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Sample records for effect enabling universal

  1. Faculty Perceptions of Challenges and Enablers of Effective Teaching in a Large Research-Intensive University: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briseño-Garzón, Adriana; Han, Andrea; Birol, Gülnur; Bates, Simon; Whitehead, Lorne

    2016-01-01

    In October 2014, the University of British Columbia Vancouver campus (UBCV) ran a campus-wide survey to establish baseline information on teaching practices and attitudes among faculty, to measure the impact of existing teaching and learning initiatives and to identify the conditions leading to change in practices and attitudes around teaching.…

  2. Open Educational Resources: Enabling Universal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caswell, Tom; Henson, Shelley; Jensen, Marion; Wiley, David

    2008-01-01

    The role of distance education is shifting. Traditionally distance education was limited in the number of people served because of production, reproduction, and distribution costs. Today, while it still costs the university time and money to produce a course, technology has made it such that reproduction costs are almost non-existent. This shift…

  3. Supporting Online, Non-Traditional Students through the Introduction of Effective E-Learning Tools in a Pre-University Tertiary Enabling Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambrinidis, George

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of external students enrolling at Charles Darwin University has led to the university investing in new technologies to provide better support for students studying online. Many students, however, come from non-traditional backgrounds and lack some of the skills and confidence to participate successfully in an e-learning…

  4. Boundary Spanning in Higher Education: How Universities Can Enable Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skolaski, Jennifer Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to better understand the identity and work of academic and extension staff who have boundary spanning responsibilities. The results will help universities, especially public land-grant universities with an outreach mission, to create stronger policies and systems to support boundary spanning staff members…

  5. Science, engineering and enabling technologies for exploration of the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, Gregory M.; Hudson, Wayne R.; Mankins, John C.

    1992-01-01

    This report by NASA's Office of Aeronautics, Exploration, and Technology identifies a list of critical technologies needed to support the exploration of the universe. The concept of the Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) is introduced with specific attention given to the strategic planning framework for NASA and other participants involved in the development of space technologies. The required technologies are identified for the Mission to Planet Earth, the Space Exploration Initiative, information systems, spacecraft advancement, and critical astrophysics issues. The ITP presents the basis for strategically planning the development of such technologies as observation systems, on-board processing, EVA systems, aerobraking, nuclear propulsion, scientific information acquisition, and high-energy sensors. The ITP is a significant step towards the planned and prioritized advancement of critical technologies related to the exploration of the universe.

  6. Pladipus Enables Universal Distributed Computing in Proteomics Bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Verheggen, Kenneth; Maddelein, Davy; Hulstaert, Niels; Martens, Lennart; Barsnes, Harald; Vaudel, Marc

    2016-03-04

    The use of proteomics bioinformatics substantially contributes to an improved understanding of proteomes, but this novel and in-depth knowledge comes at the cost of increased computational complexity. Parallelization across multiple computers, a strategy termed distributed computing, can be used to handle this increased complexity; however, setting up and maintaining a distributed computing infrastructure requires resources and skills that are not readily available to most research groups. Here we propose a free and open-source framework named Pladipus that greatly facilitates the establishment of distributed computing networks for proteomics bioinformatics tools. Pladipus is straightforward to install and operate thanks to its user-friendly graphical interface, allowing complex bioinformatics tasks to be run easily on a network instead of a single computer. As a result, any researcher can benefit from the increased computational efficiency provided by distributed computing, hence empowering them to tackle more complex bioinformatics challenges. Notably, it enables any research group to perform large-scale reprocessing of publicly available proteomics data, thus supporting the scientific community in mining these data for novel discoveries.

  7. Knowledge Management Practices and Enablers in Public Universities: A Gap Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandran, Sharimllah Devi; Chong, Siong-Choy; Wong, Kuan-Yew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the gap between knowledge management (KM) practices and key strategic enablers in public universities. For this purpose, a 57-item survey on two dimensions--"use" and "importance"--was used as the instrument for this study. Design/methodology/approach: The questionnaire was…

  8. Integrating Technology into Instruction at a Public University in Kyrgyzstan: Barriers and Enablers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhametjanova, Gulshat; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine enablers and barriers to the technology integration into education based on the example of the situation at the Kyrgyz-Turkish Manas University as reported by students and instructors. The study employed the mixed-methods research design, combining data obtained from 477 student and 57 instructor…

  9. The Mason Water Data Information System (MWDIS): Enabling data sharing and discovery at George Mason University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, C.; Da Silva, A. L.; Nunes, A.; Haddad, J.; Lawler, S.

    2014-12-01

    Enabling effective data use and re-use in scientific investigations relies heavily not only on data availability but also on efficient data sharing discovery. The CUAHSI led Hydrological Information Systems (HIS) and supporting products have paved the way to efficient data sharing and discovery in the hydrological sciences. Based on the CUAHSI-HIS framework concepts for hydrologic data sharing we developed a unique system devoted to the George Mason University scientific community to support university wide data sharing and discovery as well as real time data access for extreme events situational awareness. The internet-based system will provide an interface where the researchers will input data collected from the measurement stations and present them to the public in form of charts, tables, maps, and documents. Moreover, the system is developed in ASP.NET MVC 4 using as Database Management System, Microsoft SQL Server 2008 R2, and hosted by Amazon Web Services. Currently the system is supporting the Mason Watershed Project providing historical hydrological, atmospheric and water quality data for the campus watershed and real time flood conditions in the campus. The system is also a gateway for unprecedented data collection of hurricane storm surge hydrodynamics in coastal wetlands in the Chesapeake Bay providing not only access to historical data but recent storms such as Hurricane Arthur. Future research includes coupling the system to a real-time flood alert system on campus, and besides providing data on the World Wide Web, to foment and provide a venue for interdisciplinary collaboration within the water scientists in the region.

  10. The Usage and Impact of Internet Enabled Phones on Academic Concentration among Students of Tertiary Institutions: A Study at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezemenaka, Emeka

    2013-01-01

    The usage of Internet enabled phones has been a 21st century phenomenon that spreads for different purposes and functions. This study looks into the usage and perceived effect implications internet enabled phones have on the academic performance of the tertiary students using University of Ibadan students in Nigeria as a case study. The study was…

  11. Are Molecular Alphabets Universal Enabling Factors for the Evolution of Complex Life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Ian S.

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial biosystems depend on macromolecules, and this feature is often considered as a likely universal aspect of life. While opinions differ regarding the importance of small-molecule systems in abiogenesis, escalating biological functional demands are linked with increasing complexity in key molecules participating in biosystem operations, and many such requirements cannot be efficiently mediated by relatively small compounds. It has long been recognized that known life is associated with the evolution of two distinct molecular alphabets (nucleic acid and protein), specific sequence combinations of which serve as informational and functional polymers. In contrast, much less detailed focus has been directed towards the potential universal need for molecular alphabets in constituting complex chemically-based life, and the implications of such a requirement. To analyze this, emphasis here is placed on the generalizable replicative and functional characteristics of molecular alphabets and their concatenates. A primary replicative alphabet based on the simplest possible molecular complementarity can potentially enable evolutionary processes to occur, including the encoding of secondarily functional alphabets. Very large uniquely specified (`non-alphabetic') molecules cannot feasibly underlie systems capable of the replicative and evolutionary properties which characterize complex biosystems. Transitions in the molecular evolution of alphabets can be related to progressive bridging of barriers which enable higher levels of biosystem organization. It is thus highly probable that molecular alphabets are an obligatory requirement for complex chemically-based life anywhere in the universe. In turn, reference to molecular alphabets should be usefully applied in current definitions of life.

  12. Enabling the Full Participation of University Students with Disabilities: Seeking Best Practices for a Barrier-Free Language Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuomi, Margaret Trotta; Jauhojärvi-Koskelo, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that 3.4% of university students in Finland have a diagnosed or observed illness or disability that affects their learning at the university level. The University of Jyväskylä Language Centre embarked on an organised, ongoing research and intervention project to enable appropriate teaching practices to suit the needs of…

  13. Seeking the Passionate Career: First-in-Family Enabling Students and the Idea of the Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Josephine; Delahunty, Janine; O'Shea, Sarah; Stone, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the idea of the university from the first-in-family enabling students' perspective. It provides an overview of the current crisis of meaning in scholarly commentary that points to a spectrum of meanings about the university. This spectrum ranges from the ancient imaginary of the monastic university as "ivory tower" to…

  14. Parallels and problems of normalization in rehabilitation and universal design: enabling connectivities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Universal design (UD) is oriented to creating products, buildings, outdoor spaces and services for use by all people to the fullest extent possible according to principles of enabling equal citizenship. Nevertheless its theoretical basis has been under-explored, a critique that has also been leveled at rehabilitation. This commentary explores parallels between UD and dominant rehabilitation discourses that risk privileging or discrediting particular ways of being and doing. Methods Commentary. Results Drawing from examples that explore the intersection of bodies, places and technologies with disabled people, I examined how practices of normalization risk reproducing the universalized body and legitimated forms of mobility, and in so doing perpetuates the “othering” of difference. To address these limitations, I explored the postmodern notion of multiple creative “assemblages” that are continually made and broken over time and space. Assemblages resist normalization tendencies by acknowledging and fostering multiple productive dependencies between human and non-human elements that include diverse bodies, not just those labeled disabled. Conclusion In exploring the potential of enhancing creative assemblages and multiple dependencies, space opens up in UD and rehabilitation for acknowledging, developing, and promoting a multiplicity of bodily forms and modes of mobility. Implications for Rehabilitation Universal design and rehabilitation both risk perpetuating particular ideas about what disabled people should be, do, and value, that privilege a limited range of particular bodily forms. The notion of “assemblages” provides a conceptual tool for rethinking negative views of dependence and taken for granted independence goals. In exploring the potential of enhancing various dependencies, space opens up for reconsidering disability, mobility and multiple ways of “doing-in-the-world”. PMID:24564357

  15. Enabling Universal Memory by Overcoming the Contradictory Speed and Stability Nature of Phase-Change Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weijie; Loke, Desmond; Shi, Luping; Zhao, Rong; Yang, Hongxin; Law, Leong-Tat; Ng, Lung-Tat; Lim, Kian-Guan; Yeo, Yee-Chia; Chong, Tow-Chong; Lacaita, Andrea L.

    2012-04-01

    The quest for universal memory is driving the rapid development of memories with superior all-round capabilities in non-volatility, high speed, high endurance and low power. Phase-change materials are highly promising in this respect. However, their contradictory speed and stability properties present a key challenge towards this ambition. We reveal that as the device size decreases, the phase-change mechanism changes from the material inherent crystallization mechanism (either nucleation- or growth-dominated), to the hetero-crystallization mechanism, which resulted in a significant increase in PCRAM speeds. Reducing the grain size can further increase the speed of phase-change. Such grain size effect on speed becomes increasingly significant at smaller device sizes. Together with the nano-thermal and electrical effects, fast phase-change, good stability and high endurance can be achieved. These findings lead to a feasible solution to achieve a universal memory.

  16. Collaborative Tutor Development: Enabling a Transformative Paradigm in a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underhill, Jenni; McDonald, Jared

    2010-01-01

    Transformation policies in South Africa have seen higher education come under increasing pressure to broaden participation from historically under-represented groups. This article focuses on the University of Johannesburg, South Africa, as a newly merged institution that is in the process of transforming from a formerly segregated academic…

  17. Enabling Massive Scale Document Transformation for the Semantic Web: the Universal Parsing Agent

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Mark A.; Cowley, Wendy E.; Cramer, Nick O.; Gibson, Alex G.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; Scott, Ryan T.; Tratz, Stephen C.

    2005-11-02

    The Universal Parsing Agent (UPA) is a document analysis and transformation program that supports massive scale conversion of information into forms suitable for the semantic web. UPA provides reusable tools to analyze text documents; identify and extract important information elements; enhance text with semantically descriptive tags; and output the information that is needed in the format and structure that is needed.

  18. Technology-Enabled and Universally Designed Assessment: Considering Access in Measuring the Achievement of Students with Disabilities--A Foundation for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Patricia; Winter, Phoebe; Cameto, Renee; Russell, Michael; Sato, Edynn; Clarke-Midura, Jody; Torres, Chloe; Haertel, Geneva; Dolan, Robert; Beddow, Peter; Lazarus, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    This paper represents one outcome from the "Invitational Research Symposium on Technology-Enabled and Universally Designed Assessments," which examined technology-enabled assessments (TEA) and universal design (UD) as they relate to students with disabilities (SWD). It was developed to stimulate research into TEAs designed to make tests…

  19. Effective theories of universal theories

    DOE PAGES

    Wells, James D.; Zhang, Zhengkang

    2016-01-20

    It is well-known but sometimes overlooked that constraints on the oblique parameters (most notably S and T parameters) are generally speaking only applicable to a special class of new physics scenarios known as universal theories. The oblique parameters should not be associated with Wilson coefficients in a particular operator basis in the effective field theory (EFT) framework, unless restrictions have been imposed on the EFT so that it describes universal theories. Here, we work out these restrictions, and present a detailed EFT analysis of universal theories. We find that at the dimension-6 level, universal theories are completely characterized by 16more » parameters. They are conveniently chosen to be: 5 oblique parameters that agree with the commonly-adopted ones, 4 anomalous triple-gauge couplings, 3 rescaling factors for the h3, hff, hV V vertices, 3 parameters for hV V vertices absent in the Standard Model, and 1 four-fermion coupling of order yf2. Furthermore, all these parameters are defined in an unambiguous and basis-independent way, allowing for consistent constraints on the universal theories parameter space from precision electroweak and Higgs data.« less

  20. Effective theories of universal theories

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, James D.; Zhang, Zhengkang

    2016-01-20

    It is well-known but sometimes overlooked that constraints on the oblique parameters (most notably S and T parameters) are generally speaking only applicable to a special class of new physics scenarios known as universal theories. The oblique parameters should not be associated with Wilson coefficients in a particular operator basis in the effective field theory (EFT) framework, unless restrictions have been imposed on the EFT so that it describes universal theories. Here, we work out these restrictions, and present a detailed EFT analysis of universal theories. We find that at the dimension-6 level, universal theories are completely characterized by 16 parameters. They are conveniently chosen to be: 5 oblique parameters that agree with the commonly-adopted ones, 4 anomalous triple-gauge couplings, 3 rescaling factors for the h3, hff, hV V vertices, 3 parameters for hV V vertices absent in the Standard Model, and 1 four-fermion coupling of order yf2. Furthermore, all these parameters are defined in an unambiguous and basis-independent way, allowing for consistent constraints on the universal theories parameter space from precision electroweak and Higgs data.

  1. Global Strike 2035: Considerations for Enabling Effective Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-16

    Enabling Theater Time-Sensitive Targeting Much has been learned over the past decade about the command and control attributes required to conduct...future. However, for Global Strike missions in 2035, the lessons learned through theater level operations must be extrapolated to a global scale and...established norms.44 For any organization that must learn to operate in new ways in support of innovative capabilities, leadership must ensure the

  2. TALON: a universal unmanned ground vehicle platform, enabling the mission to be the focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Peter; Deguire, Dan

    2005-05-01

    Foster-Miller's unmanned ground vehicle, TALON, was originally developed under DARPA's Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR) program. TALON has evolved over the years and has proven to be a robust, mobile, universal platform. As a result of the advances made in the evolution of TALON, new and far-reaching opportunities have been realized for unmanned ground vehicles. In recent conflicts such as in Afghanistan and Iraq, unmanned systems have played an important role and have extended the reach and capabilities of the War fighter. Technological advances have transformed unmanned vehicles in to useful tools and in some cases are used in lieu of sending in a soldier. Unmanned ground vehicles have seen recent and persistent success, as shown in theater, in the explosive ordinance disposal (EOD) and improvised ordinance disposal (IED) missions. Foster-Miller's TALON has experienced over ten thousand EOD and IED missions in Iraq alone. The success of the unmanned system has resulted in the doctrine "Send the robot in first". Foster-Miller has taken the role of the unmanned vehicle in yet another direction. Foster-Miller has transformed the TALON from a "practical" to "tactical" system. Through the combined efforts of Foster-Miller and the US Army, TALON has been involved in a weaponization program. To date, Foster-Miller has outfitted the TALON with 11 systems. As one can see, the unmanned ground vehicle is much more than a mobility platform.

  3. Universal Near-Infrared and Mid-Infrared Optical Modulation for Ultrafast Pulse Generation Enabled by Colloidal Plasmonic Semiconductor Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiangbing; Yao, Yunhua; Luo, Zhi-Chao; Qin, Zhipeng; Xie, Guoqiang; Liu, Meng; Kang, Jia; Zhang, Shian; Bi, Gang; Liu, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-09-21

    Field effect relies on the nonlinear current-voltage relation in semiconductors; analogously, materials that respond nonlinearly to an optical field can be utilized for optical modulation. For instance, nonlinear optical (NLO) materials bearing a saturable absorption (SA) feature an on-off switching behavior at the critical pumping power, thus enabling ultrafast laser pulse generation with high peak power. SA has been observed in diverse materials preferably in its nanoscale form, including both gaped semiconductor nanostructures and gapless materials like graphene; while the presence of optical bandgap and small carrier density have limited the active spectral range and intensity. We show here that solution-processed plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals exhibit superbroadband (over 400 THz) SA, meanwhile with large modulation depth (∼7 dB) and ultrafast recovery (∼315 fs). Optical modulators fabricated using these plasmonic nanocrystals enable mode-locking and Q-switching operation across the near-infrared and mid-infrared spectral region, as exemplified here by the pulsed lasers realized at 1.0, 1.5, and 2.8 μm bands with minimal pulse duration down to a few hundreds of femtoseconds. The facile accessibility and superbroadband optical nonlinearity offered by these nonconventional plasmonic nanocrystals may stimulate a growing interest in the exploiting of relevant NLO and photonic applications.

  4. Investigating the Role of Collective Trust, Collective Efficacy, and Enabling School Structures on Overall School Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the role of collective trust, collective efficacy, and enabling school structures on overall school effectiveness. While the concept of organizational effectiveness can be complex and difficult to measure, the results of this research demonstrated a connection of these variables to school effectiveness. Collective trust had…

  5. Large-scale multiplexed quantitative discovery proteomics enabled by the use of an (18)O-labeled "universal" reference sample.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wei-Jun; Liu, Tao; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Gritsenko, Marina A; Petritis, Brianne O; Polpitiya, Ashoka D; Kaushal, Amit; Xiao, Wenzhong; Finnerty, Celeste C; Jeschke, Marc G; Jaitly, Navdeep; Monroe, Matthew E; Moore, Ronald J; Moldawer, Lyle L; Davis, Ronald W; Tompkins, Ronald G; Herndon, David N; Camp, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative comparison of protein abundances across a large number of biological or patient samples represents an important proteomics challenge that needs to be addressed for proteomics discovery applications. Herein, we describe a strategy that incorporates a stable isotope (18)O-labeled "universal" reference sample as a comprehensive set of internal standards for analyzing large sample sets quantitatively. As a pooled sample, the (18)O-labeled "universal" reference sample is spiked into each individually processed unlabeled biological sample and the peptide/protein abundances are quantified based on (16)O/(18)O isotopic peptide pair abundance ratios that compare each unlabeled sample to the identical reference sample. This approach also allows for the direct application of label-free quantitation across the sample set simultaneously along with the labeling-approach (i.e., dual-quantitation) since each biological sample is unlabeled except for the labeled reference sample that is used as internal standards. The effectiveness of this approach for large-scale quantitative proteomics is demonstrated by its application to a set of 18 plasma samples from severe burn patients. When immunoaffinity depletion and cysteinyl-peptide enrichment-based fractionation with high resolution LC-MS measurements were combined, a total of 312 plasma proteins were confidently identified and quantified with a minimum of two unique peptides per protein. The isotope labeling data was directly compared with the label-free (16)O-MS intensity data extracted from the same data sets. The results showed that the (18)O reference-based labeling approach had significantly better quantitative precision compared to the label-free approach. The relative abundance differences determined by the two approaches also displayed strong correlation, illustrating the complementary nature of the two quantitative methods. The simplicity of including the (18)O-reference for accurate quantitation makes this

  6. Universality of the Hawking effect

    SciTech Connect

    Unruh, William G.; Schuetzhold, Ralf

    2005-01-15

    Addressing the question of whether the Hawking effect depends on degrees of freedom at ultrahigh (e.g., Planckian) energies/momenta, we propose three rather general conditions on these degrees of freedom under which the Hawking effect is reproduced to lowest order. As a generalization of Corley's results, we present a rather general model based on nonlinear dispersion relations satisfying these conditions together with a derivation of the Hawking effect for that model. However, we also demonstrate counter-examples, which do not appear to be unphysical or artificial, displaying strong deviations from Hawking's result. Therefore, whether real black holes emit Hawking radiation remains an open question and could give nontrivial information about Planckian physics.

  7. Gutenberg's Effects on Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the effects on universities of Gutenberg's invention of printing. It considers four major effects: the gradual displacement of Latin as the language of scholarship with vernacular languages, the expansion and eventual opening of libraries, major changes to curriculum, and major changes to pedagogy including lectures.…

  8. Effects of Energy Chirp on Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation Free-Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Z.; Ratner, D.; Stupakov, G.; Xiang, D.; /SLAC

    2009-02-23

    We study effects of energy chirp on echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG). Analytical expressions are compared with numerical simulations for both harmonic and bunching factors. We also discuss the EEHG free-electron laser bandwidth increase due to an energy-modulated beam and its pulse length dependence on the electron energy chirp.

  9. Microfluidic multiplexed partitioning enables flexible and effective utilization of magnetic sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Bechstein, Daniel J B; Ng, Elaine; Lee, Jung-Rok; Cone, Stephanie G; Gaster, Richard S; Osterfeld, Sebastian J; Hall, Drew A; Weaver, James A; Wilson, Robert J; Wang, Shan X

    2015-11-21

    We demonstrate microfluidic partitioning of a giant magnetoresistive sensor array into individually addressable compartments that enhances its effective use. Using different samples and reagents in each compartment enables measuring of cross-reactive species and wide dynamic ranges on a single chip. This compartmentalization technique motivates the employment of high density sensor arrays for highly parallelized measurements in lab-on-a-chip devices.

  10. The Combination Design of Enabling Technologies in Group Learning: New Study Support Service for Visually Impaired University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangsri, Chatcai; Na-Takuatoong, Onjaree; Sophatsathit, Peraphon

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to show how the process of new service technology-based development improves the current study support service for visually impaired university students. Numerous studies have contributed to improving assisted aid technology such as screen readers, the development and the use of audiobooks, and technology that supports individual…

  11. Building Effective Community-University Partnerships: Are Universities Truly Ready?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curwood, Susan Eckerle; Munger, Felix; Mitchell, Terry; Mackeigan, Mary; Farrar, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Community service learning and community-based research necessitate the development of strong community-university partnerships. In this paper, students, faculty, and a community partner critically reflect upon the process of establishing a long-term community-university partnership through the integration of a community service learning component…

  12. Acoustic effects during photosynthesis of aquatic plants enable new research opportunities.

    PubMed

    Kratochvil, Helmut G; Pollirer, Michael

    2017-03-14

    Measurements of photosynthetic processes in hydrophytes mostly involve photosynthometers, which capture the escaping gas for subsequent analysis The most common method to detect changes in the rate of photosynthetic processes is to count the series of escaping gas bubbles. The emerging bubbles are either simply counted or they are recorded using light barriers, which is very difficult because of their small size and often varying ascent rate. The gas bubbles generated during photosynthesis by aquatic plants produce distinctive sound pulses when leaving the plants. These acoustic side effects enable completely new and highly accurate measurements. The frequency and reaction time changes of the pulses caused by external influences are therefore accurately detectable. The precise time measurements enable registering and evaluating the curves as reactions to changes in physical or chemical environmental conditions. We show that such acoustic analyses open completely new research opportunities for plant physiology.

  13. Acoustic effects during photosynthesis of aquatic plants enable new research opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Kratochvil, Helmut G.; Pollirer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of photosynthetic processes in hydrophytes mostly involve photosynthometers, which capture the escaping gas for subsequent analysis The most common method to detect changes in the rate of photosynthetic processes is to count the series of escaping gas bubbles. The emerging bubbles are either simply counted or they are recorded using light barriers, which is very difficult because of their small size and often varying ascent rate. The gas bubbles generated during photosynthesis by aquatic plants produce distinctive sound pulses when leaving the plants. These acoustic side effects enable completely new and highly accurate measurements. The frequency and reaction time changes of the pulses caused by external influences are therefore accurately detectable. The precise time measurements enable registering and evaluating the curves as reactions to changes in physical or chemical environmental conditions. We show that such acoustic analyses open completely new research opportunities for plant physiology. PMID:28291222

  14. Universality in the Fractional Quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fradkin, Eduardo; Lopez, Ana

    1993-11-01

    In this lectures we review the fermion field theoretic approach to the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect and use it to discuss the origin of its remarkable universality. We discuss the semiclassical expansion around the average field approximation (AFA). We reexamine the AFA and the role of fluctuations. We argue that, order-by-order in the semiclassical expansion, the response functions obey the correct symmetry properties required by Galilean and Gauge Invariance and by the incompressibility of the fluid. In particular, we find that the low-momentum limit of the semiclassical approximation to the response functions is exact and that it saturates the f-sum rule. We discuss the nature of the spectrum of collective excitations of FQHE systems in the low-momentum limit. We applied these results to the problem of the screening of external charges and fluxes by the electron fluid, and obtained asymptotic expressions of the charge and current density profiles, for different types of interactions. The universality of the FQHE is demonstrated by deriving the form of the wave function of the ground state at long distances. We show that the wave functions of the fluid ground states of Fractional Quantum Hall systems, in the thermodynamic limit, are universal at long distances and that they have a generalized Laughlin form. This universality is a consequence of the analytic properties of the equal-time density correlation functions at long distances.

  15. Integrated radiologist's workstation enabling the radiologist as an effective clinical consultant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnery, Kevin W.; Suitor, Charles T.; Hildebrand, Stan; Downs, Rebecca; Thompson, Stephen K.; Shepard, S. Jeff

    2002-05-01

    Since February 2000, radiologists at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center have accessed clinical information through an internally developed radiologist's clinical interpretation workstation called RadStation. This project provides a fully integrated digital dictation workstation with clinical data review. RadStation enables the radiologist as an effective clinical consultant with access to pertinent sources of clinical information at the time of dictation. Data sources not only include prior radiology reports from the radiology information system (RIS) but access to pathology data, laboratory data, history and physicals, clinic notes, and operative reports. With integrated clinical information access, a radiologists's interpretation not only comments on morphologic findings but also can enable evaluation of study findings in the context of pertinent clinical presentation and history. Image access is enabled through the integration of an enterprise image archive (Stentor, San Francisco). Database integration is achieved by a combination of real time HL7 messaging and queries to SQL-based legacy databases. A three-tier system architecture accommodates expanding access to additional databases including real-time patient schedule as well as patient medications and allergies.

  16. What Are the Key Ingredients for an Effective and Successful Tertiary Enabling Program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students? An Evaluation of the Evolution of One Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Tertiary enabling programs have become an increasingly important part of the post-secondary schooling landscape. In recognition of the need for increased access for certain under-represented groups within the university population, enabling, bridging or foundational programs are offered by a large number of universities in Australia as alternative…

  17. Universal effective hadron dynamics from superconformal algebra

    DOE PAGES

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Gunter; ...

    2016-05-25

    An effective supersymmetric QCD light-front Hamiltonian for hadrons composed of light quarks, which includes a spin–spin interaction between the hadronic constituents, is constructed by embedding superconformal quantum mechanics into AdS space. A specific breaking of conformal symmetry inside the graded algebra determines a unique effective quark-confining potential for light hadrons, as well as remarkable connections between the meson and baryon spectra. The results are consistent with the empirical features of the light-quark hadron spectra, including a universal mass scale for the slopes of the meson and baryon Regge trajectories and a zero-mass pion in the limit of massless quarks. Ourmore » analysis is consistently applied to the excitation spectra of the π , ρ , K , K* and Φ meson families as well as to the N , Δ, Λ, Σ, Σ* , Ξ and Ξ* in the baryon sector. Here, we also predict the existence of tetraquarks which are degenerate in mass with baryons with the same angular momentum. The mass of light hadrons is expressed in a universal and frame-independent decomposition in the semiclassical approximation described here.« less

  18. Universal effective hadron dynamics from superconformal algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Gunter; Lorce, Cedric

    2016-05-25

    An effective supersymmetric QCD light-front Hamiltonian for hadrons composed of light quarks, which includes a spin–spin interaction between the hadronic constituents, is constructed by embedding superconformal quantum mechanics into AdS space. A specific breaking of conformal symmetry inside the graded algebra determines a unique effective quark-confining potential for light hadrons, as well as remarkable connections between the meson and baryon spectra. The results are consistent with the empirical features of the light-quark hadron spectra, including a universal mass scale for the slopes of the meson and baryon Regge trajectories and a zero-mass pion in the limit of massless quarks. Our analysis is consistently applied to the excitation spectra of the π , ρ , K , K* and Φ meson families as well as to the N , Δ, Λ, Σ, Σ* , Ξ and Ξ* in the baryon sector. Here, we also predict the existence of tetraquarks which are degenerate in mass with baryons with the same angular momentum. The mass of light hadrons is expressed in a universal and frame-independent decomposition in the semiclassical approximation described here.

  19. Universal effective hadron dynamics from superconformal algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Günter; Lorcé, Cédric

    2016-08-01

    An effective supersymmetric QCD light-front Hamiltonian for hadrons composed of light quarks, which includes a spin-spin interaction between the hadronic constituents, is constructed by embedding superconformal quantum mechanics into AdS space. A specific breaking of conformal symmetry inside the graded algebra determines a unique effective quark-confining potential for light hadrons, as well as remarkable connections between the meson and baryon spectra. The results are consistent with the empirical features of the light-quark hadron spectra, including a universal mass scale for the slopes of the meson and baryon Regge trajectories and a zero-mass pion in the limit of massless quarks. Our analysis is consistently applied to the excitation spectra of the π, ρ, K, K* and ϕ meson families as well as to the N, Δ, Λ, Σ, Σ*, Ξ and Ξ* in the baryon sector. We also predict the existence of tetraquarks which are degenerate in mass with baryons with the same angular momentum. The mass of light hadrons is expressed in a universal and frame-independent decomposition in the semiclassical approximation described here.

  20. Networking between community health programs: a case study outlining the effectiveness, barriers and enablers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In India, since the 1990s, there has been a burgeoning of NGOs involved in providing primary health care. This has resulted in a complex NGO-Government interface which is difficult for lone NGOs to navigate. The Uttarakhand Cluster, India, links such small community health programs together to build NGO capacity, increase visibility and better link to the government schemes and the formal healthcare system. This research, undertaken between 1998 and 2011, aims to examine barriers and facilitators to such linking, or clustering, and the effectiveness of this clustering approach. Methods Interviews, indicator surveys and participant observation were used to document the process and explore the enablers, the barriers and the effectiveness of networks improving community health. Results The analysis revealed that when activating, framing, mobilising and synthesizing the Uttarakhand Cluster, key brokers and network players were important in bridging between organisations. The ties (or relationships) that held the cluster together included homophily around common faith, common friendships and geographical location and common mission. Self interest whereby members sought funds, visibility, credibility, increased capacity and access to trainings was also a commonly identified motivating factor for networking. Barriers to network synthesizing included lack of funding, poor communication, limited time and lack of human resources. Risk aversion and mistrust remained significant barriers to overcome for such a network. Conclusions In conclusion, specific enabling factors allowed the clustering approach to be effective at increasing access to resources, creating collaborative opportunities and increasing visibility, credibility and confidence of the cluster members. These findings add to knowledge regarding social network formation and collaboration, and such knowledge will assist in the conceptualisation, formation and success of potential health networks in India

  1. Low temperature plasma-enhanced ALD enables cost-effective spacer defined double patterning (SDDP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beynet, Julien; Wong, Patrick; Miller, Andy; Locorotondo, Sabrina; Vangoidsenhoven, Diziana; Yoon, Tae-Ho; Demand, Marc; Park, Hyung-Sang; Vandeweyer, Tom; Sprey, Hessel; Yoo, Yong-Min; Maenhoudt, Mireille

    2009-12-01

    The inherent advantages of the Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition (PEALD) technology--excellent conformality and within wafer uniformity, no loading effect--overcome the limitations in this domain of the standard PECVD technique for spacer deposition. The low temperature process capability of PEALD silicon oxide enables direct spacer deposition on photoresist, thus suppressing the need of a patterned template hardmask to design the spacers. By decreasing the number of deposition and patterning steps, this so-called Direct Spacer Defined Double Patterning (DSDDP) integration reduces cost and complexity of the conventional SDDP approach. A successful integration is reported for 32 nm half-pitch polysilicon lines. The performances are promising, especially from the lines, which result from the PEALD spacers: Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) of 1.3 nm and Line Width Roughness (LWR) of 2.0 nm.

  2. Effect of Knowledge Management on Organizational Performance: Enabling Thought Leadership and Social Capital through Technology Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalhoub, Michel S.

    The present paper studies the relationship between social networks enabled by technological advances in social software, and overall business performance. With the booming popularity of online communication and the rise of knowledge communities, businesses are faced with a challenge as well as an opportunity - should they monitor the use of social software or encourage it and learn from it? We introduce the concept of user-autonomy and user-fun, which go beyond the traditional user-friendly requirement of existing information technologies. We identified 120 entities out of a sample of 164 from Mediterranean countries and the Gulf region, to focus on the effect of social exchange information systems in thought leadership.

  3. Enabling cost-effective high-current burst-mode operation in superconducting accelerators

    DOE PAGES

    Sheffield, Richard L.

    2015-06-01

    Superconducting (SC) accelerators are very efficient for CW or long-pulse operation, and normal conducting (NC) accelerators are cost effective for short-pulse operation. The addition of a short NC linac section to a SC linac can correct for the energy droop that occurs when pulsed high-current operation is required that exceeds the capability of the klystrons to replenish the cavity RF fields due to the long field fill-times of SC structures, or a requirement to support a broad range of beam currents results in variable beam loading. This paper describes the implementation of this technique to enable microseconds of high beam-current,more » 90 mA or more, in a 12 GeV SC long-pulse accelerator designed for the MaRIE 42-keV XFEL proposed for Los Alamos National Laboratory.« less

  4. Enabling cost-effective high-current burst-mode operation in superconducting accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, Richard L.

    2015-06-01

    Superconducting (SC) accelerators are very efficient for CW or long-pulse operation, and normal conducting (NC) accelerators are cost effective for short-pulse operation. The addition of a short NC linac section to a SC linac can correct for the energy droop that occurs when pulsed high-current operation is required that exceeds the capability of the klystrons to replenish the cavity RF fields due to the long field fill-times of SC structures, or a requirement to support a broad range of beam currents results in variable beam loading. This paper describes the implementation of this technique to enable microseconds of high beam-current, 90 mA or more, in a 12 GeV SC long-pulse accelerator designed for the MaRIE 42-keV XFEL proposed for Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  5. Enabling the use of climate model data in the Dutch climate effect community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som de Cerff, Wim; Plieger, Maarten

    2010-05-01

    Within the climate effect community the usage of climate model data is emerging. Where mostly climate time series and weather generators were used, there is a shift to incorporate climate model data into climate effect models. The use of climate model data within the climate effect models is difficult, due to missing metadata, resolution and projection issues, data formats and availability of the parameters of interest. Often the climate effect modelers are not aware of available climate model data or are not aware of how they can use it. Together with seven other partners (CERFACS, CNR-IPSL, SMHI, INHGA, CMCC, WUR, MF-CNRM), KNMI is involved in the FP7 IS ENES (http://www.enes.org) project work package 10/JRA5 ‘Bridging Climate Research Data and the Needs of the Impact Community. The aims of this work package are to enhance the use of Climate Research Data and to enhance the interaction with climate effect/impact communities. Phase one is to define use cases together with the Dutch climate effect community, which describe the intended use of climate model data in climate effect models. We defined four use cases: 1) FEWS hydrological Framework (Deltares) 2) METAPHOR, a plants and species dispersion model (Wageningen University) 3) Natuurplanner, an Ecological model suite (Wageningen University) 4) Land use models (Free University/JRC). Also the other partners in JRA5 have defined use cases, which are representative for the climate effect and impact communities in their country. Goal is to find commonalities between all defined use cases. The common functionality will be implemented as e-tools and incorporated in the IS-ENES data portal. Common issues relate to e.g., need for high resolution: downscaling from GCM to local scale (also involves interpolation); parameter selection; finding extremes; averaging methods. At the conference we will describe the FEWS case in more detail: Delft FEWS is an open shell system (in development since 1995) for performing

  6. Direct and indirect effects of enablers on HIV testing, initiation and retention in antiretroviral treatment and AIDS related mortality

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background An enabling environment is believed to have significant and critical effects on HIV and AIDS program implementation and desired outcomes. This paper estimates the paths, directionality, and direct and indirect associations between critical enablers with antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage and to AIDS-related mortality. Methods Frameworks that consider the role of enablers in HIV and AIDS programs were systematically reviewed to develop a conceptual model of interaction. Measurements for constructs of the model were pooled from the latest publicly available data. A hypothetical model, including latent/unobserved factors and interaction of enablers, program activities and outcomes, was analyzed cross-sectionally with structural equation modeling. Coefficients of the model were used to estimate the indirect associations of enablers to treatment coverage and the subsequent associated impact on AIDS related mortality. Findings The model’s fit was adequate (RMSEA = 0·084, 90% CI [0·062, 0·104]) and the indirect effects of enablers on outcomes were measured. Enablers having significant associations with increased ART coverage were social/financial protection, governance, anti-discrimination, gender equality, domestic AIDS spending, testing service delivery, and logistics. Interpretation Critical enablers are significantly correlated to outcomes like ART coverage and AIDS related mortality. Even while this model does not allow inference on causality, it provides directionality and magnitude of the significant associations. PMID:28225790

  7. Underwater microwave ignition of hydrophobic thermite powder enabled by the bubble-marble effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meir, Yehuda; Jerby, Eli

    2015-08-01

    Highly energetic thermite reactions could be useful for a variety of combustion and material-processing applications, but their usability is yet limited by their hard ignition conditions. Furthermore, in virtue of their zero-oxygen balance, exothermic thermite reactions may also occur underwater. However, this feature is also hard to utilize because of the hydrophobic properties of the thermite powder, and its tendency to agglomerate on the water surface rather than to sink into the water. The recently discovered bubble-marble (BM) effect enables the insertion and confinement of a thermite-powder batch into water by a magnetic field. Here, we present a phenomenon of underwater ignition of a thermite-BM by localized microwaves. The thermite combustion underwater is observed in-situ, and its microwave absorption and optical spectral emission are detected. The vapour pressure generated by the thermite reaction is measured and compared to theory. The combustion products are examined ex-situ by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy which verifies the thermite reaction. Potential applications of this underwater combustion effect are considered, e.g., for detonation, wet welding, thermal drilling, material processing, thrust generation, and composite-material production, also for other oxygen-free environments.

  8. Underwater microwave ignition of hydrophobic thermite powder enabled by the bubble-marble effect

    SciTech Connect

    Meir, Yehuda; Jerby, Eli

    2015-08-03

    Highly energetic thermite reactions could be useful for a variety of combustion and material-processing applications, but their usability is yet limited by their hard ignition conditions. Furthermore, in virtue of their zero-oxygen balance, exothermic thermite reactions may also occur underwater. However, this feature is also hard to utilize because of the hydrophobic properties of the thermite powder, and its tendency to agglomerate on the water surface rather than to sink into the water. The recently discovered bubble-marble (BM) effect enables the insertion and confinement of a thermite-powder batch into water by a magnetic field. Here, we present a phenomenon of underwater ignition of a thermite-BM by localized microwaves. The thermite combustion underwater is observed in-situ, and its microwave absorption and optical spectral emission are detected. The vapour pressure generated by the thermite reaction is measured and compared to theory. The combustion products are examined ex-situ by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy which verifies the thermite reaction. Potential applications of this underwater combustion effect are considered, e.g., for detonation, wet welding, thermal drilling, material processing, thrust generation, and composite-material production, also for other oxygen-free environments.

  9. Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief

    PubMed Central

    Harshman, Dustin K.; Rao, Brianna M.; McLain, Jean E.; Watts, George S.; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics offers quick access to information but fails to operate at a speed required for clinical decision-making. Our novel methodology, droplet-on-thermocouple silhouette real-time polymerase chain reaction (DOTS qPCR), uses interfacial effects for droplet actuation, inhibition relief, and amplification sensing. DOTS qPCR has sample-to-answer times as short as 3 min 30 s. In infective endocarditis diagnosis, DOTS qPCR demonstrates reproducibility, differentiation of antibiotic susceptibility, subpicogram limit of detection, and thermocycling speeds of up to 28 s/cycle in the presence of tissue contaminants. Langmuir and Gibbs adsorption isotherms are used to describe the decreasing interfacial tension upon amplification. Moreover, a log-linear relationship with low threshold cycles is presented for real-time quantification by imaging the droplet-on-thermocouple silhouette with a smartphone. DOTS qPCR resolves several limitations of commercially available real-time PCR systems, which rely on fluorescence detection, have substantially higher threshold cycles, and require expensive optical components and extensive sample preparation. Due to the advantages of low threshold cycle detection, we anticipate extending this technology to biological research applications such as single cell, single nucleus, and single DNA molecule analyses. Our work is the first demonstrated use of interfacial effects for sensing reaction progress, and it will enable point-of-care molecular diagnosis of infections. PMID:26601245

  10. The Effectiveness of a Vocational Enablement Protocol for Employees With Hearing Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Gussenhoven, Arjenne H. M.; Anema, Johannes R.; Witte, Birgit I.; Goverts, S. Theo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a vocational enablement protocol (VEP) on need for recovery (NFR) after work as compared with usual care for employees with hearing difficulties. In a randomized controlled trial design, 136 employees with hearing impairment were randomly assigned to either the VEP or the control group. VEP is a multidisciplinary program integrating audiological and occupational care for individuals experiencing difficulties in the workplace due to hearing loss. The primary outcome measure was NFR. Secondary outcome measures were communication strategy subscales (e.g., self-acceptance and maladaptive behavior), distress, and self-efficacy. Data were collected using questionnaires at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months follow-up. No significant difference over the complete follow-up period was found between the intervention and control group for NFR. However, we observed a significant difference for one of the secondary outcomes after 12 months. “Self-acceptance” increased significantly in the VEP group, compared with the controls. The mean difference between the two groups was small, being only 0.24 (95% CI [0.04, 0.44]) on a scale of 1 to 5. The results do not support the use of VEP if the aim is to reduce NFR after work at 12 months follow-up. It may be that NFR does not adequately capture what is covered in the VEP. Although marginal, the effect on self-acceptance was significant. This is encouraging given that positive effects on self-acceptance have rarely been shown for audiological rehabilitation programs. Suggestions for further improvement of the VEP are discussed.

  11. Chemical and engineering approaches to enable organic field-effect transistors for electronic skin applications.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Anatoliy N; Tee, Benjamin C-K; Bettinger, Christopher J; Tok, Jeffrey B-H; Bao, Zhenan

    2012-03-20

    Skin is the body's largest organ and is responsible for the transduction of a vast amount of information. This conformable material simultaneously collects signals from external stimuli that translate into information such as pressure, pain, and temperature. The development of an electronic material, inspired by the complexity of this organ is a tremendous, unrealized engineering challenge. However, the advent of carbon-based electronics may offer a potential solution to this long-standing problem. In this Account, we describe the use of an organic field-effect transistor (OFET) architecture to transduce mechanical and chemical stimuli into electrical signals. In developing this mimic of human skin, we thought of the sensory elements of the OFET as analogous to the various layers and constituents of skin. In this fashion, each layer of the OFET can be optimized to carry out a specific recognition function. The separation of multimodal sensing among the components of the OFET may be considered a "divide and conquer" approach, where the electronic skin (e-skin) can take advantage of the optimized chemistry and materials properties of each layer. This design of a novel microstructured gate dielectric has led to unprecedented sensitivity for tactile pressure events. Typically, pressure-sensitive components within electronic configurations have suffered from a lack of sensitivity or long mechanical relaxation times often associated with elastomeric materials. Within our method, these components are directly compatible with OFETs and have achieved the highest reported sensitivity to date. Moreover, the tactile sensors operate on a time scale comparable with human skin, making them ideal candidates for integration as synthetic skin devices. The methodology is compatible with large-scale fabrication and employs simple, commercially available elastomers. The design of materials within the semiconductor layer has led to the incorporation of selectivity and sensitivity within

  12. Lensing effects in an inhomogeneous universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, L.; Goliath, M.; Goobar, A.; Mörtsell, E.

    2000-06-01

    Recently, Holz & Wald have presented a new method for determining gravitational lensing effects on, e.g., supernova luminosity versus redshift measurements in inhomogeneous universes. In this paper, their method is generalized in several ways: First, the matter content is allowed to consist of several different types of fluids, possibly with non-vanishing pressure. Second, besides lensing by simple point masses and singular isothermal spheres, the more realistic halo dark matter distribution proposed by Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW), based on N-body simulation results, is treated. We discuss various aspects of the accuracy of the method, such as luminosity corrections, and statistics, for multiple images. We find in agreement with other recent work that a large sample of supernovae at large redshift could be used to extract gross features of the mass distribution of the lensing dark matter halos, such as the existence of a large number of point-like objects. The results for the isothermal sphere and the NFW model are, however, very similar if normalized to the observed luminosity distribution of galaxies. We give convenient analytical fitting formulas for our computed lensing probabilites as a function of magnification, for several redshifts.

