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Sample records for edta assisted phytorremediation

  1. Process dependent thermoelectric properties of EDTA assisted bismuth telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulsi, Chiranjit; Kargupta, Kajari; Banerjee, Dipali

    2016-04-01

    Comparison between the structure and thermoelectric properties of EDTA (Ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid) assisted bismuth telluride prepared by electrochemical deposition and hydrothermal route is reported in the present work. The prepared samples have been structurally characterized by high resolution X-ray diffraction spectra (HRXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopic images (HRTEM). Crystallite size and strain have been determined from Williamson-Hall plot of XRD which is in conformity with TEM images. Measurement of transport properties show sample in the pellet form (S1) prepared via hydrothermal route has higher value of thermoelectric power (S) than the electrodeposited film (S2). But due to a substantial increase in the electrical conductivity (σ) of the film (S2) over the pellet (S1), the power factor and the figure of merit is higher for sample S2 than the sample S1 at room temperature.

  2. Microwave assisted EDTA extraction-determination of pseudo total contents of distinct trace elements in solid environmental matrices.

    PubMed

    Öztan, Sezin; Düring, Rolf-Alexander

    2012-09-15

    Quantitative determination of metals in environmental matrices became important in the past few decades because of increasing pollutant concentrations in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The extraction phase in the process of determining metals is crucial but very time-consuming. Consequently, new extraction techniques for extractable metals have been developed which probably will substitute conventional procedures in the future. The aim of this study was to improve a closed vessel microwave assisted extraction (MAE) by using EDTA as an exclusive extraction agent (MAE-EDTA) for the determination of pseudo total metal contents in solid environmental samples. For this purpose, a large set of soil and compost samples were analyzed. MAE-EDTA was compared with both closed vessel microwave assisted aqua regia extraction (MAE-AR) and a conventional aqua regia extraction (AR) method for the determination of pseudo total Cd, Cu, Mn, and Pb contents of soil and compost samples. Certified reference materials were used for comparison of recovery rates from different extraction protocols. Metal concentrations in soil and compost extracts were determined by ICP-OES. MAE-AR which was considered as a reference MAE method for further steps of the study, showed the same extraction yields in the determination of pseudo total metal contents of the investigated elements (As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) in soil and compost samples as the conventional AR. MAE-EDTA gave similar values as the reference methods in the determination of Cd, Cu, and Pb amounts in soil samples and Cd, Mn, and Pb amounts in compost samples. The recovery rates ranged between 89.0-117.1% for soil samples and 93.5-104.0% for compost samples. MAE-EDTA provides fast processing of the samples that is less than one hour, including time for cooling of the samples. Apart from significantly less processing time, minimal consumption of sample and reagent chemicals is a strategic characteristic of MAE-EDTA

  3. EDTA-assisted leaching of Pb and Cd from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jiangbo; Sun, Huimin; Luo, Xiuhua; Zhang, Wang; Mathews, Shiny; Yin, Xianqiang

    2017-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination of soil and its harmful effects on human and environmental health have been one concern. In this study, batch and column leaching experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of two EDTA-assisted leaching methods, continuous and intermittent (dry-wet alternate), on the removal of Pb and Cd from contaminated soil. Total content and fractions of Pb and Cd at every 1 cm soil column depth were analyzed before and after the leaching. The results indicated that continuous leaching removed 75.43% of Pb (19.370 mg) and 53.21% of Cd (6.168 mg) and intermittent leaching removed 78.08% of Pb (20.051 mg) and 57.37% of Cd (6.650 mg), which showed intermittent leaching removed more Pb and Cd, but didn't differ significantly (P > 0.05) compared to the continuous leaching. In both leaching methods, total Pb and Cd content in all soil depths reduced after leaching. The two leaching methods made no significant differences in Pb and Cd distributions at different depths of the soil column. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differences in EDTA-assisted metal phytoextraction between metallicolous and non-metallicolous accessions of Rumex acetosa L.

    PubMed

    Barrutia, Oihana; Garbisu, Carlos; Hernández-Allica, Javier; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio; Becerril, José María

    2010-05-01

    Two common sorrel (Rumex acetosa) accessions, one from a Zn-Pb contaminated site (CS accession) and the other from an uncontaminated site (UCS accession), were hydroponically exposed to a mixture of heavy metals (Pb(2+) + Zn(2+) + Cd(2+)) with and without EDTA at an equimolar rate. The metallicolous CS accession showed a higher tolerance to metal treatment in the absence of the chelating agent, whereas the UCS accession was especially tolerant to EDTA treatment alone. Combination of metal and EDTA treatment resulted in a higher Pb accumulation in shoots of both accessions although plants hardly showed phytotoxic symptoms. Cd and Zn uptake was not augmented by EDTA addition to the polymetallic medium. Chelant-assisted Pb accumulation was 70% higher in the CS accession than in the UCS accession, despite the fact that the former accession evapotranspired less water than the UCS accession. These results support the existence of a non-selective apoplastic transport of metal chelates by R. acetosa roots, not related to transpiration stream.

  5. Ecological Risk Assessment of EDTA-Assisted Phytoremediation of Cd Under Different Cultivation Systems.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Qi, Shihua; Gu, X W Sophie; Hou, Tao; Lin, Lihong

    2016-02-01

    A long-term field experiment was designed to assess remediation efficiency and ecological risk of phytoremediation of Cd under different cultivation systems with or without ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). EDTA can significantly improve the phytoremediation effectiveness of a historically polluted e-waste dismantling site through enhancing Cd uptake by plants in all cultivation systems along with higher ecological risks to different receptors especially in the presence of Cicer arietinum (chickpea). Moisture content at each layer of soil profile under Eucalyptus globules L. cultivated sites was consistently lower than under chickpea monoculture as a result of E. globules' high water use efficiency. Besides low soil moisture, E. globules can intercept more Cd-rich leachate than chickpea regardless of the presence of EDTA. E. globules could be used for Cd phytoremediation as they can take full advantage of EDTA and decrease ecological risk caused by the chelator.

  6. Morphology and Photocatalytic Properties of γ-Bi2MoO6 Tuned by Stirring and Surfactant EDTA Assistant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Jing Jing; Zheng, Gan Hong; Ma, Yong Qin

    2017-01-01

    Visible light-driven photocatalyst γ-Bi2MoO6 was prepared by a hydrothermal process, with stirring in the preparation process, and surfactant ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) addition in precursors. The obtained samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscopy, technology electron microscopy, and ultraviolet-visible diffraction reflectance spectra. The obtained results suggest that the stirring and EDTA addition have one strong influence on the morphology. Meanwhile, the formation mechanism of γ -Bi2MoO6 with different morphologies was also discussed. The catalytic activation of γ -Bi2MoO6 photocatalysts was evaluated by methyl blue under visible light irradiation. It was found that the photocatalytic properties change largely with surfactant assistant.

  7. Heavy metal displacement in EDTA-assisted phytoremediation of biosolids soil.

    PubMed

    Liphadzi, S; Kirkham, M B

    2006-01-01

    Chelating agents are added to soil to solubilise the metals for enhanced phytoextraction. Yet no studies follow the displacement and leaching of heavy metals in soil with biosolids following solubilisation with chelates. The objective of this work was to determine the mobility of heavy metals in biosolids in a soil from a sludge farm that had received biosolids for 25 years. The soil was placed in columns in a greenhouse. Columns either had a plant (poplar) or no plant. After the poplar seedlings had grown for 144 d, the tetrasodium salt of the chelating agent EDTA was irrigated onto the surface of the soil at a rate of 1 g per kg of soil. Drainage water was analysed for three toxic heavy metals and four essential heavy metals. Without EDTA, concentrations of the seven heavy metals in the leachate from columns with or without plants were low or below detection limits. With or without plants, the EDTA mobilised all heavy metals and increased their concentration in drainage water. Without plants, the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn in the leachate from columns with EDTA were above drinking-water standards. The presence of poplar plants in the soil reduced the concentrations of Cu, Fe, and Zn in the leachate so it fell within drinking-water standards. Concentrations of Cd and Pb in the leachate remained above drinking-water standards with or without plants.

  8. EDTA assisted synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for electrochemical sensing of uric acid.

    PubMed

    Kanchana, P; Sekar, C

    2014-09-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have been synthesized using EDTA as organic modifier by a simple microwave irradiation method and its application for the selective determination of uric acid (UA) has been demonstrated. Electrochemical behavior of uric acid at HA nanoparticle modified glassy carbon electrode (E-HA/GCE) has been investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and amperometry. The E-HA modified electrode exhibits efficient electrochemical activity towards uric acid sensing without requiring enzyme or electron mediator. Amperometry studies revealed that the fabricated electrode has excellent sensitivity for uric acid with the lowest detection limit of 142 nM over a wide concentration range from 1 × 10(-7) to 3 × 10(-5)M. Moreover, the studied E-HA modified GC electrode exhibits a good reproducibility and long-term stability and an admirable selectivity towards the determination of UA even in the presence of potential interferents. The analytical performance of this sensor was evaluated for the detection of uric acid in human urine and blood serum samples. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. EDTA assisted highly selective detection of As(3+) on Au nanoparticle modified glassy carbon electrodes: facile in situ electrochemical characterization of Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao-Hua; Huang, Jing-Fang

    2014-12-16

    A facile electrochemical characterization technique of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) developed by Wang et al. ( Wang, Y.; Laborda, E.; Salter, C.; Crossley, A.; Compton, R. G. Analyst 2012 , 137 , 4693 - 4697 ) was used to track the variation in the particle size and density of AuNPs in situ and to assist in optimizing the conditions of analysis and catalysis. In this method, the combination of total surface area determined by Pb underpotential deposition (UPD) and the amount of Au obtained by anodic stripping of Au in HCl solution was used to evaluate the average diameter of AuNPs and the number of particles on the electrode. The detection of As(3+) in aqueous solution by a AuNP modified glassy carbon electrode (Aunano@GCE) using the electrochemical characterization technique was examined. The AuNPs with a uniform shape and size, deposited onto the GCEs using multiple-scan cyclic voltammetry (MSCV), were suitable for the electrochemical evaluation. The calibration curve for the detection of As(3+) had a dynamic range of 0.1-15.0 μg L(-1) (from 1.30 to 200 nM, y = 0.21x (in μA L μg(-1)) + 0.01 (R(2) = 0.999)) and showed a sensitivity of 0.21 μA L μg(-1) (16.15 μA μM(-1)). A detection limit as low as 0.0025 μg L(-1) (32.5 pM) was achieved. The chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) selectively chelated with the interfering metal ions and effectively inhibited the interfering ions from competing with the ion of interest (As(3+)), in the preconcentration process. The presence of EDTA effectively eliminated interference from several metal ions, especially Cu(2+) and Hg(2+). This method was validated by analyzing the As(3+) content in real water samples.

  10. Gibberellic acid, kinetin, and the mixture indole-3-acetic acid-kinetin assisted with EDTA-induced lead hyperaccumnulation in alfalfa plants.

    PubMed

    López, Martha L; Peralta-Videa, José R; Parsons, Jason G; Benitez, Tenoch; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2007-12-01

    There are a few plant species considered potential hyperaccumulators for heavy metals, particularly lead (Pb). In this study, alfalfa plants grown in hydroponics were exposed to Pb at 40 mg/L, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) equimolar to Pb, and 1, 10, and 100 microM concentrations of the phytohormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA), and kinetin (KN) and a mixture of IAA and KN at 100 microM each. Metal quantification by inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectroscopy demonstrated that plants treated with Pb/EDTA plus KN at 1, 10, and 100 microM increased the Pb concentration in alfalfa leaves (compared to Pb alone) by factors of 17, 43, and 67, respectively, and by factors of 2, 5, and 8, respectively, compared to the Pb/EDTA treatment. The correlation coefficient between the Pb concentration in leaves and the concentrations of KN in the medium was 0.9993. In addition, the leaves of plants exposed to a Pb/EDTA/100 microM IAA-KN mixture had approximately 9500 mg of Pb/kg of dry weight, demonstrating that non-Pb hyperaccumulating plants could hyperaccumulate Pb when treated with EDTA and a mixture of IAA-KN. The X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies demonstrated that the absorption and translocation of Pb was in the same oxidation state as the supplied Pb(II).

  11. Biodegradation of PuEDTA and Impacts on Pu Mobility

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, H., Jr.; Rai, D.; Xun, L.

    2004-03-17

    degradation except that additional enzymes are required for EDTA degradation. When the catabolic genes were cloned and sequenced, the gene cluster also contained genes encoding a hypothetical ABC-type transporter. RT-PCR analysis showed that the transporter genes and EDTA monooxygenase gene (emoA) are co-transcribed. EppA is one of the transporter genes, and it codes for a periplasmic binding protein responsible for binding to the substrate before transport across the membrane can occur. EppA was cloned, expressed, and purified in Escherichia coli and found to bind, MgEDTA, CaEDTA, Fe(III)EDTA, MgNTA, CaNTA, and Fe(III)NTA. Our data also suggest that BNC1 uses the same ABC-type transporter for both EDTA and NTA uptake. Results from these studies can provide mechanistic understanding and approaches to assist in the bioremediate PuEDTA and other radionuclide-EDTA complexes at DOE sites.

  12. EDTA-assisted phytoextraction of heavy metals by turfgrass from municipal solid waste compost using permeable barriers and associated potential leaching risk.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shulan; Lian, Fei; Duo, Lian

    2011-01-01

    A column experiment with horizontal permeable barriers was conducted to investigate phytoextraction of heavy metals by Lolium perenne L. from municipal solid waste compost following EDTA application, as well as to study the effects of L. perenne and permeable barriers on preventing metal from leaching. In columns with barriers, EDTA addition yielded maximum concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb of 155, 541 and 33.5 mg kg(-1) in shoot, respectively. This led to 4.2, 2.1 and 7.4 times higher concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb compared to treatment with no chelating agent, respectively. In treatments with 10 mmol kg(-1) EDTA, the barriers reduced leaching of Cu, Zn and Pb by approximately three times, respectively, resulting in leaching of total initial Cu, Zn and Pb by 27.3%, 25.2% and 28.8%, respectively, after four times' irrigation. These results indicate that L. perenne and permeable barriers are effective to reduce leaching of heavy metals and minimize the risk of contaminating groundwater in EDTA-enhanced phytoremediation. Thus these findings highlight that turfgrass and permeable barriers can effectively prevent metal leaching. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cyclohexyl EDTA monoanhydride

    DOEpatents

    Mease, R.C.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-06-04

    The present invention relates to new rigid chelating structures, to methods for preparing these materials, and to their use in preparing radiometal labeled immunoconjugates. These new chelates include cyclohexyl EDTA monohydride, the transforms of cyclohexyl DTPA and TTHA and derivatives of these cyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate materials. No Drawings

  14. Cyclohexyl EDTA monoanhydride

    DOEpatents

    Mease, Ronnie C.; Srivastava, Suresh C.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to new rigid chelating structures, to methods for preparing these materials, and to their use in preparing radiometal labeled immunoconjugates. These new chelates include cyclohexyl EDTA monohydride, the transforms of cyclohexyl DTPA and TTHA and derivatives of these cyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate materials.

  15. Final report on the safety assessment of EDTA, calcium disodium EDTA, diammonium EDTA, dipotassium EDTA, disodium EDTA, TEA-EDTA, tetrasodium EDTA, tripotassium EDTA, trisodium EDTA, HEDTA, and trisodium HEDTA.

    PubMed

    Lanigan, Rebecca S; Yamarik, Torill A

    2002-01-01

    EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) and its salts are substituted diamines. HEDTA (hydroxyethyl ethylenediamine triacetic acid) and its trisodium salt are substituted amines. These ingredients function as chelating agents in cosmetic formulations. The typical concentration of use of EDTA is less than 2%, with the other salts in current use at even lower concentrations. The lowest dose reported to cause a toxic effect in animals was 750 mg/kg/day. These chelating agents are cytotoxic and weakly genotoxic, but not carcinogenic. Oral exposures to EDTA produced adverse reproductive and developmental effects in animals. Clinical tests reported no absorption of an EDTA salt through the skin. These ingredients are likely, however, to affect the passage of other chemicals into the skin because they will chelate calcium. Exposure to EDTA in most cosmetic formulations, therefore, would produce systemic exposure levels well below those seen to be toxic in oral dosing studies. Exposure to EDTA in cosmetic formulations that may be inhaled, however, was a concern. An exposure assessment done using conservative assumptions predicted that the maximum EDTA dose via inhalation of an aerosolized cosmetic formulation is below that shown to produce reproductive or developmental toxicity. Because of the potential to increase the penetration of other chemicals, formulators should continue to be aware of this when combining these ingredients with ingredients that previously have been determined to be safe, primarily because they were not significantly absorbed. Based on the available data, the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel found that these ingredients are safe as used in cosmetic formulations.

  16. Phytoextraction of Pb and Cu contaminated soil with maize and microencapsulated EDTA.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhiyi; Wu, Longhua; Chen, Nengchang; Liu, Chengshuai; Zheng, Yuji; Xu, Shengguang; Li, Fangbai; Xu, Yanling

    2012-09-01

    Chelate-assisted phytoextraction using agricultural crops has been widely investigated as a remediation technique for soils contaminated with low mobility potentially toxic elements. Here, we report the use of a controlled-release microencapsulated EDTA (Cap-EDTA) by emulsion solvent evaporation to phytoremediate soil contaminated with Pb and Cu. Incubation experiments were carried out to assess the effect of Cap- and non-microencapsulated EDTA (Ncap-EDTA) on the mobility of soil metals. Results showed EDTA effectively increased the mobility of Pb and Cu in the soil solution and Cap-EDTA application provided lower and more constant water-soluble concentrations of Pb and Cu in comparison with. Phytotoxicity may be alleviated and plant uptake of Pb and Cu may be increased after the incorporation of Cap-EDTA. In addition phytoextraction efficiencies of maize after Cap- and Ncap-EDTA application were tested in a pot experiment. Maize shoot concentrations of Pb and Cu were lower with Cap-EDTA application than with Ncap-EDTA. However, shoot dry weight was significantly higher with Cap-EDTA application. Consequently, the Pb and Cu phytoextraction potential of maize significantly increased with Cap-EDTA application compared with the control and Ncap-EDTA application.

  17. Tuneable luminescence properties of EDTA-assisted ZnS:Mn nanocrystals from a yellow-orange to a red emission band.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, R; Bhojya Naik, H S; Arun Kumar, G; Suresh Gowda, I K; Yallappa, S

    2017-05-16

    Luminescence technology has been improved with the help of semiconductor nanoparticles that possess novel optical and electrical properties compared with their bulk counterpart. The aim of this study was to design semiconductor nanocrystals in their pure (ZnS) or doped form (ZnS:Mn) with different concentrations of Mn(2+) ions by a wet chemical route stabilized by ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) and to evaluate their luminescence properties. The nanocrystals were characterized by physicochemical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SEAD), EDS, and ultraviolet (UV)-visible light and photoluminescence (PL) studies. These results showed the presence of cubic phase and spherically shaped nanocrystals. A blue shift with respect to their bulk counterpart was observed. PL emission spectra were observed with a fixed blue peak and the yellow-orange bands were red shifted towards the red region under the same excitation wavelength. The orange-red bands were attributed to the radiation transition of electrons in 3d5 unfilled shells of Mn(2+) ions [(4) T1 ((4) G)-(6) A1 ((6) S)]; the ZnS matrix varied with Mn(2+) concentration. Shift and increase in the intensity of the PL and absorption bands were observed with increase in Mn content. The study showed that Mn(2+) -doped ZnS nanocrystal emission bands can be tuned from the yellow-orange to the red regions under a controlled synthesis process and could be used as promising luminescent emitters in the biology field upon functionalization with suitable materials. Further studies on construction with various other materials will be useful for practical applications. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Hydroxyapatite synthesis using EDTA.

    PubMed

    Kang, Nak Heon; Kim, Soon Je; Song, Seung Han; Choi, Sang mun; Choi, Sik Young; Kim, Youn Jung

    2013-05-01

    Bone comprises structure of the body and consisted of inorganic substances. It exists in an organic structure in the body. Even though it is firm and has self-healing mechanism, it can be damaged by trauma, cancer, or bone diseases. Allograft can be an alternative solution for autologous bone graft. Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), an excellent candidate for allograft, can be applied to bone defect area. There are several methods to produce hydroxyapatite; however, economical cost and being time consuming make the production difficult. In this study, we synthesized hydroxyapatite with EDTA. Freeze-dried bone allograft (Hans Biomed) was used as the control group. Synthesized hydroxyapatite was a rod-shaped, white powdery substance with 2- to 5-μm length and 0.5- to 1-μm width. X-ray diffraction showed the highest sharp peak at 32°C and high peaks at 25.8°C, 39.8°C, 46.8°C, 49.5°C, and 64.0°C, indicating a similar substance to the freeze-dried bone allograft. After 3 days, the cell growth of synthesized hydroxyapatite showed 1.5-fold more than did the bone allograft. Cellular and media alkaline phosphate activity increased similar to the bone allograft. In this study, we came up with a new method to produce the hydroxyapatite. It is a convenient method that can be held in room temperature and low pressure. Also, the product can be manufactured in large quantity. It can be also transformed into scaffold structure, which will perform a stronger configuration. The manufacturing method will help the bony defect patients and make future medical products.

  19. Thermal Treatment of EDTA Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Denne, B.

    2006-07-01

    Chemical cleaning of commercial nuclear power facility secondary systems, using EDTA, results in large volumes of chelated liquids requiring some form of treatment prior to disposal. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates the presence of chelates in disposal cells and this paper will look at several methods used to ensure compliance with disposal site criteria. The emphasis of this paper will be on results achieved through thermal treatment of chemical cleaning wastes at the Pacific EcoSolutions' (PEcoS) low level and mixed radioactive waste processing facility in Richland, Washington. We will discuss challenges in transportation, receipt, storage, processing, and disposal associated with EDTA solutions and how those challenges are overcome. (author)

  20. EDTA interference in electrochemiluminescence ACTH assay.

    PubMed

    Toprak, Burak; Yalcin, Hulya; Arı, Elif; Colak, Ayfer

    2016-11-01

    Background As plasma is the recommended sample type for Roche adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) assay, we evaluated the effect of EDTA concentration on Cobas ACTH assay. Methods Samples containing twofold and fourfold higher concentrations of EDTA were prepared by adding plasma to empty K2EDTA tubes and by making under-filled EDTA tubes. All measurements were performed with four replicates. Results Increased EDTA concentration resulted in a significant decrease in ACTH concentration. Fifty-per cent-filled EDTA tube showed 19% decrease in ACTH concentration and 25% filled EDTA tube showed 50% decrease in ACTH concentration. Conclusion We recommend that inadequately filled EDTA specimens should be rejected when using Cobas ACTH assay.

  1. EDTA retention and emissions from remediated soil.

    PubMed

    Jez, Erika; Lestan, Domen

    2016-05-01

    EDTA-based remediation is reaching maturity but little information is available on the state of chelant in remediated soil. EDTA soil retention was examined after extracting 20 soil samples from Pb contaminated areas in Slovenia, Austria, Czech Republic and USA with 120 mM kg(-1) Na2H2EDTA, CaNa2EDTA and H4EDTA for 2 and 24 h. On average, 73% of Pb was removed from acidic and 71% from calcareous soils (24 h extractions). On average, 15% and up to 64% of applied EDTA was after remediation retained in acidic soils. Much less; in average 1% and up to the 22% of EDTA was retained in calcareous soils. The secondary emissions of EDTA retained in selected remediated soil increased with the acidity of the media: the TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) solution (average pH end point 3.6) released up to 36% of EDTA applied in the soil (28.1 mmol kg(-1)). Extraction with deionised water (pH > 6.0) did not produce measurable EDTA emissions. Exposing soil to model abiotic (thawing/freezing cycles) and biotic (ingestion by earthworms Lumbricus rubellus) ageing factors did not induce additional secondary emissions of EDTA retained in remediated soil.

  2. Gallium-68 EDTA PET/CT for Renal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Michael S; Hicks, Rodney J

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear medicine renal imaging provides important functional data to assist in the diagnosis and management of patients with a variety of renal disorders. Physiologically stable metal chelates like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriamine penta-acetate (DTPA) are excreted by glomerular filtration and have been radiolabelled with a variety of isotopes for imaging glomerular filtration and quantitative assessment of glomerular filtration rate. Gallium-68 ((68)Ga) EDTA PET usage predates Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) renal imaging, but virtually disappeared with the widespread adoption of gamma camera technology that was not optimal for imaging positron decay. There is now a reemergence of interest in (68)Ga owing to the greater availability of PET technology and use of (68)Ga to label other radiotracers. (68)Ga EDTA can be used a substitute for (99m)Tc DTPA for wide variety of clinical indications. A key advantage of PET for renal imaging over conventional scintigraphy is 3-dimensional dynamic imaging, which is particularly helpful in patients with complex anatomy in whom planar imaging may be nondiagnostic or difficult to interpret owing to overlying structures containing radioactive urine that cannot be differentiated. Other advantages include accurate and absolute (rather than relative) camera-based quantification, superior spatial and temporal resolution and integrated multislice CT providing anatomical correlation. Furthermore, the (68)Ga generator enables on-demand production at low cost, with no additional patient radiation exposure compared with conventional scintigraphy. Over the past decade, we have employed (68)Ga EDTA PET/CT primarily to answer difficult clinical questions in patients in whom other modalities have failed, particularly when it was envisaged that dynamic 3D imaging would be of assistance. We have also used it as a substitute for (99m)Tc DTPA if unavailable owing to supply issues, and have additionally examined the role of

  3. EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia in a child.

    PubMed

    Akbayram, Sinan; Dogan, Murat; Akgun, Cihangir; Caksen, Hüseyin; Oner, Ahmet Faik

    2011-10-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP) is the phenomenon of a spurious low platelet count due to antiplatelet antibodies that cause platelet clumping in blood anticoagulated with EDTA. The aggregation of platelets in EDTA-dependent PTCP is usually prevented by other anticoagulants, such as sodium citrate or heparin. EDTA-dependent PTCP has never been associated with hemorrhagic diathesis or platelet dysfunction. In this article, a 10-year-old boy with EDTA- and heparin-dependent PTCP is presented because of rare presentation. We report that EDTA and heparin can induce platelet clumping, and thus spuriously low platelet counts. However, aggregation of platelets was not detected in blood samples with sodium citrate, and platelet count was normal.

  4. 21 CFR 172.135 - Disodium EDTA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... containing dried bananas 2 315 Promote color retention. Salad dressing 75 Preservative. Sandwich spread 100... banana component of cereal product. (2) With calcium disodium EDTA (calcium disodium ethylenediamine...

  5. 21 CFR 172.135 - Disodium EDTA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products containing dried bananas 2 315 Promote color retention. Salad dressing 75 Preservative. Sandwich... dried banana component of cereal product. (2) With calcium disodium EDTA (calcium disodium...

  6. 21 CFR 172.135 - Disodium EDTA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products containing dried bananas 2 315 Promote color retention. Salad dressing 75 Preservative. Sandwich... dried banana component of cereal product. (2) With calcium disodium EDTA (calcium disodium...

  7. 21 CFR 172.135 - Disodium EDTA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products containing dried bananas 2 315 Promote color retention. Salad dressing 75 Preservative. Sandwich... dried banana component of cereal product. (2) With calcium disodium EDTA (calcium disodium...

  8. 21 CFR 172.135 - Disodium EDTA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... products containing dried bananas 2 315 Promote color retention. Salad dressing 75 Preservative. Sandwich... dried banana component of cereal product. (2) With calcium disodium EDTA (calcium disodium...

  9. 21 CFR 573.360 - Disodium EDTA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.360 Disodium EDTA. The food additive disodium EDTA (disodium ethylenediaminetetraace- tate... food additive contains a minimum of 99 percent disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate dihydrate...

  10. 21 CFR 573.360 - Disodium EDTA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.360 Disodium EDTA. The food additive disodium EDTA (disodium ethylenediaminetetraace- tate... food additive contains a minimum of 99 percent disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate dihydrate...

  11. 21 CFR 573.360 - Disodium EDTA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.360 Disodium EDTA. The food additive disodium EDTA (disodium ethylenediaminetetraace- tate... food additive contains a minimum of 99 percent disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate dihydrate...

  12. 21 CFR 573.360 - Disodium EDTA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.360 Disodium EDTA. The food additive disodium EDTA (disodium ethylenediaminetetraace- tate... food additive contains a minimum of 99 percent disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate dihydrate...

  13. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and PuEDTA

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, Luying

    2005-06-01

    Although our goal is to isolate anaerobic EDTA degraders, we initiated the experiments to include nitrilotriacetate (NTA), which is a structure homologue of EDTA. All the aerobic EDTA degraders can degrade NTA, but the isolated NTA degraders cannot degrade EDTA. Since NTA is a simpler structure homologue, it is likely that EDTA-degrading ability is evolved from NTA degradation. This hypothesis is further supported from our characterization of EDTA and NTA-degrading enzymes and genes (J. Bact. 179:1112-1116; and Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:688-695). The EDTA monooxygenase and NTA monooxygenase are highly homologous. EDTA monooxygenase can use both EDTA and NTA as substrates, but NTA monooxygenase can only use NTA as a substrate. Thus, we put our effort to isolate both NTA and EDTA degraders. In case, an anaerobic EDTA degrader is not immediately enriched, we will try to evolve the NTA degraders to use EDTA. Both aerobic and anaerobic enrichment cultures were set.

  14. EDTA reduces the physiological damage of lead on cardoon plants grown hydroponically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Allica, J.; Barrutia, O.; Becerril, J. M.; Garbisu, C.

    2003-05-01

    Cardoon seedlings (Cynara cardunculus L.) were grown hydroponically in nutrient solution and exposed to lead (Pb^{2+}: ImM) in the presence of a range of different EDTA concentrations (EDTANa2: 0, 0.5, 1 or 2mM). Analyses were performed to establish whether the coordination of Pb^{2+} transport by EDTA enhances the mobility of this metal within the plant and to determine the toxic effects of these treatments during a phytoextraction process. Net photosynthesis, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance decreased dramatically in plants treated with Pb^{2+} or Pb-EDTA at doses below 1 mM. ln these treatments, most of the Pb^{2+} accumulated in the roots, alld only a very low amount of it was translocated to the shoots. Increasing the EDTA doses up to Pb^{2+} equimolarity, increased the Pb^{2+} shoot content more than 10-fold without any physiological evidence of toxicity. The treatment with higher doses of EDTA (Pb^{2+} 1 mM + EDTA 2 mM) did not show toxicity symptoms, but the Pb^{2+} concentration in the aboveground tissues decreased when compared with the equimolar treatment. The interaction with the absorption of some essential cations such as Ca^{2+} and phytotoxicity on chelated-assisted phytoextraction is discussed.

  15. K2-EDTA and K3-EDTA Greiner Tubes for HbA1c Measurement.

    PubMed

    Vrtaric, Alen; Filipi, Petra; Hemar, Marina; Nikolac, Nora; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether K2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and K3-EDTA Greiner tubes could be used interchangeably for glycosylated hemoglobin, type A1C (HbA1c) measurement via the Abbott Laboratories ARCHITECT chemiluminescent microparticle HbA1c assay on the ARCHITECT i2000SR immunoanalyzer at our university hospital. We drew blood from a total of 45 outpatients into plastic Greiner Vacuette tubes, some of which were lined with K2-EDTA and others with K3-EDTA anticoagulant. Data are presented as median and interquartile range values. We used the Wilcoxon test and Passing-Bablok regression for tube comparison. For K2-EDTA tubes median HbA1c concentration was 54 mmol/mol (41 to 71 mmol/mol) and for K3-EDTA tubes 56 mmol/mol (43 to 69 mmol/mol). There was no statistically significant difference between K2-EDTA and K3-EDTA (bias= -1.29 mmol/mol; P = 0.24). Passing-Bablok regression showed that there is no constant and proportional error: y = -0.23 (95% CI[-3.52 to 0.69]) + 1.00( 95% CI[0.98 to 1.06]) x. In this study, we provide evidence for the lack of any clinically and statistically significant bias between K2-EDTA and K3-EDTA HbA1c measurements. Thus, Greiner tubes lined with K2-EDTA and those lined with K3-EDTA can safely be used interchangeably to measure HbA1c via the Abbott Laboratories ARCHITECT assay. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Potentiometry: A Chromium (III) -- EDTA Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, J. I.; Howell, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment that involves the preparation of a chromium (III)-EDTA compound, a study of its infrared spectrum, and the potentiometric determination of two successive acid dissociation constants. (Author/GS)

  17. Potentiometry: A Chromium (III) -- EDTA Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, J. I.; Howell, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment that involves the preparation of a chromium (III)-EDTA compound, a study of its infrared spectrum, and the potentiometric determination of two successive acid dissociation constants. (Author/GS)

  18. Inert Reassessment Document for Ethylenediaminetetracetric acid (EDTA)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EDTA is a chelating agent. Its ability to bind heavy metal ions can be used to sequester these trace metals. However, trace amounts of various metals are necessary for the proper functioning of the body.

  19. Competitive removal of Cu-EDTA and Ni-EDTA via microwave-enhanced Fenton oxidation with hydroxide precipitation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qintie; Pan, Hanping; Yao, Kun; Pan, Yonggang; Long, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) can form very stable complexes with heavy metal ions, greatly inhibiting conventional metal-removal technologies used in water treatment. Both the oxidation of EDTA and the reduction of metal ions in metal-EDTA systems via the microwave-enhanced Fenton reaction followed by hydroxide precipitation were investigated. The Cu(II)-Ni(II)-EDTA, Cu(II)-EDTA and Ni(II)-EDTA exhibited widely different decomplexation efficiencies under equivalent conditions. When the reaction reached equilibrium, the chemical oxygen demand was reduced by a microwave-enhanced Fenton reaction in different systems and the reduction order from high to low was Cu(II)-Ni(II)-EDTA ≈ Cu(II)-EDTA > Ni(II)-EDTA. The removal efficiencies of both Cu(2+) and Ni(2+) in Cu-Ni-EDTA wastewaters were much higher than those in a single heavy metal system. The degradation efficiency of EDTA in Cu-Ni-EDTA was lower than that in a single metal system. In the Cu-Ni-EDTA system, the microwave thermal degradation and the Fenton-like reaction created by Cu catalyzed H2O2 altered the EDTA degradation pathway and increased the pH of the wastewater system, conversely inhibiting residual EDTA degradation.

  20. Biodegradation of PuEDTA and Impacts on Pu Mobility

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, Luying; Bolton, Jr., Harvey

    2001-06-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetate (NTA) are synthetic chelating agents, which can form strong water-soluble complexes with radionuclides and metals and has been used to decontaminate and process nuclear materials. Synthetic chelating agents were co-disposed with radionuclides (e.g., 60Co, Pu) and heavy metals enhancing their transport in the subsurface. An understanding of EDTA biodegradation is essential to help mitigate enhanced radionuclide transport by EDTA. The objective of this research is to develop fundamental data on factors that govern the biodegradation of radionuclide-EDTA. These factors include the dominant EDTA aqueous species, the biodegradation of various metal-EDTA complexes, the uptake of various metal-EDTA complexes into the cell, the distribution and mobility of the radionuclide during and after EDTA biodegradation, and the enzymology and genetics of EDTA biodegradation.

  1. Photocatalytic removal of selenite and selenate species: effect of EDTA and other process variables.

    PubMed

    Labaran, B A; Vohra, M S

    2014-01-01

    TiO2-assisted photocatalysis was employed for the removal of aqueous phase selenite and selenate species in conjunction with EDTA as a hole (h+) scavenger. Findings from the binary selenite/EDTA and selenate/EDTA systems showed high selenite and selenate removal at pH 4 and pH 6, with faster removal kinetics noted for the selenite species compared with the selenate species that showed a gradual change over the reaction course. The noted removal of selenite and selenate was attributed to their reduction by the conduction band electrons (e-). The effect of pH studies indicated high selenite, selenate, and EDTA removal in the acidic pH range, with the following specific trend: pH 4 > pH 6 > pH 12. Different from the EDTA studies, the use of thiocyanate alone did not initiate reduction of selenium oxyanions, and hence, its role as a hole scavenger in the present systems was not evident. However, the addition of EDTA to respective selenite/selenate/thiocyanate system at pH 4 did yield near complete removal of selenite and selenate species. The marginal role of thiocyanate as a hole scavenger was attributed to its negligible adsorption onto TiO2 surface. Furthermore, at pH 4 and within 3 h reaction time, enhanced selenate removal was noted with an increase in its initial concentration from 20 to 100 ppm, with near complete selenate removal noted for both cases. In general, findings from the present work indicate that both selenite and selenate can be successfully removed from the aqueous phase employing the TiO2-mediated photocatalysis and h(+)-scavenging agent EDTA.

  2. Treatment of waste containing EDTA by chemical oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, M.D.; Barton, L.L.; Thomson, B.M.; Wagener, B.M.; Aragon, A.

    1999-07-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent that has been extensively used to enhance the solubilization of heavy metal cations and release of EDTA contributes to environmental problems. EDTA is recalcitrant to microbial metabolism and chemical oxidation is considered a possible method of remedial treatment. The use of the commercially available process of MIOX Corporation generates mixed oxidants on site and this solution is markedly effective in the destruction of the chelating characteristic and the decarboxylation of EDTA. When measuring the release of C-14 from carboxyl labeled EDTA, the mixed oxidant solution was comparable to the Fenton's reaction over a broad pH range. The presence of Mn{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, or Fe{sup 3+} at levels equal to that of EDTA stimulated the rate of EDTA decomposition; however, the rate of EDTA breakdown was inhibited when the concentration of Cr{sup 3+} or Mn{sup 2+} exceeded the concentration of EDTA. The treatment of Co{sup 2+} -EDTA or Cu{sup 2+} -EDTA with mixed oxidants in the presence of ultra violet light resulted in the loss of chelation ability of EDTA. In the absence of chelated metals, over 75% of the chelation property of a 70 nM EDTA solution was destroyed in 45 min. The reaction products resulting from the use of mixed oxidants added to EDTA were non-toxic to bacteria and should not contribute to additional environmental problems.

  3. Competitive adsorption of Cu(II)-EDTA and Cd(II)-EDTA onto TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.K.; Davis, A.P.

    1999-08-01

    Cu(II), EDTA, Cu(II)-EDTA, Cd(II)-EDTA, and Cu(II)/Cd(II) and Cu(II)-EDTA/Cd(II)-EDTA competitive adsorption onto TiO{sub 2} has been studied with variation of pH and concentration. For Cu(II) and EDTA, typical cationic and anionic types of adsorption are noted, respectively. Ligand-type adsorption is found for Cu(II)-EDTA and Cd(II)-EDTA under both single and competitive conditions. Surface complexation modeling considered inner-sphere complexation and the diffuse layer model employing MINTEQA2; surface complexes used include Ti-(OH{sub 2})O-Cu{sup +}, Ti-(OH)EDTAH{sub 2}{sup {minus}2}, Ti-(OH)EDTA-Cu{sup {minus}2}, and Ti-(OH)EDTA-Cd{sup {minus}2}. Experimental and model predictions suggest no competitive adsorption between Cu(II) and Cd(II) at 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} M. On the other hand, adsorption data and model predictions indicate that Cd(II)-EDTA adsorption is favored over that of Cu(II)-EDTA with some competition for adsorption sites. Cd(II)-EDTA Adsorption was only slightly affected by the presence of Cu(II)-EDTA; however, Cu(II)-EDTA adsorption was strongly influenced by the presence of Cd(II)-EDTA, especially as the molar ratio of Cd(II)-EDTA/Cu(II)-EDTA increased. A modified surface complexation constant for Cd(II)-EDTA is required to explain the competitive data, suggesting surface site heterogeneity.

  4. The EDTA Amendment in Phytoextraction of (134)Cs From Soil by Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea).

    PubMed

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Roosmini, Dwina

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination with radiocaesium is a significant problem at any countries when a nuclear accident occurred. Recently, phytoextraction technique is developed to remediate the contaminated environment. However, the application is limited by the availability of the contaminant for root uptake. Therefore, a green house trial experiment of soil amendment with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been conducted to examine (134)Cs availability for root uptake. Two groups of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) were cultivated in (134)Cs contaminated soil. The soil in the first group was treated with EDTA amendment, while the other was not. Plant growth was observed gravimetrically and the (134)Cs concentration in soil as well as plants were determined using gamma spectrometry. The plant uptake capacity was determined as transfer factor (Fv), and the Fv values of 0.22 ± 0.0786 and 0.12 ± 0.039 were obtained for the soil treated with and without EDTA amendment, respectively. The phytoextraction efficiency of the plant cultivated in (134)Cs contaminated soil both with and without EDTA amendment was low. The EDTA amendment to the soil seems to enhance the (134)Cs availability for root uptake of Indian mustard and can still be considered to assist the field phytoremediation of contaminated soil.

  5. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal employing EDTA disodium

    SciTech Connect

    Bojinova, D.; Velkova, R.

    1996-12-31

    The biological phosphorus removal is a promising alternative to the conventional chemical technologies for processing of phosphate raw materials. The object of this study was the effect of EDTA disodium on the biotreatment of tunisian phosphorite with the strain of Aspergillus niger. The incubation was carried out in two nutritive mediums, with different phosphate content. The experimental results showed that the additives of EDTA disodium in the nutritive medium increased the rate of extraction of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and shortened significantly the time for biological leaching. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Remediation of metal contaminated soil by EDTA incorporating electrochemical recovery of metal and EDTA

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, H.E.; Chen, P.H. )

    1993-11-01

    Removal of toxic heavy metals from a soil matrix by the addition of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) is an effective means of remediation. The liquid stream containing the metal and chelating agent is amenable to further treatment by electrolysis in which the metal can be separated from the chelating agent. This provides a separated metal than can be removed for reuse or treated for final disposal by conventional technologies and a reclaimed EDTA stream that can be used again for treatment of contaminated soil. Under the diffusion controlled conditions of polarography or voltammetry, the authors observed reduction of cadmium, copper and lead ions and their protonated EDTA complexes (MHY[sup [minus

  7. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and PuEDTA

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, Luying

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this report is to isolate anaerobic EDTA-degrading bacteria. Although our goal is to isolate anaerobic EDTA degraders, we initiated the experiments to include nitrilotriacetate (NTA), which is a structure homologue of EDTA. All the aerobic EDTA degraders can degrade NTA, but the isolated NTA degraders cannot degrade EDTA. Since NTA is a simpler structure homologue, it is likely that EDTA-degrading ability is evolved from NTA degradation. This hypothesis is further supported from our characterization of EDTA and NTA-degrading enzymes and genes (J. Bact. 179:1112-1116; and Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:688-695). The EDTA monooxygenase and NTA monooxygenase are highly homologous. EDTA monooxygenase can use both EDTA and NTA as substrates, but NTA monooxygenase can only use NTA as a substrate. Thus, we put our effort to isolate both NTA and EDTA degraders. In case, an anaerobic EDTA degrader is not immediately enriched, we will try to evolve the NTA degraders to use EDTA. Both aerobic and anaerobic enrichment cultures were set.

  8. 21 CFR 573.360 - Disodium EDTA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disodium EDTA. 573.360 Section 573.360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive...

  9. Adsorption of EDTA on activated carbon from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hai-song; Yang, Xiao-juan; Mao, Yan-peng; Chen, Yu; Long, Xiang-li; Yuan, Wei-kang

    2011-01-30

    In this study, the adsorption of EDTA on activated carbon from aqueous solutions has been investigated in a batch stirred cell. Experiments have been carried out to investigate the effects of temperature, EDTA concentration, pH, activated carbon mass and particle size on EDTA adsorption. The experimental results manifest that the EDTA adsorption rate increases with its concentration in the aqueous solutions. EDTA adsorption also increases with temperature. The EDTA removal from the solution increases as activated carbon mass increases. The Langmuir and Freundlich equilibrium isotherm models are found to provide a good fitting of the adsorption data, with R(2) = 0.9920 and 0.9982, respectively. The kinetic study shows that EDTA adsorption on the activated carbon is in good compliance with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters (E(a), ΔG(0), ΔH(0), ΔS(0)) obtained indicate the endothermic nature of EDTA adsorption on activated carbon.

  10. Biodegradation of PuEDTA and Impacts on Pu Mobility

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, Luying; Bolton, Harvey, Jr.

    2003-06-01

    This project is part of a major project (PI, Dr. Harvey Bolton, Jr. at PNNL) regarding plutonium mobility in the subsurface. Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) is a common chelating agent that can increase the mobility of radionuclides and heavy metals in groundwater. Biodegradation of EDTA decreases the enhanced mobility. The overall objective is to understand how microbial degradation affects Plutonium-EDTA transport in the environment, and the specific objective of this component is to understand how microorganisms degrade EDTA. Over the past two years, significant progress has been made to the understanding on how EDTA is degraded by an EDTA-degrading bacterium BNC1. The characterization of EDTA and nitrilotriacetate (NTA) transport into BNC1 cells is summarized here. The uptake is the limiting step in EDTA and NTA degradation. The objectives of near-term research are described. We are making progress as projected in the proposal.

  11. Injurious effect of EDTA contamination on colorimetry of serum iron.

    PubMed

    Koopman, B J; Hindriks, F R; Lokerse, Y G; Wolthers, B G; Orverdijk, J F

    1985-12-01

    Colorimetry of iron in serum with Ferrozine (as used in the Technicon SMAC) or with bathophenanthroline (as used in the Du Pont aca) is influenced by EDTA, in contrast to such measurements with atomic absorption spectroscopy. Therefore EDTA contamination should be avoided with these colorimetric methods. If, however, contamination with EDTA is suspected, addition of zinc sulfate to serum or to the SMAC "ascorbic acid reagent" will cancel the influence of EDTA on measurements of iron in the SMAC.

  12. Analysis of metal-EDTA complexes by electrospray mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, D.; Hering, J.G.

    1998-07-01

    Solutions of the strong complexing agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and Cu, Pb, Cd, Al, and Fe(III) were examined by electrospray mass spectrometry (ES/MS). Uncomplexed EDTA and metal-EDTA complexes survive the electrospray process intact and can be detected simultaneously by mass spectrometry. Best sensitivity was achieved in the positive ion mode in which EDTA and EDTA-metal complexes (present in solution as anions) were detected as protonated species with a single positive charge. Except for the protonation, the aqueous metal-EDTA complexes are preserved and neither fragmentation of complexes nor formation of clusters with more than one metal or ligand were observed in the mass spectra. Detection limits are between approximately 1 to 2 {micro}M for uncomplexed EDTA and for the Cu-EDTA and Pb-EDTA complexes, with a linear range up to 10{sup {minus}4} M. Calibrations based on solutions with equimolar concentrations of EDTA and Cu or Pb can be used to quantify EDTA-metal complexes in solutions with excess EDTA or metal, and in solutions with more than one metal present. Isotopic signatures of metals in the metal-ligand complexes are preserved, allowing the identification of the metal in a metal-ligand complex. Isotopic signatures of metals can therefore aid in the identification of metal-ligand complexes in unknown samples.

  13. Influence of EDTA{sup 2-} on the hydrothermal synthesis of CdTe nanocrystallites

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Haibo; Hao Xiaopeng; Xu Xiangang

    2011-12-15

    Transformation from Te nanorods to CdTe nanoparticles was achieved with the assistance of EDTA as a ligand under hydrothermal conditions. Experimental results showed that at the beginning of reaction Te nucleated and grew into nanorods. With the proceeding of reaction, CdTe nucleus began to emerge on the surface, especially on the tips of Te nanorods. Finally, nearly monodispersed hexagonal CdTe nanoparticles with diameters of about 200 nm were obtained. The effects of EDTA on the morphology and formation of CdTe nanoparticles were discussed in consideration of the strong ligand-effect of EDTA, which greatly decreased the concentration of Cd{sup 2+}. Furthermore, the possible formation process of CdTe nanoparticles from Te nanorods was further proposed. The crystal structure and morphology of the products were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). - Graphical Abstract: Firstly, Te nucleated and grew into nanorods in the presence of EDTA{sup 2-}. Then CdTe nucleus began to emerge on Te nanorods and finally monodispersed CdTe nanoparticles were obtained. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EDTA serves as a strong ligand with Cd{sup 2+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The existence of EDTA constrains the nucleation of CdTe and promotes the formation of Te nanorods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the proceeding of reaction, CdTe nucleus began to emerge on the surface, especially on the tips of Te nanorods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nearly monodispersed hexagonal CdTe nanoparticles with diameters of about 200 nm were finally obtained.

  14. Adsorption of Pb(II), EDTA, and Pb(II)-EDTA onto TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, M.S.; Davis, A.P.

    1998-02-01

    The adsorption of aqueous Pb(II), EDTA, and Pb(II)-EDTA complexes onto TiO{sub 2} were studied at both stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric Pb(II)/EDTA concentrations. For Pb(II)-TiO{sub 2} and ECTA-TiO{sub 2}, a typical cationic and anionic-type of adsorption was noted, respectively. For 10{sup {minus}3} and 10{sup {minus}4} M Pb(II)-EDTA systems, near-equal adsorption of Pb(II) and EDTA indicated that the complex adsorbs as a single species. Also, a ligand-type Pb(II)-EDTA adsorption, i.e., decreasing adsorption with an increase in the pH, was noted. Systems with EDTA greater than Pb(II) showed near-zero lead removal; competitive adsorption of EDTA and Pb(II)-EDTA onto TiO{sub 2} was suggested to cause this effect. For Pb(II) concentrations (5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} and 10{sup {minus}3} M) higher than EDTA (10{sup {minus}4} M), significantly higher EDTA adsorption at high pH as compared to individual 10{sup {minus}4} EDTA and 10{sup {minus}4} M Pb(II)-EDTA systems was noted. Adsorption modeling was completed employing the geochemical speciation model MINTEQA2 employing the diffuse layer model. Inner-sphere complexation was considered to occur between Pb(II), EDTA, Pb(II)-EDTA, and the TiO{sub 2} surface sites. Surface complexes used in the modeling included Ti-O-Pb{sup +}, Ti-EDTAH{sup 2{minus}}, Ti-EDTA-Pb{sup {minus}}, and Ti-O-Pb-EDTA{sup 3{minus}}. The cationic-type complexation, Ti-O-Pb-EDTA{sup 3{minus}}, was postulated to explain and model the anomalous EDTA adsorption as noted for Pb(II) > EDTA studies. Results from the present study show that the adsorption behavior in aqueous metal/EDTA systems will change with any variation in the contaminant concentration ratios.

  15. Biotransformation of PuEDTA: Implications to Pu Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, Harvey, Jr.

    2006-06-01

    This project integrates three distinct goals to develop a fundamental understanding of the potential fate and disposition of plutonium in sediments that are co-contaminated with EDTA. The three objectives are: (1) Develop thermodynamic data for Pu-EDTA species and determine the dominant mobile form of Pu under anaerobic conditions. (2) Elucidate the mechanism and rates of Pu(IV) and Pu(IV)-EDTA reduction by metal-reducing bacteria and determine where the Pu is located (in solution, biosorbed, bioaccumulated). (3) Enrich and isolate anaerobic EDTA-degrading microorganisms to investigate the anaerobic biodegradation of Pu-EDTA.

  16. Differentiation among closely related organisms of the Actinobacillus-Haemophilus-Pasteurella group by means of lysozyme and EDTA.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, I; Brondz, I

    1985-01-01

    Bacteriolysis in Tris-maleate buffer (0.005 M, pH 7.2) supplemented with EDTA (0.01 M) and hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL, 1.0 microgram/ml) was set up to assist differentiation between the taxonomically closely related Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Haemophilus aphrophilus. A. actinomycetemcomitans was more sensitive to lysis in this system than H. aphrophilus. The standard method for bacteriolysis separated the 10 tested strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans into two groups (I and II) based on their lysis patterns, whereas the 7 strains of H. aphrophilus examined were homogeneous. In group I of A. actinomycetemcomitans, EDTA displayed a considerable lytic effect, which was not increased by supplementation with HEWL. In group II, the lytic effect of EDTA was much less, but HEWL had a considerable supplementary lytic effect. When the turbidity of A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 29522) or H. aphrophilus (ATCC 33389) suspended in Tris buffer was monitored at close pH intervals (0.2) from pH 5.2 to 9.2, maximal lysis of ATCC 29522 occurred with EDTA at pH 8.0 and with EDTA-HEWL at pH 7.6, while ATCC 33389 lysed with EDTA at pH 9.0 and with EDTA-HEWL at pH 9.2. When other members of the family Pasteurellaceae (Haemophilus influenzae type b, Haemophilus paraphrophilus, Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella haemolytica, and Pasteurella ureae) were included for comparison, the group I strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans were the most rapidly lysed by EDTA. H. paraphrophilus was the least sensitive of the gram-negative strains tested, but not as resistant as Micrococcus luteus (control). M. luteus was the organism most sensitive to lysozyme, followed by P. ureae and the group II strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans, while the group I strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans, H. paraphrophilus, and P. haemolytica were the least sensitive organisms. Images PMID:3935663

  17. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and Pu-EDTA

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, H., Jr.; Rai, D.; Xun, L.

    2005-04-18

    The complexation of radionuclides (e.g., plutonium (Pu) and {sup 60}Co) by codisposed ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) has enhanced their transport in sediments at DOE sites. Our previous NABIR research investigated the aerobic biodegradation and biogeochemistry of Pu(IV)-EDTA. Plutonium(IV) forms stable complexes with EDTA under aerobic conditions and an aerobic EDTA degrading bacterium can degrade EDTA in the presence of Pu and decrease Pu mobility. However, our recent studies indicate that while Pu(IV)-EDTA is stable in simple aqueous systems, it is not stable in the presence of relatively soluble Fe(III) compounds (i.e., Fe(OH){sub 3}(s)--2-line ferrihydrite). Since most DOE sites have Fe(III) containing sediments, Pu(IV) in likely not the mobile form of Pu-EDTA in groundwater. The only other Pu-EDTA complex stable in groundwater relevant to DOE sites would be Pu(III)-EDTA, which only forms under anaerobic conditions. Research is therefore needed in this brand new project to investigate the biotransformation of Pu and Pu-EDTA under anaerobic conditions. The biotransformation of Pu and Pu-EDTA under various anaerobic regimes is poorly understood including the reduction kinetics of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) from soluble (Pu(IV)-EDTA) and insoluble Pu(IV) as PuO2(am) by metal reducing bacteria, the redox conditions required for this reduction, the strength of the Pu(III)-EDTA complex, how the Pu(III)-EDTA complex competes with other dominant anoxic soluble metals (e.g., Fe(II)), and the oxidation kinetics of Pu(III)-EDTA. Finally, the formation of a stable soluble Pu(III)-EDTA complex under anaerobic conditions would require degradation of the EDTA complex to limit Pu(III) transport in geologic environments. Anaerobic EDTA degrading microorganisms have not been isolated. These knowledge gaps preclude the development of a mechanistic understanding of how anaerobic conditions will influence Pu and Pu-EDTA fate and transport to assess, model, and design approaches to stop

  18. Flow Cytometry Method Analysis of Apoptosis: No Significant Difference Between EDTA and EDTA-free Trypsin Treatment Procedure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-yan; Nie, Xiao-cui; Ma, Hai-ying; Song, Guo-qing; Zhang, Xiao-tong; Jin, Yu-nan; Yu, Yan-qiu

    2015-04-01

    Flow cytometry method (FCM) is a generally accepted tool to analyze apoptosis. Although apoptosis assay kit was applied by many companies, the manufacturers were not consistent with whether using Trypsin with EDTA to collect the adherent cells. In another words, the influence of EDTA on apoptotic ratio is not clear. In this work, we compared the proportion of apoptotic cells with EDTA or EDTA-free Trypsin treatment by FCM. We concluded that Trypsin with or without EDTA has little influence on the proportion of apoptotic cells. In addition, we found that the ratio of necrosis and apoptosis was different in cells collected by scraping. WAVE2 protein was analyzed as a typical example for movement related protein. WAVE2 expression is elevated in the EDTA Trypsin treated group, compared with EDTA-free Trypsin treatment and scrapping group. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Fe(III)EDTA and Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction by a sulfate reducing bacterium in NO and SO₂ scrubbing liquor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingxiang; Zhou, Jiti; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xiaojun; Shi, Zhuang; Wang, Xiaowei

    2015-03-01

    A viable process concept, based on NO and SO2 absorption into an alkaline Fe(II)EDTA (EDTA: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) solution in a scrubber combined with biological reduction of the absorbed SO2 utilizing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and regeneration of the scrubbing liquor in a single bioreactor, was developed. The SRB, Desulfovibrio sp. CMX, was used and its sulfate reduction performances in FeEDTA solutions and Fe(II)EDTA-NO had been investigated. In this study, the detailed regeneration process of Fe(II)EDTA solution, which contained Fe(III)EDTA and Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction processes in presence of D. sp. CMX and sulfate, was evaluated. Fe(III)EDTA and Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction processes were primarily biological, even if Fe(III)EDTA and Fe(II)EDTA-NO could also be chemically convert to Fe(II)EDTA by biogenic sulfide. Regardless presence or absence of sulfate, more than 87 % Fe(III)EDTA and 98 % Fe(II)EDTA-NO were reduced in 46 h, respectively. Sulfate and Fe(III)EDTA had no affection on Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction. Sulfate enhanced final Fe(III)EDTA reduction. Effect of Fe(III)EDTA on Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction rate was more obvious than effect of sulfate on Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction rate before 8 h. To overcome toxicity of Fe(II)EDTA-NO on SRB, Fe(II)EDTA-NO was reduced first and the reduction of Fe(III)EDTA and sulfate occurred after 2 h. First-order Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction rate and zero-order Fe(III)EDTA reduction rate were detected respectively before 8 h.

  20. Study of EDTA intake of children for potential use of FeNaEDTA for breakfast cereal fortification.

    PubMed

    Galán, Maria G; Cagnasso, Carolina E; Drago, Silvina R

    2012-09-01

    EDTA is used as disodium salt or disodium-calcium in foods, to prevent lipid oxidation or as color and flavor stabilizer. In some countries, FeNaEDTA is also used as a source of iron for fortification. However, EDTA has an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 2.5 mg/kg/day. The aim of this study was to estimate the intake of EDTA in children of school age and the potential use of FeNaEDTA as iron source for breakfast cereal fortification. A qualitative-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was conducted on 225 schoolchildren of both sexes, aged between 4 and 13, from school canteens, public and private schools, from the city of Santa Fe (Argentina). Only those foods which EDTA addition is allowed in Argentina: packaged ice cream, soda, soft drinks and powdered soft drinks (upper limit of Na2EDTA or Na2CaEDTA: 35 mg/kg) and dressings and margarines (upper limit of Na2CaEDTA: 75 mg/kg) were considered. EDTAAverage Daily Consumption (ADC) was 0.06 mg/kg/day with a median of 0.011 mg/kg/day, representing 2.4% of the ADI. In the hypothetical case that FeNaEDTA would be used as iron source for breakfast cereal fortification at level of 11 mg Fe%, the potential EDTA ADC would be 0.46 +/- 0.32 mg/kg/day, representing 18.4% of the ADI (2.5 mg/kg/day). Results indicate that children from Santa Fe city have an EDTA ADC currently well below the maximum ADI of EDTA, which would remain low even if FeNaEDTA is used for breakfast cereal fortification.

  1. Biodegradation of PuEDTA and Impacts on Pu Mobility

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, Luying; Bolton, Jr., Harvey

    2002-06-01

    This project, by Dr. Xun, supports work at PNNL (Bolton) regarding plutonium mobility in the subsurface. Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) is a chelating agent that can increase the mobility of radionuclides and heavy metals in groundwater. Biodegradation of EDTA can decrease the enhanced mobility. The overall objective is to understand how microbial degradation affects Plutonium-EDTA transport in the environment and the specific objective of this component is to understand how microorganisms degrade EDTA. A chelating degrading bacterium BNC1 can use EDTA and nitrilotriacetate (NTA) as sole carbon and nitrogen sources. A gene cluster responsible for both EDTA and NTA degradation has been cloned and characterized (1,2). The same enzymes are used to degrade both compounds except that additional enzymes are required for EDTA degradation. Since the enzymes are located inside cells, EDTA and NTA must be transported into cells for degradation. For the first funding year, we have focused on how EDTA and NTA are transported into BNC1 cells. The EDTA-degrading gene cluster also contains genes encoding a hypothetical ABC-type transporter. We first demonstrated that the transporter genes and EDTA monooxygenase gene (emoA) were co-transcribed by RT-PCR, suggesting that the genes are involved in EDTA transport. We then characterized one of the gene product EppA. Using recombinant EppA purified from Escherichia coli, we have shown that EppA binds several metal:EDTA complexes by fluorescence techniques. In addition, EppA is shown to bind Mg:NTA, Ca:NTA and Fe(III):NTA but not free NTA.

  2. The effects of EDTA and EGTA on renin secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Peart, W S; Quesada, T; Tenyi, I

    1977-01-01

    1 The effects of the disodium salt of ethylenediamine tetra-acetate (EDTA) and 1, 2, bis, 2 aminoethoxyethane-NNN'N'-tetra-acetic acid (EGTA) on renin secretion and vascular resistance were studied in the isolated perfused kidney of the rat. 2 Both substances produced a significant increase of renin release 3 In the absence of calcium and magnesium, EDTA still increased rein release and there was now a considerable increase of perfusion pressure. 4 The rise of pressure but not the rise of renin was inhibited by the removal of potassium from the perfusate when EDTA was administered in the absence of calcium. 5 Propranolol and phenoxybenzamine had no effect on the vasoconstrictor action of EDTA. 6 EGTA was less effective as a renin releaser than EDTA until magnesium was removed from the perfusate. Furter, it had only a small effect on perfusion pressure in contrast to EDTA. PMID:402166

  3. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and Pu-EDTA

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, H., Jr.; Bailey, V.L.; Plymale, A.E.; Rai, D.; Xun, L.

    2006-04-05

    The complexation of radionuclides (e.g., plutonium (Pu) and {sup 60}Co) by co-disposed ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) has enhanced their transport in sediments at DOE sites. Pu(IV)-EDTA is not stable in the presence of relatively soluble Fe(III) compounds. Since most DOE sites have Fe(III) containing sediments, Pu(IV) is likely not the mobile form of Pu-EDTA. The only other Pu-EDTA complex stable in groundwater relevant to DOE sites would be Pu(III)-EDTA, which only forms under anaerobic conditions. Research is therefore needed to investigate the biotransformation of Pu and Pu-EDTA under anaerobic conditions and the anaerobic biodegradation of Pu-EDTA. The biotransformation of Pu and Pu-EDTA under various anaerobic regimes is poorly understood including the reduction kinetics of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) from soluble (Pu(IV)-EDTA) and insoluble Pu(IV), the redox conditions required for this reduction, the strength of the Pu(III)-EDTA, how the Pu(III)-EDTA competes with other dominant anoxic soluble metals (e.g., Fe(II)), and the oxidation kinetics of Pu(III)-EDTA. Finally, soluble Pu(III)-EDTA under anaerobic conditions would require anaerobic degradation of the EDTA to limit Pu(III) transport. Anaerobic EDTA degrading microorganisms have never been isolated. Recent results have shown that Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium, can reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III). The Pu(IV) was provided as insoluble PuO2. The highest rate of Pu(IV) reduction was with the addition of AQDS, an electron shuttle. Of the total amount of Pu solubilized (i.e., soluble through a 0.36 nm filter), approximately 70% was Pu(III). The amount of soluble Pu was between 4.8 and 3.2 micromolar at day 1 and 6, respectively, indicating rapid reduction. The micromolar Pu is significant since the drinking water limit for Pu is 10{sup -12} M. On-going experiments are investigating the influence of EDTA on the rate of Pu reduction and the stability of the formed Pu(III). We have also

  4. Enhanced phytoextraction: in search of EDTA alternatives.

    PubMed

    Meers, E; Hopgood, M; Lesage, E; Vervaeke, P; Tack, F M G; Verloo, M G

    2004-01-01

    Enhanced phytoextraction proposes the use of soil amendments to increase the heavy-metal content of above-ground harvestable plant tissues. This study compares the effect of synthetic aminopolycarboxylic acids [ethylenediamine tetraacetatic acid (EDTA), nitriloacetic acid (NTA), and diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)] with a number of biodegradable, low-molecular weight, organic acids (citric acid, ascorbic acid, oxalic acid, salicylic acid, and NH4 acetate) as potential soil amendments for enhancing phytoextraction of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni) by Zea mays. The treatments in this study were applied at a dose of 2 mmol/kg(-1) 1 d before sowing. To compare possible effects between presow and postgermination treatments, a second smaller experiment was conducted in which EDTA, citric acid, and NH4 acetate were added 10 d after germination as opposed to 1 d before sowing. The soil used in this screening was a moderately contaminated topsoil derived from a dredged sediment disposal site. This site has been in an oxidized state for more than 8 years before being used in this research. The high carbonate, high organic matter, and high clay content characteristic to this type of sediment are thought to suppress heavy-metal phytoavailability. Both EDTA and DTPA resulted in increased levels of heavy metals in the above-ground biomass. However, the observed increases in uptake were not as large as reported in the literature. Neither the NTA nor organic acid treatments had any significant effect on uptake when applied prior to sowing. This was attributed to the rapid mineralization of these substances and the relatively low doses applied. The generally low extraction observed in this experiment restricts the use of phytoextraction as an effective remediation alternative under the current conditions, with regard to amendments used, applied dose (2 mmol/kg(-1) soil), application time (presow), plant species (Zea mays), and sediment (calcareous clayey soil

  5. 21 CFR 73.2120 - Disodium EDTA-copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disodium EDTA-copper. 73.2120 Section 73.2120 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2120 Disodium EDTA-copper. (a) Identity. The color additive disodium EDTA-copper is disodium ] (4-)-N,N′,O,O′,O N,O N′] cuprate (2-). (b...

  6. 21 CFR 73.2120 - Disodium EDTA-copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disodium EDTA-copper. 73.2120 Section 73.2120 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2120 Disodium EDTA-copper. (a) Identity. The color additive disodium EDTA-copper is disodium ] (4-)-N,N′,O,O′,O N,O N′] cuprate (2-). (b...

  7. 21 CFR 73.2120 - Disodium EDTA-copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disodium EDTA-copper. 73.2120 Section 73.2120 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2120 Disodium EDTA-copper. (a) Identity. The color additive disodium EDTA-copper is disodium ] (4-)-N,N′,O,O′,O N,O N′] cuprate (2-). (b...

  8. Biocompatibility of EDTA, EGTA and citric acid.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Simone Maria Galvão de; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Taga, Eulázio Mikio

    2005-01-01

    This in vivo study evaluated, through the physicochemical assay method for quantification of enhanced vascular permeability, the irritating potential of EDTA, EGTA, citric acid and saline. Thirty-two male Wister rats were anesthetized and four experimental sites were demarcated on their backs. Injections of 2% Evans blue (20 mg/kg) were administered intravenously into the lateral caudal vein. The test solutions were immediately injected intradermally (0.01 mL) into the experimental sites. The animals were killed 30 min, 1, 3 and 6 h after injection of the solutions and each piece of skin was submerged in formamide and incubated at 45 masculineC for 72 h. After filtration, the optical density was measured in a spectrophotometer and the total amount of dye extracted from the samples was calculated by means of a standard calibration curve. Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. Compared to control, EDTA had the greatest volume of dye followed by EGTA and citric acid, for all time periods. There were statistically significant differences between all solutions (p<0.01). Considering the periods assessed, a significant difference was observed between the 3- and 6-h groups (p<0.05), but not between the 30-min and 1-h groups. Among the organic acids evaluated in this study, citric acid yielded the lowest amount of extracted dye. This indicates that the citric acid was the least irritating solution.

  9. Leaching characteristics of EDTA-enhanced phytoextraction of Cd and Pb by Zea mays L. in different particle-size fractions of soil aggregates exposed to artificial rain.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yayin; Luo, Dinggui; Lai, An; Liu, Guowei; Liu, Lirong; Long, Jianyou; Zhang, Hongguo; Chen, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    Chelator-assisted phytoextraction is an alternative and effective technique for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils, but the potential for heavy metal leaching needs to be assessed. In the present study, a soil column cultivation-leaching experiment was conducted to investigate the Cd and Pb leaching characteristics during assisted phytoextraction of metal-contaminated soils containing different particle-size soil aggregates. The columns were planted with Zea mays "Zhengdan 958" seedlings and treated with combined applications of EDTA and simulated rainfall (pH 4.5 or 6.5). The results were as follows: (1) The greatest uptake of Cd and Pb by Z. mays was observed after treatment with EDTA (2.5 mmol kg(-1) soil) and soil aggregates of <1 mm; uptake decreased as the soil aggregate size increased. (2) Simulated rainfall, especially acid rain (pH 4.5), after EDTA applications led to the increasing metal concentrations in the leachate, and EDTA significantly increased the concentrations of both Cd and Pb in the leachate, especially with soil aggregates of <1 mm; metal leachate concentrations decreased as soil particle sizes increased. (3) Concentrations of Cd and Pb decreased with each continuing leachate collection, and data were fit to linear regression models with coefficients of determination (R (2)) above 0.90 and 0.87 for Cd and Pb, respectively. The highest total amounts of Cd (22.12%) and Pb (19.29%) were observed in the leachate of soils treated with EDTA and artificial acid rain (pH 4.5) with soil aggregates of <1 mm. The application of EDTA during phytoextraction method increased the leaching risk in the following order: EDTA2.5-1 (pH 4.5) > EDTA2.5-1 (pH 6.5) > EDTA2.5-2 (pH 4.5) > EDTA2.5-4 (pH 4.5) > EDTA2.5-2 (pH 6.5) > EDTA2.5-4 (pH 6.5).

  10. Protective effect of EDTA preadministration on renal ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Foglieni, Chiara; Fulgenzi, Alessandro; Ticozzi, Paolo; Pellegatta, Fabio; Sciorati, Clara; Belloni, Daniela; Ferrero, Elisabetta; Ferrero, Maria Elena

    2006-01-01

    Background Chelation therapy with sodium edetate (EDTA) improved renal function and slowed the progression of renal insufficiency in patients subjected to lead intoxication. This study was performed to identify the underlying mechanism of the ability of EDTA treatment to protect kidneys from damage. Methods The effects of EDTA administration were studied in a rat model of acute renal failure induced by 60 minutes ischemia followed or not by 60 minutes reperfusion. Renal ischemic damage was evaluated by histological studies and by functional studies, namely serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels. Treatment with EDTA was performed 30 minutes before the induction of ischemia. Polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) adhesion capability, plasmatic nitric oxide (NO) levels and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) renal expression were studied as well as the EDTA protection from the TNFα-induced vascular leakage in the kidneys. Data was compared by two-way analysis of variance followed by a post hoc test. Results EDTA administration resulted in the preservation of both functional and histological parameters of rat kidneys. PMN obtained from peripheral blood of EDTA-treated ischemized rats, displayed a significant reduction in the expression of the adhesion molecule Mac-1 with respect to controls. NO was significantly increased by EDTA administration and eNOS expression was higher and more diffuse in kidneys of rats treated with EDTA than in the controls. Finally, EDTA administration was able to prevent in vivo the TNFα-induced vascular leakage in the kidneys. Conclusion This data provides evidence that EDTA treatment is able to protect rat kidneys from ischemic damage possibly through the stimulation of NO production. PMID:16536881

  11. Outer Sphere Adsorption of Pb(II)EDTA on Goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Bargar, John R

    1999-07-16

    FTIR and EXAFS spectroscopic measurements were performed on Pb(II)EDTA adsorbed on goethite as functions of pH (4-6), Pb(II)EDTA concentration (0.11 {micro}M - 72 {micro}M), and ionic strength (16 {micro}M - 0.5M). FTIR measurements show no evidence for carboxylate-Fe(III) bonding or protonation of EDTA at Pb:EDTA = 1:1. Both FTIR and EXAFS measurements suggest that EDTA acts as a hexadentate ligand, with all four of its carboxylate and both amine groups bonded to Pb(II). No evidence was observed for inner-sphere Pb(II)-goethite bonding at Pb:EDTA = 1:1. Hence, the adsorbed complexes should have composition Pb(II)EDTA{sup 2{minus}}. Since substantial uptake of PbEDTA(II){sup 2{minus}} occurred in the samples, we infer that Pb(II)EDTA{sup 2{minus}} adsorbed as outer-sphere complexes and/or as complexes that lose part of their solvation shells and hydrogen bond directly to goethite surface sites. We propose the term ''hydration-sphere'' for the latter type of complexes because they should occupy space in the primary hydration spheres of goethite surface functional groups, and to distinguish this mode of sorption from common structural definitions of inner- and outer-sphere complexes. The similarity of Pb(II) uptake isotherms to those of other divalent metal ions complexed by EDTA suggests that they too adsorb by these mechanisms. The lack of evidence for inner-sphere EDTA-Fe(III) bonding suggests that previously proposed metal-ligand - promoted dissolution mechanisms should be modified, specifically to account for the presence of outer-sphere precursor species.

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Sulfate in Water by Indirect EDTA Titration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belle-Oudry, Deirdre

    2008-01-01

    The determination of sulfate concentration in water by indirect EDTA titration is an instructive experiment that is easily implemented in an analytical chemistry laboratory course. A water sample is treated with excess barium chloride to precipitate sulfate ions as BaSO[subscript 4](s). The unprecipitated barium ions are then titrated with EDTA.…

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Sulfate in Water by Indirect EDTA Titration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belle-Oudry, Deirdre

    2008-01-01

    The determination of sulfate concentration in water by indirect EDTA titration is an instructive experiment that is easily implemented in an analytical chemistry laboratory course. A water sample is treated with excess barium chloride to precipitate sulfate ions as BaSO[subscript 4](s). The unprecipitated barium ions are then titrated with EDTA.…

  14. Pediatric fatality secondary to EDTA chelation.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Arla J; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2008-12-01

    Chelation therapy has emerged as a popular treatment modality to remove heavy metals that are thought to cause autism. We report a fatality that occurred as a consequence of chelation therapy for autism when the incorrect form of EDTA was administered. A five-year-old autistic male was being chelated in a physician's office. While receiving his third treatment he went into cardiac arrest. It was not determined until after the child's death that he had been given edetate disodium rather than edetate calcium disodium, causing profound hypocalcemia and triggering the cardiac events that led to his death. In 1991, the CDC recommended using only edetate calcium disodium, not edetate disodium, to children because edetate disodium may induce tetany and possible hypocalcemia as illustrated in this case. The use of chelation therapy in autistic children has not been validated and can have tragic consequences.

