Science.gov

Sample records for effect enabling universal

  1. Faculty Perceptions of Challenges and Enablers of Effective Teaching in a Large Research-Intensive University: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briseño-Garzón, Adriana; Han, Andrea; Birol, Gülnur; Bates, Simon; Whitehead, Lorne

    2016-01-01

    In October 2014, the University of British Columbia Vancouver campus (UBCV) ran a campus-wide survey to establish baseline information on teaching practices and attitudes among faculty, to measure the impact of existing teaching and learning initiatives and to identify the conditions leading to change in practices and attitudes around teaching.…

  2. Open Educational Resources: Enabling Universal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caswell, Tom; Henson, Shelley; Jensen, Marion; Wiley, David

    2008-01-01

    The role of distance education is shifting. Traditionally distance education was limited in the number of people served because of production, reproduction, and distribution costs. Today, while it still costs the university time and money to produce a course, technology has made it such that reproduction costs are almost non-existent. This shift…

  3. "OnTrack" to University: Understanding Mechanisms of Student Retention in an Australian Pre-University Enabling Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisciandro, Joanne G.; Gibbs, Gael

    2016-01-01

    University-based enabling programs have become an important pathway to university for non-traditional students. There is increasing interest in understanding the mechanisms that facilitate retention and success of enabling pathway students, with the aim of developing effective strategies for maximising opportunities for university access and…

  4. Supporting Online, Non-Traditional Students through the Introduction of Effective E-Learning Tools in a Pre-University Tertiary Enabling Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambrinidis, George

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of external students enrolling at Charles Darwin University has led to the university investing in new technologies to provide better support for students studying online. Many students, however, come from non-traditional backgrounds and lack some of the skills and confidence to participate successfully in an e-learning…

  5. Boundary Spanning in Higher Education: How Universities Can Enable Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skolaski, Jennifer Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to better understand the identity and work of academic and extension staff who have boundary spanning responsibilities. The results will help universities, especially public land-grant universities with an outreach mission, to create stronger policies and systems to support boundary spanning staff members…

  6. University-Based Enabling Program Outcomes: Comparing Distance Education and Internal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookallil, Cheryl; Rolfe, John

    2016-01-01

    Enrolment in university enabling programs has expanded dramatically in the last decade as universities strive to increase enrolments, particularly of students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Offering enabling study by distance education has been part of this expansion with the benefit of providing access to a wider enrolment base. The purpose…

  7. Science, engineering and enabling technologies for exploration of the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, Gregory M.; Hudson, Wayne R.; Mankins, John C.

    1992-01-01

    This report by NASA's Office of Aeronautics, Exploration, and Technology identifies a list of critical technologies needed to support the exploration of the universe. The concept of the Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) is introduced with specific attention given to the strategic planning framework for NASA and other participants involved in the development of space technologies. The required technologies are identified for the Mission to Planet Earth, the Space Exploration Initiative, information systems, spacecraft advancement, and critical astrophysics issues. The ITP presents the basis for strategically planning the development of such technologies as observation systems, on-board processing, EVA systems, aerobraking, nuclear propulsion, scientific information acquisition, and high-energy sensors. The ITP is a significant step towards the planned and prioritized advancement of critical technologies related to the exploration of the universe.

  8. Pladipus Enables Universal Distributed Computing in Proteomics Bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Verheggen, Kenneth; Maddelein, Davy; Hulstaert, Niels; Martens, Lennart; Barsnes, Harald; Vaudel, Marc

    2016-03-01

    The use of proteomics bioinformatics substantially contributes to an improved understanding of proteomes, but this novel and in-depth knowledge comes at the cost of increased computational complexity. Parallelization across multiple computers, a strategy termed distributed computing, can be used to handle this increased complexity; however, setting up and maintaining a distributed computing infrastructure requires resources and skills that are not readily available to most research groups. Here we propose a free and open-source framework named Pladipus that greatly facilitates the establishment of distributed computing networks for proteomics bioinformatics tools. Pladipus is straightforward to install and operate thanks to its user-friendly graphical interface, allowing complex bioinformatics tasks to be run easily on a network instead of a single computer. As a result, any researcher can benefit from the increased computational efficiency provided by distributed computing, hence empowering them to tackle more complex bioinformatics challenges. Notably, it enables any research group to perform large-scale reprocessing of publicly available proteomics data, thus supporting the scientific community in mining these data for novel discoveries. PMID:26510693

  9. Knowledge Management Practices and Enablers in Public Universities: A Gap Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandran, Sharimllah Devi; Chong, Siong-Choy; Wong, Kuan-Yew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the gap between knowledge management (KM) practices and key strategic enablers in public universities. For this purpose, a 57-item survey on two dimensions--"use" and "importance"--was used as the instrument for this study. Design/methodology/approach: The questionnaire was administered to academics…

  10. The Mason Water Data Information System (MWDIS): Enabling data sharing and discovery at George Mason University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, C.; Da Silva, A. L.; Nunes, A.; Haddad, J.; Lawler, S.

    2014-12-01

    Enabling effective data use and re-use in scientific investigations relies heavily not only on data availability but also on efficient data sharing discovery. The CUAHSI led Hydrological Information Systems (HIS) and supporting products have paved the way to efficient data sharing and discovery in the hydrological sciences. Based on the CUAHSI-HIS framework concepts for hydrologic data sharing we developed a unique system devoted to the George Mason University scientific community to support university wide data sharing and discovery as well as real time data access for extreme events situational awareness. The internet-based system will provide an interface where the researchers will input data collected from the measurement stations and present them to the public in form of charts, tables, maps, and documents. Moreover, the system is developed in ASP.NET MVC 4 using as Database Management System, Microsoft SQL Server 2008 R2, and hosted by Amazon Web Services. Currently the system is supporting the Mason Watershed Project providing historical hydrological, atmospheric and water quality data for the campus watershed and real time flood conditions in the campus. The system is also a gateway for unprecedented data collection of hurricane storm surge hydrodynamics in coastal wetlands in the Chesapeake Bay providing not only access to historical data but recent storms such as Hurricane Arthur. Future research includes coupling the system to a real-time flood alert system on campus, and besides providing data on the World Wide Web, to foment and provide a venue for interdisciplinary collaboration within the water scientists in the region.

  11. The Usage and Impact of Internet Enabled Phones on Academic Concentration among Students of Tertiary Institutions: A Study at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezemenaka, Emeka

    2013-01-01

    The usage of Internet enabled phones has been a 21st century phenomenon that spreads for different purposes and functions. This study looks into the usage and perceived effect implications internet enabled phones have on the academic performance of the tertiary students using University of Ibadan students in Nigeria as a case study. The study was…

  12. Student Perceptions of University Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleemann, Gary L.; Richardson, Richard C., Jr.

    Student perceptions of the effectiveness of three state universities was studied: Arizona State University, University of Arizona, and Northern Arizona University. An operational definition of effectiveness was proposed based on the literature, and a list of organizational activities was validated by administrators, faculty, community…

  13. Are Molecular Alphabets Universal Enabling Factors for the Evolution of Complex Life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Ian S.

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial biosystems depend on macromolecules, and this feature is often considered as a likely universal aspect of life. While opinions differ regarding the importance of small-molecule systems in abiogenesis, escalating biological functional demands are linked with increasing complexity in key molecules participating in biosystem operations, and many such requirements cannot be efficiently mediated by relatively small compounds. It has long been recognized that known life is associated with the evolution of two distinct molecular alphabets (nucleic acid and protein), specific sequence combinations of which serve as informational and functional polymers. In contrast, much less detailed focus has been directed towards the potential universal need for molecular alphabets in constituting complex chemically-based life, and the implications of such a requirement. To analyze this, emphasis here is placed on the generalizable replicative and functional characteristics of molecular alphabets and their concatenates. A primary replicative alphabet based on the simplest possible molecular complementarity can potentially enable evolutionary processes to occur, including the encoding of secondarily functional alphabets. Very large uniquely specified (`non-alphabetic') molecules cannot feasibly underlie systems capable of the replicative and evolutionary properties which characterize complex biosystems. Transitions in the molecular evolution of alphabets can be related to progressive bridging of barriers which enable higher levels of biosystem organization. It is thus highly probable that molecular alphabets are an obligatory requirement for complex chemically-based life anywhere in the universe. In turn, reference to molecular alphabets should be usefully applied in current definitions of life.

  14. Enabling the Full Participation of University Students with Disabilities: Seeking Best Practices for a Barrier-Free Language Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuomi, Margaret Trotta; Jauhojärvi-Koskelo, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that 3.4% of university students in Finland have a diagnosed or observed illness or disability that affects their learning at the university level. The University of Jyväskylä Language Centre embarked on an organised, ongoing research and intervention project to enable appropriate teaching practices to suit the needs of…

  15. Seeking the Passionate Career: First-in-Family Enabling Students and the Idea of the Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Josephine; Delahunty, Janine; O'Shea, Sarah; Stone, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the idea of the university from the first-in-family enabling students' perspective. It provides an overview of the current crisis of meaning in scholarly commentary that points to a spectrum of meanings about the university. This spectrum ranges from the ancient imaginary of the monastic university as "ivory tower" to…

  16. Biobanks and Electronic Medical Records: Enabling Cost-Effective Research

    PubMed Central

    Bowton, Erica; Field, Julie R.; Wang, Sunny; Schildcrout, Jonathan S.; Van Driest, Sara L.; Delaney, Jessica T.; Cowan, James; Weeke, Peter; Mosley, Jonathan D.; Wells, Quinn S.; Karnes, Jason H.; Shaffer, Christian; Peterson, Josh F.; Denny, Joshua C.; Roden, Dan M.; Pulley, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of electronic medical record data linked to biological specimens in health care settings is expected to enable cost-effective and rapid genomic analyses. Here, we present a model that highlights potential advantages for genomic discovery and describe the operational infrastructure that facilitated multiple simultaneous discovery efforts. PMID:24786321

  17. Enablement, Constraint, and "The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlone, David

    2001-01-01

    Uses interviews to examine how the self-help book "The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People" shapes the identity of organization members who read and use the book. Suggests that such people are simultaneously enabled and constrained as they confront tensions between individualism and community, competition and cooperation, and domination and…

  18. Parallels and problems of normalization in rehabilitation and universal design: enabling connectivities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Universal design (UD) is oriented to creating products, buildings, outdoor spaces and services for use by all people to the fullest extent possible according to principles of enabling equal citizenship. Nevertheless its theoretical basis has been under-explored, a critique that has also been leveled at rehabilitation. This commentary explores parallels between UD and dominant rehabilitation discourses that risk privileging or discrediting particular ways of being and doing. Methods Commentary. Results Drawing from examples that explore the intersection of bodies, places and technologies with disabled people, I examined how practices of normalization risk reproducing the universalized body and legitimated forms of mobility, and in so doing perpetuates the “othering” of difference. To address these limitations, I explored the postmodern notion of multiple creative “assemblages” that are continually made and broken over time and space. Assemblages resist normalization tendencies by acknowledging and fostering multiple productive dependencies between human and non-human elements that include diverse bodies, not just those labeled disabled. Conclusion In exploring the potential of enhancing creative assemblages and multiple dependencies, space opens up in UD and rehabilitation for acknowledging, developing, and promoting a multiplicity of bodily forms and modes of mobility. Implications for Rehabilitation Universal design and rehabilitation both risk perpetuating particular ideas about what disabled people should be, do, and value, that privilege a limited range of particular bodily forms. The notion of “assemblages” provides a conceptual tool for rethinking negative views of dependence and taken for granted independence goals. In exploring the potential of enhancing various dependencies, space opens up for reconsidering disability, mobility and multiple ways of “doing-in-the-world”. PMID:24564357

  19. A comparison of sugar indicators enables a universal high-throughput sugar-1-phosphate nucleotidyltransferase assay

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Rocco; Thorson, Jon S.

    2008-01-01

    A systematic comparison of six sugar indicators for their sensitivity, specificity, cross reactivity and suitability in the context of crude lysates revealed para-hydroxybenzoic acid hydrazide (pHBH) to be best suited for application in a plate-based phosphatase-assisted universal sugar-1-phosphate nucleotidyltransferase assay. The addition of a general phosphatase to nucleotidyltransferase reaction aliquots enabled the conversion of remaining sugar-1-phosphate to free sugar, the concentration of which could be rapidly assessed via the pHBH assay. The assay was validated using the model glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase from Salmonella enterica (RmlA) and compared favorably to a previously reported HPLC assay. This coupled discontinuous assay is quantitative, high-throughput and robust; relies only on commercially available enzymes and reagents; does not require chromatography, specialized detectors (e.g. mass or evaporative light scattering detectors) or radioisotopes; and is capable of detecting less than 5 nmol of sugar-1-phosphate. It is anticipated this high throughput assay system will greatly facilitate nucleotidyltransferase mechanistic and directed evolution/engineering studies. PMID:18387352

  20. Unlocking the Potential Within: A Preliminary Study of Individual and Community Outcomes from a University Enabling Program in Rural Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Susan; Crawford, Nicole; Hawkins, Cherie; Jarvis, Lynn; Harris, Mike; McCormack, David

    2016-01-01

    Many rural communities have a pool of mature-aged local people seeking a career change or better lifestyle, which inevitably involves reskilling or upskilling. These people have strong local ties and are committed to their community. University enabling programs provide a bridge to higher education. This longitudinal study explores the impact on…

  1. Effective theories of universal theories

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wells, James D.; Zhang, Zhengkang

    2016-01-20

    It is well-known but sometimes overlooked that constraints on the oblique parameters (most notably S and T parameters) are generally speaking only applicable to a special class of new physics scenarios known as universal theories. The oblique parameters should not be associated with Wilson coefficients in a particular operator basis in the effective field theory (EFT) framework, unless restrictions have been imposed on the EFT so that it describes universal theories. Here, we work out these restrictions, and present a detailed EFT analysis of universal theories. We find that at the dimension-6 level, universal theories are completely characterized by 16more » parameters. They are conveniently chosen to be: 5 oblique parameters that agree with the commonly-adopted ones, 4 anomalous triple-gauge couplings, 3 rescaling factors for the h3, hff, hV V vertices, 3 parameters for hV V vertices absent in the Standard Model, and 1 four-fermion coupling of order yf2. Furthermore, all these parameters are defined in an unambiguous and basis-independent way, allowing for consistent constraints on the universal theories parameter space from precision electroweak and Higgs data.« less

  2. Enabling Massive Scale Document Transformation for the Semantic Web: the Universal Parsing Agent

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Mark A.; Cowley, Wendy E.; Cramer, Nick O.; Gibson, Alex G.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; Scott, Ryan T.; Tratz, Stephen C.

    2005-11-02

    The Universal Parsing Agent (UPA) is a document analysis and transformation program that supports massive scale conversion of information into forms suitable for the semantic web. UPA provides reusable tools to analyze text documents; identify and extract important information elements; enhance text with semantically descriptive tags; and output the information that is needed in the format and structure that is needed.

  3. Technology-Enabled and Universally Designed Assessment: Considering Access in Measuring the Achievement of Students with Disabilities--A Foundation for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Patricia; Winter, Phoebe; Cameto, Renee; Russell, Michael; Sato, Edynn; Clarke-Midura, Jody; Torres, Chloe; Haertel, Geneva; Dolan, Robert; Beddow, Peter; Lazarus, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    This paper represents one outcome from the "Invitational Research Symposium on Technology-Enabled and Universally Designed Assessments," which examined technology-enabled assessments (TEA) and universal design (UD) as they relate to students with disabilities (SWD). It was developed to stimulate research into TEAs designed to make tests…

  4. Resource Discovery and Universal Access: Understanding Enablers and Barriers from the User Perspective.

    PubMed

    Beyene, Wondwossen Mulualem

    2016-01-01

    Resource discovery tools are the keys to explore, find, and retrieve resources from multitudes of collections hosted by library and information systems. Modern resource discovery tools provide facet-rich interfaces that provide multiple alternatives to expose resources for their potential users and help them navigate to the resources they need. This paper examines one of those tools from the perspective of universal access, utilizing the experience of users with print disability. It aimed at exploring the way print disabled users use library search tools, the barriers they might face in the process, and what needs to be considered in order to implement discovery tools that incorporate the needs of users with print disability. Interviews that involved user testing were made with selected group of users. The data obtained in the process was analyzed and compared against the existing body of knowledge to forward design recommendations for future endeavors. PMID:27534350

  5. TALON: a universal unmanned ground vehicle platform, enabling the mission to be the focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Peter; Deguire, Dan

    2005-05-01

    Foster-Miller's unmanned ground vehicle, TALON, was originally developed under DARPA's Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR) program. TALON has evolved over the years and has proven to be a robust, mobile, universal platform. As a result of the advances made in the evolution of TALON, new and far-reaching opportunities have been realized for unmanned ground vehicles. In recent conflicts such as in Afghanistan and Iraq, unmanned systems have played an important role and have extended the reach and capabilities of the War fighter. Technological advances have transformed unmanned vehicles in to useful tools and in some cases are used in lieu of sending in a soldier. Unmanned ground vehicles have seen recent and persistent success, as shown in theater, in the explosive ordinance disposal (EOD) and improvised ordinance disposal (IED) missions. Foster-Miller's TALON has experienced over ten thousand EOD and IED missions in Iraq alone. The success of the unmanned system has resulted in the doctrine "Send the robot in first". Foster-Miller has taken the role of the unmanned vehicle in yet another direction. Foster-Miller has transformed the TALON from a "practical" to "tactical" system. Through the combined efforts of Foster-Miller and the US Army, TALON has been involved in a weaponization program. To date, Foster-Miller has outfitted the TALON with 11 systems. As one can see, the unmanned ground vehicle is much more than a mobility platform.

  6. Promoting universal financial protection: constraints and enabling factors in scaling-up coverage with social health insurance in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Nigeria was launched in 2005 as part of efforts by the federal government to achieve universal coverage using financial risk protection mechanisms. However, only 4% of the population, and mainly federal government employees, are currently covered by health insurance and this is primarily through the Formal Sector Social Health Insurance Programme (FSSHIP) of the NHIS. This study aimed to understand why different state (sub-national) governments decided whether or not to adopt the FSSHIP for their employees. Methods This study used a comparative case study approach. Data were collected through document reviews and 48 in-depth interviews with policy makers, programme managers, health providers, and civil servant leaders. Results Although the programme’s benefits seemed acceptable to state policy makers and the intended beneficiaries (employees), the feasibility of employer contributions, concerns about transparency in the NHIS and the role of states in the FSSHIP, the roles of policy champions such as state governors and resistance by employees to making contributions, all influenced the decision of state governments on adoption. Overall, the power of state governments over state-level health reforms, attributed to the prevailing system of government that allows states to deliberate on certain national-level policies, enhanced by the NHIS legislation that made adoption voluntary, enabled states to adopt or not to adopt the program. Conclusions The study demonstrates and supports observations that even when the content of a programme is generally acceptable, context, actor roles, and the wider implications of programme design on actor interests can explain decision on policy adoption. Policy implementers involved in scaling-up the NHIS programme need to consider the prevailing contextual factors, and effectively engage policy champions to overcome known challenges in order to encourage adoption by sub

  7. Desktop Publishing: Probable Effects on University Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misanchuk, Earl R.

    Desktop publishing (DTP) could potentially become a powerful, relatively inexpensive tool for use in university extension activities. This paper describes and explains the characteristics of DTP and examines its effects on university extension. In addition, it outlines the kind of hardware, software, and skills needed and costs; describes new…

  8. Investigating the Role of Collective Trust, Collective Efficacy, and Enabling School Structures on Overall School Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the role of collective trust, collective efficacy, and enabling school structures on overall school effectiveness. While the concept of organizational effectiveness can be complex and difficult to measure, the results of this research demonstrated a connection of these variables to school effectiveness. Collective trust had…

  9. Gutenberg's Effects on Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the effects on universities of Gutenberg's invention of printing. It considers four major effects: the gradual displacement of Latin as the language of scholarship with vernacular languages, the expansion and eventual opening of libraries, major changes to curriculum, and major changes to pedagogy including lectures.…

  10. Microfluidic multiplexed partitioning enables flexible and effective utilization of magnetic sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Bechstein, Daniel J B; Ng, Elaine; Lee, Jung-Rok; Cone, Stephanie G; Gaster, Richard S; Osterfeld, Sebastian J; Hall, Drew A; Weaver, James A; Wilson, Robert J; Wang, Shan X

    2015-11-21

    We demonstrate microfluidic partitioning of a giant magnetoresistive sensor array into individually addressable compartments that enhances its effective use. Using different samples and reagents in each compartment enables measuring of cross-reactive species and wide dynamic ranges on a single chip. This compartmentalization technique motivates the employment of high density sensor arrays for highly parallelized measurements in lab-on-a-chip devices.

  11. Using Email to Enable E[superscript 3] (Effective, Efficient, and Engaging) Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ChanMin

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that technology that supports both noncognitive and cognitive aspects can make learning more effective, efficient, and engaging (e[superscript 3]-learning). The technology of interest in this article is email. The investigation focuses on characteristics of email that are likely to enable e[superscript 3]-learning. In addition,…

  12. The universal one-loop effective action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, Aleksandra; Ellis, John; Quevillon, Jérémie; You, Tevong

    2016-03-01

    We present the universal one-loop effective action for all operators of dimension up to six obtained by integrating out massive, non-degenerate multiplets. Our general expression may be applied to loops of heavy fermions or bosons, and has been checked against partial results available in the literature. The broad applicability of this approach simplifies one-loop matching from an ultraviolet model to a lower-energy effective field theory (EFT), a procedure which is now reduced to the evaluation of a combination of matrices in our universal expression, without any loop integrals to evaluate. We illustrate the relationship of our results to the Standard Model (SM) EFT, using as an example the supersymmetric stop and sbottom squark Lagrangian and extracting from our universal expression the Wilson coefficients of dimension-six operators composed of SM fields.

  13. A universal molecular translator for non-nucleic acid targets that enables dynamic DNA assemblies and logic operations.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Hu, Shichao; Wang, Huaming; Zhao, Yan; Li, Na; Liu, Feng

    2014-11-28

    A universal molecular translator based on the target-triggered DNA strand displacement was developed, which was able to convert various kinds of non-nucleic acid targets into a unique output DNA. This translation strategy was successfully applied in directing dynamic DNA assemblies and in realizing three-input logic gate operations. PMID:25295484

  14. The Combination Design of Enabling Technologies in Group Learning: New Study Support Service for Visually Impaired University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangsri, Chatcai; Na-Takuatoong, Onjaree; Sophatsathit, Peraphon

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to show how the process of new service technology-based development improves the current study support service for visually impaired university students. Numerous studies have contributed to improving assisted aid technology such as screen readers, the development and the use of audiobooks, and technology that supports individual…

  15. Conceptualising Intercultural Effectiveness for University Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Nick

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on one specific aspect of internationalisation in higher education: better understanding intercultural effectiveness so that university teachers can facilitate related student learning. It adopts an "actionable" definition of internationalisation to suggest ways to improve processes associated with the design, delivery,…

  16. Building Effective Community-University Partnerships: Are Universities Truly Ready?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curwood, Susan Eckerle; Munger, Felix; Mitchell, Terry; Mackeigan, Mary; Farrar, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Community service learning and community-based research necessitate the development of strong community-university partnerships. In this paper, students, faculty, and a community partner critically reflect upon the process of establishing a long-term community-university partnership through the integration of a community service learning component…

  17. Integrated radiologist's workstation enabling the radiologist as an effective clinical consultant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnery, Kevin W.; Suitor, Charles T.; Hildebrand, Stan; Downs, Rebecca; Thompson, Stephen K.; Shepard, S. Jeff

    2002-05-01

    Since February 2000, radiologists at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center have accessed clinical information through an internally developed radiologist's clinical interpretation workstation called RadStation. This project provides a fully integrated digital dictation workstation with clinical data review. RadStation enables the radiologist as an effective clinical consultant with access to pertinent sources of clinical information at the time of dictation. Data sources not only include prior radiology reports from the radiology information system (RIS) but access to pathology data, laboratory data, history and physicals, clinic notes, and operative reports. With integrated clinical information access, a radiologists's interpretation not only comments on morphologic findings but also can enable evaluation of study findings in the context of pertinent clinical presentation and history. Image access is enabled through the integration of an enterprise image archive (Stentor, San Francisco). Database integration is achieved by a combination of real time HL7 messaging and queries to SQL-based legacy databases. A three-tier system architecture accommodates expanding access to additional databases including real-time patient schedule as well as patient medications and allergies.