  13. Demonstration of high current carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors at industrially relevant voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Mitchell

    The display market is presently dominated by the active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD). However, the active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) display is argued to become the successor to the LCD, and is already beginning its way into the market, mainly in small size displays. But, for AMOLED technology to become comparable in market share to LCD, larger size displays must become available at a competitive price with their LCD counterparts. A major issue preventing low-cost large AMOLED displays is the thin-film transistor (TFT) technology. Unlike the voltage driven LCD, the OLEDs in the AMOLED display are current driven. Because of this, the mature amorphous silicon TFT backplane technology used in the LCD must be upgraded to a material possessing a higher mobility. Polycrystalline silicon and transparent oxide TFT technologies are being considered to fill this need. But these technologies bring with them significant manufacturing complexity and cost concerns. Carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors (CN-VFETs) offer a unique solution to this problem (now known as the AMOLED backplane problem). The CN-VFET allows the use of organic semiconductors to be used for the semiconductor layer. Organics are known for their low-cost large area processing compatibility. Although the mobility of the best organics is only comparable to that of amorphous silicon, the CN-VFET makes up for this by orienting the channel vertically, as opposed to horizontally (like in conventional TFTs). This allows the CN-VFET to achieve sub-micron channel lengths without expensive high resolution patterning. Additionally, because the CN-VFET can be easily converted into a light emitting transistor (called the carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic light emitting transistor---CN-VOLET) by essentially stacking an OLED on top of the CN-VFET, more potential benefits can be realized. These potential benefits include, increased aperture ratio, increased OLED

  14. Provision of Effectiveness of University Education on the Market Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuznetsov, Nikolai; Usenko, Lyudmila; Ivanova, Olga; Kostoglodova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and determine the effectiveness of university education on the economy of various countries. Design/methodology/approach: To determine the necessity and expedience of making provision for the effectiveness of university education on the market economy, this work uses the method of regression and…

  15. Exploring Effective Academic Governance at a Canadian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lougheed, Patrick; Pidgeon, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    In Canada, only 44% of members of academic governance bodies at universities feel that their boards are effective decision-making bodies (Jones, Shanahan, & Goyan, 2004). In this study, we examined the views of senators at a British Columbia university regarding their senate's effectiveness in decision-making, including structures, processes,…

  16. Global University Rankings--Impacts and Unintended Side Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehm, Barbara M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, global and other university rankings are critically assessed with regard to their unintended side effects and their impacts on the European and national landscape of universities, as well as on individual institutions. An emphasis is put on the effects of ranking logics rather than on criticising their methodology. Nevertheless,…

  17. Effect upon universal order of Hubble expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frieden, B. R.; Plastino, A.; Plastino, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    The level of order R in a spherical system of radius r0 with a probability amplitude function ψ(x),x=r,θ,ϕ obeys R=(1/2)r02I, where I=4∫dx| is its Fisher information level. We show that a flat space universe obeying the Robertson-Walker metric has an invariant value of the order as it undergoes either uniform Hubble expansion or contraction. This means that Hubble expansion per se does not cause a loss of universal order as time progresses. Instead, coarse graining processes characterizing decoherence and friction might cause a loss of order. Alternatively, looking backward in time, i.e. under Hubble contraction, as the big bang is approached and the Hubble radius r0 approaches small values, the structure in the amplitude function ψ(x) becomes ever more densely packed, increasing all local slopes ∇ψ and causing the Fisher information I to approach unboundedly large values. As a speculation, this ever-well locates the initial position of the universe in a larger, multiverse. We define a measure of order or complexity proportional to the Fisher information. The measure is applied to our flat-space, dust and gas dominated, universe. Despite the universe’s relentless, ever-accelerating Hubble expansion, its level of order is found to remain constant.

  18. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF UNIVERSITY MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ANDREWS, KENNETH R.; AND OTHERS

    THE REACTIONS OF 6,000 BUSINESS EXECUTIVES TO FORMAL UNIVERSITY EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS WERE GATHERED BY QUESTIONNAIRE AND A FEW INTERVIEWS. OF THE TOTAL POPULATION, 80 PERCENT REACTED SO FAVORABLY THAT DIFFERENCES IN LENGTH, COSTS, AND QUALITY WERE ALMOST OBSCURED. OF SEVEN ACTIVITIES, THEY RANKED CLASS SESSIONS FIRST, THEN STUDY GROUPS…

  19. Effect of centrifugation on water recycling and algal growth to enable algae biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Igou, Thomas; Van Ginkel, Steven W; Penalver-Argueso, Patricia; Fu, Hao; Doi, Shusuke; Narode, Asmita; Cheruvu, Sarasija; Zhang, Qian; Hassan, Fariha; Woodruff, Frazier; Chen, Yongsheng

    2014-12-01

    The latest research shows that algal biofuels, at the production levels mandated in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, will place significant demands on water and compete with agriculture meant for food production. Thus, there is a great need to recycle water while producing algal biofuels. This study shows that when using a synthetic medium, soluble algal products, bacteria, and other inhibitors can be removed by centrifugation and enable water recycling. Average water recovery reached 84% and water could be recycled at least 10 times without reducing algal growth.

  20. Effectiveness of Relationship Marketing Tactics in a University Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trocchia, Philip J.; Finney, R. Zachary; Finney, Treena Gillespie

    2013-01-01

    We test the correlation between student perception of three university relationship-building tactics--commercial friendships, preferential treatment, and tangible rewards--with university student satisfaction. We also test whether two student characteristics--enduring involvement with education and sense of entitlement--have a moderating effect on…

  1. Do UK Universities Communicate Their Brands Effectively through Their Websites?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapleo, Chris; Duran, Maria Victoria Carrillo; Diaz, Ana Castillo

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the effectiveness of UK universities' websites. The area of branding in higher education has received increasing academic investigation, but little work has researched how universities demonstrate their brand promises through their websites. The quest to differentiate through branding can be challenging in the…

  2. Cognitive Counselling Intervention: Treatment Effectiveness in an Italian University Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strepparava, Maria Grazia; Bani, Marco; Zorzi, Federico; Corrias, Deborah; Dolce, Rossella; Rezzonico, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Offering counselling to students is increasingly considered as a key academic service. However, the reduction of resources allocated to Italian universities emphasises the need to assess the quality of interventions. This paper presents data reporting the effectiveness of a university counselling service. A sample of 45 undergraduate students…

  3. The High Degree of Sequence Plasticity of the Arenavirus Noncoding Intergenic Region (IGR) Enables the Use of a Nonviral Universal Synthetic IGR To Attenuate Arenaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Masaharu; Cubitt, Beatrice; Sullivan, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses (HFAs) pose important public health problems in regions where they are endemic. Concerns about human-pathogenic arenaviruses are exacerbated because of the lack of FDA-licensed arenavirus vaccines and because current antiarenaviral therapy is limited to an off-label use of ribavirin that is only partially effective. We have recently shown that the noncoding intergenic region (IGR) present in each arenavirus genome segment, the S and L segments (S-IGR and L-IGR, respectively), plays important roles in the control of virus protein expression and that this knowledge could be harnessed for the development of live-attenuated vaccine strains to combat HFAs. In this study, we further investigated the sequence plasticity of the arenavirus IGR. We demonstrate that recombinants of the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (rLCMVs), whose S-IGRs were replaced by the S-IGR of Lassa virus (LASV) or an entirely nonviral S-IGR-like sequence (Ssyn), are viable, indicating that the function of S-IGR tolerates a high degree of sequence plasticity. In addition, rLCMVs whose L-IGRs were replaced by Ssyn or S-IGRs of the very distantly related reptarenavirus Golden Gate virus (GGV) were viable and severely attenuated in vivo but able to elicit protective immunity against a lethal challenge with wild-type LCMV. Our findings indicate that replacement of L-IGR by a nonviral Ssyn could serve as a universal molecular determinant of arenavirus attenuation. IMPORTANCE Hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses (HFAs) cause high rates of morbidity and mortality and pose important public health problems in regions where they are endemic. Implementation of live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) will represent a major step to combat HFAs. Here we document that the arenavirus noncoding intergenic region (IGR) has a high degree of plasticity compatible with virus viability. This observation led us to generate recombinant LCMVs containing nonviral synthetic

  4. DOE SciDAC’s Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies Final Report for University of Southern California Information Sciences Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Chervenak, Ann Louise

    2013-12-19

    The mission of the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is to provide the worldwide climate-research community with access to the data, information, model codes, analysis tools, and intercomparison capabilities required to make sense of enormous climate data sets. Its specific goals are to (1) provide an easy-to-use and secure web-based data access environment for data sets; (2) add value to individual data sets by presenting them in the context of other data sets and tools for comparative analysis; (3) address the specific requirements of participating organizations with respect to bandwidth, access restrictions, and replication; (4) ensure that the data are readily accessible through the analysis and visualization tools used by the climate research community; and (5) transfer infrastructure advances to other domain areas. For the ESGF, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) team has led international development and delivered a production environment for managing and accessing ultra-scale climate data. This production environment includes multiple national and international climate projects (such as the Community Earth System Model and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project), ocean model data (such as the Parallel Ocean Program), observation data (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Best Estimate, Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center, Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, etc.), and analysis and visualization tools, all serving a diverse user community. These data holdings and services are distributed across multiple ESG-CET sites (such as ANL, LANL, LBNL/NERSC, LLNL/PCMDI, NCAR, and ORNL) and at unfunded partner sites, such as the Australian National University National Computational Infrastructure, the British Atmospheric Data Centre, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, the German Climate Computing

  5. Capturing Safety Requirements to Enable Effective Task Allocation Between Humans and Automaton in Increasingly Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neogi, Natasha A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a current drive towards enabling the deployment of increasingly autonomous systems in the National Airspace System (NAS). However, shifting the traditional roles and responsibilities between humans and automation for safety critical tasks must be managed carefully, otherwise the current emergent safety properties of the NAS may be disrupted. In this paper, a verification activity to assess the emergent safety properties of a clearly defined, safety critical, operational scenario that possesses tasks that can be fluidly allocated between human and automated agents is conducted. Task allocation role sets were proposed for a human-automation team performing a contingency maneuver in a reduced crew context. A safety critical contingency procedure (engine out on takeoff) was modeled in the Soar cognitive architecture, then translated into the Hybrid Input Output formalism. Verification activities were then performed to determine whether or not the safety properties held over the increasingly autonomous system. The verification activities lead to the development of several key insights regarding the implicit assumptions on agent capability. It subsequently illustrated the usefulness of task annotations associated with specialized requirements (e.g., communication, timing etc.), and demonstrated the feasibility of this approach.

  6. Note: electrical detection and quantification of Spin Rectification Effect enabled by shorted microstrip transmission line technique.

    PubMed

    Soh, Wee Tee; Peng, Bin; Chai, Guozhi; Ong, C K

    2014-02-01

    We describe a shorted microstrip method for the sensitive quantification of Spin Rectification Effect (SRE). SRE for a Permalloy (Ni80Fe20) thin film strip sputtered onto SiO2 substrate is demonstrated. Our method obviates the need for simultaneous lithographic patterning of the sample and transmission line, therefore greatly simplifying the SRE measurement process. Such a shorted microstrip method can allow different contributions to SRE (anisotropic magnetoresistance, Hall effect, and anomalous Hall effect) to be simultaneously determined. Furthermore, SRE signals from unpatterned 50 nm thick Permalloy films of area dimensions 5 mm × 10 mm can even be detected.

  7. Note: Electrical detection and quantification of spin rectification effect enabled by shorted microstrip transmission line technique

    SciTech Connect

    Soh, Wee Tee; Ong, C. K.; Peng, Bin; Chai, Guozhi

    2014-02-15

    We describe a shorted microstrip method for the sensitive quantification of Spin Rectification Effect (SRE). SRE for a Permalloy (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) thin film strip sputtered onto SiO{sub 2} substrate is demonstrated. Our method obviates the need for simultaneous lithographic patterning of the sample and transmission line, therefore greatly simplifying the SRE measurement process. Such a shorted microstrip method can allow different contributions to SRE (anisotropic magnetoresistance, Hall effect, and anomalous Hall effect) to be simultaneously determined. Furthermore, SRE signals from unpatterned 50 nm thick Permalloy films of area dimensions 5 mm × 10 mm can even be detected.

  8. Nanoparticle-mediated photothermal effect enables a new method for quantitative biochemical analysis using a thermometer.

    PubMed

    Fu, Guanglei; Sanjay, Sharma T; Dou, Maowei; Li, XiuJun

    2016-03-14

    A new biomolecular quantitation method, nanoparticle-mediated photothermal bioassay, using a common thermometer as the signal reader was developed. Using an immunoassay as a proof of concept, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) captured in the sandwich-type assay system were transformed into a near-infrared (NIR) laser-driven photothermal agent, Prussian blue (PB) NPs, which acted as a photothermal probe to convert the assay signal into heat through the photothermal effect, thus allowing sensitive biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer. This is the first report of biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer and also serves as the first attempt to introduce the nanoparticle-mediated photothermal effect for bioassays.

  9. The University of Kansas High-Throughput Screening Laboratory. Part II: enabling collaborative drug-discovery partnerships through cutting-edge screening technology.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Peter R; Roy, Anuradha; Chaguturu, Rathnam

    2011-07-01

    The University of Kansas High-Throughput Screening (KU HTS) core is a state-of-the-art drug-discovery facility with an entrepreneurial open-service policy, which provides centralized resources supporting public- and private-sector research initiatives. The KU HTS core was established in 2002 at the University of Kansas with support from an NIH grant and the state of Kansas. It collaborates with investigators from national and international academic, nonprofit and pharmaceutical organizations in executing HTS-ready assay development and screening of chemical libraries for target validation, probe selection, hit identification and lead optimization. This is part two of a contribution from the KU HTS laboratory.

  10. Great Principals at Scale: Creating District Conditions That Enable All Principals to Be Effective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikemoto, Gina; Taliaferro, Lori; Fenton, Benjamin; Davis, Jacquelyn

    2014-01-01

    School leaders are critical in the lives of students and to the development of their teachers. Unfortunately, in too many instances, principals are effective in spite of--rather than because of--district conditions. To truly improve student achievement for all students across the country, well-prepared principals need the tools, support, and…

  11. Great Principals at Scale: Creating District Conditions That Enable All Principals to Be Effective. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikemoto, Gina; Taliaferro, Lori; Fenton, Benjamin; Davis, Jacquelyn

    2014-01-01

    School leaders are critical in the lives of students and to the development of their teachers. Unfortunately, in too many instances, principals are effective in spite of--rather than because of--district conditions. To truly improve student achievement for all students across the country, well-prepared principals need the tools, support, and…

  12. The Relationship between School Climate, Trust, Enabling Structures, and Perceived School Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayerson, Deborah R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of Deborah R. Mayerson was to assess the relative impact of climate, trust, and bureaucratic structure upon teachers' perceptions of organizational effectiveness. An existing data set compiled by Nancy Casella (2006) for her dissertation was analyzed. The data consisted of questionnaire responses of a random sample of 220 public school…

  13. Local-field effects and nanostructuring for controlling optical properties and enabling novel optical phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgaleva, Ksenia

    My Ph. D. thesis is devoted to the investigation of the methods of controlling and improving the linear and nonlinear optical properties of materials. Within my studies, two approaches are considered: nanostructuring and invoking local-field effects. These broad topics involve various projects that I have undertaken during my Ph. D. research. The first project is on composite laser gain media. It involves both nanostructuring and using local-field effects to control the basic laser parameters, such as the radiative lifetime, small-signal gain and absorption, and the saturation intensity. While being involved in this project, I have performed both theoretical and experimental studies of laser characteristics of composite materials. In particular, I have developed simple theoretical models for calculating the effective linear susceptibilities of layered and Maxwell Garnett composite materials with a gain resonance in one of their components. The analysis of the results given by the models suggests that local-field effects provide considerable freedom in controlling the optical properties of composite laser gain media. I have also experimentally measured the radiative lifetime of Nd:YAG nanopowder suspended in different liquids to extract information regarding local-field effects. The second project is devoted to the investigation of a not-well-known phenomenon that local-field effects can induce, which is microscopic cascading in nonlinear optics. This project involves the theoretical prediction of local-field-induced microscopic cascading effect in the fifth-order nonlinear response and its first experimental observation. This effect has been mostly overlooked or underestimated, but could prove useful in quantum optics. I have shown that, under certain conditions, the microscopic cascaded contribution can be a dominant effect in high-order nonlinearities. The third project is about characterization of laser performance of a new dye, oligofluorene, embedded into

  14. Dopamine D2 receptors in striatal output neurons enable the psychomotor effects of cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Kharkwal, Geetika; Radl, Daniela; Lewis, Robert; Borrelli, Emiliana

    2016-01-01

    The psychomotor effects of cocaine are mediated by dopamine (DA) through stimulation of striatal circuits. Gabaergic striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are the only output of this pivotal structure in the control of movements. The majority of MSNs express either the DA D1 or D2 receptors (D1R, D2R). Studies have shown that the motor effect of cocaine depends on the DA-mediated stimulation of D1R-expressing MSNs (dMSNs), which is mirrored at the cellular level by stimulation of signaling pathways leading to phosphorylation of ERKs and induction of c-fos. Nevertheless, activation of dMSNs by cocaine is necessary but not sufficient, and D2R signaling is required for the behavioral and cellular effects of cocaine. Indeed, cocaine motor effects and activation of signaling in dMSNs are blunted in mice with the constitutive knockout of D2R (D2RKO). Using mouse lines with a cell-specific knockout of D2R either in MSNs (MSN-D2RKO) or in dopaminergic neurons (DA-D2RKO), we show that D2R signaling in MSNs is required and permissive for the motor stimulant effects of cocaine and the activation of signaling in dMSNs. MSN-D2RKO mice show the same phenotype as constitutive D2RKO mice both at the behavioral and cellular levels. Importantly, activation of signaling in dMSNs by cocaine is rescued by intrastriatal injection of the GABA antagonist, bicuculline. These results are in support of intrastriatal connections of D2R+-MSNs (iMSNs) with dMSNs and indicate that D2R signaling in MSNs is critical for the function of intrastriatal circuits. PMID:27671625

  15. The Effective University: A Management By Objectives Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Graeme

    The goals and output evaluation to aid in the effective allocation of scarce resources at the University of Leeds (in Britain) is the focus of the book. The first chapter describes the purpose of the book, defines the terms effectiveness and efficiency, and presents the theoretical background of the study. The following goals and performance…

  16. An Analysis of the Effectiveness of University Counselling Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Aja L.; McKenzie, Karen; Murray, Kara R.; Richelieu, Marc

    2016-01-01

    It is important to demonstrate replicable evidence of the effectiveness of counselling procedures. The study aimed to contribute to the currently limited evidence base examining the effectiveness of university student counselling in the UK. Information on therapeutic outcome [based on Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure…

  17. Finite temperature effective potential in a Kaluza-Klein universe

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, P. )

    1990-01-20

    The authors evaluate the finite temperature one-loop effective potential for scalar fields in Kaluza-Klein universe consisting of the product of a space with open Robertson-Walker metric and the N sphere S{sup N}. The one-loop effective potential has been computed in both high and low temperature limits.

  18. University Students' Perceptions of the Life Effects of Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephanie; Gabel, Rodney; Irani, Farzan; Schlagheck, Adam

    2010-01-01

    An open-ended, written survey was administered to 146 university students who did not stutter to obtain their impressions of the effects of stuttering on the lives of people who stutter (PWS). Participants first wrote about the general effects of stuttering and then considered how their lives would be different if they stuttered. Both types of…

  19. High performance MoS2-based field-effect transistor enabled by hydrazine doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Dongsuk; Kannan, E. S.; Lee, Inyeal; Rathi, Servin; Li, Lijun; Lee, Yoontae; Atif Khan, Muhammad; Kang, Moonshik; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the n-type doping effect of hydrazine on the electrical characteristics of a molybdenum disulphide (MoS2)-based field-effect transistor (FET). The threshold voltage of the MoS2 FET shifted towards more negative values (from -20 to -70 V) on treating with 100% hydrazine solution with the channel current increasing from 0.5 to 25 μA at zero gate bias. The inverse subthreshold slope decreased sharply on doping, while the ON/OFF ratio increased by a factor of 100. Gate-channel coupling improved with doping, which facilitates the reduction of channel length between the source and drain electrodes without compromising on the transistor performance, making the MoS2-based FET easily scalable.

  20. Performance enhancement of organic photovoltaic devices enabled by Au nanoarrows inducing surface plasmonic resonance effect.

    PubMed

    Li, Shujun; Li, Zhiqi; Zhang, Xinyuan; Zhang, Zhihui; Liu, Chunyu; Shen, Liang; Guo, Wenbin; Ruan, Shengping

    2016-09-21

    The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of metal nanoparticles is widely employed in organic solar cells to enhance device performance. However, the light-harvesting improvement is highly dependent on the shape of the metal nanoparticles. In this study, the significantly enhanced performance upon incorporation of Au nanoarrows in solution-processed organic photovoltaic devices is demonstrated. Incorporating Au nanoarrows into the ZnO cathode buffer layer results in superior broadband optical absorption improvement and a power conversion efficiency of 7.82% is realized with a 27.3% enhancement compared with the control device. The experimental and theoretical results indicate that the introduction of Au nanoarrows not only increases optical trapping by the SPR effect but also facilitates exciton generation, dissociation, and charge transport inside the thin film device.

  1. Develop an Architecture to Enable Effective Information Process in Mitigating Asteroid's Threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, M.; Piccione, M.; Sun, M.; Yang, C. P.; Bambacus, M.; Seery, B.

    2015-12-01

    Research on asteroid impacts on Earth is crucial and challenging nationally and globally. Existing efforts for Near Earth Object (NEO) survey such as Catalina Sky Survey and SAO-minor planets center (MPC) have been established. However, our understanding of asteroids still needs to be advanced through physical characterization, modeling of atmospheric entry/breakup, and risk assessments of impacts (land and water), with emphases on small impactors. To achieve the goal of knowledge advancement, activities such as orbit determination, threat analysis, and impact simulation are fundamental, and all require accurate information and effective processing capability. Here we propose a planetary framework including the workflow, information flow, organization dependencies, and most importantly the cyberinfrastructure configuration required to achieve effective information processing. This framework will serve as a foundation for understanding the NEO hazard and building a long-term capability to counter a potential NEO impact threat.

  2. Toward responsible development and effective risk management of nano-enabled products in the U.S. construction industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Gavin H.; Lippy, Bruce E.; Cooper, Michael R.; Marsick, Daniel; Burrelli, Leonard G.; Griffin, Kelsey N.; Segrave, Alan M.

    2016-02-01

    The global construction sector is experiencing major improvements to building materials used in large quantities through commercial applications of nanotechnology. Nano-enabled construction products hold great promise for energy efficiency and resource conservation, but risk assessments lag as new products emerge. This paper presents results from an inventory, survey, and exposure assessment conducted by the authors and explores these findings in the broader context of evolving research trends and responsible development of nanotechnology. An inventory of 458 reportedly nano-enabled construction products provided insight into product availability, potential exposures, and deficiencies in risk communication that are barriers to adoption of proactive safety measures. Seasoned construction trainers surveyed were largely unaware of the availability of nano-enabled construction products. Exposure assessment demonstrated the effectiveness of ventilation to reduce exposures during mechanical abrasion of photocatalytic tiles containing titanium dioxide (TiO2). Dissociated particles of TiO2 just above the nanoscale (138 nm) were detected in the debris collected during cutting of the tiles, but measurements were below recommended exposure limits for TiO2. Exposure assessments remain scarce, and toxicological understanding primarily pertains to unincorporated nanomaterials; less is known about the occupational risks of nano-enabled construction products across their life cycle. Further research is needed to characterize and quantify exposure to debris released from nanocomposite materials for realistic risk assessment, and to ascertain how nanocomposite matrices, fillers, and degradation forces interact to affect release dynamics. Improving risk communication strategies and implementing safe work practices will cultivate responsible development of nanotechnology in construction, as will multidisciplinary research efforts.

  3. Nanoparticle-mediated photothermal effect enables a new method for quantitative biochemical analysis using a thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guanglei; Sanjay, Sharma T.; Dou, Maowei; Li, Xiujun

    2016-03-01

    A new biomolecular quantitation method, nanoparticle-mediated photothermal bioassay, using a common thermometer as the signal reader was developed. Using an immunoassay as a proof of concept, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) captured in the sandwich-type assay system were transformed into a near-infrared (NIR) laser-driven photothermal agent, Prussian blue (PB) NPs, which acted as a photothermal probe to convert the assay signal into heat through the photothermal effect, thus allowing sensitive biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer. This is the first report of biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer and also serves as the first attempt to introduce the nanoparticle-mediated photothermal effect for bioassays.A new biomolecular quantitation method, nanoparticle-mediated photothermal bioassay, using a common thermometer as the signal reader was developed. Using an immunoassay as a proof of concept, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) captured in the sandwich-type assay system were transformed into a near-infrared (NIR) laser-driven photothermal agent, Prussian blue (PB) NPs, which acted as a photothermal probe to convert the assay signal into heat through the photothermal effect, thus allowing sensitive biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer. This is the first report of biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer and also serves as the first attempt to introduce the nanoparticle-mediated photothermal effect for bioassays. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional information on FTIR characterization (Fig. S1), photothermal immunoassay of PSA in human serum samples (Table S1), and the Experimental section, including preparation of antibody-conjugated iron oxide NPs, sandwich-type immunoassay, characterization, and photothermal detection protocol. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09051b

  4. Nanoscale triboelectric-effect-enabled energy conversion for sustainably powering portable electronics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sihong; Lin, Long; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-12-12

    Harvesting energy from our living environment is an effective approach for sustainable, maintenance-free, and green power source for wireless, portable, or implanted electronics. Mechanical energy scavenging based on triboelectric effect has been proven to be simple, cost-effective, and robust. However, its output is still insufficient for sustainably driving electronic devices/systems. Here, we demonstrated a rationally designed arch-shaped triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) by utilizing the contact electrification between a polymer thin film and a metal thin foil. The working mechanism of the TENG was studied by finite element simulation. The output voltage, current density, and energy volume density reached 230 V, 15.5 μA/cm(2), and 128 mW/cm(3), respectively, and an energy conversion efficiency as high as 10-39% has been demonstrated. The TENG was systematically studied and demonstrated as a sustainable power source that can not only drive instantaneous operation of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) but also charge a lithium ion battery as a regulated power module for powering a wireless sensor system and a commercial cell phone, which is the first demonstration of the nanogenerator for driving personal mobile electronics, opening the chapter of impacting general people's life by nanogenerators.

  5. Mobile Technologies for Learning: Exploring Critical Mobile Learning Literacies as Enabler of Graduateness in a South African Research-Led University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosman, J. P.; Strydom, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    At Stellenbosch University there is a drive to integrate the development of graduate attributes and the use of emerging technologies in the curriculum. With the aim of discovering the role of emerging mobile technologies in learning a qualitative research project was undertaken with a senior-student cohort. An inductive thematic analysis was done…

  6. Universal scaling of the anomalous Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Wei; Wang, Kejie; Niu, Wei; Lai, Bolin; Maltby, Nick; Yang, Mao; Gao, Ming; Liu, Wenqing; He, Liang; Zhang, Rong; Xu, Yongbing

    2017-04-01

    We have undertaken a detailed study of the magneto-transport properties of ultra-thin Fe films epitaxially grown on GaAs (1 0 0). A metal–semiconductor transition has been observed with a critical thickness of 1.25 nm, which was thought to be related to the thermally activated tunneling between metallic clusters. By fitting {ρ\\text{AH}} versus ρ xx2 with the TYJ equation (Tian et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 087206), we found that the magnetization is negligible for the scaling of the anomalous Hall effect in ultra-thin Fe films. Furthermore, the intrinsic term, which is acquired by the linear fitting of {ρ\\text{AH}} versus ρ xx2 , shows an obvious decrease when the film thickness drops below 1.25 nm, which was thought to be related to the fading of the Berry curvature in the ultra-thin film limit.

  7. Contraceptive Counseling: Best Practices to Ensure Quality Communication and Enable Effective Contraceptive Use

    PubMed Central

    Dehlendorf, Christine; Krajewski, Colleen; Borrero, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    Improving the quality of contraceptive counseling is one strategy to prevent unintended pregnancy. We identify aspects of relational and task-oriented communication in family planning care that can assist providers in meeting their patients’ needs. Approaches to optimizing women's experiences of contraceptive counseling include working to develop a close, trusting relationship with patients and using a shared decision-making approach that focuses on eliciting and responding to patient preferences. Providing counseling about side effects and using strategies to promote contraceptive continuation and adherence can also help optimize women's use of contraception. PMID:25264697

  8. Intrinsic properties of cupric oxide nanoparticles enable effective filtration of arsenic from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Kyle J.; Reynolds, Brandon; Reddy, K. J.

    2015-06-01

    The contamination of arsenic in human drinking water supplies is a serious global health concern. Despite multiple years of research, sustainable arsenic treatment technologies have yet to be developed. This study demonstrates the intrinsic abilities of cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NP) towards arsenic adsorption and the development of a point-of-use filter for field application. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments were used to examine adsorption, desorption, and readsorption of aqueous arsenite and arsenate by CuO-NP. Field experiments were conducted with a point-of-use filter, coupled with real-time arsenic monitoring, to remove arsenic from domestic groundwater samples. The CuO-NP were regenerated by desorbing arsenate via increasing pH above the zero point of charge. Results suggest an effective oxidation of arsenite to arsenate on the surface of CuO-NP. Naturally occurring arsenic was effectively removed by both as-prepared and regenerated CuO-NP in a field demonstration of the point-of-use filter. A sustainable arsenic mitigation model for contaminated water is proposed.

  9. Intrinsic properties of cupric oxide nanoparticles enable effective filtration of arsenic from water

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Kyle J.; Reynolds, Brandon; Reddy, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of arsenic in human drinking water supplies is a serious global health concern. Despite multiple years of research, sustainable arsenic treatment technologies have yet to be developed. This study demonstrates the intrinsic abilities of cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NP) towards arsenic adsorption and the development of a point-of-use filter for field application. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments were used to examine adsorption, desorption, and readsorption of aqueous arsenite and arsenate by CuO-NP. Field experiments were conducted with a point-of-use filter, coupled with real-time arsenic monitoring, to remove arsenic from domestic groundwater samples. The CuO-NP were regenerated by desorbing arsenate via increasing pH above the zero point of charge. Results suggest an effective oxidation of arsenite to arsenate on the surface of CuO-NP. Naturally occurring arsenic was effectively removed by both as-prepared and regenerated CuO-NP in a field demonstration of the point-of-use filter. A sustainable arsenic mitigation model for contaminated water is proposed. PMID:26047164

  10. Five task clusters that enable efficient and effective digitization of biological collections

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Gil; Paul, Deborah; Riccardi, Gregory; Mast, Austin R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes and illustrates five major clusters of related tasks (herein referred to as task clusters) that are common to efficient and effective practices in the digitization of biological specimen data and media. Examples of these clusters come from the observation of diverse digitization processes. The staff of iDigBio (The U.S. National Science Foundation’s National Resource for Advancing Digitization of Biological Collections) visited active biological and paleontological collections digitization programs for the purpose of documenting and assessing current digitization practices and tools. These observations identified five task clusters that comprise the digitization process leading up to data publication: (1) pre-digitization curation and staging, (2) specimen image capture, (3) specimen image processing, (4) electronic data capture, and (5) georeferencing locality descriptions. While not all institutions are completing each of these task clusters for each specimen, these clusters describe a composite picture of digitization of biological and paleontological specimens across the programs that were observed. We describe these clusters, three workflow patterns that dominate the implemention of these clusters, and offer a set of workflow recommendations for digitization programs. PMID:22859876

  11. The effect of nanoparticle uptake on cellular behavior: disrupting or enabling functions?

    PubMed Central

    Panariti, Alice; Miserocchi, Giuseppe; Rivolta, Ilaria

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are materials with overall dimensions in the nanoscale range. They have unique physicochemical properties, and have emerged as important players in current research in modern medicine. In the last few decades, several types of NPs and microparticles have been synthesized and proposed for use as contrast agents for diagnostics and imaging and for drug delivery; for example, in cancer therapy. Yet specific targeting that will improve their delivery still represents an unsolved challenge. The mechanism by which NPs enter the cell has important implications not only for their fate but also for their impact on biological systems. Several papers in the literature discuss the potential risks related to NP exposure, and more recently the concept that even sublethal doses of NPs may elicit a cell response has been proposed. In this review, we intend to present an overall view of cell mechanisms that may be perturbed by cell–NP interaction. Published data, in fact, emphasize that NPs should no longer be viewed only as simple carriers for biomedical applications, but that they can also play an active role in mediating biological effects. PMID:24198499

  12. [Effective access to health services: operationalizing universal health coverage].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germán; Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; García-Saisó, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    The right to health and its operational form, as an organized social response to health: the right to health protection, are the mainstay for the global push towards universal health coverage. The path to achieve this goal is particular to each country and relates to the baseline and specific context in relation to what is feasible. In practical terms, universal coverage involves the correlation between demand and supply of services (promotion, prevention, and care), expressed by the ability for each individual to make use of services when these are required. In those terms universal coverage is then effective access. The objective of the paper is to explore the conceptualization of effective access to health services and propose a definition that allows its operationalization thereof. This definition considers key elements of supply and demand of services, including the availability of resources and adequate provision (quality), as well as barriers to use them.

  13. Factors Affecting University Teaching Team Effectiveness in Detached Working Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Roger; Kane, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of a study of the factors that contribute to teaching team effectiveness in situations where team members rarely meet face to face. Academic faculty within a university Business School were asked to report the degrees to which they believed that the module teaching teams to which they belonged contained members who…

  14. The Effectiveness of Academic Boards in University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable international literature acknowledging issues associated with the effectiveness of university academic boards (also known as academic senates or faculty senates), there is little current empirical research exploring why difficulties might exist and what (if anything) might be done about them. This article reports the findings…

  15. The Effect of Leadership on Service Delivery in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zvavahera, Promise

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at assessing leadership effectiveness on service delivery at the University of Namibia and all its campuses throughout the country. The study was carried out during the month of February 2013. The methodology consisted of document analysis, interviews through face to face, video and tele-conferencing. Purposive sampling was…

  16. Social and Cultural Factors That Effect University Women Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Hasan; Sabo, Helena Maria; Siyli, Nese Aysin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, social and cultural effects of the low rate of woman managers at universities are tried to be identified. Women have been increasingly appearing in every field of business; on the other hand, although women compared to men constitute majority in educational organisations, they appear in the positions other than management. We will…

  17. Strategies and Effectiveness of Rural Schools/University Collaborations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard K. Jr.; And Others

    This paper presents the findings of a study of the effectiveness of collaboration between the Rural Education Research and Service Consortium at Tennessee Technological University and rural schools in its service area. The study uses the instrumentation and research design of the Good Schools Project (GSP) initiated by Kappa Delta Pi in 1984.…

  18. Alcohol Use and the Effects on University Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Charles H.; Leonard, Valorie M.; Lebrasseur, Rolland

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol consumption on university undergraduate students in eight management schools in the province of Ontario, Canada. The study establishes two contrasting groups--the socially oriented and the academically oriented. It elaborates on the potential consequences that excessive drinking may have on the learning,…

  19. The AMERE project: Enabling real-time detection of radiation effects in individual cells in deep space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Meesen, Geert; Szpirer, Cedric; Scohy, Sophie; Cherukuri, Chaitanya; Evrard, Olivier; Hutsebaut, Xavier; Beghuin, Didier

    2012-12-01

    A major concern for long-term deep space missions is the detrimental impact of cosmic radiation on human health. Especially the presence of high-energy particles of high atomic mass (HZE) represents a serious threat. To contribute to a fundamental understanding of space radiation effects and to help improving risk assessment for humans on the Moon, the ESA Lunar Lander mission model payload includes a package dedicated to cell-based radiobiology experiments in the form of an Autonomous Microscope for Examination of Radiation Effects (AMERE). The purpose of this setup is to enable real-time visualization of DNA damage repair in living cells after traversal of HZE particles on the Moon. To assess the feasibility of this challenging experiment, we have analysed the biological and technological demands. In this article, we discuss the experimental concept, the biological considerations and describe the implications for system design.

  20. Sustainability and scale-up of household water treatment and safe storage practices: Enablers and barriers to effective implementation.

    PubMed

    Ojomo, Edema; Elliott, Mark; Goodyear, Lorelei; Forson, Michael; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-11-01

    Household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) provides a solution, when employed correctly and consistently, for managing water safety at home. However, despite years of promotion by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), governments and others, boiling is the only method to achieve scale. Many HWTS programs have reported strong initial uptake and use that then decreases over time. This study maps out enablers and barriers to sustaining and scaling up HWTS practices. Interviews were carried out with 79 practitioners who had experience with HWTS programs in over 25 countries. A total of 47 enablers and barriers important to sustaining and scaling up HWTS practices were identified. These were grouped into six domains: user guidance on HWTS products; resource availability; standards, certification and regulations; integration and collaboration; user preferences; and market strategies. Collectively, the six domains cover the major aspects of moving products from development to the consumers. It is important that each domain is considered in all programs that aim to sustain and scale-up HWTS practices. Our findings can assist governments, NGOs, and other organizations involved in HWTS to approach programs more effectively and efficiently.

  1. The effect of educational intervention on girl's behavior regarding nutrition: Applying the beliefs, attitudes, subjective norms, and enabling factors

    PubMed Central

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Hazavei, Mohammad Mehdi; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an educational program based on the Belief, Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Enabling Factors (BASNEF) Model on the nutritional behavior among second-grade, middle school, female students in Isfahan city. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 72 students. The samples were randomly divided in two groups (36 in the intervention group and 36 in the control group). The data collection tools were validated and had reliable questionnaires. For the intervention group, a 75-minute educational session was held thrice. The control group had no education. The BASNEF model constructs guided the development of the questionnaires and content of the educational sessions. The independent t-test and paired t-test were used to analyze the data. A two-tailed P value lower than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Result: According to the results, the mean scores of knowledge and model variables (Belief, Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Enabling Factors) had a significant difference in the two groups after intervention (P < 0.001). On the basis of the findings, after educational intervention, 36.1% of the students had unfavorable nutritional behavior. In the control group, 88.9% of the students had unfavorable nutritional behavior, before and one month after intervention. Conclusion: The present study showed that nutrition education intervention based on the BASNEF model could promote the nutritional behavior in girl students. PMID:25250345

  2. Effective visualization of integrated knowledge and data to enable informed decisions in drug development and translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Brynne, Lena; Bresell, Anders; Sjögren, Niclas

    2013-10-08

    Integrative understanding of preclinical and clinical data is imperative to enable informed decisions and reduce the attrition rate during drug development. The volume and variety of data generated during drug development have increased tremendously. A new information model and visualization tool was developed to effectively utilize all available data and current knowledge. The Knowledge Plot integrates preclinical, clinical, efficacy and safety data by adding two concepts: knowledge from the different disciplines and protein binding.Internal and public available data were gathered and processed to allow flexible and interactive visualizations. The exposure was expressed as the unbound concentration of the compound and the treatment effect was normalized and scaled by including expert opinion on what a biologically meaningful treatment effect would be.The Knowledge Plot has been applied both retrospectively and prospectively in project teams in a number of different therapeutic areas, resulting in closer collaboration between multiple disciplines discussing both preclinical and clinical data. The Plot allows head to head comparisons of compounds and was used to support Candidate Drug selections and differentiation from comparators and competitors, back translation of clinical data, understanding the predictability of preclinical models and assays, reviewing drift in primary endpoints over the years, and evaluate or benchmark compounds in due diligence comparing multiple attributes.The Knowledge Plot concept allows flexible integration and visualization of relevant data for interpretation in order to enable scientific and informed decision-making in various stages of drug development. The concept can be used for communication, decision-making, knowledge management, and as a forward and back translational tool, that will result in an improved understanding of the competitive edge for a particular project or disease area portfolio. In addition, it also builds up a

  3. Universal Charge Diffusion and the Butterfly Effect in Holographic Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Mike

    2016-08-01

    We study charge diffusion in holographic scaling theories with a particle-hole symmetry. We show that these theories have a universal regime in which the diffusion constant is given by Dc=C vB2/(2 π T ), where vB is the velocity of the butterfly effect. The constant of proportionality C depends only on the scaling exponents of the infrared theory. Our results suggest an unexpected connection between transport at strong coupling and quantum chaos.

  4. Effect of university policies on research productions: a scientometric study

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Mohammad-Reza; Rahmati-Roodsari, Mohammad; Rahmdar, Saeid-Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to assess the effect of new package of interventions on scientific productions rate in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Methods: Through a health system research, we extracted policies from the strategic plan of the university and 10 interventions were developed to increase the scientific productions in terms of quality, quantity and commercialization and to develop infrastructure for research in health service provision and education. For evaluating the effectiveness of interventions, citation and publication indicators for individuals and schools were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t-test. They were extracted from Scopus and ISI web of knowledge during period of 1/1/2009 to 30/5/2012. Results: There was an increasing trend in scientific productions from 2009 to mid-2012. We found 60 percent of total scientific productions of the university were published during last 3.5 years. During this 3.5 years, 10 more percentile of faculty members involved in research. Schools of pharmacy, Medicine and Health had the highest scientific products. Mean for h-index was 1.5 (SD=2.49) in ISI and 1.9 (SD=2.89) in Scopus database (p<0.001). Conclusion: Effective policies and interventions lead to 46% increase in scientific productions from 2009 to 2010 and 56% increase from 2010 to 2011. PMID:25405128

  5. Maximizing Power Output in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines and Enabling Effective Control of Combustion Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Samveg

    Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines are one of the most promising engine technologies for the future of energy conversion from clean, efficient combustion. HCCI engines allow high efficiency and lower CO2 emission through the use of high compression ratios and the removal of intake throttle valves (like Diesel), and allow very low levels of urban pollutants like nitric oxide and soot (like Otto). These engines, however, are not without their challenges, such as low power density compared with other engine technologies, and a difficulty in controlling combustion timing. This dissertation first addresses the power output limits. The particular strategies for enabling high power output investigated in this dissertation focus on avoiding five critical limits that either damage an engine, drastically reduce efficiency, or drastically increase emissions: (1) ringing limits, (2) peak in-cylinder pressure limits, (3) misfire limits, (4) low intake temperature limits, and (5) excessive emissions limits. The research shows that the key factors that enable high power output, sufficient for passenger vehicles, while simultaneously avoiding the five limits defined above are the use of: (1) high intake air pressures allowing improved power output, (2) highly delayed combustion timing to avoid ringing limits, and (3) using the highest possible equivalence ratio before encountering ringing limits. These results are revealed by conducting extensive experiments spanning a wide range of operating conditions on a multi-cylinder HCCI engine. Second, this dissertation discusses strategies for effectively sensing combustion characteristics on a HCCI engine. For effective feedback control of HCCI combustion timing, a sensor is required to quantify when combustion occurs. Many laboratory engines use in-cylinder pressure sensors but these sensors are currently prohibitively expensive for wide-scale commercialization. Instead, ion sensors made from inexpensive sparkplugs

  6. Effectiveness, usability, and acceptability of haptic-enabled virtual reality and mannequin modality simulators for surgical cricothyroidotomy.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Michael D; Campbell-Wynn, Lillian

    2014-03-01

    This research assesses the effectiveness, usability, and acceptability of mannequin and haptic-enabled virtual reality (VR) modality simulators by Army medics in a surgical cricothyroidotomy procedure. Research methods investigate through experimentation surgical task performance, technology acceptance, user recommendation, comparative analysis, and select cognitive task load results. Results indicate that the HapMed mannequin and CricSim VR simulators proved effective by meeting training task performance evaluation requirements. Both systems meet 95% user technology acceptance and 85% user recommendation levels. In conclusion, at those levels, either system may complement, reduce, or replace the use of some alternative training methods such as animals or cadavers. To raise recommendation rates, future research needs to reduce barriers to blending visualization with mannequin modalities and make further refinements within the modalities. One research pathway identified blends a mannequin with stereoscopic visualization and motion parallax, providing correlated, partially transparent visual layers of anatomy and of various medical procedures in virtual overlay with the mannequin. Future research also needs to clarify acceptable degrees of freedom levels by task for haptics VR in light of real-world degrees of freedom requirements. Finally, artificial skin may need research to achieve better replication of human skin on mannequins.

  7. Light-Driven Overall Water Splitting Enabled by a Photo-Dember Effect Realized on 3D Plasmonic Structures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Gu, Jiajun; Sun, Cheng; Zhao, Yixin; Zhang, Ruoxi; You, Xinyuan; Liu, Qinglei; Zhang, Wang; Su, Yishi; Su, Huilan; Zhang, Di

    2016-07-26

    Photoelectric conversion driven by sunlight has a broad range of energy/environmental applications (e.g., in solar cells and water splitting). However, difficulties are encountered in the separation of photoexcited charges. Here, we realize a long-range (∼1.5 μm period) electric polarization via asymmetric localization of surface plasmons on a three-dimensional silver structure (3D-Ag). This visible-light-responsive effect-the photo-Dember effect, can be analogous to the thermoelectric effect, in which hot carriers are thermally generated instead of being photogenerated. The induced electric field can efficiently separate photogenerated charges, enabling sunlight-driven overall water splitting on a series of dopant-free commercial semiconductor particles (i.e., ZnO, CeO2, TiO2, and WO3) once they are combined with the 3D-Ag substrate. These photocatalytic processes can last over 30 h on 3D-Ag+ZnO, 3D-Ag+CeO2, and 3D-Ag+TiO2, thus demonstrating good catalytic stability for these systems. Using commercial WO3 powder as a reference, the amount of O2 generated with 3D-Ag+CeO2 surpasses even its recently reported counterpart in which sacrificial reagents had to be involved to run half-reactions. This plasmon-mediated charge separation strategy provides an effective way to improve the efficiency of photoelectric energy conversion, which can be useful in photovoltaics and photocatalysis.