  15. Determination of cobalt(II)-EDTA, cobalt(III)-EDTA, and cobalt(II) in an aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, D.M.; Davis, A.P.

    1996-11-01

    The determination of Co-EDTA species is critical to the understanding of radionuclide migration in the environment, as well as determining efficiencies of various complexed-Co treatment technologies. A new, simple column-oxidation separation methodology was devised to determine the fraction of uncomplexed Co(II), Co(II)-EDTA, and Co(III)-EDTA in an aqueous mixture. A Dowex 50W (H{sup +}) ion-exchange resin, and the oxidative conversion of residual Co(II)-EDTA to Co(III)-EDTA using H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, allowed the separation of species fractions. Only atomic absorption spectrophotometric measurements were required after separation of the fractions. Analysis of individual Co species separated from mixtures ranging in concentration from 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} to 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M total Co resulted in average recoveries of 97 {plus_minus} 4%. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Laser Monitoring Of Phytoextraction Enhancement Of Lead Contaminated Soil Adopting EDTA And EDDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M.; Abdelhamied, M.; Hanafy, A. H.; Fantoni, R.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    Removal of heavy metals (HMs) such as Pb from soil, wastewater, and air is essential for environment and human health. Phytoremediation is a well established technology based on the use of certain green plants for contaminants removal from soil, wastewater as well as air. Scented geranium, Pelargonium zonal, is a flowering plant recently used in HMs removal from contaminated soil. In the present work, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and EDDS (S, S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid) were used as chemical assistants providing higher Pb availability for extraction by plant roots. Lead was artificially added to the planting media, peatmoss, at different concentrations. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to follow up Pb relative concentrations in peatmoss as well as plant shoots, at different sampling times during the experiment period. Laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF), has been also used to evaluate chlorophyll formation and photosynthetic apparatus status in geranium plants. Such measurements were performed on geranium plants grown under various Pb levels, as well as EDTA and EDDS combinations. The combined effect of EDTA and EDDS was found to enhance Pb extraction with time. Good correlation was found between LICF results and chlorophyll (a) (Chl.a) concentrations in plant tissues extracted by chemical analysis.

  17. Studies on radiation synthesis of PVA/EDTA hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Sanju; Varshney, Lalit

    2005-12-01

    Aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) containing different amounts of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were gamma irradiated from a Co-60 source to form PVA-EDTA hydrogels. The effect of irradiation dose and EDTA content on the specific viscosity (in feed), gel percentage and equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) was investigated. The amount of EDTA in the hydrogel matrix was found to be considerably lower than in the feed composition. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) technique was used to determine the amount of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) absorbed by the hydrogel. The incorporation of EDTA moieties onto PVA network results in a hydrogel which has absorption affinity for Pb(II) and Cd(II). The maximum chelating capacities of the hydrogel were observed to be 8.5 mg/g for Pb(II) and 4.2 mg/g for Cd(II). No affinity for absorption of Hg(II) by the hydrogel was observed. The thermal stabilities of the prepared hydrogels were characterized by TGA. The efficiency of EDTA in the hydrogel matrix for chelation was observed to be approximately 10% of that of pure EDTA in solution.

  18. Enhancing phytoremediative ability of Pisum sativum by EDTA application.

    PubMed

    Piechalak, Aneta; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2003-12-01

    The aim of our research was to demonstrate how the presence of EDTA affects resistance of pea plants to Pb and Pb-EDTA presence, and to show the effectivity of lead ions accumulation and translocation. It was determined that EDTA not only increased the amount of Pb taken up by plants but also Pb ion transport through the xylem and metal translocation from roots to stems and leaves. It can be seen in the presented research results that addition of the chelator with Pb limited metal phytotoxicity. We also demonstrated a significant effect of EDTA not only on Pb accumulation and metal transport to the aboveground parts but also on the profile and amount of thiol compounds: glutathione (GSH), homoglutathione (hGSH) or phytochelatins (PCs), synthesized by the plants. We observed a significant effect of the synthetic chelator on increasing the level of Pb accumulation in roots of plants treated with Pb including EDTA (0.5 and 1 mM). Pisum sativum plants treated only with 1 mM Pb(NO3)2 accumulated over 50 mg Pb x g(-1) dry wt during 4 days of cultivation. Whereas in roots of pea plants exposed to Pb+0.5 mM EDTA 35% more Pb was observed. When 1 mM EDTA was applied roots of pea accumulated over 67% more metal. The presence of EDTA also increased metal uptake and transport to the aboveground parts. In pea plants treated only with 1 mM lead nitrate less than 3 mg Pb x g(-1) dry wt was transported, whereas in P. sativum treated with Pb-EDTA doubled amount of Pb was observed in stems and leaves.

  19. 21 CFR 73.2120 - Disodium EDTA-copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2120 Disodium EDTA-copper. (a) Identity. The... in the coloring of shampoos which are cosmetics. (d) Labeling requirements. The labeling of the color...

  20. Drawbacks of Dialysis Procedures for Removal of EDTA

    PubMed Central

    Mónico, Andreia; Martínez-Senra, Eva; Cañada, F. Javier; Zorrilla, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent commonly used in protein purification, both to eliminate contaminating divalent cations and to inhibit protease activity. For a number of subsequent applications EDTA needs to be exhaustively removed. Most purification methods rely in extensive dialysis and/or gel filtration in order to exchange or remove protein buffer components, including metal chelators. We report here that dialysis protocols, even as extensive as those typically employed for protein refolding, may not effectively remove EDTA, which is reduced only by approximately two-fold and it also persists after spin-column gel filtration, as determined by NMR and by colorimetric methods. Remarkably, the most efficient removal was achieved by ultrafiltration, after which EDTA became virtually undetectable. These results highlight a potentially widespread source of experimental variability affecting free divalent cation concentrations in protein applications. PMID:28099451

  1. Photocatalytic oxidation of cadmium-EDTA with titanium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.P.; Green, D.L.

    1999-02-15

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) forms stable complexes with toxic metals such as cadmium. Metal-EDTA chelates are chemically stable and occur in a number of waste situations. The viability of using photocatalytic oxidation with titanium dioxide to degrade Cd-EDTA was examined at concentrations from 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} to 10{sup {minus}3} M at pH from 3 to 8. Initially a portion of the complex was adsorbed onto the TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst at low pH. However, independent of the degree of initial adsorption, Cd-EDTA was rapidly destroyed with little dependence on pH. Concurrently, in most cases cadmium was liberated as Cd{sup 2+} with no affiliation with organic reaction products; its fate depended on suspension pH. At low pH, Cd{sub aq}{sup 2+} was released into solution. Also, organic carbon was released into solution as oxidation of adsorbed EDTA occurred. At higher pH the Cd was adsorbed onto the TiO{sub 2} at adsorption equilibrium levels. Major products detected include formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetic acid. Nitrate and glyoxylic, malonic, and oxalic acids were detected, but concentrations were low. The incomplete carbon balance and the lack of nitrate production suggest the production of organic amines from the degradation of Cd-EDTA. Release of the Cd as Cd{sup 2+} occurs after mineralization of only about half of the organic carbon.

  2. EDTA: a synthetic draw solute for forward osmosis.

    PubMed

    Lutchmiah, Kerusha; Post, Jan W; Rietveld, Luuk C; Cornelissen, Emile R

    2014-01-01

    The draw solution is the driving force of the forward osmosis (FO) process; however, the solute loss of the draw solute to the feed side is a general, financial limitation for most applications. The anthropogenic amino acid ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was investigated as a draw solution for FO. At concentrations of approximately 1.0 osmol/kg, EDTA demonstrated comparable water fluxes (Jv = 5.29 L/m(2) h) to the commonly used salt, NaCl (Jv = 4.86 L/m(2) h), and both produced better water fluxes than glucose (Jv = 3.46 L/m(2) h). EDTA showed the lowest solute loss with Js (reverse solute loss or solute leakage) = 0.54 g/m(2) h. The molecular weight, degree of ionisation and charge of EDTA played a major role in this efficiency and EDTA was therefore well rejected by the membrane, showing a low Js/Jv ratio of 0.10 g/L. Owing to the low solute loss of EDTA and its resistance to biodegradation, this compound has the potential to be used as a draw solute for FO during long periods without requiring much replenishment.

  3. Evidence that Bacterial ABC-Type Transporter Imports Free EDTA for Metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hua; Herman, Jacob P.; Bolton, Harvey; Zhang, Zhicheng; Clark, Sue B.; Xun, Luying

    2007-11-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), a common chelating agent, is becoming a major organic pollutant in the form of metal-EDTA complexes in surface waters, partly due to its recalcitrance to biodegradation. Even an EDTA-degrading bacterium BNC1 does not degrade stable metal-EDTA complexes. An ABC-type transporter was identified for possible uptake of EDTA because the transporter genes and EDTA monooxygenase gene were expressed in a single operon in BNC1. The ABC-type transporter had a periplasmic binding protein (EppA) that should confer the substrate specificity for the transporter; therefore, EppA was produced in Escherichia coli,purified, and characterized. EppA was shown to bind free EDTA with a dissociation constant as low as 25 nM by using isothermal titration calorimetry. When unstable metal-EDTA complexes, e.g. MgEDTA2-, were added to the EppA solution, binding was also observed. However, experimental data and theoretical analysis only supported EppA binding of free EDTA. When stable metal-EDTA complexes, e.g. CuEDTA2-, are titrated into the EppA solution, no binding was observed. Since EDTA monooxygenase in the cytoplasm uses some of the stable metal-EDTA complexes as substrates, we suggest that the lack of EppA binding and EDTA uptake are responsible for the failure of BNC1 cells to degrade the stable complexes.

  4. EDTA chelation therapy for cardiovascular disease: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Seely, Dugald MR; Wu, Ping; Mills, Edward J

    2005-01-01

    Background Numerous practitioners of both conventional and complementary and alternative medicine throughout North America and Europe claim that chelation therapy with EDTA is an effective means to both control and treat cardiovascular disease. These claims are controversial, and several randomized controlled trials have been completed dealing with this topic. To address this issue we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the best available evidence for the use of EDTA chelation therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Methods We conducted a systematic review of 7 databases from inception to May 2005. Hand searches were conducted in review articles and in any of the trials found. Experts in the field were contacted and registries of clinical trials were searched for unpublished data. To be included in the final systematic review, the studies had to be randomized controlled clinical trials. Results A total of seven articles were found assessing EDTA chelation for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Two of these articles were subgroup analyses of one RCT that looked at different clinical outcomes. Of the remaining five studies, two smaller studies found a beneficial effect whereas the other three exhibited no benefit for cardiovascular disease from the use of EDTA chelation therapy. Adverse effects were rare but those of note included a few cases of hypocalcemia and a single case of increased creatinine in a patient on the EDTA intervention. Conclusion The best available evidence does not support the therapeutic use of EDTA chelation therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Although not considered to be a highly invasive or harmful therapy, it is possible that the use of EDTA chelation therapy in lieu of proven therapy may result in causing indirect harm to the patient. PMID:16262904

  5. EDTA and urease effects on Hg accumulation by Lepidium sativum.

    PubMed

    Smolińska, Beata; Cedzyńska, Krystyna

    2007-11-01

    The phytoextraction process was conducted under laboratory conditions with the use of garden cress plants (Lepidium sativum). The experiment was carried out in a model soil, which was characterized before conducting the process. Inorganic forms of mercury (HgCl(2), HgSO(4), Hg(NO(3))(2)) were used for contamination of the soil. The phytoextraction process was conducted after EDTA application to the soil and after urease application. Also the influence of simultaneous addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and urease into the soil on phytoextraction process was measured. In all variants of phytoextraction process the total mercury concentrations in roots, stems and leaves of garden cress were determined. The result showed that garden cress accumulated mercury from soil. The overall maximum concentration of mercury in its compounds was found in roots of the plant. In all cases, before addition of urease and EDTA, the translocation process and distribution of mercury in the plant tissues were limited. The addition of urease caused an increase of enzyme activity in the soil and at the same time caused an increase of mercury concentration in plant tissues. Application of EDTA increased solubility of mercury and caused an increase of metal accumulation by plants. After simultaneous addition of EDTA and urease into the soil garden cress accumulated about 20% of total mercury concentration in the soil. Most of mercury compounds were accumulated in leaves and stems of the plants (46.0-56.9% of total mercury concentration in the plant tissues).

  6. Effect of agitation of EDTA with 808-nm diode laser on dentin microhardness.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Hakan; Yeter, Kübra Y; Karatas, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Cenk B; Ayranci, Leyla B; Ozsu, Damla

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of agitation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with diode laser at different agitation times on root dentin microhardness. Eighty-four specimens were divided randomly into seven groups, as follows: (1) distilled water, (2) 17% EDTA, (3) EDTA with 60 s ultrasonic agitation, (4) EDTA with 10 s laser agitation, (5) EDTA with 20 s laser agitation, (6) EDTA with 30 s laser agitation, and (7) EDTA with 40 s laser agitation. All of the specimens were irrigated with 5% NaOCl and distilled water except the distilled water group. Microhardness values were calculated before and after the procedures. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests. Statistically significant differences were determined between the distilled water and other groups. Also, statistically significant differences were observed between EDTA with 40 s laser agitation and EDTA, and EDTA with 10 and 20 s laser agitations. Ultrasonic agitation of EDTA affected microhardness of root dentin similar to EDTA (p > .05). All applications decreased the microhardness of root dentin when compared with distilled water. Agitation of EDTA with diode laser for 40 s caused more reduction in microhardness of root dentin when compared with EDTA.

  7. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and of Pu-EDTA

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, Luying

    2009-11-20

    The enhanced mobility of radionuclides by co-disposed chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), is likely to occur only under anaerobic conditions. Our extensive effort to enrich and isolate anaerobic EDTA-degrading bacteria has failed. Others has tried and also failed. To explain the lack of anaerobic biodegradation of EDTA, we proposed that EDTA has to be transported into the cells for metabolism. A failure of uptake may contribute to the lack of EDTA degradation under anaerobic conditions. We demonstrated that an aerobic EDTA-degrading bacterium strain BNC1 uses an ABC-type transporter system to uptake EDTA. The system has a periplasmic binding protein that bind EDTA and then interacts with membrane proteins to transport EDTA into the cell at the expense of ATP. The bind protein EppA binds only free EDTA with a Kd of 25 nM. The low Kd value indicates high affinity. However, the Kd value of Ni-EDTA is 2.4 x 10^(-10) nM, indicating much stronger stability. Since Ni and other trace metals are essential for anaerobic respiration, we conclude that the added EDTA sequestrates all trace metals and making anaerobic respiration impossible. Thus, the data explain the lack of anaerobic enrichment cultures for EDTA degradation. Although we did not obtain an EDTA degrading culture under anaerobic conditions, our finding may promote the use of certain metals that forms more stable metal-EDTA complexes than Pu(III)-EDTA to prevent the enhanced mobility. Further, our data explain why EDTA is the most dominant organic pollutant in surface waters, due to the lack of degradation of certain metal-EDTA complexes.

  8. Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction coupled with Fe(II)EDTA oxidation by a nitrate- and Fe(III)-reducing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiyang; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Jiti; Chen, Mingxiang; Wang, Xiaojun; Shi, Zhuang

    2013-06-01

    The nitrate- and Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Paracoccus versutus LYM was characterized in terms of its ability to perform Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction coupled with Fe(II)EDTA oxidation (NO-dependent Fe(II)EDTA oxidation, NDFO). It experienced a single anaerobic FeEDTA redox cycling through NDFO and dissimilatory Fe(III)EDTA reduction in FeEDTA culture. The increase in the Fe(II)EDTA concentration contributed to the ascending Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction rate. The amount of glucose controlled the rate and extent of Fe(II) oxidation during NDFO. Without glucose addition, Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction rate was at a rather slow rate even in presence of relatively sufficient Fe(II)EDTA. Unlike aqueous Fe(2+) and solid-phase Fe(II), Fe(II)EDTA could prevent cells from encrustations. These findings suggested the occurrence of NDFO preferred being beneficial via a mixotrophic physiology in the presence of an organic cosubstrate to being out of consideration for metabolic strategy.

  9. EDTA and hydrochloric acid effects on mercury accumulation by Lupinus albus.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Luis; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto; Villaseñor, José; Rodríguez-Castellanos, Laura

    2016-12-01

    The efficiency of white lupine (Lupinus albus) to uptake and accumulate mercury from a soil polluted by mining activities was assessed in a pot experiment with chemically assisted phytoextraction. The mobilizing agents tested were ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). Two doses of each amendment were used (0.5 and 1.0 g of amendment per kg of soil), and unamended pots were used as a control. Addition of HCl to the soil did not negatively affect plant biomass, while the use of EDTA led to a significant decrease in plant growth when compared to that found for non-treated pots, with plants visually showing symptoms of toxicity. The addition of hydrochloric acid increased root, shoot and total plant Hg uptake of white lupine by 3.7 times, 3.1 times and 3.5 times, respectively, in relation to non-amended plants. The greatest efficiency was obtained for the highest HCl dose. EDTA led to higher concentrations of total plant Hg than that found with the control, but, due to the aforementioned decrease in plant biomass, the Hg phytoextraction yield was not significantly increased. These results were attributed to the capability of both amendments to form stable Hg complexes. The concentration of Hg in the water of the soil pores after the phytoextraction experiment was very low for all treatments, showing that risks derived from metal leaching could be partially avoided by using doses and chemicals suitable to the concentration of metal in the soil and plant performance.

  10. Wavelength Shifters and Interactions of EDTA with Acrylic & LAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Yuvraj; SNO+ Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The SNO + experiment, an upgrade to the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, will use linear alkyl-benzene (LAB) liquid scintillator to probe new physics, including 0 νββ decay. Event detection efficiency is heavily affected by radioactive backgrounds, two sources being Rn-222 and Po-210 daughters, some of which has become embedded in the SNO + acrylic vessel after years underground. The leading candidate for polonium leaching is Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Before deployment on-site, EDTA's effects on the mechanical integrity of acrylic must be determined. It also must not be soluble in LAB or must be removed before scintillator fill of the vessel, as its presence would result in reduced light yield due to scattering. It was found that EDTA had negligible effects on the Young's Modulus of acrylic. EDTA is also slightly soluble in LAB, but can be completely removed by rinsing with water. Additionally, the study of the light yield and alpha/beta timing profiles of two wavelength shifters - bisMSB and perylene - is critical to determining which should be added to the 0 νββ isotope (tellurium) LAB cocktail. Small-scale results hint that perylene might be better, but this is being confirmed with larger-scale tests. The SNO + experiment, an upgrade to the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, will use linear alkyl-benzene (LAB) liquid scintillator to probe new physics, including 0 νββ decay. Event detection efficiency is heavily affected by radioactive backgrounds, two sources being Rn-222 and Po-210 daughters, some of which has become embedded in the SNO + acrylic vessel after years underground. The leading candidate for polonium leaching is Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Before deployment on-site, EDTA's effects on the mechanical integrity of acrylic must be determined. It also must not be soluble in LAB or must be removed before scintillator fill of the vessel, as its presence would result in reduced light yield due to scattering. It was found that EDTA

  11. Dissolution of iron(III)(HYDR)oxides by metal-EDTA-complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Nowack, B.; Sigg, L.

    1996-10-01

    The dissolution of Fe(III)(hydroxides) (goethite and hydrous ferric oxide) by metal-EDTA complexes occurs by ligand-promoted dissolution. The process is initiated by adsorption of the metal-EDTA to the surface, dissociation of the complex at the surface and release of Fe(III)EDTA into solution. The dissolution rate is decreased to a great extent if EDTA is complexed by metals in comparison to uncomplexed EDTA. The rate decreases in the order EDTA >> CaEDTA > PbEDTA > ZnEDTA > CuEDTA > Co(II)EDTA > NiEDTA. Two different rate-limiting steps determine the system: (1) detachment of Fe(III) from the oxide-structure and (2) dissociation of the metal-EDTA complexes. In the case of goethite, step (1) is more important than (2) and the difference in the dissolution rate for several metals is small. In the case of hydrous ferric oxide, step (2) is rate-limiting and the effect of the complexed metal is very pronounced.

  12. Dissolution of Fe(III)(hydr) oxides by metal-EDTA complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Nowack, B.; Sigg, L. |

    1997-03-01

    The dissolution of Fe(III)(hydr)oxides (goethite and hydrous ferric oxide) by metal-EDTA complexes occurs by ligand-promoted dissolution. The process is initiated by the adsorption of metal-EDTA complexes to the surface and is followed by the dissociation of the complex at the surface and the release of Fe(III)EDTA into solution. The dissolution rate is decreased to a great extent if EDTA is complexed by metals in comparison to the uncomplexed EDTA. The rate decreases in the order EDTA > CaEDTA > PbEDTA > ZnEDTA > CuEDTA > Co(II)EDTA > NiEDTA. Two different rate-limiting steps determine the dissolution process: (1) detachment of Fe(III) from the oxide-structure and (2) dissociation of the metal-EDTA complexes. In the case of goethite, step 1 is slower than step 2 and the dissolution rates by various metals are similar. In the case of hydrous ferric oxide, step 2 is rate-limiting and the effect of the complexed metal is very pronounced. 35 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. EDTA enhances lead uptake and facilitates phytoremediation by vetiver grass.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Srivastava, Alok; Singh, V P

    2008-11-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) has strong and dense root system and is a potential phytoremediator plant since it can tolerate a wide range of climatic conditions and grow well in soils contaminated with heavy metals. Soil was artificially contaminated by lead (20 mgl(-1)) during field trials. Four concentration of EDTA (Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid-disodium salt) solution i.e. 0, 3, 5 and 10 mmol kg(-1) were added to soil prior to harvesting, to study the influence of EDTA solution on phytostabilization by vetiver grass. Results showed that the concentration of lead in roots of vetiver is significantly increased after EDTA solution (5 mmol kg(-1)) application. However, high concentration of EDTA (10 mmol kg(-1)) does not show such significant increase. The toxicity of highly contaminating metal did not affect the growth of vetiver grass significantly but a slight decrease in parameters studied was noticed. No stress symptoms were observed in vetiver plants. Results of present study reveal that vetiver could be considered as a potential phytoremediator for lead contamninated site.

  14. Can EDTA Change MRSA into MSSA? A Future Prospective!

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sonia; Sarkar, Soma; Ghosh, Sougata; (Mitra), Anita Nandi; Sinha, Anuradha; Chakravorty, Sriparna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the present era we are left behind with limited options for the treatment of serious infections caused by multidrug resistant S.aureus, most remarkably nosocomially acquired Methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA). The problem increases more when these strains easily become multidrug resistant (MDR) due to biofilm formation. Those staphylococcal species that are vancomycin and linezolid resistant are also resistant to other antistaphylococcal agents which call for an urgent intervention to develop newer antimicrobial agents. Aim The present study was undertaken with the aim to evaluate the antibiofilm effect of EDTA against the biofilm forming MRSA isolates, isolated from different clinical infections. Materials and Methods The biofilms formed on polystyrene microtitre plates by the MRSA strains were treated by different concentrations of EDTA to find out its anti-biofilm activity. Further simultaneously the antibiotic susceptibility pattern was noted down to check whether the MRSA strains become MSSA (Methicillin sensitive S.aureus). Results Our data demonstrates that EDTA at 4mM concentration inhibits biofilm of MRSA and at 20 mM have an ability to reduce and dissociate the biofilm membrane, allowing the antibiotics to enter and convert MRSA strains into MSSA. Conclusion These findings suggest that commercially available EDTA could be used in future to control MRSA and its biofilm- related infections. PMID:27042464

  15. Iron bioavailability in corn-masa tortillas is improved by the addition of disodium EDTA.

    PubMed

    Walter, Tomás; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel

    2003-10-01

    Corn-masa flour flat bread tortillas are the main staple of Mexican and Central American populations. Due to high concentrations of inhibitors of iron absorption, the bioavailability from this matrix is unknown. We wanted to determine the most suitable fortificant that would efficaciously improve iron bioavailability. In tortillas prepared with commercial precooked, lime-treated, corn-masa flour, we examined the in vitro solubility of the following forms of iron: native iron with and without Na2EDTA, elemental reduced iron plus Na2EDTA, ferrous fumarate with and without Na2EDTA, bisglycine iron, ferrous sulfate and NaFeEDTA. We also examined the in vivo bioavailability in humans with double radioiron erythrocyte incorporation of ferrous fumarate with and without Na2EDTA, bisglycine iron, NaFeEDTA and native iron plus Na2EDTA, beans and rice. In vitro, solubility ranged from 1% in iron forms without Na2EDTA to 19.4% for NaFeEDTA. Forms of iron with Na2EDTA had intermediate values. In vivo radioiron studies showed that iron forms without Na2EDTA also had low bioavailability (< or =1%). NaFeEDTA had the highest bioavailability (5.3%). The bioavailability of all iron forms improved significantly when tested with Na2EDTA (<0.05). Adding Na2EDTA to ferrous fumarate increased bioavailability from 0.87% to 2.9% (P < 0.001). We conclude that NaFeEDTA is the form of iron best absorbed, but alternatively, ferrous fumarate plus Na2EDTA comprises a feasible option as a fortificant.

  16. Thumbnail Sketches: EDTA-Type Chelating Agents in Everyday Consumer Products: Some Medicinal and Personal Care Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, J. Roger

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA)-type chelating agents found in ophthalmic products, personal care products, and disinfectants. Also discusses the properties and action of these EDTA agents. (JN)

  17. Thumbnail Sketches: EDTA-Type Chelating Agents in Everyday Consumer Products: Some Medicinal and Personal Care Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, J. Roger

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA)-type chelating agents found in ophthalmic products, personal care products, and disinfectants. Also discusses the properties and action of these EDTA agents. (JN)

  18. 40 CFR 180.1302 - Sodium Ferric Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1302 Section 180.1302 Protection of... Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of sodium ferric EDTA in or on all food commodities when applied as...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1302 - Sodium Ferric Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1302 Section 180.1302 Protection of... Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of sodium ferric EDTA in or on all food commodities when applied as...

  20. Degradation of metal-EDTA complexes by resting cells of the bacterial strain DSM 9103

    SciTech Connect

    Satroutdinov, A.D.; Dedyukhina, E.G.; Chistyakova, T.I.; Witschel, M.; Minkevich, I.G.; Eroshin, V.K.; Egli, T.

    2000-05-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), an industrially important chelating agent, forms very stable complexes with di- and trivalent metal ions, and in both wastewater and natural waters it is normally present in the metal-associated form. Therefore, the influence of EDTA speciation on its utilization by the EDTA-degrading bacterial strain DSM 9103 was investigated. EDTA-grown cells harvested from the exponential phase of a batch culture were incubated with 1 mM of various EDTA species and the EDTA concentration in the assay was monitored as a function of time. Uncomplexed EDTA as well as complexes with low stability constants were found to be readily degraded to completion at a constant rate. For more stable EDTA chelates (i.e., chelates of Co{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Pb{sup 2+}) the data suggest that these complexes were not used directly by the cells but that they had to dissociate prior to degradation. The rate of this dissociation step possibly determined the microbial degradation of these complexes. CdEDTA{sup 2{minus}} and Fe(III)EDTA{sup {minus}} were not degraded within 48 h. In case of CdEDTA{sup 2{minus}} the toxicity of freed Cd{sup 2+} ions most likely prevented a significant degradation of the complex, whereas in case of Fe(III)EDTA{sup {minus}} a combination of metal or complex toxicity and the very slow dissociation of the complex might explain the absence of degradation.

  1. 40 CFR 180.1302 - Sodium Ferric Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1302 Section 180.1302 Protection of... Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of sodium ferric EDTA in or on all food commodities when applied as...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1302 - Sodium Ferric Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1302 Section 180.1302 Protection of... Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of sodium ferric EDTA in or on all food commodities when applied as...

  3. Effects of IDSA, EDDS and EDTA on heavy metals accumulation in hydroponically grown maize (Zea mays, L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhongqiu; Xi, Meizhu; Jiang, Guangyu; Liu, Xiaona; Bai, Zhongke; Huang, Yizong

    2010-09-15

    Heavy metals contamination of soil is a widespread global problem. Chelant assisted phytoextraction has been proposed to improve the efficiency of phytoextraction which involves three subsequent levels: transfer of metals from the bulk soil to the root surfaces, uptake into the roots and translocation to the shoots. However, most studies focused on the first level. A hydroponic experiment, which addresses the latter two levels, was conducted to study the effects of EDTA, EDDS and IDSA on the uptake and the distribution of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in the apoplast and the symplast of roots of maize (Zea mays, L.). The concentrations of the metals (with exception of Zn) in the shoots were increased significantly by addition of all the chelants. EDTA was most effective for Pb uptake and IDSA was interestingly most effective for Cd uptake. Pb in the roots with EDTA was mostly distributed in the apoplast, while Zn, especially with IDSA, was mostly located in the symplast. The results indicated that, the capacity of chelant to enhance the nonselective apoplastic transport of metal may be most important for chelant enhanced phytoextraction.

  4. A new spectrophotometric method for determination of EDTA in water using its complex with Mn(III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Carlos Eduardo O.; Oliveira, André F.; Neves, Antônio A.; Queiroz, Maria Eliana L. R.

    2016-11-01

    EDTA is an important ligand used in many industrial products as well as in agriculture, where it is employed to assist in phytoextraction procedures and the absorption of nutrients by plants. Due to its intensive use and recalcitrance, it is now considered an emerging pollutant in water, so there is great interest in techniques suitable for its monitoring. This work proposes a method based on formation of the Mn(III)-EDTA complex after oxidation of the Mn(II)-EDTA complex by PbO2 immobilized on cyanoacrylate spheres. A design of experiments (DOE) based on the Doehlert matrix was used to determine the optimum conditions of the method, and the influence of the variables was evaluated using a multiple linear regression (MLR) model. The optimized method presented a linear response in the range from 0.77 to 100.0 μmol L- 1, with analytical sensitivity of 7.7 × 103 L mol- 1, a coefficient of determination of 0.999, and a limit of detection of 0.23 μmol L- 1. The method was applied using samples fortified at different concentration levels, and the recoveries achieved were between 97.0 and 104.9%.

  5. EDTA a novel inducer of pisatin, a phytoalexin indicator of the non-host resistance in peas.

    PubMed

    Hadwiger, Lee A; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2014-12-23

    Pea pod endocarp suppresses the growth of an inappropriate fungus or non-pathogen by generating a "non-host resistance response" that completely suppresses growth of the challenging fungus within 6 h. Most of the components of this resistance response including pisatin production can be elicited by an extensive number of both biotic and abiotic inducers. Thus this phytoalexin serves as an indicator to be used in evaluating the chemical properties of inducers that can initiate the resistance response. Many of the pisatin inducers are reported to interact with DNA and potentially cause DNA damage. Here we propose that EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) is an elicitor to evoke non-host resistance in plants. EDTA is manufactured as a chelating agent, however at low concentration it is a strong elicitor, inducing the phytoalexin pisatin, cellular DNA damage and defense-responsive genes. It is capable of activating complete resistance in peas against a pea pathogen. Since there is also an accompanying fragmentation of pea DNA and alteration in the size of pea nuclei, the potential biochemical insult as a metal chelator may not be its primary action. The potential effects of EDTA on the structure of DNA within pea chromatin may assist the transcription of plant defense genes.

  6. A new spectrophotometric method for determination of EDTA in water using its complex with Mn(III).

    PubMed

    Andrade, Carlos Eduardo O; Oliveira, André F; Neves, Antônio A; Queiroz, Maria Eliana L R

    2016-11-05

    EDTA is an important ligand used in many industrial products as well as in agriculture, where it is employed to assist in phytoextraction procedures and the absorption of nutrients by plants. Due to its intensive use and recalcitrance, it is now considered an emerging pollutant in water, so there is great interest in techniques suitable for its monitoring. This work proposes a method based on formation of the Mn(III)-EDTA complex after oxidation of the Mn(II)-EDTA complex by PbO2 immobilized on cyanoacrylate spheres. A design of experiments (DOE) based on the Doehlert matrix was used to determine the optimum conditions of the method, and the influence of the variables was evaluated using a multiple linear regression (MLR) model. The optimized method presented a linear response in the range from 0.77 to 100.0μmolL(-1), with analytical sensitivity of 7.7×10(3)Lmol(-1), a coefficient of determination of 0.999, and a limit of detection of 0.23μmolL(-1). The method was applied using samples fortified at different concentration levels, and the recoveries achieved were between 97.0 and 104.9%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. EDTA-induced changes in platelet structure and function: adhesion and spreading.

    PubMed

    White, J G; Escolar, G

    2000-02-01

    Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) is an effective anticoagulant, but unfortunately causes structural, biochemical and functional damage to human platelets. Some of the functional injuries, such as adhesion to and spreading on surfaces, are considered irreversible. The present investigation has evaluated that hypothesis. Our findings indicate that platelets from EDTA platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or CCD PRP to which EDTA has been added do not adhere to glass or plastic surfaces. However, when platelets from EDTA PRP or CCD PRP containing added EDTA are washed and resuspended under conditions reported to cause irreversible dissociation of the fibrinogen receptor, GPIIb/IIIa, then washed and resuspended in buffer containing Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions will adhere and spread in the same manner as platelets not exposed to EDTA. The ability to recover adhesive function may explain why EDTA platelets are able to sustain clot retraction as well as CCD platelets.

  8. Interaction between EDTA and sodium hypochlorite: a nuclear magnetic resonance analysis.

    PubMed

    Grande, Nicola Maria; Plotino, Gianluca; Falanga, Alessandro; Pomponi, Massimo; Somma, Francesco

    2006-05-01

    Recent studies detected erosion of the dentinal walls following the use of EDTA as a final flush. Several authors have studied degradation of EDTA and it appears to be caused by an oxidation reaction. The objective of this paper was to verify through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis if the oxidizing property of sodium hypochlorite inactivates EDTA. Solutions of sodium hypochlorite and EDTA were analyzed. EDTA tracing and the appearance of new signals indicative of by-products of the reaction, were studied at different time intervals with a NMR analysis. The tracings of NMR analysis confirmed that the reaction between sodium hypochlorite and EDTA lead to a very slow but progressive degradation of this compound. Mindful of the limitations of an in vitro study, the results of this study nevertheless demonstrated that a final flush with sodium hypochlorite cannot limit the chelating effects of EDTA in a clinically realistic time period.

  9. Kinetics of Fe(III)*EDTA reduction by ascorbic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Harkness, J.B.L.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The kinetics of the reduction of ferric chelate by ascorbic acid have been determined at a typical flue-gas scrubber-system operating temperature ([approximately]55[degrees]C). The ascorbic acid reaction has the same reduction rate expression as the reduction by bisulfite ions, namely, first order with respect to the concentrations of both Fe(III)*EDTA and monoionic species of ascorbic acid. The reaction rate isnegative first order with respect to Fe(II)*EDTA concentration. In the pH range of 6--8, reduction of the hydrolyzed form of the metal chelate compound was negligible. The rate constant for the ascorbic acid reduction reaction is almost 400 times larger than that for the bisulfite reduction reaction under the same reaction conditions. There was no contribution associated with the nonionized form of ascorbic acid.

  10. Kinetics of Fe(III)*EDTA reduction by ascorbic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Harkness, J.B.L.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1992-12-01

    The kinetics of the reduction of ferric chelate by ascorbic acid have been determined at a typical flue-gas scrubber-system operating temperature ({approximately}55{degrees}C). The ascorbic acid reaction has the same reduction rate expression as the reduction by bisulfite ions, namely, first order with respect to the concentrations of both Fe(III)*EDTA and monoionic species of ascorbic acid. The reaction rate isnegative first order with respect to Fe(II)*EDTA concentration. In the pH range of 6--8, reduction of the hydrolyzed form of the metal chelate compound was negligible. The rate constant for the ascorbic acid reduction reaction is almost 400 times larger than that for the bisulfite reduction reaction under the same reaction conditions. There was no contribution associated with the nonionized form of ascorbic acid.

  11. Removal of EDTA by UV-C/hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Baeza, C; Rossner, A; Jardim, W F; Litter, M I; Mansilla, H D

    2003-10-01

    Mineralization of a 5 mM EDTA solution at pH 3 was evaluated via TOC removal under UV-C irradiation in the presence of H2O2 at various conditions. The highest TOC removal (78%) was obtained using a 40:1 H2O2/EDTA molar ratio, after 540 min irradiation. However, a 20:1 ratio gave slightly lower results, being economically more attractive. Best results of TOC removal were obtained under pH controlled conditions. Addition of TiO2 (1 g l(-1)) was detrimental, even in the presence of H2O2, indicating that at this concentration, TiO2 inhibits the mineralization, probably by scattering or by screening of the light.

  12. Metal Complexes of EDTA: An Exercise in Data Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Philip C. H.

    1997-10-01

    Stability constants of metal complexes of edta with main group and transition metals are correlated with properties of the elements and cations (ion charge, atomic and ionic radii, ionization energies and electronegativities) and interpreted with an ionic bonding model including a covalent contribution. Enthalpy and entropy contributions are discussed. It is shown how chemists recognize patterns in data with the help of a general theory and so develop a model.

  13. Adsorption and retarded diffusion of EuIII-EDTA- through hard clay rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descostes, Michael; Pointeau, Ingmar; Radwan, Jean; Poonoosamy, Jenna; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Menut, Denis; Vercouter, Thomas; Dagnelie, Romain V. H.

    2017-01-01

    Adsorption and diffusion experiments of EuIII were performed in Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) clay rock in the presence of EDTA. The predictive model based on binary system parameters (Eu/COx and EDTA/COx) was in good agreement with the results for the Eu/EDTA/COx ternary system. At low EDTA concentrations, the behaviour of EuIII was mainly driven by Eu3+adsorption and complexation by carbonates and EDTA. At higher EDTA concentrations, the behaviour of EuIII was driven by the adsorption of [EuIII-EDTA]- anions. Europium was then used as a probe to estimate the transport of EDTA. Three through-diffusion experiments of EDTA were compared with 14C, Eu and 152Eu tracers. EuIII-EDTA was not quantitatively dissociated by diffusion through the rock. The effective diffusion coefficients quantified De(EuIII-EDTA) = 1.5-1.7 · 1012 m2 s-1 were an order of magnitude lower than that of water, evidencing the anionic exclusion of [EuIII-EDTA]- within the clay rock. Break-through curves and diffusion profiles confirmed retardation due to significant adsorption on the clay rock (Rd(EuIII-EDTA) ∼ 6-14 L kg-1) in comparison with inorganic anions. However, the model based on batch adsorption measurements failed to predict the diffusion results. All experiments displayed an early break-through of EDTA complexes. This behaviour contrasted with results on iron oxides rich sediments, which usually led to higher retardation than expected from the batch studies.

  14. Study on EDTA-degrading bacterium Burkholderia cepacia YL-6 for bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Chin; Chen, Szu-Lin; Fang, Hung-Yuan

    2005-11-01

    Bioaugmentation production of EDTA-degrading bacterium Burkholderia cepacia YL-6 was carried out in an aerobic fermentor. Three different carbon sources (ferric-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Fe-EDTA), potassium acetate, and ethylamine) were used. The bacterium cultivated with Fe-EDTA and maintained in the growth phase could reach the maximum cell concentration on the 38th day. Whereas, the bacterium cultivated with potassium acetate and ethylamine reach the maximum cell concentration at the 76th and 100th hour. The viable-cell counts of the augmentation agents made by feeding Fe-EDTA, potassium acetate, and ethylamine were 8.2x10(10), 6.8x10(11), and 4.3x10(11) CFU/g agent, respectively. The EDTA-degradation time required for the afore-mentioned bioaugmentation agents made by feeding various carbon sources lay in the following order: ethylamineEDTA. Especially, the most efficient bioaugmentation agent (made by feeding ethylamine) only required 10 and 13 days for complete degradation of EDTA from the Fe-EDTA and Cu-EDTA complexes, respectively. It shows that ethylamine was the best substrate for augmentation production of EDTA-degrading bacterium B. cepacia YL-6.

  15. Direct analysis of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on concrete by reactive-desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lebeau, D; Reiller, P E; Lamouroux, C

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of organic ligands such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is today an important challenge due to their ability to increase the mobility of radionuclides and metals. Reactive desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (reactive-DESI-MS) was used for direct analysis of EDTA on concrete samples. EDTA forms complexes and those with Fe(III) ions are among the most thermodynamically favored. This complexing capacity was used to improve the specific detection of EDTA directly on a concrete matrix by doping the solvent spray of DESI with a solution of FeCl3 to selectively create the complex between EDTA and Fe(III). Thus, EDTA sensitivity was largely improved by two orders of magnitude with reactive-DESI-MS experiments thanks to the specific detection of EDTA as a [EDTA-4H+Fe(III)](-) complex. The proof of principle that reactive DESI can be applied to concrete samples to detect EDTA has been demonstrated. Its capacity for semi-quantitative determination and localization of EDTA under ambient conditions and with very little sample preparation, minimizing sample manipulations and solvent volumes, two important conditions for the development of new methodologies in the field of analytical chemistry, has been shown.

  16. Effect of EDTA with and without surfactants or ultrasonics on removal of smear layer.

    PubMed

    Lui, Jeen-Nee; Kuah, Hong-Guan; Chen, Nah-Nah

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the in vitro efficacy of Smear Clear (Sybron Endo, CA), a 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution with surfactants, to 17% EDTA, with and without the use of ultrasonics, in removal of the smear layer. Seventy-five extracted teeth, randomly distributed into 5 test groups, were prepared by using ProFile rotary instruments (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and subjected to different final irrigating regimes; group A, 1% sodium hypochlorite; group B, 17% EDTA; group C, 17% EDTA with ultrasonics; group D, Smear Clear; and group E, Smear Clear with ultrasonics. Samples were examined under the scanning electron microscope and scored for debris and smear layer removal. Statistical analysis showed that groups D and E did not perform significantly better than groups B and C. Group C performed significantly better than group B. Addition of surfactants to EDTA in Smear Clear did not result in better smear layer removal. The use of ultrasonics with 17% EDTA improved smear layer removal.

  17. Calcium and EDTA fluxes in dialyzed squid axons

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    Ca efflux in dialyzed squid axons was measured with 45Ca as a function of internal ionized Ca in the range 0.005-10 muM. Internal Ca stores were depleted by treatment with CN and dialysis with media free of high energy compounds. The [Ca]iota was stabilized with millimolar concentrations of EDTA, EGTA, or DTPA. Nonspecific leak of chelated Ca was measured with [14C]-EDTA and found to be 0.02 pmol/cm2s/mM EDTA. Correction of the measured Ca efflux for this leak of chelated calcium was made when appropriate. Ca efflux was roughly linear with internal free Ca in the range 0.005-0.1 muM. Above 0.1 muM, efflux was less than proportional to concentration but did not saturate at the highest concentration studied. Ca efflux was reduced about 50% by replacement of external Na with Li at Caiota approximately 1 muM, but was insensitive to such replacement for Ca less than 0.1 muM. Ca efflux was insensitive to internal Mg in the range 0-4 mM, indicating that the Ca pump favors Ca over Mg by a factor of about 10(6). Ca efflux was reduced about 60% by increasing internal Na from 1 to 80 mM. This effect could represent weak interference of a Ca carrier by Na or a loss of driving force because of a reduction in ENa - Em occasioned by an increase in Naiota. A few measurements were made of Ca influx in intact and in dialyzed fibers. In both cases, Ca influx increased when external Na was replaced by Li. PMID:809538

  18. Pre-analytical and analytical aspects of EDTA-plasma iron measurement.

    PubMed

    Leuenberger, Nicolas; Baume, Norbert; Robinson, Neil; Saugy, Martial

    2016-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that quantification of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-plasma iron could complement the already existing Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) variables and provide additional evidence for blood transfusion. Here, a fast preparation of a blood sample was proposed directly in the EDTA-blood tube without performing an aliquoting step. In addition, correlations in paired serum and EDTA-plasma samples and storage stability were investigated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Effect of the association between citric acid and EDTA on root surface etching.

    PubMed

    Manzolli Leite, Fabio Renato; Nascimento, Gustavo Giacomelli; Manzolli Leite, Elza Regina; Leite, Amauri Antiquera; Cezar Sampaio, Josá Eduardo

    2013-09-01

    This study aims to compare the clot stabilization on root surfaces conditioned with citric acid and ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Scaled root samples (n = 100) were set in fve groups: group I-control group (saline solution); group II (24% EDTA); group III (25% citric acid); group IV (EDTA + citric acid); group V (citric acid + EDTA). Fifty samples were assessed using the root surface modifcation index (RSMI). The other 50 received a blood drop after conditioning. Clot formation was assessed using blood elements adhesion index (BEAI). A blind examiner evaluated photomicrographs. Statistical analysis considered p < 0.05. Groups-III and G-V attained the best results for RSMI and BEAI in comparison to control. The worst results for clot stabilization were seen in group-II. EDTA employment before citric acid (group-IV) reduced clot formation in comparison to citric acid use alone (group-III). Root conditioning with citric acid alone and before EDTA had the best results for smear layer removal and clot stabilization. EDTA inhibited clot stabilization on root surface and must have a residual activity once it has diminished clot adhesion to root even after citric acid conditioning. Thus, EDTA can be used to neutralize citric acid effects on periodontal cells without affecting clot stabilization. Clinical signifcance: To demonstrate that citric acid use on root surfaces previously affected by periodontal disease may favor clot stabilization and may have a benefcial effect on surgical outcomes. Also, EDTA can be used to neutralize citric acid effects on periodontal cells.

  20. Biodegradation of Metal-EDTA Complexes by an Enriched Microbial Population

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Russell A. P.; Lawlor, Kirsten; Bailey, Mark; Macaskie, Lynne E.

    1998-01-01

    A mixed culture utilizing EDTA as the sole carbon source was isolated from a mixed inoculum of water from the River Mersey (United Kingdom) and sludge from an industrial effluent treatment plant. Fourteen component organisms were isolated from the culture, including representatives of the genera Methylobacterium, Variovorax, Enterobacter, Aureobacterium, and Bacillus. The mixed culture biodegraded metal-EDTA complexes slowly; the biodegradability was in the order Fe>Cu>Co>Ni>Cd. By incorporation of inorganic phosphate into the medium as a precipitant ligand, heavy metals were removed in parallel to EDTA degradation. The mixed culture also utilized a number of possible EDTA degradation intermediates as carbon sources. PMID:9546167

  1. EDTA inhibits in vitro substrate adherence capacity of macrophages: endodontic implications.

    PubMed

    Segura, J J; Calvo, J R; Guerrero, J M; Jimenez-Planas, A; Sampedro, C; Llamas, R

    1997-04-01

    The disodium salt of ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) is a calcium ion chelator used in endodontics to enlarge root canals. This study investigated the effect of EDTA on substrate adherence capacity of rat inflammatory macrophages to determine if EDTA leakage to periapical tissues during root canal therapy can alter macrophage function. Inflammatory macrophages were obtained from Wistar rats and resuspended in RPMI-1640 medium. Substrate adherence capacity assays were carried out in Eppendorf tubes for 15 min of incubation at 37 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2. The adherence index (AI) was calculated. Results showed that EDTA decreased substrate adherence capacity of inflammatory macrophages in a time and dose-dependent manner. The lowest EDTA concentration that caused a significant inhibition of AI was 50 mM (p < 0.05), and the EDTA concentration that caused half-maximal inhibition (IC50) was 194 +/- 20 mM (p < 0.01). Calcium chloride (10 mM) increased the adherence index of macrophages by 17.1% (p < 0.05) and decreased the EDTA inhibitory effect on AI by 49.5% (p < 0.05). We conclude that an EDTA concentration lower than that used in endodontics decreased the substrate adherence capacity of macrophages significantly. Adhesion is the first step in the phagocytic process and in antigen presentation, but leakage of EDTA to periapical tissues during root canals preparation may inhibit macrophage function and reduce periapical inflammatory reactions.

  2. Influence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the structural stability of endoglucanase from Aspergillus aculeatus.

    PubMed

    Naika, Gajendra S; Tiku, Purnima Kaul

    2011-07-13

    The effect of the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the structure and function of endoglucanase is studied. In the presence of 2 mM EDTA, endoglucanase showed an enhanced enzymatic activity of 1.5-fold compared to control. No further change in activity was observed with increase in the concentration of EDTA to 5 mM. The K(m) values for control and in the presence of EDTA are 0.060 and 0.044%, respectively, and K(cat) was 1.9 min(-1) in the presence of EDTA. The kinetic parameters indicated a decrease in the K(m) with an increase in the K(cat). Far-ultraviolet circular dichroism (far-UV-CD) results showed a 20% decrease in ellipticity values at 217 nm in the presence of EDTA compared to native enzyme. The apparent T(m) shifted from a control value of 57 ± 1 to 76 ± 1 °C in the presence of EDTA (5 mM). The above results suggested that the enhanced activity in the presence of EDTA is due to an increase in the K(cat) and flexible conformation of the enzyme. The stability of endoglucanase increased in the presence of EDTA.

  3. Effects of EDTA on mechanism of lead accumulation in Typha orientalis Presl.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongli; Liu, Jingling; Liu, Yunguo; Li, Xin

    2009-10-01

    The effects of EDTA on the mechanism of accumulation under Pb2+ stress in Typha orientalis Presl were investigated. The results indicated that addition of the chelator with Pb limited metal phytotoxicity. The mean total chlorophyll concentration and protein content were increased with the addition of EDTA in Pb2+ solution. We also demonstrated a significant effect of EDTA on the reduced glutathione (GSH) content which was obviously increased both in leaves and caudices. It was supposed that EDTA elevated the tolerance of Typha orientalis Presl under Pb2+ stress primarily by increasing the GSH level.

  4. EDTA-insoluble, calcium-binding proteoglycan in bovine bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, Y.; Lester, G. E.; Caterson, B.; Yamauchi, M.

    1995-01-01

    A calcium ion precipitable, trypsin-generated proteoglycan fragment has been isolated from the demineralized, EDTA-insoluble matrices of bone. The demineralized matrix was completely digested with trypsin, increasing concentrations of CaCl2 were added to the supernatant, and the resulting precipitates were analyzed. The amount of precipitate gradually increased with higher concentrations of calcium and was reversibly solubilized by EDTA. After molecular sieve and anion exchange chromatography, a proteoglycan-containing peak was obtained. Immunochemical analysis showed that this peak contained chondroitin 4-sulfate and possibly keratan sulfate. Amino acid analysis showed that this proteoglycan contained high amounts of aspartic acid/asparagine (Asx), serine (Ser), glutamic acid/glutamine (Glx), proline (Pro), and glycine (Gly); however, it contained little leucine (Leu) which suggests that it is not a member of the leucine-rich small proteoglycan family. In addition, significant amounts of phosphoserine (P-Ser) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) were identified in hydrolysates of this fraction. A single band (M(r) 59 kDa) was obtained on SDS-PAGE that stained with Stains-all but not with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250. If bone powder was trypsinized prior to demineralization, this proteoglycan-containing fraction was not liberated. Collectively, these results indicate that a proteoglycan occurs in the demineralized matrix that is precipitated with CaCl2 and is closely associated with both mineral and collagen matrices. Such a molecule might facilitate the structural network for the induction of mineralization in bone.

  5. New primary renal diagnosis codes for the ERA-EDTA

    PubMed Central

    Venkat-Raman, Gopalakrishnan; Tomson, Charles R.V.; Gao, Yongsheng; Cornet, Ronald; Stengel, Benedicte; Gronhagen-Riska, Carola; Reid, Chris; Jacquelinet, Christian; Schaeffner, Elke; Boeschoten, Els; Casino, Francesco; Collart, Frederic; De Meester, Johan; Zurriaga, Oscar; Kramar, Reinhard; Jager, Kitty J.; Simpson, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) Registry has produced a new set of primary renal diagnosis (PRD) codes that are intended for use by affiliated registries. It is designed specifically for use in renal centres and registries but is aligned with international coding standards supported by the WHO (International Classification of Diseases) and the International Health Terminology Standards Development Organization (SNOMED Clinical Terms). It is available as supplementary material to this paper and free on the internet for non-commercial, clinical, quality improvement and research use, and by agreement with the ERA-EDTA Registry for use by commercial organizations. Conversion between the old and the new PRD codes is possible. The new codes are very flexible and will be actively managed to keep them up-to-date and to ensure that renal medicine can remain at the forefront of the electronic revolution in medicine, epidemiology research and the use of decision support systems to improve the care of patients. PMID:23175621

  6. EDTA-insoluble, calcium-binding proteoglycan in bovine bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, Y.; Lester, G. E.; Caterson, B.; Yamauchi, M.

    1995-01-01

    A calcium ion precipitable, trypsin-generated proteoglycan fragment has been isolated from the demineralized, EDTA-insoluble matrices of bone. The demineralized matrix was completely digested with trypsin, increasing concentrations of CaCl2 were added to the supernatant, and the resulting precipitates were analyzed. The amount of precipitate gradually increased with higher concentrations of calcium and was reversibly solubilized by EDTA. After molecular sieve and anion exchange chromatography, a proteoglycan-containing peak was obtained. Immunochemical analysis showed that this peak contained chondroitin 4-sulfate and possibly keratan sulfate. Amino acid analysis showed that this proteoglycan contained high amounts of aspartic acid/asparagine (Asx), serine (Ser), glutamic acid/glutamine (Glx), proline (Pro), and glycine (Gly); however, it contained little leucine (Leu) which suggests that it is not a member of the leucine-rich small proteoglycan family. In addition, significant amounts of phosphoserine (P-Ser) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) were identified in hydrolysates of this fraction. A single band (M(r) 59 kDa) was obtained on SDS-PAGE that stained with Stains-all but not with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250. If bone powder was trypsinized prior to demineralization, this proteoglycan-containing fraction was not liberated. Collectively, these results indicate that a proteoglycan occurs in the demineralized matrix that is precipitated with CaCl2 and is closely associated with both mineral and collagen matrices. Such a molecule might facilitate the structural network for the induction of mineralization in bone.

  7. Cation metabolism during propofol sedation with and without EDTA in patients with impaired renal function.

    PubMed

    Barr, J; Zaloga, G P; Haupt, M T; Weinmann, M; Murray, M J; Bandi, V; Teres, D

    2000-01-01

    To compare the effects of propofol with and without disodium edetate (EDTA) on cation metabolism in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with renal insufficiency who received propofol or propofol plus EDTA (propofol EDTA) for sedation and mechanical ventilation. Double-blind, randomised, multicentre study. Medical and surgical ICUs from 5 hospitals. Thirty-nine ICU patients with acute and chronic renal impairment expected to require at least 24 hours of continuous sedation and respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilation. Propofol or propofol EDTA administered for sedation by continuous intravenous infusion. The depth of sedation, as measured by the Modified Ramsay Sedation Scale, was similar in the 2 groups, when adjusted for dosing differences. The amount of propofol required to maintain adequate sedation was decreased in both groups compared to propofol requirements in ICU patients with normal renal function. EDTA levels were elevated at baseline in both groups. In the propofol EDTA group, the EDTA levels increased further by 20 % but decreased to below baseline EDTA levels at 48 hours after sedation. In the propofol group, EDTA levels decreased during sedation and remained below baseline levels at 48 hours after sedation. PATIENTS in both groups were hypocalcaemic and hyperphosphataemic at baseline with low levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Other than a slight difference in ionised serum calcium levels at 4 h after the start of sedation, there were no significant differences observed in serum calcium levels between the two groups. There were no significant differences in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D or PTH levels over time between the two groups. There was no significant effect on renal function in either group. The results of this study suggest that adding EDTA to propofol does not adversely affect cation homeostasis or renal function when used for sedation of ICU patients with renal insufficiency. Although

  8. EDTA: An Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Agent for Use in Wound Care

    PubMed Central

    Finnegan, Simon; Percival, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Methods employed for preventing and eliminating biofilms are limited in their efficacy on mature biofilms. Despite this a number of antibiofilm formulations and technologies incorporating ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) have demonstrated efficacy on in vitro biofilms. The aim of this article is to critically review EDTA, in particular tetrasodium EDTA (tEDTA), as a potential antimicrobial and antibiofilm agent, in its own right, for use in skin and wound care. EDTA's synergism with other antimicrobials and surfactants will also be discussed. Recent Advances: The use of EDTA as a potentiating and sensitizing agent is not a new concept. However, currently the application of EDTA, specifically tEDTA as a stand-alone antimicrobial and antibiofilm agent, and its synergistic combination with other antimicrobials to make a “multi-pronged” approach to biofilm control is being explored. Critical Issues: As pathogenic biofilms in the wound increase infection risk, tEDTA could be considered as a potential “stand-alone” antimicrobial/antibiofilm agent or in combination with other antimicrobials, for use in both the prevention and treatment of biofilms found within abiotic (the wound dressing) and biotic (wound bed) environments. The ability of EDTA to chelate and potentiate the cell walls of bacteria and destabilize biofilms by sequestering calcium, magnesium, zinc, and iron makes it a suitable agent for use in the management of biofilms. Future Direction: tEDTA's excellent inherent antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity and proven synergistic and permeating ability results in a very beneficial agent, which could be used for the development of future antibiofilm technologies. PMID:26155384

  9. Accumulation and spatial distribution of Cd, Cr, and Pb in mulberry from municipal solid waste compost following application of EDTA and (NH4)2SO4.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shulan; Shang, Xiaojuan; Duo, Lian

    2013-02-01

    , especially when combined with (NH(4))(2)SO(4). Mulberry exhibited high ability to accumulate Cd with bioconcentration factors (BCFs) higher than 1. EDTA application also significantly increased Cd BCFs. More than 30 % of metal uptake was concentrated in mulberry branches (stem of above 100 cm height) and leaves. Results presented here show that mulberry is a woody plant that has the potential of Cd phytoextraction from MSW compost by removing leaves and cutting branches. The application of EDTA combined with (NH(4))(2)SO(4) significantly enhanced the efficiency of mulberry in removing Cd from the compost medium. Adding (NH(4))(2)SO(4) into the compost will lower the risk of the exposure of environment to excessive non-biodegradable EDTA in a large-scale EDTA-assisted phytoextraction by reducing the dosage of EDTA. In China, the need for sod is increasing day by day. Sod is often produced on arable soil and sold together with soils. This would lead to the soil being infertile and the soil layer thin. After several times' production, the soil can no longer be used for cultivating crops and be destroyed. In order to fully utilize MSW compost resources and save valuable soil resources, MSW compost can be used to replace arable soil to produce sod after extraction of toxic metals in it.

  10. Reduction of Fe(II)EDTA-NO by a newly isolated Pseudomonas sp. strain DN-2 in NOx scrubber solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shi-Han; Li, Wei; Wu, Cheng-Zhi; Chen, Han; Shi, Yao

    2007-10-01

    Biological reduction of nitric oxide (NO) chelated by ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Fe(II)EDTA) to N2 is one of the core processes in a chemical absorption-biological reduction integrated technique for nitrogen oxide (NOx) removal from flue gases. A new isolate, identified as Pseudomonas sp. DN-2 by 16S rRNA sequence analysis, was able to reduce Fe(II)EDTA-NO. The specific reduction capacity as measured by NO was up to 4.17 mmol g DCW(-1) h(-1). Strain DN-2 can simultaneously use glucose and Fe(II)EDTA as electron donors for Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction. Fe(III)EDTA, the oxidation of Fe(II)EDTA by oxygen, can also serve as electron acceptor by strain DN-2. The interdependency between various chemical species, e.g., Fe(II)EDTA-NO, Fe(II)EDTA, or Fe (III)EDTA, was investigated. Though each complex, e.g., Fe(II)EDTA-NO or Fe(III)EDTA, can be reduced by its own dedicated bacterial strain, strain DN-2 capable of reducing Fe(III)EDTA can enhance the regeneration of Fe(II)EDTA, hence can enlarge NO elimination capacity. Additionally, the inhibition of Fe(II)EDTA-NO on the Fe(III)EDTA reduction has been explored previously. Strain DN-2 is probably one of the major contributors for the continual removal of NOx due to the high Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction rate and the ability of Fe(III)EDTA reduction.

  11. Bioelectrochemical Reduction of Fe(II)EDTA-NO in a Biofilm Electrode Reactor: Performance, Mechanism, and Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yinfeng; Zhao, Jingkai; Li, Meifang; Zhang, Shihan; Li, Sujing; Li, Wei

    2016-04-05

    A biofilm electrode reactor (BER) is proposed to effectively regenerate Fe(II)EDTA, a solvent for NOx removal from flue gas, from Fe(II)EDTA-NO, a spent solution. In this study, the performance, mechanism, and kinetics of the bioelectrochemical reduction of Fe(II)EDTA-NO were investigated. The pathways of Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction were investigated via determination of nitrogen element balance in the BER and an abiotic electrode reactor. The experimental results indicate that the chelated NO (Fe(II)EDTA-NO) is reduced to N2 with N2O as an intermediate. However, the oxidation of NO occurred in the absence of Fe(II)EDTA in abiotic reactors. Furthermore, the accumulation of N2O was suppressed with the help of electricity. The preponderant electron donor for reduction of Fe(II)EDTA-NO was also confirmed via analysis of the electron conservation. About 87% of Fe(II)EDTA-NO was reduced using Fe(II)EDTA as the electron donor in the presence of both glucose and cathode electrons while the cathode electrons were utilized for the reduction of Fe(III)EDTA to Fe(II)EDTA. Michaelis-Menten kinetic constants of bioelectrochemical reduction of Fe(II)EDTA-NO were also calculated. The maximum reduction rate of Fe(II)EDTA-NO was 13.04 mol m(-3) h(-1), which is 50% higher than that in a conventional biofilter.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of TEP-EDTA-regulated bioactive hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haders, Daniel Joseph, II

    Hydroxyapatite (HA), Ca10(PO4)6(OH) 2, the stoichiometric equivalent of the ceramic phase of bone, is the preferred material for hard tissue replacement due to its bioactivity. However, bioinert metals are utilized in load-bearing orthopedic applications due to the poor mechanical properties of HA. Consequently, attention has been given to HA coatings for metallic orthopedic implants to take advantage of the bioactivity of HA and the mechanical properties of metals. Commercially, the plasma spray process (PS-HA) is the method most often used to deposit HA films on metallic implants. Since its introduction in the 1980's, however, concerns have been raised about the consequences of PS-HA's low crystallinity, lack of phase purity, lack of film-substrate chemical adhesion, passivation properties, and difficulty in coating complex geometries. Thus, there is a need to develop inexpensive reproducible next-generation HA film deposition techniques, which deposit high crystallinity, phase pure, adhesive, passivating, conformal HA films on clinical metallic substrates. The aim of this dissertation was to intelligently synthesize and characterize the material and biological properties of HA films on metallic substrates synthesized by hydrothermal crystallization, using thermodynamic phase diagrams as the starting point. In three overlapping interdisciplinary studies the potential of using ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid/triethyl phosphate (EDTA/TEP) doubly regulated hydrothermal crystallization to deposit HA films, the TEP-regulated, time-and-temperature-dependent process by which films were deposited, and the bioactivity of crystallographically engineered films were investigated. Films were crystallized in a 0.232 molal Ca(NO3)2-0.232 molal EDTA-0.187 molal TEP-1.852 molal KOH-H2O chemical system at 200°C. Thermodynamic phase diagrams demonstrated that the chosen conditions were expected to produce Ca-P phase pure HA, which was experimentally confirmed. EDTA regulation of

  13. Transient appearance of EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia in a postoperative patient with sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiang; Lin, Zhongyuan; He, Liyan; Li, Wenchao; Mo, Lijun; Li, Yinyin; Yang, Zheng; Mo, Wu-Ning

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (EDTA-PTCP) is a rare phenomenon characterized by spuriously low platelet counts when EDTA reacts with harvested blood. However, to the best of our knowledge, only two cases involving EDTA-PTCP in postoperative patients with sepsis have been reported. Here, we describe a case of EDTA-PTCP that appeared transiently in a postoperative patient with sepsis. Patient Concerns: A 68-year-old female patient underwent laparoscopic tension-free hernioplasty for incisional hernia. Postoperatively, the patient developed very low platelet counts. The number of platelets in this patient had not improved following treatment with fresh-frozen plasma and platelet transfusions. Diagnoses: The diagnosis of EDTA-PTCP was confirmed from the discovery of platelet aggregation in peripheral blood smears. Interventions: We used sodium citrate-anticoagulated blood samples for platelet counting. Outcomes: The patient's platelet counts returned to normal with the use of sodium citrate-anticoagulated blood samples. Furthermore, the phenomenon of EDTA-PTCP disappeared when the patient was cured. Lessons: The phenomenon of low platelet counts in postoperative patients with sepsis should be considered as possible EDTA-PTCP. In addition, peripheral blood smears and the use of sodium citrate anticoagulant are effective and valuable methods that can help identify EDTA-PTCP. PMID:28296756

  14. Coulometric Titration of Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) with Spectrophotometric Endpoint Detection: An Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kathryn R.; Young, Vaneica Y.; Killian, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) is commonly used as an anticoagulant in blood-collection procedures. In this experiment for the instrumental analysis laboratory, students determine the quantity of EDTA in commercial collection tubes by coulometric titration with electrolytically generated Cu[superscript 2+]. The endpoint is detected…

  15. A Laser-Pointer-Based Spectrometer for Endpoint Detection of EDTA Titrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahm, Christopher E.; Hall, James W.; Mattioni, Brian E.

    2004-01-01

    A laser spectrometer for the ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) titration of magnesium or calcium ions that is designed around a handheld laser pointer as the source and a photoresistor as the detector is developed. Findings show that the use of the spectrometer reduces the degree of uncertainty and error in one part of the EDTA titrations,…

  16. Titanium dioxide mediated photocatalysis of Pb(II)- and Co(II)-EDTA complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.P.; Vohra, M.S.; Ayres, D.M.

    1995-12-31

    The photocatalysis of lead and cobalt(II) complexed to EDTA was evaluated under a variety of experimental conditions. Adsorption characteristics of the metals and the metal complexes were also determined. A recirculating batch system was used to quantify photocatalytic oxidation rates. EDTA mineralization and total dissolved metal were monitored. Separations of Co(II*), Co(II)-EDTA, and Co(III)-EDTA were made with a method using Dowex cation exchange resin. Adsorptions of Pb(II), Co(II), EDTA, and the corresponding metal complexes was examined using concentrations of 10{sup -}{sup 5} to 10{sup -}{sup 3} M in 2 g/L TiO{sub 2}. After purging and pH adjustment, the samples were shaken overnight. The final pH and metal and TOC concentrations were determined. Results showed that the photocatablytic oxidation of metal-EDTA complexes is independent of pH from 5 to 7. This contrasts with the adsorption of these species onto TiO{sub 2}, which decreases at neutral-high pH, suggesting that adsorption is not a prerequisite to photocalysis. For Co(II)-EDTA, a competing pH dependent conversion to Co(III)-EDTA is noted.

  17. Electrochemical EDTA recycling with sacrificial Al anode for remediation of Pb contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Pociecha, Maja; Lestan, Domen

    2010-08-01

    Recycling chelant is a precondition for cost-effective EDTA-based soil remediation. Extraction with EDTA removed 67.5% of Pb from the contaminated soil and yielded washing solution with 1535 mg L(-1) Pb and 33.4 mM EDTA. Electrochemical treatment of the washing solution using Al anode, current density 96 mA cm(-2) and pH 10 removed 90% of Pb from the solution (by electrodeposition on the stainless steel cathode) while the concentration of EDTA in the treated solution remained the same. The obtained data indicate that the Pb in the EDTA complex was replaced by electro-corroded Al after electro-reduction of the EDTA and subsequently removed from the solution. Additional soil extraction with the treated washing solution resulted in total removal of 87% of Pb from the contaminated soil. The recycled EDTA retained the Pb extraction potential through several steps of soil extraction and washing solution treatment, although part of the EDTA was lost by soil absorption.

  18. A case of EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia: simple recognition of an underdiagnosed and misleading phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (EDTA-PTCP) is a common laboratory phenomenon with a prevalence ranging from 0.1-2% in hospitalized patients to 15-17% in outpatients evaluated for isolated thrombocytopenia. Despite its harmlessness, EDTA-PTCP frequently leads to time-consuming, costly and even invasive diagnostic investigations. EDTA-PTCP is often overlooked because blood smears are not evaluated visually in routine practice and histograms as well as warning flags of hematology analyzers are not interpreted correctly. Nonetheless, EDTA-PTCP may be diagnosed easily even by general practitioners without any experiences in blood film examinations. This is the first report illustrating the typical patterns of a platelet (PLT) and white blood cell (WBC) histograms of hematology analyzers. Case presentation A 37-year-old female patient of Caucasian origin was referred with suspected acute leukemia and the crew of the emergency unit arranged extensive investigations for work-up. However, examination of EDTA blood sample revealed atypical lymphocytes and an isolated thrombocytopenia together with typical patterns of WBC and PLT histograms: a serrated curve of the platelet histogram and a peculiar peak on the left side of the WBC histogram. EDTA-PTCP was confirmed by a normal platelet count when examining citrated blood. Conclusion Awareness of typical PLT and WBC patterns may alert to the presence of EDTA-PTCP in routine laboratory practice helping to avoid unnecessary investigations and over-treatment. PMID:24808761

  19. Effects of EDTA on the hydration mechanism of mineral trioxide aggregate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y-L; Lin, F-H; Wang, W-H; Ritchie, H H; Lan, W-H; Lin, C-P

    2007-06-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is commonly used during the preparation of obstructed root canals that face a high risk of root perforation. Such perforations may be repaired with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Due to EDTA's ability to chelate calcium ions, we hypothesized that EDTA may disrupt the hydration of MTA. Using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, we found that MTA specimens stored in an EDTA solution had no crystalline structure and a Ca/Si molar ratio considerably lower than those obtained for specimens stored in distilled water and normal saline. Poor cell adhesion in EDTA-treated MTA was also noted. X-ray diffraction indicated that the peak corresponding to portlandite, which is normally present in hydrated MTA, was not shown in the EDTA group. The microhardness of EDTA-treated specimens was also significantly reduced (p < 0.0001). These findings suggest that EDTA interferes with the hydration of MTA, resulting in decreased hardness and poor biocompatibility.

  20. Synergy studies of the fungicidal plant saponin, CAY-1, with EDTA and silver

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: CAY-1 is a fungicidal saponin produced by Capsicum species. Silver (Ag) and EDTA inhibit Aspergillus and Fusarium growth. This study determined Ag and EDTA fungicidal properties for several Aspergillus and Fusarium species both alone and with CAY-1. Methods: CAY-1 was purified by col...

  1. Batch affinity adsorption of His-tagged proteins with EDTA-based chitosan.

    PubMed

    Hua, Weiwei; Lou, Yimin; Xu, Weiyuan; Cheng, Zhixian; Gong, Xingwen; Huang, Jianying

    2016-01-01

    Affinity adsorption purification of hexahistidine-tagged (His-tagged) proteins using EDTA-chitosan-based adsorption was designed and carried out. Chitosan was elaborated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and the resulting polymer was characterized by FTIR, TGA, and TEM. Different metals including Ni(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+) were immobilized with EDTA-chitosan, and their capability to the specific adsorption of His-tagged proteins were then investigated. The results showed that Ni(2+)-EDTA-chitosan and Zn(2+)-EDTA-chitosan had high affinity toward the His-tagged proteins, thus isolating them from protein mixture. The target fluorescent-labeled hexahistidine protein remained its fluorescent characteristic throughout the purification procedure when Zn(2+)-EDTA-chitosan was used as a sorbent, wherein the real-time monitor was performed to examine the immigration of fluorescent-labeled His-tagged protein. Comparatively, Zn(2+)-EDTA-chitosan showed more specific binding ability for the target protein, but with less binding capacity. It was further proved that this purification system could be recovered and reused at least for 5 times and could run on large scales. The presented M(2+)-EDTA-chitosan system, with the capability to specifically bind His-tagged proteins, make the purification of His-tagged proteins easy to handle, leaving out fussy preliminary treatment, and with the possibility of continuous processing and a reduction in operational cost in relation to the costs of conventional processes.

  2. Electrochemical study of NO conversion from Fe(II)-EDTA-NO complex on Pt electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Juzeliunas, E.; Juettner, K.

    1998-01-01

    The Fe(II)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-NO complex formed by interaction of gaseous nitrous oxide (ca. 200 ppm) and Fe(II)-EDTA in aqueous solution was found to be convert3ed electrochemically on platinum electrodes at potentials below ca. {minus}0.6 V{sub SCE}, indicating the cathodic reduction of NO. In addition to the previous studies by which the indirect conversion of NO with dithionite as a redox mediator was confirmed, the present results should elucidate the possibility of the direct electrochemical conversion of NO in mediator-free solutions. To clearly separate this process from other reactions in the system, the electrochemical behavior of Fe(II)-EDTA and Fe(III)-EDTA was studied over a wide potential range at different pH values. Five electrode reactions could be identified, which include the oxidation/reduction of Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} in the EDTA complex, the reduction of EDTA, the reduction of protons, the cathodic deposition of iron, and the anodic decomposition of EDTA. The electrochemical deposition of iron from Fe(II)-EDTA at potentials E < {minus}1.0 V{sub SCE} was confirmed by electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance measurements and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis.

  3. Coulometric Titration of Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) with Spectrophotometric Endpoint Detection: An Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kathryn R.; Young, Vaneica Y.; Killian, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) is commonly used as an anticoagulant in blood-collection procedures. In this experiment for the instrumental analysis laboratory, students determine the quantity of EDTA in commercial collection tubes by coulometric titration with electrolytically generated Cu[superscript 2+]. The endpoint is detected…

  4. Spectrophotometric determination of EDTA in aqueous solution through ferroin formation using sodium sulfite as the reducer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingang; Yu, Jiemei; Kong, Xiang Z; Hou, Longlei

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a simple, easy and reliable method for determination of EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) in aqueous system. Using EDTA chelating with ferric irons, an excessive amount of Fe(3+) was added to EDTA solution, and Fe(3+) in excess was reduced by addition of a Na2SO3 solution, the outcome ferrous ions were then reacted with 1,10-phenanthroline monohydrate (PTM) to form ferroin, a color developing reagent. The absorbance of the ferroin was determined using spectrophotometry, from which EDTA concentration was obtained. The method was tested for interferences and applied to determination of trace amount EDTA in its degradation by ozone oxidation, and the result compared with those from high-performance liquid chromatography. It was revealed that a low limit of 1.4μM for EDTA concentration detection was achieved with a high correlation coefficient of 0.999 combined with a low relative standard deviation of 0.6%. In contrast to all reported processes, where ferric ions in excess have to be separated from those chelated with EDTA prior to their reduction followed by interaction with PTM and spectrophotometric determination, the key merit of the present method is that EDTA concentration is determined without need of ferric separation, rendering the present process very easy. The method is also characterized by low cost, high precision and high reproducibility at the same time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis and use of radio cobaltic EDTA as an extracellular marker in rabbit heart

    SciTech Connect

    Bridge, J.H.B.; Bersohn, M.M.; Gonzalez, F.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B.