  18. What Are the Key Ingredients for an Effective and Successful Tertiary Enabling Program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students? An Evaluation of the Evolution of One Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Tertiary enabling programs have become an increasingly important part of the post-secondary schooling landscape. In recognition of the need for increased access for certain under-represented groups within the university population, enabling, bridging or foundational programs are offered by a large number of universities in Australia as alternative…

  19. Transverse-electric Brewster effect enabled by nonmagnetic two-dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiao; Shen, Yichen; Kaminer, Ido; Chen, Hongsheng; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-08-01

    Discovered in the 19th century, the Brewster effect is known to occur for transverse-magnetic waves in regular optical dielectrics; however, it is believed to arise for transverse-electric (TE) waves only in systems with magnetic responses, i.e., nonunity effective relative permeability. This paper introduces a scheme to realize the TE Brewster effect in a homogeneous dielectric interface without magnetic responses, by adding ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene. In particular, the effect remains even for waves approaching normal incidence, spanning from terahertz to visible frequencies. In contrast to the conventional Brewster effect, the graphene-assisted TE Brewster effect is asymmetric, and can be achieved only when the incidence is from the higher-refractive-index side. Moreover, graphene layers can tailor a total-internal-reflection dielectric interface into zero reflection, accompanied by perfect absorption. This control over TE waves enabled by ultrathin 2D materials may lead to a variety of applications, such as atomically thin absorbers, polarizers, and antireflection coating.

  20. Universal effective hadron dynamics from superconformal algebra

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Gunter; Lorce, Cedric

    2016-05-25

    An effective supersymmetric QCD light-front Hamiltonian for hadrons composed of light quarks, which includes a spin–spin interaction between the hadronic constituents, is constructed by embedding superconformal quantum mechanics into AdS space. A specific breaking of conformal symmetry inside the graded algebra determines a unique effective quark-confining potential for light hadrons, as well as remarkable connections between the meson and baryon spectra. The results are consistent with the empirical features of the light-quark hadron spectra, including a universal mass scale for the slopes of the meson and baryon Regge trajectories and a zero-mass pion in the limit of massless quarks. Ourmore » analysis is consistently applied to the excitation spectra of the π , ρ , K , K* and Φ meson families as well as to the N , Δ, Λ, Σ, Σ* , Ξ and Ξ* in the baryon sector. Here, we also predict the existence of tetraquarks which are degenerate in mass with baryons with the same angular momentum. The mass of light hadrons is expressed in a universal and frame-independent decomposition in the semiclassical approximation described here.« less

  1. Universal effective hadron dynamics from superconformal algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Günter; Lorcé, Cédric

    2016-08-01

    An effective supersymmetric QCD light-front Hamiltonian for hadrons composed of light quarks, which includes a spin-spin interaction between the hadronic constituents, is constructed by embedding superconformal quantum mechanics into AdS space. A specific breaking of conformal symmetry inside the graded algebra determines a unique effective quark-confining potential for light hadrons, as well as remarkable connections between the meson and baryon spectra. The results are consistent with the empirical features of the light-quark hadron spectra, including a universal mass scale for the slopes of the meson and baryon Regge trajectories and a zero-mass pion in the limit of massless quarks. Our analysis is consistently applied to the excitation spectra of the π, ρ, K, K* and ϕ meson families as well as to the N, Δ, Λ, Σ, Σ*, Ξ and Ξ* in the baryon sector. We also predict the existence of tetraquarks which are degenerate in mass with baryons with the same angular momentum. The mass of light hadrons is expressed in a universal and frame-independent decomposition in the semiclassical approximation described here.

  2. Networking between community health programs: a case study outlining the effectiveness, barriers and enablers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In India, since the 1990s, there has been a burgeoning of NGOs involved in providing primary health care. This has resulted in a complex NGO-Government interface which is difficult for lone NGOs to navigate. The Uttarakhand Cluster, India, links such small community health programs together to build NGO capacity, increase visibility and better link to the government schemes and the formal healthcare system. This research, undertaken between 1998 and 2011, aims to examine barriers and facilitators to such linking, or clustering, and the effectiveness of this clustering approach. Methods Interviews, indicator surveys and participant observation were used to document the process and explore the enablers, the barriers and the effectiveness of networks improving community health. Results The analysis revealed that when activating, framing, mobilising and synthesizing the Uttarakhand Cluster, key brokers and network players were important in bridging between organisations. The ties (or relationships) that held the cluster together included homophily around common faith, common friendships and geographical location and common mission. Self interest whereby members sought funds, visibility, credibility, increased capacity and access to trainings was also a commonly identified motivating factor for networking. Barriers to network synthesizing included lack of funding, poor communication, limited time and lack of human resources. Risk aversion and mistrust remained significant barriers to overcome for such a network. Conclusions In conclusion, specific enabling factors allowed the clustering approach to be effective at increasing access to resources, creating collaborative opportunities and increasing visibility, credibility and confidence of the cluster members. These findings add to knowledge regarding social network formation and collaboration, and such knowledge will assist in the conceptualisation, formation and success of potential health networks in India

  3. Locality and universality of quantum memory effects.

    PubMed

    Liu, B-H; Wißmann, S; Hu, X-M; Zhang, C; Huang, Y-F; Li, C-F; Guo, G-C; Karlsson, A; Piilo, J; Breuer, H-P

    2014-01-01

    The modeling and analysis of the dynamics of complex systems often requires to employ non-Markovian stochastic processes. While there is a clear and well-established mathematical definition for non-Markovianity in the case of classical systems, the extension to the quantum regime recently caused a vivid debate, leading to many different proposals for the characterization and quantification of memory effects in the dynamics of open quantum systems. Here, we derive a mathematical representation for the non-Markovianity measure based on the exchange of information between the open system and its environment, which reveals the locality and universality of non-Markovianity in the quantum state space and substantially simplifies its numerical and experimental determination. We further illustrate the application of this representation by means of an all-optical experiment which allows the measurement of the degree of memory effects in a photonic quantum process with high accuracy. PMID:25209643

  4. Locality and universality of quantum memory effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.-H.; Wißmann, S.; Hu, X.-M.; Zhang, C.; Huang, Y.-F.; Li, C.-F.; Guo, G.-C.; Karlsson, A.; Piilo, J.; Breuer, H.-P.

    2014-09-01

    The modeling and analysis of the dynamics of complex systems often requires to employ non-Markovian stochastic processes. While there is a clear and well-established mathematical definition for non-Markovianity in the case of classical systems, the extension to the quantum regime recently caused a vivid debate, leading to many different proposals for the characterization and quantification of memory effects in the dynamics of open quantum systems. Here, we derive a mathematical representation for the non-Markovianity measure based on the exchange of information between the open system and its environment, which reveals the locality and universality of non-Markovianity in the quantum state space and substantially simplifies its numerical and experimental determination. We further illustrate the application of this representation by means of an all-optical experiment which allows the measurement of the degree of memory effects in a photonic quantum process with high accuracy.

  5. Enabling cost-effective high-current burst-mode operation in superconducting accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, Richard L.

    2015-06-01

    Superconducting (SC) accelerators are very efficient for CW or long-pulse operation, and normal conducting (NC) accelerators are cost effective for short-pulse operation. The addition of a short NC linac section to a SC linac can correct for the energy droop that occurs when pulsed high-current operation is required that exceeds the capability of the klystrons to replenish the cavity RF fields due to the long field fill-times of SC structures, or a requirement to support a broad range of beam currents results in variable beam loading. This paper describes the implementation of this technique to enable microseconds of high beam-current, 90 mA or more, in a 12 GeV SC long-pulse accelerator designed for the MaRIE 42-keV XFEL proposed for Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  6. Enabling cost-effective high-current burst-mode operation in superconducting accelerators

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sheffield, Richard L.

    2015-06-01

    Superconducting (SC) accelerators are very efficient for CW or long-pulse operation, and normal conducting (NC) accelerators are cost effective for short-pulse operation. The addition of a short NC linac section to a SC linac can correct for the energy droop that occurs when pulsed high-current operation is required that exceeds the capability of the klystrons to replenish the cavity RF fields due to the long field fill-times of SC structures, or a requirement to support a broad range of beam currents results in variable beam loading. This paper describes the implementation of this technique to enable microseconds of high beam-current,more » 90 mA or more, in a 12 GeV SC long-pulse accelerator designed for the MaRIE 42-keV XFEL proposed for Los Alamos National Laboratory.« less

  7. Effect of Knowledge Management on Organizational Performance: Enabling Thought Leadership and Social Capital through Technology Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalhoub, Michel S.

    The present paper studies the relationship between social networks enabled by technological advances in social software, and overall business performance. With the booming popularity of online communication and the rise of knowledge communities, businesses are faced with a challenge as well as an opportunity - should they monitor the use of social software or encourage it and learn from it? We introduce the concept of user-autonomy and user-fun, which go beyond the traditional user-friendly requirement of existing information technologies. We identified 120 entities out of a sample of 164 from Mediterranean countries and the Gulf region, to focus on the effect of social exchange information systems in thought leadership.

  8. Interface-Located Photothermoelectric Effect of Organic Thermoelectric Materials in Enabling NIR Detection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dazhen; Zou, Ye; Jiao, Fei; Zhang, Fengjiao; Zang, Yaping; Di, Chong-an; Xu, Wei; Zhu, Daoben

    2015-05-01

    Organic photothermoelectric (PTE) materials are promising candidates for various photodetection applications. Herein, we report on poly[Cux(Cu-ett)]:PVDF, which is an excellent polymeric thermoelectric composite, possesses unprecedented PTE properties. The NIR light irradiation on the poly[Cu(x)(Cu-ett)]:PVDF film could induce obvious enhancement in Seebeck coefficient from 52 ± 1.5 to 79 ± 5.0 μV/K. By taking advantage of prominent photothermoelectric effect of poly[Cu(x)(Cu-ett)]:PVDF, an unprecedented voltage of 12 mV was obtained. This excellent performance enables its promising applications in electricity generation from solar energy and NIR detection to a wide range of light intensities ranging from 1.7 mW/cm(2) to 17 W/cm(2). PMID:25875974

  9. Enabling the use of climate model data in the Dutch climate effect community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som de Cerff, Wim; Plieger, Maarten

    2010-05-01

    Within the climate effect community the usage of climate model data is emerging. Where mostly climate time series and weather generators were used, there is a shift to incorporate climate model data into climate effect models. The use of climate model data within the climate effect models is difficult, due to missing metadata, resolution and projection issues, data formats and availability of the parameters of interest. Often the climate effect modelers are not aware of available climate model data or are not aware of how they can use it. Together with seven other partners (CERFACS, CNR-IPSL, SMHI, INHGA, CMCC, WUR, MF-CNRM), KNMI is involved in the FP7 IS ENES (http://www.enes.org) project work package 10/JRA5 ‘Bridging Climate Research Data and the Needs of the Impact Community. The aims of this work package are to enhance the use of Climate Research Data and to enhance the interaction with climate effect/impact communities. Phase one is to define use cases together with the Dutch climate effect community, which describe the intended use of climate model data in climate effect models. We defined four use cases: 1) FEWS hydrological Framework (Deltares) 2) METAPHOR, a plants and species dispersion model (Wageningen University) 3) Natuurplanner, an Ecological model suite (Wageningen University) 4) Land use models (Free University/JRC). Also the other partners in JRA5 have defined use cases, which are representative for the climate effect and impact communities in their country. Goal is to find commonalities between all defined use cases. The common functionality will be implemented as e-tools and incorporated in the IS-ENES data portal. Common issues relate to e.g., need for high resolution: downscaling from GCM to local scale (also involves interpolation); parameter selection; finding extremes; averaging methods. At the conference we will describe the FEWS case in more detail: Delft FEWS is an open shell system (in development since 1995) for performing

  10. Underwater microwave ignition of hydrophobic thermite powder enabled by the bubble-marble effect

    SciTech Connect

    Meir, Yehuda; Jerby, Eli

    2015-08-03

    Highly energetic thermite reactions could be useful for a variety of combustion and material-processing applications, but their usability is yet limited by their hard ignition conditions. Furthermore, in virtue of their zero-oxygen balance, exothermic thermite reactions may also occur underwater. However, this feature is also hard to utilize because of the hydrophobic properties of the thermite powder, and its tendency to agglomerate on the water surface rather than to sink into the water. The recently discovered bubble-marble (BM) effect enables the insertion and confinement of a thermite-powder batch into water by a magnetic field. Here, we present a phenomenon of underwater ignition of a thermite-BM by localized microwaves. The thermite combustion underwater is observed in-situ, and its microwave absorption and optical spectral emission are detected. The vapour pressure generated by the thermite reaction is measured and compared to theory. The combustion products are examined ex-situ by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy which verifies the thermite reaction. Potential applications of this underwater combustion effect are considered, e.g., for detonation, wet welding, thermal drilling, material processing, thrust generation, and composite-material production, also for other oxygen-free environments.

  11. Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief

    PubMed Central

    Harshman, Dustin K.; Rao, Brianna M.; McLain, Jean E.; Watts, George S.; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics offers quick access to information but fails to operate at a speed required for clinical decision-making. Our novel methodology, droplet-on-thermocouple silhouette real-time polymerase chain reaction (DOTS qPCR), uses interfacial effects for droplet actuation, inhibition relief, and amplification sensing. DOTS qPCR has sample-to-answer times as short as 3 min 30 s. In infective endocarditis diagnosis, DOTS qPCR demonstrates reproducibility, differentiation of antibiotic susceptibility, subpicogram limit of detection, and thermocycling speeds of up to 28 s/cycle in the presence of tissue contaminants. Langmuir and Gibbs adsorption isotherms are used to describe the decreasing interfacial tension upon amplification. Moreover, a log-linear relationship with low threshold cycles is presented for real-time quantification by imaging the droplet-on-thermocouple silhouette with a smartphone. DOTS qPCR resolves several limitations of commercially available real-time PCR systems, which rely on fluorescence detection, have substantially higher threshold cycles, and require expensive optical components and extensive sample preparation. Due to the advantages of low threshold cycle detection, we anticipate extending this technology to biological research applications such as single cell, single nucleus, and single DNA molecule analyses. Our work is the first demonstrated use of interfacial effects for sensing reaction progress, and it will enable point-of-care molecular diagnosis of infections. PMID:26601245

  12. Stakeholder Perceptions of University Library Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Rowena J.; Calvert, Philip J.

    1995-01-01

    Surveyed stakeholder groups in the New Zealand university system to determine each groups' criteria for measuring university library performance. Compared responses of resource allocators, senior library staff, other library staff, academic staff, and graduate and undergraduate students, and found that the groups have different perspectives on…

  13. Templating effect in DNA proximity ligation enables use of non-bioorthogonal chemistry in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Spiropulos, Nicholas G; Heemstra, Jennifer M

    2012-07-01

    Here we describe the first example of selective reductive amination in biological fluids using split aptamer proximity ligation (StAPL). Utilizing the cocaine split aptamer, we demonstrate small-molecule-dependent ligation that is dose-dependent over a wide range of target concentrations in buffer, human blood serum and artificial urine medium. We explore the substrate binding preferences of the split aptamer and find that the cinchona alkaloids quinine and quinidine bind to the aptamer with higher affinity than cocaine. This increased affinity leads to improved detection limits for these small-molecule targets. We also demonstrate that linker length and hydrophobicity impact the efficiency of split aptamer ligation. The ability to carry out selective chemical transformations using non-bioorthogonal chemistry in media where competing reactive groups are present highlights the power of the increased effective molarity provided by DNA assembly. Obviating the need for bioorthogonal chemistry would dramatically expand the repertoire of chemical transformations available for use in templated reactions such as proximity ligation assays, in turn enabling the development of novel methods for biomolecule detection.

  14. Templating effect in DNA proximity ligation enables use of non-bioorthogonal chemistry in biological fluids

    PubMed Central

    Spiropulos, Nicholas G.; Heemstra, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe the first example of selective reductive amination in biological fluids using split aptamer proximity ligation (StAPL). Utilizing the cocaine split aptamer, we demonstrate small-molecule-dependent ligation that is dose-dependent over a wide range of target concentrations in buffer, human blood serum and artificial urine medium. We explore the substrate binding preferences of the split aptamer and find that the cinchona alkaloids quinine and quinidine bind to the aptamer with higher affinity than cocaine. This increased affinity leads to improved detection limits for these small-molecule targets. We also demonstrate that linker length and hydrophobicity impact the efficiency of split aptamer ligation. The ability to carry out selective chemical transformations using non-bioorthogonal chemistry in media where competing reactive groups are present highlights the power of the increased effective molarity provided by DNA assembly. Obviating the need for bioorthogonal chemistry would dramatically expand the repertoire of chemical transformations available for use in templated reactions such as proximity ligation assays, in turn enabling the development of novel methods for biomolecule detection. PMID:23370267

  15. Femtosecond pulse shaping enables detection of optical Kerr-effect (OKE) dynamics for molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Francisco E.; Fischer, Martin C.; Warren, Warren S.

    2014-01-01

    We apply femtosecond pulse shaping to generate optical pulse trains that directly access a material’s nonlinear refractive index (n2) and can thus determine time-resolved optical Kerr-effect (OKE) dynamics. Two types of static pulse trains are discussed: The first uses two identical fields delayed in time, plus a pump field at a different wavelength. Time-resolved OKE dynamics are retrieved by monitoring the phase of the interference pattern produced by the two identical fields in the Fourier-domain (FD) as a function of pump–probe–time–delay (where the probe is one of the two identical fields). The second pulse train uses three fields with equal time delays, but with the center field phase shifted by π/2. In this pulse scheme, changes on a sample’s nonlinear refractive index produce a new frequency in the FD signal, which in turn yields background-free intensity changes in the conjugate (time) domain and provides superior signal-to-noise ratios. The demonstrated sensitivity improvements enable, for the first time to our knowledge, molecular imaging based on OKE dynamics. PMID:25121875

  16. Chemical and engineering approaches to enable organic field-effect transistors for electronic skin applications.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Anatoliy N; Tee, Benjamin C-K; Bettinger, Christopher J; Tok, Jeffrey B-H; Bao, Zhenan

    2012-03-20

    Skin is the body's largest organ and is responsible for the transduction of a vast amount of information. This conformable material simultaneously collects signals from external stimuli that translate into information such as pressure, pain, and temperature. The development of an electronic material, inspired by the complexity of this organ is a tremendous, unrealized engineering challenge. However, the advent of carbon-based electronics may offer a potential solution to this long-standing problem. In this Account, we describe the use of an organic field-effect transistor (OFET) architecture to transduce mechanical and chemical stimuli into electrical signals. In developing this mimic of human skin, we thought of the sensory elements of the OFET as analogous to the various layers and constituents of skin. In this fashion, each layer of the OFET can be optimized to carry out a specific recognition function. The separation of multimodal sensing among the components of the OFET may be considered a "divide and conquer" approach, where the electronic skin (e-skin) can take advantage of the optimized chemistry and materials properties of each layer. This design of a novel microstructured gate dielectric has led to unprecedented sensitivity for tactile pressure events. Typically, pressure-sensitive components within electronic configurations have suffered from a lack of sensitivity or long mechanical relaxation times often associated with elastomeric materials. Within our method, these components are directly compatible with OFETs and have achieved the highest reported sensitivity to date. Moreover, the tactile sensors operate on a time scale comparable with human skin, making them ideal candidates for integration as synthetic skin devices. The methodology is compatible with large-scale fabrication and employs simple, commercially available elastomers. The design of materials within the semiconductor layer has led to the incorporation of selectivity and sensitivity within

  17. Lensing effects in an inhomogeneous universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, L.; Goliath, M.; Goobar, A.; Mörtsell, E.

    2000-06-01

    Recently, Holz & Wald have presented a new method for determining gravitational lensing effects on, e.g., supernova luminosity versus redshift measurements in inhomogeneous universes. In this paper, their method is generalized in several ways: First, the matter content is allowed to consist of several different types of fluids, possibly with non-vanishing pressure. Second, besides lensing by simple point masses and singular isothermal spheres, the more realistic halo dark matter distribution proposed by Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW), based on N-body simulation results, is treated. We discuss various aspects of the accuracy of the method, such as luminosity corrections, and statistics, for multiple images. We find in agreement with other recent work that a large sample of supernovae at large redshift could be used to extract gross features of the mass distribution of the lensing dark matter halos, such as the existence of a large number of point-like objects. The results for the isothermal sphere and the NFW model are, however, very similar if normalized to the observed luminosity distribution of galaxies. We give convenient analytical fitting formulas for our computed lensing probabilites as a function of magnification, for several redshifts.

  18. Demonstration of high current carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors at industrially relevant voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Mitchell

    The display market is presently dominated by the active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD). However, the active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) display is argued to become the successor to the LCD, and is already beginning its way into the market, mainly in small size displays. But, for AMOLED technology to become comparable in market share to LCD, larger size displays must become available at a competitive price with their LCD counterparts. A major issue preventing low-cost large AMOLED displays is the thin-film transistor (TFT) technology. Unlike the voltage driven LCD, the OLEDs in the AMOLED display are current driven. Because of this, the mature amorphous silicon TFT backplane technology used in the LCD must be upgraded to a material possessing a higher mobility. Polycrystalline silicon and transparent oxide TFT technologies are being considered to fill this need. But these technologies bring with them significant manufacturing complexity and cost concerns. Carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors (CN-VFETs) offer a unique solution to this problem (now known as the AMOLED backplane problem). The CN-VFET allows the use of organic semiconductors to be used for the semiconductor layer. Organics are known for their low-cost large area processing compatibility. Although the mobility of the best organics is only comparable to that of amorphous silicon, the CN-VFET makes up for this by orienting the channel vertically, as opposed to horizontally (like in conventional TFTs). This allows the CN-VFET to achieve sub-micron channel lengths without expensive high resolution patterning. Additionally, because the CN-VFET can be easily converted into a light emitting transistor (called the carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic light emitting transistor---CN-VOLET) by essentially stacking an OLED on top of the CN-VFET, more potential benefits can be realized. These potential benefits include, increased aperture ratio, increased OLED

  19. Global University Rankings--Impacts and Unintended Side Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehm, Barbara M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, global and other university rankings are critically assessed with regard to their unintended side effects and their impacts on the European and national landscape of universities, as well as on individual institutions. An emphasis is put on the effects of ranking logics rather than on criticising their methodology. Nevertheless,…

  20. Developing Effective Social Work University-Community Research Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begun, Audrey L.; Berger, Lisa K.; Otto-Salaj, Laura L.; Rose, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    In many instances, departments of social work in universities and community-based social services agencies have common interests in improving professional practice and advancing knowledge in the profession. Effective university-community research collaborations can help partners achieve these goals jointly, but to be effective these collaborative…

  1. A University Measures the Effects Of Its Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stear, Connie

    1977-01-01

    The University of Akron measured the effects of a three-year advertising campaign by means of a questionnaire sent to high school seniors and their parents as well as incoming freshmen enrollees. The results indicated that the advertising had been effective and supplied the university with guidelines for future campaigns. (Author)

  2. The Nigerian University Teachers' Effectiveness as Perceived by Their Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Nnamdi S.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the Delta State University, Abraka, Students' concept of the "effective teacher". A sample of 200 second year university students selected from four faculties were asked to select three most important characteristics of a good teacher from a list of ten. The data obtained were analysed using the percentage frequency. The…

  3. Do UK Universities Communicate Their Brands Effectively through Their Websites?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapleo, Chris; Duran, Maria Victoria Carrillo; Diaz, Ana Castillo

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the effectiveness of UK universities' websites. The area of branding in higher education has received increasing academic investigation, but little work has researched how universities demonstrate their brand promises through their websites. The quest to differentiate through branding can be challenging in the…

  4. Cognitive Counselling Intervention: Treatment Effectiveness in an Italian University Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strepparava, Maria Grazia; Bani, Marco; Zorzi, Federico; Corrias, Deborah; Dolce, Rossella; Rezzonico, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Offering counselling to students is increasingly considered as a key academic service. However, the reduction of resources allocated to Italian universities emphasises the need to assess the quality of interventions. This paper presents data reporting the effectiveness of a university counselling service. A sample of 45 undergraduate students…

  5. Effect of centrifugation on water recycling and algal growth to enable algae biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Igou, Thomas; Van Ginkel, Steven W; Penalver-Argueso, Patricia; Fu, Hao; Doi, Shusuke; Narode, Asmita; Cheruvu, Sarasija; Zhang, Qian; Hassan, Fariha; Woodruff, Frazier; Chen, Yongsheng

    2014-12-01

    The latest research shows that algal biofuels, at the production levels mandated in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, will place significant demands on water and compete with agriculture meant for food production. Thus, there is a great need to recycle water while producing algal biofuels. This study shows that when using a synthetic medium, soluble algal products, bacteria, and other inhibitors can be removed by centrifugation and enable water recycling. Average water recovery reached 84% and water could be recycled at least 10 times without reducing algal growth.

  6. Capturing Safety Requirements to Enable Effective Task Allocation Between Humans and Automaton in Increasingly Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neogi, Natasha A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a current drive towards enabling the deployment of increasingly autonomous systems in the National Airspace System (NAS). However, shifting the traditional roles and responsibilities between humans and automation for safety critical tasks must be managed carefully, otherwise the current emergent safety properties of the NAS may be disrupted. In this paper, a verification activity to assess the emergent safety properties of a clearly defined, safety critical, operational scenario that possesses tasks that can be fluidly allocated between human and automated agents is conducted. Task allocation role sets were proposed for a human-automation team performing a contingency maneuver in a reduced crew context. A safety critical contingency procedure (engine out on takeoff) was modeled in the Soar cognitive architecture, then translated into the Hybrid Input Output formalism. Verification activities were then performed to determine whether or not the safety properties held over the increasingly autonomous system. The verification activities lead to the development of several key insights regarding the implicit assumptions on agent capability. It subsequently illustrated the usefulness of task annotations associated with specialized requirements (e.g., communication, timing etc.), and demonstrated the feasibility of this approach.