  8. Effective cosmological constant within the expanding axion universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierpoint, M. P.; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    2014-09-01

    We show that the value of an effective cosmological constant, Λeff, is influenced by the dimensionality of the space. Results were obtained in the framework of the axion model describing expansion of the inhomogeneous universe. Λeff determines the tension of the space (i.e. elasticity), and is relaxed when extra dimensions are accessible. We demonstrate that the effective value of the cosmological constant may be tuned to be consistent with experimental observation. Inhomogeneities considered are representative of temperature fluctuations observed within the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  9. Effects of University Education on the Conception of Reality. Reports from the Institute of Education, University of Goteborg.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlgren, Lars Owe

    The effects of university education in economics on students' conceptions of economic aspects of their everyday life were studied. A random sample of 15 beginninq students at the University of Goteborg, Sweden, were interviewed before and after the course. Ten questions were asked that were taken from the students' everyday life and brought out…

  10. Effectiveness of University Bridging Programs in Preparing Students for University Education: A Case from East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ssempebwa, Jude; Eduan, Wilson; Mulumba, Fawz Nassir

    2012-01-01

    Study abroad brings several advantages to students, universities, countries, and academe. However, across countries with incongruent preuniversity education structures, some students are denied admission to foreign universities, due to gaps in their admissibility. Some institutions offer university bridging programs, to enhance the admissibility…

  11. The effects of China's universal two-child policy.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Hesketh, Therese

    2016-10-15

    In October, 2015, China's one-child policy was replaced by a universal two-child policy. The effects of the new policy are inevitably speculative, but predictions can be made based on recent trends. The population increase will be relatively small, peaking at 1·45 billion in 2029 (compared with a peak of 1·4 billion in 2023 if the one-child policy continued). The new policy will allow almost all Chinese people to have their preferred number of children. The benefits of the new policy include: a large reduction in abortions of unapproved pregnancies, virtual elimination of the problem of unregistered children, and a more normal sex ratio. All of these effects should improve health outcomes. Effects of the new policy on the shrinking workforce and rapid population ageing will not be evident for two decades. In the meantime, more sound policy actions are needed to meet the social, health, and care needs of the elderly population.

  12. Effective Temperature and Universal Conductivity Scaling in Organic Semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Hassan; van de Ruit, Kevin; Kemerink, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the scalability of the temperature- and electric field-dependence of the conductivity of disordered organic semiconductors to ‘universal’ curves by two different but commonly employed methods; by so-called universal scaling and by using the effective temperature concept. Experimentally both scaling methods were found to be equally applicable to the out-of-plane charge transport in PEDOT:PSS thin films of various compositions. Both methods are shown to be equivalent in terms of functional dependence and to have identical limiting behavior. The experimentally observed scaling behavior can be reproduced by a numerical nearest-neighbor hopping model, accounting for the Coulomb interaction, the high charge carrier concentration and the energetic disorder. The underlying physics can be captured in a simple empirical model, describing the effective temperature of the charge carrier distribution as the outcome of a heat balance between Joule heating and (effective) temperature-dependent energy loss to the lattice. PMID:26581975

  13. Combined Changes in Chloride Regulation and Neuronal Excitability Enable Primary Afferent Depolarization to Elicit Spiking without Compromising its Inhibitory Effects

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The central terminals of primary afferent fibers experience depolarization upon activation of GABAA receptors (GABAAR) because their intracellular chloride concentration is maintained above electrochemical equilibrium. Primary afferent depolarization (PAD) normally mediates inhibition via sodium channel inactivation and shunting but can evoke spikes under certain conditions. Antidromic (centrifugal) conduction of these spikes may contribute to neurogenic inflammation while orthodromic (centripetal) conduction could contribute to pain in the case of nociceptive fibers. PAD-induced spiking is assumed to override presynaptic inhibition. Using computer simulations and dynamic clamp experiments, we sought to identify which biophysical changes are required to enable PAD-induced spiking and whether those changes necessarily compromise PAD-mediated inhibition. According to computational modeling, a depolarizing shift in GABA reversal potential (EGABA) and increased intrinsic excitability (manifest as altered spike initiation properties) were necessary for PAD-induced spiking, whereas increased GABAAR conductance density (ḡGABA) had mixed effects. We tested our predictions experimentally by using dynamic clamp to insert virtual GABAAR conductances with different EGABA and kinetics into acutely dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron somata. Comparable experiments in central axon terminals are prohibitively difficult but the biophysical requirements for PAD-induced spiking are arguably similar in soma and axon. Neurons from naïve (i.e. uninjured) rats were compared before and after pharmacological manipulation of intrinsic excitability, and against neurons from nerve-injured rats. Experimental data confirmed that, in most neurons, both predicted changes were necessary to yield PAD-induced spiking. Importantly, such changes did not prevent PAD from inhibiting other spiking or from blocking spike propagation. In fact, since the high value of ḡGABA required for PAD

  14. Liquid metal enabled pump

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Sivan, Vijay; Petersen, Phred; O’Mullane, Anthony P.; Abbott, Derek; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale pumps will be the heartbeat of many future micro/nanoscale platforms. However, the integration of small-scale pumps is presently hampered by limited flow rate with respect to the input power, and their rather complicated fabrication processes. These issues arise as many conventional pumping effects require intricate moving elements. Here, we demonstrate a system that we call the liquid metal enabled pump, for driving a range of liquids without mechanical moving parts, upon the application of modest electric field. This pump incorporates a droplet of liquid metal, which induces liquid flow at high flow rates, yet with exceptionally low power consumption by electrowetting/deelectrowetting at the metal surface. We present theory explaining this pumping mechanism and show that the operation is fundamentally different from other existing pumps. The presented liquid metal enabled pump is both efficient and simple, and thus has the potential to fundamentally advance the field of microfluidics. PMID:24550485

  15. Effective coverage: a metric for monitoring Universal Health Coverage.

    PubMed

    Ng, Marie; Fullman, Nancy; Dieleman, Joseph L; Flaxman, Abraham D; Murray, Christopher J L; Lim, Stephen S

    2014-09-01

    A major challenge in monitoring universal health coverage (UHC) is identifying an indicator that can adequately capture the multiple components underlying the UHC initiative. Effective coverage, which unites individual and intervention characteristics into a single metric, offers a direct and flexible means to measure health system performance at different levels. We view effective coverage as a relevant and actionable metric for tracking progress towards achieving UHC. In this paper, we review the concept of effective coverage and delineate the three components of the metric - need, use, and quality - using several examples. Further, we explain how the metric can be used for monitoring interventions at both local and global levels. We also discuss the ways that current health information systems can support generating estimates of effective coverage. We conclude by recognizing some of the challenges associated with producing estimates of effective coverage. Despite these challenges, effective coverage is a powerful metric that can provide a more nuanced understanding of whether, and how well, a health system is delivering services to its populations.

  16. Russian Practices in Rating the Effectiveness of University Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balatskii, E.

    2014-01-01

    Russian universities do not do well in international rankings. Recent attempts in Russia to create different forms of ranking are aimed at reflecting what strengths universities there may have, but it is up to the universities themselves to find ways to better characterize themselves in existing systems of ranking.

  17. The Effects of University-Industry Relationships and Academic Research on Scientific Performance: Synergy or Substitution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manjarres-Henriquez, Liney; Gutierrez-Gracia, Antonio; Carrion-Garcia, Andres; Vega-Jurado, Jaider

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates whether university-industry relationships (UIR) and academic research activities have complementary effects on the scientific production of university lecturers. The analysis is based on a case study of two Spanish universities. We find that the effects of R&D contracts with industry, and academic research activity on…

  18. Supporting Pre-Service Teachers' Technology-Enabled Learning Design Thinking through Whole of Programme Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt; Highfield, Kate; Furney, Pam; Mowbray, Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains a development and evaluation project aimed at transforming two pre-service teacher education programmes at Macquarie University to more effectively cultivate students' technology-enabled learning design thinking. The process of transformation was based upon an explicit and sustained focus on developing university academics'…

  19. Effects of quantum fluctuations of metric on the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rongjia

    2016-09-01

    We consider a model of modified gravity from the nonperturbative quantization of a metric. We obtain the modified gravitational field equations and the modified conservational equations. We apply it to the FLRW spacetime and find that due to the quantum fluctuations a bounce universe can be obtained and a decelerated expansion can also possibly be obtained in a dark energy dominated epoch. We also discuss the effects of quantum fluctuations on inflation parameters (such as slow-roll parameters, spectral index, and the spectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation) and find values of parameters in the comparing the predictions of inflation can also work to drive the current epoch of acceleration. We obtain the constraints on the parameter of the theory from the observation of the big bang nucleosynthesis.

  20. A Universal Moiré Effect and Application in X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Houxun; Panna, Alireza; Gomella, Andrew A.; Bennett, Eric E.; Znati, Sami; Chen, Lei; Wen, Han

    2016-01-01

    A moiré pattern is created by superimposing two black-and-white or gray-scale patterns of regular geometry, such as two sets of evenly spaced lines. We observed an analogous effect between two transparent phase masks in a light beam which occurs at a distance. This phase moiré effect and the classic moiré effect are shown to be the two ends of a continuous spectrum. The phase moiré effect allows the detection of sub-resolution intensity or phase patterns with a transparent screen. When applied to x-ray imaging, it enables a polychromatic far-field interferometer (PFI) without absorption gratings. X-ray interferometry can non-invasively detect refractive index variations inside an object1–10. Current bench-top interferometers operate in the near field with limitations in sensitivity and x-ray dose efficiency2, 5, 7–10. The universal moiré effect helps overcome these limitations and obviates the need to make hard x-ray absorption gratings of sub-micron periods. PMID:27746823

  1. Early universe cosmology, effective supergravity, and invariants of algebraic forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Kuver

    2015-09-01

    The presence of light scalars can have profound effects on early universe cosmology, influencing its thermal history as well as paradigms like inflation and baryogenesis. Effective supergravity provides a framework to make quantifiable, model-independent studies of these effects. The Riemannian curvature of the Kähler manifold spanned by scalars belonging to chiral superfields, evaluated along supersymmetry breaking directions, provides an order parameter (in the sense that it must necessarily take certain values) for phenomena as diverse as slow roll modular inflation, nonthermal cosmological histories, and the viability of Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. Within certain classes of UV completions, the order parameter for theories with n scalar moduli is conjectured to be related to invariants of n -ary cubic forms (for example, for models with three moduli, the order parameter is given by a function on the ring of invariants spanned by the Aronhold invariants). Within these completions, and under the caveats spelled out, this may provide an avenue to obtain necessary conditions for the above phenomena that are in principle calculable given nothing but the intersection numbers of a Calabi-Yau compactification geometry. As an additional result, abstract relations between holomorphic sectional and bisectional curvatures are utilized to constrain Affleck-Dine baryogenesis on a wide class of Kähler geometries.

  2. Enable, mediate, advocate.

    PubMed

    Saan, Hans; Wise, Marilyn

    2011-12-01

    The authors of the Ottawa Charter selected the words enable, mediate and advocate to describe the core activities in what was, in 1986, the new Public Health. This article considers these concepts and the values and ideas upon which they were based. We discuss their relevance in the current context within which health promotion is being conducted, and discuss the implications of changes in the health agenda, media and globalization for practice. We consider developments within health promotion since 1986: its central role in policy rhetoric, the increasing understanding of complexities and the interlinkage with many other societal processes. So the three core activities are reviewed: they still fit well with the main health promotion challenges, but should be refreshed by new ideas and values. As the role of health promotion in the political arena has grown we have become part of the policy establishment and that is a mixed blessing. Making way for community advocates is now our challenge. Enabling requires greater sensitivity to power relations involved and an understanding of the role of health literacy. Mediating keeps its central role as it bridges vital interests of parties. We conclude that these core concepts in the Ottawa Charter need no serious revision. There are, however, lessons from the last 25 years that point to ways to address present and future challenges with greater sensitivity and effectiveness. We invite the next generation to avoid canonizing this text: as is true of every heritage, the heirs must decide on its use.

  3. Assessing the Relationship between Servant Leadership and Effective Teaching in a Private University Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Karen

    2011-01-01

    To address the competition for students, the demand for increasing student enrollments and the pressure for student satisfaction, teaching effectiveness has become an increasingly common discussion on university campuses. The competition for students among universities requires a new approach to teaching. As university campuses continue to compete…

  4. Rationale for Students' Participation in University Governance and Organizational Effectiveness in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akomolafe, C. O.; Ibijola, E. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the rationale for students' participation in university governance and organizational effectiveness. A descriptive research of survey design was adopted. The population consisted of all staff and students of Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State and Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State. 700 subjects…

  5. The Effects of Demographic, Internal and External University Environment Factors on Faculty Job Satisfaction in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duong, Minh-Quang

    2016-01-01

    University faculty members with higher job satisfaction are more productive, creative and positive attitude towards their job. Even less is known about university faculty job satisfaction in developing countries like Vietnam. This study examines the effects of demographic, internal and external university environment factors on faculty job…

  6. Universality and phase diagram in the quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Lauren Wai-Wing

    We have designed and conducted detailed experiments to explore the following critical, unsolved issues in regarding to the global behavior of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the presence of disorder and many-body interaction in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime: (1) nature of the quantum Hall liquid-Hall insulator (QHL-HI) phase transition induced by disorder, (2) topological phase diagram and possible existence of a thermodynamically stable "metallic phase" around filling factor nu =1/2, and (3) whether the termination of spin-resolved Landau levels in general a phase transition. First, I present our studies of the disorder-tuned QHL-HI phase transition in both the integer and fractional QHE regimes. We found that the longitudinal resistivity near the critical points shows reflection symmetry and good scaling behavior over a wide range of densities and temperature with the same critical exponent. This supports the notion that quantum phase transitions in the QHE belong to same universality class. Furthermore, the critical conductivities are universal at the transitions. Our approach to investigate the second issue is to map out the phase boundaries corresponding to different QHLs around nu =1/2. We identified a line on which the value of the Hall conductivity equals to 1/2(esp2/h) in the phase diagram; and an another line on which the value of the Hall resistivity equals to 2(h/esp2). We interpreted the later is a result predicted by the composite-fermion theory. The phase boundaries between the HI and the principal QHLs at nu =1 and 1/3 show levitation of the delocalized states of the first Landau levels for electrons and Composite fermions. Our data suggest that there is no true metallic state around nu =1/2. Finally, I present our magnetotransport studies of the spin-resolved integer QHE by changing disorder. For a given Landau level, the difference in filling factors of a pair of spin-split resistivity peaks changes rapidly from one to zero near

  7. The Effect of Anomie on Academic Dishonesty among University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruana, Albert; Ramaseshan, B.; Ewing, Michael T.

    2000-01-01

    Following a review of the literature on anomie and academic dishonesty at the university level, this paper reports on a survey of 300 undergraduate business students in Australia which found the newly developed measure both reliable and valid for measuring actual cheating and plagiarism. Concludes that universities need to foster development of an…

  8. Lecture Capture: An Effective Tool for Universal Instructional Design?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Susan; Vajoczki, Susan; Voros, Geraldine; Vine, Michelle M.; Fenton, Nancy; Tarkowski, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Student enrolment and instructional accommodation requests are rising in higher education. Universities lack the capacity to meet increasing accommodation needs, thus research in this area is required. In Ontario, new provincial legislation requires that all public institutions, including universities, make their services accessible to persons…

  9. A Comparison of the Perceptions of Four Groups of University Constituents Concerning Institutional Effectiveness at a Private University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernecker, Kimberly James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the level of congruence in the perceptions of institutional effectiveness among four groups of stakeholders at a small, private university in the Southern United States. The constituency consisted of 923 on-campus students, 12 administrators, 60 faculty, and 120 staff members. A descriptive research design…

  10. Faculty Member Perceptions of Department Head Leadership Effectiveness at a State University in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbulut, Meltem; Nevra Seggie, Fatma; Börkan, Bengü

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the leadership effectiveness of department heads at a state university in Turkey using a model of leadership effectiveness that includes the use of multiple leadership roles to manage situations arising from internal and external university environments. Leadership effectiveness was measured by surveying 70 faculty members in…

  11. Probing the Early Universe with the SZ Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joy, M. K.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) which we observe today is relic radiation which last interacted with matter more than 10 billion years ago, when the expanding universe cooled to the point that free electrons and ionized nuclei recombined to form atoms. Prior to recombination, scattering between photons and free electrons was a very frequent occurrence, and the distance light could penetrate was small; afterwards, with free electrons out of circulation, the universe became largely transparent to light. Thus, the CMBR photons we observe today give us a clear view of the state of the early universe. Measured deviations in the intensity of the CMBR trace the small perturbations in the primordial matter density, which have been amplified by gravitational forces to form the magnificent, complex structures which comprise the present-day universe.

  12. Human resources for health and universal health coverage: fostering equity and effective coverage.

    PubMed

    Campbell, James; Buchan, James; Cometto, Giorgio; David, Benedict; Dussault, Gilles; Fogstad, Helga; Fronteira, Inês; Lozano, Rafael; Nyonator, Frank; Pablos-Méndez, Ariel; Quain, Estelle E; Starrs, Ann; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2013-11-01

    Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) involves distributing resources, especially human resources for health (HRH), to match population needs. This paper explores the policy lessons on HRH from four countries that have achieved sustained improvements in UHC: Brazil, Ghana, Mexico and Thailand. Its purpose is to inform global policy and financial commitments on HRH in support of UHC. The paper reports on country experiences using an analytical framework that examines effective coverage in relation to the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (AAAQ) of HRH. The AAAQ dimensions make it possible to perform tracing analysis on HRH policy actions since 1990 in the four countries of interest in relation to national trends in workforce numbers and population mortality rates. The findings inform key principles for evidence-based decision-making on HRH in support of UHC. First, HRH are critical to the expansion of health service coverage and the package of benefits; second, HRH strategies in each of the AAAQ dimensions collectively support achievements in effective coverage; and third, success is achieved through partnerships involving health and non-health actors. Facing the unprecedented health and development challenges that affect all countries and transforming HRH evidence into policy and practice must be at the heart of UHC and the post-2015 development agenda. It is a political imperative requiring national commitment and leadership to maximize the impact of available financial and human resources, and improve healthy life expectancy, with the recognition that improvements in health care are enabled by a health workforce that is fit for purpose.

  13. Anxiety among University Students and Its Effects on Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ongel, Kurtulus; Balci, Umut Gok; Simsek, Yasemin; Ileri, Hande; Kucuk, Ece Fidan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: It is purposed to determine food habits of the students of Faculty of Medicine at Izmir Katip Çelebi University and to research how it is affected by anxiety in this study. Methodology: While the study was carried out in March, April and May in 2014, its universe was composed of totally 196 students who were from 1st, 2nd and 3rd classes…

  14. Depletion of tRNA-halves enables effective small RNA sequencing of low-input murine serum samples

    PubMed Central

    Van Goethem, Alan; Yigit, Nurten; Everaert, Celine; Moreno-Smith, Myrthala; Mus, Liselot M.; Barbieri, Eveline; Speleman, Frank; Mestdagh, Pieter; Shohet, Jason; Van Maerken, Tom; Vandesompele, Jo

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing ascent of sequencing technologies has enabled researchers to gain unprecedented insights into the RNA content of biological samples. MiRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs, play a pivotal role in regulating gene expression. The discovery that miRNAs are stably present in circulation has spiked interest in their potential use as minimally-invasive biomarkers. However, sequencing of blood-derived samples (serum, plasma) is challenging due to the often low RNA concentration, poor RNA quality and the presence of highly abundant RNAs that dominate sequencing libraries. In murine serum for example, the high abundance of tRNA-derived small RNAs called 5′ tRNA halves hampers the detection of other small RNAs, like miRNAs. We therefore evaluated two complementary approaches for targeted depletion of 5′ tRNA halves in murine serum samples. Using a protocol based on biotinylated DNA probes and streptavidin coated magnetic beads we were able to selectively deplete 95% of the targeted 5′ tRNA half molecules. This allowed an unbiased enrichment of the miRNA fraction resulting in a 6-fold increase of mapped miRNA reads and 60% more unique miRNAs detected. Moreover, when comparing miRNA levels in tumor-carrying versus tumor-free mice, we observed a three-fold increase in differentially expressed miRNAs. PMID:27901112

  15. The Joint Effects-Based Contracting Execution System: A Proposed Enabling Concept for Future Joint Expeditionary Contracting Execution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    kinetic requirements definitions thereby exposing the fertile ground for both warfigher and CCO to deliver effects: time-definite contracting of supplies...be developed before deploying and should be tested to ensure it can be used effectively in contingency environments (SIGIR, 2006). The DoD needs to...before mobilizing for post-conflict efforts and test that they can effectively be implemented in contingency situations. After reconstruction

  16. The Effectiveness of Student Involvement in Decision-Making and University Leadership: A Comparative Analysis of 12 Universities in South-West Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oni, Adesoji A.; Adetoro, Jeremiah A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines student involvement in university leadership and decision-making and its impacts on leadership effectiveness in universities in Nigeria. The study uses a descriptive survey conducted among students and staff in all 12 of the public and private universities in South-West Nigeria. The research findings indicate that there is a…

  17. Outcomes from Enabling Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Oanh; Ball, Katrina

    The outcomes of enabling courses offered in Australia's vocational education and training (VET) sector were examined. "Enabling course" was defined as lower-level preparatory and prevocational courses covering a wide range of areas, including remedial education, bridging courses, precertificate courses, and general employment preparation…

  18. Technology Enabled Learning. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers on technology-enabled learning and human resource development. Among results found in "Current State of Technology-enabled Learning Programs in Select Federal Government Organizations: a Case Study of Ten Organizations" (Letitia A. Combs) are the following: the dominant delivery method is traditional…

  19. Thermal Casimir effect in closed Friedmann universe revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra, V. B.; Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.; Romero, C.

    2011-05-01

    We reconsider Casimir free energy and internal energy at nonzero temperature in the static Einstein and closed Friedmann universe. It is shown that the Casimir free energy is given by the difference between the free energy of a topologically nontrivial manifold and a tangential Minkowski space-time. We derive exact expressions for the Casimir free energy, internal energy and pressure in Einstein and Friedmann universes in terms of single sums. The Casimir entropy is shown to satisfy the Nernst heat theorem. Exact expressions for corresponding total quantities in the Einstein universe are obtained from the Casimir ones by adding a contribution of the black-body radiation. The asymptotic expressions for the Casimir free energy and internal energy at both high and low temperature are shown to be in direct analogy with those for two ideal-metal plates and an ideal-metal spherical shell. Specifically, at high temperature the classical limit holds.

  20. Study of Factors Which Facilitate Increase of Effectiveness of University Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albekov, Adam; Romanova, Tatyana; Vovchenko, Natalya; Epifanova, Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the factors which facilitate the increase of effectiveness of university education and determination of perspectives of their management for provision of maximization of effectiveness of university education by the example of modern Russia. Design/methodology/approach: The authors define the notion…

  1. Relationship between Teachers' Effective Communication and Students' Academic Achievement at the Northern Border University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Madani, Feras Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication between faculty members and students is one of the concerns of the educational stakeholders at the Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia. This study investigates the relationship between teachers' effective communication and students' academic achievement at the Northern Border University. The survey questionnaire…

  2. DEEP (Documenting Effective Educational Practice) Colleges and Universities as Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzie, Jillian; Schuh, John H.

    2008-01-01

    The value of establishing a strong community in institutions of higher education has been in the forefront of the thinking of educators for a number of years. As colleges and universities have grown in complexity, establishing and sustaining strong campus communities has been described as challenging and difficult. John Gardner has provided a…

  3. Breakup Effects on University Students' Perceived Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    The Problem: Problems that might be expected to affect perceived academic performance were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: Breakup Distress Scale scores, less time since the breakup and no new relationship contributed to 16% of the variance on perceived academic performance. Variables that were related to academic…

  4. The Effectiveness of Alcohol Policies in 4-Year Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Gayle T.

    2010-01-01

    A problem facing American universities is heavy drinking by the student body which results in unintentional injuries and deaths, illegal offenses, sexual assault, altercations, and academic demise. The relationship between the type of alcohol policy enacted on campus and alcohol consumption among undergraduate students attending 4-year public…

  5. E-Learning for University Effectiveness in the Developing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekiwu, Denis

    2010-01-01

    The globalisation trends of society have taken centre stage meaning that people around the world are required to develop high level but low cost technologies and innovative competencies in order to enhance social development. In the field of higher education, university managers need to join the technological revolution by adopting low cost ICT…

  6. Measuring E-Learning Effectiveness at Indonesian Private University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradana, Mahir; Amir, NarisWari

    2016-01-01

    Telkom University was founded in 2013, as a result of merging four existing higher education institutions in Indonesia. One of their study programs is Master of Management (MM) program, which also facilitates full-time workers to participate in the program. Since their physical presences are sometimes unfulfilled, an e-learning program was…

  7. Communication Effectiveness in Multinational Organizations: Developing Universal Intercultural Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, John W.; Stull, James B.

    The increase in size and number of multinational corporations requires programs for training their personnel in intercultural communication emphasizing development of skills necessary for cultural adaptation and a "universal" perspective. Currently, intercultural training is either nonexistent or emphasizes mastery of language with…

  8. Principle Findings from Development of a Recirculated Exhaust Gas Intake Sensor (REGIS) Enabling Cost-Effective Fuel Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Schnabel, Claus

    2016-03-30

    Kick-off of the Bosch scope of work for the REGIS project started in October 2012. The primary work-packages included in the Bosch scope of work were the following: overall project management, development of the EGR sensor (design of sensor element, design of protection tube, and design of mounting orientation), development of EGR system control strategy, build-up of prototype sensors, evaluation of system performance with the new sensor and the new control strategy, long-term durability testing, and development of a 2nd generation sensor concept for continued technology development after the REGIS project. The University of Clemson was a partner with Bosch in the REGIS project. The Clemson scope of work for the REGIS project started in June 2013. The primary work-packages included in the Clemson scope of work were the following: development of EGR system control strategy, and evaluation of system performance with the new sensor and new control strategy. This project was split into phase I, phase II and phase III. Phase I work was completed by the end of June 2014 and included the following primary work packages: development of sensor technical requirements, assembly of engine testbench at Clemson, design concept for sensor housing, connector, and mounting orientation, build-up of EGR flow test benches at Bosch, and build-up of first sensor prototypes. Phase II work was completed by the end of June 2015 and included the following primary work pack ages: development of an optimizing function and demonstration of robustness of sensor, system control strategy implementation and initial validation, completion of engine in the loop testing of developed control algorithm, completion of sensor testing including characteristic line, synthetic gas test stand, and pressure dependency characterization, demonstration of benefits of control w/o sensing via simulation, development of 2nd generation sensor concept. Notable technical achievements from phase II were the following

  9. Effect of hyperfine-induced spin mixing on the defect-enabled spin blockade and spin filtering in GaNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puttisong, Y.; Wang, X. J.; Buyanova, I. A.; Chen, W. M.

    2013-03-01

    The effect of hyperfine interaction (HFI) on the recently discovered room-temperature defect-enabled spin-filtering effect in GaNAs alloys is investigated both experimentally and theoretically based on a spin Hamiltonian analysis. We provide direct experimental evidence that the HFI between the electron and nuclear spin of the central Ga atom of the spin-filtering defect, namely, the Gai interstitials, causes strong mixing of the electron spin states of the defect, thereby degrading the efficiency of the spin-filtering effect. We also show that the HFI-induced spin mixing can be suppressed by an application of a longitudinal magnetic field such that the electronic Zeeman interaction overcomes the HFI, leading to well-defined electron spin states beneficial to the spin-filtering effect. The results provide a guideline for further optimization of the defect-engineered spin-filtering effect.

  10. Adenosine A2A receptors enable the synaptic effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the rodent striatum.

    PubMed

    Tebano, Maria Teresa; Martire, Alberto; Chiodi, Valentina; Pepponi, Rita; Ferrante, Antonella; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Frank, Claudio; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Ledent, Catherine; Popoli, Patrizia

    2009-09-01

    Adenosine A(2A), cannabinoid CB(1) and metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu(5)) receptors are all highly expressed in the striatum. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether, and by which mechanisms, the above receptors interact in the regulation of striatal synaptic transmission. By extracellular field potentials (FPs) recordings in corticostriatal slices, we demonstrated that the ability of the selective type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB(1)R) agonist WIN55,212-2 to depress synaptic transmission was prevented by the pharmacological blockade or the genetic inactivation of A(2A)Rs. Such a permissive effect of A(2A)Rs towards CB(1)Rs does not seem to occur pre-synaptically as the ability of WIN55,212-2 to increase the R2/R1 ratio under a protocol of paired-pulse stimulation was not modified by ZM241385. Furthermore, the effects of WIN55,212-2 were reduced in slices from mice lacking post-synaptic striatal A(2A)Rs. The selective mGlu(5)R agonist (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG) potentiated the synaptic effects of WIN55,212-2, and such a potentiation was abolished by A(2A)R blockade. Unlike the synaptic effects, the ability of WIN55,212-2 to prevent NMDA-induced toxicity was not influenced by ZM241385. Altogether, these results show that the state of activation of A(2A)Rs regulates the synaptic effects of CB(1)Rs and that A(2A)Rs may control CB(1) effects also indirectly, namely through mGlu(5)Rs.

  11. Enabling Remote Access to Fieldwork: Gaining Insight into the Pedagogic Effectiveness of "Direct" and "Remote" Field Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Alison; Collins, Trevor; Maskall, John; Lea, John; Lunt, Paul; Davies, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This study considers the pedagogical effectiveness of remote access to fieldwork locations. Forty-one students from across the GEES disciplines (geography, earth and environmental sciences) undertook a fieldwork exercise, supported by two lecturers. Twenty students accessed the field site directly and the remainder accessed the site remotely using…

  12. Additive effects due to biochar and endophyte application enable soybean to enhance nutrient uptake and modulate nutritional parameters* #

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Muhammad; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Khan, Abdul Latif; Shahzad, Raheem; Asaf, Sajjad; Hamayun, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    We studied the effects of hardwood-derived biochar (BC) and the phytohormone-producing endophyte Galactomyces geotrichum WLL1 in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) with respect to basic, macro-and micronutrient uptakes and assimilations, and their subsequent effects on the regulation of functional amino acids, isoflavones, fatty acid composition, total sugar contents, total phenolic contents, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity. The assimilation of basic nutrients such as nitrogen was up-regulated, leaving carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen unaffected in BC+G. geotrichum-treated soybean plants. In comparison, the uptakes of macro-and micronutrients fluctuated in the individual or co-application of BC and G. geotrichum in soybean plant organs and rhizospheric substrate. Moreover, the same attribute was recorded for the regulation of functional amino acids, isoflavones, fatty acid composition, total sugar contents, total phenolic contents, and DPPH-scavenging activity. Collectively, these results showed that BC+G. geotrichum-treated soybean yielded better results than did the plants treated with individual applications. It was concluded that BC is an additional nutriment source and that the G. geotrichum acts as a plant biostimulating source and the effects of both are additive towards plant growth promotion. Strategies involving the incorporation of BC and endophytic symbiosis may help achieve eco-friendly agricultural production, thus reducing the excessive use of chemical agents. PMID:28124840

  13. Universal four-Boson states in ultracold molecular gases: resonant effects in dimer-dimer collisions.

    PubMed

    D'Incao, J P; von Stecher, J; Greene, Chris H

    2009-07-17

    We study the manifestations of universal four-body physics in ultracold dimer-dimer collisions. We show that resonant features associated with three-body Efimov physics and dimer-dimer scattering lengths are universally related. The emergence of universal four-boson states allows for the tunability of the dimer-dimer interaction, thus enabling the future study of ultracold molecular gases with both attractive and repulsive interactions. Moreover, our study of the interconversion between dimers and Efimov trimers shows that B2+B2-->B3+B rearrangement reactions can provide an efficient trimer formation mechanism. Our analysis of the temperature dependence of this reaction provides an interpretation of the available experimental data and sheds light on the possible experimental realization of rearrangement processes in ultracold gases.

  14. Universal thermoelectric effect of Dirac fermions in graphene.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lijun; Ma, Rong; Sheng, Li; Liu, Mei; Sheng, Dong-Ning

    2010-02-19

    We numerically study the thermoelectric transports of Dirac fermions in graphene in the presence of a strong magnetic field and disorder. We find that the thermoelectric transport coefficients demonstrate universal behavior depending on the ratio between the temperature and the width of the disorder-broadened Landau levels (LLs). The transverse thermoelectric conductivity alpha{xy} reaches a universal quantum value at the center of each LL in the high temperature regime, and it has a linear temperature dependence at low temperatures. The calculated Nernst signal has a peak at the central LL with heights of the order of k{B}/e, and changes sign near other LLs, while the thermopower has an opposite behavior, in good agreement with experimental data. The validity of the generalized Mott relation between the thermoelectric and electrical transport coefficients is verified in a wide range of temperatures.

  15. Overview of the American College of Rheumatology's Electronic Health Record-Enabled Registry: The Rheumatology Informatics System for Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Melissa; Johansson, Tracy; Kazi, Salahuddin

    2016-01-01

    The Rheumatology Informatics System for Effectiveness (RISE) Registry was developed by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) to serve US rheumatologists for the significant challenges of a rapidly changing healthcare environment. More than 400 rheumatologists have sent data from more than 3 million encounters of more than 650,000 patients as of August 11, 2016, through their electronic medical records (EMRs), with no additional work or interference with workflow on the part of the rheumatologists. RISE includes patients with all diagnoses seen by participating rheumatologists, at no cost to the rheumatologist.

  16. A survey of informatics platforms that enable distributed comparative effectiveness research using multi-institutional heterogeneous clinical data

    PubMed Central

    Sittig, Dean F.; Hazlehurst, Brian L.; Brown, Jeffrey; Murphy, Shawn; Rosenman, Marc; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Wilcox, Adam B.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) has the potential to transform the current healthcare delivery system by identifying the most effective medical and surgical treatments, diagnostic tests, disease prevention methods and ways to deliver care for specific clinical conditions. To be successful, such research requires the identification, capture, aggregation, integration, and analysis of disparate data sources held by different institutions with diverse representations of the relevant clinical events. In an effort to address these diverse demands, there have been multiple new designs and implementations of informatics platforms that provide access to electronic clinical data and the governance infrastructure required for inter-institutional CER. The goal of this manuscript is to help investigators understand why these informatics platforms are required and to compare and contrast six, large-scale, recently funded, CER-focused informatics platform development efforts. We utilized an 8-dimension, socio-technical model of health information technology use to help guide our work. We identified six generic steps that are necessary in any distributed, multi-institutional CER project: data identification, extraction, modeling, aggregation, analysis, and dissemination. We expect that over the next several years these projects will provide answers to many important, and heretofore unanswerable, clinical research questions. PMID:22692259

  17. "Water-in-salt" electrolytes enable the use of cost-effective aluminum current collectors for aqueous high-voltage batteries.

    PubMed

    Kühnel, R-S; Reber, D; Remhof, A; Figi, R; Bleiner, D; Battaglia, C

    2016-08-16

    The extended electrochemical stability window offered by highly concentrated electrolytes allows the operation of aqueous batteries at voltages significantly above the thermodynamic stability limit of water, at which the stability of the current collector potentially limits the cell voltage. Here we report the observation of suppressed anodic dissolution of aluminum in "water-in-salt" electrolytes enabling roll-to-roll electrode fabrication for high-voltage aqueous lithium-ion batteries on cost-effective light-weight aluminum current collectors using established lithium-ion battery technology.

  18. Van der Waals metal-semiconductor junction: Weak Fermi level pinning enables effective tuning of Schottky barrier.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanyue; Stradins, Paul; Wei, Su-Huai

    2016-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors have shown great potential for electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, their development is limited by a large Schottky barrier (SB) at the metal-semiconductor junction (MSJ), which is difficult to tune by using conventional metals because of the effect of strong Fermi level pinning (FLP). We show that this problem can be overcome by using 2D metals, which are bounded with 2D semiconductors through van der Waals (vdW) interactions. This success relies on a weak FLP at the vdW MSJ, which is attributed to the suppression of metal-induced gap states. Consequently, the SB becomes tunable and can vanish with proper 2D metals (for example, H-NbS2). This work not only offers new insights into the fundamental properties of heterojunctions but also uncovers the great potential of 2D metals for device applications.

  19. Van der Waals metal-semiconductor junction: Weak Fermi level pinning enables effective tuning of Schottky barrier

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanyue; Stradins, Paul; Wei, Su-Huai

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors have shown great potential for electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, their development is limited by a large Schottky barrier (SB) at the metal-semiconductor junction (MSJ), which is difficult to tune by using conventional metals because of the effect of strong Fermi level pinning (FLP). We show that this problem can be overcome by using 2D metals, which are bounded with 2D semiconductors through van der Waals (vdW) interactions. This success relies on a weak FLP at the vdW MSJ, which is attributed to the suppression of metal-induced gap states. Consequently, the SB becomes tunable and can vanish with proper 2D metals (for example, H-NbS2). This work not only offers new insights into the fundamental properties of heterojunctions but also uncovers the great potential of 2D metals for device applications. PMID:27152360

  20. Van der Waals metal-semiconductor junction: Weak Fermi level pinning enables effective tuning of Schottky barrier

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yuanyue; Stradins, Paul; Wei, Su -Huai

    2016-04-22

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors have shown great potential for electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, their development is limited by a large Schottky barrier (SB) at the metal-semiconductor junction (MSJ), which is difficult to tune by using conventional metals because of the effect of strong Fermi level pinning (FLP). We show that this problem can be overcome by using 2D metals, which are bounded with 2D semiconductors through van der Waals (vdW) interactions. This success relies on a weak FLP at the vdW MSJ, which is attributed to the suppression of metal-induced gap states. Consequently, the SB becomes tunable and can vanishmore » with proper 2D metals (for example, H-NbS2). This work not only offers new insights into the fundamental properties of heterojunctions but also uncovers the great potential of 2D metals for device applications.« less

  1. Van der Waals metal-semiconductor junction: Weak Fermi level pinning enables effective tuning of Schottky barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuanyue; Stradins, Paul; Wei, Su -Huai

    2016-04-22

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors have shown great potential for electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, their development is limited by a large Schottky barrier (SB) at the metal-semiconductor junction (MSJ), which is difficult to tune by using conventional metals because of the effect of strong Fermi level pinning (FLP). We show that this problem can be overcome by using 2D metals, which are bounded with 2D semiconductors through van der Waals (vdW) interactions. This success relies on a weak FLP at the vdW MSJ, which is attributed to the suppression of metal-induced gap states. Consequently, the SB becomes tunable and can vanish with proper 2D metals (for example, H-NbS2). This work not only offers new insights into the fundamental properties of heterojunctions but also uncovers the great potential of 2D metals for device applications.

  2. The Effect of Diversity Climate Perception on Alienation of Students to University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtulmus, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the effect of diversity climate perception on alienation of students to university. The research was carried out with relational survey model. 333 undergraduate students in Faculty of Education, Medical, and Faculty of Theology of Dicle University constituted the participant group. Research data were…

  3. Effective Pedagogical Strategies for Millennial University Students in Communication Sciences and Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseberry-McKibbin, Celeste; Pieretti, Robert; Haberstock, Keith; Estrada, Jovany

    2016-01-01

    University instructors nationwide have been recognizing the increased importance of updating classroom teaching strategies to accommodate the needs of the millennial student generation. This article shares results of surveys of 323 university students in communication sciences and disorders and what they view as effective pedagogical strategies…

  4. Measuring the Effectiveness of Universal Design for Learning Intervention in Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Patricia L.; Schelly, Catherine L.; Spooner, Craig L.

    2013-01-01

    To date, a mere handful of studies have been conducted to determine the effectiveness of providing training to university instructors on the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and the impact this training has on student outcomes, especially for students with disabilities. While these studies offer some useful data, their results may…

  5. Effects of an Intensive Disability-Focused Training Experience on University Faculty Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Christopher; Lombardi, Allison; Seely, John R.; Gerdes, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluates the short-term effects of a disability-focused training on the disability-related self-efficacy of university faculty. Three consecutive cohorts of faculty (N = 102) participated in an intensive four-day training institute focused on understanding and supporting university students with disabilities. Self-efficacy for…

  6. The Effects of Gender and Loneliness Levels on Ways of Coping among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecen, A. Rezan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of gender differences and levels of loneliness on ways of coping. The sample of the study is composed of 462 university students (245 male, 217 female) from different departments from the Education Faculty at Cukurova University. In this study to collect data related to loneliness as an…

  7. Teaching Ethical Copyright Behavior: Assessing the Effects of a University-Sponsored Computing Ethics Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemens, Jennifer Christie; Kopp, Steven W.

    2006-01-01

    Universities have become sensitized to the potential for students' illegal downloading of copyrighted materials. Education has been advocated as one way to curb downloading of copyrighted digital content. This study investigates the effectiveness of a university-sponsored computing ethics education program. The program positively influenced…

  8. The Effects of Specific Practice Strategy Use on University String Players' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of specific practice strategy use on university string players' performance. Participants ('N" = 40) volunteered for the study and were string players enrolled in orchestra at a major research university. Within a pretest-posttest designed study, participants were assigned to one of four…

  9. The Value and Attributes of an Effective Preparatory English Program: Perceptions of Saudi University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Maram George

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of gender and geographical location on the perceptions of Saudi university students regarding the value of preparatory English programs and their attributes. Data was collected during the fall of 2013 from three sample universities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) using an online survey as the instrument.…

  10. Requisites for an Effective University Grants Development Operation. AIR Forum 1979 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellweg, Susan A.

    The conditions under which the effectiveness of a university grants operation is potentially maximized are described. The following topics are addressed: the attitudes to be adopted by university administrators in grants operations, the functions of the institutional grants office, and the qualities needed in a campus coordinator of research. The…

  11. Differential Effects of Cognitive Load on University Wind Students' Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambaugh, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive load during practice on university wind students' learning. Cognitive load was manipulated through instrument family (woodwind or brass) and the amount of repetition used in practice (highly repetitive or random). University woodwind and valved-brass students (N = 46)…

  12. Nano-porous architecture of N-doped carbon nanorods grown on graphene to enable synergetic effects of supercapacitance

    PubMed Central

    Fan, H. S.; Wang, H.; Zhao, N.; Xu, J.; Pan, F.

    2014-01-01

    A novel nano-porous 3D architecture of N-doped carbon nanorods arrays grown on the surface of graphene has been prepared by carbonizing polyaniline/graphene oxide (PANI-GO) composite with PANI nanorod arrays on both sides of GO nanosheets. The obtained carbon materials are entirely composed of regularly grown carbon nanorods on graphene with height of about 100 nm and width about 30 nm, showing porous property due to the decomposition of PANI chains. The morphology of PANI grown on GO at the different growth stages was investigated to demonstrate the mechanism of the finally hierarchical architecture formation. Due to its large specific surface area and incorporation of the nitrogen groups into the carbon matrix, the obtained 3D carbon material enhances the ionic transport and the super-capacitance by synergetic effect of both double-layer and faradaic capacitances. This study provides a controllable approach to fabricate hierarchical carbon material based on conducting polymers and graphene oxide with promising applications in the high-rate electrode material of supercapacitors. PMID:25519206

  13. Human resources for health and universal health coverage: fostering equity and effective coverage

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, James; Cometto, Giorgio; David, Benedict; Dussault, Gilles; Fogstad, Helga; Fronteira, Inês; Lozano, Rafael; Nyonator, Frank; Pablos-Méndez, Ariel; Quain, Estelle E; Starrs, Ann; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) involves distributing resources, especially human resources for health (HRH), to match population needs. This paper explores the policy lessons on HRH from four countries that have achieved sustained improvements in UHC: Brazil, Ghana, Mexico and Thailand. Its purpose is to inform global policy and financial commitments on HRH in support of UHC. The paper reports on country experiences using an analytical framework that examines effective coverage in relation to the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (AAAQ) of HRH. The AAAQ dimensions make it possible to perform tracing analysis on HRH policy actions since 1990 in the four countries of interest in relation to national trends in workforce numbers and population mortality rates. The findings inform key principles for evidence-based decision-making on HRH in support of UHC. First, HRH are critical to the expansion of health service coverage and the package of benefits; second, HRH strategies in each of the AAAQ dimensions collectively support achievements in effective coverage; and third, success is achieved through partnerships involving health and non-health actors. Facing the unprecedented health and development challenges that affect all countries and transforming HRH evidence into policy and practice must be at the heart of UHC and the post-2015 development agenda. It is a political imperative requiring national commitment and leadership to maximize the impact of available financial and human resources, and improve healthy life expectancy, with the recognition that improvements in health care are enabled by a health workforce that is fit for purpose. PMID:24347710

  14. Nonplanar Nanoscale Fin Field Effect Transistors on Textile, Paper, Wood, Stone, and Vinyl via Soft Material-Enabled Double-Transfer Printing.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Jhonathan P; Torres Sevilla, Galo A; Alfaraj, Nasir; Ghoneim, Mohamed T; Kutbee, Arwa T; Sridharan, Ashvitha; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-05-26

    The ability to incorporate rigid but high-performance nanoscale nonplanar complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics with curvilinear, irregular, or asymmetric shapes and surfaces is an arduous but timely challenge in enabling the production of wearable electronics with an in situ information-processing ability in the digital world. Therefore, we are demonstrating a soft-material enabled double-transfer-based process to integrate flexible, silicon-based, nanoscale, nonplanar, fin-shaped field effect transistors (FinFETs) and planar metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) on various asymmetric surfaces to study their compatibility and enhanced applicability in various emerging fields. FinFET devices feature sub-20 nm dimensions and state-of-the-art, high-κ/metal gate stacks, showing no performance alteration after the transfer process. A further analysis of the transferred MOSFET devices, featuring 1 μm gate length, exhibits an ION value of nearly 70 μA/μm (VDS = 2 V, VGS = 2 V) and a low subthreshold swing of around 90 mV/dec, proving that a soft interfacial material can act both as a strong adhesion/interposing layer between devices and final substrate as well as a means to reduce strain, which ultimately helps maintain the device's performance with insignificant deterioration even at a high bending state.

