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Sample records for editors lai poh

  1. Therapeutic effect of TMZ-POH on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma depends on reactive oxygen species accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei; Wang, Xingwu; Wei, Ling; Li, Yang; Lv, Liyan; Wang, Weijun; Chen, Thomas C.; Song, Xianrang

    2016-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common head and neck malignancy without efficient chemotherapeutic agents for it. In our current study, we demonstrated the cytotoxicity effects of a newly patented compound temozolomide–perillyl alcohol (TMZ-POH) on NPC in vitro and in vivo, and the possible mechanisms involved. Human NPC cell lines CNE1, CNE2, HNE2, and SUME-α were treated with control (DMSO), TMZ, POH, TMZ plus POH, and TMZ-POH. Our data indicated that TMZ-POH could inhibit NPC cell proliferation, cause G2/M arrest and DNA damage. TMZ-POH triggered apoptosis in NPC cells via significant activation of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Importantly, TMZ-POH-induced cell death was found to be associated with (i) the loss of inner mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and release of mitochondrial Cytochrome c, (ii) the increase in ROS generation, and (iii) the activation of stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) signaling pathway. The generation of ROS in response to TMZ-POH seems to play a crucial role in the cell death process since the blockage of ROS production using the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine or catalase reversed the TMZ-POH-induced JNK activation, DNA damage, and cancer cell apoptosis. These results provide the rationale for further research and preclinical investigation of the antitumor effect of TMZ-POH against human NPC. PMID:26625208

  2. The 19S proteasomal lid subunit POH1 enhances the transcriptional activation by Mitf in osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Toni; Sohn, Chee; Kaiser, Bria; Jensen, Eric D; Mansky, Kim C

    2010-04-01

    The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) regulates gene expression required for osteoclast differentiation. Genes regulated by Mitf have been previously identified. However, proteins that interact and regulate Mitf's activity in osteoclasts are not well known. Here, we report that POH1, a subunit of the 19S proteasome lid is a regulator of Mitf. We show that POH1 and Mitf interact in osteoclasts and that this interaction is dependent on RANKL signaling. Overexpression of POH1 increased Mitf's activation of 5XGal4-TK and Acp5 promoters. The amino terminus of POH1 mediates the binding to Mitf and is sufficient to increase Mitf's transcriptional activity. Finally, we show that mutations in the JAMM motif of POH1 reduced Mitf activation of promoters. In summary, our results identify a novel mechanism of Mitf regulation in osteoclasts by POH1.

  3. The JAMM motif of human deubiquitinase Poh1 is essential for cell viability.

    PubMed

    Gallery, Melissa; Blank, Jonathan L; Lin, Yinghui; Gutierrez, Juan A; Pulido, Jacqueline C; Rappoli, David; Badola, Sunita; Rolfe, Mark; Macbeth, Kyle J

    2007-01-01

    Poh1 deubiquitinase activity is required for proteolytic processing of polyubiquitinated substrates by the 26S proteasome, linking deubiquitination to complete substrate degradation. Poh1 RNA interference (RNAi) in HeLa cells resulted in a reduction in cell viability and an increase in polyubiquitinated protein levels, supporting the link between Poh1 and the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. To more specifically test for any requirement of the zinc metalloproteinase motif of Poh1 to support cell viability and proteasome function, we developed a RNAi complementation strategy. Effects on cell viability and proteasome activity were assessed in cells with RNAi of endogenous Poh1 and induced expression of wild-type Poh1 or a mutant form of Poh1, in which two conserved histidines of the proposed catalytic site were replaced with alanines. We show that an intact zinc metalloproteinase motif is essential for cell viability and 26S proteasome function. As a required enzymatic component of the proteasome, Poh1 is an intriguing therapeutic drug target for cancer.

  4. New Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    It is an honour and a challenge to take up the editorship of the Messenger at this time of ESO's expanding role in European and worldwide astronomy. In order to mark the change, we have made a few adjustments to the appearance without departing from the overall style that Peter Shaver had evolved during his term as editor. I would like to thank Peter for gen-tly coaching me into the position and Jutta Boxheimer, the technical editor, for the high quality of the layout.

  5. Editor's note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umapathy, Siva

    2017-01-01

    This is an editor's note related to the publication 'Biologically active and thermally stable polymeric Schiff base and its metal polychelates: Their synthesis and spectral aspects' by Raza Rasool and Sumaiya Hasnain, which appeared in Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 148 (2015) 435-443.

  6. TOAD Editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingle, Bradford D.; Shea, Anne L.; Hofler, Alicia S.

    1993-01-01

    Transferable Output ASCII Data (TOAD) computer program (LAR-13755), implements format designed to facilitate transfer of data across communication networks and dissimilar host computer systems. Any data file conforming to TOAD format standard called TOAD file. TOAD Editor is interactive software tool for manipulating contents of TOAD files. Commonly used to extract filtered subsets of data for visualization of results of computation. Also offers such user-oriented features as on-line help, clear English error messages, startup file, macroinstructions defined by user, command history, user variables, UNDO features, and full complement of mathematical statistical, and conversion functions. Companion program, TOAD Gateway (LAR-14484), converts data files from variety of other file formats to that of TOAD. TOAD Editor written in FORTRAN 77.

  7. WRR editors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    New editors of AGU's Water Resources Research journal will be Soroosh Sorooshian and Roger E. Smith.Soroosh Sorooshian was born in Kerman, Iran. He received his B.S. degree in mechanical engineering from California State Polytechnic University, San Luis Obispo, in 1971. He received his M.S. degree in operations research in 1973 and his Ph.D. degree in water resources systems engineering in 1978, both from the University of California, Los Angeles.

  8. MPS Editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, William S.; Liu, Ning; Francis, Laurie K.; OReilly, Taifun L.; Schrock, Mitchell; Page, Dennis N.; Morris, John R.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Shams, Khawaja S.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, it was time-consuming to hand-edit data and then set up simulation runs to find the effect and impact of the input data on a spacecraft. MPS Editor provides the user the capability to create/edit/update models and sequences, and immediately try them out using what appears to the user as one piece of software. MPS Editor provides an integrated sequencing environment for users. It provides them with software that can be utilized during development as well as actual operations. In addition, it provides them with a single, consistent, user friendly interface. MPS Editor uses the Eclipse Rich Client Platform to provide an environment that can be tailored to specific missions. It provides the capability to create and edit, and includes an Activity Dictionary to build the simulation spacecraft models, build and edit sequences of commands, and model the effects of those commands on the spacecraft. MPS Editor is written in Java using the Eclipse Rich Client Platform. It is currently built with four perspectives: the Activity Dictionary Perspective, the Project Adaptation Perspective, the Sequence Building Perspective, and the Sequence Modeling Perspective. Each perspective performs a given task. If a mission doesn't require that task, the unneeded perspective is not added to that project's delivery. In the Activity Dictionary Perspective, the user builds the project-specific activities, observations, calibrations, etc. Typically, this is used during the development phases of the mission, although it can be used later to make changes and updates to the Project Activity Dictionary. In the Adaptation Perspective, the user creates the spacecraft models such as power, data store, etc. Again, this is typically used during development, but will be used to update or add models of the spacecraft. The Sequence Building Perspective allows the user to create a sequence of activities or commands that go to the spacecraft. It provides a simulation of the activities and

  9. A Spatio-Temporal Enhancement Method for medium resolution LAI (STEM-LAI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houborg, Rasmus; McCabe, Matthew F.; Gao, Feng

    2016-05-01

    Satellite remote sensing has been used successfully to map leaf area index (LAI) across landscapes, but advances are still needed to exploit multi-scale data streams for producing LAI at both high spatial and temporal resolution. A multi-scale Spatio-Temporal Enhancement Method for medium resolution LAI (STEM-LAI) has been developed to generate 4-day time-series of Landsat-scale LAI from existing medium resolution LAI products. STEM-LAI has been designed to meet the demands of applications requiring frequent and spatially explicit information, such as effectively resolving rapidly evolving vegetation dynamics at sub-field (30 m) scales. In this study, STEM-LAI is applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) based LAI data and utilizes a reference-based regression tree approach for producing MODIS-consistent, but Landsat-based, LAI. The Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) is used to interpolate the downscaled LAI between Landsat acquisition dates, providing a high spatial and temporal resolution improvement over existing LAI products. STARFM predicts high resolution LAI by blending MODIS and Landsat based information from a common acquisition date, with MODIS data from a prediction date. To demonstrate its capacity to reproduce fine-scale spatial features observed in actual Landsat LAI, the STEM-LAI approach is tested over an agricultural region in Nebraska. The implementation of a 250 m resolution LAI product, derived from MODIS 1 km data and using a scale consistent approach based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), is found to significantly improve accuracies of spatial pattern prediction, with the coefficient of efficiency (E) ranging from 0.77-0.94 compared to 0.01-0.85 when using 1 km LAI inputs alone. Comparisons against an 11-year record of in-situ measured LAI over maize and soybean highlight the utility of STEM-LAI in reproducing observed LAI dynamics (both characterized by r2 = 0.86) over a

  10. Journal Editors Celebrated at Editors' Evening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panning, Jeanette

    2014-02-01

    At the Fall Meeting, the premiere social event for AGU's many journal editors is the annual Editors' Evening, an opportunity for members to celebrate and to recognize the efforts of retiring editors. At the event, AGU president Carol Finn welcomed all those in attendance and thanked them for volunteering their time for the benefit of AGU and the wider research community.

  11. Regulation of ErbB2 Receptor Status by the Proteasomal DUB POH1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Han; Buus, Richard; Clague, Michael J.; Urbé, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the factors, which control ErbB2 and EGF receptor (EGFR) status in cells is likely to inform future therapeutic approaches directed at these potent oncogenes. ErbB2 is resistant to stimulus-induced degradation and high levels of over-expression can inhibit EGF receptor down-regulation. We now show that for HeLa cells expressing similar numbers of EGFR and ErbB2, EGFR down-regulation is efficient and insensitive to reduction of ErbB2 levels. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) may extend protein half-lives by rescuing ubiquitinated substrates from proteasomal degradation or from ubiquitin-dependent lysosomal sorting. Using a siRNA library directed at the full complement of human DUBs, we identified POH1 (also known as Rpn11 or PSMD14), a component of the proteasome lid, as a critical DUB controlling the apparent ErbB2 levels. Moreover, the effects on ErbB2 levels can be reproduced by administration of proteasomal inhibitors such as epoxomicin used at maximally tolerated doses. However, the extent of this apparent loss and specificity for ErbB2 versus EGFR could not be accounted for by changes in transcription or degradation rate. Further investigation revealed that cell surface ErbB2 levels are only mildly affected by POH1 knock-down and that the apparent loss can at least partially be explained by the accumulation of higher molecular weight ubiquitinated forms of ErbB2 that are detectable with an extracellular but not intracellular domain directed antibody. We propose that POH1 may deubiquitinate ErbB2 and that this activity is not necessarily coupled to proteasomal degradation. PMID:19436748

  12. Transition metal-catalyzed efficient and green transformations of P(O)-H compounds to functional organophosphorus compounds.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing; Zhou, Yong-Bo; Zhao, Chang-Qiu; Yin, Shuang-Feng; Han, Li-Biao

    2013-05-01

    Organophosphorus compounds are of high importance in organic synthesis, catalysis, biochemistry, pharmaceuticals, and material science. In this mini review, we summarize our recent studies on transition metal-catalyzed green and atom efficient transformations of P(O)-H bonds to various versatile organophosphorus compounds, including the highly regio- and stereoselective P(O)-H additions to carbon-carbon unsaturated compounds, asymmetric hydrophosphorylation reactions, and dehydrogenative coupling reactions of P(O)-H compounds with carbon-H and heteroatom-H compounds. These new reactions provide efficient, general and practical ways for the preparation of a variety of well-defined functional organophosphorus compounds. Mechanistic aspects related to the catalytic processes are also discussed.

  13. Helminth fauna parasitizing Pimelodus pohli (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae) from the upper São Francisco River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sabas, Claudia Silveira São; Brasil-Sato, Marilia Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    The parasite fauna of catfish, Pimelodus pohli, from the São Francisco River Basin is presented. A total of 45 catfish from the upper São Francisco River (45°15'44″W 18°13'25″S), were examined from July 2009 to September 2011. Forty-three catfish (95.5%) were infected by at least one parasite species, with 885 parasite specimens being found, distributed across 17 species: Monogenea (Demidospermus uncusvalidus, Pavanelliella pavanellii, and Scleroductus sp.); Eucestoda (plerocercoids of Proteocephalidea); Digenea (metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum, adults of Auriculostoma platense and Kalipharynx sp., and juvenile of Prosthenhystera obesa); Nematoda (larvae of Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium sp., Procamallanus pimelodus, Procamallanus sp., and unidentified of Cucullanidae, and adults of Cucullanus caballeroi, Philometra sp., and Procamallanus freitasi); and Acanthocephala (adults of Neoechinorhynchus pimelodi). Procamallanus freitasi and Scleroductus sp. were the taxa with the highest prevalence. Demidospermus uncusvalidus, P. freitasi, and Scleroductus sp. were the dominant species. The host's sex did not influence parasitic indexes; however, the total length of the catfish did appear to have some influence. The parasites, with except for P. obesa, were registered for the first time in P. pohli, as well as the occurrence of Kalipharynx sp. and C. caballeroi among pimelodid hosts from São Francisco River and South America.

  14. Crack Healing in Quartz: Influence of Crack Morphology and pOH-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallon, J. A.; Kronenberg, A. K.; Popp, R. K.; Lamb, W. M.

    2004-12-01

    Crack healing in quartz has been investigated by optical microscopy and interferometry of rhombohedral r-cleavage cracks in polished Brazilian quartz prisms that were hydrothermally annealed. Quartz prisms were pre-cracked at room temperature and then annealed at temperatures T of 250° and 400° C for 2.4 to 240 hours, fluid pressure Pf = 41 MPa (equal to confining pressure Pc), and varying pOH- (from 5.4 to 1.2 at 250° C for fluids consisting of distilled water and NaOH solutions). Crack morphologies before and after annealing were recorded for each sample in plane light digital images and apertures were determined from interference fringes recorded using transmitted monochromatic light (λ = 598 nm). As documented in previous studies (Smith and Evans, 1984; Brantley et al., 1990; Beeler and Hickman, 1996), crack healing of quartz is driven by reductions in surface energy and healing rates appear to be limited by diffusional solute transport; sharply defined crack tips become blunted and break up into fluid-filled tubes and inclusions. However, fluid inclusion geometries are also observed with nonequilibrium shapes that depend on initial surface roughness. Crack healing is significant at 400° C after short run durations (24 hr) with healing rates reaching 10-5 mm/s. Crack healing is also observed at T=250° C, but only for smooth cracks with apertures < 0.6 μ m or for cracks subject to low pOH-. The extent of crack healing is sensitive to crack aperture and to hackles formed by fine-scale crack branching during crack growth. Initial crack apertures appear to be governed by the presence of fine particles, often found in the vicinity of hackles, which maintain the separation of crack surfaces. Where rough cracks exhibit healing, hackles are sites of either enhanced or reduced loss of fluid-solid interface depending on slight mismatches and sense of twist of opposing crack surfaces. Hackles of open r-cleavage cracks are replaced either by (1) healed curvilinear

  15. Estimating Leaf Area Index (LAI) in Vineyards Using the PocketLAI Smart-App.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Francesca; Movedi, Ermes; Coduto, Davide; Parisi, Simone; Brancadoro, Lucio; Pagani, Valentina; Guarneri, Tommaso; Confalonieri, Roberto

    2016-11-26

    Estimating leaf area index (LAI) of Vitis vinifera using indirect methods involves some critical issues, related to its discontinuous and non-homogeneous canopy. This study evaluates the smart app PocketLAI and hemispherical photography in vineyards against destructive LAI measurements. Data were collected during six surveys in an experimental site characterized by a high level of heterogeneity among plants, allowing us to explore a wide range of LAI values. During the last survey, the possibility to combine remote sensing data and in-situ PocketLAI estimates (smart scouting) was evaluated. Results showed a good agreement between PocketLAI data and direct measurements, especially for LAI ranging from 0.13 to 1.41 (R² = 0.94, RRMSE = 17.27%), whereas the accuracy decreased when an outlying value (vineyard LAI = 2.84) was included (R² = 0.77, RRMSE = 43.00%), due to the saturation effect in case of very dense canopies arising from lack of green pruning. The hemispherical photography showed very high values of R², even in presence of the outlying value (R² = 0.94), although it showed a marked and quite constant overestimation error (RRMSE = 99.46%), suggesting the need to introduce a correction factor specific for vineyards. During the smart scouting, PocketLAI showed its reliability to monitor the spatial-temporal variability of vine vigor in cordon-trained systems, and showed a potential for a wide range of applications, also in combination with remote sensing.

  16. Lai Products and Validation For Hydrological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, Frédéric; Combal, Bruno; Moulin, Sophie; Bacour, Cédric; Weiss, Marie; Garrigues, Sébastien

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a very important variable required in many hydrological processes. It controls evapotranspiration in several ways, rain interception and run- off. However, because LAI may change rapidly with space and time, estimates derived from remote sensing data could be used as input to spatially distributed hydrological models running at a range of scales. The derivation of LAI from remote sensing data is not straightforward since several factors may confound LAI effect on reflectance. We propose to use radiative transfer model inversion to estimate LAI from top of canopy reflectance measurements. Several inversion approaches are compared, with emphasis put on the regularisation of the inverse process by introducing prior information on the variables. Applications of this approach is made over several agricultural data sets at high spatial resolution (few 10th meters) thanks to hyperspectral (CASI, HYMAP) and BRDF (POLDER) airborne sensors. It includes the ReSeDA experiment on the Alpilles site in 1997 based on POLDER sensor, the Blue Earth experiment based on CASI in 1997, the DAISEX experiment in 1999 with POLDER and HYMAP and the Laon experiment based on CASI data in 2000 and 2001. The limitations of these approaches are discussed, with due attention on the way to derive prior information, inverse techniques, uncertainties on measurements and models, and scaling effects.

  17. Estimating Leaf Area Index (LAI) in Vineyards Using the PocketLAI Smart-App

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, Francesca; Movedi, Ermes; Coduto, Davide; Parisi, Simone; Brancadoro, Lucio; Pagani, Valentina; Guarneri, Tommaso; Confalonieri, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Estimating leaf area index (LAI) of Vitis vinifera using indirect methods involves some critical issues, related to its discontinuous and non-homogeneous canopy. This study evaluates the smart app PocketLAI and hemispherical photography in vineyards against destructive LAI measurements. Data were collected during six surveys in an experimental site characterized by a high level of heterogeneity among plants, allowing us to explore a wide range of LAI values. During the last survey, the possibility to combine remote sensing data and in-situ PocketLAI estimates (smart scouting) was evaluated. Results showed a good agreement between PocketLAI data and direct measurements, especially for LAI ranging from 0.13 to 1.41 (R2 = 0.94, RRMSE = 17.27%), whereas the accuracy decreased when an outlying value (vineyard LAI = 2.84) was included (R2 = 0.77, RRMSE = 43.00%), due to the saturation effect in case of very dense canopies arising from lack of green pruning. The hemispherical photography showed very high values of R2, even in presence of the outlying value (R2 = 0.94), although it showed a marked and quite constant overestimation error (RRMSE = 99.46%), suggesting the need to introduce a correction factor specific for vineyards. During the smart scouting, PocketLAI showed its reliability to monitor the spatial-temporal variability of vine vigor in cordon-trained systems, and showed a potential for a wide range of applications, also in combination with remote sensing. PMID:27898028

  18. DNAAlignEditor: DNA alignment editor tool

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Villeda, Hector; Schroeder, Steven; Flint-Garcia, Sherry; Guill, Katherine E; Yamasaki, Masanori; McMullen, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Background With advances in DNA re-sequencing methods and Next-Generation parallel sequencing approaches, there has been a large increase in genomic efforts to define and analyze the sequence variability present among individuals within a species. For very polymorphic species such as maize, this has lead to a need for intuitive, user-friendly software that aids the biologist, often with naïve programming capability, in tracking, editing, displaying, and exporting multiple individual sequence alignments. To fill this need we have developed a novel DNA alignment editor. Results We have generated a nucleotide sequence alignment editor (DNAAlignEditor) that provides an intuitive, user-friendly interface for manual editing of multiple sequence alignments with functions for input, editing, and output of sequence alignments. The color-coding of nucleotide identity and the display of associated quality score aids in the manual alignment editing process. DNAAlignEditor works as a client/server tool having two main components: a relational database that collects the processed alignments and a user interface connected to database through universal data access connectivity drivers. DNAAlignEditor can be used either as a stand-alone application or as a network application with multiple users concurrently connected. Conclusion We anticipate that this software will be of general interest to biologists and population genetics in editing DNA sequence alignments and analyzing natural sequence variation regardless of species, and will be particularly useful for manual alignment editing of sequences in species with high levels of polymorphism. PMID:18366684

  19. Boerhaave: Author and Editor *

    PubMed Central

    Lindeboom, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The many facets of Herman Boerhaave's life are presented. He was a renowned teacher, physician, author, and editor. Discussed here are his activities as cataloger of the Vossius Collection, author of books on chemistry, botany, and medicine, and as editor of works by Vesalius and early Greek medical writers. Printing and bookselling in Leiden during Boerhaave's era are described. Images PMID:4596962

  20. Editors' Fall Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara; Heilbrun, Margaret; Kuzyk, Raya; Kim, Ann; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Burns, Ann; Williams, Wilda

    2008-01-01

    From the fall's cascade of great new books, "Library Journal's" editors select their favorites--a dark rendition of Afghan life, a look at the "self-esteem trap," a celebration of Brooklyn activism, and much more.

  1. ISTP CDF Skeleton Editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chimiak, Reine; Harris, Bernard; Williams, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    Basic Common Data Format (CDF) tools (e.g., cdfedit) provide no specific support for creating International Solar-Terrestrial Physics/Space Physics Data Facility (ISTP/SPDF) standard files. While it is possible for someone who is familiar with the ISTP/SPDF metadata guidelines to create compliant files using just the basic tools, the process is error-prone and unreasonable for someone without ISTP/SPDF expertise. The key problem is the lack of a tool with specific support for creating files that comply with the ISTP/SPDF guidelines. There are basic CDF tools such as cdfedit and skeletoncdf for creating CDF files, but these have no specific support for creating ISTP/ SPDF compliant files. The SPDF ISTP CDF skeleton editor is a cross-platform, Java-based GUI editor program that allows someone with only a basic understanding of the ISTP/SPDF guidelines to easily create compliant files. The editor is a simple graphical user interface (GUI) application for creating and editing ISTP/SPDF guideline-compliant skeleton CDF files. The SPDF ISTP CDF skeleton editor consists of the following components: A swing-based Java GUI program, JavaHelp-based manual/ tutorial, Image/Icon files, and HTML Web page for distribution. The editor is available as a traditional Java desktop application as well as a Java Network Launching Protocol (JNLP) application. Once started, it functions like a typical Java GUI file editor application for creating/editing application-unique files.

  2. Peptide Fraction pOh2 Exerts Antiadipogenic Activity through Inhibition of C/EBP-α and PPAR-γ Expression in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Tuyet Nhung; Ha, Thi Thu; Nguyen, Thi Hoa; Vu, Thi Hien; Truong, Nam Hai; Chu, Hoang Ha; Van Quyen, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have comprehensively examined the venom of Ophiophagus hannah snake. Its venom comprises different compounds exhibiting a wide range of pharmacological activities. In this investigation, four peptide fractions (PFs), ranging from 3 kDa to 10 kDa, isolated from the Vietnamese snake venom of O. hannah were separated by HPLC and investigated for their inhibitory activity on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The most effective PF was then further purified, generating two peptides, pOh1 and pOh2. Upon investigation of these two peptides on 3T3-L1 adipocytes, it was revealed that, at 10 μg/mL, pOh2 was able to inhibit the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by up to 56%, without affecting cell viability. Furthermore, the pOh2 downregulated the gene expression of important transcription factors C/EBP-α and PPAR-γ. In addition, aP2 and GPDH adipocyte-specific markers were also significantly reduced compared to untreated differentiated cells. Taken together, pOh2 inhibited the expression of key transcription factors C/EBP-α and PPAR-γ and their target genes, aP2 and GPDH, thereby blocking the adipocyte differentiation. In conclusion, this novel class of peptide might have potential for in vivo antiobesity effects.

  3. A century of editors.

    PubMed

    Riley, R W

    1983-07-08

    They are unalike and far apart, these 13 past editors of The Journal. Between Nathan S. Davis's first issue and William R. Barclay's retirement, there was almost a century of change in medicine, society, the American Medical Association, prose style, and editorial needs. During these years, the editors ranged from the brilliant organizers John B. Hamilton and George H. Simmons to the diligent John H. Hollister and the devoted Johnson F. Hammond. There were editors with the hot determination of James C. Culbertson, John H. Talbott, and Robert H. Moser, and there were those with the cool precision of Austin Smith and Hugh H. Hussey. They varied from Morris Fishbein, who wrote and spoke "with the grade of an eagle in its unhindered soar," to Truman W. Miller, who wrote scarcely a word. Here, briefly, they are together.

  4. Seasonal LAI in slash pine estimated with Landsat TM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Gholz, Henry L.

    1992-01-01

    The leaf area index (LAI, total area of leaves per unit area of ground) of most forest canopies varies throughout the year, yet for logistical reasons it is difficult to estimate anything more detailed than a seasonal maximum LAI. To determine if remotely sensed data can be used to estimate LAI seasonally, field measurements of LAI were compared to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values derived using Lnandsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data, for 16 fertilized and control slash pine plots on 3 dates. Linear relationships existed between NDVI and LAI with R (sup 2) values of 0.35, 0.75, and 0.86 for February 1988, September 1988, and March, 1989, respectively. This is the first reported study in which NDVI is related to forest LAI recorded during the month of sensor overpass. Predictive relationships based on data from eight of the plots were used to estimate the LAI of the other eight plots with a root-mean-square error of 0.74 LAI, which is 15.6 percent of the mean LAI. This demonstrates the potential use of Landsat TM data for studying seasonal dynamics in forest canopies.

  5. Seasonal LAI in slash pine estimated with LANDSAT TM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Gholz, Henry L.

    1990-01-01

    The leaf area index (LAI, total area of leaves per unit area of ground) of most forest canopies varies throughout the year, yet for logistical reasons it is difficult to estimate anything more detailed than a seasonal maximum LAI. To determine if remotely sensed data can be used to estimate LAI seasonally, field measurements of LAI were compared to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values derived using LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data, for 16 fertilized and control slash pine plots on 3 dates. Linear relationships existed between NDVI and LAI with R(sup 2) values of 0.35, 0.75, and 0.86 for February 1988, September 1988, and March, 1989, respectively. This is the first reported study in which NDVI is related to forest LAI recorded during the month of sensor overpass. Predictive relationships based on data from eight of the plots were used to estimate the LAI of the other eight plots with a root-mean-square error of 0.74 LAI, which is 15.6 percent of the mean LAI. This demonstrates the potential use of LANDSAT TM data for studying seasonal dynamics in forest canopies.

  6. PANEL LIBRARY AND EDITOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raible, E.

    1994-01-01

    The Panel Library and Editor is a graphical user interface (GUI) builder for the Silicon Graphics IRIS workstation family. The toolkit creates "widgets" which can be manipulated by the user. Its appearance is similar to that of the X-Windows System. The Panel Library is written in C and is used by programmers writing user-friendly mouse-driven applications for the IRIS. GUIs built using the Panel Library consist of "actuators" and "panels." Actuators are buttons, dials, sliders, or other mouse-driven symbols. Panels are groups of actuators that occupy separate windows on the IRIS workstation. The application user can alter variables in the graphics program, or fire off functions with a click on a button. The evolution of data values can be tracked with meters and strip charts, and dialog boxes with text processing can be built. Panels can be stored as icons when not in use. The Panel Editor is a program used to interactively create and test panel library interfaces in a simple and efficient way. The Panel Editor itself uses a panel library interface, so all actions are mouse driven. Extensive context-sensitive on-line help is provided. Programmers can graphically create and test the user interface without writing a single line of code. Once an interface is judged satisfactory, the Panel Editor will dump it out as a file of C code that can be used in an application. The Panel Library (v9.8) and Editor (v1.1) are written in C-Language (63%) and Scheme, a dialect of LISP, (37%) for Silicon Graphics 4D series workstations running IRIX 3.2 or higher. Approximately 10Mb of disk space is required once compiled. 1.5Mb of main memory is required to execute the panel editor. This program is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format for an IRIS, and includes a copy of XScheme, the public-domain Scheme interpreter used by the Panel Editor. The Panel Library Programmer's Manual is included on the distribution media. The Panel Library and

  7. MSSP Associate Editors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottershead, John E.

    2015-08-01

    MSSP is pleased to announce the appointment of three distinguished researchers, Professors Jerome Antoni, Spilios Fassois and Paolo Pennacchi, as Associate Editors. The broad coverage of MSSP research topics demands editorial expertise in several disciplines and the appointment of an editorial team of the highest quality is essential in maintaining and further enhancing the reputation of MSSP as a journal at the forefront of modern experimental mechanics that combines dynamic systems with measurement technology, signal processing and active control. Brief descriptions of the backgrounds and experience of the Associate Editors are provided in the following paragraphs.

  8. PANEL LIBRARY AND EDITOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raible, E.

    1994-01-01

    The Panel Library and Editor is a graphical user interface (GUI) builder for the Silicon Graphics IRIS workstation family. The toolkit creates "widgets" which can be manipulated by the user. Its appearance is similar to that of the X-Windows System. The Panel Library is written in C and is used by programmers writing user-friendly mouse-driven applications for the IRIS. GUIs built using the Panel Library consist of "actuators" and "panels." Actuators are buttons, dials, sliders, or other mouse-driven symbols. Panels are groups of actuators that occupy separate windows on the IRIS workstation. The application user can alter variables in the graphics program, or fire off functions with a click on a button. The evolution of data values can be tracked with meters and strip charts, and dialog boxes with text processing can be built. Panels can be stored as icons when not in use. The Panel Editor is a program used to interactively create and test panel library interfaces in a simple and efficient way. The Panel Editor itself uses a panel library interface, so all actions are mouse driven. Extensive context-sensitive on-line help is provided. Programmers can graphically create and test the user interface without writing a single line of code. Once an interface is judged satisfactory, the Panel Editor will dump it out as a file of C code that can be used in an application. The Panel Library (v9.8) and Editor (v1.1) are written in C-Language (63%) and Scheme, a dialect of LISP, (37%) for Silicon Graphics 4D series workstations running IRIX 3.2 or higher. Approximately 10Mb of disk space is required once compiled. 1.5Mb of main memory is required to execute the panel editor. This program is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format for an IRIS, and includes a copy of XScheme, the public-domain Scheme interpreter used by the Panel Editor. The Panel Library Programmer's Manual is included on the distribution media. The Panel Library and

  9. Evaluation of the MODIS LAI product using independent lidar-derived LAI: A case study in mixed conifer forest

    Treesearch

    Jennifer L. R. Jensen; Karen S. Humes; Andrew T. Hudak; Lee A. Vierling; Eric Delmelle

    2011-01-01

    This study presents an alternative assessment of the MODIS LAI product for a 58,000 ha evergreen needleleaf forest located in the western Rocky Mountain range in northern Idaho by using lidar data to model (R2=0.86, RMSE=0.76) and map LAI at higher resolution across a large number of MODIS pixels in their entirety. Moderate resolution (30 m) lidar-based LAI estimates...

  10. The Effect of Lidar Point Density on LAI Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cawse-Nicholson, K.; van Aardt, J. A.; Romanczyk, P.; Kelbe, D.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Yao, W.; Krause, K.; Kampe, T. U.

    2013-12-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is an important measure of forest health, biomass and carbon exchange, and is most commonly defined as the ratio of the leaf area to ground area. LAI is understood over large spatial scales and describes leaf properties over an entire forest, thus airborne imagery is ideal for capturing such data. Spectral metrics such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) have been used in the past for LAI estimation, but these metrics may saturate for high LAI values. Light detection and ranging (lidar) is an active remote sensing technology that emits light (most often at the wavelength 1064nm) and uses the return time to calculate the distance to intercepted objects. This yields information on three-dimensional structure and shape, which has been shown in recent studies to yield more accurate LAI estimates than NDVI. However, although lidar is a promising alternative for LAI estimation, minimum acquisition parameters (e.g. point density) required for accurate LAI retrieval are not yet well known. The objective of this study was to determine the minimum number of points per square meter that are required to describe the LAI measurements taken in-field. As part of a larger data collect, discrete lidar data were acquired by Kucera International Inc. over the Hemlock-Canadice State Forest, NY, USA in September 2012. The Leica ALS60 obtained point density of 12 points per square meter and effective ground sampling distance (GSD) of 0.15m. Up to three returns with intensities were recorded per pulse. As part of the same experiment, an AccuPAR LP-80 was used to collect LAI estimates at 25 sites on the ground. Sites were spaced approximately 80m apart and nine measurements were made in a grid pattern within a 20 x 20m site. Dominant species include Hemlock, Beech, Sugar Maple and Oak. This study has the benefit of very high-density data, which will enable a detailed map of intra-forest LAI. Understanding LAI at fine scales may be particularly useful

  11. Three Different Methods of Estimating LAI in a Small Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speckman, H. N.; Ewers, B. E.; Beverly, D.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a critical input of models that improve predictive understanding of ecology, hydrology, and climate change. Multiple techniques exist to quantify LAI, most of which are labor intensive, and all often fail to converge on similar estimates. . Recent large-scale bark beetle induced mortality greatly altered LAI, which is now dominated by younger and more metabolically active trees compared to the pre-beetle forest. Tree mortality increases error in optical LAI estimates due to the lack of differentiation between live and dead branches in dense canopy. Our study aims to quantify LAI using three different LAI methods, and then to compare the techniques to each other and topographic drivers to develop an effective predictive model of LAI. This study focuses on quantifying LAI within a small (~120 ha) beetle infested watershed in Wyoming's Snowy Range Mountains. The first technique estimated LAI using in-situ hemispherical canopy photographs that were then analyzed with Hemisfer software. The second LAI estimation technique was use of the Kaufmann 1982 allometrerics from forest inventories conducted throughout the watershed, accounting for stand basal area, species composition, and the extent of bark beetle driven mortality. The final technique used airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) first DMS returns, which were used to estimating canopy heights and crown area. LIDAR final returns provided topographical information and were then ground-truthed during forest inventories. Once data was collected, a fractural analysis was conducted comparing the three methods. Species composition was driven by slope position and elevation Ultimately the three different techniques provided very different estimations of LAI, but each had their advantage: estimates from hemisphere photos were well correlated with SWE and snow depth measurements, forest inventories provided insight into stand health and composition, and LIDAR were able to quickly and

  12. Editors' Spring Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2011

    2011-01-01

    While they do not represent the rainbow of reading tastes American public libraries accommodate, Book Review editors are a wildly eclectic bunch. One look at their bedside tables and ereaders would reveal very little crossover. This article highlights an eclectic array of spring offerings ranging from print books to an audiobook to ebook apps. It…

  13. Editor's message: Student involvement

    Treesearch

    Bill Block

    2012-01-01

    In the initial Editor's Message of this volume, I stated my intent to involve more students in the publication process. A number of people commented on it being a good idea, but only a couple have followed up. One was Paul Krausman, President of The Wildlife Society. We matched graduate students from the University of Montana wildlife program with manuscripts...

  14. Editors' Fall Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbrun, Margaret; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Kuzyk, Raya; Roncevic, Mirela; Fox, Bette-Lee; Hoffert, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal's" review editors select fall titles readers won't want to miss--"Waiting on a Train: The Embattled Future of Passenger Rail Service" (James McCommons); "Happy" (Alex Lemon); "Free for All: Joe Papp, the Public, and the Greatest Theater Story Ever Told" (Kenneth Turan & Joseph Papp); "In My Father's Shadow: A Daughter Remembers…

  15. LDAP Browser/Editor

    SciTech Connect

    Gawor, Jarek; Laszewski, Gregor von

    2000-07-18

    The LDAP Browser/Editor provides a user-friendly Java-based interface to LDAP databases with tightly integrated browsing and editing capabilities. Entirely written in Java with help of the JFC (Swingset) and JNDI class libraries. It connects to any X.500, LDAP v2 and v3 servers and supports editing of multiple-value attributes.

  16. Editors' Spring Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2011

    2011-01-01

    While they do not represent the rainbow of reading tastes American public libraries accommodate, Book Review editors are a wildly eclectic bunch. One look at their bedside tables and ereaders would reveal very little crossover. This article highlights an eclectic array of spring offerings ranging from print books to an audiobook to ebook apps. It…

  17. WRR editor Ronald Cummings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-04-01

    It has been nearly a year since Ronald Cummings took over as policy sciences editor of Water Resources Research (WRR), and in that time he has worked to make the journal live up to its role as “an interdisciplinary journal integrating research in the social and natural sciences of water.” Cummings takes the “interdisciplinary” part seriously. “I'd like to see a much broader range of policy issues presented to readers,” he says. “I would hope it would then stimulate interchange between our colleagues concerning evolving issues of the '80s and '90s.”Cummings brings a solid background as a resource economist to his 4-year term as editor, which began last January and runs until December 1987. Cummings succeeds Jared Cohon as policy sciences editor. Stephen J. Burges is the WRR editor for hydrological, physical, chemical, and biological sciences. Now a Professor of Economics and Director of the Program in Natural Resources Economics at the University of New Mexico, Cummings is a past president of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists. He has been a consultant in matters of water resources management, forestry management, and energy policy for more than a decade, working on projects in both the United States and Latin America. Since joining the faculty at New Mexico in 1975, he has, among other things, worked with engineers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in developing operation'management models for hot, dry rock geothermal systems.

  18. Editors' Fall Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbrun, Margaret; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Kuzyk, Raya; Roncevic, Mirela; Fox, Bette-Lee; Hoffert, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal's" review editors select fall titles readers won't want to miss--"Waiting on a Train: The Embattled Future of Passenger Rail Service" (James McCommons); "Happy" (Alex Lemon); "Free for All: Joe Papp, the Public, and the Greatest Theater Story Ever Told" (Kenneth Turan & Joseph Papp); "In My Father's Shadow: A Daughter Remembers…

  19. Modeling variability and scale integration of LAI measurements

    Treesearch

    Kris Nackaerts; Pol Coppin

    2000-01-01

    Rapid and reliable estimation of leaf area at various scales is important for research on chance detection of leaf area index (LAI) as an indicator of ecosystem condition. It is of utmost importance to know to what extent boundary and illumination conditions, data aggregation method, and sampling scheme influence the relative accuracy of stand-level LAI measurements....

  20. Brown and green LAI mapping through spectral indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delegido, Jesús; Verrelst, Jochem; Rivera, Juan P.; Ruiz-Verdú, Antonio; Moreno, José

    2015-03-01

    When crops senescence, leaves remain until they fall off or are harvested. Hence, leaf area index (LAI) stays high even when chlorophyll content degrades to zero. Current LAI approaches from remote sensing techniques are not optimized for estimating LAI of senescent vegetation. In this paper a two-step approach has been proposed to realize simultaneous LAI mapping over green and senescent croplands. The first step separates green from brown LAI by means of a newly proposed index, 'Green Brown Vegetation Index (GBVI)'. This index exploits two shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectral bands centred at 2100 and 2000 nm, which fall right in the dry matter absorption regions, thereby providing positive values for senescent vegetation and negative for green vegetation. The second step involves applying linear regression functions based on optimized vegetation indices to estimate green and brown LAI estimation respectively. While the green LAI index uses a band in the red and a band in the red-edge, the brown LAI index uses bands located in the same spectral region as GBVI, i.e. an absorption band located in the region of maximum absorption of cellulose and lignin at 2154 nm, and a reference band at 1635 nm where the absorption of both water and dry matter is low. The two-step approach was applied to a HyMap image acquired over an agroecosystem at the agricultural site Barrax, Spain.

  1. Uncertainty Analysis in the Creation of a Fine-Resolution Leaf Area Index (LAI) Reference Map for Validation of Moderate Resolution LAI Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The validation process for a moderate resolution leaf area index (LAI) product (i.e., MODIS) involves the creation of a high spatial resolution LAI reference map (Lai-RM), which when scaled to the moderate LAI resolution (i.e., >1 km) allows for comparison and analysis with this ...

  2. Uncertainty Analysis in the Creation of a Fine-Resolution Leaf Area Index (LAI) Reference Map for Validation of Moderate Resolution LAI Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The validation process for a moderate resolution leaf area index (LAI) product (i.e., MODIS) involves the creation of a high spatial resolution LAI reference map (Lai-RM), which when scaled to the moderate LAI resolution (i.e., >1 km) allows for comparison and analysis with this ...

  3. Guest Editors' Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gille, Peter; Miller, Wolfram; Sangwal, Keshra; Talik, Ewa

    2014-09-01

    The 17th International Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy (ICCGE-17) was held in Warsaw during 11 and 16 August 2013. The contributions during the ICCGE-17 were of three types: Invited lectures, oral presentations and poster presentions. The conference participants were also invited to submit manuscripts based on their contributions for publication in the ICCGE-17 Proceedings volume of Journal of Crystal Growth. The present volume contains manuscripts accepted by the guest editors for this conference volume.

  4. Writers, Editors, and Computer,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    future will be for publishers, writers, and editors; it’s usually quite a different matter to make those dreams come true. Occasionally others will say...resources that are completely operational today; there is usually quite a gap between that reality and our dreams ! I’ve spent some time recently trying...AND COMPUTERS. Availability Codes Alo ail Constance U. Greaser list SP~oaJ~\\Head, Publications Department ,tseasy to dream about how marvelous the

  5. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-03-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Criticisms of hands-on pseudoscience David J Fisher 27 Elderberry Road, Cardiff CF5 3RG, UK Measuring varying fields Don Koks Adelaide University, Australia Relativity at A-level: a comment David Sang 3 Ellasdale Road, Bognor Regis, PO21 2SG, UK

  6. ION Configuration Editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borgen, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    The configuration of ION (Inter - planetary Overlay Network) network nodes is a manual task that is complex, time-consuming, and error-prone. This program seeks to accelerate this job and produce reliable configurations. The ION Configuration Editor is a model-based smart editor based on Eclipse Modeling Framework technology. An ION network designer uses this Eclipse-based GUI to construct a data model of the complete target network and then generate configurations. The data model is captured in an XML file. Intrinsic editor features aid in achieving model correctness, such as field fill-in, type-checking, lists of valid values, and suitable default values. Additionally, an explicit "validation" feature executes custom rules to catch more subtle model errors. A "survey" feature provides a set of reports providing an overview of the entire network, enabling a quick assessment of the model s completeness and correctness. The "configuration" feature produces the main final result, a complete set of ION configuration files (eight distinct file types) for each ION node in the network.

  7. [Qijie theory of LAI's Tongyuan acupuncture technique].

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Juanjuan; Wang, Jihong; Lai, Xinsheng

    2016-05-01

    Qijie theory is one of the important components of TCM meridian and collateral system. It is the shortcut for the communication from the exterior to the interior and for the transverse connection, strengthens the therapeutic effects of acupuncture and moxibustion on the disorders of internal organs and enlarges the indications of acupoints. Professor LAI Xinsheng originally creats Tongyuan acupuncture technique. It is a kind of acupuncture therapeutic methods, including promoting the circulation of the governor vessel, regulating the mind and conducting qi to the origin. In order to analyze the connection between Tongyuan acupuncture technique and traditional meridian and collateral theory, the connotations of Tongyuan acupuncture technique and qijie, as well as the in-terrelationship between them are taken as the basis in the paper. By tracing the literature records, the original concept of qijie is detected. Through proving clinically Tongyuan acupuncture technique, it is revealed that qijie is the arrowhead on the main road of meridian qi circulation and is the essential connotation of the direct path of the body surface connecting with the deep layers of the body as well as the zangfu organs and tissues. It is summarized that the traditional qijie theory provides the powerful theoretic evidence for the treatment with Tongyuan acupuncture technique.

  8. Modelling LAI at a regional scale with ISBA-A-gs: comparison with satellite-derived LAI over southwestern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brut, A.; Rüdiger, C.; Lafont, S.; Roujean, J.-L.; Calvet, J.-C.; Jarlan, L.; Gibelin, A.-L.; Albergel, C.; Le Moigne, P.; Soussana, J.-F.; Klumpp, K.

    2009-04-01

    A CO2-responsive land surface model (the ISBA-A-gs model of Météo-France) is used to simulate photosynthesis and Leaf Area Index (LAI) in southwestern France for a 3-year period (2001-2003). A domain of about 170 000 km2 is covered at a spatial resolution of 8 km. The capability of ISBA-A-gs to reproduce the seasonal and the inter-annual variability of LAI at a regional scale, is assessed with two satellite-derived LAI products. One originates from the CYCLOPES programme using SPOT/VEGETATION data, and the second is based on MODIS data. The comparison reveals discrepancies between the two satellite LAI estimates and between satellite and simulated LAI values, both in their intensity and in the timing of the leaf onset. The model simulates higher LAI values for the C3 crops and coniferous trees than the satellite observations, which may be due to a saturation effect within the satellite signal. The simulated leaf onset presents a significant delay for mountainous grasslands. In-situ observations at a mid-altitude grassland site show that the generic temperature response of photosynthesis used in the model is not appropriate for plants adapted to the cold climatic conditions of the mountainous areas. This study demonstrates the potential of LAI remote sensing products for identifying and locating models' shortcomings at a regional scale.

  9. Modelling LAI at a regional scale with ISBA-A-gs: comparison with satellite-derived LAI over southwestern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brut, A.; Rüdiger, C.; Lafont, S.; Roujean, J.-L.; Calvet, J.-C.; Jarlan, L.; Gibelin, A.-L.; Albergel, C.; Le Moigne, P.; Soussana, J.-F.; Klumpp, K.; Guyon, D.; Wigneron, J.-P.; Ceschia, E.

    2009-08-01

    A CO2-responsive land surface model (the ISBA-A-gs model of Météo-France) is used to simulate photosynthesis and Leaf Area Index (LAI) in southwestern France for a 3-year period (2001-2003). A domain of about 170 000 km2 is covered at a spatial resolution of 8 km. The capability of ISBA-A-gs to reproduce the seasonal and the interannual variability of LAI at a regional scale, is assessed with satellite-derived LAI products. One originates from the CYCLOPES programme using SPOT/VEGETATION data, and two products are based on MODIS data. The comparison reveals discrepancies between the satellite LAI estimates and between satellite and simulated LAI values, both in their intensity and in the timing of the leaf onset. The model simulates higher LAI values for the C3 crops than the satellite observations, which may be due to a saturation effect within the satellite signal or to uncertainties in model parameters. The simulated leaf onset presents a significant delay for C3 crops and mountainous grasslands. In-situ observations at a mid-altitude grassland site show that the generic temperature response of photosynthesis used in the model is not appropriate for plants adapted to the cold climatic conditions of the mountainous areas. This study demonstrates the potential of LAI remote sensing products for identifying and locating models' shortcomings at a regional scale.

  10. EDITORIAL: Editor's Farewell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, R. P.

    1989-01-01

    The completion of Volume 26, 1989, marked the end of my tenure as Editor of Metrologia. My association with the journal, its parent body the Comité International des Poids et Mesures, its host organization the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, the publishers Springer-Verlag and last (but by no means least) the Editorial Board, has been a pleasant one and I trust that the subscribers will have found the product to be generally satisfactory. There have been, it is true, some disappointments along the way and I shall mention two of these while expressing the hope that the new Editor will enjoy a greater success in their regard. First is the question of circulation, which has stayed dangerously low, although the shrinkage has tapered off in the most recent years. Because of the narrow public support, the costs of production are relatively high and this, through a consequently high subscription rate, tends to enshrine the unsatisfactory state of affairs. Modest schemes to broaden the journal's appeal and bring in a wider readership have foundered upon the first step, namely, that of procuring from staff members of the national standards laboratories the hoped-for articles which would discuss the state of the art in delivering the highest-quality measurement services to the public. However, some very interesting and bolder schemes are presently under discussion. I had also hoped to leaven the journal's content a little by regularly appearing articles on the latest developments within the great national laboratories. But, as with technical review articles, it has proven very difficult to find the right authors who can also spare the time, and only a few laboratories have found it possible to collaborate. In taking my leave, it remains for me to thank all the contributors, referees and readers for their support, to express the hope of an ever brighter future for Metrologia and to wish to the new Editor, Dr D A Blackburn, a happy and successful tenure.

  11. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Physics and history Arthur I Miller Department of Science & Technology Studies, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK Physics and history: a reply David Miller Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK Cathode rays, the electron and Thomson's discovery John Harris 33 Glentham Road, London SW13 9JD, UK Vectors: swallow them whole! David Wheeler Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand

  12. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Comment on `Magnetic and electric field strengths of high voltage power lines and household appliances' José Luis Giordano Dept. de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales y Fluidos, CPSI, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain Twins paradox S R Carson Norton College, Malton, North Yorkshire, UK On alternative ways of finding the ratio of specific heats of gases Tomas Ficker Physics Department, Technical University of Brno, Czech Republic

  13. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Science spreadsheets Richard Beare Institute of Education, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK Calculating the `lost energy' Zhang Yongzhao and Zhang Shuyan Police Frontier Guard Patrol Boat Institute, Zhejiang, Ningbo 315801, People's Republic of China Cartesian diver solves the inverse sprinkler problem Boris M Valiyov and Vladimir D Yegorenkov Department of Physics, Kharkov State University, 4 Svobody sq., 310077, Kharkov, Ukraine Update excellence Karen Barker Lytham St Annes, Lancs, UK

  14. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Software teaching of modular physics: SToMP Stephen Hearn Head of Science, Charterhouse, Godalming, Surrey GU7 2DX Bridging the gap or avoiding a chasm? R W West York Strengths and weaknesses of science John Bausor Christians in Science Education, Edgware, London HA8 6RR Addressing the issues Philip Britton Head of Physics, Leeds Grammar School Modern syllabuses and old textbooks: a useful synthesis Richard Barrass St Mary's College, Doncaster DN1 2ES

  15. BOREAS RSS-7 LAI, Gap Fraction, and FPAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Chen, Jing

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-7 team collected various data sets to develop and validate an algorithm to allow the retrieval of the spatial distribution of Leaf Area Index (LAI) from remotely sensed images. Ground measurements of LAI and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) absorbed by the plant canopy were made using the LAI-2000 and TRAC optical instruments during focused periods from 09-Aug-1993 to 19-Sep-1994. The measurements were intensive at the NSA and SSA tower sites, but were made just once or twice at auxiliary sites. The final processed LAI and FPAR data set is contained in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  16. Retrieving LAI and FPAR from MERIS Data With Advanced Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myneni, Ranga B.

    2001-01-01

    The primary motivation of this research activity is to document the feasibility of deriving global fields of LAI (leaf area index) and FPAR (fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation) from atmosphere corrected ESA (European Space Agency) MERIS (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) data, validate and evaluate the MERIS LAI and FPAR products by intercomparison with MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) LAI and FPAR products and with field data collected at the EOS Core sites distributed around the world. Our activities during Year 1 (January through December, 2001) have focused on the modification of the MODIS LAI/FPAR algorithm to facilitate its ability to process MERIS data. We considered a related but wider problem, i.e., fusion of biophysical parameters derived from data acquired by spectroradiometers of different spectral bands and different resolutions.

  17. New TOR editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    1984-04-01

    David A. Brooks, associate professor at Texas A&M University's oceanography department, has been appointed editor designate of The Oceanography Report (TOR). He succeeds Arnold L. Gordon of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory. Gordon, who initiated TOR in September 1981, is the new president-elect of the AGU Ocean Sciences Section.Brooks, a physical oceanographer, has been at Texas A&M for 6 years. His research interests include waves and tides, the interaction of waves and currents, Gulf Stream fluctuations, and Gulf of Mexico and Gulf of Maine circulation. Before going to Texas A&M, Brooks was a research associate and graduate faculty member at North Carolina State University in Raleigh.

  18. Comparison among normalized vegetation indices for the determination of LAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernasconi, Luca; Pippi, Ivan; Raddi, Sabrina

    2003-03-01

    Airborne hyperspectral images collected over San Rossore Natural Park (Pisa, Italy) by the Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS) on June 21st, 2000 were analyzed in order to assess the best indices for forest LAI estimation. Hemispherical photography was used for ground truth measurements, simultaneously with the overflights, in hardwood and conifer stands characterized by a LAI ranging between 1.2 and 4.5. All band combinations expressed as simple ratios and normalized indices (a total of 89 single bands, and 7832 and 3916 indices, respectively) were linearly correlated to LAI in order to detect the best correlations. Determination coefficients were analyzed by means of a graphical matrix to highlight relevant spectral regions. Normalized indices composed by the red chlorophyll absorption wavelength (680 nm) and the wavelengths after the green reflectance peak (580-640 nm) in the orange region were strongly correlated to LAI. Best results were obtained with the newly proposed Orange Slope Vegetation Index [OSVI=(ρ620-ρ680)/(ρ620+ρ680), R2=0.88, RMSE=0.5). The index performed better than the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI=(ρ780-ρ680)/(ρ780+ρ680), R2=0.47) Using SAIL radiative transfer model, canopy reflectance at different viewing angles and a wide range of LAI was simulated in order to verify the sensitivity of OSVI and NDVI. For LAI between 0.25 and 8 both indices resulted stable for viewing zenith angles between -60° and +60°. OSVI, being saturated with values greater than 4, could be used to estimate a wider range of LAI than NDVI. Application of GeoSail model resulted in a good agreement between simulated and measured OSVI.

  19. EDITORIAL: Editor's Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    Since its first issue in 1965 Metrologia has had just three editors, a history of tenure which suggests that those who hold the post find in it sufficient to interest, occupy, challenge and amuse them. I see no reason to doubt that this happy circumstance will continue and look forward to my own period as editor with the intention of retaining, insofar as I am able to interpret them, the best traditions the journal has established so far. As I take up my editorial duties I have become aware that surrounding Metrologia there is a small community of authors, reviewers and readers on whose support the success of the journal entirely depends. It is a community in which the roles change daily with some of its members engaged, even simultaneously, as reader, reviewer and author. I am well aware that the goodwill extended to me as I enter this community is in no small part due the efforts of the outgoing editor, Dr Ralph Hudson, whose easy, engaging and courteous, yet firm, relationship with authors and reviewers emerges clearly from editorial correspondence. I thank him for that he has done and wish him an active and happy retirement. A short foray into the records of Metrologia shows - in the first editorial - that four main kinds of article were originally envisaged: research articles likely to contribute to progress in fundamental scientific measurements, reports of experiments or techniques of particular importance or originality in the area of secondary measurement, articles concerning the decisions of the Comité International des Poids et Mesures, and review articles. No balance was specified but a priority was assigned to articles dealing with fundamental metrology. Of the four categories, the first two represent the core of Metrologia's activity and largely determine its reputation as a publication. For this reason, editorial implementation of the policy set by the CIPM is mainly exercised through the operation of a reviewing system which is intentionally strict

  20. Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambaugh, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    This last year being an odd numbered year, the pages of Nuclear Fusion saw a large influx of expanded papers from the 2012 Fusion Energy Conference in San Diego. Many papers have focused on the scientific and technical challenges posed by ITER. Contributions are steadily increasing from the new superconducting tokamaks in Asia. The ITER Project continues to move ahead. Construction at the Cadarache site is quite remarkable. Buildings completed include the huge Poloidal Field Coils Winding Facility and the Headquarters building, which has been occupied by the ITER staff. Work is progressing on the Assembly building and the Cryostat Workshop. The base of the tokamak complex is being laid. Besides the construction that is taking place and will take place at the site, components from around the world have to navigate the complex route from Marseilles to the site. A test convoy replicating the dimensions and weights of the most exceptional ITER loads successfully traversed that route in 2013. We are pleased to report that the IAEA and ITER have finalized the agreement for ITER authors to publish papers in Nuclear Fusion . Nuclear Fusion is proud to continue its key role in providing the leading forum for the documentation of scientific progress and exchange of research results internationally toward fusion energy. Refereeing The Nuclear Fusion editorial office appreciates greatly the effort made by our referees to sustain the high quality of the journal. Since January 2005, we have been offering the most active referees over the past year a personal subscription to Nuclear Fusion with electronic access for one year, free of charge. We have excluded our Board Members, Guest Editors of special editions and those referees who were already listed in previous years. The following people have been selected: J.M. Canik, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA I.T. Chapman, Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, UK L.-G. Eriksson, Commission of the European Communities, Belgium T. Evans

  1. Microbial Properties Database Editor Tutorial

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Microbial Properties Database Editor (MPDBE) has been developed to help consolidate microbial-relevant data to populate a microbial database and support a database editor by which an authorized user can modify physico-microbial properties related to microbial indicators and pat...

  2. Editors in the Electronic Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Robert M., Ed.

    Intended for newspaper writers and editors, this collection of articles includes the following titles and authors: "VDTs, TV Haven't Shocked Editors" by Jay Rogers; "Opinions Vary on Electronics' Effect" by Bob Nordyke; "A Few Kind Words for the Censors" by Hugh A. Mulligan; "Those Awards Have Their Limitations" by Larry Fortner; "Obituaries Are…

  3. Microbial properties database editor tutorial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A Microbial Properties Database Editor (MPDBE) has been developed to help consolidate microbialrelevant data to populate a microbial database and support a database editor by which an authorized user can modify physico-microbial properties related to microbial indicators and pathogens. Physical prop...

  4. Microbial Properties Database Editor Tutorial

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Microbial Properties Database Editor (MPDBE) has been developed to help consolidate microbial-relevant data to populate a microbial database and support a database editor by which an authorized user can modify physico-microbial properties related to microbial indicators and pat...

  5. GUEST EDITORS' INTRODUCTION: Guest Editors' introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulson, Geoff; de Meer, Jan B.

    1997-03-01

    . Their scheme is embedded in an experimental ATM network with the potential for guaranteed QoS. The system features QoS support mechanisms in both the network and the end systems. Of particular interest is reported experience with a dynamic QoS adaptation protocol implemented in the network and based on video scaling techniques and filtering. In summary, this special issue provides an up to date review of approaches to QoS management and their practical realization. Of course, no claim is made as to comprehensiveness, but the chosen papers do serve as a highly representative sample of current directions in QoS research. The editors are very much obliged to all authors, reviewers and publishers. Without their excellent work, and the contribution of their valuable time this special issue would not have been possible.

  6. Framework for automated spatio-temporal enhancement of coarse resolution leaf area index (FASE-LAI) – Application to MODIS LAI

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A multi-scale satellite-based Framework for Automated Spatio-temporal Enhancement of coarse-resolution leaf area index (LAI) products (FASE-LAI) has ben established to generate 4-day time-series of Landsat-scale LAI, thereby meeting the critical demands of applications needing frequent and high spat...

  7. Letter from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strassmeier, Klaus G.

    2008-01-01

    As of 2006, Astronomische Nachrichten -- Astronomical Notes has reached its all-time high regarding the ISI journal impact factor, with an impressive increase of 60% compared to 2005. We now rank at position 1,399, as shown in the statistics below. This is solely due to the increased number and quality of published articles: In 2006, Astronomische Nachrichten -- Astronomical Notes published 208 research papers and received 1,033 citations -- five citations per paper on average. In 2007, we have published 177 research papers, and one may be curious to see how their factor will develop. In co-operation with Wiley InterScience we have achieved an average o nline publication time of just 4.5 months. As in the past, publication in Astronomische Nachrichten -- Astronomical Notes} continues to be free of charge. Also, all articles of the first issue of each volume can be downloaded free of charge, as can all articles labelled ``Editor's Choice'', which are additionally featured with a color image on the front cover.

  8. Letter from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strassmeier, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    As of 2007, Astronomische Nachrichten -- Astronomical Notes has reached its all-time high regarding the ISI journal impact factor, with an impressive increase of 60% compared to 2005. We now rank at 1,461, as shown in the statistics below. This is solely due to the increased quality of the published articles: In 2006, Astronomische Nachrichten -- Astronomical Notes published 208 research papers and received 1,033 citations -- five citations per paper on average. In 2007, we have published 177 research papers with roughly the same number of citations. In co-operation with Wiley InterScience we have achieved an average online publication time of just 4.5 months. We hope that the year 2008 will be comparably prosperous. As in the past, publication in Astronomische Nachrichten -- Astronomical Notes continues to be free of charge. Also, all articles of the first issue of each volume can be downloaded free of charge, as can all articles labelled ``Editor's Choice'', which are additionally featured with a color image on the front cover.