  7. DOE SciDAC’s Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies Final Report for University of Southern California Information Sciences Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Chervenak, Ann Louise

    2013-12-19

    The mission of the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is to provide the worldwide climate-research community with access to the data, information, model codes, analysis tools, and intercomparison capabilities required to make sense of enormous climate data sets. Its specific goals are to (1) provide an easy-to-use and secure web-based data access environment for data sets; (2) add value to individual data sets by presenting them in the context of other data sets and tools for comparative analysis; (3) address the specific requirements of participating organizations with respect to bandwidth, access restrictions, and replication; (4) ensure that the data are readily accessible through the analysis and visualization tools used by the climate research community; and (5) transfer infrastructure advances to other domain areas. For the ESGF, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) team has led international development and delivered a production environment for managing and accessing ultra-scale climate data. This production environment includes multiple national and international climate projects (such as the Community Earth System Model and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project), ocean model data (such as the Parallel Ocean Program), observation data (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Best Estimate, Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center, Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, etc.), and analysis and visualization tools, all serving a diverse user community. These data holdings and services are distributed across multiple ESG-CET sites (such as ANL, LANL, LBNL/NERSC, LLNL/PCMDI, NCAR, and ORNL) and at unfunded partner sites, such as the Australian National University National Computational Infrastructure, the British Atmospheric Data Centre, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, the German Climate Computing

  8. Note: Electrical detection and quantification of spin rectification effect enabled by shorted microstrip transmission line technique

    SciTech Connect

    Soh, Wee Tee; Ong, C. K.; Peng, Bin; Chai, Guozhi

    2014-02-15

    We describe a shorted microstrip method for the sensitive quantification of Spin Rectification Effect (SRE). SRE for a Permalloy (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) thin film strip sputtered onto SiO{sub 2} substrate is demonstrated. Our method obviates the need for simultaneous lithographic patterning of the sample and transmission line, therefore greatly simplifying the SRE measurement process. Such a shorted microstrip method can allow different contributions to SRE (anisotropic magnetoresistance, Hall effect, and anomalous Hall effect) to be simultaneously determined. Furthermore, SRE signals from unpatterned 50 nm thick Permalloy films of area dimensions 5 mm × 10 mm can even be detected.

  9. Nanoparticle-mediated photothermal effect enables a new method for quantitative biochemical analysis using a thermometer.

    PubMed

    Fu, Guanglei; Sanjay, Sharma T; Dou, Maowei; Li, XiuJun

    2016-03-14

    A new biomolecular quantitation method, nanoparticle-mediated photothermal bioassay, using a common thermometer as the signal reader was developed. Using an immunoassay as a proof of concept, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) captured in the sandwich-type assay system were transformed into a near-infrared (NIR) laser-driven photothermal agent, Prussian blue (PB) NPs, which acted as a photothermal probe to convert the assay signal into heat through the photothermal effect, thus allowing sensitive biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer. This is the first report of biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer and also serves as the first attempt to introduce the nanoparticle-mediated photothermal effect for bioassays.

  10. Great Principals at Scale: Creating District Conditions That Enable All Principals to Be Effective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikemoto, Gina; Taliaferro, Lori; Fenton, Benjamin; Davis, Jacquelyn

    2014-01-01

    School leaders are critical in the lives of students and to the development of their teachers. Unfortunately, in too many instances, principals are effective in spite of--rather than because of--district conditions. To truly improve student achievement for all students across the country, well-prepared principals need the tools, support, and…

  11. Collaborative Activities Enabled by GroupScribbles (GS): An Exploratory Study of Learning Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looi, Chee-Kit; Chen, Wenli; Ng, Foo-Keong

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of an exploratory cycle of a design-based research project and examines the learning effectiveness of collaborative activities that are supported by the GroupScribbles (GS) software technology in two Singapore primary science classrooms. The students had ten weeks of GS-based lessons in science, which were…

  12. The Relationship between School Climate, Trust, Enabling Structures, and Perceived School Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayerson, Deborah R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of Deborah R. Mayerson was to assess the relative impact of climate, trust, and bureaucratic structure upon teachers' perceptions of organizational effectiveness. An existing data set compiled by Nancy Casella (2006) for her dissertation was analyzed. The data consisted of questionnaire responses of a random sample of 220 public school…

  13. Great Principals at Scale: Creating District Conditions That Enable All Principals to Be Effective. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikemoto, Gina; Taliaferro, Lori; Fenton, Benjamin; Davis, Jacquelyn

    2014-01-01

    School leaders are critical in the lives of students and to the development of their teachers. Unfortunately, in too many instances, principals are effective in spite of--rather than because of--district conditions. To truly improve student achievement for all students across the country, well-prepared principals need the tools, support, and…

  14. An Analysis of the Effectiveness of University Counselling Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Aja L.; McKenzie, Karen; Murray, Kara R.; Richelieu, Marc

    2016-01-01

    It is important to demonstrate replicable evidence of the effectiveness of counselling procedures. The study aimed to contribute to the currently limited evidence base examining the effectiveness of university student counselling in the UK. Information on therapeutic outcome [based on Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure…

  15. University Students' Perceptions of the Life Effects of Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephanie; Gabel, Rodney; Irani, Farzan; Schlagheck, Adam

    2010-01-01

    An open-ended, written survey was administered to 146 university students who did not stutter to obtain their impressions of the effects of stuttering on the lives of people who stutter (PWS). Participants first wrote about the general effects of stuttering and then considered how their lives would be different if they stuttered. Both types of…

  16. The Effective University: A Management By Objectives Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Graeme

    The goals and output evaluation to aid in the effective allocation of scarce resources at the University of Leeds (in Britain) is the focus of the book. The first chapter describes the purpose of the book, defines the terms effectiveness and efficiency, and presents the theoretical background of the study. The following goals and performance…

  17. High performance MoS2-based field-effect transistor enabled by hydrazine doping.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dongsuk; Kannan, E S; Lee, Inyeal; Rathi, Servin; Li, Lijun; Lee, Yoontae; Khan, Muhammad Atif; Kang, Moonshik; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the n-type doping effect of hydrazine on the electrical characteristics of a molybdenum disulphide (MoS2)-based field-effect transistor (FET). The threshold voltage of the MoS2 FET shifted towards more negative values (from -20 to -70 V) on treating with 100% hydrazine solution with the channel current increasing from 0.5 to 25 μA at zero gate bias. The inverse subthreshold slope decreased sharply on doping, while the ON/OFF ratio increased by a factor of 100. Gate-channel coupling improved with doping, which facilitates the reduction of channel length between the source and drain electrodes without compromising on the transistor performance, making the MoS2-based FET easily scalable.

  18. Performance enhancement of organic photovoltaic devices enabled by Au nanoarrows inducing surface plasmonic resonance effect.

    PubMed

    Li, Shujun; Li, Zhiqi; Zhang, Xinyuan; Zhang, Zhihui; Liu, Chunyu; Shen, Liang; Guo, Wenbin; Ruan, Shengping

    2016-09-21

    The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of metal nanoparticles is widely employed in organic solar cells to enhance device performance. However, the light-harvesting improvement is highly dependent on the shape of the metal nanoparticles. In this study, the significantly enhanced performance upon incorporation of Au nanoarrows in solution-processed organic photovoltaic devices is demonstrated. Incorporating Au nanoarrows into the ZnO cathode buffer layer results in superior broadband optical absorption improvement and a power conversion efficiency of 7.82% is realized with a 27.3% enhancement compared with the control device. The experimental and theoretical results indicate that the introduction of Au nanoarrows not only increases optical trapping by the SPR effect but also facilitates exciton generation, dissociation, and charge transport inside the thin film device. PMID:27531663

  19. High performance MoS2-based field-effect transistor enabled by hydrazine doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Dongsuk; Kannan, E. S.; Lee, Inyeal; Rathi, Servin; Li, Lijun; Lee, Yoontae; Atif Khan, Muhammad; Kang, Moonshik; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the n-type doping effect of hydrazine on the electrical characteristics of a molybdenum disulphide (MoS2)-based field-effect transistor (FET). The threshold voltage of the MoS2 FET shifted towards more negative values (from ‑20 to ‑70 V) on treating with 100% hydrazine solution with the channel current increasing from 0.5 to 25 μA at zero gate bias. The inverse subthreshold slope decreased sharply on doping, while the ON/OFF ratio increased by a factor of 100. Gate–channel coupling improved with doping, which facilitates the reduction of channel length between the source and drain electrodes without compromising on the transistor performance, making the MoS2-based FET easily scalable.

  20. High performance MoS2-based field-effect transistor enabled by hydrazine doping.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dongsuk; Kannan, E S; Lee, Inyeal; Rathi, Servin; Li, Lijun; Lee, Yoontae; Khan, Muhammad Atif; Kang, Moonshik; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the n-type doping effect of hydrazine on the electrical characteristics of a molybdenum disulphide (MoS2)-based field-effect transistor (FET). The threshold voltage of the MoS2 FET shifted towards more negative values (from -20 to -70 V) on treating with 100% hydrazine solution with the channel current increasing from 0.5 to 25 μA at zero gate bias. The inverse subthreshold slope decreased sharply on doping, while the ON/OFF ratio increased by a factor of 100. Gate-channel coupling improved with doping, which facilitates the reduction of channel length between the source and drain electrodes without compromising on the transistor performance, making the MoS2-based FET easily scalable. PMID:27098430

  1. Performance enhancement of organic photovoltaic devices enabled by Au nanoarrows inducing surface plasmonic resonance effect.

    PubMed

    Li, Shujun; Li, Zhiqi; Zhang, Xinyuan; Zhang, Zhihui; Liu, Chunyu; Shen, Liang; Guo, Wenbin; Ruan, Shengping

    2016-09-21

    The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of metal nanoparticles is widely employed in organic solar cells to enhance device performance. However, the light-harvesting improvement is highly dependent on the shape of the metal nanoparticles. In this study, the significantly enhanced performance upon incorporation of Au nanoarrows in solution-processed organic photovoltaic devices is demonstrated. Incorporating Au nanoarrows into the ZnO cathode buffer layer results in superior broadband optical absorption improvement and a power conversion efficiency of 7.82% is realized with a 27.3% enhancement compared with the control device. The experimental and theoretical results indicate that the introduction of Au nanoarrows not only increases optical trapping by the SPR effect but also facilitates exciton generation, dissociation, and charge transport inside the thin film device.

  2. Develop an Architecture to Enable Effective Information Process in Mitigating Asteroid's Threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, M.; Piccione, M.; Sun, M.; Yang, C. P.; Bambacus, M.; Seery, B.

    2015-12-01

    Research on asteroid impacts on Earth is crucial and challenging nationally and globally. Existing efforts for Near Earth Object (NEO) survey such as Catalina Sky Survey and SAO-minor planets center (MPC) have been established. However, our understanding of asteroids still needs to be advanced through physical characterization, modeling of atmospheric entry/breakup, and risk assessments of impacts (land and water), with emphases on small impactors. To achieve the goal of knowledge advancement, activities such as orbit determination, threat analysis, and impact simulation are fundamental, and all require accurate information and effective processing capability. Here we propose a planetary framework including the workflow, information flow, organization dependencies, and most importantly the cyberinfrastructure configuration required to achieve effective information processing. This framework will serve as a foundation for understanding the NEO hazard and building a long-term capability to counter a potential NEO impact threat.

  3. Nanoscale triboelectric-effect-enabled energy conversion for sustainably powering portable electronics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sihong; Lin, Long; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-12-12

    Harvesting energy from our living environment is an effective approach for sustainable, maintenance-free, and green power source for wireless, portable, or implanted electronics. Mechanical energy scavenging based on triboelectric effect has been proven to be simple, cost-effective, and robust. However, its output is still insufficient for sustainably driving electronic devices/systems. Here, we demonstrated a rationally designed arch-shaped triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) by utilizing the contact electrification between a polymer thin film and a metal thin foil. The working mechanism of the TENG was studied by finite element simulation. The output voltage, current density, and energy volume density reached 230 V, 15.5 μA/cm(2), and 128 mW/cm(3), respectively, and an energy conversion efficiency as high as 10-39% has been demonstrated. The TENG was systematically studied and demonstrated as a sustainable power source that can not only drive instantaneous operation of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) but also charge a lithium ion battery as a regulated power module for powering a wireless sensor system and a commercial cell phone, which is the first demonstration of the nanogenerator for driving personal mobile electronics, opening the chapter of impacting general people's life by nanogenerators.

  4. Training effect of a virtual reality haptics-enabled dynamic hip screw simulator

    PubMed Central

    Sugand, Kapil; Akhtar, Kash; Khatri, Chetan; Cobb, Justin; Gupte, Chinmay

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose — Virtual reality (VR) simulation offers a safe, controlled, and effective environment to complement training but requires extensive validation before it can be implemented within the curriculum. The main objective was to assess whether VR dynamic hip screw (DHS) simulation has a training effect to improve objective performance metrics. Patients and methods — 52 surgical trainees who were naïve to DHS procedures were randomized to 2 groups: the training group, which had 5 attempts, and the control group, which had only one attempt. After 1 week, both cohorts repeated the same number of attempts. Objective performance metrics included total procedural time (sec), fluoroscopy time (sec), number of radiographs (n), tip-apex distance (TAD; mm), attempts at guide-wire insertion (n), and probability of cut-out (%). Mean scores (with SD) and learning curves were calculated. Significance was set as p < 0.05. Results — The training group was 68% quicker than the control group, used 75% less fluoroscopy, took 66% fewer radiographs, had 82% less retries at guide-wire insertion, achieved a reduced TAD (by 41%), had lower probability of cut-out (by 85%), and obtained an increased global score (by 63%). All these results were statistically significant (p < 0.001). The participants agreed that the simulator provided a realistic learning environment, they stated that they had enjoyed using the simulator, and they recognized the need for the simulator in formal training. Interpretation — We found a significant training effect on the VR DHS simulator in improving objective performance metrics of naïve surgical trainees. Patient safety, an important priority, was not compromised. PMID:26168925

  5. Contraceptive Counseling: Best Practices to Ensure Quality Communication and Enable Effective Contraceptive Use

    PubMed Central

    Dehlendorf, Christine; Krajewski, Colleen; Borrero, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    Improving the quality of contraceptive counseling is one strategy to prevent unintended pregnancy. We identify aspects of relational and task-oriented communication in family planning care that can assist providers in meeting their patients’ needs. Approaches to optimizing women's experiences of contraceptive counseling include working to develop a close, trusting relationship with patients and using a shared decision-making approach that focuses on eliciting and responding to patient preferences. Providing counseling about side effects and using strategies to promote contraceptive continuation and adherence can also help optimize women's use of contraception. PMID:25264697

  6. Intrinsic properties of cupric oxide nanoparticles enable effective filtration of arsenic from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Kyle J.; Reynolds, Brandon; Reddy, K. J.

    2015-06-01

    The contamination of arsenic in human drinking water supplies is a serious global health concern. Despite multiple years of research, sustainable arsenic treatment technologies have yet to be developed. This study demonstrates the intrinsic abilities of cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NP) towards arsenic adsorption and the development of a point-of-use filter for field application. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments were used to examine adsorption, desorption, and readsorption of aqueous arsenite and arsenate by CuO-NP. Field experiments were conducted with a point-of-use filter, coupled with real-time arsenic monitoring, to remove arsenic from domestic groundwater samples. The CuO-NP were regenerated by desorbing arsenate via increasing pH above the zero point of charge. Results suggest an effective oxidation of arsenite to arsenate on the surface of CuO-NP. Naturally occurring arsenic was effectively removed by both as-prepared and regenerated CuO-NP in a field demonstration of the point-of-use filter. A sustainable arsenic mitigation model for contaminated water is proposed.

  7. Intrinsic properties of cupric oxide nanoparticles enable effective filtration of arsenic from water

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Kyle J.; Reynolds, Brandon; Reddy, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of arsenic in human drinking water supplies is a serious global health concern. Despite multiple years of research, sustainable arsenic treatment technologies have yet to be developed. This study demonstrates the intrinsic abilities of cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NP) towards arsenic adsorption and the development of a point-of-use filter for field application. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments were used to examine adsorption, desorption, and readsorption of aqueous arsenite and arsenate by CuO-NP. Field experiments were conducted with a point-of-use filter, coupled with real-time arsenic monitoring, to remove arsenic from domestic groundwater samples. The CuO-NP were regenerated by desorbing arsenate via increasing pH above the zero point of charge. Results suggest an effective oxidation of arsenite to arsenate on the surface of CuO-NP. Naturally occurring arsenic was effectively removed by both as-prepared and regenerated CuO-NP in a field demonstration of the point-of-use filter. A sustainable arsenic mitigation model for contaminated water is proposed. PMID:26047164

  8. Intrinsic properties of cupric oxide nanoparticles enable effective filtration of arsenic from water.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kyle J; Reynolds, Brandon; Reddy, K J

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of arsenic in human drinking water supplies is a serious global health concern. Despite multiple years of research, sustainable arsenic treatment technologies have yet to be developed. This study demonstrates the intrinsic abilities of cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NP) towards arsenic adsorption and the development of a point-of-use filter for field application. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments were used to examine adsorption, desorption, and readsorption of aqueous arsenite and arsenate by CuO-NP. Field experiments were conducted with a point-of-use filter, coupled with real-time arsenic monitoring, to remove arsenic from domestic groundwater samples. The CuO-NP were regenerated by desorbing arsenate via increasing pH above the zero point of charge. Results suggest an effective oxidation of arsenite to arsenate on the surface of CuO-NP. Naturally occurring arsenic was effectively removed by both as-prepared and regenerated CuO-NP in a field demonstration of the point-of-use filter. A sustainable arsenic mitigation model for contaminated water is proposed.

  9. Intrinsic properties of cupric oxide nanoparticles enable effective filtration of arsenic from water.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kyle J; Reynolds, Brandon; Reddy, K J

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of arsenic in human drinking water supplies is a serious global health concern. Despite multiple years of research, sustainable arsenic treatment technologies have yet to be developed. This study demonstrates the intrinsic abilities of cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NP) towards arsenic adsorption and the development of a point-of-use filter for field application. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments were used to examine adsorption, desorption, and readsorption of aqueous arsenite and arsenate by CuO-NP. Field experiments were conducted with a point-of-use filter, coupled with real-time arsenic monitoring, to remove arsenic from domestic groundwater samples. The CuO-NP were regenerated by desorbing arsenate via increasing pH above the zero point of charge. Results suggest an effective oxidation of arsenite to arsenate on the surface of CuO-NP. Naturally occurring arsenic was effectively removed by both as-prepared and regenerated CuO-NP in a field demonstration of the point-of-use filter. A sustainable arsenic mitigation model for contaminated water is proposed. PMID:26047164

  10. Singlet oxygen generation in porphyrin-doped polymeric surface coating enables antimicrobial effects on Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Felgenträger, Ariane; Maisch, Tim; Späth, Andreas; Schröder, Josef A; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-10-14

    Surfaces can be coated with photosensitizer molecules, which generate singlet oxygen ((1)O2) when the surface is exposed to light. (1)O2 may diffuse from the coating and has the potential to kill microorganisms present on the surface. In the present study a derivative of the meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) was immobilized onto polyurethane (PU) after being sprayed and polymerized as a thin layer onto poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA). PU is gas permeable and thus a sufficient amount of oxygen reaches the photosensitizer in this coating. The surface generation of (1)O2 and its diffusion were investigated by detecting its luminescence at 1270 nm and a tri-iodide assay. Antimicrobial photodynamic surface effects were tested on Staphylococcus aureus. The spectrally resolved detection of (1)O2 luminescence yielded a clear peak at 1275 nm. The time-resolved luminescence showed multi-exponential decay, revealing rise and decay times in the range of 5-2 × 10(2)μs. The photodynamic inactivation of S. aureus was monitored at different photosensitizer concentrations and radiant exposures of light. A photodynamic killing of >99.9% (>3log10-steps) was achieved within an irradiation time of 30 min. The photodynamic killing on the bioactive surface confirmed the antimicrobial effect of (1)O2 that was generated in the PU-coating and reached the bacteria by diffusion. PMID:25155698

  11. Mobile Technologies for Learning: Exploring Critical Mobile Learning Literacies as Enabler of Graduateness in a South African Research-Led University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosman, J. P.; Strydom, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    At Stellenbosch University there is a drive to integrate the development of graduate attributes and the use of emerging technologies in the curriculum. With the aim of discovering the role of emerging mobile technologies in learning a qualitative research project was undertaken with a senior-student cohort. An inductive thematic analysis was done…

  12. Utility of Ligand Effect in Homogenous Gold Catalysis: Enabling Regiodivergent π-Bond-Activated Cyclization.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dong; Mou, Tao; Feng, Minghao; Jiang, Xuefeng

    2016-04-27

    Comprehensive utilization of both electronic and steric properties of ligands in homogeneous gold catalysis is achieved in the regiodivergent intramolecular hydroarylation of alkynes. A flexible electron-deficient phosphite ligand, combined with the readily transformable directing group methoxyl amide, is attached to a cationic Au(I) center in three-coordinate mode, affording sterically hindered ortho-position cyclization. Meanwhile, para-position cyclization is exclusively achieved with the assistance of a rigid electron-abundant phosphine ligand-based Au(I) catalyst, in which ligands manifest the compensating effect for cyclization through steric hindrance and electronic properties. By combining gold with silver catalysts, tetrahydropyrroloquinolinones possessing a congested tricyclic structure are obtained via a proven Au/Ag relay catalytic process. PMID:27058740

  13. Developing a mobile application to better inform patients and enable effective consultation in implant dentistry.

    PubMed

    Canbazoglu, Erokan; Salman, Yucel Batu; Yildirim, Mustafa Eren; Merdenyan, Burak; Ince, Ibrahim Furkan

    2016-01-01

    The field of dentistry lacks satisfactory tools to help visualize planned procedures and their potential results to patients. Dentists struggle to provide an effective image in their patient's mind of the end results of the planned treatment only through verbal explanations. Thus, verbal explanations alone often cannot adequately help the patients make a treatment decision. Inadequate attempts are frequently made by dentists to sketch the procedure for the patient in an effort to depict the treatment. These attempts however require an artistic ability not all dentists have. Real case photographs are sometimes of help in explaining and illustrating treatments. However, particularly in implant cases, real case photographs are often ineffective and inadequate. The purpose of this study is to develop a mobile application with an effective user interface design to support the dentist-patient interaction by providing the patient with illustrative descriptions of the procedures and the end result. Sketching, paper prototyping, and wire framing were carried out with the actual user's participation. Hard and soft dental tissues were modeled using three dimensional (3D) modeling programs and real cases. The application enhances the presentation to the patients of potential implants and implant supported prosthetic treatments with rich 3D illustrative content. The application was evaluated in terms of perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness through an online survey. The application helps improve the information sharing behavior of dentists to enhance the patients' right to make informed decisions. The paper clearly demonstrates the relevance of interactive communication technologies for dentist-patient communication. PMID:27453770

  14. The effect of nanoparticle uptake on cellular behavior: disrupting or enabling functions?

    PubMed Central

    Panariti, Alice; Miserocchi, Giuseppe; Rivolta, Ilaria

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are materials with overall dimensions in the nanoscale range. They have unique physicochemical properties, and have emerged as important players in current research in modern medicine. In the last few decades, several types of NPs and microparticles have been synthesized and proposed for use as contrast agents for diagnostics and imaging and for drug delivery; for example, in cancer therapy. Yet specific targeting that will improve their delivery still represents an unsolved challenge. The mechanism by which NPs enter the cell has important implications not only for their fate but also for their impact on biological systems. Several papers in the literature discuss the potential risks related to NP exposure, and more recently the concept that even sublethal doses of NPs may elicit a cell response has been proposed. In this review, we intend to present an overall view of cell mechanisms that may be perturbed by cell–NP interaction. Published data, in fact, emphasize that NPs should no longer be viewed only as simple carriers for biomedical applications, but that they can also play an active role in mediating biological effects. PMID:24198499

  15. Five task clusters that enable efficient and effective digitization of biological collections.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gil; Paul, Deborah; Riccardi, Gregory; Mast, Austin R

