edible indicators can be used for a variety of teacher demonstrations or for simple student experiments. (JN)

  18. Edible Acid-Base Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mebane, Robert C.; Rybolt, Thomas R.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on the colors observed during titrations of 15 natural indicators obtained from common fruits and vegetables. These edible indicators can be used for a variety of teacher demonstrations or for simple student experiments. (JN)

  19. Radioactivity in mushrooms: a health hazard?

    PubMed

    Guillén, J; Baeza, A

    2014-07-01

    Mushrooms are a complementary foodstuff and considered to be consumed locally. The demand for mushrooms has increased in recent years, and the mushroom trade is becoming global. Mushroom origin is frequently obscured from the consumer. Mushrooms are considered excellent bioindicators of environmental pollution. The accumulation of radionuclides by mushrooms, which are then consumed by humans or livestock, can pose a radiological hazard. Many studies have addressed the radionuclide content in mushrooms, almost exclusively the radiocaesium content. There is a significant lack of data about their content from some of the main producer countries. An exhaustive review was carried out in order to identify which radionuclide might constitute a health hazard, and the factors conditioning it. Regulatory values for the different radionuclides were used. The worldwide range for radiocaesium, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (210)Po surpasses those values. Appropriate radiological protection requires that the content of those radionuclides in mushrooms should be monitored.

  20. [Suicide under the influence of "magic mushrooms"].

    PubMed

    Müller, Katja; Püschel, Klaus; Iwersen-Bergmann, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Psilocybin/psilocin from so-called psychoactive mushrooms causes hallucinogenic effects. Especially for people with mental or psychiatric disorders ingestion of magic mushrooms may result in horror trips combined with the intention of self-destruction and suicidal thoughts. Automutilation after consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms has already been described. Our case report demonstrates the suicide of a man by self-inflicted cut and stab injuries. A causal connection between suicidal behaviour and previous ingestion of psychoactive mushrooms is discussed.

  1. Effect of dose rate of gamma irradiation on biochemical quality and browning of mushrooms Agaricus bisporus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, M.; D'Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    In order to enhance the shelf-life of edible mature mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionising treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h ( I-) and 32 kGy/h ( I+). Both I+ and I- showed 2 and 4 days shelf-life enhancement compared to the control ( C). Before day 9, no significant difference ( p>0.05) in L* value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L* value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I-. Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I- contained more phenols than I+ and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analysed via catechol oxidase and dopa oxidase substrates, resulted in being significantly lowered ( p⩽0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I+. Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I+, contrasting with its lower phenol concentration. Ionising treatments also increased significantly ( p⩽0.05) the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. The observation of mushrooms cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I- than in I+. It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I+ was caused by both the decompartimentation of vacuolar phenol and by the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning in I+ than in I-.

  2. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...

  3. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...

  4. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...

  5. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  6. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  7. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus (Psalliota...—consisting of whole mushrooms with attached stems not exceeding 5 millimeters (0.2 inch) in length, measured from the bottom of the veil. (ii) Whole—consisting of whole mushrooms with attached stems cut to a...

  8. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus (Psalliota...—consisting of whole mushrooms with attached stems not exceeding 5 millimeters (0.2 inch) in length, measured from the bottom of the veil. (ii) Whole—consisting of whole mushrooms with attached stems cut to a...

  9. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus (Psalliota...—consisting of whole mushrooms with attached stems not exceeding 5 millimeters (0.2 inch) in length, measured from the bottom of the veil. (ii) Whole—consisting of whole mushrooms with attached stems cut to a...

  10. Degradation of aflatoxin B1 from naturally contaminated maize using the edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lauren W; Pryor, Barry M

    2017-12-01

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic secondary metabolites that can contaminate approximately 25% of crops and that cause or exacerbate multiple adverse health conditions, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and South and Southeast Asia. Regulation and decontamination of aflatoxins in high exposure areas is lacking. Biological detoxification methods are promising because they are assumed to be cheaper and more environmentally friendly compared to chemical alternatives. White-rot fungi produce non-specific enzymes that are known to degrade aflatoxin in in situ and ex situ experiments. The aims of this study were to (1) decontaminate aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in naturally contaminated maize with the edible, white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) using a solid-state fermentation system that followed standard cultivation techniques, and to (2) and to assess the risk of mutagenicity in the resulting breakdown products and mushrooms. Vegetative growth and yield characteristics of P. ostreatus were not inhibited by the presence of AFB1. AFB1 was degraded by up to 94% by the Blue strain. No aflatoxin could be detected in P. ostreatus mushrooms produced from AFB1-contaminated maize. Moreover, the mutagenicity of breakdown products from the maize substrate, and reversion of breakdown products to the parent compound, were minimal. These results suggest that P. ostreatus significantly degrades AFB1 in naturally contaminated maize under standard cultivation techniques to levels that are acceptable for some livestock fodder, and that using P. ostreatus to bioconvert crops into mushrooms can reduce AFB1-related losses.

  11. Chemical Composition of Ethanolic Extracts of Some Wild Mushrooms from Tanzania and Their Medicinal Potentials.

    PubMed

    Chelela, Baraka Luca; Chacha, Musa; Matemu, Athanasia

    2016-01-01

    The ethanolic extracts of 5 edible and inedible wild mushrooms collected from the Southern Highlands of Tanzania were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 75 chemical compounds were obtained, mainly fatty acids, carotenoids, alkaloids, phenols, terpernes, steroids, pyranoside, saccharides, and amino acids. Chemical compounds were identified from the ethanolic extract of Russula cellulata, R. kivuensis, Lactarius densifolius, L. gymnocarpoides, and Lactarius sp. In addition, mass spectra of 4 major groups of compounds were also determined. This study confirms the presence of some important bioactive compounds, such as essential fatty acids (oleic and linoleic), amino acids, and carotenoids. The reported chemical profiles give an insight into the use of wild mushrooms as a potential source of bioactive compounds for nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

  12. The famous cultivated mushroom Bailinggu is a separate species of the Pleurotus eryngii species complex

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mengran; Zhang, Jinxia; Chen, Qiang; Wu, Xiangli; Gao, Wei; Deng, Wangqiu; Huang, Chenyang

    2016-01-01

    The mushroom of the genus Pleurotus in western China, called Bailinggu, is a precious edible fungus with high economic value. However, its taxonomical position is unclear. Some researchers regard it as a variety of P. eryngii, namely P. eryngii var. tuoliensis, whereas others consider it to be a subspecies of P. eryngii, viz. P. eryngii subsp. tuoliensis. A total of 51 samples representing seven genetic groups of the genus Pleurotus were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of the translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene (ef1a), the RNA polymerase II largest subunit gene (rpb1), the RNA polymerase II second largest subunit gene (rpb2) and nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS). Our data indicate that the mushroom Bailinggu is a lineage independent of P. eryngii and should be lifted as its own species, namely P. tuoliensis. In addition, its known distribution range consists of both western China and Iran. PMID:27629112

  13. Free amino acid profiling in the giant puffball mushroom (Calvatia gigantea) using UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Kıvrak, İbrahim; Kıvrak, Şeyda; Harmandar, Mansur

    2014-09-01

    Wild edible and medicinal mushroom, Calvatia gigantea, was quantitatively analyzed for the determination of its free amino acids using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The concentrations of total free amino acids, essential and non-essential amino acids were 199.65 mg/100 g, 113.69 mg/100 g, and 85.96 mg/100 g in C. gigantea, respectively. This study showed that C. gigantea, so called a giant puffball mushroom, has free amino acids content. The essential amino acids: tryptophan, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, leucine, threonine, lysine, histidine, methionine, and the non-essential amino acids: tyrosine, 4-hyrdroxy proline, arginine, proline, glycine, serine, alanine, glutamine, glutamic acid, aspargine, aspartic acid were detected.

  14. Separative determination of ascorbic acid analogs contained in mushrooms by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Okamura, M

    1998-02-01

    Analogs (6-deoxyascorbic acid, erythroascorbic acid, and associated glycosides) of L-ascorbic acid (AA) contained in mushrooms were allowed to react with hydrazine to form osazones, and the conditions for separative determination by HPLC using a Zorbax SIL column were examined. Separation was started using solvent system 1 (ethylacetate/n-hexane/acetone/acetic acid, 50:50:1:1, v/v) as the mobile phase, and switching after 15 min to solvent system 2 (ethylacetate/acetone/acetic acid, 100:1:1, v/v). Detection was performed by absorbance at 500 nm. Because these analogs showed different formation rates for osazone, calibration curves were prepared for each substance. The recovery rate in the load test was 93-105%. By this method, AA and the analogs contained in eight species of edible mushrooms have been determined. The results revealed that: (1) the main constituents of all mushrooms are AA analogs rather than AA itself; (2) only one species contained AA in a very small amount (2 mumol/kg); (3) the types of AA analogs present differed according to the species of mushrooms, and (4) the total amount of AA analogs was between ca. 100-500 mumol/kg (2-9 mg per 100 g, converted to AA). In addition, a new AA analog was found in Pleurotus ostreatus and identified as 5-O-(alpha-D-xylopyranosyl)-D-erythroascorbic acid in structural analyses by NMR and other methods.

  15. Multielemental analysis of 20 mushroom species growing near a heavily trafficked road in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, M; Niedzielski, P; Kalač, P; Budka, A; Siwulski, M; Gąsecka, M; Rzymski, P; Magdziak, Z; Sobieralski, K

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to compare 10 mostly edible aboveground and 10 wood-growing mushroom species collected near a heavily trafficked road (approximately 28,000 vehicles per 24 h) in Poland with regard to their capacity to accumulate 26 trace elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, In, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Re, Sb, Se, Sr, Te, Tl, and Zn) in their fruit bodies in order to illustrate mushroom diversity in element accumulation. All analyses were performed using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) spectrometer in synchronous dual view mode. The aboveground species had significantly higher levels of 12 elements, including Ag, As, Pb, and Se, compared to the wood-growing species. An opposite relationship was observed only for Au, Ba, and Sr. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) implied some new relationships among the analyzed species and elements. Of the analyzed mushroom species, lead content in Macrolepiota procera would seem to pose a health risk; however, at present knowledge regarding lead bioaccessibility from mushrooms is quite limited.

  16. Epidemiology and clinics of mushroom poisoning in Northern Italy: A 21-year retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Cervellin, G; Comelli, I; Rastelli, G; Sanchis-Gomar, F; Negri, F; De Luca, C; Lippi, G

    2017-01-01

    Limited information exists about epidemiology and management of mushroom poisoning. We analyzed and described epidemiology, clinical presentation, and clinical course of mushroom-poisoned patients admitted to emergency departments (EDs) of the Province of Parma, Italy. Data from the database of mycological service were matched with clinical information retrieved from hospitals' database, from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2016. Mycologist consultation was obtained in 379/443 identified mushroom poisonings. A remarkable seasonality was found, with significant peak in autumn. Thanks to the collaboration, the implicated species could be identified in 397 cases (89.6%); 108 cases (24.4%) were due to edible mushrooms, Boletus edulis being the most represented (63 cases). Overall, 408 (92%) cases presented with gastrointestinal toxicity. Twenty cases of amatoxin poisoning were recorded (11 Amanita phalloides and 9 Lepiota brunneoincarnata). One liver transplantation was needed. We observed 13 cases of cholinergic toxicity and 2 cases of hallucinogenic toxicity. Finally, 46 cases were due to "mixed" toxicities, and a total of 69 needed hospitalization. Early identification and management of potentially life-threatening cases is challenging in the ED, so that a mycologist service on call is highly advisable, especially during periods characterized by the highest incidence of poisoning.

  17. Quantum mushroom billiards

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Alex H.; Betcke, Timo

    2007-12-15

    We report the first large-scale statistical study of very high-lying eigenmodes (quantum states) of the mushroom billiard proposed by L. A. Bunimovich [Chaos 11, 802 (2001)]. The phase space of this mixed system is unusual in that it has a single regular region and a single chaotic region, and no KAM hierarchy. We verify Percival's conjecture to high accuracy (1.7%). We propose a model for dynamical tunneling and show that it predicts well the chaotic components of predominantly regular modes. Our model explains our observed density of such superpositions dying as E{sup -1/3} (E is the eigenvalue). We compare eigenvalue spacing distributions against Random Matrix Theory expectations, using 16 000 odd modes (an order of magnitude more than any existing study). We outline new variants of mesh-free boundary collocation methods which enable us to achieve high accuracy and high mode numbers ({approx}10{sup 5}) orders of magnitude faster than with competing methods.

  18. Metals in edible seaweed.

    PubMed

    Rubio, C; Napoleone, G; Luis-González, G; Gutiérrez, A J; González-Weller, D; Hardisson, A; Revert, C

    2017-04-01

    The concentration levels of 20 metals were analyzed by ICP-OES in edible seaweed (Chondrus, Eisenia, Gelidium, Himanthalia, Laminaria, Palmaria, Porphyra, Undaria), from two origins (Asia vs EU) according to their cultivation practices (conventional vs organic). Red seaweed showed higher concentrations of trace and toxic elements. Porphyra may be used as a potential bioindicator for metals. Significant differences were found between the Asian vs European mean contents. The mean Cd level from the conventional cultivation (0.28 mg/kg) was two points higher than the organic cultivation (0.13 mg/kg). A daily consumption of seaweed (4 g/day) contributes to the dietary intake of metals, mainly Mg and Cr. The average intakes of Al, Cd and Pb were 0.064, 0.001 and 0.0003 mg/day, respectively. Based on obtained results, this study suggests that exposure to the toxic metals analyzed (Al, Cd and Pb) through seaweed consumption does not raise serious health concerns, but other toxic metals should be monitored. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Wild Edible Plants Used by the Polish Community in Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kujawska, Monika; Łuczaj, Łukasz

    We studied the cultural significance of wild edible plants for Eastern European migrants who settled in rural subtropical areas of South America. In 50 interviews with Polish migrants and their descendants in northern Misiones, Argentina, we recorded the use of 41 botanical species and two mushroom taxa. Different cultural significance indices were applied and sociodemographic factors such as gender, age and origin were addressed. Out of the ten most salient species, nine were fruits (Eugenia uniflora, Eugenia involucrata, Rollinia salicifolia, Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Syagrus romanzoffiana, Allophylus edulis, Plinia peruviana, Plinia rivularis, Eugenia pyriformis) and only one was a green vegetable (Hypochaeris chillensis). None of our informants reported famine foods, recreational teas or condiments. Men mentioned more wild edible species than women due to their more extensive knowledge of the forest plants growing further from settlements.

  20. Mushroom keratoplasty in pediatric patients☆

    PubMed Central

    Busin, Massimo; Beltz, Jacqueline; Scorcia, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the outcome of mushroom keratoplasty for the treatment of full thickness corneal disease in pediatric patients with healthy endothelium. Methods A retrospective analysis of pediatric patients who underwent mushroom keratoplasty. The medical records of pediatric patients suffering from full thickness corneal stromal disease with normal endothelium who underwent mushroom keratoplasty at our Institution were included. A two-piece donor graft consisting of a large anterior stromal lamella (9.0 mm in diameter and ±250 μm in thickness) and a small posterior lamella (5–6.5 mm in diameter) including deep stroma and endothelium, prepared with the aid of a microkeratome had been transplanted in all cases. Ophthalmic examination including slit lamp examination, best corrected visual acuity, and corneal topography was performed preoperatively and at each postoperative visit on all patients. The endothelial cells were assessed by specular microscopy in these patients. Results Six eyes of six patients (five males and one female) were included. The mean age was 9.3 years (range 5–15 years). Average follow-up was 17.8 months (range 9–48 months). There were no early or late complications recorded. All corneas were clear at the last follow up visit. Preoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was worse than 20/70 in all six eyes. Postoperatively, four eyes achieved BCVA of 20/40 or better. Endothelial cell loss (n eyes = 3 averaged 24% (range 19–31%). The mean endothelial cell loss was 24% (range 19–31%) among these patients. Conclusions Microkeratome assisted mushroom keratoplasty is a viable surgical option for pediatric eyes with full thickness corneal stromal disease and healthy endothelium. Mushroom keratoplasty combines the refractive advantage of a large penetrating keratoplasty with the survival advantage of a small penetrating keratoplasty. Furthermore, mushroom keratoplasty exhibits the mechanical advantage of a shaped

  1. Edible insects are the future?

    PubMed

    van Huis, Arnold

    2016-08-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy.