  9. Assimilation of LAI time-series in crop production models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooistra, Lammert; Rijk, Bert; Nannes, Louis

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture is worldwide a large consumer of freshwater, nutrients and land. Spatial explicit agricultural management activities (e.g., fertilization, irrigation) could significantly improve efficiency in resource use. In previous studies and operational applications, remote sensing has shown to be a powerful method for spatio-temporal monitoring of actual crop status. As a next step, yield forecasting by assimilating remote sensing based plant variables in crop production models would improve agricultural decision support both at the farm and field level. In this study we investigated the potential of remote sensing based Leaf Area Index (LAI) time-series assimilated in the crop production model LINTUL to improve yield forecasting at field level. The effect of assimilation method and amount of assimilated observations was evaluated. The LINTUL-3 crop production model was calibrated and validated for a potato crop on two experimental fields in the south of the Netherlands. A range of data sources (e.g., in-situ soil moisture and weather sensors, destructive crop measurements) was used for calibration of the model for the experimental field in 2010. LAI from cropscan field radiometer measurements and actual LAI measured with the LAI-2000 instrument were used as input for the LAI time-series. The LAI time-series were assimilated in the LINTUL model and validated for a second experimental field on which potatoes were grown in 2011. Yield in 2011 was simulated with an R2 of 0.82 when compared with field measured yield. Furthermore, we analysed the potential of assimilation of LAI into the LINTUL-3 model through the 'updating' assimilation technique. The deviation between measured and simulated yield decreased from 9371 kg/ha to 8729 kg/ha when assimilating weekly LAI measurements in the LINTUL model over the season of 2011. LINTUL-3 furthermore shows the main growth reducing factors, which are useful for farm decision support. The combination of crop models and sensor

  10. STE - The Software Tools Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Software tools is an excellent book written by B. W. Kernighan and P. J. Plauger, published by Addison-Wesley. In it the authors discuss how to write programs that make good tools, and how to program well in the process. One of the tools they develop is a fairly powerful editor, written in Ratfor (a structured form of FORTRAN IV). This program has been implemented on the UCL Starlink VAX (with a few modifications and extensions) and is recommended as the editor to use on the VAX. This note gives a brief introduction to, and description of, the editor which has been abstracted from the book (which you are recommended to buy). There are some short command summary sections at the end of this note. After reading this note you may like to print these short files and use them for reference when using the editor.

  11. PREFACE: Scientific and Publishing Editors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    1.Scientific Editors Section 1: Particle physics Mikhail Skorohvatov - NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia Section 2: Nuclear physics Mikhail Danilov - ITEP NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia Section 3: Cosmic rays Arkady Galper - NRNU MEPhI, Moscow, Russia Anatoly Petrukhin - NRNU MEPhI, Moscow, Russia Section 4: Methods of experimental physics Valery Dmitrenko - NRNU MEPhI, Moscow, Russia 2.Publishing Editors Irene Arkhangelskaja - NRNU MEPhI, Moscow, Russia Pavel Buzhan - NRNU MEPhI, Moscow, Russia

  12. Remarks from a retiring Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansur, Louis K.

    2015-10-01

    At the end of 2015 I plan to step down as Chairman of Editors for the Journal of Nuclear Materials. I use the opportunity to express thoughts that have recurred to me but were muted in comparison with the day to day priorities of editorial work. The most important is that I hold the deepest gratitude for your enduring support- authors, reviewers, readers, the Advisory Editorial Board, and my fellow Editors.

  13. Comparison of MODIS LAI data products in Mclean county, Illinois

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2000, shortly after NASA Terra was launched, Dr. Doraiswamy started experiments to determine the usefulness of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for crop modeling, particularly the Leaf Area Index (LAI) data product (MOD15A). The field experiments were conducted in Mclean...

  14. Stabilization of the triphosphallyl ligand η3-P3{P(O)H} at iridium via alkaline activation of P4.

    PubMed

    Mirabello, Vincenzo; Caporali, Maria; Gonsalvi, Luca; Manca, Gabriele; Ienco, Andrea; Peruzzini, Maurizio

    2013-12-01

    The selective functionalization of the polyphosphorus moiety Ph2PCH2PPh2PPPP present as a tetrahapto-ligand in complex [Ir(dppm)(Ph2PCH2PPh2PPPP)](+) (1, dppm=Ph2PCH2PPh2) was obtained by reaction of 1 with water under basic conditions at room temperature. The formation of the new triphosphaallyl moiety η(3)-P3{P(O)H} was determined in solution by NMR spectroscopy, and confirmed in the solid state by a single-crystal X-ray structure of the stable product [Ir(κ(2)-dppm)(κ(1)-dppm)(η(3)-P3{P(O)H})] (2). In solution, 2 has a fluxional behavior attributable to the four P atoms belonging to the tetraphosphorus moiety in 1 and exhibits a chemical exchange process involving the two PPh2 moieties of the same bidentate ligand, as determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy experiments carried out at variable temperature. The mechanism of the reaction was investigated at the DFT level, which suggested a selective attack of an in-situ generated OH(-) anion on one of the non-coordinated phosphorus atoms of the P4 moiety. The reaction then evolves through an acid-assisted tautomerization, which leads to the final compound 2. Bonding analysis pointed out that the new unsubstituted P3-unit in the η(3)-P3{P(O)H} moiety behaves as a triphosphallyl ligand. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Experimental and theoretical study on palladium-catalyzed C-P bond formation via direct coupling of triarylbismuths with P(O)-H compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Sang, Shuai; Liu, Liu; Qiao, Hongwei; Gao, Yuxing; Zhao, Yufen

    2014-01-17

    A novel and highly efficient Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of triarylbismuths with a variety of P(O)-H compounds has been developed that proceeds smoothly without exclusion of moisture or air and provides a general and powerful tool for the preparation of various valuable arylphosphonates, arylphosphinates, and arylphosphine oxides, with high atom-economy, operational simplicity of the procedure, and good to high yield. The coupling reaction is the first example of transition-metal-catalyzed C-P bond construction using triarylbismuth compounds as substrates. DFT calculations reveal that C-P bond formation is the rate-determing step.

  16. Guest Editor's introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-03-01

    pleasure to be Guest Editor and I look forward to future developments in this growing research area and expositions in Distributed Systems Engineering. Peter G Harrison Imperial College, London

  17. LAI-2000 Accuracy, Precision, and Application to Visual Estimation of Leaf Area Index of Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    Jason A. Gatch; Timothy B. Harrington; James P. Castleberry

    2002-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter of forest stand productivity that has been used to diagnose stand vigor and potential fertilizer response of southern pines. The LAI-2000 was tested for its ability to provide accurate and precise estimates of LAI of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). To test instrument accuracy, regression was used to...

  18. GRL editors: 1986”1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The leading rapid publication journal in the geophysical sciences is seeking candidates to succeed James C.G. Walker, whose term as editor-in-chief ends December 1985. AGU also seeks candidates to succeed the five regional editors: Rob Van der Voo, North America; Gaston J. Kockarts and William Lowrie, Europe; Tetsuya Sato, Asia; and Kurt Lambeck, Australia.AGU President Charles L. Drake has appointed a committee to recommend candidates for the 1986-1988 term. Resumes of those interested in serving in these influential and prestigious posts or letters of recommendation from those who wish to suggest candidates should be sent by February 15, 1985, to GRL Editor Search Committee, American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20009.

  19. Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambaugh, Ronald D.

    2013-01-01

    reviewed five manuscripts in the period November 2011 to December 2012 and provided excellent advice to the authors. We have excluded our Board Members, Guest Editors of special editions and those referees who were already listed in recent years. The following people have been selected: Marina Becoulet, CEA-Cadarache, France Jiaqui Dong, Southwestern Institute of Physics, China Emiliano Fable, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Germany Ambrogio Fasoli, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland Eric Fredrickson, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, USA Manuel Garcia-Munoz, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Germany William Heidbrink, California University, USA Katsumi Ida, National Inst. For Fusion Science, Japan Peter Stangeby, Toronto University, Canada James Strachan, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, USA Victor Yavorskij, Ukraine National Academy of Sciences, Ukraine In addition, there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past year to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion. At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2012. Our thanks to them!

  20. Spatially and temporally continuous LAI datasets based on the mixed pixel decomposition method.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianjun; Wang, Yanying; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhang, Zhengxiang; Guo, Xiaoyi; Yu, Shan; Du, Wala

    2016-01-01

    The leaf area index (LAI) is a key biophysical parameter that determines the state of plant growth. A global LAI has been routinely produced by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). However, the MODIS and AVHRR LAI products cannot be synchronized with the same spatial and temporal resolution. The LAI features are not discernible when a global LAI product is implemented at the regional scale because it has low resolution and different land cover types. To obtain high spatial and temporal resolution of LAI products, an empirical model based on the pixel scale was developed. The approach to generate a long (multi-decade) time series of a 1-km spatial resolution LAI normally integrates both AVHRR and MODIS datasets for different land cover types. In this paper, a regression-based model for generating a vegetation LAI was developed using the AVHRR Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), MODIS LAI and land cover as input data; the model was evaluated by using relevant data from the same period data from 2000 to 2006. The results of this method show a good consistency in LAI values retrieved from the AVHRR NDVI and MODIS LAI. This simple method has no specific-limited data requirements and can provide improved spatial and temporal resolution in a region without ground data.

  1. New Editors for AGU Journals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panning, Jeanette

    2014-10-01

    John Orcutt, the editor in chief of Earth and Space Science, has filled in his editorial board with Andrea Donnellan (University of Southern California), Jonathan H. Jiang (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology), Benoît Pirenne (University of Victoria, BC, Canada), and Frank Vernon (University of California, San Diego).

  2. An evaluation of MODIS 250-m data for green LAI estimation in crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, Anatoly A.; Wardlow, Brian D.; Keydan, Galina P.; Leavitt, Bryan

    2007-10-01

    Green leaf area index (LAI) is an important variable for climate modeling, estimates of primary production, agricultural yield forecasting, and many other diverse applications. Remotely sensed data provide considerable potential for estimating LAI at local, regional, and global scales. The goal of this study was to retrieve green LAI from MODIS 250-m vegetation index (VI) data for irrigated and rainfed maize and soybeans. The performance of both MODIS-derived NDVI and Wide Dynamic Range Vegetation Index (WDRVI) were evaluated across three growing seasons (2002 through 2004) over a wide range of LAI and also compared to the performance of NDVI and WDRVI derived from reflectance data collected at close-range across the same field locations. The NDVI vs. LAI relationship showed asymptotic behavior with a sharp decrease in the sensitivity of the NDVI to LAI exceeding 2 m2/m2 for both crops. WDRVI vs. LAI relation was linear across the entire range of LAI variation with determination coefficients above 0.93. Importantly, the coefficients of the close-range WDRVI vs. LAI equation and the MODIS-retrieved WDRVI vs. LAI equation were very close. The WDRVI was found to be capable of accurately estimating LAI across a much greater LAI range than the NDVI and can be used for assessing even slight variations in LAI, which are indicative of the early stages of plant stress. These results demonstrate the new possibilities for analyzing the spatio-temporal variation of the LAI of crops using multi-temporal MODIS 250-m imagery.

  3. Research Review: Magazine Editors and Editing Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolliffe, Lee

    1994-01-01

    Reviews and critiques literature in the subfield of magazine editing research, chiefly biographical studies of individual editors and various types of studies of editorial practices, including surveys, magazine content analyses, and close qualitative examinations of editors' relationships with others. (SR)

  4. Research Review: Magazine Editors and Editing Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolliffe, Lee

    1994-01-01

    Reviews and critiques literature in the subfield of magazine editing research, chiefly biographical studies of individual editors and various types of studies of editorial practices, including surveys, magazine content analyses, and close qualitative examinations of editors' relationships with others. (SR)

  5. SIERRA Editor v. 1.2.1

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Edward; Friedman-Hill, Ernest; Gibson, Marcus; Heinstein, Martin; & Whittford, Greg

    2010-03-24

    The SIERRA Editor is a syntax editor for text-based input decks for the SIERRA modeling and simulations codes. The SIERRA Editor provides color coded syntax, error checking, hyperlink navigation to referenced entities (e.g. functions and materials), and visual verification of mesh entity references (blocks, sidesets, and nodesets). The SIERRA Editor helps modeling and simulation analysts who use the SIERRA codes to produce syntactically correct input decks.

  6. Linking in situ LAI and fine resolution remote sensing data to map reference LAI over cropland and grassland using geostatistical regression method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yaqian; Bo, Yanchen; Chai, Leilei; Liu, Xiaolong; Li, Aihua

    2016-08-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is an important parameter of vegetation structure. A number of moderate resolution LAI products have been produced in urgent need of large scale vegetation monitoring. High resolution LAI reference maps are necessary to validate these LAI products. This study used a geostatistical regression (GR) method to estimate LAI reference maps by linking in situ LAI and Landsat TM/ETM+ and SPOT-HRV data over two cropland and two grassland sites. To explore the discrepancies of employing different vegetation indices (VIs) on estimating LAI reference maps, this study established the GR models for different VIs, including difference vegetation index (DVI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and ratio vegetation index (RVI). To further assess the performance of the GR model, the results from the GR and Reduced Major Axis (RMA) models were compared. The results show that the performance of the GR model varies between the cropland and grassland sites. At the cropland sites, the GR model based on DVI provides the best estimation, while at the grassland sites, the GR model based on DVI performs poorly. Compared to the RMA model, the GR model improves the accuracy of reference LAI maps in terms of root mean square errors (RMSE) and bias.

  7. Learning To Use a Text Editor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Carole R.; Griffin, Elizabeth A.

    Designed to determine how quickly elementary school children can learn to use a text editor and what editing concepts are difficult for them to master, this study presents preliminary data on children's acquisition of text editor skills and on the kinds of revisions they accomplished with the text editor. Observations were made on a total of 25…

  8. Message from the Editor Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Whilst travelling to Vienna to hand over the Editorship of Nuclear Fusion to Ron Stambaugh, I jotted down a few ideas to put in a farewell message. Somewhat unsurprisingly, I find them almost identical to the remarks that Chris Schueller made in handing over to me five years ago. Both of us served in this role for five years, which seems like a good timescale to replace presidents and editors alike; just to allow a fresh approach. In addition, since I have been directly involved in ITER, I have found it increasingly difficult, due to time pressure, to give the journal the attention that it deserves. Therefore, I am very pleased that Ron Stambaugh has agreed to take over as Editor. Not only does he bring the experience as a leading figure in the US fusion programme but, in addition, he has all the contacts, worldwide, from his leadership of the ITPA. I am completely assured that the journal is in a highly competent pair of hands. Such a farewell should not lack my heartfelt thanks to all of those who have made being Editor of Nuclear Fusion so enjoyable and stimulating; readership, authors, referees, the Editorial Board and the NF Office alike. I wish Ron all the best for his tenure and have offered such help and support as I am able to give.

  9. The Effectiveness of Predict-Observe-Explain Technique in Probing Students' Understanding about Acid-Base Chemistry: A Case for the Concepts of pH, pOH, and Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kala, Nesli; Yaman, Fatma; Ayas, Alipasa

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes high school students' conceptions about acids and bases in terms of pH, pOH, microscopic level, strength, and concentration. A total of 27 high school students participated in the study. The data was collected using 3 POE tasks and a semi-structured interview. The data analysis demonstrated that most of the students had…

  10. The Effectiveness of Predict-Observe-Explain Technique in Probing Students' Understanding about Acid-Base Chemistry: A Case for the Concepts of pH, pOH, and Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kala, Nesli; Yaman, Fatma; Ayas, Alipasa

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes high school students' conceptions about acids and bases in terms of pH, pOH, microscopic level, strength, and concentration. A total of 27 high school students participated in the study. The data was collected using 3 POE tasks and a semi-structured interview. The data analysis demonstrated that most of the students had…

  11. Line-Editor Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    ZED editing program for DEC VAX computer simple, powerful line editor for text, program source code, and nonbinary data. Excels in processing of text by use of procedure files. Also features versatile search qualifiers, global changes, conditionals, online help, hexadecimal mode, space compression, looping, logical combinations of search strings, journaling, visible control characters, and automatic detabbing. Users of Cambridge implementation devised such ZED procedures as chess games, calculators, and programs for evaluating pi. Written entirely in C.

  12. Line-Editor Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    ZED editing program for DEC VAX computer simple, powerful line editor for text, program source code, and nonbinary data. Excels in processing of text by use of procedure files. Also features versatile search qualifiers, global changes, conditionals, online help, hexadecimal mode, space compression, looping, logical combinations of search strings, journaling, visible control characters, and automatic detabbing. Users of Cambridge implementation devised such ZED procedures as chess games, calculators, and programs for evaluating pi. Written entirely in C.

  13. A Syntax Directed Editor Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-05

    Much of his work was based on research by Bruce J. MacLennan of the Naval Postgraduate School (Ref 9) and two of Mister MacLennan’s former thesis...of Defense. Requirement for ADA Programming Suport | .:Environments - Stoneman. Washington, D.C. 1980. • .,6. Feiler , Peter H. and Raul Medina-Mora...1982. (AD-A053032). 9. MacLennan, Bruce J. The Automatic Generation of Syntax-Directed Editors. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA., 1981. 10

  14. Climate Related Vegetation Characteristics Derived From MODIS LAI and NDVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P.; Anderson, B.; Barlow, M.; Tan, B.; Myneni, R.

    2004-12-01

    MODIS-based Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) are used to examine detailed information regarding growing season and total annual production across the globe. Overall, MODIS LAI has larger variability and demonstrates more information regarding the evolution and structure of the seasonal vegetation characteristics. In contrast, the NDVI saturates around 0.7 and tends to overestimate the length of the growing season in regions where it is already long. Next, a Climatic Impact Index (CII) is derived to provide additional information regarding the potential sensitivity of vegetation to changes in climatic variables by accounting for the length of growing season. By normalizing the growth rate to the biome-average growth rate, this index can identify fractional loss of annual production during a given month, as opposed to the absolute loss which may be strongly weighted by the overall growth rate for different ecosystems. Our index provides a quantitative framework for assessing the importance of the length of the growing-season in determining climatic vulnerability and highlights regions such as the Sahel, eastern Africa, and central southwest Asia, which are highly susceptible to climate-induced variability during their short but intense growing seasons. In the last part of the paper, we use the long time series AVHRR products as a substitute for the MODIS products, and test the temporal characteristics of the CII, which is termed the CVII (Climate-Variability Impact Index). Major drought events are well-captured by the CVII, suggesting potential use as a monitoring and evaluation tool. Furthermore, the strong positive correlation between the CVII and the Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) suggests that the CVII can quantitatively identify the effects of climatic variability upon vegetation activity. Finally, CVII is used to generate models to monitor and predict the crop production at different temporal and spatial scales. Overall

  15. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2010-02-01

    November 2009 and provided particularly detailed advice to the authors. The other three have been very helpful in 'minority fields'. We have excluded our Board members, Guest Editors of special editions and those referees who were already listed in the last four years. Guest Editors' work on papers submitted to their Special Issues is also excluded from consideration. The following people have been selected: Tomonori Takizuka, JAEA-Naka Fusion Institute, Japan Rudolf Neu, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Germany Sibylle Guenter, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Germany Taik-Soo Hahm, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, United States David R. Mikkelsen, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, United States Peter C. de Vries, EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, United Kingdom Yasuhiro Suzuki, National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Jerzy Wolowski, Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Poland Tetsuo Tanabe, Kyushu University, Japan Yasuyuki Yagi, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan Congratulations and many, many thanks! The Guest Editors of special editions deserve a special mention for the excellent help that they have given us. They are: Taik-Soo Hahm, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, United States, Special Issue on H-Mode Physics and Transport Barriers Yaroslav Kolesnichenko, Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine, Special Issue on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems Kimitaka Itoh, National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan and Howard R. Wilson, University of York, UK, Special Issue on Plasma Instabilities Bernhard Unterberg, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany, Special Issue on Stochastic Fusion Plasma In addition, there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past year to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion. At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2009. Our thanks to them! Authors The winner of the 2009 Nuclear Fusion

  16. Carbon economics of LAI drive photosynthesis patterns across an Amazonian precipitation gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Sophie; Williams, Mathew; Meir, Patrick; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2017-04-01

    The Amazon rainforest is an integral part of the terrestrial carbon cycle, yet whilst the physiological response of its plants to water availability is increasingly well quantified, constraints to photosynthesis through adaptive response to precipitation regime have received little attention. We use the Soil Plant Atmosphere model to apportion variation in photosynthesis to individual drivers for plots with detailed measurements of carbon cycling, leaf traits and canopy properties, along an Amazonian mean annual precipitation (MAP) gradient. We hypothesised that leaf area index (LAI) would be the principal driver of variation in photosynthesis. Differences in LAI are predicted to result from economic factors; plants balance the carbon cost of leaf construction and maintenance with assimilation potential, to maximise canopy carbon export. Model analysis showed that LAI was the primary driver of differences in GPP along the precipitation gradient, accounting for 49% of observed variation. Meteorology accounted for 19%, whilst plant traits accounted for only 5%. To explain the observed spatial trends in LAI we undertook model experiments. For each plot the carbon budget was quantified iteratively using the field measured LAI time-series of the other plots, keeping meteorology, soil and plant traits constant. The mean annual LAI achieving maximum photosynthesis and net canopy carbon export increased with MAP, reflecting observed LAI trends. At the driest site, alternative, higher LAI strategies were unsustainable. The carbon cost of leaf construction and maintenance was disproportional to GPP achieved. At high MAP, increased foliar carbon costs were remunerative and GPP was maximised by high LAI. Our evidence therefore suggests that observed LAI trends across the precipitation gradient are driven by carbon economics. Forests LAI response to temporal changes in precipitation reflects trends observed across spatial gradients, identifying LAI as a key mechanism for plant

  17. Modeling the effect of photosynthetic vegetation properties on the NDVI--LAI relationship.

    PubMed

    Steltzer, Heidi; Welker, Jeffrey M

    2006-11-01

    Developing a relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the leaf area index (LAI) is essential to describe the pattern of spatial or temporal variation in LAI that controls carbon, water, and energy exchange in many ecosystem process models. Photosynthetic vegetation (PV) properties can affect the estimation of LAI, but no models integrate the effects of multiple species. We developed four alternative NDVI-LAI models, three of which integrate PV effects: no PV effects, leaf-level effects, canopy-level effects, and effects at both levels. The models were fit to data across the natural range of variation in NDVI for a widespread High Arctic ecosystem. The weight of evidence supported the canopy-level model (Akaike weight, wr = 0.98), which includes species-specific canopy coefficients that primarily scale fractional PV cover to LAI by accounting for the area of unexposed PV. Modeling the canopy-level effects improved prediction of LAI (R2 = 0.82) over the model with no PV effect (R2 = 0.71) across the natural range of variation in NDVI but did not affect the site-level estimate of LAI. Satellite-based methods to estimate species composition, a variable in the model, will need to be developed. We expect that including the effects of PV properties in NDVI-LAI models will improve prediction of LAI where species composition varies across space or changes over time.

  18. Modeling uncertainties in estimation of canopy LAI from hyperspectral remote sensing data - A Bayesian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varvia, Petri; Rautiainen, Miina; Seppänen, Aku

    2017-04-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing data carry information on the leaf area index (LAI) of forests, and thus in principle, LAI can be estimated based on the data by inverting a forest reflectance model. However, LAI is usually not the only unknown in a reflectance model; especially, the leaf spectral albedo and understory reflectance are also not known. If the uncertainties of these parameters are not accounted for, the inversion of a forest reflectance model can lead to biased estimates for LAI. In this paper, we study the effects of reflectance model uncertainties on LAI estimates, and further, investigate whether the LAI estimates could recover from these uncertainties with the aid of Bayesian inference. In the proposed approach, the unknown leaf albedo and understory reflectance are estimated simultaneously with LAI from hyperspectral remote sensing data. The feasibility of the approach is tested with numerical simulation studies. The results show that in the presence of unknown parameters, the Bayesian LAI estimates which account for the model uncertainties outperform the conventional estimates that are based on biased model parameters. Moreover, the results demonstrate that the Bayesian inference can also provide feasible measures for the uncertainty of the estimated LAI.

  19. Evaluation and Validation of Updated MODIS C6 and VIIRS LAI/FPAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, K.; Park, T.; Chen, C.; Yang, B.; Yan, G.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Myneni, R. B.; CHOI, S.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (0.4-0.7 μm) absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) play a key role in characterizing vegetation canopy functioning and energy absorption capacity. With radiative transfer realization, MODIS onboard NASA EOS Terra and Aqua satellites has provided globally continuous LAI/FPAR since 2000 and continuously updated the products with better quality. And NPP VIIRS shows the measurement capability to extend high-quality LAI/FPAR time series data records as a successor of MODIS. The primary objectives of this study are 1) to evaluate and validate newly updated MODIS Collection 6 (C6) LAI/FPAR product which has finer resolution (500m) and improved biome type input, and 2) to examine and adjust VIIRS LAI/FPAR algorithm for continuity with MODIS'. For MODIS C6 investigation, we basically measure the spatial coverage (i.e., main radiative transfer algorithm execution), continuity and consistency with Collection 5 (C5), and accuracy with field measured LAI/FPAR. And we also validate C6 LAI/FPAR via comparing other possible global LAI/FPAR products (e.g., GLASS and CYCLOPES) and capturing co-varying seasonal signatures with climatic variables (e.g., temperature and precipitation). For VIIRS evaluation and adjustment, we first quantify possible difference between C5 and MODIS heritage based VIIRS LAI/FPAR. Then based on the radiative transfer theory of canopy spectral invariants, we find VIIRS- and biome-specific configurable parameters (single scattering albedo and uncertainty). These two practices for MODIS C6 and VIIRS LAI/FPAR products clearly suggest that (a) MODIS C6 has better coverage and accuracy than C5, (b) C6 shows consistent spatiotemporal pattern with C5, (c) VIIRS has the potential for producing MODIS-like global LAI/FPAR Earth System Data Records.

  20. Aboveground biomass and leaf area index (LAI) mapping for Niassa Reserve, northern Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Natasha S.; Saatchi, Sassan S.; Shugart, Herman H.; Washington-Allen, Robert A.

    2008-09-01

    Estimations of biomass are critical in miombo woodlands because they represent the primary source of goods and services for over 80% of the population in southern Africa. This study was carried out in Niassa Reserve, northern Mozambique. The main objectives were first to estimate woody biomass and Leaf Area Index (LAI) using remotely sensed data [RADARSAT (C-band, λ = 5.7-cm)] and Landsat ETM+ derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Simple Ratio (SR) calibrated by field measurements and, second to determine, at both landscape and plot scales, the environmental controls (precipitation, woody cover density, fire and elephants) of biomass and LAI. A land-cover map (72% overall accuracy) was derived from the June 2004 ETM+ mosaic. Field biomass and LAI were correlated with RADARSAT backscatter (rbiomass = 0.65, rLAI = 0.57, p < 0.0001) from July 2004, NDVI (rbiomass = 0.30, rLAI = 0.35; p < 0.0001) and SR (rbiomass = 0.36, rLAI = 0.40, p < 0.0001). A jackknife stepwise regression technique was used to develop the best predictive models for biomass (biomass = -5.19 + 0.074 * radarsat + 1.56 * SR, r2 = 0.55) and LAI (LAI = -0.66 + 0.01 * radarsat + 0.22 * SR, r2 = 0.45). Biomass and LAI maps were produced with an estimated peak of 18 kg m-2 and 2.80 m2 m-2, respectively. On the landscape-scale, both biomass and LAI were strongly determined by mean annual precipitation (F = 13.91, p = 0.0002). On the plot spatial scale, woody biomass was significantly determined by fire frequency, and LAI by vegetation type.

  1. Donald R. Nielsen New WRR Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robb, David W.

    Bridging the gap between the disciplines of engineering and agriculture is a major goal for Water Resources Research (WRR), says Donald R. Nielsen, who was appointed to a 4-year term as WRR editor, effective January 1, 1985. Nielsen succeeds Stephen J. Burges as the WRR editor for hydrology, physical, chemical, and biological sciences. Ronald G. Cummings, at the University of New Mexico, is the WRR editor for policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law.

  2. [The study of LAI estimation using a new vegetation index based on CHRIS data].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Juan; Niu, Zheng; Hou, Xue-Hui; Gao, Shuai

    2013-04-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important structural parameter of vegetation canopy, the correct estimation of which has been the focus in the remote sensing community. As a kind of hyperspectral and multi-angle remote sensing data with higher resolution (17 m), PROBA/CHRIS has significant application value in LAI inversion. In the present paper, the analytical two-layer canopy reflectance model (ACRM) was used to simulate a series of reflectances with different LAI values. Based on this, a new vegetation index was built and successfully applied to LAI inversion of PROBA/CHRIS image data. Our results indicated that: compared with the spectral index NDVI and multi-angle index HDS, the new index could make better use of spectrum and multi-angle messages and have a better correlation with LAI of the study area; moreover, the correlation coefficient R2 reached up to 0.734 7. And in order to obtain the figure of LAI distribution of the study area, we used the optimal fit equation between LAI and HDVI to estimate LAI, and the accuracy of the RMSE was 0.619 8.

  3. Towards an Improved LAI Collection Protocol via Simulated and Field-Based PAR Sensing.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wei; Kelbe, David; Leeuwen, Martin van; Romanczyk, Paul; Aardt, Jan van

    2016-07-14

    In support of NASA's next-generation spectrometer-the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI)-we are working towards assessing sub-pixel vegetation structure from imaging spectroscopy data. Of particular interest is Leaf Area Index (LAI), which is an informative, yet notoriously challenging parameter to efficiently measure in situ. While photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR) sensors have been validated for measuring crop LAI, there is limited literature on the efficacy of PAR-based LAI measurement in the forest environment. This study (i) validates PAR-based LAI measurement in forest environments, and (ii) proposes a suitable collection protocol, which balances efficiency with measurement variation, e.g., due to sun flecks and various-sized canopy gaps. A synthetic PAR sensor model was developed in the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model and used to validate LAI measurement based on first-principles and explicitly-known leaf geometry. Simulated collection parameters were adjusted to empirically identify optimal collection protocols. These collection protocols were then validated in the field by correlating PAR-based LAI measurement to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) extracted from the "classic" Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-C) data ( R 2 was 0.61). The results indicate that our proposed collecting protocol is suitable for measuring the LAI of sparse forest (LAI < 3-5 ( m 2 / m 2 )).

  4. Comparing LAI estimates of corn and soybean from vegetation indices of multi-resolution satellite images

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leaf area index (LAI) is important in explaining the ability of the crop to intercept solar energy for biomass production and in understanding the impact of crop management practices. This paper describes a procedure for estimating LAI as a function of image-derived vegetation indices from temporal ...

  5. Sensitivity analysis for leaf area index (LAI) estimation from CHRIS/PROBA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianjun; Gu, Zhujun; Xu, Jianhua; Duan, Yushan; Liu, Yongmei; Liu, Yongjuan; Li, Dongliang

    2014-09-01

    Sensitivity analyses were conducted for the retrieval of vegetation leaf area index (LAI) from multiangular imageries in this study. Five spectral vegetation indices (VIs) were derived from Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer onboard the Project for On Board Autonomy (CHRIS/PROBA) images, and were related to LAI, acquired from in situ measurement in Jiangxi Province, China, for five vegetation communities. The sensitivity of LAI retrieval to the variation of VIs from different observation angles was evaluated using the ratio of the slope of the best-fit linear VI-LAI model to its root mean squared error. Results show that both the sensitivity and reliability of VI-LAI models are influenced by the heterogeneity of vegetation communities, and that performance of vegetation indices in LAI estimation varies along observation angles. The VI-LAI models are more reliable for tall trees than for low growing shrub-grasses and also for forests with broad leaf trees than for coniferous forest. The greater the tree height and leaf size, the higher the sensitivity. Forests with broad-leaf trees have higher sensitivities, especially at oblique angles, while relatively simple-structured coniferous forests, shrubs, and grasses show similar sensitivities at all angles. The multi-angular soil and/or atmospheric parameter adjustments will hopefully improve the performance of VIs in LAI estimation, which will require further investigation.

  6. Towards an Improved LAI Collection Protocol via Simulated and Field-Based PAR Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Wei; Kelbe, David; van Leeuwen, Martin; Romanczyk, Paul; van Aardt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In support of NASA’s next-generation spectrometer—the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI)—we are working towards assessing sub-pixel vegetation structure from imaging spectroscopy data. Of particular interest is Leaf Area Index (LAI), which is an informative, yet notoriously challenging parameter to efficiently measure in situ. While photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR) sensors have been validated for measuring crop LAI, there is limited literature on the efficacy of PAR-based LAI measurement in the forest environment. This study (i) validates PAR-based LAI measurement in forest environments, and (ii) proposes a suitable collection protocol, which balances efficiency with measurement variation, e.g., due to sun flecks and various-sized canopy gaps. A synthetic PAR sensor model was developed in the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model and used to validate LAI measurement based on first-principles and explicitly-known leaf geometry. Simulated collection parameters were adjusted to empirically identify optimal collection protocols. These collection protocols were then validated in the field by correlating PAR-based LAI measurement to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) extracted from the “classic” Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-C) data (R2 was 0.61). The results indicate that our proposed collecting protocol is suitable for measuring the LAI of sparse forest (LAI < 3–5 (m2/m2)). PMID:27428969

  7. Application and Evaluation of MODIS LAI, fPAR, and Albedo Products in the WRFCMAQ System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leaf area index (LAI), vegetation fraction (VF), and surface albedo are important parameters in the land surface model (LSM) for meteorology and air quality modeling systems such as WRF/CMAQ. LAI and VF control not only leaf to canopy level evapotranspiration flux scaling but al...

  8. Retrieving LAI from Remotely Sensed Images: Spectral Indices vs. Spatial Texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, C.; Gray, J. M.; Zhang, S.

    2008-12-01

    Leaves are the interface where energy and gas exchanges between the atmosphere and forest ecosystems occur. Accurate knowledge of the amount leaves is essential to successfully modeling the fluxes of water and carbon through the earth's forests. Leaf area index (LAI) is a parameter used to quantify the abundance of leaves in a given stand. Remote sensing offers the only feasible way to quantify LAI over large areas. Tremendous efforts have been devoted to this task by remote sensing scientists, but there is still a lack of concensus on how LAI can be best retrieved. Though global LAI products are available, their accuracy has remained unsatisfactory for regional applications. Previous work has primarily focused on using the spectral information in remotely sensed imagery. In this study, we compared the potential of LAI retrieval from various spectral indices derived from Landsat TM images with retrieval using the spatial information, image texture, derived from the Ikonos images. LAI on the ground was derived from allometry, LAI-2000 and the TRAC device in the Duke Forest area in central North Carolina. Our results show that the commonly used spectral indices, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and simple ratio vegetation index (SRVI) were not the best choice for LAI retrieval. We found that Landsat TM derived Structural Index (SI=TM4/TM5) and normalized difference water index (NDWI), as well as Ikonos image texture are much better alternatives.

  9. Application and Evaluation of MODIS LAI, fPAR, and Albedo Products in the WRFCMAQ System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leaf area index (LAI), vegetation fraction (VF), and surface albedo are important parameters in the land surface model (LSM) for meteorology and air quality modeling systems such as WRF/CMAQ. LAI and VF control not only leaf to canopy level evapotranspiration flux scaling but al...

  10. Jointly assimilating MODIS LAI and ET products into SWAP model for winter wheat yield estimation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Evapotranspiration (ET) are two key biophysical variables related to crop growth and grain yield. This study presents a framework to assimilate MODIS LAI products (MCD15A3) and MODIS ET products (MOD16A2) into the soil water atmosphere plant (SWAP) model to improve estimate...

  11. Towards an improved LAI collection protocol via simulated field-based PAR sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Wei; Van Leeuwen, Martin; Romanczyk, Paul; van Aardt, Jan; Kelbe, David

    2016-07-14

    In support of NASA’s next-generation spectrometer—the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI)—we are working towards assessing sub-pixel vegetation structure from imaging spectroscopy data. Of particular interest is Leaf Area Index (LAI), which is an informative, yet notoriously challenging parameter to efficiently measure in situ. While photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR) sensors have been validated for measuring crop LAI, there is limited literature on the efficacy of PAR-based LAI measurement in the forest environment. This study (i) validates PAR-based LAI measurement in forest environments, and (ii) proposes a suitable collection protocol, which balances efficiency with measurement variation, e.g., due to sun flecks and various-sized canopy gaps. A synthetic PAR sensor model was developed in the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model and used to validate LAI measurement based on first-principles and explicitly-known leaf geometry. Simulated collection parameters were adjusted to empirically identify optimal collection protocols. Furthermore, these collection protocols were then validated in the field by correlating PAR-based LAI measurement to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) extracted from the “classic” Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-C) data (R2 was 0.61). The results indicate that our proposed collecting protocol is suitable for measuring the LAI of sparse forest (LAI < 3–5 ( m2/m2)).

  12. Towards an improved LAI collection protocol via simulated field-based PAR sensing

    DOE PAGES

    Yao, Wei; Van Leeuwen, Martin; Romanczyk, Paul; ...

    2016-07-14

    In support of NASA’s next-generation spectrometer—the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI)—we are working towards assessing sub-pixel vegetation structure from imaging spectroscopy data. Of particular interest is Leaf Area Index (LAI), which is an informative, yet notoriously challenging parameter to efficiently measure in situ. While photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR) sensors have been validated for measuring crop LAI, there is limited literature on the efficacy of PAR-based LAI measurement in the forest environment. This study (i) validates PAR-based LAI measurement in forest environments, and (ii) proposes a suitable collection protocol, which balances efficiency with measurement variation, e.g., due to sun flecks and various-sized canopymore » gaps. A synthetic PAR sensor model was developed in the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model and used to validate LAI measurement based on first-principles and explicitly-known leaf geometry. Simulated collection parameters were adjusted to empirically identify optimal collection protocols. Furthermore, these collection protocols were then validated in the field by correlating PAR-based LAI measurement to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) extracted from the “classic” Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-C) data (R2 was 0.61). The results indicate that our proposed collecting protocol is suitable for measuring the LAI of sparse forest (LAI < 3–5 ( m2/m2)).« less

  13. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2011-01-01

    As usual, being an even year, the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference took place at Daejeon, Korea. The event was notable not just for the quality of the presentations but also for the spectacular opening ceremony, in the presence of the Prime Minister, Kim Hwang-sik. The Prime Minister affirmed the importance of research into fusion energy research and pledged support for ITER. Such political visibility is good news, of course, but it brings with it the obligation to perform. Fortunately, good performance was much in evidence in the papers presented at the conference, of which a significant proportion contain 'ITER' in the title. Given this importance of ITER and the undertaking by the Nuclear Fusion journal to publish papers associated with Fusion Energy Conference presentations, the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board has decided to adopt a simplified journal scope that encompasses technology papers more naturally. The scope is available from http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/page/Journal%20information but is reproduced here for clarity: Nuclear Fusion publishes articles making significant advances to the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion. The journal scope includes: the production, heating and confinement of high temperature plasmas; the physical properties of such plasmas; the experimental or theoretical methods of exploring or explaining them; fusion reactor physics; reactor concepts; fusion technologies. The key to scope acceptability is now '....significant advances....' rather than any particular area of controlled thermonuclear fusion research. It is hoped that this will make scope decisions easier for the Nuclear Fusion office, the referees and the Editor.The Nuclear Fusion journal has continued to make an important contribution to the research programme and has maintained its position as the leading journal in the field. This is underlined by the fact that Nuclear Fusion has received an impact factor of 4.270, as listed in ISI's 2009 Science Citation

  14. Examining Editor-Author Ethics: Real-World Scenarios from Interviews with Three Journal Editors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amare, Nicole; Manning, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Those who submit manuscripts to academic journals may benefit from a better understanding of how editors weigh ethics in their interactions with authors. In an attempt to ascertain and to understand editors' ethics, we interviewed 3 current academic journal editors of technical and/or business communication journals. We asked them about the…

  15. Examining Editor-Author Ethics: Real-World Scenarios from Interviews with Three Journal Editors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amare, Nicole; Manning, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Those who submit manuscripts to academic journals may benefit from a better understanding of how editors weigh ethics in their interactions with authors. In an attempt to ascertain and to understand editors' ethics, we interviewed 3 current academic journal editors of technical and/or business communication journals. We asked them about the…

  16. PROGRAMMABLE DISPLAY PUSHBUTTON LEGEND EDITOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busquets, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Programmable Display Pushbutton (PDP) is a pushbutton device available from Micro Switch which has a programmable 16 x 35 matrix of LEDs on the pushbutton surface. Any desired legends can be displayed on the PDPs, producing user-friendly applications which greatly reduce the need for dedicated manual controls. Because the PDP can interact with the operator, it can call for the correct response before transmitting its next message. It is both a simple manual control and a sophisticated programmable link between the operator and the host system. The Programmable Display Pushbutton Legend Editor, PDPE, is used to create the LED displays for the pushbuttons. PDPE encodes PDP control commands and legend data into message byte strings sent to a Logic Refresh and Control Unit (LRCU). The LRCU serves as the driver for a set of four PDPs. The legend editor (PDPE) transmits to the LRCU user specified commands that control what is displayed on the LED face of the individual pushbuttons. Upon receiving a command, the LRCU transmits an acknowledgement that the message was received and executed successfully. The user then observes the effect of the command on the PDP displays and decides whether or not to send the byte code of the message to a data file so that it may be called by an applications program. The PDPE program is written in FORTRAN for interactive execution. It was developed on a DEC VAX 11/780 under VMS. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 12800 bytes. It requires four Micro Switch PDPs and two RS-232 VAX 11/780 terminal ports. The PDPE program was developed in 1985.

  17. [Report of the editors, 2011].

    PubMed

    García Puig, J; Gaspar Alonso-Vega, G; Ríos Blanco, J J

    2012-01-01

    The editors of Revista Clínica Española (Rev Clin Esp) inform on their editorial activity during the last 12 months (November 2010 to October 2011): (a) Objectives and attainments during 2011, (b) editorial activity, and (c) objectives for 2012. In 2011 we have updated the editorial algorithm (revision by the responsible editor of all manuscripts sent to peer review and incorporated an «editorial coordinator»), we have renovated two advise facilities (editorial and scientific committees), we have created a new section called «monthly e-image», and we have promoted Rev Clin Esp annual prizes. From the first January 2010 to 31(st) October 2011 we handled 422 manuscripts (42,2 manuscripts per month, higher than the 2010 figure of 40,4 manuscript/month). Overall we have accepted 26% (originals, 16%). We asked for 343 revisions and obtained 231 (67%). Seventy two percent of the reviewers sent their comments in less than two weeks. The mean time taken to accept or reject a given manuscript has been 26 days. The mean time taken since a manuscript is received to publication (october, novembrer and december issues) has dropped from 334 days in 2010 to 254 in 2011 (24% decrease). The collaboration with the working groups has reported about 2 published manuscripts per issue. Our objectives for 2012 are: (a) to improve the editorial process; (b) main article translation into English; (c) improve some sections (i.e. clinical conference); (d) estimulate working groups collaboration; and (e) improve continued medical education. Revista Clínica Española is an open forum for all internal medicine specialists. We all have the responsibility to make our journal, each day, better.

  18. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Plasmaphysik, Germany) V. Philipps (Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany) S. Zweben (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, USA) Y. Hirano (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan) Y. Takase (Tokyo University, Japan) In addition there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past year to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion. At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2008. Our thanks to them! Authors The winner of the 2007 award was Clemente Angioni for the paper entitled `Density response to central electron heating: theoretical investigations and experimental observations in ASDEX Upgrade' (Nucl. Fusion 44 8277-845). The winner of the 2008 Nuclear Fusion award is Todd Evans et al for the paper `Suppression of large edge localized modes with edge resonant magnetic fields in high confinement DIII-D plasmas' (Nucl. Fusion 45 595-607). The awards were presented by the IAEA Deputy Director General, Werner Burkart, and the Chairman of the Board of Editors, Mitsuru Kikuchi, on 16 October 2008 at the 22nd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Geneva, Switzerland. Given the topicality of these papers for the ITER design, it is a matter of pride to the journal that the work should be published in Nuclear Fusion. Reviews Like many who have worked for a long time in the field, I still make use of Nuclear Fusion Reviews that go back 20 or 30 years. It is particularly useful, therefore, that the Board of Editors has been working to re-activate the review programme. The first fruits will appear in this issue, in the form of `A review of zonal flow experiments', by Akihide Fujisawa. The special procedures for Reviews should be noted: most specifically that they should normally be commissioned by the Board of Editors. However, not only is the Board of Editors working on a programme but I am sure that they would be pleased to consider suggestions for review subjects. Letters The reputation of Nuclear

  19. Linguistic Prescriptivism in Letters to the Editor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukac, Morana

    2016-01-01

    The public's concern with the fate of the standard language has been well documented in the history of the complaint tradition. The print media have for centuries featured letters to the editor on questions of language use. This study examines a corpus of 258 language-related letters to the editor published in the English-speaking print media. By…

  20. Editorial Commentary: Editor's Conflict of Interest.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H

    2015-09-01

    The Editor-in-chief has recused himself from industry consulting, which he performed before assuming the position, and returned related royalties and divested related stock options, in order to mitigate against conflict-of-interest. The Editor discloses affiliation with an institution that receives support from diverse industry partners in support of research and education.

  1. Linguistic Prescriptivism in Letters to the Editor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukac, Morana

    2016-01-01

    The public's concern with the fate of the standard language has been well documented in the history of the complaint tradition. The print media have for centuries featured letters to the editor on questions of language use. This study examines a corpus of 258 language-related letters to the editor published in the English-speaking print media. By…

  2. An Idea Book for the Education Editor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodinsky, Ben, Ed.

    To be used as a reference and guide for education editors, this booklet contains advice and information on writing, editing, production, publishing, the magazine, and the newsletter. The final section discusses the role and duties of the education editor. This edition contains material from the 1963 brochure of the same name, new material selected…

  3. Deriving Leaf Area Index (LAI) from multiple lidar remote sensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, H.; Dubayah, R.; Zhao, F.

    2012-12-01

    LAI is an important biophysical variable linking biogeochemical cycles of earth systems. Observations with passive optical remote sensing are plagued by saturation and results from different passive and active sensors are often inconsistent. Recently lidar remote sensing has been applied to derive vertical canopy structure including LAI and its vertical profile. In this research we compare LAI retrievals from three different types of lidar sensors. The study areas include the La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica and Sierra Nevada Forest in California. We first obtain independent LAI estimates from different lidar systems including airborne lidar (LVIS), spaceborne lidar (GLAS) and ground lidar (Echidna). LAI retrievals are then evaluated between sensors as a function of scale, land cover type and sensor characteristics. We also assess the accuracy of these LAI products against ground measurements. By providing a link between ground observations, ground lidar, aircraft and space-based lidar we hope to demonstrate a path for deriving more accurate estimates of LAI on a global basis, and to provide a more robust means of validating passive optical estimates of this important variable.

  4. Directional effects on NDVI and LAI retrievals from MODIS: A case study in Brazil with soybean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, Fábio Marcelo; Galvão, Lênio Soares; Formaggio, Antônio Roberto; Epiphanio, José Carlos Neves

    2011-02-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is largely used to estimate Leaf Area Index (LAI) using radiative transfer modeling (the "main" algorithm). When this algorithm fails for a pixel, which frequently occurs over Brazilian soybean areas, an empirical model (the "backup" algorithm) based on the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and LAI is utilized. The objective of this study is to evaluate directional effects on NDVI and subsequent LAI estimates using global (biome 3) and local empirical models, as a function of the soybean development in two growing seasons (2004-2005 and 2005-2006). The local model was derived from the pixels that had LAI values retrieved from the main algorithm. In order to keep the reproductive stage for a given cultivar as a constant factor while varying the viewing geometry, pairs of MODIS images acquired in close dates from opposite directions (backscattering and forward scattering) were selected. Linear regression relationships between the NDVI values calculated from these two directions were evaluated for different view angles (0-25°; 25-45°; 45-60°) and development stages (<45; 45-90; >90 days after planting). Impacts on LAI retrievals were analyzed. Results showed higher reflectance values in backscattering direction due to the predominance of sunlit soybean canopy components towards the sensor and higher NDVI values in forward scattering direction due to stronger shadow effects in the red waveband. NDVI differences between the two directions were statistically significant for view angles larger than 25°. The main algorithm for LAI estimation failed in the two growing seasons with gradual crop development. As a result, up to 94% of the pixels had LAI values calculated from the backup algorithm at the peak of canopy closure. Most of the pixels selected to compose the 8-day MODIS LAI product came from the forward scattering view because it displayed larger LAI values than the

  5. Constructing seasonal LAI trajectory by data-model fusion for global evergreen needle-leaf forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R.; Chen, J.; Mo, G.

    2010-12-01

    For decades, advancements in optical remote sensors made it possible to produce maps of a biophysical parameter--the Leaf Area Index (LAI), which is critically necessary in regional and global modeling of exchanges of carbon, water, energy and other substances, across large areas in a fast way. Quite a few global LAI products have been generated since 2000, e.g. GLOBCARBON (Deng et al., 2006), MODIS Collection 5 (Shabanov et al., 2007), CYCLOPES (Baret et al., 2007), etc. Albeit these progresses, the basic physics behind the technology restrains it from accurate estimation of LAI in winter, especially for northern high-latitude evergreen needle-leaf forests. Underestimation of winter LAI in these regions has been reported in literature (Yang et al., 2000; Cohen et al., 2003; Tian et al., 2004; Weiss et al., 2007; Pisek et al., 2007), and the distortion is usually attributed to the variations of canopy reflectance caused by understory change (Weiss et al., 2007) as well as by the presence of ice and snow on leaves and ground (Cohen, 2003; Tian et al., 2004). Seasonal changes in leaf pigments can also be another reason for low LAI retrieved in winter. Low conifer LAI values in winter retrieved from remote sensing make them unusable for surface energy budget calculations. To avoid these drawbacks of remote sensing approaches, we attempt to reconstruct the seasonal LAI trajectory through model-data fusion. A 1-degree LAI map of global evergreen needle-leaf forests at 10-day interval is produced based on the carbon allocation principle in trees. With net primary productivity (NPP) calculated by the Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) (Chen et al., 1999), carbon allocated to needles is quantitatively evaluated and then can be further transformed into LAI using the specific leaf area (SLA). A leaf-fall scheme is developed to mimic the carbon loss caused by falling needles throughout the year. The seasonally maximum LAI from remote sensing data for each pixel

  6. Estimating forest LAI profiles and structural parameters using a ground-based laser called 'Echidna'.

    PubMed

    Jupp, David L B; Culvenor, D S; Lovell, J L; Newnham, G J; Strahler, A H; Woodcock, C E

    2009-02-01

    There are many techniques for measuring leaf area index (LAI) and forest canopy foliage profiles but their accuracy is questionable. This paper briefly reviews current methods of estimating forest LAI and presents a novel, ground-based laser system, Echidna that can make a wide range of measurements of forest structure, including LAI. Here, use of the system to provide field data and derived gap probabilities in the form of a 'hemispherical photograph with range' is demonstrated. The results show consistency and reproducibility and do not depend on special conditions for the natural light field.

  7. Model-simulated and Satellite-derived Leaf Area Index (LAI) Comparisons Across Multiple Spatial Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iiames, J. S., Jr.; Cooter, E. J.

    2016-12-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is an important parameter in assessing vegetation structure for characterizing forest canopies over large areas at broad spatial scales using satellite remote sensing data. However, satellite-derived LAI products can be limited by obstructed atmospheric conditions yielding sub-optimal values, or complete non-returns. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Exposure Methods and Measurements and Computational Exposure Divisions are investigating the viability of supplemental modelled LAI inputs into satellite-derived data streams to support various regional and local scale air quality models for retrospective and future climate assessments. In this present study, one-year (2002) of plot level stand characteristics at four study sites located in Virginia and North Carolina (USA) are used to calibrate species-specific plant parameters in a semi-empirical biogeochemical model. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was designed primarily for managed agricultural field crop ecosystems, but also includes managed woody species that span both xeric and mesic sites (e.g., mesquite, pine, oak, etc.). LAI was simulated using EPIC at a 4 km2 and 12 km2 grid coincident with the regional Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) grid. LAI comparisons were made between model-simulated and MODIS-derived LAI. Field/satellite-upscaled LAI was also compared to the corresponding MODIS LAI value. Preliminary results show field/satellite-upscaled LAI (1 km2) was 1.5 to 3 times smaller than that with the corresponding 1 km2 MODIS LAI for all four sites across all dates, with the largest discrepancies occurring at leaf-out and leaf senescence periods. Simulated LAI/MODIS LAI comparison results will be presented at the conference. Disclaimer: This work is done in support of EPA's Sustainable Healthy Communities Research Program. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency funded and conducted the research described in this paper. Although

  8. LAI estimation in a Mediterranean grassland by in situ radiometric measurements and MODIS satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzarolo, M.; Arriga, N.; Papale, D.

    2009-04-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is one of a key variables in studying and understanding biogeochemical cycle mechanisms and ecosystem functionalities and, then, one of a main inputs for ecological modeling. Leaf area surface is related to the main interactions between leaves and the atmosphere as water interception, radiation extinction, energy, mass and gas exchange. Therefore LAI reduction, consequently the loss of productivity, is expression of any physiological and biochemical change of plant status due for example to summer water stress in Mediterranean areas. A good knowledge of seasonal trend and spatial variability of LAI can helps not only modelers but also local farmer to manage grasslands in a sustainable way (grazing, harvesting). In situ LAI measurements are often limited to relatively small areas whit a small number of samplings that can be sporadic, destructive and time-consuming. Nowadays an interesting alternative to estimate LAI is provided by a large variety of radiometric sensors (ground, airborne and satellite based) whit several spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions. However, few studies shown the effect of different radiometers set-up on VIs-LAI relationships that are also differently sensible to different ranges of LAI, management and to which method is used for LAI measurements. In this work, we analyzed the relations between several spectral vegetation indexes (VIs) and LAI for the Mediterranean grassland of Amplero, in the Abruzzo Region, Italy. In situ measurements were carried out in 2005 and 2006. Contemporaneously to destructive LAI measurements, radiometric measurements over the grass herbage were made by two different radiometric sensors: by hyperspectral Hand Held ASD spettroradiometer (HYS) field samplings and by broad band measurements (BNR) of incoming and outgoing global (shortwave) solar radiation components and of incident and reflected photosintetically active radiation (PAR). In addition we included in this analysis VIs

  9. [2009 report from the editors].

    PubMed

    García Puig, J; Gaspar Alonso-Vega, G; Ríos Blanco, J J

    2010-01-01

    The editors of the Rev Clin Esp present the editorial course of action of the journal over the past year. We have up-dated the design of the journal, its contents (sections) and computerized the editorial process. We processed 467 manuscripts and made an editorial decision on 402 of them between November 2008 and October 2009. A total of 92 manuscripts (23%) were accepted. Fifteen (13%) out of the 119 original articles for which the editorial process was completed were accepted. Our goal for the year 2010 is to make the journal available on the Internet for all those who are subscribers to the Rev Clin Esp as well as for internal medicine residents (for which they must be members of each regional society). Other objectives of the editorial team are to edit the E-cases, for the journal to be a continuing education tool and that the coordinators of the work groups develop a monographic number at least once every two years. These actions aim to increase the impact factor and the quality of the Rev Clin Esp, official publication of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine and of Spanish-speaking internal medicine physicians.

  10. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor Letter from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashinin, Pavel P.

    2013-01-01

    Dear readers, contributors, and members of the world laser physics community. It is a great honour for us to introduce to you our new publishing partner, IOP Publishing, a subsidiary of the Institute of Physics, United Kingdom. IOP Publishing is a world renowned authority in producing journals, magazines, websites and services that enable researchers and research organizations to present their work to a world-wide audience. Laser Physics, the first English-language scientific journal in Russia, was founded in 1990 on the initiative of Alexander M Prokhorov, a pioneer and leader in laser physics research. Professor Prokhorov served as the first Editor-in-Chief of the journal until 2002. We are proud that it is our 23rd year of publishing Laser Physics and our 10th year of publishing Laser Physics Letters. We would like to honour the memory of our friend, late Professor Igor Yevseyev, whose enthusiasm and unwavering dedication to our journals contributed most significantly to their success. It was initially his idea in 2011 to approach IOP with a partnership proposal. We deeply regret that he is no longer with us as we enter this productive alliance. Now, in partnership with IOP, we are turning a new page in providing world-wide access to the cutting-edge research results in our journals, serving our well established global audience. We see new horizons opening for our journals for years to come and hope that our readers share our enthusiasm and aspirations. Please accept our best wishes for all your new scientific endeavors in the exciting field of laser physics.

  11. LAI inversion from optical reflectance using a neural network trained with a multiple scattering model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James A.

    1992-01-01

    The inversion of the leaf area index (LAI) canopy parameter from optical spectral reflectance measurements is obtained using a backpropagation artificial neural network trained using input-output pairs generated by a multiple scattering reflectance model. The problem of LAI estimation over sparse canopies (LAI < 1.0) with varying soil reflectance backgrounds is particularly difficult. Standard multiple regression methods applied to canopies within a single homogeneous soil type yield good results but perform unacceptably when applied across soil boundaries, resulting in absolute percentage errors of >1000 percent for low LAI. Minimization methods applied to merit functions constructed from differences between measured reflectances and predicted reflectances using multiple-scattering models are unacceptably sensitive to a good initial guess for the desired parameter. In contrast, the neural network reported generally yields absolute percentage errors of <30 percent when weighting coefficients trained on one soil type were applied to predicted canopy reflectance at a different soil background.

  12. Collection of LAI and FPAR Data Over The Terra Core Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myneni, Ranga B.; Knjazihhin, J.; Tian, Y.; Wang, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of our effort was to collect and archive data on LAI (leaf area index) and FPAR (Fraction of Photosynthetically active Radiation absorbed by vegetation) at the EOS Core validation sites as well as to validate and evaluate global fields of LAI and FPAR derived from atmospherically corrected MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) surface reflectance data by comparing these fields with the EOS Core validation data set. The above has been accomplished by: (a) the participation in selected field campaigns within the EOS Validation Program; (b) the processing of the collected data so that suitable comparison between field measurements and the MODIS LAI/FPAR fields can be made; (c) the comparison of the MODAS LAI/FRAM fields with the EOS Terra Core validation data set.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF MODIS LAI (W4) IN LOBLOLLY PINE (P. TAEDA) FOREST TYPE, APPOMATTOX, VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency initiated MODIS MODI5A2LAI validation research (2002) in the evergreen needle leaf biome, as defined in the MOD12 classification, in a regional study located in the southeastern United States.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF MODIS LAI (W4) IN LOBLOLLY PINE (P. TAEDA) FOREST TYPE, APPOMATTOX, VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency initiated MODIS MODI5A2LAI validation research (2002) in the evergreen needle leaf biome, as defined in the MOD12 classification, in a regional study located in the southeastern United States.

  15. Sir William Wilde: an enlightened editor.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, M

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines Sir William Wilde's peculiar genius as editor, his contribution to the Irish Journal of Medical Science in ensuring its endurance and making it a treasure-house of the history of medicine in Ireland.

  16. Richard Gilbert, Reporter and Assistant City Editor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Larry

    1988-01-01

    Looks at the experiences of Richard Gilbert, reporter and assistant editor for "The Herald Telephone," a daily newspaper in Bloomington, Indiana, and discusses Gilbert's suggested guidelines for high school journalism advisers. (MS)

  17. Ethical issues faced by nursing editors.

    PubMed

    Freda, Margaret Comerford; Kearney, Margaret H

    2005-06-01

    This study reports on ethical issues faced by editors of nursing journals, a topic which has not appeared in the nursing literature. A survey of nursing editors (n = 88)was conducted via e-mail; this article is the content analysis of survey questions about ethics. Eight categories of ethical issues emerged: problems with society/association/publisher; decisions about inflammatory submissions; informed consent or IRB issues; conflicts of interest; advertising pressures; duplicate publications and/or plagiarism; difficult interactions with authors; and authorship. Some issues were similar to those published about medical editors; however, others were unique. This study can assist authors to better understand some of the ethical issues in publishing, can help editors to view their issues in the context of what others experience, and can assist societies and publishers to work toward avoiding these ethical issues in the future. Professional discussions about ethics in nursing publications should be the subject of ongoing research and scientific inquiry.