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes and illustrates five major clusters of related tasks (herein referred to as task clusters) that are common to efficient and effective practices in the digitization of biological specimen data and media. Examples of these clusters come from the observation of diverse digitization processes. The staff of iDigBio (The U.S. National Science Foundation's National Resource for Advancing Digitization of Biological Collections) visited active biological and paleontological collections digitization programs for the purpose of documenting and assessing current digitization practices and tools. These observations identified five task clusters that comprise the digitization process leading up to data publication: (1) pre-digitization curation and staging, (2) specimen image capture, (3) specimen image processing, (4) electronic data capture, and (5) georeferencing locality descriptions. While not all institutions are completing each of these task clusters for each specimen, these clusters describe a composite picture of digitization of biological and paleontological specimens across the programs that were observed. We describe these clusters, three workflow patterns that dominate the implemention of these clusters, and offer a set of workflow recommendations for digitization programs. PMID:22859876

  16. Five task clusters that enable efficient and effective digitization of biological collections

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Gil; Paul, Deborah; Riccardi, Gregory; Mast, Austin R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes and illustrates five major clusters of related tasks (herein referred to as task clusters) that are common to efficient and effective practices in the digitization of biological specimen data and media. Examples of these clusters come from the observation of diverse digitization processes. The staff of iDigBio (The U.S. National Science Foundation’s National Resource for Advancing Digitization of Biological Collections) visited active biological and paleontological collections digitization programs for the purpose of documenting and assessing current digitization practices and tools. These observations identified five task clusters that comprise the digitization process leading up to data publication: (1) pre-digitization curation and staging, (2) specimen image capture, (3) specimen image processing, (4) electronic data capture, and (5) georeferencing locality descriptions. While not all institutions are completing each of these task clusters for each specimen, these clusters describe a composite picture of digitization of biological and paleontological specimens across the programs that were observed. We describe these clusters, three workflow patterns that dominate the implemention of these clusters, and offer a set of workflow recommendations for digitization programs. PMID:22859876

  17. [Effective access to health services: operationalizing universal health coverage].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germán; Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; García-Saisó, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    The right to health and its operational form, as an organized social response to health: the right to health protection, are the mainstay for the global push towards universal health coverage. The path to achieve this goal is particular to each country and relates to the baseline and specific context in relation to what is feasible. In practical terms, universal coverage involves the correlation between demand and supply of services (promotion, prevention, and care), expressed by the ability for each individual to make use of services when these are required. In those terms universal coverage is then effective access. The objective of the paper is to explore the conceptualization of effective access to health services and propose a definition that allows its operationalization thereof. This definition considers key elements of supply and demand of services, including the availability of resources and adequate provision (quality), as well as barriers to use them. PMID:26235780

  18. The University of Kansas High-Throughput Screening Laboratory. Part II: enabling collaborative drug-discovery partnerships through cutting-edge screening technology

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Peter R; Roy, Anuradha; Chaguturu, Rathnam

    2011-01-01

    The University of Kansas High-Throughput Screening (KU HTS) core is a state-of-the-art drug-discovery facility with an entrepreneurial open-service policy, which provides centralized resources supporting public- and private-sector research initiatives. The KU HTS core was established in 2002 at the University of Kansas with support from an NIH grant and the state of Kansas. It collaborates with investigators from national and international academic, nonprofit and pharmaceutical organizations in executing HTS-ready assay development and screening of chemical libraries for target validation, probe selection, hit identification and lead optimization. This is part two of a contribution from the KU HTS laboratory. PMID:21806374

  19. Social and Cultural Factors That Effect University Women Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Hasan; Sabo, Helena Maria; Siyli, Nese Aysin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, social and cultural effects of the low rate of woman managers at universities are tried to be identified. Women have been increasingly appearing in every field of business; on the other hand, although women compared to men constitute majority in educational organisations, they appear in the positions other than management. We will…

  20. The Effect of Leadership on Service Delivery in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zvavahera, Promise

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at assessing leadership effectiveness on service delivery at the University of Namibia and all its campuses throughout the country. The study was carried out during the month of February 2013. The methodology consisted of document analysis, interviews through face to face, video and tele-conferencing. Purposive sampling was…

  1. Factors Affecting University Teaching Team Effectiveness in Detached Working Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Roger; Kane, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of a study of the factors that contribute to teaching team effectiveness in situations where team members rarely meet face to face. Academic faculty within a university Business School were asked to report the degrees to which they believed that the module teaching teams to which they belonged contained members who…

  2. The Effectiveness of Academic Boards in University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable international literature acknowledging issues associated with the effectiveness of university academic boards (also known as academic senates or faculty senates), there is little current empirical research exploring why difficulties might exist and what (if anything) might be done about them. This article reports the findings…

  3. Alcohol Use and the Effects on University Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Charles H.; Leonard, Valorie M.; Lebrasseur, Rolland

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol consumption on university undergraduate students in eight management schools in the province of Ontario, Canada. The study establishes two contrasting groups--the socially oriented and the academically oriented. It elaborates on the potential consequences that excessive drinking may have on the learning,…

  4. Developing effective social work university-community research collaborations.

    PubMed

    Begun, Audrey L; Berger, Lisa K; Otto-Salaj, Laura L; Rose, Susan J

    2010-01-01

    In many instances, departments of social work in universities and community-based social services agencies have common interests in improving professional practice and advancing knowledge in the profession. Effective university-community research collaborations can help partners achieve these goals jointly, but to be effective these collaborative partnerships require considerable effort and understanding by all partners involved. This article provides to novice investigators and social work agencies new to research partnerships an integrated discussion of important issues to develop the groundwork necessary for building and maintaining effective university-community social work collaborations. Through experience gained from a series of social work research partnerships, as well as an overview of relevant literature, the authors offer a set of strategies for building and sustaining research collaborations between university and community-based social work professionals. The general topics discussed are technology exchange, adopting a longitudinal perspective, knowing your partners, and practical contracting/budgetary issues. The article has relevance to beginning social work researchers, social work educators, and social work practitioners seeking to engage in collaborative partnerships that improve social work practice through research and advance the knowledge base of the profession.

  5. Sustainability and scale-up of household water treatment and safe storage practices: Enablers and barriers to effective implementation.

    PubMed

    Ojomo, Edema; Elliott, Mark; Goodyear, Lorelei; Forson, Michael; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-11-01

    Household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) provides a solution, when employed correctly and consistently, for managing water safety at home. However, despite years of promotion by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), governments and others, boiling is the only method to achieve scale. Many HWTS programs have reported strong initial uptake and use that then decreases over time. This study maps out enablers and barriers to sustaining and scaling up HWTS practices. Interviews were carried out with 79 practitioners who had experience with HWTS programs in over 25 countries. A total of 47 enablers and barriers important to sustaining and scaling up HWTS practices were identified. These were grouped into six domains: user guidance on HWTS products; resource availability; standards, certification and regulations; integration and collaboration; user preferences; and market strategies. Collectively, the six domains cover the major aspects of moving products from development to the consumers. It is important that each domain is considered in all programs that aim to sustain and scale-up HWTS practices. Our findings can assist governments, NGOs, and other organizations involved in HWTS to approach programs more effectively and efficiently.

  6. Sustainability and scale-up of household water treatment and safe storage practices: Enablers and barriers to effective implementation.

    PubMed

    Ojomo, Edema; Elliott, Mark; Goodyear, Lorelei; Forson, Michael; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-11-01

    Household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) provides a solution, when employed correctly and consistently, for managing water safety at home. However, despite years of promotion by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), governments and others, boiling is the only method to achieve scale. Many HWTS programs have reported strong initial uptake and use that then decreases over time. This study maps out enablers and barriers to sustaining and scaling up HWTS practices. Interviews were carried out with 79 practitioners who had experience with HWTS programs in over 25 countries. A total of 47 enablers and barriers important to sustaining and scaling up HWTS practices were identified. These were grouped into six domains: user guidance on HWTS products; resource availability; standards, certification and regulations; integration and collaboration; user preferences; and market strategies. Collectively, the six domains cover the major aspects of moving products from development to the consumers. It is important that each domain is considered in all programs that aim to sustain and scale-up HWTS practices. Our findings can assist governments, NGOs, and other organizations involved in HWTS to approach programs more effectively and efficiently. PMID:25865927

  7. Effective visualization of integrated knowledge and data to enable informed decisions in drug development and translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Brynne, Lena; Bresell, Anders; Sjögren, Niclas

    2013-10-08

    Integrative understanding of preclinical and clinical data is imperative to enable informed decisions and reduce the attrition rate during drug development. The volume and variety of data generated during drug development have increased tremendously. A new information model and visualization tool was developed to effectively utilize all available data and current knowledge. The Knowledge Plot integrates preclinical, clinical, efficacy and safety data by adding two concepts: knowledge from the different disciplines and protein binding.Internal and public available data were gathered and processed to allow flexible and interactive visualizations. The exposure was expressed as the unbound concentration of the compound and the treatment effect was normalized and scaled by including expert opinion on what a biologically meaningful treatment effect would be.The Knowledge Plot has been applied both retrospectively and prospectively in project teams in a number of different therapeutic areas, resulting in closer collaboration between multiple disciplines discussing both preclinical and clinical data. The Plot allows head to head comparisons of compounds and was used to support Candidate Drug selections and differentiation from comparators and competitors, back translation of clinical data, understanding the predictability of preclinical models and assays, reviewing drift in primary endpoints over the years, and evaluate or benchmark compounds in due diligence comparing multiple attributes.The Knowledge Plot concept allows flexible integration and visualization of relevant data for interpretation in order to enable scientific and informed decision-making in various stages of drug development. The concept can be used for communication, decision-making, knowledge management, and as a forward and back translational tool, that will result in an improved understanding of the competitive edge for a particular project or disease area portfolio. In addition, it also builds up a

  8. Universal Charge Diffusion and the Butterfly Effect in Holographic Theories.

    PubMed

    Blake, Mike

    2016-08-26

    We study charge diffusion in holographic scaling theories with a particle-hole symmetry. We show that these theories have a universal regime in which the diffusion constant is given by D_{c}=Cv_{B}^{2}/(2πT), where v_{B} is the velocity of the butterfly effect. The constant of proportionality C depends only on the scaling exponents of the infrared theory. Our results suggest an unexpected connection between transport at strong coupling and quantum chaos.

  9. Universal Charge Diffusion and the Butterfly Effect in Holographic Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Mike

    2016-08-01

    We study charge diffusion in holographic scaling theories with a particle-hole symmetry. We show that these theories have a universal regime in which the diffusion constant is given by Dc=C vB2/(2 π T ), where vB is the velocity of the butterfly effect. The constant of proportionality C depends only on the scaling exponents of the infrared theory. Our results suggest an unexpected connection between transport at strong coupling and quantum chaos.

  10. Effect of university policies on research productions: a scientometric study

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Mohammad-Reza; Rahmati-Roodsari, Mohammad; Rahmdar, Saeid-Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to assess the effect of new package of interventions on scientific productions rate in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Methods: Through a health system research, we extracted policies from the strategic plan of the university and 10 interventions were developed to increase the scientific productions in terms of quality, quantity and commercialization and to develop infrastructure for research in health service provision and education. For evaluating the effectiveness of interventions, citation and publication indicators for individuals and schools were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t-test. They were extracted from Scopus and ISI web of knowledge during period of 1/1/2009 to 30/5/2012. Results: There was an increasing trend in scientific productions from 2009 to mid-2012. We found 60 percent of total scientific productions of the university were published during last 3.5 years. During this 3.5 years, 10 more percentile of faculty members involved in research. Schools of pharmacy, Medicine and Health had the highest scientific products. Mean for h-index was 1.5 (SD=2.49) in ISI and 1.9 (SD=2.89) in Scopus database (p<0.001). Conclusion: Effective policies and interventions lead to 46% increase in scientific productions from 2009 to 2010 and 56% increase from 2010 to 2011. PMID:25405128

  11. The effective factors on library anxiety of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi-rizi, Hasan; Sajad, Maryam Sadat; Rahmani, Sedigheh; Bahrami, Susan; Papi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The efficient use of libraries can be an important factor in determining the educational quality of Universities. Therefore, investigation and identification of factors affecting library anxiety becomes increasingly necessary. The purpose of this research is to determine the factors effecting library anxiety of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This was an applied survey research using Bostick's Library Anxiety questionnaire as data gathering tool. The statistical population consisted of all students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (15011 students) with the sample size of 375 using stratified random sampling. The validity of data gathering tool was confirmed by experts in the library and information science and its reliability was determined by Cronbach's alpha (r = 0.92). Descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (t-test and ANOVA) were used for data analysis using SPSS 18 software. Results: Findings showed that the mean of library anxiety score was 2.68 and 2.66 for students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences respectively which is above average (2.5). Furthermore, age and gender had no meaningful effect on the library anxiety of students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, but gender had a meaningful effect on library anxiety of students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences while age had no such effect. Conclusion: The results showed that the mean of factors effecting library anxiety in students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences is higher than average and therefore not satisfactory and only factors relating to feeling comfortable in the library is lower than average and somewhat satisfactory. PMID:25250358

  12. Effectiveness, usability, and acceptability of haptic-enabled virtual reality and mannequin modality simulators for surgical cricothyroidotomy.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Michael D; Campbell-Wynn, Lillian

    2014-03-01

    This research assesses the effectiveness, usability, and acceptability of mannequin and haptic-enabled virtual reality (VR) modality simulators by Army medics in a surgical cricothyroidotomy procedure. Research methods investigate through experimentation surgical task performance, technology acceptance, user recommendation, comparative analysis, and select cognitive task load results. Results indicate that the HapMed mannequin and CricSim VR simulators proved effective by meeting training task performance evaluation requirements. Both systems meet 95% user technology acceptance and 85% user recommendation levels. In conclusion, at those levels, either system may complement, reduce, or replace the use of some alternative training methods such as animals or cadavers. To raise recommendation rates, future research needs to reduce barriers to blending visualization with mannequin modalities and make further refinements within the modalities. One research pathway identified blends a mannequin with stereoscopic visualization and motion parallax, providing correlated, partially transparent visual layers of anatomy and of various medical procedures in virtual overlay with the mannequin. Future research also needs to clarify acceptable degrees of freedom levels by task for haptics VR in light of real-world degrees of freedom requirements. Finally, artificial skin may need research to achieve better replication of human skin on mannequins.

  13. Effectiveness, usability, and acceptability of haptic-enabled virtual reality and mannequin modality simulators for surgical cricothyroidotomy.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Michael D; Campbell-Wynn, Lillian

    2014-03-01

    This research assesses the effectiveness, usability, and acceptability of mannequin and haptic-enabled virtual reality (VR) modality simulators by Army medics in a surgical cricothyroidotomy procedure. Research methods investigate through experimentation surgical task performance, technology acceptance, user recommendation, comparative analysis, and select cognitive task load results. Results indicate that the HapMed mannequin and CricSim VR simulators proved effective by meeting training task performance evaluation requirements. Both systems meet 95% user technology acceptance and 85% user recommendation levels. In conclusion, at those levels, either system may complement, reduce, or replace the use of some alternative training methods such as animals or cadavers. To raise recommendation rates, future research needs to reduce barriers to blending visualization with mannequin modalities and make further refinements within the modalities. One research pathway identified blends a mannequin with stereoscopic visualization and motion parallax, providing correlated, partially transparent visual layers of anatomy and of various medical procedures in virtual overlay with the mannequin. Future research also needs to clarify acceptable degrees of freedom levels by task for haptics VR in light of real-world degrees of freedom requirements. Finally, artificial skin may need research to achieve better replication of human skin on mannequins. PMID:24594459

  14. The integration of cyanide hydratase and tyrosinase catalysts enables effective degradation of cyanide and phenol in coking wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Martínková, Ludmila; Chmátal, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to design an effective method for the bioremediation of coking wastewaters, specifically for the concurrent elimination of their highly toxic components - cyanide and phenols. Almost full degradation of free cyanide (0.32-20 mM; 8.3-520 mg L(-1)) in the model and the real coking wastewaters was achieved by using a recombinant cyanide hydratase in the first step. The removal of cyanide, a strong inhibitor of tyrosinase, enabled an effective degradation of phenols by this enzyme in the second step. Phenol (16.5 mM, 1,552 mg L(-1)) was completely removed from a real coking wastewater within 20 h and cresols (5.0 mM, 540 mg L(-1)) were removed by 66% under the same conditions. The integration of cyanide hydratase and tyrosinase open up new possibilities for the bioremediation of wastewaters with complex pollution.

  15. The integration of cyanide hydratase and tyrosinase catalysts enables effective degradation of cyanide and phenol in coking wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Martínková, Ludmila; Chmátal, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to design an effective method for the bioremediation of coking wastewaters, specifically for the concurrent elimination of their highly toxic components - cyanide and phenols. Almost full degradation of free cyanide (0.32-20 mM; 8.3-520 mg L(-1)) in the model and the real coking wastewaters was achieved by using a recombinant cyanide hydratase in the first step. The removal of cyanide, a strong inhibitor of tyrosinase, enabled an effective degradation of phenols by this enzyme in the second step. Phenol (16.5 mM, 1,552 mg L(-1)) was completely removed from a real coking wastewater within 20 h and cresols (5.0 mM, 540 mg L(-1)) were removed by 66% under the same conditions. The integration of cyanide hydratase and tyrosinase open up new possibilities for the bioremediation of wastewaters with complex pollution. PMID:27328365

  16. Light-Driven Overall Water Splitting Enabled by a Photo-Dember Effect Realized on 3D Plasmonic Structures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Gu, Jiajun; Sun, Cheng; Zhao, Yixin; Zhang, Ruoxi; You, Xinyuan; Liu, Qinglei; Zhang, Wang; Su, Yishi; Su, Huilan; Zhang, Di

    2016-07-26

    Photoelectric conversion driven by sunlight has a broad range of energy/environmental applications (e.g., in solar cells and water splitting). However, difficulties are encountered in the separation of photoexcited charges. Here, we realize a long-range (∼1.5 μm period) electric polarization via asymmetric localization of surface plasmons on a three-dimensional silver structure (3D-Ag). This visible-light-responsive effect-the photo-Dember effect, can be analogous to the thermoelectric effect, in which hot carriers are thermally generated instead of being photogenerated. The induced electric field can efficiently separate photogenerated charges, enabling sunlight-driven overall water splitting on a series of dopant-free commercial semiconductor particles (i.e., ZnO, CeO2, TiO2, and WO3) once they are combined with the 3D-Ag substrate. These photocatalytic processes can last over 30 h on 3D-Ag+ZnO, 3D-Ag+CeO2, and 3D-Ag+TiO2, thus demonstrating good catalytic stability for these systems. Using commercial WO3 powder as a reference, the amount of O2 generated with 3D-Ag+CeO2 surpasses even its recently reported counterpart in which sacrificial reagents had to be involved to run half-reactions. This plasmon-mediated charge separation strategy provides an effective way to improve the efficiency of photoelectric energy conversion, which can be useful in photovoltaics and photocatalysis.

  17. Light-Driven Overall Water Splitting Enabled by a Photo-Dember Effect Realized on 3D Plasmonic Structures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Gu, Jiajun; Sun, Cheng; Zhao, Yixin; Zhang, Ruoxi; You, Xinyuan; Liu, Qinglei; Zhang, Wang; Su, Yishi; Su, Huilan; Zhang, Di

    2016-07-26

    Photoelectric conversion driven by sunlight has a broad range of energy/environmental applications (e.g., in solar cells and water splitting). However, difficulties are encountered in the separation of photoexcited charges. Here, we realize a long-range (∼1.5 μm period) electric polarization via asymmetric localization of surface plasmons on a three-dimensional silver structure (3D-Ag). This visible-light-responsive effect-the photo-Dember effect, can be analogous to the thermoelectric effect, in which hot carriers are thermally generated instead of being photogenerated. The induced electric field can efficiently separate photogenerated charges, enabling sunlight-driven overall water splitting on a series of dopant-free commercial semiconductor particles (i.e., ZnO, CeO2, TiO2, and WO3) once they are combined with the 3D-Ag substrate. These photocatalytic processes can last over 30 h on 3D-Ag+ZnO, 3D-Ag+CeO2, and 3D-Ag+TiO2, thus demonstrating good catalytic stability for these systems. Using commercial WO3 powder as a reference, the amount of O2 generated with 3D-Ag+CeO2 surpasses even its recently reported counterpart in which sacrificial reagents had to be involved to run half-reactions. This plasmon-mediated charge separation strategy provides an effective way to improve the efficiency of photoelectric energy conversion, which can be useful in photovoltaics and photocatalysis. PMID:27351779

  18. Physical processes effecting the baryonic matter content of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panayotova, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    We have discussed physical processes effecting the generation of the matter content of the Universe. First we have studied the processes effecting Big Bang Nucleosynthesis during which the chemical content of the baryonic component of the Universe was produced. We have provided detail numerical analysis of the BBN production of ^4He, Y_p, in the presence of ν_e ← ν_s neutrino oscillations, effective after electron neutrino decoupling. We have accounted for all known effects of neutrino oscillations on cosmological nucleosyntesis. We have obtained cosmological bounds corresponding to δ Y_p/Y_p= 5.2 % in correspondance with the recently found higher uncertainty in ^4He. Iso-helium contours for δ Y_p/Y_p > 5% and population of the ν_s state δ N_s = 0; 0.5; 0.7; 0.9, both for resonant and non-resonant oscillations have been calculated. Next we have studied the processes effecting the formation of the baryon content of the Universe. We have investigated a baryogenesis model based on Affleck and Dine baryogenesis scenario, Scalar Field Condensate (SFC) baryogenesis model. We have provided precise numerical analysis of the SFC baryogenesis model numerically accounting for the particle creation processes by the time varying scalar field. We have numerically obtained the dependence of the field and baryon charge evolution and their final values on the model's parameters, namely: the gauge coupling constant α, the Hubble constant during inflation H_I, the mass of the field m and the self coupling constants λ_i. We have found the range of the model parameters for which a baryon asymmetry value close to the observed one can be generated.

  19. Low operating voltage single ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors enabled by self-assembled organic gate nanodielectrics.

    PubMed

    Ju, Sanghyun; Lee, Kangho; Janes, David B; Yoon, Myung-Han; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2005-11-01

    The development of nanowire transistors enabled by appropriate dielectrics is of great interest for flexible electronic and display applications. In this study, nanowire field-effect transistors (NW-FETs) composed of individual ZnO nanowires are fabricated using a self-assembled superlattice (SAS) as the gate insulator. The 15-nm SAS film used in this study consists of four interlinked layer-by-layer self-assembled organic monolayers and exhibits excellent insulating properties with a large specific capacitance, 180 nF/cm2, and a low leakage current density, 1 x 10(-8) A/cm2. SAS-based ZnO NW-FETs display excellent drain current saturation at Vds = 0.5 V, a threshold voltage (Vth) of -0.4 V, a channel mobility of approximately 196 cm2/V s, an on-off current ratio of approximately 10(4), and a subthreshold slope of 400 mV/dec. For comparison, ZnO NW-FETs are also fabricated using 70-nm SiO2 as the gate insulator. Implementation of the SAS gate dielectric reduces the NW-FET operating voltage dramatically with more than 1 order of magnitude enhancement of the on-current. These results strongly indicate that SAS-based ZnO NW-FETs are promising candidates for future flexible display and logic technologies.

  20. The use of the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side-Effect Rating Scale (LUNSERS) in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Morrison, P; Gaskill, D; Meehan, T; Lunney, P; Lawrence, G; Collings, P

    2000-12-01

    Forty-four mental health clients completed the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side-Effect Rating Scale (LUNSERS)--a self-rating scale to assess the prevalence and intensity of neuroleptic side-effects. In the month prior to the study, 50% of the clients surveyed had experienced more than half of the side-effects outlined on the 41-item scale. A prevalence profile allowed us to rank the frequency of individual side-effects across the sample. Some side-effects such as 'difficulty concentrating', 'difficulty remembering', 'tiredness' and 'restlessness' were experienced by most of the clients in the study while 'unusual skin marks', 'difficulty passing water', 'rashes' were experienced by a few. A prevalence profile may be a useful guide in developing strategies for managing side-effects more effectively in small groups of clients. In addition, the use of the LUNSERS in clinical practice would enable case managers to establish baseline measures for individual clients and evaluate changes in medication and other non-medical strategies for reducing unwanted side-effects. The identification and assessment of antipsychotic side-effects is an important area for client and professional carer education.

  1. Universal Charge Diffusion and the Butterfly Effect in Holographic Theories.

    PubMed

    Blake, Mike

    2016-08-26

    We study charge diffusion in holographic scaling theories with a particle-hole symmetry. We show that these theories have a universal regime in which the diffusion constant is given by D_{c}=Cv_{B}^{2}/(2πT), where v_{B} is the velocity of the butterfly effect. The constant of proportionality C depends only on the scaling exponents of the infrared theory. Our results suggest an unexpected connection between transport at strong coupling and quantum chaos. PMID:27610842

  2. Effective Temperature and Universal Conductivity Scaling in Organic Semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Hassan; van de Ruit, Kevin; Kemerink, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the scalability of the temperature- and electric field-dependence of the conductivity of disordered organic semiconductors to ‘universal’ curves by two different but commonly employed methods; by so-called universal scaling and by using the effective temperature concept. Experimentally both scaling methods were found to be equally applicable to the out-of-plane charge transport in PEDOT:PSS thin films of various compositions. Both methods are shown to be equivalent in terms of functional dependence and to have identical limiting behavior. The experimentally observed scaling behavior can be reproduced by a numerical nearest-neighbor hopping model, accounting for the Coulomb interaction, the high charge carrier concentration and the energetic disorder. The underlying physics can be captured in a simple empirical model, describing the effective temperature of the charge carrier distribution as the outcome of a heat balance between Joule heating and (effective) temperature-dependent energy loss to the lattice. PMID:26581975

  3. Schooling Effects on Subsequent University Performance: Evidence for the Uk University Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J.; Naylor, R.