  2. Modern aspects of mushroom culture technology.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, C

    2004-06-01

    The production and culture of new species of mushrooms is increasing. The breeding of new strains has significantly improved, allowing the use of strains with high yield and resistance to diseases, increasing productivity and diminishing the use of chemicals for pest control. The improvement and development of modern technologies, such as computerized control, automated mushroom harvesting, preparation of compost, production of mushrooms in a non-composted substrate, and new methods of substrate sterilization and spawn preparation, will increase the productivity of mushroom culture. All these aspects are crucial for the production of mushrooms with better flavor, appearance, texture, nutritional qualities, and medicinal properties at low cost. Mushroom culture is a biotechnological process that recycles ligninocellulosic wastes, since mushrooms are food for human consumption and the spent substrate can be used in different ways.

  3. Bird fanciers lung in mushroom workers.

    PubMed

    Hayes, J; Barrett, M

    2015-04-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis has been described in mushrooms workers caused by exposure to mushroom or fungal spores in the compost used to grow mushrooms. We describe two mushroom workers who developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to exposure to avian proteins found in poultry manure which was used in producing mushroom compost. Both workers were employed in the compost production area. Both presented with typical features of HP. Both workers had negative serological and precipitin studies to Apergillus fumigatus, Saccarhopolyspora rectivirgula and thermophilic actinomycetes but had positive responses to poultry antibodies. Neither was exposed to mushroom spores. Both workers required initial therapy with corticosteroids. Relocation with avoidance of further exposure resulted in complete cure in one worker and change in work practice with the use of personal protections equipment resulted in the second workerclinical stabilisation. These are the first reported cases of bird fanciers lung in mushroom workers.

  4. The Genetic Linkage Map of the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Reveals Highly Conserved Macrosynteny with the Congeneric Species Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Rocha de Brito, Manuela; Cabannes, Delphine; Clément, Aurélien; Spataro, Cathy; Moinard, Magalie; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Callac, Philippe; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2016-05-03

    Comparative linkage mapping can rapidly facilitate the transfer of genetic information from model species to orphan species. This macrosynteny analysis approach has been extensively used in plant species, but few example are available in fungi, and even fewer in mushroom crop species. Among the latter, the Agaricus genus comprises the most cultivable or potentially cultivable species. Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom, is the model for edible and cultivable mushrooms. We have developed the first genetic linkage map for the basidiomycete A. subrufescens, an emerging mushroom crop known for its therapeutic properties and potential medicinal applications. The map includes 202 markers distributed over 16 linkage groups (LG), and covers a total length of 1701 cM, with an average marker spacing of 8.2 cM. Using 96 homologous loci, we also demonstrated the high level of macrosynteny with the genome of A. bisporus The 13 main LG of A. subrufescens were syntenic to the 13 A. bisporus chromosomes. A disrupted synteny was observed for the three remaining A. subrufescens LG. Electronic mapping of a collection of A. subrufescens expressed sequence tags on A. bisporus genome showed that the homologous loci were evenly spread, with the exception of a few local hot or cold spots of homology. Our results were discussed in the light of Agaricus species evolution process. The map provides a framework for future genetic or genomic studies of the medicinal mushroom A. subrufescens.

  5. Exceedingly biocompatible and thin-layered reduced graphene oxide nanosheets using an eco-friendly mushroom extract strategy

    PubMed Central

    Muthoosamy, Kasturi; Bai, Renu Geetha; Abubakar, Ibrahim Babangida; Sudheer, Surya Mudavasseril; Lim, Hong Ngee; Loh, Hwei-San; Huang, Nay Ming; Chia, Chin Hua; Manickam, Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A simple, one-pot strategy was used to synthesize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets by utilizing an easily available over-the-counter medicinal and edible mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum. Methods The mushroom was boiled in hot water to liberate the polysaccharides, the extract of which was then used directly for the reduction of graphene oxide. The abundance of polysaccharides present in the mushroom serves as a good reducing agent. The proposed strategy evades the use of harmful and expensive chemicals and avoids the typical tedious reaction methods. Results More importantly, the mushroom extract can be easily separated from the product without generating any residual byproducts and can be reused at least three times with good conversion efficiency (75%). It was readily dispersible in water without the need of ultrasonication or any surfactants; whereas 5 minutes of ultrasonication with various solvents produced RGO which was stable for the tested period of 1 year. Based on electrochemical measurements, the followed method did not jeopardize RGO’s electrical conductivity. Moreover, the obtained RGO was highly biocompatible to not only colon (HT-29) and brain (U87MG) cancer cells, but was also viable towards normal cells (MRC-5). Conclusion Besides being eco-friendly, this mushroom based approach is easily scalable and demonstrates remarkable RGO stability and biocompatibility, even without any form of functionalization. PMID:25759577

  6. Exceedingly biocompatible and thin-layered reduced graphene oxide nanosheets using an eco-friendly mushroom extract strategy.

    PubMed

    Muthoosamy, Kasturi; Bai, Renu Geetha; Abubakar, Ibrahim Babangida; Sudheer, Surya Mudavasseril; Lim, Hong Ngee; Loh, Hwei-San; Huang, Nay Ming; Chia, Chin Hua; Manickam, Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    A simple, one-pot strategy was used to synthesize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets by utilizing an easily available over-the-counter medicinal and edible mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum. The mushroom was boiled in hot water to liberate the polysaccharides, the extract of which was then used directly for the reduction of graphene oxide. The abundance of polysaccharides present in the mushroom serves as a good reducing agent. The proposed strategy evades the use of harmful and expensive chemicals and avoids the typical tedious reaction methods. More importantly, the mushroom extract can be easily separated from the product without generating any residual byproducts and can be reused at least three times with good conversion efficiency (75%). It was readily dispersible in water without the need of ultrasonication or any surfactants; whereas 5 minutes of ultrasonication with various solvents produced RGO which was stable for the tested period of 1 year. Based on electrochemical measurements, the followed method did not jeopardize RGO's electrical conductivity. Moreover, the obtained RGO was highly biocompatible to not only colon (HT-29) and brain (U87MG) cancer cells, but was also viable towards normal cells (MRC-5). Besides being eco-friendly, this mushroom based approach is easily scalable and demonstrates remarkable RGO stability and biocompatibility, even without any form of functionalization.

  7. Traceability of Boletaceae Mushrooms Using Data Fusion of UV-vis and FT-IR Combined with Chemometrics Methods.

    PubMed

    Yao, Sen; Li, Tao; Liu, HongGao; Li, JieQing; Wang, YuanZhong

    2017-09-30

    Boletaceae mushrooms are wild-grown edible mushrooms which have high nutrition, delicious flavor and large economic value distributing in Yunnan Province, China. Traceability is important for the authentication and quality assessment of Boletaceae mushrooms. In this study, ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopies were applied for traceability of 247 Boletaceae mushroom samples in combination with chemometrics. Compared with single spectroscopy technique, data fusion strategy can obviously improve the classification performance in PLS-DA and GS-SVM models, both species and geographical origins traceabilities. In addition, PLS-DA and GS-SVM models can provide 100.00% accuracy for species traceability, and have reliable evaluation parameters. For geographical origins traceability, the accuracy of prediction in PLS-DA model by data fusion was just 64.63%, but the GS-SVM model based on data fusion was 100.00%. The results demonstrated that data fusion strategy of UV-vis and FT-IR combined with GS-SVM could provide the higher synergic effect for traceability of Boletaceae mushrooms and have a good generalization ability for the comprehensive quality control and evaluation of similar food. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. An improved sequence-aided T-RFLP analysis of bacterial succession during oyster mushroom substrate preparation.

    PubMed

    Vajna, Balázs; Szili, Dániel; Nagy, Adrienn; Márialigeti, Károly

    2012-10-01

    While oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) is one of the most popular cultivated edible mushrooms, there is scanty information about the microbial community taking part in mushroom substrate production. In this study, an improved sequence-aided terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) was used to identify and (semi-)quantify the dominant bacteria of oyster mushroom substrate preparation. The main features of the improved T-RFLP data analysis were the alignment of chromatograms with variable clustering thresholds, the visualization of data matrix with principal component analysis ordination superimposed with cluster analysis, and the search for stage-specific peaks (bacterial taxa) with similarity percentage (analysis of similarity) analysis, followed by identification with clone libraries. By applying this method, the dominance of the following bacterial genera was revealed during oyster mushroom substrate preparation: Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas at startup, Bacillus, Geobacillus, Ureibacillus, Pseudoxanthomonas, and Thermobispora at the end of partial composting, and finally several genera of Actinobacteria, Thermus, Bacillus, Geobacillus, Thermobacillus, and Ureibacillus in the mature substrate. As the proportion of uncultured bacteria increased during the process, it is worth establishing strain collections from partial composting and from mature substrate for searching new species.

  9. The Genetic Linkage Map of the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Reveals Highly Conserved Macrosynteny with the Congeneric Species Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Rocha de Brito, Manuela; Cabannes, Delphine; Clément, Aurélien; Spataro, Cathy; Moinard, Magalie; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Callac, Philippe; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Comparative linkage mapping can rapidly facilitate the transfer of genetic information from model species to orphan species. This macrosynteny analysis approach has been extensively used in plant species, but few example are available in fungi, and even fewer in mushroom crop species. Among the latter, the Agaricus genus comprises the most cultivable or potentially cultivable species. Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom, is the model for edible and cultivable mushrooms. We have developed the first genetic linkage map for the basidiomycete A. subrufescens, an emerging mushroom crop known for its therapeutic properties and potential medicinal applications. The map includes 202 markers distributed over 16 linkage groups (LG), and covers a total length of 1701 cM, with an average marker spacing of 8.2 cM. Using 96 homologous loci, we also demonstrated the high level of macrosynteny with the genome of A. bisporus. The 13 main LG of A. subrufescens were syntenic to the 13 A. bisporus chromosomes. A disrupted synteny was observed for the three remaining A. subrufescens LG. Electronic mapping of a collection of A. subrufescens expressed sequence tags on A. bisporus genome showed that the homologous loci were evenly spread, with the exception of a few local hot or cold spots of homology. Our results were discussed in the light of Agaricus species evolution process. The map provides a framework for future genetic or genomic studies of the medicinal mushroom A. subrufescens. PMID:26921302

  10. Alleviation of Dermatophagoides microceras-induced allergy by an immunomodulatory protein, FIP-fve, from Flammulina velutipes in mice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Chi; Hsiao, Yi-Min; Hung, Shao-Chi; Chen, Ya-Wen; Ou, Chu-Chyn; Chang, Wei-Ting; Lue, Ko-Huang; Ko, Jiunn-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a major public health concern. Its greatest risk factor is house dust mite (HDM). Dermatophagoides microceras (Der m) is a type of HDM, and in central Taiwan, there is approximately 80% prevalence of sensitization to Der m. FIP-fve is a fungal immunomodulatory protein (FIP) isolated from the fungus Flammulina velutipes, and exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. To investigate whether FIP-fve affects Der m-induced asthma and inflammation, we evaluated hyper-responsiveness (AHR), pathological changes, and cytokines in mice. We demonstrated that oral FIP-fve decreased Der m-induced airway AHR, airway inflammation, cell infiltration, and expression of cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of Balb/c mice. The results of this study suggest that FIP-fve suppresses asthma, inflammation, and respiratory pathogenesis stimulated by Der m. FIP-fve is able to maintain immunomodulatory activity even in simulated gastric fluid and intestinal fluid. FIP-fve could be a safe and stable agent for suppression of allergic asthma.

  11. 7 CFR 981.7 - Edible kernel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Edible kernel. 981.7 Section 981.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.7 Edible kernel. Edible kernel means a kernel, piece, or particle...

  12. Antimicrobial edible films and coatings.

    PubMed

    Cagri, Arzu; Ustunol, Zeynep; Ryser, Elliot T

    2004-04-01

    Increasing consumer demand for microbiologically safer foods, greater convenience, smaller packages, and longer product shelf life is forcing the industry to develop new food-processing, cooking, handling, and packaging strategies. Nonfluid ready-to-eat foods are frequently exposed to postprocess surface contamination, leading to a reduction in shelf life. The food industry has at its disposal a wide range of nonedible polypropylene- and polyethylene-based packaging materials and various biodegradable protein- and polysaccharide-based edible films that can potentially serve as packaging materials. Research on the use of edible films as packaging materials continues because of the potential for these films to enhance food quality, food safety, and product shelf life. Besides acting as a barrier against mass diffusion (moisture, gases, and volatiles), edible films can serve as carriers for a wide range of food additives, including flavoring agents, antioxidants, vitamins, and colorants. When antimicrobial agents such as benzoic acid, sorbic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, nisin, and lysozyme have been incorporated into edible films, such films retarded surface growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds on a wide range of products, including meats and cheeses. Various antimicrobial edible films have been developed to minimize growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, including Listeria monocytogenes, which may contaminate the surface of cooked ready-to-eat foods after processing. Here, we review the various types of protein-based (wheat gluten, collagen, corn zein, soy, casein, and whey protein), polysaccharide-based (cellulose, chitosan, alginate, starch, pectin, and dextrin), and lipid-based (waxes, acylglycerols, and fatty acids) edible films and a wide range of antimicrobial agents that have been or could potentially be incorporated into such films during manufacture to enhance the safety and shelf life of ready-to-eat foods.