  18. Headline Ideas from Reporters Help Copy Editors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Marian Wynne

    1984-01-01

    Presents a method that has student reporters write headline suggestions on their stories before submission to avoid nonsignificant headlines. This technique was judged worthwhile by three professional copy editors. (CRH)

  19. A New Global LAI Product and Its Use for Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. M.; Liu, R.; Ju, W.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    For improving the estimation of the spatio-temporal dynamics of the terrestrial carbon cycle, a new time series of the leaf area index (LAI) is generated for the global land surface at 8 km resolution from 1981 to 2012 by combining AVHRR and MODIS satellite data. This product differs from existing LAI products in the following two aspects: (1) the non-random spatial distribution of leaves with the canopy is considered, and (2) the seasonal variation of the vegetation background is included. The non-randomness of the leaf spatial distribution in the canopy is considered using the second vegetation structural parameter named clumping index (CI), which quantifies the deviation of the leaf spatial distribution from the random case. Using the MODIS Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function product, a global map of CI is produced at 500 m resolution. In our LAI algorithm, CI is used to convert the effective LAI obtained from mono-angle remote sensing into the true LAI, otherwise LAI would be considerably underestimated. The vegetation background is soil in crop, grass and shrub but includes soil, grass, moss, and litter in forests. Through processing a large volume of MISR data from 2000 to 2010, monthly red and near-infrared reflectances of the vegetation background is mapped globally at 1 km resolution. This new LAI product has been validated extensively using ground-based LAI measurements distributed globally. In carbon cycle modeling, the use of CI in addition to LAI allows for accurate separation of sunlit and shaded leaves as an important step in terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration modeling. Carbon flux measurements over 100 sites over the globe are used to validate an ecosystem model named Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS). The validated model is run globally at 8 km resolution for the period from 1981 to 2012 using the LAI product and other spatial datasets. The modeled results suggest that changes in vegetation structure as quantified

  20. Report of the editors, 2014.

    PubMed

    García Puig, J; Gaspar Alonso-Vega, G; Ríos Blanco, J J

    2015-01-01

    The editors of Revista Clínica Española(Rev Clin Esp) inform on their editorial activity during the last 12 months: (a) Objectives and attainments in 2014, (b) Editorial activity, 2014, and (c) 2013 impact factor. In 2014 we achieved the 5 planned objectives. We have published the 9 programmed issues and 103% of the planned papers according to the usual fixed sections. We emphasize the publication of 29 editorials, 21 of which are signed by prestigious foreign authors. From the first January to the 30th September 2014 we received 421 manuscripts (46.8 manuscripts per month), a slight lower figure to that obtained in 2013 (50.9 manuscripts per month). The acceptance rate of the 404 manuscripts whose editorial process has been concluded was 32.3% (originals, 22.4%). We asked for 315 revisions to 240 reviewers and we received 53.3% revisions in less than two weeks (10.4 days). The mean time to adopt an editorial decision for all manuscripts («accepted»/«rejected») has been 18,3 (less than half than in 2009). For «originals» this figure has dropped from 56,6 days in 2009 to 26.6 days in 2014. The mean time elapsed from manuscript reception to its on-line publication was 103 days. In 2014 the collaboration with the working groups from the Internal Medicine Spanish Foundation (FEMI) has reported 11 published manuscripts. In July 2014 we were informed that the Journal Citation Reports gave Rev Clin Esp an Impact Factor of 1,314 (year 2013). This Impact Factor without self-citations would have been 0.705 (in 2009 the global impact factor was 0,584). With the Editorial Committee farewell we welcome the new editorial team and we sincerely thank the SEMI Steering Committee, our colleagues, journal officers, reviewers, readers and authors that since 2009 have trusted on our editorial work.

  1. [Report of the editors, 2010].

    PubMed

    García Puig, Juan; Alonso-Vega, Gabriel Gaspar; Blanco, Juan José Ríos

    2011-01-01

    The Editors of the Rev Clin Esp inform herein on their editorial activity in the last year (November 2009 to October 2010) according to three different sections: (a) Objectives and achievements during 2010, (b) editorial activity, and (c) objectives for 2011. During 2010, we have updated the editorial algorithm (manuscript time lag). We have developed the "E-case reports" section and we have linked the abstracts of the Annual Congress of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI) to a journal supplement (electronically available). Since 2010, the subscribers have been able to receive all of the contents of the Rev Clin Esp on-line and to perform self-evaluations in order to obtain 1.7 credits per each journal issue (continuing education). In 2010 we handled 402 manuscripts (7.2% more than in 2009), 35% of which were accepted for publication. We asked 186 reviewers for their expert opinion, 75% of whom sent their reports in less than two weeks. The mean time needed to reach an editorial decision concerning original manuscripts ("accepted / rejected") was 44.5 days and for papers not sent to external reviewers 19.5 days. Collaboration with the work groups produced good results (2.4 published manuscripts per issue), but this could be improved if all the groups collaborated in all the journal sections. Our objectives for 2011 are to complete the renewal of the Rev Clin Esp scientific committee, in accordance with the SEMI Council, and to continue to proceed with the actions initiated to increase the journal impact factor. Rev Clim Esp is an open forum for all internal medicine specialists. Responsibility falls on all of us to collaborate in order to make our journal a little better day by day.

  2. 2012 Editors' Citations for Excellence in Refereeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-09-01

    One of the most important services performed for AGU is the conscientious reviewing of submitted papers. Because of the nature of the reviewing process, this service is also one of the least recognized. Every year editors are asked to select the outstanding reviewers from the previous year. The reviewers listed below have been cited by editors of AGU journals and Eos for excellence in refereeing. These individuals are to be commended for consistently providing constructive and thoughtful reviews.

  3. 2013 Editors' Citations for Excellence in Refereeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-06-01

    One of the most important services performed for AGU is the conscientious reviewing of submitted papers. Because of the nature of the reviewing process, this service is also one of the least recognized. Every year editors are asked to select the outstanding reviewers from the previous year. The reviewers listed below have been cited by editors of AGU journals and Eos for excellence in refereeing. These individuals are to be commended for consistently providing constructive and thoughtful reviews.

  4. Estimation of Leaf Area Index (LAI) Through the Acquisition of Ground Truth Data in Yosemite National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basson, G.; Hawk, A.; Lue, E.; Ottman, D.; Schiffman, B.; Ghosh, M.; Melton, F.; Schmidt, C.; Skiles, J.

    2007-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important indicator of ecosystem health. Remote sensing offers the only feasible method of estimating LAI at global and regional scales. Land managers can efficiently monitor changes in vegetation by using NASA data products such as the MODIS LAI 1km product. To increase confidence in use of the MODIS LAI product in Yosemite National Park, we investigated the accuracy of remotely sensed LAI data and created LAI maps using three optical in-situ instruments: the LAI-2000 instrument, digital hemispheric photography (DHP), and the Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies (TRAC) instrument. We compared our in-situ data with three spectral vegetation indices derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery: Reduced Simple Ratio (RSR), Simple Ratio (SR), and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to produce models which created LAI maps at 30m and 1km resolution. The strongest correlations occurred between DHP LAI values and RSR. Pixel values from the 1km LAI map were then compared to pixel values from a MODIS LAI map. A strong correlation exists between our in-situ data and MODIS LAI values which confirms its accuracy for use by the National Park Service as a decision support tool in Yosemite. The MODIS LAI product is particularly useful because of its high temporal resolution of 1-2 days and can be used to monitor current and future vegetation changes. The model created using the in-situ data can also be applied to Landsat data to provide thirty years of historical LAI values.

  5. DeviceEditor visual biological CAD canvas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Biological Computer Aided Design (bioCAD) assists the de novo design and selection of existing genetic components to achieve a desired biological activity, as part of an integrated design-build-test cycle. To meet the emerging needs of Synthetic Biology, bioCAD tools must address the increasing prevalence of combinatorial library design, design rule specification, and scar-less multi-part DNA assembly. Results We report the development and deployment of web-based bioCAD software, DeviceEditor, which provides a graphical design environment that mimics the intuitive visual whiteboard design process practiced in biological laboratories. The key innovations of DeviceEditor include visual combinatorial library design, direct integration with scar-less multi-part DNA assembly design automation, and a graphical user interface for the creation and modification of design specification rules. We demonstrate how biological designs are rendered on the DeviceEditor canvas, and we present effective visualizations of genetic component ordering and combinatorial variations within complex designs. Conclusions DeviceEditor liberates researchers from DNA base-pair manipulation, and enables users to create successful prototypes using standardized, functional, and visual abstractions. Open and documented software interfaces support further integration of DeviceEditor with other bioCAD tools and software platforms. DeviceEditor saves researcher time and institutional resources through correct-by-construction design, the automation of tedious tasks, design reuse, and the minimization of DNA assembly costs. PMID:22373390

  6. How are Editors Selected, Recruited and Approved?

    PubMed

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Al-Khatib, Aceil

    2016-11-28

    The editors of scholarly journals have a duty to uphold and promote the highest standards of ethical conduct of research. They also have a responsibility to maintain the integrity of the literature, and to promote transparency and honesty in reporting research findings. In the process of screening manuscripts they receive for possible publication, editors have the obligation to report infractions to the institutions of offending authors, and request an investigation. Since editors can reject a paper on ethical grounds, they can be considered to be the guardians of ethics who should express high ethical standards in conducting and publishing their own research. An examination of several publishers' websites reveals no such requirement or clear selection criteria for journal editors. Therefore, we aim to discuss the factors that publishers, in a broad sense, should consider when selecting editors for scholarly journals and believe that such criteria should be made public to ensure accountability. This would restore some of the eroding public trust in disseminated research, fortify confidence in the composition and qualification of members of an editorial board, and help to protect the reputations of publishers and editors.

  7. Space-time LAI variability in Northern Puglia (Italy) from SPOT VGT data.

    PubMed

    Balacco, Gabriella; Figorito, Benedetto; Tarantino, Eufemia; Gioia, Andrea; Iacobellis, Vito

    2015-07-01

    The vegetation space-time variability during 1999-2010 in the North of the Apulian region (Southern Italy) was analysed using SPOT VEGETATION (VGT) sensor data. Three bands of VEGETATION (RED, NIR and SWIR) were used to implement the vegetation index named reduced simple ratio (RSR) to derive leaf area index (LAI). The monthly average LAI is an indicator of biomass and canopy cover, while the difference between the annual maximum and minimum LAI is an indicator of annual leaf turnover. The space-time distribution of LAI at the catchment scale was analysed over the examined period to detect the consistency of vegetation dynamics in the study area. A diffuse increase of LAI was observed in the examined years that cannot be directly explained only in terms of increasing water availability. Thus, in order to explain such a general behaviour in terms of climatic factors, the analysis was performed upon stratification of land cover classes, focusing on the most widespread species: forest and wheat. An interesting ascending-descending behaviour was observed in the relationship between inter-annual increments of maximum LAI and rainfall, and in particular, a strong negative correlation was found when the rainfall amount in January and February exceeded a critical threshold of about 100 mm.

  8. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Board Members, Guest Editors of special editions and those referees who were already listed in the last years. The following people have been selected: Marina Becoulet, CEA Cadarache, France Russell Doerner, University of California - San Diego, USA Emiliano Fable, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Germany Akihide Fujisawa, Kyushi University, Japan Gerardo Giruzzi, CEA Cadarache, France Grigory Kagan, LANL, USA Morten Lennholm, CCFE, UK Akinobu Matsuyama, NIFS, Japan Peter Stangeby, University of Toronto, Canada Leonid Zakharov, PPPL, USA In addition, there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past year to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion. At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2011. Our thanks to them! Authors The winner of the 2011 Nuclear Fusion Award is H. Urano, for the paper 'Dimensionless parameter dependence of H-mode pedestal width using hydrogen and deuterium plasmas in JT-60U' (Nucl. Fusion 48 045008). The award was presented at the Plasma Conference 2011 (Joint meeting of 28th JSPF Annual Meeting, The 29th Symposium on Plasma Processing, and Division of Plasma Physics, 2011 Autumn Meeting of The Physical Society of Japan). This is the sixth year that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has awarded an annual prize to honour exceptional work published in Nuclear Fusion. IOP Publishing has generously made a contribution of $2500 to the award. The Nuclear Fusion Electronic Archive The journal's electronic archive has been online since the beginning of the year. The archive has been a roaring success and has contributed to the nearly 300 000 downloads of journal papers in 2011. The archive can be accessed via http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/page/Archive. It has direct links to 16 landmark papers, from authors such as Artsimovich and Mercier. The Nuclear Fusion office and IOP Publishing Just as the journal depends on the authors and referees, so its success is also

  9. [Report of the editors, 2013].

    PubMed

    García Puig, J; Gaspar Alonso-Vega, G; Ríos Blanco, J J

    2014-01-01

    The editors of Revista Clínica Española(Rev Clin Esp) inform on their editorial activity during the last 12 months: (a) objectives and attainments, (b) editorial activity, and (c) objectives for 2014. In 2013 the most relevant modification concerning the editorial activity has been the translation into English of the 5 manuscripts with abstract contained in each issue (http://www.revclinesp.es/). From the first January to the 30th September 2013 we received 458 manuscripts (50.9 manuscripts per month), a similar figure to that obtained in 2012 (51.1 manuscripts per month). The acceptance rate of the 443 manuscripts whose editorial process has been concluded was 23.7% (originals, 11.8%). We asked for 253 revisions to 186 reviewers and we received 74.4% revisions in less than 2 weeks (10.9 days). The mean time to adopt an editorial decision for all manuscripts («accepted»/«rejected») has been 20,3 (half than in 2009). For «originals» this figure has dropped from 56.6 days in 2009 to 22.5 days in 2013. The mean time elapsed from manuscript reception to its on-line publication was 94.8 days in 2013 (110.5 in 2012 and 155.8 in 2011). In 2013 the collaboration with the working groups from the Internal Medicine Spanish Foundation has reported 17 published manuscripts. In 2013 we were informed that the Journal Citation Reports excluded Rev Clin Esp from its impact factor journal list due to its elevated self-citations. We have taken a number of actions to reduce self-citations and we expect to be a minority in 2014. Some other data concerning the editorial policy are encouraging. In this sense, manuscript citation to Rev Clin Esp published articles has seen a substantial increase from 19% in 2008 to 29% in 2012. We work to achieve the digitalization of Rev Clin Esp from 1940 to 1999 (the journal is already digitalized since 2000). The continuous renewal of the journal sections and the working groups collaboration are necessary elements to make our journal, each day

  10. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor Letter from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Dear authors and reviewers of articles for Measurement Science and Technology, I would like to thank all those who have published papers with us in 2010, and special thanks go to those of you who have kindly reviewed articles for the journal. I would also like to take this opportunity to update you on some of the developments on the journal and look ahead to 2011. As many of you are no doubt aware, our impact factor (a measure of the average number of times recent papers are referred to by others) is currently 1.317. This is often taken as an indication of the quality and relevance of recently published research, and although as readers we develop our own instinct for journals of high quality, it is gratifying as an Editor to see the data from an independent organization (Thomson ISI) agreeing with my own assessment. Measurement Science and Technology is a journal with a broad scope covering new measurement techniques in all fields of science and engineering. I therefore find it particularly enjoyable to read summaries of recent research in our strong topical review programme as these cover many varied topics of interest. In 2010 several interesting articles by international leaders in their field were published, for example: Single-photon generation and detection, by G S Buller and R J Collins of Heriot-Watt University [1]. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy in life sciences, by Jan Willem Borst and Antonie J W G Visser, from the Microspectroscopy Centre of Wageningen University [2]. Biological and chemical sensors for cancer diagnosis, by Elfriede Simon of Siemens AG [3]. I hope that these articles, and the others published in 2010 and now in 2011, will provide a useful overview for our readers, and be helpful to new researchers. When speaking to young researchers I am particularly aware that having their articles published in a timely fashion is important, and I am pleased that our publication times are highly competitive, with most authors receiving a

  11. Comparison of the New LEAF Area INDEX (LAI 3G) with the Kazahstan-Wide LEAF Area INDEX DATA SET (GGRS-LAI) over Central ASIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappas, M.; Propastin, P.; Degener, J.; Renchin, T.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term global data sets of Leaf Area Index (LAI) are important for monitoring global vegetation dynamics. LAI indicating phenological development of vegetation is an important state variable for modeling land surface processes. The comparison of long-term data sets is based on two recently available data sets both derived from AVHRR time series. The LAI 3g data set introduced by Zaichun Zhu et al. (2013) is developed from the new improved third generation Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI3g) and best-quality MODIS LAI data. The second long-term data set is based on the 8 km spatial resolution GIMMS-AVHRR data (GGRS-data set by Propastin et al. 2012). The GGRS-LAI product uses a three-dimensional physical radiative transfer model which establishes relationship between LAI, vegetation fractional cover and given patterns of surface reflectance, view-illumination conditions and optical properties of vegetation. The model incorporates a number of site/region specific parameters, including the vegetation architecture variables such as leaf angle distribution, clumping index, and light extinction coefficient. For the application of the model to Kazakhstan, the vegetation architecture variables were computed at the local (pixel) level based on extensive field surveys of the biophysical properties of vegetation in representative grassland areas of Kazakhstan. The comparison of both long-term data sets will be used to interpret their quality for scientific research in other disciplines. References:Propastin, P., Kappas, M. (2012). Retrieval of coarse-resolution leaf area index over the Republic of Kazakhstan using NOAA AVHRR satellite data and ground measurements," Remote Sensing, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 220-246. Zaichun Zhu, Jian Bi, Yaozhong Pan, Sangram Ganguly, Alessandro Anav, Liang Xu, Arindam Samanta, Shilong Piao, Ramakrishna R. Nemani and Ranga B. Myneni (2013). Global Data Sets of Vegetation Leaf Area

  12. Linoleic acid isomerase gene FgLAI12 affects sensitivity to salicylic acid, mycelial growth and virulence of Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Zhou; Wei, Zhen-Zhen; Liu, Cai-Hong; Chen, Qing; Xu, Bin-Jie; Guo, Zhen-Ru; Cao, Yong-Li; Wang, Yan; Han, Ya-Nan; Chen, Chen; Feng, Xiang; Qiao, Yuan-Yuan; Zong, Lu-Juan; Zheng, Ting; Deng, Mei; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Li, Wei; Zheng, You-Liang; Wei, Yu-Ming; Qi, Peng-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is the major causal agent of fusarium head blight in wheat, a serious disease worldwide. Linoleic acid isomerase (LAI) catalyses the transformation of linoleic acid (LA) to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which is beneficial for human health. We characterised a cis-12 LAI gene of F. graminearum (FGSG_02668; FgLAI12), which was downregulated by salicylic acid (SA), a plant defence hormone. Disruption of FgLAI12 in F. graminearum resulted in decreased accumulation of cis-9,trans-11 CLA, enhanced sensitivity to SA, and increased accumulation of LA and SA in wheat spikes during infection. In addition, mycelial growth, accumulation of deoxynivalenol, and pathogenicity in wheat spikes were reduced. Re-introduction of a functional FgLAI12 gene into ΔFgLAI12 recovered the wild-type phenotype. Fluorescent microscopic analysis showed that FgLAI12 protein was usually expressed in the septa zone of conidia and the vacuole of hyphae, but was expressed in the cell membrane of hyphae in response to exogenous LA, which may be an element of LA metabolism during infection by F. graminearum. The cis-12 LAI enzyme encoded by FgLAI12 is critical for fungal response to SA, mycelial growth and virulence in wheat. The gene FgLAI12 is potentially valuable for biotechnological synthesis of cis-9,trans-11 CLA. PMID:28387243

  13. Digital cover photography for estimating leaf area index (LAI) in apple trees using a variable light extinction coefficient.

    PubMed

    Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Ortega-Farias, Samuel; Gonzalez-Talice, Jaime; Yuri, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-28

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the key biophysical variables required for crop modeling. Direct LAI measurements are time consuming and difficult to obtain for experimental and commercial fruit orchards. Devices used to estimate LAI have shown considerable errors when compared to ground-truth or destructive measurements, requiring tedious site-specific calibrations. The objective of this study was to test the performance of a modified digital cover photography method to estimate LAI in apple trees using conventional digital photography and instantaneous measurements of incident radiation (Io) and transmitted radiation (I) through the canopy. Leaf area of 40 single apple trees were measured destructively to obtain real leaf area index (LAI(D)), which was compared with LAI estimated by the proposed digital photography method (LAI(M)). Results showed that the LAI(M) was able to estimate LAI(D) with an error of 25% using a constant light extinction coefficient (k = 0.68). However, when k was estimated using an exponential function based on the fraction of foliage cover (f(f)) derived from images, the error was reduced to 18%. Furthermore, when measurements of light intercepted by the canopy (Ic) were used as a proxy value for k, the method presented an error of only 9%. These results have shown that by using a proxy k value, estimated by Ic, helped to increase accuracy of LAI estimates using digital cover images for apple trees with different canopy sizes and under field conditions.

  14. [The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors].

    PubMed

    Reyes, H

    2001-01-01

    On September 29th, 2000, The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors was founded, sponsored by the "Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)" (the Governmental Agency promoting and funding scientific research and technological development in Chile) and the "Sociedad Médica de Santiago" (Chilean Society of Internal Medicine). The Association adopted the goals of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) and therefore it will foster "cooperation and communication among Editors of Chilean biomedical journals; to improve editorial standards, to promote professionalism in medical editing through education, self-criticism and self-regulation; and to encourage research on the principles and practice of medical editing". Twenty nine journals covering a closely similar number of different biomedical sciences, medical specialties, veterinary, dentistry and nursing, became Founding Members of the Association. A Governing Board was elected: President: Humberto Reyes, M.D. (Editor, Revista Médica de Chile); Vice-President: Mariano del Sol, M.D. (Editor, Revista Chilena de Anatomía); Secretary: Anna María Prat (CONICYT); Councilors: Manuel Krauskopff, Ph.D. (Editor, Biological Research) and Maritza Rahal, M.D. (Editor, Revista de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello). The Association will organize a Symposium on Biomedical Journal Editing and will spread information stimulating Chilean biomedical journals to become indexed in international databases and in SciELO-Chile, the main Chilean scientific website (www.scielo.cl).

  15. Retrieval of Vertical LAI Profiles Over Tropical Rain Forests using Waveform Lidar at La Selva, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Hao; Dubayah, Ralph; Swatantra, Anu; Hofton, Michelle; Sheldon, Sage; Clark, David B.; Blair, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the potential of waveform lidar in mapping the vertical and spatial distributions of leaf area index (LAI) over the tropical rain forest of La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. Vertical profiles of LAI were derived at 0.3 m height intervals from the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) data using the Geometric Optical and Radiative Transfer (GORT) model. Cumulative LAI profiles obtained from LVIS were validated with data from 55 ground to canopy vertical transects using a modular field tower to destructively sample all vegetation. Our results showed moderate agreement between lidar and field derived LAI (r2=0.42, RMSE=1.91, bias=-0.32), which further improved when differences between lidar and tower footprint scales (r2=0.50, RMSE=1.79, bias=0.27) and distance of field tower from lidar footprint center (r2=0.63, RMSE=1.36, bias=0.0) were accounted for. Next, we mapped the spatial distribution of total LAI across the landscape and analyzed LAI variations over different land cover types. Mean values of total LAI were 1.74, 5.20, 5.41 and 5.62 over open pasture, secondary forests, regeneration forests after selective-logging and old-growth forests respectively. Lastly, we evaluated the sensitivities of our LAI retrieval model to variations in canopy/ground reflectance ratio and to waveform noise such as induced by topographic slopes. We found for both, that the effects were not significant for moderate LAI values (about 4). However model derivations of LAI might be inaccurate in areas of high-slope and high LAI (about 8) if ground return energies are low. This research suggests that large footprint waveform lidar can provide accurate vertical LAI profile estimates that do not saturate even at the high LAI levels in tropical rain forests and may be a useful tool for understanding the light transmittance within these canopies.

  16. A standard syntax-directed editor for hyperprogramming systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhogolev, E.A.; Kuz`menkova, E.A.; Mailingova, O.L.; Poprygaev, E.V.

    1995-05-01

    The main operations of a syntax-directed editor are considered. The requirements to the standard syntax-directed editor are stated. The structure of the standard syntax-directed editor and the functions of its components are discussed. The language base properties needed for syntax-directed editor development are described. Methods for transforming the standard syntax-directed editor into a specialized one are carried out.

  17. AGU Publications Volunteers Feted At Elegant Editors' Evening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panning, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 Fall Meeting Editors' Evening, held at the City Club of San Francisco, was hosted by the Publications Committee and is the premier social event for editors and associate editors attending the Fall Meeting. The evening commenced with a welcome from Carol Finn, incoming AGU president, in which she expressed her thanks to the editors and associate editors for volunteering their time to benefit AGU.

  18. Bis(trifluoromethyl)phosphinous acid (CF3)2P-O-H: an example of a thermally stable phosphinous acid--synthesis, gas-phase structure, and rotational isomers.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Berthold; Garcia, Placido; Willner, Helge; Oberhammer, Heinz

    2006-04-24

    The bis(trifluoromethyl)phosphinous acid, (CF3)2P-O-H, is the only known example of a thermally stable phosphinous acid. Although this compound has been known since 1960, little is known about the chemistry of this extraordinary compound; this might be due to the tedious, and in some part risky, synthesis that was originally published. An improved, simple, and safe synthesis that is based on the treatment of the easily accessible (CF3)2PNEt2, with at least three equivalents of p-toluene sulfonic acid, is presented. The reaction results in a complete conversion to the phosphinous acid, which is isolated in almost 90 % yield. The compound exists in an equilibrium of two P--OH rotational isomers, a fact which is supported by quantum chemical calculations. The relative enthalpy difference of 6.4 kJ mol(-1), calculated at the B3PW91/6-311G(3d,p) level, is in excellent agreement with the experimental value of 5.9 kJ mol(-1), which was determined from the temperature dependence of the nu(OH) bands of the two rotational isomers. The complete experimental vibrational spectra of both rotamers, their predicted vibrational spectra obtained by using quantum chemical calculations, and an attempt at photoinduced isomerization of matrix-isolated (CF3)2POH is presented. The experimental structure, obtained from an electron-diffraction study in the gas phase, is reproduced very well by ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) methods.

  19. [A Novel Method of Soil Moisture Content Monitoring by Land Surface Temperature and LAI].

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhong-ling; Zheng, Xiao-po; Sun, Yue-jun; Wang, Jian-hua

    2015-11-01

    Land surface temperature (Ts) is influenced by soil background and vegetation growing conditions, and the combination of Ts and vegetation indices (Vis) can indicate the status of surface soil moisture content (SMC). In this study, Advanced Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (ATVDI) used for monitoring SMC was proposed on the basis of the simulation results with agricultural climate model CUPID. Previous studies have concluded that Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) easily reaches the saturation point, andLeaf Area Index (LAI) was then used instead of NDVI to estimate soil moisture content in the paper. With LAI-Ts scatter diagram established by the simulation results of CUPID model; how Ts varied with LAI and SMC was found. In the case of the identical soil background, the logarithmic relations between Ts and LAI were more accurate than the linear relations included in Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI), based on which ATVDI was then developed. LAI-Ts scatter diagram with satellite imagery were necessary for determining the expression of the upper and lower logarithmic curves while ATVDI was used for monitoring SMC. Ts derived from satellite imagery were then transformed to the Ts-value which has the same SMC and the minimum LAI in study area with look-up table. The measured SMC from the field sites in Weihe Plain, Shanxi Province, China, and the products of LAI and Ts (MOD15A2 and MOD11A2, respectively) produced by the image derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) were collected to validate the new method proposed in this study. The validation results shown that ATVDI (R² = 0.62) was accurate enough to monitor SMC, and it achieved better result than TVDI. Moreover, ATVDI-derived result were Ts values with some physical meanings, which made it comparative in different periods. Therefore, ATVDI is a promising method for monitoring SMC in different time-spatial scales in agricultural fields.

  20. [Change of LAI and spectral response for rice under flood and waterlogging stress].

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Gu, Xiao-He; Meng, Lu-Min; Qiu, He; Wang, Hui-Fang

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide the foundational theoretical support for flood loss estimation of rice with RS, the change of leaf area index (LAI) and canopy spectral response during four developmental stages and three waterlogging depths were studied, and the LAI estimation model was established with spectra characteristics parameter using regression analysis method. The results show that LAI value decreases as water depth increases in tillering, jointing and heading stages, and LAI value under complete submergence decreased by 36. 36% than CK in jointing stages. "Double-Peak" presented in the canopy first derivative spectra of 680-760 nm where the red edge parameters existed, and the main peak is located in the 724-737 nm with 701 and 718 nm exhibiting secondary peak. With water depth increasing, "Triple-Peak" emerges especially. The red edge position moves to long-wavelength direction in each developmental stage. Blue shift of red edge amplitude and red edge area was detected in tillering, jointing and filling stages, while red shift appeared in heading stage. The relationship between spectra characteristics parameters and LAI were investigated during 4 growth stages, results were not consistently significant at any wavelengths, and the leaf area indices were significantly correlative to the spectra parameters before heading stage, so the spectra parameters before heading stage can be used to estimate the leaf area indices, and a regression model based on parameter D(lambda737)/D(lambda718) was recommended. Therefore the variation range of LAI for rice could response to the stress intensity directly, and the regression model LAI= 3. 138(D(lambda737)/D(lambda718))-0. 806 can precisely estimate the leaf area index under flooding and waterlogging stress.

  1. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Marella de Angelis and her colleagues on precision gravimetry using atomic sensors and from Dr Peter Becker on determination of the Avogadro constant via enriched silicon-28. I recommend setting up a free e-mail alert so that you can read them as soon as they are published! As many of you are already aware, our impact factor (a measure of the average number of times recent papers are referred to by others) has risen again to 1.297. This is often taken as an indication of the quality and relevance of recently published research, and although as readers we develop our own instinct for journals of high quality, it is gratifying as an Editor to see the data from an independent organization (Thomson ISI) agreeing with my own assessment. Of course the publication of high quality articles in the journal is dependent both on you the authors who trust us with the publication of your best work and on our referees and Editorial Board Members who we depend on to maintain the high standards you have grown to expect. I must also thank our referees for their rapid response when asked to review papers for Measurement Science and Technology. On average, authors receive a decision on their article in 45 days. Therefore I would like to end this message by saying thank you again to all those who have contributed to our success in the past year, and wish you all the best for a successful 2009!

  2. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Dear authors and reviewers of articles for Measurement Science and Technology, I would like to thank all those who have published papers with us in 2007, and special thanks go to those of you who have kindly reviewed articles for the journal this year. I would also like to take this opportunity to update you on some of the developments on the journal. As many of you are no doubt aware, our latest impact factor (a measure of the average number of times recent papers are referred to by others) has risen to 1.228. This is often taken as an indication of the quality and relevance of recently published research, and although as readers we develop our own instinct for journals of high quality, it is gratifying as an Editor to see the data from an independent organization agreeing with my own assessment. The popularity of the journal amongst authors and readers has prompted us to introduce a new subject classification for articles, to make it easier for readers to find articles of interest. The eight subject categories are: Measurement theory and practical developments (e.g. precision measurements, metrology, new measurement principles, signal processing techniques, theory of measurement, calibration); Sensors and sensing systems (based on physical, chemical or biological principles; micro- and nano-scale systems; sensors for physical, chemical and biological quantities); Optical and laser based techniques (e.g. fibre optics, interferometry, etc); Fluid mechanics measurements (e.g. fluid flow, velocimetry, particle sizing, etc); Imaging techniques (e.g. tomography, microscopy, holography, THz, etc); Spectroscopy (e.g. optical, acoustic, dielectric, MS, NMR, ESR, IR, UV-VIS, fluorescence, PCS, x-ray, etc); New and improved techniques for materials evaluation (e.g. non-destructive testing and evaluation, structural measurements); Novel instrumentation. We kindly ask you to assign your paper to a category when you send it to the journal. In order to maintain our rapid

  3. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2008-01-01

    To begin, I would like to wish our readers, authors, referees and Board of Editors a successful and happy 2008 and thank them for their contributions to Nuclear Fusion in 2007. I took over the editorship of Nuclear Fusion in January, and the year has been one in which the community as a whole has been busier than ever with a variety of duties associated with the ITER project. It was with pride that we published the Progress in the ITER Physics Basis in the June issue of the journal (stacks.iop.org/NF/47/i=6). The task undertaken by the coordinators, authors and referees was a daunting one but one which led to an outstandingly successful issue. The response from readers has been phenomenal and there were in the region of 10 000 downloads of papers in the first month following publication. Looking to 2008 and beyond, the journal will endeavour to continue to support the work of the fusion community. Refereeing As we have done since January 2005, we would like to thank our top ten most loyal referees who have helped the journal with its double-referee peer-review procedure in the past year. At the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Office we are fully aware of the load we put on the shoulders of our referees. At the end of 2004 the Editorial Board decided that a gesture of gratitude should be made to our most loyal referees. We offer them a personal subscription to Nuclear Fusion with electronic access for one year, free of charge. To select the top referees we have adopted the criterion that a researcher should have acted as a referee or adjudicator for at least three different manuscripts during the period from summer 2006 to the end of 2007. We have excluded our Board members and those referees who were already listed in the top ten in the last two years. According to our records the following people met this criterion. Congratulations and many, many thanks! H.L. Berk (Texas University, USA) J.S. DeGrassie (GAT, USA) C. Deutsch (Paris University, France) N. Hayashi (JAEA

  4. Retrieving Leaf Area Index (LAI) Using Remote Sensing: Theories, Methods and Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guang; Moskal, L. Monika

    2009-01-01

    The ability to accurately and rapidly acquire leaf area index (LAI) is an indispensable component of process-based ecological research facilitating the understanding of gas-vegetation exchange phenomenon at an array of spatial scales from the leaf to the landscape. However, LAI is difficult to directly acquire for large spatial extents due to its time consuming and work intensive nature. Such efforts have been significantly improved by the emergence of optical and active remote sensing techniques. This paper reviews the definitions and theories of LAI measurement with respect to direct and indirect methods. Then, the methodologies for LAI retrieval with regard to the characteristics of a range of remotely sensed datasets are discussed. Remote sensing indirect methods are subdivided into two categories of passive and active remote sensing, which are further categorized as terrestrial, aerial and satellite-born platforms. Due to a wide variety in spatial resolution of remotely sensed data and the requirements of ecological modeling, the scaling issue of LAI is discussed and special consideration is given to extrapolation of measurement to landscape and regional levels. PMID:22574042

  5. Retrieving Leaf Area Index (LAI) Using Remote Sensing: Theories, Methods and Sensors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guang; Moskal, L Monika

    2009-01-01

    The ability to accurately and rapidly acquire leaf area index (LAI) is an indispensable component of process-based ecological research facilitating the understanding of gas-vegetation exchange phenomenon at an array of spatial scales from the leaf to the landscape. However, LAI is difficult to directly acquire for large spatial extents due to its time consuming and work intensive nature. Such efforts have been significantly improved by the emergence of optical and active remote sensing techniques. This paper reviews the definitions and theories of LAI measurement with respect to direct and indirect methods. Then, the methodologies for LAI retrieval with regard to the characteristics of a range of remotely sensed datasets are discussed. Remote sensing indirect methods are subdivided into two categories of passive and active remote sensing, which are further categorized as terrestrial, aerial and satellite-born platforms. Due to a wide variety in spatial resolution of remotely sensed data and the requirements of ecological modeling, the scaling issue of LAI is discussed and special consideration is given to extrapolation of measurement to landscape and regional levels.

  6. Analysis and validation of MODIS and ASTER LAI products inverted by PROSAIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shumin; Li, Hong; Zhou, Liandi; Sun, Danfeng

    2009-06-01

    PROSAIL model is a coupler of PROSPECT leaf optical properties and SAIL canopy reflectance models. Its usage in leaf area index inversion could help avoid the shortages of the experience model. To identify the feasibility of leaf area index (LAI) inversion and the stability of PROSAIL model used in different scales and types of remote sensing data, this paper retrieves LAI of winter wheat in Beijing based on MODIS and ASTER by using the method of PROSAIL model inversion. Firstly, to determine the input parameters of the PROSAIL model, the sensitivity of the five parameters was analyzed. These parameters include chlorophyll a+b concentration, water depth, leaf mesophyll structure parameter, leaf area index, and mean leaf inclination angle. Secondly, the model reproduced the spectral reflectance of the winter wheat, using the determined parameters. Then, inversion was performed to retrieve leaf area index from MODIS and ASTER, and the simulated LAI was validated with field measurements. Because of the distinct scale difference between MODIS and field measurements, ASTER was used to upscale the field measurements by aggregating area-weighted of higher-resolution LAI to acquire LAI of corresponding lower-resolution. The results indicated that there was a high correlation between leaf area index inverted by PROSAIL and actual measurements with a reasonable spatial distribution. Furthermore, it is reliable to use PROSAIL model in remote sensing data with different scales.

  7. Model simulation for sensitivity of hyperspectral indices to LAI, leaf chlorophyll, and internal structure parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jinguo; Niu, Zheng; Fu, Wenxue

    2007-06-01

    The sensitivity of hyperspectral indices to LAI, chlorophyll contents and leaf internal structure at canopy level are investigated using simulated canopy reflectance dataset, this method can avoid expensive and impractical surface reflectance measurement, providing a theoretical basis for satellite-borne remote sensing. The model employed is PROSAIL that couples leaf reflectance model PROSPECT and canopy radiative transfer model SAIL. Hyperspectral indices used are NDVI, EVI, GI, RI, TVI, SIPI, PRI, TCARI, OSAVI, TCARI/ OSAVI, mNDVI705 and NDWI. Using PROSAIL model, leaf and canopy reflectance under different chlorophyll contents, leaf internal structures, LAI and water contents are first simulated and compared. Then using PROSAIL simulated canopy reflectance data, different hyperspectral indices are calculated, the sensitivity of vegetation indices to LAI and chlorophyll contents is analyzed in detail. And the sensitivity of vegetation indices to leaf internal structure is also analyzed. Results show that relationships between hyperspectral indices and LAI are approximately logarithmic while the relationship between hyperspectral indices and leaf internal structure is linear. EVI and TVI are good indicators to estimate LAI. GI, RI, TCARI, MNDVI 705 can be used to estimate chlorophyll content. N has great influence on hyperspectral indices.

  8. An Intercomparison of Passive Terrestrial Remote Sensing Technologies to Derive Lai and Canopy Cover Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodgate, W. L.

    2012-07-01

    Forest indicators such as Leaf Area Index (LAI) and vegetation cover type are recognised as Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) which support the '…research, modelling, analysis, and capacity-building activities…' requirements of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This research compares the use of passive terrestrial remote sensing technologies for LAI and canopy cover metrics. The passive sensors used are the LAI-2200 and Digital Hemispherical Photography (DHP). The research was conducted at a Victorian reference site containing tree species with predominantly erectophile leaf angle distributions, which are significantly under-represented in the literature. The reference site contributes to a network of sites representative of Victorian land systems and is considered to be in good condition. Preliminary results indicate a low correlation (R2=0.46) between the LAI-2200 and DHP. Further comparisons to be conducted include adding a passive CI-110 plant canopy analyser and an active Terrestrial Laser Scanner. The future objective is to scale the in situ data to aerial and satellite remotely sensed datasets. The aerial remotely sensed data include LiDAR flown by a Riegl LMS Q560, and high resolution multispectral and hyperspectral imagery flown by the ASIA Eagle and Hawk system. The in situ data can be utilised for both calibration and validation of the coincident aerial imagery and LiDAR. Finally, the derived datasets are intended for use to validate the global MODIS LAI product.

  9. Estimation of vegetation LAI from hyperspectral reflectance data: Effects of soil type and plant architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Skidmore, Andrew; Atzberger, Clement; van Wieren, Sip

    2008-09-01

    The retrieval of canopy biophysical variables is known to be affected by confounding factors such as plant type and background reflectance. The effects of soil type and plant architecture on the retrieval of vegetation leaf area index (LAI) from hyperspectral data were assessed in this study. In situ measurements of LAI were related to reflectances in the red and near-infrared and also to five widely used spectral vegetation indices (VIs). The study confirmed that the spectral contrast between leaves and soil background determines the strength of the LAI-reflectance relationship. It was shown that within a given vegetation species, the optimum spectral regions for LAI estimation were similar across the investigated VIs, indicating that the various VIs are basically summarizing the same spectral information for a given vegetation species. Cross-validated results revealed that, narrow-band PVI was less influenced by soil background effects (0.15 ≤ RMSE cv ≤ 0.56). The results suggest that, when using remote sensing VIs for LAI estimation, not only is the choice of VI of importance but also prior knowledge of plant architecture and soil background. Hence, some kind of landscape stratification is required before using hyperspectral imagery for large-scale mapping of vegetation biophysical variables.

  10. A Command Editor Tool for NEXTSTEP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    appears and presents the hierarchy of CEMenuCells A Command Editor Tool for NEXTSTEP 2 of 27 m arble Final Report for Contract # DAAHO1-93-C-R013 in the...icon, "Default" status, state list, textual description, tool sta- A Command Editor Tool for NEXTSTEP 3 of 27 m arble Final Report for Contract... arble Final Report for Contract # DAAH01-93-C-R013 FIGURE 7 Configuration of a TAV 3.0.. Acietr O ev 3.1 luBman d aetn Cmoe a ConQ summw t. Paletta e

  11. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, Peter

    2006-12-01

    Dear authors and reviewers of articles for Measurement Science and Technology, I would like to thank all those who have published papers with us in 2006, and special thanks go to those of you who have kindly reviewed articles for the journal this year. I would also like to take this opportunity to update you on some of the developments on the journal this year. As many of you are no doubt aware our impact factor (a measure of the average number of times recent papers are referred to by others) has remained above 1 for the second year in a row. This is often taken as an indication of the quality and relevance of recently published research, and although as readers we develop our own instinct for journals of high quality, it is gratifying as an Editor to see the data from an independent organization agreeing with my own assessment. This year we have welcomed several new faces to our Editorial Board and International Advisory Board. We are delighted to welcome Professor Hirofumi Yamada of the University of Kyoto as a representative from Japan. From China we have been joined by Professor Xuzong Chen of Peking University and Professor Zhiyi Wei of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing. Professor Ivan Marusic from University of Minnesota and Dr Paul Williams of the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder have joined as North American representatives. As usual you will be able to submit your articles through them or direct to the Editorial Office in Bristol, UK. As part of our ongoing initiative to give our authors' work the highest visibility, all articles are freely available online for 30 days from the date of publication, allowing all researchers to read and view the latest research as soon as it is published, and this year there have been many interesting articles to read! As regular readers are aware, Measurement Science and Technology publishes special issues and features, which highlight an area of current interest. This year's topics included

  12. [Estimation of rice LAI by using NDVI at different spectral bandwidths].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu-min; Huang, Jing-feng; Tang, Yan-lin; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2007-11-01

    The canopy hyperspectral reflectance data of rice at its different development stages were collected from field measurement, and the corresponding NDVIs as well as the correlation coefficients of NDVIs and LAI were computed at extending bandwidth of TM red and near-infrared (NIR) spectra. According to the variation characteristics of best fitted R2 with spectral bandwidth, the optimal bandwidth was determined. The results showed that the correlation coefficients of LAI and ND-VI and the maximum R2 of the best fitted functions at different spectral bandwidths had the same variation trend, i.e., decreased with increasing bandwidth when the bandwidth was less than 60 nm. However, when the bandwidth was beyond 60 nm, the maximum R2 somewhat fluctuated due to the effect of NIR. The analysis of R2 variation with bandwidth indicated that 15 nm was the optimal bandwidth for the estimation of rice LAI by using NDVI.

  13. [Monitoring of farmland drought based on LST-LAI spectral feature space].

    PubMed

    Sui, Xin-Xin; Qin, Qi-Ming; Dong, Heng; Wang, Jin-Liang; Meng, Qing-Ye; Liu, Ming-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Farmland drought has the characteristics of wide range and seriously affecting on agricultural production, so real-time dynamic monitored has been a challenging problem. By using MODIS land products, and constructing the spectral space of LST and LAI, the temperature LAI drought index (TLDI) was put forward and validated using ground-measured 0-10 cm averaged soil moisture of Ningxia farmland. The results show that the coefficient of determination (R2) of both them varies from 0.43 to 0.86. Compared to TVDI, the TLDI has higher accuracy for farmland moisture monitoring, and solves the saturation of NDVI during the late development phases of the crop. Furthermore, directly using MODIS land products LST and LAI and avoiding the complicated process of using the original MODIS data provide a new technical process to the regular operation of farmland drought monitoring.

  14. Analyzing C-band SAR polarimetric information for LAI and crop yield estimations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molijn, Ramses A.; Iannini, Lorenzo; Mousivand, Ali; Hanssen, Ramon F.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, space remote sensing data and crop specific information from the ESA-led AgriSAR 2009 campaign are used for studying the profiles of C-band SAR backscatter signals and multispectral-based leaf area index (LAI) over the growth period of canola, pea and wheat. In addition, the correlations between radar backscatter parameters and the crop yields were analyzed, based on extracted statistics of temporal profiles. The results show that the HV backscatter and LAI are correlated differently before and after LAI peak. In addition, the coefficient of determination between peakrelated statistics from polarimetric indicator profiles and yield for pea fields can reach up to 0.68, and for canola and wheat up to 0.47 and 0.5, respectively. HV backscatter and coherence between HH and VV are most.

  15. A landscape view of biomass, LAI, and photosynthetic capacity for FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, T. G. F.; Knapp, A. K.; Seastedt, T.; Schimel, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Canopy properties in the tallgrass prairie are examined in terms of spatial and temporal variability to determine how the variability constrains the ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of H2O, CO2, and momentum. Canopy structure and photosynthetic capacity are examined by measuring soil properties, canopy biomass, and canopy nitrogen along continuous strips. Special attention is given to sites of maximum and minimum biomass where parameters such as leaf-area index (LAI), photosynthetic rate, chemistry, and structures for both burned and unburned areas. The LAI/biomass data and the canopy attributes show that soil properties are shaped by soil-forming and geomorphic processes. The variables that cause the greatest variation in LAI, canopy stratification, and photosynthetic capacity are found to be management (burning and/or grazing) and landscape position.

  16. LAI versus oral: A case-control study on subjective experience of antipsychotic maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Pietrini, F; Spadafora, M; Tatini, L; Talamba, G A; Andrisano, C; Boncompagni, G; Manetti, M; Ricca, V; Ballerini, A

    2016-09-01

    To present real-world evidence on the differences between long-acting injectable (LAI) and oral antipsychotic maintenance treatment (AMT) in terms of subjective well-being, attitudes towards drug and quality of life in a sample of remitted schizophrenic subjects. Twenty outpatients with remitted schizophrenia treated with either olanzapine or paliperidone and switching from the oral to the LAI formulation of their maintenance treatment were recruited before the switch (LAI-AMT group). A group of 20 remitted schizophrenic subjects with oral AMT and matching main sociodemographic, clinical and treatment variables made up the control group (oral-AMT group). All participants were assessed in terms of objective (PANSS, YMRS, MADRS) and subjective (SWN-K, DAI-10, SF-36) treatment outcomes at baseline (T0) and after 6 months (T1). Between T0 and T1, general psychopathology of the PANSS, DAI-10, and all but one of the SWN-K dimensions (except for social integration), showed significantly higher percentages of improvement in the LAI-AMT group compared to the oral-AMT group. A generalized expansion of health-related quality of life, with better functioning in almost all areas of daily living, was reported by the LAI-AMT group after the 6-month period. In contrast, the oral-AMT group reported a significant worsening of health-related quality of life in the areas of emotional role and social functioning in the same period. Our study indicates possible advantages of LAI over oral antipsychotic formulation in terms of subjective experience of maintenance treatment in remitted schizophrenic patients. Size and duration of this study need to be expanded in order to produce more solid and generalizable results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Remote-Sensing Biophysical Models for Estimating Lai of Irrigated Crops in Murry Darling Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittamperuma, I.; Hafeez, M.; Pakparvar, M.; Louis, J.

    2012-07-01

    Remote sensing is a rapid and reliable method for estimating crop growth data from individual plant to crops in irrigated agriculture ecosystem. The LAI is one of the important biophysical parameter for determining vegetation health, biomass, photosynthesis and evapotranspiration (ET) for the modelling of crop yield and water productivity. Ground measurement of this parameter is tedious and time-consuming due to heterogeneity across the landscape over time and space. This study deals with the development of remote-sensing based empirical relationships for the estimation of ground-based LAI (LAIG) using NDVI, modelled with and without atmospheric correction models for three irrigated crops (corn, wheat and rice) grown in irrigated farms within Coleambally Irrigation Area (CIA) which is located in southern Murray Darling basin, NSW in Australia. Extensive ground truthing campaigns were carried out to measure crop growth and to collect field samples of LAI using LAI- 2000 Plant Canopy Analyser and reflectance using CROPSCAN Multi Spectral Radiometer at several farms within the CIA. A Set of 12 cloud free Landsat 5 TM satellite images for the period of 2010-11 were downloaded and regression analysis was carried out to analyse the co-relationships between satellite and ground measured reflectance and to check the reliability of data sets for the crops. Among all the developed regression relationships between LAI and NDVI, the atmospheric correction process has significantly improved the relationship between LAI and NDVI for Landsat 5 TM images. The regression analysis also shows strong correlations for corn and wheat but weak correlations for rice which is currently being investigated.

  18. Characterizing leaf area index (LAI) and vertical foliage profile (VFP) over the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, H.; Ganguly, S.; Zhang, G.; Hofton, M. A.; Nelson, R. F.; Dubayah, R.

    2016-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) and vertical foliage profile (VFP) are among the important canopy structural variables. Recent advances in lidar remote sensing technology have demonstrated the capability of accurately mapping LAI and VFP over large areas. The primary objective of this study was to derive and validate a LAI and VFP product over the contiguous United States (CONUS) using spaceborne waveform lidar data. This product was derived at the footprint level from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) using a biophysical model. We validated GLAS-derived LAI and VFP across major forest biomes using airborne waveform lidar. The comparison results showed that GLAS retrievals of total LAI were generally accurate with little bias (r2 = 0.67, bias = -0.13, RMSE = 0.75). The derivations of GLAS retrievals of VFP within layers were not as accurate overall (r2 = 0.36, bias = -0.04, RMSE = 0.26), and these varied as a function of height, increasing from understory to overstory - 0 to 5 m layer: r2 = 0.04, bias = 0.09, RMSE = 0.31; 10 to 15 m layer: r2 = 0.53, bias = -0.08, RMSE = 0.22; and 15 to 20 m layer: r2 = 0.66, bias = -0.05, RMSE = 0.20. Significant relationships were also found between GLAS LAI products and different environmental factors, in particular elevation and annual precipitation. In summary, our results provide a unique insight into vertical canopy structure distribution across North American ecosystems. This data set is a first step towards a baseline of canopy structure needed for evaluating climate and land use induced forest changes at the continental scale in the future, and should help deepen our understanding of the role of vertical canopy structure in terrestrial ecosystem processes across varying scales.

  19. Open Simulation Laboratories [Guest editors' introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Francis J.; Meneveau, Charles

    2015-09-01

    The introduction for the special issue on open simulation laboratories, the guest editors describe how OSLs will become more common as their potential is better understood and they begin providing access to valuable datasets to much larger segments of the scientific community. Moreover, new analysis tools and ways to do science will inevitably develop as a result.

  20. Open Simulation Laboratories [Guest editors' introduction

    DOE PAGES

    Alexander, Francis J.; Meneveau, Charles

    2015-09-01

    The introduction for the special issue on open simulation laboratories, the guest editors describe how OSLs will become more common as their potential is better understood and they begin providing access to valuable datasets to much larger segments of the scientific community. Moreover, new analysis tools and ways to do science will inevitably develop as a result.

  1. Are Editors Out of the Tenure Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    University presses have complained for years that tenure committees unfairly expect their editors to be arbiters of what counts as tenure-worthy work. At the same time, the presses have been caught in a business-side squeeze between dwindling sales (and shrinking subsidies) and the ever-greater pressure on scholars to publish. In this article, the…

  2. Editors, Teachers Disagree about Definition of Plagiarism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Jerry; Duncan, Tom

    1985-01-01

    Describes a study of plagiarism policies in journalism schools and newsrooms. Concludes that instructors felt educating students about plagiarism was one of the most important services journalism schools offer, but editors felt that plagiarism standards must be set in the real world of the newsroom. (HTH)

  3. A Visual Editor in Java for View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansifer, Ryan

    2000-01-01

    In this project we continued the development of a visual editor in the Java programming language to create screens on which to display real-time data. The data comes from the numerous systems monitoring the operation of the space shuttle while on the ground and in space, and from the many tests of subsystems. The data can be displayed on any computer platform running a Java-enabled World Wide Web (WWW) browser and connected to the Internet. Previously a special-purpose program bad been written to display data on emulations of character-based display screens used for many years at NASA. The goal now is to display bit-mapped screens created by a visual editor. We report here on the visual editor that creates the display screens. This project continues the work we bad done previously. Previously we had followed the design of the 'beanbox,' a prototype visual editor created by Sun Microsystems. We abandoned this approach and implemented a prototype using a more direct approach. In addition, our prototype is based on newly released Java 2 graphical user interface (GUI) libraries. The result has been a visually more appealing appearance and a more robust application.

  4. Are Editors Out of the Tenure Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    University presses have complained for years that tenure committees unfairly expect their editors to be arbiters of what counts as tenure-worthy work. At the same time, the presses have been caught in a business-side squeeze between dwindling sales (and shrinking subsidies) and the ever-greater pressure on scholars to publish. In this article, the…

  5. Research Writing and NNSs: From the Editors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosden, Hugh

    1992-01-01

    Varied linguistic and sociopragmatic skills required for effective international research reporting are discussed based on a survey of journal editors in North America and the United Kingdom. Emphasis is on language-related criteria that influence publication decisions, and suggestions are offered for teaching research writing. (17 references)…

  6. Validation of NDVI/LAI Empirical Model to Force a Pasture Growth Model: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandre, C.; Lajoie, G.; Tillard, E.; Salgado, P.

    2016-08-01

    Estimating forage biomass is nowadays essential for a good farm management. To answer to this problem we can use mathematic models that use meteorological, soil, grass data. However, in specifics territories as Reunion Island, they are not efficient. That is why we want to force this kind of model to improve the biomass prediction. The Leaf Area Index (LAI) is one parameter used in growth models. Estimate this parameter from satellite images could a solution to predict better the forage biomass. Preliminary results show a strong relation between LAI and NDVI (Normalized Vegetation Index).

  7. BOREAS RSS-7 Landsat TM LAI IMages of the SSA and NSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Chen, Jing; Cihlar, Josef

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Remote Sensing Science (BOREAS RSS-7) team used Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images processed at CCRS to produce images of Leaf Area Index (LAI) for the BOREAS study areas. Two images acquired on 06-Jun and 09-Aug-1991 were used for the SSA, and one image acquired on 09-Jun-1994 was used for the NSA. The LAI images are based on ground measurements and Landsat TM Reduced Simple Ratio (RSR) images. The data are stored in binary image-format files.

  8. Spatial and seasonal variations of leaf area index (LAI) in subtropical secondary forests related to floristic composition and stand characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenjuan; Xiang, Wenhua; Pan, Qiong; Zeng, Yelin; Ouyang, Shuai; Lei, Pifeng; Deng, Xiangwen; Fang, Xi; Peng, Changhui

    2016-07-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter related to carbon, water, and energy exchange between canopy and atmosphere and is widely applied in process models that simulate production and hydrological cycles in forest ecosystems. However, fine-scale spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors have yet to be fully understood in Chinese subtropical forests. We used hemispherical photography to measure LAI values in three subtropical forests (Pinus massoniana-Lithocarpus glaber coniferous and evergreen broadleaved mixed forests, Choerospondias axillaris deciduous broadleaved forests, and L. glaber-Cyclobalanopsis glauca evergreen broadleaved forests) from April 2014 to January 2015. Spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors were analysed using geostatistical methods and the generalised additive models (GAMs) respectively. Our results showed that LAI values differed greatly in the three forests and their seasonal variations were consistent with plant phenology. LAI values exhibited strong spatial autocorrelation for the three forests measured in January and for the L. glaber-C. glauca forest in April, July, and October. Obvious patch distribution pattern of LAI values occurred in three forests during the non-growing period and this pattern gradually dwindled in the growing season. Stem number, crown coverage, proportion of evergreen conifer species on basal area basis, proportion of deciduous species on basal area basis, and forest types affected the spatial variations in LAI values in January, while stem number and proportion of deciduous species on basal area basis affected the spatial variations in LAI values in July. Floristic composition, spatial heterogeneity, and seasonal variations should be considered for sampling strategy in indirect LAI measurement and application of LAI to simulate functional processes in subtropical forests.

  9. Investigating the relationship between NDVI and LAI in semi-arid grassland in Inner Mongolia using in- situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, L.; Gao, Y.; Brück, H.; Bernhofer, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a key variable functionally related to plant biomass production. Accurate estimation of LAI is important for monitoring vegetation dynamics, and LAI information is essentially required for the prediction of microclimate and various biophysical processes within and below canopy. The traditional, direct and destructive method of measuring LAI is time-consuming. Modern gap fraction technique can assess LAI fast and easily, however its application is problematic with vegetations of low stature. Alternatively, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) as a widely used spectral reflectance index has been shown to be a good estimator of LAI and is used to estimate LAI indirectly. In situ measurements of NDVI and LAI at three sites in semi-arid grassland in Inner Mongolia, China were carried out during the growing season in 2005 and 2006. Based on these sites, a general linear and a general exponential relationship (LAI = -0.0897 + 1.424 * NDVI, R = 0.79; LAI = 0.128 * exp(NDVI/0.311), R = 0.77) were developed, which can be used for various grazing intensity grasslands and also for higher vegetation cover area (e.g. wetland) in the region. These equations for estimating LAI are suitable for the natural range of vegetation in this area during the growing season under both normal and dry weather conditions. By simply applying NDVI measurements and these relationships, the vegetation status and grass yield in the area will be rapidly and nondestructively estimated, which is helpful for livestock management and sustainable land use.

  10. OPM Scheme Editor 2: A graphical editor for specifying object-protocol structures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, I-Min A.; Markowitz, V.M.; Pang, F.; Ben-Shachar, O.

    1993-07-01

    This document describes an X-window based Schema Editor for the Object-Protocol Model (OPM). OPM is a data model that supports the specification of complex object and protocol classes. objects and protocols are qualified in OPM by attributes that are defined over (associated with) value classes. Connections of object and protocol classes are expressed in OPM via attributes. OPM supports the specification (expansion) of protocols in terms of alternative and sequences of component (sub) protocols. The OPM Schema Editor allows specifying, displaying, modifying, and browsing through OPM schemas. The OPM Schema Editor generates an output file that can be used as input to an OPM schema translation tool that maps OPM schemas into definitions for relational database management systems. The OPM Schema Editor was implemented using C++ and the X11 based Motif toolkit, on Sun SPARCstation under Sun Unix OS 4.1. This document consists of the following parts: (1) A tutorial consisting of seven introductory lessons for the OPM Schema Editor. (2) A reference manual describing all the windows and functions of the OPM Schema Editor. (3) An appendix with an overview of OPM.

  11. [New vegetation index fusing visible-infrared and shortwave infrared spectral feature for winter wheat LAI retrieval].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-chuan; Bao, Yan-song; Xu, Xin-gang; Jin, Xiu-liang; Zhang, Jing-cheng; Song, Xiao-yu

    2013-09-01

    Considering the great relationships between shortwave infrared (SWIR) and leaf area index (LAI), innovative indices based on water vegetation indices and visible-infrared vegetation indices were presented. In the present work, PROSAIL model was used to study the saturation sensitivity of new vegetation indices to LAI. The estimate models about LAI of winter wheat were built on the basis of the experiment data in 2009 acting as train sample and their precisions were evaluated and tested on the basis of the experiment data in 2008. Ten visible-infrared vegetation indices and five water vegetation indices were used to construct new indices. The result showed that newly developed indices have significant relationships with LAI by numerical simulations and in-situ measurements. In particular, by implementing modified standardized LAI Determining Index (sLAIDI *), all new indices were neither sensitive to water variations nor affected by saturation at high LAI levels. The evaluation models could improve prediction accuracy and have well reliability for LAI retrieval. The result indicated that visible-infrared vegetation indices combined with water index have greater advantage for LAI estimation.