    2005-01-01

    From a unique data set identifying the school attended prior to university for a full cohort of UK university students; we examine the determinants of final degree classification. We exploit the detailed school-level information and focus on the influence of school characteristics; such as school type; on subsequent performance of students at…

  4. Russian Practices in Rating the Effectiveness of University Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balatskii, E.

    2014-01-01

    Russian universities do not do well in international rankings. Recent attempts in Russia to create different forms of ranking are aimed at reflecting what strengths universities there may have, but it is up to the universities themselves to find ways to better characterize themselves in existing systems of ranking.

  5. The Effects of University-Industry Relationships and Academic Research on Scientific Performance: Synergy or Substitution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manjarres-Henriquez, Liney; Gutierrez-Gracia, Antonio; Carrion-Garcia, Andres; Vega-Jurado, Jaider

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates whether university-industry relationships (UIR) and academic research activities have complementary effects on the scientific production of university lecturers. The analysis is based on a case study of two Spanish universities. We find that the effects of R&D contracts with industry, and academic research activity on…

  6. Relativistic Doppler effect: universal spectra and zeptosecond pulses.

    PubMed

    Gordienko, S; Pukhov, A; Shorokhov, O; Baeva, T

    2004-09-10

    We report on a numerical observation of the train of zeptosecond pulses produced by the reflection of a relativistically intense femtosecond laser pulse from the oscillating boundary of an overdense plasma because of the Doppler effect. These pulses promise to become unique experimental and technological tools since their length is of the order of the Bohr radius and the intensity is extremely high proportional, variant 10(19) W/cm(2). We present the physical mechanism, analytical theory, and direct particle-in-cell simulations. We show that the harmonic spectrum is universal: the intensity of nth harmonic scales as 1/n(p) for n<4gamma(2), where gamma is the largest gamma factor of the electron fluid boundary, and p=3 and p=5/2 for the broadband and quasimonochromatic laser pulses, respectively.

  7. Effects of quantum fluctuations of metric on the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rongjia

    2016-09-01

    We consider a model of modified gravity from the nonperturbative quantization of a metric. We obtain the modified gravitational field equations and the modified conservational equations. We apply it to the FLRW spacetime and find that due to the quantum fluctuations a bounce universe can be obtained and a decelerated expansion can also possibly be obtained in a dark energy dominated epoch. We also discuss the effects of quantum fluctuations on inflation parameters (such as slow-roll parameters, spectral index, and the spectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation) and find values of parameters in the comparing the predictions of inflation can also work to drive the current epoch of acceleration. We obtain the constraints on the parameter of the theory from the observation of the big bang nucleosynthesis.

  8. A Universal Moiré Effect and Application in X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Houxun; Panna, Alireza; Gomella, Andrew A.; Bennett, Eric E.; Znati, Sami; Chen, Lei; Wen, Han

    2016-01-01

    A moiré pattern is created by superimposing two black-and-white or gray-scale patterns of regular geometry, such as two sets of evenly spaced lines. We observed an analogous effect between two transparent phase masks in a light beam which occurs at a distance. This phase moiré effect and the classic moiré effect are shown to be the two ends of a continuous spectrum. The phase moiré effect allows the detection of sub-resolution intensity or phase patterns with a transparent screen. When applied to x-ray imaging, it enables a polychromatic far-field interferometer (PFI) without absorption gratings. X-ray interferometry can non-invasively detect refractive index variations inside an object1–10. Current bench-top interferometers operate in the near field with limitations in sensitivity and x-ray dose efficiency2, 5, 7–10. The universal moiré effect helps overcome these limitations and obviates the need to make hard x-ray absorption gratings of sub-micron periods. PMID:27746823

  9. Early universe cosmology, effective supergravity, and invariants of algebraic forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Kuver

    2015-09-01

    The presence of light scalars can have profound effects on early universe cosmology, influencing its thermal history as well as paradigms like inflation and baryogenesis. Effective supergravity provides a framework to make quantifiable, model-independent studies of these effects. The Riemannian curvature of the Kähler manifold spanned by scalars belonging to chiral superfields, evaluated along supersymmetry breaking directions, provides an order parameter (in the sense that it must necessarily take certain values) for phenomena as diverse as slow roll modular inflation, nonthermal cosmological histories, and the viability of Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. Within certain classes of UV completions, the order parameter for theories with n scalar moduli is conjectured to be related to invariants of n -ary cubic forms (for example, for models with three moduli, the order parameter is given by a function on the ring of invariants spanned by the Aronhold invariants). Within these completions, and under the caveats spelled out, this may provide an avenue to obtain necessary conditions for the above phenomena that are in principle calculable given nothing but the intersection numbers of a Calabi-Yau compactification geometry. As an additional result, abstract relations between holomorphic sectional and bisectional curvatures are utilized to constrain Affleck-Dine baryogenesis on a wide class of Kähler geometries.

  10. Supporting Pre-Service Teachers' Technology-Enabled Learning Design Thinking through Whole of Programme Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt; Highfield, Kate; Furney, Pam; Mowbray, Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains a development and evaluation project aimed at transforming two pre-service teacher education programmes at Macquarie University to more effectively cultivate students' technology-enabled learning design thinking. The process of transformation was based upon an explicit and sustained focus on developing university academics'…

  11. A universal moiré effect and application in X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Houxun; Panna, Alireza; Gomella, Andrew A.; Bennett, Eric E.; Znati, Sami; Chen, Lei; Wen, Han

    2016-09-01

    A moiré pattern results from superimposing two black-and-white or greyscale patterns of regular geometry, such as two sets of evenly spaced lines. Here, we report the observation of an analogous effect with two transparent phase masks put in a light beam. The phase moiré effect and the classic moiré effect are shown to be the two ends of a continuous spectrum. The former allows the detection of sub-resolution intensity or phase patterns with a transparent screen. When applied to X-ray imaging, it enables the realization of a polychromatic far-field interferometer (PFI) without the need for absorption gratings. X-ray interferometry can non-invasively detect refractive index variations inside an object. Current bench-top interferometers operate in the near field with limitations in sensitivity and X-ray dose efficiency. The universal moiré effect helps overcome these limitations and obviates the need for using hard X-ray absorption gratings with sub-micrometre periods.

  12. Assessing the Relationship between Servant Leadership and Effective Teaching in a Private University Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Karen

    2011-01-01

    To address the competition for students, the demand for increasing student enrollments and the pressure for student satisfaction, teaching effectiveness has become an increasingly common discussion on university campuses. The competition for students among universities requires a new approach to teaching. As university campuses continue to compete…

  13. Rationale for Students' Participation in University Governance and Organizational Effectiveness in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akomolafe, C. O.; Ibijola, E. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the rationale for students' participation in university governance and organizational effectiveness. A descriptive research of survey design was adopted. The population consisted of all staff and students of Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State and Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State. 700 subjects…

  14. The Effect of Anomie on Academic Dishonesty among University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruana, Albert; Ramaseshan, B.; Ewing, Michael T.

    2000-01-01

    Following a review of the literature on anomie and academic dishonesty at the university level, this paper reports on a survey of 300 undergraduate business students in Australia which found the newly developed measure both reliable and valid for measuring actual cheating and plagiarism. Concludes that universities need to foster development of an…

  15. Lecture Capture: An Effective Tool for Universal Instructional Design?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Susan; Vajoczki, Susan; Voros, Geraldine; Vine, Michelle M.; Fenton, Nancy; Tarkowski, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Student enrolment and instructional accommodation requests are rising in higher education. Universities lack the capacity to meet increasing accommodation needs, thus research in this area is required. In Ontario, new provincial legislation requires that all public institutions, including universities, make their services accessible to persons…

  16. Effective Prototype Costing Policies in Research Universities: Are They Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Maureen W.; Abu-Duhou, Ibtisam

    Policy problems of prototype costing at research universities are discussed, based on a case study of a clinical treatment prototype program at a research university hospital. Prototypes programs generate reproducible knowledge with useful applications and are primarily developed in professional schools. The potential of using costing prototypes…

  17. (Un)Desirable Effects of Output Funding for Flemish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantillon, B.; De Ridder, A.; Vanhaecht, E.; Verbist, G.

    2011-01-01

    Governments introducing output parameters (e.g. graduation numbers) in the funding rule of universities believe that it will induce universities to raise their teaching efforts while educational standards will remain unaffected. In this article we first show on theoretical grounds that this desire can only be fulfilled if there exist positive…

  18. Effect of Facebook on the life of Medical University students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Facebook is a social networking service launched in February 2004, owned and operated by Facebook, Inc. As of June 2012, Facebook reports more than 1 billion active users. Objective of study was to evaluate the effect of Facebook on the social life, health and behavior of medical students. Methodology It was a cross sectional, observational and questionnaire based study conducted in Dow University OF Health Sciences during the period of January 2012 to November 2012. We attempted to interview all the participants who could be approached during the period of the study. Participants were MBBS students, while all students of other courses and programs were taken as exclusion criteria. Approximately 1050 questionnaires were distributed to participants. Fifty questionnaires were rejected due to incomplete answers, yielding 1000 usable responses for an approximate 95% response rate. Informed verbal consent was taken from each participant. Study was ethically approved by Institutional Review Board of Dow University of Health Sciences. All the data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. Result Out of total 1000 participants, males were 400 (40%) and females were 600 (60%). Participants were in the age group of 18–25 years with a mean age of 20.08 years. Most of the participants were using Facebook daily (N = 640, 64%) for around 3–4 hours (N = 401, 40.1%). Majority of them (N = 359, 35.9%) believed that they were equally active on Facebook and in real life while few believed their social life became worse after start using Facebook (N = 372, 37.2%). Most of the participants admitted that they were considered as shy in real world (N = 390, 39.0%) while in the world of Facebook they were considered as fun loving by their friends (N = 603, 60.3%). A large number of participants (N = 715, 75%) complained of mood swings. Conclusion Youngsters are willing to compromise their health, social life, studies for the sake of fun and

  19. Quasi-gravitational Effect in the Accelerating Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunian, H. A.

    2016-09-01

    The possibility of measuring of the accelerated expansion rate at any point of our Universe is considered. It is argued that as the only reference frame in the Universe expanding with acceleration can serve the cosmological horizon - the most distant sphere belonging the observable Universe. All the points of this sphere represent the initial point coincided with the observer's local point at the beginning of time. And at the present the observer moves away from all that points. Simple calculations show that the acceleration of the observer with respect to the cosmological horizon is very small and numerically equal to the Pioneers' anomalous acceleration.

  20. Faculty Member Perceptions of Department Head Leadership Effectiveness at a State University in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbulut, Meltem; Nevra Seggie, Fatma; Börkan, Bengü

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the leadership effectiveness of department heads at a state university in Turkey using a model of leadership effectiveness that includes the use of multiple leadership roles to manage situations arising from internal and external university environments. Leadership effectiveness was measured by surveying 70 faculty members in…

  1. Probing the Early Universe with the SZ Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joy, M. K.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) which we observe today is relic radiation which last interacted with matter more than 10 billion years ago, when the expanding universe cooled to the point that free electrons and ionized nuclei recombined to form atoms. Prior to recombination, scattering between photons and free electrons was a very frequent occurrence, and the distance light could penetrate was small; afterwards, with free electrons out of circulation, the universe became largely transparent to light. Thus, the CMBR photons we observe today give us a clear view of the state of the early universe. Measured deviations in the intensity of the CMBR trace the small perturbations in the primordial matter density, which have been amplified by gravitational forces to form the magnificent, complex structures which comprise the present-day universe.

  2. Anxiety among University Students and Its Effects on Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ongel, Kurtulus; Balci, Umut Gok; Simsek, Yasemin; Ileri, Hande; Kucuk, Ece Fidan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: It is purposed to determine food habits of the students of Faculty of Medicine at Izmir Katip Çelebi University and to research how it is affected by anxiety in this study. Methodology: While the study was carried out in March, April and May in 2014, its universe was composed of totally 196 students who were from 1st, 2nd and 3rd classes…

  3. Human resources for health and universal health coverage: fostering equity and effective coverage.

    PubMed

    Campbell, James; Buchan, James; Cometto, Giorgio; David, Benedict; Dussault, Gilles; Fogstad, Helga; Fronteira, Inês; Lozano, Rafael; Nyonator, Frank; Pablos-Méndez, Ariel; Quain, Estelle E; Starrs, Ann; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2013-11-01

    Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) involves distributing resources, especially human resources for health (HRH), to match population needs. This paper explores the policy lessons on HRH from four countries that have achieved sustained improvements in UHC: Brazil, Ghana, Mexico and Thailand. Its purpose is to inform global policy and financial commitments on HRH in support of UHC. The paper reports on country experiences using an analytical framework that examines effective coverage in relation to the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (AAAQ) of HRH. The AAAQ dimensions make it possible to perform tracing analysis on HRH policy actions since 1990 in the four countries of interest in relation to national trends in workforce numbers and population mortality rates. The findings inform key principles for evidence-based decision-making on HRH in support of UHC. First, HRH are critical to the expansion of health service coverage and the package of benefits; second, HRH strategies in each of the AAAQ dimensions collectively support achievements in effective coverage; and third, success is achieved through partnerships involving health and non-health actors. Facing the unprecedented health and development challenges that affect all countries and transforming HRH evidence into policy and practice must be at the heart of UHC and the post-2015 development agenda. It is a political imperative requiring national commitment and leadership to maximize the impact of available financial and human resources, and improve healthy life expectancy, with the recognition that improvements in health care are enabled by a health workforce that is fit for purpose.

  4. Transcriptome-based exon capture enables highly cost-effective comparative genomic data collection at moderate evolutionary scales

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, exon capture has largely been restricted to species with fully sequenced genomes, which has precluded its application to lineages that lack high quality genomic resources. We developed a novel strategy for designing array-based exon capture in chipmunks (Tamias) based on de novo transcriptome assemblies. We evaluated the performance of our approach across specimens from four chipmunk species. Results We selectively targeted 11,975 exons (~4 Mb) on custom capture arrays, and enriched over 99% of the targets in all libraries. The percentage of aligned reads was highly consistent (24.4-29.1%) across all specimens, including in multiplexing up to 20 barcoded individuals on a single array. Base coverage among specimens and within targets in each species library was uniform, and the performance of targets among independent exon captures was highly reproducible. There was no decrease in coverage among chipmunk species, which showed up to 1.5% sequence divergence in coding regions. We did observe a decline in capture performance of a subset of targets designed from a much more divergent ground squirrel genome (30 My), however, over 90% of the targets were also recovered. Final assemblies yielded over ten thousand orthologous loci (~3.6 Mb) with thousands of fixed and polymorphic SNPs among species identified. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the potential of a transcriptome-enabled, multiplexed, exon capture method to create thousands of informative markers for population genomic and phylogenetic studies in non-model species across the tree of life. PMID:22900609

  5. The Effectiveness of Coursework Assessment in Mathematics Service Courses--Studies at Two Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Susan; Goldfinch, Judy; Searl, John

    2001-01-01

    Describes the introduction and evaluation of the effectiveness of a single group project given at a new university, and 10 individual tasks at an ancient university, to devise appropriate and relevant assessments for first-year service mathematics courses for science and engineering. Studies the effects of these tasks on attitudes toward…

  6. Relationship between Teachers' Effective Communication and Students' Academic Achievement at the Northern Border University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Madani, Feras Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication between faculty members and students is one of the concerns of the educational stakeholders at the Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia. This study investigates the relationship between teachers' effective communication and students' academic achievement at the Northern Border University. The survey questionnaire…

  7. Outcomes from Enabling Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Oanh; Ball, Katrina

    The outcomes of enabling courses offered in Australia's vocational education and training (VET) sector were examined. "Enabling course" was defined as lower-level preparatory and prevocational courses covering a wide range of areas, including remedial education, bridging courses, precertificate courses, and general employment preparation courses.…

  8. Technology Enabled Learning. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers on technology-enabled learning and human resource development. Among results found in "Current State of Technology-enabled Learning Programs in Select Federal Government Organizations: a Case Study of Ten Organizations" (Letitia A. Combs) are the following: the dominant delivery method is traditional…

  9. The Effectiveness of Alcohol Policies in 4-Year Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Gayle T.

    2010-01-01

    A problem facing American universities is heavy drinking by the student body which results in unintentional injuries and deaths, illegal offenses, sexual assault, altercations, and academic demise. The relationship between the type of alcohol policy enacted on campus and alcohol consumption among undergraduate students attending 4-year public…

  10. The effectiveness of alcohol policies in 4-year public universities.

    PubMed

    Walter, Gayle; Kowalczyk, John

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the type of alcohol policy in place in 4-year public universities against the odds of heavy drinking. Data was collected during the months of April-June 2010 using the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey. The participants included a random sample of undergraduate students from 4 public universities in the Midwest. Two of the universities had policies in place allowing the sale and use of alcohol on campus, and 2 universities had policies in place prohibiting the sale and use of alcohol. There were a total of 186 participants which included 63 males and 123 females. There was statistical significance in gender, age, and participation in sports against the odds of heavy drinking (P < .05). The type of policy in place was not significantly associated with the odds of heavy drinking. Even though there was an association between gender, age, and participation in sports with the odds of heavy drinking among college students in this sample, the type of alcohol policy (wet or dry) had no association. The results demonstrate the need for the implementation of alcohol prevention strategies, in addition to policy, to reduce the number of college students who drink heavily. It may be beneficial to target those alcohol intervention programs to the high risk groups such as males, over the age of 21, and those students who participate in sports.

  11. Breakup Effects on University Students' Perceived Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    The Problem: Problems that might be expected to affect perceived academic performance were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: Breakup Distress Scale scores, less time since the breakup and no new relationship contributed to 16% of the variance on perceived academic performance. Variables that were related to academic…

  12. E-Learning for University Effectiveness in the Developing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekiwu, Denis

    2010-01-01

    The globalisation trends of society have taken centre stage meaning that people around the world are required to develop high level but low cost technologies and innovative competencies in order to enhance social development. In the field of higher education, university managers need to join the technological revolution by adopting low cost ICT…

  13. The effect of a massive object on an expanding universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandra, Roshina; Lasenby, Anthony N.; Hobson, Michael P.

    2012-06-01

    A tetrad-based procedure is presented for solving Einstein's field equations for spherically symmetric systems; this approach was first discussed by Lasenby, Doran & Gull in the language of geometric algebra. The method is used to derive metrics describing a point mass in a spatially flat, open and closed expanding universe, respectively. In the spatially flat case, a simple coordinate transformation relates the metric to the corresponding one derived by McVittie. Nonetheless, our use of non-comoving ('physical') coordinates greatly facilitates physical interpretation. For the open and closed universes, our metrics describe different space-times to the corresponding McVittie metrics and we believe the latter to be incorrect. In the closed case, our metric possesses an image mass at the antipodal point of the universe. We calculate the geodesic equations for the spatially flat metric and interpret them. For radial motion in the Newtonian limit, the force acting on a test particle consists of the usual 1/r2 inwards component due to the central mass and a cosmological component proportional to r that is directed outwards (inwards) when the expansion of the universe is accelerating (decelerating). For the standard Λ cold dark matter concordance cosmology, the cosmological force reverses direction at about z≈ 0.67. We also derive an invariant fully general relativistic expression, valid for arbitrary spherically symmetric systems, for the force required to hold a test particle at rest relative to the central point mass.

  14. DEEP (Documenting Effective Educational Practice) Colleges and Universities as Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzie, Jillian; Schuh, John H.

    2008-01-01

    The value of establishing a strong community in institutions of higher education has been in the forefront of the thinking of educators for a number of years. As colleges and universities have grown in complexity, establishing and sustaining strong campus communities has been described as challenging and difficult. John Gardner has provided a…

  15. Alcohol Use among University Students: Incidence, Reasons, and Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Shane Gregory; Roth, David; Schmelkin, Liora P.

    In the recent past, research on binge drinking has focused on the incidence and reasons for drinking among college students. Students at a mid-sized suburban university answered questions regarding their alcohol consumption, their reasons for drinking, and the negative experiences that they had as a result of drinking. The results of this survey…

  16. Enabling Remote Access to Fieldwork: Gaining Insight into the Pedagogic Effectiveness of "Direct" and "Remote" Field Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Alison; Collins, Trevor; Maskall, John; Lea, John; Lunt, Paul; Davies, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This study considers the pedagogical effectiveness of remote access to fieldwork locations. Forty-one students from across the GEES disciplines (geography, earth and environmental sciences) undertook a fieldwork exercise, supported by two lecturers. Twenty students accessed the field site directly and the remainder accessed the site remotely using…

  17. Developing the practice context to enable more effective pain management with older people: an action research approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper, which draws upon an Emancipatory Action Research (EAR) approach, unearths how the complexities of context influence the realities of nursing practice. While the intention of the project was to identify and change factors in the practice context that inhibit effective person-centred pain management practices with older people (65 years or older), reflective critical engagement with the findings identified that enhancing pain management practices with older people was dependent on cultural change in the unit as a whole. Methods An EAR approach was utilised. The project was undertaken in a surgical unit that conducted complex abdominal surgery. Eighty-five percent (n = 48) of nursing staff participated in the two-year project (05/NIR02/107). Data were obtained through the use of facilitated critical reflection with nursing staff. Results Three key themes (psychological safety, leadership, oppression) and four subthemes (power, horizontal violence, distorted perceptions, autonomy) were found to influence the way in which effective nursing practice was realised. Within the theme of 'context,' effective leadership and the creation of a psychologically safe environment were key elements in the enhancement of all aspects of nursing practice. Conclusions Whilst other research has identified the importance of 'practice context' and models and frameworks are emerging to address this issue, the theme of 'psychological safety' has been given little attention in the knowledge translation/implementation literature. Within the principles of EAR, facilitated reflective sessions were found to create 'psychologically safe spaces' that supported practitioners to develop effective person-centred nursing practices in complex clinical environments. PMID:21284857

  18. A survey of informatics platforms that enable distributed comparative effectiveness research using multi-institutional heterogenous clinical data.

    PubMed

    Sittig, Dean F; Hazlehurst, Brian L; Brown, Jeffrey; Murphy, Shawn; Rosenman, Marc; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Wilcox, Adam B

    2012-07-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has the potential to transform the current health care delivery system by identifying the most effective medical and surgical treatments, diagnostic tests, disease prevention methods, and ways to deliver care for specific clinical conditions. To be successful, such research requires the identification, capture, aggregation, integration, and analysis of disparate data sources held by different institutions with diverse representations of the relevant clinical events. In an effort to address these diverse demands, there have been multiple new designs and implementations of informatics platforms that provide access to electronic clinical data and the governance infrastructure required for interinstitutional CER. The goal of this manuscript is to help investigators understand why these informatics platforms are required and to compare and contrast 6 large-scale, recently funded, CER-focused informatics platform development efforts. We utilized an 8-dimension, sociotechnical model of health information technology to help guide our work. We identified 6 generic steps that are necessary in any distributed, multi-institutional CER project: data identification, extraction, modeling, aggregation, analysis, and dissemination. We expect that over the next several years these projects will provide answers to many important, and heretofore unanswerable, clinical research questions.

  19. A survey of informatics platforms that enable distributed comparative effectiveness research using multi-institutional heterogenous clinical data.

    PubMed

    Sittig, Dean F; Hazlehurst, Brian L; Brown, Jeffrey; Murphy, Shawn; Rosenman, Marc; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Wilcox, Adam B

    2012-07-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has the potential to transform the current health care delivery system by identifying the most effective medical and surgical treatments, diagnostic tests, disease prevention methods, and ways to deliver care for specific clinical conditions. To be successful, such research requires the identification, capture, aggregation, integration, and analysis of disparate data sources held by different institutions with diverse representations of the relevant clinical events. In an effort to address these diverse demands, there have been multiple new designs and implementations of informatics platforms that provide access to electronic clinical data and the governance infrastructure required for interinstitutional CER. The goal of this manuscript is to help investigators understand why these informatics platforms are required and to compare and contrast 6 large-scale, recently funded, CER-focused informatics platform development efforts. We utilized an 8-dimension, sociotechnical model of health information technology to help guide our work. We identified 6 generic steps that are necessary in any distributed, multi-institutional CER project: data identification, extraction, modeling, aggregation, analysis, and dissemination. We expect that over the next several years these projects will provide answers to many important, and heretofore unanswerable, clinical research questions. PMID:22692259

  20. Van der Waals metal-semiconductor junction: Weak Fermi level pinning enables effective tuning of Schottky barrier

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Yuanyue; Stradins, Paul; Wei, Su -Huai

    2016-04-22

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors have shown great potential for electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, their development is limited by a large Schottky barrier (SB) at the metal-semiconductor junction (MSJ), which is difficult to tune by using conventional metals because of the effect of strong Fermi level pinning (FLP). We show that this problem can be overcome by using 2D metals, which are bounded with 2D semiconductors through van der Waals (vdW) interactions. This success relies on a weak FLP at the vdW MSJ, which is attributed to the suppression of metal-induced gap states. Consequently, the SB becomes tunable and can vanishmore » with proper 2D metals (for example, H-NbS2). This work not only offers new insights into the fundamental properties of heterojunctions but also uncovers the great potential of 2D metals for device applications.« less

  1. High-performance GaAs metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors enabled by self-assembled nanodielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H. C.; Ye, P. D.; Xuan, Y.; Lu, G.; Facchetti, A.; Marks, T. J.