  13. The "Mushroom Cloud" Demonstration Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panzarasa, Guido; Sparnacci, Katia

    2013-01-01

    A revisitation of the classical "mushroom cloud" demonstration is described. Instead of aniline and benzoyl peroxide, the proposed reaction involves household chemicals such as alpha-pinene (turpentine oil) and trichloroisocyanuric acid ("Trichlor") giving an impressive demonstration of oxidation and combustion reactions that…

  14. The "Mushroom Cloud" Demonstration Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panzarasa, Guido; Sparnacci, Katia

    2013-01-01

    A revisitation of the classical "mushroom cloud" demonstration is described. Instead of aniline and benzoyl peroxide, the proposed reaction involves household chemicals such as alpha-pinene (turpentine oil) and trichloroisocyanuric acid ("Trichlor") giving an impressive demonstration of oxidation and combustion reactions that…

  15. The Mushroom Place. Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlichter, Carol

    1978-01-01

    The final installment of a series of articles on the "Mushroom Place" learning center program, which involves creative thinking activities for young, gifted students, describes "Doing It the Hard Way," a performance task which involves the actual construction of objects from a selected set of materials in the absence of the usual project tools.…

  16. The Mushroom Place. Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlichter, Carol

    1978-01-01

    The final installment of a series of articles on the "Mushroom Place" learning center program, which involves creative thinking activities for young, gifted students, describes "Doing It the Hard Way," a performance task which involves the actual construction of objects from a selected set of materials in the absence of the usual project tools.…

  17. Rapid and reliable species identification of wild mushrooms by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Ryota; Yamada, Sayumi; Tu, Zhihao; Sugawara, Akiko; Suzuki, Kousuke; Hoshiba, Toshihiro; Eisaka, Sadao; Yamaguchi, Akihiro

    2016-08-31

    Mushrooms are a favourite natural food in many countries. However, some wild species cause food poisoning, sometimes lethal, due to misidentification caused by confusing fruiting bodies similar to those of edible species. The morphological inspection of mycelia, spores and fruiting bodies have been traditionally used for the identification of mushrooms. More recently, DNA sequencing analysis has been successfully applied to mushrooms and to many other species. This study focuses on a simpler and more rapid methodology for the identification of wild mushrooms via protein profiling based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A preliminary study using 6 commercially available cultivated mushrooms suggested that a more reproducible spectrum was obtained from a portion of the cap than from the stem of a fruiting body by the extraction of proteins with a formic acid-acetonitrile mixture (1 + 1). We used 157 wild mushroom-fruiting bodies collected in the centre of Hokkaido from June to November 2014. Sequencing analysis of a portion of the ribosomal RNA gene provided 134 identifications of mushrooms by genus or species, however 23 samples containing 10 unknown species that had lower concordance rate of the nucleotide sequences in a BLAST search (less than 97%) and 13 samples that had unidentifiable poor or mixed sequencing signals remained unknown. MALDI-TOF MS analysis yielded a reproducible spectrum (frequency of matching score ≥ 2.0 was ≥6 spectra from 12 spectra measurements) for 114 of 157 samples. Profiling scores that matched each other within the database gave correct species identification (with scores of ≥2.0) for 110 samples (96%). An in-house prepared database was constructed from 106 independent species, except for overlapping identifications. We used 48 wild mushrooms that were collected in autumn 2015 to validate the in-house database. As a result, 21 mushrooms were identified at the species level with

  18. Mushrooms and Health Summit Proceedings123

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Dwyer, Johanna; Hasler-Lewis, Clare M.; Milner, John A.; Noakes, Manny; Rowe, Sylvia; Wach, Mark; Beelman, Robert B.; Caldwell, Joe; Cantorna, Margherita T.; Castlebury, Lisa A.; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Clemens, Roger; Drescher, Greg; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Haytowitz, David B.; Hubbard, Van S.; Law, David; Myrdal Miller, Amy; Minor, Bart; Percival, Susan S.; Riscuta, Gabriela; Schneeman, Barbara; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Toner, Cheryl D.; Woteki, Catherine E.; Wu, Dayong

    2014-01-01

    The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9–10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality. PMID:24812070

  19. Possible mechanisms of action of mushroom-derived glucans on inflammatory bowel disease and associated cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hadar, Yitzhak

    2014-01-01

    Since ancient times, medicinal mushrooms have been traditionally used as a health food or supplement for the prevention and cure of a range of health-statuses or diseases, such as overt inflammation, atherosclerosis, cancer, hypertension, diabetes and others. We concentrate in this review on the effect and putative mechanism of action of glucans harvested from fungi on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis associated cancer. Many scientists including our own group have examined the immunomodulating effect of isolated polysaccharides-glucans in general and specifically in inflammation associated with cancer. In this manuscript we reviewed the sources, the chemical composition and medicinal properties of polysaccharides extracted from edible mushrooms. In addition we brought insights into their putative mechanisms of action behind each health-promoting activity of these interesting biomolecules. The preventive and therapeutic effects of the medicinal mushrooms and their components have been well documented in mouse and rat model systems and in cancer cell lines being the most striking effects reported to their anti-inflammatory and antitumor effect. Their anticancer effects were demonstrated mainly in in vitro and in vivo experimental systems but a very limited number of studies have been conducted in human populations. We can summarize that oral consumption of several mushrooms glucans is an efficient treatment to prevent colitis-associated dysplasias through modulation of mucosal inflammation and cell proliferation. Identifying new food-derived isolates and understanding their mechanisms of action are the main challenges in using mushrooms glucans for therapeutic purposes in the field of IBD and associated cancer. Only an in-depth understanding of the mechanism of action and cross-talk between the inflammatory cell, epithelial cell and fungi derived glucans on which we have a based structural knowledge will lead to well designed intervention clinical human

  20. Medicinal mushrooms: Towards a new horizon

    PubMed Central

    Ganeshpurkar, A.; Rai, G.; Jain, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    The arising awareness about functional food has created a boom in this new millennium. Mushrooms are widely consumed by the people due to their nutritive and medicinal properties. Belonging to taxonomic category of basidiomycetes or ascomycetes, these mushrooms possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. They are also one of the richest source of anticancer and immunomodulating agents. Thus these novel myochemicals from these mushrooms are the wave of future. PMID:22228952

  1. Isolation of a novel alkaline-induced laccase from Flammulina velutipes and its application for hair coloring.

    PubMed

    Otsuka Saito, Kaori; Ikeda, Ryuzo; Endo, Katsunori; Tsujino, Yoshio; Takagi, Masahiro; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2012-05-01

    Laccase is a member of the multi-copper oxidase family and a promising for hair coloring. In this study, we isolated a novel alkaline-induced laccase from the white-rot fungus Flammulina velutipes and studied the possibility to apply the enzyme for hair coloring. Laccase activity detected in the culture supernatant of F. velutipes was found to significantly increase when exchanging the medium to laccase inducing one whose pH was adjusted to 9.0. Three isozymes were detected by activity staining on non-denaturing SDS-PAGE. The major isozyme, Flac1, was purified from the culture supernatant after being induced at pH 9.0 by ion-exchange column chromatography. The N-terminal peptide sequence of Flac1 was determined, revealing clear homology with laccases from other white-rot fungi. Optimum pH of oxidation was found to be around pH 5.0-6.5 regardless of several different substrates used. Oxidation activities of Flac1 to several hair dye agents as substrate showed the higher activity at pH 6.5 than that at pH 9.0. Oxidation activity was also detected at pH 9.0 which was suitable for hair coloring. When the purified Flac1 was applied for hair coloring system without using hydrogen peroxide, effective coloring was observed at the protein amount of 0.25mg/1g of hair used. These results indicated that this alkaline-induced novel laccase isolated from the culture supernatant of F. velutipes might be a useful enzyme for hair color. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioremediation of aflatoxin B1-contaminated maize by king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii).

    PubMed

    Branà, Maria Teresa; Cimmarusti, Maria Teresa; Haidukowski, Miriam; Logrieco, Antonio Francesco; Altomare, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most harmful mycotoxin that occurs as natural contaminant of agricultural commodities, particularly maize. Practical solutions for detoxification of contaminated staples and reduction of agricultural wastes are scarce. We investigated the capability of the white-rot and edible fungus Plerotus eryngii (king oyster mushroom) to degrade AFB1 both in vitro and in a laboratory-scale mushroom cultivation, using a substrate similar to that routinely used in mushroom farms. In malt extract broth, degradation of AFB1 (500 ng/mL) by nine isolates of P. eryngii ranged from 81 to 99% after 10 days growth, and reached 100% for all isolates after 30 days. The growth of P. eryngii on solid medium (malt extract-agar, MEA) was significantly reduced at concentrations of AFB1 500 ng/mL or higher. However, the addition of 5% wheat straw to the culture medium increased the tolerance of P. eryngii to AFB1 and no inhibition was observed at a AFB1 content of 500 ng/mL; degradation of AFB1 in MEA supplemented with 5% wheat straw and 2.5% (w/v) maize flour was 71-94% after 30 days of growth. Further, AFB1 degradation by P. eryngii strain ITEM 13681 was tested in a laboratory-scale mushroom cultivation. The mushroom growth medium contained 25% (w/w) of maize spiked with AFB1 to the final content of 128 μg/kg. Pleurotus eryngii degraded up to 86% of the AFB1 in 28 days, with no significant reduction of either biological efficiency or mushroom yield. Neither the biomass produced on the mushroom substrate nor the mature basidiocarps contained detectable levels of AFB1 or its metabolite aflatoxicol, thus ruling out the translocation of these toxins through the fungal thallus. These findings make a contribution towards the development of a novel technology for remediation of AFB1- contaminated corn through the exploitation of the degradative capability of P. eryngii and its bioconversion into high nutritional value material intended for feed production.

  3. Yield, size, nutritional value, and antioxidant activity of oyster mushrooms grown on perilla stalks.

    PubMed

    Li, Huizhen; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Mengxue; Li, Xiaojun; Sun, Ziwen

    2017-02-01

    Perilla is an edible medical plant with rapidly increasing acreage in China. In this study, we investigated the potential of perilla stalks (PSs) as an alternative substrate for the cultivation of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). P. ostreatus was cultivated on cottonseed hulls (CSH) alone or mixed with PSs in different ratios. The production parameters, physical characteristics, nutritional values, and antioxidant activity of mushrooms cultivated on different substrate mixtures were determined. The addition of PSs to CSH significantly improved the growth rate, yield, biological efficiency, and proximate composition and shortened the cultivation cycle. Cultivation on PSs alone increased the amino acid content in P. ostreatus fruiting bodies and the antioxidant activity of mushroom extracts. The PS75 (25% CSH + 75% PS) substrate was deduced to be the most effective substrate on the basis of yield and biological efficiency obtained in a large area where perilla had been planted. The results demonstrate that mixtures of PS with CSHs could be used as novel, practical, and easily accessible alternative substrates for P. ostreatus cultivation.

  4. Evaluation of the chemical and antioxidant properties of wild and cultivated mushrooms of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obodai, Mary; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Fernandes, Angela; Barros, Lillian; Mensah, Deborah L Narh; Dzomeku, Matilda; Urben, Arailde F; Prempeh, Juanita; Takli, Richard K

    2014-11-26

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of both wild and cultivated edible mushrooms in Ghana is limited. This study reports their nutritional value, composition in lipophilic and hydrophilic molecules, minerals and antioxidant properties. The samples were found to be nutritionally rich in carbohydrates, ranging from 64.14 ± 0.93 g in Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1 to 80.17 ± 0.34 g in Lentinus squarosullus strain LSF. The highest level of proteins (28.40 ± 0.86 g) was recorded in the mentioned P. ostreatus strain. Low fat contents were registered in the samples, with Auricularia auricula recording the lowest value. High levels of potassium were also observed with the following decreasing order of elements: K > P ~ Na > Mg > Ca. High levels of antioxidants were also observed, thus making mushrooms suitable to be used as functional foods or nutraceutical sources. Furthermore, this study provides new information regarding chemical properties of mushrooms from Ghana, which is very important for the biodiversity characterization of this country.

  5. Amelioration of Atherosclerosis by the New Medicinal Mushroom Grifola gargal Singer

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Etsuko; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N.; Toda, Masaaki; Morizono, Toshihiro; Chelakkot-Govindalayathil, Ayshwarya-Lakshmi; Roeen, Ziaurahman; Urawa, Masahito; Yasuma, Taro; Yano, Yutaka; Sumiya, Toshimitsu

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The beneficial effects of edible mushrooms for improving chronic intractable diseases have been documented. However, the antiatherogenic activity of the new medicinal mushroom Grifola gargal is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated whether Grifola gargal can prevent or delay the progression of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis was induced in ApoE lipoprotein-deficient mice by subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II. Grifola gargal extract (GGE) was prepared and intraperitoneally injected. The weight of heart and vessels, dilatation/atheroma formation of thoracic and abdominal aorta, the percentage of peripheral granulocytes, and the blood concentration of MCP-1/CCL2 were significantly reduced in mice treated with GGE compared to untreated mice. By contrast, the percentage of regulatory T cells and the plasma concentration of SDF-1/CXCL12 were significantly increased in mice treated with the mushroom extract compared to untreated mice. In vitro, GGE significantly increased the secretion of SDF-1/CXCL12, VEGF, and TGF-β1 from fibroblasts compared to control. This study demonstrated for the first time that Grifola gargal therapy can enhance regulatory T cells and ameliorate atherosclerosis in mice. PMID:25799023

  6. Evaluation of biomass of some invasive weed species as substrate for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) cultivation.

    PubMed

    Mintesnot, Birara; Ayalew, Amare; Kebede, Ameha

    2014-01-15

    This study assessed the bioconversion of Agriculture wastes like invasive weeds species (Lantana camara, Prosopis juliflora, Parthenium hysterophorus) as a substrate for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus species) cultivation together with wheat straw as a control. The experiment was laid out in factorial combination of substrates and three edible oyster mushroom species in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. Pleurotus ostreatus gave significantly (p < 0.01) total yield of 840 g kg(-1) on P. hysterophorus, Significantly (p < 0.01) biological efficiency (83.87%) and production rate of 3.13 was recorded for P. ostreatus grown on P. hysterophorus. The highest total ash content (13.90%) was recorded for P. florida grown on L. camara. while the lowest (6.92%) was for P. sajor-caju grown on the P. juliflora. Crude protein ranged from 40.51-41.48% for P. florida grown on P. hysterophorus and L. camara. Lowest crude protein content (30.11%) was recorded for P. ostreatus grown on wheat straw. The crude fiber content (12.73%) of P. sajor-caju grown on wheat straw was the highest. The lowest crude fiber (5.19%) was recorded for P. ostreatus on P. juliflora. Total yield had a positive and significant correlation with biological efficiency and production. Utilization of the plant biomass for mushroom cultivation could contribute to alleviating ecological impact of invasive weed species while offering practical option to mitigating hunger and malnutrition in areas where the invasive weeds became dominant.

  7. Dose rate effect of gamma irradiation on phenolic compounds, polyphenol oxidase, and browning of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, M; D'Aprano, M B; Lacroix, M

    1999-07-01

    To enhance the shelf life of edible mature mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionizing treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h (I(-)) and 32 kGy/h (I(+)). Both I(+) and I(-) showed a 2 and 4 day shelf-life enhancement compared to the control (C). Before day 9, no significant difference (p>0.05) in L value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I(-). Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I(-) contained more phenols than I(+) and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The fluctuation of the precursors of glutaminyl-4-hydroxyaniline (GHB) was less in I(-) than in I(+). The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analyzed via catechol oxidase, dopa oxidase, and tyrosine hydroxylase substrates, were found to be significantly lowered (p = 0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I(+). Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I(+), contrasting with its lower phenols concentration. The observation of mushrooms' cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I(-) than in I(+). It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I(+) was caused by both the decompartmentation of vacuolar phenol and the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning I(+) than in I(-).

  8. 3. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST (NORTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST (NORTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  9. 4. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY (CONNECTING BUILDING ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY (CONNECTING BUILDING ON THE LEFT) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  10. 1. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST (NORTHWEST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST (NORTHWEST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  11. Antioxidant Potential and DNA Damage Protection by the Slate Grey Saddle Mushroom, Helvella lacunosa (Ascomycetes), from Kashmir Himalaya (India).

    PubMed

    Shameem, Nowsheen; Kamili, Azra N; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Masoodi, F A; Parray, Javid A

    2016-01-01

    This study pertains to the radical scavenging potential of and DNA protection by Helvella lacunosa, an edible mushroom from Kashmir Himalaya (India). Different solvents, on the basis of their polarities, were used to extract all solvent-soluble bioactive compounds. Seven different antioxidant methods were also used to determine extensive radical scavenging activity. The mushroom ethanol extract and butanol extract showed effective scavenging activity of radicals at 95% and 89%, respectively. At 800 µg/mg, the ethanol extract was potent enough to protect DNA from degradation by hydroxyl radicals. It is evident from these findings that the presence of antioxidant substances signifies the use of H. lacunosa as food in the mountainous valleys of the Himalayan region.