  15. Temperature effects on the universal equation of state of solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinet, Pascal; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.; Rose, James H.

    1987-01-01

    Recently it has been argued based on theoretical calculations and experimental data that there is a universal form for the equation of state of solids. This observation was restricted to the range of temperatures and pressures such that there are no phase transitions. The use of this universal relation to estimate pressure-volume relations (i.e., isotherms) required three input parameters at each fixed temperature. It is shown that for many solids the input data needed to predict high temperature thermodynamical properties can be dramatically reduced. In particular, only four numbers are needed: (1) the zero pressure (P = 0) isothermal bulk modulus; (2) its P = 0 pressure derivative; (3) the P = 0 volume; and (4) the P = 0 thermal expansion; all evaluated at a single (reference) temperature. Explicit predictions are made for the high temperature isotherms, the thermal expansion as a function of temperature, and the temperature variation of the isothermal bulk modulus and its pressure derivative. These predictions are tested using experimental data for three representative solids: gold, sodium chloride, and xenon. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  16. Temperature effects on the universal equation of state of solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinet, P.; Ferrante, J.; Smith, J. R.; Rose, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Recently it has been argued based on theoretical calculations and experimental data that there is a universal form for the equation of state of solids. This observation was restricted to the range of temperatures and pressures such that there are no phase transitions. The use of this universal relation to estimate pressure-volume relations (i.e., isotherms) required three input parameters at each fixed temperature. It is shown that for many solids the input data needed to predict high temperature thermodynamical properties can be dramatically reduced. In particular, only four numbers are needed: (1) the zero pressure (P=0) isothermal bulk modulus; (2)it P=0 pressure derivative; (3) the P=0 volume; and (4) the P=0 thermal expansion; all evaluated at a single (reference) temperature. Explicit predictions are made for the high temperature isotherms, the thermal expansion as a function of temperature, and the temperature variation of the isothermal bulk modulus and its pressure derivative. These predictions are tested using experimental data for three representative solids: gold, sodium chloride, and xenon. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  17. Physician Enabling Skills Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Hudon, Catherine; Lambert, Mireille; Almirall, José

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the reliability and validity of the newly developed Physician Enabling Skills Questionnaire (PESQ) by assessing its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity with patient-centred care, and predictive validity with patient activation and patient enablement. Design Validation study. Setting Saguenay, Que. Participants One hundred patients with at least 1 chronic disease who presented in a waiting room of a regional health centre family medicine unit. Main outcome measures Family physicians’ enabling skills, measured with the PESQ at 2 points in time (ie, while in the waiting room at the family medicine unit and 2 weeks later through a mail survey); patient-centred care, assessed with the Patient Perception of Patient-Centredness instrument; patient activation, assessed with the Patient Activation Measure; and patient enablement, assessed with the Patient Enablement Instrument. Results The internal consistency of the 6 subscales of the PESQ was adequate (Cronbach α = .69 to .92). The test-retest reliability was very good (r = 0.90; 95% CI 0.84 to 0.93). Concurrent validity with the Patient Perception of Patient-Centredness instrument was good (r = −0.67; 95% CI −0.78 to −0.53; P < .001). The PESQ accounts for 11% of the total variance with the Patient Activation Measure (r2 = 0.11; P = .002) and 19% of the variance with the Patient Enablement Instrument (r2 = 0.19; P < .001). Conclusion The newly developed PESQ presents good psychometric properties, allowing for its use in practice and research. PMID:26889507

  18. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2016-07-12

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  19. Effective Change Management Strategies for Embedding Online Learning within Higher Education and Enabling the Effective Continuing Professional Development of Its Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goolnik, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    Previous research studies show that those universities wishing to successfully engage in online learning will have to adopt and implement tactics that have the capacity to overcome existing social and cultural constraints. An inclusive, consultative framework needs to be established, and Continuing Professional Development (CPD) has been…

  20. Mixed heavy-light matching in the Universal One-Loop Effective Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Sebastian A. R.; Quevillon, Jérémie; You, Tevong; Zhang, Zhengkang

    2016-11-01

    Recently, a general result for evaluating the path integral at one loop was obtained in the form of the Universal One-Loop Effective Action. It may be used to derive effective field theory operators of dimensions up to six, by evaluating the traces of matrices in this expression, with the mass dependence encapsulated in the universal coefficients. Here we show that it can account for loops of mixed heavy-light particles in the matching procedure. Our prescription for computing these mixed contributions to the Wilson coefficients is conceptually simple. Moreover it has the advantage of maintaining the universal structure of the effective action, which we illustrate using the example of integrating out a heavy electroweak triplet scalar coupling to a light Higgs doublet. Finally we also identify new structures that were previously neglected in the universal results.

  1. ICT-Enabled Learning: The Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Geoff; Grebennikov, Leonid; Gozzard, Terry

    2009-01-01

    This research seeks to contribute to current discussions in Australian higher education on how best to deploy ICT-enabled learning. Its particular focus is on examining the qualitative data from students on their experience of using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) at one college in an Australian university. In total, about 71,240…

  2. University-Based Teacher Preparation and Middle Grades Teacher Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Courtney

    2017-01-01

    For over two decades, there have been calls to assess the relationship of the features of teacher preparation programs to teacher effectiveness, to provide guidance for program improvement. At the middle grades level, theory suggests that coursework in educational psychology is particularly important for teacher effectiveness. Using 4 years of…

  3. Nanotechnology - Enabled Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-07

    via subwavelength confinement of optical fields near metallic nanostructures, as shown in Figure 2.3. When a single cadmium selenide quantum dot is...optical modulator uses a coating of cadmium selenide quantum dots to convert two light beams into surface plasmon polaritons. (Reprinted by permission...helpful. Two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals can enable new sensing systems based on fluorescent molecules and/or quantum dots and

  4. Enabling Wind Power Nationwide

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, Zayas; Michael, Derby; Patrick, Gilman; Ananthan, Shreyas; Lantz, Eric; Cotrell, Jason; Beck, Fredic; Tusing, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Leveraging this experience, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has evaluated the potential for wind power to generate electricity in all 50 states. This report analyzes and quantifies the geographic expansion that could be enabled by accessing higher above ground heights for wind turbines and considers the means by which this new potential could be responsibly developed.

  5. Expert University Teachers: Thinking, Knowledge and Practice Regarding Effective Teaching Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira; Barak, Rachel; Simhi, Etty

    This study of exemplary university teachers sought to identify their thinking and knowledge about effective teaching dimensions and strategies, the effective strategies that they actually used in class, and the relationships between their thinking and knowledge about effective teaching strategies and their actual use of these strategies. Two…

  6. Directory Enabled Policy Based Networking

    SciTech Connect

    KELIIAA, CURTIS M.

    2001-10-01

    This report presents a discussion of directory-enabled policy-based networking with an emphasis on its role as the foundation for securely scalable enterprise networks. A directory service provides the object-oriented logical environment for interactive cyber-policy implementation. Cyber-policy implementation includes security, network management, operational process and quality of service policies. The leading network-technology vendors have invested in these technologies for secure universal connectivity that transverses Internet, extranet and intranet boundaries. Industry standards are established that provide the fundamental guidelines for directory deployment scalable to global networks. The integration of policy-based networking with directory-service technologies provides for intelligent management of the enterprise network environment as an end-to-end system of related clients, services and resources. This architecture allows logical policies to protect data, manage security and provision critical network services permitting a proactive defense-in-depth cyber-security posture. Enterprise networking imposes the consideration of supporting multiple computing platforms, sites and business-operation models. An industry-standards based approach combined with principled systems engineering in the deployment of these technologies allows these issues to be successfully addressed. This discussion is focused on a directory-based policy architecture for the heterogeneous enterprise network-computing environment and does not propose specific vendor solutions. This document is written to present practical design methodology and provide an understanding of the risks, complexities and most important, the benefits of directory-enabled policy-based networking.

  7. Utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Resources and Job Effectiveness among Library Staff in the University of Calabar and Cross River University of Technology, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntui, Aniebiet Inyang; Inyang, Comfort Linus

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) resources and job effectiveness among library staff in the University of Calabar and Cross River University of Technology, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of this study, four hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Ex-post facto research design was adopted…

  8. Achieving effective universal health coverage with equity: evidence from Chile.

    PubMed

    Frenz, Patricia; Delgado, Iris; Kaufman, Jay S; Harper, Sam

    2014-09-01

    Chile's 'health guarantees' approach to providing universal and equitable coverage for quality healthcare in a dual public-private health system has generated global interest. The programme, called AUGE, defines legally enforceable rights to explicit healthcare benefits for priority health conditions, which incrementally covered 56 problems representing 75% of the disease burden between 2005 and 2009. It was accompanied by other health reform measures to increase public financing and public sector planning to secure the guarantees nationwide, as well as the state's stewardship role. We analysed data from household surveys conducted before and after the AUGE reform to estimate changes in levels of unmet health need, defined as the lack of a healthcare visit for a health problem occurring in the last 30 days, by age, sex, income, education, health insurance, residence and ethnicity; fitting logistic regression models and using predictive margins. The overall prevalence of unmet health need was much lower in 2009 (17.6%, 95% CI: 16.5%, 18.6%) than in 2000 (30.0%, 95% CI: 28.3%, 31.7%). Differences by income and education extremes and rural-urban residence disappeared. In 2009, people who had been in treatment for a condition covered by AUGE in the past year had a lower adjusted prevalence of unmet need for their recent problem (11.7%, 95% CI: 10.5%, 13.2%) than who had not (21.0%, 95% CI: 19.6%, 22.4%). Despite limitations including cross-sectional and self-reported data, our findings suggest that the Chilean health system has become more equitable and responsive to need. While these changes cannot be directly attributed to AUGE, they were coincident with the AUGE reforms. However, healthcare equity concerns are still present, relating to quality of care, health system barriers and differential access for health conditions that are not covered by AUGE.

  9. Effects of Democratizations of University Education on Quality of Higher Education in Kenya: A Case of Moi University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boit, John Mugun; Kipkoech, Lydia Cheruto

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, Kenyan public universities have mounted parallel degree programmes for students who are qualified and are financially able to pay for their university education. Moi University introduced such a programme in 1998. As a result of these developments, there has arisen concern amongst the stakeholders on the quality, efficiency…

  10. Evaluation of information technology impact on effective internal control in the University system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanusi Fasilat, A.; Hassan, Haslinda

    2015-12-01

    Information Technology (IT) plays a key role in internal control system in various organizations in terms of maintaining records and other internal services. Internal control system is defined as an efficient control procedures set up by firm to safeguard resources and to assure the reliability and accuracy of both financial and non-financial records in line with applicable governance and procedure to acquire the established goal and objectives. This paper focuses on the impact of IT on internal control system in the Nigerian universities. Data are collected from three different universities via questionnaire. Descriptive statistics is used to analyze the data; Chi-square is performed to test the hypothesis. The results of the hypothesis showed that IT has a positive relationship with the effective internal control activities in the University system. It is concluded that the adoption of IT will significantly improve the effectiveness of the internal control system operations in the University in terms of quality service delivery.

  11. Evaluation of information technology impact on effective internal control in the University system

    SciTech Connect

    Sanusi Fasilat, A. Hassan, Haslinda

    2015-12-11

    Information Technology (IT) plays a key role in internal control system in various organizations in terms of maintaining records and other internal services. Internal control system is defined as an efficient control procedures set up by firm to safeguard resources and to assure the reliability and accuracy of both financial and non-financial records in line with applicable governance and procedure to acquire the established goal and objectives. This paper focuses on the impact of IT on internal control system in the Nigerian universities. Data are collected from three different universities via questionnaire. Descriptive statistics is used to analyze the data; Chi-square is performed to test the hypothesis. The results of the hypothesis showed that IT has a positive relationship with the effective internal control activities in the University system. It is concluded that the adoption of IT will significantly improve the effectiveness of the internal control system operations in the University in terms of quality service delivery.

  12. Action Research: Effective Marketing Strategies for a Blended University Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ruth Gannon; Ley, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This action research study investigated a marketing plan based on collaboration among a program faculty team and other organizational units for a graduate professional program. From its inception through the second year of operation, program enrollment increased due to the marketing plan based on an effective approach grounded in simple marketing…

  13. Strategic Evaluation of University Knowledge and Technology Transfer Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Thien Anh

    2013-01-01

    Academic knowledge and technology transfer has been growing in importance both in academic research and practice. A critical question in managing this activity is how to evaluate its effectiveness. The literature shows an increasing number of studies done to address this question; however, it also reveals important gaps that need more research.…

  14. Effectiveness of Picture Books for Italian Instruction at Japanese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yomo, Minoru; Uni, Kazuhito; Moore, Danièle; Kiyose, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the use of children's picture books to teach English has been increasing in Japan. An advantage of these books is the high proportion of basic vocabulary they include. Can picture books also be useful for teaching Japanese students Italian and increasing their motivation? The present study analyses the effectiveness of employing a…

  15. Effective Publications for Colleges and Universities. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arden, Kelvin J.; Whalen, William J.

    This guide is intended as an aid in producing effective institutional publications. It addresses: communicating through publications; organizing the publications office; editing and writing techniques; buying printing; the catalog; recruiting and career materials; publications; organizing the annual report; faculty, student, and other handbooks;…

  16. Effectiveness of Laptop Usage in UAE University Undergraduate Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awwad, Falah; Ayesh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Laptop use for undergraduate students is increasingly becoming commonplace, and is often deemed a necessity. Students are using laptops for academic as well as non-academic activities. Researchers are debating the effect of this trend on students' educational and learning outcomes, thus, there is a need for investigation to determine how efficient…

  17. Exogenous Attention Enables Perceptual Learning.

    PubMed

    Szpiro, Sarit F A; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-12-01

    Practice can improve visual perception, and these improvements are considered to be a form of brain plasticity. Training-induced learning is time-consuming and requires hundreds of trials across multiple days. The process of learning acquisition is understudied. Can learning acquisition be potentiated by manipulating visual attentional cues? We developed a protocol in which we used task-irrelevant cues for between-groups manipulation of attention during training. We found that training with exogenous attention can enable the acquisition of learning. Remarkably, this learning was maintained even when observers were subsequently tested under neutral conditions, which indicates that a change in perception was involved. Our study is the first to isolate the effects of exogenous attention and to demonstrate its efficacy to enable learning. We propose that exogenous attention boosts perceptual learning by enhancing stimulus encoding.

  18. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-01-12

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  19. Students' Perceptions of Effective EFL Teachers in University Settings in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kourieos, Stella; Evripidou, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to identify what characteristics and teaching behaviours describe effective EFL University teachers as perceived by Cypriot students. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and focus group interviews. Findings have provided evidence that effective language teaching seems to be related to a more learner-centred approach…

  20. Teaching Practice in Cameroon: The Effectiveness of the University of Buea Model and Implications for Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endeley, Margaret Nalova

    2014-01-01

    The paper aimed at assessing the effectiveness of the teaching practice model in the University of Buea, which is different from that of other teacher education institutions in Cameroon. Teaching Practice is an important component of a teacher education programme and the quality of supervision and duration are key in achieving effectiveness which…

  1. Effect of Professional Development on Classroom Practices in Some Selected Saudi Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghamdi, AbdulKhaliq Hajjad; Bin Sihes, Ahmad Johari

    2016-01-01

    "Scientific studies found the impact of professional development on effective classroom practices in Higher Education." This paper hypothesizes no statistically significant effect of lecturers' professional development on classroom practices in some selected Saudi Universities not as highlighted in the model. Hierarchical multiple…

  2. The Effect of the Research Assessment Exercise on Organisational Culture in English Universities: Collegiality versus Managerialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokoyama, Keiko

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to identify the effect of the research assessment exercise (RAE) on the balance between collegiality and managerialism in English universities. The article examines the institutional strategies for the 2001 RAE and its effect on organisational culture, identifying change in governance, management and leadership in…

  3. Framing the Effect of Multiculturalism on Diversity Outcomes among Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Brighid

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with the effect of multiculturalism on diversity outcomes among students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities. This investigation examines the multiculturalism literature, as well as the literature specific to HBCUs, in an attempt to answer the question: What is the effect of multiculturalism on diversity outcomes of…

  4. Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral-Theory-Based Skill Training on Academic Procrastination Behaviors of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toker, Betül; Avci, Rasit

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral theory (CBT) psycho-educational group program on the academic procrastination behaviors of university students and the persistence of any training effect. This was a quasi-experimental research based on an experimental and control group pretest, posttest, and followup test model.…

  5. Impaired drug absorption due to high stomach pH: a review of strategies for mitigation of such effect to enable pharmaceutical product development.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Amitava; Kesisoglou, Filippos

    2013-11-04

    Published reports have clearly shown that weakly basic drugs which have low solubility at high pH could have impaired absorption in patients with high gastric pH thus leading to reduced and variable bioavailability. Since such reduction in exposure can lead to significant loss of efficacy, it is imperative to (1) understand the behavior of the compound as a function of stomach pH to inform of any risk of bioavailability loss in clinical studies and (2) develop a robust formulation which can provide adequate exposure in achlorhydric patients. In this review paper, we provide an overview of the factors that can cause high gastric pH in human, discuss clinical and preclinical pharmacokinetic data for weak bases under conditions of normal and high gastric pH, and give examples of formulation strategies to minimize or mitigate the reduced absorption of weakly basic drugs under high gastric pH conditions. It should be noted that the ability to overcome pH sensitivity issues is highly compound dependent and there are no obvious and general solutions to overcome such effect. Further, we discuss, along with several examples, the use of biopharmaceutical tools such as in vitro dissolution, absorption modeling, and gastric pH modified animal models to assess absorption risk of weak bases in high gastric pH and also the use of these tools to enable development of formulations to mitigate such effects.

  6. Dissipative effects in the expansion of the universe. I, II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matzner, R. A.; Misner, C. W.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of dissipative processes in anisotropic homogeneous world models, showing that dissipation reduces the anisotropy. The viscosity approximation and its range of applicability is discussed. Examples are presented which have been calculated by the use of a simple approximation to the collision-time method, using the cross section appropriate to weak interaction neutrino scattering. It is found that such dissipation is quite effective except for one particular cosmological model which is axisymmetric and in which the entire expansion of the model is taken up by expansion along the axis. A detailed multicomponent model is developed for dissipative processes in Euclidean homogeneous cosmological models. These processes involve neutrinos which might have long mean free times in interaction with other constituents which are thermalized by electromagnetic interactions, and whose weak interactions produce thermal neutrinos.

  7. Enabling graphene nanoelectronics.

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei; Ohta, Taisuke; Biedermann, Laura Butler; Gutierrez, Carlos; Nolen, C. M.; Howell, Stephen Wayne; Beechem Iii, Thomas Edwin; McCarty, Kevin F.; Ross, Anthony Joseph, III

    2011-09-01

    Recent work has shown that graphene, a 2D electronic material amenable to the planar semiconductor fabrication processing, possesses tunable electronic material properties potentially far superior to metals and other standard semiconductors. Despite its phenomenal electronic properties, focused research is still required to develop techniques for depositing and synthesizing graphene over large areas, thereby enabling the reproducible mass-fabrication of graphene-based devices. To address these issues, we combined an array of growth approaches and characterization resources to investigate several innovative and synergistic approaches for the synthesis of high quality graphene films on technologically relevant substrate (SiC and metals). Our work focused on developing the fundamental scientific understanding necessary to generate large-area graphene films that exhibit highly uniform electronic properties and record carrier mobility, as well as developing techniques to transfer graphene onto other substrates.

  8. Histologic effects of University of Wisconsin two-layer method preservation of rat pancreas.

    PubMed

    Gioviale, M C; Damiano, G; Puleio, R; Bellavia, M; Cassata, G; Palumbo, V D; Spinelli, G; Altomare, R; Barone, R; Cacciabaudo, F; Buscemi, G; Lo Monte, A I

    2013-06-01

    Marginal donors represent a poorly utilized source of organs for transplantation despite their availability. The key is to reduce the ischemic damage in the effort to improve organ quality. This study investigated the histologic effects after in situ perfusion of preservation with a two-layer method compared with the classic University of Wisconsin preservation in term of tissue integrity and number of viable exocrine cells in the rat pancreas both after exsanguination and at 8 weeks of cryopreservation. Pancreata harvested from 60 rats were collected using 3 methods: two-layer method following University of Wisconsin perfusion; exsanguination; and classic University of Wisconsin perfusion/storage. In addition to histologic analysis of collected pancreata, we analyzed the number of CK19(+) cells and their viability using chi-square tests with values P < .05 considered to be significant. Rat pancreas histology showed as University of Wisconsin in situ perfusion and preservation by the two-layer method to be more effective to maintain the morphologic integrity of both exocrine and endocrine tissues. There were a larger number of CK19(+) cells with good viability. Moreover, the effects of oxygenation were visible in pancreas biopsies preserved after exsanguination. In situ University of Wisconsin perfusion and preservation for 240 minutes with the two-layer method yielded greater numbers and viability of CK19(+) cells even after 8 weeks of cryopreservation.

  9. From Early Aspirations to Actual Attainment: The Effects of Economic Status and Educational Expectations on University Pursuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ching-Ling; Bai, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of economic status and the educational expectations of significant others on early university aspirations and actual university attainment. The study analyzed two-wave longitudinal data collected from 1,595 Taiwanese students in their 9th grade in middle school and in their freshman year at universities. The…

  10. Effects of universally offered parenting interventions for parents with infants: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Klest, Sihu K; Patras, Joshua; Rayce, Signe Boe

    2016-01-01

    Objectives From a developmental perspective, infancy is a critical stage of life. Early childhood interventions aim to support caretakers, but the effects of universal interventions for parents with infants are unknown. The objective is to determine the effects of universal parenting interventions offered to parents with infants 0–12 months on measures of child development and parent–child relationship. Design A systematic review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis. We extracted publications from 10 databases in June 2013, January 2015 and June 2016 and supplemented with grey and hand search. Risk of bias was assessed, and effect sizes were calculated. Participants Inclusion criteria are: (1) randomised controlled trials of structured, psychosocial interventions offered to a universal population of parents with infants 0–12 months old in western OECD countries, (2) interventions that include a minimum of 3 sessions with at least half of the sessions delivered postnatally and (3) programme outcomes reported for child development or parent–child relationship. Results 14 papers representing 7 studies are included. There were no statistically significant effects of the intervention for the majority of the primary outcomes across the studies. Conclusions The findings of this review are mixed. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding the effects of universally offered parenting interventions on child development and parent–child relationship for this age group. PMID:27683513

  11. Enabling immersive simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Josh; Mateas, Michael; Hart, Derek H.; Whetzel, Jonathan; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Glickman, Matthew R.; Abbott, Robert G.

    2009-02-01

    The object of the 'Enabling Immersive Simulation for Complex Systems Analysis and Training' LDRD has been to research, design, and engineer a capability to develop simulations which (1) provide a rich, immersive interface for participation by real humans (exploiting existing high-performance game-engine technology wherever possible), and (2) can leverage Sandia's substantial investment in high-fidelity physical and cognitive models implemented in the Umbra simulation framework. We report here on these efforts. First, we describe the integration of Sandia's Umbra modular simulation framework with the open-source Delta3D game engine. Next, we report on Umbra's integration with Sandia's Cognitive Foundry, specifically to provide for learning behaviors for 'virtual teammates' directly from observed human behavior. Finally, we describe the integration of Delta3D with the ABL behavior engine, and report on research into establishing the theoretical framework that will be required to make use of tools like ABL to scale up to increasingly rich and realistic virtual characters.

  12. Liquid metal enabled microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Tang, Shi-Yang; Zhu, Jiu Yang; Schaefer, Samira; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Dickey, Michael D

    2017-03-14

    Several gallium-based liquid metal alloys are liquid at room temperature. As 'liquid', such alloys have a low viscosity and a high surface tension while as 'metal', they have high thermal and electrical conductivities, similar to mercury. However, unlike mercury, these liquid metal alloys have low toxicity and a negligible vapor pressure, rendering them much safer. In comparison to mercury, the distinguishing feature of these alloys is the rapid formation of a self-limiting atomically thin layer of gallium oxide over their surface when exposed to oxygen. This oxide layer changes many physical and chemical properties of gallium alloys, including their interfacial and rheological properties, which can be employed and modulated for various applications in microfluidics. Injecting liquid metal into microfluidic structures has been extensively used to pattern and encapsulate highly deformable and reconfigurable electronic devices including electrodes, sensors, antennas, and interconnects. Likewise, the unique features of liquid metals have been employed for fabricating miniaturized microfluidic components including pumps, valves, heaters, and electrodes. In this review, we discuss liquid metal enabled microfluidic components, and highlight their desirable attributes including simple fabrication, facile integration, stretchability, reconfigurability, and low power consumption, with promising applications for highly integrated microfluidic systems.

  13. Fermionic Tunneling Effect and Hawking Radiation in a Non Commutative FRW Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Bouhalouf, H.; Aissaoui, H.; Mebarki, N.

    2010-10-31

    The formalism of a non commutative gauge gravity is applied to an FRW universe and the corresponding modified metric, veirbein and spin connection components are obtained. Moreover, using the Hamilton-Jacobi method and as a pure space-time deformation effect, the NCG Hawking radiation via a fermionic tunneling transition through the dynamical NCG horizon is also studied.

  14. Laptop Computers and Wireless University Campus Networks: Is Flexibility and Effectiveness Improved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Miikka J.; Vuojarvi, Hanna; Ruokamo, Heli

    2009-01-01

    This study explores whether university students find that laptop computers and networks increase flexibility and effectiveness of studying. Special attention has been paid to non-traditional students who have extra commitments, such as taking care of children or term-time employment. Questionnaire data was collected from students who had the…

  15. Anchoring Effects in World University Rankings: Exploring Biases in Reputation Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Nicholas A.; Bastedo, Michael N.

    2011-01-01

    Despite ongoing debates about their uses and validity, university rankings are a popular means to compare institutions within a country and around the world. Anchoring theory suggests that these rankings may influence assessments of institutional reputation, and this effect may be particularly strong when a new rankings system is introduced. We…

  16. Universality of temperature-dependent effects in finite many-fermion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civitarese, O.; Dussel, G. G.; Zuker, A. P.

    1989-12-01

    The temperature dependence of the specific heat for a finite system of fermions is investigated for some simple models. It is found that finite-size effects produce a maximum in the specific heat at a temperature Tc that has a universal value when scaled by the appropriate characteristic energy.

  17. The Effects of Using an Interactive Whiteboard on the Academic Achievement of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbas, Oktay; Pektas, Huseyin Mirac

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effects of the use of an interactive whiteboard on the academic achievement of university students on the topic of electricity in a science and technology laboratory class. The study was designed as a pretest/posttest control group experimental study. Mean, standard deviation and t- tests were used for…

  18. Faculty Members' Views of Effective Teaching: A Case Study of Qatar University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Thani, Alanood Mubarak; Al-Meghaissib, Latifa A. Aziz A. A.; Nosair, Mohamed Ragab Abdelhakeem Ali

    2016-01-01

    Effective teaching (ET) has recently drawn attention within higher educational intuitions owing to the need for greater accountability, and high quality learning outcomes. The present study investigated Qatar University faculty member's (QUFM) perception of ET, characteristics, practices, and impediment, by assembling data from a cluster sample of…

  19. Effective Segmentation of University Alumni: Mining Contribution Data with Finite-Mixture Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durango-Cohen, Elizabeth J.; Balasubramanian, Siva K.

    2015-01-01

    Having an effective segmentation strategy is key to the viability of any organization. This is particularly true for colleges, universities, and other nonprofit organizations--who have seen sharp declines in private contributions, endowment income, and government grants in the past few years, and face fierce competition for donor dollars…

  20. Reforming the University Sector: Effects on Teaching Efficiency--Evidence from Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Dal Bianco, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the effects of teaching reforms in Italy. These were introduced in 1999, and changed the entire organization of university courses, where the Bachelor-Master (BA-MA) structure was adopted. The first step is to define the production process of higher education (HE). This process consists of several inputs (professors,…

  1. Effects of Identity Processing Styles on Academic Achievement of First Year University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabi, Joseph; Payne, Jarrod

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Academic achievement of first year university students in the international arena, as well as in South Africa, has been a point of concern for all stakeholders because of high failure and dropout rates. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of identity processing styles on academic achievement in first year university…

  2. A New Factor in UK Students' University Attainment: The Relative Age Effect Reversal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Simon J.; Stott, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study relative age effects (RAEs) in a selected sample of university students. The majority of education systems across the globe adopt age-related cut-off points for eligibility. This strategy has received criticism for (dis)advantaging those older children born closer to the "cut-off" date for…

  3. Improving the Effectiveness of Undergraduate Education: An Experience from a Belgian University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyck, W.; And Others

    A research-oriented project to improve the effectiveness of undergraduate education at the state University of Antwerp, Belgium, is described, and the higher education system and conditions in Belgium are noted. Attention was focused on the outcome-based paradigm, according to which the primary goal of instruction is to ensure that all students…

  4. A Report on the Effects of Environmental and Institutional Factors on College and University Enrollments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakower, Jack Y.; Zammuto, Raymond F.

    The effects of five environmental and five institutional factors on college and university enrollments during the period between 1975-1976 and 1980-1981 were studied with a sample of 2,101 institutions. The environmental factors were federal student aid, state student aid, number of 18-year-olds, unemployment, and level of economic wealth as…

  5. The Effect on State Growth of the Location of Public Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Richard

    This study attempted to determine whether or not the location of states' public universities makes a difference in state population growth and by inference, in state economic growth. Specifically the study examined the effect of the size of the host community relative to the state population or the proportion of the state's population that resides…

  6. Leadership Behaviour and Effectiveness of Academic Program Directors in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkinas, Tricia; Ladyshewsky, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on leadership behaviour and effectiveness of university academic program directors who have responsibility for managing a program or course of study. The leadership capabilities were assessed using the Integrated Competing Values Framework as its theoretical foundation. Data from 90 academic program directors and 710…

  7. Effects of a Brief Video Intervention on White University Students' Racial Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soble, Jason R.; Spanierman, Lisa B.; Liao, Hsin-Ya

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of a brief video intervention on the racial attitudes of White university students. One hundred thirty-eight self-identified White students were randomly assigned to either an experimental condition in which they viewed a video documenting the pervasiveness of institutional racism and White privilege in the…

  8. Distance Learning and University Effectiveness: Changing Educational Paradigms for Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Caroline; Schenk, Karen; Discenza, Richard

    2004-01-01

    "Distance Learning and University Effectiveness: Changing Educational Paradigms for Online Learning" addresses the challenges and opportunities associated with information and communication technologies (ICTs) as related to education. From discussing new and innovative educational paradigms and learning models resulting from ICTs to addressing…

  9. Student Perceptions of Effective Foreign Language Teachers: A Quantitative Investigation from a Korean University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bruce D.; Lock, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    The present study uses a questionnaire instrument to measure the importance that students from a Korean university place on a wide range of effective foreign language teacher attributes. Respondents to the present study placed high importance on rapport attributes such as friendliness, care, and patience; and delivery attributes which included the…

  10. Effective Utilization of ICT in English Language Learning--The Case of University of Botswana Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umunnakwe, Ngozi; Sello, Queen

    2016-01-01

    The study investigates the effective utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by first year undergraduates of the University of Botswana (UB) in their reading and writing skills. The first year students are not first language (L1) learners of English. They have not utilized computers for learning reading and writing in their…

  11. Effect of a Storyboarding Technique on Selected Measures of Fitness among University Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshel, Mark H.; Sutarso, Toto

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of storyboarding (i.e., participants' written narrative) on improving fitness among university employees over 10 weeks. Groups consisted of storytelling during the program orientation, storytelling plus two coaching sessions, or the normal program only (control). Using difference…

  12. On the Relationship between Research Productivity and Teaching Effectiveness at Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Hong; Cheng, Xuezhu; Zhao, Ke

    2007-01-01

    As an empirical study based on undergraduate ratings of 2364 teachers lecturing in different courses during four semesters in Beijing Normal University, this paper studies the relationship between teaching effectiveness and research productivity. The results show that both of them are positively correlated, that is to say, teaching effectiveness…

  13. The Effect of Web-Based Homework on University Students' Physics Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirci, Neset

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effect of web-based homework on university students' physics achievement was compared. One of the two identical sections of introductory physics course students received pen-and-paper homework done in groups while the other received web-based online homework performed individually. And then both groups' homework performance and…

  14. Study of the Effective Factors on the University Students' Underachievement in English Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghadirzadeh, Reyhaneh; Hashtroudi, Fariba Pourabolfathe; Shokri, Omid

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of university students' demotivational status, language learning strategies and learning style preferences on their underachievement in English language learning. To begin, 260 Iranian undergraduate students were selected through the multi-stage cluster sampling method. They were put into two successful…

  15. The Competencies Required for Effective Performance in a University e-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Mitchell; Reading, Christine; Stein, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and rate the importance of the competencies required by students for effective performance in a university e-learning environment mediated by a learning management system. Two expert panels identified 58 e-learning competencies considered to be essential for e-learning. Of these competencies, 22 were related…

  16. Instructors' Perceived Effectiveness of Current Professional Development Programs at Taif University English Language Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tawalbeh, Tha'er Issa

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aimed to explore the EFL instructors perceived effectiveness of current professional development programs run at Taif University English Language Center (TUELC) in Saudi Arabia, and to provide suggestions to improve the current situation of these programs. To achieve these purposes, the researcher tried to answer three questions.…

  17. The Effect of a Student Support Services Program on Academic Success at an Appalachian Comprehensive University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the NOVA program, a Students Support Services program at Eastern Kentucky University, on academic success for first-generation and low-income college students. An archival database was used to identify differences in the level of academic success among first-year students in the NOVA program from fall-to-fall of…

  18. Critical Resource Effects on America's Universities: What's behind the Growing Entrepreneurial Orientation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Joshua B.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of critical resource flows on technology transfer activity. The investigation focused on the impact on a university's licensing orientation of four sources of research and development (R&D) revenues: federal, state, industry, and institutional. By licensing orientation is meant the…

  19. The "Animal House" Effect: How University-Themed Comedy Films Affect Students' Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasylkiw, Louise; Currie, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from learning and attitude theories, the current investigation explores the effect of media on students' attitudes. Study 1 was a content analysis of 34 films classified as university-themed comedies and showed that such films highlighted risk-taking (e.g., alcohol consumption) and minimized the importance of academics (e.g., studying).…

  20. The Effect of the Graphic Organizer Strategy on University Students' English Vocabulary Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hinnawi, Arwa N.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of the graphic organizer strategy on vocabulary building and vocabulary incremental growth of Jordanian university EFL students. One hundred and two students participated in the study which lasted for one academic semester of four months. Each student enrolled in one of two intact and equally-sized…

  1. The Effect of Using Vocabulary Flash Card on Iranian Pre-University Students' Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komachali, Maryam Eslahcar; Khodareza, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of using vocabulary flash card on Iranian pre-university students' vocabulary knowledge. The participants of the study comprised 50 female learners. They were randomly assigned into two homogeneous groups each consisting of 25 learners. The control group received the traditional treatment…

  2. Chinese University EFL Learners' Foreign Language Writing Anxiety: Pattern, Effect and Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Meihua; Ni, Huiliuqian

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the result of a study on Chinese university EFL learners' foreign language writing anxiety in terms of general pattern, effect and causes. 1174 first-year students answered the 26-item Foreign Language Writing Anxiety Scale (FLWAS) (Young, 1999) and took an English writing test, 18 of whom were invited for semi-structured…

  3. The "Ripple Effect" of a University Sponsored Death and Dying Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Alicia S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Conducted a follow-up study of a three-week, university sponsored death and dying symposium to measure attitudes of nonattendees. The findings showed a declining taboo regarding death education and a "ripple effect" in which individuals are affected by a death education program even though they do not attend it. (JAC)

  4. Short-Term Effectiveness of Psychotherapy Treatments Delivered at a University Counselling Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monti, Fiorella; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Ricci Bitti, Pio Enrico

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the short-term effectiveness of psychotherapy delivered at the counselling service of the University of Bologna (Italy), by means of a single group longitudinal study including a 6-months follow-up. To this end, sixty-six students completed the 6-months follow-up and filled in the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ) three times,…

  5. Effect of the Written and Combined Warnings on the Cigarette Pockets on University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gercek, Cem; Dogan, Nuri

    2012-01-01

    The general aim of this study is to analyze the effects of the written and combined (written and pictures) warning statements on the cigarette pockets on university students. The sample of the study includes a total of 231 undergraduate students. The participants were divided into two groups: the first group was presented only written warnings,…

  6. Student Oriented Approaches in the Teaching of Thermodynamics at Universities--Developing an Effective Course Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partanen, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply current pedagogical research in order to develop an effective course and exercise structure for a physical chemistry thermodynamics course intended for second or third year university students of chemistry. A mixed-method approach was used to measure the impact the changes had on student learning. In its final…

  7. Effective Student Teams for Collaborative Learning in an Introductory University Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Jason J. B.; Harrison, David M.; Meyertholen, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the types of student teams that are most effective for collaborative learning in a large freshman university physics course. We compared teams in which the students were all of roughly equal ability to teams with a mix of student abilities, we compared teams with three members to teams with four members, and we examined teams with…

  8. An Assessment of the Effectiveness of the University of Hartford First-Year Interest Group Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Robert L.; Colarulli, Guy C.; Barrett, Karen A.; Stevenson, Catherine B.

    2005-01-01

    A first-year interest group (FIG) is a learning community using course clusters. An effective model of FIGs and an innovative faculty development process are briefly described. Evaluation results found that University of Hartford FIGs improved student learning, improved curricular integration, fostered student community, and promoted faculty…

  9. The Effects of Locus of Control on University Students' Mobile Learning Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsia, Jung-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Since mobile devices have become cheaper, easily accessible, powerful, and popular and the cost of wireless access has declined gradually, mobile learning (m-learning) has begun to spread rapidly. To further improve the effectiveness and efficiency of m-learning for university students, it is critical to understand whether they use m-learning.…

  10. The Effects of Class Size on Student Grades at a Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkelenberg, Edward C.; Dillon, Michael; Christy, Sean M.

    2008-01-01

    We model how class size affects the grade higher education students earn and we test the model using an ordinal logit with and without fixed effects on over 760,000 undergraduate observations from a northeastern public university. We find that class size negatively affects grades for a variety of specifications and subsets of the data, as well as…

  11. Iranian University Teachers' and Students' Views on Effectiveness of Students' Evaluation of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirbagi, Naser

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to examine the effectiveness of Student Evaluation of Teaching (SET) from a sample of university teachers' and students' view. The study adopts exploratory descriptive design. Participants of this research were 300 teachers and 600 graduate students from 3 Iranian higher education institutions. A 30-item format…

  12. Anchoring Effects of English Vocabulary Instruction: The Case of Pre-University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deylamsalehi, Anahita; Barjasteh, Hamed; Vaseghi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of employing Concept Mapping (hereafter CM) in vocabulary instruction on Iranian pre-university students. This study also seeks to find whether there is difference between male and female students' vocabulary learning when they are subjected to CM instruction. In so doing, an…

  13. Examining the Effectiveness of Explicit Instruction of Vocabulary Learning Strategies with Japanese EFL University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizumoto, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of explicit instruction of vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs) over a 10-week semester with a group of 146 female EFL learners from two Japanese universities. A vocabulary test and questionnaires on VLSs and motivation were administered at the beginning of the course. The learners were divided into two…

  14. Enabling responsible public genomics.

    PubMed

    Conley, John M; Doerr, Adam K; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    As scientific understandings of genetics advance, researchers require increasingly rich datasets that combine genomic data from large numbers of individuals with medical and other personal information. Linking individuals' genetic data and personal information precludes anonymity and produces medically significant information--a result not contemplated by the established legal and ethical conventions governing human genomic research. To pursue the next generation of human genomic research and commerce in a responsible fashion, scientists, lawyers, and regulators must address substantial new issues, including researchers' duties with respect to clinically significant data, the challenges to privacy presented by genomic data, the boundary between genomic research and commerce, and the practice of medicine. This Article presents a new model for understanding and addressing these new challenges--a "public genomics" premised on the idea that ethically, legally, and socially responsible genomics research requires openness, not privacy, as its organizing principle. Responsible public genomics combines the data contributed by informed and fully consenting information altruists and the research potential of rich datasets in a genomic commons that is freely and globally available. This Article examines the risks and benefits of this public genomics model in the context of an ambitious genetic research project currently under way--the Personal Genome Project. This Article also (i) demonstrates that large-scale genomic projects are desirable, (ii) evaluates the risks and challenges presented by public genomics research, and (iii) determines that the current legal and regulatory regimes restrict beneficial and responsible scientific inquiry while failing to adequately protect participants. The Article concludes by proposing a modified normative and legal framework that embraces and enables a future of responsible public genomics.

  15. Willing and Enabled: The Academic Outcomes of a Tertiary Enabling Program in Regional Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrewartha, Lisa; Harvey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the achievement levels of students undertaking the Tertiary Enabling Program (TEP) at La Trobe University. The TEP is an alternative pathway program that traverses multiple institutions, campuses, and disciplinary areas, and is designed to prepare a diverse student cohort for tertiary study. The Program integrates several…

  16. Barriers and enablers to academic health leadership.

    PubMed

    Bharwani, Aleem; Kline, Theresa; Patterson, Margaret; Craighead, Peter

    2017-02-06

    Purpose This study sought to identify the barriers and enablers to leadership enactment in academic health-care settings. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews ( n = 77) with programme stakeholders (medical school trainees, university leaders, clinical leaders, medical scientists and directors external to the medical school) were conducted, and the responses content-analysed. Findings Both contextual and individual factors were identified as playing a role in affecting academic health leadership enactment that has an impact on programme development, success and maintenance. Contextual factors included sufficient resources allocated to the programme, opportunities for learners to practise leadership skills, a competent team around the leader once that person is in place, clear expectations for the leader and a culture that fosters open communication. Contextual barriers included highly bureaucratic structures, fear-of-failure and non-trusting cultures and inappropriate performance systems. Programmes were advised to select participants based on self-awareness, strong communication skills and an innovative thinking style. Filling specific knowledge and skill gaps, particularly for those not trained in medical school, was viewed as essential. Ineffective decision-making styles and tendencies to get involved in day-to-day activities were barriers to the development of academic health leaders. Originality/value Programmes designed to develop academic health-care leaders will be most effective if they develop leadership at all levels; ensure that the organisation's culture, structure and processes reinforce positive leadership practices; and recognise the critical role of teams in supporting its leaders.

  17. Enabling interstellar probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Ralph L.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; International Interstellar Probe Team

    2011-04-01

    The scientific community has advocated a scientific probe to the interstellar medium for over 30 years. While the Voyager spacecraft have passed through the termination shock of the solar wind, they have limited lifetimes as their radioisotope power supplies decay. It remains unclear whether they can reach the heliopause, the boundary between shocked solar wind and interstellar plasmas, and, in any case, they will not reach the undisturbed interstellar medium. As with most exploratory space missions, their ongoing observations continue to raise even more questions about the nature of the interaction of our heliosphere and the interstellar medium. Scientific questions including: What is the nature of the nearby interstellar medium? How do the Sun and galaxy affect the dynamics of the heliosphere? What is the structure of the heliosphere? How did matter in the solar system and interstellar medium originate and evolve? can only be answered by an "interstellar precursor" probe. Such a mission is required to make in situ measurements in the interaction region and interstellar medium itself at distances far from the Sun, but in a finite mission lifetime. By launching a probe toward the incoming "interstellar wind," whose direction is known, the distance to be traveled can be minimized but is still large. The current consensus is that a scientifically compelling mission must function to at least a distance of 200 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun and return a reasonable stream of data during the voyage. The central problem is that of providing a means of propulsion to accelerate a probe from the Solar System. Even with a low-mass payload and spacecraft, achieving the high speeds needed, even with gravity assists, have remained problematic. Voyager 1, the fastest object ever to leave the system is now traveling ˜3.6 AU/yr, and a credible probe must reach at least 2-3 times this speed. The use of an Ares V is an approach for enabling a fast interstellar precursor

  18. FOILFEST :community enabled security.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Whitley, John B.; Drayer, Darryl Donald; Cummings, John C., Jr.