    2006-10-01

    High-performance GaAs metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MISFETs) fabricated with very thin self-assembled organic nanodielectrics (SANDs), deposited from solution at room temperature, are demonstrated. A submicron gate-length depletion-mode n-channel GaAs MISFET with SAND thicknesses ranging from 5.5to16.5nm exhibit a gate leakage current density <10-5A/cm2 at a gate bias smaller than 3V, a maximum drain current of 370mA/mm at a forward gate bias of 2V, and a maximum intrinsic transconductance of 170mS/mm. The importance of appropriate GaAs surface chemistry treatments on SAND/GaAs interface properties is also presented. Application of SANDs to III-V compound semiconductors affords more opportunities to manipulate the complex III-V surface chemistry with broad materials options.

  2. Spontaneous Genomic Alterations in a Chimeric Model of Colorectal Cancer Enable Metastasis and Guide Effective Combinatorial Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bressel, Angela; Yalavarthi, Sireesha; Zi, Tong; Potz, Darren; Farlow, Samuel; Brodeur, Joelle; Monti, Anthony; Reddipalli, Shailaja; Xiao, Qiurong; Bottega, Steve; Feng, Bin; Chiu, M. Isabel; Bosenberg, Marcus; Heyer, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer is the second most common cause of cancer mortality in the Western world with metastasis commonly present at the time of diagnosis. Screening for propagation and metastatic behavior in a novel chimeric-mouse colon cancer model, driven by mutant p53 and β-Catenin, led to the identification of a unique, invasive adenocarcinoma. Comparison of the genome of this tumor, CB42, with genomes from non-propagating tumors by array CGH and sequencing revealed an amplicon on chromosome five containing CDK6 and CDK14, and a KRAS mutation, respectively. Single agent small molecule inhibition of either CDK6 or MEK, a kinase downstream of KRAS, led to tumor growth inhibition in vivo whereas combination therapy not only led to regression of the subcutaneous tumors, but also near complete inhibition of lung metastasis; thus, genomic analysis of this tumor led to effective, individualized treatment. PMID:25162504

  3. Van der Waals metal-semiconductor junction: Weak Fermi level pinning enables effective tuning of Schottky barrier

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanyue; Stradins, Paul; Wei, Su-Huai

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors have shown great potential for electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, their development is limited by a large Schottky barrier (SB) at the metal-semiconductor junction (MSJ), which is difficult to tune by using conventional metals because of the effect of strong Fermi level pinning (FLP). We show that this problem can be overcome by using 2D metals, which are bounded with 2D semiconductors through van der Waals (vdW) interactions. This success relies on a weak FLP at the vdW MSJ, which is attributed to the suppression of metal-induced gap states. Consequently, the SB becomes tunable and can vanish with proper 2D metals (for example, H-NbS2). This work not only offers new insights into the fundamental properties of heterojunctions but also uncovers the great potential of 2D metals for device applications. PMID:27152360

  4. "Water-in-salt" electrolytes enable the use of cost-effective aluminum current collectors for aqueous high-voltage batteries.

    PubMed

    Kühnel, R-S; Reber, D; Remhof, A; Figi, R; Bleiner, D; Battaglia, C

    2016-08-16

    The extended electrochemical stability window offered by highly concentrated electrolytes allows the operation of aqueous batteries at voltages significantly above the thermodynamic stability limit of water, at which the stability of the current collector potentially limits the cell voltage. Here we report the observation of suppressed anodic dissolution of aluminum in "water-in-salt" electrolytes enabling roll-to-roll electrode fabrication for high-voltage aqueous lithium-ion batteries on cost-effective light-weight aluminum current collectors using established lithium-ion battery technology. PMID:27488137

  5. "Water-in-salt" electrolytes enable the use of cost-effective aluminum current collectors for aqueous high-voltage batteries.

    PubMed

    Kühnel, R-S; Reber, D; Remhof, A; Figi, R; Bleiner, D; Battaglia, C

    2016-08-16

    The extended electrochemical stability window offered by highly concentrated electrolytes allows the operation of aqueous batteries at voltages significantly above the thermodynamic stability limit of water, at which the stability of the current collector potentially limits the cell voltage. Here we report the observation of suppressed anodic dissolution of aluminum in "water-in-salt" electrolytes enabling roll-to-roll electrode fabrication for high-voltage aqueous lithium-ion batteries on cost-effective light-weight aluminum current collectors using established lithium-ion battery technology.

  6. The Effect of Diversity Climate Perception on Alienation of Students to University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtulmus, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the effect of diversity climate perception on alienation of students to university. The research was carried out with relational survey model. 333 undergraduate students in Faculty of Education, Medical, and Faculty of Theology of Dicle University constituted the participant group. Research data were…

  7. The Value and Attributes of an Effective Preparatory English Program: Perceptions of Saudi University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Maram George

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of gender and geographical location on the perceptions of Saudi university students regarding the value of preparatory English programs and their attributes. Data was collected during the fall of 2013 from three sample universities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) using an online survey as the instrument.…

  8. Teaching Ethical Copyright Behavior: Assessing the Effects of a University-Sponsored Computing Ethics Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemens, Jennifer Christie; Kopp, Steven W.

    2006-01-01

    Universities have become sensitized to the potential for students' illegal downloading of copyrighted materials. Education has been advocated as one way to curb downloading of copyrighted digital content. This study investigates the effectiveness of a university-sponsored computing ethics education program. The program positively influenced…

  9. Mediating the Effect of Gratitude in the Relationship between Forgiveness and Life Satisfaction among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aricioglu, Ahu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effect of gratitude in the relationship between forgiveness and life satisfaction. A convenience sample of 396 (234 (59%) females, 162 (41%) males) university students was recruited from a University in Denizli, Turkey. The participants' ages ranged between 18 and 27 years, with an average of…

  10. Towards Improved Teaching Effectiveness in Nigerian Public Universities: Instrument Design and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibong, Ijeoma Aniedi; Nja, Mbe Egom

    2011-01-01

    This research is conducted to examine what is currently evaluated with respect to teaching in Nigerian public universities and to produce instruments that would be useful for examining the course and teaching effectiveness of course lecturers. Telephone interview of ten (10) professors in ten public Nigerian Universities is used to elicit…

  11. Universal Design and Study Abroad: (Re-)Designing Programs for Effectiveness and Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soneson, Heidi M.; Cordano, Roberta J.

    2009-01-01

    Universal Design provides a framework to effectively increase the number of students studying abroad by creating and expanding supportive environments designed to meet a wide range of student needs. While the concept of Universal Design originated with the needs of students with disabilities, its value and application extend to a much wider…

  12. The universe as telescope - How deceptive is the gravitational lens effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelmann, Matthias

    1992-07-01

    The effect of gravitational lensing on our picture of the large-scale universe is examined. Emphasis is given to the appearance of distant quasars adjacent to nearby galaxies. It is concluded that there is a real possibility that gravitational lensing is creating a seriously distorted image of the universe.

  13. The Effects of Gender and Loneliness Levels on Ways of Coping among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecen, A. Rezan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of gender differences and levels of loneliness on ways of coping. The sample of the study is composed of 462 university students (245 male, 217 female) from different departments from the Education Faculty at Cukurova University. In this study to collect data related to loneliness as an…

  14. Effects of an Intensive Disability-Focused Training Experience on University Faculty Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Christopher; Lombardi, Allison; Seely, John R.; Gerdes, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluates the short-term effects of a disability-focused training on the disability-related self-efficacy of university faculty. Three consecutive cohorts of faculty (N = 102) participated in an intensive four-day training institute focused on understanding and supporting university students with disabilities. Self-efficacy for…

  15. Differential Effects of Cognitive Load on University Wind Students' Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambaugh, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive load during practice on university wind students' learning. Cognitive load was manipulated through instrument family (woodwind or brass) and the amount of repetition used in practice (highly repetitive or random). University woodwind and valved-brass students (N = 46)…

  16. The Effect of Academic Culture on the Implementation of the EFQM Excellence Model in UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, John; Douglas, Alex; Douglas, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to explore the effect of academic culture on the implementation of the European Foundation for Quality Management's (EFQM) Excellence Model in UK universities. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review reveals several aspects, which collectively define the academic culture in UK universities. These aspects were…

  17. The Effects of Specific Practice Strategy Use on University String Players' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of specific practice strategy use on university string players' performance. Participants ('N" = 40) volunteered for the study and were string players enrolled in orchestra at a major research university. Within a pretest-posttest designed study, participants were assigned to…

  18. The Effectiveness of Two Universal Behavioral Supports for Children with Externalizing Behavior in Head Start Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandra Covington; Lewis, Timothy J.; Stormont, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    To add to the emerging early intervention research on universal supports for children, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an intervention designed to increase teachers' use of two universal behavioral supports on target children's behavior. The children targeted for this study were at elevated risk for problem…

  19. Effective Pedagogical Strategies for Millennial University Students in Communication Sciences and Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseberry-McKibbin, Celeste; Pieretti, Robert; Haberstock, Keith; Estrada, Jovany

    2016-01-01

    University instructors nationwide have been recognizing the increased importance of updating classroom teaching strategies to accommodate the needs of the millennial student generation. This article shares results of surveys of 323 university students in communication sciences and disorders and what they view as effective pedagogical strategies…

  20. Nano-porous architecture of N-doped carbon nanorods grown on graphene to enable synergetic effects of supercapacitance.

    PubMed

    Fan, H S; Wang, H; Zhao, N; Xu, J; Pan, F

    2014-12-18

    A novel nano-porous 3D architecture of N-doped carbon nanorods arrays grown on the surface of graphene has been prepared by carbonizing polyaniline/graphene oxide (PANI-GO) composite with PANI nanorod arrays on both sides of GO nanosheets. The obtained carbon materials are entirely composed of regularly grown carbon nanorods on graphene with height of about 100 nm and width about 30 nm, showing porous property due to the decomposition of PANI chains. The morphology of PANI grown on GO at the different growth stages was investigated to demonstrate the mechanism of the finally hierarchical architecture formation. Due to its large specific surface area and incorporation of the nitrogen groups into the carbon matrix, the obtained 3D carbon material enhances the ionic transport and the super-capacitance by synergetic effect of both double-layer and faradaic capacitances. This study provides a controllable approach to fabricate hierarchical carbon material based on conducting polymers and graphene oxide with promising applications in the high-rate electrode material of supercapacitors.

  1. Nano-porous architecture of N-doped carbon nanorods grown on graphene to enable synergetic effects of supercapacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, H. S.; Wang, H.; Zhao, N.; Xu, J.; Pan, F.

    2014-12-01

    A novel nano-porous 3D architecture of N-doped carbon nanorods arrays grown on the surface of graphene has been prepared by carbonizing polyaniline/graphene oxide (PANI-GO) composite with PANI nanorod arrays on both sides of GO nanosheets. The obtained carbon materials are entirely composed of regularly grown carbon nanorods on graphene with height of about 100 nm and width about 30 nm, showing porous property due to the decomposition of PANI chains. The morphology of PANI grown on GO at the different growth stages was investigated to demonstrate the mechanism of the finally hierarchical architecture formation. Due to its large specific surface area and incorporation of the nitrogen groups into the carbon matrix, the obtained 3D carbon material enhances the ionic transport and the super-capacitance by synergetic effect of both double-layer and faradaic capacitances. This study provides a controllable approach to fabricate hierarchical carbon material based on conducting polymers and graphene oxide with promising applications in the high-rate electrode material of supercapacitors.

  2. Nano-porous architecture of N-doped carbon nanorods grown on graphene to enable synergetic effects of supercapacitance

    PubMed Central

    Fan, H. S.; Wang, H.; Zhao, N.; Xu, J.; Pan, F.

    2014-01-01

    A novel nano-porous 3D architecture of N-doped carbon nanorods arrays grown on the surface of graphene has been prepared by carbonizing polyaniline/graphene oxide (PANI-GO) composite with PANI nanorod arrays on both sides of GO nanosheets. The obtained carbon materials are entirely composed of regularly grown carbon nanorods on graphene with height of about 100 nm and width about 30 nm, showing porous property due to the decomposition of PANI chains. The morphology of PANI grown on GO at the different growth stages was investigated to demonstrate the mechanism of the finally hierarchical architecture formation. Due to its large specific surface area and incorporation of the nitrogen groups into the carbon matrix, the obtained 3D carbon material enhances the ionic transport and the super-capacitance by synergetic effect of both double-layer and faradaic capacitances. This study provides a controllable approach to fabricate hierarchical carbon material based on conducting polymers and graphene oxide with promising applications in the high-rate electrode material of supercapacitors. PMID:25519206

  3. Enable: Developing Instructional Language Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Beth

    The program presented in this manual provides a structure and activities for systematic development of effective listening comprehension in typical and atypical children. The complete ENABLE kit comes with pictures, cut-outs, and puppets to illustrate the directives, questions, and narrative activities. The manual includes an organizational and…

  4. Human resources for health and universal health coverage: fostering equity and effective coverage.

    PubMed

    Campbell, James; Buchan, James; Cometto, Giorgio; David, Benedict; Dussault, Gilles; Fogstad, Helga; Fronteira, Inês; Lozano, Rafael; Nyonator, Frank; Pablos-Méndez, Ariel; Quain, Estelle E; Starrs, Ann; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2013-11-01

    Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) involves distributing resources, especially human resources for health (HRH), to match population needs. This paper explores the policy lessons on HRH from four countries that have achieved sustained improvements in UHC: Brazil, Ghana, Mexico and Thailand. Its purpose is to inform global policy and financial commitments on HRH in support of UHC. The paper reports on country experiences using an analytical framework that examines effective coverage in relation to the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (AAAQ) of HRH. The AAAQ dimensions make it possible to perform tracing analysis on HRH policy actions since 1990 in the four countries of interest in relation to national trends in workforce numbers and population mortality rates. The findings inform key principles for evidence-based decision-making on HRH in support of UHC. First, HRH are critical to the expansion of health service coverage and the package of benefits; second, HRH strategies in each of the AAAQ dimensions collectively support achievements in effective coverage; and third, success is achieved through partnerships involving health and non-health actors. Facing the unprecedented health and development challenges that affect all countries and transforming HRH evidence into policy and practice must be at the heart of UHC and the post-2015 development agenda. It is a political imperative requiring national commitment and leadership to maximize the impact of available financial and human resources, and improve healthy life expectancy, with the recognition that improvements in health care are enabled by a health workforce that is fit for purpose. PMID:24347710

  5. Human resources for health and universal health coverage: fostering equity and effective coverage

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, James; Cometto, Giorgio; David, Benedict; Dussault, Gilles; Fogstad, Helga; Fronteira, Inês; Lozano, Rafael; Nyonator, Frank; Pablos-Méndez, Ariel; Quain, Estelle E; Starrs, Ann; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) involves distributing resources, especially human resources for health (HRH), to match population needs. This paper explores the policy lessons on HRH from four countries that have achieved sustained improvements in UHC: Brazil, Ghana, Mexico and Thailand. Its purpose is to inform global policy and financial commitments on HRH in support of UHC. The paper reports on country experiences using an analytical framework that examines effective coverage in relation to the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (AAAQ) of HRH. The AAAQ dimensions make it possible to perform tracing analysis on HRH policy actions since 1990 in the four countries of interest in relation to national trends in workforce numbers and population mortality rates. The findings inform key principles for evidence-based decision-making on HRH in support of UHC. First, HRH are critical to the expansion of health service coverage and the package of benefits; second, HRH strategies in each of the AAAQ dimensions collectively support achievements in effective coverage; and third, success is achieved through partnerships involving health and non-health actors. Facing the unprecedented health and development challenges that affect all countries and transforming HRH evidence into policy and practice must be at the heart of UHC and the post-2015 development agenda. It is a political imperative requiring national commitment and leadership to maximize the impact of available financial and human resources, and improve healthy life expectancy, with the recognition that improvements in health care are enabled by a health workforce that is fit for purpose. PMID:24347710

  6. Temperature effects on the universal equation of state of solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinet, Pascal; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.; Rose, James H.

    1987-01-01

    Recently it has been argued based on theoretical calculations and experimental data that there is a universal form for the equation of state of solids. This observation was restricted to the range of temperatures and pressures such that there are no phase transitions. The use of this universal relation to estimate pressure-volume relations (i.e., isotherms) required three input parameters at each fixed temperature. It is shown that for many solids the input data needed to predict high temperature thermodynamical properties can be dramatically reduced. In particular, only four numbers are needed: (1) the zero pressure (P = 0) isothermal bulk modulus; (2) its P = 0 pressure derivative; (3) the P = 0 volume; and (4) the P = 0 thermal expansion; all evaluated at a single (reference) temperature. Explicit predictions are made for the high temperature isotherms, the thermal expansion as a function of temperature, and the temperature variation of the isothermal bulk modulus and its pressure derivative. These predictions are tested using experimental data for three representative solids: gold, sodium chloride, and xenon. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  7. Temperature effects on the universal equation of state of solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinet, P.; Ferrante, J.; Smith, J. R.; Rose, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Recently it has been argued based on theoretical calculations and experimental data that there is a universal form for the equation of state of solids. This observation was restricted to the range of temperatures and pressures such that there are no phase transitions. The use of this universal relation to estimate pressure-volume relations (i.e., isotherms) required three input parameters at each fixed temperature. It is shown that for many solids the input data needed to predict high temperature thermodynamical properties can be dramatically reduced. In particular, only four numbers are needed: (1) the zero pressure (P=0) isothermal bulk modulus; (2)it P=0 pressure derivative; (3) the P=0 volume; and (4) the P=0 thermal expansion; all evaluated at a single (reference) temperature. Explicit predictions are made for the high temperature isotherms, the thermal expansion as a function of temperature, and the temperature variation of the isothermal bulk modulus and its pressure derivative. These predictions are tested using experimental data for three representative solids: gold, sodium chloride, and xenon. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  8. Physician Enabling Skills Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Hudon, Catherine; Lambert, Mireille; Almirall, José

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the reliability and validity of the newly developed Physician Enabling Skills Questionnaire (PESQ) by assessing its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity with patient-centred care, and predictive validity with patient activation and patient enablement. Design Validation study. Setting Saguenay, Que. Participants One hundred patients with at least 1 chronic disease who presented in a waiting room of a regional health centre family medicine unit. Main outcome measures Family physicians’ enabling skills, measured with the PESQ at 2 points in time (ie, while in the waiting room at the family medicine unit and 2 weeks later through a mail survey); patient-centred care, assessed with the Patient Perception of Patient-Centredness instrument; patient activation, assessed with the Patient Activation Measure; and patient enablement, assessed with the Patient Enablement Instrument. Results The internal consistency of the 6 subscales of the PESQ was adequate (Cronbach α = .69 to .92). The test-retest reliability was very good (r = 0.90; 95% CI 0.84 to 0.93). Concurrent validity with the Patient Perception of Patient-Centredness instrument was good (r = −0.67; 95% CI −0.78 to −0.53; P < .001). The PESQ accounts for 11% of the total variance with the Patient Activation Measure (r2 = 0.11; P = .002) and 19% of the variance with the Patient Enablement Instrument (r2 = 0.19; P < .001). Conclusion The newly developed PESQ presents good psychometric properties, allowing for its use in practice and research. PMID:26889507

  9. Dust control for Enabler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, Kevin; Karl, Chad; Litherland, Mark; Ritchie, David; Sun, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    The dust control group designed a system to restrict dust that is disturbed by the Enabler during its operation from interfering with astronaut or camera visibility. This design also considers the many different wheel positions made possible through the use of artinuation joints that provide the steering and wheel pitching for the Enabler. The system uses a combination of brushes and fenders to restrict the dust when the vehicle is moving in either direction and in a turn. This design also allows for each of maintenance as well as accessibility of the remainder of the vehicle.

  10. Dust control for Enabler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, Kevin; Karl, Chad; Litherland, Mark; Ritchie, David; Sun, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    The dust control group designed a system to restrict dust that is disturbed by the Enabler during its operation from interfering with astronaut or camera visibility. This design also considers the many different wheel positions made possible through the use of artinuation joints that provide the steering and wheel pitching for the Enabler. The system uses a combination of brushes and fenders to restrict the dust when the vehicle is moving in either direction and in a turn. This design also allows for ease of maintenance as well as accessibility of the remainder of the vehicle.

  11. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2012-07-02

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  12. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2016-07-12

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  13. More Learning in Less Time: A Guide to Effective Study for University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Norma B.

    A revision of "Effective and Efficient Study," a guide to effective study for university students, is presented. Topics include: self-evaluation using a checklist of factors involved in college reading and study problems; self-evaluation regarding test anxiety; organizing work and budgeting time; remembering effectively; improving listening and…

  14. Utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Resources and Job Effectiveness among Library Staff in the University of Calabar and Cross River University of Technology, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntui, Aniebiet Inyang; Inyang, Comfort Linus

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) resources and job effectiveness among library staff in the University of Calabar and Cross River University of Technology, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of this study, four hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Ex-post facto research design was adopted…

  15. ICT-Enabled Learning: The Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Geoff; Grebennikov, Leonid; Gozzard, Terry

    2009-01-01

    This research seeks to contribute to current discussions in Australian higher education on how best to deploy ICT-enabled learning. Its particular focus is on examining the qualitative data from students on their experience of using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) at one college in an Australian university. In total, about 71,240…

  16. Enabling Family-Friendly Cultural Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Kate; Yen, Joyce W.; Riskin, Eve A.; Lange, Sheila Edwards

    2007-01-01

    Strategies to address the problem of work and family balance have begun emerging in recent years. Many American college and universities have begun to adopt this "family-friendly policies," such as tenure-clock extensions. Each of the policies to enable work and family balance, however, is situated within the broader academic culture. Departmental…

  17. Effects of Democratizations of University Education on Quality of Higher Education in Kenya: A Case of Moi University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boit, John Mugun; Kipkoech, Lydia Cheruto

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, Kenyan public universities have mounted parallel degree programmes for students who are qualified and are financially able to pay for their university education. Moi University introduced such a programme in 1998. As a result of these developments, there has arisen concern amongst the stakeholders on the quality, efficiency…

  18. Enabling Wind Power Nationwide

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, Zayas; Michael, Derby; Patrick, Gilman; Ananthan, Shreyas; Lantz, Eric; Cotrell, Jason; Beck, Fredic; Tusing, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Leveraging this experience, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has evaluated the potential for wind power to generate electricity in all 50 states. This report analyzes and quantifies the geographic expansion that could be enabled by accessing higher above ground heights for wind turbines and considers the means by which this new potential could be responsibly developed.

  19. Investigation on the governance model and effect of medical schools merged with comprehensive universities in China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ge; Luo, Li

    2013-08-01

    This investigation analyzes the management of medical schools merged with comprehensive universities through internet search and research review to reveal management model and effect of the merger. The conclusion is safely reached that governance models are divided into two different patterns: centralized management and decentralized management. Eight universities, representing the two models, were selected and evaluated comprehensively. Among them, the universities that carried out decentralized management have greater development after the merger based on a quality comparison concerning freshmen, faculty, teaching, and research between the two patterns.

  20. Evaluation of information technology impact on effective internal control in the University system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanusi Fasilat, A.; Hassan, Haslinda

    2015-12-01

    Information Technology (IT) plays a key role in internal control system in various organizations in terms of maintaining records and other internal services. Internal control system is defined as an efficient control procedures set up by firm to safeguard resources and to assure the reliability and accuracy of both financial and non-financial records in line with applicable governance and procedure to acquire the established goal and objectives. This paper focuses on the impact of IT on internal control system in the Nigerian universities. Data are collected from three different universities via questionnaire. Descriptive statistics is used to analyze the data; Chi-square is performed to test the hypothesis. The results of the hypothesis showed that IT has a positive relationship with the effective internal control activities in the University system. It is concluded that the adoption of IT will significantly improve the effectiveness of the internal control system operations in the University in terms of quality service delivery.