  12. In Silico Study to Develop a Lectin-Like Protein from Mushroom Agaricus bisporus for Pharmaceutical Application

    PubMed Central

    Ismaya, Wangsa Tirta; Yunita; Damayanti, Sophi; Wijaya, Caroline; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R.; Retnoningrum, Debbie Sofie; Rachmawati, Heni

    2016-01-01

    A lectin-like protein of unknown function designated as LSMT was recently discovered in the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus. The protein shares high structural similarity to HA-33 from Clostridium botulinum (HA33) and Ricin-B-like lectin from the mushroom Clitocybe nebularis (CNL), which have been developed as drug carrier and anti-cancer, respectively. These homologous proteins display the ability to penetrate the intestinal epithelial cell monolayer, and are beneficial for oral administration. As the characteristics of LSMT are unknown, a structural study in silico was performed to assess its potential pharmaceutical application. The study suggested potential binding to target ligands such as HA-33 and CNL although the nature, specificity, capacity, mode, and strength may differ. Further molecular docking experiments suggest that interactions between the LSMT and tested ligands may take place. This finding indicates the possible use of the LSMT protein, initiating new research on its use for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:27110510

  13. Aqueous-ethanolic extract of morel mushroom mycelium Morchella esculenta, protects cisplatin and gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Nitha, B; Janardhanan, K K

    2008-09-01

    Morchella esculenta (L) Pers. is an excellently edible and delicious morel mushroom found growing in the temperate forests. The mycelium of this mushroom is widely used as a flavouring agent. The current investigation was undertaken to explore the protective effect of the aqueous-ethanol extract of cultured mycelium of M. esculenta against cisplatin and gentamicin induced acute renal toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Cisplatin and gentamicin when administered induced a marked renal failure, characterized by a significant increase in serum urea and creatinine concentrations. Treatment with the extract at 250 and 500mg/kg body weight decreased the cisplatin and gentamicin induced increase in serum creatinine and urea levels. Treatment with the extract also restored the depleted antioxidant defense system. The decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the kidneys consequent to cisplatin and gentamicin administration was significantly elevated. The enhanced renal antioxidant defense system also prevented the tissue lipid peroxidation. The experimental results suggest that aqueous-ethanol extract of morel mushroom, M. esculenta mycelium protected cisplatin and gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity possibly by enhancing renal antioxidant system. The findings thus suggest the potential therapeutic use of morel mushroom mycelium as a novel nephroprotective agent.

  14. A NIR spectroscopy-based efficient approach to detect fraudulent additions within mixtures of dried porcini mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Casale, Monica; Bagnasco, Lucia; Zotti, Mirca; Di Piazza, Simone; Sitta, Nicola; Oliveri, Paolo

    2016-11-01

    Boletus edulis and allied species (BEAS), known as "porcini mushrooms", represent almost the totality of wild mushrooms placed on the Italian market, both fresh and dehydrated. Furthermore, considerable amounts of these dried fungi are imported from China. The presence of Tylopilus spp. and other extraneous species (i.e., species edible but not belonging to BEAS) within dried porcini mushrooms - mainly from those imported from China and sold in Italy - may represent an evaluable problem from a commercial point of view. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a rapid and effective alternative to classical methods for identifying extraneous species within dried porcini batches and detecting related commercial frauds. To this goal, 80 dried fungi including BEAS, Tylopilus spp., and Boletus violaceofuscus were analysed by NIRS. For each sample, 3 different parts of the pileus (pileipellis, flesh and hymenium) were analysed and a low-level strategy for data fusion, consisting of combining the signals obtained by the different parts before data processing, was applied. Then, NIR spectra were used to develop reliable and efficient class-models using a novel method, partial least squares density modelling (PLS-DM), and the two most commonly used class-modelling techniques, UNEQ and SIMCA. The results showed that NIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometric class-modelling technique can be suggested as an effective analytical strategy to check the authenticity of dried BEAS mushrooms.

  15. Modulation of hepatocarcinogenesis in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea treated Balb/c mice by mushroom extracts.

    PubMed

    Ramsaha, Srishti; Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S; Verma, Shalini; Kumar, Ashok; Bharty, Rahul Kumar; Chaudhary, Amit Kumar; Sharma, Poornima; Singh, Ranjan Kumar; Huzar Futty Beejan, Priya; Kyung-Sun, Kang; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2016-01-01

    The hepatoprotective potential of edible mushrooms from Mauritius, namely Pleurotus sajor-caju and Agaricus bisporus was evaluated using an N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis Balb/c mice model. Mushroom extracts restored normal weight in MNU treated mice over a 3 month supplementation period. Blood parameter analyses indicated a clear modulation of hemoglobin concentration, leukocyte, platelet, lymphocyte, neutrophil, monocyte and eosinophil counts in MNU-induced mice (p < 0.05). Mushroom extract supplementation effectively reduced oxidative damage in MNU-primed mice, which was marked by a significant decrease in the extent of lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05) and a concomitant increase in the enzymatic antioxidant levels, primarily catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and peroxidase, and FRAP values (p < 0.05). DNA protective effects of the extracts were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, where, the MNU-DNA interaction, as evidenced by an intense peak at 1254 cm(-1), was normalized. The findings demonstrate hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory and anti-carcinogenic effects and suggest the use of mushrooms as potential dietary prophylactics in cancer chemoprevention.

  16. Mushroom immunomodulators: unique molecules with unlimited applications.

    PubMed

    El Enshasy, Hesham A; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2013-12-01

    For centuries, mushrooms have been used as food and medicine in different cultures. More recently, many bioactive compounds have been isolated from different types of mushrooms. Among these, immunomodulators have gained much interest based on the increasing growth of the immunotherapy sector. Mushroom immunomodulators are classified under four categories based on their chemical nature as: lectins, terpenoids, proteins, and polysaccharides. These compounds are produced naturally in mushrooms cultivated in greenhouses. For effective industrial production, cultivation is carried out in submerged culture to increase the bioactive compound yield, decrease the production time, and reduce the cost of downstream processing. This review provides a comprehensive overview on mushroom immunomodulators in terms of chemistry, industrial production, and applications in medical and nonmedical sectors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Control of fluidic environments by mushrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressaire, Emilie; Santoso, Junius; Yamada, Lisa; Roper, Marcus

    2013-11-01

    Thousands of fungal species rely on mushrooms for spore release and dispersal. Long distance spore dispersal by wind is instrumental to maintain genetic diversity and to the spread of pathogenic species. The conventional view is that fungi enjoy little control over the mechanism of dispersal. A spore falling from the mushroom cap can only hope to be picked up by a favorable airflow and carried away from the gap between the mushroom cap and the ground. We show that fungi actively manipulate their local fluidic environment by altering the buoyancy of the air surrounding the mushroom using a combination of water vapor and active cooling. This manipulation allows spore escape and dispersal from caps that may be spaced a few millimeters above the ground, or apart from each other. Through high speed videography, scaling analysis and indirect measurements, we reveal the fluid mechanics of spore escape, and how they are controlled by the biophysical properties of the mushroom.

  18. New Bioactive Compounds from Korean Native Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Eun; Hwang, Byung Soon; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, In-Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature and have high nutritional attributes. They have demonstrated diverse biological effects and therefore have been used in treatments of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections, and ulcer. In particular, polysaccharides, including β-glucan, are considered as the major constituents responsible for the biological activity of mushrooms. Although an overwhelming number of reports have been published on the importance of polysaccharides as immunomodulating agents, not all of the healing properties found in these mushrooms could be fully accounted for. Recently, many research groups have begun investigations on biologically active small-molecular weight compounds in wild mushrooms. In this mini-review, both structural diversity and biological activities of novel bioactive substances from Korean native mushrooms are described. PMID:24493936

  19. New bioactive compounds from korean native mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Eun; Hwang, Byung Soon; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, In-Kyoung; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2013-12-01

    Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature and have high nutritional attributes. They have demonstrated diverse biological effects and therefore have been used in treatments of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections, and ulcer. In particular, polysaccharides, including β-glucan, are considered as the major constituents responsible for the biological activity of mushrooms. Although an overwhelming number of reports have been published on the importance of polysaccharides as immunomodulating agents, not all of the healing properties found in these mushrooms could be fully accounted for. Recently, many research groups have begun investigations on biologically active small-molecular weight compounds in wild mushrooms. In this mini-review, both structural diversity and biological activities of novel bioactive substances from Korean native mushrooms are described.

  20. Parental, Personality, and Peer Correlates of Psychoactive Mushroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anglin, M. Douglas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    College undergraduates (N=53) reporting use of a hallucinogenic mushroom (Psilocybe) were matched to nonusers. Hallucinogenic mushroom use by men was most associated with peers' mushroom use, whereas mushroom use by women was most associated with parental drug use, especially fathers' marijuana use. Personality measures were secondary in…

  1. Parental, Personality, and Peer Correlates of Psychoactive Mushroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anglin, M. Douglas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    College undergraduates (N=53) reporting use of a hallucinogenic mushroom (Psilocybe) were matched to nonusers. Hallucinogenic mushroom use by men was most associated with peers' mushroom use, whereas mushroom use by women was most associated with parental drug use, especially fathers' marijuana use. Personality measures were secondary in…

  2. Familiarizing Students with Some Edible and Poisonous Wild Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendler, Barry S.; Pirone, Dominick J.

    1989-01-01

    Procedures for safely identifying, preparing and consuming edible plants in the outdoors are provided. Listed are edible plants, references, sources of recipes, nutrient content, and toxic plants. (CW)

  3. Familiarizing Students with Some Edible and Poisonous Wild Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendler, Barry S.; Pirone, Dominick J.

    1989-01-01

    Procedures for safely identifying, preparing and consuming edible plants in the outdoors are provided. Listed are edible plants, references, sources of recipes, nutrient content, and toxic plants. (CW)

  4. Response to the "Comment on Chemical and Toxicological Investigations of a Previously Unknown Poisonous European Mushroom Tricholoma terreum".

    PubMed

    Yin, Xia; Feng, Tao; Li, Zheng-Hui; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2016-04-11

    Recently, Dr. Paolo Davoli and his colleagues stated that the conclusions drawn by us were misleading from a mycotoxicological perspective, as they cast doubts on the edibility of a mushroom species (Tricholoma terreum) that has been always recognized as safe. Unfortunately, they made a mistake, and seriously misinterpreted our data, which resulted in scepticism of our research. Saponaceolides B and M were tested for their stabilities heating directly on and boiling in water. It is undoubted that both saponaceolides B and M are capable of withstanding prolonged heating during cooking.

  5. Sequence Analysis and Expression of a Blue-light Photoreceptor Gene, Slwc-1 from the Cauliflower Mushroom Sparassis latifolia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi; Ma, Lu; Ying, Zhenghe; Jiang, Xiaoling; Lin, Yanquan

    2017-04-01

    Light is a necessary environmental factor for fruit body formation and development of the cauliflower mushroom Sparassis latifolia, a well-known edible and medicinal fungus. In this study, we firstly characterized the SP-C strain, which belonged to S. latifolia. And then we cloned and sequenced a photoreceptor gene (Slwc-1) from S. latifolia. The product of Slwc-1, SlWC-1 (872 aa residues) contained a coiled-coil region, a LOV domain, and two PAS domains. Phylogenetic tree result showed that SLWC-1 was most close to GfWC-1 from Grifola frondosa in edible and medicinal fungus. The Slwc-1 gene was found to be enhanced by light. This report will help to open the still-unexplored field of fruit body development for this fungus.

  6. Enhanced oral bioavailability of a sterol-loaded microemulsion formulation of Flammulina velutipes, a potential antitumor drug

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Chengxue; Zhong, Hui; Tong, Shanshan; Cao, Xia; Firempong, Caleb K; Liu, Hongfei; Fu, Min; Yang, Yan; Feng, Yingshu; Zhang, Huiyun; Xu, Ximing; Yu, Jiangnan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the growth inhibition activity of Flammulina velutipes sterol (FVS) against certain human cancer cell lines (gastric SGC and colon LoVo) and to evaluate the optimum microemulsion prescription, as well as the pharmacokinetics of encapsulated FVS. Methods Molecules present in the FVS isolate were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. The cell viability of FVS was assessed with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) bioassay. Based on the solubility study, phase diagram and stability tests, the optimum prescription of F. velutipes sterol microemulsions (FVSMs) were determined, followed by FVSMs characterization, and its in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats. Results The chemical composition of FVS was mainly ergosterol (54.8%) and 22,23-dihydroergosterol (27.9%). After 72 hours of treatment, both the FVS (half-maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 11.99 μg · mL−1) and the standard anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil (IC50 = 0.88 μg · mL−1) exhibited strong in vitro antiproliferative activity against SGC cells, with IC50 > 30.0 μg · mL−1; but the FVS performed poorly against LoVo cells (IC50 > 40.0 μg · mL−1). The optimal FVSMs prescription consisted of 3.0% medium chain triglycerides, 5.0% ethanol, 21.0% Cremophor EL and 71.0% water (w/w) with associated solubility of FVS being 0.680 mg · mL−1 as compared to free FVS (0.67 μg · mL−1). The relative oral bioavailability (area-under-the-curve values of ergosterol and 22,23-dihydroergosterol showed a 2.56-fold and 4.50-fold increase, respectively) of FVSMs (mean diameter ~ 22.9 nm) as against free FVS were greatly enhanced. Conclusion These results indicate that the FVS could be a potential candidate for the development of an anticancer drug and it is readily bioavailable via microemulsion formulations. PMID:23049254

  7. Sequencing and comparative analysis of the straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) genome.

    PubMed

    Bao, Dapeng; Gong, Ming; Zheng, Huajun; Chen, Mingjie; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Jianping; Wu, Lin; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zhu, Gang; Zhou, Yan; Li, Chuanhua; Wang, Shengyue; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Guoping; Tan, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Volvariella volvacea, the edible straw mushroom, is a highly nutritious food source that is widely cultivated on a commercial scale in many parts of Asia using agricultural wastes (rice straw, cotton wastes) as growth substrates. However, developments in V. volvacea cultivation have been limited due to a low biological efficiency (i.e. conversion of growth substrate to mushroom fruit bodies), sensitivity to low temperatures, and an unclear sexuality pattern that has restricted the breeding of improved strains. We have now sequenced the genome of V. volvacea and assembled it into 62 scaffolds with a total genome size of 35.7 megabases (Mb), containing 11,084 predicted gene models. Comparative analyses were performed with the model species in basidiomycete on mating type system, carbohydrate active enzymes, and fungal oxidative lignin enzymes. We also studied transcriptional regulation of the response to low temperature (4°C). We found that the genome of V. volvacea has many genes that code for enzymes, which are involved in the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. The molecular genetics of the mating type system in V. volvacea was also found to be similar to the bipolar system in basidiomycetes, suggesting that it is secondary homothallism. Sensitivity to low temperatures could be due to the lack of the initiation of the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, trehalose and glycogen biosyntheses in this mushroom. Genome sequencing of V. volvacea has improved our understanding of the biological characteristics related to the degradation of the cultivating compost consisting of agricultural waste, the sexual reproduction mechanism, and the sensitivity to low temperatures at the molecular level which in turn will enable us to increase the industrial production of this mushroom.