    2005-09-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group of Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop, ''FOILFest: Community Enabled Security'', on July 18-21, 2005, in Albuquerque, NM. This was a far-reaching look into the future of physical protection consisting of a series of structured brainstorming sessions focused on preventing and foiling attacks on public places and soft targets such as airports, shopping malls, hotels, and public events. These facilities are difficult to protect using traditional security devices since they could easily be pushed out of business through the addition of arduous and expensive security measures. The idea behind this Fest was to explore how the public, which is vital to the function of these institutions, can be leveraged as part of a physical protection system. The workshop considered procedures, space design, and approaches for building community through technology. The workshop explored ways to make the ''good guys'' in public places feel safe and be vigilant while making potential perpetrators of harm feel exposed and convinced that they will not succeed. Participants in the Fest included operators of public places, social scientists, technology experts, representatives of government agencies including DHS and the intelligence community, writers and media experts. Many innovative ideas were explored during the fest with most of the time spent on airports, including consideration of the local airport, the Albuquerque Sunport. Some provocative ideas included: (1) sniffers installed in passage areas like revolving door, escalators, (2) a ''jumbotron'' showing current camera shots in the public space, (3) transparent portal screeners allowing viewing of the screening, (4) a layered open/funnel/open/funnel design where open spaces are used to encourage a sense of ''communitas'' and take advantage of citizen ''sensing'' and funnels are technological tunnels of sensors (the tunnels of truth), (5) curved benches with blast proof walls or backs, (6

  19. Achieving Effective Universal Health Coverage And Diagonal Approaches To Care For Chronic Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; Bhadelia, Afsan; Atun, Rifat; Frenk, Julio

    2015-09-01

    Health systems in low- and middle-income countries were designed to provide episodic care for acute conditions. However, the burden of disease has shifted to be overwhelmingly dominated by chronic conditions and illnesses that require health systems to function in an integrated manner across a spectrum of disease stages from prevention to palliation. Low- and middle-income countries are also aiming to ensure health care access for all through universal health coverage. This article proposes a framework of effective universal health coverage intended to meet the challenge of chronic illnesses. It outlines strategies to strengthen health systems through a "diagonal approach." We argue that the core challenge to health systems is chronicity of illness that requires ongoing and long-term health care. The example of breast cancer within the broader context of health system reform in Mexico is presented to illustrate effective universal health coverage along the chronic disease continuum and across health systems functions. The article concludes with recommendations to strengthen health systems in order to achieve effective universal health coverage.

  20. The Effect of Visual of a Courseware towards Pre-University Students' Learning in Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masri, Mazyrah; Wan Ahmad, Wan Fatimah; Nordin, Shahrina Md.; Sulaiman, Suziah

    This paper highlights the effect of visual of a multimedia courseware, Black Cat Courseware (BC-C), developed for learning literature at a pre-university level in University Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP). The contents of the courseware are based on a Black Cat story which is covered in an English course at the university. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the usability and effectiveness of BC-C. A total of sixty foundation students were involved in the study. Quasi-experimental design was employed, forming two groups: experimental and control groups. The experimental group had to interact with BC-C as part of the learning activities while the control group used the conventional learning methods. The results indicate that the experimental group achieved a statistically significant compared to the control group in understanding the Black Cat story. The study result also proves that the effect of visual increases the students' performances in literature learning at a pre-university level.

  1. A universal surrogate peptide to enable LC-MS/MS bioanalysis of a diversity of human monoclonal antibody and human Fc-fusion protein drug candidates in pre-clinical animal studies.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Michael T; Ouyang, Zheng; Wu, Steven; Tamura, James; Olah, Timothy; Tymiak, Adrienne; Jemal, Mohammed

    2012-08-01

    For the development of human antibody Fc (fraction crystallizable) region-containing therapeutic protein candidates, which can be either monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or pharmacologically active proteins/peptides fused to the Fc region of human Immunoglobulin G (IgG), reliable quantification of these proteins in animal pharmacokinetic study plasma samples is critical. LC-MS/MS has emerged as a promising assay platform for this purpose. LC-MS/MS assays used for bioanalysis of human antibody Fc region-containing therapeutic protein candidates frequently rely upon quantification of a 'signature' surrogate peptide whose sequence is unique to the protein analyte of interest. One drawback of the signature peptide approach is that a new LC-MS/MS assay must be developed for each new human Fc region-containing therapeutic protein. To address this issue, we propose an alternative 'universal surrogate peptide' approach for the quantification of human antibody Fc region-containing therapeutic protein candidates in plasma samples from all nonclinical species. A single surrogate tryptic peptide was identified in the Fc region of most human antibody Fc-containing therapeutic protein candidates. An LC-MS-MS method based upon this peptide was shown to be capable of supporting bioanalysis of a diversity of human Fc region-containing therapeutic protein candidates in plasma samples of all commonly used animal species.

  2. Chemically enabled nanostructure fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Fengwei

    lithography with a programmable direct write manner. Finally, a straightforward method for the direct patterning of various nanoparticle building blocks (NBBs) by DPN using a universal ink is described. Nanostructured features of any shape and at 100 nm size can be designed and then generated by this method in a well-controlled manner.

  3. Autonomy enables new science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Richard J.; Gor, Victoria; Man, Guy K.; Stolorz, Paul E.; Chapman, Clark; Merline, William J.; Stern, Alan

    1997-01-01

    The challenge of space flight in NASA's future is to enable smaller, more frequent and intensive space exploration at much lower total cost without substantially decreasing mission reliability, capability, or the scientific return on investment. The most effective way to achieve this goal is to build intelligent capabilities into the spacecraft themselves. Our technological vision for meeting the challenge of returning quality science through limited communication bandwidth will actually put scientists in a more direct link with the spacecraft than they have enjoyed to date. Technologies such as pattern recognition and machine learning can place a part of the scientist's awareness onboard the spacecraft to prioritize downlink or to autonomously trigger time-critical follow-up observations-particularly important in flyby missions-without ground interaction. Onboard knowledge discovery methods can be used to include candidate discoveries in each downlink for scientists' scrutiny. Such capabilities will allow scientists to quickly reprioritize missions in a much more intimate and efficient manner than is possible today. Ultimately, new classes of exploration missions will be enabled.

  4. Enabling Europe to innovate.

    PubMed

    Dearing, Andrew

    2007-01-19

    As activities that relate to innovation become increasingly global and open and so draw the private and public sectors into complex networks of partnerships, these activities also tend to concentrate where the ecosystem is most supportive. European public policy, which in recent years has emphasized the importance of research and development (R&D) in achieving competitive knowledge-based societies, is shifting toward approaches that address the broader qualities required of favorable ecosystems for innovation in a global economy, thereby incorporating the roles of market demand, public procurement, and regulation, as well as science, education, and industrial R&D, as part of determining effective innovation policies.

  5. Improving the Effectiveness of Higher Education Institutions through Inter-University Co-Operation: The Case of Peking University. Improving the Managerial Effectiveness of Higher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weifang, Min

    This case study on the experience of the University of Peking, China, in inter-university cooperation describes the process of identifying appropriate partner institutions and implementing collaborative programs with them. It also highlights a number of lessons for those managing inter-university cooperation and shows how such initiatives can be…

  6. The effect of integrated course and faculty development: Experiences of a university chemistry department in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallos, Marilou R.; van den Berg, Euwe; Treagust, David F.

    2005-08-01

    It is widely recognized that lectures continue to dominate college chemistry instruction, especially in developing countries, and that lectures limit student intellectual engagement. To address this concern, a General Chemistry course in a Philippine university was reconstructed to implement an instructional cycle consisting of three phases: a plenary or mini-lecture, seatwork activity, and a summary or closure. An expert instructor coached the instructors to improve their teaching. Two instructors were involved in pilot implementation and 13 instructors in a large-scale implementation. This article describes the instructors’ adoption of the instructional cycle using qualitative and quantitative methods that involved multiple data sources. The instructional cycle and intensive coaching enabled most instructors to change their practices, shift their focus from teaching to learning, and enhance their knowledge of student learning difficulties. Nine instructors were able to significantly change their teaching and apply meaningful student seatwork in their lessons. These nine instructors used student seatwork and activities 30 70% of the time, whereas previously 90% of the time involved lectures. Videotape records showed that more than 70% of the students were continuously on task. Four instructors had considerable difficulties in applying the new approach but also had difficulties with conventional lectures. The project constituted the start of a departmental reorientation with a focus on effectiveness of teaching and learning. Subsequently the faculty and course development model developed in this study was used to revise other courses. The theory of Rogan and Grayson proved useful in describing the change processes.

  7. Enabling scientific teamwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hereld, Mark; Hudson, Randy; Norris, John; Papka, Michael E.; Uram, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    The Computer Supported Collaborative Work research community has identified that the technology used to support distributed teams of researchers, such as email, instant messaging, and conferencing environments, are not enough. Building from a list of areas where it is believed technology can help support distributed teams, we have divided our efforts into support of asynchronous and synchronous activities. This paper will describe two of our recent efforts to improve the productivity of distributed science teams. One effort focused on supporting the management and tracking of milestones and results, with the hope of helping manage information overload. The second effort focused on providing an environment that supports real-time analysis of data. Both of these efforts are seen as add-ons to the existing collaborative infrastructure, developed to enhance the experience of teams working at a distance by removing barriers to effective communication.

  8. Effects of quantum gravity on the inflationary parameters and thermodynamics of the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, A.; Magdy, H.; Farag Ali, Ahmed

    2013-06-01

    The effects of generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) on the inflationary dynamics and the thermodynamics of the early universe are studied. Using the GUP approach, the tensorial and scalar density fluctuations in the inflation era are evaluated and compared with the standard case. We find a good agreement with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data. Assuming that a quantum gas of scalar particles is confined within a thin layer near the apparent horizon of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe which satisfies the boundary condition, the number and entropy densities and the free energy arising form the quantum states are calculated using the GUP approach. A qualitative estimation for effects of the quantum gravity on all these thermodynamic quantities is introduced.

  9. Effects of university affiliation and "school spirit" on color preferences: Berkeley versus Stanford.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Karen B; Poggesi, Rosa M; Palmer, Stephen E

    2011-06-01

    The ecological valence theory (EVT) posits that preference for a color is determined by people's average affective response to everything associated with it (Palmer & Schloss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 8877-8882, 2010). The EVT thus implies the existence of sociocultural effects: Color preference should increase with positive feelings (or decrease with negative feelings) toward an institution strongly associated with a color. We tested this prediction by measuring undergraduates' color preferences at two rival universities, Berkeley and Stanford, to determine whether students liked their university's colors better than their rivals did. Students not only preferred their own colors more than their rivals did, but the degree of their preference increased with self-rated positive affect ("school spirit") for their university. These results support the EVT's claim that color preference is caused by learned affective responses to associated objects and institutions, because it is unlikely that students choose their university or develop their degree of school spirit on the basis of preexisting color preferences.

  10. Computer-Based Approach to the Navy’s Academic Remedial Training, Project PREST (Performance-Related Enabling Skills Training): A Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    multiplying deviation scores by the test -form reliability ( Kuder - Richardson 20), and then converting back to raw scores. 7 _______ . . .. -o o•. . o... Education and Training (N-5) &contracted for the development and test of a computer-based approach, hereafter referred to as the Performance-related Enabling...RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS-1963-A .. . . . .. - . . . . . . NPROC SR 81-18 MAY 1981 COMPUTER-BASED APPROACH TO THE NAVY’S ACADEMIC

  11. NASA's new university engineering space research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadin, Stanley R.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of a newly emerging element of NASA's university engineering programs is to provide a more autonomous element that will enhance and broaden the capabilities in academia, enabling them to participate more effectively in the U.S. civil space program. The programs utilize technical monitors at NASA centers to foster collaborative arrangements, exchange of personnel, and the sharing of facilities between NASA and the universities. The elements include: the university advanced space design program, which funds advanced systems study courses at the senior and graduate levels; the university space engineering research program that supports cross-disciplinary research centers; the outreach flight experiments program that offers engineering research opportunities to universities; and the planned university investigator's research program to provide grants to individuals with outstanding credentials.

  12. Enabling technology for human collaboration.

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Tim Andrew; Jones, Wendell Bruce; Warner, David Jay; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Merkle, Peter Benedict

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a five-month LDRD late start project which explored the potential of enabling technology to improve the performance of small groups. The purpose was to investigate and develop new methods to assist groups working in high consequence, high stress, ambiguous and time critical situations, especially those for which it is impractical to adequately train or prepare. A testbed was constructed for exploratory analysis of a small group engaged in tasks with high cognitive and communication performance requirements. The system consisted of five computer stations, four with special devices equipped to collect physiologic, somatic, audio and video data. Test subjects were recruited and engaged in a cooperative video game. Each team member was provided with a sensor array for physiologic and somatic data collection while playing the video game. We explored the potential for real-time signal analysis to provide information that enables emergent and desirable group behavior and improved task performance. The data collected in this study included audio, video, game scores, physiological, somatic, keystroke, and mouse movement data. The use of self-organizing maps (SOMs) was explored to search for emergent trends in the physiological data as it correlated with the video, audio and game scores. This exploration resulted in the development of two approaches for analysis, to be used concurrently, an individual SOM and a group SOM. The individual SOM was trained using the unique data of each person, and was used to monitor the effectiveness and stress level of each member of the group. The group SOM was trained using the data of the entire group, and was used to monitor the group effectiveness and dynamics. Results suggested that both types of SOMs were required to adequately track evolutions and shifts in group effectiveness. Four subjects were used in the data collection and development of these tools. This report documents a proof of concept

  13. Barriers to Effective Formulation of Code of Ethics in a Medical University

    PubMed Central

    MOKHTARIANPOUR, Majid; FARAMARZ GHARAMALEKI, Ahad; RAJABI, Shirin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Every year many organizations formulate a Code of Ethics (COE) but when it comes to implementing, it does not achieve the desired purposes. Ineffectiveness of COEs can stem from different factors and surely, one of them is bad formulation. This research was conducted to identify the barriers to effective formulation of COEs in one of the main state universities of medical sciences in Iran. Methods: A qualitative approach using thematic analysis in three stages of descriptive coding, interpretative coding and overarching themes was adopted to analyze data collected through 27 semi-structured interviews. This study was conducted in 2014–15 at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Results: Totally 135 descriptive themes, 12 interpretive themes and 3 overarching themes emerged through analyzing interviews. Conclusion: In order to have an implementable COE, 12 barriers in three categories including “goal-setting”, “approach” and “content” of the COE, must be removed. In “goal-setting”, real cultural conditions of the medical university must be considered. Moreover, the COE must be in response to perceived internal needs and its philosophy must be clear for all members of the university. Besides, the formulation “approach” of the COEs must be specialist, participatory and expertised. Finally, in “content”, different stakeholders with diverse values, levels of knowledge and needs should be carefully addressed. In addition, it is proposed to emphasize religious and humane values to encourage participation of people. As a final point, the university should avoid imitation in the content of the COE, and conceptualize the values in motivating, inspirational and guiding words. PMID:27057525

  14. Universal slip dynamics in metallic glasses and granular matter - linking frictional weakening with inertial effects.

    PubMed

    Denisov, Dmitry V; Lőrincz, Kinga A; Wright, Wendelin J; Hufnagel, Todd C; Nawano, Aya; Gu, Xiaojun; Uhl, Jonathan T; Dahmen, Karin A; Schall, Peter

    2017-03-06

    Slowly strained solids deform via intermittent slips that exhibit a material-independent critical size distribution. Here, by comparing two disparate systems - granular materials and bulk metallic glasses - we show evidence that not only the statistics of slips but also their dynamics are remarkably similar, i.e. independent of the microscopic details of the material. By resolving and comparing the full time evolution of avalanches in bulk metallic glasses and granular materials, we uncover a regime of universal deformation dynamics. We experimentally verify the predicted universal scaling functions for the dynamics of individual avalanches in both systems, and show that both the slip statistics and dynamics are independent of the scale and details of the material structure and interactions, thus settling a long-standing debate as to whether or not the claim of universality includes only the slip statistics or also the slip dynamics. The results imply that the frictional weakening in granular materials and the interplay of damping, weakening and inertial effects in bulk metallic glasses have strikingly similar effects on the slip dynamics. These results are important for transferring experimental results across scales and material structures in a single theory of deformation dynamics.

  15. Keldysh effective action theory for universal physics in spin-(1)/(2) Kondo dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Sergey; Grifoni, Milena

    2013-03-01

    We present a theory for the Kondo spin-(1)/(2) effect in strongly correlated quantum dots. The theory is applicable at any temperature and voltage. It is based on a quadratic Keldysh effective action parametrized by a universal function. We provide a general analytical form for the tunneling density of states through this universal function for which we propose a simple microscopic model. We apply our theory to the highly asymmetric Anderson model with U=∞ and describe its strong-coupling limit, weak-coupling limit, and crossover region within a single analytical expression. We compare our results with a numerical renormalization group in equilibrium and with a real-time renormalization group out of equilibrium and show that the universal shapes of the linear and differential conductance obtained in our theory and in these theories are very close to each other in a wide range of temperatures and voltages. In particular, as in the real-time renormalization group, we predict that at the Kondo voltage the differential conductance is equal to 2/3 of its maximum.

  16. Universal slip dynamics in metallic glasses and granular matter – linking frictional weakening with inertial effects

    PubMed Central

    Denisov, Dmitry V.; Lőrincz, Kinga A.; Wright, Wendelin J.; Hufnagel, Todd C.; Nawano, Aya; Gu, Xiaojun; Uhl, Jonathan T.; Dahmen, Karin A.; Schall, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Slowly strained solids deform via intermittent slips that exhibit a material-independent critical size distribution. Here, by comparing two disparate systems - granular materials and bulk metallic glasses - we show evidence that not only the statistics of slips but also their dynamics are remarkably similar, i.e. independent of the microscopic details of the material. By resolving and comparing the full time evolution of avalanches in bulk metallic glasses and granular materials, we uncover a regime of universal deformation dynamics. We experimentally verify the predicted universal scaling functions for the dynamics of individual avalanches in both systems, and show that both the slip statistics and dynamics are independent of the scale and details of the material structure and interactions, thus settling a long-standing debate as to whether or not the claim of universality includes only the slip statistics or also the slip dynamics. The results imply that the frictional weakening in granular materials and the interplay of damping, weakening and inertial effects in bulk metallic glasses have strikingly similar effects on the slip dynamics. These results are important for transferring experimental results across scales and material structures in a single theory of deformation dynamics. PMID:28262791

  17. Universal slip dynamics in metallic glasses and granular matter – linking frictional weakening with inertial effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, Dmitry V.; Lőrincz, Kinga A.; Wright, Wendelin J.; Hufnagel, Todd C.; Nawano, Aya; Gu, Xiaojun; Uhl, Jonathan T.; Dahmen, Karin A.; Schall, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Slowly strained solids deform via intermittent slips that exhibit a material-independent critical size distribution. Here, by comparing two disparate systems - granular materials and bulk metallic glasses - we show evidence that not only the statistics of slips but also their dynamics are remarkably similar, i.e. independent of the microscopic details of the material. By resolving and comparing the full time evolution of avalanches in bulk metallic glasses and granular materials, we uncover a regime of universal deformation dynamics. We experimentally verify the predicted universal scaling functions for the dynamics of individual avalanches in both systems, and show that both the slip statistics and dynamics are independent of the scale and details of the material structure and interactions, thus settling a long-standing debate as to whether or not the claim of universality includes only the slip statistics or also the slip dynamics. The results imply that the frictional weakening in granular materials and the interplay of damping, weakening and inertial effects in bulk metallic glasses have strikingly similar effects on the slip dynamics. These results are important for transferring experimental results across scales and material structures in a single theory of deformation dynamics.

  18. Social identity, passion and well-being in university students, the mediating effect of passion.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Miguel; Lisbona, Ana; Palací, Francisco José; Martín-Aragón, Maite

    2014-11-14

    Research on positive emotions associated with the performance of an activity, such as work or study, has increased exponentially in recent years. Passion is understood as an attitude and intense emotion in the performance of an activity, and it has shown both positive and negative consequences for well-being. A link between social identity and positive emotions through social category membership has been described. The aim of this work is to study the relationship between social identity, the dimensions of passion and the positive impact on university responses. A quasi-experimental design was used on a sample of 266 university students from different Spanish universities (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Universidad Miguel Hernández and Universidad de Alicante). Descriptive analyzes were performed on the study's variables using SPSS 18. Structural equation modeling was carried out with AMOS 18 and the mediational analysis with MODMED macro developed by Preacher, Rucker, and Hayes (2007). The results show that the identity of the studies had an indirect effect on positive responses mediated by passion for the studies (RMSEA = .07; CFI = .97; NFI = .96; TLI = .92). It is observed that the harmonious and obsessive dimensions of passion differ in the mediating effect on happiness and satisfaction with studies. Practical and theoretical implications for well-being are discussed.

  19. Dust Formation, Evolution, and Obscuration Effects in the Very High-Redshift Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli; Staguhn, Johannes; Arendt, Richard G.; Kovacs, Attila; Su, Ting; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of dust at redshifts z > or approx. 9, and consequently the dust properties, differs greatly from that in the local universe. In contrast to the local universe, core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the only source of thermally-condensed dust. Because of the low initial dust-to-gas mass ratio, grain destruction rates are low, so that CCSNe are net producers of interstellar dust. Galaxies with large initial gas mass or high mass infall rate will therefore have a more rapid net rate of dust production comported to galaxies with lower gas mass, even at the same star formation rate. The dust composition is dominated by silicates, which exhibit a strong rise in the UV opacity near the Lyman break. This "silicate-UV break" may be confused with the Lyman break, resulting in a misidentification of a galaxies' photometric redshift. In this paper we demonstrate these effects by analyzing the spectral energy distribution (SED) of MACS1149-JD, a lensed galaxy at z = 9.6. A potential 2mm counterpart of MACS1149-JD has been identified with GISMO. While additional observations are required to corroborate this identification, we use this possible association to illustrate the physical processes and the observational effects of dust in the very high redshift universe. Subject headings: galaxies: high-redshift - galaxies: evolution - galaxies: individual (MACS1149- JD) - Interstellar medium (ISM), nebulae: dust, extinction - physical data and processes: nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances.

  20. Dust Formation, Evolution, and Obscuration Effects in the Very High-Redshift Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli; Staguhn, Johannes; Arendt, Richard G.; Kovacks, Attila; Su, Ting; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of dust at redshifts z > or approx. 9, and consequently the dust properties, differs greatly from that in the local universe. In contrast to the local universe, core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the only source of thermally-condensed dust. Because of the low initial dust-togas mass ratio, grain destruction rates are low, so that CCSNe are net producers of interstellar dust. Galaxies with large initial gas mass or high mass infall rate will therefore have a more rapid net rate of dust production comported to galaxies with lower gas mass, even at the same star formation rate. The dust composition is dominated by silicates, which exhibit a strong rise in the UV opacity near the Lyman break. This "silicate-UV break" may be confused with the Lyman break, resulting in a misidentification of a galaxies' photometric redshift. In this paper we demonstrate these effects by analyzing the spectral energy distribution (SED) of MACS1149-JD, a lensed galaxy at z = 9.6. A potential 2mm counterpart of MACS1149-JD has been identified with GISMO. While additional observations are required to corroborate this identification, we use this possible association to illustrate the physical processes and the observational effects of dust in the very high redshift universe.

  1. DUST FORMATION, EVOLUTION, AND OBSCURATION EFFECTS IN THE VERY HIGH-REDSHIFT UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Dwek, Eli; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes; Su, Ting; Arendt, Richard G.; Kovacks, Attila

    2014-06-20

    The evolution of dust at redshifts z ≳ 9, and consequently the dust properties, differs greatly from that in the local universe. In contrast to the local universe, core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the only source of thermally condensed dust. Because of the low initial dust-to-gas mass ratio, grain destruction rates are low, so that CCSNe are net producers of interstellar dust. Galaxies with large initial gas mass or high mass infall rate will therefore have a more rapid net rate of dust production compared to galaxies with lower gas mass, even at the same star formation rate. The dust composition is dominated by silicates, which exhibit a strong rise in the UV opacity near the Lyman break. This ''silicate-UV break'' may be confused with the Lyman break, resulting in a misidentification of a galaxy's photometric redshift. In this Letter we demonstrate these effects by analyzing the spectral energy distribution of MACS1149-JD, a lensed galaxy at z = 9.6. A potential 2 mm counterpart of MACS1149-JD has been identified with GISMO. While additional observations are required to corroborate this identification, we use this possible association to illustrate the physical processes and the observational effects of dust in the very high-redshift universe.

  2. Enabling a Comprehensive Teaching Strategy: Video Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecht, H. David; Ogilby, Suzanne M.

    2008-01-01

    This study empirically tests the feasibility and effectiveness of video lectures as a form of video instruction that enables a comprehensive teaching strategy used throughout a traditional classroom course. It examines student use patterns and the videos' effects on student learning, using qualitative and nonparametric statistical analyses of…

  3. Effects of Adolescent Universal Substance Misuse Preventive Interventions on Young Adult Depression Symptoms: Mediational Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, Richard; Mason, W. Alex; Randall, G. Kevin; Redmond, Cleve; Schainker, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Depression symptoms are associated with impairments in functioning and have substantial health and economic consequences. Universal substance misuse prevention programs have shown effects on non-targeted mental health-related symptoms, but long-term effects are understudied. This cluster randomized controlled trial examined effects of both the LifeSkills Training (LST) and Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10–14 (SFP 10–14) interventions, delivered during seventh grade, on age 22 young adult depression symptoms. The study was conducted in US rural Midwestern communities with a randomly-selected sample from a larger study (N= 670). Experimental conditions were LST+SFP 10–14, LST-only, and a control condition. Effects on age 22 depression symptoms were hypothesized as mediated through effects on age 21 relationship problems and illicit use of substances. Structural equation modeling with manifest and latent variables was conducted to test hypotheses; the intervention conditions were combined and compared with the control condition because analyses indicated a comparable pattern of effects between intervention conditions. Significant indirect intervention effects were found on age 22 depression symptoms via effects on the mediating variables (indirect effect: β=−0.06, 95 % CI [−0.10, −0.01], p=0.011). Effect sizes for the young adult variables were between d=0.17 and 0.29, which can be considered small, but nontrivial, especially in the context of public health benefits. Results support scaled-up implementation of school-based and family-focused universal substance misuse preventive interventions. PMID:25795013

  4. The Effects of a Pedometer-Based Intervention on First-Year University Students: A Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Paul; Caperchione, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effects of a 12-week pedometer-based intervention on the physical activity behavior, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and psychological well-being of first-year university students. Participants: First-year university students (N = 184) were recruited during September 2012 and randomly assigned to an intervention…

  5. The Effect of Instructing Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies on the Academic Progress of Ilam Medical University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdolhosseini, Amir; Keikhavani, Sattar; Hasel, Kourosh Mohammadi

    2011-01-01

    This study reviewed the effect of instructing cognitive and metacognitive strategies on the academic progress of Medical Sciences of Ilam University students. The research is quasi-experimental including a pre-test and a post-test. The population of the research includes the students of Medical Sciences of Ilam University. The sample includes 120…

  6. The Effects of a Communication and Conflict Resolution Skill Training Program on Sociotropy Levels of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karahan, T. Fikret

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the effect of a Communication and Conflict Resolution Skill Training Program on sociotropy levels of university students were investigated. The working group was consisted of thirty two voluntary university students. A pre-test and post-test model was used with control group and experimental group, each consisting of sixteen…

  7. Using NMR and molecular dynamics to link structure and dynamics effects of the universal base 8-aza, 7-deaza, N8 linked adenosine analog

    PubMed Central

    Spring-Connell, Alexander M.; Evich, Marina G.; Debelak, Harald; Seela, Frank; Germann, Markus W.

    2016-01-01

    A truly universal nucleobase enables a host of novel applications such as simplified templates for PCR primers, randomized sequencing and DNA based devices. A universal base must pair indiscriminately to each of the canonical bases with little or preferably no destabilization of the overall duplex. In reality, many candidates either destabilize the duplex or do not base pair indiscriminatingly. The novel base 8-aza-7-deazaadenine (pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin- 4-amine) N8-(2′deoxyribonucleoside), a deoxyadenosine analog (UB), pairs with each of the natural DNA bases with little sequence preference. We have utilized NMR complemented with molecular dynamic calculations to characterize the structure and dynamics of a UB incorporated into a DNA duplex. The UB participates in base stacking with little to no perturbation of the local structure yet forms an unusual base pair that samples multiple conformations. These local dynamics result in the complete disappearance of a single UB proton resonance under native conditions. Accommodation of the UB is additionally stabilized via heightened backbone conformational sampling. NMR combined with various computational techniques has allowed for a comprehensive characterization of both structural and dynamic effects of the UB in a DNA duplex and underlines that the UB as a strong candidate for universal base applications. PMID:27566150

  8. Laboratory Astrophysics: Enabling Scientific Discovery and Understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, K.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Science Strategic Roadmap for Universe Exploration lays out a series of science objectives on a grand scale and discusses the various missions, over a wide range of wavelengths, which will enable discovery. Astronomical spectroscopy is arguably the most powerful tool we have for exploring the Universe. Experimental and theoretical studies in Laboratory Astrophysics convert "hard-won data into scientific understanding". However, the development of instruments with increasingly high spectroscopic resolution demands atomic and molecular data of unprecedented accuracy and completeness. How to meet these needs, in a time of severe budgetary constraints, poses a significant challenge both to NASA, the astronomical observers and model-builders, and the laboratory astrophysics community. I will discuss these issues, together with some recent examples of productive astronomy/lab astro collaborations.

  9. The Effects of Student Involvement and College Environment on Students' Learning and Living Experience at World-Class Research Universities in China: A Comparative Case Study of the University of Hong Kong (HKU) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Roy Yew-Hung

    2011-01-01

    This comparative research examined the effects of student involvement and college environment on students' learning and living experience delivered by two aspiring world-class universities in Hong Kong and Shanghai. Few studies have shown how the levels of student involvement and college environment can benefit students at world-class institution.…

  10. Effects of a Mindfulness Meditation Course on Learning and Cognitive Performance among University Students in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Ho-Hoi; Koo, Malcolm; Tsai, Tsung-Huang; Chen, Chiu-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness training has recently gained much research interest because of its putative benefits for both mental and physical health. However, little is available in its effects on Asian students. Therefore, a quasi-experimental pre/posttest design was used to assess the effects of a one-semester mindfulness meditation course in 152 first-year Taiwanese university students and compared with 130 controls. The Chinese version of the College Learning Effectiveness Inventory (CLEI) and a computer software program focused on specific cognitive tasks were used for the evaluation. Results from the analysis of covariance revealed that while the score of the full CLEI scale was significantly higher in the intervention group compared with the control (P = 0.022), none of the comparisons between the nine CLEI subscales were significantly different between the two groups. For the computer cognitive tasks, the intervention group exhibited significantly better performance in the accuracy of the digital vigilance task (P = 0.048), choice reaction time (P = 0.004), spatial working memory (P = 0.042), and digital vigilance task reaction time (P = 0.004). This study showed that a one-semester mindfulness meditation course was able to improve learning effectiveness and both attention and memory aspects of cognitive performance among Taiwanese university students. PMID:26640495

  11. Limited economic evaluation to assess the effectiveness of a university-wide office ergonomics program.

    PubMed

    Bidassie, Balmatee; McGlothlin, James D; Goh, Alina; Feyen, Robert G; Barany, James W

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness and provide a limited economic evaluation of an office ergonomics program at a major university from 1995 to 2007. The relationship between office-related recordable injuries, reported lost time, severity of these injuries, and the Workers' Compensation (WC) paid was analyzed and the corresponding incident cost was calculated. Two major datasets analyzed were OSHA 200/300 logs (1991-2007) and WC claims paid (1999-2007). Since the beginning of the office ergonomics program in 1995 and through 2007 (13-year period), the number of office cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) cases decreased by 53%. Since the official start (in 1999) of a 50-50 cost share agreement for office equipment purchases between the university's Safety and Health Department (SHD) and the university departments evaluated, it was observed that the incident rate decreased by 63%, Total Days Away/restrict or Transfer (DART) rate decreased by 41%, Lost Time Case (LTC) rate decreased by 71% and office-related carpal tunnel syndrome decreased by almost 50%. The long-term goal of this research is to demonstrate the self-sustainability of an office ergonomics program by showing that equipment costs are eventually offset by a decrease in WC claims paid and lost time from office-related injuries and illnesses. While limited, this research helps in cost-justifying the implementation of future office ergonomics programs for large organizations.

  12. Lessons Learned from an Industry, Government and University Collaboration to Restore Stream Habitats and Mitigate Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Nicholas E.; Scrimgeour, Garry J.; Tonn, William M.

    2017-01-01

    Restoration ecologists conduct both basic and applied research using a diversity of funding and collaborative models. Over the last 17 years we have assessed the effectiveness of a stream compensation project in Canada's north, where an independent university-based research program was a condition of the regulatory approval process. This resulted in a non-traditional university-government-industry partnership. Here we share seven lessons that we learned from our collective experiences with the research partnership and use the Ekati diamond mine as a case study to illustrate and support lessons learned. Our advice includes opinions on the importance of: engaging collaborators early, defining roles and responsibilities, data sharing and standardization, the use of natural streams to set restoration targets, expect setbacks and surprises, treating restoration as an opportunity to experiment, and how to define success. Many of the lessons learned are broadly applicable to those whom embark on research collaborations among industry, universities, and consulting companies within a regulatory framework and may be of particular value to collaborators in early stages of their career.

  13. Solar Glitter -- Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, Gregory N.

    2012-02-01

    Many products have significantly benefitted from, or been enabled by, the ability to manufacture structures at an ever decreasing length scale. Obvious examples of this include integrated circuits, flat panel displays, micro-scale sensors, and LED lighting. These industries have benefited from length scale effects in terms of improved performance, reduced cost, or new functionality (or a combination of these). In a similar manner, we are working to take advantage of length scale effects that exist within solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. While this is a significant step away from traditional approaches to solar power systems, the benefits in terms of new functionality, improved performance, and reduced cost for solar power are compelling. We are exploring scale effects that result from the size of the solar cells within the system. We have developed unique cells of both crystalline silicon and III-V materials that are very thin (5-20 microns thick) and have very small lateral dimensions (on the order of hundreds of microns across). These cells minimize the amount of expensive semiconductor material required for the system, allow improved cell performance, and provide an expanded design space for both module and system concepts allowing optimized power output and reduced module and balance of system costs. Furthermore, the small size of the cells allows for unique high-efficiency, high-flexibility PV panels and new building-integrated PV options that are currently unavailable. These benefits provide a pathway for PV power to become cost competitive with grid power and allow unique power solutions independent of grid power.

  14. Highly effective sequencing whole chloroplast genomes of angiosperms by nine novel universal primer pairs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-Bo; Li, De-Zhu; Li, Hong-Tao

    2014-09-01

    Chloroplast genomes supply indispensable information that helps improve the phylogenetic resolution and even as organelle-scale barcodes. Next-generation sequencing technologies have helped promote sequencing of complete chloroplast genomes, but compared with the number of angiosperms, relatively few chloroplast genomes have been sequenced. There are two major reasons for the paucity of completely sequenced chloroplast genomes: (i) massive amounts of fresh leaves are needed for chloroplast sequencing and (ii) there are considerable gaps in the sequenced chloroplast genomes of many plants because of the difficulty of isolating high-quality chloroplast DNA, preventing complete chloroplast genomes from being assembled. To overcome these obstacles, all known angiosperm chloroplast genomes available to date were analysed, and then we designed nine universal primer pairs corresponding to the highly conserved regions. Using these primers, angiosperm whole chloroplast genomes can be amplified using long-range PCR and sequenced using next-generation sequencing methods. The primers showed high universality, which was tested using 24 species representing major clades of angiosperms. To validate the functionality of the primers, eight species representing major groups of angiosperms, that is, early-diverging angiosperms, magnoliids, monocots, Saxifragales, fabids, malvids and asterids, were sequenced and assembled their complete chloroplast genomes. In our trials, only 100 mg of fresh leaves was used. The results show that the universal primer set provided an easy, effective and feasible approach for sequencing whole chloroplast genomes in angiosperms. The designed universal primer pairs provide a possibility to accelerate genome-scale data acquisition and will therefore magnify the phylogenetic resolution and species identification in angiosperms.

  15. The effect of saliva decontamination procedures on dentin bond strength after universal adhesive curing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jayang; Hong, Sungok; Choi, Yoorina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of multiple decontamination procedures for salivary contamination after curing of a universal adhesive on dentin bond strength according to its etch modes. Materials and Methods Forty-two extracted bovine incisors were trimmed by exposing the labial dentin surfaces and embedded in cylindrical molds. A universal adhesive (All-Bond Universal, Bisco) was used. The teeth were randomly divided into groups according to etch mode and decontamination procedure. The adhesive was applied according to the manufacturer's instructions for a given etch mode. With the exception of the control groups, the cured adhesive was contaminated with saliva for 20 sec. In the self-etch group, the teeth were divided into three groups: control, decontamination with rinsing and drying, and decontamination with rinsing, drying, and adhesive. In the etch-and-rinse group, the teeth were divided into four groups: control, decontamination with rinsing and drying, decontamination with rinsing, drying, and adhesive, and decontamination with rinsing, drying, re-etching, and reapplication of adhesive. A composite resin (Filtek Z350XT, 3M ESPE) was used for filling and was cured on the treated surfaces. Shear bond strength was measured, and failure modes were evaluated. The data were subjected to one-way analysis of variation and Tukey's HSD test. Results The etch-and-rinse subgroup that was decontaminated by rinse, drying, re-etching, and reapplication of adhesive showed a significantly higher bond strength. Conclusions When salivary contamination occurs after curing of the universal adhesive, additional etching improves the bond strength to dentin. PMID:26587416

  16. Nonsingular and accelerated expanding universe from effective Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lorenci, Vitorio A.

    2010-03-01

    The energy-momentum tensor coming from one-parameter effective Yang-Mills theory is here used to describe the matter-energy content of the homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann cosmology in its early stages. The behavior of all solutions is examined. Particularly, it is shown that only solutions corresponding to an open model allow the universe to evolve into an accelerated expansion. This result appears as a possible mechanism for an inflationary phase produced by a vector field. Further, depending on the value of some parameters characterizing the system, the resulting models are classified as singular or nonsingular.

  17. Universality, multiplicity, and the effect of iron impurities in the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffman, K. G.; McCormick, W. D.; Noszticzius, Z.; Simoyi, Reuben H.; Swinney, Harry L.

    1987-01-01

    In experiments on the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction in a flow reactor we have observed dynamical behavior that is described well by one-dimensional maps with a single maximum. A sequence of period doubling bifurcations was observed as a parameter was varied, and beyond the accumulation point for the period doubling sequence there was a sequence of periodic states that has the same symbolic dynamics as the states of the U (universal) sequence of Metropolis, Stein, and Stein (1973). However, in another experiment with malonic acid from a different vendor, we found that some states with particular symbol sequences occurred in three different parameter ranges rather than in one range as in the U sequence. Analysis of the effect of impurities in the reagents showed that some impurities (e.g., Fe3+ and esters of malonic acid) at concentrations of only a few ppm produced dramatic changes in the dynamics; such impurities are contained in commercially available malonic acid. Experiments with purified malonic acid indicate that the Fe2+/Fe3+ and Cu+/Cu2+ redox couples act as co-catalysts of the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction; their effect can be explained by a free radical mechanism. Other metal ions (e.g., Ni2+ and Co2+) at low concentrations have negligible effect on the dynamics. Finally, both the sequences with universal ordering and the sequences with multiplicity are described well by indented trapezoid maps of the type analyzed by Beyer, Mauldin, and Stein (1986).

  18. Universal Proximity Effect in Target Search Kinetics in the Few-Encounter Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf

    2016-10-01

    When does a diffusing particle reach its target for the first time? This first-passage time (FPT) problem is central to the kinetics of molecular reactions in chemistry and molecular biology. Here, we explain the behavior of smooth FPT densities, for which all moments are finite, and demonstrate universal yet generally non-Poissonian long-time asymptotics for a broad variety of transport processes. While Poisson-like asymptotics arise generically in the presence of an effective repulsion in the immediate vicinity of the target, a time-scale separation between direct and reflected indirect trajectories gives rise to a universal proximity effect: Direct paths, heading more or less straight from the point of release to the target, become typical and focused, with a narrow spread of the corresponding first-passage times. Conversely, statistically dominant indirect paths exploring the entire system tend to be massively dissimilar. The initial distance to the target particularly impacts gene regulatory or competitive stochastic processes, for which few binding events often determine the regulatory outcome. The proximity effect is independent of details of the transport, highlighting the robust character of the FPT features uncovered here.

  19. Second order gravitational effects on CMB temperature anisotropy in {lambda} dominated flat universes

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, Kenji; Inoue, Kaiki Taro

    2008-05-15

    We study second order gravitational effects of local inhomogeneities on the cosmic microwave background radiation in flat universes with matter and a cosmological constant {lambda}. We find that the general relativistic correction to the Newtonian approximation is negligible at second order provided that the size of the inhomogeneous region is sufficiently smaller than the horizon scale. For a spherically symmetric top-hat type quasilinear perturbation, the first order temperature fluctuation corresponding to the linear integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect is enhanced (suppressed) by the second order one for a compensated void (lump). As a function of redshift of the local inhomogeneity, the second order temperature fluctuations due to evolution of the gravitational potential have a peak before the matter-{lambda} equality epoch for a fixed comoving size and a density contrast. The second order gravitational effects from local quasilinear inhomogeneities at a redshift z{approx}1 may significantly affect the cosmic microwave background.

  20. Social desirability effects on measures of adjustment to university, independence from parents, and self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, N A; Gekoski, W L

    1995-03-01

    Results of regression analyses on data from 96 first-year undergraduates indicated that social desirability (Jackson and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scales), particularly scores on the Jackson scale, is related strongly to scores on measures of adjustment (Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire), self-efficacy (Hale-Fibel Generalized Expectation for Success Scale), and independence (Psychological Separation Inventory) from mother, but not from father. In addition, both the Jackson and Marlowe-Crowne scales were correlated highly. Independence from parents and self-efficacy each continued to show a relationship with adjustment to university after social desirability effects were removed. Failure to remove the effect(s) of social desirability from the present measures is likely to lead to inflated estimates of their relation to each other or to other measures.

  1. Enabling Space Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, William J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation on enabling space science and exploration covers the following topics: 1) Today s Deep Space Network; 2) Next Generation Deep Space Network; 3) Needed technologies; 4) Mission IT and networking; and 5) Multi-mission operations.

  2. Empowering versus Enabling in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espeland, Karen; Shanta, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Enabling behaviors that encourage dependence should be avoided by nursing faculty. An empowerment model that includes collegiality, communication, accountability, and autonomy is more suited to the professional preparation of nurses. (Contains 30 references.) (SK)

  3. Network Enabled Operations: A Canadian Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-13

    Decisive: US Naval Institute Proceedings. ** VERDON , J. (2004) Transformation in the CF - People Implications of Effects-Based and Network-Enabled...Operations: A Canadian Perspective (U) 4. AUTHORS (First name, middle initial and last name. If military, show rank, e.g. Maj. John E. Doe.) Michael H

  4. ISW effect as probe of features in the expansion history of the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Santanu; Souradeep, Tarun; Shafieloo, Arman E-mail: arman@apctp.org

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, using and implementing a new line of sight CMB code, called CMBAns [1], that allows us to modify H(z) for any given feature at any redshift we study the effect of changes in the expansion history of the Universe on the CMB power spectrum. Motivated by the detailed analytical calculations of the effects of the changes in H(z) on ISW plateau and CMB low multipoles, we study two phenomenological parametric form of the expansion history using WMAP data and through MCMC analysis. Our MCMC analysis shows that the standard ΛCDM cosmological model is consistent with the CMB data allowing the expansion history of the Universe vary around this model at different redshifts. However, our analysis also shows that a decaying dark energy model proposed in [2] has in fact a marginally better fit than the standard cosmological constant model to CMB data. Concordance of our studies here with the previous analysis showing that Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) and supernovae data (SN Ia) also prefer mildly this decaying dark energy model to ΛCDM, makes this finding interesting and worth further investigation.