  12. Healthcare cost reductions associated with the use of LAI formulations of antipsychotic medications versus oral among patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jay; Wong, Bruce; Offord, Steve; Mirski, Dario

    2013-07-01

    Real-world medication adherence and healthcare costs of patients with schizophrenia initiating long-acting injectable (LAI) vs. oral antipsychotics were compared. Patients with schizophrenia initiating LAI or oral antipsychotics (index event) were identified from MarketScan Commercial and Medicare claims databases and their medication possession ratios (MPR), pre- and post-index costs for inpatient/outpatient care were compared. Of 3,004 patients, 394 initiated LAI antipsychotics and 2,610 oral antipsychotics. Post-index, the mean MPR was greater for the LAI cohort (0.67 ± 0.34 vs. 0.56 ± 0.35; p < 0.001). Schizophrenia-related hospital costs for LAI users were reduced during the follow-up period in comparison to the pre-index period, but were increased for patients using oral antipsychotics (-$5,981 ± $16,554 vs. 758 ± 14,328, p < 0.001). The change in costs of outpatient care also favored LAI medications ($134 ± 8,280 vs. 658 ± 3,260, p = 0.023). Drug costs of LAI antipsychotics were higher ($4,132 ± 4,533 vs. 2,562 ± 2,714, p < 0.001). Schizophrenia patients initiating LAI antipsychotics incur less healthcare costs in comparison to patients initiating oral antipsychotics.

  13. A novel moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) to reduce background reflectance and topographical effects on LAI retrieval.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gaolong; Ju, Weimin; Chen, J M; Liu, Yibo

    2014-01-01

    A new moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) is proposed using the red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance in band-ratio form in this paper. The effectiveness of MAVI in retrieving leaf area index (LAI) is investigated using Landsat-5 data and field LAI measurements in two forest and two grassland areas. The ability of MAVI to retrieve forest LAI under different background conditions is further evaluated using canopy reflectance of Jack Pine and Black Spruce forests simulated by the 4-Scale model. Compared with several commonly used two-band vegetation index, such as normalized difference vegetation index, soil adjusted vegetation index, modified soil adjusted vegetation index, optimized soil adjusted vegetation index, MAVI is a better predictor of LAI, on average, which can explain 70% of variations of LAI in the four study areas. Similar to other SWIR-related three-band vegetation index, such as modified normalized difference vegetation index (MNDVI) and reduced simple ratio (RSR), MAVI is able to reduce the background reflectance effects on forest canopy LAI retrieval. MAVI is more suitable for retrieving LAI than RSR and MNDVI, because it avoids the difficulty in properly determining the maximum and minimum SWIR values required in RSR and MNDVI, which improves the robustness of MAVI in retrieving LAI of different land cover types. Moreover, MAVI is expressed as ratios between different spectral bands, greatly reducing the noise caused by topographical variations, which makes it more suitable for applications in mountainous area.

  14. Advice for a young editor: the scientific publication.

    PubMed

    Turpin, David L

    2005-01-01

    Being the editor of a scientific journal involves the same challenges of working with authors, association officers, and readers as in all publications. In addition to the communication in the journal, editors must manage the communication about the journal. The editor's job involves building and maintaining trust.

  15. Editor and Student Views on the Censorship Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raburn, Josephine

    Out of 200 newspaper editors randomly selected from a directory, 64 responded to a questionnaire eliciting their opinions on the subject materials most often censored by groups in the United States. The editors' responses were compared to those of 121 freshmen at Cameron University (Oklahoma). A majority of the editors supported the First…

  16. Quantifying forest LAI succession in sub-tropical forests using time-series of Landsat data, 1987 -2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.; Song, J.; Wang, J.; Chen, S.; Yu, B.; Liao, L.

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring the dynamics of leaf area index (LAI) throughout the life-cycle of forests (from seeding to maturity) is vital for simulating forest growth and quantifying carbon sequestration. However, all current global LAI produts show extremely low accuracy in forests and the coarse spatial resolution(nearly 1-km) mismatch with the spatial scale of forest inventory plots (nearly 26m*26m). To date, several studies have explored the possibility of satellite data to classify forest succession or predict stand age. And a few studies have explored the potential of using long term Landsat data to monitor the growing trend of forests, but no studies have quantified the inter-annual and intra-annual LAI dynamics along with forest succession. Vegetation indexes are not perfect variables in quantifying forest foliage dynamics. Hallet (1995) suggested remote sensing of biophysical characteristics should shift away from direct inference from vegetation indices toward more physically based algorithms. This work intends to be a pioneer example for improving the accuracy of forests LAI and providing temporal-spatial matching LAI datasets for monitoring forest processes. We integrates the Geometric-Optical and Radiative Transfer (GORT) model with the Physiological Principles Predicting Growth (3-PG) model to improve the estimation of the forest canopy LAI dynamics. Reflectance time-series data from 1987 to 2015 were collected and preprocessed for forests in southern China, using all available Landsat data (with <80% cloud). Effective LAI and true LAI were field measured to validate our results using various instruments, including digital hemispheric photographs (DHP), LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer (LI-COR), and Tracing radiation and Architecture of Canopies (TRAC). Results show that the relationship between spectral metrics of satellite images and forest LAI is clear in early stages before maturity. 3-PG provide accurate inter-annual trend of forest LAI, while satellite images

  17. Spatial Upscaling of Long-term In Situ LAI Measurements from Global Network Sites for Validation of Remotely Sensed Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, B.; Jing, L.; Qinhuo, L.; Zeng, Y.; Yin, G.; Fan, W.; Zhao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a key parameter in terrestrial ecosystem models, and a series of global LAI products have been derived from satellite data. To effectively apply these LAI products, it is necessary to evaluate their accuracy reasonablely. The long-term LAI measurements from the global network sites are an important supplement to the product validation dataset. However, the spatial scale mismatch between the site measurement and the pixel grid hinders the utilization of these measurements in LAI product validation. In this study, a pragmatic approach based on the Bayesian linear regression between long-term LAI measurements and high-resolution images is presented for upscaling the point-scale measurements to the pixel-scale. The algorithm was evaluated using high-resolution LAI reference maps provided by the VALERI project at the Järvselja site and was implemented to upscale the long-term LAI measurements at the global network sites. Results indicate that the spatial scaling algorithm can reduce the root mean square error (RMSE) from 0.42 before upscaling to 0.21 after upscaling compared with the aggregated LAI reference maps at the pixel-scale. Meanwhile, the algorithm shows better reliability and robustness than the ordinary least square (OLS) method for upscaling some LAI measurements acquired at specific dates without high-resolution images. The upscaled LAI measurements were employed to validate three global LAI products, including MODIS, GLASS and GEOV1. Results indicate that (i) GLASS and GEOV1 show consistent temporal profiles over most sites, while MODIS exhibits temporal instability over a few forest sites. The RMSE of seasonality between products and upscaled LAI measurement is 0.25-1.72 for MODIS, 0.17-1.29 for GLASS and 0.36-1.35 for GEOV1 along with different sites. (ii) The uncertainty for products varies over different months. The lowest and highest uncertainty for MODIS are 0.67 in March and 1.53 in August, for GLASS are 0.67 in November

  18. The Laboratory Structure and Task Analysis Inventory (LAI): A Users' Handbook. Technical Report No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrman, M.; And Others

    The Laboratory Structure and Task Analysis Inventory (LAI) is an instrument designed to facilitate the analysis of laboratory investigations in secondary school science. It yields a quantitative picture of the kinds of activities required of a student in performing laboratory investigations. The report includes guidelines for the use of the…

  19. On Some Aspects of the Semantics and Tonal Behavior of Taiwanese "lai"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shuang-fu

    1975-01-01

    Explores the semantic distinctions and tonal behaviors of four types of "lai" in Taiwanese. It is concluded that some types cannot be fully understood without reference to the underlying structure, the surface structure being often insufficient for determining the tonal shape of the syllable in utterance. (CLK)

  20. Golden Girl: Mary Lai Reflects as She Marks Her 50th Anniversary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwanowski, Jay

    1996-01-01

    The career and administrative style of Mary M. Lai, who celebrates her 50th year as chief financial officer at Long Island University (New York), are discussed. Her perspectives on change in higher education and in the institution during that time, the administrator's role, current challenges for financial officers, and the college environment as…

  1. A Study toward the Evaluation of ALOS Images for LAI Estimation in Rice Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi Hashjin, Sh.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Khandan, R.

    2013-10-01

    For expanding and managing agricultural sources, satellite data have a key role in determining required information about different factors in plants Including Leaf Area Index (LAI).This paper has studied the potential of spectral indices in estimating rice canopy LAI in Amol city as one of the main sources of rice production in Iran. Due to its importance in provision of food and calorie of a major portion of population, rice product was chosen for study. A field campaign was conducted when rice was in the max growth stage (late of June). Also, two satellite images from ALOS-AVNIR-2 were used (simultaneous with conducted field works) to extract and determine vegetation indices. Then the Regression between measured data and vegetation indices, derived from combination of different bands, was evaluated and after that suitable vegetation indices were realized. Finally, statistics and calculations for introduction of a suitable model were presented. After examination of models, the results showed that RDVI and SAVI2, by determination coefficient and RMSE of 0.12-0.59 and 0.24-0.62, have more accuracy in LAI estimation. Results of present study demonstrated the potential of ALOS images, for LAI estimation and their significant role in monitoring and managing the rice plant.

  2. A 30+ Year AVHRR LAI and FAPAR Climate Data Record: Algorithm Description, Validation, and Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claverie, Martin; Matthews, Jessica L.; Vermote, Eric F.; Justice, Christopher O.

    2016-01-01

    In- land surface models, which are used to evaluate the role of vegetation in the context ofglobal climate change and variability, LAI and FAPAR play a key role, specifically with respect to thecarbon and water cycles. The AVHRR-based LAIFAPAR dataset offers daily temporal resolution,an improvement over previous products. This climate data record is based on a carefully calibratedand corrected land surface reflectance dataset to provide a high-quality, consistent time-series suitablefor climate studies. It spans from mid-1981 to the present. Further, this operational dataset is availablein near real-time allowing use for monitoring purposes. The algorithm relies on artificial neuralnetworks calibrated using the MODIS LAI/FAPAR dataset. Evaluation based on cross-comparisonwith MODIS products and in situ data show the dataset is consistent and reliable with overalluncertainties of 1.03 and 0.15 for LAI and FAPAR, respectively. However, a clear saturation effect isobserved in the broadleaf forest biomes with high LAI (greater than 4.5) and FAPAR (greater than 0.8) values.

  3. LAI and chlorophyll estimation for a heterogeneous grassland using hyperspectral measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Skidmore, Andrew; Schlerf, Martin; Atzberger, Clement; Corsi, Fabio; Cho, Moses

    The study shows that leaf area index (LAI), leaf chlorophyll content (LCC) and canopy chlorophyll content (CCC) can be mapped in a heterogeneous Mediterranean grassland from canopy spectral reflectance measurements. Canopy spectral measurements were made in the field using a GER 3700 spectroradiometer, along with concomitant in situ measurements of LAI and LCC. We tested the utility of univariate techniques involving narrow band vegetation indices and the red edge inflection point, as well as multivariate calibration techniques, including stepwise multiple linear regression and partial least squares regression. Among the various investigated models, CCC was estimated with the highest accuracy ( Rcv2=0.74, nRMSE=0.35). All methods failed to estimate LCC ( Rcv2≤0.40), while LAI was estimated with intermediate accuracy ( Rcv2 values ranged from 0.49 to 0.69). Compared with narrow band indices and red edge inflection point, stepwise multiple linear regression generally improved the estimation of LAI. The estimations were further improved when partial least squares regression was used. When a subset of wavelengths was analyzed, it was found that partial least squares regression had reduced the error in the retrieved parameters. The results of the study highlight the significance of multivariate techniques, such as partial least squares regression, rather than univariate methods such as vegetation indices in estimating heterogeneous grass canopy characteristics.

  4. LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI) CHANGE DETECTION ON LOBLOLLY PINE FOREST STANDS WITH COMPLETE UNDERSTORY REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The confounding effect of understory vegetation contributions to satellite derived
    estimates of leaf area index (LAI) was investigated on two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forest stands located in the southeastern United States. Previous studies have shown that understory can a...

  5. A 30+ Year AVHRR LAI and FAPAR Climate Data Record: Algorithm Description, Validation, and Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claverie, Martin; Matthews, Jessica L.; Vermote, Eric F.; Justice, Christopher O.

    2016-01-01

    In- land surface models, which are used to evaluate the role of vegetation in the context ofglobal climate change and variability, LAI and FAPAR play a key role, specifically with respect to thecarbon and water cycles. The AVHRR-based LAIFAPAR dataset offers daily temporal resolution,an improvement over previous products. This climate data record is based on a carefully calibratedand corrected land surface reflectance dataset to provide a high-quality, consistent time-series suitablefor climate studies. It spans from mid-1981 to the present. Further, this operational dataset is availablein near real-time allowing use for monitoring purposes. The algorithm relies on artificial neuralnetworks calibrated using the MODIS LAI/FAPAR dataset. Evaluation based on cross-comparisonwith MODIS products and in situ data show the dataset is consistent and reliable with overalluncertainties of 1.03 and 0.15 for LAI and FAPAR, respectively. However, a clear saturation effect isobserved in the broadleaf forest biomes with high LAI (greater than 4.5) and FAPAR (greater than 0.8) values.

  6. LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI) CHANGE DETECTION ANALYSIS ON LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA) FOLLOWING COMPLETE UNDERSTORY REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The confounding effect of understory vegetation contributions to satellite-derived estimates of leaf area index (LAI) was investigated on two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forest stands located in Virginia and North Carolina. In order to separate NDVI contributions of the dominantc...

  7. Daily mapping of Landsat-like LAI and correlation to grape yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wine grape quality and quantity are affected by vine growing condition during some critical growing stages. In this paper, MODIS and Landsat were used to map daily LAI in the two Grape Remote sensing Atmospheric Profiling and Evapotranspiration eXperiment (GRAPEX) experiment fields near Lodi, Califo...

  8. Practical field methods of estimating canopy cover, PAR, and LAI in Michigan Oak and pine stands

    Treesearch

    David S. Buckley; J.G. Isebrands; Terry L. Sharik

    1999-01-01

    With the increased use of variables such as canopy cover photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and overstory leaf area index (LAI) in forestry research, relationships between these variables and traditional forestry variables must be defined before recommended levels of these research variables can be achieved by forestry practitioners on the ground. We measured...

  9. LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI) CHANGE DETECTION ANALYSIS ON LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA) FOLLOWING COMPLETE UNDERSTORY REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The confounding effect of understory vegetation contributions to satellite-derived estimates of leaf area index (LAI) was investigated on two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forest stands located in Virginia and North Carolina. In order to separate NDVI contributions of the dominantc...

  10. Impact of Spatial LAI Heterogeneity on Estimate of Directional Gap Fraction from SPOT-Satellite Data.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lingling; Li, Chuanrong; Tang, Bohui; Tang, Lingli; Bi, Yuyin; Zhou, Beiyan; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2008-06-06

    Directional gap probability or gap fraction is a basic parameter in the optical remote sensing modeling. Although some approaches have been proposed to estimate this gap probability from remotely sensed measurements, few efforts have been made to investigate the scaling effects of this parameter. This paper analyzes the scaling effect through aggregating the high-resolution directional gap probability (pixel size of 20 meters) estimated from leaf area index (LAI) images of VALERI database by means of Beer's law and introduces an extension of clumping index, Ĉ, to compensate the scaling bias. The results show that the scaling effect depends on both the surface heterogeneity and the nonlinearity degree of the retrieved function. Analytical expressions for the scaling bias of gap probability and Ĉ are established in function of the variance of LAI and the mean value of LAI in a coarse pixel. With the VALERI dataset, the study in this paper shows that relative scaling bias of gap probability increases with decreasing spatial resolution for most of land cover types. Large relative biases are found for most of crops sites and a mixed forest site due to their relative large variance of LAI, while very small biases occur over grassland and shrubs sites. As for Ĉ, it varies slowly in the pure forest, grassland and shrubs sites, while more significantly in crops and mixed forest.

  11. LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI) CHANGE DETECTION ON LOBLOLLY PINE FOREST STANDS WITH COMPLETE UNDERSTORY REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The confounding effect of understory vegetation contributions to satellite derived
    estimates of leaf area index (LAI) was investigated on two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forest stands located in the southeastern United States. Previous studies have shown that understory can a...

  12. War Criminals, War Victims: Andersonville, Nuremburg, Hiroshima, My Lai. Crises in World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Lawrence, Ed.; And Others

    This pamphlet, intended for senior high school students, examines the complexities of applying international law to questions of individual rights and responsibilities in time of war. Case studies of four actual courtroom trials are presented. Events leading up to the trials (relating to Andersonville, Nuremberg, Hiroshima, and My Lai) are…

  13. MODIS land cover and LAI collection 4 product quality across nine states in the western hemisphere.

    Treesearch

    Warren B. Cohen; Thomas K. Maiersperger; David P. Turner; William D. Ritts; Dirk Pflugmacher; Robert E. Kennedy; Alan Kirschbaum; Steven W. Running; Marcos Costa; Stith T. Gower

    2006-01-01

    Global maps of land cover and leaf area index (LAI) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) reflectance data are an important resource in studies of global change, but errors in these must be characterized and well understood. Product validation requires careful scaling from ground and related measurements to a grain commensurate with MODIS...

  14. LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI) CHANGE DETECTION ON LOBLOLLY PINE FOREST STANDS WITH COMPLETE UNDERSTORY REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The confounding effect of understory vegetation contributions to satellite derived estimates of leaf area index (LAI) was investigated on two loblolly pine forest stands located in the southeastern United States. Previous studies have shown that understory can account from 0-40%...

  15. LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI) CHANGE DETECTION ON LOBLOLLY PINE FOREST STANDS WITH COMPLETE UNDERSTORY REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The confounding effect of understory vegetation contributions to satellite derived estimates of leaf area index (LAI) was investigated on two loblolly pine forest stands located in the southeastern United States. Previous studies have shown that understory can account from 0-40%...

  16. [Hyperspectral Estimation of Apple Tree Canopy LAI Based on SVM and RF Regression].

    PubMed

    Han, Zhao-ying; Zhu, Xi-cun; Fang, Xian-yi; Wang, Zhuo-yuan; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Jiang, Yuan-mao

    2016-03-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is the dynamic index of crop population size. Hyperspectral technology can be used to estimate apple canopy LAI rapidly and nondestructively. It can be provide a reference for monitoring the tree growing and yield estimation. The Red Fuji apple trees of full bearing fruit are the researching objects. Ninety apple trees canopies spectral reflectance and LAI values were measured by the ASD Fieldspec3 spectrometer and LAI-2200 in thirty orchards in constant two years in Qixia research area of Shandong Province. The optimal vegetation indices were selected by the method of correlation analysis of the original spectral reflectance and vegetation indices. The models of predicting the LAI were built with the multivariate regression analysis method of support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF). The new vegetation indices, GNDVI527, ND-VI676, RVI682, FD-NVI656 and GRVI517 and the previous two main vegetation indices, NDVI670 and NDVI705, are in accordance with LAI. In the RF regression model, the calibration set decision coefficient C-R2 of 0.920 and validation set decision coefficient V-R2 of 0.889 are higher than the SVM regression model by 0.045 and 0.033 respectively. The root mean square error of calibration set C-RMSE of 0.249, the root mean square error validation set V-RMSE of 0.236 are lower than that of the SVM regression model by 0.054 and 0.058 respectively. Relative analysis of calibrating error C-RPD and relative analysis of validation set V-RPD reached 3.363 and 2.520, 0.598 and 0.262, respectively, which were higher than the SVM regression model. The measured and predicted the scatterplot trend line slope of the calibration set and validation set C-S and V-S are close to 1. The estimation result of RF regression model is better than that of the SVM. RF regression model can be used to estimate the LAI of red Fuji apple trees in full fruit period.

  17. Relation of MODIS EVI and LAI across time, vegetation types and hydrological regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandridis, Thomas; Ovakoglou, George

    2015-04-01

    Estimation of the Leaf Area Index (LAI) of a landscape is considered important to describe the ecosystems activity and is used as an important input parameter in hydrological and biogeochemical models related to water and carbon cycle, desertification risk, etc. The measurement of LAI in the field is a laborious and costly process and is mainly done by indirect methods, such as hemispherical photographs that are processed by specialized software. For this reason there have been several attempts to estimate LAI with multispectral satellite images, using theoretical biomass development models, or empirical equations using vegetation indices and land cover maps. The aim of this work is to study the relation of MODIS EVI and LAI across time, vegetation type, and hydrological regime. This was achieved by studying 120 maps of EVI and LAI which cover a hydrological year and five hydrologically diverse areas: river Nestos in Greece, Queimados catchment in Brazil, Rijnland catchment in The Netherlands, river Tamega in Portugal, and river Umbeluzi in Mozambique. The following Terra MODIS composite datasets were downloaded for the hydrological year 2012-2013: MOD13A2 "Vegetation Indices" and MCD15A2 "LAI and FPAR", as well as the equivalent quality information layers (QA). All the pixels that fall in a vegetation land cover (according to the MERIS GLOBCOVER map) were sampled for the analysis, with the exception of those that fell at the border between two vegetation or other land cover categories, to avoid the influence of mixed pixels. Using linear regression analysis, the relationship between EVI and LAI was identified per date, vegetation type and study area. Results show that vegetation type has the highest influence in the variation of the relationship between EVI and LAI in each study area. The coefficient of determination (R2) is high and statistically significant (ranging from 0.41 to 0.83 in 90% of the cases). When plotting the EVI factor from the regression equation

  18. Evolutionary theory in letters to the editor.

    PubMed

    Silva, Eric Orion; Lowe, Clayton Cory

    2015-05-01

    This research note presents the results of a content analysis of 234 letters to the editors that discuss evolutionary theory and were published in American newspapers. We find that letters to the editor both support and hinder the cause of teaching evolutionary theory in American secondary schools. On the one hand, anti-evolutionary theory messages are marginalized in the letters section. This marginalization signals a low level of legitimacy for creationism. It might also contribute to the sense of tension that sustains creationist identities. On the other hand, relatively few letters explicitly note the fact that scientists or the scientific community accept evolution. Interestingly, the obscuration of the scientific community's support for evolutionary theory occurs both in letters supporting and opposing evolutionary theory.

  19. Unified Meta-Component Model Specification Editor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-20

    relationship between the two major user interface modules, the editor and wizard, and their associated features. Functional to module mapping diagrams are...SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18 . NUMBER OF PAGES 148 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39- 18

  20. Workbench surface editor of brain cortical surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dow, Douglas E.; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.; Serra, Luis

    1996-04-01

    We have developed a 3D reach-in tool to manually reconstruct 3D cortical surface patches from 2D brain atlas images. The first application of our cortex editor is building 3D functional maps, specifically Brodmann's areas. This tool may also be useful in clinical practice to adjust incorrectly mapped atlas regions due to the deforming effect of lesions. The cortex editor allows a domain expert to control the correlation of control points across slices. Correct correlation has been difficult for 3D reconstruction algorithms because the atlas slices are far apart and because of the complex topology of the cortex which differs so much from slice to slice. Also, higher precision of the resulting surfaces is demanded since these define 3D brain atlas features upon which future stereotactic surgery may be based. The cortex editor described in this paper provides a tool suitable for a domain expert to use in defining the 3D surface of a Brodmann's area.

  1. New “Editor's choice”: Online journals debut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Stephen

    With all AGU journal articles now published online in advance of the printed journal, AGU members have new options, in terms of how they access the latest research results. An innovative option for those with specific research interests that are covered in several journals is the " Editor's Choice" virtual journal. The first two "Editor's Choice" journals—Biogeosciences and Atmospheric Electricity— debuted in January and are, for a limited time, freely accessible to members on the AGU Web site.An "Editor's Choice" virtual journal is a collection of electronic articles recently published by AGU that have been specially selected for their relevance to a particular topic area. Everett Shock of Washington University St. Louis, is serving as the Collection Editor for "Editor's Choice: Biogeosciences." The "Editor's Choice: Atmospheric Electricity" Collection Editor is Richard E. Orville of Texas A&M University College Station, who is being assisted by advisors David Sentman, University of Alaska, and Vladimir Rakov, University of Florida.

  2. High Resolution Simulation of LAI, Carbon and Water Fluxes over France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafont, Sebastien; Zhao, Yang; Barbu, Alina; Dominique, Carrer; Calvet, Jean Christophe; Peylin, Philippe; Weiss, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The vegetation/land component of GMES is called “Land Monitoring Core service” (LMCS). The geoland2 European project (FP7, 2008-2012) is a demonstrator of the evolution of the LMCS, including the consolidation of prototype services and the test of their operational capacity. The main mission of the land carbon core information service (LC-CIS) of geoland2 is to assess the impact of weather and climate variability on terrestrial biospheric carbon fluxes, in the context of international conventions. The LC-CIS aims at monitoring the global terrestrial carbon fluxes (e.g. to support reporting obligations in the course of the Kyoto Protocol) and setting-up pre-operational infrastructures for providing global products, both in near real time and off-line mode. A multi-model carbon accounting system is developed, coupled with EO data assimilation schemes. Emphasis is put on validation (in-situ data), with downscaling on reference European countries (F, NL, HU). The C-TESSEL and SURFEX modelling platforms (of ECMWF and Météo-France, respectively) are used for production. The ORCHIDEE modelling platform (LSCE) is used for benchmarking and validation purposes. We will present first test of the Geoland2 SURFEX model without data assimilation (Open-loop) over the French domain. We will focus on the simulation of the Leaf Area Index (LAI) and of carbon and water fluxes. The LAI is an important characteristics of the vegetation. It is a good measure of the amount of active vegetation and is linked to the canopy resistance, the water and carbon fluxes between the atmosphere and the vegetation. In this study, we compare 4 different estimations of LAI over France area : two LAI products derived from visible remote sensing and simulated LAI from 2 land surface models. The simulated LAI originates from two land surface models, The ISBA-A-gs model (developed by CNRM) and the ORCHIDEE model (developed by IPSL). The atmospheric forcing for the models is the SAFRAN dataset, a high

  3. Development of a global LAI estimation algorithm for JAXA's new earth observation satellite sensor, GCOM-C/SGLI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Y.; Murakami, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Nasahara, K. N.; Kajiwara, K.; Honda, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is defined as the one-side green leaf area per unit ground surface area. Global LAI products, such as MOD15 (Terra&Aqua/MODIS) and CYCLOPES (SPOT/VEGETATION) are used for many global terrestrial carbon models. Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) is planning to launch GCOM-C (Global Change Observation Mission-Climate) which carries SGLI (Second-generation GLobal Imager) in the Japanese Fiscal Year 2017. SGLI has the features, such as 17-channel from near ultraviolet to thermal infrared, 250-m spatial resolution, polarization, and multi-angle (nadir and ±45-deg. along-track slant) observation. In the GCOM-C/SGLI land science team, LAI is scheduled to be generated from GCOM-C/SGLI observation data as a standard product (daily 250-m). In extisting algorithms, LAI is estimated by the reverse analysis of vegetation radiative transfer models (RTMs) using multi-spectral and mono-angle observation data. Here, understory layer in vegetation RTMs is assumed by plane parallel (green leaves + soil) which set up arbitrary understroy LAI. However, actual understory consists of various elements, such as green leaves, dead leaves, branches, soil, and snow. Therefore, if understory in vegetation RTMs differs from reality, it will cause an error of LAI to estimate. This report describes an algorithm which estimates LAI in consideration of the influence of understory using GCOM-C/SGLI multi-spectral and multi-angle observation data.

  4. Evaluating the potential of vegetation indices for winter wheat LAI estimation under different fertilization and water conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qiaoyun; Huang, Wenjiang; Dash, Jadunandan; Song, Xiaoyu; Huang, Linsheng; Zhao, Jinling; Wang, Renhong

    2015-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important indicator for monitoring crop growth conditions and forecasting grain yield. Many algorithms have been developed for remote estimation of the leaf area index of vegetation, such as using spectral vegetation indices, inversion of radiative transfer models, and supervised learning techniques. Spectral vegetation indices, mathematical combination of reflectance bands, are widely used for LAI estimation due to their computational simplicity and their applications ranged from the leaf scale to the entire globe. However, in many cases, their applicability is limited to specific vegetation types or local conditions due to species specific nature of the relationship used to transfer the vegetation indices to LAI. The overall objective of this study is to investigate the most suitable vegetation index for estimating winter wheat LAI under eight different types of fertilizer and irrigation conditions. Regression models were used to estimate LAI using hyperspectral reflectance data from the Pushbroom Hyperspectral Imager (PHI) and in-situ measurements. Our results showed that, among six vegetation indices investigated, the modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) exhibited strong and significant relationships with LAI, and thus were sensitive across different nitrogen and water treatments. The modified triangular vegetation index (MTVI2) confirmed its potential on crop LAI estimation, although second to MSAVI and NDVI in our study. The enhanced vegetation index (EVI) showed moderate performance. However, the ratio vegetation index (RVI) and the modified simple ratio index (MSR) predicted the least accurate estimations of LAI, exposing the simple band ratio index's weakness under different treatment conditions. The results support the use of vegetation indices for a quick and effective LAI mapping procedure that is suitable for winter wheat under different management practices.

  5. Generating and Evaluation Leaf Area Index (LAI) from MODIS MultiAngle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) Surface Reflectance Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Park, T.; Yan, K.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; CHOI, S.; Yang, B.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Myneni, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    This study generates and evaluates prototype Leaf Area Index (LAI) product based on MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer's (MODIS) Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF, commonly known as surface reflectance) which is a product of MultiAngle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) package. LAI is a key parameter of vegetation in characterizing interactions of energy and mass between the Earth's surface and atmosphere. On the other hand, MAIAC BRF is retrieved from a new atmospheric correction algorithm, which has higher spatial resolution and is believed to have more reliable cloud/aerosol detection technique than standard MODIS BRF product. Two main objectives of this study are: 1). Maintaining the radiative transfer theory based LAI algorithm's look up table (LUT) unchanged, to compare LAI product retrieved from different versions of BRF products (MODIS collection 5, collection 6 and MAIAC); 2). To adjust the LUT to resolve LAI's possible systematic discrepancies resulting from atmospheric correction methods within the input BRF other than our LAI algorithm. Before the LUT adjusting, comparing to standard MODIS products shows that MAIAC LAI product will overestimate among herbaceous biome types which have low LAI values, while underestimate among woody biome types which have relatively higher values. Based on the theory of radiative transfer of canopy spectral invariants, two biome and MAIAC specific configurable parameters (Single Scattering Albedo and Uncertainty) in the LUT are adjusted to minimize the inconsistency due to input BRFs. Experiments shows that our new result: 1). has good agreement with field measured data (e.g. DIRECT); 2) is consistent with standard MODIS LAI product.

  6. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur

  7. LaI2@(18,3)SWNT: the unprecedented structure of a LaI2 "Crystal," encapsulated within a single-walled carbon nanotube.

    PubMed

    Friedrichs, Steffi; Kirkland, Angus I; Meyer, Rüdiger R; Sloan, Jeremy; Green, Malcolm L H

    2005-10-01

    The novel crystallization properties of nano-materials represent a great challenge to researchers across all disciplines of materials science. Simple binary solids can be found to adopt unprecedented structures, when confined into nanometer-sized cavities, such as the inner cylindrical bore of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Lanthanum iodide was encapsulated within SWNTs and the resulting encapsulation composite was analyzed using energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging techniques, to reveal a one-dimensional crystal fragment, with the stoichiometry of LaI2, crystallizing in the structure of LaI3 with one third of the iodine positions unoccupied. A complete characterization of the encapsulation composite was achieved using an enhanced image restoration technique, which restores the object wave from a focal series of HRTEM images, providing information about the precise structural data of both filling material and host SWNT, and thereby enabling the identification of the SWNT chirality.

  8. Evaluation of a canopy reflectance model for LAI estimation through its inversion. [leaf area index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, N. S.; Deering, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    A technique for estimating leaf area indices (LAIs) based on bidirectional canopy reflectance (CR) data is applied to three plant canopies: a naturally growing healthy soybean canopy; and a clumped and tufted orchardgrass canopy, respectively. The CR data were collected using a PARABOLA instrument which is capable of acquiring complete sky-and-ground looking hemispheres in 11 seconds. The model fit and LAI estimates were good for the soybean and clumped orchardgrass canopies, but poor for the tufted orchardgrass canopy when the maximum zenith angle was less than 50 percent. It is shown that the biophysical parameter estimation based on CR measurements applied well to homogeneous herbaceous vegetation types, while better CR models are needed to adequately represent discontinuous plant canopies.

  9. Temporal Stability of the NDVI-LAI Relationship in a Napa Valley Vineyard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L. F.

    2003-01-01

    Remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values, derived from high-resolution satellite images, were compared with ground measurements of vineyard leaf area index (LAI) periodically during the 2001 growing season. The two variables were strongly related at six ground calibration sites on each of four occasions (r squared = 0.91 to 0.98). Linear regression equations relating the two variables did not significantly differ by observation date, and a single equation accounted for 92 percent of the variance in the combined dataset. Temporal stability of the relationship opens the possibility of transforming NDVI maps to LAI in the absence of repeated ground calibration fieldwork. In order to take advantage of this circumstance, however, steps should be taken to assure temporal consistency in spectral data values comprising the NDVI.

  10. Evaluation of a canopy reflectance model for LAI estimation through its inversion. [leaf area index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, N. S.; Deering, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    A technique for estimating leaf area indices (LAIs) based on bidirectional canopy reflectance (CR) data is applied to three plant canopies: a naturally growing healthy soybean canopy; and a clumped and tufted orchardgrass canopy, respectively. The CR data were collected using a PARABOLA instrument which is capable of acquiring complete sky-and-ground looking hemispheres in 11 seconds. The model fit and LAI estimates were good for the soybean and clumped orchardgrass canopies, but poor for the tufted orchardgrass canopy when the maximum zenith angle was less than 50 percent. It is shown that the biophysical parameter estimation based on CR measurements applied well to homogeneous herbaceous vegetation types, while better CR models are needed to adequately represent discontinuous plant canopies.

  11. [Professor LAI Xinsheng's treatment experience of infertility by Tongyuan needling technique].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuemei; Meng, Zhenzhen; Wang, Ranran

    2015-03-01

    Professor LAI Xinsheng's treatment experience of infertility mainly by Tongyuan needling technique for both females and males is summarized. Tongyuan needling technique is a treatment method of leading qi to its primordial location mainly through viscera back-shu points that can dredge the governor vessel and tonify the spirit and conception vessel points in abdomen and abdominal front-mu points, and according to state of illness acupoints for opening the 4 gates or five shu points are combined; reinforcing and reducing manipulations of acupuncture are applied for reference. With the method of listing cases, professor LAI Xinsheng's Tongyuan needling technique is detailedly introduced in different aspects, such as the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome infertility and male infertility and improving the success rate of test-tube baby, and the manipulation of Tongyuan needling technique is summarized, indicating that Tongyuan needling technique is worth vigorously prompting in clinical treatment of infertility.

  12. BOREAS RSS-7 Regional LAI and FPAR Images From 10-Day AVHRR-LAC Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Chen, Jing; Cihlar, Josef

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Remote Sensing Science (BOREAS RSS-7) team collected various data sets to develop and validate an algorithm to allow the retrieval of the spatial distribution of Leaf Area Index (LAI) from remotely sensed images. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) level-4c 10-day composite Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images produced at CCRS were used to produce images of LAI and the Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) absorbed by plant canopies for the three summer IFCs in 1994 across the BOREAS region. The algorithms were developed based on ground measurements and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images. The data are stored in binary image format files.

  13. Meet the Editor: Global Biogeochemical Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    Meinrat Andreae was named the editor of the AGU's journal Global Biogeochemical Cycles last year.Andreae, director of the biogeochemistry department at the Max Plank Institute for Chemistry (MPIC), located in Mainz, Germany said that he plans to maintain the journal as a resource that highlights the broad spectrum of interdisciplinary themes that showcase the interactions between the biosphere and the geosphere. “Our special niche is in the field of larger-scale, more integrative studies that have global scope,” he explained.

  14. MPS Editor - An Integrated Sequencing Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streiffert, Barbara A.; O'Reilly, Taifun; Schrock, Mitchell; Catchen, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    In today's operations environment, the teams are smaller and need to be more efficient while still ensuring the safety and success of the mission. In addition, teams often begin working on a mission in its early development phases and continue on the team through actual operations. For these reasons the operations teams want to be presented with a software environment that integrates multiple needed software applications as well as providing them with context sensitive editing support for entering commands and sequences of commands. At Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Multi-Mission Planning and Sequencing (MPS) Editor provided by the Multi-Mission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS) supports those operational needs.

  15. MPS Editor - An Integrated Sequencing Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streiffert, Barbara A.; O'Reilly, Taifun; Schrock, Mitchell; Catchen, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    In today's operations environment, the teams are smaller and need to be more efficient while still ensuring the safety and success of the mission. In addition, teams often begin working on a mission in its early development phases and continue on the team through actual operations. For these reasons the operations teams want to be presented with a software environment that integrates multiple needed software applications as well as providing them with context sensitive editing support for entering commands and sequences of commands. At Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Multi-Mission Planning and Sequencing (MPS) Editor provided by the Multi-Mission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS) supports those operational needs.

  16. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially similar scientific content

  17. Discovery of a trachyte ignimbrite sequence at Hualālai, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, Thomas; Owen, Jacqueline

    2016-05-01

    Ignimbrites are common in many intraplate ocean islands but have been missing from the known geological record in Hawaii. During a recent field campaign, the remnants of a trachytic ignimbrite sequence have been discovered at Hualālai volcano, fortuitously preserved from subsequent basaltic lava flow cover. We provide a preliminary description of these deposits, as well as bulk and glass chemical analyses to determine their potential relationship with other nearby trachytes from Pu'u Wa'awa'a (PWW) and Pu'u Anahulu (PA). The results suggest that these ignimbrites are from neither PWW nor PA, but instead may relate to trachytes that are found as maar wallrock blocks some 20 km distant. Therefore, despite being rare overall in Hawaii, the ignimbrites—and more generally trachytes—were probably widespread around Hualālai. Compared to other intraplate ocean islands, the combination of a fast-moving plate, high magma supply, and eruption rates underneath Hawaiian volcanoes may explain the scarcity of ignimbrites preserved at the surface. Their presence at Hualālai could reflect unusual conditions of edifice stress during the transition from shield to post-shield volcanism.

  18. Spatiotemporal NDVI, LAI, albedo, and surface temperature dynamics in the southwest of the Brazilian Amazon forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querino, Carlos Alexandre Santos; Beneditti, Cristina Aparecida; Machado, Nadja Gomes; da Silva, Marcelo José Gama; da Silva Querino, Juliane Kayse Albuquerque; dos Santos Neto, Luiz Alves; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi

    2016-04-01

    During the last decades, the Amazon rainforest underwent uncontrolled exploitation that modified its environmental variables. The current paper analyzes the spatiotemporal dynamics of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), leaf area index (LAI), and surface albedo, and temperature in two different vegetation covers, preserved and deforested areas. We calculated the remote-sensing products using Landsat 5 TM images obtained during the dry season 1984, 1991, 2000, and 2011 of the central region of the State of Rondônia, Brazil. The results showed a reduction of vegetation indexes NDVI (˜0.70 in 1984 to ˜0.27 in 2011) and LAI (˜1.8 in 1984 to ˜0.3 in 2011), with an increase of surface albedo (0.12 in 1984 to 0.20 in 2011) and temperature (˜24°C in 1984 to 30°C in 2011) as the effect of the rainforest converted in grassland during the study period. No changes in any variables were observed in the protected area. Forest conversion into grassland resulted in a decrease of 69% in NDVI and 110% in LAI and a rise of 59% and 24% in albedo and surface temperature, respectively.

  19. Geographic Portability of the Relationships Between LAI, FPAR, and Spectral Vegetation Reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, H. K.; Washington-Allen, R. A.; King, A. W.; Sale, M. J.

    2002-05-01

    Accurate spatial prediction of biophysical parameters such as leaf area index (LAI) and the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) is critical for many modeling and monitoring applications. Traditional methods that derive these parameters from satellite data require time-consuming and expensive ground measurements to establish relationships with spectral vegetation indices (SVI) or to calibrate bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) models. Consequently, correlations and model calibrations established for one site are frequently transferred to another site. We assess this geographic transfer and develop potential corrections as part of a multi-laboratory Department of Energy project investigating hydrometeorological processes in the Walnut River Watershed in southeast Kansas. We apply LAI-SVI correlations and BRDF model parameterizations developed for the North America Great Plains and the Konza Prairie Long Term Ecological Research sites to the Walnut River Watershed. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer biweekly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composites from 1999 and 2000 and NDVI derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper scenes from 1999, 2000, and 2001 were used to evaluate and improve the geographic transfer to the watershed. Preliminary analysis indicates that simple corrections using site-specific satellite data to adjust model parameters (e.g., NDVI of bare ground) improve predictions of the ported LAI-SVI relationships and BRDF model calibrations.

  20. Suicide Prevention in Schizophrenia: Do Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics (LAIs) have a role?

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Orsolini, Laura; Lamis, Dorian A; Goldsmith, David R; Nardella, Adele; Falcone, Giulia; Corigliano, Valentina; Luciano, Mario; Fiorillo, Andrea

    2017-02-23

    Suicide risk is a major cause of death among patients with schizophrenia. Death by suicide has been reported in approximately 5% of schizophrenia patients although such figure appears an underestimation of the problem. A number of risk factors are routinely reported as associated with suicide risk among these patients, some of which are modifiable by targeted therapeutic strategies. Clozapine is the only compound that gathered evidence as an effective treatment for reducing suicide risk in schizophrenia. Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics (LAIs) have a range of advantages in terms of efficacy, safety and tolerability in the treatment of schizophrenia, and one area of interest is whether LAI-treatment may decrease suicidality by indirectly acting on a range of risk factors for suicide specific to schizophrenia patients. This background encouraged the present, review of research pertaining to LAI in relation to modifiable risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia. We viewed our task as gathering, speculatingand critically appraising the available research relevant to the topic, with the aim of formulating a hypothesis to be tested with further research.

  1. A Tisket, A Tasket--Out of the Editor's Basket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2001-05-01

    In September 1940, the Journal introduced Out of the Editor's Basket for short items of interest: excerpts from letters, pamphlets, newspapers, and periodicals. By 1950, however, the Editor's Basket had evolved into a bulletin board for descriptions of new products and services, and it now contains almost exclusively press releases about recently marketed items. Now over 60 years old, the Editor's Basket still provides interesting tidbits for the Journal's broad readership.

  2. The Importance of Measurement Errors for Deriving Accurate Reference Leaf Area Index Maps for Validation of Moderate-Resolution Satellite LAI Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Dong; Yang, Wenze; Tan, Bin; Rautiainen, Miina; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Jiannan; Shabanov, Nikolay V.; Linder, Sune; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2006-01-01

    The validation of moderate-resolution satellite leaf area index (LAI) products such as those operationally generated from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor data requires reference LAI maps developed from field LAI measurements and fine-resolution satellite data. Errors in field measurements and satellite data determine the accuracy of the reference LAI maps. This paper describes a method by which reference maps of known accuracy can be generated with knowledge of errors in fine-resolution satellite data. The method is demonstrated with data from an international field campaign in a boreal coniferous forest in northern Sweden, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus images. The reference LAI map thus generated is used to assess modifications to the MODIS LAI/fPAR algorithm recently implemented to derive the next generation of the MODIS LAI/fPAR product for this important biome type.

  3. The Importance of Measurement Errors for Deriving Accurate Reference Leaf Area Index Maps for Validation of Moderate-Resolution Satellite LAI Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Dong; Yang, Wenze; Tan, Bin; Rautiainen, Miina; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Jiannan; Shabanov, Nikolay V.; Linder, Sune; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2006-01-01

    The validation of moderate-resolution satellite leaf area index (LAI) products such as those operationally generated from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor data requires reference LAI maps developed from field LAI measurements and fine-resolution satellite data. Errors in field measurements and satellite data determine the accuracy of the reference LAI maps. This paper describes a method by which reference maps of known accuracy can be generated with knowledge of errors in fine-resolution satellite data. The method is demonstrated with data from an international field campaign in a boreal coniferous forest in northern Sweden, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus images. The reference LAI map thus generated is used to assess modifications to the MODIS LAI/fPAR algorithm recently implemented to derive the next generation of the MODIS LAI/fPAR product for this important biome type.

  4. How Universal Is the Relationship Between Remotely Sensed Vegetation Indices (VI) and Crop Leaf Area Index (LAI)?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Yanghui; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Zipper, Samuel C.; Roman, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Global LAI-VI relationships are statistically significant, crop-specific, and mostly non-linear. This research enables the operationalization of large-area crop modeling and, by extension, has relevance to both fundamental and applied agroecosystem research.

  5. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially

  6. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially

  7. The α-hydroxyketone LAI-1 regulates motility, Lqs-dependent phosphorylation signalling and gene expression of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Schell, Ursula; Simon, Sylvia; Sahr, Tobias; Hager, Dominik; Albers, Michael F; Kessler, Aline; Fahrnbauer, Felix; Trauner, Dirk; Hedberg, Christian; Buchrieser, Carmen; Hilbi, Hubert

    2016-02-01

    The causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, Legionella pneumophila, employs the autoinducer compound LAI-1 (3-hydroxypentadecane-4-one) for cell-cell communication. LAI-1 is produced and detected by the Lqs (Legionella quorum sensing) system, comprising the autoinducer synthase LqsA, the sensor kinases LqsS and LqsT, as well as the response regulator LqsR. Lqs-regulated processes include pathogen-host interactions, production of extracellular filaments and natural competence for DNA uptake. Here we show that synthetic LAI-1 promotes the motility of L. pneumophila by signalling through LqsS/LqsT and LqsR. Upon addition of LAI-1, autophosphorylation of LqsS/LqsT by [γ-(32) P]-ATP was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the Vibrio cholerae autoinducer CAI-1 (3-hydroxytridecane-4-one) promoted the phosphorylation of LqsS (but not LqsT). LAI-1 did neither affect the stability of phospho-LqsS or phospho-LqsT, nor the dephosphorylation by LqsR. Transcriptome analysis of L. pneumophila treated with LAI-1 revealed that the compound positively regulates a number of genes, including the non-coding RNAs rsmY and rsmZ, and negatively regulates the RNA-binding global regulator crsA. Accordingly, LAI-1 controls the switch from the replicative to the transmissive growth phase of L. pneumophila. In summary, the findings indicate that LAI-1 regulates motility and the biphasic life style of L. pneumophila through LqsS- and LqsT-dependent phosphorylation signalling.

  8. EDITORIAL: Incoming Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidström, Suzanne

    2012-04-01

    When Professor Anders Bárány took over as the Executive Editor of Physica Scripta, in 1986, he talked of his trepidation at having to 'dress himself' in his predecessor's 'editorial coveralls'. At that time, they had been worn by Professor Nils Robert Nilsson, a major figure in the physics community, for almost 20 years. Just one year prior to this, Professor Roger Wäppling had been recruited to the position of Subeditor in conjunction with a decision to expand the number of contributions in the field of condensed matter physics, to turn it into one of the dominant subjects in the broad-based journal. Physica Scripta had already gained a reputation for being a high quality journal with wide coverage of both experimental and theoretical physics. Interestingly, in the mid 1980s, the number of papers submitted had been growing and an impressive 250 submissions per year had been attained, with all of the manuscripts being handled in-house. Not many miles away in the town of Uppsala, a group of English students was stepping off a train on a magnificent snowy day in January to embark on their final year projects. A couple of us enjoyed ourselves so much that we stayed on afterwards as PhD students, thereby encountering the mixed pleasure of studying physics in a second language for the first time. I used to copy the notes down meticulously in Swedish, then try to work backwards with a textbook to improve my language skills. One day, returning from a particularly incomprehensible lecture on solid state physics, I showed my roommates my notes and asked if they could please explain what the lecture had been about: 'I don't know', they replied, 'but this bit is about sheep!' Meanwhile, back at Physica Scripta, the journal continued to flourish: 400 submissions were received in 1996, and the march of progress was well underway. Manuscripts could now be sent in on disks and Physica Scripta was available on the World Wide Web. Roger was appointed to manage the journal and

  9. Digital Cover Photography for Estimating Leaf Area Index (LAI) in Apple Trees Using a Variable Light Extinction Coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Ortega-Farias, Samuel; Gonzalez-Talice, Jaime; Yuri, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the key biophysical variables required for crop modeling. Direct LAI measurements are time consuming and difficult to obtain for experimental and commercial fruit orchards. Devices used to estimate LAI have shown considerable errors when compared to ground-truth or destructive measurements, requiring tedious site-specific calibrations. The objective of this study was to test the performance of a modified digital cover photography method to estimate LAI in apple trees using conventional digital photography and instantaneous measurements of incident radiation (Io) and transmitted radiation (I) through the canopy. Leaf area of 40 single apple trees were measured destructively to obtain real leaf area index (LAID), which was compared with LAI estimated by the proposed digital photography method (LAIM). Results showed that the LAIM was able to estimate LAID with an error of 25% using a constant light extinction coefficient (k = 0.68). However, when k was estimated using an exponential function based on the fraction of foliage cover (ff) derived from images, the error was reduced to 18%. Furthermore, when measurements of light intercepted by the canopy (Ic) were used as a proxy value for k, the method presented an error of only 9%. These results have shown that by using a proxy k value, estimated by Ic, helped to increase accuracy of LAI estimates using digital cover images for apple trees with different canopy sizes and under field conditions. PMID:25635411

  10. John F. Dewey—Tectonics Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    ‘I want the journal to acquire a reputation for very rapid, fair, and accurate reviewing,’ asserted John F. Dewey, editor-in-chief of AGU's newest journal, Tectonics. Dewey said that he will rule the bimonthly, which will begin publication in February, ‘with a bit of a rod of iron’ to ensure that Tectonics is ‘where only original and important papers are published.’‘I'm going to be very strict with reviewers,’ Dewey explained in his quick British clip. ‘If the review does not come back to me within 10 days to 2 weeks, I'll review the paper myself. I'm also going to have a system whereby, if a paper needs major surgery after being refereed, it will be rejected. Papers will have to be in virtually publishable condition before they are first submitted,’ he said.

  11. A former Editor views the editorial process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeze, R. Allan

    It was at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco in December 1976, shortly after my appointment as coeditor of Water Resources Research that I first began to realize the strong emotional ties that exist between a scientific community and its journals. Feelings run high, regardless of whether they come from readers, contributors, reviewers, active scientists, or scientific administrators. Opinions are often positive, sometimes negative, usually a mixture of the two; but regardless of their tenor they are delivered to the editor, in person, usually fortissimo. From that day until this, conference life has never been dull. When I meet a colleague in the halls there is never a loss for words, no need to search for a topic of mutual interest; WRR is always there at the ready.

  12. Effects of crop residue cover resulting from tillage practices on LAI estimation of wheat canopies using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dehua; Yang, Tangwu; An, Shuqing

    2012-02-01

    Much research has been conducted seeking to reduce the noise interference from soil in remote sensing of vegetation, and thus more accurately predict plant biophysical parameters by developing different kinds of vegetation indices. However, few studies have examined the effect of residue cover on the estimation of leaf area index (LAI) using remote sensing techniques. Using the WinSail model along with ground measurements, this study sought to quantify the differences in spectral reflectance and commonly used ratio-based (NDVI and RVI), soil-adjusted (TSAVI and SAVI2) and hyperspectral (dRE and REIP) vegetation indices between wheat canopies with bare soil and rice residue as backgrounds and to identify the vegetation indices that represented the best combination of low sensitivity to residue cover and high sensitivity to variation in LAI. We found large variations in residue cover in wheat fields, with average cover of 6.70% and 45.9% for intensively tilled and untilled fields, respectively. Changing the background from soil to residue resulted in substantial changes in both reflectance and vegetation indices of canopies when LAI varied between 0.1 and 1.0, with average absolute values of relative percent differences (|RPD|) ranging from 4.21% to 19.03% for the six vegetation indices used in this study. We found that changes in the background from bare soil to rice residue would result in underestimation of LAI by NDVI, RVI, TSAVI, and SAVI2, and overestimation of LAI by dRE and REIP. More green leaves in the wheat canopy were covered by residue in untilled fields than in intensively tilled fields, with an average 8.57% obscuring rate when green cover was between 1.0% and 85%; this would lead to the underestimation of LAI by remote sensing techniques in untilled fields. Ultimately, we determined that dRE was the best choice of the six indices for predicting LAI because of its significant relationship with LAI and because it was least sensitive to residue effects

  13. Generating the Field: The Role of Editors in Disciplinary Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfe, Cynthia; Villanueva, Victor; Parks, Steve

    2017-01-01

    In the following conversation, conducted asynchronously through email, three current and former editors discuss the role of publishing in creating a disciplinary identity. Speaking from the academic (Villanueva), digital (Selfe), and community (Parks), and, often crossing these three categories, the editors discuss how the field has failed to…

  14. Journal Editor Perceptions of Universities: Some Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainardes, Emerson Wagner; Raposo, Mario; Alves, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Out of considerations as to the importance of university relationships with their various stakeholders, the primary objective of this research project was to identify the perceptions of academic journal editors regarding universities. Editors were asked to provide their perceptions on: (a) the relevance of universities to academic publications;…

  15. Peer reviews and the role of a journal editor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obtaining peer reviews for manuscripts submitted to scientific journals is becoming increasingly difficult. Changes to the system are necessary, and editors must cultivate and maintain a solid base of reviewers to help evaluate journal submissions. This article outlines some steps editors can and sh...

  16. A graphic editor for analyzing signal-transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Koike, T; Rzhetsky, A

    2000-12-23

    We describe a graphical editor designed specifically to facilitate analysis and visualization of complex signal-transduction pathways. The editor provides automatic layout of complex regulatory graphs and enables users easily to maintain, edit, and exchange publication-quality images of regulatory networks.

  17. The RAE and Publications: A Review of Journal Editors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talib, Ameen Ali

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed editors of academic journals about publication issues related to Britain's Research Assessment Exercise (RAE), a process of grading and funding universities based on published research output. Editors were asked about research quality and output, publication practices, academics' willingness to referee manuscripts, and proliferation of…

  18. How Newspaper Editors Reacted to "Post's" Pulitzer Prize Hoax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Douglas A.

    1982-01-01

    Reports the findings of a nationwide survey of newspaper editors, revealing that most thought that the Janet Cooke hoax had been poorly handled by the "Washington Post." Notes that most of the editors said their newspapers had systems of review for stories coming from anonymous sources. (FL)

  19. The RAE and Publications: A Review of Journal Editors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talib, Ameen Ali

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed editors of academic journals about publication issues related to Britain's Research Assessment Exercise (RAE), a process of grading and funding universities based on published research output. Editors were asked about research quality and output, publication practices, academics' willingness to referee manuscripts, and proliferation of…

  20. March 2017 Letters to the Editor-in-Chief.

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    Letters to the Editor-in-Chief of JOSPT as follows: "Regarding 'Unraveling the Complexity of Low Back Pain'" with Authors' Response "Beall's List Has Vanished: What Next?" with Editor-in-Chief Response J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(3):219-223. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0202.

  1. Gaussian processes uncertainty estimates in experimental Sentinel-2 LAI and leaf chlorophyll content retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrelst, Jochem; Rivera, Juan Pablo; Moreno, José; Camps-Valls, Gustavo

    2013-12-01

    ESA's upcoming Sentinel-2 (S2) Multispectral Instrument (MSI) foresees to provide continuity to land monitoring services by relying on optical payload with visible, near infrared and shortwave infrared sensors with high spectral, spatial and temporal resolution. This unprecedented data availability leads to an urgent need for developing robust and accurate retrieval methods, which ideally should provide uncertainty intervals for the predictions. Statistical learning regression algorithms are powerful candidats for the estimation of biophysical parameters from satellite reflectance measurements because of their ability to perform adaptive, nonlinear data fitting. In this paper, we focus on a new emerging technique in the field of Bayesian nonparametric modeling. We exploit Gaussian process regression (GPR) for retrieval, which is an accurate method that also provides uncertainty intervals along with the mean estimates. This distinct feature is not shared by other machine learning approaches. In view of implementing the regressor into operational monitoring applications, here the portability of locally trained GPR models was evaluated. Experimental data came from the ESA-led field campaign SPARC (Barrax, Spain). For various simulated S2 configurations (S2-10m, S2-20m and S2-60m) two important biophysical parameters were estimated: leaf chlorophyll content (LCC) and leaf area index (LAI). Local evaluation of an extended training dataset with more variation over bare soil sites led to improved LCC and LAI mapping with reduced uncertainties. GPR reached the 10% precision required by end users, with for LCC a NRMSE of 3.5-9.2% (r2: 0.95-0.99) and for LAI a NRMSE of 6.5-7.3% (r2: 0.95-0.96). The developed GPR models were subsequently applied to simulated Sentinel images over various sites. The associated uncertainty maps proved to be a good indicator for evaluating the robustness of the retrieval performance. The generally low uncertainty intervals over vegetated surfaces

  2. Development of a global LAI/ FAPAR estimation algorithm for JAXA's new earth observation satellite,GCOM-C1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Y.; Murakami, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Nasahara, K.; Kajiwara, K.; Honda, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) is planning to launch a new earth observation satellite, GCOM-C1 (Global Change Observation Mission 1st-Climate) in the Japanese Fiscal Year 2016. SGLI (Second generation GLobal Imager) is a radiometer, which has 17 channels from near ultraviolet to thermal infrared. Furthermore, it has the features, such as 250m spatial resolution, polarization, and multi-angle observation. In the GCOM-C1 land science team, vegetation index, above ground biomass, LAI (Leaf Area Index), FAPAR (Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation), etc. are scheduled to be generated from SGLI data as standard products. These are important in order to estimate terrestrial carbon cycle. In this study, we propose a new LAI and FAPAR estimation algorithm from SGLI data and the proposed algorithm was applied to Terra/ MODIS data. The relation between LAI and BRF (Bidirectional Reflectance Factor) in red and near infrared bands or FAPAR are dependent on crown cover ratio. Therefore, LUT (Look Up Table) of crown cover ratio, LAI and BRF in red and near infrared or FAPAR are created by FLiES which is 3-dimensional radiative transfer model (Kobayashi, H. and H. Iwabuchi (2008), A coupled 1-D atmosphere and 3-D canopy radiative transfer model for canopy reflectance, light environment, and photosynthesis simulation in a heterogeneous landscape, Remote Sensing of Environment, 112, 173-185). First, crown cover ratio is estimated from multiple land surface reflecntace in red and near infrared bands based on LUT of BRF in red and near infrared bands. Next, LAI and FAPAR are estimated from land surface reflectance in red and near infrared band based on estimated crown cover ratio and LUT of BRF in red and near infrared and FAPAR. As a result of applying Terra/ MODIS land surface reflectance product (MOD09), estimated LAI and FAPAR agreed with LAI and FAPAR observed at the AmeriFlux sites.