  8. Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of the Straw Mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) Genome

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Dapeng; Gong, Ming; Zheng, Huajun; Chen, Mingjie; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Jianping; Wu, Lin; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zhu, Gang; Zhou, Yan; Li, Chuanhua; Wang, Shengyue; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Guoping; Tan, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Volvariella volvacea, the edible straw mushroom, is a highly nutritious food source that is widely cultivated on a commercial scale in many parts of Asia using agricultural wastes (rice straw, cotton wastes) as growth substrates. However, developments in V. volvacea cultivation have been limited due to a low biological efficiency (i.e. conversion of growth substrate to mushroom fruit bodies), sensitivity to low temperatures, and an unclear sexuality pattern that has restricted the breeding of improved strains. We have now sequenced the genome of V. volvacea and assembled it into 62 scaffolds with a total genome size of 35.7 megabases (Mb), containing 11,084 predicted gene models. Comparative analyses were performed with the model species in basidiomycete on mating type system, carbohydrate active enzymes, and fungal oxidative lignin enzymes. We also studied transcriptional regulation of the response to low temperature (4°C). We found that the genome of V. volvacea has many genes that code for enzymes, which are involved in the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. The molecular genetics of the mating type system in V. volvacea was also found to be similar to the bipolar system in basidiomycetes, suggesting that it is secondary homothallism. Sensitivity to low temperatures could be due to the lack of the initiation of the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, trehalose and glycogen biosyntheses in this mushroom. Genome sequencing of V. volvacea has improved our understanding of the biological characteristics related to the degradation of the cultivating compost consisting of agricultural waste, the sexual reproduction mechanism, and the sensitivity to low temperatures at the molecular level which in turn will enable us to increase the industrial production of this mushroom. PMID:23526973

  9. Oral administration of an Enoki mushroom protein FVE activates innate and adaptive immunity and induces anti-tumor activity against murine hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui-Hsin; Hsieh, Kuang-Yang; Yeh, Chen-Hao; Tu, Yuan-Ping; Sheu, Fuu

    2010-02-01

    FVE is a documented immunomodulatory protein purified from Enoki mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) and known as an activator for human T lymphocytes. This present study was aimed to investigate the anti-tumor effect and the related mechanisms of oral administration of FVE using a murine hepatoma model. Oral administration of FVE (10mg/kg) significantly increased the life span and inhibited the tumor size of BNL 1MEA.7R.1 (BNL) hepatoma-bearing mice. Tumor-bearing mice receiving oral FVE treatment had the highest tumoricidal capacity of peritoneal macrophages and tumor-specific splenocytes against BNL hepatoma cells. In addition, in vivo neutralization of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) demonstrated a significant decrease of FVE-induced anti-tumor effect (P<0.05). The expression levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules and costimulatory molecule CD80 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from the FVE-treated mice were upregulated as compared with those of the PBS-treated mice. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining showed a strong inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis in hepatoma tissues after oral administration of FVE. Taken together, oral administration of FVE displayed anti-tumor activity through activating both innate and adaptive immunity of the host to prime a cytotoxic immune response and IFN-gamma played a key role in the anti-tumor efficacy of FVE. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Purification and Characterization of Melanogenic Enzyme Tyrosinase from Button Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ayesha S.; Ali, Sharique A.

    2014-01-01

    Melanogenesis is a biosynthetic pathway for the formation of the pigment melanin in human skin. A key enzyme, tyrosinase, catalyzes the first and only rate-limiting steps in melanogenesis. Since the discovery of its melanogenic properties, tyrosinase has been in prime focus and microbial sources of the enzyme are sought. Agaricus bisporus widely known as the common edible mushroom, it's taking place in high amounts of proteins, enzyme, carbohydrates, fibers, and low fat contents are frequently cited in the literature in relation to their nutritional value. In the present study tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis followed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose; the enzyme was purified, 16.36-fold to give 26.6% yield on total activity in the crude extract and final specific activity of 52.19 U/mg. The SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed a migrating protein band molecular weight of 95 kDa. The purified tyrosinase was optimized and the results revealed that the optimum values are pH 7.0 and temperature 35°C. The highest activity was reported towards its natural substrate, L-DOPA, with an apparent Km value of 0.933 mM. This indicated that tyrosinase purified from Agaricus bisporus is a potential source for medical applications. PMID:25197562

  11. Mercury in wild mushrooms and underlying soil substrate from Koszalin, North-central Poland.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Jedrusiak, Aneta; Lipka, Krzysztof; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Kawano, Masahide; Gucia, Magdalena; Brzostowski, Andrzej; Dadej, Monika

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury were determined by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) in 221 caps and 221 stalks of 15 species of wild growing higher fungi/mushrooms and 221 samples of corresponding soil substrate collected in 1997-98 in Manowo County, near the city of Koszalin in North-central Poland. Mean mercury concentrations in caps and stalks of the mushroom species examined and soils varied between 30+/-31 and 920+/-280, 17+/-11 and 560+/-220, and 10+/-9 and 170+/-110 ng/g dry matter, respectively. Cap to stalk mercury concentration quotients were from 1.0+/-0.4 in poison pax (Paxillus involutus) to 2.8+/-0.7 in slippery jack (Suillus luteus). Brown cort (Cortinarius malicorius), fly agaric (Amanita muscaria), orange-brown ringless amanita (A. fulva), red-aspen bolete (Leccinum rufum) and mutagen milk cap (Lactarius necator) contained the highest concentrations of mercury both in caps and stalks, and mean concentrations varied between 600+/-750 and 920+/-280 and 370+/-470 and 560+/-220 ng/g dry matter, respectively. An estimate of daily intake of mercury from mushroom consumption indicated that the flesh of edible species of mushrooms may not pose hazards to human health even at a maximum consumption rate of 28 g/day. However, it should be noted that mercury intake from other foods will augment the daily intake rates. Species such as the sickener (Russula emetica), Geranium-scented russula (R. fellea) and poison pax (P. involutus) did not concentrate mercury as evidenced from the bioconcentration factors (BCFs: concentrations in mushroom/concentration in soil substrate), which were less than 1. Similarly, red-hot milk cap (L. rufus), rickstone funnel cap (Clitocybe geotropa) and European cow bolete (S. bovinus) were observed to be weak accumulators of mercury. Fly agaric (A. muscaria) accumulated great concentrations of mercury with BCFs reaching 73+/-42 and 38+/-22 in caps and stalks, respectively. Mercury BCFs of between 4.0+/-2.3 and 23

  12. Type III Hypersensitivity Reaction in Mushroom Growers

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byoung-Whui; Min, Kyung-Up; Kim, You-Young; Moon, Hee-Bom; Chang, Suk-II; Kang, Seock-Young; Kim, Sang-Jae; Kim, Sin-Ok

    1991-01-01

    Some respiratory symptoms in mushroom growers such as mushroom worker’s lung develop by inhalation of certain agents arising from the environment of mushroom cultivation. Recently we observed mushroom workers who had respiratory symptoms which might be type III hypersensitivity reaction to the antigen of Pleurotus floridae. We gave questionaires to all the mushroom growers at one of the biggest cultivation areas of mushrooms, Pleurotus floridae in Pocheon, Kyunggi Province. Those with respiratory symptoms were subjects for the study. CBC, chest X-ray, pulmonary function test, skin test with Pleurotus floridae extract, and precipitin antibody test to Pleurotus floridae were performed in the study subjects. Out of a total 308 mushroom workers, 23 workers (14 males, 9 females) had respiratory symptoms. Their mean age was 45 years, and their mean duration of engagement was 3.4 years. Their main symptoms were cough (100%), sputum (82.6%), dyspnea (43.5%), and fever with chills (13.0%). Two cases showed increased interstitial lung markings on chest X-ray films. Sixteen cases (73.9%) showed precipitin antibodies against P. floridae extract by counterimmunoelectrophoresis. Antibodies against Micropolyspora faeni and Thermoactinomyces vulgaris were not detected in any subject. PMID:1742253

  13. Distribution and possible dietary intake of radioactive 137Cs, 40K and 226Ra with the pantropical mushroom Macrocybe gigantea in SW China.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zhang, Ji; Zalewska, Tamara; Apanel, Anna; Wang, Yuanzhong; Wiejak, Anna

    2015-01-01

    There is scarcity of data on contamination with radiocesium 134/137Cs of edible mushrooms from the Southwestern Asia. This study aimed to get insight into activity concentration of artificial nuclides 134/137Cs and natural 40K and 226Ra in mushrooms from Yunnan province, which is major producer in China. The specimens of pantropical mushroom Macrocybe gigantea were collected from the wild and from a farm across Yunnan land in 2012-2013 and analyzed using gamma spectrometry with hyperpure germanium coaxial detector (HPGe). M. gigantea showed low activity concentrations of 137Cs (median value for dehydrated caps was 4.5 Bq kg(-1) and 5.4 Bq kg(-1) for stipes) while 134Cs was not detected. Natural radionuclide 40K showed 2-3 orders of magnitude greater activity concentration compared to artificial 137Cs in M. gigantea. The activity concentrations of 226Ra from uranium and radium decay series for most of the consignments of M. gigantea examined were below the method's limit of detection. The nominal effective dose equivalent for the Yunnan people from the dietary intake of 137Cs was assessed to be below 0.01 μSv per annum on the average, and that from 40K to be below 0.1 μSv per annum. Data available for the first time on activity concentrations of 137Cs in wild-grown saprobic mushroom from this region of Asia suggest low pollution with radiocesium from fallout there. Hence, the likely health risks from intake of 137Cs from cooked M. gigantea are in practice of mushrooms absent for human consumers there. Because of abundance of mushrooms in Yunnan and high significance of the region as producer and exporter a wider study using many species is necessary to fill a gap on possible radioactive contamination and risk to mushroom consumers.

  14. Antimicrobial Potential, Identification and Phylogenetic Affiliation of Wild Mushrooms from Two Sub-Tropical Semi-Evergreen Indian Forest Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Lallawmsanga; Passari, Ajit Kumar; Mishra, Vineet Kumar; Leo, Vincent Vineeth; Valliammai Meyyappan, Geetha; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Uthandi, Sivakumar; Upadhyay, Ramesh Chandra

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of wild mushrooms was investigated from two protected forest areas in India and 231 mushroom specimens were morphologically identified. Among them, 76 isolates were screened for their antimicrobial potential against seven bacterial and fungal pathogens. Out of 76 isolates, 45 isolates which displayed significant antimicrobial activities were identified using ITS rRNA gene amplification and subsequently phylogenetically characterized using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Sequencing of the ITS rRNA region classified the isolates into 16 genera belonging to 11 families. In total, 11 RAPD and 10 ISSR primers were selected to evaluate genetic diversity based on their banding profile produced. In total 337 RAPD and 312 ISSR bands were detected, among which percentage of polymorphism ranges from 34.2% to 78.8% and 38.6% to 92.4% by using RAPD and ISSR primers respectively. Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) trees of selected two methods were structured similarly, grouping the 46 isolates into two clusters which clearly showed a significant genetic distance among the different strains of wild mushroom, with an similarity coefficient ranges from 0.58 to 1.00 and 0.59 to 1.00 with RAPD and ISSR analysis respectively. This reporthas highlighted both DTR and MNP forests provide a habitat for diverse macrofungal species, therefore having the potential to be used for the discovery of antimicrobials. The report has also demonstrated that both RAPD and ISSR could efficiently differentiate wild mushrooms and could thus be considered as efficient markers for surveying genetic diversity. Additionally, selected six wild edible mushroom strains (Schizophyllum commune BPSM01, Panusgiganteus BPSM27, Pleurotussp. BPSM34, Lentinussp. BPSM37, Pleurotusdjamor BPSM41 and Lentinula sp. BPSM45) were analysed for their nutritional (proteins, carbohydrates, fat and ash content), antioxidant potential

  15. Comparison of the Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Phenolics from the Fruiting Bodies of Cultivated Asian Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shaoling; Ching, Lai Tsz; Ke, Xinxin; Cheung, Peter Chi Keung

    2016-01-01

    The composition profile and the antioxidant properties of phenolics in water extracts obtained from the fresh fruiting bodies of 4 common cultivated Asian edible mushrooms-Agrocybe aegerita, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, and Pholiota nameko were compared. The water extract from A. aegerita (AaE) had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) at 54.18 ± 0.27 gallic acid equivalents (μmol/L)/mg extract (P < 0.05), as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and consisted of the largest number (including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid) and total amounts of phenolic acids identified by Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The water extract of Ph. nameko was found to have the second-highest TPC (43.55 ± 0.10 gallic acid equivalents [μmol/L]/mg extract), followed by the water extract of P. eryngii and the water extract of P. ostreatus (39.55 ± 0.25 and 39.02 ± 0.30 gallic acid equivalents/mg extract, respectively). The scavenging activities of the water extracts from these mushrooms were evaluated against 2,2-diphenyl-l-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals, and hydrogen peroxide. Based on halfmaximal effective concentrations, AaE was more effective in scavenging hydrogen peroxide (<0.05), followed by DPPH (0.51 mg/mL), superoxide anion radicals (0.85 mg/mL) and hydroxyl radicals (5.94 mg/mL), then the other mushroom water extracts. The differences in the half-maximal effective concentrations of individual mushroom water extracts were probably the result of the different numbers and amounts of individual phenolic acids in the extracts. The antioxidant activities of the mushroom water extracts were correlated with their TPC. The strongest antioxidant properties of AaE were consistent with its highest TPC and with the largest number and amount of phenolics identified in the extract. These results indicated that cultivated

  16. Antimicrobial Potential, Identification and Phylogenetic Affiliation of Wild Mushrooms from Two Sub-Tropical Semi-Evergreen Indian Forest Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lallawmsanga; Passari, Ajit Kumar; Mishra, Vineet Kumar; Leo, Vincent Vineeth; Singh, Bhim Pratap; Valliammai Meyyappan, Geetha; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Uthandi, Sivakumar; Upadhyay, Ramesh Chandra

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of wild mushrooms was investigated from two protected forest areas in India and 231 mushroom specimens were morphologically identified. Among them, 76 isolates were screened for their antimicrobial potential against seven bacterial and fungal pathogens. Out of 76 isolates, 45 isolates which displayed significant antimicrobial activities were identified using ITS rRNA gene amplification and subsequently phylogenetically characterized using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Sequencing of the ITS rRNA region classified the isolates into 16 genera belonging to 11 families. In total, 11 RAPD and 10 ISSR primers were selected to evaluate genetic diversity based on their banding profile produced. In total 337 RAPD and 312 ISSR bands were detected, among which percentage of polymorphism ranges from 34.2% to 78.8% and 38.6% to 92.4% by using RAPD and ISSR primers respectively. Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) trees of selected two methods were structured similarly, grouping the 46 isolates into two clusters which clearly showed a significant genetic distance among the different strains of wild mushroom, with an similarity coefficient ranges from 0.58 to 1.00 and 0.59 to 1.00 with RAPD and ISSR analysis respectively. This reporthas highlighted both DTR and MNP forests provide a habitat for diverse macrofungal species, therefore having the potential to be used for the discovery of antimicrobials. The report has also demonstrated that both RAPD and ISSR could efficiently differentiate wild mushrooms and could thus be considered as efficient markers for surveying genetic diversity. Additionally, selected six wild edible mushroom strains (Schizophyllum commune BPSM01, Panusgiganteus BPSM27, Pleurotussp. BPSM34, Lentinussp. BPSM37, Pleurotusdjamor BPSM41 and Lentinula sp. BPSM45) were analysed for their nutritional (proteins, carbohydrates, fat and ash content), antioxidant potential

  17. Traditional knowledge and use of wild mushrooms by Mixtecs or Ñuu savi, the people of the rain, from Southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Faustino Hernández; Moreno, Jesús Pérez; Cázares, Beatriz Xoconostle; Suárez, Juan José Almaraz; Trejo, Enrique Ojeda; de Oca, Gerardo Mata Montes; Aguilar, Irma Díaz