  5. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Swedish Universal Parenting Program All Children in Focus

    PubMed Central

    Ulfsdotter, Malin

    2015-01-01

    Objective There are few health economic evaluations of parenting programs with quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) as the outcome measure. The objective of this study was, therefore, to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of the universal parenting program All Children in Focus (ABC). The goals were to estimate the costs of program implementation, investigate the health effects of the program, and examine its cost-effectiveness. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted. Costs included setup costs and operating costs. A parent proxy Visual Analog Scale was used to measure QALYs in children, whereas the General Health Questionnaire-12 was used for parents. A societal perspective was adopted, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated. To account for uncertainty in the estimate, the probability of cost-effectiveness was investigated, and sensitivity analyses were used to account for the uncertainty in cost data. Results The cost was €326.3 per parent, of which €53.7 represented setup costs under the assumption that group leaders on average run 10 groups, and €272.6 was the operating costs. For health effects, the QALY gain was 0.0042 per child and 0.0027 per parent. These gains resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the base case of €47 290 per gained QALY. The sensitivity analyses resulted in ratios from €41 739 to €55 072. With the common Swedish threshold value of €55 000 per QALY, the probability of the ABC program being cost-effective was 50.8 percent. Conclusion Our analysis of the ABC program demonstrates cost-effectiveness ratios below or just above the QALY threshold in Sweden. However, due to great uncertainty about the data, the health economic rationale for implementation should be further studied considering a longer time perspective, effects on siblings, and validated measuring techniques, before full scale implementation. PMID:26681349

  6. Bose and Fermi gases in the early Universe with self-gravitational effect

    SciTech Connect

    Niu Yuezhen; Huang Junwu; Ma Boqiang

    2011-03-15

    We study the self-gravitational effect on the equation of state (EoS) of Bose and Fermi gases in thermal equilibrium at the end of reheating, the period after quark-hadron transition and before big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). After introducing new grand canonical partition functions based on the work of Uhlenbeck and Gropper, we notice some interesting features of the newly developed EoSs with distinct behaviors of relativistic and nonrelativistic gases under self-gravity. The usual negligence of the self-gravitational effect when solving the background expansion of the early Universe is justified with numerical results, showing the magnitude of the self-gravitational modification of the state constant to be less than O(10{sup -78}). This helps us to clarify the background thermal evolution of the primordial patch. Such clarification is crucial in testing gravity theories, evaluating inflation models and determining element abundances in BBN.

  7. Effective student teams for collaborative learning in an introductory university physics course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, Jason J. B.; Harrison, David M.; Meyertholen, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    We have studied the types of student teams that are most effective for collaborative learning in a large freshman university physics course. We compared teams in which the students were all of roughly equal ability to teams with a mix of student abilities, we compared teams with three members to teams with four members, and we examined teams with only one female student and the rest of the students male. We measured team effectiveness by the gains on the Force Concept Inventory and by performance on the final examination. None of the factors that we examined had significant impact on student learning. We also investigated student satisfaction as measured by responses to an anonymous evaluation at the end of the term, and found small but statistically significant differences depending on how the nine teams in the group were constructed.

  8. Enabling individualized therapy through nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Jason H.; van de Ven, Anne L.; Godin, Biana; Blanco, Elvin; Serda, Rita E.; Grattoni, Alessandro; Ziemys, Arturas; Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Tony; Ranganathan, Shivakumar I.; De Rosa, Enrica; Martinez, Jonathan O.; Smid, Christine A.; Buchanan, Rachel M.; Lee, Sei-Young; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Landry, Matthew; Meyn, Anne; Tasciotti, Ennio; Liu, Xuewu; Decuzzi, Paolo; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Individualized medicine is the healthcare strategy that rebukes the idiomatic dogma of ‘losing sight of the forest for the trees’. We are entering a new era of healthcare where it is no longer acceptable to develop and market a drug that is effective for only 80% of the patient population. The emergence of “-omic” technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and advances in systems biology are magnifying the deficiencies of standardized therapy, which often provide little treatment latitude for accommodating patient physiologic idiosyncrasies. A personalized approach to medicine is not a novel concept. Ever since the scientific community began unraveling the mysteries of the genome, the promise of discarding generic treatment regimens in favor of patient-specific therapies became more feasible and realistic. One of the major scientific impediments of this movement towards personalized medicine has been the need for technological enablement. Nanotechnology is projected to play a critical role in patient-specific therapy; however, this transition will depend heavily upon the evolutionary development of a systems biology approach to clinical medicine based upon “-omic” technology analysis and integration. This manuscript provides a forward looking assessment of the promise of nanomedicine as it pertains to individualized medicine and establishes a technology “snapshot” of the current state of nano-based products over a vast array of clinical indications and range of patient specificity. Other issues such as market driven hurdles and regulatory compliance reform are anticipated to “self-correct” in accordance to scientific advancement and healthcare demand. These peripheral, non-scientific concerns are not addressed at length in this manuscript; however they do exist, and their impact to the paradigm shifting healthcare transformation towards individualized medicine will be critical for its success. PMID:20045055

  9. Acyclic Cucurbit[n]uril-Type Molecular Container Enables Systemic Delivery of Effective Doses of Albendazole for Treatment of SK-OV-3 Xenograft Tumors.

    PubMed

    Hettiarachchi, Gaya; Samanta, Soumen K; Falcinelli, Shane; Zhang, Ben; Moncelet, Damien; Isaacs, Lyle; Briken, Volker

    2016-03-07

    Approximately, 40-70% of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) are severely limited by their extremely poor aqueous solubility, and consequently, there is a high demand for excipients that can be used to formulate clinically relevant doses of these drug candidates. Here, proof-of-concept studies demonstrate the potential of our recently discovered acyclic cucurbit[n]uril-type molecular container Motor1 (M1) as a solubilizing agent for insoluble drugs. M1 did not induce significant rates of mutations in various Salmonella typhimurium test strains during the Ames test, suggesting low genotoxicity. M1 also has low risk of causing cardiac toxicity in humans since it did not inhibit the human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene channel as tested on transfected CHO cell lines via patch clamp analysis. Albendazole (ABZ) is a widely used antihelminthic agent but that has also shown promising efficacy against cancerous cells in vitro. However, due to its low aqueous solubility (2.7 μM) and poor pharmacokinetics, ABZ is clinically limited as an anticancer agent. Here we investigated the potential of M1 as a solubilizing excipient for ABZ formulation. A pharmacokinetic study indicated that ABZ escapes the peritoneal cavity resulting in 78% absolute bioavailability, while its active intermediate metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide, achieved 43% absolute bioavailability. The daily dosing of 681 mg/kg M1 complexed with 3.2 mg/kg of ABZ for 14 days did not result in significant weight loss or pathology in Swiss Webster mice. In vivo efficacy studies using this M1·ABZ inclusion complex showed significant decreases in tumor growth rates and increases in survival of mice bearing SK-OV-3 xenograft tumors. In conclusion, we provide substantial new evidence demonstrating that M1 is a safe and efficient excipient that enables in vivo parenteral delivery of poorly water-soluble APIs.

  10. The Effect of a Universal Cervical Length Screening Program on Antepartum Management and Birth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Shainker, Scott A.; Modest, Anna M.; Hacker, Michele R.; Ralston, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a universal cervical length screening program on the incidence of antepartum interventions. Study Design This retrospective cohort study included women delivering ≥ 20 weeks of gestation with singleton pregnancies before and after implementing universal cervical length screening. Antepartum interventions included admission for threatened preterm birth, ≥ 2 cervical length measurements, cervical cerclage, neonatology consultation, betamethasone, antibiotic administration for preterm premature rupture of membranes, and tocolysis. Results There were 1,131 women—506 before the screening program (unexposed) and 625 afterward (exposed). The screening program resulted in significantly more women screened (3.0 vs. 69.9%, p < 0.0001). The exposed group was more likely to undergo ≥ 1 intervention (20.0 vs. 9.5%, p < 0.0001); specifically, admission for threatened preterm birth (3.8 vs. 1.8%, p = 0.04) and ≥ 2 cervical measurements (11.2 vs. 2.0%, p < 0.001). Other interventions were similar between groups (all p ≥ 0.06). Median gestation length was significantly longer in the exposed (39.6 weeks [interquartile, IQR: 38.6–40.4] vs. 39.0 weeks [IQR: 38.0–40.0, p < 0.001]); however, preterm delivery incidence was unaffected (9.4 vs. 10.9%, p = 0.43). Remaining neonatal outcomes were similar (all p ≥ 0.14). Conclusion Implementing universal cervical length screening significantly increased the proportion of women undergoing ≥ 1 antepartum intervention. With the exception of a modestly prolonged gestation, other outcomes were unaffected. PMID:27280063

  11. Effects of structure formation on the expansion rate of the Universe: An estimate from numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xinghai; Mathews, Grant J.

    2011-01-01

    General relativistic corrections to the expansion rate of the Universe arise when the Einstein equations are averaged over a spatial volume in a locally inhomogeneous cosmology. It has been suggested that they may contribute to the observed cosmic acceleration. In this paper, we propose a new scheme that utilizes numerical simulations to make a realistic estimate of the magnitude of these corrections for general inhomogeneities in (3+1) spacetime. We then quantitatively calculate the volume averaged expansion rate using N-body large-scale structure simulations and compare it with the expansion rate in a standard FRW cosmology. We find that in the weak gravitational field limit, the converged corrections are slightly larger than the previous claimed 10-5 level, but not large enough nor even of the correct sign to drive the current cosmic acceleration. Nevertheless, the question of whether the cumulative effect can significantly change the expansion history of the Universe needs to be further investigated with strong-field relativity.

  12. [Effect of a Discharge Planning Educational Program in a University Hospital].

    PubMed

    Sakai, Shima; Ohori, Yoko; Tanaka, Yuko; Sato, Yukiko; Watanabe, Ami; Fujii, Junko

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a discharge planning educational program on multidisciplinary team staff in a community. We provided training to nurses of a university hospital. The training covered an introduction to discharge planning, decision-making support, home care medicine and home nursing care, the medical social welfare system, and case review meetings. It was conducted every year from September through February between 2012 and 2015. Before and after the training, the awareness of nurses was evaluated by using self-administered questionnaires and the Discharge Planning scale for Ward Nurses(DPWN), and discharge planning satisfaction was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The study process was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of Tokyo Women's Medical University. The questionnaires were distributed to 96 nurses; of these, responses of 72 nurses(pre- and post-training)were analyzed(response rate: 75.0%). The average number of years of nursing experience was 8.5± 7.7. The total score of the DPWN and its subscales, as well as the VAS, with regard to satisfaction level significantly increased after the training(p<0.01), indicating that training improved nurses' awareness of discharge planning practices.

  13. Effectiveness of a Surgery Admission Unit for patients undergoing major elective surgery in a tertiary university hospital

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The increasing demand on hospitalisation, either due to elective activity from the waiting lists or due to emergency admissions coming from the Emergency Department (ED), requires looking for strategies that lead to effective bed management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a surgery admission unit for major elective surgery patients who were admitted for same-day surgery. Methods We included all patients admitted for elective surgery in a university tertiary hospital between the 1st of September and the 31st of December 2006, as well as those admitted during the same period of 2008, after the introduction of the Surgery Admission Unit. The main outcome parameters were global length of stay, pre-surgery length of stay, proportion of patients admitted the same day of the surgery and number of cancellations. Differences between the two periods were evaluated by the T-test and Chi-square test. Significance at P < 0.05 was assumed throughout. Results We included 6,053 patients, 3,003 during 2006 and 3,050 patients during 2008. Global length of stay was 6.2 days (IC 95%:6.4-6) in 2006 and 5.5 days (IC 95%:5.8-5.2) in 2008 (p < 0.005). Pre-surgery length of stay was reduced from 0.46 days (IC 95%:0.44-0.48) in 2006 to 0.29 days (IC 95%:0.27-0.31) in 2008 (p < 0.005). The proportion of patients admitted for same-day surgery was 67% (IC 95%:69%-65%) in 2006 and 76% (IC 95%:78%-74%) in 2008 (p < 0.005). The number of cancelled interventions due to insufficient preparation was 31 patients in 2006 and 7 patients in 2008. Conclusions The implementation of a Surgery Admission Unit for patients undergoing major elective surgery has proved to be an effective strategy for improving bed management. It has enabled an improvement in the proportion of patients admitted on the same day as surgery and a shorter length of stay. PMID:20096114

  14. Determination of Factors Effected Dietary Glycemic Index in Turkish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumus, Huseyin; Akdevelioglu, Yasemin; Bulduk, Sidika

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine how factors such as smoking, regular activity, etc. affected dietary glycemic index in university students. Methods: This study was carried out at Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey. The participants were 577 randomly selected Turkish healthy female university students aged 17-32 years. The survey included a questionnaire that…

  15. The Psychological Impact from Hurricane Katrina: Effects of Displacement and Trauma Exposure on University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Thompson E., III; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    The following study examined the reactions of university students to Hurricane Katrina. A group of 68 New Orleans area students who were displaced from their home universities as a result of the hurricane were matched on race, gender, and age to a sample of 68 students who had been enrolled at Louisiana State University (LSU) prior to the…

  16. Internally Generated Revenue (IGR) and Effectiveness of University Administration in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoegbu, Felicia I.; Alonge, Hezekiah O.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was mainly to identify the major sources and utilization of internally generated financial revenue by Nigerian University administrators. The population of the study consisted of all the 102 university administrators from the seventeen Federal Universities in Southern Nigeria. Descriptive statistics and Pearson Product…

  17. Effect of Learning Organization Perception to the Organizational Commitment: A Comparison between Private and Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balay, Refik

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to examine the impact of faculty members' learning organization perceptions to the organizational commitment through quantitative method. The study group consists of 172 faculty members working in two universities, which are private (Zirve University) and public (Harran University) ones. The research results show that faculty…

  18. Person-Environment Fit and Its Effects on University Students: A Response Surface Methodology Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbreath, Brad; Kim, Tae-Yeol; Nichols, Brooke

    2011-01-01

    The amount of time, effort, and money expended in pursuit of a college degree makes it important that students choose a university that is a good fit for them. Unfortunately students often determine whether a university is a fit for them through trial and error. This research investigated student-university fit and its relationship with…

  19. The Effectiveness of External Quality Audits: A Study of Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Mahsood

    2013-01-01

    External quality audits have been introduced in many countries as part of higher education reforms. This article is based on research on 30 Australian universities to assess the extent to which audits by the Australian Universities Quality Agency (AUQA) have improved quality assurance in the core and support areas of the universities. The article…

  20. Benchmarking the Economic Impact and Effectiveness of University Technology Transfer in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinch, Richard

    This study examined university technology transfer in Maryland in terms of three issues: (1) the economic impact of university technology transfer; (2) a comparison of the technology transfer effort of University of Maryland System (UMS) institutions with other regional and "best practice" institutions; and (3) the technology transfer…

  1. International Geography Fieldwork as a Catalyst for University and School Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Sally; Speake, Janet; Crawford, Kevin; Whiteside, Donna

    2009-01-01

    Fieldwork is widely reported to be an effective learning and teaching tool. The authors report here how international fieldwork has enabled successful cross-phase collaboration to the benefit of both school and university geography departments. Eleven years' experience of joint A-level and university geography fieldwork in the French Alps and…

  2. Support from Chief Executives to Sponsored Programs Administration at Baccalaureate Universities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Zoya

    2012-01-01

    This research study examined support to sponsored programs administrators (SPAs, or research administrators) at baccalaureate universities from their chief executives. Support to SPAs strengthens the shared purpose of the university, enabling SPAs to serve as effective organizational representatives in business transactions pertaining to grants…

  3. Secure Enclaves-Enabled Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-25

    solution. Recommendations There is the potential to exploit extremely lucrative opportunities utilizing our first- mover advantage in this...emerging market segment. However, there is still significant work to be completed. The SE Enabled browser extension application is still in the early

  4. The Effect of Universal Decolonization With Screening in Critical Care to Reduce MRSA Across an Entire Hospital.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Craig W; Wilkinson, Martyn A C; Garvey, Mark I

    2017-02-06

    OBJECTIVE To describe the effect of universal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) decolonization therapy in a large intensive care unit (ICU) on the rates of MRSA cases and acquisitions in a UK hospital. DESIGN Descriptive study. SETTING University Hospitals Birmingham (UHB) NHS Foundation Trust is a tertiary referral teaching hospital in Birmingham, United Kingdom, that provides clinical services to nearly 1 million patients every year. METHODS A break-point time series analysis and kernel regression models were used to detect significant changes in the cumulative monthly numbers of MRSA bacteremia cases and acquisitions from April 2013 to August 2016 across the UHB system. RESULTS Prior to 2014, all ICU patients at UHB received universal MRSA decolonization therapy. In August 2014, UHB discontinued the use of universal decolonization due to published reports in the United Kingdom detailing the limited usefulness and cost-effectiveness of such an intervention. Break-point time series analysis of MRSA acquisition and bacteremia data indicated that break points were associated with the discontinuation and subsequent reintroduction of universal decolonization. Kernel regression models indicated a significant increase (P<.001) in MRSA acquisitions and bacteremia cases across UHB during the period without universal decolonization. CONCLUSION We suggest that routine decolonization for MRSA in a large ICU setting is an effective strategy to reduce the spread and incidence of MRSA across the whole hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017:1-6.

  5. Interactive Effects of the BIS and the BAS on Trajectories of Alcohol Misuse after University Graduation

    PubMed Central

    Keough, Matthew T.; O’Connor, Roisin M.

    2015-01-01

    Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory predicts that those with a strong behavioral inhibition system (BIS) likely experience considerable anxiety and uncertainty during the transition out of university. Accordingly, they may continue to drink heavily to cope during this time (a period associated with normative reductions in heavy drinking), but only if they also have a strong behavioral approach system (BAS) to enhance the anxiolytic effects of drinking. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis. Participants completed online measures prior to and at 3-month intervals over the course of the year following graduation. As hypothesized, results showed that an elevated BIS predicted impeded maturing out, but only when the impulsivity facet of BAS was also elevated. In contrast, a strong BIS predicted rapid maturing out if BAS impulsivity was weak. Study findings advance our understanding of BIS-related alcohol misuse trajectories in young adulthood and provide direction for clinical interventions. PMID:26823652

  6. The uncertain universality of the Macbeth effect with a Spanish sample.

    PubMed

    Gámez, Elena; Díaz, José M; Marrero, Hipólito

    2011-05-01

    Recently a psychological mechanism has been proposed between bodily purity and moral purity: the "Macbeth effect". The act of washing their hands seems to free individuals of their guilt. However, the universality of this psychological mechanism is an empirical question that should be studied. In four studies we replicated the original Zhong & Liljenquist's experiments with Spanish samples. We were unsuccessful in replicating the Zhong & Liljenquist's results that supported cleansing as a psychological mechanism for compensating guilty: results couldn't confirm an increased mental accessibility of cleansing-related concepts or even a greater desire for cleansing products, neither a greater likelihood of taking antiseptic wipes. In addition we didn't find that physical cleansing alleviates the upsetting consequences of unethical behaviour. Spanish samples showed sensibility to morality and helping behaviour but not with cleansing as a way to reduce their threatened morality.

  7. Acceleration of the universe: a reconstruction of the effective equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Ankan

    2016-07-01

    This work is based upon a parametric reconstruction of the effective or total equation of state in a model for the Universe with accelerated expansion. The constraints on the model parameters are obtained by maximum-likelihood analysis using the supernova distance modulus data, observational Hubble data, baryon acoustic oscillation data and cosmic microwave background shift parameter data. For statistical comparison, the same analysis has also been carried out for the w cold dark matter (wCDM) dark energy model. Different model selection criteria (Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion) give the clear indication that the reconstructed model is well consistent with the wCDM model. Then both the models [weff(z) model and wCDM model] have also been presented through (q0,j0) parameter space. Tighter constraint on the present values of dark energy equation of state parameter (wDE(z = 0)) and cosmological jerk (j0) have been achieved for the reconstructed model.

  8. Universality of Effective Medium and Random Resistor Network models for disorder-induced linear unsaturating magnetoresistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, Silvia; Lai, Ying Tong; Love, Cameron; Ramakrishnan, Navneeth; Adam, Shaffique

    In recent years, the Effective Medium Theory (EMT) and the Random Resistor Network (RRN) have been separately used to explain disorder induced magnetoresistance that is quadratic at low fields and linear at high fields. We demonstrate that the quadratic and linear coefficients of the magnetoresistance and the transition point from the quadratic to the linear regime depend only on the inhomogeneous carrier density profile. We use this to find a mapping between the two models using dimensionless parameters that determine the magnetoresistance and show numerically that they belong to the same universality class. This work is supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation (NRF-NRFF2012-01) and the Singapore Ministry of Education and Yale-NUS College through Grant Number R-607-265-01312.

  9. Do Frameworks Enable Educational Psychologists to Work Effectively and Efficiently in Practice? A Critical Discussion of the Development of Executive Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicks, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores whether adopting an "executive framework" makes educational psychologists' (EPs) practice more efficient and effective. Whilst many EPs understand and value executive frameworks in theory, explicit use of such tools may not be fully integrated into their day-to-day practice. Why this might be is considered.…

  10. III-V-on-nothing metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors enabled by top-down nanowire release process: Experiment and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, J. J.; Koybasi, O.; Wu, Y. Q.; Ye, P. D.

    2011-09-01

    III-V-on-nothing (III-VON) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are experimentally demonstrated with In0.53Ga0.47As as channel and atomic layer deposited Al2O3 as gate dielectric. A hydrochloric acid based release process has been developed to create an air gap beneath the InGaAs channel layer, forming the nanowire channel with width down to 40 nm. III-VON MOSFETs with channel lengths down to 50 nm are fabricated and show promising improvement in drain-induced barrier lowering, due to suppressed short-channel effects. The top-down processing technique provides a viable pathway towards fully gate-all-around III-V MOSFETs.

  11. Assessment of a novel device for onsite integrative large-volume solid phase extraction of water samples to enable a comprehensive chemical and effect-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Tobias; Ahel, Marijan; Ahlheim, Jörg; Aït-Aïssa, Selim; Brion, François; Di Paolo, Carolina; Froment, Jean; Hidasi, Anita O; Hollender, Juliane; Hollert, Henner; Hu, Meng; Kloß, Anett; Koprivica, Sanja; Krauss, Martin; Muz, Melis; Oswald, Peter; Petre, Margit; Schollée, Jennifer E; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Shao, Ying; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Sonavane, Manoj; Suter, Marc J-F; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Tousova, Zuzana; Walz, Karl-Heinz; Brack, Werner

    2017-03-01

    The implementation of targeted and nontargeted chemical screening analysis in combination with in vitro and organism-level bioassays is a prerequisite for a more holistic monitoring of water quality in the future. For chemical analysis, little or no sample enrichment is often sufficient, while bioanalysis often requires larger sample volumes at a certain enrichment factor for conducting comprehensive bioassays on different endpoints or further effect-directed analysis (EDA). To avoid logistic and technical issues related to the storage and transport of large volumes of water, sampling would benefit greatly from onsite extraction. This study presents a novel onsite large volume solid phase extraction (LVSPE) device tailored to fulfill the requirements for the successful effect-based and chemical screening of water resources and complies with available international standards for automated sampling devices. Laboratory recovery experiments using 251 organic compounds in the log D range from -3.6 to 9.4 (at pH7.0) spiked into pristine water resulted in acceptable recoveries and from 60 to 123% for 159 out of 251 substances. Within a European-wide demonstration program, the LVSPE was able to enrich compounds in concentration ranges over three orders of magnitude (1ngL(-1) to 2400ngL(-1)). It was possible to discriminate responsive samples from samples with no or only low effects in a set of six different bioassays (i.e. acetylcholinesterase and algal growth inhibition, androgenicity, estrogenicity, fish embryo toxicity, glucocorticoid activity). The LVSPE thus proved applicable for onsite extraction of sufficient amounts of water to investigate water quality thoroughly by means of chemical analysis and effect-based tools without the common limitations due to small sample volumes.

  12. Impediments to Effective Utilisation of Information and Communication Technology Tools in Selected Universities in the North-Eastern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momoh, Mustapha

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impediments to effective use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools in Nigerian universities. Series of research conducted on the factors militating against computerisation indicated that, there were impediments to effective utilisation of ICT tools in most developing countries. In the light of this, the…

  13. Effective Communication to Aid Collaboration for Digital Collections: A Case Study at Florida Gulf Coast University Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VandeBurgt, Melissa Minds; Rivera, Kaleena

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication is one of the most important resources for successful outreach efforts. This article addresses the benefits that can emerge from successful communication as well as the negative effects that may stem from ineffective communication. A case study of Florida Gulf Coast University Archives, Special Collections, & Digital…

  14. Measuring Noncommissioned Officer Knowledge and Experience to Enable Tailored Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Report 1952 Measuring Noncommissioned Officer...Knowledge and Experience to Enable Tailored Training Peter S. Schaefer U.S. Army Research Institute Paul N. Blankenbeckler Northrop...Grumman Corporation Christopher J. Brogdon Mercer University Consortium Research Fellows Program November 2011 Approved for

  15. Enabling Exploration: NASA's Technology Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Carol W.

    2012-01-01

    Deputy Director of Science, Carol W. Carroll has been invited by University of Oregon's Materials Science Institute to give a presentation. Carol's Speech explains NASA's Technologies that are needed where NASA was, what NASA's current capabilities are. Carol will highlight many of NASA's high profile projects and she will explain what NASA needs for its future by focusing on the next steps in space exploration. Carol's audience will be University of Oregon's future scientists and engineer's and their professor's along with various other faculty members.

  16. Campus Cyberinfrastructure: A Crucial Enabler for Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Peter A.; Almes, Guy T.

    2005-01-01

    Driven by the needs of college/university researchers and guided by a blue-ribbon advisory panel chaired by Daniel E. Atkins, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a broad, multi-directorate activity to create modern cyberinfrastructure and to apply it to transforming the effectiveness of the scientific research enterprise in higher…

  17. Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

    2012-06-28

    A recently proposed concept of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two laser modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation in a relativistic beam. This seeding technique holds promise of a one-stage soft x-ray FEL that radiates not only transversely but also longitudinally coherent pulses. Currently, an experimental verification of the concept is being conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory aimed at the demonstration of the EEHG.

  18. Technologies for Networked Enabled Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B.; Levine, J.

    2005-01-01

    Current point-to-point data links will not scale to support future integration of surveillance, security, and globally-distributed air traffic data, and already hinders efficiency and capacity. While the FAA and industry focus on a transition to initial system-wide information management (SWIM) capabilities, this paper describes a set of initial studies of NAS network-enabled operations technology gaps targeted for maturity in later SWIM spirals (201 5-2020 timeframe).

  19. Nanofluidics: enabling processes for biotech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmanella, Umberto; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2001-10-01

    The advance of micro and nanodevice manufacturing technology enables us to carry out biological and chemical processes in a more efficient manner. In fact, fluidic processes connect the macro and the micro/nano worlds. For devices approaching the size of the fluid molecules, many physical phenomena occur that are not observed in macro flows. In this brief review, we discuss a few selected topics which of are interest for basic research and are important for applications in biotechnology.

  20. Copolymer Networks From Oligo(ε-caprolactone) and n-Butyl Acrylate Enable a Reversible Bidirectional Shape-Memory Effect at Human Body Temperature.

    PubMed

    Saatchi, Mersa; Behl, Marc; Nöchel, Ulrich; Lendlein, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Exploiting the tremendous potential of the recently discovered reversible bidirectional shape-memory effect (rbSME) for biomedical applications requires switching temperatures in the physiological range. The recent strategy is based on the reduction of the melting temperature range (ΔT m ) of the actuating oligo(ε-caprolactone) (OCL) domains in copolymer networks from OCL and n-butyl acrylate (BA), where the reversible effect can be adjusted to the human body temperature. In addition, it is investigated whether an rbSME in the temperature range close or even above Tm,offset (end of the melting transition) can be obtained. Two series of networks having mixtures of OCLs reveal broad ΔTm s from 2 °C to 50 °C and from -10 °C to 37 °C, respectively. In cyclic, thermomechanical experiments the rbSME can be tailored to display pronounced actuation in a temperature interval between 20 °C and 37 °C. In this way, the application spectrum of the rbSME can be extended to biomedical applications.

  1. To 'enable our legal product to compete effectively with the transit market': British American Tobacco's strategies in Thailand following the 1990 GATT dispute.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Ross; Lee, Kelley; LeGresley, Eric

    2015-08-21

    The opening of the Thai tobacco market, following action brought by the US Trade Representative under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, is seen as a key case study of the tensions between trade and health policy. Interpretations of the dispute cast it, either as an example of how trade agreements undermine national policy-making, or how governments can adopt effective public health protections compliant with international trade rules. As a UK-based company, British American Tobacco has been regarded as peripheral to this dispute. This paper argues that its close monitoring of the illegal trade during this period, the role of smuggling in the company's global business strategy, and its management of the relative supply and pricing of legal and illegal products after market opening provide a fuller understanding of the interests and roles of transnational tobacco companies and the government in this dispute. The findings have important policy implications, notably the role of effective governance in countries facing pressure to open their tobacco sectors, need to better understand corporate-level activities within an increasingly globalised tobacco industry, and need to address the intertwined legal and illegal trade in implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products.

  2. To ‘enable our legal product to compete effectively with the transit market’: British American Tobacco’s strategies in Thailand following the 1990 GATT dispute

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, Ross; Lee, Kelley; LeGresley, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The opening of the Thai tobacco market, following action brought by the US Trade Representative under the GATT, is seen as a key case study of the tensions between trade and health policy. Interpretations of the dispute cast it, either as an example of how trade agreements undermine national policy making, or how governments can adopt effective public health protections compliant with international trade rules. As a UK-based company, British American Tobacco has been regarded as peripheral to this dispute. This paper argues that its close monitoring of the illegal trade during this period, the role of smuggling in the company’s global business strategy, and its management of the relative supply and pricing of legal and illegal products after market opening provide a fuller understanding of the interests and roles of transnational tobacco companies and the government in this dispute. The findings have important policy implications, notably the role of effective governance in countries facing pressure to open their tobacco sectors, need to better understand corporate-level activities within an increasingly globalized tobacco industry, and need to address the intertwined legal and illegal trade in implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products. PMID:26295971

  3. New Generation Sensor Web Enablement

    PubMed Central

    Bröring, Arne; Echterhoff, Johannes; Jirka, Simon; Simonis, Ingo; Everding, Thomas; Stasch, Christoph; Liang, Steve; Lemmens, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Many sensor networks have been deployed to monitor Earth’s environment, and more will follow in the future. Environmental sensors have improved continuously by becoming smaller, cheaper, and more intelligent. Due to the large number of sensor manufacturers and differing accompanying protocols, integrating diverse sensors into observation systems is not straightforward. A coherent infrastructure is needed to treat sensors in an interoperable, platform-independent and uniform way. The concept of the Sensor Web reflects such a kind of infrastructure for sharing, finding, and accessing sensors and their data across different applications. It hides the heterogeneous sensor hardware and communication protocols from the applications built on top of it. The Sensor Web Enablement initiative of the Open Geospatial Consortium standardizes web service interfaces and data encodings which can be used as building blocks for a Sensor Web. This article illustrates and analyzes the recent developments of the new generation of the Sensor Web Enablement specification framework. Further, we relate the Sensor Web to other emerging concepts such as the Web of Things and point out challenges and resulting future work topics for research on Sensor Web Enablement. PMID:22163760

  4. 'Ethos' Enabling Organisational Knowledge Creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsudaira, Yoshito

    This paper examines knowledge creation in relation to improvements on the production line in the manufacturing department of Nissan Motor Company and aims to clarify embodied knowledge observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation will be clarified. For that purpose, this study adopts an approach that adds a first, second, and third-person's viewpoint to the theory of knowledge creation. Embodied knowledge, observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation, is the continued practice of 'ethos' (in Greek) founded in Nissan Production Way as an ethical basis. Ethos is knowledge (intangible) assets for knowledge creating companies. Substantiated analysis classifies ethos into three categories: the individual, team and organisation. This indicates the precise actions of the organisational members in each category during the knowledge creation process. This research will be successful in its role of showing the indispensability of ethos - the new concept of knowledge assets, which enables knowledge creation -for future knowledge-based management in the knowledge society.

  5. MCNP Neutron Simulations: The Effectiveness of the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory Pit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Daniel; Nguyen, Thien An; Hicks, S. F.; Rice, Ben; Vanhoy, J. R.

    2015-10-01

    The design of the Van de Graaff Particle Accelerator complex at the University of Kentucky is marked by the unique addition of a pit in the main neutron scattering room underneath the neutron source and detection shielding assembly. This pit was constructed as a neutron trap in order to decrease the amount of neutron flux within the laboratory. Such a decrease of background neutron flux effectively reduces as much noise as possible in detection of neutrons scattering off of desired samples to be studied. This project uses the Monte-Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) to model the structure of the accelerator complex, gas cell, and the detector's collimator and shielding apparatus to calculate the neutron flux in various sections of the laboratory. Simulations were completed with baseline runs of 107 neutrons of energies 4 MeV and 17 MeV, produced respectively by 3H(p,n)3He and 3H(d,n)4He source reactions. In addition, a comparison model of the complex with simply a floor and no pit was designed, and the respective neutron fluxes of both models were calculated and compared. The results of the simulations seem to affirm the validity of the pit design in significantly reducing the overall neutron flux throughout the accelerator complex, which could be used in future designs to increase the precision and reliability of data. This project was supported in part by the DOE NEUP Grant NU-12-KY-UK-0201-05 and the Donald A. Cowan Physics Institute at the University of Dallas.

  6. Convection-enhanced delivery of Ls-TPT enables an effective, continuous, low-dose chemotherapy against malignant glioma xenograft model1

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Ryuta; Krauze, Michal T.; Noble, Charles O.; Drummond, Daryl C.; Kirpotin, Dmitri B.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Park, John W.; Bankiewicz, Krystof S.

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of malignant gliomas represents one of the most formidable challenges in oncology. The combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy yields median survivals of less than one year. Here we demonstrate the use of a minimally invasive surgical technique, convection-enhanced delivery (CED), for local administration of a novel nanoparticle liposome containing topotecan. CED of this liposomal topotecan (Ls-TPT) resulted in extended brain tissue retention (t½ = 1.5 days), whereas free topotecan was rapidly cleared (t½ = 0.1 days) after CED. The favorable pharmacokinetic profile of extended topotecan release for about seven days, along with biodistribution featuring perivascular accumulation of the nanoparticles, provided, in addition to the known topoisomerase I inhibition, an effective antiangiogenic therapy. In the rat intracranial U87MG tumor model, vascular targeting of Ls-TPT with CED was associated with reductions in laminin expression and vascular density compared to free topotecan or control treatments. A single CED treatment on day 7 showed that free topotecan conferred no survival benefit versus control. However, Ls-TPT produced a significant (P = 0.0002) survival benefit, with six of seven complete cures. Larger U87MG tumors, where CED of Ls-TPT on day 12 resulted in one of six cures, indicated the necessity to cover the entire tumor with the infused therapeutic agent. CED of Ls-TPT was also efficacious in the intracranial U251MG tumor model (P = 0.0005 versus control). We conclude that the combination of a novel nanoparticle Ls-TPT and CED administration was very effective in treating experimental brain tumors. PMID:16723630

  7. A cost-effectiveness analysis of universal childhood hepatitis A vaccination in China.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Gui-Hua; Pan, Xin-Juan; Wang, Xue-Liang

    2008-08-18

    The socioeconomic improvement has impacted hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection with a shift from high to intermediate endemicity in many parts of China. The first China-developed inactivated hepatitis A vaccine, with significantly low price, was licensed in 2002, prompting us to evaluate whether universal childhood vaccination is advisable now in China. We considered vaccination scheduled at ages 12 and 18 months for all healthy children, and assumed that a single cohort was enrolled in 2005. A Markov model was used to predict hepatitis A outcomes and costs. Vaccination was compared with no vaccination, and the cost-effectiveness of vaccination was evaluated from the health system and the societal perspectives. The analysis was run separately in five regions (covering all the 31 provinces of Mainland China) defined by anti-HAV prevalence (around 50%, 50-69%, 70-79%, 80-89% and 90%-). The study projects that with the Chinese low-cost vaccine, vaccination could gain quality adjusted life years (QALYs) through the whole country and save health system or societal costs in the lowest, lower, intermediate and higher infection regions. Vaccination should also be cost-effective in the highest infection region because of low additional costs per QALY gained. However, vaccination would increase the probability of death due to hepatitis A in the highest and higher infection regions by 38 and 37 per million enrolled, respectively, and as vaccine protection loss increases the risk would also occur in intermediate and lower infection regions. The trend that the lower infection level the region has, the more cost-effective vaccination would be is obvious. Sensitivity analyses prove that our conclusions are robust. Considering the potential risk of vaccination, as well as unbalanced socioeconomic developments and significant differences in HAV infection through the whole country, the study suggests that universal childhood hepatitis A vaccination should be first administrated in

  8. Enablement as a Positive Force in Counselling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg

    1996-01-01

    Explores the concept of enablement and provides a framework for the counselor and counselor educator to use in facilitating client- or student-directed goals. Examines use of enablement, enablement versus co-dependency, the use of the enablement framework in the counseling role, and clinical examples of the enablement framework. (RJM)

  9. Universal field dependence of conventional and inverse magnetocaloric effects in DyCo2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, S. K.; Giri, S.; Majumdar, S.

    2017-01-01

    The rare-earth intermetallic compound DyCo2Si2 orders antiferromagnetically below TN = 23 K followed by a second magnetic anomaly at Tt = 9 K. The sample is known to show multiple metamagnetic transitions, which are reproduced in our present study. Our investigations on this sample indicate that the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) calculated from the magnetization data (in terms of change in entropy, ΔSM ) is quite fascinating, and it is characterized by multiple sign reversals around TN and Tt. The MCE is found to be conventional (i.e., ΔSM is negative) above TN and below Tt, while it is inverse (i.e., ΔSM is positive) between TN and Tt. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the field dependence of the observed MCE, and a universal quadratic variation is observed at temperatures above and below TN (including the region below Tt) as long as the applied field is lower than the critical field for metamagnetic transition. The present work is able to show that the field dependence of the MCE in this antiferromagnetic material is quadratic despite the fact that the magnetocaloric effect is conventional or inverse in different temperature regions.

  10. Focused helium-ion beam irradiation effects on electrical transport properties of few-layer WSe2: Enabling nanoscale direct write homo-junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, Michael; Noh, Joo Hyon; Koehler, Michael R.; Mandrus, David G.; Duscher, Gerd; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Ward, Thomas Zac; Rack, Philip D.; Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Belianinov, Alex; Cross, Nicholas

    2016-06-06

    Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are currently receiving significant attention due to their promising opto-electronic properties. Tuning optical and electrical properties of mono and few-layer TMDs, such as tungsten diselenide (WSe2), by controlling the defects, is an intriguing opportunity to synthesize next generation two dimensional material opto-electronic devices. Here, we report the effects of focused helium ion beam irradiation on the structural, optical and electrical properties of few-layer WSe2, via high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical transport measurements. By controlling the ion irradiation dose, we selectively introduce precise defects in few-layer WSe2 thereby locally tuning the resistivity and transport properties of the material. Hole transport in the few layer WSe2 is degraded more severely relative to electron transport after helium ion irradiation. Moreover, by selectively exposing material with the ion beam, we demonstrate a simple yet highly tunable method to create lateral homo-junctions in few layer WSe2 flakes, which constitutes an important advance towards two dimensional opto-electronic devices.

  11. An accelerator mass spectrometry-enabled microtracer study to evaluate the first-pass effect on the absorption of YH4808.

    PubMed

    Kim, Anhye; Yu, Byung-Yong; Dueker, Stephen R; Shin, Kwang-Hee; Kim, Hwa Suk; Ahn, Hyungmi; Cho, Joo-Youn; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Jang, In-Jin; Lee, Howard

    2017-02-18

    (14) C-labeled YH4808, a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker, was intravenously administered as a microtracer at 80 μg (11.8 kBq or 320 nCi) concomitantly with the non-radiolabeled oral drug at 200 mg to determine the absolute bioavailability and to assess the effect of pharmacogenomics on the oral absorption of YH4808. The absolute bioavailability was low and highly variable (mean, 10.1%; range, 2.3-19.3%), and M3 and M8, active metabolites of YH4808, were formed 22.6- and 38.5-fold higher after oral administration than intravenous administration, respectively. The product of the fraction of an oral YH4808 dose entering the gut wall and the fraction of YH4808 passing on to the portal circulation was larger in subjects carrying the variants of the CHST3, SLC15A1, and SULT1B1 genes. A combined LC+AMS is a useful tool to construct a rich and highly informative PK knowledge core in early clinical drug development at a reasonable cost. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Difluoroboron β-Diketonate Materials with Long-Lived Phosphorescence Enable Lifetime Based Oxygen Imaging with a Portable Cost Effective Camera.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Alexander S; DeRosa, Christopher A; Demas, James N; Fraser, Cassandra L

    2016-04-21

    Lifetime-based oxygen imaging is useful in many biological applications but instrumentation can be stationary, expensive, and complex. Herein, we present a portable, cost effective, simple alternative with high spatiotemporal resolution that uses a complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) camera to measure oxygen sensitive lifetimes on the millisecond scale. We demonstrate its compatibility with difluoroboron β-diketonate poly(lactic acid) (BF2bdkPLA) polymers which are nontoxic and exhibit long-lived oxygen sensitive phosphorescence. Spatially resolved lifetimes of four BF2bdkPLA variants are measured using nonlinear least squares (NLS) and rapid lifetime determination (RLD) both of which are shown to be accurate and precise. Real-time imaging in a dynamic environment is demonstrated by determining lifetime pixel-wise. The setup costs less than $5000, easily fits into a backpack, and can operate on battery power alone. This versatility combined with the inherent utility of lifetime measurements make this system a useful tool for a wide variety of oxygen sensing applications. This study serves as an important foundation for the development of dual mode real time lifetime plus ratiometric imaging with bright, long lifetime difluoroboron β-diketonate probes.

  13. Focused helium-ion beam irradiation effects on electrical transport properties of few-layer WSe2: enabling nanoscale direct write homo-junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanford, Michael G.; Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Belianinov, Alex; Cross, Nicholas; Noh, Joo Hyon; Koehler, Michael R.; Mandrus, David G.; Duscher, Gerd; Rondinone, Adam J.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Ward, T. Zac; Rack, Philip D.

    2016-06-01

    Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are currently receiving significant attention due to their promising opto-electronic properties. Tuning optical and electrical properties of mono and few-layer TMDs, such as tungsten diselenide (WSe2), by controlling the defects, is an intriguing opportunity to synthesize next generation two dimensional material opto-electronic devices. Here, we report the effects of focused helium ion beam irradiation on the structural, optical and electrical properties of few-layer WSe2, via high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical transport measurements. By controlling the ion irradiation dose, we selectively introduce precise defects in few-layer WSe2 thereby locally tuning the resistivity and transport properties of the material. Hole transport in the few layer WSe2 is degraded more severely relative to electron transport after helium ion irradiation. Furthermore, by selectively exposing material with the ion beam, we demonstrate a simple yet highly tunable method to create lateral homo-junctions in few layer WSe2 flakes, which constitutes an important advance towards two dimensional opto-electronic devices.

  14. Focused helium-ion beam irradiation effects on electrical transport properties of few-layer WSe2: Enabling nanoscale direct write homo-junctions

    DOE PAGES

    Stanford, Michael; Noh, Joo Hyon; Koehler, Michael R.; ...

    2016-06-06

    Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are currently receiving significant attention due to their promising opto-electronic properties. Tuning optical and electrical properties of mono and few-layer TMDs, such as tungsten diselenide (WSe2), by controlling the defects, is an intriguing opportunity to synthesize next generation two dimensional material opto-electronic devices. Here, we report the effects of focused helium ion beam irradiation on the structural, optical and electrical properties of few-layer WSe2, via high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical transport measurements. By controlling the ion irradiation dose, we selectively introduce precise defects in few-layer WSe2 thereby locally tuningmore » the resistivity and transport properties of the material. Hole transport in the few layer WSe2 is degraded more severely relative to electron transport after helium ion irradiation. Moreover, by selectively exposing material with the ion beam, we demonstrate a simple yet highly tunable method to create lateral homo-junctions in few layer WSe2 flakes, which constitutes an important advance towards two dimensional opto-electronic devices.« less

  15. Convection-enhanced delivery of SN-38-loaded polymeric micelles (NK012) enables consistent distribution of SN-38 and is effective against rodent intracranial brain tumor models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Saito, Ryuta; Mano, Yui; Sumiyoshi, Akira; Kanamori, Masayuki; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Kawashima, Ryuta; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-10-01

    Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of therapeutic agents is a promising local delivery technique that has been extensively studied as a treatment for CNS diseases over the last two decades. One continuing challenge of CED is accurate and consistent delivery of the agents to the target. The present study focused on a new type of therapeutic agent, NK012, a novel SN-38-loaded polymeric micelle. Local delivery profiles of NK012 and SN-38 were studied using rodent brain and intracranial rodent brain tumor models. First, the cytotoxicity of NK012 against glioma cell lines was determined in vitro. Proliferations of glioma cells were significantly reduced after exposure to NK012. Then, the distribution and local toxicity after CED delivery of NK012 and SN-38 were evaluated in vivo. Volume of distribution of NK012 after CED was much larger than that of SN-38. Histological examination revealed minimum brain tissue damage in rat brains after delivery of 40 µg NK012 but severe damage with SN-38 at the same dose. Subsequently, the efficacy of NK012 delivered via CED was tested in 9L and U87MG rodent orthotopic brain tumor models. CED of NK012 displayed excellent efficacy in the 9L and U87MG orthotopic brain tumor models. Furthermore, NK012 and gadolinium diamide were co-delivered via CED to monitor the NK012 distribution using MRI. Volume of NK012 distribution evaluated by histology and MRI showed excellent agreement. CED of NK012 represents an effective treatment option for malignant gliomas. MRI-guided CED of NK012 has potential for clinical application.

  16. Integrating metabolic performance, thermal tolerance, and plasticity enables for more accurate predictions on species vulnerability to acute and chronic effects of global warming.