  1. Evaluation of information technology impact on effective internal control in the University system

    SciTech Connect

    Sanusi Fasilat, A. Hassan, Haslinda

    2015-12-11

    Information Technology (IT) plays a key role in internal control system in various organizations in terms of maintaining records and other internal services. Internal control system is defined as an efficient control procedures set up by firm to safeguard resources and to assure the reliability and accuracy of both financial and non-financial records in line with applicable governance and procedure to acquire the established goal and objectives. This paper focuses on the impact of IT on internal control system in the Nigerian universities. Data are collected from three different universities via questionnaire. Descriptive statistics is used to analyze the data; Chi-square is performed to test the hypothesis. The results of the hypothesis showed that IT has a positive relationship with the effective internal control activities in the University system. It is concluded that the adoption of IT will significantly improve the effectiveness of the internal control system operations in the University in terms of quality service delivery.

  2. A Technology Enabled Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Pamela Albert

    2012-01-01

    This article features Point Road School, a pre-K-4 school in New Jersey that enhances student learning by integrating new and emerging technologies into the curriculum. Point Road School's technology story began in 1996 with a grant for a classroom modem so students could email their university literacy buddies. The New Jersey school has moved…

  3. Action Research: Effective Marketing Strategies for a Blended University Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ruth Gannon; Ley, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This action research study investigated a marketing plan based on collaboration among a program faculty team and other organizational units for a graduate professional program. From its inception through the second year of operation, program enrollment increased due to the marketing plan based on an effective approach grounded in simple marketing…

  4. Strategic Evaluation of University Knowledge and Technology Transfer Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Thien Anh

    2013-01-01

    Academic knowledge and technology transfer has been growing in importance both in academic research and practice. A critical question in managing this activity is how to evaluate its effectiveness. The literature shows an increasing number of studies done to address this question; however, it also reveals important gaps that need more research.…

  5. Effectiveness of Laptop Usage in UAE University Undergraduate Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awwad, Falah; Ayesh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Laptop use for undergraduate students is increasingly becoming commonplace, and is often deemed a necessity. Students are using laptops for academic as well as non-academic activities. Researchers are debating the effect of this trend on students' educational and learning outcomes, thus, there is a need for investigation to determine how…

  6. The Effect of the Research Assessment Exercise on Organisational Culture in English Universities: Collegiality versus Managerialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokoyama, Keiko

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to identify the effect of the research assessment exercise (RAE) on the balance between collegiality and managerialism in English universities. The article examines the institutional strategies for the 2001 RAE and its effect on organisational culture, identifying change in governance, management and leadership in…

  7. Framing the Effect of Multiculturalism on Diversity Outcomes among Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Brighid

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with the effect of multiculturalism on diversity outcomes among students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities. This investigation examines the multiculturalism literature, as well as the literature specific to HBCUs, in an attempt to answer the question: What is the effect of multiculturalism on diversity outcomes of…

  8. Teaching Practice in Cameroon: The Effectiveness of the University of Buea Model and Implications for Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endeley, Margaret Nalova

    2014-01-01

    The paper aimed at assessing the effectiveness of the teaching practice model in the University of Buea, which is different from that of other teacher education institutions in Cameroon. Teaching Practice is an important component of a teacher education programme and the quality of supervision and duration are key in achieving effectiveness which…

  9. Students' Perceptions of Effective EFL Teachers in University Settings in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kourieos, Stella; Evripidou, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to identify what characteristics and teaching behaviours describe effective EFL University teachers as perceived by Cypriot students. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and focus group interviews. Findings have provided evidence that effective language teaching seems to be related to a more learner-centred approach…

  10. Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral-Theory-Based Skill Training on Academic Procrastination Behaviors of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toker, Betül; Avci, Rasit

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral theory (CBT) psycho-educational group program on the academic procrastination behaviors of university students and the persistence of any training effect. This was a quasi-experimental research based on an experimental and control group pretest, posttest, and followup test model.…

  11. Effect of Professional Development on Classroom Practices in Some Selected Saudi Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghamdi, AbdulKhaliq Hajjad; Bin Sihes, Ahmad Johari

    2016-01-01

    "Scientific studies found the impact of professional development on effective classroom practices in Higher Education." This paper hypothesizes no statistically significant effect of lecturers' professional development on classroom practices in some selected Saudi Universities not as highlighted in the model. Hierarchical multiple…

  12. Impaired drug absorption due to high stomach pH: a review of strategies for mitigation of such effect to enable pharmaceutical product development.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Amitava; Kesisoglou, Filippos

    2013-11-01

    Published reports have clearly shown that weakly basic drugs which have low solubility at high pH could have impaired absorption in patients with high gastric pH thus leading to reduced and variable bioavailability. Since such reduction in exposure can lead to significant loss of efficacy, it is imperative to (1) understand the behavior of the compound as a function of stomach pH to inform of any risk of bioavailability loss in clinical studies and (2) develop a robust formulation which can provide adequate exposure in achlorhydric patients. In this review paper, we provide an overview of the factors that can cause high gastric pH in human, discuss clinical and preclinical pharmacokinetic data for weak bases under conditions of normal and high gastric pH, and give examples of formulation strategies to minimize or mitigate the reduced absorption of weakly basic drugs under high gastric pH conditions. It should be noted that the ability to overcome pH sensitivity issues is highly compound dependent and there are no obvious and general solutions to overcome such effect. Further, we discuss, along with several examples, the use of biopharmaceutical tools such as in vitro dissolution, absorption modeling, and gastric pH modified animal models to assess absorption risk of weak bases in high gastric pH and also the use of these tools to enable development of formulations to mitigate such effects.

  13. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-10-15

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  14. Enabling graphene nanoelectronics.

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei; Ohta, Taisuke; Biedermann, Laura Butler; Gutierrez, Carlos; Nolen, C. M.; Howell, Stephen Wayne; Beechem Iii, Thomas Edwin; McCarty, Kevin F.; Ross, Anthony Joseph, III

    2011-09-01

    Recent work has shown that graphene, a 2D electronic material amenable to the planar semiconductor fabrication processing, possesses tunable electronic material properties potentially far superior to metals and other standard semiconductors. Despite its phenomenal electronic properties, focused research is still required to develop techniques for depositing and synthesizing graphene over large areas, thereby enabling the reproducible mass-fabrication of graphene-based devices. To address these issues, we combined an array of growth approaches and characterization resources to investigate several innovative and synergistic approaches for the synthesis of high quality graphene films on technologically relevant substrate (SiC and metals). Our work focused on developing the fundamental scientific understanding necessary to generate large-area graphene films that exhibit highly uniform electronic properties and record carrier mobility, as well as developing techniques to transfer graphene onto other substrates.

  15. From Early Aspirations to Actual Attainment: The Effects of Economic Status and Educational Expectations on University Pursuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ching-Ling; Bai, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of economic status and the educational expectations of significant others on early university aspirations and actual university attainment. The study analyzed two-wave longitudinal data collected from 1,595 Taiwanese students in their 9th grade in middle school and in their freshman year at universities. The…

  16. Effects of universally offered parenting interventions for parents with infants: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Klest, Sihu K; Patras, Joshua; Rayce, Signe Boe

    2016-01-01

    Objectives From a developmental perspective, infancy is a critical stage of life. Early childhood interventions aim to support caretakers, but the effects of universal interventions for parents with infants are unknown. The objective is to determine the effects of universal parenting interventions offered to parents with infants 0–12 months on measures of child development and parent–child relationship. Design A systematic review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis. We extracted publications from 10 databases in June 2013, January 2015 and June 2016 and supplemented with grey and hand search. Risk of bias was assessed, and effect sizes were calculated. Participants Inclusion criteria are: (1) randomised controlled trials of structured, psychosocial interventions offered to a universal population of parents with infants 0–12 months old in western OECD countries, (2) interventions that include a minimum of 3 sessions with at least half of the sessions delivered postnatally and (3) programme outcomes reported for child development or parent–child relationship. Results 14 papers representing 7 studies are included. There were no statistically significant effects of the intervention for the majority of the primary outcomes across the studies. Conclusions The findings of this review are mixed. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding the effects of universally offered parenting interventions on child development and parent–child relationship for this age group. PMID:27683513

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of neonatal hearing screening program in china: should universal screening be prioritized?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neonatal hearing screening (NHS) has been routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries, whereas such a screening program is still at the pilot or preliminary stage as regards its nationwide implementation in developing countries. To provide significant evidence for health policy making in China, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of NHS program implementation in case of eight provinces of China. Methods A cost-effectiveness model was conducted and all neonates annually born from 2007 to 2009 in eight provinces of China were simulated in this model. The model parameters were estimated from the established databases in the general hospitals or maternal and child health hospitals of these eight provinces, supplemented from the published literature. The model estimated changes in program implementation costs, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for universal screening compared to targeted screening in eight provinces. Results and discussion A multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed to determine uncertainty in health effect estimates and cost-effectiveness ratios using a probabilistic modeling technique. Targeted strategy trended to be cost-effective in Guangxi, Jiangxi, Henan, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Hebei, Shandong, and Beijing from the level of 9%, 9%, 8%, 4%, 3%, 7%, 5%, and 2%, respectively; while universal strategy trended to be cost-effective in those provinces from the level of 70%, 70%, 48%, 10%, 8%, 28%, 15%, 4%, respectively. This study showed although there was a huge disparity in the implementation of the NHS program in the surveyed provinces, both universal strategy and targeted strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developed provinces, while neither of the screening strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developing provinces. This study also showed that both

  18. Fermionic Tunneling Effect and Hawking Radiation in a Non Commutative FRW Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Bouhalouf, H.; Aissaoui, H.; Mebarki, N.

    2010-10-31

    The formalism of a non commutative gauge gravity is applied to an FRW universe and the corresponding modified metric, veirbein and spin connection components are obtained. Moreover, using the Hamilton-Jacobi method and as a pure space-time deformation effect, the NCG Hawking radiation via a fermionic tunneling transition through the dynamical NCG horizon is also studied.

  19. Factors Affecting University Music Students' Perceptions of Lesson Quality and Teacher Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Donald L.; Baker, Dawn S.; McAllister, Peter A.; Bauer, William I.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effects of music teacher delivery skills, lesson content, and student academic standing on 511 university music students' perceptions of lesson quality or teacher appeal. Indicates that student interest and preference varied by academic standing, teacher delivery, and lesson quality. Includes references. (CMK)

  20. Effective Utilization of ICT in English Language Learning--The Case of University of Botswana Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umunnakwe, Ngozi; Sello, Queen

    2016-01-01

    The study investigates the effective utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by first year undergraduates of the University of Botswana (UB) in their reading and writing skills. The first year students are not first language (L1) learners of English. They have not utilized computers for learning reading and writing in their…

  1. Effective Student Teams for Collaborative Learning in an Introductory University Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Jason J. B.; Harrison, David M.; Meyertholen, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the types of student teams that are most effective for collaborative learning in a large freshman university physics course. We compared teams in which the students were all of roughly equal ability to teams with a mix of student abilities, we compared teams with three members to teams with four members, and we examined teams with…

  2. Strategic Planning Effectiveness in Jordanian Universities: Faculty Members' and Academic Administrators' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad; Salameh, Kayed M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explore the faculty and academic administrators' perception of strategic planning effectiveness (SPE) in a reform environment, measuring the impact of university type, gender, and job role. A total of 338 faculty members and 183 academic administrators who enrolled during the first semester of the 2007-08 term at a public and a…

  3. Study of the Effective Factors on the University Students' Underachievement in English Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghadirzadeh, Reyhaneh; Hashtroudi, Fariba Pourabolfathe; Shokri, Omid

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of university students' demotivational status, language learning strategies and learning style preferences on their underachievement in English language learning. To begin, 260 Iranian undergraduate students were selected through the multi-stage cluster sampling method. They were put into two successful…

  4. Effective Segmentation of University Alumni: Mining Contribution Data with Finite-Mixture Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durango-Cohen, Elizabeth J.; Balasubramanian, Siva K.

    2015-01-01

    Having an effective segmentation strategy is key to the viability of any organization. This is particularly true for colleges, universities, and other nonprofit organizations--who have seen sharp declines in private contributions, endowment income, and government grants in the past few years, and face fierce competition for donor dollars…

  5. Arranging Materials and Services in a University Library Reference Area for Effective Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Hugh; And Others

    In fall of 1988, the William Jasper Kerr Library at Oregon State University combined its separate science/technology and social science/humanities reference areas. One year later, the Reference Arrangement Task Force was appointed to evaluate the effectiveness of the new configuration. The Task Force modelled the area with drawings and balsa…

  6. Laptop Computers and Wireless University Campus Networks: Is Flexibility and Effectiveness Improved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Miikka J.; Vuojarvi, Hanna; Ruokamo, Heli

    2009-01-01

    This study explores whether university students find that laptop computers and networks increase flexibility and effectiveness of studying. Special attention has been paid to non-traditional students who have extra commitments, such as taking care of children or term-time employment. Questionnaire data was collected from students who had the…

  7. Policy Analyses on the Effectiveness of the National University Corporation Act: What Has Changed since 2004?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizuta, Kensuke; Yanagiura, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    (Purpose) While numerous data and research indicate that the fiscal practice of institutions has been influenced by National University Corporation Act (NUCA), what exactly the effect NUCA has had on institutions is not known beyond anecdotal experiences and stories. The contribution of this paper is to provide hard evidence on such institutional…

  8. Students' Perceived Effectiveness in the Use of Library Resources in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edem, Nkoyo; Ani, Okon; Ocheibi, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted on students' perceived effectiveness in the use of library resources in some selected Nigerian Universities. Questionnaire was the main instrument for collecting data. 600 copies of questionnaires were distributed, 530 were returned. The overall response was 88.3%. The responses showed that, majority of the users source…

  9. Effects of Computer Simulations Programs on University Students' Achievements in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayrak, Celal

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated whether computer assisted instruction was more effective than face-to-face instruction in increasing student success in physics. The study was conducted in the spring semester of 2006 at the Department of Science and Mathematics for Secondary Education at Hacettepe University. Seventy-eight freshman students from…

  10. The Effects of Locus of Control on University Students' Mobile Learning Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsia, Jung-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Since mobile devices have become cheaper, easily accessible, powerful, and popular and the cost of wireless access has declined gradually, mobile learning (m-learning) has begun to spread rapidly. To further improve the effectiveness and efficiency of m-learning for university students, it is critical to understand whether they use m-learning.…

  11. Student Perceptions of Effective Foreign Language Teachers: A Quantitative Investigation from a Korean University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bruce D.; Lock, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    The present study uses a questionnaire instrument to measure the importance that students from a Korean university place on a wide range of effective foreign language teacher attributes. Respondents to the present study placed high importance on rapport attributes such as friendliness, care, and patience; and delivery attributes which included the…

  12. Mythology in the Making: Is the Open University Really Cost-Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, John

    1978-01-01

    An alternative technique, cost-effectiveness analysis, is proposed as a more appropriate way of evaluating the Open University. A rudimentary application of the technique to the cost structure of OU indicates that it could result in a substantial reduction in OU's costs. (Author/LBH)

  13. The Effect of Web-Based Homework on University Students' Physics Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirci, Neset

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effect of web-based homework on university students' physics achievement was compared. One of the two identical sections of introductory physics course students received pen-and-paper homework done in groups while the other received web-based online homework performed individually. And then both groups' homework performance and…

  14. The Effect of Using Vocabulary Flash Card on Iranian Pre-University Students' Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komachali, Maryam Eslahcar; Khodareza, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of using vocabulary flash card on Iranian pre-university students' vocabulary knowledge. The participants of the study comprised 50 female learners. They were randomly assigned into two homogeneous groups each consisting of 25 learners. The control group received the traditional treatment…

  15. The Effects of Using an Interactive Whiteboard on the Academic Achievement of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbas, Oktay; Pektas, Huseyin Mirac

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effects of the use of an interactive whiteboard on the academic achievement of university students on the topic of electricity in a science and technology laboratory class. The study was designed as a pretest/posttest control group experimental study. Mean, standard deviation and t- tests were used for…

  16. The Effects of Class Size on Student Grades at a Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkelenberg, Edward C.; Dillon, Michael; Christy, Sean M.

    2008-01-01

    We model how class size affects the grade higher education students earn and we test the model using an ordinal logit with and without fixed effects on over 760,000 undergraduate observations from a northeastern public university. We find that class size negatively affects grades for a variety of specifications and subsets of the data, as well as…

  17. The "Animal House" Effect: How University-Themed Comedy Films Affect Students' Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasylkiw, Louise; Currie, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from learning and attitude theories, the current investigation explores the effect of media on students' attitudes. Study 1 was a content analysis of 34 films classified as university-themed comedies and showed that such films highlighted risk-taking (e.g., alcohol consumption) and minimized the importance of academics (e.g., studying).…

  18. Academic Deans: An Analysis of Effective Academic Leadership at Research Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Judith L.

    This study sought to understand the roles and characteristics of individuals identified as effective academic deans at public research universities. The study used an inductive grounded theory approach guided by a broad conceptual framework and was guided by the broad constructs of quality/culture, teamwork/governance, and analysis/knowledge. In…

  19. Schooling Effects on Undergraduate Performance: Evidence from the University of Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Toni; Escardibul, Josep-Oriol

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of several factors related to high school, such as the kind of school (public or private), the type of education (general or vocational), school location and peers on undergraduate performance from students of the University of Barcelona (Spain). Particular attention is given to the functional form and to the…

  20. Student Oriented Approaches in the Teaching of Thermodynamics at Universities--Developing an Effective Course Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partanen, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply current pedagogical research in order to develop an effective course and exercise structure for a physical chemistry thermodynamics course intended for second or third year university students of chemistry. A mixed-method approach was used to measure the impact the changes had on student learning. In its final…

  1. Critical Resource Effects on America's Universities: What's behind the Growing Entrepreneurial Orientation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Joshua B.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of critical resource flows on technology transfer activity. The investigation focused on the impact on a university's licensing orientation of four sources of research and development (R&D) revenues: federal, state, industry, and institutional. By licensing orientation is meant the number of…

  2. The Competencies Required for Effective Performance in a University e-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Mitchell; Reading, Christine; Stein, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and rate the importance of the competencies required by students for effective performance in a university e-learning environment mediated by a learning management system. Two expert panels identified 58 e-learning competencies considered to be essential for e-learning. Of these competencies, 22 were related…

  3. The Effect of a Student Support Services Program on Academic Success at an Appalachian Comprehensive University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the NOVA program, a Students Support Services program at Eastern Kentucky University, on academic success for first-generation and low-income college students. An archival database was used to identify differences in the level of academic success among first-year students in the NOVA program from fall-to-fall of…

  4. Reforming the University Sector: Effects on Teaching Efficiency--Evidence from Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Dal Bianco, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the effects of teaching reforms in Italy. These were introduced in 1999, and changed the entire organization of university courses, where the Bachelor-Master (BA-MA) structure was adopted. The first step is to define the production process of higher education (HE). This process consists of several inputs (professors,…

  5. Anchoring Effects in World University Rankings: Exploring Biases in Reputation Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Nicholas A.; Bastedo, Michael N.

    2011-01-01

    Despite ongoing debates about their uses and validity, university rankings are a popular means to compare institutions within a country and around the world. Anchoring theory suggests that these rankings may influence assessments of institutional reputation, and this effect may be particularly strong when a new rankings system is introduced. We…

  6. A New Factor in UK Students' University Attainment: The Relative Age Effect Reversal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Simon J.; Stott, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study relative age effects (RAEs) in a selected sample of university students. The majority of education systems across the globe adopt age-related cut-off points for eligibility. This strategy has received criticism for (dis)advantaging those older children born closer to the "cut-off" date for…

  7. Distance Learning and University Effectiveness: Changing Educational Paradigms for Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Caroline; Schenk, Karen; Discenza, Richard

    2004-01-01

    "Distance Learning and University Effectiveness: Changing Educational Paradigms for Online Learning" addresses the challenges and opportunities associated with information and communication technologies (ICTs) as related to education. From discussing new and innovative educational paradigms and learning models resulting from ICTs to addressing…

  8. Short-Term Effectiveness of Psychotherapy Treatments Delivered at a University Counselling Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monti, Fiorella; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Ricci Bitti, Pio Enrico

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the short-term effectiveness of psychotherapy delivered at the counselling service of the University of Bologna (Italy), by means of a single group longitudinal study including a 6-months follow-up. To this end, sixty-six students completed the 6-months follow-up and filled in the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ) three times,…

  9. An Assessment of the Effectiveness of the University of Hartford First-Year Interest Group Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Robert L.; Colarulli, Guy C.; Barrett, Karen A.; Stevenson, Catherine B.

    2005-01-01

    A first-year interest group (FIG) is a learning community using course clusters. An effective model of FIGs and an innovative faculty development process are briefly described. Evaluation results found that University of Hartford FIGs improved student learning, improved curricular integration, fostered student community, and promoted faculty…

  10. Fermionic Tunneling Effect and Hawking Radiation in a Non Commutative FRW Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhalouf, H.; Mebarki, N.; Aissaoui, H.

    2010-10-01

    The formalism of a non commutative gauge gravity is applied to an FRW universe and the corresponding modified metric, veirbein and spin connection components are obtained. Moreover, using the Hamilton-Jacobi method and as a pure space-time deformation effect, the NCG Hawking radiation via a fermionic tunneling transition through the dynamical NCG horizon is also studied.

  11. Leadership Behaviour and Effectiveness of Academic Program Directors in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkinas, Tricia; Ladyshewsky, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on leadership behaviour and effectiveness of university academic program directors who have responsibility for managing a program or course of study. The leadership capabilities were assessed using the Integrated Competing Values Framework as its theoretical foundation. Data from 90 academic program directors and 710…

  12. The Effect of the Graphic Organizer Strategy on University Students' English Vocabulary Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hinnawi, Arwa N.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of the graphic organizer strategy on vocabulary building and vocabulary incremental growth of Jordanian university EFL students. One hundred and two students participated in the study which lasted for one academic semester of four months. Each student enrolled in one of two intact and equally-sized…

  13. Effects of a Brief Video Intervention on White University Students' Racial Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soble, Jason R.; Spanierman, Lisa B.; Liao, Hsin-Ya

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of a brief video intervention on the racial attitudes of White university students. One hundred thirty-eight self-identified White students were randomly assigned to either an experimental condition in which they viewed a video documenting the pervasiveness of institutional racism and White privilege in the…

  14. Chinese University EFL Learners' Foreign Language Writing Anxiety: Pattern, Effect and Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Meihua; Ni, Huiliuqian

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the result of a study on Chinese university EFL learners' foreign language writing anxiety in terms of general pattern, effect and causes. 1174 first-year students answered the 26-item Foreign Language Writing Anxiety Scale (FLWAS) (Young, 1999) and took an English writing test, 18 of whom were invited for semi-structured…

  15. Enabling immersive simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Josh; Mateas, Michael; Hart, Derek H.; Whetzel, Jonathan; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Glickman, Matthew R.; Abbott, Robert G.

    2009-02-01

    The object of the 'Enabling Immersive Simulation for Complex Systems Analysis and Training' LDRD has been to research, design, and engineer a capability to develop simulations which (1) provide a rich, immersive interface for participation by real humans (exploiting existing high-performance game-engine technology wherever possible), and (2) can leverage Sandia's substantial investment in high-fidelity physical and cognitive models implemented in the Umbra simulation framework. We report here on these efforts. First, we describe the integration of Sandia's Umbra modular simulation framework with the open-source Delta3D game engine. Next, we report on Umbra's integration with Sandia's Cognitive Foundry, specifically to provide for learning behaviors for 'virtual teammates' directly from observed human behavior. Finally, we describe the integration of Delta3D with the ABL behavior engine, and report on research into establishing the theoretical framework that will be required to make use of tools like ABL to scale up to increasingly rich and realistic virtual characters.

  16. Displays enabling mobile multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmel, Jyrki

    2007-02-01

    With the rapid advances in telecommunications networks, mobile multimedia delivery to handsets is now a reality. While a truly immersive multimedia experience is still far ahead in the mobile world, significant advances have been made in the constituent audio-visual technologies to make this become possible. One of the critical components in multimedia delivery is the mobile handset display. While such alternatives as headset-style near-to-eye displays, autostereoscopic displays, mini-projectors, and roll-out flexible displays can deliver either a larger virtual screen size than the pocketable dimensions of the mobile device can offer, or an added degree of immersion by adding the illusion of the third dimension in the viewing experience, there are still challenges in the full deployment of such displays in real-life mobile communication terminals. Meanwhile, direct-view display technologies have developed steadily, and can provide a development platform for an even better viewing experience for multimedia in the near future. The paper presents an overview of the mobile display technology space with an emphasis on the advances and potential in developing direct-view displays further to meet the goal of enabling multimedia in the mobile domain.