    1982-04-01

    A new ..gamma..-labeled marker for extracellular space is the cobaltic form of /sup 58/Co-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (/sup 58/Co-EDTA). The cobaltic ion has a much higher affinity for EDTA than the cobaltous ion; it is prepared as a potassium salt, K/sup +/(/sup 58/Co/sup 3 +/-EDTA/sup 4 -/), and is apparently biologically inert. Testing by equilibrium in intact rabbits and comparing the myocardial content with that of (/sup 14/C)sucrose give values of the volume of distribution in the myocardium of 0.294 +/- 0.052 ml/g for /sup 58/Co-EDTA and 0.303 +/- 0.051 ml/g for (/sup 14/C)sucrose (SD, n = 130, for two hearts), with the ratios of /sup 58/Co-EDTA/sucrose averaging 0.973 +/- 0.043 (n = 130). The average value of the extracellular fluid measured in isolated rabbit interventricular septum using Co-EDTA was 0.51 +/- 0.05 ml/g (SD, n = 16) and 0.46 +/- 0.04 ml/g using (/sup 14/C)sucrose as an extracellular fluid space (ECF) marker. Flushing with a high concentration of nontracer Co-EDTA does not reveal any release from binding sites. The ..gamma..-energy (811 KeV), long half-life (71.4 days), stability, and lack of binding to tissue components make /sup 58/Co-EDTA a useful marker for ECF.

  6. A Laser-Pointer-Based Spectrometer for Endpoint Detection of EDTA Titrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahm, Christopher E.; Hall, James W.; Mattioni, Brian E.

    2004-01-01

    A laser spectrometer for the ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) titration of magnesium or calcium ions that is designed around a handheld laser pointer as the source and a photoresistor as the detector is developed. Findings show that the use of the spectrometer reduces the degree of uncertainty and error in one part of the EDTA titrations,…

  7. Chelate-assisted Pb phytoextraction: Pb availability, uptake, and translocation constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Hsu, F.C.; Cunningham, S.D.

    1999-06-01

    Chelates have been shown to enhance phytoextraction of Pb from contaminated soil. Mechanisms behind this phenomenon, however, remain largely unexplored. In this paper the authors examine chelate effect on Pb dissolution, plant Pb uptake, and internal plant Pb translocation. EDTA was found to be the most efficient in increasing water-soluble Pb concentration in the test soil. Unfortunately, Pb-EDTA is highly water-soluble and posses potential risks to ground water in its application. In addition, it would not appear to be ideally suited for plant uptake and translocation based upon the relative water solubility of Pb-EDTA. The authors demonstrated that N,N{prime}-di(2-hydroxybenzyl)ethylenediamine N,N{prime}-diacetic acid (HBED) resulted in Zea mays root Pb content significantly higher than did EDTA, indicating that a chelate better than EDTA might be designed. Fortuitously, EDTA appears to increase overall plant transpiration, the driving force in phytoextraction of the Pb-chelate complex from soil. The authors also found that there was a significant increase in Pb uptake and translocation for corn transplanted into soil, then treated with EDTA, as compared to plants germinated and grown in Pb-contaminated soil to which EDTA was subsequently applied. These results demonstrate that significant improvement over current chelate-assisted phytoextraction of Pb may be possible.

  8. Influence of disodium EDTA on the nucleation and growth of struvite and carbonate apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prywer, Jolanta; Olszynski, Marcin

    2013-07-01

    The effect of disodium EDTA, as an additive, on the crystallization of struvite and carbonate apatite was studied. The growth of struvite crystals and carbonate apatite occurred in the solution of artificial urine at 37 °C and at the condition emulating real urinary tract infection. The results demonstrate that the addition of disodium EDTA increases the induction time and decreases the growth efficiency compared to the baseline (without disodium EDTA). The struvite crystal mean and median diameters were found to decrease in the presence of disodium EDTA but the crystal morphology and habit remain almost unchanged. Disodium EDTA has demonstrated its potential to be further investigated in the presence of bacteria and in vivo conditions.

  9. Indirect trace determination of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in water by potentiometric stripping analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fayyad, M.; Tutunji, M.; Taha, Z.

    1988-08-01

    An analytical method for indirect trace determination of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in water, by potentiometric stripping analysis is described. Excess Bi(III) was added to form a 1:1 complex with EDTA at pH 2.3. The uncomplexed Bi(III) was then deposited on a glassy carbon electrode at a potential of -0.40 V vs. SCE and subsequently stripped potentiometrically using potassium dichromate as oxidant. The stripping time of uncomplexed Bi(III) was recorded. The concentration of EDTA in the sample was determined from the concentration of added Bi(III) and the potentiometrically stripped Bi(III) at -0.4 V by the standard addition method. The relative standard deviation for EDTA concentration of 96 ppb and 4.5 ppb was 1.9% and 2.6%, respectively. The detection limit was about 1 ppb EDTA for a deposition time of 3 minutes.

  10. Unexpected outcome after two consecutive infusions of disodium EDTA in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Liesegang, A; Riond, J L; Wanner, M

    1999-04-01

    Disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Na2EDTA) is a cation chelator which is used as an anticoagulant in blood samples and as a therapeutic agent in lead poisoning. Several experiments have been carried out with EDTA to induce hypocalcemia in cows and other animals, and toxic effects have rarely been reported. In this study, hypocalcemia was induced by means of a 5% Na2EDTA infusion (0.55 mg/kg/min Na2EDTA for 5 h = total dose of 100.6 g). Accidental acute toxicity and fatalities occurred after a consecutive second infusion in several cows. Researchers designing new experiments should be aware of a potential EDTA toxicity at a routinely used dose and rate of administration.

  11. Metabolomic Quality Assessment of EDTA Plasma and Serum Samples.

    PubMed

    Malm, Linus; Tybring, Gunnel; Moritz, Thomas; Landin, Britta; Galli, Joakim

    2016-10-01

    Handling and processing of blood can significantly alter the molecular composition and consistency of biobank samples and can have a major impact on the identification of biomarkers. It is thus crucial to identify tools to determine the quality of samples to be used in biomarker discovery studies. In this study, a non-targeted gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) metabolomic strategy was used with the aim of identifying quality markers for serum and plasma biobank collections lacking proper documentation of preanalytical handling. The effect of postcentrifugation delay was examined in serum stored in tubes with gel separation plugs and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plasma in tubes with or without gel separation plugs. The change in metabolic pattern was negligible in all sample types processed within 3 hours after centrifugation regardless of whether the samples were kept at 4°C or 22°C. After 8 and 24 hours postcentrifugation delay before aliquoting, there was a pronounced increase in the number of affected metabolites, as well as in the magnitude of the observed changes. No protective effect on the metabolites was observed in gel-separated EDTA plasma samples. In a separate series of experiments, lactate and glucose levels were determined in plasma to estimate the effect of precentrifugation delay. This separate experiment indicates that the lactate to glucose ratio may serve as a marker to identify samples with delayed time to centrifugation. Although our data from the untargeted GC-TOFMS analysis did not identify any specific markers, we conclude that plasma and serum metabolic profiles remain quite stable when plasma and serum are centrifuged and separated from the blood cells within 3 hours.

  12. Effect of EDTA preparations on rotary root canal instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Whitbeck, Evan R; Swenson, Kelli; Tordik, Patricia A; Kondor, Shayne A; Webb, Terry D; Sun, Jirun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether rotary instrumentation using saline, EDTA 17% solution, or RC-Prep (Premier Dental, Philadelphia, PA) resulted in differences in root canal transportation. The secondary objective was to assess if instrumentation using these agents caused changes in the working length and canal volume. Moderately curved mesiobuccal roots of 24 maxillary molars were standardized in length and randomized into 1 control and 2 experimental groups. The canals were instrumented with 0.04 taper rotary files to size #30. All groups were irrigated with saline. Group 1 was also irrigated using EDTA 17% solution (Pulpdent Corp, Watertown, MA), and in group 2, RC-Prep was used. X-ray micro-computed tomographic scans and working length measurements were made before and after instrumentation. Three-dimensional models were created from the pre- and postinstrumentation scan data and compared for volume changes. Centroid points were calculated in cross-sectional slices of the canals, and transportation was determined by measuring the distance between the pre- and postinstrumentation points. The data were analyzed with 1-way analysis of variance (α = 0.05) and the Tukey post hoc test. Less transportation was observed in group 2 than in group 1 (P = .001) and the control group (P = .014). Transportation in group 1 and the control group was not significantly different. Canal volume in group 1 was increased relative to group 2 (P = .004) and the control group (P = .022). No significant differences in the working length were observed. The use of chelating agents during root canal instrumentation did not significantly increase apical transportation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Factors affecting EDTA extraction of lead from lead-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chulsung; Lee, Yongwoo; Ong, Say Kee

    2003-06-01

    The effects of solution:soil ratio, major cations present in soils, and the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA):lead stoichiometric ratio on the extraction of lead using EDTA were studied for three different Superfund site soils, one rifle range soil, and one artificially lead-contaminated soil. Extraction of lead from the lead-contaminated soils was not affected by a solution:soil ratio as low as 3:1 but instead was dependent on the quantity of EDTA present. Results of the experiments showed that the extraction efficiencies were different for each soil. If sufficiently large amount of EDTA was applied (EDTA-Pb stoichiometric ratio greater than 10), most of the lead were extracted for all soils tested except for a Superfund site soil from a lead mining area. The differences in extraction efficiencies may be due to the major cations present in soils which may compete with lead for active sites on EDTA. For example, iron ions most probably competed strongly with lead for EDTA ligand sites for pH less than 6. In addition, copper and zinc may potentially compete with lead for EDTA ligand sites. Experimental results showed that addition of EDTA to the soil resulted in a very large increase in metals solubility. The total molar concentrations of major cations extracted were as much as 20 times the added molar concentration of EDTA. For some of the soils tested, lead may have been occluded in the iron oxides present in the soil which may affect lead extraction. While major cations present in the soil may be one of the factors affecting lead extraction efficiency, the type of lead species present also play a role.

  14. High molecular weight hyaluronan decreases oxidative DNA damage induced by EDTA in human corneal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ye, J; Wu, H; Wu, Y; Wang, C; Zhang, H; Shi, X; Yang, J

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the toxic effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA), a corneal penetration enhancer in topical ophthalmic formulations, on DNA in human corneal epithelial cells (HCEs), and to investigate whether the effect induced by EDTA can be inhibited by high molecular weight hyaluronan (HA). Methods Cells were exposed to EDTA in concentrations ranging from 0.00001 to 0.01% for 60 min, or 30 min high molecular weight HA pretreatment followed by EDTA treatment. The cell viability was measured by the MTT test. Cell apoptosis was determined with annexin V staining by flow cytometry. The DNA single- and double-strand breaks of HCEs were examined by alkaline comet assay and by immunofluorescence microscope detection of the phosphorylated form of histone variant H2AX (γH2AX) foci, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was assessed by the fluorescent probe, 2′, 7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Results EDTA exhibited no adverse effect on cell viability and did not induce cell apoptosis in human corneal epithelial cells at concentrations lower than 0.01%. However, a significant increase of DNA single- and double-strand breaks was observed in a dose-dependent manner with all the concentrations of EDTA tested in HCEs. In addition, EDTA treatment led to elevated ROS generation. Moreover, 30 min preincubation with high molecular weight HA significantly decreased EDTA-induced ROS generation and DNA damage. Conclusions EDTA could induce DNA damage in HCEs, probably through oxidative stress. Furthermore, high molecular weight HA was an effective protective agent that had antioxidant properties and decreased DNA damage induced by EDTA. PMID:22595911

  15. Outer-sphere adsorption of Pb(II)EDTA on goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Bargar, J.R.; Persson, P.; Brown, G.E. Jr.

    1999-10-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAPS) spectroscopic measurements were performed on Pb(II)ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) adsorbed on goethite as a function of pH (4--6), Pb(II)EDTA concentration (0.11--72 {micro}M), and ionic strength (16 {micro}M--0.5 M). FTIR measurements show no evidence for carboxylate-Fe(III) bonding or protonation of EDTA at Pb:EDTA = 1:1. Both FTIR and EXAFS spectroscopic measurements suggest that EDTA acts as a hexadentate ligand, with all four of its carboxylate and both of its amine groups bonded to Pb(II). No evidence was observed for inner-sphere Pb(II)-goethite bonding at Pb:EDTA = 1:1. Hence, the adsorbed complexes should have composition Pb(II)EDTA{sup 2{minus}}. Because substantial uptake of PbEDTA(II){sup 2{minus}} occurred in the samples, the authors interpret that Pb(II)EDTA{sup 2{minus}} adsorbed as outer-sphere complexes and/or as complexes that lose part of their solvation shells and hydrogen bond directly to goethite surface sites. The authors propose the term hydration-sphere for the latter type of complexes because they should occupy space in the primary hydration spheres of goethite surface functional groups and to distinguish this mode of sorption from common structural definitions of inner- and outer-sphere complexes. The lack of evidence for inner-sphere EDTA-Fe(III) bonding suggests that previously proposed metal/ligand-promoted dissolution mechanisms should be modified, specifically to account for the presence of outer-sphere precursor species.

  16. Removal of Pb and MDF from contaminated soils by EDTA- and SDS-enhanced washing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihua; Tsang, Daniel C W; Lo, Irene M C

    2007-02-01

    Heavy metal- and organic-contaminated sites are ubiquitous, but few studies have been conducted to address such an issue. EDTA- and SDS-enhanced washing was studied for remediation of Pb- and/or marine diesel fuel (MDF)-contaminated soils. The feasibility of recovery and reuse of EDTA and SDS, as well as the physicochemical interactions among the chemical agents, contaminants and soils were extensively investigated using batch experiments. The optimal washing sequence was then determined. The experimental results showed that EDTA could be recovered and reused for four cycles without significant loss of its chelating capacity, while the extraction capability of SDS was noticeably reduced after each reuse cycle. The free phase of marine diesel fuel (MDF) in soils physically isolated the sorbed Pb on soils and thus reducing its extraction by EDTA. The presence of SDS alone or together with low concentration of EDTA was found to enhance Pb removal probably via electrostatic interaction and dissolution of soil organic matter. However, it hindered Pb extraction by high concentration of EDTA, because of the potential formation of complexes between some strongly-bound Pb and SDS, that are more resistant to desorption. Therefore, EDTA washing followed by SDS achieved the highest Pb removal efficiency. On the other hand, MDF removal by SDS was significantly hindered by coexisting Pb in soils, probably because the formation of Pb-dodecyl sulfate (DS) complex would decrease the effective amount of SDS available for forming micelles in solution and enhance MDF sorption. EDTA alone or together with SDS could enhance MDF removal, but the residual MDF after EDTA-washing became more resistant to SDS removal. Consequently, SDS washing followed by EDTA is considered as the optimal washing sequence for MDF removal.

  17. Novel EDTA-ligands containing an integral perylene bisimide (PBI) core as an optical reporter unit.

    PubMed

    Marcia, Mario; Singh, Prabhpreet; Hauke, Frank; Maggini, Michele; Hirsch, Andreas

    2014-09-28

    The synthesis, characterization and metal complexation of a new class of perylene bisimides (PBIs) as an integral part of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) are reported. The simplest representative, namely derivative 1a, was synthesized both by a convergent as well as a direct approach while the elongated derivatives, 1b and 1c, were obtained only via a convergent synthetic pathway. All these new prototypes of water-soluble perylenes are bolaamphiphiles and were fully characterized by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and IR spectroscopy. In order to acquaint ourselves with the behaviour in solution of our PBIs bearing dendritic wedges, the simplest derivative, 1a, was chosen and tested by means of UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as by zeta-potential measurements. A photoexcitation induced intramolecular photo-electron transfer (PET) can be observed in these molecules. Therefore their potential applications as sensors can be imagined. Model compound 1a efficiently coordinates trivalent metal cations both in water and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Significantly, the effects of the complexation strongly depend on the aggregation state of the PBI molecules in solution. As a matter of fact, in water, the presence of M(3+) ions triggers the formation of light emitting supramolecular aggregates (excimers). On the other hand, in DMSO-rich solutions metal complexation leads to the suppression of the PET and leads to a strong fluorescence enhancement.

  18. Evaluation of microbial reduction of Fe(III)EDTA in a chemical absorption-biological reduction integrated NOx removal system

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Li; Cheng-Zhi Wu; Shi-Han Zhang; Ke Shao; Yao Shi

    2007-01-15

    A chemical absorption-biological reduction integrated process can be used to remove nitrogen oxides (NOx) from flue gas. In such a process, nitric oxide (NO) can be effectively absorbed by the ferrous chelate of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Fe(II)EDTA) to form Fe(II)EDTA-NO, which can be biologically regenerated by denitrifying bacteria. However, in the course of these processes, part of the Fe(II)EDTA is also oxidized to Fe(III)EDTA. The reduction of Fe(III)EDTA to Fe(II)EDTA depends on the activity of iron-reducing bacteria in the system. Therefore, the effectiveness of the system relies on how to effectively bioreduce Fe(III)EDTA and Fe(II)EDTA-NO in the system. In this paper, a strain identified as Escherichia coli FR-2 (iron-reducing bacterium) was used to investigate the reduction rate of Fe(III)EDTA. The experimental results indicate that Fe(II)EDTA-NO and Fe(II)EDTA in the system can inhibit both the FR-2 cell growth and thus affect the Fe(III)EDTA reduction. The FR-2 cell growth rate and Fe(III)EDTA reduction rate decreased with increasing Fe(II)EDTA-NO and Fe(II)EDTA concentration in the solution. When the concentration of Fe(II)EDTA-NO reached 3.7 mM, the FR-2 cell growth almost stopped. A mathematical model was developed to explain the cell growth and inhibition kinetics. The predicted results are close to the experimental data and provide a preliminary evaluation of the kinetics of the biologically mediated reactions necessary to regenerate the spent scrubber solution. 33 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Kinetics and mechanisms of Co(II) EDTA oxidation by pyrolusite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, P. M.; Taylor, D. L.

    1995-10-01

    Monitoring and restoration activities at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites have identified complicated mixtures of inorganic and organic contaminants in soil and groundwater. Metallic contaminants are generally complexed with various chelating agents and organic acids which alter the geochemical behavior of the contaminants in subsurface media. The objective of this study was to provide an improved understanding of the geochemical processes controlling the subsurface transport of radioactive 60Co complexed with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Specifically, we investigated the kinetics and mechanisms of Co(II) EDTA 2- oxidation to Co(III)EDTA - by the soil mineral pyrolusite (β-MnO 2). A column displacement technique was utilized to investigate Co(II)EDTA 2- reactivity and oxidation rates through packed beds of pyrolusite-coated SiO 2. The interaction of Co(II)EDTA 2- with the porous media was characterized by a MnO 2-induced oxidation of the Co (II)EDTA 2- to Co(III)EDTA -. The oxidation of Co(II)EDTA 2- appeared to involve the reduction of Mn (IV) to both an aqueous Mn 2+ species and a theorized Mn(III)-oxide solid phase. The redox reaction was catalytic since the reduction products were gradually reoxidized in the presence of dissolved O 2 to form a Mn(IV)-oxide phase. Oxidation of surface-bound Mn 2+ and the theorized Mn(III)-oxide was slow relative to Co(II)EDTA 2- oxidation, and a reversible loss in the oxidative ability of the β-MnO 2 occurred when exposed to CO(II)EDTA 2-. The reduction in catalytic activity of the MnO 2 was not the result of direct surface poisoning by Mn 2+ but rather was believed to result from the formation of an intermediate Mn(III)-oxide solid phase whose oxidative potential was significantly less than MnO 2. Thus, the kinetics of Co(II)EDTA 2- oxidation to Co(III)EDTA - by MnO 2 was dependent on the rate of MnO 2 surface regeneration. The environmental implications of this redox reaction are pronounced, since any Co(III)EDTA

  20. Changes in haematology measurements with the Sysmex XT-2000iV during storage of feline blood sampled in EDTA or EDTA plus CTAD.

    PubMed

    Granat, Fanny; Geffré, Anne; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie; Braun, Jean-Pierre; Trumel, Catherine

    2013-06-01

    In veterinary medicine a complete blood cell count (CBC) cannot always be performed within 24 h as usually recommended, particularly for specimens shipped to a reference laboratory. This raises the question of the stability of the variables, especially in ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) feline blood specimens, known to be prone to in vitro platelet aggregation. Citrate, theophylline, adenosine and dipyridamole (CTAD) has been reported to limit platelet aggregation in feline blood specimens. The aim of this study was to measure the stability of the haematological variables and the platelet aggregation score in EDTA and EDTA plus CTAD (EDCT) feline blood specimens during 48 h of storage at room temperature. Forty-six feline EDTA and EDCT blood specimens were analysed with a Sysmex XT-2000iV analyser, and the platelet count and score of platelet aggregation were estimated immediately and after 24 and 48 h of storage. A significant increase in mean corpuscular volume, haematocrit, reticulocyte and eosinophil counts, and a significant decrease in mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and monocyte count were observed. Haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and red blood cell, white blood cell, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts remained stable. Changes in reticulocyte indexes with time (low fluorescence ratio, medium fluorescence ratio, high fluorescence ratio and immature reticulocyte fraction) were not significant. Changes were generally more pronounced in EDTA than in EDCT. Platelet aggregation decreased markedly in initially highly aggregated EDTA specimens, and increased slightly in initially non- or mildly-aggregated EDTA or EDCT specimens. Platelet counts increased and decreased, or remained stable, respectively. CTAD can reduce storage-induced changes of the haematological variables in feline samples, thus improving the reliability of a CBC and limiting clinical misinterpretations.

  1. Combined application of Triton X-100 and Sinorhizobium sp. Pb002 inoculum for the improvement of lead phytoextraction by Brassica juncea in EDTA amended soil.

    PubMed

    Di Gregorio, Simona; Barbafieri, Meri; Lampis, Silvia; Sanangelantoni, Anna Maria; Tassi, Eliana; Vallini, Giovanni

    2006-04-01

    The process of EDTA-assisted lead phytoextraction from the Bovisa (Milan, Italy) brownfield soil was optimized in microcosms vegetated with Brassica juncea. An autochthonous plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR), Sinorhizobium sp. Pb002, was isolated from the rhizosphere of B. juncea grown on the Pb-contaminated soil in presence of 2 mM EDTA. The strain was augmented (10(8) CFU g(-1) soil) in vegetated microcosms to stimulate B. juncea biomass production and, hence, its phytoextraction potential. Triton X-100 was also added to microcosms at 5 and 10 times the critical micelle concentration (cmc) to increase the permeability of root barriers to the EDTA-Pb complexes. Triton X-100 amendment determined an increase in Pb concentration within plant tissues. However it contextually exerted a phytotoxic effect. Sinorhizobium sp. Pb002 augmentation was crucial to plant survival in presence of both bioavailable lead and Triton X-100. The combination of the two treatments produced up to 56% increase in the efficiency of lead phytoextraction by B. juncea. The effects of these treatments on the structure of the soil bacterial community were evaluated by 16S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).

  2. EDTA and electricity synergetic catalyzed Fe(3+)/H2O2 process for amoxicillin oxidation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ting-Ting; Li, Xiao-Ming; Tang, Yu-Fang; Wang, Juan; Yue, Xiu; Cao, Jian-Bin; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Dong-Bo; Zeng, Guang-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Three oxidation processes for amoxicillin wastewater pretreatment such as Electro-Fe(3+)(EDTA)/H2O2 (EDTA: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), Fe(3+)(EDTA)/H2O2 and Electro-Fe(3+)/H2O2 were simultaneously discussed at pH of 7.0 (+/-0.1). It was found that the above processes could achieve 78%, 64%, 33% chemical oxygen demand (COD(cr)) removal, and 86%, 70%, 47% amoxicillin degradation respectively. Moreover, the results of biodegradability (biological oxygen demand (BOD(5))/COD(cr) ratio) showed that the Electro-Fe(3+)(EDTA)/H2O2 process was a promising way to pretreat antibiotic wastewater due to the biodegradability of the effluent improved to 0.48 compared with the cases of Fe(3+)(EDTA)/H2O2 (0.40) and Electro-Fe(3+)/H2O2 process (0.12). Therefore, it was reasonable to note that EDTA and electricity showed synergetic effect on the oxidation process. Additionally, infrared spectra (IR) were applied to concisely propose a potential degradation way of amoxicillin. The characteristic changes of H2O2 and EDTA in the oxidation process were also investigated in detail.

  3. Characterization of EDTA-soluble polysaccharides from the scape of Musa paradisiaca (banana).

    PubMed

    Raju, T S; Jagadish, R L; Anjaneyalu, Y V

    2001-02-01

    The polysaccharide components present in the scape of Musa paradisiaca (banana) were fractionated into water-soluble (WSP), EDTA-soluble (EDTA-SP), alkali-soluble (ASP) and alkali-insoluble (AISP) polysaccharide fractions [Anjaneyalu, Jagadish and Raju (1997) Glycoconj. J. 14, 507-512]. The EDTA-SP was further fractionated by iso-amyl alcohol into EDTA-SP-A and EDTA-SP-B. The homogeneity of these two polysaccharides was established by repeated precipitation with iso-amyl alcohol, gel-filtration chromatography and sedimentation analysis. The polysaccharides were characterized by monosaccharide composition analysis, methylation linkage analysis, iodine affinity, ferricyanide number, blue value, hydrolysis with alpha-amylase, gold-electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Data from all of these studies suggest that EDTA-SP-A is a branched amylose-type alpha-D-glucan and that EDTA-SP-B is a highly branched amylopectin-type polymer. The nature of the branching patterns of these polysaccharides suggests that they are unique to M. paradisiaca.

  4. Influence of EDTA washing on the species and mobility of heavy metals residual in soils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihua; Huang, Hao; Tan, Fenfang; Wang, Hong; Qiu, Rongliang

    2010-01-15

    Aiming to estimate the potential risk of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-enhanced soil washing, the heavy metal species and their mobility in the washed soil under different combinations were investigated by batch leaching tests and the sequential extraction procedure. Results demonstrate that the metal removal efficiency was rather low (less than 12%), partially due to the significant Ca dissolution and strong bonding between metals and the soil as well as the insufficient EDTA dosage. The washing combination of 0.0005 M EDTA and half-an-hour washing can enhance the instant mobility of Ni, Zn and Pb possibly owing to the slow detachment of EDTA-destabilized metals. Metal fractionation also exhibits the corresponding increase in their labile exchangeable fractions. Therefore, a more concentrated EDTA solution for a longer duration often decreased their mobility. The increase in some fractions of a curtain metal implies the redistribution of this metal during the EDTA soil washing. The pathway of such a redistribution may vary for different metals, but the redistribution to organic matter is often a slow process, while that to carbonates or Fe/Mn oxides is a faster one and even may occur in a half hour washing with 0.0005 M EDTA solution. These redistribution processes may also increase the metal chemical availability. Therefore, we should prudently control the chelating reagent concentration and washing duration to finally minimize the mobility and availability of the remaining heavy metals when designing the soil washing for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils.

  5. Sediment washing by EDTA and its reclamation by sodium polyamidoamine-multi dithiocarbamate.

    PubMed

    Deng, Tianlin; Zhang, Bingru; Li, Fengting; Jin, Luyao

    2017-02-01

    Sodium polyamidoamine-multi dithiocarbamate (PAMAM-DTC) is a kind of heavy metals capturing agent, containing functional groups of dithiocarbamate that could strongly chelate heavy metals. In this paper, it was applied to precipitate heavy metal ions from meal-EDTA and reclaim EDTA during sediment washing process. The extracting performance of fresh EDTA was studied as a function of EDTA concentration, liquid/sediment (L/S), pH, and extraction time. Then the EDTA effluents were treated with PAMAM-DTC, Na2S and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) to compare their effectiveness on capturing metals from metal-EDTA complexes. Four divalent heavy metals were investigated (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn). PAMAM-DTC shows much better performance. Pb, Cd and Cu could almost be precipitated completely by PAMAM-DTC under the dosage of 350 mg L(-1), while Zn could be only partly precipitated which may due to its failure in competition with the other three metal ions on chelation with PAMAM-DTC. The reclaimed EDTA was reused in three cycles of sediment washing, and the amount of heavy metals extracted just slightly decreased in each cycle. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Iron oxidation in Mops buffer. Effect of EDTA, hydrogen peroxide and FeCl3.

    PubMed

    Tadolini, B

    1987-01-01

    The effect of EDTA and H2O2 on iron autoxidation in Mops buffer depends on the pH of the solution. At acidic pH, EDTA caused the oxidation of a stoichiometric amount of iron. At neutral and alkaline pH, EDTA and H2O2 not only oxidizes a stoichiometric amount of iron but also causes the oxidation of the Fe2+ exceeding the concentration of these compounds. In the presence of EDTA, oxidation of Fe2+ in exceeding the concentration of these compounds has a shorter lag phase and an increased rate compared with that in the absence. The solution develops a yellow colour whose intensity is proportional to the amount of Fe2+ exceeding the concentration of these compounds in solution. When the reaction is conducted in the presence of NBT, formazan formation is greatly reduced compared to the control without EDTA and H2O2. The Fe3+-EDTA complex and Fe3+ affected iron oxidation, development of the yellow colour and NBT reduction in a similar fashion. In all these experimental conditions, iron oxidation is greatly reduced in the presence of mannitol, sorbitol and catalase. In phosphate buffer, EDTA oxidized a stoichiometric amount of iron without affecting free Fe2+ oxidation. Fe3+ has no effect on iron oxidation in this buffer.

  7. Occupational rhinitis and asthma due to EDTA-containing detergents or disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Laborde-Castérot, Hervé; Villa, Antoine F; Rosenberg, Nicole; Dupont, Patricia; Lee, Hwee Min; Garnier, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Detergents and disinfectants are an emerging cause of work-related rhinitis and asthma. These products may contain ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). The authors report 10 cases of EDTA-related asthma and/or rhinitis. Review of the medical charts of patients who presented with work-related rhinitis (alone or with asthma), with a history of exposure to aerosols of EDTA-containing products and who underwent a nasal provocation test (NPT) with tetrasodium EDTA (1-4%) in our occupational health unit. Twenty-eight patients underwent a NPT with EDTA, which was positive in 10 cases. These patients, mostly cleaners or healthcare workers, used spray formulations of cleaning products. This case series is the first report of EDTA-related respiratory disease, documented by a specific test. An irritant mechanism is unlikely. Further studies are required to distinguish between an immunoallergic response and a pharmacological mechanism possibly resulting from calcium chelation, as suggested by animal experiments. A ban of spray preparations would be sufficient to prevent respiratory disease induced by EDTA inhalation, regardless of its mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. In vitro evaluation of chitosan-EDTA conjugate polyplexes as a nanoparticulate gene delivery system.

    PubMed

    Loretz, Brigitta; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    It was the purpose of this study to evaluate the potential of different molecular-weight chitosan-EDTA conjugates as a carrier matrix for nanoparticulate gene delivery systems. Covalent binding of EDTA to more than one chitosan chain provides a cross-linked polymer that is anticipated to produce stabilized particles. pDNA/chitosan-EDTA particles, generated via coazervation, were characterized in size and zeta potential by electrophoretic light scattering and electron microscopy. Stability was investigated at different pH values by enzymatic degradation and subsequent gel retardation assay. Lactate dehydrogenase assay was performed to determine toxicity. Furthermore, transfection efficiency into Caco-2 cells was assessed using a beta-galactosidase reporter gene. Chitosan-EDTA produced from low-viscous chitosan with 68% amino groups being modified by the covalent attachment of EDTA showed the highest complexing efficacy resulting in nanoparticles of 43 nm mean size and exhibiting a zeta potential of +6.3 mV. These particles were more stable at pH 8 than chitosan control particles. The cytotoxicity of chitosan-EDTA particles was below 1% over a time period of 4 hours. These new nanoplexes showed 35% improved in vitro transfection efficiency compared with unmodified chitosan nanoparticles. According to these results, the chitosan-EDTA conjugate may be a promising polymer for gene transfer.

  9. Influence of solution structure on adsorption of metal-EDTA complexes onto iron oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Nowack, B.; Sigg, L.

    1995-12-01

    The adsorption characteristics of a variety of divalent and trivalent metal-EDTA complexes onto goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) and amorphous Fe(OH){sub 3} were examined. Uncomplexed EDTA is adsorbed as a ligand-like binuclear complex at low pH and as a mononuclear complex at high pH. The complexes of the divalent metals Ca, Zn, Ni, Cu, Co(II), and Ph show all the same ligand-like adsorption behavior. They are characterized by a quinquedentate structure in solution. Their adsorption in function of pH can be described by a ternary surface complex. The bidentate Pd(II) EDTA is adsorbed much stronger, but also ligand-like. La(III) EDTA and Bi(III) EDTA are adsorbed very strongly over the whole pH-range. The sexidentate complex of Co(III) is at low pH weakly adsorbed outer-spherically. Fe(III) EDTA is weakly adsorbed over the whole pH-range. The mobility of EDTA complexes in an aquifer depends therefore on the pH and on the type of complex.

  10. Identification and validation of a factor of commutability between platelet counts performed on EDTA and citrate.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Pierre; Goussot, Vincent; David, Alice; Lizard, Sarab; Riedinger, Jean-Marc

    2017-02-01

    The anticoagulant mostly employed for platelet count is EDTA. The Francophone Group of Cellular Hematology recommends checking of blood smear stained with May-Grünwald Giemsa any thrombocytopenia less than 100 G/L without medical history or whether an alarm is generated by the cell counter. The pseudo-thrombocytopenia (PTP) with EDTA is the best known artifact in platelet count. A sample of blood on citrated tube is necessary to get rid of the interference. The objective of this study was to compare the platelet counts obtained on EDTA (numEDTA) and citrate (numCTAD) tubes and to define, then validate a factor of conversion between both methods. The prevalence of PTP EDTA is 0.26%. The PTP was transient in 80% of the patients. The numEDTA and numCTAD+10% (numCTAD increased by 10% to take dilution into account) are correlated but are not equivalent. The numCTAD+10% underestimate numEDTA significantly. The systematic bias is removed if we increase by 17% numCTAD. The factor of correction is stable over a period of 3 hours.

  11. Sodium citrate blood contamination by K2 -ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA): impact on routine coagulation testing.

    PubMed

    Lima-Oliveira, G; Salvagno, G L; Danese, E; Favaloro, E J; Guidi, G C; Lippi, G

    2015-06-01

    The potential cross-contamination of additives between primary blood tubes is a well-known problem during sample collection. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of citrated blood contamination with different amounts of dipotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic (K2 EDTA blood) on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and fibrinogen. Blood was collected from 15 ostensibly healthy volunteers into four 0.109 m citrate blood tubes followed by one K2 EDTA blood tube. The citrate tubes of each subject were pooled and divided in five aliquots. The whole blood of the K2 EDTA tube was then added in scalar amounts to autologous citrated blood aliquots, to obtain K2 EDTA contamination ranging from 0% to 43%, and thus mimic potential pre-analytical contamination. A statistically and clinically significant prolongation was observed for both APTT and PT between 29% and 43% K2 EDTA contamination, whereas the decrease of fibrinogen values became statistically and clinically significant at 43% K2 EDTA contamination. The results of this investigation show that contamination of citrated blood with as much as 29% of K2 EDTA blood generates a significant bias in results of routine clotting assays. This has serious implications for patient safety and management. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The influence of EDTA on adenylate cyclase activity in membranes from rat and mouse myocardium.

    PubMed

    Morris, S A; Bilezikian, J P

    1987-11-12

    Inclusion of EDTA in the homogenization buffer of both mouse and rat myocardium profoundly alters the properties of the adenylate cyclase complex. EDTA leads to an increase in the Vmax for adenylate cyclase activity due to all of the following agents: isoproterenol, Gpp[NH]p, forskolin and Mg2+. For forskolin and Mg2+, the EDTA-associated increase in Vmax is not accompanied by a change in sensitivity to activation. However, EDTA is associated with enhanced sensitivity to activation by isoproterenol and increased sensitivity to the effect of Mg2+ on isoproterenol-dependent adenylate cyclase activity. A result of greater isoproterenol-dependent adenylate cyclase activity, due to the presence of EDTA, is an attenuated synergistic contribution of Gpp[NH]p. Changes in stimulatable adenylate cyclase activity as a result of EDTA occurs in concert with effects of cholera toxin upon ADPribosylation of the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein, Ns. Substantial auto-ADP-ribosylation occurs in a cholera toxin-sensitive 42 kDa band in membranes prepared in the presence of EDTA. In addition, cofactor and substrate requirements in the cholera toxin-dependent ADP-ribosylation reaction depend on the method of membrane preparation. The results suggest that the integrity of the adenylate cyclase complex depends in part on the attention given to proteolysis that may be activated during the course of homogenization.

  13. Synthesis and photochromic properties of EDTA-induced MoO{sub 3} powder

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Minyan; Shen, Yi; Zhao, Li; Li, Zhen

    2011-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The MoO{sub 3} powder, which exhibits highly dispersed floral aggregated-like structure built up by superimposed and staggered nanoflakes with a diameter of 1-1.5 {mu}m and a thickness of 0.1-0.2 {mu}m, has been successfully obtained when the molar ratio of EDTA/Mo{sup 6+} is 0.05:1. The EDTA inducer obviously enlarges the surface area and apparently enhances the reactivity of MoO{sub 3} powders, making it show greater absorptive capacity to the excitation light and better photochromic properties than the pure MoO{sub 3} powder. Highlights: {yields} EDTA as organic inducing agent. {yields} EDTA inducer at EDTA/Mo{sup 6+} molar ratio of 0.05:1 enables growth of flower-like microspheres. {yields} The formation of flower-like MoO{sub 3} makes its photochromic properties strongly enhanced. -- Abstract: In this study, the photochromic MoO{sub 3} powder with novel morphology has been synthesized via hydrothermal method, using ethylene diamine tetraacetice acid (EDTA) as organic inducing agent. The influence of EDTA on the morphology, structure and photochromic properties of MoO{sub 3} powder has been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), as well as ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and color difference meter. When the molar ratio of EDTA/Mo{sup 6+} is 0.05:1, the EDTA-induced MoO{sub 3} powder is found to have 3D flower-like morphologies and excellent photochromic properties. Furthermore, the possible growth mechanism of the flower-like structure and the photochromic mechanism of MoO{sub 3} powder are also discussed in detail.

  14. [Cd uptake in rice cultivars and Cd fractions in soil treated with organic acids and EDTA].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Bo; Li, Yang-Rui; Xu, Wei-Hong; Chen, Gui-Qing; Wang, Hui-Xian; Han, Gui-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Xiong, Zhi-Ting; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Xie, De-Ti

    2011-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to examine the yield, quality and cadmium (Cd) uptake in different rice cultivars, and Cd speciation in soil after exposing to Cd (0, 1 and 5 mg x kg(-1)) in the presence of organic acids and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). The results showed that general increase in the yield for cultivars Xiushui63 and II you527 was observed. Yield of two rice cultivars were in order of organic acids treatment or organic acids + 1/2EDTA treatment > EDTA treatment. The exchangeable, carbonate related and ferric-manganese oxidation related Cd increased; while organic complexation Cd and residules decreased in the presence of organic acids and EDTA. Cadmium concentrations in grain, straw and roots of both cultivars markedly reduced in the presence of organic acids and EDTA. Grain Cd concentration was the lowest for plants treated with EDTA, followed by organic acids + 1/2EDTA, and the highest Cd concentration in grain was found in the treatment with organic acids. Grain Cd concentration decreased by 9.0% to 49.3% and 16.5% to 30.6% at 1 mg x kg(-1) Cd in the presence of organic acids and EDTA, and by 12.7% to 28.5% and 4.3% to 19.1% at 5 mg x kg(-1) Cd. Cadmium concentration and accumulation in plants and total Cd content in soil were higher in Xiushui63 than in that in II you527. Grain Cd concentration decreased, and yield and quality of two rice cultivars increased at the same time in the presence of organic acids + 1/2EDTA.

  15. Copper(II)-EDTA sorption onto chitosan and its regeneration applying electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Gyliene, O; Nivinskiene, O; Razmute, I

    2006-10-11

    Cu(II)-EDTA (ethylendiaminetetraacetate) complexes are widely used in the manufacture of printed circuit boards. In order to avoid the outlet into the environment the sorption of complexes onto chitosan is proposed. The uptake of both Cu(II) and EDTA proceeds in weakly acidic (pH 3-5) and strongly alkaline (pH > 12) solutions. In acidic solutions EDTA sorption prevails. FT-IR investigations have shown that in acidic solutions the amide bonds between -COOH groups of EDTA and -NH2 groups of chitosan were formed. In alkaline solutions the single EDTA sorption does not proceed. In this media the sorption is enhanced by Cu(II) ions. The possible sorption mechanisms are discussed. The uptake of both Cu(II) and EDTA by chitosan depends on the ratio between them in solutions. EDTA sorption in acidic solutions increases with increase in its concentration while that of Cu(II) decreases. In alkaline solutions the sorption of both Cu(II) and EDTA increases with increase in Cu(II) concentration. The use of electrolysis enables to regenerate chitosan and to reuse it. During electrolysis copper is deposited onto the cathode and EDTA is oxidized onto the anode. The current efficiency depends on the current intensity, the load of chitosan and the pH of the background electrolyte. Electrolysis under the most favorable conditions ensures the 10-cycles regeneration without considerable changes in the sorption properties of chitosan. FT-IR spectra of the initial and regenerated chitosans are similar.

  16. Novel EDTA and process water recycling method after soil washing of multi-metal contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Pociecha, Maja; Lestan, Domen

    2012-01-30

    The development of EDTA-based soil washing technologies is hampered by the lack of treatment methods of the spent solution, particularly when multi-metal contaminated soils have to be remediated. Extraction of Pb (5329 mg kg(-1)), Zn (3401 mg kg(-1)), Cd (35 mg kg(-1)) and As (279 mg kg(-1)) contaminated soil with 60 mmol EDTA kg(-1) of soil removed 72%, 27%, 71%, and 80% of contaminants, respectively. We demonstrate here, on a laboratory scale experiment, the feasibility of using acid precipitation with HCl and H(2)SO(4), coupled to initial alkaline Fe removal, to recover up to 88% of EDTA from a spent soil washing solution containing 11,578 mg L(-1) of EDTA and 1109, 267, 7.1 and 64 mg L(-1) of Pb, Zn, Cd and As, respectively. An electrochemical advanced oxidation process with a graphite anode was subsequently used to degrade 99.9% of the remaining EDTA in the spent washing solution and remove 99.7% Pb, 100% Zn, 96.6% Cd and 100% of As as (electro)precipitate. The cleansed process water obtained after electrochemical treatment was then used to prepare recycled washing solution by re-dissolving the recovered/recycled part of the EDTA. Washing solutions prepared from recycled EDTA had the same potential to extract Pb, Zn, Cd and As from soil as washing solution prepared from fresh EDTA of the same molarity. The novel recycling method is simple and robust and enables reuse of both EDTA and process water in a closed process loop. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrochemical detection of Hg (II) ions using EDTA-PANI/SWNTs nanocomposite modified SS electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, M. A.; Patil, H. K.; Shirsat, M. D.; Ramanavicius, A.

    2017-05-01

    Detection of Hg (II) ions using EDTA modified polyaniline (PANI) and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) nanocomposite (PANI/SWNTs) was performed electrochemically via cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. Dodecyl benzene sulphonic next step, PANI/SWNTs nanocomposite was modified acid sodium salt (DBSA) was used as a surfactant during this synthesis to get uniform suspension SWNTs. In the by EDTA solution containing crosslinking agent 1-ethyl-3(3-(dimethylamino) propyl) - carbodiimide (EDC) utilizing dip coating technique. The sensitivity of EDTA modified PANI/SWNTs nanocomposite towards Hg (II) ions was investigated. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique was applied for the electrochemical detection of Hg (II) ions.

  18. The role and fate of EDTA in ultrasound-enhanced zero-valent iron/air system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Lim, Teik-Thye; Li, Yaozhong; Lu, Xiaohua; Wong, Fook-Sin

    2010-01-01

    In this study, factors such as ZVI loading, ultrasound (US) input power, reaction temperature and solution pH that could affect the EDTA degradation in the US-enhanced zero-valent iron/air (US/ZVI/air) system were investigated. In the system, EDTA also served as an agent for complexation with the dissolved Fe(2+) and producing H(2)O(2) that would trigger Fenton-like reaction and degrade the EDTA itself. US played a threefold role in enhancing the overall EDTA degradation rate through: (1) accelerating ZVI corrosion and production of Fe(2+); (2) enhancing H(2)O(2) production through overcoming the kinetic barrier of oxygen activation by iron-EDTA complex; (3) improving EDTA mineralization while reducing its harmful by-products. The EDTA degradation rate with the US/ZVI/air system was 7.8 times higher than the combined rates achieved with US/air and ZVI/air operated as individual systems, indicating a significant synergistic effect. A hypothetical scheme illustrating the role and fate of EDTA in the US/ZVI/air system is proposed, indicating a complex auto-oxidation process enhanced by the US. It is postulated that ferryl-EDTA complex ([Fe(IV)O]EDTA) rather than OH was the dominant oxidant generated in the US/ZVI/air system that oxidized the EDTA even under the circumneutral condition. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental study on the inhibition of biological reduction of Fe(III)EDTA in NOx absorption solution*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Wu, Cheng-zhi; Zhang, Shi-han; Shi, Yao; Lei, Le-cheng

    2005-01-01

    Scrubbing of NOx from the gas phase with Fe(II)EDTA has been shown to be highly effective. A new biological method can be used to convert NO to N2 and regenerate the chelating agent Fe(II)EDTA for continuous NO absorption. The core of this biological regeneration is how to effectively simultaneous reduce Fe(III)EDTA and Fe(II)EDTA-NO, two mainly products in the ferrous chelate absorption solution. The biological reduction rate of Fe(III)EDTA plays a main role for the NOx removal efficiency. In this paper, a bacterial strain identified as Klebsiella Trevisan sp. was used to demonstrate an inhibition of Fe(III)EDTA reduction in the presence of Fe(II)EDTA-NO. The competitive inhibition experiments indicted that Fe(II)EDTA-NO inhibited not only the growth rate of the iron-reduction bacterial strain but also the Fe(III)EDTA reduction rate. Cell growth rate and Fe(III)EDTA reduction rate decreased with increasing Fe(II)EDTA-NO concentration in the solution. PMID:16187414

  20. Soil flushing with EDTA solutions: A model for channeled flow

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Delgado, R.A.; Rodriguez-Maroto, J.M.; Gomez-Lahoz, C.; Vereda-Alonso, C.; Garcia-Herruzo, F.

    1998-04-01

    A 1-D model for the flushing of metal contaminated soils with extracting aqueous solutions is presented. Previous experimental results of the flushing of carbonatic soil contaminated with lead with EDTA solutions showed the formation of channels of preferential flow as well as substantial rebounds in effluent lead concentration after periods of no pumping, indicating an important kinetic limitation for lead removal. This limitation is associated with the presence of a stagnant aqueous phase in addition to the mobile aqueous phase running through the channels. The model assumes an initial homogeneous distribution of lead in the soil, mainly present as small spheres of a solid carbonate which must dissolve. If the spheres are far from the channels, after solution the lead must diffuse through the stagnant aqueous phase until it reaches the channels and is washed out of the column. The model is able to simulate the rebound curves as well as the effluent concentration during the course of the operation. The importance of the way the channels arise is established by sensitivity studies performed for different mechanisms of the solution circulation and the formation of channels. More experimental results are needed to discriminate which of the alternatives studied is operative.

  1. Poliovirus sampling by using sodium dodecyl sulfate/EDTA-pretreated chromatography paper strips.

    PubMed

    Maes, Piet; Van Doren, Els; Denys, Barbara; Thoelen, Inge; Rahman, Mustafizur; Vijgen, Leen; Van Ranst, Marc

    2004-12-17

    To achieve the goal of poliovirus eradication, surveillance of endemic areas is a crucial step in the poliovirus eradication program. Currently, six countries still have endemic poliovirus. We have tested a novel method which uses SDS/EDTA-treated chromatography paper strips to collect and transport poliovirus-containing stool samples. The SDS/EDTA-treated paper strips were soaked with different dilutions of poliovirus-containing feces and stored at different temperatures. After storing the SDS/EDTA paper strips for 5 months at 37 degrees C, poliovirus RNA could be successfully amplified using RT-PCR. Infectivity of wild-type poliovirus type 1, 2, and 3 was lost upon contact with the SDS/EDTA-treated strips. This easy, inexpensive, and biosafe chromatography paper strip method for the collection and transportation of poliovirus samples can be of use in poliovirus surveillance and polio vaccination programs.

  2. Determining the EDTA Content in a Consumer Shower Cleaner. An Introductory Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, Willis A.

    2000-10-01

    At Altoona College, Chemistry 11 is offered to students as a preparatory course for the University's Chemical Principles course, Chem 12. A relevant laboratory is a source of motivation for the students to learn the chemistry. One way of making the laboratory relevant is to analyze the chemical components of consumer products. Several new shower-cleaning products have been introduced, which advertise that cleaning the shower is no longer necessary. The cleaners work using a combination of surfactants, alcohols, and a chelating agent. The Web site of a popular shower cleaner lists EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate ion) as the chelating agent. The classic EDTA/calcium complexometric titration can be used to determine the EDTA content of the cleaner. This article describes the experiment to determine the EDTA content in a shower-cleaning product.

  3. Experimental study on NO oxidation by K2S2O8 + Fe(II)EDTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hui; Huang, Hao; Tao, Gong-Kai; Xie, Jing; Yang, Cheng; Huang, Ting

    2017-06-01

    NO absorption and oxidation by K2S2O8 + Fe(II)EDTA system was studied in a lab-scale bubble reactor. The effects of different additives, reaction temperatures, pH values, K2S2O8 and Fe(II)EDTA concentrations on NO conversion were systematic investigated. Results indicated that NO conversion rate of K2S2O8 + Fe(II)EDTA system increased to 91.6% when concentrations of K2S2O8 and Fe(II)EDTA were both 30 mmol/L at 80 °C. NO conversion rate was positively correlated with the SO42- concentration in absorption solution, and it kept around 80% in a wide pH range, which made this technology to be a promising method for the denitrification of coal-fired flue gas.

  4. Adsorption behavior of EDTA-graphene oxide for Pb (II) removal.

    PubMed

    Madadrang, Clemonne J; Kim, Hyun Yun; Gao, Guihua; Wang, Ning; Zhu, Jun; Feng, Huan; Gorring, Matthew; Kasner, Marc L; Hou, Shifeng

    2012-03-01

    Chelating groups are successfully linked to graphene oxide (GO) surfaces through a silanization reaction between N-(trimethoxysilylpropyl) ethylenediamine triacetic acid (EDTA-silane) and hydroxyl groups on GO surface. EDTA-GO was found to be an ideal adsorbent for Pb(II) removal with a higher adsorption capacity. EDTA-modification enhances the adsorption capacity of GO because of the chelating ability of ethylene diamine triacetic acid. This study investigates the adsorption and desorption behaviors of heavy metal cations and the effects of solution conditions such as pH on Pb(II) removal. The adsorption capacity for Pb(II) removal was found to be 479 ± 46) mg/g at pH 6.8, and the adsorption process was completed within 20 min. The Langmuir adsorption model agrees well with the experimental data. The experimental results suggest that EDTA-GO can be reused after washed with HCl, suggesting potential applications in the environmental cleanup.

  5. Does EDTA-infusion affect calcium homeostatis leading to increased resistance to challenge?

    PubMed

    Mellau, L S; Jørgensen, R J

    2003-01-01

    Disodium EDTA is a chelating agent used in studies involving calcium. The sodium ion of the chelate is displaced by calcium to form soluble, non-toxic physiologically unavailable complexes that are excreted through urine. When EDTA binds the available calcium in the blood, an animal is forced into a state of negative calcium balance, a situation that mimics the principle of lowering dietary calcium in preventing milk fever. Although limited evidence is available, it is likely that calcium homeostatic mechanisms respond under such circumstances through the effect of parathyroid hormone and 1,25(OH)2 vit D3 on bone, gastrointestinal tract and the kidney. Investigations involving milk fever prevention by dietary manipulation using EDTA-induced hypocalcaemic or milk fever cow models should be interpreted with caution because EDTA is thought to be invasive to calcium homeostatic mechanisms.

  6. Metal excretion and magnesium retention in patients with intermittent claudication treated with intravenous disodium EDTA.

    PubMed

    Guldager, B; Jørgensen, P J; Grandjean, P

    1996-12-01

    Sixty patients with intermittent claudication participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 20 courses of intravenous chelation therapy with 3 g of disodium EDTA vs placebo during 5-9 weeks. After the first infusion, the 24-h urinary excretion of lead and zinc was approximately 25-fold higher in the EDTA-treated group; relative differences for copper and calcium were smaller. Urinary magnesium excretion in the EDTA-treated group was one-third less than in the control group. After the treatment period, the blood lead concentration had decreased by approximately 73% and the serum zinc concentration by approximately 34%; other changes in blood concentrations were negligible. The loss of essential minerals and the possible redistribution of lead in the body may constitute a disadvantage that should be taken into account in repeated intravenous EDTA treatment.

  7. EDTA-Decorated Nanostructured ZnO/CdS Thin Films for Oxygen Gas Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunraja, L.; Thirumoorthy, P.; Karthik, A.; Rajendran, V.; Edwinpaul, L.

    2016-08-01

    ZnO/CdS and ZnO/CdS-EDTA nanostructured thin films were prepared on a glass substrate using spin-coating and used for oxygen gas sensor applications. The structural properties of both ZnO/CdS and ZnO/CdS-EDTA nanostructured composites were comparatively characterized. The nanostructure thin film was found in a hexagonal structure with an average crystallite size reduced from 77 nm to 29 nm due to the influence of the EDTA. The optical absorption, photo luminescence, functional groups and surface morphology of the nanostructured thin films were comprehensively investigated. Oxygen was suitably tailored to verify the sensor response over a concentration range of 10-50 ppm at room temperature. Thus, the sensor studies reveal that the performance, response, and recovery time were enhanced in ZnO/CdS-EDTA nanostructured thin film compared with ZnO/CdS.

  8. Electrochemical recovery of EDTA and heavy metals from washing of metal contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S.B. Jr.; Dougherty, D.J.; Allen, H.E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the electrodeposition of some heavy metals in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in the context of toxic metal removal from soils. Initial experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of an electrochemical cell for electrodepositing lead, cadmium, chromium, and mercury in the absence of EDTA. Current efficiencies were calculated to evaluate the performance of the electrodeposition process. Recovery/current efficiency percents were 99.3/79 for lead, 70.0/79 for cadmium, and 67.9/18 for lead. The same experiment was conducted with a mercury solution, but it was terminated when the mercury precipitated. Next, experiments were performed on the metal-EDTA complexes. Recovery/current efficiency percents were 99.7/62 for lead, 67.9/18 for chromium, and 92.0/60 for mercury. For the Cd-EDTA complex, no plating was observed.

  9. Equilibrium characteristics of tartrate and EDTA-based electroless copper deposition baths

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasubramanian, M.; Popov, B.N.; White, R.E.; Chen, K.S.

    1997-08-01

    Electroless deposition of copper is being used for a variety of applications, one of them being the development of seed metallic layers on non-metals, which are widely used in electronic circuitry. Solution equilibrium characteristics of two electroless copper baths containing EDTA and tartrate as the complexing agents were studied as functions of pH, chelating agent and metal ion concentrations. Equilibrium diagrams were constructed for both cu-tartrate and Cu-EDTA systems. It was determined that copper is chiefly complexed as Cu(OH){sub 2}L{sub 2}{sup {minus}4} in the tartrate bath, and as CuA{sup {minus}2} in the EDTA bath, where L and A are the complexing tartrate and EDTA ligands, respectively. The operating ranges for electroless copper deposition were identified for both baths. Dependence of Cu(OH){sub 2} precipitation on the pH and species concentrations was also studied for these systems.

  10. The role of EDTA in phytoextraction of hexavalent and trivalent chromium by two willow trees.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2008-04-01

    Effects of the synthetic chelator ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) on uptake and internal translocation of hexavalent and trivalent chromium by plants were investigated. Two different concentrations of EDTA were studied for enhancing the uptake and translocation of Cr from the hydroponic solution spiked with K(2)CrO(4) or CrCl(3) maintained at 24.0 +/- 1 degrees C. Faster removal of Cr(3+) than Cr(6+) by hybrid willows (Salix matsudana Koidz x Salix alba L.) from the plant growth media was observed. Negligible effect of EDTA on the uptake of Cr(6+) was found, but significant decrease of the Cr concentration in roots was measured. Although the translocation of Cr(6+) within plant materials was detected in response to EDTA concentration, the amount of Cr(6+) translocated to the lower stems was considerably small. EDTA in the nutrient media showed a negative effect on the uptake of Cr(3+ )by hybrid willows; the removal rates of Cr(3+ )were significantly decreased. Translocation of Cr(3+) into the stems and leaves was undetectable, but roots were the exclusive sink for Cr(3+) accumulation. Weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) showed lower removal rates for both chemical forms of Cr than hybrid willows. Although EDTA had a minor effect on Cr(6+ )uptake by weeping willows, positive effect on Cr(6+ )translocation within plant materials was observed. It was also determined that EDTA in plant growth media significantly decreased the amount of Cr(3+) taken up by plants, but significantly increased Cr(3+) mobilization from roots to stems. Results indicated that EDTA was unable to increase the uptake of Cr(6+) by both plant species, but translocation of Cr(6+)-EDTA within plant materials was possible. Addition of EDTA in the nutrient media showed a strong influence on the uptake and translocation of Cr(3+) in both willows. Cr(3+)-EDTA in tissues of weeping willows was more mobile than that in hybrid willows. The information has important implications for the use of metal

  11. Nitric oxide removal by combined urea and Fe(II)EDTA reaction systems.

    PubMed

    He, Feiqiang; Deng, Xianhe; Chen, Min

    2017-02-01

    (NH2)2CO as well as Fe(II)EDTA is an absorbent for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification. However, they have their own drawbacks, like the oxidation of Fe(II)EDTA and the low solubility of NO in urea solution. To overcome these defects, A mixed absorbent containing both (NH2)2CO and Fe(II)EDTA was employed. The effects of various operating parameters (urea and Fe(II)EDTA concentration, temperature, inlet oxygen concentration, pH value) on NO removal were examined in the packed tower. The results indicated that the NO removal efficiency increased with the decrease of oxygen concentration as well as the increase of Fe(II)EDTA concentration. The NO removal efficiency had little change with a range of 25-45 °C, and sharply decreased at the temperature of above 55 °C. The NO removal efficiency initially increases up to the maximum value and then decreases with the increase of pH value as well as the raise of urea concentration. In addition, the synergistic mechanism of (NH2)2CO and Fe(II)EDTA on NO removal was investigated. Results showed that urea could react with Fe(II)EDTA-NO to produce Fe(II)EDTA, N2, and CO2, and hinder oxidation of Fe(II)EDTA. Finally, to evaluate the effect of SO3(2-) on NO removal, a mixed absorbent containing Fe(II)EDTA, urea, and Na2SO3 was employed to absorb NO. The mixed absorbent could maintain more than 78% for 80 min at 25 °C, pH = 7.0, (NH2)2CO concentration of 5 wt%, Fe(II)EDTA concentration of 0.02 M, O2 concentration of 7% (v/v), and Na2SO3 concentration of 0.2 M. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of CEM calcification by the sequential pretreatment with ethanol and EDTA.

    PubMed

    Singla, Anuj; Lee, Chi H

    2003-03-15

    The major object of the present study is to optimize the anticalcification activity of ethanol on bioprosthetic heart valve (BHV) calcification. We hypothesize that the chelating agent, in combination with ethanol, will synergistically prevent aortic wall calcification. Collagen-elastin matrix (CEM) was developed as a calcifiable matrix for simulating the calcification process of implantable biomaterials. The efficacy of the combination effects of ethanol and EDTA on the calcification process of CEMs was investigated by implanting them after pretreatment with various conditions of ethanol and EDTA in the rat subdermal model. The relationship between calcium concentrations and pretreatment conditions (a series vs. simultaneous, i.e., first ethanol and then EDTA in water solution, the reverse, or EDTA in ethanol) was established and the optimal condition for prevention of BHV calcification was determined. The mechanistic studies on anticalcification effects exerted by particular pretreatment sequences were also conducted using FTIR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The sequential pretreatment of CEM first with ethanol and then EDTA in water solution significantly decreased the calcification rate of CEM compared the control. The percentage of prevention of calcification by the serial treatment of ethanol (80% v/v) and then EDTA in water solutions decreased, as the concentration of elastin in the CEM increased. The percentage of preventing calcification was 42%, 28.6%, and 22.9% for CEM containing collagen and elastin ratios of 90:10, 50:50, 20:80, respectively. These results indicate that elastin is the major regulatory component of BHV calcification, and preventive effects on calcification increased only when CEM were pretreated with first ethanol and then EDTA in water solution. Moreover, the sequential effect is more apparent in the matrix of less elastin content, which is close to the physiological range. The sequential inhibitory effects of ethanol and

  13. Purification and characterization of Fe(III)-EDTA reductase from Bacillus sp. B-3.

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Emiko

    2011-01-01

    Fe(III)-EDTA reductase was purified from Bacillus sp. B-3 isolated as a Fe(III)-EDTA-degrading bacterium. The purified enzyme showed a single protein band corresponding to a molecular mass of 19 kDa on SDS-PAGE, and had FMN as cofactor. It was alkali-thermostable. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence was identical with that of NADPH azoreductase from several species of Bacillus.

  14. EDTA treatment alters protein glycosylation in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.M.; Brownstein, S.A. )

    1988-03-01

    The authors have found that treatment of cells with EDTA resulted in the accumulation of lower molecular weight forms of two cell-type-specific glycoproteins. These new glycoproteins lacked a developmentally regulated glycoantigen defined by monoclonal antibody 54.2. Since EDTA dissociated the cells, the possible involvement of cell separation was tested by immobilizing cells in soft agarose. Glycoantigen expression on these proteins was found to be dependent on cAMP and high oxygen tension but not on cell contact, and was reversibly sensitive to EDTA regardless of the state of cell association. The EDTA effect was mimicked by other soluble, but not particulate, membrane impermeable chelators, could be completed by Zn{sup 2+} better than Mg{sup 2+}, and appeared to involve an intracellular mechanism. Studies with ({sup 14}C)EDTA showed that EDTA equilibrated with a cellular compartment in a temperature-dependent, Zn{sup 2+}-insensitive fashion with half-time kinetics of loading and unloading of 30-40 min. The data suggest that this step in glycosylation, which was found to be delayed 1 or more hours subsequent to protein synthesis, involves an intracellular, transition metal-ion-dependent process which can be modulated by chelators entering the cell through the endocytic pathway.

  15. Electrochemical Oxidation of EDTA in Nuclear Wastewater Using Platinum Supported on Activated Carbon Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Zhu, Wenkun; Mu, Tao; Hu, Zuowen; Duan, Tao

    2017-01-01

    A novel Pt/ACF (Pt supported on activated carbon fibers) electrode was successfully prepared with impregnation and electrodeposition method. Characterization of the electrodes indicated that the Pt/ACF electrode had a larger effective area and more active sites. Electrochemical degradation of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) in aqueous solution with Pt/ACF electrodes was investigated. The results showed that the 3% Pt/ACF electrode had a better effect on EDTA removal. The operational parameters influencing the electrochemical degradation of EDTA with 3% Pt/ACF electrode were optimized and the optimal removal of EDTA and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 94% and 60% after 100 min on condition of the electrolyte concentration, initial concentration of EDTA, current density and initial value of pH were 0.1 mol/L, 300 mg/L, 40 mA/cm2 and 5.0, respectively. The degradation intermediates of EDTA in electrochemical oxidation with 3% Pt/ACF electrode were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS). PMID:28754016

  16. Degradation of the Ferric Chelate of EDTA by a Pure Culture of an Agrobacterium sp

    PubMed Central

    Lauff, John J.; Steele, D. Bernie; Coogan, Louise A.; Breitfeller, James M.

    1990-01-01

    A pure culture of an Agrobacterium sp. (deposited as ATCC 55002) that mineralizes the ferric chelate of EDTA (ferric-EDTA) was isolated by selective enrichment from a treatment facility receiving industrial waste containing ferric-EDTA. The isolate grew on ferric-EDTA as the sole carbon source at concentrations exceeding 100 mM. As the degradation proceeded, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and an unidentified metabolite(s) were produced; the pH increased, and iron was precipitated from solution. The maximum rate of degradation observed with sodium ferric-EDTA as the substrate was 24 mM/day. At a substrate concentration of 35 mM, 90% of the substrate was degraded in 3 days and 70% of the associated chemical oxygen demand was removed from solution. Less than 15% of the carbon initially present was incorporated into the cell mass. Significant growth of this strain was not observed with uncomplexed EDTA as the sole carbon source at comparable concentrations; however, the ferric chelate of propylenediaminetetraacetic acid (ferric-PDTA) did support growth. PMID:16348340

  17. Chelant extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils using new selective EDTA derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Liu, Jun-Min; Huang, Xiong-Fei; Xia, Bing; Su, Cheng-Yong; Luo, Guo-Fan; Xu, Yao-Wei; Wu, Ying-Xin; Mao, Zong-Wan; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2013-11-15

    Soil washing is one of the few permanent treatment alternatives for removing metal contaminants. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and its salts can substantially increase heavy metal removal from contaminated soils and have been extensively studied for soil washing. However, EDTA has a poor utilization ratio due to its low selectivity resulting from the competition between soil major cations and trace metal ions for chelation. The present study evaluated the potential for soil washing using EDTA and three of its derivatives: CDTA (trans-1,2-cyclohexanediaminetetraacetic acid), BDTA (benzyldiaminetetraacetic acid), and PDTA (phenyldiaminetetraacetic acid), which contain a cylcohexane ring, a benzyl group, and a phenyl group, respectively. Titration results showed that PDTA had the highest stability constants for Cu(2+) and Ni(2+) and the highest overall selectivity for trace metals over major cations. Equilibrium batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the EDTA derivatives at extracting Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), Ca(2+), and Fe(3+) from a contaminated soil. At pH 7.0, PDTA extracted 1.5 times more Cu(2+) than did EDTA, but only 75% as much Ca(2+). Although CDTA was a strong chelator of heavy metal ions, its overall selectivity was lower and comparable to that of EDTA. BDTA was the least effective extractant because its stability constants with heavy metals were low. PDTA is potentially a practical washing agent for soils contaminated with trace metals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Degradation of the Ferric Chelate of EDTA by a Pure Culture of an Agrobacterium sp.

    PubMed

    Lauff, J J; Steele, D B; Coogan, L A; Breitfeller, J M

    1990-11-01

    A pure culture of an Agrobacterium sp. (deposited as ATCC 55002) that mineralizes the ferric chelate of EDTA (ferric-EDTA) was isolated by selective enrichment from a treatment facility receiving industrial waste containing ferric-EDTA. The isolate grew on ferric-EDTA as the sole carbon source at concentrations exceeding 100 mM. As the degradation proceeded, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and an unidentified metabolite(s) were produced; the pH increased, and iron was precipitated from solution. The maximum rate of degradation observed with sodium ferric-EDTA as the substrate was 24 mM/day. At a substrate concentration of 35 mM, 90% of the substrate was degraded in 3 days and 70% of the associated chemical oxygen demand was removed from solution. Less than 15% of the carbon initially present was incorporated into the cell mass. Significant growth of this strain was not observed with uncomplexed EDTA as the sole carbon source at comparable concentrations; however, the ferric chelate of propylenediaminetetraacetic acid (ferric-PDTA) did support growth.

  19. Evaluating EDTA as a substitute for phosphoric acid-etching of enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Imbery, Terence A; Kennedy, Matthew; Janus, Charles; Moon, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes released when dentin is acid-etched. The enzymes are capable of destroying unprotected collagen fibrils that are not encapsulated by the dentin adhesive. Chlorhexidine applied after etching inhibits the activation of released MMPs, whereas neutral ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) prevents the release of MMPs. The purpose of this study was to determine if conditioning enamel and dentin with EDTA can be a substitute for treating acid-etching enamel and dentin with chlorhexidine. A column of composite resin was bonded to enamel and dentin after conditioning. Shear bond strengths were evaluated after 48 hours and after accelerated aging for three hours in 12% sodium hypochlorite. Shear bond strengths ranged from 15.6 MP a for accelerated aged EDTA enamel specimens to 26.8 MPa for dentin conditioned with EDTA and tested after 48 hours. A three-way ANOVA and a Tukey HSD test found statistically significant differences among the eight groups and the three independent variables (P < 0.05). EDTA was successfully substituted for phosphoric acid-etched enamel and dentin treated with chlorhexidine. Interactions of conditioning agent and aging were significant for dentin but not for enamel. In an effort to reduce the detrimental effects of MMPs, conditioning enamel and dentin with EDTA is an alternative to treating acid-etched dentin and enamel with chlorhexidine.

  20. Effect of microgravity on collagenase deproteinization and EDTA decalcification of bone fragments.

    PubMed

    Simske, S J; Luttges, M W

    1994-09-01

    Undecalcified (n = 140) and decalcified (n = 11) bone fragments were treated with either collagenase (to remove collagen portion; undecalcified n = 64, decalcified n = 11) or EDTA (to remove mineral portion; n = 76) under the reduced gravity environment on US Space Shuttle mission STS-57. The fragments were initially stored in Dulbecco's phosphate buffer solution. After orbit had been established, fragments were exposed to either a neutral buffered collagenase or EDTA solution. Reactions were terminated (neutral buffered formalin for collagenase, 21% CuSO4 5H2O for EDTA) before reentry to earth's atmosphere. Differences in bone samples mass from before flight to after flight were measured. EDTA-treated sample mass was corrected for CuSO4 content. Flight and matched ground (gravitational control) sample showed similar EDTA-induced loss of mineral mass. Collagenase treatments, however, appeared to be more effective in flight samples compared to ground control samples. The flight-exposed, collagenase-treated samples showed significantly more loss of mass than did ground samples. The microgravity environment appeared to promote proteolytic reactions in bone more than the EDTA decalcification reaction.

  1. Comparison of manual and laboratory PCV and total protein using EDTA and lithium heparin canine samples.

    PubMed

    Tamborini, A; Papakonstantinou, S; Brown, A; Brennan, S; Shiel, R E; Mills, J N; Mooney, C T

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate if lithium heparin (LiH) and potassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) can be used interchangeably to obtain packed cell volume (PCV) and total protein by refractometry (TPr), and to compare those values with laboratorywderived haematocrit (Hct) and total protein (TP) concentration, respectively, in canine blood samples. Blood samples taken in LiH and EDTA were manually assessed for PCV and TPr. Results were correlated to Hct and TP. 238 EDTA and corresponding serum/LiH samples were obtained. There was excellent correlation but statistically significant difference between LiH and EDTA PCV (n=43). LiH and EDTA TPr (n=43) were excellently correlated without significant difference. PCV and Hct (n=176) were excellently correlated without significant difference. LiH (n=105) and serum (n=133) TP was respectively fairly or well correlated with TPr but with significant differences. An increase in cholesterol of 1 mmol/L was associated with a mean independent increase in TPr of approximately 1 g/L. LiH and EDTA can be used interchangeably for TPr. Although TPr and serum/plasma TP were correlated, there were statistically significant differences that could impact on clinical decision making. TPr is increased by cholesterol but this alone could not account for the magnitude of the difference observed. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  2. Effect of microgravity on collagenase deprotoeinization and EDTA decalcification of bone fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simske, S. J.; Luttges, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    Undecalcified (n = 140) and decalcified (n = 11) bone fragments were treated with either collagenase (to remove collagen portion; undecalcified n = 64, decalcified n = 11) or EDTA (to remove mineral portion; n= 76) under the reduced gravity environment on US Space Shuttle mission STS-57. The fragments were initially stored in Dulbecco's phosphate buffer solution. After orbit had been established, fragments were exposed to either a neutral buffered collagenase or EDTA solution. Reactions were terminated (neutral buffered formalin for collagenase, 21% CuSO4-5H2O for EDTA) before reentry to earth's atmosphere. Differences in bone samples mass from before flight to after flight were measured. EDTA-treated sample mass was corrected for CuSO4 content. Flight and matched ground (gravitational control) sample showed similar EDTA-induced loss of mineral mass. Collagenase treatments, however, appeared to be more effective in flight samples compared to ground control samples. The flight-exposed, collagenase-treated samples showed significantly more loss than did ground samples. The microgravity environment appeared to promote proteolytic reactions in bone more than the EDTA decalcification reaction.

  3. Controlling of dielectrical properties of hydroxyapatite by ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) for bone healing applications.

    PubMed

    Kaygili, Omer; Ates, Tankut; Keser, Serhat; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A; Yakuphanoglu, Fahrettin

    2014-08-14

    The hydroxyapatite (HAp) samples in the presence of various amounts of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) were prepared by sol-gel method. The effects of EDTA on the crystallinity, phase structure, chemical, micro-structural and dielectric properties of HAp samples were investigated. With the addition of EDTA, the average crystallite size of the HAp samples is gradually decreased from 30 to 22 nm and the crystallinity is in the range of 65-71%. The values of the lattice parameters (a and c) and volume of the unit cell are decreased by stages with the addition of EDTA. The dielectric parameters such as relative permittivity, dielectric loss and relaxation time are affected by the adding of EDTA. The alternating current conductivity of the as-synthesized hydroxyapatites increases with the increasing frequency and obeys the universal power law behavior. The HAp samples exhibit a non-Debye relaxation mechanism. The obtained results that the dielectrical parameters of the HAp sample can be controlled by EDTA.