    PubMed

    Magozzi, Sarah; Calosi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Predicting species vulnerability to global warming requires a comprehensive, mechanistic understanding of sublethal and lethal thermal tolerances. To date, however, most studies investigating species physiological responses to increasing temperature have focused on the underlying physiological traits of either acute or chronic tolerance in isolation. Here we propose an integrative, synthetic approach including the investigation of multiple physiological traits (metabolic performance and thermal tolerance), and their plasticity, to provide more accurate and balanced predictions on species and assemblage vulnerability to both acute and chronic effects of global warming. We applied this approach to more accurately elucidate relative species vulnerability to warming within an assemblage of six caridean prawns occurring in the same geographic, hence macroclimatic, region, but living in different thermal habitats. Prawns were exposed to four incubation temperatures (10, 15, 20 and 25 °C) for 7 days, their metabolic rates and upper thermal limits were measured, and plasticity was calculated according to the concept of Reaction Norms, as well as Q10 for metabolism. Compared to species occupying narrower/more stable thermal niches, species inhabiting broader/more variable thermal environments (including the invasive Palaemon macrodactylus) are likely to be less vulnerable to extreme acute thermal events as a result of their higher upper thermal limits. Nevertheless, they may be at greater risk from chronic exposure to warming due to the greater metabolic costs they incur. Indeed, a trade-off between acute and chronic tolerance was apparent in the assemblage investigated. However, the invasive species P. macrodactylus represents an exception to this pattern, showing elevated thermal limits and plasticity of these limits, as well as a high metabolic control. In general, integrating multiple proxies for species physiological acute and chronic responses to increasing

  17. The Effectiveness of Screening with Interferon-Gamma Release Assays in a University Health Care Setting with a Diverse Global Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Samantha J.; Golbeck, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This analysis examined the effectiveness of utilizing interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) technology in a TB (TB) screening program at a university. Participants: Participants were 2299 students at a Montana university who had presented to the university health center for TB screening during 2012 and 2013. Methods: A retrospective…

  18. The Effect of Instruction on Students' Ideas on Data Handling of Under Prepared Students at Two Historically Advantaged South African Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollnick, Marissa; Lubben, Fred; Dlamini, Betty; Lotz, Sandra

    This study investigated the effect of two different approaches to practical work on the procedural understanding of foundation level students at two historically similar universities in South Africa, the University of Cape Town (UCT) and the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits), both of which run programs to improve the access of disadvantaged…

  19. Fuel properties to enable lifted-flame combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Eric

    2015-03-15

    The Fuel Properties to Enable Lifted-Flame Combustion project responded directly to solicitation DE-FOA-0000239 AOI 1A, Fuels and Lubricants for Advanced Combustion Regimes. This subtopic was intended to encompass clean and highly-efficient, liquid-fueled combustion engines to achieve extremely low engine-out nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) as a target and similar efficiency as state-of-the-art direct injection diesel engines. The intent of this project was to identify how fuel properties can be used to achieve controllable Leaner Lifted Flame Combustion (LLFC) with low NOx and PM emissions. Specifically, this project was expected to identify and test key fuel properties to enable LLFC and their compatibility with current fuel systems and to enhance combustion models to capture the effect of fuel properties on advanced combustion. Successful demonstration of LLFC may reduce the need for after treatment devices, thereby reducing costs and improving thermal efficiency. The project team consisted of key technical personnel from Ford Motor Company (FMC), the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL). Each partner had key roles in achieving project objectives. FMC investigated fuel properties relating to LLFC and sooting tendency. Together, FMC and UW developed and integrated 3D combustion models to capture fuel property combustion effects. FMC used these modeling results to develop a combustion system and define fuel properties to support a single-cylinder demonstration of fuel-enabled LLFC. UW investigated modeling the flame characteristics and emissions behavior of different fuels, including those with different cetane number and oxygen content. SNL led spray combustion experiments to quantify the effect of key fuel properties on combustion characteristics critical for LLFC, as well as single cylinder optical engine experiments to improve fundamental

  20. Equation of state, universal profiles, scaling and macroscopic quantum effects in warm dark matter galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vega, H. J.; Sanchez, N. G.

    2017-02-01

    The Thomas-Fermi approach to galaxy structure determines self-consistently and non-linearly the gravitational potential of the fermionic warm dark matter (WDM) particles given their quantum distribution function f( E). This semiclassical framework accounts for the quantum nature and high number of DM particles, properly describing gravitational bounded and quantum macroscopic systems as neutron stars, white dwarfs and WDM galaxies. We express the main galaxy magnitudes as the halo radius r_h , mass M_h , velocity dispersion and phase space density in terms of the surface density which is important to confront to observations. From these expressions we derive the general equation of state for galaxies, i.e., the relation between pressure and density, and provide its analytic expression. Two regimes clearly show up: (1) Large diluted galaxies for M_h ≳ 2.3 × 10^6 M_⊙ and effective temperatures T_0 > 0.017 K described by the classical self-gravitating WDM Boltzman gas with a space-dependent perfect gas equation of state, and (2) Compact dwarf galaxies for 1.6 × 10^6 M_⊙ ≳ M_h ≳ M_{h,min} ˜eq 3.10 × 10^4 (2 {keV}/m)^{16/5} M_⊙, T_0 < 0.011 K described by the quantum fermionic WDM regime with a steeper equation of state close to the degenerate state. In particular, the T_0 = 0 degenerate or extreme quantum limit yields the most compact and smallest galaxy. In the diluted regime, the halo radius r_h , the squared velocity v^2(r_h) and the temperature T_0 turn to exhibit square-root of M_h scaling laws. The normalized density profiles ρ (r)/ρ (0) and the normalized velocity profiles v^2(r)/ v^2(0) are universal functions of r/r_h reflecting the WDM perfect gas behavior in this regime. These theoretical results contrasted to robust and independent sets of galaxy data remarkably reproduce the observations. For the small galaxies, 10^6 ≳ M_h ≥ M_{h,min} , the equation of state is galaxy mass dependent and the density and velocity profiles are not

  1. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Rehabilitation Enablement in Chronic Heart Failure (REACH-HF) facilitated self-care rehabilitation intervention in heart failure patients and caregivers: rationale and protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, R S; Hayward, C; Eyre, V; Austin, J; Davies, R; Doherty, P; Jolly, K; Wingham, J; Van Lingen, R; Abraham, C; Green, C; Warren, FC; Britten, N; Greaves, C J; Singh, S; Buckingham, S; Paul, K; Dalal, H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Rehabilitation EnAblement in CHronic Heart Failure (REACH-HF) trial is part of a research programme designed to develop and evaluate a health professional facilitated, home-based, self-help rehabilitation intervention to improve self-care and health-related quality of life in people with heart failure and their caregivers. The trial will assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the REACH-HF intervention in patients with systolic heart failure and impact on the outcomes of their caregivers. Methods and analysis A parallel two group randomised controlled trial with 1:1 individual allocation to the REACH-HF intervention plus usual care (intervention group) or usual care alone (control group) in 216 patients with systolic heart failure (ejection fraction <45%) and their caregivers. The intervention comprises a self-help manual delivered by specially trained facilitators over a 12-week period. The primary outcome measure is patients’ disease-specific health-related quality of life measured using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire at 12 months’ follow-up. Secondary outcomes include survival and heart failure related hospitalisation, blood biomarkers, psychological well-being, exercise capacity, physical activity, other measures of quality of life, patient safety and the quality of life, psychological well-being and perceived burden of caregivers at 4, 6 and 12 months’ follow-up. A process evaluation will assess fidelity of intervention delivery and explore potential mediators and moderators of changes in health-related quality of life in intervention and control group patients. Qualitative studies will describe patient and caregiver experiences of the intervention. An economic evaluation will estimate the cost-effectiveness of the REACH-HF intervention plus usual care versus usual care alone in patients with systolic heart failure. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the North West

  2. The Effect of Individual Learning Styles on Student GPA in Engineering Education at Morgan State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrove, S. Keith, Sr.; Wheatland, John A.; Ding, Duowen; Brown, Cordelia M.

    2008-01-01

    The Clarence M. Mitchell School of Engineering at Morgan State University (MSU) is one of nine historically Black colleges and universities with undergraduate engineering programs accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). Since 2001, the School of Engineering at MSU has been a participant in a multi-school…

  3. Effect of Sex on Perceived Support and Burnout in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weckwerth, Amanda C.; Flynn, Deborah M.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in the experience of social support and frequency of burnout were examined in university students from a small Northern Ontario University. An altered version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) (Maslach & Jackson, 1996) termed the AMBI-HSS, and the Social Provisions Scale (SPS) (Cutrona &…

  4. Representing Clarity: Using Universal Design Principles to Create Effective Hybrid Course Learning Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Cheri Lemieux

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how the author applied principles of universal design to hybrid course materials to increase student understanding and, ultimately, success. Pulling the three principles of universal design--consistency, color, and icon representation--into the author's Blackboard course allowed her to change the types of reading skills…

  5. The Effect of Quality of School Life on Sense of Happiness: A Study on University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gökler, Riza; Gürgan, Ugur; Tastan, Nuray

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between quality of school life and happiness among university students. For this purpose, 326 students from five different faculties in Çankiri Karatekin University participated in the study. Participants filled in the "scale for quality of school life" and "scale for Oxford happiness-Compact…

  6. Importance and Effectiveness of Student Health Services at a South Texas University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaig, Marilyn M.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the health needs of students at a south Texas university and documented the utility of the student health center. The descriptive study employed a mixed methods explanatory sequential design (ESD). The non-probability sample consisted of 140 students who utilized the university's health center during the period of March 23-30,…

  7. The Effects of Peer Tutoring between Domestic and International Students: The Tutor System at Japanese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassegard, James P.

    2008-01-01

    International students often require extracurricular assistance upon arrival in the host country. Many universities operate programs pairing international and domestic students for academic and adjustment assistance. The tutor system operating at Japanese national universities has similar objectives. Although the literature has highlighted several…

  8. Principal Perceptions of the Effectiveness of University Educational Leadership Preparation and Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Arvin D.

    2016-01-01

    Principals and assistant principals currently serving in Florida and Georgia school districts were surveyed about their perceptions of university educational leadership preparation and professional learning. The results revealed that many principals and assistant principals agreed that university educational leadership preparation programs…

  9. Effectively Managing Copyright Clearance: Electronic Reserves in a Large Distance Education University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Hsiu; Baker, Megan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the automated copyright clearance process for electronic reserves materials by the electronic reserves staff at the Information and Library Services (ILS), at the University of Maryland University College (UMUC). Besides the standard practice to handle and post required course readings in digital format for UMUC's distance…

  10. Data Mining of University Philanthropic Giving: Cluster-Discriminant Analysis and Pareto Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Blanc, Louis A.; Rucks, Conway T.

    2009-01-01

    A large sample of 33,000 university alumni records were cluster-analyzed to generate six groups relatively unique in their respective attribute values. The attributes used to cluster the former students included average gift to the university's foundation and to the alumni association for the same institution. Cluster detection is useful in this…

  11. Staying Power: The Effect of Pathway into University on Student Achievement and Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesters, Jenny; Watson, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of the higher education sector in Australia opened up new pathways into university increasing the diversity of the student population. For non-traditional students, those who did not successfully complete secondary school, barriers to gaining entry into university have been dismantled, however, previous research suggests that…

  12. A Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Large and Small Classes in the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Nan L.; Lopus, Jane S.

    1995-01-01

    Using university cost data and student data from 176 members of university economics classes, this study finds that substantial monetary savings are realized by offering large classes, although their students have a 38% decreased probability of enrolling in future economics classes. Money savings may translate into enrollment losses. (SLD)

  13. An Unusually Effective School/University Programme: The Plymouth and Peninsula Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    la Velle, Linda; Reynolds, David; Nichol, Jon

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a novel UK school/university partnership, the "Plymouth Model" designed to encourage young people from disadvantaged backgrounds to aim for higher education (HE) study. The model incorporates the activity of university students, researchers and teachers working together to improve aspirations and outcomes for…

  14. The Effects of University Mergers in China since 1990s: From the Perspective of Knowledge Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mao, Ya-qing; Du, Yuan; Liu, Jing-juan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discover and better understand the efficiency of university mergers from the perspective of knowledge production, with the research capability as the point of contact. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 20 colleges and universities directly under the central ministries that merged in 2000 were taken as…

  15. Commercializing Academic Research: Resource Effects on Performance of University Technology Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Joshua B.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated factors that may explain differential performance with university technology transfer, the process of transforming research into marketable products. Utilizing multi-source data on 108 universities, a set of internal and external resources were found to be significant predictors of one or more of three technology transfer…

  16. Bandwidth Management in Universities in Zimbabwe: Towards a Responsible User Base through Effective Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitanana, Lockias

    2012-01-01

    This research was undertaken to investigate the issue of how to maximise or make efficient use of bandwidth. In particular, the research sought to find out about what universities in Zimbabwe are doing to manage their bandwidth. It was, therefore, appropriate to survey a sample of five universities and to catalogue their experiences. Results show…

  17. University Students' Perceptions of the Effects of Having Been Weight-Teased by Basic Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which university students report having been weight-teased by basic education teachers and how that has affected their social, physical, and academic well-being in the university. Bandura's (1999) theory of triadic reciprocal causation served as a framework for developing this research. An…

  18. University Student Death Response Plans Using a Structural Management Approach Provide Effective Coordinated Institutional Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusick, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Student death is an inevitable event in the long life of university communities. Although student death is uncommon, universities need to be able respond in a timely and appropriate way to bring the relationship with a deceased student to a dignified close. This article presents a review of factors previously identified in higher education and…

  19. The Effectiveness of a University Mentoring Project in Peri-Rural Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Aaron; Halsey, R. John; Lawson, Mike; van Breda, Marja

    2012-01-01

    The Bradley report (2008) recommended that there be an increase in the percentage of young Australian's completing a university degree, with a subsequent target set by the Australian Federal Government to 40% of 25-34 years olds holding a first degree by 2025. As students who transition to university following completion of high school in…

  20. University Leadership in Crisis: The Need for Effective Leadership Positioning in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirat, Morshidi; Ahmad, Abdul Razak; Azman, Norzaini

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of the leadership crisis in Malaysia's public universities. Our main concern is about the leadership at the top levels of university management, and the administrative hierarchy as perceived by both outsiders and insiders. Critics have lamented that Malaysia lacks people with international stature to lead its public…

  1. University-Industry Linkages in Developing Countries: Perceived Effect on Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaaland, Terje I.; Ishengoma, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the perceptions of both universities and the resource-extractive companies on the influence of university-industry linkages (UILs) on innovation in a developing country. Design/Methodology/Approach: A total of 404 respondents were interviewed. Descriptive analysis and multinomial logistic regression…

  2. The Top Rental Items for University Outdoor Programs and Effective Buying Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, David J.

    This paper discusses the most frequently used rental items for university outdoor programs and describes strategies for saving money in purchasing equipment. A 1983 survey of 11 university programs indicated that the most frequently available rental items for summer and winter were sleeping bags, tents, backpacks, cross-country skis, and…

  3. Noise-enabled optical ratchets

    PubMed Central

    León-Montiel, Roberto de J.; Quinto-Su, Pedro A.

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution, we report on the implementation of a novel noise-enabled optical ratchet system. We demonstrate that, unlike commonly-used ratchet schemes—where complex asymmetric optical potentials are needed—efficient transport of microparticles across a one-dimensional optical lattice can be produced by introducing controllable noise in the system. This work might open interesting routes towards the development of new technologies aimed at enhancing the efficiency of transport occurring at the micro- and nanoscale, from novel particle-sorting tools to efficient molecular motors. PMID:28287152

  4. Optimized microsystems-enabled photovoltaics

    DOEpatents

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Nielson, Gregory N.; Young, Ralph W.; Resnick, Paul J.; Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-22

    Technologies pertaining to designing microsystems-enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) cells are described herein. A first restriction for a first parameter of an MEPV cell is received. Subsequently, a selection of a second parameter of the MEPV cell is received. Values for a plurality of parameters of the MEPV cell are computed such that the MEPV cell is optimized with respect to the second parameter, wherein the values for the plurality of parameters are computed based at least in part upon the restriction for the first parameter.

  5. Noise-enabled optical ratchets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León-Montiel, Roberto De J.; Quinto-Su, Pedro A.

    2017-03-01

    In this contribution, we report on the implementation of a novel noise-enabled optical ratchet system. We demonstrate that, unlike commonly-used ratchet schemes—where complex asymmetric optical potentials are needed—efficient transport of microparticles across a one-dimensional optical lattice can be produced by introducing controllable noise in the system. This work might open interesting routes towards the development of new technologies aimed at enhancing the efficiency of transport occurring at the micro- and nanoscale, from novel particle-sorting tools to efficient molecular motors.

  6. DISK FORMATION ENABLED BY ENHANCED RESISTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang Hsien; Li Zhiyun

    2010-06-20

    Disk formation in magnetized cloud cores is hindered by magnetic braking. Previous work has shown that for realistic levels of core magnetization, the magnetic field suppresses the formation of rotationally supported disks during the protostellar mass accretion phase of low-mass star formation both in the ideal MHD limit and in the presence of ambipolar diffusion for typical rates of cosmic-ray ionization. Additional effects, such as ohmic dissipation, the Hall effect, and protostellar outflow, are needed to weaken the magnetic braking and enable the formation of persistent, rotationally supported, protostellar disks. In this paper, we first demonstrate that the classic microscopic resistivity is not large enough to enable disk formation by itself. We then experiment with a set of enhanced values for the resistivity in the range {eta} = 10{sup 17}-10{sup 22} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. We find that a value of order 10{sup 19} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} is needed to enable the formation of a 10{sup 2} AU scale Keplerian disk; the value depends somewhat on the degree of core magnetization. The required resistivity is a few orders of magnitude larger than the classic microscopic values. Whether it can be achieved naturally during protostellar collapse remains to be determined.

  7. Immunomodulatory Effects of Levofloxacin on Patients with Pneumonia in Assiut University Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Badari, Mohamed S; Elgendy, Sherein G; Mohamed, Asmaa S; Hassan, Alaa T

    2015-01-01

    The immunomodulatory effects of antibiotics could influence the degree of systemic and local responses to infection, so investigation of their intrinsic influence on the host's inflammatory response appears to be essential. Fluoroquinolones are known to exert modulatory activity on immune responses to microbial infection. However the mechanism of this immunmodulation has not been well elucidated. The aim of the work, is to assess the immunomodulatory effects of a levofloxacin, through examining its effect on the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and Interleukin - 10 (IL-10) in serum of pneumonic patients. After following local research ethics committee approval and informed consent. This study included 40 patients with different types of pneumonia, admitted to department of Chest Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University Hospitals, Egypt. Also, 10 healthy volunteers served as randomized controls. Both patients and controls received levofloxacin (750 mg once daily for 10 days). Serum levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were measured in patients and control before and after levofloxacin administration (750 mg once daily for 10 days) using human TNF-α and IL-10 ELISA kits respectively. Levofloxacin caused a statistically significant decrease in the mean level of TNF-α in both patients (20.82 ± 1.31 pg/ml) (P < 0.009) and control group (17.12 ± 0.84 pg/ml) (P < 0.004). In contrast, there was statistically significant increase (P < 0.000) in the mean level of IL-1 0 in patients (61.75 ± 2.85 pg/ml) while statistically significant decrease (P < 0.005) in control group (28.57 ± 1.37 pg/ml). In conclusion, our study demonstrates that treatment with levofloxacin affects production of TNF-α as a pro-inflammatory cytokine and IL-10 as an anti-inflammatory cytokines which may provide additional benefits in treatment of respiratory tract infections that are independent of its antibacterial properties.

  8. Effects of a print-mediated intervention on physical activity during transition to the first year of university.

    PubMed

    Bray, Steven R; Beauchamp, Mark R; Latimer, Amy E; Hoar, Sharleen D; Shields, Christopher A; Bruner, Mark W

    2011-04-01

    Transition to the first year of university is linked to steep declines in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a targeted, theory-driven, print-based intervention on MVPA during transition to university. Volunteer participants from five Canadian universities (n=255) completed measures of MVPA at the start of their first semester at university and were randomly assigned to conditions receiving a first-year-student physical activity and action-planning brochure, Canada's Physical Activity Guide (CPAG), or a no-intervention control group. Six weeks later, a follow-up measure of MVPA was obtained as well as retrospective accounts of physical activity action-planning strategies and self-efficacy for scheduling physical activity. At the follow-up, students who received the targeted first-year student physical activity brochure reported significantly higher levels of MVPA compared to controls (p<.05) and a trend towards higher MVPA compared to the CPAG group (p=.06). However, there were no differences between groups on action planning or self-efficacy. A theory-driven and targeted print media intervention can offer low-cost and broad-reaching effects that may help students stay more active or curb declining levels of MVPA that occur during transition to university.

  9. Nanomaterial-Enabled Neural Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongchen; Guo, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Neural stimulation is a critical technique in treating neurological diseases and investigating brain functions. Traditional electrical stimulation uses electrodes to directly create intervening electric fields in the immediate vicinity of neural tissues. Second-generation stimulation techniques directly use light, magnetic fields or ultrasound in a non-contact manner. An emerging generation of non- or minimally invasive neural stimulation techniques is enabled by nanotechnology to achieve a high spatial resolution and cell-type specificity. In these techniques, a nanomaterial converts a remotely transmitted primary stimulus such as a light, magnetic or ultrasonic signal to a localized secondary stimulus such as an electric field or heat to stimulate neurons. The ease of surface modification and bio-conjugation of nanomaterials facilitates cell-type-specific targeting, designated placement and highly localized membrane activation. This review focuses on nanomaterial-enabled neural stimulation techniques primarily involving opto-electric, opto-thermal, magneto-electric, magneto-thermal and acousto-electric transduction mechanisms. Stimulation techniques based on other possible transduction schemes and general consideration for these emerging neurotechnologies are also discussed. PMID:27013938

  10. Enabling Exploration Through Docking Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Caris A.

    2012-01-01

    Human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit will likely require international cooperation in order to leverage limited resources. International standards can help enable cooperative missions by providing well understood, predefined interfaces allowing compatibility between unique spacecraft and systems. The International Space Station (ISS) partnership has developed a publicly available International Docking System Standard (IDSS) that provides a solution to one of these key interfaces by defining a common docking interface. The docking interface provides a way for even dissimilar spacecraft to dock for exchange of crew and cargo, as well as enabling the assembly of large space systems. This paper provides an overview of the key attributes of the IDSS, an overview of the NASA Docking System (NDS), and the plans for updating the ISS with IDSS compatible interfaces. The NDS provides a state of the art, low impact docking system that will initially be made available to commercial crew and cargo providers. The ISS will be used to demonstrate the operational utility of the IDSS interface as a foundational technology for cooperative exploration.

  11. Agile SE Enablers and Quantification Project: Identification, Characterization, and Evaluation Criteria for Systems Engineering Agile Enablers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-16

    Development of the evaluation white paper .......................................................................................... 7 3 References...enablers as they are identified. The ultimate result of the process is an evaluation white paper supporting one of three decisions: 1. not likely to...be effective, 2. possibly suitable but more research is needed, or 3. definitely suitable and expedited transition is recommended. This paper

  12. The effects of a university fitness programme on health-related variables in previously sedentary males.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, S; Aitchison, T; Pettigrew, A R; Orrell, J M

    1992-01-01

    This study reports on the effects of a 10-week university fitness programme on health-related fitness variables. Twenty-one male exercisers, aged 37.0(10.3) years (mean(s.d.); range 21-58), and 22 male controls, aged 38.6(7.9) years (mean(s.d.); range 17-54), volunteered to take part. Two sample t-tests and 95% confidence intervals were used to determine if the exercise group demonstrated a greater average improvement than the control group and the average improvement in both groups separately. The exercise group showed a greater average improvement over the controls from Test 1 (before fitness programme) to Test 2 (after) in the following: steady-state heart rate (beats min-1) 95% confidence intervals (-7.8, -16.2); predicted VO2max (ml kg-1 min-1): 95% confidence intervals (3.2, 6.6); sit-ups (repetitions): 95% confidence intervals (3.1, 7.0); flexibility (cm): 95% confidence intervals (3.3, 6.9). There was no significant difference between the exercise group and control group in body weight, percentage body fat, blood pressure, total plasma cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides. The exercise programme improved aerobic fitness, local muscular endurance and flexibility. However, the increase in aerobic fitness did not coincide with beneficial changes in the coronary risk profile. PMID:1600453

  13. Effect of non-alcoholic beer on Subjective Sleep Quality in a university stressed population.

    PubMed

    Franco, L; Bravo, R; Galán, C; Rodríguez, A B; Barriga, C; Cubero, Javier

    2014-09-01

    Sleep deprivation affects the homeostasis of the physiological functions in the human organism. Beer is the only beverage that contains hops, a plant which has a sedative effect. Our objective is to determine the improvement of subjective sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The sample was conducted among a population of 30 university students. The study took place during a period of 3 weeks, the first 7 days were used for the Control, and during the following 14 days the students ingested beer (were asked to drink non-alcoholic beer) while having dinner. The results revealed that Subjective Sleep Quality improved in the case of those students who drank one beer during dinner compared to the Control, this is corroborated by the fact that Sleep Latency decreased (p < 0.05) compared to their Control. The overall rating Global Score of Quality of Sleep also improved significantly (p < 0.05). These results confirm that the consumption of non-alcoholic beer at dinner time helps to improve the quality of sleep at night.

  14. The effects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder on clothing selection and habits among Turkish University students.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Emine; İpci, Melis; İnci, Sevim Berrin; Ercan, Elif; Ercan, Eyüp Sabri

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that influence the shopping attitudes of college students with and without ADHD. This study also examined the effects of ADHD on the academic and social lives of college students. The sample consisted of 219 university students. These students were interviewed by a psychiatrist with regard to ADHD symptoms according to the DSM-IV. The Adult ADHD Self Report Scale (ASRS), the Teen Interpersonal Influence Scale, and a demographic information form were used as measurement devices. The ADHD and control groups were classified in three different ways: (1) met the ADHD criteria for both Clinical Diagnosis and the ASRS; (2) met only the criteria for Clinical Diagnosis; or (3) met only the criteria of the ASRS. Our research shows that individuals with ADHD experience more problems with money management and are more affected by the media, friends, and brands compared with individuals without ADHD. Smoking and alcohol use disorders, accidents, being held back, and disciplinary actions often accompany ADHD in college students. To the best of our knowledge, the shopping attitudes of young adults with ADHD and the influence of the media, peers, family, and brands have not been studied until now.

  15. Effect of a mindfulness program on stress, anxiety and depression in university students.

    PubMed

    Gallego, José; Aguilar-Parra, José M; Cangas, Adolfo J; Langer, Álvaro I; Mañas, Israel

    2015-01-13

    Two of the problems that currently affect a large proportion of university students are high levels of anxiety and stress experienced in different situations, which are particularly high during the first years of their degree and during exam periods. The present study aims to investigate whether mindfulness training can bring about significant changes in the manifestations of depression, anxiety, and stress of students when compared to another group undergoing a physical activity program and a control group. The sample consisted of 125 students from the Bachelor of Education Program. The measuring instrument used was the Abbreviated Scale of Depression, Anxiety and Stress (DASS-21). The results indicate that the effects of reducing the identified variables were higher for the mindfulness group than for the physical education group and for the control group F(2) = 5.91, p = .004, η2 = .106. The total scores for all variables related to the mindfulness group decreased significantly, including an important stress reduction t(29) = 2.95, p = .006, d = .667. Mindfulness exercises and some individual relaxing exercises involving Physical Education could help to reduce manifestations of stress and anxiety caused by exams in students.

  16. Effect of Nutrition Counseling Program on Weight Control in Obese University Students

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nutrition counseling program and related factors on weight control for obese university students. Subjects were 24 students with a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or above. The program was conducted from September 16th to November 18th, 2015. Change of body composition, blood index and nutrient intake were observed in subjects before and after the program. The average age of the subjects was 23.2 years old and the percentage of male and female was 66.7% and 33.0%, respectively. There were tendencies of decrease in weight, amount of body fat, BMI, and body fat percentage. The blood test showed that values of all biochemical parameters were in the normal range before and after the program. When the change of the nutrient intake was examined and compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans (KDRIs), there was a tendency of decreased intake in most of the nutrients including protein. However, the nutrient quality index showed increasing tendency, which implies that the intake of micronutrients was getting balances simultaneously with the decrease of calorie intake. PMID:28168177

  17. Universal public finance of tuberculosis treatment in India: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Verguet, Stéphane; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Jamison, Dean T

    2015-03-01

    Universal public finance (UPF)-government financing of an intervention irrespective of who is receiving it-for a health intervention entails consequences in multiple domains. First, UPF increases intervention uptake and hence the extent of consequent health gains. Second, UPF generates financial consequences including the crowding out of private expenditures. Finally, UPF provides insurance either by covering catastrophic expenditures, which would otherwise throw households into poverty or by preventing diseases that cause them. This paper develops a method-extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA)-for evaluating the consequences of UPF in each of these domains. It then illustrates ECEA with an evaluation of UPF for tuberculosis treatment in India. Using plausible values for key parameters, our base case ECEA concludes that the health gains and insurance value of UPF would accrue primarily to the poor. Reductions in out-of-pocket expenditures are more uniformly distributed across income quintiles. A variant on our base case suggests that lowering costs of borrowing for the poor could potentially achieve some of the health gains of UPF, but at the cost of leaving the poor more deeply in debt.

  18. The Effectiveness of Student Extracurricular Activities in Evaluating Violent Behavior among Students in the Preparatory Year at Hail University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleid, Alkhamsah Saleh

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of student extracurricular activities in evaluating violent behavior among students in the preparatory year at Hail University. The researcher used the descriptive analytical method, and used two tools for the purpose of the study, the study sample consisted of 104 (violent) female students from the…

  19. Arabic Language Student Teacher Perceptions towards the Effectiveness of University Supervisors, Cooperating Teachers, and School Principals during the Teaching Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsulami, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method study was to examine the perceptions of Arabic language student teachers towards the effectiveness of university supervisors, cooperating teachers, and school principals during their practicum teaching in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To collect the data, the researcher employed survey and focus group interviews.…

  20. The Effect of Reciprocal-Teaching Strategy on Learning Outcomes and Attitudes of Qassim-University Students in "Islamic Culture"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Harby, Jubeir Suleiman Samir

    2016-01-01

    The main intent of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of the reciprocal-teaching strategy in learning outcomes and attitudes of Qassim-University students in Islamic culture. The study was conducted in Oqlat Al-Soqour Faculty of Sciences and Arts for paucity of research conducted in such a faculty, as well as for being the…

  1. Does Higher Education Service Quality Effect Student Satisfaction, Image and Loyalty? A Study of International Students in Malaysian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Faizan; Zhou, Yuan; Hussain, Kashif; Nair, Pradeep Kumar; Ragavan, Neethiahnanthan Ari

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Malaysian public universities' service quality on international student satisfaction, institutional image and loyalty. Design/methodology/approach: A total number of 400 questionnaires were distributed to international students, selected using convenience sampling technique, at…

  2. The Effects of an Extensive Reading Program on Improving English as Foreign Language Proficiency in University Level Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alzu'bi, Mohammad Akram

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the impact of extensive reading on improving reading proficiency. The study tried to find the effect of ER on EFL student's reading, vocabulary and grammar. The researcher designed two instruments; a program based on the extensive reading strategy and general test. Forty-one university students who study English…

  3. Alcohol-Related Consequences among First-Year University Students: Effectiveness of a Web-Based Personalized Feedback Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Diana M.; Nelson, Kinsey; DeYoung, Amanda; Renteria, Camryn Conrad

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a web-based personalized feedback program using an objective measure of alcohol-related consequences. Participants were assigned to either the intervention group or an assessment-only control group during university orientation. Sanctions received for campus alcohol policy violations were tracked over the…

  4. Testing the universality of the effects of the communities that care prevention system for preventing adolescent drug use and delinquency.

    PubMed

    Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J David; Fagan, Abigail A; Abbott, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F

    2010-12-01

    Universal community-oriented interventions are an important component in the prevention of youth health and behavior problems. Testing the universality of the effects of an intervention that was designed to be universal is important because it provides information about how the program operates and for whom and under what conditions it is most effective. The present study examined whether the previously established significant effects of the universal, community-based Communities That Care (CTC) prevention program on the prevalence of substance use and the variety of delinquent behaviors held equally for boys and girls and in risk-related subgroups defined by early substance use, early delinquency, and high levels of community-targeted risk at baseline. Interaction analyses of data from a panel of 4,407 students followed from Grade 5 to Grade 8 in the first randomized trial of CTC in 12 matched community pairs suggests that CTC reduced students' substance use and delinquency equally across risk-related subgroups and gender, with two exceptions: The effect of CTC on reducing substance use in 8th grade was stronger for boys than girls and the impact of CTC on reducing 8th-grade delinquency was stronger for students who were nondelinquent at baseline.

  5. Florida State University Receives EPA Funding to Improve Understanding of the Effects of Climate Change on Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today announced that Florida State University in Tallahassee, Fla. has received a $500,000 grant to improve understanding of the effects of climate change on indoor air quality. The grant is a

  6. The Effect of Interactive e-Book on Students' Achievement at Najran University in Computer in Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebied, Mohammed Mohammed Ahmed; Rahman, Shimaa Ahmed Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to examine the effect of interactive e-books on students' achievement at Najran University in computer in education course. Quasi-experimental study design is used in the study and to collect data the researchers built achievement test to measure the dependent variable represented in the achievement affected by experimental…

  7. The Attributes of Effective Lecturers of English as a Foreign Language as Perceived by Students in a Korean University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bruce D.; Lock, Graeme

    2010-01-01

    This study, conducted in a Korean university setting, examines student beliefs about the attributes of effective lecturers of English as a foreign language. Student opinions about rapport and delivery type attributes are particularly informative. Rapport attributes were the major focus of discussion and viewed as particularly important in Korean…

  8. Effects of Parental Expectations and Cultural-Values Orientation on Career Decision-Making Difficulties of Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, S. Alvin; Hou, Zhi-Jin; Gati, Itamar; Li, Xixi

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of cultural-values conflict and parental expectations on the career decision-making difficulties of university students in three cities in China (Beijing, Wuhan, and Hong Kong, N = 1342). The Multidimensional Scales of Individual Traditionality and Modernity (Yang, Yu, & Ye, 1989) were used as a measure of…

  9. Effects of an Employee Wellness Program on Physiological Risk Factors, Job Satisfaction, and Monetary Savings in a South Texas University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of an Employee Wellness Program on physiological risk factors, job satisfaction, and monetary savings in a South Texas University. The non-probability sample consisted of 31 employees from lower income level positions. The employees were randomly assigned to the treatment group which…

  10. Podcasts: Are They an Effective Tool to Enhance Student Learning? A Case Study from McMaster University, Hamilton Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vajoczki, Susan; Watt, Susan; Marquis, Nick; Holshausen, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    As universities turn to technology to become more learner-centred and address challenges created by increasing class sizes, changing consumer expectations, and increasing numbers of disability accommodation requests it is important to test the utility of technology solutions. This presentation describes a study to determine the effects of…

  11. How Institutional and University Counselor Policies Effectively Respond to Victims of Cyber Violent Acts: A Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gretchen M.

    2012-01-01

    This multisite case study examined how institutional and university counselor policies effectively respond to cyber violent acts. Stake's (2006) multisite case study methodology was used to identify seven themes from current literature. Two sites with four participants were selected. The participants included two counseling directors and the…

  12. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Acceptability and Effectiveness of University Smoke-Free Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupton, Joshua R.; Townsend, Joy L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Systematically review studies of support for, and effectiveness of, university campuses' smoke-free policies. Participants/Methods: A search was carried out for studies in English related to campus smoking bans through June 2013. Eligible studies had outcomes for student or faculty attitudes, or measures of smoking prevalence or…

  13. Do University Teachers Become More Effective with Experience? A Multilevel Growth Model of Students' Evaluations of Teaching over 13 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.

    2007-01-01

    Do university teachers, like good wine, improve with age? The purpose of this methodological/substantive study is to apply a multiple-level growth modeling approach to the long-term stability of students' evaluations of teaching effectiveness (SETs). For a diverse cohort of 195 teachers who were evaluated continuously over 13 years (6,024 classes,…

  14. Leadership Strategies, Skills, and Professional Approaches Utilized by Effective Senior-Level Student Affairs Administrators at Urban Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Jinny

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationship between inspiring leadership behaviors and transforming leadership attributes among Senior Student Affairs Administrators in the student affairs divisions of urban universities and colleges in California. The primary purpose of this research study was to identify the effective leadership…

  15. Comparison of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy and Psychodynamic Therapy in the Treatment of Anxiety among University Students: An Effectiveness Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monti, Fiorella; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Ricci Bitti, Pio Enrico

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural (CBT) and psychodynamic (PDT) therapies in the treatment of anxiety among university students. To this aim, the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ) was completed by 30 students assigned to CBT and by 24 students assigned to PDT, both at the beginning and at the end of…

  16. Effects on Coping Skills and Anxiety of a Universal School-Based Mental Health Intervention Delivered in Scottish Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Sabrina; Woolfson, Lisa Marks; Durkin, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are common in children and may signal risk of depression, social, or academic difficulties. This study evaluated the effects of a universal mental health promotion intervention delivered in primary schools. Three hundred and seventeen 9- to 10-year-olds were randomly allocated by class group to intervention conditions…

  17. The Effects of Muslim Praying Meditation and Transcendental Meditation Programs on Mindfulness among the University of Nizwa Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldahadha, Basim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the Effects of Muslim Praying Meditation (MPM) and Transcendental Meditation (TM) Program on Mindfulness among the University of Nizwa students. The sample of the study consisted of (354) students. The questionnaires of MPM (Al-Kushooa) and Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS) were applied before…

  18. The Effect of Psychological Counselling in Group on Life Orientation and Loneliness Levels of the University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurgan, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    The present study was an experimental research which was applied for increasing of the life tendencies and decreasing the loneliness of the university students, and in which the effect of psychological counselling in group on loneliness level was analysed. The present study consisting of mix measurements was carried out by 2x2 split-plot in order…

  19. The Ecological Effects of Universal and Selective Violence Prevention Programs for Middle School Students: A Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Thomas R.; Ikeda, Robin M.; Smith, Emilie Phillips; Reese, Le'Roy E.; Rabiner, David L.; Miller, Shari; Winn, Donna-Marie; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Asher, Steven R.; Horne, Arthur M.; Orpinas, Pamela; Martin, Roy; Quinn, William H.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Gay, Franklin N.; Schoeny, Michael; Farrell, Albert D.; Meyer, Aleta L.; Sullivan, Terri N.; Allison, Kevin W.

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the findings of a multisite randomized trial evaluating the separate and combined effects of 2 school-based approaches to reduce violence among early adolescents. A total of 37 schools at 4 sites were randomized to 4 conditions: (1) a universal intervention that involved implementing a student curriculum and teacher training…

  20. Effectiveness of Analogy Instructional Strategy on Undergraduate Student's Acquisition of Organic Chemistry Concepts in Mutah University, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Nawaf Ahmad Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of analogy instructional strategy on undergraduate students' acquisition of organic chemistry concepts in Mutah University, Jordan. A quasi-experimental design was used in the study; Participants were 97 students who enrolled in organic chemistry course at the department of chemistry during the…

  1. The Effects of a Changing Financial Context on the University of California. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.16.05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissler, Gerald R.; Switkes, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    California's loss of capital gains and stock options revenue during the recent economic downturn was one of the worst in the nation, and the resulting fiscal crisis led to reductions in State appropriations to the University of 15% over the past four years, while enrollments grew by 19%. This article examines the effects of this reduction in State…

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of infant universal routine pneumococcal vaccination in Malaysia and Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wu, David Bin-Chia; Roberts, Craig; Lee, Vivian Wing Yan; Hong, Li-Wen; Tan, Kah Kee; Mak, Vivienne; Lee, Kenneth Kwing Chin

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal disease causes large morbidity, mortality and health care utilization and medical and non-medical costs, which can all be reduced by effective infant universal routine immunization programs with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). We evaluated the clinical and economic benefits of such programs with either 10- or 13-valent PCVs in Malaysia and Hong Kong by using an age-stratified Markov cohort model with many country-specific inputs. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) was calculated to compare PCV10 or PCV13 against no vaccination and PCV13 against PCV10 over a 10-year birth cohort's vaccination. Both payer and societal perspectives were used. PCV13 had better public health and economic outcomes than a PCV10 program across all scenarios considered. For example, in the base case scenario in Malaysia, PCV13 would reduce more cases of IPD (+2,296), pneumonia (+705,281), and acute otitis media (+376,967) and save more lives (+6,122) than PCV10. Similarly, in Hong Kong, PCV13 would reduce more cases of IPD cases (+529), pneumonia (+172,185), and acute otitis media (+37,727) and save more lives (+2,688) than PCV10. During the same time horizon, PCV13 would gain over 74,000 and 21,600 additional QALYs than PCV10 in Malaysia and Hong Kong, respectively. PCV13 would be cost saving when compared against similar program with PCV10, under both payer and societal perspective in both countries. PCV13 remained a better choice over PCV10 in multiple sensitivity, scenario, and probabilistic analyses. PCV13s broader serotype coverage in its formulation and herd effect compared against PCV10 were important drivers of differences in outcomes.

  3. Spatially Enabling the Health Sector

    PubMed Central

    Weeramanthri, Tarun Stephen; Woodgate, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Spatial information describes the physical location of either people or objects, and the measured relationships between them. In this article, we offer the view that greater utilization of spatial information and its related technology, as part of a broader redesign of the architecture of health information at local and national levels, could assist and speed up the process of health reform, which is taking place across the globe in richer and poorer countries alike. In making this point, we describe the impetus for health sector reform, recent developments in spatial information and analytics, and current Australasian spatial health research. We highlight examples of uptake of spatial information by the health sector, as well as missed opportunities. Our recommendations to spatially enable the health sector are applicable to high- and low-resource settings. PMID:27867933

  4. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean; Trond Bjornard; Thomas Larson

    2007-09-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology (SESAME) has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wireframe construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed.

  5. Context-Enabled Business Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2012-04-01

    To truly understand context and apply it in business intelligence, it is vital to understand what context is and how it can be applied in addressing organizational needs. Context describes the facets of the environment that impact the way that end users interact with the system. Context includes aspects of location, chronology, access method, demographics, social influence/ relationships, end-user attitude/ emotional state, behavior/ past behavior, and presence. To be successful in making Business Intelligence content enabled, it is important to be able to capture the context of use user. With advances in technology, there are a number of ways in which this user based information can be gathered and exposed to enhance the overall end user experience.

  6. Enabling the Kepler Exoplanet Census

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The Kepler mission, with its unrivaled photometric precision and nearly continuous monitoring, provides an unprecedented opportunity for an exoplanet census. However, while it has identified thousands of transiting planet candidates, only relatively few have yet been dynamically confirmed as bona fide planets, with only a handful more even conceivably amenable to future dynamical confirmation. As a result, the ability to draw detailed conclusions about the diversity of exoplanet systems from Kepler detections relies critically on assigning false positive probabilities to thousands of unconfirmed candidates. I have developed a procedure to calculate these probabilities using only the Kepler photometry, optionally including available follow-up observations. Using this, I can often statistically validate a candidate signal using two single-epoch observations: a stellar spectrum and a high-resolution image. Accordingly, I have applied this procedure to the publicly released Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) using results from several large follow-up campaigns: spectroscopic surveys of >100 KOIs with TripleSpec at the Palomar 200-in and >700 KOIs with Keck/HIRES, and imaging surveys of >60 KOIs with Keck/NIRC2 and nearly 1000 KOIs with the Palomar Robo-AO system. This has enabled me to identify hundreds of Kepler candidates as newly secure planets, identify some as likely false positives, and prescribe the most useful follow-up observations for the rest of the KOIs. These results will enable Kepler to fulfill its promise as a mission to study the statistics of exoplanet systems. In addition, this new approach to transit survey follow-up---detailed probabilistic assessment of large numbers of candidates in order to inform the application of relatively scarce follow-up resources---will remain fruitful as transit surveys continue to produce many more candidates than can be followed up with traditional strategies.

  7. Can Universal SEL Programs Benefit Universally? Effects of the Positive Action Program on Multiple Trajectories of Social-Emotional and Misconduct Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Robert; Washburn, Isaac J; Lewis, Kendra M; Bavarian, Niloofar; DuBois, David L; Acock, Alan C; Vuchinich, Samuel; Flay, Brian R

    2017-02-01

    Behavioral trajectories during middle childhood are predictive of consequential outcomes later in life (e.g., substance abuse, violence). Social and emotional learning (SEL) programs are designed to promote trajectories that reflect both growth in positive behaviors and inhibited development of negative behaviors. The current study used growth mixture models to examine effects of the Positive Action (PA) program on behavioral trajectories of social-emotional and character development (SECD) and misconduct using data from a cluster-randomized trial that involved 14 schools and a sample of predominately low-income, urban youth followed from 3rd through 8th grade. For SECD, findings indicated that PA was similarly effective at improving trajectories within latent classes characterized as "high/declining" and "low/stable". Favorable program effects were likewise evident to a comparable degree for misconduct across observed latent classes that reflected "low/rising" and "high/rising" trajectories. These findings suggest that PA and perhaps other school-based universal SEL programs have the potential to yield comparable benefits across subgroups of youth with differing trajectories of positive and negative behaviors, making them promising strategies for achieving the intended goal of school-wide improvements in student outcomes.