  3. JSME: a free molecule editor in JavaScript.

    PubMed

    Bienfait, Bruno; Ertl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A molecule editor, i.e. a program facilitating graphical input and interactive editing of molecules, is an indispensable part of every cheminformatics or molecular processing system. Today, when a web browser has become the universal scientific user interface, a tool to edit molecules directly within the web browser is essential. One of the most popular tools for molecular structure input on the web is the JME applet. Since its release nearly 15 years ago, however the web environment has changed and Java applets are facing increasing implementation hurdles due to their maintenance and support requirements, as well as security issues. This prompted us to update the JME editor and port it to a modern Internet programming language - JavaScript. The actual molecule editing Java code of the JME editor was translated into JavaScript with help of the Google Web Toolkit compiler and a custom library that emulates a subset of the GUI features of the Java runtime environment. In this process, the editor was enhanced by additional functionalities including a substituent menu, copy/paste, drag and drop and undo/redo capabilities and an integrated help. In addition to desktop computers, the editor supports molecule editing on touch devices, including iPhone, iPad and Android phones and tablets. In analogy to JME the new editor is named JSME. This new molecule editor is compact, easy to use and easy to incorporate into web pages. A free molecule editor written in JavaScript was developed and is released under the terms of permissive BSD license. The editor is compatible with JME, has practically the same user interface as well as the web application programming interface. The JSME editor is available for download from the project web page http://peter-ertl.com/jsme/

  4. JSME: a free molecule editor in JavaScript

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A molecule editor, i.e. a program facilitating graphical input and interactive editing of molecules, is an indispensable part of every cheminformatics or molecular processing system. Today, when a web browser has become the universal scientific user interface, a tool to edit molecules directly within the web browser is essential. One of the most popular tools for molecular structure input on the web is the JME applet. Since its release nearly 15 years ago, however the web environment has changed and Java applets are facing increasing implementation hurdles due to their maintenance and support requirements, as well as security issues. This prompted us to update the JME editor and port it to a modern Internet programming language - JavaScript. Summary The actual molecule editing Java code of the JME editor was translated into JavaScript with help of the Google Web Toolkit compiler and a custom library that emulates a subset of the GUI features of the Java runtime environment. In this process, the editor was enhanced by additional functionalities including a substituent menu, copy/paste, drag and drop and undo/redo capabilities and an integrated help. In addition to desktop computers, the editor supports molecule editing on touch devices, including iPhone, iPad and Android phones and tablets. In analogy to JME the new editor is named JSME. This new molecule editor is compact, easy to use and easy to incorporate into web pages. Conclusions A free molecule editor written in JavaScript was developed and is released under the terms of permissive BSD license. The editor is compatible with JME, has practically the same user interface as well as the web application programming interface. The JSME editor is available for download from the project web page http://peter-ertl.com/jsme/ PMID:23694746

  5. Representation of women as editors in the Cochrane collaboration.

    PubMed

    Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Mathew, Rebecca Joyce

    2014-12-01

    There is considerable gender disparity in editorial boards of medical journals. Being an editor in a Cochrane review group (CRG), like being an editor in a medical journal, is an indirect representation of one's reputation and leadership abilities in a particular specialty. The aim of the study was to analyze the representation of women editors on the editorial teams of CRG's and the Central Editorial Unit (CEU) of the Cochrane Collaboration. Information about editorial team members of CRGs and the CEU was extracted from respective websites. Gender of the individual was determined by inspection of names, individual profile description or photographs in the CRG or institutional webpage, social networking sites and internet search. Data was validated by two authors independently and differences sorted by consensus. A total of 788 editors across all CRGs and the CEU with an overall 371 females (47.1%) and 417 (52.9%) males were identified. of the CEU editors, 62.5% were females. There were 68 coordinating editors (35.3% females), and 62 managing editors (56% females), who provided leadership to the CRGs. Eighty-four percent of trial search coordinators were found to be females. Ten CRGs had 75% or more of its editors as females while 7 CRGs had less than or equal to 25% female editors. The representation of women editors in the Cochrane Collaboration was found to be better than in editorial boards of medical journals. There is still scope for improvement to ensure better gender diversity across all roles and in all CRG's. © 2014 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Relationship Between LAI and NDVI For IRS LISS and LANDSAT Tm Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R. K.; Prasad, T. S.; Vijayan, D.

    Owing to a highly non-linear relationship between leaf area index and normalized difference vegetation index, polynomials of orders 1 to 4 were fitted to LAI and NDVI for wheat and onion crops using the data collected over their crop growth cycles. It was found that fourth or higher order curve fit better for wheat data whereas polynomials of the order 2 or higher fit the data well for onion. Using the coefficients of the polynomials, NDVI values were computed for LISS-I/II and correlated with actual NDVI values and results were significant at 99% confidence level

  7. Integration of ALS and TLS for calibration and validation of LAI profiles from large footprint lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armston, J.; Tang, H.; Hancock, S.; Hofton, M. A.; Dubayah, R.; Duncanson, L.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Blair, J. B.; Disney, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) is designed to provide measurements of forest vertical structure and above-ground biomass density (AGBD) over tropical and temperate regions. The GEDI is a multi-beam waveform lidar that will acquire transects of forest canopy vertical profiles in conditions of up to 99% canopy cover. These are used to produce a number of canopy height and profile metrics to model habitat suitability and AGBD. These metrics include vertical leaf area index (LAI) profiles, which require some pre-launch refinement of large-footprint waveform processing methods for separating canopy and ground returns and estimation of their reflectance. Previous research developments in modelling canopy gap probability to derive canopy and ground reflectance from waveforms have primarily used data from small-footprint instruments, however development of a generalized spatial model with uncertainty will be useful for interpreting and modelling waveforms from large-footprint instruments such as the NASA Land Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS) with a view to implementation for GEDI. Here we present an analysis of waveform lidar data from the NASA Land Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS), which were acquired in Gabon in February 2016 to support the NASA/ESA AfriSAR campaign. AfriSAR presents a unique opportunity to test refined methods for retrieval of LAI profiles in high above-ground biomass rainforests (up to 600 Mg/ha) with dense canopies (>90% cover), where the greatest uncertainty exists. Airborne and Terrestrial Laser Scanning data (TLS) were also collected, enabling quantification of algorithm performance in plots of dense canopy cover. Refinement of canopy gap probability and LAI profile modelling from large-footprint lidar was based on solving for canopy and ground reflectance parameters spatially by penalized least-squares. The sensitivities of retrieved cover and LAI profiles to variation in canopy and ground reflectance showed improvement

  8. BOREAS RSS-4 1994 Southern Study Area Jack Pine LAI and FPAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Plummer, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The RSS-4 team collected several data sets related to leaf, plant, and stand physical, optical, and chemical properties. This data set contains leaf area indices and FPAR measurements that were taken at the three conifer sites in the BOREAS SSA during August 1993 and at the jack pine tower flux and a subset of auxiliary sites during July and August 1994. The measurements were made with LAI-2000 and Ceptometer instruments. The measurements were taken for the purpose of model parameterization and to test empirical relationships that were hypothesized between biophysical parameters and remotely sensed data. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  9. Academic Degradation and the Retreat of the Editors: Academic Irregularities and the Spreading of Academic Corruption from an Editor's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xun, Gong

    2007-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the grave academic crisis in China, editors have become the objects of wooing, favor-currying, connections-seeking, and collusions; they have been targeted for attacks, plots, extortions, and encroachments. Editing and publishing have become avenues for academic irregularities and academic corruption. Editors have the power…

  10. Academic Degradation and the Retreat of the Editors: Academic Irregularities and the Spreading of Academic Corruption from an Editor's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xun, Gong

    2007-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the grave academic crisis in China, editors have become the objects of wooing, favor-currying, connections-seeking, and collusions; they have been targeted for attacks, plots, extortions, and encroachments. Editing and publishing have become avenues for academic irregularities and academic corruption. Editors have the power…

  11. Martin Stutzmann: Editor, Teacher, Scientist and Friend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Manuel

    2005-03-01

    On 2 January 1995 Martin Stutzmann became Editor-in-Chief of physica status solidi, replacing Professor E. Gutsche, who had led the journal through the stormy period involving the fall of the Iron Curtain, the unification of Germany and the change in its Eastern part, where physica status solidi was based, from socialism as found in the real world (a German concept) to real world capitalism. In 1995 it was thought that the process had been completed (we should have known better!) and after the retirement of Prof. Gutsche the new owners of physica status solidi (Wiley-VCH) decided that a change in scientific management was desirable to adapt to the new socio-political facts and to insure the scientific continuity of the journal.Martin had moved in 1993 from my department at the Max-Planck-Institute to Munich where he soon displayed a tremendous amount of science man- agement ability during the build-up of the Walter Schottky Institute. The search for a successor as Edi- tor-in-Chief was not easy: the job was not very glamorous after the upheavals which had taken place in the editorial world following the political changes. Somebody in the Editorial Boards must have suggested Martin Stutzmann. I am sure that there was opposition: one usually looks for a well-established person ready to leave his direct involvement in science and take up a new endeavor of a more administrative nature. Nevertheless, the powers that be soon realized that Martin was an excellent, if somewhat unconventional candidate who had enough energy to remain a topnotch scientist and to lead the journal in the difficult times ahead: he was offered the job. In the negotiations that followed, he insisted in getting the administrative structures that would allow him to improve the battered quality of the journal and to continue his scientific productivity. Today we are happy to see that he succeeded in both endeavors. The journal has since grown in size and considerably improved its quality

  12. A data fusion Kalman filter algorithm to estimate leaf area index evolution by using Modis LAI and PROBA-V top of canopy synthesis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novelli, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is essential in ecosystem and agronomic studies, since it measures energy and gas exchanges between vegetation and atmosphere. In the last decades, LAI values have widely been estimated from passive remotely sensed data. Common approaches are based on semi-empirical/statistic techniques or on radiative transfer model inversion. Although the scientific community has been providing several LAI retrieval methods, the estimated results are often affected by noise and measurement uncertainties. The sequential data assimilation theory provides a theoretical framework to combine an imperfect model with incomplete observation data. In this document a data fusion Kalman filter algorithm is proposed in order to estimate the time evolution of LAI by combining MODIS LAI data and PROBA-V surface reflectance data. The reflectance data were linked to LAI by using the Reduced Simple Ratio index. The main working hypotheses were lacking input data necessary for climatic models and canopy reflectance models.

  13. Performance of SMAP, AMSR-E and LAI for weekly agricultural drought forecasting over continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Di; Mishra, Ashok K.; Yu, Zhongbo; Yang, Chuanguo; Konapala, Goutam; Vu, Tue

    2017-10-01

    This study applied support vector machines (SVMs) and data assimilation (DA) methods to investigate the performance of in-situ and remotely sensed products (i.e., leaf area index (LAI), AMSR-E and SMAP soil moisture retrievals) for near-real time agricultural drought forecasting for in-situ stations located in continental United States (CONUS). The agricultural drought was quantified using soil water deficit index (SWDI) derived based on available soil moisture and basic soil water parameters. It is observed that SVMs or SVM-DA with limited meteorological variables as inputs able to forecast SWDI at most of the in-situ stations up to 1-2-week lead time. Addition of remotely sensed products (i.e., LAI, AMSR-E, SMAP) either individually or simultaneously as inputs to SVMs can able to improve SWDI forecast at most of the stations where the strong relationship exists between LAI (and/or AMSR-E, SMAP) with SWDI. Such improvement can persist up to 2-4-week lead time at some of the stations. But the efficiency tends to decrease with the increase in lead time. The addition of both LAI and SMAP (AMSR-E) performs better than the independent addition of LAI or SMAP (AMSR-E). Typically, the performance of drought prediction varies at local scales; therefore it is difficult to generalize our findings at regional scale.

  14. Combined Use of Airborne Lidar and DBInSAR Data to Estimate LAI in Temperate Mixed Forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peduzzi, Alicia; Wynne, Randolph Hamilton; Thomas, Valerie A.; Nelson, Ross F.; Reis, James J.; Sanford, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether leaf area index (LAI) in temperate mixed forests is best estimated using multiple-return airborne laser scanning (lidar) data or dual-band, single-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar data (from GeoSAR) alone, or both in combination. In situ measurements of LAI were made using the LiCor LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer on 61 plots (21 hardwood, 36 pine, 4 mixed pine hardwood; stand age ranging from 12-164 years; mean height ranging from 0.4 to 41.2 m) in the Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest, Virginia, USA. Lidar distributional metrics were calculated for all returns and for ten one meter deep crown density slices (a new metric), five above and five below the mode of the vegetation returns for each plot. GeoSAR metrics were calculated from the X-band backscatter coefficients (four looks) as well as both X- and P-band interferometric heights and magnitudes for each plot. Lidar metrics alone explained 69% of the variability in LAI, while GeoSAR metrics alone explained 52%. However, combining the lidar and GeoSAR metrics increased the R2 to 0.77 with a CV-RMSE of 0.42. This study indicates the clear potential for X-band backscatter and interferometric height (both now available from spaceborne sensors), when combined with small-footprint lidar data, to improve LAI estimation in temperate mixed forests.

  15. Spatial Heterogeneity of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Its Temporal Course on Arable Land: Combining Field Measurements, Remote Sensing and Simulation in a Comprehensive Data Analysis Approach (CDAA).

    PubMed

    Reichenau, Tim G; Korres, Wolfgang; Montzka, Carsten; Fiener, Peter; Wilken, Florian; Stadler, Anja; Waldhoff, Guido; Schneider, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of leaf area to ground area (leaf area index, LAI) is an important state variable in ecosystem studies since it influences fluxes of matter and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere. As a basis for generating temporally continuous and spatially distributed datasets of LAI, the current study contributes an analysis of its spatial variability and spatial structure. Soil-vegetation-atmosphere fluxes of water, carbon and energy are nonlinearly related to LAI. Therefore, its spatial heterogeneity, i.e., the combination of spatial variability and structure, has an effect on simulations of these fluxes. To assess LAI spatial heterogeneity, we apply a Comprehensive Data Analysis Approach that combines data from remote sensing (5 m resolution) and simulation (150 m resolution) with field measurements and a detailed land use map. Test area is the arable land in the fertile loess plain of the Rur catchment on the Germany-Belgium-Netherlands border. LAI from remote sensing and simulation compares well with field measurements. Based on the simulation results, we describe characteristic crop-specific temporal patterns of LAI spatial variability. By means of these patterns, we explain the complex multimodal frequency distributions of LAI in the remote sensing data. In the test area, variability between agricultural fields is higher than within fields. Therefore, spatial resolutions less than the 5 m of the remote sensing scenes are sufficient to infer LAI spatial variability. Frequency distributions from the simulation agree better with the multimodal distributions from remote sensing than normal distributions do. The spatial structure of LAI in the test area is dominated by a short distance referring to field sizes. Longer distances that refer to soil and weather can only be derived from remote sensing data. Therefore, simulations alone are not sufficient to characterize LAI spatial structure. It can be concluded that a comprehensive picture of LAI spatial

  16. Estimation of LAI and above-ground biomass in deciduous forests: Western Ghats of Karnataka, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Nizalapur, Vyjayanthi; Jha, Chandra Shekhar

    2008-06-01

    This study demonstrates the potentials of IRS P6 LISS-IV high-resolution multispectral sensor (IGFOV ˜ 6 m)-based estimation of biomass in the deciduous forests in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. Regression equations describing the relationship between IRS P6 LISS-IV data-based vegetation index (NDVI) and field measured leaf area index (ELAI) and estimated above-ground biomass (EAGB) were derived. Remote sensing (RS) data-based leaf area index (PLAI) image is generated using regression equation based on NDVI and ELAI ( r2 = 0.68, p ≤ 0.05). RS-based above-ground biomass (PAGB) image was generated based on regression equation developed between PLAI and EAGB ( r2 = 0.63, p ≤ 0.05). The mean value of estimated above-ground biomass and RS-based above-ground biomass in the study area are 280(±72.5) and 297.6(±55.2) Mg ha -1, respectively. The regression models generated in the study between NDVI and LAI; LAI and biomass can also help in generating spatial biomass map using RS data alone. LISS-IV-based estimation of biophysical parameters can also be used for the validation of various coarse resolution satellite products derived from the ground-based measurements alone.

  17. ESDAPT - APT PROGRAMMING EDITOR AND INTERPRETER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premack, T.

    1994-01-01

    ESDAPT is a graphical programming environment for developing APT (Automatically Programmed Tool) programs for controlling numerically controlled machine tools. ESDAPT has a graphical user interface that provides the user with an APT syntax sensitive text editor and windows for displaying geometry and tool paths. APT geometry statement can also be created using menus and screen picks. ESDAPT interprets APT geometry statements and displays the results in its view windows. Tool paths are generated by batching the APT source to an APT processor (COSMIC P-APT recommended). The tool paths are then displayed in the view windows. Hardcopy output of the view windows is in color PostScript format. ESDAPT is written in C-language, yacc, lex, and XView for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS. ESDAPT requires 4Mb of disk space, 7Mb of RAM, and MIT's X Window System, Version 11 Release 4, or OpenWindows version 3 for execution. Program documentation in PostScript format and an executable for OpenWindows version 3 are provided on the distribution media. The standard distribution medium for ESDAPT is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (Sun QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. This program was developed in 1992.

  18. Editors' message--Hydrogeology Journal in 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voss, Clifford; Olcott, Perry; Schneider, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogeology Journal appeared in six issues containing a total of 710 pages and 48 major articles, including 31 Papers and 14 Reports, as well as some Technical Notes and Book Reviews. The number of submitted manuscripts continues to increase. The final issue of 2003 also contained the annual volume index. Hydrogeology Journal (HJ) is an international forum for hydrogeology and related disciplines and authors in 2003 were from about 28 countries. Articles advanced hydrogeologic science and described hydrogeologic systems in many regions worldwide. These articles focused on a variety of general topics and on studies of hydrogeology in 24 countries: Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, Chile, China, Denmark, France, India, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Portugal, Russia, South Africa, Switzerland, Turkey, and U.S.A. The Guest Editor of the 2003 HJ theme issue on “Hydromechanics in Geology and Geotechnics”, Ove Stephansson, assembled a valuable collection of technical reviews and research papers from eminent authors on important aspects of the subject area.

  19. Retirement of J. Gary Eden as Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadish, Chennupati; Jelinkova, Helena; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Dawson, Martin; Ermers, Ysabel

    2016-01-01

    After nine years of dedicated service as Editor-in-Chief of Progress in Quantum Electronics (PQE), J. Gary Eden has retired at the end of December 2015. During his term as the Editor-in-Chief, PQE has grown significantly in size and quality and he has given generously of his time in advising authors, referees, editors, and the journal staff. Gary is an exceptional scientist and a generous individual who has given so much to the community. He is always very positive in every situation, and has created positive environment and supported people with utmost enthusiasm.

  20. Martin Stutzmann: Editor, Teacher, Scientist and Friend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Manuel

    2005-02-01

    On 2 January 1995 Martin Stutzmann became Editor-in-Chief of physica status solidi, replacing Professor E. Gutsche, who had led the journal through the stormy period involving the fall of the Iron Curtain, the unification of Germany and the change in its Eastern part, where physica status solidi was based, from socialism as found in the real world (a German concept) to real world capitalism. In 1995 it was thought that the process had been completed (we should have known better!) and after the retirement of Prof. Gutsche the new owners of physica status solidi (Wiley-VCH) decided that a change in scientific management was desirable to adapt to the new socio-political facts and to insure the scientific continuity of the journal.Martin had moved in 1993 from my department at the Max-Planck-Institute to Munich where he soon displayed a tremendous amount of science man- agement ability during the build-up of the Walter Schottky Institute. The search for a successor as Edi- tor-in-Chief was not easy: the job was not very glamorous after the upheavals which had taken place in the editorial world following the political changes. Somebody in the Editorial Boards must have suggested Martin Stutzmann. I am sure that there was opposition: one usually looks for a well-established person ready to leave his direct involvement in science and take up a new endeavor of a more administrative nature. Nevertheless, the powers that be soon realized that Martin was an excellent, if somewhat unconventional candidate who had enough energy to remain a topnotch scientist and to lead the journal in the difficult times ahead: he was offered the job. In the negotiations that followed, he insisted in getting the administrative structures that would allow him to improve the battered quality of the journal and to continue his scientific productivity. Today we are happy to see that he succeeded in both endeavors. The journal has since grown in size and considerably improved its quality

  1. EDITORIAL: Incoming Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) is a journal that originated in the UK but is now rightly regarded as one of the pre-eminent international journals for the publication of material coming within its remit. It is 50 years old and its maturity is an outcome of the consistent support of high performing authors, a supportive and professional publishing house, dedicated referees, many vigorous and conscientious editorial boards and the collective input of the 10 previous Editors as listed in his incoming editorial (January 2000 issue) by the retiring Editor, Professor Alun Beddoe. The scientific climate and it associated publication modus operandi in the 1950s was very different from that at the current time and the journal has evolved to reflect this. Hence today the scope of content is somewhat broader, the size of the journal is vastly greater, the whole publication process is slicker and more efficient and a paper in PMB is highly prized by its authors and those who look to quality factors and impact. The quality of the journal still relies on the voluntary labour and expertise of its busy international referees and Board members. For many years I have tried to place my own research material in PMB and encourage my teams to do likewise, not only acknowledging the prestige of the journal but also because of the extraordinarily fast turnaround time of all the processes without any loss of quality. This serves us very well and the publishing team are to be congratulated. Some things seem to change more slowly or not at all, however. The prediction, when I started my research career, that books and journals would be dinosaurs by now has manifestly not come true and, whilst most of us are addicted (and why not?) to the electronic ways of doing things that can be done by more traditional ways, PMB and a packet of reprints from time to time arriving by post still has a reassuring feel despite the fact that the papers have been `on-line' for a while before. An incoming

  2. Editorial independence and the editor-owner relationship: good editors never die, they just cross the line.

    PubMed

    Lapeña, J F

    2009-12-01

    The concept of editorial freedom or independence is examined in the light of the editor-owner relationship. Like individual and national freedom or independence, it is a rhetorical concept whose realisation flows from internal achievement as much as it depends on external validation. This freedom entails roles and responsibilities embodied in specific codes of practice for editors, such as the guidelines espoused by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Association of Medical Editors. The calling to embody these guidelines makes editing a vocation that demands isolation and distancing, separation and solitude. It involves bracketing one's biases, prejudgments and preconceptions. With such detachment comes real freedom; one that requires a moral fibre and trustworthiness that uphold truth and right, whether in full view of public scrutiny, or in the aloneness of private secrecy. The stereotypical tension between academic and commercial concerns highlights the editor-owner relationship, and bears directly on editorial independence. In practice, journal owners overstep their prerogatives. The absence of clear contracts defining editorial independence and the lack of established mechanisms governing the editor-owner relationship affect many small- to medium-sized journals in developing countries. Even large journals in developed and democratic nations or totalitarian states and societies are not spared. At the end of the day, editorial freedom exists only insofar as it is tolerated, or until editors cross the line.

  3. Bibliography or Bust: The "Angst" of Scholarly Editors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Richard Hauer

    1980-01-01

    Provides evidence indicating not only that the market for articles on literature and language is saturated with submissions, but that the glut creates burgeoning problems for editors, including the problem of rejecting publishable items. (RL)

  4. The Letters Not Sent by a Journal Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-04-01

    In the late hours of the night, even the most conscientious of journal editors may slip into writing imaginary letters to cherished authors and reviewers. Here are some of the letters that I composed:

  5. ANNOUNCEMENT: Greetings from the Editor and Publisher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wäppling, Roger; Williams, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Physica Scripta is an international physics journal published for the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on behalf of the Nordic Science Academies and Physical Societies. This issue marks the beginning of the partnership between the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and Institute of Physics Publishing (IOP). We look forward to a fruitful relationship in which Physica Scripta can profit from the international reach of IOP. Authors and readers will benefit from advance publication of articles on the web prior to receiving each month's journal issue. The peer-review system will continue to be managed by Professor Roger Wäppling who will assess each paper before assigning it to an external editor or sending it for refereeing. IOP will receive new article submissions and generate electronic documents suitable for use in the refereeing process. The editorial office in Sweden will then be responsible for these manuscripts up to the final publication decision. Accepted articles will be sent to IOP for copy-editing, typesetting, production and distribution. We aim to provide our authors, referees and readers with an enhanced service for this well-established journal. IOP will maintain and augment Physica Scripta's record in publishing a broad range of high-quality research papers and we will continue to publish Topical Issues as supplements to the regular 12 issues. The popular Comments articles will continue to be published in conjunction with regular papers under this new partnership. We hope that our subscribers will continue to enjoy reading Physica Scripta as a valuable resource for general physics research.

  6. EDITORIAL: A Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, R. P.

    1981-04-01

    As the new Editor of Metrologia, I welcome this opportunity to greet the readers, to say a few words on hopes and plans, and to make both a plea and promise. The plea arises from a perception that, despite its sixteen years of existence, this journal does not yet enjoy a status of intimate familiarity throughout the world community of physicists. Nevertheless, having been established as a vehicle for disseminating knowledge on all matters metrological, it offers a unique communication and archival resource to those who are active in advancing the science (and the art) of accurate measurement. Therefore I beseech all readers to lose no opportunity to submit their finest metrology research reports and their most penetrating metrological ruminations for publication here and—highly important—to encourage their unaware colleagues to do likewise. And, as a journal cannot flourish which is not fully responsive to the needs of its clientele, my promise is to bend every effort to achieving prompt and careful review of your submissions and rapid publication for those accepted. It is my hope and intention, furthermore, to bring about a measure of increased variety of content through occasional seminal review articles, news of major publications and forthcoming conferences, news of current research and development that should be of major interest to the readership well before the publication of its results; and through the inclusion of short communications on research, letters and topics of wide interest, and comments on articles published. In order to successfully promote these aims, your specific contributions and your suggestions for improvements are enthusiastically solicited. Finally, let me record my gratitude to the distinguished scientists who have agreed to serve for a term on the Editorial Board, to assist me in my task and to labour in the interests of you all. Each member of that Board stands ready to assist the readership on any matter pertaining to

  7. LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER products derived from AVHRR long time series: principles and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verger, A.; Baret, F.; Weiss, M.; Lacaze, R.; Makhmara, H.; Pacholczyk, P.; Smets, B.; Kandasamy, S.; Vermote, E.

    2012-04-01

    Continuous and long term global monitoring of the terrestrial biosphere has draught an intense interest in the recent years in the context of climate and global change. Developing methodologies for generating historical data records from data collected with different satellite sensors over the past three decades by taking benefits from the improvements identified in the processing of the new generation sensors is a new central issue in remote sensing community. In this context, the Bio-geophysical Parameters (BioPar) service within Geoland2 project (http://www.geoland2.eu) aims at developing pre-operational infrastructures for providing global land products both in near real time and off-line mode with long time series. In this contribution, we describe the principles of the GEOLAND algorithm for generating long term datasets of three key biophysical variables, leaf area index (LAI), Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetic Active Radiation (FAPAR) and cover fraction (FCOVER), that play a key role in several processes, including photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration. LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER are produced globally from AVHRR Long Term Data Record (LTDR) for the 1981-2000 period at 0.05° spatial resolution and 10 days temporal sampling frequency. The proposed algorithm aims to ensure robustness of the derived long time series and consistency with the ones developed in the recent years, and particularly with GEOLAND products derived from VEGETATION sensor. The approach is based on the capacity of neural networks to learn a particular biophysical product (GEOLAND) from reflectances from another sensor (AVHRR normalized reflectances in the red and near infrared bands). Outliers due to possible cloud contamination or residual atmospheric correction are iteratively eliminated. Prior information based on the climatology is used to get more robust estimates. A specific gap filing and smoothing procedure was applied to generate continuous and smooth time series of decadal

  8. Sources of Uncertainty in the Prediction of LAI / fPAR from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dungan, Jennifer L.; Ganapol, Barry D.; Brass, James A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    To explicate the sources of uncertainty in the prediction of biophysical variables over space, consider the general equation: where z is a variable with values on some nominal, ordinal, interval or ratio scale; y is a vector of input variables; u is the spatial support of y and z ; x and u are the spatial locations of y and z , respectively; f is a model and B is the vector of the parameters of this model. Any y or z has a value and a spatial extent which is called its support. Viewed in this way, categories of uncertainty are from variable (e.g. measurement), parameter, positional. support and model (e.g. structural) sources. The prediction of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR) are examples of z variables predicted using model(s) as a function of y variables and spatially constant parameters. The MOD15 algorithm is an example of f, called f(sub 1), with parameters including those defined by one of six biome types and solar and view angles. The Leaf Canopy Model (LCM)2, a nested model that combines leaf radiative transfer with a full canopy reflectance model through the phase function, is a simpler though similar radiative transfer approach to f(sub 1). In a previous study, MOD15 and LCM2 gave similar results for the broadleaf forest biome. Differences between these two models can be used to consider the structural uncertainty in prediction results. In an effort to quantify each of the five sources of uncertainty and rank their relative importance for the LAI/fPAR prediction problem, we used recent data for an EOS Core Validation Site in the broadleaf biome with coincident surface reflectance, vegetation index, fPAR and LAI products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). Uncertainty due to support on the input reflectance variable was characterized using Landsat ETM+ data. Input uncertainties were propagated through the LCM2 model and compared with published uncertainties from the MOD15

  9. Validation of Landsat 8 satellite-derived LAI from field measurements in a durum-wheat cropped area in south-eastern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castrignano, A.; Buttafuoco, G.; Toscano, P.; Rinaldi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the key biophysical variables to describe land surface processes of fundamental importance for vegetation, such as photosynthesis, transpiration and energy balance. Current spatial missions allow to estimate LAI at global scale, however product validation is needed for its reliable use. In this paper, a methodology is described to derive reference LAI maps from ground-based measurements at the JECAM site of Capitanata using Landsat 8 imagery as auxiliary information and to estimate prediction uncertainty. LAI was measured with LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer (LI-COR) in 30 experimental sampling units (ESU) of 10 m by 10 m size within a polygon of about 3 km by 3 km size. Two surveys were carried out in 2014: on March 18-20 and on May 9-13. To integrate secondary finer-resolution information in primary sparse variable modelling, multicollocated cokriging was used, where the secondary variable for cokriging estimate is used at the target location and also at all the locations where the primary variable is defined within the neighbourhood of interpolation. To assess prediction uncertainty, Confidence Interval (CI) was calculated and in order to make the values comparable the relative CI was calculated by dividing by the corresponding LAI estimation and assumed as a quality index of LAI product. LAI maps were produced for the two selected dates and from a comparison between radiometric and estimated LAI maps, it results a general high consistency with Landsat 8 imagery. The quality maps derived from LAI estimator for the two dates with overlaid the locations of the sample data points show that to the pixels located near the samples are attributed a quality index of about 40-50% but, as the distance increases, the uncertainty becomes too large. The poor results are probably due to the too coarse sampling, with large areas without any ground-truth data of LAI.

  10. The WebACS - An Accessible Graphical Editor.

    PubMed

    Parker, Stefan; Nussbaum, Gerhard; Pölzer, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    This paper is about the solution to accessibility problems met when implementing a graphical editor, a major challenge being the comprehension of the relationships between graphical components, which needs to be guaranteed for blind and vision impaired users. In the concrete case the HTML5 canvas and Javascript were used. Accessibility was reached by implementing a list view of elements, which also enhances the usability of the editor.

  11. Adapting a thesis to publication style: meeting editors' expectations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S H

    1996-01-01

    Every year hundreds of thesis reports are completed by graduate students. Many of these end up on nursing journal editors' desks, only to be rejected. What characteristics of a thesis lead to rejection? How can authors develop quality research manuscripts? How can faculty teach graduate students the difference between a thesis and manuscript. This article answers these questions by providing advice from 15 critical care and research journal editors.

  12. Substrate Utilization in the Critically Ill (Letter to the Editor)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    pen.sagepub.com/ Nutrition Journal of Parenteral and Enteral http://pen.sagepub.com/content/33/1/111 The online version of this article can be found at: DOI...Published by: http://www.sagepublications.com On behalf of: The American Society for Parenteral & Enteral Nutrition can be found at:Journal of...the Editor Dear Editor, Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Volume 33 Number 1 January/February 2009 111 © 2009 American Society for Parenteral

  13. ZED- A LINE EDITOR FOR THE DEC VAX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    The ZED editor for the DEC VAX is a simple, yet powerful line editor for text, program source code, and non-binary data. Line editors can be superior to screen editors in some cases, such as executing complex multiple or conditional commands, or editing via slow modem lines. ZED excels in the area of text processing by using procedure files. For example, such procedures can reformat a file of addresses or remove all comment lines from a FORTRAN program. In addition to command files, ZED also features versatile search qualifiers, global changes, conditionals, on-line help, hexadecimal mode, space compression, looping, logical combinations of search strings, journaling, visible control characters, and automatic detabbing. The ZED editor was originally developed at Cambridge University in London and has been continuously enhanced since 1976. Users of the Cambridge implementation have devised such elaborate ZED procedures as chess games, calculators, and programs for evaluating Pi. This implementation of ZED strives to maintain the characteristics of the Cambridge editor. A complete ZED manual is included on the tape. ZED is written entirely in C for either batch or interactive execution on the DEC VAX under VMS 4.X and requires 80,896 bytes of memory. This program was released in 1988 and updated in 1989.

  14. ZED- A LINE EDITOR FOR THE DEC VAX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    The ZED editor for the DEC VAX is a simple, yet powerful line editor for text, program source code, and non-binary data. Line editors can be superior to screen editors in some cases, such as executing complex multiple or conditional commands, or editing via slow modem lines. ZED excels in the area of text processing by using procedure files. For example, such procedures can reformat a file of addresses or remove all comment lines from a FORTRAN program. In addition to command files, ZED also features versatile search qualifiers, global changes, conditionals, on-line help, hexadecimal mode, space compression, looping, logical combinations of search strings, journaling, visible control characters, and automatic detabbing. The ZED editor was originally developed at Cambridge University in London and has been continuously enhanced since 1976. Users of the Cambridge implementation have devised such elaborate ZED procedures as chess games, calculators, and programs for evaluating Pi. This implementation of ZED strives to maintain the characteristics of the Cambridge editor. A complete ZED manual is included on the tape. ZED is written entirely in C for either batch or interactive execution on the DEC VAX under VMS 4.X and requires 80,896 bytes of memory. This program was released in 1988 and updated in 1989.

  15. EzEditor: a versatile sequence alignment editor for both rRNA- and protein-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yoon-Seong; Lee, Kihyun; Park, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Bong-Soo; Cho, Yong-Joon; Ha, Sung-Min; Chun, Jongsik

    2014-02-01

    EzEditor is a Java-based molecular sequence editor allowing manipulation of both DNA and protein sequence alignments for phylogenetic analysis. It has multiple features optimized to connect initial computer-generated multiple alignment and subsequent phylogenetic analysis by providing manual editing with reference to biological information specific to the genes under consideration. It provides various functionalities for editing rRNA alignments using secondary structure information. In addition, it supports simultaneous editing of both DNA sequences and their translated protein sequences for protein-coding genes. EzEditor is, to our knowledge, the first sequence editing software designed for both rRNA- and protein-coding genes with the visualization of biologically relevant information and should be useful in molecular phylogenetic studies. EzEditor is based on Java, can be run on all major computer operating systems and is freely available from http://sw.ezbiocloud.net/ezeditor/.

  16. Exact steady state manifold of a boundary driven spin-1 Lai-Sutherland chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilievski, Enej; Prosen, Tomaž

    2014-05-01

    We present an explicit construction of a family of steady state density matrices for an open integrable spin-1 chain with bilinear and biquadratic interactions, also known as the Lai-Sutherland model, driven far from equilibrium by means of two oppositely polarizing Markovian dissipation channels localized at the boundary. The steady state solution exhibits n+1 fold degeneracy, for a chain of length n, due to existence of (strong) Liouvillian U(1) symmetry. The latter can be exploited to introduce a chemical potential and define a grand canonical nonequilibrium steady state ensemble. The matrix product form of the solution entails an infinitely-dimensional representation of a non-trivial Lie algebra (semidirect product of sl2 and a non-nilpotent radical) and hints to a novel Yang-Baxter integrability structure.

  17. BRF/LAI linkages for the Sua Pan and Skukuza sites, Safari 2000 Dry Season Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmlinger, M.; Buermann, W.; Privette, J. L.

    2001-12-01

    The Safari 2000 campaigns focused on land-atmosphere processes and the impact of regional burning on aerosols and aerosol transport. An important factor is estimating the extent and nature of the biomass available. Multi-angle data, such as that obtained from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) provide unique data sets towards discerning surface properties from remote platforms. MISR operated during SAFARI 2000, in addition to in-situ measurements such as those acquired from the PARABOLA dual-hemispheric scanner. These data will be presented, and compared. Discussion as to how multi-angle information can be used to retrieve surface bi-directional reflectance (BRF) from a single observational position, and its relation to Leaf Area Index (LAI) is presented with empirical results.

  18. Emplacement of the most recent lava flows on Hualālai Volcano, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kauahikaua, James P.; Cashman, K.; Clague, D.; Champion, D.; Hagstrum, J.

    2002-01-01

    A detailed field and petrologic study of the ca. 1800 a.d. flows at Hualālai Volcano documents at least two eruptive episodes, the Hu‘ehu‘e flow field ending in 1801, and the Ka‘ūpūlehu flow several decades earlier. The morphology and stratigraphy of the Ka‘ūpūlehu flow require an emplacement duration of several days to weeks. Based on a comparison with recent eruptive activity at Mauna Loa volcano, the eruption cannot have occurred at the anomalously high rate (104–105 m3/s) proposed by previous workers. The hummocky flow surface of the later phase of the Hu‘ehu‘e eruption suggests a duration of months, based on a comparison with recent eruptive activity at Kīlauea Volcano. Although none of the ca. 1800 flows show evidence for extraordinarily fast emplacement or unusual fluid rheologies, both flows show unusual features. The abundant xenoliths for which the Ka‘ūpūlehu flow is famous were transported in numerous episodes of deposition and remobilization, during which they eroded the channel systems through which they traveled. Lava transport in proximal and medial regions of both flow fields was probably through lava tubes, as evidenced by preserved tubes and by the prevalence of pāhoehoe-lined channels that require thermally efficient transport of lava over great distances. Both flows also show abundant evidence for re-occupation of older cones and lava tubes, a characteristic that may typify infrequent eruptions of older volcanic systems. Although lava flows from Hualālai Volcano do not show anomalous eruptive behavior, they pose a substantial hazard for coastal communities of Kona.

  19. EPIC-Simulated and MODIS-Derived Leaf Area Index (LAI) Comparisons Across mMltiple Spatial Scales RSAD Oral Poster based session

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is an important parameter in assessing vegetation structure for characterizing forest canopies over large areas at broad spatial scales using satellite remote sensing data. However, satellite-derived LAI products can be limited by obstructed atmospheric cond...

  20. EPIC-Simulated and MODIS-Derived Leaf Area Index (LAI) Comparisons Across mMltiple Spatial Scales RSAD Oral Poster based session

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is an important parameter in assessing vegetation structure for characterizing forest canopies over large areas at broad spatial scales using satellite remote sensing data. However, satellite-derived LAI products can be limited by obstructed atmospheric cond...

  1. Intercomparison and validation of MODIS and GLASS leaf area index (LAI) products over mountain areas: A case study in southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Huaan; Li, Ainong; Bian, Jinhu; Nan, Xi; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Zhengjian; Yin, Gaofei

    2017-03-01

    The validation study of leaf area index (LAI) products over rugged surfaces not only gives additional insights into data quality of LAI products, but deepens understanding of uncertainties regarding land surface process models depended on LAI data over complex terrain. This study evaluated the performance of MODIS and GLASS LAI products using the intercomparison and direct validation methods over southwestern China. The spatio-temporal consistencies, such as the spatial distributions of LAI products and their statistical relationship as a function of topographic indices, time, and vegetation types, respectively, were investigated through intercomparison between MODIS and GLASS products during the period 2011-2013. The accuracies and change ranges of these two products were evaluated against available LAI reference maps over 10 sampling regions which standed for typical vegetation types and topographic gradients in southwestern China. The results show that GLASS LAI exhibits higher percentage of good quality data (i.e. successful retrievals) and smoother temporal profiles than MODIS LAI. The percentage of successful retrievals for MODIS and GLASS is vulnerable to topographic indices, especially to relief amplitude. Besides, the two products do not capture seasonal dynamics of crop, especially in spring over heterogeneously hilly regions. The yearly mean LAI differences between MODIS and GLASS are within ±0.5 for 64.70% of the total retrieval pixels over southwestern China. The spatial distribution of mean differences and temporal profiles of these two products are inclined to be dominated by vegetation types other than topographic indices. The spatial and temporal consistency of these two products is good over most area of grasses/cereal crops; however, it is poor for evergreen broadleaf forest. MODIS presents more reliable change range of LAI than GLASS through comparison with fine resolution reference maps over most of sampling regions. The accuracies of direct

  2. Leaf Area Index (LAI) in different type of agroforestry systems based on hemispherical photographs in Cidanau Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur Khairiah, Rahmi; Setiawan, Yudi; Budi Prasetyo, Lilik; Ayu Permatasari, Prita

    2017-01-01

    Ecological functions of agroforestry systems have perceived benefit to people around Cidanau Watershed, especially in the protection of water quality. The main causes of the problems encountered in the Cidanau Watershed are associated with the human factors, especially encroachment and conversion of forest into farmland. The encroachment has made most forest in Cidanau Watershed become bare land. To preserve the ecological function of agroforestry systems in Cidanau Watershed, monitoring of the condition of the vegetation canopy in agroforestry systems is really needed. High intensity thinning of crown density due to deforestation can change stand leaf area index dramatically. By knowing LAI, we can assess the condition of the vegetation canopy in agroforestry systems. LAI in this research was obtained from Hemispherical Photographs analysis using the threshold method in HemiView Canopy Analysis Software. Our research results indicate that there are six types of agroforestry in Cidanau Watershed i.e. Sengon Agroforestry, Clove Agroforestry, Melinjo Agroforestry, Chocolate Agroforestry, Coffee Agroforestry, and Complex Agroforestry. Several factors potentially contribute to variations in the value of LAI in different types of agroforestry. The simple assumptions about differences ranges of LAI values on six types of agroforestry is closely related to leaf area and plant population density.

  3. Comparison of regression and geostatistical methods for mapping Leaf Area Index (LAI) with Landsat ETM+ data over a boreal forest.

    Treesearch

    Mercedes Berterretche; Andrew T. Hudak; Warren B. Cohen; Thomas K. Maiersperger; Stith T. Gower; Jennifer Dungan

    2005-01-01

    This study compared aspatial and spatial methods of using remote sensing and field data to predict maximum growing season leaf area index (LAI) maps in a boreal forest in Manitoba, Canada. The methods tested were orthogonal regression analysis (reduced major axis, RMA) and two geostatistical techniques: kriging with an external drift (KED) and sequential Gaussian...

  4. Architecture of the Black Moshannon forest canopy measured by hemispherical photographs and a LI-COR LAI-2000 sensor

    Treesearch

    Y. S. Wang; J. Welles; D. R. Miller; D. E. Anderson; G. Heisler; M. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Non-destructive measurements of light penetration were made at 10 heights in the canopy on twelve different sites in the PA oak forest where the Blackmo 88 spray-micrometeorological experiment was conducted. Vertical profiles of Leaf Area Index, LAI, were calculated from these measurements, and the data were used to define the spatial variability of the forest canopy...

  5. EDITORIAL: Incoming Editor-in-Chief Incoming Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, David

    2012-01-01

    It is a pleasure and an honour for me to be taking over as Editor-in-Chief of Measurement Science and Technology. MST is well known across research communities worldwide as a leading journal in which to publish new techniques and instrumentation. It has gained this enviable position largely because of the excellent guidance of its Editorial Board and dedicated staff at Institute of Physics Publishing over many years. I want to highlight in particular the contribution of the outgoing Editor Peter Hauptmann, and other Editors before him, in making the journal truly international. We thank Peter immensely for all his hard work in leading the journal, having exceptionally served two terms, each of five years. I come into the post of Editor at a very interesting and challenging time for research. The global recession is leading to cuts in research funding in many countries, researchers and their outputs are coming under closer scrutiny than ever before, and more is being expected of them. Journals play a critical role in monitoring and maintaining research standards, but we should be careful not to assume that journal Impact Factor is the sole measure of research quality. Although expediency may sometimes demand it, Impact Factor, as practitioners know, is subject dependent. One of the great things about science and technology for me is its level playing field. The key point is still innovation no matter where the work is done or where it is published. MST has a long pedigree of being the natural home of the highest quality papers from leading researchers wishing to report novel instrumentation and techniques. 2013 will mark the 90th anniversary of MST and we look forward to celebrating in style its sustained success. I recall with pride the first paper I published in Journal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments (as MST was previously titled) back in 1977. The paper reported the design and application of an early fluorescence lifetime spectrometer that I had constructed

  6. Generating pseudo large footprint waveforms from small footprint full-waveform airborne LiDAR data for the layered retrieval of LAI in orchards.

    PubMed

    Li, Wang; Niu, Zheng; Li, Jing; Chen, Hanyue; Gao, Shuai; Wu, Mingquan; Li, Dong

    2016-05-02

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a key parameter for the study of biogeochemical cycles in ecosystems. Remote sensing techniques have been widely used to estimate LAIs in a wide range of vegetation types. However, limited by the sensor detection capability, considerable fewer studies investigated the layered estimation of LAIs in the vertical direction, which can significantly affect the precision evaluation of vegetation biophysical and biochemical processes. This study tried to generate a kind of pseudo large footprint waveform from the small footprint full-waveform airborne LiDAR data by an aggregation approach. The layered distribution of canopy heights and LAIs were successfully retrieved based on the large footprint waveform data in an agricultural landscape of orchards with typical multi-layer vegetation covers. The Gaussian fitting was conducted on the normalized large footprint waveforms to identify the vertical positions for different vegetation layers. Then, the gap theory was applied to retrieve the layered LAIs. Statistically significant simple linear regression models were fitted between the LiDAR-retrieved and field-observed values for the canopy heights and LAIs in different layers. Satisfactory results were obtained with a root mean square error of 0.36 m for the overstorey canopy height (R2 = 0.82), 0.29 m for the understory canopy height (R2 = 0.76), 0.28 for overstorey LAI (R2 = 0.75), 0.40 for understory LAI (R2 = 0.64), and 0.38 for total LAI (R2 = 0.69), respectively. To conclude, estimating the layered LAIs in the multi-layer agriculture orchards from the pseudo large footprint waveforms is feasible and the estimation errors are acceptable, which will provide some new ideas and methods for the quantitative remote sensing with vegetation.

  7. Assessing need for pharmacist involvement to improve care coordination for patients on LAI antipsychotics transitioning from hospital to home: A work system approach.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Olufunmilola; Myers, Michelle N; Brothers, Amanda L; Montgomery, Jamie; Norman, Bryan A; Fabian, Tanya

    The use of Long-Acting Injectable (LAI) antipsychotic medications has increased for patients with Serious Mental Illness (SMI). Care coordination for this population is complex, and pharmacist involvement may improve and support long-term medication adherence and patient outcomes. (1) Examine pharmacists' role in addressing care coordination and adherence challenges for patients taking Long-Acting Injectable (LAI) antipsychotics; and (2) explore patients' medication use experiences with LAI antipsychotics and educational needs. This project utilized a holistic work systems approach to assess the usefulness of implementing a pharmacist-led intervention to improve care coordination for patients taking LAI antipsychotics. Data collection and analyses were guided by the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model. Data were collected using interviews with healthcare team members and patients taking LAI antipsychotics and retrospective chart reviews at a psychiatric hospital in Southwestern Pennsylvania. Data collection elicited information about LAI care coordination, the pharmacist's role, and patients' experiences. Content and thematic analyses were conducted to identify opportunities to improve quality of care and patient outcomes. Sixteen healthcare team members and six patients were interviewed. Twenty patient charts were reviewed to examine the care coordination process. Four themes of the workflow process emerged: pharmacist consultation, in-hospital LAI administration, discharge planning, and outpatient treatment. Key challenges identified included inadequate communication, limited knowledge, and the need for standardized roles. Most patients did not know the name of their LAI antipsychotic and did not recall receiving medication counseling, but were interested in discussing medication concerns with pharmacists. There is a need for improved communication during LAI care coordination, targeted education for healthcare team members, and

  8. An Update: 1976 and 1987 Editors' Predictions of Audience Reactions to Videotex and A Comparison: 1987 Audience Reactions and 1976 and 1987 Editors' Predictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Lucinda D.

    To discover if editors' perceptions of audience opinions had changed and to determine the accuracy of editors' predictions regarding readers' reactions to using videotex, a 1987 study repeated a 1976 survey of Associated Press managing editors, and compared the responses with the original survey results. Surveys were sent to 302 Associated Press…

  9. Writing filter processes for the SAGA editor, appendix G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirslis, Peter A.

    1985-01-01

    The SAGA editor provides a mechanism by which separate processes can be invoked during an editing session to traverse portions of the parse tree being edited. These processes, termed filter processes, read, analyze, and possibly transform the parse tree, returning the result to the editor. By defining new commands with the editor's user defined command facility, which invoke filter processes, authors of filter can provide complex operations as simple commands. A tree plotter, pretty printer, and Pascal tree transformation program were already written using this facility. The filter processes are introduced, parse tree structure is described and the library interface made available to the programmer. Also discussed is how to compile and run filter processes. Examples are presented to illustrate aspect of each of these areas.

  10. SIRE: A Simple Interactive Rule Editor for NICBES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bykat, Alex

    1988-01-01

    To support evolution of domain expertise, and its representation in an expert system knowledge base, a user-friendly rule base editor is mandatory. The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES), a prototype of an expert system for the Hubble Space Telescope power storage management system, does not provide such an editor. In the following, a description of a Simple Interactive Rule Base Editor (SIRE) for NICBES is described. The SIRE provides a consistent internal representation of the NICBES knowledge base. It supports knowledge presentation and provides a user-friendly and code language independent medium for rule addition and modification. The SIRE is integrated with NICBES via an interface module. This module provides translation of the internal representation to Prolog-type rules (Horn clauses), latter rule assertion, and a simple mechanism for rule selection for its Prolog inference engine.

  11. JGR-Solid Earth and Planets editor Seth A. Stein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Seth A. Stein, one of the editors of the Journal of Geophysical Research—Solid Earth and Planets, says that his approach to editing the journal is based on the premise that authors, reviewers, and editors are all drawn from the same community: the journal's readers. “We all want JGR to publish interesting papers of the highest possible quality. Each of us believes that the papers we review are improved by our comments. It follows, although it is a little harder for most of us to accept, that our own papers generally contain better science and are more useful to readers as a result of reviews,” Stein told Eos.Stein, an associate professor of geological sciences at Northwestern University (Evanston, Ill.), is one of the seven editors of JGR—Solid Earth and Planets for 1987 and 1988 (see box). His specialties are tectonophysics and seismology.

  12. Core competencies for scientific editors of biomedical journals: consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Moher, David; Galipeau, James; Alam, Sabina; Barbour, Virginia; Bartolomeos, Kidist; Baskin, Patricia; Bell-Syer, Sally; Cobey, Kelly D; Chan, Leighton; Clark, Jocalyn; Deeks, Jonathan; Flanagin, Annette; Garner, Paul; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Groves, Trish; Gurusamy, Kurinchi; Habibzadeh, Farrokh; Jewell-Thomas, Stefanie; Kelsall, Diane; Lapeña, José Florencio; MacLehose, Harriet; Marusic, Ana; McKenzie, Joanne E; Shah, Jay; Shamseer, Larissa; Straus, Sharon; Tugwell, Peter; Wager, Elizabeth; Winker, Margaret; Zhaori, Getu

    2017-09-11

    Scientific editors are responsible for deciding which articles to publish in their journals. However, we have not found documentation of their required knowledge, skills, and characteristics, or the existence of any formal core competencies for this role. We describe the development of a minimum set of core competencies for scientific editors of biomedical journals. The 14 key core competencies are divided into three major areas, and each competency has a list of associated elements or descriptions of more specific knowledge, skills, and characteristics that contribute to its fulfillment. We believe that these core competencies are a baseline of the knowledge, skills, and characteristics needed to perform competently the duties of a scientific editor at a biomedical journal.

  13. Can key vegetation parameters be retrieved at the large-scale using LAI satellite products and a generic modelling approach ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewaele, Helene; Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Carrer, Dominique; Laanaia, Nabil

    2016-04-01

    In the context of climate change, the need to assess and predict the impact of droughts on vegetation and water resources increases. The generic approaches permitting the modelling of continental surfaces at large-scale has progressed in recent decades towards land surface models able to couple cycles of water, energy and carbon. A major source of uncertainty in these generic models is the maximum available water content of the soil (MaxAWC) usable by plants which is constrained by the rooting depth parameter and unobservable at the large-scale. In this study, vegetation products derived from the SPOT/VEGETATION satellite data available since 1999 are used to optimize the model rooting depth over rainfed croplands and permanent grasslands at 1 km x 1 km resolution. The inter-annual variability of the Leaf Area Index (LAI) is simulated over France using the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere, CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs) generic land surface model and a two-layer force-restore (FR-2L) soil profile scheme. The leaf nitrogen concentration directly impacts the modelled value of the maximum annual LAI. In a first step this parameter is estimated for the last 15 years by using an iterative procedure that matches the maximum values of LAI modelled by ISBA-A-gs to the highest satellite-derived LAI values. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) is used as a cost function to be minimized. In a second step, the model rooting depth is optimized in order to reproduce the inter-annual variability resulting from the drought impact on the vegetation. The evaluation of the retrieved soil rooting depth is achieved using the French agricultural statistics of Agreste. Retrieved leaf nitrogen concentrations are compared with values from previous studies. The preliminary results show a good potential of this approach to estimate these two vegetation parameters (leaf nitrogen concentration, MaxAWC) at the large-scale over grassland areas. Besides, a marked impact of the

  14. Implementing a computerized text-management system: an editor's view

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The advent of sophisticated function-key-driven programs for handling text on a video-display terminal enables the editorial staff of a publications department to take an active role on a computerized text-management team, along with compositors and other keyboard operators. Although there are still many things that editors cannot do on a computer terminal, the bulk of manipulating straight text can be speeded, and the problems of rekeyboarding and interpretation of editorial markings can be largely bypassed. The computer also gives editors new tools that open the way for greater control over both the editorial process and the quality of technical publishing. 5 figures.

  15. Featuring the special issue editor: associate professor Alexandros G. Georgakilas.

    PubMed

    Georgakilas, Alexandros G

    2012-12-31

    In this 'Featuring the editor' article, we introduce Assoc. Professor Alexandros G. Georgakilas as the guest editor for this Special Issue of Cancer Letters. His main research, educational and editorial achievements in his academic career are presented with emphasis on the various milestones of his involvement in science for more than twenty years. His primary interests in research focus on various radiation and cancer biology aspects especially the involvement of clustered DNA lesions in carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. EDITORIAL: New Editor-in-Chief for Nanotechnology New Editor-in-Chief for Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couzin, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology is proud to announce the appointment of Professor Mark Reed, Yale University, as the new Editor-in-Chief from January 2009. Mark Reed holds the Harold Hodgkinson Chair of Engineering and Applied Science at Yale University. He has made significant contributions in the areas of quantum dots, electronic transport in nanoscale and mesoscopic systems, artificially structured materials and devices, and molecular electronics. Professor Reed has been associated with the journal as an Editorial Board member for a number of years and we are delighted that he has agreed to take on the scientific leadership of the journal in its 20th year. We also take the opportunity to thank Professor Mark Welland, Cambridge University, for his work as Editor-in-Chief since 2001, and for presiding over the re-launch and remarkable growth of the journal since then. Nanotechnology is unique in that it was the first peer-reviewed journal in the area of nanoscience, the first issue appearing in 1990. Since then it has established a distinguished publication record and has become a leading journal covering all aspects of nanoscale science and technology, as well as specializing in in-depth, comprehensive articles not seen in letter format journals. Published weekly and featuring subject sections, the journal is truly multidisciplinary in nature and is an excellent medium to quickly deliver your research results to readers worldwide. Nanotechnology is proud to be offering some of the fastest publication times around (less than three months on average from receipt to online publication). We offer free online access to all published papers for 30 days, ensuring that anyone with access to the internet will be able to read your paper. We were also the first journal to give our authors the opportunity to communicate their research to a wider audience through nanotechweb.org and other IOP websites. See the journal's homepage at www.iop.org/Journals/nano for more details. We are looking

  17. Inter-kingdom Signaling by the Legionella Quorum Sensing Molecule LAI-1 Modulates Cell Migration through an IQGAP1-Cdc42-ARHGEF9-Dependent Pathway.

    PubMed

    Simon, Sylvia; Schell, Ursula; Heuer, Natalie; Hager, Dominik; Albers, Michael F; Matthias, Jan; Fahrnbauer, Felix; Trauner, Dirk; Eichinger, Ludwig; Hedberg, Christian; Hilbi, Hubert

    2015-12-01

    Small molecule signaling promotes the communication between bacteria as well as between bacteria and eukaryotes. The opportunistic pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila employs LAI-1 (3-hydroxypentadecane-4-one) for bacterial cell-cell communication. LAI-1 is produced and detected by the Lqs (Legionella quorum sensing) system, which regulates a variety of processes including natural competence for DNA uptake and pathogen-host cell interactions. In this study, we analyze the role of LAI-1 in inter-kingdom signaling. L. pneumophila lacking the autoinducer synthase LqsA no longer impeded the migration of infected cells, and the defect was complemented by plasmid-borne lqsA. Synthetic LAI-1 dose-dependently inhibited cell migration, without affecting bacterial uptake or cytotoxicity. The forward migration index but not the velocity of LAI-1-treated cells was reduced, and the cell cytoskeleton appeared destabilized. LAI-1-dependent inhibition of cell migration involved the scaffold protein IQGAP1, the small GTPase Cdc42 as well as the Cdc42-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF9, but not other modulators of Cdc42, or RhoA, Rac1 or Ran GTPase. Upon treatment with LAI-1, Cdc42 was inactivated and IQGAP1 redistributed to the cell cortex regardless of whether Cdc42 was present or not. Furthermore, LAI-1 reversed the inhibition of cell migration by L. pneumophila, suggesting that the compound and the bacteria antagonistically target host signaling pathway(s). Collectively, the results indicate that the L. pneumophila quorum sensing compound LAI-1 modulates migration of eukaryotic cells through a signaling pathway involving IQGAP1, Cdc42 and ARHGEF9.

  18. Modelling LAI, surface water and carbon fluxes at high-resolution over France: comparison of ISBA-A-gs and ORCHIDEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafont, S.; Zhao, Y.; Calvet, J.-C.; Peylin, P.; Ciais, P.; Maignan, F.; Weiss, M.

    2011-07-01

    The Leaf Area Index (LAI) is a measure of the amount of photosynthetic leaves and governs the canopy conductance to water vapor and carbon dioxide. Four different estimates of LAI were compared over France: two LAI products derived from satellite remote sensing, and two LAI simulations derived from land surface modelling. The simulated LAI was produced by the ISBA-A-gs model and by the ORCHIDEE model (developed by CNRM-GAME and by IPSL, respectively), for the 1994-2007 period. The two models were driven by the same atmospheric variables and used the same land cover map (SAFRAN and ECOCLIMAP-II, respectively). The MODIS and CYCLOPES satellite LAI products were used. Both products were available from 2000 to 2007 and this relatively long period allowed to investigate the interannual and the seasonal variability of monthly LAI values. In particular the impact of the 2003 and 2005 droughts were analyzed. The two models presented contrasting results, with a difference of one month between the average leaf onset dates simulated by the two models, and a maximum interannual variability of LAI simulated at springtime by ORCHIDEE and at summertime by ISBA-A-gs. The comparison with the satellite LAI products showed that, in general, the seasonality was better represented by ORCHIDEE, while ISBA-A-gs tended to better represent the interannual variability, especially for grasslands. While the two models presented comparable values of net carbon fluxes, ORCHIDEE simulated much higher photosynthesis rates than ISBA-A-gs (+70 %), while providing lower transpiration estimates (-8 %).

  19. Modelling LAI, surface water and carbon fluxes at high-resolution over France: comparison of ISBA-A-gs and ORCHIDEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafont, S.; Zhao, Y.; Calvet, J.-C.; Peylin, P.; Ciais, P.; Maignan, F.; Weiss, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Leaf Area Index (LAI) is a measure of the amount of photosynthetic leaves and governs the canopy conductance to water vapor and carbon dioxide. Four different estimates of LAI were compared over France: two LAI products derived from satellite remote sensing, and two LAI simulations derived from land surface modelling. The simulated LAI was produced by the ISBA-A-gs model and by the ORCHIDEE model (developed by CNRM-GAME and by IPSL, respectively), for the 1994-2007 period. The two models were driven by the same atmospheric variables and used the same land cover map (SAFRAN and ECOCLIMAP-II, respectively). The MODIS and CYCLOPES satellite LAI products were used. Both products were available from 2000 to 2007 and this relatively long period allowed to investigate the interannual and the seasonal variability of monthly LAI values. In particular the impact of the 2003 and 2005 droughts were analyzed. The two models presented contrasting results, with a difference of one month between the average leaf onset dates simulated by the two models, and a maximum interannual variability of LAI simulated at springtime by ORCHIDEE and at summertime by ISBA-A-gs. The comparison with the satellite LAI products showed that, in general, the seasonality was better represented by ORCHIDEE, while ISBA-A-gs tended to better represent the interannual variability, especially for grasslands. While the two models presented comparable values of net carbon fluxes, ORCHIDEE simulated much higher photosynthesis rates than ISBA-A-gs (+70%), while providing lower transpiration estimates (-8%).