  4. Inhibition of Salmonella Enteritidis by cerein 8A, EDTA and sodium lactate.

    PubMed

    Lappe, Rosiele; Motta, Amanda S; Sant'anna, Voltaire; Brandelli, Adriano

    2009-11-15

    The ability of the bacteriocin cerein 8A to inhibit Salmonella Enteritidis in combination with EDTA and sodium lactate was investigated. Salmonella Enteritidis was incubated with combinations of cerein 8A (3200AU/mL) and EDTA (20, 50, 100 mmol/L) or sodium lactate (200 mmol/L). All treatments caused a significant reduction in the OD(600) values of Salmonella Enteritidis cultures. The addition of cerein 8A plus EDTA resulted in higher inhibition in comparison with the bacteriocin alone; the greater the concentration of EDTA, the greater the inhibitory effect. The combination of cerein 8A plus 100 mmol/L EDTA results in a more efficient treatment to reduce the number of viable cells of Salmonella Enteritidis. The combination of cerein 8A plus sodium lactate also showed significant inhibition of the indicator organism. Transmission electron microscopy showed damaged cell walls and loss of protoplasmic material in treated cells. The cells of Salmonella Enteritidis treated with cerein 8A plus EDTA appeared more injured. The bacteriocin cerein 8A may be useful to inhibit Gram-negative bacteria, with enhanced effect in combination with chelating agents. Control of Salmonella Enteritidis, a Gram-negative bacterium constantly linked to food outbreaks, addresses an important aspect of food safety.

  5. Comparative effect of calcium and EDTA on arsenic uptake and physiological attributes of Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Marina; Shahid, Muhammad; Abbas, Ghulam; Shamshad, Saliha; Khalid, Sana; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Dumat, Camille

    2017-07-03

    In this study, we determined the effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and calcium (Ca) on arsenic (As) uptake and toxicity to Pisum sativum. Plants were treated with three levels of As (25, 125, and 250 µM) in the presence and absence of three levels of Ca (1, 5, and 10 mM) and EDTA (25, 125, and 250 µM). Exposure to As caused an overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in roots and leaves, which induced lipid peroxidation and decreased pigment contents. Application of both Ca and EDTA significantly reduced As accumulation by pea, Ca being more effective in reducing As accumulation. Both Ca and EDTA enhanced As-induced H2O2 production, but reduced lipid peroxidation. In the case of pigment contents, EDTA significantly reduced pigment contents, whereas Ca significantly enhanced pigment contents compared to As alone. The effect of As treatment in the presence and absence of EDTA and Ca was more pronounced in younger leaves compared to older leaves. The effect of amendments varied greatly with their applied levels, as well as type and age of plant organs. Importantly, due to possible precipitation of Ca-As compounds, the soils with higher levels of Ca ions are likely to be less prone to food chain contamination.

  6. The role of EDTA in malonaldehyde formation from DNA oxidized by Fenton reagent systems.

    PubMed

    Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2004-05-19

    Calf thymus DNA was oxidized by various Fenton reagent systems [Fe(II)/H(2)O(2)] with or without ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) under different reaction conditions. Calf DNA was also oxidized by a modified Fenton reagent (Fe(III)/H(2)O(2)/ascorbic acid) with EDTA. Malonaldehyde (MA) formed from DNA was derivatized into 1-methyl hydrazine, which was subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector. MA formation increased linearly with an increase of Fe(II) concentration. MA formation reached a plateau at nearly 2 mmol/L of Fe(II) with 0.5 mmol/L of H(2)O(2). Addition of EDTA increased MA formation from DNA nearly 5 times. When DNA was oxidized with various amount of ethanol, MA formation decreased with an increase of ethanol concentration, either with or without EDTA. The rate of inhibition was greater without EDTA than with EDTA. When DNA was oxidized by a modified Fenton reagent, MA formation linearly increased with the increase of DNA. Ascorbic acid alone produced some MA upon oxidation.

  7. Recycling of EDTA solution after soil washing of Pb, Zn, Cd and As contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Pociecha, Maja; Lestan, Domen

    2012-02-01

    Soil washing with EDTA is known to be an effective means of removing toxic metals from contaminated soil. A practical way of recycling of used soil washing solution remains, however, an unsolved technical problem. We demonstrate here, in a laboratory scale experiment, the feasibility of using acid precipitation to recover up to 50% of EDTA from used soil washing solution obtained after extraction of Pb (5330 mg kg(-1)), Zn (3400 mg kg(-1)), Cd (35 mg kg(-1)) and As (279 mg kg(-1)) contaminated soil. Up to 100% of EDTA residual in the washing solution and 100%, 97%, 98% and 100% of initial Pb, Zn, Cd and As concentration in the solution, respectively, were removed in an electrolytic cell using a graphite anode. We employed the recovered EDTA and treated washing solution to prepare recycled soil washing solution with the same potential for extracting toxic metals from soil as the original. The efficiency of soil washing depends on the EDTA concentration. Using twice recycled 30 mmol EDTA kg(-1) soil, we removed 44%, 20%, 53% and 61% of Pb, Zn, Cd and As, respectively, from contaminated soil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancing phosphorus release from waste activated sludge containing ferric or aluminum phosphates by EDTA addition during anaerobic fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jinte; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Lin; Li, Yongmei

    2017-03-01

    The effect of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) addition on phosphorus release from biosolids and phosphate precipitates during anaerobic fermentation was investigated. Meanwhile, the impact of EDTA addition on the anaerobic fermentation process was revealed. The results indicate that EDTA addition significantly enhanced the release of phosphorus from biosolids, ferric phosphate precipitate and aluminum phosphate precipitate during anaerobic fermentation, which is attributed to the complexation of metal ions and damage of cell membrane caused by EDTA. With the optimal EDTA addition of 19.5 mM (0.41 gEDTA/gSS), phosphorus release efficiency from biosolids was 82%, which was much higher than that (40%) without EDTA addition. Meanwhile, with 19.5 mM EDTA addition, almost all the phosphorus in ferric phosphate precipitate was released, while only 57% of phosphorus in aluminum phosphate precipitate was released. This indicates that phosphorus in ferric phosphate precipitate was much easier to be released than that in aluminum phosphate precipitate during anaerobic fermentation of sludge. In addition, proper EDTA addition facilitated the production of soluble total organic carbon and volatile fatty acids, as well as solid reduction during sludge fermentation, although methane production could be inhibited. Therefore, EDTA addition can be used as an alternative method for recovering phosphorus from waste activated sludge containing ferric or aluminum precipitates, as well as recovery of soluble carbon source.

  9. Recovery of EDTA from complex solution using Cu(II) as precipitant and Cu(II) subsequent removal by electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Gyliene, O; Aikaite, J; Nivinskiene, O

    2004-12-10

    Ethylendiaminetetraacetate (EDTA) is a chelating agent widely used in industry and agriculture. Resistant to chemical and biological degradation EDTA represents a serious ecological problem. In order to avoid the outlet into the environment a new method of EDTA recycling has been proposed. The method involves substituting of the metal ions in EDTA complexes by Cu(II) and formation of an insoluble Cu2EDTA.4H2O compound at the excess of Cu(II) ions in weakly acidic solutions. Cu(II) ions substitute such metal ions as Ni(II), Zn(II), Co(II), Cd(II), Ca(II) and Mg(II). After treatment of the precipitate with water only, acidic or alkaline solutions the copper from the suspension formed can be removed by electrolysis. The highest current efficiency under galvanostatic conditions is in alkaline solutions, however, the highest yield of EDTA recovery is in acidic solutions. FT-IR investigations and chemical analysis of the precipitate formed have shown that in acidic and in alkaline solutions, H4EDTA and Na2H2EDTA.2H2O were formed, respectively. Electrolysis in acidic solutions gives the best results, i.e. the formed H4EDTA contains the highest amount of EDTA (95%) and the lowest amount of copper (0.01%).

  10. Effect of oral calcium disodium EDTA on iron absorption in a human model of iron overdose.

    PubMed

    Matteucci, Michael J; Habibe, Michael; Robson, Kristie; Baldassano, Accursia A; Riffenburgh, Robert H; Tanen, David A

    2006-01-01

    Anecdotal case reports and animal models have suggested that the administration of CaNa2EDTA (EDTA) may be effective in reducing the absorption of iron after an oral iron overdose. We designed this study to determine the effect of orally administrated EDTA with or without activated charcoal (AC) on iron absorption after a mild iron ingestion in healthy human volunteers. A randomized, crossover study was conducted in eight healthy human volunteers. All subjects ingested 5 mg/kg of elemental iron in the form of ferrous sulfate. One hour post ingestion, subjects were randomized to receive 35 mg/kg EDTA, EDTA plus 50 grams of AC, or water. Serial iron levels were obtained at baseline and every hour for the first 6 hours, then at 8, 12, and 24 hours. A 2-week washout was used between study arms. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for the following comparisons between treatment groups: baseline serum iron levels, area under time-concentration curves (AUCs) from baseline to 12 hours and baseline to 24 hours, and peak iron levels. Baseline serum iron levels did not differ among the three treatment groups (p = 0.844). AUCs were not different among groups (p = 0.746 for 12 hr, p = 0.925 for 24 hr). AUC medians (with 95% binomial confidence bounds) for control, EDTA, EDTA + AC groups, respectively, for 12 hr were: 2813 (2298, 3561), 2570 (1669, 3476), and 2654 (2125, 3600); and for 24 hr were: 4083 (3488,5314), 4139 (2666, 5547), and 4274 (3336, 5577). Peak serum iron levels did not differ among treatment groups (p = 0.481). Peak iron level medians in microg/dL (with 95% binomial confidence bounds) were for control: 329 (253, 382), for EDTA: 271 (184, 375), and for EDTA + AC: 285 (229, 352). Orally administered EDTA did not significantly reduce iron absorption when administered 1 hour post iron ingestion during the 12 or 24-hour period following the ingestion of 5 mg/kg of elemental iron in healthy human volunteers.

  11. Effect of NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce on zinc absorption in children.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Wu, Jinghuan; Ren, Tongxiang; Wang, Rui; Li, Weidong; Piao, Jianhua; Wang, Jun; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2015-03-01

    NaFeEDTA has been applied in many foods as an iron fortificant and is used to prevent iron deficiency in Fe-depleted populations. In China, soy sauce is fortified with NaFeEDTA to control iron deficiency. However, it is unclear whether Fe-fortified soy sauce affects zinc absorption. To investigate whether NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce affects zinc absorption in children, sixty children were enrolled in this study and randomly assigned to three groups (10 male children and 10 female children in each group). All children received daily 3 mg of (67)Zn and 1.2 mg of dysprosium orally, while the children in the three groups were supplemented with NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce (6 mg Fe, NaFeEDTA group), FeSO₄-fortified soy sauce (6 mg Fe, FeSO₄ group), and no iron-fortified soy sauce (control group), respectively. Fecal samples were collected during the experimental period and analyzed for the Zn content, (67)Zn isotope ratio and dysprosium content. The Fe intake from NaFeEDTA-fortified and FeSO₄-fortified groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.0001). The daily total Zn intake was not significantly different among the three groups. There were no significant differences in fractional Zn absorption (FZA) (P = 0.3895), dysprosium recovery (P = 0.7498) and Zn absorption (P = 0.5940) among the three groups. Therefore, NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce does not affect Zn bioavailability in children.

  12. Comparison of EDTA and EDDS as potential soil amendments for enhanced phytoextraction of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Meers, E; Ruttens, A; Hopgood, M J; Samson, D; Tack, F M G

    2005-02-01

    Phytoextraction has been proposed as an alternative remediation technology for soils polluted with heavy metals or radionuclides, but is generally conceived as too slow working. Enhancing the accumulation of trace pollutants in harvestable plant tissues is a prerequisite for the technology to be practically applicable. The chelating aminopolycarboxylic acid, ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA), has been found to enhance shoot accumulation of heavy metals. However, the use of EDTA in phytoextraction may not be suitable due to its high environmental persistence, which may lead to groundwater contamination. This paper aims to assess whether ethylene diamine disuccinate (EDDS), a biodegradable chelator, can be used for enhanced phytoextraction purposes. A laboratory experiment was conducted to examine mobilisation of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn into the soil solution upon application of EDTA or EDDS. The longevity of the induced mobilisation was monitored for a period of 40 days after application. Estimated effect half lives ranged between 3.8 and 7.5 days for EDDS, depending on the applied dose. The minimum observed effect half life of EDTA was 36 days, while for the highest applied dose no decrease was observed throughout the 40 day period of the mobilisation experiment. Performance of EDTA and EDDS for phytoextraction was evaluated by application to Helianthus annuus. Two other potential chelators, known for their biodegradability in comparison to EDTA, were tested in the plant experiment: nitrilo acetic acid (NTA) and citric acid. Uptake of heavy metals was higher in EDDS-treated pots than in EDTA-treated pots. The effects were still considered insufficiently high to consider efficient remediation. This may be partly due to the choice of timing for application of the soil amendment. Fixing the time of application at an earlier point before harvest may yield better results. NTA and citric acid induced no significant effects on heavy metal uptake.

  13. Sequence-specific cleavage of single-stranded DNA: oligodeoxynucleotide-EDTA X Fe(II).

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, G B; Dervan, P B

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis of a DNA hybridization probe 19 nucleotides in length, equipped with the metal chelator EDTA at C-5 of thymidine in position 10 (indicated by T*) is described. DNA-EDTA 1 has the sequence 5'-T-A-A-C-G-C-A-G-T*-C-A-G-G-C-A-C-C-G-T-3', which is complementary to a 19-nucleotide sequence in the plasmid pBR322. In the presence of Fe(II), O2, and dithiothreitol, DNA-EDTA 1 affords specific cleavage (25 degrees C, pH 7.4, 60 min) at its complementary sequence in a heat-denatured 167-base-pair restriction fragment. Cleavage occurs over a range of 16 nucleotides at the site of hybridization of 1, presumably due to a diffusible reactive species. No other cleavage sites are observed in the 167-base-pair restriction fragment. The procedure used to synthesize DNA-EDTA probes is based on the incorporation of a thymidine modified at C-5 with the triethyl ester of EDTA. By using routine phosphoramidite procedures, thymidine-EDTA can be incorporated into oligodeoxynucleotides of any desired length and sequence. Because the efficiency of the DNA cleavage reaction is dependent on the addition of both Fe(II) and reducing agent (dithiothreitol), the initiation of the cleavage reaction can be controlled. These DNA-EDTA X Fe(II) probes should be useful for the sequence-specific cleavage of single-stranded DNA (and most likely RNA) under mild conditions. Images PMID:3919391

  14. EDTA and citric acid mediated phytoextraction of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd through marigold (Tagetes erecta).

    PubMed

    Sinhal, V K; Srivastava, Alok; Singh, V P

    2010-05-01

    Phytoextraction is an emerging cost-effective solution for remediation of contaminated soils which involves the removal of toxins, especially heavy metals and metalloids, by the roots of the plants with subsequent transport to aerial plant organs. The aim of the present investigation is to study the effects of EDTA and citric acid on accumulation potential of marigold (Tagetes erecta) to Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd and also to evaluate the impacts of these chelators (EDTA and citric acid) in combination with all the four heavy metals on the growth of marigold. The plants were grown in pots and treated with Zn (7.3 mg l(-1)), Cu (7.5 mg I(-1)), Pb (3.7 mg l(-1)) and Cd (0.2 mg l(-1)) alone and in combination with different doses of EDTA i.e., 10, 20 and 30 mg l(-1). All the three doses of EDTA i.e., 10, 20 and 30 mg l(-1) significantly increased the accumulation of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd by roots, stems and leaves as compared to control treatments. The 30 mg l(-1) concentration of citric acid showed reduced accumulation of these metals by root, stem and leaves as compared to lower doses i.e., 10 and 20 mg l(-1). Among the four heavy metals, Zn accumulated in the great amount (526.34 mg kg(-1) DW) followed by Cu (443.14 mg kg(-1) DW), Pb (393.16 mg kg(-1) DW) and Cd (333.62 mg kg(-1) DW) in leaves with 30 mg l(-1) EDTA treatment. The highest concentration of EDTA and citric acid (30 mg l(-1)) caused significant reduction in growth of marigold in terms of plant height, fresh weight of plant, total chlorophyll, carbohydrate content and protein content. Thus EDTA and citric acid efficiently increased the phytoextractability of marigold which can be used to remediate the soil contaminated with these metals.

  15. Radiation effects on the dissolution kinetics of magnetite and hematite in EDTA- and NTA-based dilute chemical decontamination formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keny, S. J.; Kumbhar, A. G.; Venkateswaran, G.; Kishore, Kamal

    2005-03-01

    Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)- and nitrilo triacetic acid (NTA)-based formulations such as citric acid (CA)/EDTA/ascorbic acid (AA), CA/EDTA/gallic acid (GA), CA/NTA/AA and CA/NTA/GA were used for dissolving magnetite and hematite under similar experimental conditions of temperature, amount of the oxide and the concentration of the formulations (close to stoichiometric conditions). In unirradiated solutions, EDTA-based formulations were more efficient in dissolving these oxides than NTA-based formulations. Similarly, formulations containing AA as reductant gave better results as compared to formulations containing GA as reductant in unirradiated solutions. However, in gamma-irradiated formulations, the efficiency of dissolution was affected to a much greater extent in EDTA and AA containing formulations as compared to NTA and GA containing formulations. Both NTA and GA were found to be less prone to radiation degradation as compared to EDTA and AA.

  16. Effect of EDTA solution on corrosion fatigue of Ni-Ti files with different shapes.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yuki; Goto, Shin-ichi; Ogura, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of EDTA solutions (3% and 10% EDTA•2Na) on corrosion fatigue of three Ni-Ti files with different shapes, in comparison with other solutions (6% NaClO, 3% H2O2, 0.9% NaCl and distilled water). Ni-Ti files were subjected to rotational bending in a bent glass tube (30° and 60° angles) filled with the solutions, and the number of rotations to failure was counted. At 30° bent angle, files in the two EDTA solutions showed significantly lower resistance than those in distilled water, but no significant difference was found between the two EDTA solutions. Fatigue resistance of two tested files in the two EDTA solutions was not significantly different from those in the other three solutions, whereas one file in EDTA solutions showed significantly lower resistance than that in 3% H2O2. At 60° bent angle, early failure within 1-2.5 min was observed for all tested files, and no significant difference was found among the six solutions. At both angles, significant differences in fatigue resistance were observed among the three tested files, which could be related to the difference in the cross-sectional shapes of the files.

  17. Pd/RGO modified carbon felt cathode for electro-Fenton removing of EDTA-Ni.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Junya; Ye, Xiaokun; Hu, Yongyou; Chen, Yuancai

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) forms stable complexes with toxic metals such as nickel due to its strong chelation. The electro-Fenton (EF) process using a cathode made from palladium (Pd), reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and carbon felt, fed with air, exhibited high activities and stability for the removal of 10 mg L(-1) EDTA-Ni solution. Pd/RGO catalyst was prepared by one-pot synthesis; the scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis indicated nanoparticles and RGO were well distributed on carbon felt, forming three dimensional architecture with both large macropores and a mesoporous structure. The cyclic voltammetric results showed that the presence of RGO in Pd/RGO/carbon felt significantly increased the current response of two-electron reduction of O2 (0.45 V). The key factors influencing the removal efficiency of EDTA-Ni, such as pH, current and Fe(2+) concentration, were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the removal efficiency of EDTA-Ni reached 83.8% after 100 min EF treatment. Mechanism analysis indicated that the introduction of RGO in Pd/RGO/carbon felt significantly enhanced the electrocatalytic activities by inducing •OH in the EF process; direct H2O2 oxidation still accounted for a large amount of EDTA-Ni removal efficiency.

  18. Effects of caffeine or EDTA post-treatment on EMS mutagenesis in soybean.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B; Gu, A; Deng, X; Geng, Y; Lu, Z

    1995-04-01

    Seeds of soybean cultivar LD4 were mutagenically treated with EMS (0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 0.9, 1.5 and 1.8%) for 3 h only or plus caffeine (50 mM) or EDTA (1 mM) post-treatment for 5 h. The experimental results indicated that: (1) of the different concentrations of EMS treatment, the M2 mutation frequency induced with 0.6% EMS was the highest (9.7%). When the EMS concentration was over 0.9%, the mutation frequency decreased rapidly. (2) Of the EMS treatments plus caffeine or EDTA post-treatment, the mutagenic effect of 0.6% EMS was the best for inducing morphological variations. Caffeine post-treatment decreased notably the mutation frequency of EMS treatment; when concentrations of EMS were very high (1.5% and 1.8%), mutation frequencies of EDTA post-treatment were still 5.0% and 4.88%, but no mutants were found in EMS treatment or plus caffeine post-treatment. (3) In the M2 mutation spectrum, 11 kinds of mutant types were observed in EMS treatment or plus caffeine or EDTA post-treatment. Relative frequencies of some mutant types (growth period, plant height, grain size, leaf shape and sterility, etc.) were similar among the three treatments, but EDTA post-treatment could change the relative frequencies of yield characteristics (number of pods and grains, grain weight/plant) induced by EMS treatment only.

  19. The effect of EDTA with and without ultrasonics on removal of the smear layer.

    PubMed

    Kuah, Hong-Guan; Lui, Jeen-Nee; Tseng, Patrick S K; Chen, Nah-Nah

    2009-03-01

    This study evaluated in vitro effectiveness of 17% EDTA with and without ultrasonics on smear layer removal. One hundred and five extracted premolars randomly divided into seven groups were instrumented with different final irrigating protocols: group A (Sal3US), saline for 3 minutes with ultrasonics; groups B (Na3) and C (Na3US), 1% sodium hypochlorite for 3 minutes without and with ultrasonics, respectively; groups D (ED3) and E (ED3US), 17% EDTA for 3 minutes without and with ultrasonics, respectively; and groups F (ED1) and G (ED1US), 17% EDTA for 1 minute without and with ultrasonics, respectively. Specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope and scored for smear layer and debris removal. Statistical analysis showed that groups with EDTA and ultrasonic irrigation, groups E (ED3US) and G (ED1US), had significantly more specimens with complete smear layer and debris removal. There was no significant difference between groups E (ED3US) and G (ED1US). A 1-minute application of combined use of EDTA and ultrasonics is efficient for smear layer and debris removal in the apical region of the root canal.

  20. EDTA-induced membrane fluidization and destabilization: biophysical studies on artificial lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Tantimongcolwat, Tanawut; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2007-11-01

    The molecular mechanism of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-induced membrane destabilization has been studied using a combination of four biophysical techniques on artificial lipid membranes. Data from Langmuir film balance and epifluorescence microscopy revealed the fluidization and expansion effect of EDTA on phase behavior of monolayers of either 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) or mixtures of DPPC and metal-chelating lipids, such as N(alpha),N(alpha)-Bis[carboxymethyl]-N(epsilon)-[(dioctadecylamino)succinyl]-L-lysine or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-[N-(5-amino-1-carboxypentyl iminodiacetic acid) succinyl]. A plausible explanation could be drawn from the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged groups of EDTA and the positively charged choline head group of DPPC. Intercalation of EDTA into the lipid membrane induced membrane curvature as elucidated by atomic force microscopy. Growth in size and shape of the membrane protrusion was found to be time-dependent upon exposure to EDTA. Further loss of material from the lipid membrane surface was monitored in real time using a quartz crystal microbalance. This indicates membrane restabilization by exclusion of the protrusions from the surface. Loss of lipid components facilitates membrane instability, leading to membrane permeabilization and lysis.

  1. Intestinal permeability to (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA in children with Crohn's disease and celiac disease

    SciTech Connect

    Turck, D.; Ythier, H.; Maquet, E.; Deveaux, M.; Marchandise, X.; Farriaux, J.P.; Fontaine, G.

    1987-07-01

    (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA was used as a probe molecule to assess intestinal permeability in 7 healthy control adults, 11 control children, 17 children with Crohn's disease, and 6 children with untreated celiac disease. After subjects fasted overnight, 75 kBq/kg (= 2 microCi/kg) /sup 51/Cr-labeled EDTA was given by mouth; 24-h urinary excretion of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA was measured and expressed as a percentage of the total oral dose. Mean and SD were as follows: control adults 1.47 +/- 0.62, control children 1.59 +/- 0.55, and patients with Crohn's disease or celiac disease 5.35 +/- 1.94. The difference between control children and patients was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). These results show that intestinal permeability to (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA is increased among children with active or inactive Crohn's disease affecting small bowel only or small bowel and colon, and with untreated celiac disease. The (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA permeability test could facilitate the decision to perform more extensive investigations in children suspected of small bowel disease who have atypical or poor clinical and biological symptomatology.

  2. The use of electrokinetics, EDTA, and flushing solutions in the removal of lead from Kaolin clay

    SciTech Connect

    Coletta, T.F.; Bruell, C.J.; Ryan, D.K.

    1995-12-31

    The use of electrokinets in conjunction with anodic and complexant-bearing cathodic flushing solutions was studied to determine its efficiency in removing lead from clay. Experiments were conducted in a horizontal soil column apparatus with Kaolin clay. Anodic flushing solutions were prepared by mixing water and clay in rations ranging from 2:1 to 40:1 by weight. To decrease the pH (and therefore lead buildup) at the cathode, the cathode was flush with an EDTA solution. A total organic carbon analysis was performed to determine if the EDTA was migrating back into the clay column. Results showed that lead removal efficiency increased with an increasing water to clay ratio to an optimum ratio of 7:1. In addition, increasing the time of cathode flushing to four days with EDTA at pH 4 increased lead removal at the cathode end. Lead removal at the cathode is higher than in columns flushed with sodium chloride and ionic solutions. Flushing the cathode for 10 days resulted in decreased overall lead removal efficiency. This is possibly due to precipitation of EDTA at the low final pH distribution. EDTA does migrate back into the column, and high concentrations are associated with significant lead removal at the cathode end. It appears that the optimization of the elemental constituents of the anodic flushing solution in conjunction with the proper conditioning of the cathode with complexants enhances lead removal from Kaolin clay.

  3. Joint enhancement of lead accumulation in Brassica plants by EDTA and ammonium sulfate in sand culture.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhi-ting; Lu, Ping

    2002-04-01

    When EDTA was added alone in the Pb-contaminated sand, the plant biomass and the total Pb amount in Plant decreased in both species, Brassica pekinensis and B. juncea var. multiceps, though the shoot Pb amount increased. In contrast, when (NH4)2SO4 was added alone in the Pb-contaminated sand, little effect was observed on the shoot Pb amount, though the root Pb amount was significantly increased in B. juncea var. multiceps. When amending EDTA and (NH4)2SO4 in combination, however, the shoot Pb amount in both species substantially increased, being, on an average, 2 times and 9 times higher than that in EDTA alone or (NH4)2SO4 alone amended treatment, respectively. The two amendments showed antagonism for plant growth, but synergism for Pb bioaccumulation. B. pekinensis showed its highest level of shoot and total Pb amount in the treatment amended with EDTA and (NH4)2SO4 only a half as much as in the other treatments. It is inferred that the mechanisms responsible for the joint-enhanced Pb accumulation might be concerned with the acidification of the growth medium, cation exchange reaction and relieving EDTA induced toxicity as results by amending ammonium sulfate.

  4. Influence of EDTA and dentine in tissue dissolution ability of sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Luiza Helena Silva; Leonardo, Natália Gomes e Silva; Gomes, Ana Paula Neutzling; Souza, Erick Miranda; Pappen, Fernanda Geraldes

    2015-04-01

    This study verified whether ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) influences the pulp tissue dissolution capability of different concentrations of NaOCl, in the presence of dentine. NaOCl and EDTA solutions were simultaneously mixed in flasks either containing a dentine disc or those not containing a dentine disc. Previously weighed bovine pulp tissues were immersed in the solutions for 5, 15 and 30 min. The weight loss was measured. The dissolution tests were performed in triplicate. Univariate analysis of variance, along with further Tukey's honestly significant difference pairwise comparisons, was used to verify the effect of EDTA, different concentrations of NaOCl, dentine and time of incubation on the tissue dissolution. Higher concentrations of NaOCl increased the tissue dissolution. EDTA reduced the capacity of NaOCl to dissolve pulp tissue, even in presence of dentine. Dentine negatively affects the capacity of NaOCl to dissolve pulp tissue. In conclusion, the presence of EDTA and dentine negatively affects the tissue dissolution ability of NaOCl.

  5. Electrochemical EDTA recycling after soil washing of Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Pociecha, Maja; Kastelec, Damijana; Lestan, Domen

    2011-08-30

    Recycling of chelant decreases the cost of EDTA-based soil washing. Current methods, however, are not effective when the spent soil washing solution contains more than one contaminating metal. In this study, we applied electrochemical treatment of the washing solution obtained after EDTA extraction of Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated soil. A sacrificial Al anode and stainless steel cathode in a conventional electrolytic cell at pH 10 efficiently removed Pb from the solution. The method efficiency, specific electricity and Al consumption were significantly higher for solutions with a higher initial metal concentration. Partial replacement of NaCl with KNO(3) as an electrolyte (aggressive Cl(-) are required to prevent passivisation of the Al anode) prevented EDTA degradation during the electrolysis. The addition of FeCl(3) to the acidified washing solution prior to electrolysis improved Zn removal. Using the novel method 98, 73 and 66% of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively, were removed, while 88% of EDTA was preserved in the treated washing solution. The recycled EDTA retained 86, 84 and 85% of Pb, Zn and Cd extraction potential from contaminated soil, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Selenium catalyzed Fe(III)-EDTA reduction by Na2SO3: a reaction-controlled phase transfer catalysis.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Kaisong; Liu, Hui; Yang, Bentao; Zhang, Cong; Yang, Shu; Liu, Zhilou; Liu, Cao; Xie, Xiaofeng; Chai, Liyuan; Min, Xiaobo

    2016-04-01

    Fe(II)-EDTA, a typical chelated iron, is able to coordinate with nitric oxide (NO) which accelerates the rates and kinetics of the absorption of flue gas. However, Fe(II)-EDTA can be easily oxidized to Fe(III)-EDTA which is unable to absorb NO. Therefore, the regeneration of fresh Fe(II)-EDTA, which actually is the reduction of Fe(III)-EDTA to Fe(II)-EDTA, becomes a crucial step in the denitrification process. To enhance the reduction rate of Fe(III)-EDTA, selenium was introduced into the SO3 (2-)/Fe(III)-EDTA system as catalyst for the first time. By comparison, the reduction rate was enhanced by four times after adding selenium even at room temperature (25 °C). Encouragingly, elemental Se could precipitate out when SO3 (2-) was consumed up by oxidation to achieve self-separation. A catalysis mechanism was proposed with the aid of ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Tyndall scattering, horizontal attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (HATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In the catalysis process, the interconversion between SeSO3 (2-) and nascent Se formed a catalysis circle for Fe(III)-EDTA reduction in SO3 (2-) circumstance.

  7. Targeted chelation therapy with EDTA-loaded albumin nanoparticles regresses arterial calcification without causing systemic side effects.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yang; Nosoudi, Nasim; Vyavahare, Naren

    2014-12-28

    Elastin-specific medial arterial calcification (MAC) is an arterial disease commonly referred as Monckeberg's sclerosis. It causes significant arterial stiffness, and as yet, no clinical therapy exists to prevent or reverse it. We developed albumin nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with disodium ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) that were designed to target calcified elastic lamina when administrated by intravenous injection. We optimized NP size, charge, and EDTA-loading efficiency (150-200 nm, zeta potential of -22.89--31.72 mV, loading efficiency for EDTA~20%) for in vivo targeting in rats. These NPs released EDTA slowly for up to 5 days. In both ex-vivo study and in vivo study with injury-induced local abdominal aortic calcification, we showed that elastin antibody-coated and EDTA-loaded albumin NPs targeted the damaged elastic lamina while sparing healthy artery. Intravenous NP injections reversed elastin-specific MAC in rats after four injections over a 2-week period. EDTA-loaded albumin NPs did not cause the side effects observed in EDTA injection alone, such as decrease in serum calcium (Ca), increase in urine Ca, or toxicity to kidney. There was no bone loss in any treated groups. We demonstrate that elastin antibody-coated and EDTA-loaded albumin NPs might be a promising nanoparticle therapy to reverse elastin-specific MAC and circumvent side effects associated with systemic EDTA chelation therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Targeted chelation therapy with EDTA-loaded albumin nanoparticles regresses arterial calcification without causing systemic side effects

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yang; Nosoudi, Nasim; Vyavahare, Naren

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Elastin-specific medial arterial calcification (MAC) is an arterial disease commonly referred as Monckeberg’s sclerosis. It causes significant arterial stiffness, and as yet, no clinical therapy exists to prevent or reverse it. We developed albumin nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with disodium ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) that were designed to target calcified elastic lamina when administrated by intravenous injection. Methods and Results We optimized NP size, charge, and EDTA-loading efficiency (150~200 nm, zeta potential of − 22.89 ~ − 31.72 mV, loading efficiency for EDTA ~20 %) for in vivo targeting in rats. These NPs released EDTA slowly for up to 5 days. In both ex-vivo study and in vivo study with injury-induced local abdominal aortic calcification, we showed that elastin antibody-coated and EDTA-loaded albumin NPs targeted the damaged elastic lamina while sparing healthy artery. Intravenous NP injections reversed elastin-specific MAC in rats after four injections over a 2-week period. EDTA-loaded albumin NPs did not cause the side effects observed in EDTA injection alone, such as decrease in serum calcium (Ca), increase in urine Ca, or toxicity to kidney. There was no bone loss in any treated groups. Conclusion We demonstrate that elastin antibody-coated and EDTA-loaded albumin NPs might be a promising nanoparticle therapy to reverse elastin-specific MAC and circumvent side effects associated with systemic EDTA chelation therapy. PMID:25285609

  9. Low concentration of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) affects biofilm formation of Listeria monocytogenes by inhibiting its initial adherence.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuhua; Gu, Weimin; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2012-02-01

    The distribution and survival of the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is associated with its biofilm formation ability, which is affected by various environmental factors. Here we present the first evidence that EDTA at low concentration levels inhibits the biofilm formation of L. monocytogenes. This effect of EDTA is not caused by a general growth inhibition, as 0.1 mM EDTA efficiently reduced the biofilm formation of L. monocytogenes without affecting the planktonic growth. Adding 0.1 mM of EDTA at the starting time of biofilm formation had the strongest biofilm inhibitory effect, while the addition of EDTA after 8 h had no biofilm inhibitory effects. EDTA was shown to inhibit cell-to-surface interactions and cell-to-cell interactions, which at least partially contributed to the repressed initial adherence. The addition of sufficient amounts of cations to saturate EDTA did not restore the biofilm formation, indicating the biofilm inhibition was not due to the chelating properties of EDTA. The study suggests that EDTA functions in the early stage of biofilm process by affecting the initial adherence of L. monocytogenes cells onto abiotic surfaces.

  10. EDTA-enhanced phytoremediation of lead contaminated soil by Bidens maximowicziana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-qi; Lu, Si-jin; Li, Hua; Yao, Zhi-hua

    2007-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a potential cleanup technology for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Bidens maximowicziana is a new Pb hyperaccumulator, which not only has remarkable tolerance to Pb but also extraordinary accumulation capacity for Pb. The maximum Pb concentration was 1509.3 mg/kg in roots and 2164.7 mg/kg in overground tissues. The Pb distribution order in the B. maximowicziana was: leaf > stem > root. The effect of amendments on phytoremediation was also studied. The mobility of soil Pb and the Pb concentrations in plants were both increased by EDTA application. Compared with CK (control check), EDTA application promoted translocation of Pb to overground parts of the plant. The Pb concentrations in overground parts of plants was increased from 24.23-680.56 mg/kg to 29.07-1905.57 mg/kg. This research demonstrated that B. maximowicziana appeared to be suitable for phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soil, especially, combination with EDTA.

  11. Oxygen-dependent conjugation of dopa with cysteine catalysed by iron-EDTA complex.

    PubMed

    Ito, S; Fujita, K

    1984-07-15

    Cytotoxicity of catechols has been ascribed to their binding with proteins through sulfhydryl groups. The possibility that iron-protein complexes catalyse this type of covalent binding was studied with a model system. Reaction of dopa and cysteine catalysed by iron-EDTA complexes at physiological pH resulted in the formation of not only cystine but also conjugation products, cysteinyldopas among which 5-S-cysteinyldopa was the major product. The reaction required iron ion, EDTA, and molecular oxygen. Fe3+ and Fe2+ were equally effective, while other transition metal ions examined had no effect on the formation of cysteinyldopas. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, and scavengers of hydroxyl radical inhibited to some extents the formation of 5-S-cysteinyldopa. Addition of both catalase and superoxide dismutase resulted in approximately 60% inhibition. These results indicated that the iron-EDTA-catalysed conjugation of dopa with cysteine was mainly mediated by hydroxyl radical.

  12. Effect of EDTA on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium involves a component not assignable to lipopolysaccharide release.

    PubMed

    Alakomi, H-L; Saarela, M; Helander, I M

    2003-08-01

    The effect of EDTA on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was studied in different growth phases with cells grown with or without Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) supplementation. EDTA affected the outer membrane much more strongly in the early exponential phase than in the mid- or late exponential phase, as indicated by uptake of 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (a nonpolar hydrophobic probe, M(r) 219), and detergent (SDS) susceptibility. This effect was, however, not paralleled by LPS release (determined by measuring LPS-specific fatty acids or 14C-labelled LPS in cell-free supernatants, per a standardized cell density), which remained unchanged as a function of the growth curve. The conclusion from these results is that in the early exponential phase the effect of EDTA in S. enterica involves a component that is independent of LPS release.

  13. Crystallization of brushite from EDTA-chelated calcium in agar gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plovnick, Ross H.

    1991-10-01

    Brushite (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, CaHPO 4·2H 2O, DCPD) has been crystallized from ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-chelated calcium in agar gels at initial pH 4.5-6.4 and Ca/P molar ratio above about 0.8. White, spherular crystalline DCPD aggregates up to 1 mm in diameter grew in 8-10 weeks. Liesegang ring were occassionally observed at initial gel pH 5 and Ca/P molar ratio near 1. Crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and infrared absorption spectroscopy. Brushite crystals were also grown in agar gels with either unchelated Ca initially present in the gels and EDTA in overlying solutions, or EDTA initially present in the gels and unchelated Ca in overlying solutions. These crystals grew as 2-3 mm aggregates mainly within 1-3 cm of the gel-solution interface.

  14. (51Cr)EDTA intestinal permeability in children with cow's milk intolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Schrander, J.J.; Unsalan-Hooyen, R.W.; Forget, P.P.; Jansen, J. )

    1990-02-01

    Making use of ({sup 51}Cr)EDTA as a permeability marker, we measured intestinal permeability in a group of 20 children with proven cow's milk intolerance (CMI), a group of 17 children with similar complaints where CMI was excluded (sick controls), and a group of 12 control children. ({sup 51}Cr)EDTA test results (mean +/- SD) were 6.85 +/- 3.64%, 3.42 +/- 0.94%, and 2.61 +/- 0.67% in the group with CMI, the sick control, and the control group, respectively. When compared to both control groups, patients with cow's milk intolerance (CMI) showed a significantly increased small bowel permeability. We conclude that the ({sup 51}Cr)EDTA test can be helpful for the diagnosis of cow's milk intolerance.

  15. Comparison of coronal leakage after smear layer removal with EDTA or Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pécora, Jesus D.; Mamere de Almeida, Yasmine M. E.; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Brugnera J"nior, Aldo, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    This study determined, in vitro, the coronal leakage of root canals evaluating the effect of smear layer removal by either EDTA or laser. Two sealers were also compared. Sixty-four canines were instrumented with the step-back technique and irrigated with 10 ml of 1% sodium hypochlorite. In Group 1, 10 teeth were sealed with Sealer 26 and 10 teeth were sealed with Grossman cement with no attempt of smear layer removal. Group 2 received a final irrigation of 15 ml of 17% EDTA, and was sealed as in Group 1. Group 3 received Er:YAG laser application (140 mJ, 15 Hz and 42 J), and sealed as in Group 1. Root canals sealed with Sealer 26 had significantly less coronal leakage than Grossman cement (P<0.05). Coronal leakage afte smear layer removal with 17% EDTA or Er:YAG laser was not statistically different (p>0.01).

  16. EDTA conditioning of dentine promotes adhesion, migration and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Galler, K M; Widbiller, M; Buchalla, W; Eidt, A; Hiller, K-A; Hoffer, P C; Schmalz, G

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of dentine conditioning on migration, adhesion and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells. Dentine discs prepared from extracted human molars were pre-treated with EDTA (10%), NaOCl (5.25%) or H2 O. Migration of dental pulp stem cells towards pre-treated dentine after 24 and 48 h was assessed in a modified Boyden chamber assay. Cell adhesion was evaluated indirectly by measuring cell viability. Expression of mineralization-associated genes (COL1A1, ALP, BSP, DSPP, RUNX2) in cells cultured on pre-treated dentine for 7 days was determined by RT-qPCR. Nonparametric statistical analysis was performed for cell migration and cell viability data to compare different groups and time-points (Mann-Whitney U-test, α = 0.05). Treatment of dentine with H2 O or EDTA allowed for cell attachment, which was prohibited by NaOCl with statistical significance (P = 0.000). Furthermore, EDTA conditioning induced cell migration towards dentine. The expression of mineralization-associated genes was increased in dental pulp cells cultured on dentine after EDTA conditioning compared to H2 O-pre-treated dentine discs. EDTA conditioning of dentine promoted the adhesion, migration and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells towards or onto dentine. A pre-treatment with EDTA as the final step of an irrigation protocol for regenerative endodontic procedures has the potential to act favourably on new tissue formation within the root canal. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. EDTA enhanced plant growth, antioxidant defense system, and phytoextraction of copper by Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Habiba, Ume; Ali, Shafaqat; Farid, Mujahid; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Abbasi, Ghulam Hasan; Hayat, Tahir; Ali, Basharat

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for normal plant growth and development, but in excess, it is also toxic to plants. The present study investigated the influence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in enhancing Cu uptake and tolerance as well as the morphological and physiological responses of Brassica napus L. seedlings under Cu stress. Four-week-old seedlings were transferred to hydroponics containing Hoagland's nutrient solution. After 2 weeks of transplanting, three levels (0, 50, and 100 μM) of Cu were applied with or without application of 2.5 mM EDTA and plants were further grown for 8 weeks in culture media. Results showed that Cu alone significantly decreased plant growth, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, and gas exchange characteristics. Cu stress also reduced the activities of antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT) along with protein contents. Cu toxicity increased the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as indicated by the increased production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in both leaves and roots. The application of EDTA significantly alleviated Cu-induced toxic effects in B. napus, showing remarkable improvement in all these parameters. EDTA amendment increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes by decreasing the concentrations of MDA and H2O2 both in leaves and roots of B. napus. Although, EDTA amendment with Cu significantly increased Cu uptake in roots, stems, and leaves in decreasing order of concentration but increased the growth, photosynthetic parameters, and antioxidant enzymes. These results showed that the application of EDTA can be a useful strategy for phytoextraction of Cu by B. napus from contaminated soils.

  18. The effects of FeCl₃ and Fe-EDTA on the development of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qiang; Yang, Xiao-qian; Cui, Xi

    2011-04-01

    The effects of FeCl₃ and Fe-EDTA on the development of psoriasis were studied in the mouse model of vaginal epithelium and tail epidermis. The mitoses of vaginal epithelial cell in female mice of their estrogenic stage and the formation of granular cell layers in male mouse tail scale were observed. Mice were randomly divided into eight groups and treated with normal saline, methotrexate, and different doses of two iron forms, FeCl₃ and Fe-EDTA, respectively, for 10 days. To explore the influence of FeCl₃ and Fe-EDTA on the excretion of Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Se, the concentration of those elements in liver and kidney was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The different doses of FeCl₃ or Fe-EDTA could obviously inhibit the mitoses of vaginal epithelial cell (p< 0.05) and promote the formation of granular cell layers in mice tail scale (p < 0.05). No statistically significant results were found between the groups of FeCl₃ and Fe-EDTA, and between experimental groups and methotrexate group acted as the positive control (p>0.05). Compared with the negative group, the concentrations of Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Se in liver and kidney of experimental groups and positive control group were not significantly changed (p > 0.05). FeCl₃ and Fe-EDTA are as effective as methotrexate on inhibiting hyperplasia of epidermal cells and increasing the formation of granular cell layers, and the concentrations of Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Se in liver and kidney of experimental groups and positive control group were not significantly changed compared with the negative group, possibly retarding the development of psoriasis.

  19. Concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count, a previously underestimated phenomenon in EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yufei; Xu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The proportion and potential risk of concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count (SEWC) are underestimated in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP). The proportion, kinetics and prevention of SEWC remain poorly understood. A total of 25 patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP were enrolled in this study. With the hematology analyzer Coulter LH 750, we determined the time courses of WBC count, WBC differential and platelet count in EDTA- and sodium citrate-anticoagulated blood, respectively. Blood smears were prepared to inspect the presence of platelet clumps using light microscopy. The effect of automatic instrumental correction on the extent of SEWC was evaluated. The proportion of SEWC was 92% in EDTA-dependent PTCP and 73.9% of SEWCs were within the normal range. The development of SEWC was time-dependent, and neutrophils and lymphocytes were the main subpopulations involved in SEWC. A strong and significant correlation (r = 0.9937, p < 0.001) was found between the increased WBC count and the decreased platelet count. Both corrected and uncorrected WBC counts at 15 minutes or later after blood collection in EDTA were significantly higher than their basal counts, respectively, p < 0.05. Interestingly, in citrated blood, WBC counts after blood collection were not significantly different from its basal counts, p > 0.05. A high proportion of concomitant SEWCs, which are mainly within normal range, are present in patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP. Proper interpretation of SEWC is crucial to avoid clinic errors. SEWC develops in a time-dependent pattern, although the Coulter LH 750 only partly mitigates the extent of SEWC, sodium citrate is able to effectively prevent SEWC.

  20. [Effects of EDTA on the Reductive Dechlorination of 2,4-D by Pd/Fe].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong-yi; Nie, Ya-zhong; Chen, Yong; Lei, Shuang-jian

    2016-02-15

    In Pd/Fe system, zero-valent iron (ZVI) passivation layer is easily formed on the particle surface during the catalytic reductive dechlorination of chlorinated organics, hindering further dechlorination of target contaminants. In this paper, the passivation layer on the Pd/Fe particle surfaces could be eliminated by the chelation of disodium edetate (EDTA) with Fe2+, Fe3+, making the reductive dechlorination continue. The experiment investigated the effects of EDTA addition manner and dosage, pH, Pd loading and temperature on dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) by Pd/Fe. The conclusions can be summarized as follows: (1) Phenoxyacetic acid (PA) generation ratio reached 90. 7% within 20 min with EDTA concentration of 25.0 mmol x L(-1) and flow rate of 20 mL x h(-1), while it was only 74.5% after 210 min in the system without EDTA. (2) The EDTA could chelate the Fe2+ and Fe3+ generated from the process of 2,4-D dechlorination by Pd/Fe, preventing or slowing down the formation of passivation layer, and accelerating the reduction efficiency. (3) The appropriate experimental parameters for 2,4-D removal were as follows: EDTA flow rate of 20 mL x h(-1), CEDTA of 25.0 mmol x L(-1), Pd loading of 0.050%, 200 r x min(-1), pH 4.2 and 30.0 degrees C. The removal percentage of 20.0 mg x L(-1) 2,4-D reached nearly up to 100% within 210 min under these conditions. (4) The intermediates of 2, 4-D catalytic dechlorination included 2-chlorophenoxvacetic acid (2-CPA) and trace 4-chloronhenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA), and the end product was PA.

  1. /sup 51/Cr-EDTA: a marker of early intestinal rejection in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, D.; Lamont, D.; Zhong, R.; Garcia, B.; Wang, P.; Stiller, C.; Duff, J.

    1989-05-01

    Intestinal permeability was studied after accessory intestinal transplantation in Lewis rats. Five groups were evaluated: Group 1--isografts (N = 6); Group 2--Lewis X Brown Norway F1 (LBN-F1) allografts (N = 6); Group 3--isografts treated with CsA 2 mg/kg/day X 10 days (N = 6); Group 4--LBN-F1 allografts treated with CsA 2 mg/kg/day X 10 days (N = 6); Group 5--LBN-F1 allografts treated with CsA 4 mg/kg/day X 28 days (N = 6). Chromium-labeled ethylenedimianetetraacetate (/sup 51/Cr-EDTA) was given through the proximal stoma of the graft. Renal clearance of /sup 51/Cr-EDTA and mucosal biopsies were followed post-transplant. The biopsies of the intestinal graft showed no rejection in Groups 1, 3, and 5; fulminant rejection in Group 2; and mild atypical rejection in Group 4. /sup 51/Cr-EDTA clearance was elevated in all groups during the first 7 days post-transplant. Thereafter, /sup 51/Cr-EDTA excretion fell to lower levels in the animals with histologically normal grafts (Groups 1, 3, and 5). /sup 51/Cr-EDTA excretion in Group 4 was increased with the first histological evidence of rejection on Day 14 and remained elevated until sacrifice (P less than 0.02 compared to Groups 3 and 5). A transient permeability defect occurs after intestinal grafting. Once the graft has recovered from this injury, /sup 51/Cr-EDTA is a sensitive marker for intestinal rejection.

  2. Combined Effect of Trolox and EDTA on Frozen-Thawed Sperm Quality

    PubMed Central

    Keshtgar, Sara; Iravanpour, Farideh; Gharesi-Fard, Behrooz; Kazerooni, Marjaneh

    2016-01-01

    The freezing and thawing process not only is associated with serious damage to sperm such as damage to the plasma membrane and the acrosomal membrane but also changes the membrane permeability to some ions including calcium. Also, the generation of oxygen free radicals is increased during the freezing-thawing process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate of the effects of Trolox as an antioxidant and edetic acid (EDTA) as a calcium chelator on frozen-thawed (FT) sperm and compare these effects with those on fresh sperm. This study was done on these men of 25 healthy men, who referred to Shiraz Infertility Centerbetween2012 and2013. Normal samples were transferred to the ReproductivePhysiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz. The samples were divided into two groups randomly: fresh and FT sperm groups. Each group was divided into five subgroups: control group, the solvent group (0.1%dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO]), Trolox group (200μM), EDTA group (1.1mM), and Trolox+EDTA group. The percentages of motility, viability, and acrosome-reacted sperm were tested. The percentages of motility and viability in the FT sperm were lower than those in the fresh sperm. The progressive motility of the FT sperm was improved nonsignificantly with Trolox+EDTA. However, the effect of Trolox+EDTA on the progressive motility of the FT sperm was much more than that on the fresh sperm. The fewest acrosome-reacted sperm were observed in the EDTA-containingFT sperm. Antioxidant supplementation or omission of extracellular calcium may partly improve motility and also reduce acrosomal damage in FT sperm. PMID:27217608

  3. Efficacy of flowable gel-type EDTA at removing the smear layer and inorganic debris under manual dynamic activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Jin; Park, Su-Jung; Park, Sang-Hyuk; Hwang, Yun-Chan; Yu, Mi-Kyung; Min, Kyung-San

    2013-07-01

    A flowable gel-type EDTA solution containing urea peroxide and polyacrylic acid was recently introduced into the endodontic market. However, its efficacy for removing the smear layer and inorganic debris remains unknown. This study was performed to investigate the relative efficacies of the flowable gel-type and liquid-type EDTA solutions for removal of the smear layer and inorganic debris. We also evaluated the effects of manual dynamic activation (MDA). Wettability was evaluated by measuring the contact angle. The incidence of accidental extrusion of irrigant was determined. The effervescent effect was evaluated by mixing the solutions with sodium hypochlorite. The efficacies of the EDTA solutions at removing the smear layer and inorganic debris were evaluated by scanning electron microscopic examination. The contact angles of the 2 EDTA solutions did not differ significantly throughout the experiment (P > .05). Accidental extrusion occurred 4 times for the liquid-type EDTA but never for the gel-type EDTA. The gel-type but not the liquid-type EDTA showed an effervescent effect. The EDTA/MDA treatment combinations did not produce significantly different smear layer scores (P > .05). However, the debris scores for the coronal and middle parts were significantly lower for the gel-type EDTA with MDA than for the liquid-type EDTA without MDA (P < .05). Our results suggest that the newly introduced gel-type EDTA might be an acceptable irrigant for removing the smear layer and inorganic debris present on the root canal wall. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rationale for the Successful Management of EDTA Chelation Therapy in Human Burden by Toxic Metals.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to environmental and occupational toxicants is responsible for adverse effects on human health. Chelation therapy is the only procedure able to remove toxic metals from human organs and tissue, aiming to treat damage related to acute and/or chronic intoxication. The present review focuses on the most recent evidence of the successful use of the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Assessment of toxic-metal presence in humans, as well as the rationale of EDTA therapy in cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, is reported.

  5. Transcapillary Exchange and Retention of Fluoride, Strontium, EDTA, Sucrose, and Antipyrine in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Gerard J.; Davies, David R.; Hughes, Sean P.F.; Bassingthwaighte, James B.; Kelly, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The extractions of 85Sr2+, 18F−, sucrose-14C, EDTA-51Cr, and antipyrine-14C in bone were determined by the multiple indicator-dilution method. Fluoride and strontium extractions were 18 to 70% during a single transcapillary passage, and those of EDTA and sucrose were from 11 to 59%, whereas extraction of antipyrine was 87%. Injections of 85Sr2+ and 18F− made when perfusion was done alternately with blood and plasma resulted in similar fractional extractions. When flow and extraction were measured simultaneously, extraction was related inversely to flow. PMID:6770980

  6. Rationale for the Successful Management of EDTA Chelation Therapy in Human Burden by Toxic Metals

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to environmental and occupational toxicants is responsible for adverse effects on human health. Chelation therapy is the only procedure able to remove toxic metals from human organs and tissue, aiming to treat damage related to acute and/or chronic intoxication. The present review focuses on the most recent evidence of the successful use of the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Assessment of toxic-metal presence in humans, as well as the rationale of EDTA therapy in cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, is reported. PMID:27896275

  7. Assisting the Assistant Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James

    2008-01-01

    Retaining quality staff members is a hot topic in the public school arena. Although teachers are often the focus of concern, hiring and retaining quality assistant principals must be addressed as well. Interviewing and hiring the right assistant principal--and then ensuring that he or she remains on in a campus for several years--can do a great…

  8. Influence of variable chemical conditions on EDTA-enhanced transport of metal ions in mildly acidic groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, D.B.; Davis, J.A.; Joye, J.L.; Curtis, G.P.

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption of Ni and Pb on aquifer sediments from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA increased with increasing pH and metal-ion concentration. Adsorption could be described quantitatively using a semi-mechanistic surface complexation model (SCM), in which adsorption is described using chemical reactions between metal ions and adsorption sites. Equilibrium reactive transport simulations incorporating the SCMs, formation of metal-ion-EDTA complexes, and either Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide solubility or Zn desorption from sediments identified important factors responsible for trends observed during transport experiments conducted with EDTA complexes of Ni, Zn, and Pb in the Cape Cod aquifer. Dissociation of Pb-EDTA by Fe(III) is more favorable than Ni-EDTA because of differences in Ni- and Pb-adsorption to the sediments. Dissociation of Ni-EDTA becomes more favorable with decreasing Ni-EDTA concentration and decreasing pH. In contrast to Ni, Pb-EDTA can be dissociated by Zn desorbed from the aquifer sediments. Variability in adsorbed Zn concentrations has a large impact on Pb-EDTA dissociation.

  9. Exploiting the synergistic effect of chitosan-EDTA conjugate with MSA for the early recovery from colitis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kuldeep; Suri, Rajat; Tiwary, A K; Rana, Vikas

    2013-03-01

    The present study was aimed to exploit the antibacterial/antifungal and film coating potential of Chitosan-EDTA (CH-EDTA) conjugate in combination with mesalamine (anti-inflammatory agent) for the early recovery from TNBS induced coilitis. The results suggested CH:EDTA (1:1) spray coated mesalamine tablets has an ability to transport drug in buffer pH 6.8 with rat caecal content condition. The CH-EDTA shows high level of adhesiveness of coat with core tablet. Further, FTIR, DSC and SEM analysis suggested spray coating of CH-EDTA on tablets was beneficial as compared to ladling method as it enhances interaction density and showed resistance from pH (1.2, 6.8 and 7.4). The pharmacokinetic parameters, AUC and AUMC of spray coated tablets were respectively, 4.70 fold and 2.10 fold increased. A synergistic therapeutic effect with CH-EDTA spray coated mesalamine was observed as evaluated by colon/body weight ratio, clinical activity score and damage score. X ray image study supported that CH-EDTA conjugate successfully delivered MSA tablets to large intestine. Histopathology of colon tissues showed rapid recovery from TNBS induced colitis in rats within 4 days. The findings revealed decreased recovery period was due to combined effect of both CH-EDTA and MSA to treat TNBS induced colitis.

  10. Soil Cd availability to Indian mustard and environmental risk following EDTA addition to Cd-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Jiang, X J; Luo, Y M; Zhao, Q G; Baker, A J M; Christie, P; Wong, M H

    2003-02-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of EDTA on the extractability of Cd in the soil and uptake of Cd by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). Twenty levels of soil Cd concentration ranging from 10 to 200 mg kg(-1) were produced by spiking aliquots of a clay loam paddy soil with Cd(NO3)2. One week before the plants were harvested EDTA was applied to pots in which the soil had been spiked with 20, 40, 60...200 mg Cd kg(-1). The EDTA was added at the rate calculated to complex with all of the Cd added at the 200 mg kg(-1) level. Control pots spiked with 10, 30, 50... 190 mg Cd kg(-1) received no EDTA. The plants were harvested after 42 days' growth. Soil water- and NH4NO3-extractable Cd fractions increased rapidly following EDTA application. Root Cd concentrations decreased after EDTA application, but shoot concentrations increased when the soil Cd levels were >130 mg kg(-1) and Cd toxicity symptoms were observed. The increases in soil solution Cd induced by EDTA did not increase plant total Cd uptake but appeared to stimulate the translocation of the metal from roots to shoots when the plants appeared to be under Cd toxicity stress. The results are discussed in relation to the possible mechanisms by which EDTA may change the solubility and bioavailability of Cd in the soil and the potential for plant uptake and environmental risk due to leaching losses to groundwater.

  11. Microbial reduction of [Co(III)-EDTA]⁻ by Bacillus licheniformis SPB-2 strain isolated from a solar salt pan.

    PubMed

    Paraneeiswaran, Arunachalam; Shukla, Sudhir K; Prashanth, K; Rao, T Subba

    2015-01-01

    Naturally stressed habitats are known to be repositories for novel microorganisms with potential bioremediation applications. In this study, we isolated a [Co(III)-EDTA](-) reducing bacterium Bacillus licheniformis SPB-2 from a solar salt pan that is exposed to constant cycles of hydration and desiccation in nature. [Co(III)-EDTA](-) generated during nuclear waste management process is difficult to remove from the waste due to its high stability and solubility. It is reduced form i.e. [Co(II)-EDTA](2-) is less stable though it is toxic. This study showed that B. licheniformis SPB-2 reduced 1mM [Co(III)-EDTA](-) in 14 days when grown in a batch mode. However, subsequent cycles showed an increase in the reduction activity, which was observed up to four cycles. Interestingly, the present study also showed that [Co(III)-EDTA](-) acted as an inducer for B. licheniformis SPB-2 spore germination. Vegetative cells germinated from the spores were found to be involved in [Co(III)-EDTA](-) reduction. More detailed investigations showed that after [Co(III)-EDTA](-) reduction, i.e. [Co(II)-EDTA](2-) complex was removed by B. licheniformis SPB-2 from the bulk liquid by adsorption phenomenon. The bacterium showed a D10 value (radiation dose required to kill 90% cells) of ∼250 Gray (Gy), which signifies the potential use of B. licheniformis SPB-2 for bioremediation of moderately active nuclear waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Co(III)EDTA- Reduction by Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Propagation of Reactions Involving Dissolved Sulfide and Polysulfides.

    SciTech Connect

    Blessing, T.C.; B.W. Wielinga; M.J. Morra; S. Fendorf

    2001-04-15

    The migration of 60Co is driven by Co(III)EDTA- complexes. Here we document the bacterial mediated reduction of Co(III) to Co(II)EDTA2- complexes, which are far less mobile within the environment. Additionally, we demonstrate that sulfate promotes reduction via production of reactive polysulfides rather than acting as a competitive electron acceptor.

  13. Safety and efficacy of propofol with EDTA when used for sedation of surgical intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Herr, D L; Kelly, K; Hall, J B; Ulatowski, J; Fulda, G J; Cason, B; Hickey, R; Nejman, A M; Zaloga, G P; Teres, D

    2000-01-01

    To compare propofol with disodium edetate (EDTA) and propofol without EDTAwhen used for the sedation of critically ill surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Prospective, randomised, multicentre trial. A total of 122 surgical ICU patients who required intubation and mechanical ventilation. Patients were randomised to receive either propofol or propofol plus EDTA (propofol EDTA) by continuous infusion for sedation. The addition of EDTA to propofol had no effect on calcium or magnesium homeostasis, renal function, haemodynamic function, or efficacy when used for the sedation of surgical patients in the ICU. The most common adverse events were hypotension, atrial fibrillation, and hypocalcaemia. In this trial, a greater number of serious adverse events and adverse events leading to withdrawal occurred in the propofol group relative to the propofol EDTA group. There was a significantly lower crude mortality rate at 7 and 28 days for the propofol EDTA group compared with the propofol group. There were no statistically significant differences between groups with respect to depth of sedation. The propofol EDTA formulation had no effect on calcium or magnesium homeostasis, renal function, or sedation efficacy compared with propofol alone when used for sedation in critically ill surgical ICU patients. There was a significant decrease in mortality in the propofol EDTA group compared with the propofol group. Further investigations are needed to validate this survival benefit and elucidate a possible mechanism.

  14. Trace element homeostasis during continuous sedation with propofol containing EDTA versus other sedatives in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Higgins, T L; Murray, M; Kett, D H; Fulda, G; Kramer, K M; Gelmont, D; Dedhia, H V; Levy, H; Teres, D; Zaloga, G P; Ko, H; Thompson, K A

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate changes in serum and urinary zinc, cobalt, copper, iron, and calcium concentrations in critically ill patients receiving propofol containing disodium edetate (disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA]) versus sedative agents without EDTA. This was a randomised, open-label, parallel-group study with randomisation stratified by baseline Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) scores. Intensive care units (ICU) in 23 medical centres. Medical, surgical, or trauma ICU patients 17 years of age or older who required mechanical ventilator support and sedation. A total of 106 patients received propofol containing 0.005 % EDTA (propofol EDTA), and 104 received other sedative agents without EDTA (non-EDTA). Only the first 108 patients were assessed for urinary trace metal excretion. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected on days 2, 3, and 7 and every 7 days thereafter for determination of zinc, cobalt, copper, iron, and calcium excretion; EDTA levels; urine osmolality; albumin levels; and glucose levels. The first 143 patients were assessed for serum concentration of zinc, cobalt, copper, iron, and calcium; creatinine; blood urea nitrogen; and albumin at baseline and once during each 24-hour urine collection. For the assessment of trace metals, patients receiving propofol EDTA demonstrated increased mean urinary excretion of zinc, copper, and iron compared with the normal range. All patients receiving sedatives demonstrated increased urinary excretion of zinc and copper above normal reference values. Compared with the non-EDTA sedative group, the propofol EDTA group demonstrated increased urinary excretion of zinc and iron. Mean serum concentrations of zinc and total calcium were decreased in both patient groups. Serum zinc concentrations increased from baseline to day 3 in the non-EDTA sedative group but not in the propofol EDTA group. Renal function, measured by blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and creatinine clearance, did

  15. Risks of using EDTA as an agent for trace metals dosing in anaerobic digestion of olive mill solid waste.

    PubMed

    Serrano, A; Pinto-Ibieta, F; Braga, A F M; Jeison, D; Borja, R; Fermoso, F G

    2017-02-21

    Low concentrations of trace elements in many organic wastes recommend their supplementation in order to avoid potential limitations. Different chelating agents have been used to ensure an adequate trace metal pool in the soluble fraction, by forming dissolved complexes. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is probably the most common, although several negative effects could be associated with its usage. Biomethane potential tests were performed using Olive Mill Solid Waste as the substrate, supplementing different combinations of Fe, Co, Ni, Ba, always under the presence of EDTA. Results show that Ni and Co slightly recovered biodegradability. However, Ba supplementation resulted in worsening the methane yield coefficient in all cases. High concentration of EDTA led to decrease in the activity of anaerobic digestion. High availability of EDTA induces the capture of trace metals like Co or Ni, key trace metals for anaerobic biomass activity. While supplementing trace metals, the addition of Ba and/or EDTA must be carefully considered.

  16. Super water-absorbing new material from chitosan, EDTA and urea.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Abathodharanan; Dhamodharan, Raghavachari

    2015-12-10

    A new, super water-absorbing, material is synthesized by the reaction between chitosan, EDTA and urea and named as CHEDUR. CHEDUR is probably formed through the crosslinking of chitosan molecules (CH) with the EDTA-urea (EDUR) adduct that is formed during the reaction. CHEDUR as well as the other products formed in control reactions are characterized extensively. CHEDUR exhibits a very high water uptake capacity when compared with chitosan, chitosan-EDTA adduct, as well as a commercial diaper material. A systematic study was done to find the optimum composition as well as reaction conditions for maximum water absorbing capacity. CHEDUR can play a vital role in applications that demand the rapid absorption and slow release of water such as agriculture, as a three in one new material for the slow release of urea, water and other metal ions that can be attached through the EDTA component. The other potential advantage of CHEDUR is that it can be expected to degrade in soil based on its chitosan backbone. The new material with rapid and high water uptake could also find potential applications as biodegradable active ingredient of the diaper material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Evaluation of compounding EDTA and citric acid on remediation of heavy metals contaminated soil].

    PubMed

    Yin, Xue; Chen, Jia-Jun; Cai, Wen-Min

    2014-08-01

    As commonly used eluents, Na2EDTA (EDTA) and citric acid (CA) have been widely applied in remediation of soil contaminated by heavy metals. In order to evaluate the removal of arsenic, cadmium, copper, and lead in the contaminated soil collected in a chemical plant by compounding EDTA and CA, a series of stirring experiments were conducted. Furthermore, the changes in speciation distribution of heavy metals before and after washing were studied. The results showed that, adopting the optimal molar ratio of EDTA/CA (1:1), when the pH of the solution was 3, the stirring time was 30 min, the stirring rate was 150 r x min(-1) and the L/S was 5:1, the removal rates of arsenic, cadmium, copper and lead could reach 11.72%, 43.39%, 24.36% and 27.17%, respectively. And it was found that after washing, for arsenic and copper, the content of acid dissolved fraction rose which increased the percentage of available contents. Fe-Mn oxide fraction mainly contributed to the removal of copper. As for cadmium, the percentages of acid dissolved fraction, Fe-Mn oxide fraction and organic fraction also decreased. In practical projects, speciation changes would pose certain environmental risk after soil washing, which should be taken into consideration.

  18. Plasma Calcium, Inorganic Phosphate and Magnesium During Hypocalcaemia Induced by a Standardized EDTA Infusion in Cows

    PubMed Central

    Mellau, LSB; Jørgensen, RJ; Enemark, JMD

    2001-01-01

    The intravenous Na2EDTA infusion technique allows effective specific chelation of circulating Ca2+ leading to a progressive hypocalcaemia. Methods previously used were not described in detail and results obtained by monitoring total and free ionic calcium were not comparable due to differences in sampling and analysis. This paper describes a standardized EDTA infusion technique that allowed comparison of the response of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between 2 groups of experimental cows. The concentration of the Na2EDTA solution was 0.134 mol/l and the flow rate was standardized at 1.2 ml/kg per hour. Involuntary recumbency occurred when ionised calcium dropped to 0.39 – 0.52 mmol/l due to chelation. An initial fast drop of ionized calcium was observed during the first 20 min of infusion followed by a fluctuation leading to a further drop until recumbency. Pre-infusion [Ca2+] between tests does not correlate with the amount of EDTA required to induce involuntary recumbence. Total calcium concentration measured by atomic absorption remained almost constant during the first 100 min of infusion but declined gradually when the infusion was prolonged. The concentration of inorganic phosphate declined gradually in a fluctuating manner until recumbency. Magnesium concentration remained constant during infusion. Such electrolyte responses during infusion were comparable to those in spontaneous milk fever. The standardized infusion technique might be useful in future experimental studies. PMID:11503370

  19. The effect of Emdogain and 24% EDTA root conditioning on periodontal healing of replanted dog's teeth.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Martínez, Nayelli; Silva-Herzog, Flores Daniel; Méndez, González Verónica; Martín-Pérez, Silvia; Cerda-Cristerna, Bernardino Isaac; Cohenca, Nestor

    2009-02-01

    Controversies still exist as for the regenerative role of enamel matrix derivatives and the need for removal of the periodontal ligament in replanted teeth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Emdogain and 24% ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) root conditioning on periodontal healing of replanted dog's teeth. Teeth were extracted, endodontically treated and preconditioned as follows: group 1, Emdogain; group 2, Emdogain + EDTA and group 3, EDTA. Teeth were replanted after 30 min extraoral time, splinted for 15 days and animals sacrificed after 8 weeks of observation. Histological evaluation was performed using hematoxylin/eosin and Masson trichrome and results scored based on previously reported criteria for histological evaluation. Replacement root resorption was histologically diagnosed in all groups except in the negative control. A parametric analysis showed no statistically significant differences between experimental groups. Root preconditioning with Emdogain alone or in combination with 24% EDTA showed no evidence of regeneration of collagen fibers and consequently did not prevent the development of replacement root resorption on replanted dog's teeth.

  20. Case-by-case study using antibiotic-EDTA combination to control pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Mohamed Z; Amara, Amro A

    2006-07-01

    Ps. aeruginosa a well-known opportunistic bacterium infects various tissues and organs causing sever problems. In tropical and semitropical countries and because of environmental and sanitizations reasons Ps. aeruginosa acquiring more virulent factors, gained multi-resistant genes, adapt resistant mechanisms for antibiotics, drugs, disinfectants and in general for any toxic compound. Six multidrugs resistant strains out of 260 different bacteria isolated from patients at Tanta University hospital, Tanta, Egypt, used in this study. To evaluate the role of divalent cations in antibiotic resistance we used a medium containing Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Various antibiotics tested with or without the LC(10) and LC(50) equivalent amount of EDTA against each strain. We found that after adding EDTA, 70% of the strains turned from resistant to sensitive, especially considering those antibiotics, which inhibit protein synthesis, such, as tetracycline. Simple experiment for testing the effect of Antibiotic-EDTA combination on Rabbits skin artificial ulcer(s) infected by Ps. aeruginosa significantly improve the efficiency of using such combination in superficial treatment. We propose using media other than Muller-Hinton agar in antibiotic sensitivity test to select the best antibiotics could be used in vivo or in superficial treatment. A combination between a proper amount of EDTA and antibiotics especially protein inhibitors will improve the control of Ps. aeruginosa.

  1. Enhancement of lead uptake by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) using EDTA and a plant growth promoter.

    PubMed

    López, Martha L; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Benitez, Tenoch; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2005-10-01

    Phytoremediation is a novel cleanup technology for the removal of contaminants from polluted waters and soils. In phytoremediation, the plant uptake capability and the availability of the pollutant in the media are important. Here we show the results of a study on the combined effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on Pb uptake by Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Plants were grown in hydroponics media containing a nutrient solution amended with Pb at 0.2mM and different combinations of EDTA, and IAA. After 10d of treatment, the Pb content in plant tissues was quantified using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP/OES). The results showed that the combination of 100 microM IAA/0.2 mM EDTA increased the Pb accumulation in leaves by about 2800% and by about 600%, as compared to Pb content in leaves of plants exposed to Pb alone and those cultivated with Pb/EDTA, respectively. These results indicate that non-metal hyperaccumulator plants could increase their hyperaccumulating potential without genetic manipulation.

  2. Assessment of EDTA heap leaching of an agricultural soil highly contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengjie; Yang, Bingfan; Dong, Changxun; Chen, Like; Cao, Xueying; Zhao, Jie; Wu, Longhua; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The efficiency of heavy metal removal from soil by EDTA leaching was assessed in a column leaching experiment at the laboratory scale and field heap leaching at the pilot scale using a sandy loam sierozem agricultural soil contaminated with Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Soil amendment and aging were conducted to recover leaching soils. The percentages of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn removed by column leaching were 90%, 88%, 90%, and 67%, respectively, when 3.9 bed volumes of 50mM EDTA were used. At the pilot scale, on-site metal removal efficiencies using the selected leaching procedure were 80%, 69%, 73% and 62% for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively. EDTA leaching decreased soil CEC, total P, total K and available K concentrations but increased organic matter and total Kjeldahl N concentrations. The subsequent amendment and soil aging further reduced the DTPA-extractable heavy metals in the leached soils. Growth of the first crop of pak choi in the leached soil was inhibited but the second crop grew well after the soil was aged for one year and the concentrations of Cd and Pb in the edible parts were below the Chinese statutory limits. The results demonstrate the potential feasibility of the field leaching technique using EDTA combined with subsequent amendment and soil aging for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated agricultural soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of complexans (EDTA, DTPA) on the toxicity of Cadmium to fish at chronic levels

    SciTech Connect

    Muramoto, S.

    1981-05-01

    There are a few reports on the effects of the complexing agents, as heavy metal pollution-inhibiting agents, to the aquatic animals. SPRAGUE(1968) reported on the influence of NTA on the zinc-and copper poisoning to brook trout. NISHIKAWA and TABATA(1969) conducted some experiments on eliminations of the toxicity of waste water from copper mines with EDTA using water fleas and dace. However, this in an area which has not so far as been clarifies in investigations on metal complexan toxicity and accumulation. In the previous paper, the effects of complexans(EDTA,NTA, and DTPA) on the metal-toxicity(Cd,Cu,Zn and Pb) at lethal levels and of complexan(EDTA) on the removing cadmium from the Cd-polluted fish were reported. This reports is examination of influence of complexans (EDTA and DTPA) on the metal toxicity and on the metal accumulation in viscera, gills and other parts of the fish exposing cadmium at low concentrations, long term(3 months). Vertebrae deformed fish induced by cadmium were observed with eye. The vertebrae of the fish were then examined by x-ray photography.