  8. Deferred Compensation for Personnel of Tax-Exempt Universities: Effective Use of Section 403(b) Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, John L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Under the Tax Reform Act of 1986 many university employees are no longer able to make tax deductible contributions to an IRA. Several alternative plans of action are discussed including tax-deferred annuities. Tax planning strategies are offered. (MLW)

  9. Are Australian Universities Promoting Learning and Teaching Activity Effectively? An Assessment of the Effects on Science and Engineering Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cretchley, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Federal Government and Australian universities have embarked on a bid to raise the profile of learning and teaching (L&T) in universities. Current strategies include increased funding of competitive grants for L&T projects, a wider range of teaching awards and fellowships and a controversial new national competitive Learning…

  10. Estimated effects of adding universal public coverage of an essential medicines list to existing public drug plans in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Steven G.; Li, Winny; Yau, Brandon; Persaud, Nav

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Canada’s universal health care system does not include universal coverage of prescription drugs. We sought to estimate the effects of adding universal public coverage of an essential medicines list to existing public drug plans in Canada. METHODS: We used administrative and market research data to estimate the 2015 shares of the volume and cost of prescriptions filled in the community setting that were for 117 drugs on a model list of essential medicines for Canada. We compared prices of these essential medicines in Canada with prices in the United States, Sweden and New Zealand. We estimated the cost of adding universal public drug coverage of these essential medicines based on anticipated effects on medication use and pricing. RESULTS: The 117 essential medicines on the model list accounted for 44% of all prescriptions and 30% of total prescription drug expenditures in 2015. Average prices of generic essential medicines were 47% lower in the US, 60% lower in Sweden and 84% lower in New Zealand; brand-name drugs were priced 43% lower in the US. Estimated savings from universal public coverage of these essential medicines was $4.27 billion per year (range $2.72 billion to $5.83 billion; 28% reduction) for patients and private drug plan sponsors, at an incremental government cost of $1.23 billion per year (range $373 million to $1.98 billion; 11% reduction). INTERPRETATION: Our analysis showed that adding universal public coverage of essential medicines to the existing public drug plans in Canada could address most of Canadians’ pharmaceutical needs and save billions of dollars annually. Doing so may be a pragmatic step forward while more comprehensive pharmacare reforms are planned. PMID:28246223

  11. Promoting Reduced and Discontinued Substance Use among Adolescent Substance Users: Effectiveness of a Universal Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Nieri, Tanya; Yabiku, Scott; Stromwall, Layne K.; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to address youth substance use have focused on prevention among non-users and treatment among severe users with less attention given to youth occupying the middle ground who have used substances but not yet progressed to serious abuse or addiction. Using a sample from 35 middle schools of 1,364 youth who reported using substances, this study examined the effectiveness of a universal youth substance use prevention program, the SAMHSA Model Program keepin’ it REAL, in promoting reduced or recently discontinued alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Discrete-time event history methods modeled the rates of reduced and recently discontinued use across four waves of data. Each substance (alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana) was modeled separately. Beginning at the second wave, participants who reported use at wave 1 were considered at risk of reducing or discontinuing use. Since the data sampled students in schools, multi-level models accounted for the nesting of data at the school level. Results indicated that prevention program participation influenced the rates of reduced and recently discontinued use only for alcohol, controlling for baseline use severity, age, grades, socioeconomic status, ethnicity and gender. Among youth who reported use of alcohol in wave 1 (N= 1,028), the rate of reducing use for program participants was 72% higher than the rate for control students. The rate of discontinuing use was 66% higher than the rate for control students. Among youth who reported use of one or more of the three substances in wave 1 (N = 1,364), the rate of discontinuing all use was 61% higher for program participants than for control students. Limitations and implications of these findings and plans for further research are discussed. PMID:17096196

  12. Effectiveness of postpartum education received by certified nurse-midwives' clients at a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Regan, R E; Lydon-Rochelle, M T

    1995-01-01

    This pilot study's objective was to determine the effectiveness of postpartum education received by midwifery clients at the University of New Mexico Hospital. The authors of the study randomized 100 women following delivery to two groups. Group one, n = 55, received written postpartum instructions only. Group two, n = 45, received oral instructions by the certified nurse-midwife in addition to the written instructions. Both groups answered a written questionnaire after the teaching. Analyses were carried out on 100 posttest scores. Mean test scores for group one was 17.9 out of a possible score of 20. Mean score for group two was 18.3. No significant difference was detected between these two mean scores. A 95% confidence interval for the difference between mean scores was -1.9 to 1.1 (P > .05). Reliability of instrument was established via the Kuder-Richardson formula 21. This conservative estimate of internal consistency yielded r = .50. The authors found that oral instructions by the certified nurse-midwife did not significantly increase the knowledge of primiparas as evidenced by posttest results. However, results must be interpreted cautiously for three reasons: low reliability of the instrument, the small difference between groups, and the sample size. The need to determine how best to approach postpartum education is imperative in this era of early hospital discharge. A certified nurse-midwife's time may be better spent focusing on individual concerns rather than on a set teaching agenda. Alternative opportunities such as postpartum home visits need to be explored as a means of providing support and guidance to new mothers.

  13. Enabling Participation In Exoplanet Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    2015-08-01

    Determining the distribution of exoplanets has required the contributions of a community of astronomers, who all require the support of colleagues to finish their projects in a manner to enable them to enter new collaborations to continue to contribute to understanding exoplanet science.The contributions of each member of the astronomy community are to be encouraged and must never be intentionally obstructed.We present a member’s long pursuit to be a contributing part of the exoplanet community through doing transit photometry as a means of commissioning the telescopes for a new observatory, followed by pursuit of interpreting the distributions in exoplanet parameter data.We present how the photometry projects have been presented as successful by the others who have claimed to have completed them, but how by requiring its employees to present results while omitting one member has been obstructive against members working together and has prevented the results from being published in what can genuinely be called a peer-reviewed fashion.We present how by tolerating one group to obstruct one member from finishing participation and then falsely denying credit is counterproductive to doing science.We show how expecting one member to attempt to go around an ostracizing group by starting something different is destructive to the entire profession. We repeat previously published appeals to help ostracized members to “go around the observatory” by calling for discussion on how the community must act to reverse cases of shunning, bullying, and other abuses. Without better recourse and support from the community, actions that do not meet standard good collegial behavior end up forcing good members from the community. The most important actions are to enable an ostracized member to have recourse to participating in group papers by either working through other authors or through the journal. All journals and authors must expect that no co-author is keeping out a major

  14. Signature of the universal super Efimov effect: Three-body contact in two-dimensional Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Yu, Zhenhua

    2017-03-01

    A class of universal "three-body" bound states has been recently predicted theoretically for identical fermions interacting at p -wave resonance in two dimensions. This phenomenon is called the super Efimov effect since the binding energies of the states follow a intriguing double exponential scaling. However, experimental resolution of this scaling is expected to meet formidable challenges. In this work, we introduce a thermodynamic quantity, the three-body contact Cθ, to quantify three-body correlations in a two-dimensional gas composed of the resonantly interacting fermions; the contact Cθ is the consequence of the underlying universal super Efimov effect in the many-body context. We show how Cθ affects physical observables such as the radio-frequency spectrum, the momentum distribution, and the atom loss rate. The signature of the elusive super Efimov effect can be pinned down by the detection of the three-body contact Cθ via these observables in the many-body system.

  15. Some cross-linguistic evidence for modulation of implicational universals by language-specific frequency effects in phonological development

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    While broad-focus comparisons of consonant inventories across children acquiring different language can suggest that phonological development follows a universal sequence, finer-grained statistical comparisons can reveal systematic differences. This cross-linguistic study of word-initial lingual obstruents examined some effects of language-specific frequencies on consonant mastery. Repetitions of real words were elicited from 2- and 3-year-old children who were monolingual speakers of English, Cantonese, Greek, or Japanese. The repetitions were recorded and transcribed by an adult native speaker for each language. Results found support for both language-universal effects in phonological acquisition and for language-specific influences related to phoneme and phoneme sequence frequency. These results suggest that acquisition patterns that are common across languages arise in two ways. One influence is direct, via the universal constraints imposed by the physiology and physics of speech production and perception, and how these predict which contrasts will be easy and which will be difficult for the child to learn to control. The other influence is indirect, via the way universal principles of ease of perception and production tend to influence the lexicons of many languages through commonly attested sound changes. PMID:19890438

  16. 'Philosophy Lost': Inquiring into the effects of the corporatized university and its implications for graduate nursing education.

    PubMed

    Springer, Rusla Anne; Clinton, Michael Edward

    2017-04-03

    Drawing on a comprehensive, pan-national analysis of the corporatization of Canadian universities, as well as the notions of 'parrhesiastic' mentorship and practice, the authors examine the effects of the corporatized university, its implications for graduate nursing education and nursing's relative silence on the subject. With the preponderance of business interests, the increasing dependence of universities on industry funding, cults of efficiency, research intensivity, and the pursuit of profit so prevalent in today's corporatized university, we argue that philosophical presuppositions so crucial to critical teaching, research, and reflection on nursing as a discipline are troublingly losing ground. We lament the erosion and fragmentation of philosophy, politics, and ethics as foundations for graduate education, which are increasingly perceived as less valuable, problematic, and in some cases, even burdensome. The effect of corporatization is the suppression of the critical engagement required of faculty in the everyday workings of institutions. We argue that, when the ideals of intellectual freedom, academic responsibility, duty, and obligation, as supported by philosophical thought, are smothered by the normalizing power of corporatized research agendas, philosophical approaches to inquiry and knowledge development become marginalized as scholars find themselves floundering in the face of a seeming 'philosophy lost'.

  17. Effect of water storage on ultimate tensile strength and mass changes of universal adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Bahrololumi, Nazanin; Najafi-Abrandabadi, Ahmad; Sadr, Alireza; Sheikh-Al-Eslamian, Seyedeh-Mahsa; Ghasemi, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of water storage on micro tensile strength (µTS) and mass changes (MC) of two universal adhesives. Material and Methods 10 disk-shaped specimens were prepared for each adhesive; Scotchbond Universal (SCU) All-Bond Universal (ABU) and Adper Single Bond 2 (SB2). At the baseline and after 1 day and 28 days of water storage, their mass were measured and compared to estimate water sorption and solubility. For µTS test, 20 dumbbell shaped specimens were also prepared for each adhesive in two subgroups of 1 day and 28 days water storage. Results MC was significantly lower for SCU and ABU than SB2 (P < 0.05) at both time intervals. In all three adhesives, the MC was significantly lower at 28 days compared to that at 1 day (P < 0.05). Similarly, µTS was significantly higher for SCU and ABU than SB2 at both storage intervals (P < 0.05). After 28 days, µTS increased significantly for universal adhesives (P < 0.05). Conclusions MC and µTS of adhesives were both material and time dependent when stored in water; both universal adhesives showed less water sorption and higher values of µTS than the control group. Key words:Absorption, dental adhesives, dentin-bonding agents, solubility, tensile strength. PMID:28149468

  18. Emotional Effects on University Choice Behavior: The Influence of Experienced Narrators and Their Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Callejas-Albiñana, Ana I.; Callejas-Albiñana, Fernando E.; Martínez-Rodríguez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the influence that experienced users of university resources might have as narrative sources of information for other students in the process of choosing their schools. Informative videos about the benefits of studying at the university provide a reference model. In these videos, a group of young people present their views and explain their reasons for choosing the university in which they are pursuing their degrees; the various narrators detail all the resources available. This study investigates whether the individual identifiers of these narrators (e.g., gender, age, physical appearance, nonverbal gestures such as smiling, posture) influence perceptions of the credibility of the information they provide. Among a sample of 150 students in their last year of pre-university training, the results demonstrate that the students' ability to identify with the narrators provides information and arouses emotions that inform their perceptions of reliability and therefore their consumption choices. None of these predictors appear to serve as determinants that can be generalized, but if emotional attitudes in response to narratives about the topic (i.e., the university) are positive, then they prompt a change in attitude toward that reference topic too. PMID:27252664

  19. [Efforts to achieve and effects of acquiring ISO 15189 in Tokushima University Hospital].

    PubMed

    Shono, Kazuko; Kishi, Misako; Satou, Mituyo; Nagamine, Yasunori; Doi, Tosio

    2009-12-01

    The medical laboratory of Tokushima University Hospital acquired ISO 15189, an international standard for medical laboratories, on July 6th, 2007, resulting in it achieving the 24th place in Japan and 5th place among national university hospitals. The first surveillance was just performed on October 6th, 2008. Tokushima University Hospital, in which our medical laboratory is included as one section, already succeeded in acquiring ISO 9001, PrivacyMark System, and Quality Health Care ver. 5 before accomplishing ISO 15189. To achieve ISO 15189, we prepared documents based on ISO 9001 without any consultation, resulting in a review of the difference between ISO 9001 and ISO 15189 after the preliminary survey. Although achieving ISO 15189 resulted in an improvement in the reliability of laboratory results and accuracy, leading to the development of our technical skills and awareness, and sharing of knowledge, we consider that the considerable investment of time to prepare the requirements remains to be overcome.

  20. The psychological impact from hurricane Katrina: effects of displacement and trauma exposure on university students.

    PubMed

    Davis, Thompson E; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2010-09-01

    The following study examined the reactions of university students to Hurricane Katrina. A group of 68 New Orleans area students who were displaced from their home universities as a result of the hurricane were matched on race, gender, and age to a sample of 68 students who had been enrolled at Louisiana State University (LSU) prior to the hurricane. All students were enrolled at LSU at the time they participated in an online survey, conducted 3 months following the hurricane. The survey included symptom measures of depression, anxiety, stress, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other variables. Results indicated displaced students experienced more trauma exposure and greater subsequent distress, more symptoms of PTSD, and more symptoms of depression. Moreover, traumatic exposure and distress from the traumatic exposure were found to fully mediate depressive symptoms and posttraumatic symptoms in the displaced students.

  1. Agreement between Lake Superior State University and Lake Superior State University Faculty Association MEA-NEA. Effective Sept. 1, 1988 to August 31, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake Superior State Univ., Sault Sainte Marie, MI.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Lake Superior State University (Michigan) and the Lake Superior State University Faculty Association, an affiliate of the National Education Association, covering the period September 1, 1988 to August 31, 1991 is presented. The agreement covers the following items: definitions; recognition; association…

  2. Enabling electroweak baryogenesis through dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, Marek; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Wells, James D.

    2016-06-01

    We study the impact on electroweak baryogenesis from a swifter cosmological expansion induced by dark matter. We detail the experimental bounds that one can place on models that realize it, and we investigate the modifications of these bounds that result from a non-standard cosmological history. The modifications can be sizeable if the expansion rate of the Universe increases by several orders of magnitude. We illustrate the impact through the example of scalar field dark matter, which can alter the cosmological history enough to enable a strong-enough first-order phase transition in the Standard Model when it is supplemented by a dimension six operator directly modifying the Higgs boson potential. We show that due to the modified cosmological history, electroweak baryogenesis can be realized, while keeping deviations of the triple Higgs coupling below HL-LHC sensitivies. The required scale of new physics to effectuate a strong-enough first order phase transition can change by as much as twenty percent as the expansion rate increases by six orders of magnitude.

  3. Expanding the MEU(SOC) Joint Task Force Enabler Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-28

    concept. 2 The influential twentieth-century linguistic philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein argued that real understanding rests on the precise use...of language and universally agreed upon meanings. Without clarity and common understanding, Wittgenstein observed, we can never really communicate... Wittgenstein anticipated when we don’t share a common understanding of what a term means. The Joint Task Force Enabler is potentially a critical concept, both

  4. CUDA Enabled Graph Subset Examiner

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Jeremy T.

    2016-12-22

    Finding Godsil-McKay switching sets in graphs is one way to demonstrate that a specific graph is not determined by its spectrum--the eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix. An important area of active research in pure mathematics is determining which graphs are determined by their spectra, i.e. when the spectrum of the adjacency matrix uniquely determines the underlying graph. We are interested in exploring the spectra of graphs in the Johnson scheme and specifically seek to determine which of these graphs are determined by their spectra. Given a graph G, a Godsil-McKay switching set is an induced subgraph H on 2k vertices with the following properties: I) H is regular, ii) every vertex in G/H is adjacent to either 0, k, or 2k vertices of H, and iii) at least one vertex in G/H is adjacent to k vertices in H. The software package examines each subset of a user specified size to determine whether or not it satisfies those 3 conditions. The software makes use of the massive parallel processing power of CUDA enabled GPUs. It also exploits the vertex transitivity of graphs in the Johnson scheme by reasoning that if G has a Godsil-McKay switching set, then it has a switching set which includes vertex 1. While the code (in its current state) is tuned to this specific problem, the method of examining each induced subgraph of G can be easily re-written to check for any user specified conditions on the subgraphs and can therefore be used much more broadly.

  5. Portable, universal, and visual ion sensing platform based on the light emitting diode-based self-referencing-ion selective field-effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Han, Yanchao; Li, Jing; Zhang, Libing; Jia, Xiaofang; Wang, Erkang

    2014-02-04

    In this work, a novel and universal ion sensing platform was presented, which enables the visual detection of various ions with high sensitivity and selectivity. Coaxial potential signals (millivolt-scale) of the sample from the self-referencing (SR) ion selective chip can be transferred into the ad620-based amplifier with an output of volt-scale potentials. The amplified voltage is high enough to drive a light emitting diode (LED), which can be used as an amplifier and indicator to report the sample information. With this double amplification device (light emitting diode-based self-referencing-ion selective field-effect transistor, LED-SR-ISFET), a tiny change of the sample concentration can be observed with a distinguishable variation of LED brightness by visual inspection. This LED-based luminescent platform provided a facile, low-cost, and rapid sensing strategy without the need of additional expensive chemiluminescence reagent and instruments. Moreover, the SR mode also endows this device excellent stability and reliability. With this innovative design, sensitive determination of K(+), H(+), and Cl(-) by the naked eye was achieved. It should also be noticed that this sensing strategy can easily be extended to other ions (or molecules) by simply integrating the corresponding ion (or molecule) selective electrode.

  6. Anatomy drawing screencasts: enabling flexible learning for medical students.

    PubMed

    Pickering, James D

    2015-01-01

    The traditional lecture remains an essential method of disseminating information to medical students. However, due to the constant development of the modern medical curriculum many institutions are embracing novel means for delivering the core anatomy syllabus. Using mobile media devices is one such way, enabling students to access core material at a time and place that suits their specific learning style. This study has examined the effect of five anatomy drawing screencasts that replicate the popular anatomy drawing element of a lecture. These resources were uploaded to the University's Virtual Learning Environment for student access. Usage data and an end of module questionnaire were used to assess the impact of the screencasts on student education. The data revealed a high level of usage that varied in both the time of day and day of the week, with the number of downloads dramatically increasing towards the end of the module when the assessment was approaching. The student group found the additional resources extremely useful in consolidating information and revision, with many commenting on their preference to the screencasts compared to the more traditional approaches to learning. Scrutinizing the screencasts in relation to cognitive load theory and the cognitive theory of multimedia learning indicates a high correlation with an evidence-based approach to designing learning resources. Overall the screencasts have been a well-received enhancement that supports the student learning and has been shown to promote flexible learning.

  7. Preliminary Evidence on the Effectiveness of Psychological Treatments Delivered at a University Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minami, Takuya; Davies, D. Robert; Tierney, Sandra Callen; Bettmann, Joanna E.; McAward, Scott M.; Averill, Lynnette A.; Huebner, Lois A.; Weitzman, Lauren M.; Benbrook, Amy R.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Wampold, Bruce E.

    2009-01-01

    Treatment data from a university counseling center (UCC) that utilized the Outcome Questionnaire-45.2 (OQ-45; M. J. Lambert et al., 2004), a self-report general clinical symptom measure, was compared against treatment efficacy benchmarks from clinical trials of adult major depression that utilized similar measures. Statistical analyses suggested…

  8. Effect of Student Feedback on the Motivation of Indian University Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jena, Ananta Kumar; Chakraborty, Piyali

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to measure the motivation of the teachers of higher education towards students' feedback policy of National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) established by Internal Quality Assurance Cell (IQAC) for different Universities. By the help of questionnaires, the data were gathered, which were earlier sent to the…

  9. Effectiveness of a Universal, Interdependent Group Contingency Program on Children's Academic Achievement: A Countywide Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Robert; Osborne, Karen J.; Dean, Emily L.

    2015-01-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a universal prevention program designed to increase academic engagement and to decrease disruptive behavior in elementary school-age children. Teachers and other school personnel use interdependent group contingencies to improve students' behavior in the classroom. Previous research indicates the GBG is efficacious…

  10. Towards More Effective Vocationalisation of Business Education in Universities in South East of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwazor, Joseph Chukwudi; Nwaukwa, Faith Chukwudi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to ascertain the extent of vocationalization, of business education in universities in South East zone of Nigeria where lecture method dominated lesson delivery. Students had become more passive and engaged in lots of endless hard work. It could hardly be easy to state the differences between business education…

  11. Toward a More Effective Economic Principles Class: The Florida State University Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Barbara; Tuckman, Howard

    1975-01-01

    This special issue explores alternative approaches to teaching the college introductory economics course. Using insights gained from learning theory, suggestions from the Joint Council on Economic Education, and trial and error, several faculty members at the Florida State University experimented with various techniques and approaches designed to…

  12. The University of New Hampshire Engaged Scholars Academy: Instilling in Faculty Principles of Effective Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Charles; Williams, Julie E.; Tang, Judy; Abrams, Eleanor; Townson, Lisa; Sabin, Mihaela; Sandmann, Lorilee R.; Wake, Cameron

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, the University of New Hampshire (UNH) has promoted mutually beneficial partnerships between faculty and community partners vis-à-vis the Engaged Scholars Academy (ESA), a faculty development program aimed at enhancing faculty understanding of the principles of partnership and engaged scholarship. This research seeks to…

  13. Chinese Students' Perceptions of the Effects of Western University Examination Formats on Their Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    The recruitment of Asian students into western universities has highlighted the debate about commercialisation of education, academic standards and the role of culture and language in approaches to learning. This article investigates Chinese students' perceptions of how two typical examination formats (multiple choice and essay) affect their…

  14. Assessment of Effectiveness of Use of Intellectual Potential of a University: A Methodological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stukalova, Irina B.; Stukalova, Anastasia A.; Selyanskaya, Galina N.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of theoretical analysis of existing approaches to the categories of the "intellectual capital" and "intellectual potential" of an organization. The authors identified the specific peculiarities of developing the intellectual potential of a university and propose their own view of its structure.…

  15. The Effect of Sonority on Word Segmentation: Evidence for the Use of a Phonological Universal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettlinger, Marc; Finn, Amy S.; Hudson Kam, Carla L.

    2012-01-01

    It has been well documented how language-specific cues may be used for word segmentation. Here, we investigate what role a language-independent phonological universal, the sonority sequencing principle (SSP), may also play. Participants were presented with an unsegmented speech stream with non-English word onsets that juxtaposed adherence to the…

  16. Impact of Internet Images: Impression-Formation Effects of University Web Site Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramasubramanian, Srividya; Gyure, James F.; Mursi, Nasreen M.

    2002-01-01

    Institutions of higher education are increasingly becoming dependent on Web-based marketing to reach out to their target audiences. The current empirical study examines the types of impressions formed by prospective students based on exposure to different university Web site images. A between-subjects experiment was conducted using four identical…

  17. The Effect of Secondary School Study Skills Preparation on First-Year University Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.; Suhre, Cor J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Although many studies have revealed the importance of study skills for students' first-year performance and college retention, the extent of the impact of study skills preparation on students' academic achievement is less clear. This paper explores the impact of pre-university study skills preparation on students' first-year study experiences,…

  18. The Impact of Framing Effect on Student Preferences for University Grading Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jeffrey K.; Smith, Lisa F.

    2009-01-01

    Kahneman and Tversky's (1979, 2000; Tversky & Kahneman, 1981) work in decision-making was applied to student preferences for grading practices. Undergraduate psychology students (n = 240) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 framing conditions related to how a university course might be graded: a 100 point system, a percentage system, and an open…

  19. Postsecondary Preparation and Remediation: Examining the Effect of the Early Assessment Program at California State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Jessica S.; Kurlaender, Michal; Grodsky, Eric

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how participation in the Early Assessment Program, which provides California high school juniors with information about their academic readiness for college-level work at California State University campuses, affects their college-going behavior and need for remediation in college. Using administrative records from…

  20. The Effect of Group Diversity on Learning on a University-Based Foundation Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipperfield, Sarah R.

    2012-01-01

    To date, there appears to be a paucity of literature regarding the student experience on university-based foundation courses. There is some thought that such non-traditional, diverse groups of students might present problems during the learning and teaching experience and some students appear to have little insight into what foundation courses…

  1. Too Old to Teach? The Effect of Age on College and University Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonebraker, Robert J.; Stone, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    With the elimination of mandatory retirement, the average age of college and university faculty members has increased. While this has raised some concerns, relatively little research has tried to measure the impact of this aging on productivity inside the classroom. Using data from the RateMyProfessors.com website for a large sample of instructors…

  2. Effects of an Introductory Geography Course on Student Perceptions of Geography at the University of Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowlick, Forrest J.; Kolden, Crystal A.

    2013-01-01

    This case study surveyed students in geography courses at the University of Idaho, investigating perceptions of geography's role in their daily lives, relevance to careers or academics, and parts of their geographic skill. Primarily, white, younger than 20, gender-balanced students in Introduction to Physical Geography and Human Geography courses…

  3. An Examination of the Effects of ADHD Coaching on University Students' Executive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, David R.; Hoffman, Sharon Field; Sawilowsky, Shlomo; Rolands, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Seven undergraduates at a selective Midwestern university participated in a semester-long pilot study regarding the impact of ADHD coaching services on their academic experiences. Coaches in the study had extensive qualifications, including specific training to address the needs of college students with ADHD. Three major themes emerged from…

  4. Student Digital Piracy in the Florida State University System: An Exploratory Study on Its Infrastructural Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Digital piracy is a problem that may never disappear from society. Through readily available resources such as those found in a university, students will always have access to illegal goods. While piracy is a global phenomenon, an institution's resources combined with the typical college student's lack of funds makes it more lucrative. Students…

  5. A Crisis of Competence: The Corrupting Effect of Political Activism in the University of California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Scholars, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report concerns the corruption of the University of California by activist politics, a condition which, as it shall show, sharply lowers the quality of academic teaching, analysis, and research, resulting in the troubling deficiencies found in the studies to which the authors have referred. This report shall show that this is an inevitable…

  6. Job Search Strategies of Recent University Graduates in Poland: Plans and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piróg, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article was to highlight plans versus actual actions of university graduates in Poland aimed at finding employment. The paper also empirically verifies the impact of chosen job-seeking strategies on the success or failure of their transition to employment. The study was Polish-wide and included graduates of geography. It…

  7. Effect of Foreign Language Anxiety on Gender and Academic Achievement among Yemeni University EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razak, Norizan Abdul; Yassin, Amr Abdullatif; Maasum, Tengku Nor Rizan Bt Tengku Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the gender differences in terms of anxiety among Yemeni university EFL learners. It also aimed to investigate the correlation between the level of anxiety and the academic achievement of the students. The participants of this study were 155 students chosen from the population through stratified random sampling. The…

  8. The Effectiveness of Using Mobile on EFL Learners' Reading Practices in Najran University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazaea, Abduljalil Nasr; Alzubi, Ali Abbas

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the efficiency of using mobile technology in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading classroom of 30 male students at Preparatory Year, Najran University. Specifically, the study aims to explore the role of this new integrated method in enhancing the EFL learners' reading practices. Integrating Freebody and Luke's…

  9. A "Prepaid Package" for Obstetrics: Effect on Teaching and Patient Care in a University Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Philip E.

    1976-01-01

    The changing social milieu has removed the charity patient but not the need for a teaching population. The University Hospital's program is described, in which patients prepaid a fixed, single fee for all obstetrics-related care through the third post partum day. (LBH)

  10. The Effect of Proposed Reagan Administration Cuts on University of Delaware Financial Aid Programs. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Douglas S.

    Proposed budget cuts by the Reagan Administration that will directly affect the financial aid programs at the University of Delaware are examined, along with the anticipated impacts of the cuts. The programs specifically slated for reduction in both funds and the number of students who will be eligible to participate in 1981-82 include the…

  11. An Exploration of the Effect of Servicescape on Student Institution Choice in UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Emma; Chapleo, Chris

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been increased discussion of the subjective, emotional and sociological factors influencing student choice of university. However, there is a dearth of information exploring what constitutes these feelings. This exploratory paper uses the conceptual model of the servicescape to provide insight into the emotional factors…

  12. The Online University Classroom: One Perspective for Effective Student Engagement and Teaching in an Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Marsha

    2014-01-01

    Universities struggle with alternate means of instructional delivery to meet the demands of distant student needs, the competition for enrollments, and restraints from limited physical building space. For many, fully online programs of study using internet-based instruction commonly named online instruction have become viable solutions. There has…

  13. Effort Allocation in Tournaments: The Effect of Gender on Academic Performance in Italian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castagnetti, Carolina; Rosti, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    We consider the academic performance of Italian university graduates and their labor market position 3 years after graduation. Our data confirm the common finding that female students outperform male students in academia but are overcome in the labor market. Assuming that academic competition is fair and that individual talent is equally…

  14. Effects of Number and Location of Bins on Plastic Recycling at a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Ryan T.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Fritz, Jennifer N.; Hodde, Henry B.

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of plastic bottles that consumers placed in appropriate recycling receptacles rather than trash bins was examined across 3 buildings on a university campus. We extended previous research on interventions to increase recycling by controlling the number of recycling receptacles across conditions and by examining receptacle location…

  15. The Retention Dilemma: Effectively Reaching the First-Year University Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Kelly J.; Levesque-Bristol, Chantal

    2011-01-01

    Student success results from positive learning environments which strive to meet the basic psychological needs of students, foster self-determined forms of motivation, and cultivate learning outcomes such as knowledge transfer, meta-cognition, and engagement. Low first-year student retention rates lead many universities to assess factors…

  16. Leading Ladies: Women University and College Presidents: What They Say about Effective Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Mimi; Bower, Beverly L.; Maldonado, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,we report the importance five women community college, college, and university presidents place on certain leadership tenets. Interestingly, the advice they offer for other women who aspire to leadership often ties to the perceived importance of certain tenets. We report these data and speculate about implications for future women…

  17. Developing an Effective Instrument for Assessing the Performance of Public University Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Conducting a worthwhile assessment of the performance of senior leaders such as university presidents poses unique challenges for public institutions of higher education. One of the most difficult issues is determining the "content" and "format" of the assessment instrument. Due to the breadth and complexity of the job, the…

  18. AID and Universities Have Yet to Forge an Effective Partnership to Combat World Food Problems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-16

    1979, and (3) beans and cowpeas started in October 1980. These 3 CRSPs involve 30 title XII universities and institutions. Each CRSP 27 activity is...establish firm links with develop- ing countries. An official from the beans and cowpeas CRSP said that CRSP is not incorporated as part of AID host-country

  19. Japanese University Students' Willingness to Communicate in English: The Serendipitous Effect of Oral Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuoka, Rieko; Matsumoto, Kahoko; Poole, Gregory; Matsuoka, Misato

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which college students in Japan overcame sensitivity to external evaluation and increased their willingness to communicate in English. It is not uncommon for university students in Japan, who are otherwise proficient speakers of English and motivated to learn, fail to exhibit English competency in real communication…

  20. The Casual Approach to Teacher Education: What Effect Does Casualisation Have for Australian University Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopper, Christopher J.; Power, Bianca M.

    2014-01-01

    Universities in many countries are struggling to adapt to the competing forces of globalisation, new managerialism, entrepreneurialism and new technologies and quality agenda demands. Diminishing resources caused by restricted funding and an aging and diminishing academic workforce pose barriers. One solution to staffing shortages is the…

  1. County-Level Estimates of the Effects of a Universal Preschool Program in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karoly, Lynn A.

    2005-01-01

    Growing interest in universal preschool education has prompted researchers to examine the potential costs and benefits of making high-quality preschool available for all children one or two years before kindergarten entry. The analysis reported in this document builds on a previous RAND study which estimated that a high-quality, one-year,…

  2. HIV, AIDS, and Universal Precautions: The Optometry Curriculum's Effect on Students' Knowledge, Attitudes and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengren, Kenneth J.; Zoltoski, Rebecca K.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed entering optometry students (n=404) and again during their fourth year (n=314) for knowledge about and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. Analysis indicated significant improvement from pre- to post-test for general HIV/AIDS knowledge and optometric-specific HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes. For universal precautions implementation, no change in…

  3. Towards a Cosmopolitan African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I offer a defence of cosmopolitanism as an enabling condition for university education in Africa. Recent xenophobic outbursts in South Africa suggests that the enactment of defensible virtues in societies remain distant from the practices of many people. My contention is that university education ought to take seriously the…

  4. Severe language effect in university rankings: particularly Germany and France are wronged in citation-based rankings.

    PubMed

    van Raan, Anthony F J; van Leeuwen, Thed N; Visser, Martijn S

    2011-08-01

    We applied a set of standard bibliometric indicators to monitor the scientific state-of-arte of 500 universities worldwide and constructed a ranking on the basis of these indicators (Leiden Ranking 2010). We find a dramatic and hitherto largely underestimated language effect in the bibliometric, citation-based measurements of research performance when comparing the ranking based on all Web of Science (WoS) covered publications and on only English WoS covered publications, particularly for Germany and France.

  5. Impacts of first-order phase transition and phase coexistence on the universal behavior of inverse magnetocaloric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Anis; Bingham, N. S.; Phan, T. L.; Dan, N. H.; Yu, S. C.; Phan, M. H.; Srikanth, H.

    2014-05-01

    A systematic study of the inverse magnetocaloric effect (IMCE) in Ni50Mn35.8Sn14.2 and Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO3 has been performed to understand the impacts of first-order phase transition (FOPT) and phase coexistence on the universality of the temperature-dependent magnetic entropy change, ΔSM(T). We show that for Ni50Mn35.8Sn14.2—a system exhibiting IMCE associated with FOPT—it is possible to construct a universal master curve to describe ΔSM(T) in different applied fields without rescaling a temperature axis. However, the universality of IMCE does not hold for Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO3—a system with coexisting ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases. The proposed universal curve provides a simple method for extrapolating ΔSM in a wide range of fields and temperatures, thus giving useful guidance to the design of magnetocaloric materials for active magnetic refrigeration technology.

  6. For whom does it work? Subgroup differences in the effects of a school-based universal prevention program.

    PubMed

    Spilt, Jantine L; Koot, Johannes M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2013-10-01

    This study examined subgroup differences in the effectiveness of a universal classroom-based preventive intervention. The Good Behavior Game (GBG) was delivered in Grade 1 and 2 in a randomized controlled trial including 759 students. Changes in externalizing and internalizing problems were modeled from Kindergarten through Grade 2. Unlike previous research, a person-centered approach was employed to examine critical combinations of child, peer, family, and demographic characteristics at baseline as moderators of intervention impact. Six subgroups were identified that differed both in baseline risk profiles and intervention responsiveness. The GBG prevented the development of externalizing and internalizing behavior among low-risk children, children with emotional problems, and victimized children. No positive intervention effects were found for children from dysfunctional families and children with combinations of behavioral and social risks. The study presented a novel approach to study subgroup differences in universal preventive interventions and provides first evidence that universal school-based programs may not be effective for children with more severe risks and risks at multiple levels.

  7. A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-11-22

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

  8. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  9. Enabling Communication in Emergency Response Environments

    PubMed Central

    Aldunate, Roberto G.; Schmidt, Klaus Nicholas; Herrera, Oriel

    2012-01-01

    Effective communication among first responders during response to natural and human-made large-scale catastrophes has increased tremendously during the last decade. However, most efforts to achieve a higher degree of effectiveness in communication lack synergy between the environment and the technology involved to support first responders operations. This article presents a natural and intuitive interface to support Stigmergy; or communication through the environment, based on intuitively marking and retrieving information from the environment with a pointer. A prototype of the system was built and tested in the field, however the pointing activity revealed challenges regarding accuracy due to limitations of the sensors used. The results obtained from these field tests were the basis for this research effort and will have the potential to enable communication through the environment for first responders operating in highly dynamical and inhospitable disaster relief environments. PMID:22778647

  10. The Moral University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berube, Maurice R.; Berube, Clair T.

    2010-01-01

    The Moral University examines the ways that universities act morally toward students, faculty, their communities and the nation. It considers the effectiveness of moral reasoning courses in the curriculum and the growth of leadership courses. The book deals with the myriad ways in which universities act positively toward their communities. It also…

  11. Measuring Cognition of Students with Disabilities Using Technology-Enabled Assessments: Recommendations for a National Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechard, Sue; Sheinker, Jan; Abell, Rosemary; Barton, Karen; Burling, Kelly; Camacho, Christopher; Cameto, Renee; Haertel, Geneva; Hansen, Eric; Johnstone, Chris; Kingston, Neal; Murray, Elizabeth; Parker, Caroline E.; Redfield, Doris; Tucker, Bill

    2010-01-01

    This article represents one outcome from the "Invitational Research Symposium on Technology-Enabled and Universally Designed Assessments," which examined technology-enabled assessments (TEA) and universal design (UD) as they relate to students with disabilities (SWD). It was developed to stimulate research into TEAs designed to better understand…

  12. Alcohol consumption among university students: a typology of consumption to aid the tailoring of effective public health policy

    PubMed Central

    Davoren, Martin P; Cronin, Mary; Perry, Ivan J; O'Connor, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Objective Elevated levels of alcohol consumption among university students are well documented. Policymakers have attempted to combat this issue at a university, national and international level. Tailoring public health policy to effectively tackle alcohol use is crucial. Using Q-methodology, the current study aims to develop a typology of alcohol consumption in the Irish university student population. Setting A large Irish university. Participants Hundreds of possible statements on types of consumption were generated from a systematic review and a set of one-on-one interviews. These were reduced to 36 statements, 6 statements which define each of the 6 previously defined consumption types. Participants were advised to scan through the 36 statements and fill the statements into a ‘forced choice, standardised distribution’. Following this, a 45–90 min interview was conducted with students to illuminate subjectivity surrounding alcohol consumption. Analysis was conducted using PQ Method and NVivo software. Principal component analysis, followed by varimax rotation, was conducted to uncover the final factor information. Results In total, 43 students completed the Q-study: 19 men and 24 women. A typology describing 4 distinct groupings of alcohol consumer was uncovered: the guarded drinker, the calculated hedonist, the peer-influenced drinker and the inevitable binger. Factor loadings of each of the consumer groupings were noted for type description. Conclusions This is the first study to propose ideal types of alcohol consumption among a university student population. Further research is required to investigate the degree to which each of these ideal types is subscribed. However, this typology, in addition to informing public policy and strategies, will be a valuable analytic tool in future research. PMID:27852707

  13. Nano-enabled SERS reporting photosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Arash; Roxin, Áron; Wilson, Brian C; Zheng, Gang

    2015-01-01

    To impart effective cellular damage via photodynamic therapy (PDT), it is vital to deliver the appropriate light dose and photosensitizer concentration, and to monitor the PDT dose delivered at the site of interest. In vivo monitoring of photosensitizers has in large part relied on their fluorescence emission. Palladium-containing photosensitizers have shown promising clinical results by demonstrating near full conversion of light to PDT activity at the cost of having undetectable fluorescence. We demonstrate that, through the coupling of plasmonic nanoparticles with palladium-photosensitizers, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) provides both reporting and monitoring capability to otherwise quiescent molecules. Nano-enabled SERS reporting of photosensitizers allows for the decoupling of the therapeutic and imaging mechanisms so that both phenomena can be optimized independently. Most importantly, the design enables the use of the same laser wavelength to stimulate both the PDT and imaging features, opening the potential for real-time dosimetry of photosensitizer concentration and PDT dose delivery by SERS monitoring.

  14. The Master Enabler: In Orbit Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Kienlen, Michael; Naasz, Bo; Roberts, Brian; Deweese, Keith; Cassidy, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most noteworthy missions in space exploration have occurred in the last two decades and owe their success to on-orbit servicing. The tremendously successful Hubble Space Telescope repair and upgrade missions, as well as the completed assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its full utilization, lead us to the next chapter and set of challenges. These include fully exploiting the many space systems already launched, assembling large structures in situ thereby enabling new scientific discoveries, and providing systems that reliably and cost-effectively support the next steps in space exploration. In-orbit servicing is a tool--a tool that can serve as the master enabler to create space architectures that would otherwise be unattainable. This paper will survey how NASA's satellite-servicing technology development efforts are being applied to the planning and execution of two such ambitious missions, specifically asteroid capture and the in-space assembly of a very large life-finding telescope.

  15. In-Orbit Servicing: The Master Enabler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Kienlen, Michael; Naasz, Bo; Roberts, Brian; Deweese, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most noteworthy missions in space exploration have occurred in the last two decades and owe their success to on-orbit servicing. The tremendously successful Hubble Space Telescope repair and upgrade missions, as well as the completed assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its full utilization, lead us to the next chapter and set of challenges. These include fully exploiting the many space systems already launched, assembling large structures in situ thereby enabling new scientific discoveries, and providing systems that reliably and cost-effectively support the next steps in space exploration. In-orbit servicing is a tool--a tool that can serve as the master enabler to create space architectures that would otherwise be unattainable. This paper will survey how NASA's satellite-servicing technology development efforts are being applied to the planning and execution of two such ambitious missions, specifically asteroid capture and the in-space assembly of a very large life-finding telescope.

  16. The "Master Enabler" - In-Orbit Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin; Kienlen, Michael; Naasz, Bo; Roberts, Brian; Deweese, Keith; Cassidy, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most noteworthy missions in space exploration have occurred in the last two decades and owe their success to on-orbit servicing. The tremendously successful Hubble Space Telescope repair and upgrade missions, as well as the completed assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its full utilization, lead us to the next chapter and set of challenges. These include fully exploiting the many space systems already launched, assembling large structures in situ thereby enabling new scientific discoveries, and providing systems that reliably and cost-effectively support the next steps in space exploration. In-orbit servicing is a tool-a tool that can serve as the master enabler to create space architectures that would otherwise be unattainable. This paper will survey how NASA's satellite-servicing technology development efforts are being applied to the planning and execution of two such ambitious missions, specifically asteroid capture and the in-space assembly of a very large life-finding telescope.

  17. Crime and health: a preliminary study into the effects of crime on the mental health of UK university students.

    PubMed

    Morrall, P; Marshall, P; Pattison, S; Macdonald, G

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we report on the findings from a preliminary study in the UK into the effects of crime on health. The aim of the study was to investigate what victims of crime report to be the effects of both actual crime and the fear of crime on their physical and psychological health (as well as social well-being) and what actions they take (if any) to deal with these effects. A survey method was adopted using a modified version of the 'Health, Quality of Life and Crime Questionnaire' with 866 undergraduate student respondents from three UK universities. University students were selected as the sample population because, as a group, they form a specific 'victim community'. Conclusions extrapolated from the respondents' replies were first, there are serious negative health effects (particularly on psychological health) of a considerable minority of those students who are victims of crime. Second, the vast majority of the victims did not initiate any health intervention. Third, a large minority of the victims did not report the crime to the police. Fourth, a majority of both victims and non-victims suffered psychological negative effects from the fear of crime. Fifth, there is a huge gender imbalance among those affected by crime with female students much more fearful of crime than men. Moreover, female students were much more likely to use specific strategies to lower the risk of crime. These conclusions suggest that there may be important policy implications for universities, the police, victim support organizations and mental health services, regarding the effects of crime on students. This study is intended as a preliminary stage for subsequent in-depth and larger projects.

  18. Effects of nonminimal universal extra dimension on B →Xsγ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Anindya; Shaw, Avirup

    2017-01-01

    We estimate contributions from Kaluza-Klein excitations of third generation quarks and gauge bosons to the branching ratio of B →Xsγ decay process in the five-dimensional universal extra dimensional scenario with nonvanishing boundary localized terms. This model is conventionally known as the nonminimal universal extra dimensional model. We have derived the lower limit on the size of the extra dimension by comparing our theoretical estimation of the branching ratio that includes next-to-next-to leading order QCD corrections with its experimentally measured value. Coefficients of the boundary localized terms have also been constrained. 95% C.L. lower limit on the inverse of the radius of compactification (R-1) can be as large as 670 GeV for some choice of the value of coefficients of boundary localized terms.

  19. Effects of field interactions upon particle creation in Robertson-Walker universes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birrell, N. D.; Davies, P. C. W.; Ford, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Particle creation due to field interactions in an expanding Robertson-Walker universe is investigated. A model in which pseudoscalar mesons and photons are created as a result of their mutual interaction is considered, and the energy density of created particles is calculated in model universes which undergo a bounce at some maximum curvature. The free-field creation of non-conformally coupled scalar particles and of gravitons is calculated in the same space-times. It is found that if the bounce occurs at a sufficiently early time the interacting particle creation will dominate. This result may be traced to the fact that the model interaction chosen introduces a length scale which is much larger than the Planck length.

  20. Effects of number and location of bins on plastic recycling at a university.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Ryan T; Lerman, Dorothea C; Fritz, Jennifer N; Hodde, Henry B

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of plastic bottles that consumers placed in appropriate recycling receptacles rather than trash bins was examined across 3 buildings on a university campus. We extended previous research on interventions to increase recycling by controlling the number of recycling receptacles across conditions and by examining receptacle location without the use of posted signs. Manipulating the appearance or number of recycling bins in common areas did not increase recycling. Consumers recycled substantially more plastic bottles when the recycling bins were located in classrooms.