    2016-09-05

    Mexico is an important global reservoir of biological and cultural richness and traditional knowledge of wild mushrooms. However, there is a high risk of loss of this knowledge due to the erosion of traditional human cultures which is related with the rapid acculturation linked to high migration of rural populations to cities and the U.S.A., and the loss of natural ecosystems. The Mixtec people, the third largest native group in Mexico only after the Nahua and the Maya, maintain ancient traditions in the use and knowledge of wild mushrooms. Paradoxically, there are few studies of the Mixtec ethnomycology. This study shows our ethnomycological research, mainly focused on knowledge and use of wild mushrooms in communities of the Mixteca Alta, in southeastern Mexico. We hypothesized that among the studied communities those with a combination of higher vegetation cover of natural pine and oak forests, lower soil erosion and higher economic margination had a greater richness and knowledge of wild mushrooms. Our study therefore aimed to record traditional knowledge, use, nomenclature and classification of wild mushrooms in four Mixtec communities and to analyze how these aspects vary according to environmental and cultural conditions among the studied communities. In order to analyze the cultural significance of wild mushrooms for the Mixtec people, 116 non-structured and semi-structured interviews were performed from 2009 to 2014. Information about the identified species, particularly the regional nomenclature and classification, their edibility, toxicity and ludic uses, the habitat of useful mushrooms, traditional recipes and criteria to differentiate between toxic and edible species, and mechanisms of knowledge transmission were studied. The research had the important particularity that the first author is Mixtec, native of the study area. A comparative qualitative analysis between the richness of fungal species used locally and the official information of the natural

  18. Effects of mushroom and chicory extracts on the shape, physiology and proteome of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Signoretto, Caterina; Marchi, Anna; Bertoncelli, Anna; Burlacchini, Gloria; Milli, Alberto; Tessarolo, Francesco; Caola, Iole; Papetti, Adele; Pruzzo, Carla; Zaura, Egija; Lingström, Peter; Ofek, Itzhak; Spratt, David A; Pratten, Jonathan; Wilson, Michael; Canepari, Pietro

    2013-05-29

    Dental caries is an infectious disease which results from the acidic demineralisation of the tooth enamel and dentine as a consequence of the dental plaque (a microbial biofilm) accumulation. Research showed that several foods contain some components with antibacterial and antiplaque activity. Previous studies indicated antimicrobial and antiplaque activities in a low-molecular-mass (LMM) fraction of extracts from either an edible mushroom (Lentinus edodes) or from Italian red chicory (Cichorium intybus). We have evaluated the antimicrobial mode of action of these fractions on Streptococcus mutans, the etiological agent of human dental caries. The effects on shape, macromolecular syntheses and cell proteome were analysed. The best antimicrobial activity has been displayed by the LMM mushroom extract with a bacteriostatic effect. At the MIC of both extracts DNA synthesis was the main macromolecular synthesis inhibited, RNA synthesis was less inhibited than that of DNA and protein synthesis was inhibited only by roughly 50%. The partial inhibition of protein synthesis is compatible with the observed significant increase in cell mass. The increase in these parameters is linked to the morphological alteration with transition from cocci of the untreated control to elongated cells. Interestingly, these modifications were also observed at sub-MIC concentrations. Finally, membrane and cytosol proteome analysis was conducted under LMM mushroom extract treatment in comparison with untreated S. mutans cells. Significant changes were observed for 31 membrane proteins and 20 of the cytosol fractions. The possible role of the changed proteins is discussed. This report has shown an antibiotic-like mode of action of mushroom and chicory extracts as demonstrated by induced morphogenetic effects and inhibition of specific macromolecular synthesis. This feature as well as the safe use of this extract as result of its natural origin render the LMM both mushroom and chicory extracts

  19. Effects of mushroom and chicory extracts on the shape, physiology and proteome of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries is an infectious disease which results from the acidic demineralisation of the tooth enamel and dentine as a consequence of the dental plaque (a microbial biofilm) accumulation. Research showed that several foods contain some components with antibacterial and antiplaque activity. Previous studies indicated antimicrobial and antiplaque activities in a low-molecular-mass (LMM) fraction of extracts from either an edible mushroom (Lentinus edodes) or from Italian red chicory (Cichorium intybus). Methods We have evaluated the antimicrobial mode of action of these fractions on Streptococcus mutans, the etiological agent of human dental caries. The effects on shape, macromolecular syntheses and cell proteome were analysed. Results The best antimicrobial activity has been displayed by the LMM mushroom extract with a bacteriostatic effect. At the MIC of both extracts DNA synthesis was the main macromolecular synthesis inhibited, RNA synthesis was less inhibited than that of DNA and protein synthesis was inhibited only by roughly 50%. The partial inhibition of protein synthesis is compatible with the observed significant increase in cell mass. The increase in these parameters is linked to the morphological alteration with transition from cocci of the untreated control to elongated cells. Interestingly, these modifications were also observed at sub-MIC concentrations. Finally, membrane and cytosol proteome analysis was conducted under LMM mushroom extract treatment in comparison with untreated S. mutans cells. Significant changes were observed for 31 membrane proteins and 20 of the cytosol fractions. The possible role of the changed proteins is discussed. Conclusions This report has shown an antibiotic-like mode of action of mushroom and chicory extracts as demonstrated by induced morphogenetic effects and inhibition of specific macromolecular synthesis. This feature as well as the safe use of this extract as result of its natural origin render the

  20. Distribution of 210Pb and 210Po concentrations in wild berries and mushrooms in boreal forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Vaaramaa, Kaisa; Solatie, Dina; Aro, Lasse

    2009-12-15

    The activity concentrations and distribution of 210Pb and 210Po in wild berries and edible mushrooms were investigated in Finnish forests. The main study areas were located in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in southern and northern Finland. The activity concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) samples decreased in the order: stems>leaves>berries (i.e. fruits). The activity ratios of 210Po/210Pb in the wild berry samples were mainly higher than one, indicating elevated activity concentrations of polonium in the samples. In mushrooms the activity concentrations of 210Pb and especially 210Po were higher than in fruits of the wild berries. The highest activity concentration of 210Pb was detected in Cortinarius armillatus L. (16.2 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) and the lowest in Leccinum vulpinum L. (1.38 Bq kg(-1) d.w.). The 210Po activity concentrations of the whole fruiting bodies ranged from 7.14 Bq kg(-1) d.w. (Russula paludosa L.) to 1174 Bq kg(-1) d.w. (L. vulpinum L.). In general, the highest activity concentrations of 210Po were recorded in boletes. The caps of mushrooms of the Boletaceae family showed higher activity concentrations of 210Po compared to the stipes. In most of the mushrooms analyzed, the activity concentrations of 210Po were higher than those of 210Pb. 210Po and 210Pb dominate the radiation doses received via ingestion of wild berries and mushrooms in northern Finland, while in southern Finland the ingested dose is dominated by 137Cs from the Chernobyl fallout.

  1. [Recent trends of mushroom poisoning in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yamaura, Yoshio

    2013-03-01

    The incidence of mushroom poisoning was studied statistically from 2001 to 2010 in Japan. The total incident of mushroom poisoning was 569 cases, which involved 1,920 patients and 10 deaths. The average incident was 56.9 cases per year, involving 192 patients and 1 death. On regional differences, the mushroom poisoning was more frequent in the northeastern part of Japan. The rate of total incidents for each type of poisoning, which were classified according to symptoms caused, 54.6% in the type of gastro-intestinal disorder, 11.6% in the type of neurological symptoms, and 2.4% in the type of intracellular disorder (violent vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration and hepato-nephrosis, or rhabdomyolysis, or erroneous perception, etc.), respectively. Two species of poisonous mushrooms with gastro-intestinal disorder, Lampteromyces japonicus and Rhodophyllus rhodopolius caused the majority (52%) of all poisonings in Japan.

  2. The problem of psilocybin mushroom abuse.

    PubMed

    Peden, N R; Pringle, S D; Crooks, J

    1982-10-01

    1 We have reviewed the clinical features and management of 44 consecutive patients presenting to hospital over a 5 week period during an outbreak of ingestion of psilocybin containing mushrooms. 2 Patients presented to hospital usually because of dysphoric effects an average of 3.8 h after ingesting mushrooms. 3 Mydriasis was present in 40 patients but fewer than half showed other sympathomimetic features--tachycardia, hypertension or hyperreflexia. 4 Twenty-three patients experienced nausea and vomiting. 5 Distortions of perception chiefly visual were frequent as were paraesthesiae and feelings of depersonalization. 6 The effects of the mushrooms were short-lived and had worn off within 12 h in all but one patient. 7 Inducing emesis did not appear to hasten recovery from the effects of the mushrooms.

  3. Chaga mushroom-induced oxalate nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yuko; Seta, Koichi; Ogawa, Yayoi; Takayama, Tatsuya; Nagata, Masao; Taguchi, Takashi; Yahata, Kensei

    2014-06-01

    Chaga mushrooms have been used in folk and botanical medicine as a remedy for cancer, gastritis, ulcers, and tuberculosis of the bones. A 72-year-old Japanese female had been diagnosed with liver cancer 1 year prior to presenting at our department. She underwent hepatectomy of the left lobe 3 months later. Chaga mushroom powder (4 - 5 teaspoons per day) had been ingested for the past 6 months for liver cancer. Renal function decreased and hemodialysis was initiated. Renal biopsy specimens showed diffuse tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Oxalate crystals were detected in the tubular lumina and urinary sediment and oxalate nephropathy was diagnosed. Chaga mushrooms contain extremely high oxalate concentrations. This is the first report of a case of oxalate nephropathy associated with ingestion of Chaga mushrooms.

  4. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Mushrooms Mainly from China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhang, Pei; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-07-20

    Many mushrooms have been used as foods and medicines for a long time. Mushrooms contain polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins and minerals. Studies show that mushrooms possess various bioactivities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic properties, therefore, mushrooms have attracted increasing attention in recent years, and could be developed into functional food or medicines for prevention and treatment of several chronic diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases. The present review summarizes the bioactivities and health benefits of mushrooms, and could be useful for full utilization of mushrooms.

  5. Time resolved thermal lens in edible oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albuquerque, T. A. S.; Pedreira, P. R. B.; Medina, A. N.; Pereira, J. R. D.; Bento, A. C.; Baesso, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    In this work time resolved thermal lens spectrometry is applied to investigate the optical properties of the following edible oils: soya, sunflower, canola, and corn oils. The experiments were performed at room temperature using the mode mismatched thermal lens configuration. The results showed that when the time resolved procedure is adopted the technique can be applied to investigate the photosensitivity of edible oils. Soya oil presented a stronger photochemical reaction as compared to the other investigated samples. This observation may be relevant for future studies evaluating edible oils storage conditions and also may contribute to a better understanding of the physical and chemical properties of this important foodstuff.

  6. Antioxidant activity of two wild edible mushrooms (Morchella vulgaris and Morchella esculanta) from North Turkey.

    PubMed

    Elmastaş, Mahfuz; Turkekul, Ibrahim; Oztürk, Lokman; Gülçin, Ilhami; Isildak, Omer; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2006-07-01

    The ethanol extracts of Morchella vulgaris (EEMV) and Morchella esculanta (EEME) were analysed for their antioxidant activities in different systems including reducing power, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, total antioxidant activity, and metal chelating activity. EEMV and EEME had similar reducing power, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activity at concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 microg/mL. These various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and alpha-tocopherol. The percent inhibition of different concentrations of EEMV on peroxidation in the linoleic acid system was 85 and 87 % respectively, which was greater than that of 100 and 250 microg/mL of alpha-tocopherol (50 and 77%, respectively) and similar to 250 microg/mL of BHA (85, 87%, respectively). The percent inhibition of different concentrations of EEME on peroxidation in the linoleic acid system was 80 and 87 % respectively, which was greater than that of 100 and 250 microg/mL of alpha-tocopherol (50, 77%) and similar to 250 microg/mL BHA (87%). On the other hand, the percent inhibition of 100 and 250 microg/mL of BHT was 97 and 99%, respectively. In addition, the total phenolic compounds in EEMV and EEME were determined as gallic acid equivalents.

  7. Biological Activities of the Polysaccharides Produced in Submerged Culture of Two Edible Pleurotus ostreatus Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Vamanu, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides (EPS) and internal (intracellular) polysaccharides (IPS) obtained from the Pleurotus ostreatus M2191 and PBS281009 cultivated using the batch system revealed an average of between 0.1–2 (EPS) and 0.07–1.5 g/L/day (IPS). The carbohydrate analysis revealed that the polysaccharides comprised 87–89% EPS and 68–74% IPS. The investigation of antioxidant activity in vitro revealed a good antioxidant potential, particularly for the IPS and EPS isolated from PBS281009, as proved by the EC50 value for DPPH, ABTS scavenging activity, reducing power, and iron chelating activity. PMID:22778553

  8. NAD+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus: biochemical and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Kersten, M A; Müller, Y; Baars, J J; Op den Camp, H J; van der Drift, C; Van Griensven, L J; Visser, J; Schaap, P J

    1999-04-01

    The NAD+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH) of Agaricus bisporus, a key enzyme in nitrogen metabolism, was purified to homogeneity. The apparent molecular mass of the native enzyme is 474 kDa comprising four subunits of 116 kDa. The isoelectric point of the enzyme is about 7.0. Km values for ammonium, 2-oxoglutarate, NADH, glutamate and NAD+ were 6.5, 3.5, 0.06, 37.1 and 0.046 mM, respectively. The enzyme is specific for NAD(H). The gene encoding this enzyme (gdhB) was isolated from an A. bisporus H39 recombinant lambda phage library. The deduced amino acid sequence specifies a 1029-amino acid protein with a deduced molecular mass of 115,463 Da, which displays a significant degree of similarity with NAD-GDH of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa. The ORF is interrupted by fifteen introns. Northern analysis combined with enzyme activity measurements suggest that NAD-GDH from A. bisporus is regulated by the nitrogen source. NAD-GDH levels in mycelium grown on glutamate were higher than NAD-GDH levels in mycelium grown on ammonium as a nitrogen source. Combined with the kinetic parameters, these results suggest a catabolic role for NAD-GDH. However, upon addition of ammonium to the culture transcription of the gene is not repressed as strongly as that of the gene encoding NADP-GDH (gdhA). To date, tetrameric NAD-GDHs with large subunits, and their corresponding genes, have only been isolated from a few species. This enzyme represents the first NAD-GDH of basidiomycete origin to be purified and is the first such enzyme from basidiomycetes whose sequence has been determined.

  9. Production of polyol oils from soybean oil by bioprocess and Philippines edible medicinal wild mushrooms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have been trying to develop a bioprocess for the production of polyol oils directly from soybean oil. We reported earlier the polyol products produced from soybean oil by Acinetobacter haemolyticus A01-35 (NRRL B-59985) (Hou and Lin, 2013). The objective of this study is to identify the chemical ...

  10. Accumulation and distribution of metallic elements and metalloids in edible Amanita fulva mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Drewnowska, Małgorzata; Chudzińska, Maria; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2017-03-01

    Baseline concentrations of Ag, Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sr, Tl, V, U and Zn were presented in Amanita fulva collected from unpolluted areas in Poland. There is no previous data published on the bio-element constituents of A. fulva. A very narrow range of values was determined by ICP-DRC-MS and ICP-AES for the trace elements Ag, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Rb, Sr, Tl and Zn in caps and of Ag, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Sr, U and Zn in stipes and also for the macro elements K, P, Na and Mg. The fruitbodies of A. fulva from the northern (Baltic Sea coastal forests) and southwestern (Lower Silesia forests) sites differed substantially in cadmium, lead and uranium, and those from the Lower Silesia region showed them in greater concentrations. This observation may imply that A. fulva under typical geochemical site conditions is able to regulate the accumulation of many of the elements mentioned in fruiting bodies.