  4. Enhancing radium solubilization in soils by citrate, EDTA, and EDDS chelating amendments.

    PubMed

    Prieto, C; Lozano, J C; Blanco Rodríguez, P; Tomé, F Vera

    2013-04-15

    The effect of three chelating agents (citrate, EDTA, and EDDS) on the solubilization of radium from a granitic soil was studied systematically, considering different soil pH values, chelating agent concentrations, and leaching times. For all the chelating agents tested, the amount of radium leached proved to be strongly dependent on the pH of the substrate: only for acidic conditions did the amount of radium released increase significantly relative to the controls. Under the best conditions, the radium released from the amended soil was greater by factors of 20 in the case of citrate, 18 for EDTA, and 14 for EDDS. The greatest improvement in the release of radium was obtained for the citrate amendment at the highest concentration tested (50 mmol kg(-1)). A slightly lower amount of radium was leached with EDTA at 5 mmol kg(-1) soil, but the solubilization over time was very different from that observed with citrate or EDDS. With EDTA, a maximum in radium leaching was reached on the first day after amendment, while with citrate, the maximum was attained on the fourth day. With EDDS, radium leaching increased slightly but steadily with time (until the sixth day), but the net effect for the period tested was the lowest of the three reagents.

  5. Copper extraction effectiveness and soil dissolution issues of EDTA-flushing of artificially contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Daniel C W; Zhang, Weihua; Lo, Irene M C

    2007-06-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used as a reference chelating agent in column experiments to investigate the effectiveness of chelant-enhanced flushing of soils artificially contaminated under various conditions (low/high Cu loading, and aging). The associated soil dissolution issues were of particular concern. Dissolution of indigenous Fe/Al oxides, Ca carbonates and organic matter was monitored over the course of flushing. Regardless of contamination condition, above 85% extraction efficiency could be accomplished by 10(-2) and 10(-3)M EDTA-flushing, but not 10(-4)M. The Cu extraction kinetics positively correlated to EDTA concentration but inversely to Cu loading in soils. In addition to extraction from weakly sorbed fractions, a large portion of Cu was extracted from oxide, organic matter and residual fractions, which appears to derive from soil dissolution. Cumulative dissolved amounts of Fe, Al, and Ca were found to reach as high as hundreds of mgkg(-1), which were comparable to Cu contamination. Soil organic matter, which is known to strongly interact with Fe and Al oxides, was also mobilized. The rate and extent of these soil dissolutions were also positively correlated to EDTA concentration. Therefore, the co-extraction of soil minerals and organic matter during chelant-enhanced flushing, which would alter both physical structure and chemical properties of the soils, is detrimental to future land use and deserves greater attention. The concentration of chelating agent is the most crucial factor for an effective soil flushing with minimal damage.

  6. EDTA functionalized magnetic nanoparticle as a multifunctional adsorbent for Congo red dye from contaminated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Jitendra Kumar; Rath, Juhi; Dash, Priyabrat; Sahoo, Harekrushna

    2017-05-01

    The present work reports the applicability of magnetite iron nanoparticles (Fe3O4) functionalized with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of Congo red (CR) dye from contaminated water. Magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) are prepared by chemical precipitation method in which Fe2+ and Fe3+ salt from aqueous solution were reacted in presence of ammonia solution. The surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticle was first coated with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxy silane (APTES) by a salinization reaction and then linked with EDTA via reaction between -NH2 and -COOH to form well dispersed surface functionalised biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles. The obtained EDTA functionalized magnetic nanoparticles are characterized in terms of their morphological, XRD, BET surface area analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The adsorption of CR on Fe3O4-APTES-EDTA nanocomposite corresponds well to the Langmuir model and the Freundlich model respectively. The adsorption processes for CR followed the pseudo-second-order model.

  7. EDTA Chelation Therapy, Without Added Vitamin C, Decreases Oxidative DNA Damage and Lipid Peroxidation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chelation therapy is thought to not only remove contaminating metals, but also to decrease free radical production. However, in standard EDTA chelation therapy high doses of vitamin C with potential prooxidant effects are often added to the chelation solution. We demonstrated previously that the in...

  8. Effect of sugarcane vinasse and EDTA on cadmium phytoextraction by two saltbush plants.

    PubMed

    Eissa, Mamdouh A

    2016-05-01

    Although the use of saltbush plants in metal phytoremediation is well known, there is little information about the impact of sugarcane vinasse (SCV) and EDTA on metal uptake. Heavily cadmium-polluted soil (38 mg kg(-1) Cd) was used in pot and incubation experiments to investigate the Cd phytoextraction potential of wavy saltbush (Atriplex undulata) and quail saltbush (Atriplex lentiformis). EDTA at rates of 3, 6, and 10 mM kg(-1) soil and SCV at rates of 7, 15, and 30 mL kg(-1) soil were added to the polluted soil. The application of EDTA significantly (P = 0.002) reduced the growth of saltbush plants; on the other hand, SCV improved the growth. Both EDTA and SCV increased the availability and root-to-shoot transfer of Cd. The plants of A. lentiformis grown on the soil amended with the highest rate of SCV were able to remove 20.4 % of the total soil Cd during a period of 9 months. Based on the obtained results, it may be concluded that A. lentiformis and sugarcane vinasse could be more effective in the phytoextraction of Cd from the polluted soils.

  9. Controllable synthesis of ultrathin vanadium oxide nanobelts via an EDTA-mediated hydrothermal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu-Xiang, Qin; Cheng, Liu; Wei-Wei, Xie; Meng-Yang, Cui

    2016-02-01

    Ultrathin VO2 nanobelts with rough alignment features are prepared on the induction layer-coated substrates by an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-mediated hydrothermal process. EDTA acts as a chelating reagent and capping agent to facilitate the one-dimensional (1D) preferential growth of ultrathin VO2 nanobelts with high crystallinities and good uniformities. The annealed induction layer and concentration of EDTA are found to play crucial roles in the formation of aligned and ultrathin nanobelts. Variation in EDTA concentration can change the VO2 morphology of ultrathin nanobelts into that of thick nanoplates. Mild annealing of ultrathin VO2 nanobelts at 350 °C in air results in the formation of V2O5 nanobelts with a nearly unchanged ultrathin structure. The nucleation and growth mechanism involved in the formations of nanobelts and nanoplates are proposed. The ethanol gas sensing properties of the V2O5 nanobelt networks-based sensor are investigated in a temperature range from 100 °C to 300 °C over ethanol concentrations ranging from 3 ppm to 500 ppm. The results indicate that the V2O5 nanobelt network sensor exhibits high sensitivity, good reversibility, and fast response-recovery characteristics with an optimal working temperature of 250 °C. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274074, 61271070, and 61574100).

  10. Determination of EDTA in feed and premix formulations by HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Chiumiento, Francesco; D'Aloise, Antonio; Marchegiani, Francesca; Melai, Valeria

    2015-05-15

    A simple analytical method for the quantitative determination of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in feed and premix formulations was developed and validated. The method involves an extraction with an acidic ferric chloride solution, to quantitatively convert EDTA species in the samples into the Fe(III)-EDTA complex, and its subsequent detection by Ion-Pair-Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection (IP-RP-HPLC-DAD). A robust validation procedure was performed according to the Decision 2002/657/EC at concentrations ranging from 25 to 100 mg kg(-1) on sample. Good recoveries (85.6-92.8%) were obtained; repeatability of the method was in the range of 1.3-8.0%, with an intermediate precision ranging from 6.0% to 8.6%, both of them expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD). No interfering species hindered the straightforward detection of EDTA. Hence, the proposed method can be adopted for an effective and rapid routine analysis of products for livestock.

  11. Minocycline-EDTA Lock Solution Prevents Catheter-Related Bacteremia in Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Marcelo Mazza; Chula, Domingos Candiota; Riella, Miguel Carlos

    2011-01-01

    There is growing concern about the development of antibacterial resistance with the use of antibiotics in catheter lock solutions. The use of an antibiotic that is not usually used to treat other serious infections may be an alternative that may reduce the clinical impact should resistance develop. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to compare a solution of minocycline and EDTA with the conventional unfractionated heparin for the prevention of catheter-related bacteremia in hemodialysis patients during a period of 90 d. The study included 204 incident catheters (27.8% tunneled); 14 catheters were excluded because of early dysfunction and 3 because of protocol violations. We observed catheter-related bacteremia in 19 patients in the heparin group (4.3 per 1000 catheter-days) and in 5 patients in the minocycline-EDTA group (1.1 per 1000 catheter-days; P = 0.005). We did not detect a significant difference in the rate of catheter removal for dysfunction. Catheter-related bacteremia-free survival was significantly higher in the minocycline-EDTA group than in the heparin group (P = 0.005). In conclusion, a minocycline-EDTA catheter lock solution is effective in the prevention of catheter-related bacteremia in hemodialysis patients. PMID:21852579

  12. Washing of metal contaminated soil with EDTA and process water recycling.

    PubMed

    Pociecha, Maja; Lestan, Domen

    2012-10-15

    We demonstrate here, in a laboratory scale experiment, the feasibility of using the base/acid pair Ca(OH)(2)/H(2)SO(4) to impose a pH gradient for EDTA recycling and, coupled with an electrochemical advanced oxidation process using a graphite anode, of recycling process water as part of a novel remediation technology for multi-metal contaminated soils. In the first batch, 60 mmol EDTA kg(-1) of soil removed 72, 27, and 71% of Pb, Zn, and Cd, respectively, from soil contaminated with 5329±685, 3401±193, and 35±6 mg kg(-1) of Pb, Zn, and Cd, respectively. In the subsequent four batches, we demonstrated that up to 88% of EDTA was recycled from each batch, with the potential to extract up to 98, 94, and 109% of Pb, Zn, and Cd, respectively, that the fresh EDTA extracted. Accumulation of salts in the process water through multiple remediation batches/recycles was prevented by CaSO(4) precipitation. Recycled process water toxicity testing indicated no significant effect on plant seed germination but some inhibition of root elongation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. EDTA-mediated inhibition of DNases protects circulating cell-free DNA from ex vivo degradation in blood samples.

    PubMed

    Barra, Gustavo Barcelos; Santa Rita, Ticiane Henriques; de Almeida Vasques, Júlia; Chianca, Camilla Figueiredo; Nery, Lídia Freire Abdalla; Santana Soares Costa, Sandra

    2015-10-01

    The extracellular DNA occurring in plasma-EDTA and serum is a biomarker of growing interest, especially in prenatal diagnosis and oncology. The objectives of the present study were to compare the DNase activity in these specimens and to investigate its ex-vivo impact over the circulating cell-free DNA yield (ccfDNA), using the circulating cell-free fetal DNA (ccffDNA) as a tool. EDTA-plasma and serum from women bearing male fetus were submitted to an endogenous DNase activity assay based on qPCR hydrolysis probe degradation, they were treated with DNAse I to investigate the action of an exogenous nuclease and also submitted to different temperature conditions to investigate the temperature-dependent degradation of the ccffDNA. In all instances, all male ccffDNA were quantified by qPCR targeting the Y chromosome-specific sequence DYS-14. Moreover, a serial dilution of EDTA was added to nonanticoagulated plasma and serum before the endogenous DNAse activity assay, to investigate the EDTA-mediated inhibition of the blood's DNase. The endogenous nuclease activity was 14.9-fold higher in serum compared to EDTA-plasma. The DNAse I treatment did not alter the ccffDNA yields in EDTA-plasma, but completely degraded it in serum. The addition of increasing doses of EDTA to nonanticoagulated plasma and serum resulted in a stepwise inhibition of their nucleases activity. Finally, we observed a much more pronounced temperature-mediated decrease on the ccffDNA amount in serum compared to EDTA-plasma. The exogenous and endogenous DNases are more active in serum, the anticoagulant EDTA indirectly inhibits blood DNases, and consequently ccfDNA is protected from the blood's DNase preanalytical impact in EDTA-plasma. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia: further insights and recommendations for prevention of a clinically threatening artifact.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Plebani, Mario

    2012-08-01

    Ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) is widely used as anticoagulant in laboratory medicine. EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia is a rare phenomenon (i.e., around 0.1% in the general population), which is mostly due to the presence of EDTA-dependent antiplatelet antibodies that react optimally between 0°C and 4°C, recognize the cytoadhesive receptors gpIIb-IIIa, stimulate the expression of activation antigens, trigger activation of tyrosine kinase, platelet agglutination and clumping in vitro, which finally lead to a spuriously decreased platelet count. The reliable and timely identification of this artifact is essential, since there a high chance that it may be confused with other life-threatening platelet disorders, or otherwise lead to inappropriate clinical and therapeutic decision-making. Five basic criteria should be fulfilled to raise the clinical suspicion of EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia, i.e., (i) abnormal platelet count, typically <100×10(9)/L; (ii) occurrence of thrombocytopenia in EDTA-anticoagulated samples at room temperature, but to a much lesser extent in samples collected with other anticoagulants and/or kept warmed at ~37°C; (iii) time-dependent fall of platelet count in the EDTA specimen; (iv) evidence of platelet aggregates and clumps in EDTA-anticoagulated samples with either automated cell counting or microscopic analysis; (v) lack of signs or symptoms of platelet disorders. Several remedies have been proposed, such as warming the sample to 37°C or using additives or specific formulations of anticoagulants including buffered sodium citrate, heparin, ammonium oxalate, β-hydroxyethyltheophylline, sodium fluoride, CPT (trisodium citrate, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and Tris), antiplatelet agents, potassium azide, amikacin, kanamycin or other aminoglycosides, and calcium replacement with the simultaneous addition of calcium chloride/heparin. According to available evidences, the most suitable and practical approach so far for most

  15. Simulation of the mobility of metal-EDTA complexes in groundwater: the influence of contaminant metals.

    PubMed

    Friedly, J C; Kent, D B; Davis, J A

    2002-02-01

    Reactive transport simulations were conducted to model chemical reactions between metal-EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) complexes during transport in a mildly acidic quartz-sand aquifer. Simulations were compared with the results of small-scale tracer tests wherein nickel-, zinc-, and calcium-EDTA complexes and free EDTA were injected into three distinct chemical zones of a plume of sewage-contaminated groundwater. One zone had a large mass of adsorbed, sewage-derived zinc; one zone had a large mass of adsorbed manganese resulting from mildly reducing conditions created by the sewage plume; and one zone had significantly less adsorbed manganese and negligible zinc background. The chemical model assumed that the dissolution of iron(III) from metal-hydroxypolymer coatings on the aquifer sediments by the metal-EDTA complexes was kinetically restricted. All other reactions, including metal-EDTA complexation, zinc and manganese adsorption, and aluminum hydroxide dissolution were assumed to reach equilibrium on the time scale of transport; equilibrium constants were either taken from the literature or determined independently in the laboratory. A single iron(III) dissolution rate constant was used to fit the breakthrough curves observed in the zone with negligible zinc background. Simulation results agreed well with the experimental data in all three zones, which included temporal moments derived from breakthrough curves at different distances downgradient from the injections and spatial moments calculated from synoptic samplings conducted at different times. Results show that the tracer cloud was near equilibrium with respect to Fe in the sediment after 11 m of transport in the Zn-contaminated region but remained far from equilibrium in the other two zones. Sensitivity studies showed that the relative rate of iron(III) dissolution by the different metal-EDTA complexes was less important than the fact that these reactions are rate controlled. Results suggest that

  16. Transport of Sr 2+ and SrEDTA 2- in partially-saturated and heterogeneous sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, M. N.; Mayes, M. A.; Jardine, P. M.; McKay, L. D.; Yin, X. L.; Mehlhorn, T. L.; Liu, Q.; Gürleyük, H.

    2007-05-01

    Strontium-90 has migrated deep into the unsaturated subsurface beneath leaking storage tanks in the Waste Management Areas (WMA) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Reservation. Faster than expected transport of contaminants in the vadose zone is typically attributed to either physical hydrologic processes such as development of preferential flow pathways, or to geochemical processes such as the formation of stable, anionic complexes with organic chelates, e.g., ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The goal of this paper is to determine whether hydrological processes in the Hanford sediments can influence the geochemistry of the system and hence control transport of Sr 2+ and SrEDTA 2-. The study used batch isotherms, saturated packed column experiments, and an unsaturated transport experiment in an undisturbed core. Isotherms and repacked column experiments suggested that the SrEDTA 2- complex was unstable in the presence of Hanford sediments, resulting in dissociation and transport of Sr 2+ as a divalent cation. A decrease in sorption with increasing solid:solution ratio for Sr 2+ and SrEDTA 2- suggested mineral dissolution resulted in competition for sorption sites and the formation of stable aqueous complexes. This was confirmed by detection of MgEDTA 2-, MnEDTA 2-, PbEDTA 2-, and unidentified Sr and Ca complexes. Displacement of Sr 2+ through a partially-saturated undisturbed core resulted in less retardation and more irreversible sorption than was observed in the saturated repacked columns, and model results suggested a significant reservoir (49%) of immobile water was present during transport through the heterogeneous layered sediments. The undisturbed core was subsequently disassembled along distinct bedding planes and subjected to sequential extractions. Strontium was unequally distributed between carbonates (49%), ion exchange sites (37%), and the oxide (14%) fraction. An inverse relationship between mass wetness and Sr suggested that

  17. Simulation of the mobility of metal - EDTA complexes in groundwater: The influence of contaminant metals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedly, J.C.; Kent, D.B.; Davis, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Reactive transport simulations were conducted to model chemical reactions between metal - EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) complexes during transport in a mildly acidic quartz - sand aquifer. Simulations were compared with the results of small-scale tracer tests wherein nickel-, zinc-, and calcium - EDTA complexes and free EDTA were injected into three distinct chemical zones of a plume of sewage-contaminated groundwater. One zone had a large mass of adsorbed, sewage-derived zinc; one zone had a large mass of adsorbed manganese resulting from mildly reducing conditions created bythe sewage plume; and one zone had significantly less adsorbed manganese and negligible zinc background. The chemical model assumed that the dissolution of iron(III) from metal - hydroxypolymer coatings on the aquifer sediments by the metal - EDTA complexes was kinetically restricted. All other reactions, including metal - EDTA complexation, zinc and manganese adsorption, and aluminum hydroxide dissolution were assumed to reach equilibrium on the time scale of transport; equilibrium constants were either taken from the literature or determined independently in the laboratory. A single iron(III) dissolution rate constant was used to fit the breakthrough curves observed in the zone with negligible zinc background. Simulation results agreed well with the experimental data in all three zones, which included temporal moments derived from breakthrough curves at different distances downgradient from the injections and spatial moments calculated from synoptic samplings conducted at different times. Results show that the tracer cloud was near equilibrium with respect to Fe in the sediment after 11 m of transport in the Zn-contaminated region but remained far from equilibrium in the other two zones. Sensitivity studies showed that the relative rate of iron(III) dissolution by the different metal - EDTA complexes was less important than the fact that these reactions are rate controlled. Results

  18. Characterizing RecA-Independent Induction of Shiga toxin2-Encoding Phages by EDTA Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Imamovic, Lejla; Muniesa, Maite

    2012-01-01

    Background The bacteriophage life cycle has an important role in Shiga toxin (Stx) expression. The induction of Shiga toxin-encoding phages (Stx phages) increases toxin production as a result of replication of the phage genome, and phage lysis of the host cell also provides a means of Stx toxin to exit the cell. Previous studies suggested that prophage induction might also occur in the absence of SOS response, independently of RecA. Methodology/Principal Findings The influence of EDTA on RecA-independent Stx2 phage induction was assessed, in laboratory lysogens and in EHEC strains carrying Stx2 phages in their genome, by Real-Time PCR. RecA-independent mechanisms described for phage λ induction (RcsA and DsrA) were not involved in Stx2 phage induction. In addition, mutations in the pathway for the stress response of the bacterial envelope to EDTA did not contribute to Stx2 phage induction. The effect of EDTA on Stx phage induction is due to its chelating properties, which was also confirmed by the use of citrate, another chelating agent. Our results indicate that EDTA affects Stx2 phage induction by disruption of the bacterial outer membrane due to chelation of Mg2+. In all the conditions evaluated, the pH value had a decisive role in Stx2 phage induction. Conclusions/Significance Chelating agents, such as EDTA and citrate, induce Stx phages, which raises concerns due to their frequent use in food and pharmaceutical products. This study contributes to our understanding of the phenomenon of induction and release of Stx phages as an important factor in the pathogenicity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and in the emergence of new pathogenic strains. PMID:22393404

  19. The effect of EDTA on the groundwater transport of thorium through sand.

    PubMed

    May, Colin C; Young, Lindsay; Worsfold, Paul J; Heath, Sarah; Bryan, Nick D; Keith-Roach, Miranda J

    2012-10-01

    The effect of the anthropogenic complexing agent EDTA on thorium transport in groundwater has been studied using sand-packed columns and flow rates in the range of 20-100 m y⁻¹. The concentrations injected into the columns were in the range of 0.4-4 mM for Th and 4-40 mM for EDTA, and with EDTA:Th ratios in the range 1:1 to 10:1. The results show that EDTA can significantly increase Th transport, but two very different behaviours are observed at Th concentrations of 0.4 and 4 mM. At the lower concentration, Th breakthrough is retarded with respect to a conservative tracer, with a peak width that is consistent with a single K(d) value, followed by a longer tail, and the behaviour is very sensitive to the flow rate. However at 4 mM Th, the breakthrough peak appears near to that of the tracer, and the width of the peak is consistent with a distribution of K(d) values and/or a larger dispersivity than the tracer. Speciation and transport modelling have been used to interpret the data, and a model was developed that could explain the 0.4 mM behaviour. This suggests that ternary surface complexes are important in these systems, with at least two different species involved, although the complexity of Th speciation in these systems leads to significant uncertainty in the values of the equilibrium and kinetic parameters. For the 4 mM systems, the rapid transport observed could not be explained by a simple chemical model; instead it is likely that EDTA plays an important role in stabilising and transporting thorium colloids and clusters.

  20. Oxidation of Fe(II)-EDTA by nitrite and by two nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing Acidovorax strains.

    PubMed

    Klueglein, N; Picardal, F; Zedda, M; Zwiener, C; Kappler, A

    2015-03-01

    The enzymatic oxidation of Fe(II) by nitrate-reducing bacteria was first suggested about two decades ago. It has since been found that most strains are mixotrophic and need an additional organic co-substrate for complete and prolonged Fe(II) oxidation. Research during the last few years has tried to determine to what extent the observed Fe(II) oxidation is driven enzymatically, or abiotically by nitrite produced during heterotrophic denitrification. A recent study reported that nitrite was not able to oxidize Fe(II)-EDTA abiotically, but the addition of the mixotrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizer, Acidovorax sp. strain 2AN, led to Fe(II) oxidation (Chakraborty & Picardal, 2013). This, along with other results of that study, was used to argue that Fe(II) oxidation in strain 2AN was enzymatically catalyzed. However, the absence of abiotic Fe(II)-EDTA oxidation by nitrite reported in that study contrasts with previously published data. We have repeated the abiotic and biotic experiments and observed rapid abiotic oxidation of Fe(II)-EDTA by nitrite, resulting in the formation of Fe(III)-EDTA and the green Fe(II)-EDTA-NO complex. Additionally, we found that cultivating the Acidovorax strains BoFeN1 and 2AN with 10 mM nitrate, 5 mm acetate, and approximately 10 mM Fe(II)-EDTA resulted only in incomplete Fe(II)-EDTA oxidation of 47-71%. Cultures of strain BoFeN1 turned green (due to the presence of Fe(II)-EDTA-NO) and the green color persisted over the course of the experiments, whereas strain 2AN was able to further oxidize the Fe(II)-EDTA-NO complex. Our work shows that the two used Acidovorax strains behave very differently in their ability to deal with toxic effects of Fe-EDTA species and the further reduction of the Fe(II)-EDTA-NO nitrosyl complex. Although the enzymatic oxidation of Fe(II) cannot be ruled out, this study underlines the importance of nitrite in nitrate-reducing Fe(II)- and Fe(II)-EDTA-oxidizing cultures and demonstrates that Fe(II)-EDTA cannot

  1. Physicomechanical characterization and optimization of EDTA-mPEG and Avicel®-EDTA-mPEG in situ melt dispersion mini-pellets.

    PubMed

    Hibbins, Angus R; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a physicomechanically customizable oral metal chelatory in situ hot melt dispersion mini-pellet entity which could be utilized within a binary drug delivery system. Avicel(®) RC/CL type R-591 was included within the in situ hot melt dispersion mini-pellet formulations to determine the physicomechanical effect this compound would have on the mini-pellet formulations. The physicomechanical properties of the hot melt in situ mini-pellet formulations were mathematically fitting to regression curves. Physicomechanical adjustment of the in situ hot melt dispersion mini-pellet formulations could be mathematically predicted with the derived regression curve equations. The addition of Avicel(®) RC/CL type R-591 increased the physicomechanical properties such as matrix hardness and increased total disintegration of the in situ hot melt dispersion mini-pellet formulations. The utilization of a physicomechanically customizable oral metal chelatory in situ hot melt dispersion mini-pellet entity within a binary drug delivery system would to achieve a synergistically enhance the activity of a drug-carrying entity or a permeation enhancing entity within a single drug delivery unit. The experimental results indicated that weights of the pellets that achieved optimal hardness ranged between 35 and 45 mg. The melt-dispersion formulations disintegrated within shorter time periods and maintained higher ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) concentrations whereas melt-dispersion formulations which included Avicel(®) had superior physicomechanical properties. Disintegration times ranged between 1,000 s for melt-dispersions containing EDTA and methyloxy polyethylene glycol 2000 (mPEG) only, to >6,000 s for melt-dispersions comprising EDTA, mPEG, and Avicel(®).

  2. The impact of EDTA on lead distribution and speciation in the accumulator Sedum alfredii by synchrotron X-ray investigation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Sheng-ke; Lu, Ling-li; Yang, Xiao-e; Huang, Hua-gang; Brown, Patrick; Labavitch, John; Liao, Hai-bing; He, Zhen-li

    2011-03-01

    The in vivo localization and speciation of lead (Pb) in tissues of the accumulator Sedum alfredii grown in EDTA-Pb and Pb(NO(3))(2) was studied by synchrotron X-ray investigation. The presence of EDTA-Pb in solution resulted in a significant reduction of Pb accumulation in S. alfredii. Lead was preferentially localized in the vascular bundles regardless of treatments but the intensities of Pb were lower in the plants treated with EDTA. Lead was predominantly presented as a Pb-cell wall complex in the plants regardless of its supply form. However, a relatively high proportion of Pb was observed as Pb-EDTA complex when the plant was treated with EDTA-Pb, but as a mixture of Pb(3)(PO(4))(2), Pb-malic, and Pb-GSH when cultured with ionic Pb. These results suggest that EDTA does not increase the internal mobility of Pb, although the soluble Pb-EDTA complex could be transported and accumulated within the plants of S. alfredii.

  3. Reagents and methods for the solid-phase synthesis of protein-EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) for use in affinity cleaving

    SciTech Connect

    Sluka, J.P.; Griffin, J.H.; Mack, D.P.; Dervan, P.B. )

    1990-08-15

    Synthetic procedures for the introduction of the metal chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at unique amino acid positions of proteins by solid-phase methods are described. Two protected derivatives of EDTA compatible with Merrifield solid-phase protein synthesis employing N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl- (Boc-) protected amino acids were developed. The first reagent is a dipeptide with three of four carboxyl groups of EDTA protected as benzyl esters and the fourth coupled to a {gamma}-aminobutanoic acid linker, referred to as tribenzyl-EDTA-GABA (BEG). A second reagent is the tricyclohexyl ester of EDTA, TCE. BEG and TCE allow the modification of the NH{sub 2} terminus and/or lysine side chains of resin-bound peptides and proteins. Upon deprotection and cleavage from the resin, a protein is produced with EDTA at a defined amino acid position. The availability of protein-EDTA conjugates extends the affinity cleaving method to the study of protein-DNA complexes in solution.

  4. Degradation of EDTA and novel complexing agents in pulp and paper mill process and waste waters by Fenton's reagent.

    PubMed

    Pirkanniemi, Kari; Metsärinne, Sirpa; Sillanpää, Mika

    2007-08-17

    Fenton's process was used in oxidative degradation of ethylediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and novel complexing agents, namely BCA5 and BCA6, in distilled water and spiked samples of integrated pulp and paper mill waste water and ECF-pulp bleaching effluent. In waste water, over 90% of EDTA was degraded within 3 min when temperature was 60 degrees C, pH 4, and molecular ratio of H2O2:Fe2+:EDTA was 70:2:1 (0.26 mM EDTA) or higher. In spiked ECF bleaching effluent up to 42% of EDTA was degraded in similar reaction conditions, still higher than published results indicate biological waste water treatment of pulp and paper mill waste water being capable of. In pH 3, EDTA proved readily degradable by Fenton's process in otherwise similar conditions. According to these results, Fenton's process could be used as a pre-treatment method for EDTA-containing bleaching effluents prior to the biological waste water treatment. In addition, BCA5 and BCA6 proved their superiority in terms of degradability also by Fenton's process in both pH 3 and 4.

  5. Simultaneous determination of EDTA, sorbic acid, and diclofenac sodium in pharmaceutical preparations using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Rouhollah; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Naleini, Nasim

    2013-06-01

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), sorbic acid, and diclofenac sodium was developed and validated. Separation was achieved on a C(18) column (10 cm×4.6 mm) using gradient elution. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-ammonium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution (0.01 M, pH=2.5, containing 0.8% tetra-n-butyl ammonium hydroxide). The detector wavelength was set at 254 nm. Under these conditions, separation of three compounds was achieved in less than 10 min. The effect of two metal salts and metal concentration on peak area of EDTA was investigated. The pH effect on retention of EDTA and sorbic acid was studied. The method showed linearity for EDTA, sorbic acid, and diclofenac in the ranges of 2.5-100.0, 5.0-200.0, and 20.0-120.0 μg/mL, respectively. The within- and between-day relative standard deviations ranged from 0.52 to 1.94%, 0.50 to 1.34%, and 0.78 to 1.67% for EDTA, sorbic acid, and diclofenac, respectively. The recovery of EDTA, sorbic acid, and diclofenac from pharmaceutical preparation ranged from 96.0-102.0%, 99.7-101.5%, to 97.0-102.5%, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about simultaneous determination of EDTA, sorbic acid, and diclofenac.

  6. [Preparation of (99m)Tc-EDTA-MN and Its Bioimaging in Mouse].

    PubMed

    Qi, Yongshuai; Li, Guiping; Chi, Xiaohua; Du, Li; Huang, Kai; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Baodan

    2015-07-01

    Hypoxia is an important biological characteristics of solid tumor, it is not sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy for which is the presence of hypoxic cell, thus increasing their resistance to conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy, therefore, the detection of hypoxia degree of tumor tissue is of great significance. The hypoxia imaging of nuclear medicine can reflect the degree of tissue hypoxia, which can selectively retained on the hypoxic cells or tissues, including nitroimidazole and non nitroimidazole; the nitroimidazole is widely and deeply researched as hypoxic celles developer in China and abroad at present. The research about application of radionuclide labelled technique has clinical application value to develop the hypoxia imaging agent EDTA-MN complexes which was labeled. To study the feasibility of (99m)Tc by direct labeling method, the radiochemical properties evaluation of (99m)Tc-EDTA-MN, and observe the distribution characteristics of (99m)Tc radiolabeled EDTA-MN in the xenograft lung cancer nude mice bearing non-small cell lung cancer cell (A549), and provide experimental evidence for its further research and application. The radiolabeling of EDTA-MN with (99m)Tc was performed with direct labeling method, respectively, on the reaction dosage (10 mg, 5 mg, 2 mg), stannous chloride dosage (8 mg/mL, 4 mg/mL, 2 mg/mL), mark system pH (2, 4, 5, 6) one by one test, using orthogonal design analysis, to find the optimal labeling conditions. Labelling rate, radiochemical purity, lipid-water partition coefficient and in vitro stability in normal saline (NS) were determined by TLC and HPLC, and the preliminary study on the distribution of (99m)Tc-EDTA-MN in nude mice. The labeling rate of 99mTc-EDTA-MN with the best labeling conditions was (84.11±2.83)%, and the radiochemical purity was higher than 90% by HPLC purification, without any notable decomposition at room temperature over a period of 12 h. The partition coefficient was lgP=-3

  7. Detection of Colistin-Resistant MCR-1-Positive Escherichia coli Using Inhibition by EDTA and Zeta Potential Assays.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Fernanda; Fernandes, Miriam R; Lopes, Ralf; Muñoz, Maria; Sabino, Caetano P; Cunha, Marcos P; Silva, Ketrin C; Cayô, Rodrigo; Martins, Willames M; Moreno, Andrea M; Knöbl, Terezinha; Gales, Ana C; Lincopan, Nilton

    2017-10-04

    The emergence and rapid dissemination of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli carrying the plasmid-mediated mcr-1 gene has created an urgent need to develop specific screening methods. In this study, we evaluate four assays based on the inhibition of the MCR-1 activity by EDTA: i) a combined disk test (CDT) comparing the inhibition zones of colistin (10 μg) and colistin-plus-EDTA (10 μg-plus-100 mM); ii) reduction of colistin MIC (CMR) in the presence of EDTA (80 μg/mL); iii) a modified rapid polymyxin Nordmann/Poirel test (MPNP) and; iv) alteration of Zeta potential (RZP= ZP+EDTA/ZP-EDTA). We obtained encouraging results for detection of MCR-1 in E. coli isolates recovered from human, food, and animal samples, using the following assay parameters: ≥3 mm difference in the inhibition zones between colistin disks without and with EDTA; ≥4-fold colistin MIC decrease in the presence of EDTA; RZP ≥2.5; and absence of metabolic activity and proliferation, indicated by unchanged color of phenol red, in the presence of colistin/EDTA, in the MPNP test. In this regard, the CDT, CMR, RZP and MPNP assays exhibited sensitivities of 96.7, 96.7, 95.1 and 96.7%, and specificities of 89.6, 83.3, 100 and 100%, respectively, for detecting MCR-1-positive E. coli Our results demonstrate that inhibition by EDTA and Zeta potential assays may provide simple and inexpensive methods for the presumptive detection of MCR-1-producing E. coli in human and veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Synergetic effects of DA-6/GA₃ with EDTA on plant growth, extraction and detoxification of Cd by Lolium perenne.

    PubMed

    He, Shanying; Wu, Qiuling; He, Zhenli

    2014-12-01

    Research is needed to improve efficiency of phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils. A pot experiment was carried out to study the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs) (diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (C18H33NO8, DA-6) and gibberellic acid 3 (C19H22O6, GA3)) and/or EDTA on Cd extraction, subcellular distribution and chemical forms in Lolium perenne. The addition of EDTA or PGRs significantly enhanced Cd extraction efficiency (P<0.05), with the decreasing order of: 1 μM DA-6>10 μM DA-6>10 μM GA3>2.5 mmol kg(-1) EDTA>other treatments of PGR alone. PGRs+EDTA resulted in a further increase in Cd extraction efficiency, with EDTA+1 μM DA-6 being the most efficient. At the subcellular level, about 44-57% of Cd was soluble fraction, 18-44% in cell walls, and 12-25% in cellular organelles fraction. Chemical speciation analysis showed that 40-54% of Cd was NaCl extractable, 7-23% HAc extractable, followed by other fractions. EDTA increased the proportions of Cd in soluble and cellular organelles fraction, as well as the metal migration in shoot; therefore, the toxicity to plant increased and plant growth was inhibited. Conversely, PGRs fixed more Cd in cell walls and reduced Cd migration in shoot; thus, metal toxicity was reduced. In addition, PGRs promoted plant biomass growth significantly (P<0.05), with 1 μM DA-6 being the most effective. A combination of DA-6/GA3 with EDTA can alleviate the adverse effect of EDTA on plant growth, and the treatment of EDTA+1 μM DA-6 appears to be optimal for improving the remediation efficiency of L. perenne for Cd contaminated soil.

  9. Pathway of FeEDTA transformation and its impact on performance of NOx removal in a chemical absorption-biological reduction integrated process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Jingkai; Zhang, Lei; Xia, Yinfeng; Liu, Nan; Li, Sujing; Zhang, Shihan

    2016-01-01

    A novel chemical absorption-biological reduction (CABR) integrated process, employing ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Fe(II)EDTA) as a solvent, is deemed as a potential option for NOx removal from the flue gas. Previous work showed that the Fe(II)EDTA concentration was critical for the NOx removal in the CABR process. In this work, the pathway of FeEDTA (Fe(III)/Fe(II)-EDTA) transformation was investigated to assess its impact on the NOx removal in a biofilter. Experimental results revealed that the FeEDTA transformation involved iron precipitation and EDTA degradation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed the iron was precipitated in the form of Fe(OH)3. The iron mass balance analysis showed 44.2% of the added iron was precipitated. The EDTA degradation facilitated the iron precipitation. Besides chemical oxidation, EDTA biodegradation occurred in the biofilter. The addition of extra EDTA helped recover the iron from the precipitation. The transformation of FeEDTA did not retard the NO removal. In addition, EDTA rather than the iron concentration determined the NO removal efficiency.

  10. Pathway of FeEDTA transformation and its impact on performance of NOx removal in a chemical absorption-biological reduction integrated process

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Jingkai; Zhang, Lei; Xia, Yinfeng; Liu, Nan; Li, Sujing; Zhang, Shihan

    2016-01-01

    A novel chemical absorption-biological reduction (CABR) integrated process, employing ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Fe(II)EDTA) as a solvent, is deemed as a potential option for NOx removal from the flue gas. Previous work showed that the Fe(II)EDTA concentration was critical for the NOx removal in the CABR process. In this work, the pathway of FeEDTA (Fe(III)/Fe(II)-EDTA) transformation was investigated to assess its impact on the NOx removal in a biofilter. Experimental results revealed that the FeEDTA transformation involved iron precipitation and EDTA degradation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed the iron was precipitated in the form of Fe(OH)3. The iron mass balance analysis showed 44.2% of the added iron was precipitated. The EDTA degradation facilitated the iron precipitation. Besides chemical oxidation, EDTA biodegradation occurred in the biofilter. The addition of extra EDTA helped recover the iron from the precipitation. The transformation of FeEDTA did not retard the NO removal. In addition, EDTA rather than the iron concentration determined the NO removal efficiency. PMID:26743930

  11. Enhanced ALP activity of MG63 cells cultured on hydroxyapatite-poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel composites prepared using EDTA-OH.

    PubMed

    Ito, Temmei; Sasaki, Makoto; Taguchi, Tetsushi

    2015-03-02

    In order to obtain a hydroxyapatite (HAp)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) composite, tetra amine-terminated PEG was crosslinked using disuccinimidyl tartrate to obtain a PEG hydrogel. Using two kinds of chelators with different stability constants for Ca ion (N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid (EDTA-OH, 8.14), and ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EDTA, 10.96)), calcium phosphate was deposited within PEG hydrogels by heating the chelator-containing calcium phosphate solution at 90 °C. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the deposited calcium phosphate was HAp. The crystallinity of the HAp deposited using EDTA-OH was low compared with that obtained using EDTA, but the amount of HAp deposited within the PEG hydrogel using EDTA-OH was higher than that deposited using EDTA. Significantly more human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells adhered on the HAp-PEG composite prepared using EDTA-OH than on the HAp-PEG composites prepared using EDTA. Furthermore, the alkaline phosphatase activity of MG-63 cultured on the HAp-PEG composite prepared using EDTA-OH was four times higher than that on the HAp-PEG composite prepared using EDTA. Therefore, the HAp-PEG composite prepared using EDTA-OH has potential as a bone substitute material.

  12. Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction by a newly isolated thermophilic Anoxybacillus sp. HA from a rotating drum biofilter for NOx removal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Li, Yan; Hao, Hong-hong; Zheng, Ji; Chen, Jian-meng

    2015-02-01

    The reduction of Fe(II)EDTA-NO is one of the core processes in BioDeNOx, an integrated physicochemical and biological technique for NOx removal from industrial flue gases. A newly isolated thermophilic Anoxybacillus sp. HA, identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis, could simultaneously reduce Fe(II)EDTA-NO and Fe(III)EDTA. A maximum NO removal efficiency of 98.7% was achieved when 3mM Fe(II)EDTA-NO was used in the nutrient solution at 55°C. Results of this study strongly indicated that the biological oxidation of Fe(II)EDTA played an important role in the formation of Fe(III)EDTA in the anaerobic system. Fe(II)EDTA-NO was more competitive than Fe(III)EDTA as an electron acceptor, and the presence of Fe(III)EDTA slightly affected the reduction rate of Fe(II)EDTA-NO. At 55°C, the maximum microbial specific growth rate μmax reached the peak value of 0.022h(-1). The maximum NO removal efficiency was also measured (95.4%) under this temperature. Anoxybacillus sp. HA, which grew well at 50°C-60°C, is a potential microbial resource for Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction at thermophilic temperatures.

  13. Pathway of FeEDTA transformation and its impact on performance of NOx removal in a chemical absorption-biological reduction integrated process.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Jingkai; Zhang, Lei; Xia, Yinfeng; Liu, Nan; Li, Sujing; Zhang, Shihan

    2016-01-08

    A novel chemical absorption-biological reduction (CABR) integrated process, employing ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Fe(II)EDTA) as a solvent, is deemed as a potential option for NOx removal from the flue gas. Previous work showed that the Fe(II)EDTA concentration was critical for the NOx removal in the CABR process. In this work, the pathway of FeEDTA (Fe(III)/Fe(II)-EDTA) transformation was investigated to assess its impact on the NOx removal in a biofilter. Experimental results revealed that the FeEDTA transformation involved iron precipitation and EDTA degradation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed the iron was precipitated in the form of Fe(OH)3. The iron mass balance analysis showed 44.2% of the added iron was precipitated. The EDTA degradation facilitated the iron precipitation. Besides chemical oxidation, EDTA biodegradation occurred in the biofilter. The addition of extra EDTA helped recover the iron from the precipitation. The transformation of FeEDTA did not retard the NO removal. In addition, EDTA rather than the iron concentration determined the NO removal efficiency.

  14. On the anomalous adsorption of [Pd(edta)]2- at the water/Goethite interface: spectroscopic evidence for two types of surface complexes.

    PubMed

    Kaplun, Marina; Nordin, Agneta; Persson, Per

    2008-01-15

    The structure of palladium(II) ethylenediaminetetraacetate (edta) in aqueous solutions and its adsorption on the surface of goethite (alpha-FeOOH) were studied using extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The obtained results show that in aqueous solutions, Pd-edta exists as a 1:1 complex, [Pd(edta)]2-, with edta acting as a quadridentate ligand. On the surface of goethite, [Pd(edta)]2- forms two different types of complexes over a pH range of 3.40-8.12. At pH < 5, [Pd(edta)]2- adsorbs as an outer-sphere species with possible hydrogen bonding. At higher pH values, the formation of inner-sphere complexes of the cation-type sets in after a cleavage of one glycinate ring and the formation of an (edta)Pd-O-Fe linkage.

  15. On the Anomalous Adsorption of [Pd(Edta)]**2- at the Water/Goethite Interface: Spectroscopic Evidence for Two Types of Surface Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplun, M.; Nordin, A.; Persson, P.

    2009-05-18

    The structure of palladium(II) ethylenediaminetetraacetate (edta) in aqueous solutions and its adsorption on the surface of goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) were studied using extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The obtained results show that in aqueous solutions, Pd-edta exists as a 1:1 complex, [Pd(edta)]{sup 2-}, with edta acting as a quadridentate ligand. On the surface of goethite, [Pd(edta)]{sup 2-} forms two different types of complexes over a pH range of 3.40-8.12. At pH < 5, [Pd(edta)]{sup 2-} adsorbs as an outer-sphere species with possible hydrogen bonding. At higher pH values, the formation of inner-sphere complexes of the cation-type sets in after a cleavage of one glycinate ring and the formation of an (edta)Pd-O-Fe linkage.

  16. Poly(anhydride-esters) comprised exclusively of naturally occurring antimicrobials and EDTA: antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Carbone-Howell, Ashley L; Stebbins, Nicholas D; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2014-05-12

    Carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol are naturally occurring phenolic compounds known to possess antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria, as well as antioxidant activity. Biodegradable poly(anhydride-esters) composed of an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) backbone and antimicrobial pendant groups (i.e., carvacrol, thymol, or eugenol) were synthesized via solution polymerization. The resulting polymers were characterized to confirm their chemical composition and understand their thermal properties and molecular weight. In vitro release studies demonstrated that polymer hydrolytic degradation was complete after 16 days, resulting in the release of free antimicrobials and EDTA. Antioxidant and antibacterial assays determined that polymer release media exhibited bioactivity similar to that of free compound, demonstrating that polymer incorporation and subsequent release had no effect on activity. These polymers completely degrade into components that are biologically relevant and have the capability to promote preservation of consumer products in the food and personal care industries via antimicrobial and antioxidant pathways.

  17. EDTA enhanced phytoremediation of copper contaminated soils using chickpea (Cicer aeritinum L.).

    PubMed

    Kambhampati, Murty S; Vu, Van Tu

    2013-09-01

    The goal of this research was to determine whether or not chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), commonly known as Garbanzo beans, is a hyper accumulator for copper (Cu) in contaminated soils amended with EDTA. Statistical analysis (2 tailed Pearson Correlation) revealed significant correlations between: Translocation index and stem biomass (r = 0.859**; p < 0.01); Tolerance index and stem biomass (r = 0.762**; p < 0.01); and bioconcentration factor of stem/soil and soil Cu concentration (r = -0.545*; p < 0.05). Therefore, C. arietinum seems to be a cost-effective and environmentally friendly hyperaccumulator for Cu at 100 ppm Cu and 10 mM EDTA.

  18. Removal of Pb from a calcareous soil during EDTA-enhanced electrokinetic extraction.

    PubMed

    Amrate, S; Akretche, D E; Innocent, C; Seta, P

    2005-10-15

    Electrokinetic extraction has been tested to remove lead from an Algerian contaminated soil ([Pb] = 4.432 +/- 0.275 mg g(-1)) sited near a battery plant. The effect of EDTA at various concentrations (0.05-0.20 M) on the enhancement of lead transport has been studied by applying a constant voltage corresponding to a nominal electric field strength of 1 V cm(-1) (duration: 240 h). Results of contaminant distribution across the experimental cell have shown efficient transport of lead toward the anode despite the presence of calcite (25%) and the high acid/base buffer capacity of the soil. To avoid ligand loss, which would be anodically oxidized, the cell was modified by adding extra compartments and inserting cation exchange membranes (Neosepta CMX). Thus, simultaneous recovery of EDTA and lead from their chelated solutions has been made possible using the same set-up and by controlling fluids chemistry.

  19. Intestinal permeability to (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA in children with cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Leclercq-Foucart, J.; Forget, P.; Sodoyez-Goffaux, F.; Zappitelli, A.

    1986-05-01

    Intestinal permeability was investigated in 14 children with cystic fibrosis making use of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA as probe molecule. Ten normal young adults and 11 children served as controls. After oral administration of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA, 24 h urine was collected. Urinary radioactivity was calculated and results expressed as percentage of oral dose excreted in 24 h urine. Mean and SEM were as follows: 2.51 +/- 0.21, 2.35 +/- 0.24, and 13.19 +/- 1.72 for control children, normal adults, and cystic fibrosis patients, respectively. The permeability differences between cystic fibrosis patients and either control children or control adults are significant (p less than 0.001).

  20. Poly(anhydride-esters) Comprised Exclusively of Naturally Occurring Antimicrobials and EDTA: Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol are naturally occurring phenolic compounds known to possess antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria, as well as antioxidant activity. Biodegradable poly(anhydride-esters) composed of an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) backbone and antimicrobial pendant groups (i.e., carvacrol, thymol, or eugenol) were synthesized via solution polymerization. The resulting polymers were characterized to confirm their chemical composition and understand their thermal properties and molecular weight. In vitro release studies demonstrated that polymer hydrolytic degradation was complete after 16 days, resulting in the release of free antimicrobials and EDTA. Antioxidant and antibacterial assays determined that polymer release media exhibited bioactivity similar to that of free compound, demonstrating that polymer incorporation and subsequent release had no effect on activity. These polymers completely degrade into components that are biologically relevant and have the capability to promote preservation of consumer products in the food and personal care industries via antimicrobial and antioxidant pathways. PMID:24702678

  1. Highly Crystalline FeCO3 Microparticle Synthesis by Hydrothermal Decomposition of Fe-EDTA Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirita, M.; Banica, R.; Ieta, A.; Bucur, A.; Sfiarloaga, P.; Ursu, D. H.; Grozescu, I.

    2010-08-01

    In this article, we present an experimental procedure to synthesize highly crystalline FeCO3 by hydrothermal decomposition of Fe(III)-EDTA complex, starting from Ferric Ammonium Sulfate and Na4EDTA main precursors in urea presence. The structure, morphology and composition of the powders were obtained using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The peaks were founded, indicate that the synthesized products autoclaved 22 h at 250 °C are pure FeCO3, which was well proved experimentally from EDAX further investigated. The size with appreciatively 100 μm was evaluated by SEM images. Magnetic characterization confirmed the magnetic characteristics of FeCO3. This procedure allowed the FeCO3 microparticles formation with good and stabile crystallographic characteristics.

  2. [Effects of EDTA on lead accumulation in Tagetes patula and Salvia spendens].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Shuang; Sun, Li-Na; Sun, Tie-Heng

    2007-09-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of EDTA on the Pb availability in rhizospheric soil and the Pb accumulation in Tagetes patula and Salvia spendens. The results showed that 7 days after applying EDTA (3.0 mmol x kg(-1)) into soil, the concentration of ammonium acetate (1 mol x L(-1)) -extracted Pb in rhizospheric soil increased significantly (P < 0.01), and the Pb content in T. patula and S. spendens leaves reached to 2415.88 and 1083.68 mg x kg(-1), being 61.36 and 5.37 times of the control, respectively. The Pb content also had a marked increase in T. patula and S. spendens stems, but had a slight decrease in their roots.

  3. Expanding the crystal chemistry of uranyl peroxides: four hybrid uranyl-peroxide structures containing EDTA.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jie; Ling, Jie; Sieradzki, Claire; Nguyen, Kevin; Wylie, Ernest M; Szymanowski, Jennifer E S; Burns, Peter C

    2014-11-17

    The first four uranyl peroxide compounds containing ethylenediaminetetra-acetate (EDTA) were synthesized and characterized from aqueous uranyl peroxide nitrate solutions with a pH range of 5-7. Raman spectra demonstrated that reaction solutions that crystallized [NaK15[(UO2)8(O2)8(C10H12O10N2)2(C2O4)4]·(H2O)14] (1) and [Li4K6[(UO2)8(O2)6(C10H12O10N2)2(NO3)6]·(H2O)26] (2) contained excess peroxide, and their structures contained oxidized ethylenediaminetetraacetate, EDTAO2(4-). The solutions from which [K4[(UO2)4(O2)2(C10H13O8N2)2(IO3)2]·(H2O)16] (3) and LiK3[(UO2)4(O2)2(C10H12O8N2)2(H2O)2]·(H2O)18 (4) crystallized contained no free peroxide, and the structures incorporated intact EDTA(4-). In contrast to the large family of uranyl peroxide cage clusters, coordination of uranyl peroxide units in 1-4 by EDTA(4-) or EDTAO2(4-) results in isolated tetramers or dimers of uranyl ions that are bridged by bidentate peroxide groups. Two tetramers are bridged by EDTAO2(4-) to form octamers in 1 and 2, and dimers of uranyl polyhedra are linked through iodate groups in 3 and EDTA(4-) in 4, forming chains in both cases. In each structure the U-O2-U dihedral angle is strongly bent, at ∼140°, consistent with the configuration of this linkage in cage clusters and other recently reported uranyl peroxides.

  4. Effect of agitation of EDTA with 808-nanometer diode laser on removal of smear layer.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Hakan; Ayrancı, Leyla Benan; Karatas, Ertugrul; Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Yavuz, Muhammet Selim; Kesim, Bertan

    2013-12-01

    Near-infrared diode lasers can be used for several applications, which range from disinfection to smear layer removal in endodontics. This study evaluated the efficacy of agitation of 15% EDTA with an 808-nm diode laser on removal of the smear layer. Sixty extracted human maxillary central incisor teeth were instrumented up to ProTaper F4 (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballagues, Switzerland) and then randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 10 for each group) according to the different final irrigating protocols as follows: 5% sodium hypochlorite for 120 seconds performed with the NaviTip (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) (control group); 15% EDTA for 120 seconds performed with the NaviTip; and agitation of 15% EDTA with an 808-nm diode laser for 10, 20, 30, and 40 seconds. Specimens were observed under a scanning electron microscope, and open dentinal tubules were counted using Adobe Photoshop software (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA). The data were analyzed with 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests (P = .05). The number of open dentinal tubules was higher in the middle thirds than in the apical thirds. The differences between the apical and middle thirds were statistically significant (P < .05). Statistically significant differences were also found between the control group and the other groups in both the middle and apical thirds of the root canals (P < .05). The results indicated that agitation of 15% EDTA with an 808-nm diode laser for 20 seconds was effective in removing the smear layer in the apical thirds of root canals. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment of Ni-EDTA containing wastewater by electrocoagulation using iron scraps packed-bed anode.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaokun; Zhang, Junya; Zhang, Yan; Lv, Yuancai; Dou, Rongni; Wen, Shulong; Li, Lianghao; Chen, Yuancai; Hu, YongYou

    2016-12-01

    The unique electrocoagulator proposed in this study is highly efficient at removing Ni-EDTA, providing a potential remediation option for wastewater containing lower concentrations of Ni-EDTA (Ni ≤ 10 mg L(-1)). In the electrocoagulation (EC) system, cylindrical graphite was used as a cathode, and a packed-bed formed from iron scraps was used as an anode. The results showed that the removal of Ni-EDTA increased with the application of current and favoured acidic conditions. We also found that the iron scrap packed-bed anode was superior in its treatment ability and specific energy consumption (SECS) compared with the iron rod anode. In addition, the packed density and temperature had a large influence on the energy consumption (ECS). Over 94.3% of Ni and 95.8% of TOC were removed when conducting the EC treatment at an applied current of 0.5 A, initial pH of 3, air-purged rate 0.2 L min(-1), anode packed density of 400 kg m(-3) temperature of 313 K and time of 30 min. SEM analysis of the iron scraps indicated that the specific area of the anode increased after the EC. The XRD analysis of flocs produced during EC revealed that hematite (α-Fe2O3) and magnetite (Fe3O4) were the main by-products under aerobic and anoxic conditions, respectively. A kinetic study demonstrated that the removal of Ni-EDTA followed a first-order model with the current parameters. Moreover, the removal efficiency of real wastewater was essentially consistent with that of synthetic wastewater.

  6. Stabilizing the urinary activity of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase with EDTA and mercaptoethanol.

    PubMed

    Kepka, Alina; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska, Anna; Płudowski, Paweł; Zwierz-Gugała, Dorota; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Borzym-Kluczyk, Małgorzata; Kryśkiewicz, Edyta; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-09-01

    The study aim was to establish conditions for stabilization the activity of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP-1) in stored urine. The FBP-1 was determined by the method Kepka et. al in a collected fraction of purified urine. EDTA and mercaptoethanol stabilized FBP-1 activity in stored urine. At optimal conditions urine may be stored up to 7 days at a temperature of 4 degrees C.

  7. Effect of super-oxidized water, sodium hypochlorite and EDTA on dentin microhardness.

    PubMed

    Ghisi, Alexandre Corrêa; Kopper, Patrícia Maria Poli; Baldasso, Flávia E R; Stürmer, Caroline P; Rossi-Fedele, Giampiero; Steier, Liviu; Figueiredo, José Antonio Poli de; Morgental, Renata Dornelles; Vier-Pelisser, Fabiana Vieira

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of the following irrigating solutions on the microhardness of root canal dentin: 2% sodium hypochlorite (2NaOCl), 5% sodium hypochlorite (5NaOCl), super-oxidized water (400 ppm Sterilox - Sx) and 17% EDTA (E). Eighty roots from bovine incisors were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=10): 2NaOCl, 5NaOCl, Sx, and 2NaOCl + E, 5NaOCl + E, Sx + E (associated with E as final irrigant for 5 min), E solely and distilled water (dH2O) as the negative control. Root canal preparation was performed by hand instruments, using one of the irrigation protocols for 30 min. Then, 5 mm of the cervical root third were cut out from each sample and subjected to the Vickers microhardness test, at two points, one at approximately 500-1000 µm from the root canal lumen (distance 1), and the other at approximately 500-1000 µm from the external root surface (distance 2). Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests at 5% significance level. Microhardness values at distance 1 were significantly lower than those at distance 2 for all groups, except 5NaOCl and 5NaOCl + E groups (p>0.05). EDTA showed the lowest microhardness values. However, no statistically significant difference was detected among groups at distance 1 and EDTA was significantly different only from Sx at distance 2. In conclusion, all tested solutions showed lower microhardness at the most superficial root canal dentin layer compared to the one found near the external root surface, except 5NaOCl and 5NaOCl + E; EDTA promoted lower microhardness values in comparison to Sterilox at this site.

  8. The poor bioavailability of elemental iron in corn masa flour is not affected by disodium EDTA.

    PubMed

    Walter, Tomas; Pizarro, Fernando; Boy, Erick; Abrams, Steven A

    2004-02-01

    The most sustainable way to eradicate iron deficiency is through food fortification. Elemental iron powders are commonly utilized as fortificants due to their low cost and few sensory problems. However, their bioavailability is unknown. Our goals were to measure the bioavailability of elemental iron in Mexican style corn masa flour tortillas and to evaluate the effects of Na(2)EDTA. We used a stable isotope of H(2)-reduced iron powder, with and without Na(2)EDTA in tortillas prepared with corn masa flour. Two groups of 5- to 7-y-old children (n = 12/group) were fed tortillas to which was added 3 mg/100 g of H(2)-reduced (58)Fe with a mean particle size of 15 micro m. In one group, Na(2)EDTA was incorporated at a ratio of 1:2 mol/mol. The next day, (57)Fe ascorbate was given as a reference dose. After 14 d, blood samples were analyzed for isotopic enrichment. When normalized to 40% absorption of the reference dose, the geometric mean (+/-range 1 SD) bioavailability of reduced iron in tortilla was 3.8% (2.7-5.3). The addition of Na(2)EDTA, tended to increase it (P = 0.18) to 5.1% (2.8-9.2). This observed low absorption was compounded by the use of iron isotopes with smaller particle size (mean diameter 15 micro m) than typical of commercial elemental iron powder (<45 micro m). We conclude that H(2)-reduced iron powder is an ineffective fortificant in corn tortillas.

  9. Electrochemical treatment of spent solution after EDTA-based soil washing.

    PubMed

    Voglar, David; Lestan, Domen

    2012-04-15

    The use of EDTA in soil washing technologies to remediate soils contaminated with toxic metals is prohibitive because of the large volumes of waste washing solution generated, which must be treated before disposal. Degradation of EDTA in the waste solution and the removal of Pb, Zn and Cd were investigated using electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOP) with a boron-doped diamond anode (BDDA), graphite and iron anodes and a stainless-steel cathode. In addition to EAOP, the efficiency of electro-Fenton reactions, induced by the addition of H(2)O(2) and the regulation of electrochemical systems to pH 3, was also investigated. Soil extraction with 15 mmol kg(-1) of soil EDTA yielded waste washing solution with 566 ± 1, 152 ± 1 and 5.5 ± 0.1 mg L(-1) of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. Treatments of the waste solution in pH unregulated electrochemical systems with a BDDA and graphite anode (current density 67 mA cm(-2)) were the most efficient and removed up to 98 ± 1, 96 ± 1, 99 ± 1% of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively, by electrodeposition on the cathode and oxidatively degraded up to 99 ± 1% of chelant. In the electrochemical system with an Fe anode operated at pH 3, the chelant remained preserved in the treated solution, while metals were removed by electrodeposition. This separation opens up the possibility of a new EDTA recycling method from waste soil washing solution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. EDTA redistribution of lead and cadmium into the soft tissues in a human with a high lead burden - should DMSA always be used to follow EDTA in such cases?

    PubMed

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2011-06-01

    Intravenous sodium calcium ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) and oral 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) have both been used to reduce the burden of lead in humans. Each of these agents enhances the mobilization of lead from different areas of the body - EDTA from the trabecular bone and DMSA from the soft tissue. A study of Korean battery workers revealed that EDTA appeared to increase the soft tissue burden of lead, resulting in increased levels of aminolevulinic acid and greater subsequent lead mobilization with DMSA. This case report discusses a patient with a higher-than-normal lead burden who exhibited increased tissue lead burden after intravenous EDTA. The elevated tissue burden of lead was still present, albeit lower, after five consecutive days of oral DMSA therapy. If this single case is representative of a typical human response to the use of intravenous (IV) EDTA for lead, then it suggests that all persons undergoing such treatment should be administered oral DMSA for a minimum of one week after EDTA treatment.

  11. Stereomorphologic observation of bone tissue response to hydroxyapatite using SEM with the EDTA-KOH method.

    PubMed

    Lin, T C; Su, C Y; Chang, C S

    1997-07-01

    To obtain further information on the interaction of hydroxyapatite (HA) and the bony implantation bed, 20- to 40- mesh dense HA particles were implanted into the tibiae of dogs. Following healing periods of 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months, the specimens were retrieved and prepared by either conventional preparatory procedures for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the EDTA-KOH method. Under SEM observation, the interparticular osteogenesis among HA particles progressed in a programmed sequence. Ample blood supply and osteoblasts initially presented in the interparticular space. The secretion of bone matrix resulted in the formation of immature bone. This scaffold was then transformed into mature lamellar bone during the following bone remodeling process. The serial changes closely resembled the pattern viewed in controls that did not implant HA. A spatial relationship between bone cells and HA was clearly demonstrated. In particular, the osteoblasts displayed an extremely flat appearance with many microappendages. The microappendages anchored cells to the HA surface and fused with granular material covering the HA crystals. The more characteristic cellular morphology was revealed by the EDTA-KOH method. Microscopic pictures clearly identified the three-dimensional images of ruffled borders of osteoclasts and the slender cytoplasmic processes of osteocytes. This study provided further evidence for the favorable biological response of HA to bone cells as well as the value of the EDTA-KOH method in examining the stereomorphology of bone cells.

  12. EDTA modified LDHs as Cu2+ scavengers: removal kinetics and sorbent stability.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Ricardo; Perez, M Rosario; Erro, Eustaquio M; Ortiz, Patricia I; Ulibarri, Maria Angeles; Giacomelli, Carla E

    2009-03-15

    EDTA modified layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were investigated as potential sorbents to remediate heavy metals pollution. The polidentate ligand was introduced by an exchange method in a Zn-Al-LDH, which takes place with partial erosion of the layers, causing the intercalation of [Zn(EDTA)](2-) complex instead of the ligand. [Cu(H(2)O)(6)](2+) cation was selected as a model cation to study the uptake mechanism, exploring the elimination kinetics from the first minutes up to the steady state. A flow injection analysis system coupled to an amperometric detector (FIA-AM) was applied to perform fast and reliable [Cu(H(2)O)(6)](2+) determinations in monodisperse solid-aqueous solution systems. Furthermore, the sorbent stability was determined as a function of the pH and the nitrate concentration. The [Cu(H(2)O)(6)](2+) elimination is produced by an exchange reaction with [Zn(EDTA)](2-) anions placed either in the solid interlayer or in the aqueous solution, this last being released from the sorbent. Additional [Cu(H(2)O)(6)](2+) removal is produced by Cu(OH)(2) precipitation at high copper concentrations due to the LDHs high pH buffering capacity. The sorbent removes [Cu(H(2)O)(6)](2+) with high affinity in a wide concentration range. The elimination process reaches equilibrium in less than 30 min and leaves metal cation concentrations lower than 0.05 ppm in the supernatants.

  13. [Determination of residual aluminium Ion in Huoxiang Zhengqi pellets by GFAAS with EDTA complexation extraction].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Na; Ran, Cong-Cong; Li, Qing-Lian; Du, Chao-Hui; Jiang, Ye

    2015-06-01

    To establish an EDTA complexation extraction pretreatment combining with GFAAS method for the determination of residual aluminium ion in Huoxiang zhengqi pellets without digestive treatment, systematical investigation was made on sample preparation, and EDTA was used for the complexation extraction of residual aluminium ion in samples. The pH, concentration and volume of extraction solution, the temperature and time of microwave extraction, and graphite furnace temperature program were investigated. The results were compared with the microwave digestion. It was showed that, 0.1 g of sample weight was added in 20 mL 0.05 mol x L(-1) EDTA solution (pH 3.5), followed by heating at 150 degrees C for 10 min in the microwave extraction device. The determination of GFAAS was performed at optimized detection wavelength (257.4 nm) as well as graphite furnace temperature program, the detection limits and quantification limits were 2.37 μg x L(-1) and 7.89 μg x L(-1), respectively. The precision (RSD) was less than 2.3%. The average recovery was 96.9% -101%. The present method is easy, rapid and accurate for the determination of residual aluminium ion in Huoxiang zhengqi pellets.

  14. An Aqueous Thermodynamic Model for the Complexation of Nickel with EDTA Valid to high Base Concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Qafoku, Odeta

    2004-09-01

    An aqueous thermodynamic model is developed which accurately describes the effects of high base concentration on the complexation of Ni2+ by ethylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid (EDTA). The model is primarily developed from an extensive data on the solubility of Ni(OH)2(c) in the presence of EDTA and in the presence and absence of Ca2+ as the competing metal ion. The solubility data for Ni(OH)2(c) were obtained in solutions ranging in NaOH concentration from 0.01 to 11.6m, and in Ca 2+ concentrations extending to saturation with respect to portlandite, Ca(OH)2. Owing to the inert nature of the Ni-EDTA complexation reactions, solubility experiments were approached from both the oversaturation and undersaturation direction and over time frames extending to 413 days. The final aqueous thermodynamic model is based upon the equations of Pitzer, accurately predicts the observed solubilities to concentrations as high as 11.6m NaOH, and is consistent with UV-Vis spectroscopic studies of the complexes in solution.

  15. Electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers functionalized with EDTA for adsorption of ionic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaúque, Eutilério F. C.; Dlamini, Langelihle N.; Adelodun, Adedeji A.; Greyling, Corinne J.; Ngila, J. Catherine

    2017-08-01

    The manipulation of nanofibers' surface chemistry could enhance their potential application toward the removal of ionic dyes in wastewater. For this purpose, surface modification of electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylenediamine (EDA) crosslinker was experimented. The functionalized EDTA-EDA-PAN nanofibers were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) technique. The impregnation of EDA and EDTA chelating agents on the surface of PAN changed the distribution of nanofibers as proximity is increased (accompanied by reduced softness), but the nanofibrous structure of the pristine PAN nanofibers was not substantially altered. Adsorption equilibrium studies were performed with Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin isotherm models with the former providing better correlation to the experimental data. The modified PAN nanofibers showed efficient sorption of methyl orange (MO) and reactive red (RR) from aqueous synthetic samples, evinced by the maximum adsorption capacities (at 25 °C) of 99.15 and 110.0 mg g-1, respectively. The fabricated nanofibers showed appreciable removal efficiency of the target dye sorptives from wastewater. However, the presence of high metal ions content affected the overall extraction of dyes from wastewater due to the depletion of the adsorbent's active adsorptive sites.

  16. Enhancing adsorption of U(VI) onto EDTA modified L. cylindrica using epichlorohydrin and ethylenediamine as a bridge.

    PubMed

    Su, Shouzheng; Liu, Qi; Liu, Jingyuan; Zhang, Hongsen; Li, Rumin; Jing, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jun

    2017-03-08

    Benefiting from strong coordination ability and unique vascular structure, EDTA modified L. cylindrica opens up an alternative way for uranium recovery from seawater. However, limitations, such as poor adsorption capacity and slow adsorption rate due to low graft ratio of EDTA via one-step esterification block its practical application. Here, a strategy for increasing the graft ratio is proposed in order to improve the adsorption performance. The strategy initially involves immobilization of epichlorohydrin (EPI) onto L. cylindrica and then ethylenediamine (EDA) is introduced via facile ring-opening reaction. EPI and EDA serve as a bridge between L. cylindrica and EDTA. The graft ratio is promoted (15.01 to 21.44%) contributing to the smaller steric hindrance of EPI and EDA than EDTA and improvement in adsorption performance. In addition, the adsorbent prepared by the new strategy exhibits excellent adsorption properties in simulated seawater.

  17. Enhancing adsorption of U(VI) onto EDTA modified L. cylindrica using epichlorohydrin and ethylenediamine as a bridge

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shouzheng; Liu, Qi; Liu, Jingyuan; Zhang, Hongsen; Li, Rumin; Jing, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Benefiting from strong coordination ability and unique vascular structure, EDTA modified L. cylindrica opens up an alternative way for uranium recovery from seawater. However, limitations, such as poor adsorption capacity and slow adsorption rate due to low graft ratio of EDTA via one-step esterification block its practical application. Here, a strategy for increasing the graft ratio is proposed in order to improve the adsorption performance. The strategy initially involves immobilization of epichlorohydrin (EPI) onto L. cylindrica and then ethylenediamine (EDA) is introduced via facile ring-opening reaction. EPI and EDA serve as a bridge between L. cylindrica and EDTA. The graft ratio is promoted (15.01 to 21.44%) contributing to the smaller steric hindrance of EPI and EDA than EDTA and improvement in adsorption performance. In addition, the adsorbent prepared by the new strategy exhibits excellent adsorption properties in simulated seawater. PMID:28272435

  18. Comparative study of the effect of ferrocyanide and EDTA on the production of ethyl alcohol from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Oderinde, R.A.; Ngoka, L.C.; Adesogan, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of potassium ferrocyanide and EDTA on ethyl alcohol production from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated on simulated batch pilot-plant-scale conditions for alcoholic fermentation of molasses. Ethyl alcohol production was more sensitive to ferrocyanide than to EDTA. When ferrocyanide was introduced into the cultures at the time of inoculation, there was stimulation of ethyl alcohol production, with 261 ppm ferrocyanide producing the maximum effect, which was 3.0% more than n control cultures. When added during the propagation of the yeast, ferrocyanide depressed ethyl alcohol production by 4.0% maximum whereas EDTA stimulated ethyl alcohol production by 2.0%. Addition of ferrocyanide during the fermentation stage produced no significant effect on alcohol production, whereas over a wide range of EDTA concentration there was a steady increase in alcohol yield.

  19. Effect Of EDTA On Luminescence Property Of Eu{sup +3} Doped YPO{sub 4} Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Parchur, A. K.; Okram, G. S.; Singh, R. A.; Tewari, R.; Pradhan, Lina; Vatsa, R. K.; Ningthoujam, R. S.

    2010-12-01

    Nanoparticles of Eu{sup 3+} doped YPO{sub 4} have been prepared using ethylene glycol (EG). Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) is used as a complexing agent. X-ray diffraction results show that the nanoparticles are crystalline in tetragonal structure. Based on William-Hall relation, the effective crystallite size and strain developed in lattice are found to be 28 nm and 0.002, respectively. With the addition of EDTA, there is a slight shift towards the lower wavelength in emission peaks. Asymmetric ratio of electric to magnetic dipole transition intensities are found to decrease with addition of EDTA. Emission intensity decreases with EDTA because of decrease of particle size as well as decrease of number of Eu{sup 3+} activators per unit volume. These materials are dispersible in water, which may have potential biological applications.

  20. Enhancing adsorption of U(VI) onto EDTA modified L. cylindrica using epichlorohydrin and ethylenediamine as a bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shouzheng; Liu, Qi; Liu, Jingyuan; Zhang, Hongsen; Li, Rumin; Jing, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Benefiting from strong coordination ability and unique vascular structure, EDTA modified L. cylindrica opens up an alternative way for uranium recovery from seawater. However, limitations, such as poor adsorption capacity and slow adsorption rate due to low graft ratio of EDTA via one-step esterification block its practical application. Here, a strategy for increasing the graft ratio is proposed in order to improve the adsorption performance. The strategy initially involves immobilization of epichlorohydrin (EPI) onto L. cylindrica and then ethylenediamine (EDA) is introduced via facile ring-opening reaction. EPI and EDA serve as a bridge between L. cylindrica and EDTA. The graft ratio is promoted (15.01 to 21.44%) contributing to the smaller steric hindrance of EPI and EDA than EDTA and improvement in adsorption performance. In addition, the adsorbent prepared by the new strategy exhibits excellent adsorption properties in simulated seawater.

  1. Capture of Co(II) from its aqueous EDTA-chelate by DTPA-modified silica gel and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Repo, Eveliina; Malinen, Leena; Koivula, Risto; Harjula, Risto; Sillanpää, Mika

    2011-03-15

    The adsorption of Co(II) by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-modified silica gel and chitosan in the presence of EDTA and other interfering species was studied. Co(II) removal ranged from 93% to 96% from the solutions where Co(II) was totally chelated by EDTA. The amount of oxalate or Fe(II) did not affect the adsorption of Co(II) in the case of DTPA-chitosan. However, increasing the amount of oxalate enhanced the adsorption performance of DTPA-silica gel, probably due to the formation of new active sites on the silica gel surface. DTPA-chitosan was also effective in simulated decontamination solutions. For DTPA-silica gel, the rate of adsorption of free Co(II) was controlled by pore diffusion, but the rate of adsorption of Co(II)EDTA was controlled by the surface chelation reaction, which was attributed to the inhibited diffusion of Co(II)EDTA inside the silica gel mesopores. However, the macroporous structure of DTPA-chitosan enabled pore diffusion of both Co(II) and Co(II)EDTA. The equilibrium isotherms of DTPA-silica gel were best described by a BiLangmuir model, in which there are two different adsorption sites on the silica gel surface assigned to different speciations of DTPA. For DTPA-chitosan, the data fit best with a Sips model, which indicates system heterogeneity. Finally, measurements with capillary electrophoresis showed an increase in dissolved EDTA during adsorption, demonstrating the ability of DTPA-modified adsorbents to release Co(II) from its EDTA chelate. This promising result can provide a basis for applying the studied materials to the treatment of water effluents containing Co(II) chelated by EDTA by a simple one-step adsorption process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Apical microleakage of different root canal sealers after use of maleic acid and EDTA as final irrigants.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Ozgür Ilke; Nayir, Yelda; Celik, Kezban; Yaman, Sis Darendeliler

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and maleic acid (MA) on the sealing ability of various root canal sealers. Eighty root canals were instrumented and irrigated with either EDTA or MA. They were divided into eight experimental groups and obturated as follows: Group 1: MA + Hybrid Root SEAL/gutta-percha. Group 2: EDTA + Hybrid Root SEAL/gutta-percha. Group 3: MA + iRoot SP/gutta-percha. Group 4: EDTA + iRoot SP/gutta-percha. Group 5: MA + EndoREZ/EndoREZ points. Group 6: EDTA + EndoREZ/EndoREZ points. Group 7: MA + AH Plus/gutta-percha. Group 8: EDTA + AH Plus/gutta-percha. Another ten roots were used as negative and positive controls. The microleakage of each sample was measured at 2-min intervals for 8 min using the fluid filtration method. Data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey, and paired-samples t tests. The minimum microleakage values were obtained from the teeth obturated with AH Plus and EndoREZ selaers (p < 0.001). The samples with Hybrid Root SEAL showed the maximum leakage (p < 0.001). There were significant differences between the groups irrigated with MA or EDTA in terms of microleakage (p < 0.05). Use of MA resulted in higher microleakage values compared with those using EDTA. The type of final irrigation solution seems to influence the postobturation apical seal. Use of AH Plus and EndoREZ sealers showed better sealing ability compared with IRoot SP and Hybrid Root SEAL.