  20. Inter-kingdom Signaling by the Legionella Quorum Sensing Molecule LAI-1 Modulates Cell Migration through an IQGAP1-Cdc42-ARHGEF9-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Sylvia; Schell, Ursula; Heuer, Natalie; Hager, Dominik; Albers, Michael F.; Matthias, Jan; Fahrnbauer, Felix; Trauner, Dirk; Eichinger, Ludwig; Hedberg, Christian; Hilbi, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Small molecule signaling promotes the communication between bacteria as well as between bacteria and eukaryotes. The opportunistic pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila employs LAI-1 (3-hydroxypentadecane-4-one) for bacterial cell-cell communication. LAI-1 is produced and detected by the Lqs (Legionella quorum sensing) system, which regulates a variety of processes including natural competence for DNA uptake and pathogen-host cell interactions. In this study, we analyze the role of LAI-1 in inter-kingdom signaling. L. pneumophila lacking the autoinducer synthase LqsA no longer impeded the migration of infected cells, and the defect was complemented by plasmid-borne lqsA. Synthetic LAI-1 dose-dependently inhibited cell migration, without affecting bacterial uptake or cytotoxicity. The forward migration index but not the velocity of LAI-1-treated cells was reduced, and the cell cytoskeleton appeared destabilized. LAI-1-dependent inhibition of cell migration involved the scaffold protein IQGAP1, the small GTPase Cdc42 as well as the Cdc42-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF9, but not other modulators of Cdc42, or RhoA, Rac1 or Ran GTPase. Upon treatment with LAI-1, Cdc42 was inactivated and IQGAP1 redistributed to the cell cortex regardless of whether Cdc42 was present or not. Furthermore, LAI-1 reversed the inhibition of cell migration by L. pneumophila, suggesting that the compound and the bacteria antagonistically target host signaling pathway(s). Collectively, the results indicate that the L. pneumophila quorum sensing compound LAI-1 modulates migration of eukaryotic cells through a signaling pathway involving IQGAP1, Cdc42 and ARHGEF9. PMID:26633832

  1. Data Sharing: A New Editorial Initiative of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Implications for the Editors' Network.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Fernando; Adamyan, Karlen; Artigou, Jean-Yves; Aschermann, Michael; Boehm, Michael; Buendia, Alfonso; Chu, Pao-Hsien; Cohen, Ariel; Cas, Livio Dei; Dilic, Mirza; Doubell, Anton; Echeverri, Dario; Enç, Nuray; Ferreira-González, Ignacio; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Flammer, Andreas; Fleck, Eckart; Gatzov, Plamen; Ginghina, Carmen; Goncalves, Lino; Haouala, Habib; Hassanein, Mahmoud; Heusch, Gerd; Huber, Kurt; Hulín, Ivan; Ivanusa, Mario; Krittayaphong, Rungroj; Lau, Chu-Pak; Marinskis, Germanas; Mach, François; Moreira, Luiz Felipe; Nieminen, Tuomo; Oukerraj, Latifa; Perings, Stefan; Pierard, Luc; Potpara, Tatjana; Reyes-Caorsi, Walter; Rim, Se-Joong; Rødevand, Olaf; Saade, Georges; Sander, Mikael; Shlyakhto, Evgeny; Timuralp, Bilgin; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Ural, Dilek; Piek, J J; Varga, Albert; Lüscher, Thomas F

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) provides recommendations to improve the editorial standards and scientific quality of biomedical journals. These recommendations range from uniform technical requirements to more complex and elusive editorial issues including ethical aspects of the scientific process. Recently, registration of clinical trials, conflicts of interest disclosure, and new criteria for authorship - emphasizing the importance of responsibility and accountability -, have been proposed. Last year, a new editorial initiative to foster sharing of clinical trial data was launched. This review discusses this novel initiative with the aim of increasing awareness among readers, investigators, authors and editors belonging to the Editors' Network of the European Society of Cardiology. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A.

  2. Chu Lai MCAF, Vietnam. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-03-01

    T11 I I it? La.)i .6_ _____v ENE 4 091 2o8 ,4 4,5 7,6 W t2 1,9 .T 3,V _._ _. IS 1z .491 Z8 --- ’O__ ___f -__ ( CAL ____ ____, S 6 ,, SSE 30 340 5...90.3 98,6 99.1 9903 993 9905 9903 9913 9915 99’s I990 990s - 600 92,9 951o 97. 3 96.4 96,7 99,4 99t6 99,6 99.7 99.7 99.7 99.o 99.6 99,0 99.19Z,600:912s...309 30.9 30.9 30.9 30,9 30,9 30.9 30.9 12000 n 1,1 )1 3 1.12 ) , t2 31 2 31. iil1 IA la 31.2 Ala ALA-, >10000 B3,3 33,3 33,4 33,4 33o4 334 33,4 33,4

  3. Announcement: New Editor-In-Chief, Robert C. Kennicutt, Jr.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    1999-06-01

    Effective 1999 July 1, all new manuscripts for Part 1 of The Astrophysical Journal and The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series should be sent to Dr. Robert C. Kennicutt, Jr., Editor-in-Chief The Astrophysical Journal Steward Observatory University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 The other means of contact are telephone, (520) 621-5145 FAX, (520) 621-5153 and e-mail, apj@as.arizona.edu. For express packages please use the street address of 933 North Cherry Avenue. Dr. Kennicutt will be assisted by several of my loyal coworkers, who will move across the street. Manuscripts received before July 1 will be handled by the current editor until most of their problems have been resolved, at which point the remainder will be sent to Dr. Kennicutt's office. Manuscripts for the Letters should, as before, be sent directly to Dr. Alex Dalgarno at the Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA. We are fortunate that a person with as much experience in research and proven good judgment as Dr. Kennicutt is willing to accept this difficult and time-consuming responsibility. He will be only the seventh Managing Editor or Editor-in-Chief that this Journal has had in its 104 years. Please give him the cooperation and help that you have given the current editor. It has been my privilege to work for 28 years with many of the best astrophysicists in the world and to publish their papers. This was done with the help of the AAS Publications Board and AAS officers, the efforts of Peter Boyce and Evan Owens who made the on-line edition of the Journal possible, three Associate Editors, a score of Scientific Editors, a hardworking staff of six in Tucson, up to 25 production controllers and manuscript editors at the University of Chicago Press, and the thousands of astronomers throughout the world who served as referees. The original masthead called this journal ``An International Review of Spectroscopy and Astronomical Physics.'' That subtitle is no longer appropriate because we do not

  4. Announcement: New Editor-In Robert C. Kennicutt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    1999-06-01

    Effective 1999 July 1, all new manuscripts for Part 1 of The Astrophysical Journal and The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series should be sent to Dr. Robert C. Kennicutt, Editor-in-Chief The Astrophysical Journal Steward Observatory University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 The other means of contact are telephone, (520) 621-5145 FAX, (520) 621-5153 and e-mail, apj@as.arizona.edu. For express packages please use the street address of 933 North Cherry Avenue. Dr. Kennicutt will be assisted by several of my loyal coworkers, who will move across the street. Manuscripts received before July 1 will be handled by the current editor until most of their problems have been resolved, at which point the remainder will be sent to Dr. Kennicutt's office. Manuscripts for the Letters should, as before, be sent directly to Dr. Alex Dalgarno at the Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA. We are fortunate that a person with as much experience in research and proven good judgment as Dr. Kennicutt is willing to accept this difficult and time-consuming responsibility. He will be only the seventh Managing Editor or Editor-in-Chief that this Journal has had in its 104 years. Please give him the cooperation and help that you have given the current editor. It has been my privilege to work for 28 years with many of the best astrophysicists in the world and to publish their papers. This was done with the help of the AAS Publications Board and AAS officers, the efforts of Peter Boyce and Evan Owens who made the on-line edition of the Journal possible, three Associate Editors, a score of Scientific Editors, a hardworking staff of six in Tucson, up to 25 production controllers and manuscript editors at the University of Chicago Press, and the thousands of astronomers throughout the world who served as referees. The original masthead called this journal ``An International Review of Spectroscopy and Astronomical Physics.'' That subtitle is no longer appropriate because we do not publish

  5. Announcement: New Editor-in-Chief Robert C. Kennicutt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    1999-05-01

    Effective 1999 July 1, all new manuscripts for Part 1 of The Astrophysical Journal and The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series should be sent to Dr. Robert C. Kennicutt, Editor-in-Chief The Astrophysical Journal Steward Observatory University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 The other means of contact are telephone, (520) 621-5145 FAX, (520) 621-5153 and e-mail, apj@as.arizona.edu. For express packages please use the street address of 933 North Cherry Avenue. Dr. Kennicutt will be assisted by several of my loyal coworkers, who will move across the street. Manuscripts received before July 1 will be handled by the current editor until most of their problems have been resolved, at which point the remainder will be sent to Dr. Kennicutt's office. Manuscripts for the Letters should, as before, be sent directly to Dr. Alex Dalgarno at the Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA. We are fortunate that a person with as much experience in research and proven good judgment as Dr. Kennicutt is willing to accept this difficult and time-consuming responsibility. He will be only the seventh Managing Editor or Editor-in-Chief that this Journal has had in its 104 years. Please give him the cooperation and help that you have given the current editor. It has been my privilege to work for 28 years with many of the best astrophysicists in the world and to publish their papers. This was done with the help of the AAS Publications Board and AAS officers, the efforts of Peter Boyce and Evan Owens who made the on-line edition of the Journal possible, three Associate Editors, a score of Scientific Editors, a hardworking staff of six in Tucson, up to 25 production controllers and manuscript editors at the University of Chicago Press, and the thousands of astronomers throughout the world who served as referees. The original masthead called this journal ``An International Review of Spectroscopy and Astronomical Physics.'' That subtitle is no longer appropriate because we do not publish

  6. Spatial Heterogeneity of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Its Temporal Course on Arable Land: Combining Field Measurements, Remote Sensing and Simulation in a Comprehensive Data Analysis Approach (CDAA)

    PubMed Central

    Korres, Wolfgang; Montzka, Carsten; Fiener, Peter; Wilken, Florian; Stadler, Anja; Waldhoff, Guido; Schneider, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of leaf area to ground area (leaf area index, LAI) is an important state variable in ecosystem studies since it influences fluxes of matter and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere. As a basis for generating temporally continuous and spatially distributed datasets of LAI, the current study contributes an analysis of its spatial variability and spatial structure. Soil-vegetation-atmosphere fluxes of water, carbon and energy are nonlinearly related to LAI. Therefore, its spatial heterogeneity, i.e., the combination of spatial variability and structure, has an effect on simulations of these fluxes. To assess LAI spatial heterogeneity, we apply a Comprehensive Data Analysis Approach that combines data from remote sensing (5 m resolution) and simulation (150 m resolution) with field measurements and a detailed land use map. Test area is the arable land in the fertile loess plain of the Rur catchment on the Germany-Belgium-Netherlands border. LAI from remote sensing and simulation compares well with field measurements. Based on the simulation results, we describe characteristic crop-specific temporal patterns of LAI spatial variability. By means of these patterns, we explain the complex multimodal frequency distributions of LAI in the remote sensing data. In the test area, variability between agricultural fields is higher than within fields. Therefore, spatial resolutions less than the 5 m of the remote sensing scenes are sufficient to infer LAI spatial variability. Frequency distributions from the simulation agree better with the multimodal distributions from remote sensing than normal distributions do. The spatial structure of LAI in the test area is dominated by a short distance referring to field sizes. Longer distances that refer to soil and weather can only be derived from remote sensing data. Therefore, simulations alone are not sufficient to characterize LAI spatial structure. It can be concluded that a comprehensive picture of LAI spatial

  7. Evaluation of Sentinel-2 Red-Edge Bands for Empirical Estimation of Green LAI and Chlorophyll Content

    PubMed Central

    Delegido, Jesús; Verrelst, Jochem; Alonso, Luis; Moreno, José

    2011-01-01

    ESA’s upcoming satellite Sentinel-2 will provide Earth images of high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution and aims to ensure continuity for Landsat and SPOT observations. In comparison to the latter sensors, Sentinel-2 incorporates three new spectral bands in the red-edge region, which are centered at 705, 740 and 783 nm. This study addresses the importance of these new bands for the retrieval and monitoring of two important biophysical parameters: green leaf area index (LAI) and chlorophyll content (Ch). With data from several ESA field campaigns over agricultural sites (SPARC, AgriSAR, CEFLES2) we have evaluated the efficacy of two empirical methods that specifically make use of the new Sentinel-2 bands. First, it was shown that LAI can be derived from a generic normalized difference index (NDI) using hyperspectral data, with 674 nm with 712 nm as best performing bands. These bands are positioned closely to the Sentinel-2 B4 (665 nm) and the new red-edge B5 (705 nm) band. The method has been applied to simulated Sentinel-2 data. The resulting green LAI map was validated against field data of various crop types, thereby spanning a LAI between 0 and 6, and yielded a RMSE of 0.6. Second, the recently developed “Normalized Area Over reflectance Curve” (NAOC), an index that derives Ch from hyperspectral data, was studied on its compatibility with simulated Sentinel-2 data. This index integrates the reflectance curve between 643 and 795 nm, thereby including the new Sentinel-2 bands in the red-edge region. We found that these new bands significantly improve the accuracy of Ch estimation. Both methods emphasize the importance of red-edge bands for operational estimation of biophysical parameters from Sentinel-2. PMID:22164004

  8. Evaluation of Sentinel-2 red-edge bands for empirical estimation of green LAI and chlorophyll content.

    PubMed

    Delegido, Jesús; Verrelst, Jochem; Alonso, Luis; Moreno, José

    2011-01-01

    ESA's upcoming satellite Sentinel-2 will provide Earth images of high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution and aims to ensure continuity for Landsat and SPOT observations. In comparison to the latter sensors, Sentinel-2 incorporates three new spectral bands in the red-edge region, which are centered at 705, 740 and 783 nm. This study addresses the importance of these new bands for the retrieval and monitoring of two important biophysical parameters: green leaf area index (LAI) and chlorophyll content (Ch). With data from several ESA field campaigns over agricultural sites (SPARC, AgriSAR, CEFLES2) we have evaluated the efficacy of two empirical methods that specifically make use of the new Sentinel-2 bands. First, it was shown that LAI can be derived from a generic normalized difference index (NDI) using hyperspectral data, with 674 nm with 712 nm as best performing bands. These bands are positioned closely to the Sentinel-2 B4 (665 nm) and the new red-edge B5 (705 nm) band. The method has been applied to simulated Sentinel-2 data. The resulting green LAI map was validated against field data of various crop types, thereby spanning a LAI between 0 and 6, and yielded a RMSE of 0.6. Second, the recently developed "Normalized Area Over reflectance Curve" (NAOC), an index that derives Ch from hyperspectral data, was studied on its compatibility with simulated Sentinel-2 data. This index integrates the reflectance curve between 643 and 795 nm, thereby including the new Sentinel-2 bands in the red-edge region. We found that these new bands significantly improve the accuracy of Ch estimation. Both methods emphasize the importance of red-edge bands for operational estimation of biophysical parameters from Sentinel-2.

  9. Developing and Presenting Auditory Demonstrations: Two Sound Editor Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firment, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Experiencing examples of auditory phenomena can clarify textbook and lecture explanations. The addition of visual displays to auditory demonstrations can make them more understandable. Two sound editor programs, Audacity[R] and Adobe Audition Pro 2.0[R], provide excellent capabilities for the display and authoring of auditory demonstrations.…

  10. IN DEFENSE OF ECORISK ASSESSMENT (LETTER TO EDITOR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dear Editor: We are writing to convey a more accurate portrayal of the status of ecological ("environmental" in Europe) risk assessment that was presented in the recent article by M. Power and L.S. McCarty (Fallacies in Ecological Risk Assessment Practices," August 1997, pp 370A-...

  11. Most Business Editors Find Journalism Graduates Still Unprepared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardue, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    In 2002, a study was published in "Newspaper Research Journal" that explored the preparedness of graduating journalism students to cover business news. In 2012, a follow-up survey of business editors at the nation's daily newspapers was done to see whether progress had been made in the training of journalism students for the…

  12. Ethical dilemmas in scientific publication: pitfalls and solutions for editors.

    PubMed

    Gollogly, Laragh; Momen, Hooman

    2006-08-01

    Editors of scientific journals need to be conversant with the mechanisms by which scientific misconduct is amplified by publication practices. This paper provides definitions, ways to document the extent of the problem, and examples of editorial attempts to counter fraud. Fabrication, falsification, duplication, ghost authorship, gift authorship, lack of ethics approval, non-disclosure, 'salami' publication, conflicts of interest, auto-citation, duplicate submission, duplicate publications, and plagiarism are common problems. Editorial misconduct includes failure to observe due process, undue delay in reaching decisions and communicating these to authors, inappropriate review procedures, and confounding a journal's content with its advertising or promotional potential. Editors also can be admonished by their peers for failure to investigate suspected misconduct, failure to retract when indicated, and failure to abide voluntarily by the six main sources of relevant international guidelines on research, its reporting and editorial practice. Editors are in a good position to promulgate reasonable standards of practice, and can start by using consensus guidelines on publication ethics to state explicitly how their journals function. Reviewers, editors, authors and readers all then have a better chance to understand, and abide by, the rules of publishing.

  13. What Authors Want From Journal Reviewers and Editors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Raymond S.

    2005-01-01

    Peer review is the primary means of ensuring the maintenance of standards that are deemed appropriate for scientific publications. There are many similarities, but also some differences, in the way the review process is conducted by different editors, and there are differences among reviewers in how they deal with the same manuscript--the…

  14. Females' participation in psychopharmacology research as authors, editors, and subjects.

    PubMed

    Poling, Alan; Durgin, Amy; Bradley, Kelly P; Porter, Lindsay K; Van Wagner, Karen; Weeden, Marc; Panos, John J

    2009-04-01

    This study determined the involvement of women as first authors and other authors for every article published in Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, and Psychopharmacology in 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2006. Their involvement as editors also was determined. Women's participation as authors, but not as editors, slightly increased over time. In 2006, 43% of first authors, 38% of other authors, and 24% of editors were women. The gender of subjects was examined for the same years and journals, but could not be determined for 6% and 9% of articles employing nonhuman and human subjects, respectively. In 2006, when subjects' gender could be determined, 77% of articles involving nonhuman subjects used only males, 9% only females, and 14% both males and females. In articles using human subjects in that same year, 17% involved only males, 6% only females, and 77% both males and females. Women researchers clearly make substantial contributions to the psychopharmacology literature, but are nonetheless underrepresented as editors. Findings regarding subjects indicate that there is growing recognition of the importance of gender as a determinant of drug effects, although the vast majority of nonhuman studies continue to involve only male subjects.

  15. Particle size fraction -Response: Letter to the Editors

    EPA Science Inventory

    To the Editors: We, the undersigned, would like to comment on the article by Cho et al. (Cho et al. 2009), which was published in the November 2009 issue (volume 11, number 11, page 1682-1689) of Environmental Health Perspectives. We read the paper with great interest as the dis...

  16. August 2017 Letters to the Editor-in-Chief.

    PubMed

    2017-08-01

    Letter to the Editor-in-Chief of JOSPT as follows: "Manual Therapy: More Than Elaborate Swordplay" with Authors' Response "Comparing Dry Needling to Corticosteroid Injection for Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome" with Authors' Response J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(8):580-585. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0204.

  17. September 2017 Letter to the Editor-in-Chief.

    PubMed

    2017-09-01

    Letter to the Editor-in-Chief of JOSPT as follows: "Clinically Meaningful Outcome Measures in Patients With Shoulder Problems" with Authors' Response J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(9):693-695. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0205.

  18. LACE: A Web-Based, Structured Editor for PDS Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, M.; Keller, R.; Sarram, P.

    2015-06-01

    PDS has moved to XML-based metadata, but many scientists are not familiar with XML and find its structure complicated. For these reasons, we have created LACE, an editor for PDS metadata that hides the complexity of XML from the user.

  19. Particle size fraction -Response: Letter to the Editors

    EPA Science Inventory

    To the Editors: We, the undersigned, would like to comment on the article by Cho et al. (Cho et al. 2009), which was published in the November 2009 issue (volume 11, number 11, page 1682-1689) of Environmental Health Perspectives. We read the paper with great interest as the dis...

  20. Most Business Editors Find Journalism Graduates Still Unprepared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardue, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    In 2002, a study was published in "Newspaper Research Journal" that explored the preparedness of graduating journalism students to cover business news. In 2012, a follow-up survey of business editors at the nation's daily newspapers was done to see whether progress had been made in the training of journalism students for the…

  1. IN DEFENSE OF ECORISK ASSESSMENT (LETTER TO EDITOR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dear Editor: We are writing to convey a more accurate portrayal of the status of ecological ("environmental" in Europe) risk assessment that was presented in the recent article by M. Power and L.S. McCarty (Fallacies in Ecological Risk Assessment Practices," August 1997, pp 370A-...

  2. Righting the Wrongs of Writing: Copy Editors Speak Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jaclyn J.; Wall, Judy

    1975-01-01

    The major part of APGA Press production editors' jobs is copy editing manuscripts before they are set in type. Two APGA Press Staff members use specific examples to illustrate the grammatical and stylistic errors that cause problems for them and, if not corrected, for readers. (Author)

  3. Manuals for Editors and Authors: A Decision Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Paul A.

    A series of eight manuals dealing with the triad text characteristics--learning processes--learning outcomes are being prepared for use by authors and editors as an aid in the design and writing of educational texts. These manuals are based upon a model for the functioning of text characteristics which in turn is part of a decision model for the…

  4. Publishing in Educational Psychology Journals: Comments from Editors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nihalani, Priya K.; Mayrath, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    The following paper emphasizes the importance of publishing and learning how to publish in educational psychology journals. We have compiled a set of recommendations based on advice from editors in the field and several other sources on how to publish. Additionally, this paper provides a step-by-step guide that graduate students and junior faculty…

  5. An Editor's View of the State of Applied Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocking, Rodney R.

    Addressed are issues and problems of definition that arose in establishing a new scientific journal. Specifically, the problems considered are those confronting the "Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology" (JADP) in its first 5 years of existence. The first matter of definition discussed is the editor's role. Ways in which editorial…

  6. Publishing in Educational Psychology Journals: Comments from Editors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nihalani, Priya K.; Mayrath, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    The following paper emphasizes the importance of publishing and learning how to publish in educational psychology journals. We have compiled a set of recommendations based on advice from editors in the field and several other sources on how to publish. Additionally, this paper provides a step-by-step guide that graduate students and junior faculty…

  7. How about the Real World? Students Learn from Experienced Editors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sharon; Wilcox, Brad

    1998-01-01

    Surveys professional editors (who work with publishing companies and magazines with national and international circulations) concerning advice to students on how writers write. Finds four main themes: (1) plan and organize carefully; (2) revise your work thoughtfully; (3) use words purposefully; and (4) correct errors thoroughly. (RS)

  8. The Editor and the Fund Raiser: Partners or Adversaries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Walt; Hincker, Lawrence; Yoe, Mary Ruth; Loyless, Darrell

    1999-01-01

    In a panel format, experienced college publications editors and development professionals discussed their responses to three scenarios describing clashes between alumni magazine staff and development officers: writing donor profiles; reporting negative campus news; and publishing campaign materials in the alumni magazine. Excerpts of the…

  9. The Sentinel-2 MSI Can Increase the Temporal Resolution of 30m Satellite-Derived LAI Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dungan, J. L.; Li, S.; Ganguly, S.; Wang, W.; Nemani, R. R.; Ju, J.; Claverie, M.; Masek, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    The successful launch of the European Space Agency (ESA) Sentinel-2A (S2-A) on 23 June 2015 with its MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) provides an important means to augment Earth-observation capabilities following the legacy of Landsat. After the three-month satellite commissioning campaign, the MSI onboard S-2A is performing very well (ESA, 2015). By 3 December 2015, the sensor data records have achieved provisional maturity status and have been accessed in level-1C Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance by the remote sensing community worldwide. Near-nadir observations by the MSI onboard S-2A and the Operational Land Imager (OLI) onboard Landsat 8 were collected during Simultaneous Nadir Overpasses as well as nearly coincident overpasses. This paper presents a processing chain using harmonized S-2A MSI and Landsat 8 OLI sensors to obtain increased temporal resolution in Leaf Area Index (LAI) estimates using the red-edge band B8A of MSI to replace the NIR band B08. Results demonstrate that LAI estimates from the MSI and OLI are comparable, and, given sufficient preprocessing for atmospheric correction and geometric rectification, can be used interchangeably to improve the frequency with which low LAI canopies can be monitored.

  10. Sensitivity of the Weather Research and Forecast/Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system to MODIS LAI, FPAR, and albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Limei; Gilliam, Robert; Binkowski, Francis S.; Xiu, Aijun; Pleim, Jonathan; Band, Larry

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to improve land surface processes in a retrospective meteorology and air quality modeling system through the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation and albedo products for more realistic vegetation and surface representation. MODIS leaf area index (LAI), fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR), and albedo are incorporated into the Pleim-Xiu land surface model (PX LSM) used in a combined meteorology and air quality modeling system. The current PX LSM intentionally exaggerates vegetation coverage and LAI in western dry lands so that its soil moisture nudging scheme is more effective in simulating surface temperature and mixing ratio. Reduced vegetation coverage from the PX LSM with MODIS input results in hotter and dryer daytime conditions with reduced ozone dry deposition velocities in much of western North America. Evaluations of the new system indicate greater error and bias in temperature, but reduced error and bias in moisture with the MODIS vegetation input. Hotter daytime temperatures and reduced dry deposition result in greater ozone concentrations in the western arid regions even with deeper boundary layer depths. MODIS albedo has much less impact on the meteorology simulations than MODIS LAI and FPAR. The MODIS vegetation and albedo input does not have much influence in the east where differences in vegetation and albedo parameters are less extreme. Evaluation results showing increased temperature errors with more accurate representation of vegetation suggests that improvements are needed in the model surface physics, particularly the soil processes in the PX LSM.

  11. Editors-in-Chief of Medical Journals: Are They Experts, Authorities, Both, or Neither?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zsindely, Sandor; Schubert, Andras

    1989-01-01

    Uses citation analysis to study the professional status and influence of the editors-in-chief of 769 medical journals. Finds that these editors-in-chief are, at least in their own specialties, not necessarily experts but authorities. (SR)

  12. EDITORIAL: Outgoing Editor-in-Chief Outgoing Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    I started in 2002 as Editor-in-Chief of a well established journal—MST (Measurement Science and Technology). It was a time when modern means of communication offered new opportunities for the scientific community—for all scientists and engineers whether at universities, in industry or at other institutions—to access better quality information in a shorter time. This development helped us to be more efficient in our daily scientific work and to anticipate new trends faster than before. A flood of information was created by different search engines. A few online journals or journals published in emerging countries with a similar profile to MST appeared on the market. MST had to provide new answers in response to these developments. In 2002 I postulated two requirements to the journal. Firstly, the publisher has to be up to date. My impression over the years has been that IOPP is excellently organized. That has made it easier for the board members and all our reviewers to concentrate on the scientific aspects of our input to the journal. During all my visits to Bristol or my contacts with the IOPP staff I always met very professional and enthusiastic staff members. They have not only supported and encouraged the ideas and initiatives of the Editorial Board members, but they have also worked hard on establishing one of the most effective journal operations in the field of measurement science and technology. Many authors are well aware of this. Thus I am able to declare that the first requirement for a successful journal has been met. Secondly, the scientific level has to be high and the journal should attract readers from all over the world. This task was the responsibility of the Editorial Board members and of myself. Our strategy was on the one hand to ensure continuity in MST but on the other hand to be open to new trends and developments. Examples of these new aspects of the journal are fields like micro- and nanometrology, measurement techniques for

  13. EDITORIAL: Farewell from the outgoing Editor-in-Chief Farewell from the outgoing Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rost, Jan Michael

    2011-01-01

    I am very pleased to announce that Professor Paul Corkum will be taking on the position of Editor-in-Chief at Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (J. Phys. B) from the beginning of January 2011. During my term as Editor-in-Chief atomic, molecular and optical science has continued to change rapidly: we have seen ultracold physics widening its original emphasis on Bose-Einstein condensates to the entanglement of light and matter in the most general sense towards a science of information. At the same time attosecond science and interaction of matter with short x-ray pulses develops rapidly. I am very happy that J. Phys. B with Paul Corkum as Editor-in-Chief will play a central role in publishing exciting results from this field. I would like to thank the publishing team at J. Phys. B for their fantastic job, in particular for the quality of the refereeing system the team has been able to maintain while at the same time bringing down the publication times considerably. I thank them all for the help and support they have given me in the role of Editor-in-Chief and wish them the very best for the future. Last and certainly not least I would like to thank you, the authors, referees and readers, for the support of J. Phys. B.

  14. Factors influencing biosafety level and LAI among the staff of medical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Kozajda, Anna; Bródka, Karolina; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the biological risks of medical laboratory employees with particular focus on laboratory acquired infection (LAI), activities having the greatest risk, accidents with biological material, post exposure procedure, preventive measures and workers' knowledge about biological exposure. The study involved 9 laboratories. A questionnaire survey was attended by 123 employees and 9 heads of these units with the use of two questionnaires for laboratory workers and the managers. 32.5% of the respondents (40 persons) had an accident at least once. Needlestick or a broken glass injury covered 18.7% respondents (23 persons), while splashing the skin, mucous membranes or conjunctivae related to 22.8% (28 persons). Among the employees who had an accident, only 45% of the respondents (18 persons) reported this to the manager. Microbes dominant in the biological material were known only to 57 respondents (46.3%), less than half could correctly give an example of a disease (57 persons, 46.3%). More than half of the respondents admitted that they do not know all of the possible routes of infection while working in the laboratory (68 persons, 55.3%). In the study population, a high incidence of accidents was observed, usually during blood sampling and transfer of biological material. Condition of the workers' equipment with personal protective measures and laboratory facilities in devices to reduce the risk of infection and procedures for handling the potentially infectious material should be considered as insufficient. Lack of basic knowledge of the employees about biohazards at workplaces was shown.

  15. Empirical and Statistical Approaches for the Improved Retrieval of Chlorohyll and LAI from Sentinel-2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrelst, J.; Alonso, L.; Camps-Valls, G.; Delegido, J.; Guanter, L.; Contreras Marin, C. J.; Acosta Rubiano, J.; Meza Naranjo, C. M.; Moreno, J.

    2010-12-01

    This work evaluates two novel approaches, empirical and statistical, for the estimation of leaf chlorophyll (Chlab), leaf area index (LAI) and fractional vegetation cover (fCOVER). The empirical approach calculates the continuum spectral region sensitive to Chlab with the so-called Normalized Area Over reflectance curve (NAOC). The performance of NAOC was compared against the performance of established and generic narrowband vegetation indices. However, as not all available bands take part in these methods it remains ambiguous whether best fittings were achieved. Alternatively, the statistical approach is based on Gaussian processes (GP) and allows inclusion of all bands. GP builds a nonlinear regression as a linear combination of spectra mapped to a high dimensional space. Besides, GP provides an indication of the most contributing bands for each parameter, a weight for the most relevant spectra, and a confidence estimate of the retrieval. Hyperspectral CHRIS data and resampling to Sentinel-2 configuration was conducted in the experiments. Results from the Spanish Barrax test site shows that GP outperforms the empirical approaches in assess- ing the vegetation properties when using at least four out of 62 CHRIS bands. It was found that the most contributing bands were situated in the red and red edge spectra regions, and to a lower extent in the blue and NIR parts of the spectrum. Since the proposed empirical and statistical methods consist of simple relationships between the parameter and a few bands they can be easily applied to multispectral data, as long as the relevant bands are available, as it is the case with Sentinel-2.

  16. Identification and partial characterization of a novel hemolysin from Leptospira interrogans serovar lai.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Kim, K A; Park, Y G; Seong, I W; Kim, M J; Lee, Y J

    2000-08-22

    It has been suggested that leptospiral hemolysins are important in the virulence and pathogenesis of leptospirosis. We have isolated an Escherichia coli clone carrying the 7.8kb DNA insert from a genomic library of Leptospira interrogans serovar lai by plaque hybridization using a sequence derived from the sphingomyelinase C gene (sphA) of L. borgpetersenii. The clone showed a clear beta-hemolytic zone on sheep blood agar and high hemolytic activities on both human and sheep erythrocytes in liquid assays. The clone carried at least two genes responsible for the hemolytic activities, encoded by two open reading frames of 1662 and 816 nucleotides, which are named sphH and hap-1 (hemolysis associated protein-1), respectively. The SphH showed 75% homology to the SphA at the amino acid level, and the Hap-1 showed no significant homology in major databases. Interestingly, however, E. coli cells harboring sphH did not show sphingomyelinase or phospholipase activities. Moreover, SphH-mediated hemolysis was osmotically protected by polyethylene glycol 5000, suggesting that the hemolysis is likely to be caused by pore formation on the membrane. The SphH was successfully expressed in E. coli as a histidine (His)-SphH fusion protein. Both sphH and hap-1 were highly conserved among the Leptospira species, except for the absence of sphH in non-pathogenic L. biflexa serovar patoc. We concluded that the SphH is a novel hemolysin of a pathogenic Leptospira species, which may be a putative pore-forming protein.

  17. Preparing Students To Work on Newspaper Copy Desks: Are Educators Meeting Editors' Expectations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auman, Ann E.; Cook, Betsy B.

    A study surveyed two groups in the fall of 1994, journalism educators and newspaper editors. Educators completed a survey regarding the course content and skill areas emphasized in beginning level copy editing courses, while editors were asked to respond to questions regarding the skills they expect entry-level copy editors to have. Respondents…

  18. FLAn: A Free Hypermedia Editor to Create Foreign Language Learning Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilickaya, Ferit, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Glossing words is done via special software called multimedia editors. Foreign Language Annotator (FLAn), created by Thibeault (2011), is one of these multimedia editors. FLAn (Foreign Language Annotator), a free hypermedia editor that works on both Macs and PCs, allows instructors to turn static texts into dynamic learning units by attaching…

  19. PREFACE: Introductory remarks from the Editors Introductory remarks from the Editors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, E.; Meseguer, A.; Marques, F.

    2012-06-01

    The local organizers of the 4th BIFD (Bifurcations and Instabilities in Fluid Dynamics) Symposium held in Barcelona on 18-21 July 2011 would like to thank the editors of Fluid Dynamics Research for offering us the opportunity of publishing a peer-reviewed special issue of the journal with a selection of the contributions presented at this conference. We thank both the authors and the referees for working with us on the rather tight schedule necessary to release the issue within one year of the date of the conference. We also thank the invited speakers, B Eckhardt, L Tuckerman, and J M Vega, for contributing keynote papers to this special issue. The series of BIFD symposia started as a small workshop in Madeira, Portugal, in 2004 with no more than 20 participants. This number increased rapidly during the second and third symposia held in 2006 (Denmark) and 2009 (United Kingdom), with 40 and 110 participants, respectively. The 4th BIFD symposium has consolidated this event as one of the leading conferences in hydrodynamic stability, with nearly 200 participants from around the world. The main goal of this conference is to bring together scientists and engineers from different disciplines directly or indirectly related to fluid dynamics, bifurcation theory and hydrodynamic stability theory. The conference covered many research areas within the aforementioned fields, ranging from thermal, shear and centrifugal flows to biofluids, films, drops, viscoelastic flows and magnetohydrodynamics. The structure of the conference, with invited plenary talks and focused sessions, helped the participants find their home in the conference and share state-of-the-art knowledge within the field of hydrodynamic instabilities. The financial support from MICINN (Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, Grant no FIS2009-08065-E) and UPC (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya) is greatly appreciated. The local organizers would also like to thank ETSAB (Barcelona School of Architecture

  20. Wysession begins term as Eos Section Editor for Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysession, Michael

    In mid-April, Michael Wysession, an associate professor in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Washington University, embarked on a 3-year term as section editor of Eos for seismology. Wysession brings to the position a strong background in research and teaching. Below are a few remarks from Wysession.“I recently became the new seismology editor for Eos. I look forward to presenting the many exciting areas of seismological research to the entire geophysical community. I have taught at Washington University since obtaining my Ph.D. at Northwestern University in 1991. My interest in seismology began during my undergraduate years at Brown University (Sc.B., 1984), but my experience as an educator began after I graduated and taught high school math and physics in Staten Island, N.Y.

  1. William E. Edmonston, Jr.: Editor, 1968-1976.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, John F; Frischholz, Edward J

    2010-10-01

    This article is part of an occasional series profiling editors of the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis (AJCH). William E. Edmonston was the second editor, succeeding Milton H. Erickson. His research focused on the use of conditioning paradigms and psychophysiological measures to explore a wide variety of hypnotic phenomena, leading to a "neo-Pavlovian" theory of neutral hypnosis as physiological relaxation (anesis). A longtime professor of psychology at Colgate University, he created an interdisciplinary undergraduate major in neuroscience, and was named New York State College Professor of the Year in 1988. He gave the Journal a new look, and a greater balance of clinical and experimental papers. The article also provides background on George Barton Cutten, George H. Estabrooks, and Frank A. Pattie, pioneers of hypnosis who were linked to Edmonston.

  2. From the desk of the Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei, Tom K.

    2015-07-01

    Life Sciences in Space Research had a prominent presence at the International Congress of Radiation Research (ICRR) meeting held in Kyoto, Japan from May 25th-29th, with seven of the eleven editors attending the meeting. A journal booth was also put up at the pre-ICRR satellite meeting on Space Radiation and Heavy Ions in Therapy (SRHITS) held a few days earlier in Osaka. Since the inception of LSSR last year, the editors and publisher have promoted the journal at a number of major conferences including COSPAR 2014 in Moscow, the annual meeting of the Radiation Research Society and the NASA Space Radiation Investigators Meeting. These efforts have increased awareness of the journal among investigators in space life sciences and related fields. The number of monthly downloads of articles from the journal website averages 2000, a respectable number for a brand new journal.

  3. Space Weather Editors in Transition: Hail and Farewell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knipp, Delores J.

    2017-02-01

    I hope you will join me in welcoming Dr. Daniel Welling of University of Michigan and Dr. T. Paul O'Brien of the Aerospace Corporation to the Space Weather (SWE) editorial team. Dan and Paul have answered the call to fill the shoes of two departing editors: Dr. Howard Singer and Dr. Barbara Giles. Dan brings insight related to space weather model development, while Paul brings expertise in the geospace radiation environment.

  4. Towards a document structure editor for software requirements analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, Vincent J.; Lekkos, Anthony A.

    1986-01-01

    Of the six or seven phases of the software engineering life cycle, requirements analysis tends to be the least understood and the least formalized. Correspondingly, a scarcity of useful software tools exist which aid in the development of user and system requirements. It is proposed that requirements analysis should culminate in a set of documents similar to those that usually accompany a delivered Software product. The design of a software tool, the Document Structure Editor, which facilitates the development of such documentation.

  5. JGR-Solid Earth and Planets GP editor appointed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ken Hoffman (Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo) has been appointed GP editor for papers submitted to the Journal of Geophysical Research—Solid Earth and Planets. His tenure will be from January 1987 to December 1988. Hoffman holds a Ph.D. in geophysics from the University of California, Berkeley, and has published extensively in the areas of rock magnetism, paleomagnetism, lunar paleointensity, and most recently, geomagnetic dipole field reversal modeling.

  6. Incremental Expression Parsing for Syntax-Directed Editors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-27

    Cretsna*refr a+b+cde ftth I / \\ ,:I \\ I’\\ / , I \\ b- ’ I I € d Figure 4-3: Correct syntax tree for"a + (b + c" d" e) ftgth" The tokens between, the...Schwartz. The Design of a Language-Directed Editor for Block-Structured Languages. In Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN SIGOA Symposium on Text Manipulation

  7. The STAGING Text Editor/Data Base Loader Program Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    editor and the loader require the library DATAMAN which contains the lowest level data base subroutines used by STAGING. All necessary programs and...LDSETLIB=EDITLB/ DATAMAN . LISLOADEDITLDEDIT. LIBLOADEDITLBRENARK. NOGOED. CATALOGED,1 DCAHKPUxXRXR2XR. RETURNEDITLB,EDDATAMAN. REVERT. UPDATING THE DATA...library DATAMAN to properly position COMMON areas. The libraries SUPLIB and GENERLB contain successively higher level data base manipulation subroutines

  8. Reference Accuracy: Authors', Reviewers', Editors', and Publishers' Contributions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Scientific authors are responsible for the accuracy of their writings and references to others' works. However, relying on authors is not enough when it comes to processing their manuscripts. Joint efforts of authors, peer reviewers, editors, and publishers throughout the publishing process may prevent most reference errors. This article analyzes essential aspects of bibliographic management and focuses on the importance of validating references by all stakeholders of scholarly publishing. PMID:25469055

  9. Experimental Sentinel-2 LAI estimation using parametric, non-parametric and physical retrieval methods - A comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrelst, Jochem; Rivera, Juan Pablo; Veroustraete, Frank; Muñoz-Marí, Jordi; Clevers, Jan G. P. W.; Camps-Valls, Gustau; Moreno, José

    2015-10-01

    Given the forthcoming availability of Sentinel-2 (S2) images, this paper provides a systematic comparison of retrieval accuracy and processing speed of a multitude of parametric, non-parametric and physically-based retrieval methods using simulated S2 data. An experimental field dataset (SPARC), collected at the agricultural site of Barrax (Spain), was used to evaluate different retrieval methods on their ability to estimate leaf area index (LAI). With regard to parametric methods, all possible band combinations for several two-band and three-band index formulations and a linear regression fitting function have been evaluated. From a set of over ten thousand indices evaluated, the best performing one was an optimized three-band combination according to (ρ560 -ρ1610 -ρ2190) / (ρ560 +ρ1610 +ρ2190) with a 10-fold cross-validation RCV2 of 0.82 (RMSECV : 0.62). This family of methods excel for their fast processing speed, e.g., 0.05 s to calibrate and validate the regression function, and 3.8 s to map a simulated S2 image. With regard to non-parametric methods, 11 machine learning regression algorithms (MLRAs) have been evaluated. This methodological family has the advantage of making use of the full optical spectrum as well as flexible, nonlinear fitting. Particularly kernel-based MLRAs lead to excellent results, with variational heteroscedastic (VH) Gaussian Processes regression (GPR) as the best performing method, with a RCV2 of 0.90 (RMSECV : 0.44). Additionally, the model is trained and validated relatively fast (1.70 s) and the processed image (taking 73.88 s) includes associated uncertainty estimates. More challenging is the inversion of a PROSAIL based radiative transfer model (RTM). After the generation of a look-up table (LUT), a multitude of cost functions and regularization options were evaluated. The best performing cost function is Pearson's χ -square. It led to a R2 of 0.74 (RMSE: 0.80) against the validation dataset. While its validation went fast

  10. Statement on Publication Ethics for Editors and Publishers.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Voronov, Alexander A; Gorin, Sergey V; Koroleva, Anna M; Kitas, George D

    2016-09-01

    The digitization and related developments in journal editing and publishing necessitate increasing the awareness of all stakeholders of science communication in the emerging global problems and possible solutions. Journal editors and publishers are frequently encountered with the fast-growing problems of authorship, conflicts of interest, peer review, research misconduct, unethical citations, and inappropriate journal impact metrics. While the number of erroneous and unethical research papers and wasteful, or 'predatory', journals is increasing exponentially, responsible editors are urged to 'clean' the literature by correcting or retracting related articles. Indexers are advised to implement measures for accepting truly influential and ethical journals and delisting sources with predatory publishing practices. Updating knowledge and skills of authors, editors and publishers, developing and endorsing recommendations of global editorial associations, and (re)drafting journal instructions can be viewed as potential tools for improving ethics of academic journals. The aim of this Statement is to increase awareness of all stakeholders of science communication of the emerging ethical issues in journal editing and publishing and initiate a campaign of upgrading and enforcing related journal instructions.

  11. Authors, editors, and the signs, symptoms and causes of plagiarism

    PubMed Central

    Shashok, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism and inadequate citing appear to have reached epidemic proportions in research publication. This article discusses how plagiarism is defined and suggests some possible causes for the increase in the plagiarism disease. Most editors do not have much tolerance for text re-use with inadequate citation regardless of reasons why words are copied from other sources without correct attribution. However, there is now some awareness that re-use of words in research articles to improve the writing or “the English” (which has become a common practice) should be distinguished from intentional deceit for the purpose of stealing other authors’ ideas (which appears to remain a very rare practice). Although it has become almost as easy for editors to detect duplicate text as it is for authors to re-use text from other sources, editors often fail to consider the reasons why researchers resort to this strategy, and tend to consider any text duplication as a symptom of serious misconduct. As a result, some authors may be stigmatized unfairly by being labeled as plagiarists. The article concludes with practical advice for researchers on how to improve their writing and citing skills and thus avoid accusations of plagiarism. PMID:21957412

  12. A perspective on computer documentation: System developer vs. technical editor

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, E.T.; Truett, L.F.

    1995-12-31

    Between the computer-knowledgeable {open_quotes}techie{close_quotes} and the technical writer is a chasm created by differences in knowledge bases and skills. Although this gap is widened by misunderstandings and misconceptions of system development roles, it is bridged by mutual need and dual appreciation. Often the editor/writer is {open_quotes}behind{close_quotes} from beginning to end. The writer normally joins the team after the programmers are well into system development and do not want to {open_quotes}waste time{close_quotes} discussing fundamentals. The writer is usually excluded from technical discussions because it is assumed that he/she would not understand anyway. Later in the system development cycle, the writer has no time to polish the documentation before a new version of the software is issued which implies that the documentation must be revised. Nevertheless, the editor/writer`s product is critical for the end-user`s appreciation of the software, a fact which promotes unity to complete the comprehensive package of software and documentation. This paper explores the planks in the bridge that spans the chasm between developers and their fundamental PR agents, the technical editors/writers. This paper defines approaches (e.g., The Circling Theory) and techniques (Bold Thrust!) employed for effective communication -- between software developer and technical writer as well as between the software and the end-user.

  13. EDITORIAL: Farewell from the outgoing Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Keith

    2005-01-01

    I am very pleased to announce that Professor Jan-Michael Rost will be taking on the position of Editor-in-Chief at Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (J. Phys. B) from the beginning of January 2005. As Editor-in-Chief I have seen the journal respond to the rapid and exciting developments in atomic, molecular and optical physics of recent years. There will, I am sure, be a great deal of new and important science in our field in the years ahead. I am also sure that Jan-Michael will do a fantastic job in guiding the journal through these times. The publishing team at J. Phys. B is a superbly responsive and effective one that does a great job in publishing the science we do. I want to thank them all for the help and support they have given me in the role of Editor-in-Chief and wish them the very best for the future. Last and certainly not least I would like to thank you, the authors, referees and readers, for making J. Phys. B such a great journal to have been a part of.

  14. CMS Configuration Editor: GUI based application for user analysis job

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cosa, A.

    2011-12-01

    We present the user interface and the software architecture of the Configuration Editor for the CMS experiment. The analysis workflow is organized in a modular way integrated within the CMS framework that organizes in a flexible way user analysis code. The Python scripting language is adopted to define the job configuration that drives the analysis workflow. It could be a challenging task for users, especially for newcomers, to develop analysis jobs managing the configuration of many required modules. For this reason a graphical tool has been conceived in order to edit and inspect configuration files. A set of common analysis tools defined in the CMS Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT) can be steered and configured using the Config Editor. A user-defined analysis workflow can be produced starting from a standard configuration file, applying and configuring PAT tools according to the specific user requirements. CMS users can adopt this tool, the Config Editor, to create their analysis visualizing in real time which are the effects of their actions. They can visualize the structure of their configuration, look at the modules included in the workflow, inspect the dependences existing among the modules and check the data flow. They can visualize at which values parameters are set and change them according to what is required by their analysis task. The integration of common tools in the GUI needed to adopt an object-oriented structure in the Python definition of the PAT tools and the definition of a layer of abstraction from which all PAT tools inherit.

  15. An editor's considerations in publishing industry-sponsored studies.

    PubMed

    Droller, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    The fundamental responsibility of a journal editor is to assure that studies accepted for publication provide rigorous original scientific information and reviews that are considered important to the readership. The fundamental requirements of such reports from an editor's perspective include objectivity and transparency in each of the study design, implementation of investigation methods, acquisition of data, inclusive analysis and interpretation of results, appropriate application of statistical methods, presentation of outcomes in the context of a balanced and comprehensive review of relevant literature, and meaningful conclusions. In proceeding on these presumptions, editors then have the responsibility of obtaining rigorous, objective, and constructive reviews of these reports so that they can make an unbiased decision regarding their disposition. The fundamental objective in this is to enhance the ultimate scientific validity and value of the work if and when it is accepted for publication. Guidelines have been advanced by several organizations to identify how such editorial responsibilities can be fulfilled. These guidelines also pertain to investigators, authors, and sponsors of the studies, which the various reports and reviews describe. The present article reviews these guidelines as they relate to both industry-sponsored and investigator-initiated investigations and as relevant to the variety of reports that a scientific/medical journal such as Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations receives for publication.

  16. Statement on Publication Ethics for Editors and Publishers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The digitization and related developments in journal editing and publishing necessitate increasing the awareness of all stakeholders of science communication in the emerging global problems and possible solutions. Journal editors and publishers are frequently encountered with the fast-growing problems of authorship, conflicts of interest, peer review, research misconduct, unethical citations, and inappropriate journal impact metrics. While the number of erroneous and unethical research papers and wasteful, or 'predatory', journals is increasing exponentially, responsible editors are urged to 'clean' the literature by correcting or retracting related articles. Indexers are advised to implement measures for accepting truly influential and ethical journals and delisting sources with predatory publishing practices. Updating knowledge and skills of authors, editors and publishers, developing and endorsing recommendations of global editorial associations, and (re)drafting journal instructions can be viewed as potential tools for improving ethics of academic journals. The aim of this Statement is to increase awareness of all stakeholders of science communication of the emerging ethical issues in journal editing and publishing and initiate a campaign of upgrading and enforcing related journal instructions. PMID:27510376

  17. Remote sensing of LAI, chlorophyll and leaf nitrogen pools of crop- and grasslands in five European landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boegh, E.; Houborg, R.; Bienkowski, J.; Braban, C. F.; Dalgaard, T.; van Dijk, N.; Dragosits, U.; Holmes, E.; Magliulo, V.; Schelde, K.; Di Tommasi, P.; Vitale, L.; Theobald, M. R.; Cellier, P.; Sutton, M.

    2012-08-01

    Leaf nitrogen and leaf surface area influence the exchange of gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and they play a significant role in the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen and water. Remote sensing data from satellites can be used to estimate leaf area index (LAI), leaf chlorophyll (CHLl) and leaf nitrogen density (Nl). However, methods are often developed using plot scale data and not verified over extended regions that represent a variety of soil spectral properties and canopy structures. In this paper, field measurements and high spatial resolution (10-20 m) remote sensing images acquired from the HRG and HRVIR sensors aboard the SPOT satellites were used to assess the predictability of LAI, CHLl and Nl. Five spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) were used (the Normalized Difference Vegetation index, the Simple Ratio, the Enhanced Vegetation Index-2, the Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and the green Chlorophyll Index) together with the image-based inverse canopy radiative transfer modelling system, REGFLEC (REGularized canopy reFLECtance). While the SVIs require field data for empirical model building, REGFLEC can be applied without calibration. Field data measured in 93 fields within crop- and grasslands of five European landscapes showed strong vertical CHLl gradient profiles in 20% of fields. This affected the predictability of SVIs and REGFLEC. However, selecting only homogeneous canopies with uniform CHLl distributions as reference data for statistical evaluation, significant (p < 0.05) predictions were achieved for all landscapes, by all methods. The best performance was achieved by REGFLEC for LAI (r2=0.7; rmse = 0.73), canopy chlorophyll content (r2=0.51; rmse = 439 mg m-2) and canopy nitrogen content (r2 = 0.53; rmse = 2.21 g m-2). Predictabilities of SVIs and REGFLEC simulations generally improved when constrained to single land use categories (wheat, maize, barley, grass) across the European landscapes, reflecting

  18. Remote sensing of LAI, chlorophyll and leaf nitrogen pools of crop- and grasslands in five European landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boegh, E.; Houborg, R.; Bienkowski, J.; Braban, C. F.; Dalgaard, T.; van Dijk, N.; Dragosits, U.; Holmes, E.; Magliulo, V.; Schelde, K.; Di Tommasi, P.; Vitale, L.; Theobald, M. R.; Cellier, P.; Sutton, M. A.

    2013-10-01

    Leaf nitrogen and leaf surface area influence the exchange of gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and play a significant role in the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen and water. The purpose of this study is to use field-based and satellite remote-sensing-based methods to assess leaf nitrogen pools in five diverse European agricultural landscapes located in Denmark, Scotland (United Kingdom), Poland, the Netherlands and Italy. REGFLEC (REGularized canopy reFLECtance) is an advanced image-based inverse canopy radiative transfer modelling system which has shown proficiency for regional mapping of leaf area index (LAI) and leaf chlorophyll (CHLl) using remote sensing data. In this study, high spatial resolution (10-20 m) remote sensing images acquired from the multispectral sensors aboard the SPOT (Satellite For Observation of Earth) satellites were used to assess the capability of REGFLEC for mapping spatial variations in LAI, CHLland the relation to leaf nitrogen (Nl) data in five diverse European agricultural landscapes. REGFLEC is based on physical laws and includes an automatic model parameterization scheme which makes the tool independent of field data for model calibration. In this study, REGFLEC performance was evaluated using LAI measurements and non-destructive measurements (using a SPAD meter) of leaf-scale CHLl and Nl concentrations in 93 fields representing crop- and grasslands of the five landscapes. Furthermore, empirical relationships between field measurements (LAI, CHLl and Nl and five spectral vegetation indices (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, the Simple Ratio, the Enhanced Vegetation Index-2, the Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and the green chlorophyll index) were used to assess field data coherence and to serve as a comparison basis for assessing REGFLEC model performance. The field measurements showed strong vertical CHLl gradient profiles in 26% of fields which affected REGFLEC performance as well

  19. PDB Editor: a user-friendly Java-based Protein Data Bank file editor with a GUI.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonas; Kim, Sung Hou

    2009-04-01

    The Protein Data Bank file format is the format most widely used by protein crystallographers and biologists to disseminate and manipulate protein structures. Despite this, there are few user-friendly software packages available to efficiently edit and extract raw information from PDB files. This limitation often leads to many protein crystallographers wasting significant time manually editing PDB files. PDB Editor, written in Java Swing GUI, allows the user to selectively search, select, extract and edit information in parallel. Furthermore, the program is a stand-alone application written in Java which frees users from the hassles associated with platform/operating system-dependent installation and usage. PDB Editor can be downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/pdbeditorjl/.

  20. Protective effect of Lai Fu Cheng Qi decoction on severe acute pancreatitis-induced myocardial injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Tian, Ying; Wang, Chunli; Zhang, Peng; You, Shengyi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Lai Fu Cheng Qi decoction on myocardial injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). In total, 30 rats were randomly divided into sham, SAP and decoction treatment groups. SAP was induced by a retrograde pancreatic duct injection of 5% sodium taurocholate in the SAP and decoction treatment groups. Rats in decoction treatment group also received intragastric administration of Lai Fu Cheng Qi decoction. The serum levels of creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were detected using an automatic biochemical analyzer. In addition, myocardial Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity was analyzed using a spectrophotometric method and the mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by flow cytometry. Myocardial apoptosis was assessed using a TUNEL assay and pathological changes to the heart and pancreas were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Compared with the rats in the sham group, rats in the SAP and decoction treatment groups exhibited significantly higher levels of serum CK-MB and LDH, apoptosis index and pathological scores, and had significantly lower levels of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and mitochondrial membrane potential. However, when compared with the SAP group, the serum levels of CK-MB and LDH, the pathological scores of the pancreas and heart, and the myocardial cell apoptosis index in the decoction treatment group were significantly lower. Furthermore, the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and mitochondrial membrane potential were significantly increased in the decoction treatment group when compared with the SAP group. Therefore, Lai Fu Cheng Qi decoction was shown to exert a protective effect on myocardial injury induced by SAP in rats.

  1. The XML Metadata Editor of GFZ Data Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbricht, Damian; Elger, Kirsten; Tesei, Telemaco; Trippanera, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    Following the FAIR data principles, research data should be Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reuseable. Publishing data under these principles requires to assign persistent identifiers to the data and to generate rich machine-actionable metadata. To increase the interoperability, metadata should include shared vocabularies and crosslink the newly published (meta)data and related material. However, structured metadata formats tend to be complex and are not intended to be generated by individual scientists. Software solutions are needed that support scientists in providing metadata describing their data. To facilitate data publication activities of 'GFZ Data Services', we programmed an XML metadata editor that assists scientists to create metadata in different schemata popular in the earth sciences (ISO19115, DIF, DataCite), while being at the same time usable by and understandable for scientists. Emphasis is placed on removing barriers, in particular the editor is publicly available on the internet without registration [1] and the scientists are not requested to provide information that may be generated automatically (e.g. the URL of a specific licence or the contact information of the metadata distributor). Metadata are stored in browser cookies and a copy can be saved to the local hard disk. To improve usability, form fields are translated into the scientific language, e.g. 'creators' of the DataCite schema are called 'authors'. To assist filling in the form, we make use of drop down menus for small vocabulary lists and offer a search facility for large thesauri. Explanations to form fields and definitions of vocabulary terms are provided in pop-up windows and a full documentation is available for download via the help menu. In addition, multiple geospatial references can be entered via an interactive mapping tool, which helps to minimize problems with different conventions to provide latitudes and longitudes. Currently, we are extending the metadata editor

  2. Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief, Ronald Stambaugh Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief, Ronald Stambaugh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambaugh, Ronald

    2012-04-01

    I am very pleased to join the outstanding leadership team for the journal Nuclear Fusion as Scientific Editor. The journal's high position in the field of fusion energy research derives in no small measure from the efforts of the IAEA team in Vienna, the production and marketing of IOP Publishing, the Board of Editors led by its chairman Mitsuru Kikuchi, the Associate Editor for Inertial Confinement Max Tabak and the outgoing Scientific Editor, Paul Thomas. During Paul's five year tenure submissions have grown by over 40%. The usage of the electronic journal has grown year by year with about 300 000 full text downloads of Nuclear Fusion articles in 2011, an impressive figure due in part to the launch of the full 50 year archive. High quality has been maintained while times for peer review and publishing have been reduced and the journal achieved some of the highest impact factors ever (as high as 4.27). The journal has contributed greatly to building the international scientific basis for fusion. I was privileged to serve from 2003 to 2010 as chairman of the Coordinating Committee for the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) which published in Nuclear Fusion the first ITER Physics Basis (1999) and its later update (2007). The scientific basis that has been developed to date for fusion has led to the construction of major facilities to demonstrate the production of power-plant relevant levels of fusion reactions. We look forward to the journal continuing to play a key role in the international effort toward fusion energy as these exciting major facilities and the various approaches to fusion continue to be developed. It is clear that Nuclear Fusion maintains its position in the field because of the perceived high quality of the submissions, the refereeing and the editorial processes, and the availability and utility of the online journal. The creation of the Nuclear Fusion Prize, led by the Board of Editors chairman Mitsuru Kikuchi, for the most outstanding

  3. Image based remote sensing method for modeling black-eyed beans (Vigna unguiculata) Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Crop Height (CH) over Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadavid, Giorgos; Fasoula, Dionysia; Hadjimitsis, Michael; Skevi Perdikou, P.; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Crop Height (CH) are modeled to the most known spectral vegetation index — NDVI — using remotely sensed data. This approach has advantages compared to the classic approaches based on a theoretical background. A GER-1500 field spectro-radiometer was used in this study in order to retrieve the necessary spectrum data for estimating a spectral vegetation index (NDVI), for establishing a semiempirical relationship between black-eyed beans' canopy factors and remotely sensed data. Such semi-empirical models can be used then for agricultural and environmental studies. A field campaign was undertaken with measurements of LAI and CH using the Sun-Scan canopy analyzer, acquired simultaneously with the spectroradiometric (GER1500) measurements between May and June of 2010. Field spectroscopy and remotely sensed imagery have been combined and used in order to retrieve and validate the results of this study. The results showed that there are strong statistical relationships between LAI or CH and NDVI which can be used for modeling crop canopy factors (LAI, CH) to remotely sensed data. The model for each case was verified by the factor of determination. Specifically, these models assist to avoid direct measurements of the LAI and CH for all the dates for which satellite images are available and support future users or future studies regarding crop canopy parameters.