  11. Lipid constituents of the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus demonstrate anti-Candida activity.

    PubMed

    Phan, Chia-Wei; Lee, Guan-Serm; Macreadie, Ian G; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd; Pamela, David; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2013-12-01

    Different solvent extracts of Pleurotus giganteus fruiting bodies were tested for antifungal activities against Candida species responsible for human infections. The lipids extracted from the ethyl acetate fraction significantly inhibited the growth of all the Candida species tested. Analysis by GC/MS revealed lipid components such as fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, ergosterol, and ergosterol derivatives. The sample with high amounts of fatty acid methyl esters was the most effective antifungal agent. The samples were not cytotoxic to a mammalian cell line, mouse embryonic fibroblasts BALB/c 3T3 clone A31. To our knowledge, this is the first report of antifungal activity of the lipid components of Pleurotus giganteus against Candida species.

  12. Isolation of a galactomannan that enhances macrophage activation from the edible fungus Morchella esculenta.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Christine J G; Pugh, Nirmal; Pasco, David S; Ross, Samir A

    2002-09-25

    The edible mushroom Morchella esculenta is among the most highly prized and morphologically recognizable fungi in the world. We describe the isolation from a polar extract of M. esculenta carpophores of a high-molecular-weight galactomannan, about 1.0 million Da, that exhibits immunostimulatory activity. At 3.0 microg/mL the galactomannan polysaccharide increased NF-kappa B directed luciferase expression in THP-1 human monocytic cells to levels 50% of those achieved by maximal activating concentration (10 microg/mL) of lipopolysaccharide. This galactomannan comprises about 2.0% of the dry fungal material weight, and its glycosyl components include mannose (62.9%) and galactose (20.0%).

  13. Edible fungus degrade bisphenol A with no harmful effect on its fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengdong; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Xiaoyan; Li, Mingchun

    2015-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical that is ubiquitous in the environment because of its broad industrial use. The authors report that the most widely cultivated mushroom in the world (i.e., white-rot fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus) efficiently degraded 10mg/L of BPA in 7 days. Extracellular laccase was identified as the enzyme responsible for this activity. LC-MS analysis of the metabolites revealed the presence of both low- and high-molecular-weight products obtained via oxidative cleavage and coupling reactions, respectively. In particular, an analysis of the fatty acid composition and chemical structure of the fungal mycelium demonstrated that exposure to BPA resulted in no harmful effects on this edible fungus. The results provide a better understanding of the environmental fate of BPA and its potential impact on food crops.

  14. The Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill: Review of Literature and Pharmaco-Toxicological Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gori, L.; Lombardo, G.

    2008-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) popularly known as ‘Cogumelo do Sol’ in Brazil, or ‘Himematsutake’ in Japan, is a mushroom native to Brazil, and widely cultivated in Japan for its medicinal uses, so it is now considered as one of the most important edible and culinary-medicinal biotechnological species. It was traditionally used to treat many common diseases like atherosclerosis, hepatitis, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, dermatitis and cancer. In vitro and in vivo ABM has shown immunomodulatory and antimutagenic properties, although the biological pathways and chemical substances involved in its pharmacological activities are still not clear. The polysaccharides phytocomplex is thought to be responsible for its immunostimulant and antitumor properties, probably through an opsonizing biochemical pathway. Clinical studies are positive confirmations, but we are still at the beginning, and there are perplexing concerns especially relative to the content of agaritine. Argantine is a well-known carcinogenic and toxic substance in animals, that must be completely and fully evaluated. PMID:18317543

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous and alkaline extracts from mushrooms (Agaricus blazei Murill).

    PubMed

    Padilha, Marina M; Avila, Ana A L; Sousa, Pergentino J C; Cardoso, Luis Gustavo V; Perazzo, Fábio F; Carvalho, José Carlos T

    2009-04-01

    The effects of aqueous and alkaline extracts from Agaricus blazei Murill, an edible mushroom used as folk medicine in Brazil, Japan, and China to treat several illnesses, were investigated on the basis of the inflammatory process induced by different agents. Oral administration of A. blazei extracts marginally inhibited the edema induced by nystatin. In contrast, when complete Freund's adjuvant was used as the inflammatory stimulus, both extracts were able to inhibit this process significantly (P < .05, analysis of variance followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison post hoc test), although it inhibited the granulomatous tissue induction moderately. These extracts were able to decrease the ulcer wounds induced by stress. Also, administration of extracts inhibited neutrophil migration to the exudates present in the peritoneal cavity after carrageenin injection. Therefore, it is possible that A. blazei extracts can be useful in inflammatory diseases because of activation of the immune system and its cells induced by the presence of polysaccharides such as beta-glucans.

  16. Yeast makes whey into edible oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-19

    Researchers from Iowa State University have found that after the ultrafiltration of whey, the remaining liquid can make an excellent growth medium for yeast. The yeast can efficiently convert nutrients in the whey into an edible oil. As much as 65% of the dry weight of the yeast cells is edible oil. The fermentation is also reported to reduce the organic material in the whey liquid about 90% thereby alleviating a pollution problem.

  17. Antiobesity properties of mushroom polysaccharides – A Review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mushrooms are widely consumed for their nutritional and health benefits. To stimulate broader interest in the reported health-promoting properties of bioactive mushroom polysaccharides, this presentation will survey the chemistry (isolation and structural characterization) and reported antiobesity ...

  18. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Shiitake mushroom spores.

    PubMed

    Ampere, Alexandre; Delhaes, Laurence; Soots, Jacques; Bart, Frederic; Wallaert, Benoit

    2012-08-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a pulmonary granulomatosis involving an immunoallergic mechanism caused by chronic inhalation of antigens, most frequently organic substances, as well as chemicals. We report the first European case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to the inhalation of Shiitake mushroom spores. A 37-year-old French Caucasian man with a one-month history of persistent dry cough, shortness of breath and loss of weight was admitted to our hospital on December 2010. Anamnesis showed he was involved in mushroom production beginning in the summer of 2010. His temperature on admission was 36.6°C and he had a normal blood pressure (135/90 mmHg). Bilateral fine crackles were audible in the base of both lungs. Pulmonary function tests showed a mild restrictive pattern with decreased DLco and a PaO(2) of 65 mmHg, Chest CT scan revealed reticulo-nodular shadows, slight ground glass opacities, liner atelectasis, and subpleural opacities in both lung fields. Bronchoscopy was normal but cytological examination of BAL revealed a predominant lymphocytosis (55%). Serum precipitins to the Shiitake mushroom spores were positive (3 precipitins arcs with high intensity) and as a result we advised the patient to cease his mushroom production activities. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to inhalation of Shiitake mushroom spores was established as a result of the improvement of all of his clinical symptoms, i.e., cough, weight loss, bilateral fine crackles, mild restrictive pattern of pulmonary function, and reticulo-nodular shadows on chest CT, once exposure was eliminated. Recent interest in exotic mushrooms varieties, e.g., Shiitake, in developed countries because of their possible medicinal properties might increase the potential risk of HP among mushrooms workers. Therefore, healthcare professionals have to take this new potential respiratory disease into account.

  19. Utilization of agro-resources by radiation treatment -production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Hashimoto, Shoji; Awang, Mat Rasol; Hamdini, Hassan; Saitoh, Hideharu

    1993-10-01

    The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wasres by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EFB) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30°C in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran.

  20. Proximate composition and functionality of the culinary-medicinal tiger sawgill mushroom, Lentinus tigrinus (higher Basidiomycetes), from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Dulay, Rich Milton R; Arenas, Minerva C; Kalaw, Sofronio P; Reyes, Renato G; Cabrera, Esperanza C

    2014-01-01

    The proximate composition and functionality of Lentinus tigrinus were evaluated to establish and popularize this mushroom as functional food source. The evaluation of functionality focused on the antibacterial and hypoglycemic activities of the mushroom extracts. An acute single oral dose toxicity test in mice was used for its biosafety analysis. The pileus contained higher amounts of protein (25.9%), fat (2.1%), and ash (7.4%) and a higher energetic value (142.1 kcal/100 g) than the corresponding stipe, whereas the stipe contained higher amounts of total carbohydrates (67.7%), which consist of dietary fiber (63.0%) and reducing sugar (4.7%), than the pileus. Biosafety analysis confirmed that L. tigrinus is an edible mushroom species; it was found to be toxicologically safe in imprinting control region mice. The administration of lyophilized hot water extract of the fruiting body (both 100 and 250 mg/ kg doses) to diabetic mice significantly lowered the glucose level by 26.9% in the third week, which was significantly comparable to the results of the antidiabetic agent glibenclamide, which was used as a positive control. In vitro antibacterial assay showed that the ethanolic extract of the fruiting body and the immobilized secondary mycelia had high antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus but not on Escherichia coli. Combining its useful nutrients and significant biological properties, L. tigrinus can be considered a natural source of safe nutraceuticals.

  1. Protein digestibility using corrected amino acid score method (PDCAAS) of four types of mushrooms grown in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Takruri, Hamed R

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the protein quality of four types of edible mushrooms common in Jordan in terms of protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), which is a combination of the chemical score of the limiting amino acid multiplied by true digestibility of the protein. True protein digestibility values were low (61.4, 73.4, 52.6 and 80.5 for Terfezia claveryi, Pleurotus ostreatus, Tricholoma terrum and Agaricus macrosporus, respectively). Based on the essential amino acids pattern requirements for children, the limiting amino acids in P. ostreatus and A. macrosporus protein were sulphur-containing amino acids with chemical scores of 0.61 and 0.50, respectively. However, lysine was the limiting amino acid in the protein of T. claveryi and T. terreum with chemical scores of 0.71 and 0.67, respectively, and the PDCAAS was 0.43, 0.45, 0.35 and 0.40 for the mushrooms types, respectively. Considering the pattern of essential amino acid requirements of laboratory rats, the sulphur containing amino acids were the limiting amino acids in the protein of T. claveryi, P. ostreatus, T. terreum and A. macrosporus with chemical scores of 0.56, 0.30, 0.34 and 0.25, respectively. The PDCAAS were 0.34, 0.22. 0.17 and 0.20, respectively. It is concluded that the four mushroom types studied are of low protein quality.

  2. Polluting macrophytes Colombian lake Fúquene used as substrate by edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Nieto, Patricia; García-Gómez, Gustavo; Mora-Ortiz, Laura; Robles-Camargo, George

    2014-01-01

    Invasive aquatic plants from Lake Fúquene (Cundinamarca, Colombia), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes C. Mart.) and Brazilian elodea (Egeria densa Planch.) have been removed mechanically from the lake and can be used for edible mushrooms production. The growth of the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on these aquatic macrophytes was investigated in order to evaluate the possible use of fruiting bodies and spent biomass in food production for human and animal nutrition, respectively. Treatments included: water hyacinth, Brazilian elodea, sawdust, rice hulls and their combinations, inoculated with P. ostreatus at 3%. Water hyacinth mixed with sawdust stimulated significantly fruiting bodies production (P = 3.3 × 10(-7)) with 71% biological efficacy, followed by water hyacinth with rice husk (55%) and elodea with rice husk (48%), all of these have protein contents between 26 and 47%. Loss of lignin (0.9-21.6%), cellulose (3.7-58.3%) and hemicellulose (1.9-53.8%) and increment in vitro digestibility (16.7-139.3%) and reducing sugars (73.4-838.4%) were observed in most treatments. Treatments spent biomass presented Relative Forage Values (RFV) from 46.1 to 232.4%. The results demonstrated the fungus degrading ability and its potential use in aquatic macrophytes conversion biomass into digestible ruminant feed as added value to the fruiting bodies production for human nutrition.

  3. Content and Bioaccumulation of Nine Mineral Elements in Ten Mushroom Species of the Genus Boletus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue-Mei; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Liu, Hong-Gao

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations and bioconcentration potential of nine elements (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, and Zn) in ten species of wild edible Boletus and the corresponding underlying soils were analyzed. The analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer. Boletus showed relative abundant contents of P, K, Fe, Mg, Ca, and Na and less of Zn, Cu, and Mn. Caps compared to stalks were enriched in P, K, Cu, Mg, and Zn, while stalks were enriched in Mn. The elements such as P and K were accumulated (BCF > 1), while Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Na were excluded (BCF < 1) in the fruiting bodies. The correlation analysis indicated high correlations between Cu, Mn, Ca, and Fe in the mushrooms as compared to the corresponding soils. Significant correlations were also obtained between Cu-P (r = 0.775), Fe-P (r = 0.728), and Zn-P (r = 0.76) for caps and Cu-Mg (r = 0.721), Fe-Mg (r = 0.719), Zn-Mg (r = 0.824), and Zn-P (r = 0.818) for stalks. The results of this study imply that ability of fungi to accumulate elements from substrate could be influenced by mushroom species and underlying soil substrates. PMID:26146585

  4. Water Extract from Spent Mushroom Substrate of Hericium erinaceus Suppresses Bacterial Wilt Disease of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, A Min; Min, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Sang Yeop

    2015-01-01

    Culture filtrates of six different edible mushroom species were screened for antimicrobial activity against tomato wilt bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum B3. Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes (Sanjo 701), Grifola frondosa, and Hypsizygus marmoreus showed antibacterial activity against the bacteria. Water, n-butanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of H. erinaceus exhibited high antibacterial activity against different phytopathogenic bacteria: Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, R. solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. campestris pv. campestris, X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, X. axonopodis pv. citiri, and X. axonopodis pv. glycine. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that water extracts of SMS (WESMS) of H. erinaceus induced expressions of plant defense genes encoding β-1,3-glucanase (GluA) and pathogenesis-related protein-1a (PR-1a), associated with systemic acquired resistance. Furthermore, WESMS also suppressed tomato wilt disease caused by R. solanacearum by 85% in seedlings and promoted growth (height, leaf number, and fresh weight of the root and shoot) of tomato plants. These findings suggest the WESMS of H. erinaceus has the potential to suppress bacterial wilt disease of tomato through multiple effects including antibacterial activity, plant growth promotion, and defense gene induction. PMID:26539048

  5. Vitamin D-fortified chitosan films from mushroom waste

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brown mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stalk bases from mushroom waste were treated with UV-B light to rapidly increase vitamin D2 content. Chitin was also recovered from this waste and converted into chitosan by N-deacetylation. FTIR spectra showed that the mushroom chitosan were similar to chitosan fr...

  6. Wild mushroom--an underutilized healthy food resource and income generator: experience from Tanzania rural areas.

    PubMed

    Tibuhwa, Donatha D

    2013-07-10

    This study documents the use of a wild edible mushroom (WEM) in Tanzania rural areas and assesses its significance as a source of healthy food and income for the disadvantaged rural dwellers. The data was gathered through local market surveys in order to conventionally identify different common WEM taxa using a semi-structured interview and it involved 160 people comprised of WEM hunters, traders and consumers. The collected data covered the information on where, how, when and who was the principal transmitter of the mycological knowledge learned and the general information on their market and values. Results show that mushroom gathering is gender oriented, dominated by women (76.25%) whereas men account for 23.75%. Women possess vast knowledge of mushroom folk taxonomy, biology and ecology and are therefore the principal knowledge transmitters. It was also found that learning about WEM began at an early age and is family tradition based. The knowledge is acquired and imparted by practices and is mostly transmitted vertically through family dissemination. The results also revealed that 75 WEM species belong to 14 families sold in fresh or dry form. The common sold species belonged to the family Cantharellaceae (19) followed by Rusullaceae (16) and Lyophyllaceae (13), respectively. Collectors residing near miombo woodland may harvest 20-30 buckets (capacity 20 liters) and the business may earn a person about $400-900 annually. This finding envisages the purposeful strengthening of WEM exploitation, which would contribute significantly in boosting the rural income/economy and reduce conflicts between community and forest conservers. The activity would also provide alternative employment, improve food security to rural disadvantaged groups especially women and old people hence improve their livelihood.