  3. Closed vessel miniaturized microwave assisted chelating extraction for determination of trace metals in plant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Duering, Rolf-Alexander

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the use of closed vessel microwave assisted extraction (MAE) for plant samples has shown increasing research interest which will probably substitute conventional procedures in the future due to their general disadvantages including consumption of time and solvents. The objective of this study was to demonstrate an innovative miniaturized closed vessel microwave assisted extraction (µMAE) method under the use of EDTA (µMAE-EDTA) to determine metal contents (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in plant samples (Lolio-Cynosuretum) by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Validation of the method was done by comparison of the results with another miniaturized closed vessel microwave HNO3 method (µMAE-H) and with two other macro scale MAE procedures (MAE-H and MAE-EDTA) which were applied by using a mixture of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (MAE-H) and EDTA (MAE-EDTA), respectively. The already established MAE-H method is taken into consideration as a reference validation MAE method for plant material. A conventional plant extraction (CE) method, based on dry ashing and dissolving of the plant material in HNO3, was used as a confidence comparative method. Certified plant reference materials (CRMs) were used for comparison of recovery rates from different extraction protocols. This allowed the validation of the applicability of the µMAE-EDTA procedure. For 36 real plant samples with triplicates each, µMAE-EDTA showed the same extraction yields as the MAE-H in the determination of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn contents in plant samples. Analytical parameters in µMAE-EDTA should be further investigated and adapted for other metals of interest. By the reduction and elimination of the use of hazardous chemicals in environmental analysis and thus allowing a better understanding of metal distribution and accumulation process in plants and also the metal transfer from soil to plants and into the food chain, µMAE-EDTA

  4. Reactivity of nano-size zinc powder in the aqueous solution of [Fe(III)(edta)(H2O)]().

    PubMed

    Augustyniak, Adam W; Suchecki, Tomasz T; Kumazawa, Hidehiro

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen mono-oxide and sulfur dioxide can be removed by simultaneous absorption into aqueous mixed solutions of sulfite and [Fe(II)(edta)]H2O)](2-), ferrous ion coordinated to an anion of ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA or edta). In the industrial system with coexisting oxygen in the gas phase, [Fe(II)(edta)](H2O)](2-) complex is oxidized to [Fe(III)(edta)](H2O)](-) by molecular oxygen. Because the ferric complex has no capability for reaction with NO, the suppression of this undesired oxidation process is a very important technological problem to be overcome. In our preceding work, we discussed the reduction kinetics of ferric ion by metal powder on the basis of the kinetic data regarding the ferric ion reduction in aqueous solutions of [Fe(III)(edta)](H2O)](-) containing aluminum, tin or zinc powders. Zinc powder of normal size was recognized as an effective reducing agent. In the present work, augmentation of reducing capability of zinc powder was examined more. The rate of reduction of nano-size zinc powder was found to be about 11 times higher than that of normal-size zinc one.

  5. EDTA-enhanced phytoremediation of contaminated calcareous soils: heavy metal bioavailability, extractability, and uptake by maize and sesbania.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Vishandas; Memon, Kazi Suleman; Mahmood-ul-Hassan, Muhammad

    2014-06-01

    Natural and chemically enhanced phytoextraction potentials of maize (Zea mays L.) and sesbania (Sesbania aculeata Willd.) were explored by growing them on two soils contaminated with heavy metals. The soils, Gujranwala (fine, loamy, mixed, hyperthermic Udic Haplustalf) and Pacca (fine, mixed, hyperthermic Ustollic Camborthid), were amended with varying amounts of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) chelating agent, at 0, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 mM kg(-1) soil to enhance metal solubility. The EDTA was applied in two split applications at 46 and 60 days after sowing (DAS). The plants were harvested at 75 DAS. Addition of EDTA significantly increased the lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in roots and shoots, uptake, bioconcentration factor, and phytoextraction rate over the control. Furthermore, addition of EDTA also significantly increased the soluble fractions of Pb and Cd in soil over the controls; the maximum increase of Pb and Cd was 13.1-fold and 3.1-fold, respectively, with addition of 5.0 mM EDTA kg(-1)soil. Similarly, the maximum Pb and Cd root and shoot concentrations, translocation, bioconcentration, and phytoextraction efficiency were observed at 5.0 mM EDTA kg(-1) soil. The results suggest that both crops can successfully be used for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated calcareous soils.

  6. Using electrocoagulation for metal and chelant separation from washing solution after EDTA leaching of Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Pociecha, Maja; Lestan, Domen

    2010-02-15

    Electrocoagulation with an Al sacrificial anode was tested for the separation of chelant and heavy metals from a washing solution obtained after leaching Pb (3200 mg kg(-1)), Zn (1100 mg kg(-1)), and Cd (21 mg kg(-1)) contaminated soil with EDTA. In the electrochemical process, the sacrificial anode corroded to release Al(3+) which served as coagulant for precipitation of chelant and metals. A constant current density of 16-128 mAc m(-2) applied between the Al anode and the stainless-steel cathode removed up to 95% Pb, 68% Zn and 66% Cd from the soil washing solution. Approximately half of the initial EDTA remained in the washing solution after treatment, up to 16.3% of the EDTA was adsorbed on Al coagulant and precipitated, the rest of the EDTA was degraded by anodic oxidation. In a separate laboratory-scale remediation experiment, we leached a soil with 40 mmol EDTA per kg of soil and reused the washing solution (after electrocoagulation) in a closed loop. It removed 53% of Pb, 26% of Zn and 52% of Cd from the soil. The discharge solution was clear and colourless, with pH 7.52 and 170 mg L(-1) Pb, 50 mg L(-1) Zn, 1.5 mg L(-1) Cd and 11 mM EDTA.

  7. Comparison of the Antimicrobial Properties of Chitosan Oligosaccharides (COS) and EDTA against Fusarium fujikuroi Causing Rice Bakanae Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Won; Park, Jae Kweon; Lee, Cho Heun; Hahn, Bum-Soo; Koo, Ja Choon

    2016-04-01

    Bakanae disease is a destructive rice disease in South Korea caused by Fusarium fujikuroi infection. Chemical fungicides have been used to manage the disease, but the emergence of fungicide-resistant strains has gradually increased. Two chelating agents, chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) and ethylenediaminetetraacetatic acid (EDTA), are well known as biosafe and biocompatible antimicrobial agents. In this study, we compared the actions of COS and EDTA to gain a better understanding of the underlying antimicrobial activities and to evaluate them as eco-friendly fungicides against F. fujikuroi. While COS exhibited a rapid fungicidal effect on hyphal growing cells within 5 min, EDTA had a fungistatic effect on reversible growth inhibition. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that COS treatment resulted in pore-formation and cellular leakage along the growing hyphae, whereas EDTA caused no significant morphological changes. COS activity was greatly suppressed by the addition of Ca(2+) to the medium, and EDTA action was largely suppressed by Mn(2+) and slightly by Ca(2+), respectively. Taken together, these results indicated that two chelating agents, COS and EDTA, have different modes of antimicrobial action on F. fujikuroi. Thus, the combination of chelating agents having different modes of action might be an effective disease management strategy to prevent or delay the development of fungicide-resistant strains.

  8. Simultaneous determination of DTPA, EDTA, and NTA by UV-visible spectrometry and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Laine, Pirita; Matilainen, Rose

    2005-08-01

    In this study, UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used for simultaneous analysis of chelating agents diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), as their metal chelates in dishwashing detergents, natural waters, and pulp mill water. The total amounts of the chelating agents in dishwashing detergents were verified by potentiometric titration with Fe(III) solution. Nickel(II) chelates were determined by UV-Vis and iron(III)chelates by HPLC and titration. Recoveries of DTPA, EDTA, and NTA from a standard mixture of analytes by UV-Vis were 107+/-7, 101+/-12 and 94+/-13%, respectively, and the recovery of the total amount of complexing agents was 99+/-4%. The limits of detection for DTPA, EDTA, and NTA were 667, 324, and 739 micromol L(-1), respectively. In HPLC measurements the optimized mobile phase contained 0.03 mol L(-1) sodium acetate, 0.002 mol L(-1) tetrabutylammonium bromide, and 5% methanol at pH 3.15 and the detection was by UV-Vis detection at 254 nm. All three complexing agents could be separated from each other in a simultaneous analysis in less than 5 min. The limits of detection were 0.34, 0.27, and 0.62 micromol L(-1) for DTPA, EDTA, and NTA, respectively. The total amounts of the analytes measured in the dishwashing detergents by the three techniques were found to be highly comparable (ANOVA: F=0.04, P=0.96). R(2) values were 0.99 for EDTA, 0.99 for NTA, and 0.99 for all the results when UV-Vis and HPLC determinations were compared using regression lines. The UV-Vis and HPLC methods were proved to be viable also for analyses of natural and pulp mill waters. The absence of matrix interferences was verified by the standard addition technique.

  9. Effects of propofol containing EDTA on mineral metabolism in medical ICU patients with pulmonary dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Abraham, E; Papadakos, P J; Tharratt, R S; Hall, J B; Williams, G J

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether the addition of disodium edetate (EDTA) to propofol significantly alters mineral metabolism, adverse events, and outcome in critically ill medical patients with acute pulmonary dysfunction. Multicentre, double-randomised, double-blind, comparative trial. Medical intensive care units of 5 health centres. A total of 85 haemodynamically stable men and women aged 18-81 years who had pulmonary dysfunction or adult respiratory distress syndrome as a primary diagnosis or complication and who were expected to require at least 48 hours of sedation and mechanical ventilation. Patients were randomised to receive propofol with or without EDTA and then to 1 of 2 sedation levels: light (Modified Ramsay Sedation Scale [MRSS] score of 2 to 3) or deep (MRSS score of 4 to 5). Propofol was administered by continuous infusion at an initial rate of 5 microg/kg per min and titrated as needed. Approximately 63 % of patients had a high severity of illness as indicated by an Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score > or = 19. As expected, these patients had a higher mortality rate but did not require a higher dose of propofol or propofol with EDTA. Extensive evaluation of cation homeostasis showed that ionised calcium and magnesium concentrations remained remarkably stable during treatment. Total calcium concentration was low as a result of hypoalbuminemia. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration was elevated in both study groups at baseline, on day 4, and at the end of sedation. There were no significant differences in electrolyte levels and no progression to renal dysfunction. There were also no significant differences in haemodynamic or adverse-event profiles. Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 5 patients in each group; 4 of these (in 3 patients receiving propofol and 1 patient receiving propofol with EDTA) were considered serious. Because a large percentage of patients experienced a change in sedation level, no analyses were performed using

  10. Effects of calcium disodium EDTA and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid on tissue concentrations of lead for use in treatment of calves with experimentally induced lead toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, James B; Ko, Kam W

    2003-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of calcium disodium EDTA (CaNa2EDTA) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in reducing concentrations of lead in selected tissues for use in treatment of calves with experimentally induced lead toxicosis. 19 sexually intact male Holstein calves that weighed 35 to 60 kg. Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups: group 1, control calves; group 2, lead only; group 3, lead and EDTA; group 4, lead and DMSA; and group 5, lead, EDTA, and DMSA. Calves in groups 2 to 5 were dosed daily with lead (5 mg/kg, PO) for 10 days. Doses of EDTA (100 mg/kg) and DMSA (25 mg/kg) were administered IV once daily for 4 consecutive days beginning on day 11. Effects of the chelators on lead concentrations in the liver, kidneys, testes, muscles, bones, and brain were compared among the various groups. Compared with the effects of EDTA, DMSA greatly reduced lead concentrations in renal and hepatic tissues. We did not detect significant differences for the effects of EDTA or DMSA on lead concentrations in the testes; there was an adverse interaction of EDTA with DMSA that caused an increase in lead concentrations in the testes. DMSA is much more effective than EDTA in removing lead from renal and hepatic tissues in calves. Use of DMSA in calves with lead intoxication appears to be a viable treatment option. Combining DMSA and EDTA as a treatment modality in calves did not offer any advantages.

  11. Remediation of metal polluted soils by phytorremediation combined with biochar addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, Ana; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Gómez-Limón, Dulce; César Arranz, Julio; Saa, Antonio; Gascó, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of this work is to optimize and quantify the treatment of metal polluted soils through phytoremediation techniques combined with the addition of biochar. Biochar is a carbon rich material obtained by thermal treatment of biomass in inert atmosphere. In recent years, it has been attracted considerable interest due to their positive effect after soil addition. The use of biochar also seems appropriate for the treatment of metal-contaminated soils decreasing their mobility. Biochar properties highly depend on the raw material composition and manufacturing conditions. This paper is based on the use of manure wastes, rich in nutrients and therefore interesting raw materials for biochar production, especially when combined with phytoremediation techniques since the biochar act as conditioner and slow release fertilizer. We are very grateful to Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad (Spain) for financial support under Project CGL2014-58322-R.

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine by hydrothermally synthesized Bi₂MoO ₆ in presence of EDTA.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Trinidad, C; Martínez-de la Cruz, A; López Cuéllar, E

    2015-01-01

    Bi2MoO6 oxide was synthesized by hydrothermal reaction in the presence of EDTA under different experimental conditions (time of reaction and EDTA concentration) in order to obtain materials with specific textural properties. It was determined that the addition of EDTA influences the final physical properties of Bi2MoO6. The photocatalytic activity of Bi2MoO6 samples was evaluated in the degradation reaction of indigo carmine (IC) in aqueous solution under solar radiation type. The best results as photocatalyst were obtained with the sample hydrothermally synthesized at 150 ºC for 4h in presence of a 0.031 M EDTA solution. This sample was able to whiten a solution of IC in a 94% after 120 min of lamp irradiation with t 1/2 = 31 min. In general, the samples prepared with lower concentrations of EDTA were the best photocatalysts. A gradual decrease in the activity was observed in the samples prepared with the same EDTA concentration as was increased in the reaction time. Beyond differences in morphology and textural properties of the samples prepared, the presence of EDTA by-products on the samples and the decomposition degree of it were important factors in determining the activity of the photocatalysts. Analysis of total organic carbon (TOC) of samples irradiated for 100 h confirmed that Bi2MoO6 oxide is able to mineralize the complex organic molecule of IC to CO2 and H2O in 55 %.

  13. Simultaneously degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol and EDTA in aqueous solution by the bimetallic Cu-Fe/O₂ system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Fan, Jin-Hong; Ma, Lu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative degradation of aqueous organic contaminants 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-enhanced bimetallic Cu-Fe system in the presence of dissolved oxygen was investigated. The proposed process was applied for the pH range of 3~7 with the degradation efficiency of 2,4-DCP and EDTA varying within 10 %, and achieved at 100 % degradation of 40 mg L(-1) 2,4-DCP in 1 h, at the initial pH of 3, 25 g L(-1) of bimetallic Fe-Cu powder (WCu/WFe = 0.01289) and initial EDTA of 0.57 mM. However, the removal efficiency of 2,4-DCP in control tests were 7.52 % (Cu-Fe/O2 system) and 84.32 % (EDTA-enhanced Fe/O2 process), respectively, after 3 h, reaction. The proposed main mechanism, involves the in situ generation of H2O2 by the electron transfer from Fe(0) to O2 which was enhanced by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and the in situ generation of ·OH via advanced oxidation reaction. Accordingly, 2,4-DCP was attacked by ·OH to achieve complete dechlorination and low molecular weight organic acids, even mineralized. Systematic studies on the effects of initial EDTA and 2,4-DCP concentration, Cu-Fe dosing, Cu content, and pH revealed that these effects need to be optimized to avoid the excessive consumption of ·OH and new EDTA and heavy metal Cu pollution.

  14. Decomplexation efficiency and mechanism of Cu(II)-EDTA by H2O2 coupled internal micro-electrolysis process.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dongfang; Hu, Yongyou; Guo, Qian; Yuan, Weiguang; Deng, Jiefan; Dang, Yapan

    2016-12-29

    Internal micro-electrolysis (IE) coupled with Fenton oxidation (IEF) was a very effective technology for copper (Cu)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) wastewater treatment. However, the mechanisms of Cu(2+) removal and EDTA degradation were scarce and lack persuasion in the IEF process. In this paper, the decomplexation and removal efficiency of Cu-EDTA and the corresponding mechanisms during the IEF process were investigated by batch test. An empirical equation and the oxidation reduction potential (ORP) index were proposed to flexibly control IE and the Fenton process, respectively. The results showed that Cu(2+), total organic carbon (TOC), and EDTA removal efficiencies were 99.6, 80.3, and 83.4%, respectively, under the proper operation conditions of iron dosage of 30 g/L, Fe/C of 3/1, initial pH of 3.0, Fe(2+)/H2O2 molar ratio of 1/4, and reaction time of 20 min, respectively for IE and the Fenton process. The contributions of IE and Fenton to Cu(2+) removal were 91.2 and 8.4%, respectively, and those to TOC and EDTA removal were 23.3, 25.1, and 57, 58.3%, respectively. It was found that Fe(2+)-based replacement-precipitation and hydroxyl radical (•OH) were the most important effects during the IEF process. •OH played an important role in the degradation of EDTA, whose yield and productive rate were 3.13 mg/L and 0.157 mg/(L min(-1)), respectively. Based on the intermediates detected by GC-MS, including acetic acid, propionic acid, pentanoic acid, amino acetic acid, 3-(diethylamino)-1,2-propanediol, and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), a possible degradation pathway of Cu-EDTA in the IEF process was proposed. Graphical abstract The mechanism diagram of IEF process.

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    MedlinePlus

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    MedlinePlus

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    MedlinePlus

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  18. The 2008 ERA–EDTA Registry Annual Report—a précis

    PubMed Central

    Stel, Vianda S.; van de Luijtgaarden, Moniek W.M.; Wanner, Christoph; Jager, Kitty J.

    2011-01-01

    Background. This study provides a summary of the 2008 ERA–EDTA Registry Report (this report is available at www.era-edta-reg.org). Methods. The data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) were available from 55 national and regional registries in 30 countries in Europe and bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Datasets with individual patient data were received from 36 registries, whereas 19 registries contributed data in aggregated form. We presented incidence and prevalence of RRT, and transplant rates. Survival analysis was solely based on individual patient records. Results. In 2008, the overall incidence rate of RRT for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among all registries reporting to the ERA–EDTA Registry was 122 per million population (pmp), and the prevalence was 644 pmp. Incidence rates varied from 264 pmp in Turkey to 15 pmp in Ukraine. The mean age of patients starting RRT in 2008 ranged from 69 years in Dutch-speaking Belgium to 44 years in Ukraine. The highest prevalence of RRT for ESRD was reported by Portugal (1408 pmp) and the lowest by Ukraine (89 pmp). The prevalence of haemodialysis on 31 December 2008 ranged from 66 pmp (Ukraine) to 875 pmp (Portugal) and the prevalence of peritoneal dialysis from 8 pmp (Montenegro) to 115 pmp (Denmark). In Norway, 70% of the patients on RRT on 31 December 2008 were living with a functioning graft (572 pmp). In 2008, the number of transplants performed pmp was highest in Spain (Catalonia) (64 pmp), whereas the highest transplant rates with living-donor kidneys were reported from the Netherlands (25 pmp) and Norway (21 pmp). In the cohort 1999–2003, the unadjusted 1-, 2- and 5-year survival of patients on RRT was 80.8% (95% CI: 80.6–81.0), 69.1% (95% CI: 68.9–69.3) and 46.1% (95% CI: 45.9–46.3), respectively. PMID:21245934

  19. Optimal operational conditions for the electrochemical regeneration of a soil washing EDTA solution.

    PubMed

    Cesaro, Raffaele; Esposito, Giovanni

    2009-02-01

    The present research deals with the optimization of the operating parameters (cathode replacement time, hydraulic retention time, current intensity and pH) of an electrochemical process aimed at the regeneration of a soil washing EDTA solution used for heavy metal extraction from a natural contaminated soil (excavated from Bellolampo, Palermo, Italy), which was vastly polluted with Cu (59 261.0 mg kg(-1)), Pb (14 178.1 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (14 084.9 mg kg(-1)). The electrolytic regeneration of the exhausted washing solution was performed in a laboratory scale electrolytic cell with 50 ml each cathodic and anodic chambers divided by a cation exchange membrane. Experiments II and III showed maximum Cu and Zn removal efficiencies from the EDTA solution, of 99.2+/-0.2 and 31.5+/-9.3%, respectively, when a current intensity of 0.25 A and a hydraulic retention time of 60 min were applied to the electrolytic cell, while the maximum Pb removal efficiency of 70.9+/-4.6% was obtained with a current intensity of 1.25 A and a hydraulic retention time of 60 min. During Experiment I the overall heavy metals removal efficiency was stable and close to 90% up to 20 h, while decreased to values lower than 80% after 40 h, indicating the occurrence of a significant saturation of the cathode graphite bed between 20 and 40 h. The capability of the regenerated EDTA solution to treat heavy metals polluted soils was tested in further experiments applying both a single and a multi-step washing treatment procedure. In particular, the latter showed the feasibility to increase heavy metal soil extractions over subsequent washing steps with Cu, Pb and Zn total removal efficiencies of 52.6, 100.0 and 41.3%, respectively.

  20. Renal replacement therapy in Europe: a summary of the 2011 ERA-EDTA Registry Annual Report.

    PubMed

    Noordzij, Marlies; Kramer, Anneke; Abad Diez, José M; Alonso de la Torre, Ramón; Arcos Fuster, Emma; Bikbov, Boris T; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Bouzas Caamaño, Encarnación; Čala, Svetlana; Caskey, Fergus J; Castro de la Nuez, Pablo; Cernevskis, Harijs; Collart, Frederic; Díaz Tejeiro, Rafael; Djukanovic, Ljubica; Ferrer-Alamar, Manuel; Finne, Patrik; García Bazaga, María de Los Angelos; Garneata, Liliana; Golan, Eliezer; Gonzalez Fernández, Raquel; Heaf, James G; Hoitsma, Andries; Ioannidis, George A; Kolesnyk, Mykola; Kramar, Reinhard; Lasalle, Mathilde; Leivestad, Torbjørn; Lopot, Frantisek; van de Luijtgaarden, Moniek W M; Macário, Fernando; Magaz, Ángela; Martín Escobar, Eduardo; de Meester, Johan; Metcalfe, Wendy; Ots-Rosenberg, Mai; Palsson, Runolfur; Piñera, Celestino; Pippias, Maria; Prütz, Karl G; Ratkovic, Marina; Resić, Halima; Rodríguez Hernández, Aurelio; Rutkowski, Boleslaw; Spustová, Viera; Stel, Vianda S; Stojceva-Taneva, Olivera; Süleymanlar, Gültekin; Wanner, Christoph; Jager, Kitty J

    2014-04-01

    This article provides a summary of the 2011 ERA-EDTA Registry Annual Report (available at www.era-edta-reg.org). Data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from national and regional renal registries in 30 countries in Europe and bordering the Mediterranean Sea were used. From 27 registries, individual patient data were received, whereas 17 registries contributed data in aggregated form. We present the incidence and prevalence of RRT, and renal transplant rates in 2011. In addition, survival probabilities and expected remaining lifetimes were calculated for those registries providing individual patient data. The overall unadjusted incidence rate of RRT in 2011 among all registries reporting to the ERA-EDTA Registry was 117 per million population (pmp) (n = 71.631). Incidence rates varied from 24 pmp in Ukraine to 238 pmp in Turkey. The overall unadjusted prevalence of RRT for ESRD on 31 December 2011 was 692 pmp (n = 425 824). The highest prevalence was reported by Portugal (1662 pmp) and the lowest by Ukraine (131 pmp). Among all registries, a total of 22 814 renal transplantations were performed (37 pmp). The highest overall transplant rate was reported from Spain, Cantabria (81 pmp), whereas the highest rate of living donor transplants was reported from Turkey (39 pmp). For patients who started RRT between 2002 and 2006, the unadjusted 5-year patient survival on RRT was 46.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 46.6-47.0], and on dialysis 39.3% (95% CI 39.2-39.4). The unadjusted 5-year patient survival after the first renal transplantation performed between 2002 and 2006 was 86.7% (95% CI 86.2-87.2) for kidneys from deceased donors and 94.3% (95% CI 93.6-95.0) for kidneys from living donors.

  1. New water soluble heterometallic complex showing unpredicted coordination modes of EDTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudsainiyan, R. K.; Jassal, A. K.; Chawla, S. K.

    2015-10-01

    A mesoporous 3D polymeric complex (I) having formula {[Zr(IV)O-μ3-(EDTA)Fe(III)OH]·H2O}n has been crystallized and characterized by various techniques. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that complex (I) crystallized in chiral monoclinic space group Cc (space group no. 9) with unexpected coordination modes of EDTA and mixture of two transition metal ions. In this complex, the coordination number of Zr(IV) ion is seven where four carboxylate oxygen atoms, two nitrogen atoms, one oxide atom are coordinating with Zr(IV). Fe(III) is four coordinated and its coordination environment is composed of three different carboxylic oxygen atoms from three different EDTA and one oxygen atom of -OH group. The structure consists of 4-c and 16-c (2-nodal) net with new topology and point symbol for net is (336·454·530)·(36). TGA study and XRPD pattern showed that the coordination polymer is quite stable even after losing water molecule and -OH ion. Quenching behavior in fluorescence of ligand is observed by complexation with transition metal ions is due to n-π* transition. The SEM micrograph shows the morphology of complex (I) exhibits spherical shape with size ranging from 50 to 280 nm. The minimum N2 (SBET=8.7693 m2/g) and a maximum amount of H2 (high surface area=1044.86 m2/g (STP)) could be adsorbed at 77 K. From DLS study, zeta potential is calculated i.e. -7.94 shows the negative charges on the surface of complex. Hirshfeld surface analysis and fingerprint plots revealed influence of weak or non bonding interactions in crystal packing of complex.

  2. Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation of Smear Layer Removal Using Isolated or Interweaving EDTA with Sodium Hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Beraldo, Ângelo José; Silva, Rogério Vieira; da Gama Antunes, Alberto Nogueira; Silveira, Frank Ferreira; Nunes, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to verify the effect of alternating 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the smear layer removal from root canal surfaces. Methods and Materials: A total of 15 single-rooted human teeth, instrumented with ProTaper files, were randomly distributed in 3 groups. In group 1 (n=7) the canals were irrigated with 1 mL of 2.5% NaOCl between files and final irrigation was done with 1 mL of 2,5% NaOCl, followe by 1 mL of 17% EDTA, for a perio of 15 sec with new irrigtion of 1 mL of 2,5% NaOCl at each change of files. In group 3 (control group) (n=1), saline solution was used. All samples were cleaved into two sections, metalized and analyzed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence or absence of smear layer in the cervical, middle and apical thirds, with scores varying from 1 to 3, respectively were evaluated. The data were submitted to nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: It was observed that there was a greater discrepancy between groups with respect to the apical third. In the other areas there was a greater similarity between the scores attributed to the groups. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups only in the apical third, when group 1 presented the higher median (P<0.05). Conclusion: The alternating use of EDTA during instrumentation with NaOCl was the most effective irrigation method to remove the apical smear layer. Both forms of irrigation were effective on removal of the smear layer in the coronal and middle thirds of the canals. PMID:28179925

  3. Free Active Chlorine in Sodium Hypochlorite Solutions Admixed with Octenidine, SmearOFF, Chlorhexidine, and EDTA.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Unni; Saji, Sreeja; Clarkson, Roger; Lalloo, Ratilal; Moule, Alex J

    2017-08-01

    The therapeutic effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions are dependent on the levels of free available chlorine (FAC). Mixing these solutions with irrigants can result in significant reductions in FAC. Although the effect of some irrigants on FAC is known, the effect of other commonly used irrigants is not. Thus, the therapeutic ramifications of the concurrent use of these on the efficiency of NaOCl solutions is not known. Aliquots of 5.2% (w/v) NaOCl solutions were admixed in proportions of 90:10, 80:20, and 50:50 with the following irrigants: octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT); SmearOFF (Vista Dental Products, Racine, WI), 17% EDTA; and 0.2%, 2%, and 5% chlorhexidine (CHX) solutions. Changes in FAC were measured by iodometric titration. Statistical differences between means were determined using a post hoc Tukey analysis test after an analysis of variance. OCT appeared not to affect FAC and was significantly different than all other irrigants, except for 90:10 and 80:20 mixtures of low concentration (0.2%) CHX. CHX solutions showed a marked concentration- and mixture proportion-dependent detrimental effect on FAC. The reduction of FAC between different concentrations of CHX was statistically significant in 80:20 and 50:50 proportions, with 50:50 mixtures of 5% CHX having the greatest influence. Mixtures containing even small proportions of SmearOFF or EDTA exhibited significant losses in FAC. OCT has little effect on FAC and can be used concurrently with NaOCl solutions. Higher concentrations of CHX significantly affect FAC. Their combined use with NaOCl solutions should be avoided. EDTA and SmearOFF should not be mixed with NaOCl solutions. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  4. Advanced oxidation processes coupled with electrocoagulation for the exhaustive abatement of Cr-EDTA.

    PubMed

    Durante, Christian; Cuscov, Marco; Isse, Abdirisak Ahmed; Sandonà, Giancarlo; Gennaro, Armando

    2011-02-01

    Using Cr-EDTA as a model system, a two-step method has been investigated for the abatement of persistent chromium complexes in water. The treatment consists of an oxidative decomposition of the organic ligands by means of ozonization or electrochemical oxidation at a boron doped diamond (BDD) electrode, followed by removal of the metal via electrochemical coagulation. In the designed synthetic waste, EDTA has been used both as a chelating agent and as a mimic of the organic content of a typical wastewater provided by a purification leather plant. A crucial point evaluated is the influence of the oxidative pretreatment on the chemical modification of the synthetic waste and hence on the electrocoagulation efficacy. Because of the great stability of Cr complexes, such as Cr-EDTA, the classical coagulation methods, based on ligand exchange between Cr(III) and Fe(II) or Fe(III), are ineffective toward Cr abatement in the presence of organic substances. On the contrary, when advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as ozonization or electrooxidation at a BDD anode are applied in series with electrocoagulation (EC), complete abatement of the recalcitrant Cr fraction can be achieved. ECs have been carried out by using Fe sacrificial anodes, with alternating polarization and complete Cr abatement (over 99%) has been obtained with modest charge consumption. It has been found that Cr(III) is first oxidized to Cr(VI) in the AOP preceding EC. Then, during EC, Cr(VI) is mainly reduced back to Cr(III) by electrogenerated Fe(II). Thus, Cr is mainly eliminated as Cr(III). However, a small fraction of Cr(VI) goes with the precipitate as confirmed by XPS analysis of the sludge.

  5. Demineralization effect of EDTA, EGTA, CDTA and citric acid on root dentin: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Simone Maria Galvão de; Silva, Thelma Lopes

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to biochemically compare the decalcifying effects of 1% EDTA (pH 7.4), 1% EGTA (pH 7.4), 1% CDTA (pH 7.4), 1% citric acid solutions (pH 1.0 and 7.4) and saline solution (control) on root dentin. Forty-eight single-rooted teeth were used in this study. The canals were instrumented by the step-back technique and the roots were randomly divided into six equal experimental groups (n = 8) according to the irrigating agent tested. A total of 30 microL of each solution was pipetted into the root canal and allowed to set undisturbed for 5 minutes. After this time, 15 microL of the solutions were removed from each canal using a Hamilton syringe and placed in a container with 5 mL of deionised water. The microg/mL concentration of calcium ion (Ca2+) extracted from the root canal samples was determined using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Data were analysed by means of the Kruskal-Wallis and Mood's median tests. Citric acid solution at pH 1.0 removed more calcium than at pH 7.4 and than the other chelating solutions tested (p < 0.05). No differences were observed between EDTA and EGTA. Both EDTA and EGTA removed significantly more calcium than CDTA and citric acid at pH 7.4 (p < 0.05). There were no differences between citric acid at pH 7.4 and saline solution, which had the least efficacy for Ca2+ extraction (p > 0.05). These results indicate that citric acid at pH 1.0 is a good alternative as an irrigating solution to remove the smear layer and facilitate the biomechanical procedures.

  6. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella by combinations of oriental mustard, malic acid, and EDTA.

    PubMed

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2014-04-01

    The antimicrobial activities of oriental mustard extract alone or combined with malic acid and EDTA were investigated against Salmonella spp. or Listeria monocytogenes at different temperatures. Five strain Salmonella or L. monocytogenes cocktails were separately inoculated in Brain Heart Infusion broth containing 0.5% (w/v) aqueous oriental mustard extract and incubated at 4 °C to 21 °C for 21 d. For inhibitor combination tests, Salmonella Typhimurium 02:8423 and L. monocytogenes 2-243 were individually inoculated in Mueller Hinton broth containing the mustard extract with either or both 0.2% (w/v) malic acid and 0.2% (w/v) EDTA and incubated at 10 °C or 21 °C for 10 to 14 d. Mustard extract inhibited growth of the L. monocytogenes cocktail at 4 °C up to 21 d (2.3 log10 CFU/mL inhibition) or at 10 °C for 7 d (2.4 log10 CFU/mL inhibition). Salmonella spp. viability was slightly, but significantly reduced by mustard extract at 4 °C by 21 d. Although hydrolysis of sinigrin in mustard extract by both pathogens was 2 to 6 times higher at 21 °C than at 4 °C to 10 °C, mustard was not inhibitory at 21 °C, perhaps because of the instability of its hydrolysis product (allyl isothiocyanate). At 21 °C, additive inhibitory effects of mustard extract with EDTA or malic acid led to undetectable levels of S. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes by 7 d and 10 d, respectively. At 10 °C, S. Typhimurium was similarly susceptible, but combinations of antimicrobials were not more inhibitory to L. monocytogenes than the individual agents.

  7. Benefits of the Use of Sewage Sludge over EDTA to Remediate Soils Polluted with Heavy Metals.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ana J; Gutiérrez-Ginés, María J; Pastor, Jesús

    2015-09-01

    Sewage sludges from urban wastewater treatment plants are often used to remediate degraded soils. However, the benefits of their use in metal-polluted soils remain unclear and need to be assessed in terms of factors besides soil fertility. This study examines the use of thermal-dried sewage sludge (TDS) as an amendment for heavy metal-polluted soil in terms of its effects on soil chemical properties, leachate composition, and the growth of native plant communities. To assess the response of the soil and its plant community to an increase in metal mobilization, the effects of TDS amendment were compared with those of the addition of a chelating agent (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA]). The experimental design was based on a real-case scenario in which soils from of an abandoned mine site were used in a greenhouse bioassay. Two doses of TDS and EDTA were applied to a soil containing high Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd levels (4925, 5675, 404, and 25 mg kg, respectively). Soil pH was 6.4, and its organic matter content was 5.53%. The factors examined after soil amendment were soil fertility and heavy metal contents, leachate element losses, the plant community arising from the seed bank (plant cover, species richness and biodiversity, above/below ground biomass), and phytotoxic effects (chemical contents of abundant species). Thermal-dried sewage sludge emerged as a good phytostabilizer of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd given its capacity to reduce the plant uptake of metals and achieve rapid plant cover. This amendment also enhanced the retention of other elements in the plant root system and overall showed a better capacity to remediate soils polluted with several heavy metals. The addition of EDTA led to plant productivity losses and nutritional imbalances because it increased the mobility of several elements in the soil and its leachates.

  8. Renal replacement therapy in Europe: a summary of the 2011 ERA–EDTA Registry Annual Report

    PubMed Central

    Noordzij, Marlies; Kramer, Anneke; Abad Diez, José M.; Alonso de la Torre, Ramón; Arcos Fuster, Emma; Bikbov, Boris T.; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Bouzas Caamaño, Encarnación; Čala, Svetlana; Caskey, Fergus J.; Castro de la Nuez, Pablo; Cernevskis, Harijs; Collart, Frederic; Díaz Tejeiro, Rafael; Djukanovic, Ljubica; Ferrer-Alamar, Manuel; Finne, Patrik; García Bazaga, María de los Angelos; Garneata, Liliana; Golan, Eliezer; Gonzalez Fernández, Raquel; Heaf, James G.; Hoitsma, Andries; Ioannidis, George A.; Kolesnyk, Mykola; Kramar, Reinhard; Lasalle, Mathilde; Leivestad, Torbjørn; Lopot, Frantisek; van de Luijtgaarden, Moniek W.M.; Macário, Fernando; Magaz, Ángela; Martín Escobar, Eduardo; de Meester, Johan; Metcalfe, Wendy; Ots-Rosenberg, Mai; Palsson, Runolfur; Piñera, Celestino; Pippias, Maria; Prütz, Karl G.; Ratkovic, Marina; Resić, Halima; Rodríguez Hernández, Aurelio; Rutkowski, Boleslaw; Spustová, Viera; Stel, Vianda S.; Stojceva-Taneva, Olivera; Süleymanlar, Gültekin; Wanner, Christoph; Jager, Kitty J.

    2014-01-01

    Background This article provides a summary of the 2011 ERA–EDTA Registry Annual Report (available at www.era-edta-reg.org). Methods Data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from national and regional renal registries in 30 countries in Europe and bordering the Mediterranean Sea were used. From 27 registries, individual patient data were received, whereas 17 registries contributed data in aggregated form. We present the incidence and prevalence of RRT, and renal transplant rates in 2011. In addition, survival probabilities and expected remaining lifetimes were calculated for those registries providing individual patient data. Results The overall unadjusted incidence rate of RRT in 2011 among all registries reporting to the ERA–EDTA Registry was 117 per million population (pmp) (n = 71.631). Incidence rates varied from 24 pmp in Ukraine to 238 pmp in Turkey. The overall unadjusted prevalence of RRT for ESRD on 31 December 2011 was 692 pmp (n = 425 824). The highest prevalence was reported by Portugal (1662 pmp) and the lowest by Ukraine (131 pmp). Among all registries, a total of 22 814 renal transplantations were performed (37 pmp). The highest overall transplant rate was reported from Spain, Cantabria (81 pmp), whereas the highest rate of living donor transplants was reported from Turkey (39 pmp). For patients who started RRT between 2002 and 2006, the unadjusted 5-year patient survival on RRT was 46.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 46.6–47.0], and on dialysis 39.3% (95% CI 39.2–39.4). The unadjusted 5-year patient survival after the first renal transplantation performed between 2002 and 2006 was 86.7% (95% CI 86.2–87.2) for kidneys from deceased donors and 94.3% (95% CI 93.6–95.0) for kidneys from living donors. PMID:25852881

  9. Assistive Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auat Cheein, Fernando A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book offers the reader new achievements within the Assistive Technology field made by worldwide experts, covering aspects such as assistive technology focused on teaching and education, mobility, communication and social interactivity, among others. Each chapter included in this book covers one particular aspect of Assistive Technology that…

  10. Assistive Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auat Cheein, Fernando A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book offers the reader new achievements within the Assistive Technology field made by worldwide experts, covering aspects such as assistive technology focused on teaching and education, mobility, communication and social interactivity, among others. Each chapter included in this book covers one particular aspect of Assistive Technology that…

  11. Metal complexation and biodegradation of EDTA and S,S-EDDS: a density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Litao; Liu, Ting; Ma, Chun'an

    2010-01-14

    The complexation reactions of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA(4-)) and S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinate (S,S-EDDS(4-)) with Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Cd(2+) cations are investigated by using the DFT/B3LYP method. The hydration reaction of each metal ion with solvent water cluster is considered with a mixed cluster/continuum model. The subsequent metal complexation is treated as a substitution reaction of the coordinated water molecules by the amino polycarboxylic acid ligand. Thermodynamic cycles are schemed to evaluate the free energy changes for both hydration and complexation processes. The values of complexation free energy changes show that the stabilities of metal complexes with the isomeric ligands follow the order of [M(S,S-EDDS)](2-) in trans(O(6))-conformer < [M(S,S-EDDS)](2-) in trans(O(5))-conformer < [M(EDTA)](2-), implying that the failure to observe the trans(O(6)) conformer under experimental conditions is attributed to its inherent instability. The same trend appears in our steric strain analysis on the various chelate rings in complexes. Because the [M(S,S-EDDS)](2-) in trans(O(6)) complex is not available, we focus on the other two series of complexes with concerned metal ions. The stabilities decrease in the order Cu(2+) > Ni(2+) > Co(2+) > Zn(2+) > Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) > Ni(2+) > Co(2+) > Cd(2+) > Zn(2+) for trans(O(5))-[M(S,S-EDDS)](2-) and [M(EDTA)](2-), respectively. These two tendencies are shown to be consistent with the decrease in the metal-to-ligand charge transfer. Meanwhile, a good quantitative correlation is found between the complexation free energies and the dipole moments for all complexes (excluding the case of Cu(2+)). The far-infrared spectra are present to investigate the characteristics of metal-dependent vibrations, and the further natural bond orbital (NBO) method is taken to show the nature of metal-ligand bonding interactions. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, degrading products of both amino polycarboxylic

  12. Influence of Bacillus subtilis cell walls and EDTA on calcite dissolution rates and crystal surface features.

    PubMed

    Friis, A K; Davis, T A; Figueira, M M; Paquette, J; Mucci, A

    2003-06-01

    This study investigates the influence of EDTA and the Gram-positive cell walls of Bacillus subtilis on the dissolution rates and development of morphological features on the calcite [1014] surface. The calcite dissolution rates are compared at equivalent saturation indicies (SI) and relative to its dissolution behavior in distilled water (DW). Results indicate that the presence of metabolically inactive B. subtilis does not affect the dissolution rates significantly. Apparent increases in dissolution rates in the presence of the dead bacterial cells can be accounted for by a decrease of the saturation state of the solution with respect to calcite resulting from bonding of dissolved Ca2+ by functional groups on the cell walls. In contrast, the addition of EDTA to the experimental solutions results in a distinct increase in dissolution rates relative to those measured in DW and the bacterial cell suspensions. These results are partly explained by the 6.5-8 orders of magnitude greater stability of the Ca-EDTA complex relative to the Ca-B. subtilis complexes as well as its free diffusion to and direct attack of the calcite surface. Atomic force microscopy images of the [1014] surface of calcite crystals exposed to our experimental solutions reveal the development of dissolution pits with different morphologies according to the nature and concentration of the ligand. Highly anisotropic dissolution pits develop in the early stages of the dissolution reaction at low B. subtilis concentrations (0.004 mM functional group sites) and in DW. In contrast, at high functional group concentrations (4.0 mM EDTA or equivalent B. subtilis functional group sites), dissolution pits are more isotropic. These results suggest that the mechanism of calcite dissolution is modified by the presence of high concentrations of organic ligands. Since all the pits that developed on the calcite surfaces display some degree of anisotropy and dissolution rates are strongly SI dependent, the rate

  13. 1064-nm Nd:YAG and 980-nm Diode Laser EDTA Agitation on the Retention of an Epoxy-Based Sealer to Root Dentin.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Helena Suleiman de; Messias, Danielle Cristine Furtado; Rached-Júnior, Fuad Jacob; Oliveira, Ligia Teixeira de; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Correa; Raucci-Neto, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Root canal irrigants are used to minimize the negative effects of smear layer on endodontic sealer retention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of agitation of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with ultrasonic, 1064-nm Nd:YAG and 980-nm diode laser on the retention of an epoxy-based sealer to the root canal walls. Forty single-rooted bovine teeth were instrumented with ProTaper rotary system and divided into four groups according to the final irrigation protocol (n = 10): (1) 17% EDTA (control); (2) 17% EDTA with 50-s ultrasonic agitation; (3) 17% EDTA with 50-s diode laser (2-W) agitation; and (4) 17% EDTA with 50-s Nd:YAG (1.5-W) laser agitation. After endodontic filling with gutta-percha F5 master cone and Sealer 26, the roots were sectioned at the cervical, middle, and apical root thirds to obtain 1.5-mm slices. Push-out tests were performed using a universal testing machine at a 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α=0.05). Apical root thirds had significant higher retention values than cervical and middle thirds (p < 0.05). EDTA with 1064-nm Nd:YAG or 980-nm diode laser presented the highest retention values and was significantly different from EDTA with ultrasonic agitation and EDTA only (p < 0.05). Adhesive failures were predominant to EDTA only group. Mixed failures were predominant to all agitation groups. 1064-nm Nd:YAG and 980-nm diode laser EDTA agitation enhanced the retention of the epoxy-based sealer to the root canal walls compared with that due to EDTA only or EDTA with ultrasonic agitation.

  14. Lead uptake and the effects of EDTA on lead-tissue concentrations in the desert species mesquite (Prosopis spp.).

    PubMed

    Aldrich, M V; Ellzey, l J T; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gonzalez, J H; Gardea-Torresdey, J L

    2004-01-01

    Experimental results have shown that the desert plant species mesquite (Prosopis spp.) is capable of accumulating high levels of lead in the roots, translocating it to the aerial portion of the plant. One-week-old mesquite seedlings were treated for 7 d in a hydroponic culture using a modified Hoagland solution. Six treatments were used; three treatments contained only Pb [as Pb(NO3)2] at 25-, 50-, and 75-mg L(-1) levels and three treatments contained the same levels of Pb, but with equimolar concentrations of disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Our results showed that the plants exposed to 25-, 50-, and 75-mg Pb L(-1) treatments without EDTA concentrated in stems 524, 3726, and 1417 mg kg(-1), respectively. However, the plants treated with Pb-EDTA concentrated in stems 480-, 607-, and 1247-mg Pb kg(-1) for the 25-, 50-, and 75-mg Pb L(-1) treatments, respectively. Results for the roots followed a similar trend; without EDTA the Pb levels ranged from 16,055, 89,935, and 63,396 for the 25-, 50-, and 75-mg Pb L(-1) treatments, respectively, and with EDTA these levels were 9,562, 49,902, and 39,181 mg kg(-1) for the three treatments. However, the addition of EDTA increased lead movement to the leaves. The levels of Pb without EDTA were 20, 35, and 51 mg kg(-1) for the 25-, 50-, and 75-mg Pb L(-1) levels, respectively. Treatments with EDTA showed uptake levels of 105, 124, and 313 for the 25-, 50-, and 75-mg Pb L(-1) treatments. Further, the percent Pb in dry leaf tissues for all EDTA treatments were greater than 0.1%. However, only the 25-mg Pb L(-1) treatment was greater than 0.1%, compared to 0.04 and 0.08% for the 50- and 75-mg Pb L(-1) treatments, respectively. Preliminary transmission and scanning electron microscopy corroborate the presence of lead.

  15. The EDTA effect on phytoextraction of single and combined metals-contaminated soils using rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis).

    PubMed

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2005-08-01

    Rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis), a potential phytoextraction plant, can accumulate high concentrations of Cd from metal-contaminated soils. The soils used in this study were artificially added with different metals including (1) CK: original soil, (2) Cd-treated soil: 10 mg Cd kg(-1), (3) Zn-treated soil: 100 mg Zn kg(-1), (4) Pb-treated soil: 1000 mg Pb kg(-1), (5) Cd-Zn-treated soil: 10 mg Cd kg(-1) and 100 mg Zn kg(-1), (6) Cd-Pb-treated soil: 10 mg Cd kg(-1) and 1000 mg Pb kg(-1), (7) Zn-Pb-treated soil: 100 mg Zn kg(-1) and 1000 mg Pb kg(-1), and (8) Cd-Zn-Pb-treated soil: 10 mg Cd kg(-1), 100 mg Zn kg(-1), and 1000 mg Pb kg(-1). Three concentrations of 2Na-EDTA solutions (0 (control), 2, and 5 mmol kg(-1) soil) were added to the different metals-treated soils to study the influence of applied EDTA on single and combined metals-contaminated soils phytoextraction using rainbow pink. The results showed that the Cd, Zn, Pb, Fe, or Mn concentrations in different metals-treated soil solutions significantly increased after applying 5 mmol EDTA kg(-1) (p<0.05). The metal concentrations in different metals-treated soils extracted by deionized water also significantly increased after applying 5 mmol EDTA kg(-1) (p<0.05). Because of the high extraction capacity of both 0.005 M DTPA (pH 5.3) and 0.05 M EDTA (pH 7.0), applying EDTA did not significantly increase the Cd, Zn, or Pb concentration in both extracts for most of the treatments. Applying EDTA solutions can significantly increase the Cd and Pb concentrations in the shoots of rainbow pink (p<0.05). However, this was not statistically significant for Zn because of the low Zn concentration added into the contaminated soils. The results from this study indicate that applying 5 mmol EDTA kg(-1) can significantly increase the Cd, Zn, or Pb concentrations both in the soil solution or extracted using deionized water in single or combined metals-contaminated soils, thus increasing the accumulated metals concentrations in

  16. The impact of EDTA on the rate of accumulation and root/shoot partitioning of cadmium in mature dwarf sunflowers.

    PubMed

    Meighan, Michelle M; Fenus, Taressa; Karey, Emma; MacNeil, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    In addition to increasing the mobility of metal ions in the soil solution, chelating agents such as EDTA have been reported to alter both the total metal accumulated by plants and its distribution within the plant structures. Here, mature Mini-Sun Hybrid dwarf sunflowers exposed to 300 μM Cd(2+) in hydroponic solution had initial translocation rates of at least 0.12 mmol kg(-1)h(-1) and reached leaf saturation levels within a day when a 3-fold molar excess of EDTA was used. EDTA also promoted cadmium transfer from roots to the shoots. A threefold excess of EDTA increased the translocation factor (TF) 100-fold, resulting in cadmium levels in the leaves of 580 μg g(-1) and extracting 1400 μg plant(-1). When plants were exposed to dissolved cadmium without EDTA, the vast majority of the metal remained bound to the exterior of the root. The initial accumulation could be successfully modeled with a standard biosorption pseudo second-order kinetic equation. Initial accumulation rates ranged from 0.0359 to 0.262 mg g(-1)min(-1). The cadmium binding could be cycled, and did not show evidence of saturation under the experimental conditions employed, suggesting it might be a viable biosorbant for aqueous cadmium.

  17. Controlled hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanostructures by sequestering the Zn metal ions with the chelating agent EDTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, S. D. Gopal; Ravi, G.; Manikandan, MR.; Mahalingam, T.; Anbu Kulandainathan, M.

    2011-10-01

    In the present work, a controlled growth of ZnO nanostructures by manipulating Zn metal ion concentration by the chelating action of ethylene diaminetetra acetic acid in hydrothermal method is studied. EDTA produces metal-chelate complex by the formation of bidentate ligand with Zn 2+ in the solution and diminishes the reactivity of Zn metal cations. Concentration of EDTA in the mother solution was varied in different ranges like 3, 5 and 10 mM while retaining the zinc metal salt and the NaOH concentration the same. Three different morphologies of wurtzite structured ZnO nanostructures such as nanorods-bunch, separate/discrete uniformly sized hexagonal nanorods and tapered flower petals like shapes are achieved by 3, 5 and 10 mM strengths of EDTA, respectively. The medium concentration 5 mM of EDTA is found to have moderate control over producing ZnO nanostructures of uniform diameter and a high aspect (length to diameter) ratio. An array of vertically aligned free standing ZnO nanorods with uniform spacing is successfully achieved by the addition of 5 mM of EDTA in the mother solution and the same is studied for its fluorescence property at an excitation of 325 nm and it has exhibited a characteristic UV emission of ZnO around 383 nm.

  18. An evaluation of EDTA additions for improving the phytoremediation efficiency of different plants under various cultivation systems.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Qi, Shihua; Gu, X W Sophie; Wang, Jinji; Xie, Xianming

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that phytoremediation usually requires soil amendments, such as chelates, to mobilize low bioavailability heavy metals for better plant absorption and, consequently, for remediation efficiency. A total dry biomass of 3.39 and 0.0138 kg per plant was produced by a phytoremediator, Eucalyptus globulus, and a nitrogen fixing crop, Cicer arietinum (chickpea), respectively. The accumulation of Pb in E. globulus and chickpea reached 1170.61 and 1.33 mg per plant (700 and 324 mg kg(-1)), respectively, under an ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) treatment, which was a five and sixfold increase over the value in untreated experiments, respectively. EDTA enhanced the phytoremediation efficiency and increased the heavy metal concentration in the soil solution. In pot experiments, approximately 27 % of the initial Pb leached from the spiked soil after EDTA and 25 mm artificial precipitation additions into soil without plants, which was considerably larger than the value under the same conditions without EDTA application (7 %). E. globulus planted in a mixed culture had higher water use efficiency than monocultures of either species in field experiments, and E. globulus intercepted almost all of the artificial precipitation in the pot experiments. This study demonstrates that E. globulus can maximize the potential of EDTA for improving the phytoremediation efficiency and minimizing its negative effects to the environment simultaneously by absorbing the metal-rich leachate, especially in a mixed culture of E. globulus and chickpeas.

  19. Effect of EDTA Conditioning and Carbodiimide Pretreatment on the Bonding Performance of All-in-One Self-Etch Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shipra; Nagpal, Rajni; Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Manuja, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluated the effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) conditioning and carbodiimide (EDC) pretreatment on the shear bond strength of two all-in-one self-etch adhesives to dentin. Methods. Flat coronal dentin surfaces were prepared on one hundred and sixty extracted human molars. Teeth were randomly divided into eight groups according to two different self-etch adhesives used [G-Bond and OptiBond-All-In-One] and four different surface pretreatments: (a) adhesive applied following manufacturer's instructions; (b) dentin conditioning with 24% EDTA gel prior to application of adhesive; (c) EDC pretreatment followed by application of adhesive; (d) application of EDC on EDTA conditioned dentin surface followed by application of adhesive. Composite restorations were placed in all the samples. Ten samples from each group were subjected to immediate and delayed (6-month storage in artificial saliva) shear bond strength evaluation. Data collected was subjected to statistical analysis using three-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test at a significance level of p < 0.05.  Results and Conclusion. EDTA preconditioning as well as EDC pretreatment alone had no significant effect on the immediate and delayed bond strengths of either of the adhesives. However, EDC pretreatment on EDTA conditioned dentin surface resulted in preservation of resin-dentin bond strength of both adhesives with no significant fall over six months. PMID:26557850

  20. Evaluation of fibroblast attachment in root conditioning with Er, Cr:YSGG laser versus EDTA: a SEM study.

    PubMed

    Fekrazad, Reza; Lotfi, Ghogha; Harandi, Mohammad; Ayremlou, Sara; Kalhori, Katayoun A M

    2015-04-01

    The regeneration of periodontal support is a main concern in periodontal therapy. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of Er, Cr:YSGG laser and EDTA based conditioning in attachment of fibroblast on root surfaces. This in vitro study was conducted on 81 root plates (6 mm × 4 mm × 1 mm) prepared from 27 single-rooted human mature teeth. The samples were divided into three groups: (1) Er, Cr: YSGG laser conditioning with a G6 tip (2.78 µm, 0.75 W, pulse duration of 140 µs, repetition rate of 20 Hz) for 5-7 s; (2) EDTA conditioning (17%, pH: 8) for 1 min; and (3) the control group which were exposed neither to EDTA nor laser. The viability and proliferation rates assessments were performed using MTT assay on days 3 and 5. In addition, the level of cell attachment was studied using scanning electron microscopy. The data indicated Er, Cr:YSGG conditioning increased cell viability by lapse of time (from days 3-5), with significantly better cell attachment compared to the other groups on days 3 and 5 (P < 0.05). In addition, increasing cell attachment in the EDTA conditioning group compared with the control group was statistically significant on day 5 but not on day 3 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Er, Cr:YSGG laser conditioning can promote enhance fibroblast attachment on dentinal root surfaces more than EDTA.

  1. EDTA-Cross-Linked β-Cyclodextrin: An Environmentally Friendly Bifunctional Adsorbent for Simultaneous Adsorption of Metals and Cationic Dyes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feiping; Repo, Eveliina; Yin, Dulin; Meng, Yong; Jafari, Shila; Sillanpää, Mika

    2015-09-01

    The discharge of metals and dyes poses a serious threat to public health and the environment. What is worse, these two hazardous pollutants are often found to coexist in industrial wastewaters, making the treatment more challenging. Herein, we report an EDTA-cross-linked β-cyclodextrin (EDTA-β-CD) bifunctional adsorbent, which was fabricated by an easy and green approach through the polycondensation reaction of β-cyclodextrin with EDTA as a cross-linker, for simultaneous adsorption of metals and dyes. In this setting, cyclodextrin cavities are expected to capture dye molecules through the formation of inclusion complexes and EDTA units as the adsorption sites for metals. The adsorbent was characterized by FT-IR, elemental analysis, SEM, EDX, ζ-potential, and TGA. In a monocomponent system, the adsorption behaviors showed a monolayer adsorption capacity of 1.241 and 1.106 mmol g(-1) for Cu(II) and Cd(II), respectively, and a heterogeneous adsorption capacity of 0.262, 0.169, and 0.280 mmol g(-1) for Methylene Blue, Safranin O, and Crystal Violet, respectively. Interestingly, the Cu(II)-dye binary experiments showed adsorption enhancement of Cu(II), but no significant effect on dyes. The simultaneous adsorption mechanism was further confirmed by FT-IR, thermodynamic study, and elemental mapping. Overall, its facile and green fabrication, efficient sorption performance, and excellent reusability indicate that EDTA-β-CD has potential for practical applications in integrative and efficient treatment of coexistenting toxic pollutants.

  2. Removal of toxic Co-EDTA complex by a halophilic solar-salt-pan isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa SPB-1.

    PubMed

    Paraneeiswaran, A; Shukla, Sudhir K; Subba Rao, T; Prashanth, K

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a promising bioremediation approach was developed to remove [Co(III)-EDTA](-) complex that is generated during the waste management process. Though several studies have been reported on bioremediation of cobalt, the removal of [Co(III)-EDTA](-) complex has not been tested. A [Co(III)-EDTA](-) resistant bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa SPB-1 was isolated from the solar-salt-pan and physical parameters were optimized for its growth. The various studies showed that the removal of [Co(III)-EDTA](-) from the bulk liquid was due to the adsorption of the complex by the biomass. Using absorption/desorption isotherm over a range of pH (1-8), the maximum adsorption of [Co(III)-EDTA](-) was found to be at pH 7.0 and maximum desorption from the biomass occurred at pH 1.0, thus rendering an ion exchange property to P. aeruginosa SPB-1 biomass. P. aeruginosa SPB-1 biomass could be used as bio-resin that showed 80.4±3.27% adsorption capacity up to fourth cycle and the biomass was viable till the ninth cycle with 10.5±7.3% adsorption. Radiation tolerance potential i.e. D10 value for the strain was found to be ~300 Gy, which suggests the potential use of the bacterium in bioremediation of moderately active nuclear waste. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid, DMSO and EDTA: protoporphyrin IX accumulation in skin and tumours of mice.

    PubMed

    Malik, Z; Kostenich, G; Roitman, L; Ehrenberg, B; Orenstein, A

    1995-06-01

    Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) application in three different creams was carried out on mice bearing subcutaneously transplanted C26 colon carcinoma. The creams contained (a) 20% ALA alone, (b) ALA with 2% dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and (c) ALA, DMSO and 2% edetic acid disodium salt (EDTA). Protoporphyrin IX (PP) production in the tumour and in the skin overlying the tumour was studied by two methods: laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and chemical extraction. The kinetics of PP production in the skin and in the tumour, as studied by the LIF method, was similar for all three cream preparations. The PP fluorescence intensity in the tissues reached its maximum 4-6 h after application of the creams. Quantitative analysis showed that the PP concentration after treatment was more pronounced in the skin than in the tumour. The efficiency of porphyrin production in the skin by the creams used was in the following order: ALA-DMSO-EDTA > ALA-DMSO > ALA. In the tumour the enhancing effect of DMSO and EDTA on PP accumulation induced by ALA was observed mainly in the upper 2 mm section. However, the concentration of PP in the tumour was found to be approximately the same for ALA-DMSO and ALA-DMSO-EDTA cream combinations. The possible mechanisms of the effect of DMSO and EDTA are discussed.

  4. EDTA and HCl leaching of calcareous and acidic soils polluted with potentially toxic metals: remediation efficiency and soil impact.

    PubMed

    Udovic, Metka; Lestan, Domen

    2012-07-01

    The environmental risk of potentially toxic metals (PTMs) in soil can be diminished by their removal. Among the available remediation techniques, soil leaching with various solutions is one of the most effective but data about the impact on soil chemical and biological properties are still scarce. We studied the effect of two common leaching agents, hydrochloric acid (HCl) and a chelating agent (EDTA) on Pb, Zn, Cd removal and accessibility and on physico-chemical and biological properties in one calcareous, pH neutral soil and one non-calcareous acidic soil. EDTA was a more efficient leachant compared to HCl: up to 133-times lower chelant concentration was needed for the same percentage (35%) of Pb removal. EDTA and HCl concentrations with similar PTM removal efficiency decreased PTM accessibility in both soils but had different impacts on soil properties. As expected, HCl significantly dissolved carbonates from calcareous soil, while EDTA leaching increased the pH of the acidic soil. Enzyme activity assays showed that leaching with HCl had a distinctly negative impact on soil microbial and enzyme activity, while leaching with EDTA had less impact. Our results emphasize the importance of considering the ecological impact of remediation processes on soil in addition to the capacity for PTM removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of propofol with and without EDTA on haemodynamics and calcium and magnesium homeostasis during and after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Wahr, J; Vender, J; Gilbert, H C; Spiess, B; Horrow, J C; Maddi, R

    2000-01-01

    To determine the effect of the addition of disodium edetate (EDTA) to propofol on haemodynamics, ionised calcium and magnesium serum concentrations, and adverse events during cardiac surgery. Double-blind, randomised, multicenter trial. Operating room and intensive care unit of 5 academic health centres. A total of 102 evaluable patients, aged 34 to 85 years, undergoing first-time, elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Comparison of propofol with EDTA and propofol without EDTA, each in conjunction with the opioid sufentanil, for intraoperative anaesthesia and postoperative sedation. There were no significant differences at any time between the two formulations in any clinical chemistry measurements, including ionised calcium, ionised magnesium, total calcium, parathyroid hormone, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, potassium, and phosphate. During bypass, the mean concentration of ionised calcium decreased to below the normal range, but the decrease was similar in both groups (propofol with EDTA, 0.98 +/- 0.07 mmol/L [N = 51]; propofol, 0.99 +/- 0.10 mmol/ L [N = 51]; p = NS). Calcium concentration returned to normal after rewarming. Mean ionised magnesium concentrations remained within normal limits in both groups. Similarly, there were no clinically meaningful differences between treatments with respect to haemodynamic variables, efficacy variables, or incidence of adverse events. The inclusion of EDTA in the current formulation of propofol appears to have no significant effects on calcium and magnesium profiles, renal function, haemodynamic variables, or other indicators of safety and efficacy during intraoperative anaesthesia and postoperative sedation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

  6. The disodium salt of EDTA inhibits the binding of vasoactive intestinal peptide to macrophage membranes: endodontic implications.

    PubMed

    Segura, J J; Calvo, J R; Guerrero, J M; Sampedro, C; Jimenez, A; Llamas, R

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the disodium salt of ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA), a calcium ion chelator used in the root canal therapy, on vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binding to macrophage membranes (MM's). Binding assays were conducted at 15 degrees C in 0.5 ml of 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.5) containing 1.6% (w/v) bovine serum albumin, 1.2 mg/ml of bacitracin, and different EDTA concentrations, using 45 pM of [125I]VIP as tracer. Results showed that EDTA inhibits VIP binding to MM's in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 5.4 mM (p < 0.01). EDTA concentrations equal or higher than 100 mM of abolished VIP-MM interaction. Taking into account that the macrophage plays an essential role in inflammatory reactions and the immune response, we conclude that the apical extrusion of EDTA during root canal therapy could modify VIP-macrophage interaction modulating the inflammatory mechanisms involved in periapical lesions.

  7. The effectiveness and risk comparison of EDTA with EGTA in enhancing Cd phytoextraction by Mirabilis jalapa L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Song; Liu, Jianv

    2014-02-01

    In the previous study, Mirabilis jalapa L. had revealed the basic Cd hyperaccumulator characteristics, but the accumulation ability was not as strong as that of other known Cd hyperaccumulators. In order to improve the accumulation ability of this ornamental plant, the chelants were used to activate the Cd in soil. As a substitute, ethylene glycol bis(2-aminoethyl) tetraacetic acid (EGTA) was selected to testify whether it has better effectiveness and can bring lesser metal leaching risk than EDTA. The data showed that the growth of M. jalapa was inhibited, while the Cd concentration of the plant was significantly increased under the treatments containing EDTA or EGTA. The Cd translocation ability under the EGTA treatments was higher than that under the EDTA treatments. The available Cd resulted from the application of chelant EGTA to the contaminated soils can be limited to the top 5 cm, while the application of chelant EDTA to the contaminated soils can be limited to the top 10 cm. In a word, EGTA showed better effectiveness than EDTA in enhancing Cd phytoextraction of M. jalapa. As an ornamental plant, M. jalapa has the potential to be used for phytoextraction of Cd-contaminated soils and it can beautify the environment at the same time.

  8. La-EDTA coated Fe3O4 nanomaterial: preparation and application in removal of phosphate from water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiao; Zeng, Qingru; Peng, Liang; Lei, Ming; Song, Huijuan; Tie, Boqing; Gu, Jidong

    2013-02-01

    La-EDTA-Fe3O4 was prepared by a chemical co-precipitation method. The magnetic composite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Furthermore, the adsorption properties of La-EDTA-Fe3O4 toward phosphate in water were investigated. The uptake rate of phosphate in water by La-EDTA-Fe3O4 was 3-1000 times than that of EDTA-Fe3O4, and reached 97.8% at 7 hr. The adsorption process agreed well with the Freundlich model and kinetics studies showed that the adsorption of phosphate proceeds according to pseudo second-order adsorption kinetics. The maximum removal rate was achieved at pH 6.0-7.0. The La-EDTA-Fe3O4 had good adsorption properties and could be separated well from aqueous solution by a permanent magnet. Therefore, this nanomaterial has potential application for the removal of phosphate from large water bodies.

  9. Photodynamic therapy with 5-aminoolevulinic acid-induced porphyrins and DMSO/EDTA for basal cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warloe, Trond; Peng, Qian; Heyerdahl, Helen; Moan, Johan; Steen, Harald B.; Giercksky, Karl-Erik

    1995-03-01

    Seven hundred sixty three basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) in 122 patients were treated by photodynamic therapy by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in cream topically applied, either alone, in combination with dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA), or with DMSO as a pretreatment. After 3 hours cream exposure 40 - 200 Joules/cm2 of 630 nm laser light was given. Fluorescence imaging of biopsies showed highly improved ALA penetration depth and doubled ALA-induced porphyrin production using DMSO/EDTA. Treatment response was recorded after 3 months. After a single treatment 90% of 393 superficial lesions responded completely, independent of using DMSO/EDTA. In 363 nodulo-ulcerative lesions the complete response rate increased from 67% to above 90% with DMSO/EDTA for lesions less than 2 mm thickness and from 34% to about 50% for lesions thicker than 2 mm. Recurrence rate observed during a follow-up period longer than 12 months was 2 - 5%. PDT of superficial thin BCCs with ALA-induced porphyrins and DMSO/EDTA equals surgery and radiotherapy with respect to cure rate and recurrence. Cosmetic results of ALA-based PDT seemed to be better than those after other therapies. In patients with the nevoid BCC syndrome the complete response rate after PDT was far lower.

  10. Reduction of Fe(III)EDTA in a NOx scrubber liquor by a denitrifying bacterium and the effects of inorganic sulfur compounds on this process.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiyang; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Jiti; Li, Ning; Chen, Mingxiang

    2012-09-01

    Biological reduction of Fe(III)EDTA is one of the key steps in nitrogen oxides removal in the integrated approach of metal chelate absorption combined with microbial reduction. Paracoccus denitrificans ZGL1 was used as a model bacterium to evaluate the process of Fe(III)EDTA reduction by such microorganisms that could carry out the simultaneous reduction of NO chelated by Fe(II)EDTA (Fe(II)EDTA-NO) and Fe(III)EDTA. Enzymes analysis indicated Fe(III)EDTA reductase of ZGL1 was located both in the membrane and cytoplasmic fractions. Glucose was identified as the most efficient electron donor for Fe(III)EDTA reduction. Better reduction performance was obtained with higher initial cell concentration corresponding to a specific reduction rate of 8.7 μmol h(-1) mg protein(-1). The presence of sulfate and thiosulfate had no influences on both cell growth and Fe(III)EDTA reduction. Fe(III)EDTA reduction rate and cell growth could be inhibited by addition of sulfite mainly due to its direct and indirect toxic effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The clinical and biochemical effects of propofol infusion with and without EDTA for maintenance anesthesia in healthy children undergoing ambulatory surgery.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I T; Hannallah, R S; Goodale, D B

    2001-07-01

    We conducted this randomized, double-blinded, comparative, parallel-group study to determine whether adding EDTA to propofol would affect the clinical profile, calcium and magnesium homeostasis, or renal function in healthy children. After the induction of anesthesia with halothane, 69 ambulatory surgical patients (1 mo to <17 yr old), received propofol without EDTA (n = 33) or propofol with EDTA (n = 36). Blood samples were obtained for the measurement of ionized calcium, ionized magnesium, and laboratory indicators of renal function. Hemodynamic measurements, recovery, and adverse events were recorded. Propofol with EDTA produced no significant effects on clinical efficacy or renal function. Propofol and propofol EDTA produced a statistically significant decrease from baseline in serum concentrations of ionized calcium and magnesium during infusion (P<0.05), but with no apparent clinical effect. Hemodynamic measurements generally remained stable and were similar for both groups. Statistically significant changes in systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate were not considered clinically significant. Adverse events were mild or moderate. The addition of EDTA does not alter the clinical profile of propofol in pediatric ambulatory surgical patients. With or without EDTA, propofol is associated with a decrease in ionized calcium with no apparent clinical effect. The addition of EDTA does not alter the clinical profile of propofol in pediatric ambulatory surgical patients. With or without EDTA, propofol is associated with a decrease in ionized calcium with no apparent clinical effect.

  12. The influence of EDTA application on the interactions of cadmium, zinc, and lead and their uptake of rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis).

    PubMed

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2006-10-11

    Soil used in this study was artificially contaminated with Cd, Zn, Pb, or applied in combinations (Cd-Zn, Cd-Pb, Zn-Pb, or Cd-Zn-Pb) to study the interactions of metals in soil contaminated with multiple metals. After planting rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis) in these soils for 21 days, three different concentrations of ethylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions were added to study the effect of applying EDTA on the interactions among these metals. The concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Pb in the soil solutions of different metals-treated soils increased significantly after applying 5 mmol EDTA kg(-1) soil (p<0.05). The potential of groundwater contamination will increase after applying EDTA and it is not recommended to be in situ used or have to use very carefully. The existence of Pb in the Cd-contaminated soil enhanced the uptake of Cd in rainbow pink in the treatments of control and 2 mmol EDTA kg(-1) soil. Cadmium inhibited the concentration of Zn without applying EDTA. However, whether the application of EDTA or not and the applied EDTA concentration had the greatest effect on the uptake of Pb when compared to Cd and Zn. After applying 5 mmol EDTA kg(-1) soil, Cd or Zn in the Pb-contaminated soil inhibited the uptake of Pb in rainbow pink, but there were no effect in other treatments.

  13. Chemical-assisted phytoremediation of CD-PAHs contaminated soils using Solanum nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chuanjie; Zhou, Qixing; Wei, Shuhe; Hu, Yahu; Bao, Yanyu

    2011-09-01

    A well-characterized cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulating plant Solanum nigrum was grown in Cd and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) co-contaminated soil that was repeatedly amended with chemicals, including EDTA, cysteine (CY), salicylic acid (Sa), and Tween 80 (TW80), to test individual and combined treatment effects on phytoremediation of Cd-PAHs contaminated soils. Plant growth was negatively affected by exogenous chemicals except for EDTA. S. nigrum could accumulate Cd in tissues without assistant chemicals, while there was no visible effect on the degradation of PAHs. Cysteine had significant effects on phytoextraction of Cd and the highest metal extraction ratio (1.27%) was observed in 0.9 mmol/kg CY treatment. Both salicylic acid and Tween 80 had stimulative effects on the degradation of PAHs and there was the maximal degradation rate (52.6%) of total PAHs while 0.9 mmol/kg Sa was applied. Furthermore, the combined treatment T(0.1EDTA+0.9CY+0.5TW80) and T(0.5EDTA+0.9CY+03Sa) could not only increase the accumulation of Cd in plant tissues, but also promote the degradation of PAHs. These results indicated that S. nigrum might be effective in phytoextracting Cd and enhancing the biodegradation of PAHs in the co-contaminated soils with assistant chemicals.

  14. Similarity in the EDTA-soluble antigens of Clostridium chauvoei and C. septicum.

    PubMed

    Hamaoka, T; Mori, Y; Terakado, N; Nakamura, S

    1993-03-01

    The EDTA-soluble antigens were prepared from whole cells of six strains of Clostridium chauvoei and five strains of C. septicum and were compared by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot analysis. SDS-PAGE profiles of the 11 strains were nearly identical, although there were slight variations in molecular mass in adjacent bands. In immunoblot analysis with two antisera against C. chauvoei and three against C. septicum, the antigens of all strains tested reacted with all five antisera and there were no differences in reactivities to the same antiserum between homologous and heterologous antigens. In an immunoblot reacted with a single antiserum, band patterns of 10 of the 11 strains were quite similar. After cross-absorption, antisera to both species lost most of their reactivities not only to heterologous antigens but also to homologous antigens. These results indicate that the two species share many common antigens and that there is a marked similarity in the antigenic properties of EDTA-soluble material.

  15. EDTA-capped gold nanoparticles as a colorimetric probe for aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamai, Siewdorlang; Negi, Devendra P. S.