  4. Image based remote sensing method for modeling black-eyed beans ( Vigna unguiculata) Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Crop Height (CH) over Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadavid, Giorgos; Fasoula, Dionysia; Hadjimitsis, Michael; Skevi Perdikou, P.; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Crop Height (CH) are modeled to the most known spectral vegetation index — NDVI — using remotely sensed data. This approach has advantages compared to the classic approaches based on a theoretical background. A GER-1500 field spectro-radiometer was used in this study in order to retrieve the necessary spectrum data for estimating a spectral vegetation index (NDVI), for establishing a semiempirical relationship between black-eyed beans' canopy factors and remotely sensed data. Such semi-empirical models can be used then for agricultural and environmental studies. A field campaign was undertaken with measurements of LAI and CH using the Sun-Scan canopy analyzer, acquired simultaneously with the spectroradiometric (GER1500) measurements between May and June of 2010. Field spectroscopy and remotely sensed imagery have been combined and used in order to retrieve and validate the results of this study. The results showed that there are strong statistical relationships between LAI or CH and NDVI which can be used for modeling crop canopy factors (LAI, CH) to remotely sensed data. The model for each case was verified by the factor of determination. Specifically, these models assist to avoid direct measurements of the LAI and CH for all the dates for which satellite images are available and support future users or future studies regarding crop canopy parameters.

  5. EDITORIAL: Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, P.

    2004-04-01

    On 1 January, 2004, I assumed the position of Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. I will start by saying that I will do my best to justify the confidence of the journal management and publishing staff in my abilities. I was fortunate to have been able to work, as an Editorial Board member, with my predecessor, the previous Editor-in-Chief, Professor Allister Ferguson. Allister has provided a high degree of intellectual stewardship for the journal in the last five years. He has made the job appear a worthy challenge for me. I therefore take this opportunity to thank Allister on behalf of the Editorial Board and publishing staff of the journal. Several other factors contributed to my decision to accept this position. The first is the group of people who actually go about the business of publishing. The Senior Publisher, Nicola Gulley (and her predecessor Sophy Le Masurier); the Managing Editor, Jill Membrey; the Publishing Administrators, Nina Blakesley and Sarah Towell; the Production Editor, Katie Gerrard and their office staff form an amazing group and have managed to make the operation of the journal incredibly efficient. An index of this is the speed with which incoming manuscripts are processed. The average time between the receipt of a manuscript and its web publication, if accepted, is 130 days. This is three to five times shorter than for most other journals. A factor that contributes to this success is a responsive pool of referees that the publishing staff have as a valuable resource. Ultimately, the standard bearers of any journal are the referees. Therefore, a grateful `thank you' is due from all of us at J. Phys. D to all our referees, who diligently perform this honourable task. The Associate Editors of the journal, Professors Lawler, Margaritondo and O'Grady, also provide immense scientific leadership. They help in defining new directions for the journal and in the publishing process. Last, but not least, a remarkable asset of

  6. Problems faced by editors of peer reviewed medical journals.

    PubMed

    Jawaid, Shaukat A

    2004-01-01

    Forty-six medical and dental journals are published from Pakistan of which only 29 are currently recognized by the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council. Only a few are peer reviewed. Six are indexed in Medline while EMBASE Excerpta Medica and World Health Organization Index Medicus for Eastern Mediterranean Region cover others. Editors of the peer reviewed medical journals are faced with numerous problems, which relate to the authors. Some of these are: shortage of quality of manuscripts, poor quality of reviewers, problems with indexation in international indexing services particularly Medline, duplicate submission and authorship and lastly, financial problems. Patronage from the Pharma industry is the major source of revenue which itself has serious implications. Editing a medical journal is a very stressful job and the editors have to work under too many pressures. A lot of useful data is presented at medical conferences, but a vast majority of it remains unpublished for various reasons, which adversely affects the citation rate from scientists from the developing third world countries in the world of medical literature. A few lectures on medical writing and research methodology to final year medical students will expose them to the art of medical writing. Specialty organizations can be persuaded to have a session on medical writing at their conferences, which will be extremely helpful not only to the potential new authors but also others, thereby improving the quality of their manuscripts. In addition to regular seminars, workshops for authors, reviewers and training courses for editors, subscribing to local medical journals by healthcare professionals and libraries are some of the measures that will help improve the situation to a great extent.

  7. EDITORIAL: Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsch, Kornelius

    2012-01-01

    On 1 January 2012 I will be assuming the position of Editor-in-Chief of the journal Semiconductor Science and Technology (SST). I am flattered by the confidence expressed in my ability to carry out this challenging job and I will try hard to justify this confidence. The previous Editor-in-Chief, Laurens Molenkamp, University of Würzburg, Germany, has worked tirelessly for the last ten years and has done an excellent job for the journal. Everyone at the journal is profoundly grateful for his leadership and for his achievements In 2012 several new members will join the Editorial Board: Professor Deli Wang (University of California, San Diego) with considerable expertise in semiconductor nanowires, Professor Saskia Fischer (Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany) with a background in semiconductor quantum devices, and Professor Erwin Kessels (Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands) with extensive experience in plasma processing of thin films and gate oxides. In particular, I want to express my gratitude to Professor Israel Bar-Joseph (Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel) and Professor Maria Tamargo (The City College of New York, USA), who will leave next year and who have vigorously served the Editorial Board for years. The journal has recently introduced a fast-track option for manuscripts. This option is a high-quality, high-profile outlet for new and important research across all areas of semiconductor research. Authors can expect to receive referee reports in less than 20 days from submission. Once accepted, you can expect the articles to be online within two or three weeks from acceptance and to be published in print in less than a month. Furthermore, all fast-track communications published in 2011 will be free to read for ten years. More detailed information on fast-track publication can be found on the following webpage: http://iopscience.iop.org/0268-1242/page/Fast track communications It is encouraging to see that since the journal introduced pre

  8. An Algebraic Specification Language and a Syntax Directed Editor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    the various parts of specification produced by the language and describes an experimental syntax directed editor which uses the language’s grammar .. N...y t he ldngua ;ke aL>: describes an experimental syntax iirected eiitic w..icil~~s. the language’s grammar . 4 N 71 1ABLE OF CC4TENTS " i1TRODJCTION...zfinai _Lcif_;a.ioa. explandtion, of the neta-sym-hols useLd to ioco.cc teri-ia± * strings ir. the grammar are as fcliows: < > - A iname enclosed by

  9. Collective Text Editor: A New Interface Focused on Interaction Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behar, Patricia Alejandra; Macedo, Alexandra Lorandi; Passos, Jaire Ederson; Passos, Paula Caroline Schifino Jardim

    The Collective Text Editor ETC is a tool that follows Web 2.0 philosophy. Thus, its aim is to foster collaborative work mediated by computer and to create a space where the synchronous and asynchronous construction of collective texts among geographically dispersed users can be encouraged. The ETC is linked to a research project of NUTED/UFRGS. The present article deals with the reconstruction of the interface so as to adapt it to the current technological demands, giving it credibility and new personality.

  10. EDITORIAL: Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ephrahim

    2008-02-01

    I am Professor Ephrahim Garcia, an Associate Professor at Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. I have been at Cornell University since 2002, spent four years as a Program Manager at the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency from 1998-2002, and before that seven years at the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee. I have served on the Editorial Advisory Board of Smart Materials and Structures (SMS) for the last six years. It is a humbling thing to be asked to take up the post of Editor-in-Chief in a field with so many talented researchers. I would like to say a heartfelt thanks to the members of the Editorial Board and IOP Publishing for their confidence in me. Most importantly, I would like to thank Professor Vijay Varadan of the University of Arkansas and Professor Richard Claus of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University for their efforts in launching the journal 16 years ago. They have been stewards, promoters and, especially Vijay, key to the operation and function of SMS for all these years, and our research community is indebted to them. Professors Varadan and Claus have dedicated their careers to the area of smart materials and structures and we are very grateful for their leadership, mentoring and contribution. SMS is a thriving journal offering papers on all technical areas concerned with smart materials, systems and structures from the micro- and nanoscale to the macroscale. The journal is undergoing some major changes, including the recent transferal of papers to IOP Publishing's peer-review management system. With this new system authors can expect fast publication times of around 4 or 5 months from submission, and excellent author service. In this world of ever changing technology, the Editorial Board and I aim to reduce the time to publication for researchers in this exciting area of science and engineering. I am in the process of

  11. JGR-Solid Earth and Planets editor Kenneth A. Hoffman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enhancing the presence of geomagnetism and paleomagnetism in the Journal of Geophysical Research—Solid Earth and Planets is a principal goal for Ken Hoffman during his tenure as an editor of the journal. “Many researchers in paleomagnetism and rock magnetism tend to spread their publications among several journals,” Hoffman said, “perhaps having the mistaken impression that JGR may not always be the appropriate choice for their work.” Hoffman wants to alter this image of JGR, and he extends an open invitation for all significant contributions on topics in geomagnetism and paleomagnetism.

  12. The relationship of Hyper-spectral Vegetation Indices with LAI over the growth cycle of Wheat and Chickpea at 3nm spectral resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R.; Vijayan, D.; Prasad, T.

    Using 3 nm observations over wheat and chickpea, hyperspectral indices, hNDVI= [(R 774-R677)/(R774+R677)], hRVI=R7 7 4/R 677 and TM bandwidths based NDVI, RVI and SAVI were computed. Pigment specific ratios (PSR) with reflectance at 800 nm (R800) as numerator were computed for Chlorophyll-a (PSR a= R800 /R 680 ) , Chlorophyll-b (PSR b = R800 /R 635) and Chlorophyll- Carotenoid (PSRc= R800 /R 470 ) . Structure intensive pigment indices (SIPI) given by SIPIa=(R 800 -R 445)/(R 800 -R6 8 0) and SIPIb =[(R 800 -R445)/(R 680 -R4 4 5)] were computed. Acceptable confidence level (r2 in 0.90-0.96 and 0.86-0.91 for all the above mentioned ratios and normalized difference indices, respectively) in correlation of these indices with LAI for wheat was observed when LAI for growth and decline phases were regressed separately; for ratio and normalized indices for chickpea, the r2 (for relationship with LAI) was in 0.85-0.97 range for growth phase and in 0.64-0.85 range for decline phase. In case of chickp ea, the leaves becoming yellow do not fall or undergo change in interaction cross-section to incident light; thus, LAI does not change though spectral indices will change. The r2 for the correlations of LAI for wheat, with TMRVI, PSR a, PSR b , PSRc were in 0.92-0.96 range; with TM NDVI and TM SAVI r 2 were in 0.90-0.91 range and with SIPIa and SIPIb r2 were in 0.67-0.78 range. Correlations were also computed for LAI with all possible ratio indices as well as normalized indices using 3 nm bandwidths dat a sets in 368 to 950 nm region. The correlation coefficients of LAI, for wheat, with ratios of 729-950 nm spectral region to 564-693 nm spectral region were in 0.95-0.99 range for growth phase (of LAI) and in 0.96-0.968 range during declining phase (of LAI) while for chickpea the correlations were in 0.86-0.90 range for growth phase (of LAI) and 0.91-0.96 range during declining phase (of LAI) for the ratios of 711-798 nm spectral region to 673 - 685 nm (growth phase)/693-708 nm

  13. The relationship of hyper-spectral vegetation indices with leaf area index (LAI) over the growth cycle of wheat and chickpea at 3 nm spectral resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R. K.; Vijayan, D.; Prasad, T. S.

    2006-01-01

    Hyperspectral ratio and normalized difference vegetation indices were computed from the 3 nm bandwidth ground-based spectral data taken in 400-950 nm wave length region over the crop growth cycle (CGC) of wheat and chickpea. Synthesized broad band Landsat TM-RVI, TM-NDVI and TM-SAVI were also computed using this narrow bandwidth spectral observations. Regression analysis was carried out for these indices with leaf area index (LAI) for wheat and chickpea over CGC and the r2 values were found poor in 0.2-0.53 range for wheat and in 0.41-0.82 range for chickpea. Significant relationship with LAI were found for wheat ( r2 in 0.86-0.97 range) when growth and decline phases were analyzed independently. Here, r2 values for chickpea were less than that for wheat. The high difference in rate of change of slope for hRVI is a good discriminator for high ET (wheat) and low ET (chickpea) crops. To find out the potential hyperspectral ratios and normalized difference indices that could provide strong relationship with LAI, a correlation-based analysis was carried out for LAI with all the possible combinations of ratios and normalized difference indices in 400-950 nm region (at 3 nm spectral interval) independently for growth and decline phases of LAI and found that in addition to traditional near-IR and red pairs, the pairs within near-IR, near-IR and visible extending to near-IR were also significantly related to LAI.

  14. Editorial independence at medical journals owned by professional associations: a survey of editors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ronald M; Müllner, Marcus

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of editorial independence at a sample of medical journals and the relationship between the journals and their owners. We surveyed the editors of 33 medical journals owned by not-for-profit organizations ("associations"), including 10 journals represented on the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (nine of which are general medical journals) and a random sample of 23 specialist journals with high impact factors that are indexed by the Institute for Scientific Information. The main outcome measures were the authority to hire, fire, and oversee the work of the editor; the editor's tenure and financial compensation; control of the journal's budget; publication of material about the association; and the editor's perceptions about editorial independence and pressure over editorial content. Of the 33 editors, 23 (70%) reported having complete editorial freedom, and the remainder reported a high level of freedom (a score of > or = 8, where 10 equals complete editorial freedom and 1 equals no editorial freedom). Nevertheless, a substantial minority of editors reported having received at least some pressure in recent years over editorial content from the association's leadership (42%), senior staff (30%), or rank-and-file members (39%). The association's board of directors has the authority to hire (48%) or fire (55%) the editor for about half of the journals, and the editor reports to the board for 10 journals (30%). Twenty-three editors (70%) are appointed for a specific term (median term = 5 years). Three-fifths of the journals have no control over their profit, and the majority of journals use the association's legal counsel and/or media relations staff. Stronger safeguards are needed to give editors protection against pressure over editorial content, including written guarantees of editorial freedom and governance structures that support those guarantees. Strong safeguards are also needed because editors

  15. 29 CFR 793.8 - “News editor.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âNews editor.â 793.8 Section 793.8 Labor Regulations... Exemption § 793.8 “News editor.” A news editor is an employee who gathers, edits and rewrites the news. He may also select and prepare news items for broadcast and present the news on the air. An employee who...

  16. 29 CFR 793.8 - “News editor.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âNews editor.â 793.8 Section 793.8 Labor Regulations... Exemption § 793.8 “News editor.” A news editor is an employee who gathers, edits and rewrites the news. He may also select and prepare news items for broadcast and present the news on the air. An employee who...

  17. 29 CFR 793.8 - “News editor.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âNews editor.â 793.8 Section 793.8 Labor Regulations... Exemption § 793.8 “News editor.” A news editor is an employee who gathers, edits and rewrites the news. He may also select and prepare news items for broadcast and present the news on the air. An employee who...

  18. 29 CFR 793.8 - “News editor.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âNews editor.â 793.8 Section 793.8 Labor Regulations... Exemption § 793.8 “News editor.” A news editor is an employee who gathers, edits and rewrites the news. He may also select and prepare news items for broadcast and present the news on the air. An employee who...

  19. 29 CFR 793.8 - “News editor.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âNews editor.â 793.8 Section 793.8 Labor Regulations... Exemption § 793.8 “News editor.” A news editor is an employee who gathers, edits and rewrites the news. He may also select and prepare news items for broadcast and present the news on the air. An employee who...

  20. Gene targeting, genome editing: from Dolly to editors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenfang; Proudfoot, Chris; Lillico, Simon G; Whitelaw, C Bruce A

    2016-06-01

    One of the most powerful strategies to investigate biology we have as scientists, is the ability to transfer genetic material in a controlled and deliberate manner between organisms. When applied to livestock, applications worthy of commercial venture can be devised. Although initial methods used to generate transgenic livestock resulted in random transgene insertion, the development of SCNT technology enabled homologous recombination gene targeting strategies to be used in livestock. Much has been accomplished using this approach. However, now we have the ability to change a specific base in the genome without leaving any other DNA mark, with no need for a transgene. With the advent of the genome editors this is now possible and like other significant technological leaps, the result is an even greater diversity of possible applications. Indeed, in merely 5 years, these 'molecular scissors' have enabled the production of more than 300 differently edited pigs, cattle, sheep and goats. The advent of genome editors has brought genetic engineering of livestock to a position where industry, the public and politicians are all eager to see real use of genetically engineered livestock to address societal needs. Since the first transgenic livestock reported just over three decades ago the field of livestock biotechnology has come a long way-but the most exciting period is just starting.

  1. An editor for the generation and customization of geometry restraints

    DOE PAGES

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Draizen, Eli J.; Adams, Paul D.

    2017-02-01

    Chemical restraints for use in macromolecular structure refinement are produced by a variety of methods, including a number of programs that use chemical information to generate the required bond, angle, dihedral, chiral and planar restraints. These programs help to automate the process and therefore minimize the errors that could otherwise occur if it were performed manually. Furthermore, restraint-dictionary generation programs can incorporate chemical and other prior knowledge to provide reasonable choices of types and values. However, the use of restraints to define the geometry of a molecule is an approximation introduced with efficiency in mind. The representation of a bondmore » as a parabolic function is a convenience and does not reflect the true variability in even the simplest of molecules. Another complicating factor is the interplay of the molecule with other parts of the macromolecular model. Finally, difficult situations arise from molecules with rare or unusual moieties that may not have their conformational space fully explored. These factors give rise to the need for an interactive editor for WYSIWYG interactions with the restraints and molecule. Restraints Editor, Especially Ligands (REEL) is a graphical user interface for simple and error-free editing along with additional features to provide greater control of the restraint dictionaries in macromolecular refinement.« less

  2. Making a height field editor for WireMan

    SciTech Connect

    Cano, J.

    1994-04-01

    The focus of this project is to modify and write new code for a program named WireMan. WireMan draws in 3-D using items from a menu (cones, spheres, etc.). One of the items which can be selected is called the height field. The height field, as it currently appears in WireMan, is a 3-D graph of a set equation. Originally, the height field was supposed to be able to display any curve the user may need. However, because of lack of time and programmers, the height field was never completed and has remained at this constant curve since its creation. To change it a user needs to modify progra mcode, thus, a height field editor is necessary. Through the editor, the user will be able to modify the height field by either equation of matrix. The latter will allow the user to determine a curve for the height field according to matrix or grid entries (of the form n x n, where up to 10 x 10 entries can be made). The grid will then be stretched and evaluated over the height field plane (which consists of 512-512 generated entries) and the curve will then be generated. The difficulties and the results of the project are outlined according to their occurrences throughout the paper.

  3. An editor for the generation and customization of geometry restraints

    PubMed Central

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Adams, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical restraints for use in macromolecular structure refinement are produced by a variety of methods, including a number of programs that use chemical information to generate the required bond, angle, dihedral, chiral and planar restraints. These programs help to automate the process and therefore minimize the errors that could otherwise occur if it were performed manually. Furthermore, restraint-dictionary generation programs can incorporate chemical and other prior knowledge to provide reasonable choices of types and values. However, the use of restraints to define the geometry of a molecule is an approximation introduced with efficiency in mind. The representation of a bond as a parabolic function is a convenience and does not reflect the true variability in even the simplest of molecules. Another complicating factor is the interplay of the molecule with other parts of the macromolecular model. Finally, difficult situations arise from molecules with rare or unusual moieties that may not have their conformational space fully explored. These factors give rise to the need for an interactive editor for WYSIWYG interactions with the restraints and molecule. Restraints Editor, Especially Ligands (REEL) is a graphical user interface for simple and error-free editing along with additional features to provide greater control of the restraint dictionaries in macromolecular refinement. PMID:28177308

  4. A Generic Metadata Editor Supporting System Using Drupal CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, J.; Banks, N. G.; Leggott, M.

    2011-12-01

    Metadata handling is a key factor in preserving and reusing scientific data. In recent years, standardized structural metadata has become widely used in Geoscience communities. However, there exist many different standards in Geosciences, such as the current version of the Federal Geographic Data Committee's Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC CSDGM), the Ecological Markup Language (EML), the Geography Markup Language (GML), and the emerging ISO 19115 and related standards. In addition, there are many different subsets within the Geoscience subdomain such as the Biological Profile of the FGDC (CSDGM), or for geopolitical regions, such as the European Profile or the North American Profile in the ISO standards. It is therefore desirable to have a software foundation to support metadata creation and editing for multiple standards and profiles, without re-inventing the wheels. We have developed a software module as a generic, flexible software system to do just that: to facilitate the support for multiple metadata standards and profiles. The software consists of a set of modules for the Drupal Content Management System (CMS), with minimal inter-dependencies to other Drupal modules. There are two steps in using the system's metadata functions. First, an administrator can use the system to design a user form, based on an XML schema and its instances. The form definition is named and stored in the Drupal database as a XML blob content. Second, users in an editor role can then use the persisted XML definition to render an actual metadata entry form, for creating or editing a metadata record. Behind the scenes, the form definition XML is transformed into a PHP array, which is then rendered via Drupal Form API. When the form is submitted the posted values are used to modify a metadata record. Drupal hooks can be used to perform custom processing on metadata record before and after submission. It is trivial to store the metadata record as an actual XML file

  5. Science journal editors' views on publication ethics: results of an international survey.

    PubMed

    Wager, E; Fiack, S; Graf, C; Robinson, A; Rowlands, I

    2009-06-01

    Breaches of publication ethics such as plagiarism, data fabrication and redundant publication are recognised as forms of research misconduct that can undermine the scientific literature. We surveyed journal editors to determine their views about a range of publication ethics issues. Questionnaire sent to 524 editors-in-chief of Wiley-Blackwell science journals asking about the severity and frequency of 16 ethical issues at their journals, their confidence in handling such issues, and their awareness and use of guidelines. Responses were obtained from 231 editors (44%), of whom 48% edited healthcare journals. The general level of concern about the 16 issues was low, with mean severity scores of <1 (on a scale of 0-3) for all but one. The issue of greatest concern (mean score 1.19) was redundant publication. Most editors felt confident in handling the issues, with <15% feeling "not at all confident" for all but one of the issues (gift authorship, 22% not confident). Most editors believed such problems occurred less than once a year and >20% of the editors stated that 12 of the 16 items never occurred at their journal. However, 13%-47% did not know the frequency of the problems. Awareness and use of guidelines was generally low. Most editors were unaware of all except other journals' instructions. Most editors of science journals seem not very concerned about publication ethics and believe that misconduct occurs only rarely in their journals. Many editors are unfamiliar with available guidelines but would welcome more guidance or training.

  6. The response of ecosystem carbon fluxes to LAI and environmental drivers in a maize crop grown in two contrasting seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Luca; Di Tommasi, Paul; D'Urso, Guido; Magliulo, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    The eddy correlation technique was used to investigate the influence of biophysical variables and crop phenological phases on the behaviour of ecosystem carbon fluxes of a maize crop, in two contrasting growing seasons. In 2009, the reduced water supply during the early growing stage limited leaf area expansion, thus negatively affecting canopy photosynthesis. The variability of gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration ( R eco) was mainly explained by seasonal variation of leaf area index (LAI). The seasonal variation of R eco was positively influenced by soil temperatures ( T soil) in 2008 but not in 2009. In 2008, a contribution of both autotrophic and heterotrophic components to total R eco could be hypothesized, while during 2009, autotrophic respiration is supposed to be the most important component. Crop phenological phases affected the response of ecosystem fluxes to biophysical drivers.

  7. Validating GEOV3 LAI, FAPAR and vegetation cover estimates derived from PROBA-V observations at 333m over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Fernando; Sánchez, Jorge; Lacaze, Roselyne; Weiss, Marie; Baret, Frédéric; Verger, Aleixandre; Smets, Bruno; Latorre, Consuelo

    2016-04-01

    The Copernicus Global Land Service (http://land.copernicus.eu/global/) is delivering surface biophysical products derived from satellite observations at global scale. Fifteen years of LAI, FAPAR, and vegetation cover (FCOVER) products among other indicators have been generated from SPOT/VGT observations at 1 km spatial resolution (named GEOV1, GEOV2). The continuity of the service since the end of SPOT/VGT mission (May, 2014) is achieved thanks to PROBA-V, which offers observations at a finer spatial resolution (1/3 km). In the context of the FP7 ImagineS project (http://fp7-imagines.eu/), a new algorithm (Weiss et al., this conference), adapted to PROBA-V spectral and spatial characteristics, was designed to provide vegetation products (named GEOV3) as consistent as possible with GEOV1 and GEOV2 whilst providing near real-time estimates required by some users. It is based on neural network techniques completed with a data filtering and smoothing process. The near real-time estimates are improved through a consolidation period of six dekads during which observations are accumulated every new dekad. The validation of these products is mandatory to provide associated uncertainties for efficient use of this source of information. This work presents an early validation over Europe of the GEOV3 LAI, FAPAR and vegetation cover (FCOVER) products derived from PROBA-V observation at 333 m and 10-days frequency during the year 2014. The validation has been conducted in agreement with the CEOS LPV best practices for global LAI products. Several performance criteria were investigated for the several GEOV3 modes (near real-time, and successive consolidated estimates) including completeness, spatial and temporal consistency, precision and accuracy. The spatial and temporal consistency was evaluated using as reference PROBA-V GEOV1 and MODC5 1 km similar products using a network of 153 validation sites over Europe (EUVAL). The accuracy was assessed with concomitant data collected

  8. Vertical Chlorophyll Canopy Structure Affects the Remote Sensing Based Predictability of LAI, Chlorophyll and Leaf Nitrogen in Agricultural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boegh, E.; Houborg, R.; Bienkowski, J.; Braban, C. F.; Dalgaard, T.; van Dijk, N.; Dragosits, U.; Holmes, E.; Magliulo, V.; Schelde, K.; Di Tommasi, P.; Vitale, L.; Theobald, M.; Cellier, P.; Sutton, M.

    2012-12-01

    Leaf nitrogen and leaf surface area influence the exchange of gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and they play a significant role in the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen and water. Remote sensing can be used to estimate leaf area index (LAI), chlorophyll content (CHL) and leaf nitrogen (N), but methods are often developed using plot-scale data and not verified over extended regions characterized by variations in environmental boundary conditions (soil, atmosphere) and canopy structures. Estimation of N can be indirect due to its association with CHL, however N is also included in pigments such as carotenoids and anthocyanin which have different spectral signatures than CHL. Photosynthesis optimization theory suggests that plants will distribute their N resources in proportion to the light gradient within the canopy. Such vertical variation in CHL and N complicates the evaluation of remote sensing-based methods. Typically remote sensing studies measure CHL of the upper leaf, which is then multiplied by the green LAI to represent canopy chlorophyll content, or random sampling is used. In this study, field measurements and high spatial resolution (10-20 m) remote sensing images acquired from the HRG and HRVIR sensors aboard the SPOT satellites were used to assess the predictability of LAI, CHL and N in five European agricultural landscapes located in Denmark, Scotland (United Kingdom), Poland, The Netherlands and Italy . All satellite images were atmospherically using the 6SV1 model with atmospheric inputs estimated by MODIS and AIRS data. Five spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) were calculated (the Normalized Difference Vegetation index, the Simple Ratio, the Enhanced Vegetation Index-2, the Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and the green Chlorophyll Index), and an image-based inverse canopy radiative transfer modelling system, REGFLEC (REGularized canopy reFLECtance) was applied to each of the five European landscapes. While the

  9. Transforming Pinus pinaster forest to recreation site: preliminary effects on LAI, some forest floor, and soil properties.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Melih; Bolat, İlyas

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of forest transformation into recreation site. A fragment of a Pinus pinaster plantation forest was transferred to a recreation site in the city of Bartın located close to the Black Sea coast of northwestern Turkey. During the transformation, some of the trees were selectively removed from the forest to generate more open spaces for the recreationists. As a result, Leaf Area Index (LAI) decreased by 0.20 (about 11%). Additionally, roads and pathways were introduced into the site together with some recreational equipment sealing parts of the soil surface. Consequently, forest environment was altered with a semi-natural landscape within the recreation site. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of forest transformation into recreation site particularly in terms of the LAI parameter, forest floor, and soil properties. Preliminary monitoring results indicate that forest floor biomass is reduced by 26% in the recreation site compared to the control site. Soil temperature is increased by 15% in the recreation site where selective removal of trees expanded the gaps allowing more light transmission. On the other hand, the soil bulk density which is an indicator of soil compaction is unexpectedly slightly lower in the recreation site. Organic carbon (C(org)) and total nitrogen (N(total)) together with the other physical and chemical parameter values indicate that forest floor and soil have not been exposed to much disturbance. However, subsequent removal of trees that would threaten the vegetation, forest floor, and soil should not be allowed. The activities of the recreationists are to be concentrated on the paved spaces rather than soil surfaces. Furthermore, long-term monitoring and management is necessary for both the observation and conservation of the site.

  10. The new pLAI (lux regulon based auto-inducible) expression system for recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Nocadello, Salvatore; Swennen, Erwin Frans

    2012-01-05

    After many years of intensive research, it is generally assumed that no universal expression system can exist for high-level production of a given recombinant protein. Among the different expression systems, the inducible systems are the most popular for their tight regulation. However, induction is in many cases less favorable due to the high cost and/or toxicity of inducers, incompatibilities with industrial scale-up or detrimental growth conditions. Expression systems using autoinduction (or self-induction) prove to be extremely versatile allowing growth and induction of recombinant proteins without the need to monitor cell density or add inducer. Unfortunately, almost all the actual auto inducible expression systems need endogenous or induced metabolic changes during the growth to trigger induction, both frequently linked to detrimental condition to cell growth. In this context, we use a simple modular approach for a cell density-based genetic regulation in order to assemble an autoinducible recombinant protein expression system in E. coli. The newly designed pLAI expression system places the expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli under control of the regulatory genes of the lux regulon of Vibrio fischeri's Quorum Sensing (QS) system.The pLAI system allows a tight regulation of the recombinant gene allowing a negligible basal expression and expression only at high cell density. Sequence optimization of regulative genes of QS of V. fischeri for expression in E. coli upgraded the system to high level expression. Moreover, partition of regulative genes between the plasmid and the host genome and introduction of a molecular safety lock permitted tighter control of gene expression. Coupling gene expression to cell density using cell-to-cell communication provides a promising approach for recombinant protein production. The system allows the control of expression of the target recombinant gene independently from external inducers or drastic changes in

  11. The new pLAI (lux regulon based auto-inducible) expression system for recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background After many years of intensive research, it is generally assumed that no universal expression system can exist for high-level production of a given recombinant protein. Among the different expression systems, the inducible systems are the most popular for their tight regulation. However, induction is in many cases less favorable due to the high cost and/or toxicity of inducers, incompatibilities with industrial scale-up or detrimental growth conditions. Expression systems using autoinduction (or self-induction) prove to be extremely versatile allowing growth and induction of recombinant proteins without the need to monitor cell density or add inducer. Unfortunately, almost all the actual auto inducible expression systems need endogenous or induced metabolic changes during the growth to trigger induction, both frequently linked to detrimental condition to cell growth. In this context, we use a simple modular approach for a cell density-based genetic regulation in order to assemble an autoinducible recombinant protein expression system in E. coli. Result The newly designed pLAI expression system places the expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli under control of the regulatory genes of the lux regulon of Vibrio fischeri's Quorum Sensing (QS) system. The pLAI system allows a tight regulation of the recombinant gene allowing a negligible basal expression and expression only at high cell density. Sequence optimization of regulative genes of QS of V. fischeri for expression in E. coli upgraded the system to high level expression. Moreover, partition of regulative genes between the plasmid and the host genome and introduction of a molecular safety lock permitted tighter control of gene expression. Conclusion Coupling gene expression to cell density using cell-to-cell communication provides a promising approach for recombinant protein production. The system allows the control of expression of the target recombinant gene independently from external

  12. Improving systems documentation using an online copy editor

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    For the last three years the author has been using Writers Workbench, a UNIX text-editing tool, to edit computer documentation. In this article the author outlines his experiences using the system, noting both the advantages to explore and pitfalls to avoid in using this tool. Writers Workbench is especially useful for improving a writer's basic skills - punctuation, spelling, and grammar. When used effectively, Writers Workbench can cut down on wordiness and improve the consistency of a manual. It can help in the creation of a table of contents, index, glossary, and bibliography and in checking readability. Furthermore, by creating user-defined dictionaries, authors or editors can customize the tool to fit their purposes and styles. However, Writers Workbench is not good at catching problems relating to organization, focus, and clarity.

  13. Highlighting impact: Do editors' selections identify influential papers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    A recent trend in scientific publishing is that journal editors highlight each week a select set among the papers published (usually) in their respective journals. The highlighted papers are deemed of higher quality, importance, or interest than the 'average' paper and feature prominently in the publishers' websites. We perform a citation analysis of the highlighted papers for a number of journals from various publishers in physics. By comparing the performance of highlighted papers relative to (a) typical papers and (b) highly cited papers in their source journals and in other journals in the field, we explore whether, and to what extent, the selection process at the time of publication identifies papers that will turn out to be influential. We discuss the broader implications for research assessment.

  14. A diagram editor for efficient biomedical knowledge capture and integration.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bohua; Jakupovic, Elvis; Wilson, Justin; Dai, Manhong; Xuan, Weijian; Mirel, Barbara; Athey, Brian; Watson, Stanley; Meng, Fan

    2008-03-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying complex disorders requires the integration of data and knowledge from different sources including free text literature and various biomedical databases. To facilitate this process, we created the Biomedical Concept Diagram Editor (BCDE) to help researchers distill knowledge from data and literature and aid the process of hypothesis development. A key feature of BCDE is the ability to capture information with a simple drag-and-drop. This is a vast improvement over manual methods of knowledge and data recording and greatly increases the efficiency of the biomedical researcher. BCDE also provides a unique concept matching function to enforce consistent terminology, which enables conceptual relationships deposited by different researchers in the BCDE database to be mined and integrated for intelligible and useful results. We hope BCDE will promote the sharing and integration of knowledge from different researchers for effective hypothesis development.

  15. Upcoming IJTMB Initiatives from the Interim Executive Editor

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ann Blair

    2016-01-01

    It is an honor and a privilege to be appointed the Interim Executive Editor for the IJTMB; I am lucky to have some initiatives that were already in development by the previous editorial team that I hope to bring to fruition over the next few months. First, I hope to increase the Journal’s Internet presence through social media to expand readership and encourage new submitters. The second initiative is a mentoring program to assist writers with their submissions to the Journal. Finally, I, and the rest of the editorial staff, will continue to evaluate the process, procedures, and forms used in peer review. I hope to move these initiatives forward and by doing so, bring in new readers, submitters, and reviewers to the Journal. PMID:27974945

  16. Educating science editors: is there a comprehensive strategy?

    PubMed Central

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Gorin, Sergey V.; Kitas, George D.

    2014-01-01

    The article considers available options to educate science editors in the fast-transforming digital environment. There is no single course or resource that can cover their constantly changing and diversifying educational needs. The involvement in research, writing, and reviewing is important for gaining editing skills, but that is not all. Membership in editorial associations and access to updated scholarly information in the field are mandatory for maintaining editorial credentials. Learned associations offer access to a few widely-recognized periodicals. There are also formal training courses covering issues in science writing and ethical editing, but no high-level evidence data exist to promote any of these. Networking with like-minded specialists within the global and regional editorial associations seems a useful strategy to upgrade editorial skills and resolve problems with the quality control and digitization of scholarly periodicals. PMID:25559840

  17. The X-windows interactive navigation data editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinker, G. C.

    1992-01-01

    A new computer program called the X-Windows Interactive Data Editor (XIDE) was developed and demonstrated as a prototype application for editing radio metric data in the orbit-determination process. The program runs on a variety of workstations and employs pull-down menus and graphical displays, which allow users to easily inspect and edit radio metric data in the orbit data files received from the Deep Space Network (DSN). The XIDE program is based on the Open Software Foundation OSF/Motif Graphical User Interface (GUI) and has proven to be an efficient tool for editing radio metric data in the navigation operations environment. It was adopted by the Magellan Navigation Team as their primary data-editing tool. Because the software was designed from the beginning to be portable, the prototype was successfully moved to new workstation environments. It was also itegrated into the design of the next-generation software tool for DSN multimission navigation interactive launch support.

  18. An Internet-based ontology editor for medical appropriateness criteria.

    PubMed

    Kahn, C E

    1998-04-01

    Appropriateness criteria and practice guidelines seek to promote the cost-effectiveness use of medical interventions, and can be most useful when integrated with computer-based patient records and order-entry systems. Building an abstract model (ontology) of appropriateness criteria can require considerable effort among investigators at geographically dispersed institutions. To facilitate the construction and maintenance of ontologies for clinical appropriateness criteria, the author developed an Internet-based system for viewing and editing the knowledge model. The system, called NEON (Network-based Editor for ONtologies), uses the World Wide Web as a platform-independent user interface. NEON allows users to edit the indexing terms and the semantic network that form the ontology for a set of appropriateness criteria. Ontologies built using the system can be imported and exported using an open, internationally standardized format based on the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML).

  19. Andreae is New Editor of Global Biogeochemical Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2004-10-01

    As the incoming editor of Global Biogeochemical Cycles, I would like to introduce myself and my ideas for the journal to Eos readers and to current and potential GBC authors. I've had a somewhat ``roaming'' scientific evolution, coming from ``straight'' chemistry through hard-rock geochemistry to chemical oceanography, the field in which I did my Ph.D. I taught marine chemistry at Florida State University for a number of years, and developed an interest in ocean/atmosphere interactions and atmospheric chemistry. In 1987 I took on my present job at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, in Mainz, Germany, and, after leaving the seacoast, my interests shifted to interactions between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere, including the role of vegetation fires. My present focus is on the role of biogenic aerosols and biomass smoke in regulating cloud properties and influencing climate.

  20. Advanced software development workstation project: Engineering scripting language. Graphical editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Software development is widely considered to be a bottleneck in the development of complex systems, both in terms of development and in terms of maintenance of deployed systems. Cost of software development and maintenance can also be very high. One approach to reducing costs and relieving this bottleneck is increasing the reuse of software designs and software components. A method for achieving such reuse is a software parts composition system. Such a system consists of a language for modeling software parts and their interfaces, a catalog of existing parts, an editor for combining parts, and a code generator that takes a specification and generates code for that application in the target language. The Advanced Software Development Workstation is intended to be an expert system shell designed to provide the capabilities of a software part composition system.

  1. LAI (in situ, simulated, Landsat-derived, and MODIS): A comparison within an Oak-Hickory Forest Complex in southwestern Virginia, USA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Environmental Sciences and Atmospheric Modeling Analysis Divisions are investigating the viability of simulated (i.e., ‘modeled’) leaf area index (LAI) inputs into various regional and local scale air quality models. Satellite L...

  2. LAI (in situ, simulated, Landsat-derived, and MODIS): A comparison within an Oak-Hickory Forest Complex in southwestern Virginia, USA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Environmental Sciences and Atmospheric Modeling Analysis Divisions are investigating the viability of simulated (i.e., ‘modeled’) leaf area index (LAI) inputs into various regional and local scale air quality models. Satellite L...

  3. Utility of an image-based canopy reflectance modeling tool for remote estimation of LAI and leaf chlorophyll content at the field scale

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A REGularized canopy reFLECtance (REGFLEC) modeling tool that couples leaf optics (PROSPECT), canopy reflectance (ACRM), and atmospheric radiative transfer (6SV1) models is described and the model output of leaf chlorophyll (Cab) and total leaf area index (LAI) is validated against ground measuremen...

  4. Statistical derivation of fPAR and LAI for irrigated cotton and rice in arid Uzbekistan by combining multi-temporal RapidEye data and ground measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehammer, Andrea; Fritsch, Sebastian; Conrad, Christopher; Lamers, John; Dech, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    Land surface biophysical parameters such as the fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR) and leaf area index (LAI) are keys for monitoring vegetation dynamics and in particular for biomass and carbon flux simulation. This study aimed at deriving accurate regression equations from the newly available RapidEye satellite sensor to be able to map regional fPAR and LAI which could be used as inputs for crop growth simulations. Therefore, multi-temporal geo- and atmospherically corrected RapidEye scenes were segmented to derive homogeneous patches within the experimental fields. Various vegetation indices (VI) were calculated for each patch focusing on indices that include RapidEye's red edge band and further correlated with in situ measured fPAR and LAI values of cotton and rice. Resulting coefficients of determination ranged from 0.55 to 0.95 depending on the indices analysed, object scale, crop type and regression function type. The general relationships between VI and fPAR were found to be linear. Nonlinear models gave a better fit for VI-LAI relation. VIs derived from the red edge channel did not prove to be generally superior to other VIs.

  5. Comparison of satellite-derived LAI and precipitation anomalies over Brazil with a thermal infrared-based Evaporative Stress Index for 2003-2013

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shortwave vegetation index (VI) and leaf area index (LAI) remote sensing products yield inconsistent depictions of biophysical response to drought and pluvial events that have occurred in Brazil over the past decade. Conflicting reports of severity of drought impacts on vegetation health and funct...

  6. Accuracy Assessment of GEOV1 and MODIS C5 & C6 LAI and FAPAR Essential Climate Variables Products over a Network of Cropland Sites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    camacho De Coca, F.; Sánchez, J.; Latorre, C.; Lacaze, R. N.; Baret, F.; Weiss, M.

    2016-12-01

    This work discuss the accuracy of the LAI and FAPAR essential climate variables derived from satellite observations over a network of cropland sites mostly located in Europe. Three different LAI and FAPAR products are evaluated: GEOV1 from Copernicus Global Land Service derived from SPOT/VEGETATION and PROBA-V observations at 1 km spatial resolution, and the MODIS collection 5 derived at 1 km spatial resolution and the new collection 6 derived at 500m spatial resolution. The ground database was generated during the FP7 ImagineS project over a network of cropland sites, including some JECAM sites, in collaboration with local teams. A total of 66 field campaigns were conducted over 23 sites from january 2013 to march 2016 around the world (21 of them corresponding to croplands), sampling more than 1700 Elementary Sampling Units (ESUs) of about 20x20m size (more than 2000 measurements including replications with different devices). Most of the ESUs were characterized using digital hemispherical photos (DHP), as well as LAI-2200 and AccuPAR LP-80 devices, during the growing or mature period of the vegetation avoiding senescent, to be close to the definition of satellite LAI and FAPAR related to green foliar elements. The spatial sampling protocol follows the VALERI recommendations, with an stratified sampling per cover types in the study area of about 3x3 km2. Multi-temporal campaigns were performed in some of the sites, where in others only one campaign was conducted. Ground measurements were up-scaled by EOLAB using high-resolution imagery (mainly Landsat-8 data and SPOT-4) and robust regression methods testing the best band combination to minimize cross-validation and weighted RMS errors. This efforts resulted in a consistent an unique database of ground measurements and ground-based reference maps (between 38 and 48 depending on variable) generated following the standards of the CEOS/WGCV Land Products Validation, suitable to be used as fiducial reference for

  7. EDITORIAL: A word from the new Editor-in-Chief A word from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostowski, Jan

    2011-01-01

    TIn the autumn of 2010 I became the Editor-in Chief of European Journal of Physics (EJP). EJP is a place for teachers, instructors and professors to exchange their views on teaching physics at university level and share their experience. It is general opinion that no good research is possible without connection with good, high-quality teaching, at the university level in particular. Therefore excellence in physics teaching is important to the physics community. European Journal of Physics is proud of its contribution to achieving this goal. As Editor-in-Chief, I will continue to work to this general objective of the journal. We will publish articles on specific topics in physics, stressing originality of presentation and suitability for use in students'laboratories, lectures and physics teaching in general. We will also publish more pedagogical papers presenting the achievements of particular teaching methods. In addition, we will continue to publish special sections on particular areas of physics, as well as the annual special section on physics competitions. European Journal of Physics is in good shape. Due to the work of the previous editors and the publisher, the readership is high and growing steadily, and many excellent papers are being submitted and published. I hope that this positive trend for the journal will continue, and I will do my best to keep to this high standard. A few words about myself. I work in the Institute of Physics in Warsaw, Poland. My main research interests are in theoretical quantum optics and I have published about 80 research papers on this topic. For many years I was involved in teaching physics at university and in high school. I am a co-author of a textbook on physics for high-school students and of a problem book in quantum mechanics. For the last ten years, I have been involved in the International Physics Olympiad and over the last few years I have been a member of the Editorial Board of European Journal of Physics.

  8. A "Situational" and "Coorientational" Measure of Specialized Magazine Editors' Perceptions of Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Dennis W.

    A study was undertaken of specialized magazine editors' perceptions of audience characteristics as well as the perceived role of their publications. Specifically, the study examines the relationship between the editors' perceptions of reader problem recognition, level of involvement, constraint recognition, and possession of reference criteria and…

  9. Editorial Page Editors and Endorsements: Chain-owned vs. Independent Newspapers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Dizier, Byron

    Questionnaires were sent to 114 of the 228 editorial page editors at newspapers in the United States with daily circulations greater than 50,000 for a study that compared (1) the editor-publisher relationship existing at chains to that found at independent papers, and (2) the 1984 presidential endorsements made by chains to those by independent…

  10. Error Pattern Analysis Applied to Technical Writing: An Editor's Guide for Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monagle, E. Brette

    The use of error pattern analysis can reduce the time and money spent on editing and correcting manuscripts. What is required is noting, classifying, and keeping a frequency count of errors. First an editor should take a typical page of writing and circle each error. After the editor has done a sufficiently large number of pages to identify an…

  11. Debunking the Mutilated Boy: A Study of Newspaper Editors and an Inflammatory Rumor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lee

    A study examined how newspaper editors resolve issues relating to rumors--that is whether to cover stories which may turn out to be false. The "mutilated boy" rumor was chosen for its antiquity and endurance, its powerful theme, and its ability to create intense anxiety in a community. Thirty-three of the 86 editors who responded to the…

  12. A Coorientational Study of Food Public Relations Practitioners, Editors and Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knodell, Joyce Elaine

    Survey data on newspaper food editors and newspaper readers were collected through a title-rating technique. Analysis of responses to 40 food titles and leads indicated three newspaper food-editor types: transitional, traditional, and "new guard." Food-page readers fell into two types: information oriented (nutritionists) and cooking…

  13. "Clones," Codes, and Conflicts of Interest in Cartooning: Cartoonists and Editors Look at Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riffe, Daniel; And Others

    A study examined differences between political cartoonists and op-ed page editors on both traditional ethical issues (such as conflicts of interest) and the special, style-related concerns of editorial cartoonists. Hypotheses proposed were that editors and cartoonists (1) would condemn "cloning" or copying, reflecting an ethical…

  14. A "Situational" and "Coorientational" Measure of Specialized Magazine Editors' Perceptions of Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Dennis W.

    A study was undertaken of specialized magazine editors' perceptions of audience characteristics as well as the perceived role of their publications. Specifically, the study examines the relationship between the editors' perceptions of reader problem recognition, level of involvement, constraint recognition, and possession of reference criteria and…

  15. Letter to the editor of TAAP, in response to letter from Anders et al.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To the Editor, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology: We would like to address the letter to the editor submitted by Anders et al. regarding the substantive issues raised regarding our paper "Evaluation of two different metabolic hypotheses for dichloromethane toxicity using physi...

  16. The Editor and Publisher as Public Official: The Ultimate Conflict of Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Don

    A fifteen-item Likert scale and indepth personal interviews were used to collect data in a study that examined whether five individuals who held both the role of editor and public official were perceived as able to perform in a socially responsible manner as editors of their community newspapers in their estimation and in the estimation of a…

  17. Beacon Editor: Capturing Signal Transduction Pathways Using the Systems Biology Graphical Notation Activity Flow Language.

    PubMed

    Elmarakeby, Haitham; Arefiyan, Mostafa; Myers, Elijah; Li, Song; Grene, Ruth; Heath, Lenwood S

    2017-08-28

    The Beacon Editor is a cross-platform desktop application for the creation and modification of signal transduction pathways using the Systems Biology Graphical Notation Activity Flow (SBGN-AF) language. Prompted by biologists' requests for enhancements, the Beacon Editor includes numerous powerful features for the benefit of creation and presentation.

  18. A survey of orthopaedic journal editors determining the criteria of manuscript selection for publication

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To investigate the characteristics of editors and criteria used by orthopaedic journal editors in assessing submitted manuscripts. Methods Between 2008 to 2009 all 70 editors of Medline listed orthopaedic journals were approached prospectively with a questionnaire to determine the criteria used in assessing manuscripts for publication. Results There was a 42% response rate. There was 1 female editor and the rest were male with 57% greater than 60 years of age. 67% of the editors worked in university teaching hospitals and 90% of publications were in English. The review process differed between journals with 59% using a review proforma, 52% reviewing an anonymised manuscript, 76% using a routine statistical review and 59% of journals used 2 reviewers routinely. In 89% of the editors surveyed, the editor was able to overrule the final decision of the reviewers. Important design factors considered for manuscript acceptance were that the study conclusions were justified (80%), that the statistical analysis was appropriate (76%), that the findings could change practice (72%). The level of evidence (70%) and type of study (62%) were deemed less important. When asked what factors were important in the manuscript influencing acceptance, 73% cited an understandable manuscript, 53% cited a well written manuscript and 50% a thorough literature review as very important factors. Conclusions The editorial and review process in orthopaedic journals uses different approaches. There may be a risk of language bias among editors of orthopaedic journals with under-representation of non-English publications in the orthopaedic literature. PMID:21527007

  19. Editorial Page Editors and Endorsements: Chain-owned vs. Independent Newspapers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Dizier, Byron

    Questionnaires were sent to 114 of the 228 editorial page editors at newspapers in the United States with daily circulations greater than 50,000 for a study that compared (1) the editor-publisher relationship existing at chains to that found at independent papers, and (2) the 1984 presidential endorsements made by chains to those by independent…

  20. Letter to the editor of TAAP, in response to letter from Anders et al.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To the Editor, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology: We would like to address the letter to the editor submitted by Anders et al. regarding the substantive issues raised regarding our paper "Evaluation of two different metabolic hypotheses for dichloromethane toxicity using physi...

  1. Magazine Article Placement: How Editors, Regular Contributors, and Novice Writers Rate Query Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolliffe, Lee

    About 350,000 freelance magazine articles were purchased by magazine editors last year from the 22,000 freelancers and 225,000 would-be freelancers in the United States. A study examined the factors editors judge most important in selecting freelance magazine article proposals, using factor analysis and qualitative examination of persuasive…

  2. New Technology and the Writer/Editor Relationship: Shifting Electronic Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endres, Kathleen L.; Schierhorn, Ann B.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the role new technology is playing in the magazine writer/editor relationship. Finds that editors report the new technology is affecting their relationship with writers, and that free-lancers are less apt to use expensive new technology than staff writers. (SR)

  3. Self-Interest and Scholarly Publication: The Dilemma of Researchers, Reviewers, and Editors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Raymond L.; Roberts, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Academic misconduct in research is of growing concern to funding agencies, scholars, and academic journal editors. Scholarly publication has ethical implications researchers, reviewers, and journal editors. The theoretical background of the ethics of scholarly publication is explored as well as the use of a case study of an untenured researcher…

  4. 29 CFR 793.11 - Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer. 793...)(9) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Requirements for Exemption § 793.11 Combination announcer, news... as a news editor. In such cases, the primary employment test under the section 13(b)(9) exemption...

  5. 29 CFR 793.11 - Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer. 793...)(9) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Requirements for Exemption § 793.11 Combination announcer, news... as a news editor. In such cases, the primary employment test under the section 13(b)(9) exemption...

  6. 29 CFR 793.11 - Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer. 793...)(9) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Requirements for Exemption § 793.11 Combination announcer, news... as a news editor. In such cases, the primary employment test under the section 13(b)(9) exemption...

  7. 29 CFR 793.11 - Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer. 793...)(9) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Requirements for Exemption § 793.11 Combination announcer, news... as a news editor. In such cases, the primary employment test under the section 13(b)(9) exemption...

  8. Dr. Bruce Squires witnessed vast changes during tenure as CMAJ editor

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Dr. Bruce Squires retired in September after spending 10 years as editor of CMAJ. During his tenure the editor's responsibilities expanded greatly because of the CMA's foray into the publishing of medical books and additional journals and other publications. In this article, people who have worked with Squires reflect on his term with CMAJ. Imagesp570-a

  9. Adolescent Sexual Initiation through the Lens of Letters to the Editor Published in Polish Teenage Magazines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopacz, Marek S.; Bajka-Kopacz, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Almost all teenage magazines invite readers to submit questions concerning relationships, published as letters to the editor, popularly called "advice columns," often containing explicit questions about sexuality. This study aims to examine, firstly, how themes related to sexual initiation are presented in letters to the editor published…

  10. Adolescent Sexual Initiation through the Lens of Letters to the Editor Published in Polish Teenage Magazines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopacz, Marek S.; Bajka-Kopacz, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Almost all teenage magazines invite readers to submit questions concerning relationships, published as letters to the editor, popularly called "advice columns," often containing explicit questions about sexuality. This study aims to examine, firstly, how themes related to sexual initiation are presented in letters to the editor published…

  11. Discerning spatial and temporal LAI and clear-sky FAPAR variability during summer at the Toolik Lake vegetation monitoring grid (North Slope, Alaska)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, B.; Beamish, A. L.; Walker, D. A.; Epstein, H. E.; Sachs, T.; Chabrillat, S.; Buchhorn, M.; Prakash, A.

    2016-12-01

    Ground data for the validation of satellite-derived terrestrial Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) at high latitudes are sparse. Also for regional model evaluation (e.g. climate models, land surface models, permafrost models), we lack accurate ranges of terrestrial ground data and face the problem of a large mismatch in scale. Within the German research programs `Regional Climate Change' (REKLIM) and the Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP), we conducted a study on ground data representativeness for vegetation-related variables within a monitoring grid at the Toolik Lake Long-Term Ecological Research station; the Toolik Lake station lies in the Kuparuk River watershed on the North Slope of the Brooks Mountain Range in Alaska. The Toolik Lake grid covers an area of 1 km2 containing Eight five grid points spaced 100 meters apart. Moist acidic tussock tundra is the most dominant vegetation type within the grid. Eight five permanent 1 m2 plots were also established to be representative of the individual gridpoints. Researchers from the University of Alaska Fairbanks have undertaken assessments at these plots, including Leaf Area Index (LAI) and field spectrometry to derive the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). During summer 2016, we conducted field spectrometry and LAI measurements at selected plots during early, peak and late summer. We experimentally measured LAI on more spatially extensive Elementary Sampling Units (ESUs) to investigate the spatial representativeness of the permanent 1 m2 plots and to map ESUs for various tundra types. LAI measurements are potentially influenced by landscape-inherent microtopography, sparse vascular plant cover, and dead woody matter. From field spectrometer measurements, we derived a clear-sky mid-day Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR). We will present the first data analyses comparing FAPAR and LAI, and maps of biophysically-focused ESUs for evaluation of the use of remote

  12. THE NEW ONLINE METADATA EDITOR FOR GENERATING STRUCTURED METADATA

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Shrestha, Biva; Palanisamy, Giri; Hook, Leslie A; Killeffer, Terri S; Boden, Thomas A; Cook, Robert B; Zolly, Lisa; Hutchison, Viv; Frame, Mike; Cialella, Alice; Lazer, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Nobody is better suited to describe data than the scientist who created it. This description about a data is called Metadata. In general terms, Metadata represents the who, what, when, where, why and how of the dataset [1]. eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is the preferred output format for metadata, as it makes it portable and, more importantly, suitable for system discoverability. The newly developed ORNL Metadata Editor (OME) is a Web-based tool that allows users to create and maintain XML files containing key information, or metadata, about the research. Metadata include information about the specific projects, parameters, time periods, and locations associated with the data. Such information helps put the research findings in context. In addition, the metadata produced using OME will allow other researchers to find these data via Metadata clearinghouses like Mercury [2][4]. OME is part of ORNL s Mercury software fleet [2][3]. It was jointly developed to support projects funded by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). OME s architecture provides a customizable interface to support project-specific requirements. Using this new architecture, the ORNL team developed OME instances for USGS s Core Science Analytics, Synthesis, and Libraries (CSAS&L), DOE s Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, and the international Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide ATlas (SOCAT). Researchers simply use the ORNL Metadata Editor to enter relevant metadata into a Web-based form. From the information on the form, the Metadata Editor can create an XML file on the server that the editor is installed or to the user s personal computer. Researchers can also use the ORNL Metadata Editor to modify existing XML metadata files. As an example, an NGEE Arctic scientist use OME to register

  13. The perception of volcanic risk in Kona communities from Mauna Loa and Hualālai volcanoes, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, B.F.; Johnston, David M.; Paton, Douglas; Swanson, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Volcanic hazards in Kona (i.e. the western side of the island of Hawai'i) stem primarily from Mauna Loa and Huala??lai volcanoes. The former has erupted 39 times since 1832. Lava flows were emplaced in Kona during seven of these eruptions and last impacted Kona in 1950. Huala??lai last erupted in ca. 1800. Society's proximity to potential eruptive sources and the potential for relatively fast-moving lava flows, coupled with relatively long time intervals since the last eruptions in Kona, are the underlying stimuli for this study of risk perception. Target populations were high-school students and adults ( n =462). Using these data, we discuss threat knowledge as an influence on risk perception, and perception as a driving mechanism for preparedness. Threat knowledge and perception of risk were found to be low to moderate. On average, fewer than two-thirds of the residents were aware of the most recent eruptions that impacted Kona, and a minority felt that Mauna Loa and Huala??lai could ever erupt again. Furthermore, only about one-third were aware that lava flows could reach the coast in Kona in less than 3 h. Lava flows and ash fall were perceived to be among the least likely hazards to affect the respondent's community within the next 10 years, whereas vog (volcanic smog) was ranked the most likely. Less than 18% identified volcanic hazards as amongst the most likely hazards to affect them at home, school, or work. Not surprisingly, individual preparedness measures were found on average to be limited to simple tasks of value in frequently occurring domestic emergencies, whereas measures specific to infrequent hazard events such as volcanic eruptions were seldom adopted. Furthermore, our data show that respondents exhibit an 'unrealistic optimism bias' and infer that responsibility for community preparedness for future eruptions primarily rests with officials. We infer that these respondents may be less likely to attend to hazard information, react to warnings as

  14. Community preparedness for lava flows from Mauna Loa and Hualālai volcanoes, Kona, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, Bruce F; Paton, Douglas; Swanson, Donald A.; Johnston, David M.

    2004-01-01

    Lava flows from Mauna Loa and Huala??lai volcanoes are a major volcanic hazard that could impact the western portion of the island of Hawai'i (e.g., Kona). The most recent eruptions of these two volcanoes to affect Kona occurred in A.D. 1950 and ca. 1800, respectively. In contrast, in eastern Hawai'i, eruptions of neighboring Ki??lauea volcano have occurred frequently since 1955, and therefore have been the focus for hazard mitigation. Official preparedness and response measures are therefore modeled on typical eruptions of Ki??lauea. The combinations of short-lived precursory activity (e.g., volcanic tremor) at Mauna Loa, the potential for fast-moving lava flows, and the proximity of Kona communities to potential vents represent significant emergency management concerns in Kona. Less is known about past eruptions of Huala??lai, but similar concerns exist. Future lava flows present an increased threat to personal safety because of the short times that may be available for responding. Mitigation must address not only the specific characteristics of volcanic hazards in Kona, but also the manner in which the hazards relate to the communities likely to be affected. This paper describes the first steps in developing effective mitigation plans: measuring the current state of people's knowledge of eruption parameters and the implications for their safety. We present results of a questionnaire survey administered to 462 high school students and adults in Kona. The rationale for this study was the long lapsed time since the last Kona eruption, and the high population growth and expansion of infrastructure over this time interval. Anticipated future growth in social and economic infrastructure in this area provides additional justification for this work. The residents of Kona have received little or no specific information about how to react to future volcanic eruptions or warnings, and short-term preparedness levels are low. Respondents appear uncertain about how to respond

  15. The New Online Metadata Editor for Generating Structured Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, R.; Shrestha, B.; Palanisamy, G.; Hook, L.; Killeffer, T.; Boden, T.; Cook, R. B.; Zolly, L.; Hutchison, V.; Frame, M. T.; Cialella, A. T.; Lazer, K.