  7. Bioaccumulation of elements in three selected mushroom species from southwest Poland.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Mikołajczak, Patrycja; Goliński, Piotr; Gąsecka, Monika; Sobieralski, Krzysztof; Dawidowicz, Luiza; Szymańczyk, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    The contents of 16 minerals and trace elements (Ag, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Pt, Ti and Zn) were analyzed in edible mushrooms (Leccinum scabrum, Boletus edulis and Boletus badius) collected in southwest Poland. Content of Co, Ni and Pb was similar in all tested mushroom species, while content of Ag, Ca, Cd, Hg and Ti was significantly higher in B. edulis than in L. scabrum and B. badius. The largest differences between these species were observed for Fe and Zn accumulation. The highest contents of these elements were noted in B. badius bodies (202 ± 88 and 137 ± 24 mg kg(-1) dry matter, respectively), lower in B. edulis (131 ± 99 and 89 ± 26 mg kg(-1) dry matter, respectively) and lowest in L. scabrum. Differences in As, Cu and Cr content between tested species were observed mainly between L. scabrum and B. badius fruiting bodies. Content of Pt was below 0.01 mg kg(-1) dry matter). In the case of Mg and Mn accumulation, differences between B. edulis and B. badius were not observed (478 and 440 mg kg(-1) dry matter for Mg and 23 and 19 mg kg(-1) dry matter for Mn), and the results showed significantly higher content of these elements than in L. scabrum bodies (312 and 10 mg kg(-1) dry matter, respectively). It is worth underlining that clear accumulation shown by the bioconcentration factor (BCF>1) observed for all three mushroom species was noted in the case of elements Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni and Zn only.

  8. Bioethanol production from spent mushroom compost derived from chaff of millet and sorghum.

    PubMed

    Ryden, Peter; Efthymiou, Maria-Nefeli; Tindyebwa, Teddy A M; Elliston, Adam; Wilson, David R; Waldron, Keith W; Malakar, Pradeep K

    2017-01-01

    In Uganda, the chaff remaining from threshed panicles of millet and sorghum is a low value, lignocellulose-rich agricultural by-product. Currently, it is used as a substrate for the cultivation of edible Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). The aim of this study was to assess the potential to exploit the residual post-harvest compost for saccharification and fermentation to produce ethanol. Sorghum and millet chaff-derived spent oyster mushroom composts minus large mycelium particles were assessed at small-scale and low substrate concentrations (5% w/v) for optimal severity hydrothermal pre-treatment, enzyme loading and fermentation with robust yeasts to produce ethanol. These conditions were then used as a basis for larger scale assessments with high substrate concentrations (30% w/v). Millet-based compost had a low cellulose content and, at a high substrate concentration, did not liquefy effectively. The ethanol yield was 63.9 g/kg dry matter (DM) of original material with a low concentration (19.6 g/L). Compost derived from sorghum chaff had a higher cellulose content and could be liquefied at high substrate concentration (30% w/v). This enabled selected furfural-resistant yeasts to produce ethanol at up to 186.9 g/kg DM of original material and a concentration of 45.8 g/L. Spent mushroom compost derived from sorghum chaff has the potential to be an industrially useful substrate for producing second-generation bioethanol. This might be improved further through fractionation and exploitation of hemicellulosic moieties, and possibly the exploitation of the mycelium-containing final residue for animal feed. However, spent compost derived from millet does not provide a suitably high concentration of ethanol to make it industrially attractive. Further research on the difficulty in quantitatively saccharifying cellulose from composted millet chaff and other similar substrates such as rice husk is required.

  9. Wild mushroom- an underutilized healthy food resource and income generator: experience from Tanzania rural areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study documents the use of a wild edible mushroom (WEM) in Tanzania rural areas and assesses its significance as a source of healthy food and income for the disadvantaged rural dwellers. Methodology The data was gathered through local market surveys in order to conventionally identify different common WEM taxa using a semi-structured interview and it involved 160 people comprised of WEM hunters, traders and consumers. The collected data covered the information on where, how, when and who was the principal transmitter of the mycological knowledge learned and the general information on their market and values. Results Results show that mushroom gathering is gender oriented, dominated by women (76.25%) whereas men account for 23.75%. Women possess vast knowledge of mushroom folk taxonomy, biology and ecology and are therefore the principal knowledge transmitters. It was also found that learning about WEM began at an early age and is family tradition based. The knowledge is acquired and imparted by practices and is mostly transmitted vertically through family dissemination. The results also revealed that 75 WEM species belong to 14 families sold in fresh or dry form. The common sold species belonged to the family Cantharellaceae (19) followed by Rusullaceae (16) and Lyophyllaceae (13), respectively. Collectors residing near miombo woodland may harvest 20–30 buckets (capacity 20 liters) and the business may earn a person about $400–900 annually. Conclusion This finding envisages the purposeful strengthening of WEM exploitation, which would contribute significantly in boosting the rural income/economy and reduce conflicts between community and forest conservers. The activity would also provide alternative employment, improve food security to rural disadvantaged groups especially women and old people hence improve their livelihood. PMID:23841964

  10. Mushroom acidic glycosphingolipid induction of cytokine secretion from murine T cells and proliferation of NK1.1 {alpha}/{beta} TCR-double positive cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Nozaki, Hirofumi; Itonori, Saki; Sugita, Mutsumi; Nakamura, Kimihide; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Akemi; Kushi, Yasunori

    2008-08-29

    Interferon (IFN)-{gamma} and interleukin (IL)-4 regulate many types of immune responses. Here we report that acidic glycosphingolipids (AGLs) of Hypsizigus marmoreus and Pleurotus eryngii induced secretion of IFN- {gamma} and IL-4 from T cells in a CD11c-positive cell-dependent manner similar to that of {alpha}-galactosylceramide ({alpha}-GalCer) and isoglobotriaosylceramide (iGb3), although activated T cells by AGLs showed less secretion of cytokine than those activated by {alpha}-GalCer. In addition, stimulation of these mushroom AGLs induced proliferation of NK1.1 {alpha}/{beta} TCR-double positive cells in splenocytes. Administration of a mixture of {alpha}-GalCer and AGLs affected the stimulation of {alpha}-GalCer and generally induced a subtle Th1 bias for splenocytes but induced an extreme Th2 bias for thymocytes. These results suggested that edible mushroom AGLs contribute to immunomodulation.

  11. Vitamin B12[c-lactone], a biologically inactive corrinoid compound, occurs in cultured and dried lion's mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) fruiting bodies.

    PubMed

    Teng, Fei; Bito, Tomohiro; Takenaka, Shigeo; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

    2014-02-19

    This study determined the vitamin B12 content of the edible medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus, lion's mane mushroom fruiting body, using a microbiological assay based on Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC 7830. Trace levels (0.04-0.36 μg/100 g dry weight) of vitamin B12 were found in most of the dried mushroom samples, and two samples contained slightly higher levels (0.56 and 1.04 μg/100 g dry weight, respectively) of vitamin B12. We purified the corrinoid compounds from the extracts of dried lion's mane mushroom fruiting bodies using an immunoaffinity column and identified them as vitamin B12 or vitamin B12[c-lactone] (or both) based on LC/ESI-MS/MS chromatograms. This is the first report on an unnatural corrinoid, vitamin B12[c-lactone], occurring in foods. Vitamin B12[c-lactone] was simple to produce during incubation of authentic vitamin B12 and chloramine-T, an antimicrobial agent, at varying pH values (3.0-7.0) and was completely inactive in the vitamin B12-dependent bacteria that are generally used in vitamin B12 bioassays.

  12. Can consumption of antioxidant rich mushrooms extend longevity?: antioxidant activity of Pleurotus spp. and its effects on Mexican fruit flies' (Anastrepha ludens) longevity.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, José E; Jiménez-Pérez, Gabriela; Liedo, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    The variability of antioxidant capacity of 14 strains of the edible oyster mushroom Pleurotus spp. was determined, and the effect of selected mushroom supplements on the longevity of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, was evaluated. The antioxidant capacity of the fruiting bodies was determined by three different methods, measuring the free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extracts, the OH radical scavenging capacity, and the total phenol content. The inhibition percentage of the DPPH radical varied between 32.6 and 85.7% and total phenols varied between 30.6 and 143.3 mg/g. The strains with the highest (Pleurotus djamor ECS-0142) and lowest (Pleurotus ostreatus ECS-1123) antioxidant capacity were selected to study their effect on the survival, life expectancy, and mortality of the Mexican fruit fly A. ludens. The results demonstrated differing responses between male and female flies. High concentrations of mushrooms (5 and 20%) in the diet resulted in a decrease in life expectancy. However, flies on the diet with 1% P. djamor ECS-0142 showed slightly but significantly greater survival than those on the control diet. The possible adverse effect of protein content in mushroom extracts is discussed.

  13. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Shinpei Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi; Uetsuki, Mitsuharu; Misaki, Koji; Kimata, Masafumi

    2015-01-26

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved by isotropic XeF{sub 2} etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.

  14. A medicinal mushroom: Phellinus linteus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tongbo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chen, Chang-Yan

    2008-01-01

    Phellinus Linteus (Berkeley & M. A. Curtis) Teng (PL) is a medicinal mushroom that has been practiced in oriental countries for centuries to prevent ailments as diverse as gastroenteric dysfunction, diarrhea, haemorrhage and cancers. In an effort to translate the Asian traditional medicines into western-accepted therapies, scientists have demonstrated that the extracts from fruit-bodies or mycelium of PL not only stimulate the hormonal and cell-mediated immune function and quench the inflammatory reactions caused by a variety of stimuli, but also suppress the tumor growth and metastasis. Mounting evidence from different research groups has shown that PL induces apoptosis in a host of murine and human carcinomas without causing any measurable toxic effects to their normal counterparts. Recently, research has been focused on the anti-tumor effect of PL, and in particular, on its ability to enhance some conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. These studies suggest PL to be a promising candidate as an alternative anticancer agent or a synergizer for existing antitumor drugs. Hereinafter, we summarize the present progress in elucidating the mechanisms underlying the potency of PL and its anti-tumor function. The fractionation and identification of the biologically active components from PL are also briefly introduced.

  15. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Shinpei; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi; Uetsuki, Mitsuharu; Misaki, Koji; Kimata, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved by isotropic XeF2 etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.

  16. Edible Vaccine: Current Status and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Suhail, Mohd; Kamal, Mohammad A; Husen, Azamal; Azhar, Esam I

    2017-07-11

    Growing world population and continuous disease emergence have invited the development of more efficient new vaccines against a range of diseases. Conventional vaccines are being wildly used in the world but their production requires higher cost, more time and better infrastructure. Thus, the idea of plant-based edible vaccine technology has emerged and showed promising results with strong and effective protection against many diseases. Plants have been utilized since more than two decades as pharmaceuticals against many diseases. Plant-based technology has great potential to express genes and produce clinically important compounds in the desired tissue. Plant biotechnology has played important role in the production of pharmaceutical compounds like vaccines, antibodies, antigens, sub-units, growth hormones and enzymes by utilizing genetic modification. It has also been opened a new approach for developing an edible vaccine as an oral delivery. Edible vaccines have been shown to induce both mucosal as well as systemic immunity. Currently, many pharmaceuticals proteins as an edible vaccine have been developed in different plant expression systems and evaluated against various life-threatening diseases and some of them have reached advanced phase of the clinical trial and exhibited promising results. In this review, we have discussed about the molecular pharming, edible vaccine plant base technology and current status of developed edible vaccines in the different plant tissue expression system, mechanism of action and clinical applications with clinical trials stage, significance, requirements, advantage and disadvantage of edible vaccines. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. The Unexplored Anticaries Potential of Shiitake Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Avinash, J.; Vinay, S.; Jha, Kunal; Das, Diptajit; Goutham, B. S.; Kumar, Gunjan

    2016-01-01

    Keeping an eye the escalating costs of dental services, the treatment cost of the consequences of dental caries can be reduced to manageable proportions by preventive measures aimed at decreasing the prevalence. One such measure is by increasing the consumption of caries preventive foods. Recently, there has been an upsurge of interest in mushrooms not only as a healthy food but also as a caries preventive food. The most common type of mushroom, Lentinula edodes also called as shiitake, is studied in-depth for its oral health benefits. The cultivation of shiitake dates way back to 1100 A.D. during the rule of Sung dynasty which is replaced by more modern and efficient sawdust substrate log cultures lately. Shiitake mushroom extract can be isolated in various forms such as freeze dried, oil, and ethyl acetate extracts. Various biologically active compounds such as erythritol, copalic acid, adenosine, carvacrol, and many more are responsible for this mushroom's antimicrobial activity. Anticariogenicity can be attributed to the induction of the detachment of cariogenic microorganisms from hydroxyapatite, changes in cell surface hydrophobicity, bactericidal activity, and disruption of signal transduction in Streptococcus mutans as proved through various in vivo and in vitro studies. Apart from these benefits, it has tremendous potential to be used as an antioxidant, anticancer, antigingivitis, antifungal, and antiviral agent. The one and only known adverse reaction due to shiitake mushroom consumption is the eruption of pruritic erythematous papules termed as shiitake dermatitis. This review highlights the unexplored anticaries potential of one such useful bioactive metabolite-shiitake mushroom. PMID:28082791

  18. Molecular detection of poisonous mushrooms in different matrices.

    PubMed

    Epis, Sara; Matinato, Caterina; Gentili, Gabriella; Varotto, Fabio; Bandi, Claudio; Sassera, Davide

    2010-01-01

    Amanita phalloides, Lepiota cristata, Lepiota brunneoincarnata and Inocybe asterospora are among the most important species responsible of mushroom poisoning in northern Italy. A real time PCR method for the identification of samples containing DNA from each of these species was developed. To test specificity all protocols were applied on DNA extracted from various mushroom species; sensitivity was assessed performing serial dilutions on all samples; versatility of the protocols was evaluated performing tests on DNA extracted from different matrices. The protocols showed high sensitivity (32 ng dried mushroom), high specificity and sensitive detection of DNA extracted from difficult samples, including pasta with mushroom, cooked mushrooms and gastric aspirates.

  19. Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom has been used for consumption as product for a long time due to their flavor and richness in protein. Mushrooms are also known as mycoremediation tool because of their use in remediation of different types of pollutants. Mycoremediation relies on the efficient enzymes, produced by mushroom, for the degradation of various types of substrate and pollutants. Besides waste degradation, mushroom produced a vendible product for consumption. However, sometimes they absorb the pollutant in their mycelium (biosorption process) and cannot be consumed due to absorbed toxicants. This article reviews the achievement and current status of mycoremediation technology based on mushroom cultivation for the remediation of waste and also emphasizes on the importance of mushroom as product. This critical review is also focused on the safety aspects of mushroom cultivation on waste. PMID:24949264

  20. Immune Modulation From Five Major Mushrooms: Application to Integrative Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Guggenheim, Alena G.; Wright, Kirsten M.; Zwickey, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses the immunological roles of 5 major mushrooms in oncology: Agaricus blazei, Cordyceps sinensis, Grifola frondosa, Ganoderma lucidum, and Trametes versicolor. These mushrooms were selected based on the body of research performed on mushroom immunology in an oncology model. First, this article focuses on how mushrooms modify cytokines within specific cancer models and on how those cytokines affect the disease process. Second, this article examines the direct effect of mushrooms on cancer. Finally, this article presents an analysis of how mushrooms interact with chemotherapeutic agents, including their effects on its efficacy and on the myelosuppression that results from it. For these 5 mushrooms, an abundance of in vitro evidence exists that elucidates the anticancer immunological mechanisms. Preliminary research in humans is also available and is promising for treatment. PMID:26770080