    2016-11-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been synthesized using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a capping agent. Transmission electron microscopy measurements showed the particles to have an average size of ˜40 nm. The absorption spectrum of the AuNPs displayed a sharp absorption band at 523 nm. The red colloidal solution of the AuNPs was found to immediately change its colour to blue upon addition of 20 μm Al3+ ions. The addition of the same concentration of Cr3+ ions resulted in the same colour change but only after ˜5 min. No colour change was observed on addition of the same concentrations of Fe3+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Hg2+ and Mn2+ ions . The colour change was attributed to the aggregation of the AuNPs due to complexation of the Al3+ ions by EDTA on the AuNPs. This was supported by dynamic light scattering data. A plot of the ratio of the extinctions at 700 and 523 nm versus the Al3+ ion concentration was linear in the 2-18 μm range and the limit of detection was 3.6 μm.

  16. Uptake and excretion of cadmium, cdEDTA, and zinc by Macoma balthica

    SciTech Connect

    McLeese, D.W.; Ray, S.

    1984-01-01

    The accumulation of cadmium from sea water by marine invertebrates has been studied. Chelation of Cd with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was reported to double the rate of Cd uptake and the final tissue concentration in mussels. The physicochemical properties of Cd and Zn are similar and it has been suggested that the two elements are biologically antagonistic. When both Cd and Zn are present, the level of Cd is reduced in polychaete worms and bivalve molluscs. In contrast, the level of Cd remained fairly constant for most tissues of P. montagui exposed to Cd at a constant level and to Zn at different levels. Because of the contrasting results concerning the effects of Cd and Zn combined, and of chelated Cd, this study was undertaken to determine if exposure to Cd and Zn in combination affects uptake and excretion of either element by the deposit-feeding mollusc, Macoma balthica. In addition, the effects of Cd complexed with EDTA and the chemical form of Cd on uptake of Cd in M. Balthica were examined.

  17. Nucleation of calcium carbonate in presence of citric acid, DTPA, EDTA and pyromellitic acid.

    PubMed

    Westin, K-J; Rasmuson, A C

    2005-02-15

    The influence of four calcium complexing additives, i.e., citric acid (CIT), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and pyromellitic acid (PMA), and their concentration on the induction time of calcium carbonate nucleation has been studied. The experiments were performed by rapidly mixing a sodium carbonate solution and a calcium chloride solution of various concentrations. The induction time was obtained by recording the white light absorption of the solution. Chemical speciation was used to estimate the initial thermodynamic driving force of each experiment. The induction time was found to increase with additive concentration. The effect varies from one additive to another. CIT causes the greatest increase in induction time and PMA the least. Using classical nucleation theory the experimental data were evaluated in terms of the interfacial energy. In pure water a value of 37.8 mJ m(-2) was obtained, showing good agreement with other works. CIT, DTPA and EDTA caused a notable increase of the interfacial energy at a concentration of 0.5 mmol l(-1). PMA does not appear to have any effect at all on the interfacial energy. Different mechanisms for the influence of the additives on the measured induction time and on the estimated interfacial energy are discussed.

  18. A Spanish version for the new ERA-EDTA coding system for primary renal disease.

    PubMed

    Zurriaga, Óscar; López-Briones, Carmen; Martín Escobar, Eduardo; Saracho-Rotaeche, Ramón; Moina Eguren, Íñigo; Pallardó Mateu, Luis; Abad Díez, José María; Sánchez Miret, José Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The European Renal Association and the European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) have issued an English-language new coding system for primary kidney disease (PKD) aimed at solving the problems that were identified in the list of "Primary renal diagnoses" that has been in use for over 40 years. In the context of Registro Español de Enfermos Renales (Spanish Registry of Renal Patients, [REER]), the need for a translation and adaptation of terms, definitions and notes for the new ERA-EDTA codes was perceived in order to help those who have Spanish as their working language when using such codes. Bilingual nephrologists contributed a professional translation and were involved in a terminological adaptation process, which included a number of phases to contrast translation outputs. Codes, paragraphs, definitions and diagnostic criteria were reviewed and agreements and disagreements aroused for each term were labelled. Finally, the version that was accepted by a majority of reviewers was agreed. A wide agreement was reached in the first review phase, with only 5 points of discrepancy remaining, which were agreed on in the final phase. Translation and adaptation into Spanish represent an improvement that will help to introduce and use the new coding system for PKD, as it can help reducing the time devoted to coding and also the period of adaptation of health workers to the new codes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Pb (II) removal from aqueous media by EDTA-modified mesoporous silica SBA-15.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Ye, Meng; Qu, Yuqi; Chu, Lianfeng; Chen, Rui; He, Qizhuang; Xu, Dongfang

    2012-11-01

    An organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silica material was synthesized by two-step post-grafting method of SBA-15 with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxy-silane (APTES) and thionyl dichloride (SOCl(2)) activated ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in sequence and measured by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis (EA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen (N(2)) adsorption-desorption analysis and back titration. The material was found having the beneficial properties of mesoporous silica SBA-15 and EDTA. Adsorption potential of the material for Pb (II) removal from aqueous solution was investigated by varying experimental conditions such as pH, contact time and initial metal concentration. The removal efficiency of Pb(2+) was high under studied experimental conditions. The adsorption equilibrium could be reached within 20 min and the kinetic data were fitted well by pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion model. The adsorbent exhibited a favorable performance and its maximum adsorption capacity calculated by the Langmuir model was 273.2 mg g(-1). Recycling experiments showed the adsorbent could be regenerated by acid treatment without altering its properties. The chemical states of the elements involved in the adsorption were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results demonstrated that the adsorption mechanism of the material involved Na Pb ion-exchange and carboxyl group dominated surface complexation.

  20. Chelatable lead body burden (by calcium-disodium EDTA) and blood lead concentration in man

    SciTech Connect

    Brangstrup Hansen, J.P.; Dossing, M.; Paulev, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    The chelatable part of lead body burden was measured in 32 workers and seven office workers after an infusion test with CaNa/sub 2/EDTA. The workers had been exposed to lead at a lead and zinc processing unit for one to three years (mean one year). There was good correlation (r = 0.87) between blood lead and chelatable urinary lead excretion described by the equation y = 0 07.10/sup 0.46 x/. From this equation it can be predicted that the generally accepted limit value for chelatable urinary lead excretion, 0.42 ..mu..mol/mmol CaNa/sub 2/EDTA administered per 24 hours (3.1 ..mu..mol/24 hours or 650 ..mu..g/24 hours), corresponds to a blood lead concentration (PbB) of 1.7 ..mu..mol/l (or 35 ..mu..g/100 ml), which is lower than the commonly accepted limit value of 2.9 ..mu..mol/1 (or 60..mu..g/100 ml) for occupationally lead-exposed persons. There was a better correlation between the chelatable lead excretion and the urinary ALA-excretion (r = 0.45; p < 0.001) than between PbB and the urinary ALA-excretion (r = 0.26; p > 0.05).

  1. Preservative properties of Calamintha officinalis essential oil with and without EDTA.

    PubMed

    Nostro, A; Cannatelli, M A; Morelli, I; Cioni, P L; Bader, A; Marino, A; Alonzo, V

    2002-01-01

    This study was focused on the preserving properties of Calamintha officinalis essential oil, a plant known for its diaphoretic, expectorant and aromatic properties. The commercial aerial parts of C. officinalis Moench were hydrodistilled and the essential oil analysed by Gas chromatography/Electron impact mass spectrometry (GC/EIMS). The inhibition efficacy of this essence, alone (0.5 and 1.0% v/v) and in combination with 2.0 mM EDTA, was assayed, in culture medium and in cetomacrogol cream, using preservative efficacy testing against standard microrganisms (E. coli ATCC 25922, Ps. aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Staph. aureus ATCC 6538P, C. albicans ATCC 10231 and A. niger ATCC 16404). C. officinalis essential oil in cetomacrogol cream with EDTA showed long-lasting antimicrobial activity, satisfying the European Pharmacopoeia Commission (E. P.) criteria. C. officinalis essential oil could have a potential for a future use as a cosmetic preservative. To find natural compounds with antimicrobial activity which could be alternatives to the synthetic chemical preservatives.

  2. Synthesis of selenium/EDTA-derived porous carbon composite as a Li-Se battery cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chenhao; Fang, Shuzhen; Hu, Zhibiao; Qiu, Sheng'en; Liu, Kaiyu

    2016-07-01

    The carbon substrate with unique 3D macroporous structure has been prepared through the immediate carbonization of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and KOH mixture. The porous carbon composed of micro- and small mesoporous (2-5 nm) structure has a BET specific surface area of 1824.8 m2 g-1. The amorphous and nanosized Se is uniformly encapsulated into the porous structure of porous carbon using melting diffusion route, and the weight content of Se in target Se/C composite can be as high as 50 %. As an Li-Se battery cathode, the Se/C composite delivers a reversible (2nd) discharge capacity of 597.4 mAh g-1 at 0.24C and retains a discharge capacity of 538.4 mAh g-1 at 0.24C after 100 cycles. Furthermore, the composite also has a stable capacity of 291.0 mAh g-1 at a high current of 4.8C. The high specific area and good porous size of EDTA-derived carbon substrate may a be responsibility for the excellent electrochemical performances of Se/C composite.

  3. Comparison of coronal leakage after smear layer removal with EDTA or Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecora, Jesus D.; Mamere de Almeida, Yasmine; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.

    2002-06-01

    This study determine, in vitro, the coronal leakage of root canals evaluating the effect of smear layer removal by either EDTA or laser. Two sealers were also compared. Sixty- four canines were instrumented with the step-back technique and irrigated with 10 ml of 1% sodium hypochlorite. In Group 1, 10 teeth were sealed with Sealer 26 and 10 teeth were sealed with Grossman cement with no attempt of smear layer removal. Group 2 received a final irrigation of 15 ml of 15% ETA, and was sealed as in group 1. Group 3 received Er:YAG laser application (2940 nm, 140 mJ, 15 Hz and 42 J, 300 pulses, 500milli-sec pulse duration), and sealed as in group 1. Root canals sealed with Sealer 26 has significantly less coronal leakage than Grossman cement (p<0.05). Coronal leakage after smear layer removal with 15% EDTA or Er:YAG laser was not statistically different (p>0.01).

  4. Comparative extraction of erythrocyte EDTA-membrane proteins by some ionic and non-ionic detergents.

    PubMed

    Ballestrin, G; Covaz, L; Scutari, G

    1980-06-15

    In order to examine whether it would be possible to obtain, by a simple extraction procedure from EDTA-erythrocyte-membranes, a partially purified preparation of the "band 3 zone" proteins, we have tested four solubilizing agents of common use. Detergents, both ionic (DOC and SDS) and non ionic (Tween 80 and Triton X-100), were not able, in our experimental conditions, to completely solubilize erythrocyte fragmented membranes which had previously been washed in EDTA-buffers. However, they were able to solubilize some of the membrane proteins, which could then be separated by SDS-PGE. The PGE densitometric profiles reported in this communication indicate that the protein mixture extracted by the ionic detergents DOC and SDS qualitatively reflects the protein composition of the membranes. Among the non ionic detergents, on the other hand, Triton X-100 appeared to be able to extract mainly one band (most probably the band 3 zone), while Tween 80 did not apparently extract any of the membrane proteins. Detergent concentrations, medium composition and experimental procedures are described in detail.

  5. Pilot-scale washing of metal contaminated garden soil using EDTA.

    PubMed

    Voglar, David; Lestan, Domen

    2012-05-15

    Ten batches (75kg each) of garden soil with >50% of silt and clay and average 1935mgkg(-1) Pb, 800mgkg(-1) Zn, 10mgkg(-1) Cd and 120mgkg(-1) As were remediated in a pilot-scale chemical extraction plant. Washing with 60mmol ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) per kg of soil on average removed 79, 38, 70, and 80% of Pb, Zn, Cd and As, respectively, and significantly reduced the leachability, phyto-accessibility and oral-availability of residual toxic metals, as assessed using deionised water, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid extraction (DTPA) and physiologically based extraction test (PBET) tests. The used soil washing solution was treated before discharge using an electrochemical advanced oxidation process with graphite anode: EDTA was removed by degradation and toxic metals were electro-precipitated onto a stainless steel cathode. The novelty of the remediation technique is separation of the soil from the washing solution and soil rinsing (removal of mobilized contaminants) carried out in the same process step. Another novelty is the reuse of the soil rinsing solution from the previous batch for cleansing the soil sand, soil rinsing and for preparation of the washing solution in subsequent batches. The cost of energy and material expenses and disposal of waste products amounted to approximately 75€ton(-1) of soil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reversibility of increased intestinal permeability to 51Cr-EDTA in patients with gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.T.; Jones, D.B.; Goodacre, R.L.; Collins, S.M.; Coates, G.; Hunt, R.H.; Bienenstock, J.

    1987-11-01

    Intestinal permeability in adults with inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases was investigated by measuring the 24-h urinary excretion of orally administered /sup 51/Cr-EDTA. Eighty controls along with 100 patients with Crohn's disease, 46 patients with ulcerative colitis, 20 patients with gluten-sensitive enteropathy, and 18 patients with other diseases were studied. In controls, the median 24-h excretion was 1.34%/24 h of the oral dose. Patients with Crohn's disease (median 2.96%/24 h), ulcerative colitis (median 2.12%/24 h), and untreated gluten-sensitive enteropathy (median 3.56%/24 h) had significantly elevated urinary excretion of the probe compared to controls (p less than 0.0001). Increased 24-h urinary excretion of /sup 51/Cr-EDTA had a high association with intestinal inflammation (p less than 0.0001). Test specificity and sensitivity were 96% and 57%, respectively. A positive test has a 96% probability of correctly diagnosing the presence of intestinal inflammation, whereas a negative test has a 50% probability of predicting the absence of disease.

  7. New water soluble heterometallic complex showing unpredicted coordination modes of EDTA

    SciTech Connect

    Mudsainiyan, R.K. Jassal, A.K.; Chawla, S.K.

    2015-10-15

    A mesoporous 3D polymeric complex (I) having formula ([Zr(IV)O-μ{sup 3}-(EDTA)Fe(III)OH]·H{sub 2}O){sub n} has been crystallized and characterized by various techniques. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that complex (I) crystallized in chiral monoclinic space group Cc (space group no. 9) with unexpected coordination modes of EDTA and mixture of two transition metal ions. In this complex, the coordination number of Zr(IV) ion is seven where four carboxylate oxygen atoms, two nitrogen atoms, one oxide atom are coordinating with Zr(IV). Fe(III) is four coordinated and its coordination environment is composed of three different carboxylic oxygen atoms from three different EDTA and one oxygen atom of –OH group. The structure consists of 4-c and 16-c (2-nodal) net with new topology and point symbol for net is (3{sup 36}·4{sup 54}·5{sup 30})·(3{sup 6}). TGA study and XRPD pattern showed that the coordination polymer is quite stable even after losing water molecule and –OH ion. Quenching behavior in fluorescence of ligand is observed by complexation with transition metal ions is due to n–π⁎ transition. The SEM micrograph shows the morphology of complex (I) exhibits spherical shape with size ranging from 50 to 280 nm. The minimum N{sub 2} (S{sub BET}=8.7693 m{sup 2}/g) and a maximum amount of H{sub 2} (high surface area=1044.86 m{sup 2}/g (STP)) could be adsorbed at 77 K. From DLS study, zeta potential is calculated i.e. −7.94 shows the negative charges on the surface of complex. Hirshfeld surface analysis and fingerprint plots revealed influence of weak or non bonding interactions in crystal packing of complex. - Graphical abstract: The complex (I) crystallized with unexpected coordination modes of EDTA having 4-c, 16-c net with new topology and point symbol is (3{sup 36}·4{sup 54}·5{sup 30})·(3{sup 6}). TGA study and XRPD pattern proved its stability with high preference of H{sub 2} uptake by complex. - Highlights: • 3D complex

  8. Evolution of residual-Zn available concentrations of Zn-EDTA chelate in two different soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almendros, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Alvarez, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Zinc chelates, such as Zn-EDTA have been widely used to correct deficiencies in this micronutrient in different crops. Several authors have suggested applying complexed forms of Zn to soils in order to offer an effective source of Zn to plants. When inorganic Zn sources are added to soils, the availability of Zn to plants tends to decrease with time. This is due to the aging of the metal or the transformation of the Zn that is normally available to plants into various less available forms. Soil properties are believed to influence the fixation and/or precipitation of added Zn. The objective of this study was to determine the changes over time in the concentrations of available residual-Zn in two different soils to which the Zn-EDTA chelate was applied. An experiment was conducted under controlled laboratory conditions in two different soils: an acidic soil [Typic Haploxeralf; field capacity, 6.65 g H2O/100 g soil; pHw (1/2.5, w/v), 6.2; texture USDA, sandy loam, with illite as the predominant clay; oxidizable organic carbon 0.29%; extractable P, 19.9 mg/kg] and a calcareous soil [Typic Calcixerept; field capacity, 20.5 g H2O/100 g soil; pHw (1/2.5, w/v), 8.2; texture USDA, loamy sand, with smectite as the predominant clay; oxidizable organic carbon 0.75%; extractable P, 12.6 mg/kg]. These soils were treated with a synthetic chelate, Zn-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Zn-EDTA), at different rates of application [0 (nil-Zn), 5 and 10 mg Zn kg-1 soil]. The potential available Zn concentrations were estimated at four experimental times (0, 15, 45 and 75 d) by the Mehlich-3 and DTPA-AB extraction methods. The results obtained showed the evolution of available Zn over experimental time, for each treatment. The Zn concentrations in both soils showed significant differences over experimental time. Zn-EDTA applied at both Zn rates (5 and 10 mg Zn kg-1) was associated with high variations in available Zn concentrations. However, in both soils, the decreases in available Zn

  9. Decolorization of an azo dye Orange G in microbial fuel cells using Fe(II)-EDTA catalyzed persulfate.

    PubMed

    Niu, Cheng-Gang; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xue-Gang; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Huang, Da-Wei; Ruan, Min; Li, Xiang-Wei

    2012-12-01

    This study constructed a microbial fuel cell (MFC) using Fe(II)-EDTA catalyzed persulfate as the cathode solutions to decolorize Orange G (OG) and harvest electricity simultaneously. Chelated Fe(2+) could activate persulfate to generate sulfate free radicals (SO(4)(-)) which with high oxidation potential (E(0)=2.6 V) can degrade azo dyes. The influence of some important factors such as pH value of cathode solutions, dosages of K(2)S(2)O(8), Fe(2+) and EDTA were investigated in a two-chamber microbial fuel cell. Under an optimal condition, the maximum power density achieved 91.1 mW m(-2), the OG removal rate was 97.4% and the K(2)S(2)O(8) remaining rate was 47.3% after 12 h. The OG degradation by Fe(II)-EDTA catalyzed persulfate was found to follow the second-order kinetic model.

  10. Lysozyme/EDTA disodium salt and modified-atmosphere packaging to prolong the shelf life of burrata cheese.

    PubMed

    Conte, A; Brescia, I; Del Nobile, M A

    2011-11-01

    To prolong the shelf life of burrata cheese, we evaluated the effects of lysozyme and EDTA disodium salt (Na(2)-EDTA) with or without modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP) conditions. In particular, 3 concentrations of enzyme were combined with packaging in air and under MAP (95:5 CO(2):N(2)). The decline in quality of burrata cheese stored at 8°C was assessed by monitoring microbiological and sensory quality, in addition to pH and headspace composition. The combination of lysozyme/Na(2)-EDTA and MAP prolonged cheese shelf life, especially at the highest lysozyme concentration. In particular, the tested strategy was effective against microbial spoilage phenomena that appeared to be the quality factor that determine product unacceptability.

  11. EDTA addition enhances bacterial respiration activities and hydrocarbon degradation in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented oil-contaminated desert soils.

    PubMed

    Al Kharusi, Samiha; Abed, Raeid M M; Dobretsov, Sergey

    2016-03-01

    The low number and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and the low solubility and availability of hydrocarbons hamper bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils in arid deserts, thus bioremediation treatments that circumvent these limitations are required. We tested the effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) addition, at different concentrations (i.e. 0.1, 1 and 10 mM), on bacterial respiration and biodegradation of Arabian light oil in bioaugmented (i.e. with the addition of exogenous alkane-degrading consortium) and non-bioaugmented oil-contaminated desert soils. Post-treatment shifts in the soils' bacterial community structure were monitored using MiSeq sequencing. Bacterial respiration, indicated by the amount of evolved CO2, was highest at 10 mM EDTA in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented soils, reaching an amount of 2.2 ± 0.08 and 1.6 ± 0.02 mg-CO2 g(-1) after 14 days of incubation, respectively. GC-MS revealed that 91.5% of the C14-C30 alkanes were degraded after 42 days when 10 mM EDTA and the bacterial consortium were added together. MiSeq sequencing showed that 78-91% of retrieved sequences in the original soil belonged to Deinococci, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteia and Bacilli. The same bacterial classes were detected in the 10 mM EDTA-treated soils, however with slight differences in their relative abundances. In the bioaugmented soils, only Alcanivorax sp. MH3 and Parvibaculum sp. MH21 from the exogenous bacterial consortium could survive until the end of the experiment. We conclude that the addition of EDTA at appropriate concentrations could facilitate biodegradation processes by increasing hydrocarbon availability to microbes. The addition of exogenous oil-degrading bacteria along with EDTA could serve as an ideal solution for the decontamination of oil-contaminated desert soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of homo- and heteronuclear molecular Al3+ and Th4+ species chelated by the ethylenediaminetetraacetate (edta) ligand.

    PubMed

    Fairley, Melissa; Unruh, Daniel K; Donovan, Amy; Abeysinghe, Samangi; Forbes, Tori Z

    2013-10-07

    Four molecular species chelated by edta have been synthesized from aqueous solutions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. [Th(H2O)4(edta)] (Th1) crystallized in monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with unit cell parameters of a = 8.5275(5) Å, b = 12.0635(7) Å, c = 15.8825(9) Å, and β = 105.340(2)°. Monoclinic space group C2 was identified for [Al2(edta)(OH)2(H2O)2] (Al2) with a = 11.1089(10) Å, b = 9.4830(8) Å, c = 7.6116(7) Å, and β = 112.026(3)°. [Th4(H2O)4Al10(H2O)8(OH)28(edta)4]·Cl2(H2O)29 (Th4Al10) formed the triclinic space group P1 with a = 9.3172(8) Å, b = 16.6099(14) Å, c = 19.5080(14) Å, α = 102.314(3)°, β = 95.615(3)°, and γ = 92.473(3)°. [Th2(H2O)2Al6(H2O)10(OH)14(edta)2]·(NO3)4(H2O)18 (Th2Al6) also crystallized in triclinic space group P1[combining macron] with unit cell parameters a = 10.9899(12) Å, b = 11.6107(12) Å, c = 14.3350(17) Å, α = 73.012(4)°, β = 87.411(4)°, and γ = 75.717(4)°. Small molecular species are observed in the Th1 and Al2 compounds, while the metal cations hydrolyze to create nanometer-sized heterometallic clusters in the Th4Al10 and Th2Al6 materials. The topological characteristics of each species are described and related to aqueous speciation in Th(4+), Al(3+)-edta systems.

  13. Resin–dentin bonds to EDTA-treated vs. acid-etched dentin using ethanol wet-bonding

    PubMed Central

    Sauro, Salvatore; Toledano, Manuel; Aguilera, Fatima Sánchez; Mannocci, Francesco; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.; Watson, Timothy F.; Osorio, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare resin–dentin bond strengths and the micropermeability of hydrophobic vs. hydrophilic resins bonded to acid-etched or EDTA-treated dentin, using the ethanol wet-bonding technique. Methods Flat dentin surfaces from extracted human third molars were conditioned before bonding with: 37% H3PO4 (15 s) or 0.1 M EDTA (60 s). Five experimental resin blends of different hydrophilicities and one commercial adhesive (SBMP: Scotchbond Multi-Purpose) were applied to ethanol wet-dentin (1 min) and light-cured (20 s). The solvated resins were used as primers (50% ethanol/50% comonomers) and their respective neat resins were used as the adhesive. The resin-bonded teeth were stored in distilled water (24 h) and sectioned in beams for microtensile bond strength testing. Modes of failure were examined by stereoscopic light microscopy and SEM. Confocal tandem scanning microscopy (TSM) interfacial characterization and micropermeability were also performed after filling the pulp chamber with 1 wt% aqueous rhodamine-B. Results The most hydrophobic resin 1 gave the lowest bond strength values to acid-etched dentin and all beams failed prematurely when the resin was applied to EDTA-treated dentin. Resins 2 and 3 gave intermediate bond strengths to both conditioned substrates. Resin 4, an acidic hydrophilic resin, gave the highest bond strengths to both EDTA-treated and acid-etched dentin. Resin 5 was the only hydrophilic resin showing poor resin infiltration when applied on acid-etched dentin. Significance The ethanol wet-bonding technique may improve the infiltration of most of the adhesives used in this study into dentin, especially when applied to EDTA-treated dentin. The chemical composition of the resin blends was a determining factor influencing the ability of adhesives to bond to EDTA-treated or 37% H3PO4 acid-etched dentin, when using the ethanol wet-bonding technique in a clinically relevant time period. PMID:20074787

  14. Sequestration of chelated copper by structural Fe(II): Reductive decomplexation and transformation of Cu(II)-EDTA.

    PubMed

    He, Hongping; Wu, Deli; Zhao, Linghui; Luo, Cong; Dai, Chaomeng; Zhang, Yalei

    2016-05-15

    Chelated coppers, such as Cu(II)-EDTA, are characteristically refractory and difficult to break down because of their high stability and solubility. Cu(II)-EDTA sequestration by structural Fe(II) (Fe(II)) was investigated intensively in this study. Up to 101.21mgCu(II)/gFe(II) was obtained by Fe(II) in chelated copper sequestration under near neutral pH condition (pH 7.70). The mechanism of Cu(II)-EDTA sequestration by Fe(II) was concluded as follows: 3Cu(II)-EDTA+7Fe(II)+9H2O → Cu(0)↓+ Cu2O↓(the major product)+2Fe2O3·H2O↓+3Fe(II)-EDTA +14H(+) Novel results strongly indicate that Cu(II) reductive transformation induced by surface Fe(II) was mainly responsible for chelated copper sequestration. Cu(0) generation was initially facilitated, and subsequent reduction of Cu(II) into Cu(I) was closely combined with the gradual increase of ORP (Oxidation-Reduction Potential). Cu-containing products were inherently stable, but Cu2O would be reoxidized to Cu(II) with extra-aeration, resulting in the release of copper, which was beneficial to Cu reclamation. Concentration diminution of Cu(II)-EDTA within the electric double layer and competitive adsorption were responsible for the negative effects of Ca(2+), Mg(2+). By generating vivianite, PO4(3-) was found to decrease surface Fe(II) content. This study is among the first ones to identify the indispensible role of reductive decomplexation in chelated copper sequestration. Given the high feasibility and reactivity, Fe(II) may provide a potential alternative in chelated metals pollution controlling.

  15. The Effect of an EDTA-based Chelation Regimen on Patients with Diabetes and Prior Myocardial Infarction in TACT

    PubMed Central

    Escolar, Esteban; Lamas, Gervasio A.; Mark, Daniel B.; Boineau, Robin; Goertz, Christine; Rosenberg, Yves; Nahin, Richard L.; Ouyang, Pamela; Rozema, Theodore; Magaziner, Allan; Nahas, Richard; Lewis, Eldrin F.; Lindblad, Lauren; Lee, Kerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT) showed clinical benefit of an ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA-based) infusion regimen in patients 50 years or older with prior myocardial infarction (MI). Diabetes prior to enrollment was a pre-specified subgroup. Methods and Results Patients received 40 infusions of EDTA chelation or placebo. 633 (37%) had diabetes (322 EDTA, 311 placebo). EDTA reduced the primary endpoint (death, reinfarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for angina) [25% vs 38%, hazard ratio (HR) 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.44, 0.79), p<0.001] over 5 years. The result remained significant after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple subgroups (99.4% CI (0.39, 0.88), adjusted p=0.002). All-cause mortality was reduced by EDTA chelation [10% vs 16%, HR 0.57, 95% CI (0.36, 0.88) p=0.011], as was the secondary endpoint (cardiovascular death, reinfarction, or stroke) [11% vs 17% HR 0.60, 95% CI (0.39, 0.91), p=0.017]. After adjusting for multiple subgroups, however, those results were no longer significant. The number needed to treat to reduce one primary endpoint was 6.5 over 5 years (95% CI (4.4, 12.7). There was no reduction in events in non-diabetics (n=1075, p=0.877), resulting in a treatment by diabetes interaction (p=0.004). Conclusions Post-MI diabetic patients age 50 or older demonstrated a marked reduction in cardiovascular events with EDTA chelation. These findings support efforts to replicate these findings and define the mechanisms of benefit. They do not, however, constitute sufficient evidence to indicate the routine use of chelation therapy for all post-MI diabetic patients. PMID:24254885

  16. Effect of EDTA and citric acid on phytoremediation of Cr- B[a]P-co-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Chigbo, Chibuike; Batty, Lesley

    2013-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the environment are a concern, and their removal to acceptable level is required. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to treat contaminated soils, could be an interesting alternative to conventional remediation processes. This work evaluates the role of single and combined applications of chelates to single or mixed Cr + benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-contaminated soil. Medicago sativa was grown in contaminated soil and was amended with 0.3 g citric acid, 0.146 g ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), or their combination for 60 days. The result shows that in Cr-contaminated soil, the application of EDTA + citric acid significantly (p<0.05) decreased the shoot dry matter of M. sativa by 55 % and, as such, decreased the Cr removal potential from the soil. The soluble Cr concentration in single Cr or Cr + B[a]P-contaminated soil was enhanced with the amendment of all chelates; however, only the application of citric acid in Cr-contaminated soil (44 %) or EDTA and EDTA + citric acid in co-contaminated soil increased the removal of Cr from the soil (34 and 54 %, respectively). The dissipation of B[a]P in single B[a]P-contaminated soil was effective even without planting and amendment with chelates, while in co-contaminated soil, it was related to the application of either EDTA or EDTA + citric acid. This suggests that M. sativa with the help of chelates in single or co-contaminated soil can be effective in phytoextraction of Cr and promoting the biodegradation of B[a]P.

  17. Reducing error in feline platelet enumeration by addition of Iloprost to blood specimens: comparison to prostaglandin E1 and EDTA.

    PubMed

    Tvedten, Harold W; Bäcklund, Kerstin; Lilliehöök, Inger E

    2015-06-01

    Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and Iloprost inhibit platelet aggregation and should prevent or minimize preanalytic error with feline platelet enumeration. The objective was to compare the relative effectiveness in reducing errors in platelet enumeration by adding Iloprost to feline EDTA blood specimens in comparison to adding PGE1 or EDTA alone. In addition, a grading system for platelet aggregation in blood smears was evaluated for effectiveness in predicting prominent errors and compared to ADVIA's PLT-CLM flag. Finally, the use of plateletcrit in feline blood with platelet aggregation was evaluated. Blood specimens from 35 cats were included. Blood was collected into EDTA tubes with or without Iloprost or PGE1, and was rapidly mixed. Platelet count (PLT), plateletcrit (PCT), mean platelet volume (MPV), and platelet flags were determined with an ADVIA 2120. Manual PLT was performed with a Leucoplate stain. PLT was determined by an IDEXX VetAutoread hematology analyzer (QBC). Neither addition of Iloprost nor PGE1 to EDTA blood specimens completely prevented platelet aggregation. Iloprost-treated specimens had the least severe aggregation. PGE1 was better than EDTA alone. Significant errors in PLT results were consistently identified by the grading system. ADVIA's PLT-CL flag usually predicted significant errors in PLT. QBC PLT results showed high imprecision. Manual PLT error was smaller than ADVIA PLT in EDTA specimens with aggregation. Adding Iloprost to feline blood specimens improved platelet enumeration accuracy. A grading system for severity of platelet aggregation and usually the ADVIA's PLT-CL alarm predicted specimens with significant errors in platelet enumeration. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  18. Influence of phytase, EDTA, and polyphenols on zinc absorption in adults from porridges fortified with zinc sulfate or zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Brnić, Marica; Wegmüller, Rita; Zeder, Christophe; Senti, Gabriela; Hurrell, Richard F

    2014-09-01

    Fortification of cereal staples with zinc is recommended to combat zinc deficiency. To optimize zinc absorption, strategies are needed to overcome the inhibitory effect of phytic acid (PA) and perhaps polyphenols. Five zinc absorption studies were conducted in young adults consuming maize or sorghum porridges fortified with 2 mg zinc as zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) or zinc oxide (ZnO) and containing combinations of PA or polyphenols as potential inhibitors and EDTA and phytase as potential enhancers. Fractional absorption of zinc (FAZ) was measured by using the double isotopic tracer ratio method. Adding phytase to the maize porridge immediately before consumption or using phytase for dephytinization during meal preparation both increased FAZ by >80% (both P < 0.001). Adding Na2EDTA at an EDTA:zinc molar ratio of 1:1 increased FAZ from maize porridge fortified with ZnSO4 by 30% (P = 0.01) but had no influence at higher EDTA ratios or on absorption from ZnO. FAZ was slightly higher from ZnSO4 than from ZnO (P = 0.02). Sorghum polyphenols had no effect on FAZ from dephytinized sorghum porridges but decreased FAZ by 20% from PA-rich sorghum porridges (P < 0.02). The combined inhibitory effect of polyphenols and PA was overcome by EDTA. In conclusion, ZnSO4 was better absorbed than ZnO, phytase used to degrade PA during digestion or during food preparation substantially increased zinc absorption from zinc-fortified cereals, EDTA at a 1:1 molar ratio modestly enhanced zinc absorption from ZnSO4-fortified cereals but not ZnO-fortified cereals, and sorghum polyphenols inhibited zinc absorption in the presence, but not absence, of PA. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01210794. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Effect of adsorbed metals ions on the transport of Zn- and Ni-EDTA complexes in a sand and gravel aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, D.B.; Davis, J.A.; Anderson, L.C.D.; Rea, B.A.; Coston, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Adsorption, complexation, and dissolution reactions strongly influenced the transport of metal ions complexed with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in a predominantly quartz-sand aquifer during two tracer tests conducted under mildly reducing conditions at pH 5.8 to 6.1. In tracer test M89, EDTA complexes of zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni), along with excess free EDTA, were injected such that the lower portion of the tracer cloud traveled through a region with adsorbed manganese (Mn) and the upper portion of the tracer cloud traveled through a region with adsorbed Zn. In tracer test S89, Ni- and Zn-EDTA complexes, along with excess EDTA complexed with calcium (Ca), were injected into a region with adsorbed Mn. The only discernable chemical reaction between Ni-EDTA and the sediments was a small degree of reversible adsorption leading to minor retardation. In the absence of adsorbed Zn, the injected Zn was displaced from EDTA complexes by iron(III) [Fe(III)] dissolved from the sediments. Displacement of Zn by Fe(III) on EDTA became increasingly thermodynamically favorable with decreasing total EDTA concentration. The reaction was slow compared to the time-scale of transport. Free EDTA rapidly dissolved aluminum (Al) from the sediments, which was subsequently displaced slowly by Fe. In the portion of tracer cloud M89 that traveled through the region contaminated with adsorbed Zn, little displacement of Zn complexed with EDTA was observed, and Al was rapidly displaced from EDTA by Zn desorbed from the sediments, in agreement with equilibrium calculations. In tracer test S89, desorption of Mn dominated over the more thermodynamically favorable dissolution of Al oxyhydroxides. Comparison with results from M89 suggests that dissolution of Al oxyhydroxides in coatings on these sediment grains by Ca-EDTA was rate-limited whereas that by free EDTA reached equilibrium on the time-scale of transport. Rates of desorption are much faster than rates of dissolution of Fe

  20. EDTA-treated cotton-thread microfluidic device used for one-step whole blood plasma separation and assay.

    PubMed

    Ulum, Mokhamad Fakhrul; Maylina, Leni; Noviana, Deni; Wicaksono, Dedy Hermawan Bagus

    2016-04-21

    This study aims to observe the wicking and separation characteristics of blood plasma in a cotton thread matrix functioning as a microfluidic thread-based analytical device (μTAD). We investigated several cotton thread treatment methods using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulant solution for wicking whole blood samples and separating its plasma. The blood of healthy Indonesian thin tailed sheep was used in this study to understand the properties of horizontal wicking and separation on the EDTA-treated μTAD. The wicking distance and blood cell separation from its plasma was observed for 120 s and documented using a digital phone camera. The results show that untreated cotton-threads stopped the blood wicking process on the μTAD. On the other hand, the deposition of EDTA anticoagulant followed by its drying on the thread at room temperature for 10 s provides the longest blood wicking with gradual blood plasma separation. Furthermore, the best results in terms of the longest wicking and the clearest on-thread separation boundary between blood cells and its plasma were obtained using the μTAD treated with EDTA deposition followed by 60 min drying at refrigerated temperature (2-8 °C). The separation length of blood plasma in the μTADs treated with dried-EDTA at both room and refrigerated temperatures was not statistically different (P > 0.05). This separation occurs through the synergy of three factors, cotton fiber, EDTA anticoagulant and blood platelets, which induce the formation of a fibrin-filter via a partial coagulation process in the EDTA-treated μTAD. An albumin assay was employed to demonstrate the efficiency of this plasma separation method during a one-step assay on the μTAD. Albumin in blood is an important biomarker for kidney and heart disease. The μTAD has a slightly better limit of detection (LOD) than conventional blood analysis, with an LOD of 114 mg L(-1) compared to 133 mg L(-1), respectively. However, the μTAD performed

  1. Complexation of DTPA and EDTA with Cd(2+): stability constants and thermodynamic parameters at the soil-water interface.

    PubMed

    Karak, Tanmoy; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Das, Dilip Kumar; Boruah, Romesh Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Two alkaline soils collected from the surface horizon (0-15 cm) of two agricultural fields Lakshmikantapur (LKP; 22° 06' 03″ N and 88° 18' 19″ E) and Diamond Harbour (DHB; 22° 11' N and 88° 14' E) of West Bengal, India were studied to observe the stability of cadmium (Cd) chelate complexes with diethylenetriaminepentaacetatic acid (DTPA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), removing organic matter (OM). The objective of the present study is "determination of the stability constants and the thermodynamic parameters of Cd-DTPA and Cd-EDTA complexes at different pH and temperatures at the soil-water interface". Complex formation of soil Cd with DTPA and EDTA at the soil-water interface was studied under different ligand-to-metal ratios, pHs and temperatures. Apparent conditional stability constants (log k´) were calculated from the concentrations of Cd chelates and free Cd(2+), estimated by solid phase extraction with an ion exchanger. Standard Gibbs energy (ΔG°), standard enthalpy (ΔH°) and standard entropy (ΔS°) of formation were calculated at three different temperatures. The higher stability constants of Cd-DTPA than Cd-EDTA indicated longer persistence of Cd-DTPA at the soil solution interface than Cd-EDTA complex. Increase of ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° with progress of temperature revealed that Cd-complex formation was facilitated by temperature. Highly negative ΔG° and positive ΔH° for Cd-complex formation indicated the reaction spontaneous and exothermic. In general, both ligands complexed high percentages of cadmium signalling their role in enhancing remobilization of Cd present in soil and preventing exchange of contaminated Cd from external source with soil mineral matrix; these phenomena may greatly reduce hazard for environment and human health. The result of this study support that DTPA increases solubility and more persistence of Cd in acidic soils within the range of temperature and mole fraction (MF = moles of Cd(2+)

  2. Ferrous iron oxidation by molecular oxygen under acidic conditions: The effect of citrate, EDTA and fulvic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Adele M.; Griffin, Philippa J.; Waite, T. David

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the rates of Fe(II) oxidation by molecular oxygen in the presence of citrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) were determined over the pH range 4.0-5.5 and, for all of the ligands investigated, found to be substantially faster than oxidation rates in the absence of any ligand. EDTA was found to be particularly effective in enhancing the rate of Fe(II) oxidation when sufficient EDTA was available to complex all Fe(II) present in solution, with a kinetic model of the process found to adequately describe all results obtained. When Fe(II) was only partially complexed by EDTA, reactions with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and heterogeneous Fe(II) oxidation were found to contribute significantly to the removal rate of iron from solution at different stages of oxidation. This was possible due to the rapid rate at which EDTA enhanced Fe(II) oxidation and formed ROS and Fe(III). The rapid rate of Fe(III) generation facilitated the formation of free ferric ion activities in excess of those required for ferric oxyhydroxide precipitation following Fe(III)-EDTA dissociation. In comparison, the rate of Fe(II) oxidation was slower in the presence of citrate, and therefore the concentrations of free Fe(III) able to form in the initial stages of Fe(II) oxidation were much lower than those formed in the presence of EDTA, despite the resultant Fe(III)-citrate complex being less stable than that of Fe(III)-EDTA. The slower rate of citrate enhanced oxidation also resulted in slower rates of ROS generation, and, as such, oxidation of the remaining inorganic Fe(II) species by ROS was negligible. Overall, this study demonstrates that organic ligands may substantially enhance the rate of Fe(II) oxidation. Even under circumstances where the ligand is not present at sufficient concentrations to complex all of the Fe(II) in solution, ensuing oxidative processes may sustain an enhanced rate of Fe(II) oxidation relative to that of

  3. The effect of intravenous disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plus supportive multivitamin/trace mineral supplementation upon fasting serum calcium.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, E W; Rudolph, C J; Cheraskin, E

    1983-08-01

    A literature search disclosed only very limited published material suggesting that EDTA therapy when given slowly does not seem to derange serum calcium metabolism. This report summarizes the observations of eighty private practice patients treated with EDTA and supportive multivitamin/trace mineral supplementation and its effects upon serum calcium. The evidence indicates that, in general, this form of chelation therapy does not alter serum calcium concentration. Additionally, and perhaps more importantly, the evidence here suggests the so-called high normals declined slightly, the low normals rise slightly, and those in the intermediate range remain unchanged.

  4. Amine-based extraction recovery of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions in the presence of EDTA. Equilibrium studies

    SciTech Connect

    Juang, R.S.; Chen, Y.J.; Huang, I.P.

    1999-11-01

    The distribution ratios of Cu(II) between kerosene solutions of Aliquat 336 and water containing EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) are measured. Experiments were performed as a function of the pH, the concentration of Cu(II), the concentration ratio of EDTA to Cu(II), and the concentration of amine. It is shown that the distribution ratios first increase with pH and then decrease with further increase in pH up to 7.0. The effect of temperature on the extraction was studied, and the enthalpy of the extraction reaction was determined. Finally, the nonideal behavior of the organic phase is discussed.

  5. [Enhancement of GA3 and EDTA on Lolium perenne to remediate Pb contaminated soil and its detoxification mechanism].

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiu-Ling; Wang, Wen-Chu; He, Shan-Ying

    2014-10-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of plant growth regulator GA3 and metal chelate EDTA on enhancing the remediation of Pb contaminated soil, and the detoxification mechanism of Lolium perenne grown on Pb contaminated soil at 250 and 500 mg · kg(-1). The results showed that cell wall deposition and vacuolar compartmentalization played important roles in the detoxification of Pb in L. perenne shoot. The addition of EDTA alone increased Pb concentration in plants and Pb proportions in soluble fraction and organelles fraction, and enhanced the toxicity of Pb to plant, leading to the significant reduction of the plant biomass (P < 0.05). Foliar spray of lower concentration of GA3 (1 μmol · L(-1) or 10 μmol · L(-1)) alone significantly increased Pb accumulation by L. perenne (P < 0.05), but Pb proportions in soluble and organelles fraction were decreased, which alleviated the adverse effects of Pb on plant, thus improving the growth of plants (P < 0.05), with 1 μmol · L(-1) GA3 being the most effective. In contract, the addition of 100 μmol · L(-1) GA3 decreased Pb concentration in L. perenne, but increased the proportions of Pb in soluble fraction and organelles fraction, resulting in the reduction of plant biomass. Lower concen- tration of GA3 might alleviate the adverse effects of Pb and/or EDTA on plant, since the biomass amounts in the different treatments were in order of GA3 alone of lower concentration > GA3 of lower concentration + EDTA > EDTA alone. The combination application of low concentration of GA3 and EDTA showed a synergistic effect on the Pb accumulation in L. perenne (P < 0.05). Especially, Pb concentration in shoot and Pb extraction efficiency reached 1250.6 mg · kg(-1) and 1.1%, respec- tively, under the treatment of EDTA + 1 μmol L(-1) GA3 on the Pb 500 mg · kg(-1) soil. Therefore, the application of 1 μmol · L(-1) GA3 along with EDTA appeared to be a potential approach for phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soil.

  6. Gravitational Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, R.

    1995-01-01

    Deep-space missions some times use close gravity-assist 'swingbys' of planets and moons to gain or lose velocity. These maneuvers increase the amount of mass that can be delivered and/or decrease mission flight times. The two Voyager spacecraft used gravity assists to leave the solar system. The Galileo spacecraft is using gravity assists to move among the various moons of Jupiter and the Cassini spacecraft will do similar maneuvers around Saturn.

  7. Crystal and molecular structure of Sr{sub 2}(Edta) . 5H{sub 2}O, Sr{sub 2}(H{sub 2}Edta)(HCO{sub 3}){sub 2} . 4H{sub 2}O, and Sr{sub 2}(H{sub 2}Edta)Cl{sub 2} . 5H{sub 2}O strontium ethylenediaminetetraacetates

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakova, I. N.; Poznyak, A. L.; Sergienko, V. S.

    2009-03-15

    Three Sr{sup 2+} compounds with the Edta{sup 4-} and H{sub 2}Edta{sup 2-} ligands-Sr{sub 2}(Edta) . 5H{sub 2}O (I), Sr{sub 2}(H{sub 2}Edta)(HCO{sub 3}){sub 2} . 4H{sub 2}O (II), and Sr{sub 2}(H{sub 2}Edta)Cl{sub 2} . 5H{sub 2}O (III)-are synthesized, and their crystal structures are studied. In I, the Sr(1) atom is coordinated by the hexadentate Edta{sup 4-} ligand following the 2N + 4O pattern and by two O atoms of the neighboring ligands, which affords the formation of zigzag chains. The Sr(2) atom forms bonds with O atoms of five water molecules and attaches itself to a chain via bonds with three O atoms of the Edta{sup 4-} ligands. The Sr(1)-O and Sr(2)-O bond lengths fall in the ranges 2.520(2)-2.656(3) and 2.527(3)-2.683(2) A, respectively. The Sr(1)-N bonds are 2.702(3) and 2.743(3) A long. In II and III, the H{sub 2}Edta{sup 2-} anions have a centrosymmetric structure with the trans configuration of the planar ethylenediamine fragment. The N atoms are blocked by acid protons. In II, the environment of the Sr atom is formed by six O atoms of three H{sub 2}Edta ligands, two O atoms of water molecules, and an O atom of the bicarbonate ion, which is disordered over two positions. In III, the environment of the Sr atom includes six O atoms of four H{sub 2}Edta{sup 2-} ligands and three O atoms of water molecules. The coordination number of the Sr atoms is equal to 8 + 1. In II and III, the main bonds fall in the ranges 2.534(3)-2.732(2) and 2.482(2)-2.746(3) A, whereas the ninth bond is elongated to 2.937(3) and 3.055(3) A, respectively. In II, all the structural elements are linked into wavy layers. The O-H-O interactions contribute to the stabilization of the layer and link neighboring layers. In III, hydrated Sr{sup 2+} cations and H{sub 2}Edta{sup -} anions form a three-dimensional [Sr{sub 2}(H{sub 2}Edta)(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{sub n}{sup 2n+} framework. The Cl{sup -} anions are fixed in channels of the framework by hydrogen bonds with four water molecules. In

  8. The effectiveness of cooling conditions on temperature of canine EDTA whole blood samples

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaocun; Flatland, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Background Preanalytic factors such as time and temperature can have significant effects on laboratory test results. For example, ammonium concentration will increase 31% in blood samples stored at room temperature for 30 min before centrifugation. To reduce preanalytic error, blood samples may be placed in precooled tubes and chilled on ice or in ice water baths; however, the effectiveness of these modalities in cooling blood samples has not been formally evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various cooling modalities on reducing temperature of EDTA whole blood samples. Methods Pooled samples of canine EDTA whole blood were divided into two aliquots. Saline was added to one aliquot to produce a packed cell volume (PCV) of 40% and to the second aliquot to produce a PCV of 20% (simulated anemia). Thirty samples from each aliquot were warmed to 37.7 °C and cooled in 2 ml allotments under one of three conditions: in ice, in ice after transfer to a precooled tube, or in an ice water bath. Temperature of each sample was recorded at one minute intervals for 15 min. Results Within treatment conditions, sample PCV had no significant effect on cooling. Cooling in ice water was significantly faster than cooling in ice only or transferring the sample to a precooled tube and cooling it on ice. Mean temperature of samples cooled in ice water was significantly lower at 15 min than mean temperatures of those cooled in ice, whether or not the tube was precooled. By 4 min, samples cooled in an ice water bath had reached mean temperatures less than 4 °C (refrigeration temperature), while samples cooled in other conditions remained above 4.0 °C for at least 11 min. For samples with a PCV of 40%, precooling the tube had no significant effect on rate of cooling on ice. For samples with a PCV of 20%, transfer to a precooled tube resulted in a significantly faster rate of cooling than direct placement of the warmed tube onto ice. Discussion Canine

  9. Effects of sodium hypochlorite associated with EDTA and etidronate on apical root transportation.

    PubMed

    Silva e Souza, P A R; das Dores, R S E; Tartari, T; Pinheiro, T P S; Tuji, F M; Silva e Souza, M H

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of sodium hypochlorite associated with EDTA and etidronate on apical root transportation. Forty-five roots of human mandibular molars with curvatures of 15-25° were embedded in acrylic resin to allow standardized angulation of the initial and final radiographs. The pre-instrumentation radiographs of the mesiobuccal canal of each root were taken using a radiograph digital sensor with a size 15 K-file in the canal. The canals were prepared with the ProTaper Universal system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), using one of the following irrigation regimens during the instrumentation (n = 15): G1 - irrigation with 20 mL of saline solution (control); G2 - alternating irrigation with 2.5% hypochlorite solution (NaOCl) (15 mL); and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (5 mL). During instrumentation, the canal was filled with NaOCl and then between each exchange of instrument filled with EDTA for 1 min, and G3 - irrigation with 20 mL of 5% NaOCl and 18% etidronate solution (HEBP) mixed in equal parts. The postinstrumentation radiographs were made with a F3 instrument in the canal. The images were magnified and superposed with Adobe Photoshop software (Adobe Systems, Mountain View, CA, USA). Apical transportation was determined with AutoCAD 2012 software (Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA) by measuring the distance in millimetres between the tips of the instruments. The results were subjected to the nonparametric statistical Kruskal-Wallis test (α < 0.05). The median transportation and interquartile range values were 0.00 ± 0.05 for G1, 0.08 ± 0.23 for G2 and 0.13 ± 0.14 for G3. Comparison between groups showed that apical transportation in G3 was significantly greater than in G1 (P < 0.05). The use of NaOCl associated with etidronate increased apical transportation in the canals of extracted teeth. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The effectiveness of cooling conditions on temperature of canine EDTA whole blood samples.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Karen M; Serrano, Leslie; Sun, Xiaocun; Flatland, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Preanalytic factors such as time and temperature can have significant effects on laboratory test results. For example, ammonium concentration will increase 31% in blood samples stored at room temperature for 30 min before centrifugation. To reduce preanalytic error, blood samples may be placed in precooled tubes and chilled on ice or in ice water baths; however, the effectiveness of these modalities in cooling blood samples has not been formally evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various cooling modalities on reducing temperature of EDTA whole blood samples. Pooled samples of canine EDTA whole blood were divided into two aliquots. Saline was added to one aliquot to produce a packed cell volume (PCV) of 40% and to the second aliquot to produce a PCV of 20% (simulated anemia). Thirty samples from each aliquot were warmed to 37.7 °C and cooled in 2 ml allotments under one of three conditions: in ice, in ice after transfer to a precooled tube, or in an ice water bath. Temperature of each sample was recorded at one minute intervals for 15 min. Within treatment conditions, sample PCV had no significant effect on cooling. Cooling in ice water was significantly faster than cooling in ice only or transferring the sample to a precooled tube and cooling it on ice. Mean temperature of samples cooled in ice water was significantly lower at 15 min than mean temperatures of those cooled in ice, whether or not the tube was precooled. By 4 min, samples cooled in an ice water bath had reached mean temperatures less than 4 °C (refrigeration temperature), while samples cooled in other conditions remained above 4.0 °C for at least 11 min. For samples with a PCV of 40%, precooling the tube had no significant effect on rate of cooling on ice. For samples with a PCV of 20%, transfer to a precooled tube resulted in a significantly faster rate of cooling than direct placement of the warmed tube onto ice. Canine EDTA whole blood samples cool most

  11. Dynamic NMR of Intramolecular Exchange Processes in EDTA Complexes of Sc[superscript 3+], Y[superscript 3+], and La[superscript 3+

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ba, Yong; Han, Steven; Ni, Lily; Su, Tony; Garcia, Andres

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic NMR makes use of the effect of chemical exchanges on NMR spectra to study kinetics and thermodynamics. An advanced physical chemistry lab experiment was developed to study the intramolecular exchange processes of EDTA (the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) metal complexes. EDTA is an important chelating agent, used in…

  12. Growth parameters of escherichia coli O157:H7, salmonella and listeria monocytogenes and aerobic mesophilic bacteria of apple cider amended with nisin-EDTA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of nisin (0 or 300 IU), Ethylenediamine Tetraacetic Acid (EDTA, 20 mM) and (nisin 300 IU+ EDTA 20 mM) on growth parameters; including lag period (LP) and growth rate (GR) of Escherichia coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in the presence or absence of aerobic mesophilic bac...

  13. Dynamic NMR of Intramolecular Exchange Processes in EDTA Complexes of Sc[superscript 3+], Y[superscript 3+], and La[superscript 3+

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ba, Yong; Han, Steven; Ni, Lily; Su, Tony; Garcia, Andres

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic NMR makes use of the effect of chemical exchanges on NMR spectra to study kinetics and thermodynamics. An advanced physical chemistry lab experiment was developed to study the intramolecular exchange processes of EDTA (the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) metal complexes. EDTA is an important chelating agent, used in…

  14. Efficacy of Calcium-EDTA as an Inhibitor for Metallo-β-Lactamase in a Mouse Model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pneumonia▿

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Nobumasa; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Saga, Tomoo; Kimura, Soichiro; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Tanabe, Yoshinari; Tsukada, Hiroki; Gejyo, Fumitake; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of calcium-EDTA (Ca-EDTA) as an inhibitor of bacterial metalloenzymes, such as metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) and other proteases, in a mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. The simultaneous presence of Ca-EDTA (32 μg/ml) reduced the MICs of imipenem (IPM) in all MBL-producing P. aeruginosa isolates (IMP-1, -2, -7, and -10 and VIM-2) but not non-MBL-producing strains. In the pneumonia model, mice were intranasally infected with MBL-producing P. aeruginosa and then kept under conditions of hyperoxia to mimic ventilator-associated pneumonia. With both intranasal and subcutaneous administrations, Ca-EDTA significantly potentiated survival benefits of IPM compared to those of IPM alone. Ca-EDTA combination therapy induced a significant reduction of the bacterial burden in the lungs (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the inhibition activity of Ca-EDTA against MBL activity was confirmed by using the purified IMP-1 enzyme, which was characterized by a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 55 ± 8.2 μM. Finally, the protective effects of Ca-EDTA were demonstrated by culture supernatant-induced epithelial cell damage and acute lung injury in mice. These data suggest the therapeutic potential of Ca-EDTA not only by the blocking of MBLs but also by neutralizing tissue-damaging metalloproteases in P. aeruginosa infections. PMID:20713659

  15. Influence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the on the ability of fatty acids to inhibit the growth of bacteria associated with poultry processing.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids was examined. A 0.5 M concentration of caproic, caprylic, capric, and lauric acids was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and then supplemented with 0, 5, or 10 mM of EDTA. T...

  16. Efficacy of calcium-EDTA as an inhibitor for metallo-β-lactamase in a mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Nobumasa; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Saga, Tomoo; Kimura, Soichiro; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Tanabe, Yoshinari; Tsukada, Hiroki; Gejyo, Fumitake; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of calcium-EDTA (Ca-EDTA) as an inhibitor of bacterial metalloenzymes, such as metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) and other proteases, in a mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. The simultaneous presence of Ca-EDTA (32 μg/ml) reduced the MICs of imipenem (IPM) in all MBL-producing P. aeruginosa isolates (IMP-1, -2, -7, and -10 and VIM-2) but not non-MBL-producing strains. In the pneumonia model, mice were intranasally infected with MBL-producing P. aeruginosa and then kept under conditions of hyperoxia to mimic ventilator-associated pneumonia. With both intranasal and subcutaneous administrations, Ca-EDTA significantly potentiated survival benefits of IPM compared to those of IPM alone. Ca-EDTA combination therapy induced a significant reduction of the bacterial burden in the lungs (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the inhibition activity of Ca-EDTA against MBL activity was confirmed by using the purified IMP-1 enzyme, which was characterized by a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 55 ± 8.2 μM. Finally, the protective effects of Ca-EDTA were demonstrated by culture supernatant-induced epithelial cell damage and acute lung injury in mice. These data suggest the therapeutic potential of Ca-EDTA not only by the blocking of MBLs but also by neutralizing tissue-damaging metalloproteases in P. aeruginosa infections.

  17. Dental Assistants

    MedlinePlus

    ... the direction of a dentist . They may prepare materials for dental impressions or to create temporary crowns. All dental ... Nursing assistants, sometimes called nursing aides , help provide basic care for patients in hospitals and residents of ... more information about becoming a dental assistant and for a list of accredited dental ...

  18. Anti-biofilm properties of the antimicrobial peptide temporin 1Tb and its ability, in combination with EDTA, to eradicate Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms on silicone catheters.

    PubMed

    Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Grassi, Lucia; Di Luca, Mariagrazia; Bombardelli, Silvia; Medici, Chiara; Brancatisano, Franca Lisa; Esin, Semih; Batoni, Giovanna

    2016-08-01

    In search of new antimicrobials with anti-biofilm potential, in the present study activity of the frog-skin derived antimicrobial peptide temporin 1Tb (TB) against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms was investigated. A striking ability of TB to kill both forming and mature S. epidermidis biofilms was observed, especially when the peptide was combined with cysteine or EDTA, respectively. Kinetics studies demonstrated that the combination TB/EDTA was active against mature biofilms already after 2-4-h exposure. A double 4-h exposure of biofilms to TB/EDTA further increased the therapeutic potential of the same combination. Of note, TB/EDTA was able to eradicate S. epidermidis biofilms formed in vitro on silicone catheters. At eradicating concentrations, TB/EDTA did not cause hemolysis of human erythrocytes. The results shed light on the anti-biofilm properties of TB and suggest a possible application of the peptide in the lock therapy of catheters infected with S. epidermidis.

  19. Thermodynamics of the hydration equilibrium derived from the luminescence spectra of the solid state for the case of the Eu-EDTA system.

    PubMed

    Janicki, R; Mondry, A

    2015-11-28

    The luminescence properties of two compounds, [C(NH2)3][Eu(EDTA)(H2O)3] (I) and [C(NH2)3]2[Yb0.97Eu0.03(EDTA)(H2O)2]ClO4·6H2O (II), were determined. The weighted sum of luminescence spectra of I and II was used to reproduce the spectra of the Eu-EDTA system in aqueous solution in the temperature range 276-363 K. By implementing this method it was possible to determine the thermodynamic functions (ΔH = 18113 ± 506 J mole(-1) and ΔS = 62.5 ± 4.9 J mole(-1) K(-1)) of the reaction [Eu(EDTA)(H2O)3](-)⇆ [Eu(EDTA)(H2O)2](-) + H2O, which is difficult using other methods.

  20. IR studies of EDTA alkaline salts interaction with the surface of inorganic oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryczkowski, J.

    2005-10-01

    The adsorption of alkaline salts of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on inorganic supports characterized by the different value of the isoelectric point of the surface (IEPS) has been investigated by transmission and photoacoustic (PA) FT-IR. The IR spectra in the 1800-1200 cm -1 region of the supported complexones are different from those of the unsupported compounds. The results obtained imply that the observed changes in the properties of adsorbed complexones are mainly due to interaction of the carboxyl groups of chelate molecule with inorganic oxide hydroxyl groups. The models of those interactions have been proposed. The IEPS value has a noticeable influence on the nature of the interactions observed. Based on the experimental data the ability of inorganic oxide interaction with the chelate molecule can be presented as follows: V 2O 5 < SiO 2 < TiO 2 < MgO < Al 2O 3 < ZrO 2-La < ZrO 2.

  1. Theoretical investigation of fluorescence properties of EDTA and DTPA substituted tetraphenylporphyrin molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiev, R. R.; Kalugina, Yu. N.; Cherepanov, V. N.

    2012-12-01

    The matrix elements of spin-orbit coupling operator (HSO) and non-adiabatic coupling operator (Ω) for the H2ATPP-EDTA and H2ATPP-DTPA molecules were calculated using INDO method. Rate constants of internal conversion and of intersystem crossing were calculated using the values of matrix elements of HSO and Ω operators and excitation energies both calculated with the ADC(2) and TDDFT methods and obtained from experimental data. Results of calculations show that the probability of radiationless deactivation in internal conversion channel is greater than the probability of radiationless transition in intersystem crossing channel for considered molecules. Obtained theoretical values of fluorescence quantum yield have good agreement with their experimental values.

  2. Synthesis of Metal Oxide Particles Using Reaction Route from Rare-Earth Metal-EDTA Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Keiji; Tsuchiya, Takaaki; Hasebe, Yasuhiro; Sekiya, Tetsuo; Toyama, Ayumu; Nakamura, Atsushi; Akasaka, Hiroki; Saitoh, Hidetoshi

    2014-06-01

    Highly dense, spherical yttria (Y2O3) and erbia (Er2O3) particles were synthesized from their corresponding metal-ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) complexes. The EDTA·Y·H and EDTA·Er·H complexes were prepared in powdered form. These complexes were used as the staring materials for synthesis of the Y2O3 and Er2O3 particles. The particles were synthesized using an H2-O2 flame produced with a commercial flame spray apparatus. Crystalline structure, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, and elemental distribution of the synthesized particles were investigated. It was confirmed that the crystalline phases of the Y2O3 and Er2O3 particles were homogeneous. In addition, the elemental distribution of the particles was uniform. These results indicate that dense, spherical particles of Y2O3 and Er2O3 have been synthesized with EDTA·Y·H and EDTA·Er·H complexes, respectively.

  3. Intensification of luminescence of Europium-EDTA complex in polyvinyl pyrrolidone films by copper nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisfeld, Renata; Levchenko, Viktoria; Lazarowska, Agata; Mahlik, Sebastian; Grinberg, Marek

    2016-09-01

    Stable copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) were prepared and incorporated into polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) films together with pre-prepared complex of europium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EuEDTA). From the comparison of the excitation spectrum of the complex alone and of the complex in conjunction with CuNPs an increased fluorescence intensity of the complex is observed as the result of interaction of the complex with surface plasmons of copper. This effect is maximal when the extinction band of CuNPs coincides with the absorption maximum of the complex, as much more light reaches the excited state of europium in the complex during the excitation events as the result of light scattered by copper plasmons. An additional band was observed in the excitation spectrum of the complex in co-doped by the CuNPs around 320÷390 nm which we attribute to electron transfer from CuNPs to excited state of europium.

  4. The Ca(2+)-EDTA chelation as standard reaction to validate Isothermal Titration Calorimeter measurements (ITC).

    PubMed

    Ràfols, Clara; Bosch, Elisabeth; Barbas, Rafael; Prohens, Rafel

    2016-07-01

    A study about the suitability of the chelation reaction of Ca(2+)with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a validation standard for Isothermal Titration Calorimeter measurements has been performed exploring the common experimental variables (buffer, pH, ionic strength and temperature). Results obtained in a variety of experimental conditions have been amended according to the side reactions involved in the main process and to the experimental ionic strength and, finally, validated by contrast with the potentiometric reference values. It is demonstrated that the chelation reaction performed in acetate buffer 0.1M and 25°C shows accurate and precise results and it is robust enough to be adopted as a standard calibration process.

  5. Synthesis, Kinetics, and Photochemistry of the Chromium(III) DicyanoaquoEDTA Complex.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    carboxyl groups unattached, and protonated. Later, Hamn4 studied the acid- base equilibrium Cr(YH)(H 20) - Cr(Y)(H20)’. That the water in Cr(YH)(H 20...Thorneley et I’ 6 in an extensive study of acid- base and related equilibria, were unable to find evidence for the CrY" species. The EDTA complexes of...5) CrY)H(Ho2- 2- + Cr(Y)C(OH)(H 0) r(Y)(OH)2 + H pK -8.0 (Ref. 5) (6) Also, Cr(Y)(OH) + H20 - Cr(Y)(OH)" + H Pa 12.2 (Ref. 7) (7). Di- acido

  6. Soil physical characteristics after EDTA washing and amendment with inorganic and organic additives.

    PubMed

    Zupanc, Vesna; Kastelec, Damijana; Lestan, Domen; Grcman, Helena

    2014-03-01

    Soil washing has been established as suitable remediation technology, with most research focused on metal removing efficiency and toxic effect on plants, less on the influence on soil physical characteristics, which was the focus of this study. In soil column experiment highly contaminated soil and soil washed with EDTA, mixed with additives (gypsum, hydrogel, manure, peat) were tested. White clover was used as a soil cover. Yield, metal concentration in soil and plant, aggregate fractionation and stability, saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil water retention of the soil were measured. Soil washing decreased metal concentration in soil and plants, but yield of white clover on remediated soil was significantly lower compared to the original soil. Significant differences in water retention characteristics, aggregate fractionation and stability between original and remediated soil have been determined. Gypsum, hydrogel and peat increased plant available water, manure and peat increased yield on remediated soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cadmium accumulation and depuration in Anodonta anatina exposed to cadmium chloride or cadmium-EDTA complex

    SciTech Connect

    Holwerda, D.A.; Hemelraad, J.; Veenhof, P.R.; Zandee, D.I.

    1988-03-01

    The authors have previously reported on the uptake and distribution of cadmium in unionids, experimentally exposed to cadmium chloride. The purpose of the present investigation was to study the effect of metal chelation on cadmium kinetics, including metal elimination in the post-exposure phase. Generally, chelation of ionic metal by natural substances like humic acids or by synthetic compounds like EDTA decreases its environmental toxicity through a diminished rate of uptake, as compared with the free ion. The influences of metal chelation on bioconcentration and on toxicity do not always run parallel. To their knowledge, there are no data on the effect of chelation on metal kinetics in freshwater clams. Data on rates of cadmium elimination from aquatic invertebrates are highly divergent, but Cd excretion is invariably found to be smaller than uptake.

  8. Characterization of Co(III) EDTA-Reducing Bacteria in Metal- and Radionuclide-Contaminated Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Weimin; Gentry, Terry J; Mehlhorn, Tonia L; Carroll, Sue L; Jardine, Philip M; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-01-01

    The Waste Area Grouping 5 (WAG5) site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has a potential to be a field site for evaluating the effectiveness of various bioremediation approaches and strategies. The site has been well studied in terms of its geological and geochemical properties over the past decade. However, despite the importance of microorganisms in bioremediation processes, the microbiological populations at the WAG5 site and their potential in bioremediation have not been similarly evaluated. In this study, we initiated research to characterize the microbial populations in WAG5 groundwater. Approximately 100 isolates from WAG5 groundwater were isolated and selected based on colony morphology. Fifty-five unique isolates were identified by BOX-PCR and subjected to further characterization. 16S rRNA sequences indicated that these isolates belong to seventeen bacterial genera including Alcaligenes (1 isolate), Aquamonas (1), Aquaspirillum (1), Bacillus (10), Brevundimonas (5), Caulobacter (7), Dechloromonas (2), Janibacter (1), Janthinobacterium (2), Lactobacillus (1), Paenibacillus (4), Pseudomonas (9), Rhodoferax (1), Sphingomonas (1), Stenotrophomonas (6), Variovorax (2), and Zoogloea (1). Metal respiration assays identified several isolates, which phylogenically belong or are close to Caulobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Pseudomonas, capable of reducing Co(III)EDTA- to Co(II)EDTA{sup 2-} using the defined M1 medium under anaerobic conditions. In addition, using WAG5 groundwater directly as the inoculants, we found that organisms associated with WAG5 groundwater can reduce both Fe(III) and Co(III) under anaerobic conditions. Further assays were then performed to determine the optimal conditions for Co(III) reduction. These assays indicated that addition of various electron donors including ethanol, lactate, methanol, pyruvate, and acetate resulted in metal reduction. These experiments will provide useful background information for future

  9. Transmission of Curing Light through Moist, Air-Dried, and EDTA Treated Dentine and Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Uusitalo, E.; Varrela, J.; Lassila, L.; Vallittu, P. K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study measured light transmission through enamel and dentin and the effect of exposed dentinal tubules to light propagation. Methods. Light attenuation through enamel and dentin layers of various thicknesses (1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm) was measured using specimens that were (1) moist and (2) air-dried (n = 5). Measurements were repeated after the specimens were treated with EDTA. Specimens were transilluminated with a light curing unit (maximum power output 1869 mW/cm2), and the mean irradiance power of transmitting light was measured. The transmission of light through teeth was studied using 10 extracted intact human incisors and premolars. Results. Transmitted light irradiance through 1 mm thick moist discs was 500 mW/cm2 for enamel and 398 mW/cm2 for dentin (p < 0.05). The increase of the specimen thickness decreased light transmission in all groups (p < 0.005), and moist specimens attenuated light less than air-dried specimens in all thicknesses (p < 0.05). EDTA treatment increased light transmission from 398 mW/cm2 to 439 mW/cm2 (1 mm dentin specimen thickness) (p < 0.05). Light transmission through intact premolar was 6.2 mW/cm2 (average thickness 8.2 mm) and through incisor was 37.6 mW/cm2 (average thickness 5.6 mm). Conclusion. Light transmission through enamel is greater than that through dentin, probably reflecting differences in refractive indices and extinction coefficients. Light transmission through enamel, dentin, and extracted teeth seemed to follow Beer-Lambert's law. PMID:27446954

  10. The Influence of Reserpine and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA) on Serotonin Storage Organelles of Blood Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Gerrard, Jonathan M.; Rao, Gundu H. R.; White, James G.

    1977-01-01

    The present investigation has evaluated the influence of reserpine on the serotonin-rich organelles bodies) in platelets from dogs, rabbits, and humans. Reserpine markedly depresses the levels of stored serotonin in human and animal platelets, accompanied by a small decrease in platelet ATP but no change in platelet ADP content. Thin sections of human platelets showed no change in the number or morphology of serotonin storage organelles during reserpine therapy, whereas a profound decrease in the size and number of dense bodies occurred in platelets from rabbits treated with reserpine. Dog platelets also showed a decrease in the number and density of serotonin storage organelles after reserpine therapy. The basis for the difference between rabbit and human platelets was explored by fixing platelets in glutaraldehyde and osmium in the presence or absence of the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Most of the dense bodies in fixed human platelets were removed by EDTA while rabbit platelet dense bodies remained essentially intact. The results suggested that the opacity of rabbit platelet dense bodies following fixation with glutaraldehyde and osmium relate primarily to their serotonin content, while the electron density of human serotonin storage organelles in fixed cells is due primarily to their calcium content. Further confirmation of this concept came from studies of platelets using the whole mount technique. Rabbit platelet serotonin storage organelles were found to lack the inherent opacity of the human dense bodies, a finding consistent with the lower concentration of calcium in the rabbit organelles. ImagesFigures 1A-DFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figures 5 and 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:405872

  11. Metal associations in soils before and after EDTA extractive decontamination: implications for the effectiveness of further clean-up procedures.

    PubMed

    Barona, A; Aranguiz, I; Elías, A

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of Pb, Ni and Zn in two contaminated soils was determined before and after treating the soils with an EDTA solution. After the EDTA extraction, the proportion of Pb accumulated in the acid-extractable fraction considerably increased, which was related to the greater degree of metal extraction from the other fractions. EDTA was also able to extract certain amounts of Pb, Zn and Ni from the silicate matrix, which implied that these extractable amounts were not so strongly fixed to the residual fraction as previously supposed. As a consequence, after EDTA application, metal content (especially Pb) remained more weakly adsorbed to soil components (more easily leachable), potentially favouring the application of phytoremediation technologies. The extraction recoveries (for only one application) were generally low for the three metals (33-37% for Pb, 5-11% for Ni and 14-19% for Zn), although this fact is an advantage as plants would not be able to assimilate very high mobilised contents of metals.

  12. Influence of endophytic Bacillus pumilus and EDTA on the phytoextraction of Cu from soil by using Cicer arietinum.

    PubMed

    Ali, Barkat; Amna; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Ali, Hazrat; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2017-01-02

    In developing countries, soil contamination with metals is ubiquitous, which poses a serious threat to the ecosystem. The current study was designed to screen out the nested belongings of Cicer arietinum plants and Bacillus pumilus (KF 875447) in extracting copper (Cu) from contaminated soils. A pot experiment was executed by growing C. arietinum seedlings either inoculated with B. pumilus or uninoculated along with the application of 5 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Plants were subjected to three different concentrations of Cu (250, 350, and 500 ppm) for 48 days. An increase in Cu uptake was observed in C. arietinum plants inoculated with B. pumilus as compared to uninoculated ones. C. arietinum exhibited improved values for different growth parameters in the presence of B. pumilus, that is, root length (37%), shoot length (31%), whole plant fresh as well as (45%) dry weight (27%), and chlorophyll contents (32%). More than 70% of tolerance index (TI) was observed for plants at 500 ppm Cu treatment. Addition of B. pumilus and EDTA significantly increased metal uptake by C. arietinum up to 19 and 36%, respectively, while the application of B. pumilus and EDTA in combination increased metal accumulation by 41%. The calculated bioaccumulation and translocation factor (TF) revealed that C. arietinum possess phytoextraction potential for Cu, and this ability is significantly improved with application of B. pumilus and EDTA amendments.