    2014-12-01

    Nobody is better suited to "describe" data than the scientist who created it. This "description" about a data is called Metadata. In general terms, Metadata represents the who, what, when, where, why and how of the dataset. eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is the preferred output format for metadata, as it makes it portable and, more importantly, suitable for system discoverability. The newly developed ORNL Metadata Editor (OME) is a Web-based tool that allows users to create and maintain XML files containing key information, or metadata, about the research. Metadata include information about the specific projects, parameters, time periods, and locations associated with the data. Such information helps put the research findings in context. In addition, the metadata produced using OME will allow other researchers to find these data via Metadata clearinghouses like Mercury [1] [2]. Researchers simply use the ORNL Metadata Editor to enter relevant metadata into a Web-based form. How is OME helping Big Data Centers like ORNL DAAC? The ORNL DAAC is one of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data centers managed by the ESDIS Project. The ORNL DAAC archives data produced by NASA's Terrestrial Ecology Program. The DAAC provides data and information relevant to biogeochemical dynamics, ecological data, and environmental processes, critical for understanding the dynamics relating to the biological components of the Earth's environment. Typically data produced, archived and analyzed is at a scale of multiple petabytes, which makes the discoverability of the data very challenging. Without proper metadata associated with the data, it is difficult to find the data you are looking for and equally difficult to use and understand the data. OME will allow data centers like the ORNL DAAC to produce meaningful, high quality, standards-based, descriptive information about their data products in-turn helping with the data discoverability and

  16. Medical journal editors lacked familiarity with scientific publication issues despite training and regular exposure.

    PubMed

    Wong, Victoria S S; Callaham, Michael L

    2012-03-01

    To characterize medical editors by determining their demographics, training, potential sources of conflict of interest (COI), and familiarity with ethical standards. We selected editors of clinical medical journals with the highest annual citation rates. One hundred eighty-three editors were electronically surveyed (response rate, 52%) on demographics and experiences with editorial training, publication ethics, industry, and scientific publication organizations. Editors reported formal (76%) and informal (89%) training in medical editing topics. Most editors saw publication ethics issues (e.g., authorship, COIs) at least once a year. When presented with four questions about editorial issues discussed in commonly cited authoritative policy sources, performance was poor on topics of authorship (30% answered correctly), COI (15%), peer review (16%), and plagiarism (17%). Despite this, confidence level in editorial skills on a Likert scale from the beginning to the end of the survey dropped only slightly from 4.2 to 3.9 (P<0.0001). Our study presents a current look at editors of major clinical medical journals. Most editors reported training in medical editing topics, saw ethical issues regularly, and were aware of scientific publication organizations, but their knowledge of four common and well-disseminated publication ethics topics appears poor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Consed: a graphical editor for next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Gordon, David; Green, Phil

    2013-11-15

    The rapid growth of DNA sequencing throughput in recent years implies that graphical interfaces for viewing and correcting errors must now handle large numbers of reads, efficiently pinpoint regions of interest and automate as many tasks as possible. We have adapted consed to reflect this. To allow full-feature editing of large datasets while keeping memory requirements low, we developed a viewer, bamScape, that reads billion-read BAM files, identifies and displays problem areas for user review and launches the consed graphical editor on user-selected regions, allowing, in addition to longstanding consed capabilities such as assembly editing, a variety of new features including direct editing of the reference sequence, variant and error detection, display of annotation tracks and the ability to simultaneously process a group of reads. Many batch processing capabilities have been added. The consed package is free to academic, government and non-profit users, and licensed to others for a fee by the University of Washington. The current version (26.0) is available for linux, macosx and solaris systems or as C++ source code. It includes a user's manual (with exercises) and example datasets. http://www.phrap.org/consed/consed.html dgordon@uw.edu .

  18. Misunderstanding publication bias: editors are not blameless after all.

    PubMed

    Senn, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In analysing whether there is an editorial bias in favour of positive studies, researchers have made implicit assumptions that are implausible. In particular, to justify the conclusion that there is no bias because observed editorial acceptance rates do not favour positive studies, the assumption that the decision to submit an article is based solely on quality would be required. If, on the other hand, submission were based on perceived probability of acceptance, negative and positive studies would not differ in terms of acceptance rates, but in terms of quality. It is shown, using a simple graphical model, how similar underlying situations as regards the relationship between quality and probability of acceptance on the one hand and study outcome (positive or negative) and probability of acceptance on the other could produce dramatically different results depending on the behaviour of authors. Furthermore, there is, in fact, some evidence that submitted negative studies are, on average, of higher quality than positive ones. This calls into question the standard interpretation of the studies examining editorial bias. It would appear that despite similar probabilities of acceptance for negative and positive studies, editors could be discriminating against negative studies.

  19. Geoyasgui: the Geosparql Query Editor and Result Set Visualizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beek, W.; Folmer, E.; Rietveld, L.; Walker, J.

    2017-07-01

    The Netherlands' Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency - in short Kadaster - collects and registers administrative and spatial data on property and the rights involved. This includes for ships, aircraft and telecommunications networks. Doing so, Kadaster protects legal certainty. The Kadaster publishes many large authoritative datasets including several key registers of the Dutch Government (Topography, Addresses and Buildings). Furthermore Kadaster is also developing and maintaining the PDOK shared service, in which about 100 spatial datasets are being published in several formats, including an incredible amount of detailed geospatial objects. Geospatial objects include all plots of land, all buildings, all roads and all lampposts. These objects are spatially and/or conceptually related, but are maintained by different data curators. As a result these datasets are syntactically and architecturally disjoint, and using them together currently requires non-trivial human labor. In response to this, Kadaster is currently publishing its geo-spatial data assets as Linked Open Data. The standardized query language for Linked Open Geodata is GeoSPARQL. Unfortunately, current tooling does not support writing and evaluating GeoSPARQL queries. This paper presents GeoYASGUI, a GeoSPARQL editor and result-set viewer with IDE capabilities. GeoYASGUI is not a new software product, but an integration of and a collection of updates to existing Open Source libraries. With GeoYASGUI it becomes possible to query the rich Open Data assets of the Kadaster.

  20. Training the unseasoned technical writer-editor: From the trainee's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    Many unseasoned technical writer-editors who are not adequately trained may become seasoned inadequately trained technical writer-editors. This problem can occur when a trainee is involved in an ineffective training program, but it can be alleviated by the trainer's assessing the unseasoned writer's talents, becoming involved with the trainee's growth in writing and editing skills, and helping him to visualize his potential as a technical writer-editor. Assessment, support, mentoring, and nurturing are important elements in the trainee's growth process and in any good training or internship program. 1 ref.

  1. Cytotoxic activity and probable apoptotic effect of Sph2, a sphigomyelinase hemolysin from Leptospira interrogans strain Lai.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Xuan; Geng, Yan; Yang, Jun-Wei; Guo, Xiao-Kui; Zhao, Guo-Ping

    2008-02-29

    Our previous work confirmed that Sph2/LA1029 was a sphigomyelinase-like hemolyisn of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar Lai. Characteristics of both hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of Sph2 were reported in this paper. Sph2 was a heat-labile neutral hemolysin and had similar hemolytic behavior as the typical sphingomyelinase C of Staphylococcus aureus upon sheep erythrocytes. The cytotoxic activity of Sph2 was shown in mammalian cells such as BALB/C mouse lymphocytes and macrophages, as well as human L-02 liver cells. Transmission electron microscopic observation showed that the Sph2 treated BALB/C mouse lymphocytes were swollen and ruptured with membrane breakage. They also demonstrated condensed chromatin as a high-density area. Cytoskeleton changes were observed via fluorescence confocal microscope in Sph2 treated BALB/C mouse lymphocytes and macrophages, where both cytokine IL-1beta and IL-6 were induced. In addition, typical apoptotic morphological features were observed in Sph2 treated L-02 cells via transmission electron microscope and the percentage of apoptotic cells did increase after the Sph2 treatment detected by flow cytometry. Therefore, Sph2 was likely an apoptosis-inducing factor of human L-02 liver cells.

  2. Biogeochemical characteristics of Kuan-Tzu-Ling, Chung-Lun and Bao-Lai hot springs in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Nath, Bibhash; Bundschuh, Jochen; Kar, Sandeep; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Liu, Jiann-Hong; Atla, Shashi B; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2011-01-01

    Hot springs are the important natural sources of geothermally heated groundwater from the Earth's crust. Kuan-Tzu-Ling (KTL), Chung-Lun (CL) and Bao-Lai (BL) are well-known hot springs in southern Taiwan. Fluid and mud (sediments) samples were collected from the eruption points of three hot springs for detailed biogeochemical characterization. The fluid sample displays relatively high concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) compared with K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), NO(2) (-), and SO(4) (2-), suggesting a possible marine origin. The concentrations of Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, V and Zn were significantly higher in the mud sediments compared with fluids, whereas high concentrations of As, Ba, Cu, Se, Sr and Rb were observed in the fluids. This suggests that electronegative elements were released during sediment-water interactions. High As concentration in the fluids was observed to be associated with low redox (Eh) conditions. The FTIR spectra of the humic acid fractions of the sediments showed the presence of possible functional groups of secondary amines, ureas, urethanesm (amide), and silicon. The sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacterium 99% similar to Desulfovibrio psychrotolerans (GU329907) were rich in the CL hot spring while mesophilic, proteolytic, thiosulfate- and sulfur-reducing bacterium that 99% similar to Clostridium sulfidigenes (GU329908) were rich in the BL hot spring.

  3. Data Sharing: A New Editorial Initiative of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Implications for the Editors´ Network

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, Fernando; Adamyan, Karlen; Artigou, Jean-Yves; Aschermann, Michael; Boehm, Michael; Buendia, Alfonso; Chu, Pao-Hsien; Cohen, Ariel; Cas, Livio Dei; Dilic, Mirza; Doubell, Anton; Echeverri, Dario; Enç, Nuray; Ferreira-González, Ignacio; Filipiak, Krzysztof J.; Flammer, Andreas; Fleck, Eckart; Gatzov, Plamen; Ginghina, Carmen; Goncalves, Lino; Haouala, Habib; Hassanein, Mahmoud; Heusch, Gerd; Huber, Kurt; Hulín, Ivan; Ivanusa, Mario; Krittayaphong, Rungroj; Lau, Chu-Pak; Marinskis, Germanas; Mach, François; Moreira, Luiz Felipe; Nieminen, Tuomo; Oukerraj, Latifa; Perings, Stefan; Pierard, Luc; Potpara, Tatjana; Reyes-Caorsi, Walter; Rim, Se-Joong; Rødevand, Olaf; Saade, Georges; Sander, Mikael; Shlyakhto, Evgeny; Timuralp, Bilgin; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Ural, Dilek; Piek, J. J.; Varga, Albert; Lüscher, Thomas F.

    2017-01-01

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) provides recommendations to improve the editorial standards and scientific quality of biomedical journals. These recommendations range from uniform technical requirements to more complex and elusive editorial issues including ethical aspects of the scientific process. Recently, registration of clinical trials, conflicts of interest disclosure, and new criteria for authorship - emphasizing the importance of responsibility and accountability-, have been proposed. Last year, a new editorial initiative to foster sharing of clinical trial data was launched. This review discusses this novel initiative with the aim of increasing awareness among readers, investigators, authors and editors belonging to the Editors´ Network of the European Society of Cardiology. PMID:28591318

  4. Data Sharing: A New Editorial Initiative of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Implications for the Editors´ Network.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Fernando; Adamyan, Karlen; Artigou, Jean-Yves; Aschermann, Michael; Boehm, Michael; Buendia, Alfonso; Chu, Pao-Hsien; Cohen, Ariel; Cas, Livio Dei; Dilic, Mirza; Doubell, Anton; Echeverri, Dario; Enç, Nuray; Ferreira-González, Ignacio; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Flammer, Andreas; Fleck, Eckart; Gatzov, Plamen; Ginghina, Carmen; Goncalves, Lino; Haouala, Habib; Hassanein, Mahmoud; Heusch, Gerd; Huber, Kurt; Hulín, Ivan; Ivanusa, Mario; Krittayaphong, Rungroj; Lau, Chu-Pak; Marinskis, Germanas; Mach, François; Moreira, Luiz Felipe; Nieminen, Tuomo; Oukerraj, Latifa; Perings, Stefan; Pierard, Luc; Potpara, Tatjana; Reyes-Caorsi, Walter; Rim, Se-Joong; Rødevand, Olaf; Saade, Georges; Sander, Mikael; Shlyakhto, Evgeny; Timuralp, Bilgin; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Ural, Dilek; Piek, J J; Varga, Albert; Lüscher, Thomas F

    2017-05-01

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) provides recommendations to improve the editorial standards and scientific quality of biomedical journals. These recommendations range from uniform technical requirements to more complex and elusive editorial issues including ethical aspects of the scientific process. Recently, registration of clinical trials, conflicts of interest disclosure, and new criteria for authorship - emphasizing the importance of responsibility and accountability-, have been proposed. Last year, a new editorial initiative to foster sharing of clinical trial data was launched. This review discusses this novel initiative with the aim of increasing awareness among readers, investigators, authors and editors belonging to the Editors´ Network of the European Society of Cardiology. Resumo O Comitê Internacional de Editores de Revistas Médicas (ICMJE) fornece recomendações para aprimorar o padrão editorial e a qualidade científica das revistas biomédicas. Tais recomendações variam desde requisitos técnicos de uniformização até assuntos editoriais mais complexos e elusivos, como os aspectos éticos do processo científico. Recentemente, foram propostos registro de ensaios clínicos, divulgação de conflitos de interesse e novos critérios de autoria, enfatizando a importância da responsabilidade e da responsabilização. No último ano, lançou-se uma nova iniciativa editorial para fomentar o compartilhamento dos dados de ensaios clínicos. Esta revisão discute essa nova iniciativa visando a aumentar a conscientização de leitores, investigadores, autores e editores filiados à Rede de Editores da Sociedade Europeia de Cardiologia.

  5. EDITORIAL: Farewell from the outgoing Editor-in-Chief Farewell from the outgoing Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molenkamp, Laurens W.

    2011-12-01

    At the end of 2011 I will retire as Editor-in-Chief of Semiconductor Science and Technology, and I am very pleased to announce that the job will be taken over by Professor Kornelius Nielsch. In the ten years I have held this position, I have seen many new topics entering the journal: spintronics, organic semiconductors, and Dirac fermion physics, to name just a few. The journal has also witnessed a strong internationalization of the authorship, with an especially strong increase in contributions from the Far East—a growth that is likely to continue in the coming years. I am certain that Kornelius will do an excellent job in guiding the journal through the developments of the coming decade. I would like to thank the publishing team of SST, or rather the three consecutive teams I witnessed during my tenure at the journal, for the help and support they have given me. The people at IOP Publishing are doing a great job in running the journal, and have made it possible to considerably reduce the time to publication for our submissions. I much enjoyed the collaboration with the other members of the Editorial Board; our annual meetings have always been a source of inspiration. Last, but certainly not least, I would like to thank you, the scientific community, authors, referees and readers, for your continuing support of the journal.

  6. Efficacy and mechanism of action of yin lai tang (lung-stomach treatment) in dyspepsia mouse infected by FM1 virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiegang; Yu, He; Zhang, Wang; Zhen, Jianhua; Li, Xiaofei; Lv, Guokai; Gu, Hong-Xiao; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and elaborate the mechanism of action of Yin Lai Tang (Lung-Stomach Treatment) on dyspepsia mouse infected by FM1 virus. Ninety male, 4 week old Kunming mouse with 12-14 g weight, were randomly divided into 9 groups, i.e., normal, infected, dyspepsia, ribavirin, Shuanghuanglian, Children's indigestion tablet, YinLaiTang high dose, YinLaiTang middle dose and YinLaiTang low dose, and these groups had been treated by according drugs to get objectives. Compared with normal group, lung index significantly (p < 0.01) increased in all groups except ribavirin group where lung index obviously (p < 0.05) increased. There was non-significant (p > 0.05) difference in the values of lung homogenate virus titer between dyspepsia group and other groups. Compared to normal group, there was variable degree of inflammatory cell infiltrations in respiratory tract structures in the animals of other groups, and there was a significant (p < 0.01) increase in the level of serum IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha in infected and dyspepsia group and significant (p < 0.01) decrease in the level of serum IFN-gamma was observed. Compared with single clearing stomach method and single clearing lung approach, lung-stomach treatment reduced the level of IL-6 with non-significant difference (p > 0.05) and increased the level of IL-10 obviously, and compared with the single clearing lung method, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05). Compared with the single clearing stomach method and the single clearing lung method, the lung-stomach treatment method had a better efficacy and showed effects on the expression of pro-inflammatory factor and anti-inflammatory factor.

  7. How do elevated [CO2], warming, and reduced precipitation interact to affect soil moisture and LAI in an old field ecosystem?

    SciTech Connect

    Dermody, Orla; Weltzin, Jake; Engel, Elizabeth C.; Allen, Phillip; Norby, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    Soil moisture content and leaf area index (LAI) are properties that will be particularly important in mediating whole system responses to the combined effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2], warming and altered precipitation. Warming and drying will likely reduce soil moisture, and this effect may be exacerbated when these factors are combined. However, elevated [CO2] may increase soil moisture contents and when combined with warming and drying may partially compensate for their effects. The response of LAI to elevated [CO2] and warming will be closely tied to soil moisture status and may mitigate or exacerbate the effects of global change on soil moisture. Using open-top chambers (4-m diameter), the interactive effects of elevated [CO2], warming, and differential irrigation on soil moisture availability were examined in the OCCAM (Old-Field Community Climate and Atmospheric Manipulation) experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in eastern Tennessee. Warming consistently reduced soil moisture contents and this effect was exacerbated by reduced irrigation. However, elevated [CO2] partially compensated for the effects of warming and drying on soil moisture. Changes in LAI were closely linked to soil moisture status. LAI was determined using an AccuPAR ceptometer and both the leaf area duration (LAD) and canopy size were increased by irrigation and elevated [CO2]. The climate of the southeastern United States is predicted to be warmer and drier in the future. This research suggests that although elevated [CO2] will partially ameliorate the effects of warming and drying, losses of soil moisture will increase from old field ecosystems in the future.

  8. Comparison of satellite-derived LAI and precipitation anomalies over Brazil with a thermal infrared-based Evaporative Stress Index for 2003-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Martha C.; Zolin, Cornelio A.; Hain, Christopher R.; Semmens, Kathryn; Tugrul Yilmaz, M.; Gao, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Shortwave vegetation index (VI) and leaf area index (LAI) remote sensing products yield inconsistent depictions of biophysical response to drought and pluvial events that have occurred in Brazil over the past decade. Conflicting reports of severity of drought impacts on vegetation health and functioning have been attributed to cloud and aerosol contamination of shortwave reflectance composites, particularly over the rainforested regions of the Amazon basin which are subject to prolonged periods of cloud cover and episodes of intense biomass burning. This study compares timeseries of satellite-derived maps of LAI from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and precipitation from the Tropical Rainfall Mapping Mission (TRMM) with a diagnostic Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) retrieved using thermal infrared remote sensing over South America for the period 2003-2013. This period includes several severe droughts and floods that occurred both over the Amazon and over unforested savanna and agricultural areas in Brazil. Cross-correlations between absolute values and standardized anomalies in monthly LAI and precipitation composites as well as the actual-to-reference evapotranspiration (ET) ratio used in the ESI were computed for representative forested and agricultural regions. The correlation analyses reveal strong apparent anticorrelation between MODIS LAI and TRMM precipitation anomalies over the Amazon, but better coupling over regions vegetated with shorter grass and crop canopies. The ESI was more consistently correlated with precipitation patterns over both landcover types. Temporal comparisons between ESI and TRMM anomalies suggest longer moisture buffering timescales in the deeper rooted rainforest systems. Diagnostic thermal-based retrievals of ET and ET anomalies, such as used in the ESI, provide independent information on the impacts of extreme hydrologic events on vegetation health in comparison with VI and precipitation-based drought

  9. Issues in Communication Education: An Interview with Joe Ayers (Editor 1999-2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crandall, Heather; Hazel, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview with Joe Ayres, editor of this journal from 1999 to 2002. Addresses issues such as curriculum content, competencies for undergraduate students, graduate students, student retention, and the role of mentoring in higher education. (SG)

  10. Writing Science Effectively: Biology and English Students in an Author-Editor Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkala, Irene; Gessell, Donna A.

    2003-01-01

    Reports on the design of a collaborative learning community linking students in biology and English courses in author-editor relationships. Delineates the steps of the project and provides sample evaluations for both groups. (Contains 19 references.) (DDR)

  11. Issues in Communication Education: An Interview with Joe Ayers (Editor 1999-2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crandall, Heather; Hazel, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview with Joe Ayres, editor of this journal from 1999 to 2002. Addresses issues such as curriculum content, competencies for undergraduate students, graduate students, student retention, and the role of mentoring in higher education. (SG)

  12. [Construction of genomic library of L. interrogans serovar lai using lambda gt11 as the vector and a study of recombiant plasmid pDL121].

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Dai, B; Jing, B; Wu, W; Li, S; Fang, Z; Zhao, H; Ye, D; Yan, R; Liu, J; Song, S; Yang, Y; Zhang, Y; Liu, F; Tu, Y; Yang, H; Huang, Z; Liang, L; Hu, L; Zhao, M

    1997-03-01

    A genomic library of L. interrogans serovar lai strain 017 has been constructed using lambda gt11 as the vector. DNA was partially digested by two blunt-end restriction enzymes, then methylated with EcoR I methylase; after EcoR I linker was added to the DNA, the linker-ended DNA was ligated to the dephosphorylated EcoR I digested lambda gt11 arms. The recombined DNA was packaged in vitro, and used to transduct E. coli Y1090 for amplification. There were 2.1 x 10(6) recombinant bacteriophages as recognized by their ability to form white plaques plated on Lac host in the presence of both IPTG and X-Ga1. A positive clone, designated lambda DL12, was screened with a rabbit anti-serum against L. interrogans serovar lai from the genomic library. The DNA from lambda DL12 was subcloned into plasmid pUC18. A recombinant (designated as pDL121) was obtained. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that a 23 kd was expressed in E. coli JM 103 harboring pDL121. Western blotting analysis showed that a specific protein band molecular weight of 23 kd could be recognized by the rabbit antiserum against L. interrogans serovar lai strain 017.

  13. Avogadro: an advanced semantic chemical editor, visualization, and analysis platform.

    PubMed

    Hanwell, Marcus D; Curtis, Donald E; Lonie, David C; Vandermeersch, Tim; Zurek, Eva; Hutchison, Geoffrey R

    2012-08-13

    The Avogadro project has developed an advanced molecule editor and visualizer designed for cross-platform use in computational chemistry, molecular modeling, bioinformatics, materials science, and related areas. It offers flexible, high quality rendering, and a powerful plugin architecture. Typical uses include building molecular structures, formatting input files, and analyzing output of a wide variety of computational chemistry packages. By using the CML file format as its native document type, Avogadro seeks to enhance the semantic accessibility of chemical data types. The work presented here details the Avogadro library, which is a framework providing a code library and application programming interface (API) with three-dimensional visualization capabilities; and has direct applications to research and education in the fields of chemistry, physics, materials science, and biology. The Avogadro application provides a rich graphical interface using dynamically loaded plugins through the library itself. The application and library can each be extended by implementing a plugin module in C++ or Python to explore different visualization techniques, build/manipulate molecular structures, and interact with other programs. We describe some example extensions, one which uses a genetic algorithm to find stable crystal structures, and one which interfaces with the PackMol program to create packed, solvated structures for molecular dynamics simulations. The 1.0 release series of Avogadro is the main focus of the results discussed here. Avogadro offers a semantic chemical builder and platform for visualization and analysis. For users, it offers an easy-to-use builder, integrated support for downloading from common databases such as PubChem and the Protein Data Bank, extracting chemical data from a wide variety of formats, including computational chemistry output, and native, semantic support for the CML file format. For developers, it can be easily extended via a powerful

  14. Polymeric lithography editor: Editing lithographic errors with nanoporous polymeric probes.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Pradeep Ramiah; Zhou, Chuanhong; Dasari, Mallika; Voss, Kay-Obbe; Trautmann, Christina; Kohli, Punit

    2017-06-01

    A new lithographic editing system with an ability to erase and rectify errors in microscale with real-time optical feedback is demonstrated. The erasing probe is a conically shaped hydrogel (tip size, ca. 500 nm) template-synthesized from track-etched conical glass wafers. The "nanosponge" hydrogel probe "erases" patterns by hydrating and absorbing molecules into a porous hydrogel matrix via diffusion analogous to a wet sponge. The presence of an interfacial liquid water layer between the hydrogel tip and the substrate during erasing enables frictionless, uninterrupted translation of the eraser on the substrate. The erasing capacity of the hydrogel is extremely high because of the large free volume of the hydrogel matrix. The fast frictionless translocation and interfacial hydration resulted in an extremely high erasing rate (~785 μm(2)/s), which is two to three orders of magnitude higher in comparison with the atomic force microscopy-based erasing (~0.1 μm(2)/s) experiments. The high precision and accuracy of the polymeric lithography editor (PLE) system stemmed from coupling piezoelectric actuators to an inverted optical microscope. Subsequently after erasing the patterns using agarose erasers, a polydimethylsiloxane probe fabricated from the same conical track-etched template was used to precisely redeposit molecules of interest at the erased spots. PLE also provides a continuous optical feedback throughout the entire molecular editing process-writing, erasing, and rewriting. To demonstrate its potential in device fabrication, we used PLE to electrochemically erase metallic copper thin film, forming an interdigitated array of microelectrodes for the fabrication of a functional microphotodetector device. High-throughput dot and line erasing, writing with the conical "wet nanosponge," and continuous optical feedback make PLE complementary to the existing catalog of nanolithographic/microlithographic and three-dimensional printing techniques. This new PLE

  15. Special Article: Ronald D. Miller: tribute to a past editor-in-chief.

    PubMed

    Tuman, Kenneth J

    2012-12-01

    For anesthesiologists around the world who have practiced or trained in the past 4 decades, the name Ronald Miller, MD, has been synonymous with a commitment to excellence that has been evident in all aspects of his remarkable career as a distinguished clinician-scientist, editor, writer, and educator. Dr. Miller's contributions as Editor-in-Chief of Anesthesia & Analgesia (1991-2006) have stimulated this salutation of his career and of his influence on transforming the Journal.

  16. Exploring why and how journal editors retract articles: findings from a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Peter; Wager, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Editors have a responsibility to retract seriously flawed articles from their journals. However, there appears to be little consistency in journals' policies or procedures for this. In a qualitative study, we therefore interviewed editors of science journals using semi-structured interviews to investigate their experience of retracting articles. We identified potential barriers to retraction, difficulties in the process and also sources of support and encouragement. Our findings have been used as the basis for guidelines developed by the Committee on Publication Ethics.

  17. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    In the 13 years since it was first published the "Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals" (the Vancouver style), developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, has been widely accepted by both authors and editors; over 400 journals have stated that they will consider manuscripts that conform to its requirements. This is the fourth edition of the "Uniform requirements." PMID:8287338

  18. Estimation of four land surface essential climate variables (albedo, LAI/FAPAR, and Fcover) from VIIRS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shunlin

    2016-07-01

    As the successor of MODIS, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) and future Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) brings us into a new era of global daily Earth observations. VIIRS was designed to improve upon the capabilities of the operational AVHRR and provide observation continuity with MODIS. This presentation will describe the progress in estimating four Essential Climate Variables (ECV): shortwave albedo (Wang, et al., 2013; Zhou, et al., 2016), leaf area index (LAI) (Xiao et al., 2016), fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR) (Xiao et al., 2016), and fractional vegetation coverage (Fcover) (Li, et al., 2016) from VIIRS data. The algorithms have been peer reviewed, and shortwave albedo has been operationally produced by NOAA and accessible to the scientific community. Li, Y., K. Jia, S. Liang, Z. Xiao, X. Wang, L. Yang, (2016), An operational algorithm for estimating fractional vegetation cover from VIIRS reflectance data based on general regression neural networks, Remote Sensing, revised Xiao, Z., S. Liang, T. Wang, and B. Jiang, (2016), Retrieval of Leaf Area Index and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation from VIIRS Time Series Data, Remote Sensing, revised. Wang, D., S. Liang, T. He, and Y. Yu, (2013), Direct Estimation of Land Surface Albedo from VIIRS Data: Algorithm Improvement and Preliminary Validation, Journal of Geophysical Research, 118(22):12,577-12,586 Zhou, Y., D. Wang, S. Liang, Y. Yu, and T. He, (2016), Assessment of the Suomi NPP VIIRS Land Surface Albedo Data Using Station Measurements and High-Resolution Albedo Maps, Remote Sensing, in press.

  19. HLa-class II (DRB & DQB1) in Thai sudden unexplained death syndrome (Thai SUDS) families (Lai-Tai families).

    PubMed

    Himmunngan, Pensiri; Sangwatanaroj, Somkiat; Petmitr, Songsak; Viroonudomphol, Duangkamol; Siriyong, Pakorn; Patmasiriwat, Pimpicha

    2006-03-01

    Thai Sudden Unexplained Death Syndrome (Thai SUDS), or Lai-Tai, is a major health problem among rural residents of northeastern Thailand. The cause has been identified as a genetic disease. SUDS, a disorder found in Southeast Asia, is characterized by an abnormal electrocardiogram with ST-segment elevation in leads V1-V3, identical to that seen in Brugada Syndrome (Brugada Sign, BS) and sudden death due to ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest (represents an arrhythmogenic marker that identifies high-risk for SUDS). SUDS victims have a sleeping disorder (narcolepsy). The HLA-DR locus is tightly associated with narcoleptic Japanese patients and HLA-DR2, DQ haplotypes were also found in Oriental narcoleptic patients. These circumstances prompted us to study the association between the disease and HLA Class II by HLA DNA typing using a PCR-SSO method, with five Thai SUDS families (18 BS-positive subjects as the cases, and 27 BS-negatives as the controls). We found that the HLA-DRB1 *12021 allele was significantly increased in BS-positive subjects (p = 0.02; OR = 4.5), the same as the HLA-DRB1*12021-DQB1 *0301/09 haplotype (p = 0.01; OR = 7.95). Our data suggests that the HLA-DRB1* 12021 allele associated with BS and the HLA-DRB1*12021-DQB1 *0301/09 is a haplotype susceptible to arrhythmogenic markers that can identify a high risk for SUDS.

  20. EDITORIAL: Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    As I begin my tenure as Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter (JPCM), I look upon this opportunity as both an honour and a real challenge. The journal is in great shape thanks to the work of my predecessors, Marshall Stoneham and David Ferry. The journal's solid reputation is based largely on the work these gentlemen have done over the past decade. The other main reason for the success of JPCM is the amazing staff in Bristol; keep up the good work, please. When discussing the journal with scientists from all corners of the globe, one thing is always mentioned—JPCM is a very reliable journal with well-written, high-quality papers, and a fast but rigorous peer-review process that provides fair, detailed and constructive referee reports for the benefit of authors. This is due almost entirely to our great authors and referees; we rely on them every day—thank you. As the new Editor-in-Chief I hope to continue to improve still further the journal's status in condensed matter science. As mentioned above, our reputation is excellent, but the reality is that we live in a world of bibliometrics and rankings. Over the past few years JPCM has been repositioned as a journal at the forefront of condensed matter physics, and the impact of the journal should increase further as a result of continued emphasis on commissioning in cutting-edge areas identified by the Editorial Board and the journal team. In addition to regular papers, JPCM has a number of other content streams that authors and readers can benefit from. Fast track communications (FTCs) offer exceptionally fast publication for work of the highest impact and urgency. By their select nature, FTCs benefit from personal treatment by the Editorial Board and the average receipt-to-first-decision time is just 11 days (the average receipt-to-publication time is just 45 days). Topical reviews in JPCM make the journal one of the most authoritative sources of review content for condensed matter physics

  1. EDITORIAL: Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corkum, Paul

    2011-01-01

    As a journal that reports advances in atomic, molecular and optical science (AMO), Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (J. Phys. B) provides the AMO research community with three unique fora: topical reviews, tutorials and special issues. Developed under the leadership of editor Jan Michael Rost and his Editorial Board, these sections have cemented J. Phys. B's reputation as a major journal showcasing the AMO community's advances. For me, an AMO scientist, it is therefore a special pleasure to be entrusted with continuing the tradition of excellence established by Jan Michael and the Editorial Board. I intend to build on this foundation by ensuring that the journal makes full use of these tools. Topical reviews: a unique focus When J. Phys. B becomes the first journal you turn to for initial reviews about important emerging areas in your field, we as an Editorial Board will have succeeded. To us, a topical review is different from a traditional review—a topical review focuses on emerging sub-fields of AMO physics. Its function is to alert and educate our readers about emerging opportunities. Topical reviews can also serve a closely related function for readers: keeping us up-to-date with critical technologies that lie slightly outside our own fields, such as advances in free-electron lasers science, (which will surely affect our field). Our overall goal is to make your research more productive because of the topical reviews you read within the journal. Tutorials J. Phys. B tutorials are aimed at graduate students or researchers venturing into a new field. Just as in my own research group I encourage all graduate students to write their theses in a way that will be useful to both future graduate students and the larger community beyond my group, J. Phys. B has designed tutorials to fill this function on the journal scale. Thus, tutorial authors are able to write in greater depth than can be included in a paper in nature, science or in the

  2. A scoping review of competencies for scientific editors of biomedical journals.

    PubMed

    Galipeau, James; Barbour, Virginia; Baskin, Patricia; Bell-Syer, Sally; Cobey, Kelly; Cumpston, Miranda; Deeks, Jon; Garner, Paul; MacLehose, Harriet; Shamseer, Larissa; Straus, Sharon; Tugwell, Peter; Wager, Elizabeth; Winker, Margaret; Moher, David

    2016-02-02

    Biomedical journals are the main route for disseminating the results of health-related research. Despite this, their editors operate largely without formal training or certification. To our knowledge, no body of literature systematically identifying core competencies for scientific editors of biomedical journals exists. Therefore, we aimed to conduct a scoping review to determine what is known on the competency requirements for scientific editors of biomedical journals. We searched the MEDLINE®, Cochrane Library, Embase®, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases (from inception to November 2014) and conducted a grey literature search for research and non-research articles with competency-related statements (i.e. competencies, knowledge, skills, behaviors, and tasks) pertaining to the role of scientific editors of peer-reviewed health-related journals. We also conducted an environmental scan, searched the results of a previous environmental scan, and searched the websites of existing networks, major biomedical journal publishers, and organizations that offer resources for editors. A total of 225 full-text publications were included, 25 of which were research articles. We extracted a total of 1,566 statements possibly related to core competencies for scientific editors of biomedical journals from these publications. We then collated overlapping or duplicate statements which produced a list of 203 unique statements. Finally, we grouped these statements into seven emergent themes: (1) dealing with authors, (2) dealing with peer reviewers, (3) journal publishing, (4) journal promotion, (5) editing, (6) ethics and integrity, and (7) qualities and characteristics of editors. To our knowledge, this scoping review is the first attempt to systematically identify possible competencies of editors. Limitations are that (1) we may not have captured all aspects of a biomedical editor's work in our searches, (2) removing redundant and overlapping items may have led to the

  3. EDITORIAL: Thank you and farewell from the Founding Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskes, Mike

    2005-07-01

    I have been involved with Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering (MSMSE) from the very beginning when it was merely an idea, over 14 years ago, to the current journal that is well supported by the community. During my time as Editor there have been many changes in the journal, including the introduction of electronic submissions, web-based services and free printed colour where it is essential to the article, as well as completely free colour online. The journal has seen excellent growth in the number and quality of submissions and the number of articles published continues to rise, enabling us to expand the journal to eight issues in 2005. Web accesses and downloads have greatly surpassed even my wildest dreams. In my opinion, the emergence of MSMSE as a top materials modelling journal has confirmed the vision of Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP) and the Executive Board that this area of science and engineering was ripe for a specialized journal. I feel that, having seen the journal through the early years and watched it grow into a successful arena for multidisciplinary materials research, it is now an appropriate time for me to hand over the reins. The journal has a great foundation for future growth and development and is supported by an excellent Editorial Board, who have given me a great deal of help and advice over the years. I feel sure that they will continue to support the journal when Bill Curtin, Brown University, takes over on 1 July 2005. Bill has the diverse experience in modelling at the atomic, dislocation, and continuum levels to lead the journal to new heights. Finally I would like to thank all of the readers, authors and referees who have greatly contributed to MSMSE over the years. Thank you for your support and help, and I hope you will continue to support the journal. Last, but not least, I would like to thank the staff at IOPP. Without their expert assistance, the journal could not have been as successful as it is

  4. Avogadro: an advanced semantic chemical editor, visualization, and analysis platform

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Avogadro project has developed an advanced molecule editor and visualizer designed for cross-platform use in computational chemistry, molecular modeling, bioinformatics, materials science, and related areas. It offers flexible, high quality rendering, and a powerful plugin architecture. Typical uses include building molecular structures, formatting input files, and analyzing output of a wide variety of computational chemistry packages. By using the CML file format as its native document type, Avogadro seeks to enhance the semantic accessibility of chemical data types. Results The work presented here details the Avogadro library, which is a framework providing a code library and application programming interface (API) with three-dimensional visualization capabilities; and has direct applications to research and education in the fields of chemistry, physics, materials science, and biology. The Avogadro application provides a rich graphical interface using dynamically loaded plugins through the library itself. The application and library can each be extended by implementing a plugin module in C++ or Python to explore different visualization techniques, build/manipulate molecular structures, and interact with other programs. We describe some example extensions, one which uses a genetic algorithm to find stable crystal structures, and one which interfaces with the PackMol program to create packed, solvated structures for molecular dynamics simulations. The 1.0 release series of Avogadro is the main focus of the results discussed here. Conclusions Avogadro offers a semantic chemical builder and platform for visualization and analysis. For users, it offers an easy-to-use builder, integrated support for downloading from common databases such as PubChem and the Protein Data Bank, extracting chemical data from a wide variety of formats, including computational chemistry output, and native, semantic support for the CML file format. For developers, it can be

  5. Tragedy at My Lai

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    conduct such savage acts of cruelty and murder? Throughout the course of research three contributing elements stood out above all others. Those were...able to view the Vietnamese through a more familiar human lens and less as animals or sub-humans. If the VC’s tactics had taken a more

  6. CHAIRMEN'S PREFACE AND EDITORS' NOTE: Unification of Fundamental Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, Lars; Nilsson, Jan S.; Salomonson, Per; Skagerstam, Bo-Sture

    1987-01-01

    Vainshtein. We had hoped that the Nobel Symposium should be a signal for improved relations between East and West, but in this respect we failed. The Symposium was held in the small town of Marstrand, a summer resort on an island outside Göteborg. The idea was to have it relatively close to home and to show the participants perhaps the best part of the local nature. Another motive was to keep the participants semi-isolated to provide ample time for discussions. With the somewhat heavy programme we found that even so, the days were not long enough. This Symposium was the second Nobel Symposium on elementary particle physics. The first one, also organized by our group, was held in 1968. We hope and believe that the next one need not be awaited another 18 years! The Symposium was made possible by a generous grant from the Nobel Foundation. An additional grant from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences was also essential. A grant from Nordita made it possible to invite some ten Nordic observers. We also gratefully acknowledge help with the organization of the Symposium from the city of Goteborg, the city of Kungälv, Volvo, Skandinaviska Enskilda banken, Ericsson AB and IBM Sweden. We thank all the participants for all their efforts, to come to our remote part of the world, to give excellent talks, to write up their talks astonishingly quickly and to share with us so much of their knowledge and expertise. Last but not least we are indebted to the members of the organizing committee, members of the group and the secretarial staff. Goteborg, August 1986 Editors' NoteIn these Proceedings the lectures are given in the order of their oral presentation at the Symposium. Regrettably, a few contributors could not participate (V. Gribov, A. Linde, V. Ogievetsky, M. Shifman and A. M. Polyakov). Their contributions have been placed close to the end of the Proceedings. As these authors did not have the opportunity of correcting the proofs, responsibility for printing errors must rest with

  7. A comparison of methods for smoothing and gap filling time series of remote sensing observations: application to MODIS LAI products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, S.; Baret, F.; Verger, A.; Neveux, P.; Weiss, M.

    2012-12-01

    Moderate resolution satellite sensors including MODIS already provide more than 10 yr of observations well suited to describe and understand the dynamics of the Earth surface. However, these time series are incomplete because of cloud cover and associated with significant uncertainties. This study compares eight methods designed to improve the continuity by filling gaps and the consistency by smoothing the time course. It includes methods exploiting the time series as a whole (Iterative caterpillar singular spectrum analysis (ICSSA), empirical mode decomposition (EMD), low pass filtering (LPF) and Whittaker smoother (Whit)) as well as methods working on limited temporal windows of few weeks to few months (Adaptive Savitzky-Golay filter (SGF), temporal smoothing and gap filling (TSGF) and asymmetric Gaussian function (AGF)) in addition to the simple climatological LAI yearly profile (Clim). Methods were applied to MODIS leaf area index product for the period 2000-2008 over 25 sites showing a large range of seasonal patterns. Performances were discussed with emphasis on the balance achieved by each method between accuracy and roughness depending on the fraction of missing observations and the length of the gaps. Results demonstrate that EMD, LPF and AGF methods were failing in case of significant fraction of gaps (%Gap > 20%), while ICSSA, Whit and SGF were always providing estimates for dates with missing data. TSGF (respectively Clim) was able to fill more than 50% of the gaps for sites with more than 60% (resp. 80%) fraction of gaps. However, investigation of the accuracy of the reconstructed values shows that it degrades rapidly for sites with more than 20% missing data, particularly for ICSSA, Whit and SGF. In these conditions, TSGF provides the best performances significantly better than the simple Clim for gaps shorter than about 100 days. The roughness of the reconstructed temporal profiles shows large differences between the several methods, with a decrease

  8. A comparison of methods for smoothing and gap filling time series of remote sensing observations - application to MODIS LAI products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, S.; Baret, F.; Verger, A.; Neveux, P.; Weiss, M.

    2013-06-01

    Moderate resolution satellite sensors including MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) already provide more than 10 yr of observations well suited to describe and understand the dynamics of earth's surface. However, these time series are associated with significant uncertainties and incomplete because of cloud cover. This study compares eight methods designed to improve the continuity by filling gaps and consistency by smoothing the time course. It includes methods exploiting the time series as a whole (iterative caterpillar singular spectrum analysis (ICSSA), empirical mode decomposition (EMD), low pass filtering (LPF) and Whittaker smoother (Whit)) as well as methods working on limited temporal windows of a few weeks to few months (adaptive Savitzky-Golay filter (SGF), temporal smoothing and gap filling (TSGF), and asymmetric Gaussian function (AGF)), in addition to the simple climatological LAI yearly profile (Clim). Methods were applied to the MODIS leaf area index product for the period 2000-2008 and over 25 sites showed a large range of seasonal patterns. Performances were discussed with emphasis on the balance achieved by each method between accuracy and roughness depending on the fraction of missing observations and the length of the gaps. Results demonstrate that the EMD, LPF and AGF methods were failing because of a significant fraction of gaps (more than 20%), while ICSSA, Whit and SGF were always providing estimates for dates with missing data. TSGF (Clim) was able to fill more than 50% of the gaps for sites with more than 60% (80%) fraction of gaps. However, investigation of the accuracy of the reconstructed values shows that it degrades rapidly for sites with more than 20% missing data, particularly for ICSSA, Whit and SGF. In these conditions, TSGF provides the best performances that are significantly better than the simple Clim for gaps shorter than about 100 days. The roughness of the reconstructed temporal profiles shows large

  9. G. K. Batchelor. Founding editor of the Journal of Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crighton, D. G.

    1999-05-01

    Although developments in fluid mechanics continue at a heady pace, and are reported in JFM at about 800 pages per month, things in the editorial management of JFM change only slowly. There is a continuity among the JFM Editorial Team and among the policies they espouse and implement that appears to be appreciated by the fluid mechanics community. A major change has, however, occurred from January 1999, in that George Batchelor has, after 43 years as Editor, stepped down from the day-to-day handling of papers and from the formulation of policies and practices, and allowed himself to be named on our masthead as Founding Editor. I say ‘allowed’ because George's initial wish was not to be so named, feeling that this might be seen as an immodest and presumptuous title. But Founding Editor is exactly what George was and is. He launched JFM in May 1956, having persuaded Taylor & Francis to be the publisher and printer, and having enlisted the help of G. F. Carrier, W. C. Griffith and M. J. Lighthill as Associate Editors, and T. Brooke Benjamin and I. Proudman as Assistant Editors. Then, as now, all members of the JFM Editorial Team were to work autonomously in the handling of papers, with complete delegated authority and similar workloads, but all following similar procedures and with similar philosophies, and all under the watchful eye of G. K. B.

  10. [The relevance of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) for medical publishing and research].

    PubMed

    Reyes, Humberto B

    2014-01-01

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors is a leading independent institution providing guidance for the report of biomedical research and health related topics in medical journals. Established in 1978, it is currently constituted by editors of fourteen general medical journals from different countries, plus one representative for the US National Library of Medicine and one representative for the World Association of Biomedical Journal Editors. Since 1978 the Committee provides a document, originally named "Uniform Requirements…", "to help authors, editors, and others involved in peer review and biomedical publishing create and distribute accurate, clear, unbiased medical journal articles". This document has been updated several times and the last version was released in August 2013, now renamed "Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals", available in www.icmje.org and citable as "ICMJE Recommendations". A vast proportion of medical journals, worldwide, have adopted these recommendations as rules. The ICMJE discusses and provides guidance on several relevant aspects including criteria on authorship, peer review, scientific misconduct, conflicts of interest, clinical trials registration, good editorial practices, the relations between editors and journal owners, the protection of individuals subject to medical research, the solvency of electronic publications, among others. The 2013 ICMJE Annual Meeting took place in Santiago, Chile, in November 4 and 5. The photograph shows attendants to the final session.

  11. STK Integrated Message Production List Editor (SIMPLE) for CEO Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trenchard, Mike; Heydorn, James

    2014-01-01

    Late in fiscal year 2011, the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) team was tasked to upgrade and replace its mission planning and mission operations software systems, which were developed in the Space Shuttle era of the 1980s and 1990s. The impetuses for this change were the planned transition of all workstations to the Windows 7 64-bit operating system and the desire for more efficient and effective use of Satellite Tool Kit (STK) software required for reliable International Space Station (ISS) Earth location tracking. An additional requirement of this new system was the use of the same SQL database of CEO science sites from the SMMS, which was also being developed. STK Integrated Message Production List Editor (SIMPLE) is the essential, all-in-one tool now used by CEO staff to perform daily ISS mission planning to meet its requirement to acquire astronaut photography of specific sites on Earth. The sites are part of a managed, long-term database that has been defined and developed for scientific, educational, and public interest. SIMPLE's end product is a set of basic time and location data computed for an operator-selected set of targets that the ISS crew will be asked to photograph (photography is typically planned 12 to 36 hours out). The CEO operator uses SIMPLE to (a) specify a payload operations planning period; (b) acquire and validate the best available ephemeris data (vectors) for the ISS during the planning period; (c) ingest and display mission-specific site information from the CEO database; (d) identify and display potential current dynamic event targets as map features; (e) compute and display time and location information for each target; (f) screen and select targets based on known crew availability constraints, obliquity constraints, and real-time evaluated constraints to target visibility due to illumination (sun elevation) and atmospheric conditions (weather); and finally (g) incorporate basic, computed time and location information for each selected

  12. Evaluation of different empirical models of crop/weed competition to estimate yield and LAI losses from common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Baghestani, Mohammad Ali; Zand, Eskandar; Soufizadeh, Saeid; Beygi, Mehdi Agha

    2007-11-01

    Usefulness and validity of different empirical yield loss models at describing the effect of common lambsquarters competition in maize were evaluated in a two year experiment in Karaj during 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. Experimental factors were density (1st year: 2, 5, 10 and 15 plants m(-2); 2nd year: 6.6, 13.3 and 20 plants m(-2)) and the relative emergence time (1st year: simultaneous to, at 2-3 and 4-5 leaf stages of maize; 2nd year: simultaneous to, at 2-3 and 5-6 leaf stages of maize) of common lambsquarters. Results indicated that the highest maize yield and LAI losses were observed at simultaneous emergence of weed and maize resulted in 85 and 92% yield loss and 73 and 53% LAI loss in the first and second years of experiments, respectively. Also, delaying common lambsquarters emergence reduced its competitive ability against maize. Comparison of different empirical models revealed that the empirical yield loss models based on density and the relative time of weed emergence and the weed relative leaf area, also the rectangular hyperbolic yield loss model based on weed density were more reliable at predicting maize yield and LAI losses according to their high coefficient of determination (R2). Also, results indicated that the negative effect of the relative time of common lambsquarters emergence on maize yield loss was more than weed density, so that the rectangular hyperbolic yield loss model based on weed density was more capable at predicting yield loss at each of weed emergence time.

  13. Increased number of crop types over France in the ISBA-A-gs land surface model : does it improve the regional simulation of LAI ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    lafont, Sebastien; Calvet, Alina; Carrer, Dominque; Delire, Christine; Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Alkama, ramdane

    2013-04-01

    Land surface models have at first been designed to represent natural vegetation classified in broad Plant Functional Type (PFT). A better description of the agricultural land is needed to enlarge the accuracy of the model (especially at high resolution) and their range of application (land use studies, climate change...). For example in temperate region, the C3 crops have two different seasonal cycles with a peak LAI in spring or in summer depending on sowing date. A larger number of agricultural PFT have been recently introduced in the ISBA-A-gs land surface model within the SURFEX modelling platform. The SURFEX modelling platform is used in a wide range of applications either in coupled mode or in off-line mode (driven by meteorological forcing). The number of agricultural PFT have been increased from 3 (C3 crops, C4 crops, irrigated C4 crops) to 8 (C3 winter crops, and C3 summer crops both irrigated or not; C4 crops; C4 irrigated crops). The objective is not to implement a full agronomic model but to introduce simple parametrisation which account for the broad differences between these classes. For example summer C3 crops have a prescribed emergence date parameter that differentiate them from winter C3 crops. The irrigation introduced in an earlier version of ISBA-A-gs is based on a simple empirical model based on threshold of soil moisture. We will test the new version of the model over France in a configuration close to the one used by the GEOLAND2 Land Carbon project. The simulations are performed with the high resolution meteorological forcing (8km) SAFRAN over a period of 20 years. We compare the simulated LAI over France with the GEOLAND2 LAI product derived project from the SPOT/VEGETATION sensor. Finally, we discuss the improvement in seasonal cycle and inter-annual variability bring by the new PFTs.

  14. Model of Management (Mo.Ma) for the patient with schizophrenia: crisis control, maintenance, relapse prevention, and recovery with long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs).

    PubMed

    Brugnoli, Roberto; Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Marcellusi, Andrea; Mennini, Francesco S; De Filippis, Sergio; Carrus, Dario; Ballerini, Andrea; Francomano, Antonio; Ducci, Giuseppe; Del Casale, Antonio; Girardi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disease that affects approximately 1% of the population with a relevant chronic impact on social and occupational functioning and daily activities. People with schizophrenia are 2-2.5 times more likely to die early than the general population. Non-adherence to antipsychotic medications, both in chronic and first episode schizophrenia, is one of the most important risk factors for relapse and hospitalization, that consequently contributes to increased costs due to psychiatric hospitalization. Atypical long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics can improve treatment adherence and decrease re-hospitalization rates in patients with schizophrenia since its onset. The primary goals in the management of schizophrenia are directed not only at symptom reduction in the short and long term, but also at maintaining physical and mental functioning, improving quality of life, and promoting patient recovery. To propose a scientific evidence-based integrated model that provides an algorithm for recovery of patients with schizophrenia and to investigate the effectiveness and safety of antipsychotics LAI in the treatment, maintenance, relapse prevention, and recovery of schizophrenia. After an accurate literature review we identified, collected and analyzed the crucial points in taking care schizophrenia patients, through which we defined the steps described in the model of management and the choice of the better treatment option. Results. In the management model we propose, the choice of a second generation long acting antipsychotic, could allow from the earliest stages of illness better patient management, especially for young individuals with schizophrenia onset, a better recovery and significant reductions of relapse and health care costs. LAI formulations of antipsychotics are valuable, because they help patients to remain adherent to their medication through regular contact with healthcare professionals and to prevent covert non-adherence. The

  15. The Legionella pneumophila orphan sensor kinase LqsT regulates competence and pathogen-host interactions as a component of the LAI-1 circuit.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Aline; Schell, Ursula; Sahr, Tobias; Tiaden, André; Harrison, Christopher; Buchrieser, Carmen; Hilbi, Hubert

    2013-02-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an amoeba-resistant opportunistic pathogen that performs cell-cell communication through the signalling molecule 3-hydroxypentadecane-4-one (LAI-1, Legionella autoinducer-1). The lqs (Legionella quorum sensing) gene cluster encodes the LAI-1 autoinducer synthase LqsA, the cognate sensor kinase LqsS and the response regulator LqsR. Here we show that the Lqs system includes an 'orphan' homologue of LqsS termed LqsT. Compared with wild-type L. pneumophila, strains lacking lqsT or both lqsS and lqsT show increased salt resistance, greatly enhanced natural competence for DNA acquisition and impaired uptake by phagocytes. Sensitive novel single round growth assays and competition experiments using Acanthamoeba castellanii revealed that ΔlqsT and ΔlqsS-ΔlqsT, as well as ΔlqsA and other lqs mutant strains are impaired for intracellular growth and cannot compete against wild-type bacteria upon co-infection. In contrast to the ΔlqsS strain, ΔlqsT does not produce extracellular filaments. The phenotypes of the ΔlqsS-ΔlqsT strain are partially complemented by either lqsT or lqsS, but are not reversed by overexpression of lqsA, suggesting that LqsT and LqsS are the sole LAI-1-responsive sensor kinases in L. pneumophila. In agreement with the different phenotypes of the ΔlqsT and ΔlqsS strains, lqsT and lqsS are differentially expressed in the post-exponential growth phase, and transcriptome studies indicated that 90% of the genes, which are downregulated in absence of lqsT, are upregulated in absence of lqsS. Reciprocally regulated genes encode components of a 133 kb genomic 'fitness island' or translocated effector proteins implicated in virulence. Together, these results reveal a unique organization of the L. pneumophila Lqs system comprising two partially antagonistic LAI-1-responsive sensor kinases, LqsT and LqsS, which regulate distinct pools of genes implicated in pathogen-host cell interactions, competence, expression of a

  16. A Model-Data Intercomparison of Carbon Fluxes, Pools, and LAI in the Community Land Model (CLM) and Alternative Carbon Allocation Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montane, F.; Fox, A. M.; Arellano, A. F.; Alexander, M. R.; Moore, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon (C) allocation to different plant tissues (leaves, stem and roots) remains a central challenge for understanding the global C cycle, as it determines C residence time. We used a diverse set of observations (AmeriFlux eddy covariance towers, biomass estimates from tree-ring data, and Leaf Area Index measurements) to compare C fluxes, pools, and Leaf Area Index (LAI) data with the Community Land Model (CLM). We ran CLM for seven temperate forests in North America (including evergreen and deciduous sites) between 1980 and 2013 using different C allocation schemes: i) standard C allocation scheme in CLM, which allocates C to the stem and leaves as a dynamic function of annual net primary productivity (NPP); ii) two fixed C allocation schemes, one representative of evergreen and the other one of deciduous forests, based on Luyssaert et al. 2007; iii) an alternative C allocation scheme, which allocated C to stem and leaves, and to stem and coarse roots, as a dynamic function of annual NPP, based on Litton et al. 2007. At our sites CLM usually overestimated gross primary production and ecosystem respiration, and underestimated net ecosystem exchange. Initial aboveground biomass in 1980 was largely overestimated for deciduous forests, whereas aboveground biomass accumulation between 1980 and 2011 was highly underestimated for both evergreen and deciduous sites due to the lower turnover rate in the sites than the one used in the model. CLM overestimated LAI in both evergreen and deciduous sites because the Leaf C-LAI relationship in the model did not match the observed Leaf C-LAI relationship in our sites. Although the different C allocation schemes gave similar results for aggregated C fluxes, they translated to important differences in long-term aboveground biomass accumulation and aboveground NPP. For deciduous forests, one of the alternative C allocation schemes used (iii) gave more realistic stem C/leaf C ratios, and highly reduced the overestimation of initial

  17. Role of editors and journals in detecting and preventing scientific misconduct: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

    PubMed

    Marusic, Ana; Katavic, Vedran; Marusic, Matko

    2007-09-01

    Scientific journals have a central place in protecting research integrity because published articles are the most visible documentation of research. We used SWOT analysis to audit (S)trengths and (W)eaknesses as internal and (O)pportunities and (T)hreats as external factors affecting journals' responsibility in addressing research integrity issues. Strengths include editorial independence, authority and expertise, power to formulate editorial policies, and responsibility for the integrity of published records. Weaknesses stem from having no mandate for legal action, reluctance to get involved, and lack of training. Opportunities for editors are new technologies for detecting misconduct, policies by editorial organization or national institutions, and greater transparency of published research. Editors face threats from the lack of legal regulation and culture of research integrity in academic communities, lack of support from stakeholders in scientific publishing, and different pressures. Journal editors cannot be the policing force of the scientific community but they should actively ensure the integrity of the scientific record.

  18. Transferable Output ASCII Data (TOAD) editor version 1.0 user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingel, Bradford D.; Shea, Anne L.; Hofler, Alicia S.

    1991-01-01

    The Transferable Output ASCII Data (TOAD) editor is an interactive software tool for manipulating the contents of TOAD files. The TOAD editor is specifically designed to work with tabular data. Selected subsets of data may be displayed to the user's screen, sorted, exchanged, duplicated, removed, replaced, inserted, or transferred to and from external files. It also offers a number of useful features including on-line help, macros, a command history, an 'undo' option, variables, and a full compliment of mathematical functions and conversion factors. Written in ANSI FORTRAN 77 and completely self-contained, the TOAD editor is very portable and has already been installed on SUN, SGI/IRIS, and CONVEX hosts.

  19. An interactive editor for definition of touch-sensitive zones for a graphic display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Burt L., III; Jones, Denise R.

    1987-01-01

    In the continuing effort to develop more efficient man-machine communications methods, touch displays have shown potential as straightforward input systems. The development of software necessary to handle such systems, however, can become tedious. In order to reduce the need for redundant programming, a touch editor has been developed which allows a programmer to interactively define touch-sensitive areas for a graphic display. The information produced during the editing process is written to a data file, which can be accessed easily when needed by an application program. This paper outlines the structure, logic, and use of the editor, as well as the hardware with which it is presently compatible.

  20. A Java chemical structure editor supporting the Modular Chemical Descriptor Language (MCDL).

    PubMed

    Trepalin, Sergei V; Yarkov, Alexander V; Pletnev, Igor V; Gakh, Andrei A

    2006-03-29

    A compact Modular Chemical Descriptor Language (MCDL) chemical structure editor (Java applet) is described. The small size (approximately 200 KB) of the applet allows its use to display and edit chemical structures in various Internet applications. The editor supports the MCDL format, in which structures are presented in compact canonical form and is capable of restoring bond orders as well as of managing atom and bond drawing overlap. A small database of cage and large cyclic fragment is used for optimal representation of difficult-to-draw molecules. The improved algorithm of the structure diagram generation can be used for other chemical notations that lack atomic coordinates (SMILES, InChI).