  13. Adsorption of hydroxamate siderophores and EDTA on goethite in the presence of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Siderophore-promoted iron acquisition by microorganisms usually occurs in the presence of other organic molecules, including biosurfactants. We have investigated the influence of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the adsorption of the siderophores DFOB (cationic) and DFOD (neutral) and the ligand EDTA (anionic) onto goethite (α-FeOOH) at pH 6. We also studied the adsorption of the corresponding 1:1 Fe(III)-ligand complexes, which are products of the dissolution process. Adsorption of the two free siderophores increased in a similar fashion with increasing SDS concentration, despite their difference in molecule charge. In contrast, SDS had little effect on the adsorption of EDTA. Adsorption of the Fe-DFOB and Fe-DFOD complexes also increased with increasing SDS concentrations, while adsorption of Fe-EDTA decreased. Our results suggest that hydrophobic interactions between adsorbed surfactants and siderophores are more important than electrostatic interactions. However, for strongly hydrophilic molecules, such as EDTA and its iron complex, the influence of SDS on their adsorption seems to depend on their tendency to form inner-sphere or outer-sphere surface complexes. Our results demonstrate that surfactants have a strong influence on the adsorption of siderophores to Fe oxides, which has important implications for siderophore-promoted dissolution of iron oxides and biological iron acquisition. PMID:19523232

  14. EDTA Inhibits Biofilm Formation, Extracellular Vesicular Secretion, and Shedding of the Capsular Polysaccharide Glucuronoxylomannan by Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Emma J.; Wolf, Julie M.

    2012-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans can grow as a biofilm on a range of synthetic and prosthetic materials. Cryptococcal biofilm formation can complicate the placement of shunts used to relieve increased intracranial pressure in cryptococcal meningitis and can serve as a nidus for chronic infection. Biofilms are generally advantageous to pathogens in vivo, as they can confer resistance to antimicrobial compounds, including fluconazole and voriconazole in the case of C. neoformans. EDTA can inhibit biofilm formation by several microbes and enhances the susceptibility of biofilms to antifungal drugs. In this study, we evaluated the effect of sublethal concentrations of EDTA on the growth of cryptococcal biofilms. EDTA inhibited biofilm growth by C. neoformans, and the inhibition could be reversed by the addition of magnesium or calcium, implying that the inhibitory effect was by divalent cation starvation. EDTA also reduced the amount of the capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan shed into the biofilm matrix and decreased vesicular secretion from the cell, thus providing a potential mechanism for the inhibitory effect of this cation-chelating compound. Our data imply that the growth of C. neoformans biofilms requires the presence of divalent metals in the growth medium and suggest that cations are required for the export of materials needed for biofilm formation, possibly including extracellular vesicles. PMID:22941091

  15. Recovery from lead induced biochemical and immunological alterations following combined treatment with DMSA and calcium disodium EDTA in rats.

    PubMed

    Flora, G J; Kumar, P; Seth, P K

    1998-03-01

    The therapeutic potential of meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (CaNa(2)EDTA) alone or in combination in reducing levels of lead in blood and other soft organs and reversing lead induced biochemical and immunological alterations were investigated after chronic low level lead exposure. Lead exposure produced a significant adverse effect on few selected haematopoietic, nervous, testicular and immunological variables. Conventional 5-day treatment with both DMSA and CaNa(2)EDTA individually was effective in inducing elimination of lead but the recovery of the altered biochemical and clinical indices was moderate. When given in combination for 5 days, (DMSA was administered orally twice daily before intraperitoneal CaNa(2)EDTA administration) they were more effective in depleting body lead burden and providing recoveries in the altered biochemical parameters. Along with the rapid removal of lead from body stores after combined treatment, the immunological variables also recovered spontaneously. However, the altered CNS disorders remained practically unchanged following 5 days of chelation therapy. Lead induced testicular alterations also showed some recoveries after combined treatment. The results indicate that combined DMSA and CaNa(2)EDTA treatment could be more beneficial than individual treatment with any of these agents.

  16. M[superscript 2+]•EDTA Binding Affinities: A Modern Experiment in Thermodynamics for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Leah C.; Root, Hannah B.; Wei, Chin-Chuan; Jensen, Drake; Shabestary, Nahid; De Meo, Cristina; Eder, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to experimentally determine thermodynamic values for the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)(aq) + M[superscript 2+](aq) reactions (M[superscript 2+] = Ca[superscript 2+] and Mg[superscript 2+]). Students showed that for reactions in a N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N"-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES)…

  17. Modification of electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers with EDTA for the removal of Cd and Cr ions from water effluents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaúque, Eutilério F. C.; Dlamini, Langelihle N.; Adelodun, Adedeji A.; Greyling, Corinne J.; Catherine Ngila, J.

    2016-04-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers were obtained by electrospinning technique prior to surface modification with polyethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) using ethylenediamine (EDA) as the cross-linker. The modified nanofibers (EDTA-EDA-PAN) were subsequently applied in the wastewater treatment for the removal of Cd(II) and Cr(VI). Textural and chemical characterizations of the nanofibers were carried out by analysis of the specific surface area (Brauner Emmet and Teller (BET)) and thermogravimetric analyses, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. From the adsorption equilibrium studies with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models, Freundlich was found most suitable for describing the removal mechanism of the target metals as they collect on a heterogeneously functionalized polymer surface. The EDTA-EDA-PAN nanofibers showed effective sorption affinity for both Cd(II) and Cr(VI), achieving maximum adsorption capacities of 32.68 and 66.24 mg g-1, respectively, at 298 K. In furtherance, the nanofibers were regenerated by simple washing with 2 M HCl solution. Conclusively, the EDTA-EDA-PAN nanofibers were found to be efficient for the removal of Cd(II) and Cr(VI) in water effluents.

  18. Acute prooxidant effects of vitamin C in EDTA chelation therapy and long-term antioxidant benefits of therapy.

    PubMed

    Hininger, Isabelle; Waters, Robert; Osman, Mireille; Garrel, Catherine; Fernholz, Karen; Roussel, Anne Marie; Anderson, Richard A

    2005-06-15

    Chelation therapy is thought to not only remove contaminating metals but also to decrease free radical production. EDTA chelation therapy, containing high doses of vitamin C as an antioxidant, is often used in the treatment of diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases but the effectiveness of this treatment may be variable and its efficacy has not been demonstrated conclusively. The objective of this work was to determine if the vitamin C added to standard chelation therapy cocktails was prooxidant. We administered a standard EDTA cocktail solution with or without 5 g of sodium ascorbate. One hour following the standard chelation therapy, there were highly significant prooxidant effects on lipids, proteins, and DNA associated with decreased activities of RBC glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase while in the absence of sodium ascorbate, there were no acute signs of oxidative damage. After 16 sessions of standard chelation therapy, the acute prooxidant effects of vitamin C remained, but, even in the absence of nutrient supplements, there were beneficial long-term antioxidant effects of chelation therapy and plasma peroxide levels decreased. In conclusion, multiple sessions of EDTA chelation therapy protect lipids against oxidative damage. However, standard high amounts of vitamin C added to EDTA chelation solutions also display short term prooxidant effects. The added benefits of lower levels of vitamin C in chelation therapy need to be documented.

  19. M[superscript 2+]•EDTA Binding Affinities: A Modern Experiment in Thermodynamics for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Leah C.; Root, Hannah B.; Wei, Chin-Chuan; Jensen, Drake; Shabestary, Nahid; De Meo, Cristina; Eder, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to experimentally determine thermodynamic values for the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)(aq) + M[superscript 2+](aq) reactions (M[superscript 2+] = Ca[superscript 2+] and Mg[superscript 2+]). Students showed that for reactions in a N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N"-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES)…

  20. Role of reducing agent in extraction of arsenic and heavy metals from soils by use of EDTA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jung; Jeon, Eun-Ki; Baek, Kitae

    2016-06-01

    Although many metal-contaminated sites contain both anionic arsenic and cationic heavy metals, the current remediation technologies are not effective for the simultaneous removal of both anionic and cationic elements from the contaminated sites due to their different characteristics. In this study, the role of reducing agent in simultaneous extraction of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn from contaminated soils was investigated using EDTA. The addition of reducing agents, which includes sodium oxalate (Na2C2O4), ascorbic acid (C6H8O6) and sodium dithionite (Na2S2O4), greatly enhanced the EDTA extraction of both As and heavy metals from the contaminated soils due to the increased mobility of the metals under the reduced conditions. The extent of the enhancement of the EDTA extraction was greatly affected by the reducing conditions. Strong reducing conditions (0.1 M of dithionite) were required for the extraction of metals strongly bound to the soil, while weak reducing conditions (0.01 M of dithionite or 0.1 M of oxalate/ascorbic acid) were sufficient for extraction of metals that were relatively weakly bound to the soil. An almost 90% extraction efficiency of total metals (As, Cu, Zn, and Pb) was obtained from the contaminated soils using the combination of dithionite and EDTA. Our results clearly showed that the combination of dithionite and EDTA can effectively extract As and heavy metals simultaneously from soils under a wide range of pH conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. EDTA enhances high-throughput two-dimensional bioprinting by inhibiting salt scaling and cell aggregation at the nozzle surface.

    PubMed

    Parzel, Cheryl A; Pepper, Matthew E; Burg, Timothy; Groff, Richard E; Burg, Karen J L

    2009-06-01

    Tissue-engineering strategies may be employed in the development of in vitro breast tissue models for use in testing regimens of drug therapies and vaccines. The physical and chemical interactions that occur among cells and extracellular matrix components can also be elucidated with these models to gain an understanding of the progression of transformed epithelial cells into tumours and the ultimate metastases of tumour cells. The modified inkjet printer may be a useful tool for creating three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models, because it offers an inexpensive and high-throughput solution to microfabrication, and because the printer can be easily manipulated to produce varying tissue attributes. We hypothesized, however, that when ink is replaced with a biologically based fluid (i.e. a 'bio-ink'), specifically a serum-free cell culture medium, printer nozzle failure can result from salt scale build-up as fluid evaporates on the printhead surface. In this study, ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) was used as a culture medium additive to prevent salt scaling and cell aggregation during the bioprinting process. The results showed that EDTA, at a concentration typically found in commercially available trypsin solutions (0.53 mM), prevented nozzle failure when a serum-free culture medium was printed from a nozzle at 1000 drops/s. Furthermore, increasing concentrations of EDTA appeared to mildly decrease aggregation of 4T07 cells. Cell viability studies were performed to demonstrate that addition of EDTA did not result in significant cell death. In conclusion, it is recommended that EDTA be incorporated into bio-ink solutions containing salts that could lead to nozzle failure.

  2. Identification of complexes involving Tl(I) and Tl(III) with EDTA and DTPA ligands by ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Zembrzuska, Joanna; Karbowska, Bozena

    2017-08-21

    Thallium is considered as an environmental threat, however its hazardous properties depend on its oxidation state. Tl(III) is approx. 1000-times more toxic compared to Tl(I), therefore identification of each species is essential in order to properly evaluate the associated health hazard. ESI-MS allows determination of speciation in solution due to its soft mode of ionization while selective complexation with ligands allows to distinguish the Tl species. Selective complexation of Tl(I) and Tl(III) ions requires the use of two selective complexing agents and selection of appropriate conditions for this process. Tl(I) and Tl(III) ions as well as two ligands (EDTA and DTPA) were used to form binary (single ion + single ligand), ternary (one ion + both ligands) and quaternary systems (both ions and both ligands) under different pH conditions (7 and 8). These mixtures were subjected to the determination of Tl species using ESI-MS operating in positive and negative ion mode. Tl(I) complexes with DTPA were identified at pH 7 and 8, whereas in case of EDTA the complexes were detected only at pH 8. In contrast, Tl(III) formed distinct complexes with EDTA at pH 7 and 8, while with DTPA the complexes were detected only at pH 8. Analysis of the quaternary system (which contained both ions and both ligands) revealed that Tl(I) formed complexes with EDTA, while Tl(III) formed complexes with DTPA at pH 7 and 8. The obtained results confirmed that the increase of the solution complexity allowed to simultaneously identify different complexes is solutions containing both Tl species. The initial analyzes carried out for binary and ternary solutions facilitated the simultaneous determination of specific complexes (Tl(I) with EDTA and Tl(III) with DTPA) in the quaternary system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of EDTA on solubility of cadmium, zinc, and lead and their uptake by rainbow pink and vetiver grass.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2004-04-01

    Rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis), a potential phytoextraction plant, can accumulate high concentrations of Cd from contaminated soils. Vetiver grass (Vetiver zizanioides) has strong and long root tissues and is a potential phytostabilization plant since it can tolerate and grow well in soils contaminated with multiple heavy metals. Soil was moderately artificially contaminated by cadmium (20 mg/kg), zinc (500 mg/kg), and lead (1000 mg/kg) in pot experiments. Three concentrations of Na2-EDTA solution (0, 5, and 10 mmol/kg soil) were added to the contaminated soils to study the influence of EDTA solution on phytoextraction by rainbow pink or phytostabilization by vetiver grass. The results showed that the concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Pb in a soil solution of rainbow pink significantly increased following the addition of EDTA (p < 0.05). The concentrations of Cd and Pb in the shoots of rainbow pink also significantly increased after EDTA solution was applied (p < 0.05), but the increase for Zn was insignificant. EDTA treatment significantly increased the total uptake of Pb in the shoot, over that obtained with the control treatment (p < 0.001), but it did not significantly increase the total uptake of Cd and Zn. The concentrations of Zn and Pb in the shoots of rainbow pink are significantly correlated with those in the soil solution, but no relationship exists with concentrations in vetiver grass. The toxicity of highly contaminating metals did not affect the growth of vetiver grass, which was found to grow very well in this study. Results of this study indicate that rainbow pink can be considered to be a potential phytoextraction plant for removing Cd or Zn from metal-contaminated soils, and that vetiver grass can be regarded as a potential phytostabilization plant that can be grown in a site contaminated with multiple heavy metals.

  4. Effect of background electrolytes and pH on the adsorption of Cu(II)/EDTA onto TiO2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae-Kyu; Lee, Seung-Mok; Davis, Allen P

    2006-03-01

    Cu(II)/EDTA adsorption onto TiO2 has been studied with a variation of pH, ionic strength, and type of background electrolytes. Cu(II) adsorption onto TiO2 increased as ionic strength increased when NaClO4 was used as a background electrolyte. This can be explained by the increase of exp(-FPsi/RT) as a part of the electrostatic correction within a surface complexation model. Model predictions described experimental adsorption trends. Types of background anions (ClO4, Cl, NO2, NO3, SO3, and PO4) did not affect adsorption trends and adsorption amounts of Cu(II) onto TiO2. However, different trends were observed with various types of background ions used as ionic strength in EDTA and Cu(II)-EDTA adsorption. EDTA adsorption was decreased by using Na2SO3 and Na3PO4 as background ions, while NaClO4, NaCl, NaNO2, and NaNO3 showed negligible interference on the EDTA adsorption, which matched well with model predictions. The presence Na2SO3 and Na3PO4 also interfered with Cu(II)-EDTA adsorption, to a somewhat greater extent compared to EDTA adsorption, especially at lower pH. This interference was also noted in Cu(II)-EDTA adsorption with a variation of Cu(II)-EDTA concentration at constant ionic strength (3 x 10(-3) M) by using Na2SO3 and Na3PO4, especially at lower ratios of Cu(II)-EDTA to Na2SO3 and Na3PO4. These results suggest that the ratio of Cu(II)-EDTA to Na2SO3 and Na3PO4 is an important factor for the controlling of competition between these background ions and Cu(II)-EDTA onto TiO2. Model prediction generally matched well with experimental adsorption using NaClO4, NaCl, NaNO2, and NaNO3 as backgrounds ions, while a severe deviation was observed in the presence of Na2SO3 and Na3PO4. These results suggest that the mobility of copper ions as Cu(II)-EDTA can be increased from polluted area in the presence of multivalent background ions, especially as the ratio of adsorbates/background ions decreased.

  5. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. ...

  6. Assisted Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Dries, David J

    2016-01-01

    Controlled Mechanical Ventilation may be essential in the setting of severe respiratory failure but consequences to the patient including increased use of sedation and neuromuscular blockade may contribute to delirium, atelectasis, and diaphragm dysfunction. Assisted ventilation allows spontaneous breathing activity to restore physiological displacement of the diaphragm and recruit better perfused lung regions. Pressure Support Ventilation is the most frequently used mode of assisted mechanical ventilation. However, this mode continues to provide a monotonous pattern of support for respiration which is normally a dynamic process. Noisy Pressure Support Ventilation where tidal volume is varied randomly by the ventilator may improve ventilation and perfusion matching but the degree of support is still determined by the ventilator. Two more recent modes of ventilation, Proportional Assist Ventilation and Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA), allow patient determination of the pattern and depth of ventilation. Proposed advantages of Proportional Assist Ventilation and NAVA include decrease in patient ventilator asynchrony and improved adaptation of ventilator support to changing patient demand. Work of breathing can be normalized with these modes as well. To date, however, a clear pattern of clinical benefit has not been demonstrated. Existing challenges for both of the newer assist modes include monitoring patients with dynamic hyperinflation (auto-positive end expiratory pressure), obstructive lung disease, and air leaks in the ventilator system. NAVA is dependent on consistent transduction of diaphragm activity by an electrode system placed in the esophagus. Longevity of effective support with this technique is unclear.

  7. Contrasting effects of EDTA applications on the fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from straw-treated rice paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Prabhat; Kim, Pil Joo

    2017-01-01

    Submerged rice paddy soils are the major anthropogenic source of methane (CH4 ) emission to the atmosphere. Straw incorporation for sustaining soil organic C pool increases CH4 emission flux from rice paddy soils. Though the rate of nitrous oxide (N2 O) emission is much less than CH4 , the former has 298 times higher global warming potential (GWP) than equivalent quantity of carbon dioxide. The effect of chelating agents, such as EDTA, on N2 O emission and on GWP due to CH4 and N2 O emissions has not been evaluated before. The emission of CH4 gas from submerged soil may be mitigated by EDTA application; however, it also increases concentration of nitrate-N in soil, the precursor of N2 O gas formation under anaerobic condition. In this experiment, irrespective of straw application, EDTA-treated soils emitted less CH4 to the atmosphere than the corresponding control. Though N2 O emission was increased from soil due to EDTA applications, total GWP was at least 15% reduced in EDTA treated soils during rice cultivation. The plant growth and rice grain yield was not affected by EDTA application. EDTA application at 5.0 ppm might be used to reduce total global warming potential during rice cultivation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. The effect of the temperature changes of EDTA and MTAD on the removal of the smear layer: a scanning electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Çiçek, Ersan; Keskin, Özgür

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of EDTA and MTAD at different temperatures as a final irrigant to remove the smear layer after the use of 5.25% NaOCl. Seventy-eight human mandibular premolars with single straight canal were prepared by a crown-down technique using rotary 0.06 taper nickel-titanium files. Final irrigation was performed with EDTA and MTAD at different temperatures. The removal of the smear layer in the coronal, middle and apical level of each canal was examined under scanning electron microscope. No difference was found between the EDTA and MTAD at 4°C, 25°C, and 37°C temperatures regardless of the canal level (coronal, middle and apical) (P = 0.286). In EDTA-25, EDTA-37, MTAD-25, and MTAD-37 groups, the difference among the coronal, middle, and apical levels were statistically no significant (P > 0.05). Our findings showed that EDTA and MTAD at 25°C and 37°C are more effective than EDTA and MTAD at 4°C even in the apical level. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Reasons for raising the maximum acceptable daily intake of EDTA and the benefits for iron fortification of foods for children 6–24 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Wreesmann, Carel Theo Jozef

    2014-01-01

    The current maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI) of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) of 1.9 mg day−1 per kilogram bodyweight (mg day−1 kgbw−1) limits the daily intake of iron as iron EDTA [ferric sodium EDTA; sodium iron(III) EDTA] to approximately 2–2.5 mg day−1 for children 6–24 months of age. This limit was defined by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1973 based on data from an animal-feed study published in 1963. Other animal studies indicate that this limit can be raised to 4.4 or possibly up to 21.7 mg day−1 kgbw−1, which is 2.3–11.4 times higher than the current value. For nearly 50 years, iron EDTA has been used in France in medicinal syrup for infants 1–6 months of age. The maximum recommended dosage of this drug is 37 times higher than the maximum ADI of EDTA. No adverse health effects have been reported as a result of this medicinal consumption of iron EDTA. Raising the maximum ADI of EDTA to only 4.4 mg day−1 kgbw−1 would enable iron EDTA, an iron fortificant with proven bioavailability in phytate-rich meals, to be added in adequate amounts to cereal-based meals for children 6–24 months of age, who are at risk of iron deficiency. PMID:24521261

  10. Reasons for raising the maximum acceptable daily intake of EDTA and the benefits for iron fortification of foods for children 6-24 months of age.

    PubMed

    Wreesmann, Carel Theo Jozef

    2014-10-01

    The current maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI) of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) of 1.9 mg day(-1) per kilogram bodyweight (mg day(-1)  kgbw(-1) ) limits the daily intake of iron as iron EDTA [ferric sodium EDTA; sodium iron(III) EDTA] to approximately 2-2.5 mg day(-1) for children 6-24 months of age. This limit was defined by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1973 based on data from an animal-feed study published in 1963. Other animal studies indicate that this limit can be raised to 4.4 or possibly up to 21.7 mg day(-1)  kgbw(-1) , which is 2.3-11.4 times higher than the current value. For nearly 50 years, iron EDTA has been used in France in medicinal syrup for infants 1-6 months of age. The maximum recommended dosage of this drug is 37 times higher than the maximum ADI of EDTA. No adverse health effects have been reported as a result of this medicinal consumption of iron EDTA. Raising the maximum ADI of EDTA to only 4.4 mg day(-1)  kgbw(-1) would enable iron EDTA, an iron fortificant with proven bioavailability in phytate-rich meals, to be added in adequate amounts to cereal-based meals for children 6-24 months of age, who are at risk of iron deficiency.

  11. Cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA complex in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Novotnik, Breda; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila; Filipič, Metka; Žegura, Bojana

    2016-07-01

    Chromium (Cr) and ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) are common environmental pollutants and can be present in high concentrations in surface waters at the same time. Therefore, chelation of Cr with EDTA can occur and thereby stable Cr(III)-EDTA complex is formed. Since there are no literature data on Cr(III)-EDTA toxicity, the aim of our work was to evaluate and compare Cr(III)-EDTA cytotoxic and genotoxic activity with those of Cr(VI) and Cr(III)-nitrate in human hepatoma (HepG2) cell line. First the effect of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA on cell viability was studied in the concentration range from 0.04 μg mL(-1) to 25 μg mL(-1) after 24 h exposure. Further the influence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA on DNA damage and genomic stability was determined with the comet assay and cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay, respectively. Cell viability was decreased only by Cr(VI) at concentrations above 1.0 μg mL(-1). Cr(VI) at ≥0.2 μg mL(-1) and Cr(III) at ≥1.0 μg mL(-1) induced DNA damage, while after Cr(III)-EDTA exposure no formation DNA strand breaks was determined. Statistically significant formation of micronuclei was induced only by Cr(VI) at ≥0.2 μg mL(-1), while no influence on the frequency of nuclear buds nor nucleoplasmic bridges was observed at any exposure. This study provides the first evidence that Cr(III)-EDTA did not induce DNA damage and had no influence on the genomic stability of HepG2 cells.

  12. Interaction of chlorhexidine with trisEDTA or miconazole in vitro against canine meticillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from two UK regions.

    PubMed

    Clark, Siân-Marie; Loeffler, Anette; Schmidt, Vanessa M; Chang, Yu-Mei; Wilson, Alison; Timofte, Dorina; Bond, Ross

    2016-10-01

    Topical therapy is an important alternative to systemic antibacterial therapy for treatment of canine superficial pyoderma in light of the emergence of multidrug-resistant staphylococci. Chlorhexidine is widely used in shampoo products alone or in combination with miconazole or tromethamine-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (trisEDTA). Comparisons of these combinations have not been made. To determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of combinations of chlorhexidine/miconazole and chlorhexidine/trisEDTA in vitro in a collection of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP) from northern (NUK) and southeastern (SEUK) United Kingdom (UK) sources. MICs of chlorhexidine, miconazole, trisEDTA and combinations of chlorhexidine/miconazole (1:1) or chlorhexidine/trisEDTA (80:16:1 and 80:5:1) were determined for 196 canine SP isolates from NUK [49 meticillin-resistant (MRSP), 50 meticillin-susceptible (MSSP)] and fom SEUK (48 MRSP, 49 MSSP) using agar dilution. TrisEDTA alone did not inhibit growth. Chlorhexidine/miconazole MICs (median = 0.5 mg/L) were lower than those of either drug alone (P < 0.05) and lower than chlorhexidine/trisEDTA MICs (median = 1 mg/L; P < 0.0005) in each bacterial type and from both regions, except for miconazole in NUK MSSP. An additive interaction was noted between chlorhexidine and miconazole or trisEDTA (80:16:1 ratio) in 79 and 43 isolates, respectively, whereas antagonism between chlorhexidine and trisEDTA was noted for three isolates. NUK isolates were more susceptible than SEUK isolates (P < 0.05), except MRSP exposed to chlorhexidine and the chlorhexidine/trisEDTA (80:16:1) combination. These low MICs are likely to be exceeded by topical therapy. Evaluation of the mechanisms by which chlorhexidine combinations interact to reduce MICs is warranted, in view of increasing concerns of biocide tolerance in staphylococci. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  13. The Effect of Increased Temperatures of QMix and EDTA on the Push-out Bond Strength of an Epoxy-resin Based Sealer

    PubMed Central

    Turker, Sevinc Aktemur; Karahan, Sevilay

    2015-01-01

    Background Bond strength of root canal sealers is mainly influenced by the surface tension of the root canal wall. Heat, or the use of a surfactant might reduce surface tension and it is known that surface tension of an EDTA solution significantly affected from temperature rise. QMix is a novel endodontic irrigant for smear layer removal containing EDTA, chlorhexidine and a detergent. There is no data regarding the influence of the temperature of the EDTA and QMix on the push-out bond strength of root canal sealers. Aim To evaluate effect of temperatures of QMix and EDTA on the bond-strength of AH Plus. Materials and Methods Sixty premolars were prepared with ProTaper F4. During preparation 3% NaOCl was performed. Specimens were divided into 4 groups as follows: 5-mL 17% EDTA at 22°C and 37°C; 5-mL QMix at 22°C and 37°C. Three specimens from each group were prepared for observation using SEM. Remaining roots were obturated and prepared for a push-out test. Data was analysed using Anova and Bonferroni tests (p<0.05). Results Samples irrigated with QMix had higher push-out bond strength values than those irrigated with EDTA (p=0.01), regardless of temperature. Samples irrigated with 37°C EDTA resulted in higher bond-strength values than those irrigated with 22°C EDTA (p<0.001). Conclusion Temperature of the final irrigant does affect the bond strength values of AH plus to root dentin irrigated with EDTA. Bond strength of AH Plus sealer to root canal dentin may improve with QMix. PMID:26393216

  14. Photo-catalytic Degradation and Sorption of Radio-cobalt from EDTA-Co Complexes Using Manganese Oxide Materials - 12220

    SciTech Connect

    Koivula, Risto; Harjula, Risto; Tusa, Esko

    2012-07-01

    The synthesised cryptomelane-type α-MnO{sub 2} was tested for its Co-57 uptake properties in UV-photo-reactor filled with 10 μM Co-EDTA solution with a background of 10 mM NaNO{sub 3}. High cobalt uptake of 96% was observed after 1 hour of UV irradiation. As for comparison, a well-known TiO{sub 2} (Degussa P25) was tested as reference material that showed about 92% cobalt uptake after six hours of irradiation in identical experiment conditions. It was also noted that the cobalt uptake on cryptomelane with out UV irradiation was modest, only about 10%. Decreasing the pH of the Co-EDTA solution had severe effects on the cobalt uptake mainly due to the rather high point of zero charge of the MnO{sub 2} surface (pzc at pH ∼4.5). Modifying the synthesis procedure we were able to produce a material that functioned well even in solution of pH 3 giving cobalt uptake of almost 99%. The known properties, catalytic and ion exchange, of manganese oxides were simultaneously used for the separation of EDTA complexed Co-57. Tunnel structured cryptomelane -type showed very fast and efficient Co uptake properties outperforming the well known and widely used Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2} in both counts. The layered structured manganese oxide, birnessite, reached also as high Co removal level as the reference material Degussa did but the reaction rate was considerably faster. Since the decontamination solutions are typically slightly acidic and the point of zero charge of the manganese oxides are rather high > pH 4.5 the material had to be modified. This modified material had tolerance to acidic solutions and it's Co uptake performance remained high in the solutions of lower pH (pH 3). Increasing the ion concentration of test solutions, background concentration, didn't affect the final Co uptake level; however, some changes in the uptake kinetics could be seen. The increase in EDTA/MoMO ratio was clearly reflected in the Co uptake curves. The obtained results of manganese oxide were

  15. Speciation and preservation of inorganic arsenic in drinking water sources using EDTA with IC separation and ICP-MS detection.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, P A; Schwegel, C A; Wei, X; Creed, J T

    2001-08-01

    The native distribution of As(III) and As(v) in drinking water supplies can influence the treatment removal strategy. The stability of As(III) and As(v) in iron-rich drinking waters can be affected by the formation of Fe precipitates (Fe oxides and/or hydroxides designated by "FeOOH"). These precipitates (ppts) can form during the transport of the sample to the laboratory for arsenic speciation analysis. The analysis of the ppt indicates considerable loss of the aqueous arsenic species (As(aq)) to the solid phase "FeOOH" ppt. Studies of laboratory reagent water containing both As(III) and Fe(III) indicate that the resulting "FeOOH" ppt contained a mixture of As(III) and As(v) with near quantitative removal of the As(aq) in 18 hr. The corresponding aqueous fraction after filtration through a 0.45 microm filter was composed primarily of As(v). The formation of "FeOOH" ppt and the loss of As(aq) to the ppt can be virtually eliminated by the use of EDTA, which sequesters the FeIII). Reagent water fortified with Fe(III), As(III) and EDTA produced less than a 1 ppb change in the As(III)aq concentration over 16 d. The EDTA treatment was also tested on three well waters with different native As(III )/As(v) ratios. The native distribution of As(III)/As(v) was stabilized over a period of 10 d with a worst case conversion of As(III) to As(v) of 2 ppb over a 30 d period. All well waters not treated with EDTA had dramatic losses (a factor of 2-5) of As(aq) in less than 1 d. These results indicated that EDTA preservation treatment can be used to preserve As(aq) in waters where the predominant species is the reduced form [As(III)] or in waters which the predominant species is the oxidized form [As(v)]. This preliminary investigation of EDTA to preserve As species in Fe-rich waters indicates stability can be achieved for greater than 14 d.

  16. The ferrimagnetic compounds CoM[Mscript(EDTA)]2 . 4H2O(M,Mscript=Co,Ni): Magnetic characterization of CoCo[Ni(EDTA)2] . 4H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapiña, F.; Coronado, E.; Gomez-Romero, P.; Beltran, D.; Burriel, R.; Carlin, R. L.

    1990-05-01

    We report on the magnetic properties of the ordered bimetallic compound CoCo(NiEDTA)2ṡ4H2O (abbreviated as [CoCoNi]). The structure consists of ordered bimetallic layers formed by alternating octahedral sites of Co and Ni(II); tetrahedral Co sites connect different Co-Ni layers. We discuss the low-dimensional ferrimagnetic behavior of this compound in terms of a model that assumes three spin sublattices exchange coupled by an Ising interaction.

  17. The improved phytoextraction of lead (Pb) and the growth of maize (Zeamays L.): the role of plant growth regulators (GA3 and IAA) and EDTA alone and in combinations.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Fazal; Bano, Asghari; Fuller, Michael P

    2010-06-01

    This investigation was made to examine the role of gibberellic acid (GA(3)), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and EDTA in improving phytoextraction of the Pb and plant growth on Pb added soil. GA(3), IAA and EDTA were applied separately and in combinations. GA(3) and IAA were applied as foliar spray and seed soaking. EDTA was applied in single and split doses. Analysis of the Pb in different parts of plant was carried out using atomic absorption/flame spectrophotometer. EDTA significantly reduced the plant growth and dry biomass, whereas GA(3) and IAA foliar spray increased it significantly when compared with control (only Pb added soil). In combined treatments of EDTA+GA(3) and EDTA+IAA, the growth and biomass was restored, which shows that GA(3) and IAA did compensate the negative effect of EDTA on plant growth. The separate treatments of EDTA, GA(3) and IAA increased the Pb uptake and translocation significantly moreover in combine treatments, synergistic effect was found and remarkable increase in Pb uptake and translocation into shoot was observed. EDTA increased the Pb uptake but declined the biomass; subsequently the total Pb accumulation was decreased in plant. The maximum total Pb was found in combined treatment of EDTA+GA(3). These findings suggest more investigation to find a combination of GA(3) with a very low concentration of EDTA, as in high concentration it causes soil and ground water pollution.

  18. The importance of adding EDTA for the nanopore analysis of proteins.

    PubMed

    Krasniqi, Besnik; Lee, Jeremy S

    2012-06-01

    Nanopore analysis is a promising technique for studying the conformation of proteins and protein/protein interactions. Two proteins (bacterial thioredoxin and maltose binding protein) were subjected to nanopore analysis with α-hemolysin. Two types of events were observed; bumping events with a blockade current less than -40 pA and intercalation events with blockade currents between -40 pA and -100 pA. In potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.8, both proteins gave intercalation events but the frequency of these events was significantly reduced in TRIS or HEPES buffers especially in the presence of 0.01 mM divalent metal ions. The frequency of events was restored by the addition of EDTA. For maltose binding protein, the frequency of intercalation events was also decreased in the presence of maltose but not lactose to which it does not bind. It is proposed that the events with large blockade currents represent transient intercalation of a loop or end of the protein into the pore and that divalent metal ions inhibit this process. The results demonstrate that the choice of buffer and the effects of metal ion contamination are important considerations in nanopore analysis.

  19. Crystal growth of aragonite and calcite in presence of citric acid, DTPA, EDTA and pyromellitic acid.

    PubMed

    Westin, K-J; Rasmuson, A C

    2005-02-15

    The influence of four calcium complexing substances, i.e., citric acid (CIT), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and pyromellitic acid (PMA), on the crystal growth rate of the calcium carbonate polymorphs aragonite and calcite has been studied. Using a seeded constant supersaturation method supersaturation was maintained at 4 by keeping a constant pH of 8.5 through addition of sodium carbonate and calcium chloride solutions. The unique composition of each solution was calculated using chemical speciation. The growth rate was interpreted in terms of an overall growth rate. For both calcite and aragonite, the crystal growth rate is significantly reduced in the presence of the calcium complexing substances. The growth retarding effect depends on both the concentration and the polymorph. The relative crystal growth rate was correlated to the total complexing agent concentration using a Langmuir adsorption approach. Aragonite appeared fully covered for lower total concentrations than calcite. Furthermore, CIT very efficiently blocked aragonite growth contrary to what was observed for calcite. This is thought to be related to certain distinct features of the dominant aragonite crystal faces compared to the dominant calcite faces.

  20. Heavy metals adsorption by novel EDTA-modified chitosan-silica hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Repo, Eveliina; Warchoł, Jolanta K; Bhatnagar, Amit; Sillanpää, Mika

    2011-06-01

    Novel adsorbents were synthesized by functionalizing chitosan-silica hybrid materials with (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) EDTA ligands. The synthesized adsorbents were found to combine the advantages of both silica gel (high surface area, porosity, rigid structure) and chitosan (surface functionality). The Adsorption potential of hybrid materials was investigated using Co(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) as target metals by varying experimental conditions such as pH, contact time, and initial metal concentration. The kinetic results revealed that the pore diffusion process played a key role in adsorption kinetics, which might be attributed to the porous structure of synthesized adsorbents. The obtained maximum adsorption capacities of the hybrid materials for the metal ions ranged from 0.25 to 0.63 mmol/g under the studied experimental conditions. The adsorbent with the highest chitosan content showed the best adsorption efficiency. Bi-Langmuir and Sips isotherm model fitting to experimental data suggested the surface heterogeneity of the prepared adsorbents. In multimetal solutions, the hybrid adsorbents showed the highest affinity toward Pb(II).

  1. EDTA functionalized magnetic nanoparticle sorbents for cadmium and lead contaminated water treatment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuxiong; Keller, Arturo A

    2015-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd(2+)) and lead (Pb(2+)) are toxic to human beings and other organisms, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has classified both as probable human carcinogens. In this study, a regenerable magnetic ligand particle (Mag-Ligand) which includes a metal-binding organic ligand (EDTA) attached to an iron oxide nanoparticle was developed for rapid removal of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) as well as other metals from contaminated water. Mag-Ligand showed fast removal ability for both Cd(2+) (<2 h) and Pb(2+) (<15 min) with relatively high sorption capacity (79.4 and 100.2 mg/g for Cd(2+) and Pb(2+), respectively). The removal performance of Mag-Ligand was high across a wide pH range (3-10) as well as in the presence of competitive metal ions (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)). In addition, Mag-Ligands can be easily regenerated (washed by 1% HCl) and reused several cycles with high sorption capacity. This study indicated that Mag-Ligand is a reusable sorbent for rapid, convenient, and efficient removal of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) from contaminated aquatic systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anemia in children following renal transplantation-results from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry.

    PubMed

    Krischock, Leah A; van Stralen, Karlijn J; Verrina, Enrico; Tizard, E Jane; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Reusz, György; Hussain, Farida K; Jankauskiene, Augustina; Novljan, Gregor; Spasojević-Dimitrijeva, Brankica; Podracka, Ludmila; Zaller, Vera; Jager, Kitty J; Schaefer, Franz

    2016-02-01

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of sub-target hemoglobin (Hb) levels in children with a renal allograft and to identify potential determinants associated with these Hb levels. Data from 3669 children with a functioning renal allograft, aged <18 years between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2012, from 20 European countries were retrieved from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry, providing 16,170 Hb measurements. According to the NKF/KDOQI classification and the UK-NICE guidelines, 49.8 and 7.8% of the patients, respectively, were anemic. Hb levels were strongly associated with graft function, with Hb levels of 12.6 g/dl in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 1, declining to 10.7 g/dl in children with CKD stage 5 (P < 0.001). Higher Hb levels were associated with the use of tacrolimus compared to ciclosporin (0.14 g/dl; 95% confidence interval 0.02-0.27; P = 0.002). Low Hb levels were associated with an increased risk of graft failure (P = 0.01) or combined graft failure and death (P < 0.01), but not with death alone (not significant). Anemia is present in a significant proportion of European pediatric kidney transplant recipients and is associated with renal allograft dysfunction and type of immunosuppressants used. In our patient cohort, higher Hb levels were associated with better graft and patient survival and less hypertension.

  3. [Effectiveness of social mobilization and social marketing in promoting NaFeEDTA-fortified soya sauce in adult women].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Junshi; Zhan, Siyan; Sun, Jing; Li, Liming

    2011-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of social mobilization and social marketing in promoting NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce in an iron deficient population. This study was an uncontrolled, community-based, before-after study, which was implemented in three counties of Shijiazhuang Municipality. The intervention was a social mobilization and social marketing strategy. Adult women older than 20 years of age participated in the evaluation protocol. The main outcomes included KAP relevant to IDA. Cross-sectional samples were used to assess the outcomes at baseline and 1 year later. Knowledge and attitudes of adult women had changed positively, and the percentage of women who had adopted NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce increased from 8.9% to 36.6% (P < 0.001). Social mobilization and social marketing had a positive impact on the KAP of adult women in the iron deficient population.

  4. A simple method for isolating rat brain mitochondria with high metabolic activity: effects of EDTA and EGTA.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-González, Javier; Sánchez-Iglesias, Sofía; Beiras-Iglesias, Andrés; Soto-Otero, Ramón; Méndez-Álvarez, Estefanía

    2013-02-15

    Isolated mitochondria are widely used in metabolic and oxidative stress studies for neurodegenerative diseases. In the present work, the influence of EGTA and EDTA has been tested on a sucrose-based differential centrifugation protocol in order to establish the optimal concentrations to be used in this process. Our results showed alterations in both active and resting respiration, which were dependent on both the addition of EDTA or EGTA to the isolation buffer and the chelator concentration used. However, the addition of chelator to the isolation medium does not modify the mitochondria structure as assessed by both distribution of biological markers and electron micrography in the final pellet. Our results endorse this protocol as the method of choice for metabolic and oxidative stress experiments with fresh isolated rat brain mitochondria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Proinsulin is stable at room temperature for 24 hours in EDTA: A clinical laboratory analysis (adAPT 3)

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Jane; McDonald, Timothy; Sutherland, Calum; Mostazir, Mohammod; VanAalten, Lidy

    2017-01-01

    Aims Reference laboratories advise immediate separation and freezing of samples for the assay of proinsulin, which limit its practicability for smaller centres. Following the demonstration that insulin and C-peptide are stable in EDTA at room temperature for at least 24hours, we undertook simple stability studies to establish whether the same might apply to proinsulin. Methods Venous blood samples were drawn from six adult women, some fasting, some not, aliquoted and assayed immediately and after storage at either 4°C or ambient temperature for periods from 2h to 24h. Results There was no significant variation or difference with storage time or storage condition in either individual or group analysis. Conclusion Proinsulin appears to be stable at room temperature in EDTA for at least 24h. Immediate separation and storage on ice of samples for proinsulin assay is not necessary, which will simplify sample transport, particularly for multicentre trials. PMID:28426711

  6. Proinsulin is stable at room temperature for 24 hours in EDTA: A clinical laboratory analysis (adAPT 3).

    PubMed

    Davidson, Jane; McDonald, Timothy; Sutherland, Calum; Mostazir, Mohammod; VanAalten, Lidy; Wilkin, Terence

    2017-01-01

    Reference laboratories advise immediate separation and freezing of samples for the assay of proinsulin, which limit its practicability for smaller centres. Following the demonstration that insulin and C-peptide are stable in EDTA at room temperature for at least 24hours, we undertook simple stability studies to establish whether the same might apply to proinsulin. Venous blood samples were drawn from six adult women, some fasting, some not, aliquoted and assayed immediately and after storage at either 4°C or ambient temperature for periods from 2h to 24h. There was no significant variation or difference with storage time or storage condition in either individual or group analysis. Proinsulin appears to be stable at room temperature in EDTA for at least 24h. Immediate separation and storage on ice of samples for proinsulin assay is not necessary, which will simplify sample transport, particularly for multicentre trials.

  7. Full and Broad-Spectrum In Vivo Eradication of Catheter-Associated Biofilms Using Gentamicin-EDTA Antibiotic Lock Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Ashwini; Lebeaux, David; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms that develop on indwelling devices are a major concern in clinical settings. While removal of colonized devices remains the most frequent strategy for avoiding device-related complications, antibiotic lock therapy constitutes an adjunct therapy for catheter-related infection. However, currently used antibiotic lock solutions are not fully effective against biofilms, thus warranting a search for new antibiotic locks. Metal-binding chelators have emerged as potential adjuvants due to their dual anticoagulant/antibiofilm activities, but studies investigating their efficiency were mainly in vitro or else focused on their effects in prevention of infection. To assess the ability of such chelators to eradicate mature biofilms, we used an in vivo model of a totally implantable venous access port inserted in rats and colonized by either Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We demonstrate that use of tetrasodium EDTA (30 mg/ml) as a supplement to the gentamicin (5 mg/ml) antibiotic lock solution associated with systemic antibiotics completely eradicated Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial biofilms developed in totally implantable venous access ports. Gentamicin-EDTA lock was able to eliminate biofilms with a single instillation, thus reducing length of treatment. Moreover, we show that this combination was effective for immunosuppressed rats. Lastly, we demonstrate that a gentamicin-EDTA lock is able to eradicate the biofilm formed by a gentamicin-resistant strain of methicillin-resistant S. aureus. This in vivo study demonstrates the potential of EDTA as an efficient antibiotic adjuvant to eradicate catheter-associated biofilms of major bacterial pathogens and thus provides a promising new lock solution. PMID:23027191

  8. Renal replacement therapy in Europe-a summary of the 2010 ERA-EDTA Registry Annual Report.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Anneke; Stel, Vianda S; Abad Diez, José Maria; Alonso de la Torre, Ramón; Bouzas Caamaño, Encarnación; Čala, Svjetlana; Cao Baduell, Higini; Castro de la Nuez, Pablo; Cernevskis, Harijs; Collart, Frederic; Couchoud, Cécile; de Meester, Johan; Djukanovic, Ljubica; Ferrer-Alamar, Manuel; Finne, Patrik; Fogarty, Damian; de Los Ángeles García Bazaga, María; Garneata, Liliana; Golan, Eliezer; Gonzalez Fernández, Raquel; Heaf, James G; Hoitsma, Andries; Ioannidis, George A; Kolesnyk, Mykola; Kramar, Reinhard; Leivestad, Torbjørn; Limido, Aurelio; Lopot, Frantisek; Macario, Fernando; Magaz, Ángela; Martín-Escobar, Eduardo; Metcalfe, Wendy; Noordzij, Marlies; Ots-Rosenberg, Mai; Palsson, Runolfur; Piñera, Celestino; Postorino, Maurizio; Prutz, Karl G; Ratkovic, Marina; Resic, Halima; Rodríguez Hernández, Aurelio; Rutkowski, Boleslaw; Serdengeçti, Kamil; Yebenes, Tomas Sierra; Spustová, Viera; Stojceva-Taneva, Olivera; Tomilina, Natalia A; van de Luijtgaarden, Moniek W M; van Stralen, Karlijn J; Wanner, Christoph; Jager, Kitty J

    2013-02-01

    This study provides a summary of the 2010 European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) Registry Annual Report (available at www.era-edta-reg.org). This report includes data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) using data from the national and regional renal registries in 29 countries in Europe and bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Individual patient data were received from 27 registries, whereas 18 registries contributed data in aggregated form. We present incidence and prevalence of RRT, transplant rates, survival probabilities and expected remaining lifetimes. The latter two are solely based on individual patient records. In 2010, the overall incidence rate of RRT for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among all registries reporting to the ERA-EDTA Registry was 123 per million population (pmp) (n = 91 798). The highest incidence rate was reported by Turkey (252pmp) and the lowest reported by Montenegro (21 pmp). The overall prevalence of RRT for ESRD at 31 December 2010 among all registries reporting to the ERA-EDTA Registry was 741 pmp (n = 551 005). The prevalence varied from 124 pmp in Ukraine to 1580 pmp in Portugal. The overall number of renal transplantations performed in 2010 among all registries was 29.2 pmp (n = 21 740). The highest overall transplant rate was reported from Spain, Cantabria (73 pmp), whereas the highest transplant rate for living donor kidneys was reported from the Netherlands (28 pmp). For patients who started RRT between 2001 and 2005, the unadjusted 5-year patient survival on RRT was 46.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 46.0-46.3], and on dialysis 38.6% (95% CI 38.5-38.8). The unadjusted 5-year patient survival after the first renal transplantation performed between 2001 and 2005 was 86.6% (95% CI 86.1-87.1) for deceased donor kidneys and 94.1% (95% CI 93.4-94.8) for living donor kidneys.

  9. CaNa2EDTA chelation attenuates cell damage in workers exposed to lead--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Čabarkapa, A; Borozan, S; Živković, L; Stojanović, S; Milanović-Čabarkapa, M; Bajić, V; Spremo-Potparević, B

    2015-12-05

    Lead induced oxidative cellular damage and long-term persistence of associated adverse effects increases risk of late-onset diseases. CaNa2EDTA chelation is known to remove contaminating metals and to reduce free radical production. The objective was to investigate the impact of chelation therapy on modulation of lead induced cellular damage, restoration of altered enzyme activities and lipid homeostasis in peripheral blood of workers exposed to lead, by comparing the selected biomarkers obtained prior and after five-day CaNa2EDTA chelation intervention. The group of smelting factory workers diagnosed with lead intoxication and current lead exposure 5.8 ± 1.2 years were administered five-day CaNa2EDTA chelation. Elevated baseline activity of antioxidant enzymes Cu, Zn-SOD and CAT as well as depleted thiols and increased protein degradation products-carbonyl groups and nitrites, pointing to Pb induced oxidative damage, were restored toward normal values following the treatment. Lead showed inhibitor potency on both RBC AChE and BChE in exposed workers, and chelation re-established the activity of BChE, while RBC AChE remained unaffected. Also, genotoxic effect of lead detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes was significantly decreased after therapy, exhibiting 18.9% DNA damage reduction. Administration of chelation reversed the depressed activity of serum PON 1 and significantly decreased lipid peroxidation detected by the post-chelation reduction of MDA levels. Lactate dehydrogenase LDH1-5 isoenzymes levels showed evident but no significant trend of restoring toward normal control values following chelation. CaNa2EDTA chelation ameliorates the alterations linked with Pb mediated oxidative stress, indicating possible benefits in reducing health risks associated with increased oxidative damage in lead exposed populations.

  10. Effect of hydrostatic pressure gradients and Na2EDTA on permeability of human Schlemm's canal cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Burke, A G; Zhou, W; O'Brien, E T; Roberts, B C; Stamer, W D

    2004-06-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure in those with glaucoma appears to be a function of increased resistance to movement of aqueous humor through the conventional outflow pathway. The majority of resistance in both normal and glaucomatous eyes is generated in the region between the juxtacanalicular trabecular meshwork and the inner wall of Schlemm's canal. To accommodate transient elevations in pressure, we hypothesize that conventional outflow increases rapidly due to changes in complexity of intercellular junctions between cells of the inner wall of Schlemm's canal. To test this hypothesis we examined specifically the effects of hydrostatic pressure gradients and the calcium chelator, Na2EDTA, on permeability of cultured human Schlemm's canal cell monolayers in isolation. Human Schlemm's Canal cells were isolated, cultured and then seeded onto permeable supports and maintained in culture to allow intercellular junctions to mature. With a minimum net transendothelial electrical resistance of 10 Ohm cm2, cells were placed into an Ussing-type chamber and hydraulic conductivity was calculated from pressure and flow measurements that were continuously recorded. Simultaneously, transendothelial electrical resistance was measured manually at fixed intervals. In parallel experiments, cell margins were monitored in real time by videomicroscopy. During the baseline measurement period when cells were exposed to pressure but not Na2EDTA, hydraulic conductivity was constant but transendothelial electrical resistance decreased continuously at rate of 0.24 Ohm cm2/minute. After Na2EDTA treatment, no significant change in transendothelial electrical resistance was measured while, hydraulic conductivity of Schlemm's Canal monolayers increased significantly by 125%; corresponding to noticeable intercellular separations. Restoration of cell-cell contact was observed by videomicroscopy 30 minutes following washout of Na2EDTA and functionally after 2 hours. Responses of Schlemm's Canal

  11. Influence of sodium hypochlorite and EDTA on the microtensile bond strength of a self-etching adhesive system

    PubMed Central

    CECCHIN, Doglas; FARINA, Ana Paula; GALAFASSI, Daniel; BARBIZAM, João Vicente Baroni; CORONA, Silmara Aparecida Milori; CARLINI-JÚNIOR, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Chemical substances used during biomechanical preparation of root canals can alter the composition of dentin surface and affect the interaction with restorative materials. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of a self-etching adhesive system to dentin irrigated with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (eDTA). Material and Methods Thirty human third molars were sectioned 3 mm below the occlusal surface, polished with 600- to 1200-grit silicon carbide papers, and randomly divided into 3 groups: G1 (control): no irrigating solution; G2: 1% NaOCl; and G3: 1% NaOCl followed by the application of 17% eDTA. The specimens received the self-etching adhesive system (XeNO III - Dentsply), restored with microhybrid composite resin (Z250 - 3M ESPE), sectioned and trimmed to create 4 hourglass-shaped slabs of each tooth. The slabs were tested in microtensile strength in a universal testing machine (emic DL 2000) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. The results were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Newman-Keuls test. Results Mean µTBS values and standard deviations in MPa were: G1 = 11.89 ± 4.22; G2 = 19.41 ± 5.32; G3 = 11.34 ± 4.73. 1% NaOCl increased the adhesive resistance significantly (p<0.001/ F=22.5763). The application of 1% NaOCl/17% eDTA resulted in statistically similar µTBS to the control group. Conclusions None of the irrigants affected negatively the µTBS of XeNO III to dentin. The use of 1% NaOCl alone resulted in higher bond strength than the other treatments. The combination of 1% NaOCl and 17% eDTA produced similar bond strength to that of untreated dentin. PMID:20835574

  12. Improved thermodynamic model for interaction of EDTA with trivalent actinides and lanthanide to ionic strength of 6.60 m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Punam; Xiong, Yongliang; Borkowski, Marian; Choppin, Gregory R.

    2014-05-01

    The dissociation constants of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (H4EDTA), and the stability constants of Am3+, Cm3+and Eu3+ with EDTA4- have been determined at 25 °C, over a range of concentration varying from 0.1 to 6.60 m NaClO4 using potentiometric titration and an extraction technique, respectively. The formation of only 1:1 complex, M(EDTA)-, where (M = Am3+, Cm3+ and Eu3+), was observed under the experimental conditions. The observed ionic strength dependencies of the dissociation constants and the stability constants have been described successfully over the entire ionic strength range using the Pitzer model. The thermodynamic stability constant: logβ1010=20.55±0.18 for Am3+, logβ1010=20.43±0.20 for Cm3+ and logβ1010=20.65±0.19 for Eu3+ were calculated by extrapolation of data to zero ionic strength in an NaClO4 medium. In addition, logβ1010 of 20.05 ± 0.40 for Am3+ was obtained by simultaneously modeling data both in NaCl and NaClO4 media. For all stability constants, the Pitzer model gives an excellent representation of the data using interaction parameters β(0), β(1), and Cϕ determined in this work. The improved model presented in this work would enable researchers to model accurately the potential mobility of actinides (III) and light rare earth elements to ionic strength of 6.60 m in low temperature environments in the presence of EDTA.

  13. Influence of sodium hypochlorite and edta on the microtensile bond strength of a self-etching adhesive system.

    PubMed

    Cecchin, Doglas; Farina, Ana Paula; Galafassi, Daniel; Barbizam, João Vicente Baroni; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Carlini-Júnior, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Chemical substances used during biomechanical preparation of root canals can alter the composition of dentin surface and affect the interaction with restorative materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of a self-etching adhesive system to dentin irrigated with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Thirty human third molars were sectioned 3 mm below the occlusal surface, polished with 600- to 1200-grit silicon carbide papers, and randomly divided into 3 groups: G1 (control): no irrigating solution; G2: 1% NaOCl; and G3: 1% NaOCl followed by the application of 17% EDTA. The specimens received the self-etching adhesive system (XENO III - Dentsply), restored with microhybrid composite resin (Z250 - 3M ESPE), sectioned and trimmed to create 4 hourglass-shaped slabs of each tooth. The slabs were tested in microtensile strength in a universal testing machine (Emic DL 2000) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. The results were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Newman-Keuls test. Mean µTBS values and standard deviations in MPa were: G1 = 11.89 ± 4.22; G2 = 19.41 ± 5.32; G3 = 11.34 ± 4.73. 1% NaOCl increased the adhesive resistance significantly (p<0.001/F=22.5763). The application of 1% NaOCl/17% EDTA resulted in statistically similar µTBS to the control group. None of the irrigants affected negatively the µTBS of XENO III to dentin. The use of 1% NaOCl alone resulted in higher bond strength than the other treatments. The combination of 1% NaOCl and 17% EDTA produced similar bond strength to that of untreated dentin.

  14. A comparative scanning electron microscopy evaluation of smear layer removal with apple vinegar and sodium hypochlorite associated with EDTA

    PubMed Central

    CANDEIRO, George Táccio de Miranda; de MATOS, Isabela Barbosa; da COSTA, Clarice Fernandes Eloy; FONTELES, Cristiane Sá Roriz; do VALE, Mônica Sampaio

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) the removal of smear layer from the middle and apical root thirds after use of different irrigating solutions. Material and Methods Forty roots of permanent human teeth had their canals instrumented and were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=10), according to the irrigating solution: apple vinegar (group A), apple vinegar finished with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (group B), 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) finished with 17% EDTA (group C) and saline (group D - control). After chemomechanical preparation, the roots were cleaved longitudinally and their middle and apical thirds were examined by SEM at ×1,000 magnification. Two calibrated examiners (kappa=0.92) analyzed the SEM micrographs qualitatively attributing scores that indicated the efficacy of the solutions in removing the smear layer from the surface of the dentin tubules (1 - poor, 2 - good and 3 - excellent). Data from the control and experimental groups were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test, while the Wilcoxon test was used to compare the middle and apical thirds of the canals within the same group (α=0.05). Results The middle third presented less amount of smear layer than the apical third, regardless of the irrigant. There was statistically significant difference (p=0.0402) among the groups in the middle third. In the apical third, the apple vinegar/EDTA group showed the greatest removal of smear layer (p=0.0373). Conclusion Apple vinegar associated or not with EDTA was effective in removing smear layer when used as an endodontic irrigant. PMID:22231000

  15. Use of EDTA in modified kinetic testing for contaminated drainage prediction from waste rocks: case of the Lac Tio mine.

    PubMed

    Plante, Benoît; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Bussière, Bruno; Kandji, El-Hadji-Babacar; Chopard, Aurélie; Bouzahzah, Hassan

    2015-05-01

    The tools developed for acid mine drainage (AMD) prediction were proven unsuccessful to predict the geochemical behavior of mine waste rocks having a significant chemical sorption capacity, which delays the onset of contaminated neutral drainage (CND). The present work was performed in order to test a new approach of water quality prediction, by using a chelating agent solution (0.03 M EDTA, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) in kinetic testing used for the prediction of the geochemical behavior of geologic material. The hypothesis underlying the proposed approach is that the EDTA solution should chelate the metals as soon as they are released by sulfide oxidation, inhibiting their sorption or secondary precipitation, and therefore reproduce a worst-case scenario where very low metal attenuation mechanisms are present in the drainage waters. Fresh and weathered waste rocks from the Lac Tio mine (Rio tinto, Iron and Titanium), which are known to generate Ni-CND at the field scale, were submitted to small-scale humidity cells in control tests (using deionized water) and using an EDTA solution. Results show that EDTA effectively prevents the metals to be sorbed or to precipitate as secondary minerals, therefore enabling to bypass the delay associated with metal sorption in the prediction of water quality from these materials. This work shows that the use of a chelating agent solution is a promising novel approach of water quality prediction and provides general guidelines to be used in further studies, which will help both practitioners and regulators to plan more efficient management and disposal strategies of mine wastes.

  16. Application of 17% EDTA Enhances Diffusion of (45)Ca-labeled OH(-) and Ca(2+) in Primary Tooth Root Canal.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Marcos; Cavalcanti Taguchi, Carolina Mayumi; Triches, Thaisa Cezaria; Sartori, Neimar; Pereira Dias, Luis Alberto; de Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti; Cardoso, Mariane

    2016-01-01

    Proper cleaning of the root canal is key to the success of endodontic treatment as it allows more effective diffusion of medication throughout the dentinal tubules. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the efficacy of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in enhancing diffusion of hydroxyl (OH(-)) and calcium ions (Ca(2+)) throughout the root canal in primary teeth. The canals of 25 primary tooth roots were cleaned with endodontic files and 1% sodium hypochlorite. Three groups (G) were then established: GI, in which final irrigation was performed with 1% sodium hypochlorite; GII, in which 17% EDTA was used; and GIII, in which no irrigation was performed. The roots canals in GI and GII were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste labeled with the radioisotope calcium-45. Diffusion of OH(-) was detected with pH strips and Ca(2+) analyzed by measuring radioactivity in counts per min. Group II differed statistically from the other groups in diffusion of OH(-) at 24 hr (p<0.05), but no significant difference among groups was found at the day 7 evaluation; GII also differed statistically from the other groups in diffusion of Ca(2+) at 24 hr (p<0.05). These results suggest that application of 17% EDTA in primary tooth enhances diffusion of OH(-) and Ca(2+).

  17. Sensitive EDTA-Based Microbiological Assays for Detection of Metallo-β-Lactamases in Nonfermentative Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Marchiaro, Patricia; Mussi, María A.; Ballerini, Viviana; Pasteran, Fernando; Viale, Alejandro M.; Vila, Alejandro J.; Limansky, Adriana S.

    2005-01-01

    The worldwide spread of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing gram-negative bacilli represents a great concern nowadays. Sensitive assays for their specific detection are increasingly demanded to aid infection control and to prevent their dissemination. We have developed a novel microbiological assay employing crude bacterial extracts, designated EDTA-imipenem microbiological assay (EIM), to identify MBLs in nonfermentative gram-negative clinical strains. We also evaluated the ability of EIM to detect MBLs in comparison to those of other currently employed screening methods, such as the EDTA disk synergy test (EDS) with imipenem as a substrate and the Etest method. The sensitivities of EIM and Etest were similar (1 versus 0.92, respectively) and much higher than that of EDS (0.67). Moreover, both EIM and Etest displayed the maximum specificity. Modifications were introduced to EDS, including the simultaneous testing of three different β-lactams (imipenem, meropenem, and ceftazidime) and two different EDTA concentrations. This resulted in a sensitivity improvement (0.92), albeit at a cost to its specificity. A simple strategy to accurately detect MBL producers is proposed; this strategy combines (i) an initial screening of the isolates by the extended EDS assay to select the potential candidates and (ii) confirmation of the true presence of MBL activity by EIM. PMID:16272499

  18. Comparison of EDTA-enhanced phytoextraction and phytostabilisation strategies with Lolium perenne on a heavy metal contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Lambrechts, Thomas; Gustot, Quentin; Couder, Eléonore; Houben, David; Iserentant, Anne; Lutts, Stanley

    2011-11-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising and cost-effective strategy to manage heavy metal polluted sites. In this experiment, we compared simultaneously phytoextraction and phytostabilisation techniques on a Cd and Zn contaminated soil, through monitoring of plant accumulation and leaching. Lolium perenne plants were cultivated for 2 months under controlled environmental conditions in a 27.6 dm(3)-pot experiment allowing the collect of leachates. The heavy metal phytoextraction was promoted by adding Na-EDTA (0.5 g kg(-1) of soil) in watering solution. Phytostabilisation was assessed by mixing soil with steel shots (1%) before L. perenne sowing. Presence of plants exacerbated heavy metal leaching, by improving soil hydraulic conductivity. Use of EDTA for phytoextraction led to higher concentration of heavy metal in shoots. However, this higher heavy metal extraction was insufficient to satisfactory reduce the heavy metal content in soil, and led to important heavy metal leaching induced by EDTA. On the other hand, addition of steel shots efficiently decreased both Cd and Zn mobility, according to 0.01 M CaCl(2) extraction, and leaching. However, improvement of growth conditions by steel shots led to higher heavy metal mass in shoot tissues. Therefore, soil heavy metal mobility and plant metal uptake are not systematically positively correlated.

  19. Effects of simulated acid rain, EDTA, or their combination, on migration and chemical fraction distribution of extraneous metals in Ferrosol.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fang; Hou, Hong; Yao, Na; Yan, Zengguang; Bai, Liping; Li, Fasheng

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory repacked soil-leaching column experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated acid rain or EDTA by themselves or in combination, on migration and chemical speciation distribution of Pb and its alternative rare metals including Ag, Bi, In, Sb, and Sn. Experimental results demonstrate that leaching with simulated acid rain promoted the migration of Bi, In and Pb, and their migration reached down to 8 cm in the soil profile, no enhancement of Sb, Ag or Sn migration was observed. Addition of EDTA significantly enhanced the migration of all six metals, especially Bi, In and Pb. The migration of metals was in the order Pb>Bi>In>Sb>Sn>Ag. The individual and combined effects of acid rain and EDTA increased the environmental risk of metals, by increasing the soluble content of metals in soil solutions and the relative distribution of the exchangeable fraction. Leaching risks of Bi, In and Pb were higher than other three metals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Kinetic extractions to assess mobilization of Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd in a metal-contaminated soil: EDTA vs. citrate.

    PubMed

    Labanowski, Jérôme; Monna, Fabrice; Bermond, Alain; Cambier, Philippe; Fernandez, Christelle; Lamy, Isabelle; van Oort, Folkert

    2008-04-01

    Kinetic EDTA and citrate extractions were used to mimic metal mobilization in a soil contaminated by metallurgical fallout. Modeling of metal removal rates vs. time distinguished two metal pools: readily labile (QM1) and less labile (QM2). In citrate extractions, total extractability (QM1+QM2) of Zn and Cd was proportionally higher than for Pb and Cu. Proportions of Pb and Cu extracted with EDTA were three times higher than when using citrate. We observed similar QM1/QM2 ratios for Zn and Cu regardless of the extractant, suggesting comparable binding energies to soil constituents. However, for Pb and Cd, more heterogeneous binding energies were hypothesized to explain different kinetic extraction behaviors. Proportions of citrate-labile metals were found consistent with their short-term, in-situ mobility assessed in the studied soil, i.e., metal amount released in the soil solution or extracted by cultivated plants. Kinetic EDTA extractions were hypothesized to be more predictive for long-term metal migration with depth.

  1. Inhibitory effect of disodium EDTA upon the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis in vitro: relation to infection prophylaxis of Hickman catheters.

    PubMed Central

    Root, J L; McIntyre, O R; Jacobs, N J; Daghlian, C P

    1988-01-01

    Granulocytopenic patients with an intravascular catheter are at increased risk for infection with Staphylococcus epidermidis. During the intervals when the catheters are not being used for infusions, it is customary to maintain patency of the catheter lumen with a solution containing heparin. We show that heparin does not inhibit the growth of S. epidermidis isolated from the catheter of an infected patient. A 20-mg/ml solution of disodium EDTA, a chelating agent which effectively anticoagulates blood at this concentration, was shown to be bactericidal for an initial inoculum of 10(3) CFU of staphylococci per ml in 24 h. Vancomycin, an antibiotic which is often employed to treat Staphylococcus infections, was also bactericidal for initial inocula of 10(3) CFU/ml at doses of 6.7 micrograms/ml, a drug concentration in the therapeutic range. When 10(3) staphylococci per ml were cultured in the presence of catheter segments and disodium EDTA or vancomycin, subcultures of the catheters showed minimal or no growth, respectively. In contrast, when cultured with heparin alone, subcultures showed abundant growth. In view of its low cost, effectiveness as an anticoagulant, and bactericidal activity, EDTA should be studied as a replacement for heparin solutions for the maintenance of intravenous catheters in granulocytopenic patients. Images PMID:3150914

  2. Permeability of the small intestine to (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA in children with acute gastroenteritis or eczema

    SciTech Connect

    Forget, P.; Sodoyez-Goffaux, F.; Zappitelli, A.

    1985-06-01

    Increased gut permeability to macromolecules is thought to be an important factor in the development of food hypersensitivity. The latter can develop in the course of acute gastroenteritis and could play a role in infantile eczema. The authors studied gut permeability in 10 normal adults, 11 control children, 7 children with acute gastroenteritis, and 8 patients with infantile eczema, making use of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA as probe molecule. (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA was given orally (50-100 microCi); 24-h urinary excretion of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA was measured and expressed as a percentage of the oral dose. Mean and standard error were 2.35 +/- 0.24, 2.51 +/- 0.21, 9.96 +/- 3.44, and 10.90 +/- 2.05 in normal adults, control children, and gastroenteritis and eczema patients, respectively. Differences between controls and either gastroenteritis (p less than 0.001) or eczema (p less than 0.001) patients are significant. The results support the hypothesis that increased gut permeability could play a role in food hypersensitivity.

  3. Bis(methylpyridine)-EDTA derivative as a potential ligand for PET imaging: synthesis, complexation, and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pooja; Aggarwal, Swati; Tiwari, Anjani K; Kumar, Vikas; Pratap, Ramendra; Chuttani, Krishna; Mishra, Anil K

    2014-12-01

    A novel transitional metal ligand derivatized from EDTA-conjugated 2-amino-4-methyl pyridine, an acyclic vehicle (EDTA-Mepy2 ) was designed, synthesized, and characterized for PET imaging with ⁶⁸Ga. The drug likeliness and appropriate lipophilicity were first analyzed by molecular docking studies which shows interactive property of ligand with serum albumin protein (HSA: PDB 1E78), at Lys199, Arg257, and His242 residues, which make it more appropriate in transportation as a specific ligand for PET imaging. As a confirmation, binding constant of the ligand with human serum albumin was calculated at λex = 350 nm which was found to be 4.9 × 10³ m⁻¹. The pharmacokinetics of (68) Ga-EDTA-Mepy2 was analyzed by blood kinetics (t(1/2) slow: 3 h 56 min and t(1/2) fast: 32 min) and biodistribution (maximum % ID/g was found in kidney at 1 h). Further the capability of this ligand was analyzed as optical marker also, by recording λex = 380 nm, RFU = 8000; 710 nm, RFU = 1000 units at fixed λem = 280 nm. Additionally, in physiological conditions where its stability was calculated, suggests 15-20 times selectivity over the endogenously present metal ions (KG aL /KZ nL = 14.3, KG aL /KC uL = 18.1).

  4. Two supramolecular complexes based on polyoxometalates and Co-EDTA units via covalent connection or non-covalent interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Chunlin; Xiao, Hanxi; Cai, Qing; Tang, Jianting; Cai, Tiejun; Deng, Qian

    2016-11-01

    Two new 3D network organic-inorganic hybrid supramolecular complexes {[Na6(CoEDTA)2(H2O)13]·(H2SiW12O40)·xH2O}n (1) and [CoH4EDTA(H2O)]2(SiW12O40)·15H2O (2) (H4EDTA=Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) have been successfully synthesized by solution method, and characterized by infrared spectrum (IR), thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). Both of the complexes are the supramolecules, but with different liking mode, they are two representative models of supramolecule. complex (1) is a 3D infinite network supramolecular coordination polymer with a rare multi-metal sturcture of sodium-cobalt-containing, which is mainly linked through coordinate-covalent bonds. While complex (2) is normal supramolecule, which linked by non-covalent interactions, such as H-bonding interaction, electrostatic interaction and van der waals force. Both of complex (1) and (2) exhibit good catalytic activities for catalytic oxidation of methanol, when the initial concentration of methanol is 3.0 g m-3, flow rate is 10 mL min-1, and the quality of catalyst is 0.2 g, for complex (1) and complex (2) the maximum elimination rates of methanol are 85% (150 °C) and 92% (120 °C), respectively.

  5. Pilot-scale washing of Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated soil using EDTA and process water recycling.

    PubMed

    Voglar, David; Lestan, Domen

    2013-03-01

    Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated garden soil (5249, 3348 and 20.6 mg kg(-1), respectively) rich with fines and organic matter was washed with a solution of 120 mmol EDTA kg(-1) of soil in a pilot-scale remediation plant operating in a batch (60 kg of soil) mode. After soil washing, the solid phase and used washing solution were separated in a chamber filter press. A base/acid pair Ca(OH)(2)/H(2)SO(4) was used to impose a pH gradient for EDTA recycling from used washing solution and, coupled with an electrochemical advanced oxidation process using a graphite anode, for cleansing and recycling the process water, which was used for rinsing the soil solid phase in the press. On average (5 batches), 75%, 26% and 66% of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively, was removed from the soil, 71% of EDTA was recycled and no waste water was generated. The variable costs of the novel remediation process (materials, energy but not labour) amounted to 66 € t(-1) of remediated soil. The results of the pilot-scale testing indicate that scaling-up the process to a commercial level is technically and economically feasible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Composition-ratio determination of Chrome Azurol S (CAS) with Cu(2+) and research on dynamic reaction process of CAS with EDTA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rutao; Li, Ling; Tian, Yanmin; Tan, Zhaohui; Gao, Canzhu; Hao, Xiaopeng

    2008-12-01

    The composition-ratio of Chrome Azurol S (CAS) with Cu(2+) and dynamic reaction process of CAS with EDTA were studied by spectrophotometry. The composition-ratio of Cu(2+) with CAS (2:1) was successfully determined using the method of lines and EDTA complexing substitution. The effects of temperature, time, pH, concentration of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB), and concentration of Cu(2+) on the absorption spectrum were also discussed. By optimizing experimental conditions, the dynamic process of displacement of CAS, which forms the ternary compound Cu-CAS-CTMAB, by EDTA were determined. The test results indicated that EDTA can replace 99.6% of the CAS quickly when heated. The system reached equilibrium finally. This research method can be applied to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of related Cu complexes.

  7. Instability of IGF-IGFBP complex as a cause of the different performance of serum and EDTA-plasma after storage: EDTA-plasma is preferable for evaluating bioactive IGF especially in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Setoyama, Takeshi; Miyamoto, Shin'ichi; Nikaido, Mitsuhiro; Muto, Manabu; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2015-10-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway is recognized as a potential target for treating several cancers, and strategies targeting the IGF type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) have been evaluated in many clinical trials. These suggested that the pretreatment level of circulating free IGF gives an estimate of IGF bioactivity and might be a predictive biomarker of the response to anti-IGF-1R antibodies. However, there is no defined protocol for measuring free and bioactive IGF concentrations, partly because the measurement procedures, including sample collection and handling, have not been standardized. We investigated the effects of sample collection methods and storage conditions on bioactive IGF measurement using a modified kinase receptor activation (KIRA) assay in human and mouse samples. Blood samples were obtained from healthy men and women, and from healthy male and female wild-type BALB/c mice. Serum and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-plasma samples were collected and used immediately or stored in small quantities at 4 °C or -80 °C for 3, 7, or 14 days. A bioassay directed against the phosphorylated IGF-1R using western blot analysis was developed as a modification of the KIRA assay, in which the level of phosphorylation of IGF-1R represented the IGF bioactivity in blood samples. The levels of bioactive IGFs in mouse serum stored at 4 °C increased markedly in a time-dependent manner; the increase was slightly reduced in samples stored at -80 °C. Analysis of mouse EDTA-plasma stored at 4 °C showed a similar pattern, but the time-dependent increase was less than in the serum samples. By contrast, the levels of bioactive IGFs in EDTA-plasma stored at -80 °C were stable over 14 days. The levels of human bioactive IGFs in both serum and EDTA-plasma stored at 4 °C increased slightly with time, but the increases were much smaller than in mouse samples. The levels of human bioactive IGF in both serum and EDTA-plasma stored at -80 °C were stable

  8. Dialyzability of minerals in corn masa gruel (atole) fortified with different iron compounds: effects of ascorbic acid, disodium EDTA, and phytic acid.

    PubMed

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Casanueva, Esther; Killilea, David W; Viteri, Fernando E

    2007-06-01

    Lime-treated corn gruel (atole) is a common weaning food in iron-deficient populations, especially in Mexico and Central America, and is a potential vehicle for fortification with iron. The objective of this study was to screen promising iron compounds for use in the fortification of atole, using in vitro enzymatic digestio