  17. Effect of the transition from high school to university on anthropometric and lifestyle variables in males.

    PubMed

    Pullman, Allison W; Masters, Rachel C; Zalot, Lindsay C; Carde, Lauren E; Saraiva, Michelle M; Dam, Yian Yian; Randall Simpson, Janis A; Duncan, Alison M

    2009-04-01

    The obesity epidemic in North America has focused attention on the health risks of excess weight gain. The transition from high school to university is a critical period for weight gain, commonly referred to as the Freshman 15. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the transition from high school to university on anthropometrics and physical and sedentary activities in males. A total of 108 males completed 3 study visits: the summer prior to first year university, and the ends of the first and second semesters. Outcome measures were body mass, height, body mass index (BMI), body fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist:hip ratio, dietary intake, and participation in physical and sedentary activities. Between the summer prior to and the end of first year university, male students experienced a significant weight gain, of 3.0 kg, with significant increases in BMI, body fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist:hip ratio. Energy and nutrient intake did not change. Final body mass was significantly predicted by intention for body mass to stay the same, relative to weight loss intention. Fast aerobic physical activity significantly decreased between the summer prior to and the end of first year university, while slow aerobic physical activity, strength training, and flexibility training did not change. Computer and studying time significantly increased, while television time and hours of nightly sleep significantly decreased between the summer prior to and the end of first year university. Weekly alcoholic drinks and binge drinking frequency significantly increased over this time period. In conclusion, between the summer prior to and the end of first year university, male students gained an average of 3.0 kg, with increases in related anthropometrics. These changes may be due to body mass change intention and (or) the observed decreased physical and increased sedentary activities, but appear to be unrelated to dietary intake

  18. Enabling responsible public genomics.

    PubMed

    Conley, John M; Doerr, Adam K; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    As scientific understandings of genetics advance, researchers require increasingly rich datasets that combine genomic data from large numbers of individuals with medical and other personal information. Linking individuals' genetic data and personal information precludes anonymity and produces medically significant information--a result not contemplated by the established legal and ethical conventions governing human genomic research. To pursue the next generation of human genomic research and commerce in a responsible fashion, scientists, lawyers, and regulators must address substantial new issues, including researchers' duties with respect to clinically significant data, the challenges to privacy presented by genomic data, the boundary between genomic research and commerce, and the practice of medicine. This Article presents a new model for understanding and addressing these new challenges--a "public genomics" premised on the idea that ethically, legally, and socially responsible genomics research requires openness, not privacy, as its organizing principle. Responsible public genomics combines the data contributed by informed and fully consenting information altruists and the research potential of rich datasets in a genomic commons that is freely and globally available. This Article examines the risks and benefits of this public genomics model in the context of an ambitious genetic research project currently under way--the Personal Genome Project. This Article also (i) demonstrates that large-scale genomic projects are desirable, (ii) evaluates the risks and challenges presented by public genomics research, and (iii) determines that the current legal and regulatory regimes restrict beneficial and responsible scientific inquiry while failing to adequately protect participants. The Article concludes by proposing a modified normative and legal framework that embraces and enables a future of responsible public genomics.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of universal MRSA screening on admission to surgery.

    PubMed

    Murthy, A; De Angelis, G; Pittet, D; Schrenzel, J; Uckay, I; Harbarth, S

    2010-12-01

    Policy-makers have recommended universal screening to reduce nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. Risk profiling of MRSA carriers and rapid PCR tests are now available, yet cost-effectiveness data are limited. The present study assessed the cost-effectiveness of universal PCR screening on admission to surgery. A decision analysis model from the hospital perspective compared costs and the probability of any MRSA infection across three strategies: (i) PCR screening; (ii) screening for risk factors (prior hospitalization or antibiotic use) combined with pre-emptive isolation and contact precautions pending chromogenic agar results; and (iii) no screening. Clinical data were taken from studies at a Swiss teaching hospital as well as from published literature. Costs were derived from hospital accounting systems. Compared to no screening, the PCR strategy resulted in higher costs (CHF 10503 vs. 10358) but a lower infection probability (0.0041 vs. 0.0088), producing a base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of CHF 30784 per MRSA infection avoided. The risk factor strategy was more costly yet less effective than PCR, although, after varying epidemiologic inputs, the costs and effects of both screening strategies were similar. Sensitivity analyses suggested that on-admission prevalence of MRSA carriage predicts cost-effectiveness, alongside the probability of cross-transmission, and the costs of MRSA infection, screening and contact precautions. Although reducing the risk of MRSA infection, universal PCR screening is not strongly cost-effective at our centre. However, local epidemiology plays a critical role. Settings with a higher prevalence of MRSA colonization may find universal screening cost-effective and, in some cases, cost-saving.

  20. Achieving Effective Universal Health Coverage And Diagonal Approaches To Care For Chronic Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; Bhadelia, Afsan; Atun, Rifat; Frenk, Julio

    2015-09-01

    Health systems in low- and middle-income countries were designed to provide episodic care for acute conditions. However, the burden of disease has shifted to be overwhelmingly dominated by chronic conditions and illnesses that require health systems to function in an integrated manner across a spectrum of disease stages from prevention to palliation. Low- and middle-income countries are also aiming to ensure health care access for all through universal health coverage. This article proposes a framework of effective universal health coverage intended to meet the challenge of chronic illnesses. It outlines strategies to strengthen health systems through a "diagonal approach." We argue that the core challenge to health systems is chronicity of illness that requires ongoing and long-term health care. The example of breast cancer within the broader context of health system reform in Mexico is presented to illustrate effective universal health coverage along the chronic disease continuum and across health systems functions. The article concludes with recommendations to strengthen health systems in order to achieve effective universal health coverage. PMID:26355053

  1. The Effect of Visual of a Courseware towards Pre-University Students' Learning in Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masri, Mazyrah; Wan Ahmad, Wan Fatimah; Nordin, Shahrina Md.; Sulaiman, Suziah

    This paper highlights the effect of visual of a multimedia courseware, Black Cat Courseware (BC-C), developed for learning literature at a pre-university level in University Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP). The contents of the courseware are based on a Black Cat story which is covered in an English course at the university. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the usability and effectiveness of BC-C. A total of sixty foundation students were involved in the study. Quasi-experimental design was employed, forming two groups: experimental and control groups. The experimental group had to interact with BC-C as part of the learning activities while the control group used the conventional learning methods. The results indicate that the experimental group achieved a statistically significant compared to the control group in understanding the Black Cat story. The study result also proves that the effect of visual increases the students' performances in literature learning at a pre-university level.

  2. Achieving Effective Universal Health Coverage And Diagonal Approaches To Care For Chronic Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; Bhadelia, Afsan; Atun, Rifat; Frenk, Julio

    2015-09-01

    Health systems in low- and middle-income countries were designed to provide episodic care for acute conditions. However, the burden of disease has shifted to be overwhelmingly dominated by chronic conditions and illnesses that require health systems to function in an integrated manner across a spectrum of disease stages from prevention to palliation. Low- and middle-income countries are also aiming to ensure health care access for all through universal health coverage. This article proposes a framework of effective universal health coverage intended to meet the challenge of chronic illnesses. It outlines strategies to strengthen health systems through a "diagonal approach." We argue that the core challenge to health systems is chronicity of illness that requires ongoing and long-term health care. The example of breast cancer within the broader context of health system reform in Mexico is presented to illustrate effective universal health coverage along the chronic disease continuum and across health systems functions. The article concludes with recommendations to strengthen health systems in order to achieve effective universal health coverage.

  3. Willing and Enabled: The Academic Outcomes of a Tertiary Enabling Program in Regional Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrewartha, Lisa; Harvey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the achievement levels of students undertaking the Tertiary Enabling Program (TEP) at La Trobe University. The TEP is an alternative pathway program that traverses multiple institutions, campuses, and disciplinary areas, and is designed to prepare a diverse student cohort for tertiary study. The Program integrates several…

  4. FOILFEST :community enabled security.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Whitley, John B.; Drayer, Darryl Donald; Cummings, John C., Jr.

    2005-09-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group of Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop, ''FOILFest: Community Enabled Security'', on July 18-21, 2005, in Albuquerque, NM. This was a far-reaching look into the future of physical protection consisting of a series of structured brainstorming sessions focused on preventing and foiling attacks on public places and soft targets such as airports, shopping malls, hotels, and public events. These facilities are difficult to protect using traditional security devices since they could easily be pushed out of business through the addition of arduous and expensive security measures. The idea behind this Fest was to explore how the public, which is vital to the function of these institutions, can be leveraged as part of a physical protection system. The workshop considered procedures, space design, and approaches for building community through technology. The workshop explored ways to make the ''good guys'' in public places feel safe and be vigilant while making potential perpetrators of harm feel exposed and convinced that they will not succeed. Participants in the Fest included operators of public places, social scientists, technology experts, representatives of government agencies including DHS and the intelligence community, writers and media experts. Many innovative ideas were explored during the fest with most of the time spent on airports, including consideration of the local airport, the Albuquerque Sunport. Some provocative ideas included: (1) sniffers installed in passage areas like revolving door, escalators, (2) a ''jumbotron'' showing current camera shots in the public space, (3) transparent portal screeners allowing viewing of the screening, (4) a layered open/funnel/open/funnel design where open spaces are used to encourage a sense of ''communitas'' and take advantage of citizen ''sensing'' and funnels are technological tunnels of sensors (the tunnels of truth), (5) curved benches with blast proof walls or backs, (6

  5. Chemically enabled nanostructure fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Fengwei

    lithography with a programmable direct write manner. Finally, a straightforward method for the direct patterning of various nanoparticle building blocks (NBBs) by DPN using a universal ink is described. Nanostructured features of any shape and at 100 nm size can be designed and then generated by this method in a well-controlled manner.

  6. An Examination of the Effects of a Short Course Aimed at Enabling Teachers in Infant, Junior and Secondary Schools to Alter the Verbal Feedback Given to Their Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinson, Jeremy; Harrop, Alex

    2005-01-01

    Nineteen teachers took part in a brief, one session, in-service course in which they were trained in behavioural techniques with the main aim of helping them increase their rates of approval contingent upon required behaviours from their pupils and to decrease their rates of disapproval. Subsidiary aims were that the teachers would be enabled to…

  7. Does leadership effectiveness correlates with leadership styles in healthcare executives of Iran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Effective leadership is essential to passing through obstacles facing the health field.The current health care system in Iran has major problems and gaps in the field of effective leadership. The aim of this study was to evaluate hospital managers’ leadership style through selfassessment and to determine the correlation between leadership styles with healthcare executives’ leadership readiness and leadership effectiveness. Methods: In this cross-sectional study a self-administered questionnaire completed by all internal healthcare executives of all teaching and non-teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. Questionnaire was composed to determine demographic information, leadership style questions, leadership effectiveness and leadership readiness. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. Results: According to the findings, the dominant style of healthcare executives was transformational leadership style (with a score of 4.34). The leadership effectiveness was estimated at about 4.36 that shows the appropriate level of leadership effectiveness. There was a significant correlation (correlation coefficient of 0.244) between leadership readiness and transformational leadership style (p<0.05). Also, there was a significant correlation between leadership effectiveness with transformational (0.051) and transactional (0.216) styles. Conclusion: There was a correlation between leadership readiness and leadership effectiveness with leadership styles. Application of this research will be crucial to universities and healthcare executives. This study suggests that strengthening the scientific basis is essential for leadership readiness and leadership effectiveness in healthcare system. PMID:26000260

  8. Improving the Effectiveness of Higher Education Institutions through Inter-University Co-Operation: The Case of Peking University. Improving the Managerial Effectiveness of Higher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weifang, Min

    This case study on the experience of the University of Peking, China, in inter-university cooperation describes the process of identifying appropriate partner institutions and implementing collaborative programs with them. It also highlights a number of lessons for those managing inter-university cooperation and shows how such initiatives can be…

  9. The effect of integrated course and faculty development: Experiences of a university chemistry department in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallos, Marilou R.; van den Berg, Euwe; Treagust, David F.

    2005-08-01

    It is widely recognized that lectures continue to dominate college chemistry instruction, especially in developing countries, and that lectures limit student intellectual engagement. To address this concern, a General Chemistry course in a Philippine university was reconstructed to implement an instructional cycle consisting of three phases: a plenary or mini-lecture, seatwork activity, and a summary or closure. An expert instructor coached the instructors to improve their teaching. Two instructors were involved in pilot implementation and 13 instructors in a large-scale implementation. This article describes the instructors’ adoption of the instructional cycle using qualitative and quantitative methods that involved multiple data sources. The instructional cycle and intensive coaching enabled most instructors to change their practices, shift their focus from teaching to learning, and enhance their knowledge of student learning difficulties. Nine instructors were able to significantly change their teaching and apply meaningful student seatwork in their lessons. These nine instructors used student seatwork and activities 30 70% of the time, whereas previously 90% of the time involved lectures. Videotape records showed that more than 70% of the students were continuously on task. Four instructors had considerable difficulties in applying the new approach but also had difficulties with conventional lectures. The project constituted the start of a departmental reorientation with a focus on effectiveness of teaching and learning. Subsequently the faculty and course development model developed in this study was used to revise other courses. The theory of Rogan and Grayson proved useful in describing the change processes.

  10. Statistics of neutrinos and relativistic effective degrees of freedom in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Jun; Kitabayashi, Teruyuki

    2016-03-01

    We study the effects of the presence of non-pure fermionic neutrinos on the relativistic effective degrees of freedom g∗ in the early universe. The statistics of neutrinos is transformed from Fermi-Dirac (FD) to Bose-Einstein (BE) via Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) statistics. The equilibrium energy density of pure bosonic neutrinos is larger than the energy density of pure fermionic neutrinos. One may expect that the relation g∗FD < g∗MB < g∗BE. We show that this relation is not always satisfied with degenerate neutrinos. We discuss briefly the cosmological consequences of this transformation for dark matter problem as well as the baryon-photon ratio in the universe.

  11. Enabling Europe to innovate.

    PubMed

    Dearing, Andrew

    2007-01-19

    As activities that relate to innovation become increasingly global and open and so draw the private and public sectors into complex networks of partnerships, these activities also tend to concentrate where the ecosystem is most supportive. European public policy, which in recent years has emphasized the importance of research and development (R&D) in achieving competitive knowledge-based societies, is shifting toward approaches that address the broader qualities required of favorable ecosystems for innovation in a global economy, thereby incorporating the roles of market demand, public procurement, and regulation, as well as science, education, and industrial R&D, as part of determining effective innovation policies.

  12. Enabling Europe to innovate.

    PubMed

    Dearing, Andrew

    2007-01-19

    As activities that relate to innovation become increasingly global and open and so draw the private and public sectors into complex networks of partnerships, these activities also tend to concentrate where the ecosystem is most supportive. European public policy, which in recent years has emphasized the importance of research and development (R&D) in achieving competitive knowledge-based societies, is shifting toward approaches that address the broader qualities required of favorable ecosystems for innovation in a global economy, thereby incorporating the roles of market demand, public procurement, and regulation, as well as science, education, and industrial R&D, as part of determining effective innovation policies. PMID:17234939

  13. Enabling scientific teamwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hereld, Mark; Hudson, Randy; Norris, John; Papka, Michael E.; Uram, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    The Computer Supported Collaborative Work research community has identified that the technology used to support distributed teams of researchers, such as email, instant messaging, and conferencing environments, are not enough. Building from a list of areas where it is believed technology can help support distributed teams, we have divided our efforts into support of asynchronous and synchronous activities. This paper will describe two of our recent efforts to improve the productivity of distributed science teams. One effort focused on supporting the management and tracking of milestones and results, with the hope of helping manage information overload. The second effort focused on providing an environment that supports real-time analysis of data. Both of these efforts are seen as add-ons to the existing collaborative infrastructure, developed to enhance the experience of teams working at a distance by removing barriers to effective communication.

  14. Barriers to Effective Formulation of Code of Ethics in a Medical University

    PubMed Central

    MOKHTARIANPOUR, Majid; FARAMARZ GHARAMALEKI, Ahad; RAJABI, Shirin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Every year many organizations formulate a Code of Ethics (COE) but when it comes to implementing, it does not achieve the desired purposes. Ineffectiveness of COEs can stem from different factors and surely, one of them is bad formulation. This research was conducted to identify the barriers to effective formulation of COEs in one of the main state universities of medical sciences in Iran. Methods: A qualitative approach using thematic analysis in three stages of descriptive coding, interpretative coding and overarching themes was adopted to analyze data collected through 27 semi-structured interviews. This study was conducted in 2014–15 at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Results: Totally 135 descriptive themes, 12 interpretive themes and 3 overarching themes emerged through analyzing interviews. Conclusion: In order to have an implementable COE, 12 barriers in three categories including “goal-setting”, “approach” and “content” of the COE, must be removed. In “goal-setting”, real cultural conditions of the medical university must be considered. Moreover, the COE must be in response to perceived internal needs and its philosophy must be clear for all members of the university. Besides, the formulation “approach” of the COEs must be specialist, participatory and expertised. Finally, in “content”, different stakeholders with diverse values, levels of knowledge and needs should be carefully addressed. In addition, it is proposed to emphasize religious and humane values to encourage participation of people. As a final point, the university should avoid imitation in the content of the COE, and conceptualize the values in motivating, inspirational and guiding words. PMID:27057525

  15. Enabling technology for human collaboration.

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Tim Andrew; Jones, Wendell Bruce; Warner, David Jay; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Merkle, Peter Benedict

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a five-month LDRD late start project which explored the potential of enabling technology to improve the performance of small groups. The purpose was to investigate and develop new methods to assist groups working in high consequence, high stress, ambiguous and time critical situations, especially those for which it is impractical to adequately train or prepare. A testbed was constructed for exploratory analysis of a small group engaged in tasks with high cognitive and communication performance requirements. The system consisted of five computer stations, four with special devices equipped to collect physiologic, somatic, audio and video data. Test subjects were recruited and engaged in a cooperative video game. Each team member was provided with a sensor array for physiologic and somatic data collection while playing the video game. We explored the potential for real-time signal analysis to provide information that enables emergent and desirable group behavior and improved task performance. The data collected in this study included audio, video, game scores, physiological, somatic, keystroke, and mouse movement data. The use of self-organizing maps (SOMs) was explored to search for emergent trends in the physiological data as it correlated with the video, audio and game scores. This exploration resulted in the development of two approaches for analysis, to be used concurrently, an individual SOM and a group SOM. The individual SOM was trained using the unique data of each person, and was used to monitor the effectiveness and stress level of each member of the group. The group SOM was trained using the data of the entire group, and was used to monitor the group effectiveness and dynamics. Results suggested that both types of SOMs were required to adequately track evolutions and shifts in group effectiveness. Four subjects were used in the data collection and development of these tools. This report documents a proof of concept

  16. Social identity, passion and well-being in university students, the mediating effect of passion.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Miguel; Lisbona, Ana; Palací, Francisco José; Martín-Aragón, Maite

    2014-11-14

    Research on positive emotions associated with the performance of an activity, such as work or study, has increased exponentially in recent years. Passion is understood as an attitude and intense emotion in the performance of an activity, and it has shown both positive and negative consequences for well-being. A link between social identity and positive emotions through social category membership has been described. The aim of this work is to study the relationship between social identity, the dimensions of passion and the positive impact on university responses. A quasi-experimental design was used on a sample of 266 university students from different Spanish universities (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Universidad Miguel Hernández and Universidad de Alicante). Descriptive analyzes were performed on the study's variables using SPSS 18. Structural equation modeling was carried out with AMOS 18 and the mediational analysis with MODMED macro developed by Preacher, Rucker, and Hayes (2007). The results show that the identity of the studies had an indirect effect on positive responses mediated by passion for the studies (RMSEA = .07; CFI = .97; NFI = .96; TLI = .92). It is observed that the harmonious and obsessive dimensions of passion differ in the mediating effect on happiness and satisfaction with studies. Practical and theoretical implications for well-being are discussed.

  17. DUST FORMATION, EVOLUTION, AND OBSCURATION EFFECTS IN THE VERY HIGH-REDSHIFT UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Dwek, Eli; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes; Su, Ting; Arendt, Richard G.; Kovacks, Attila

    2014-06-20

    The evolution of dust at redshifts z ≳ 9, and consequently the dust properties, differs greatly from that in the local universe. In contrast to the local universe, core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the only source of thermally condensed dust. Because of the low initial dust-to-gas mass ratio, grain destruction rates are low, so that CCSNe are net producers of interstellar dust. Galaxies with large initial gas mass or high mass infall rate will therefore have a more rapid net rate of dust production compared to galaxies with lower gas mass, even at the same star formation rate. The dust composition is dominated by silicates, which exhibit a strong rise in the UV opacity near the Lyman break. This ''silicate-UV break'' may be confused with the Lyman break, resulting in a misidentification of a galaxy's photometric redshift. In this Letter we demonstrate these effects by analyzing the spectral energy distribution of MACS1149-JD, a lensed galaxy at z = 9.6. A potential 2 mm counterpart of MACS1149-JD has been identified with GISMO. While additional observations are required to corroborate this identification, we use this possible association to illustrate the physical processes and the observational effects of dust in the very high-redshift universe.

  18. Dust Formation, Evolution, and Obscuration Effects in the Very High-Redshift Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli; Staguhn, Johannes; Arendt, Richard G.; Kovacs, Attila; Su, Ting; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of dust at redshifts z > or approx. 9, and consequently the dust properties, differs greatly from that in the local universe. In contrast to the local universe, core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the only source of thermally-condensed dust. Because of the low initial dust-to-gas mass ratio, grain destruction rates are low, so that CCSNe are net producers of interstellar dust. Galaxies with large initial gas mass or high mass infall rate will therefore have a more rapid net rate of dust production comported to galaxies with lower gas mass, even at the same star formation rate. The dust composition is dominated by silicates, which exhibit a strong rise in the UV opacity near the Lyman break. This "silicate-UV break" may be confused with the Lyman break, resulting in a misidentification of a galaxies' photometric redshift. In this paper we demonstrate these effects by analyzing the spectral energy distribution (SED) of MACS1149-JD, a lensed galaxy at z = 9.6. A potential 2mm counterpart of MACS1149-JD has been identified with GISMO. While additional observations are required to corroborate this identification, we use this possible association to illustrate the physical processes and the observational effects of dust in the very high redshift universe. Subject headings: galaxies: high-redshift - galaxies: evolution - galaxies: individual (MACS1149- JD) - Interstellar medium (ISM), nebulae: dust, extinction - physical data and processes: nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances.

  19. Dust Formation, Evolution, and Obscuration Effects in the Very High-Redshift Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli; Staguhn, Johannes; Arendt, Richard G.; Kovacks, Attila; Su, Ting; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of dust at redshifts z > or approx. 9, and consequently the dust properties, differs greatly from that in the local universe. In contrast to the local universe, core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the only source of thermally-condensed dust. Because of the low initial dust-togas mass ratio, grain destruction rates are low, so that CCSNe are net producers of interstellar dust. Galaxies with large initial gas mass or high mass infall rate will therefore have a more rapid net rate of dust production comported to galaxies with lower gas mass, even at the same star formation rate. The dust composition is dominated by silicates, which exhibit a strong rise in the UV opacity near the Lyman break. This "silicate-UV break" may be confused with the Lyman break, resulting in a misidentification of a galaxies' photometric redshift. In this paper we demonstrate these effects by analyzing the spectral energy distribution (SED) of MACS1149-JD, a lensed galaxy at z = 9.6. A potential 2mm counterpart of MACS1149-JD has been identified with GISMO. While additional observations are required to corroborate this identification, we use this possible association to illustrate the physical processes and the observational effects of dust in the very high redshift universe.

  20. Social identity, passion and well-being in university students, the mediating effect of passion.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Miguel; Lisbona, Ana; Palací, Francisco José; Martín-Aragón, Maite

    2014-01-01

    Research on positive emotions associated with the performance of an activity, such as work or study, has increased exponentially in recent years. Passion is understood as an attitude and intense emotion in the performance of an activity, and it has shown both positive and negative consequences for well-being. A link between social identity and positive emotions through social category membership has been described. The aim of this work is to study the relationship between social identity, the dimensions of passion and the positive impact on university responses. A quasi-experimental design was used on a sample of 266 university students from different Spanish universities (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Universidad Miguel Hernández and Universidad de Alicante). Descriptive analyzes were performed on the study's variables using SPSS 18. Structural equation modeling was carried out with AMOS 18 and the mediational analysis with MODMED macro developed by Preacher, Rucker, and Hayes (2007). The results show that the identity of the studies had an indirect effect on positive responses mediated by passion for the studies (RMSEA = .07; CFI = .97; NFI = .96; TLI = .92). It is observed that the harmonious and obsessive dimensions of passion differ in the mediating effect on happiness and satisfaction with studies. Practical and theoretical implications for well-being are discussed. PMID:26054919

  1. NASA's new university engineering space research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadin, Stanley R.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of a newly emerging element of NASA's university engineering programs is to provide a more autonomous element that will enhance and broaden the capabilities in academia, enabling them to participate more effectively in the U.S. civil space program. The programs utilize technical monitors at NASA centers to foster collaborative arrangements, exchange of personnel, and the sharing of facilities between NASA and the universities. The elements include: the university advanced space design program, which funds advanced systems study courses at the senior and graduate levels; the university space engineering research program that supports cross-disciplinary research centers; the outreach flight experiments program that offers engineering research opportunities to universities; and the planned university investigator's research program to provide grants to individuals with outstanding credentials.

  2. Nonfixed Retirement Age for University Professors: Modeling Its Effects on New Faculty Hires.

    PubMed

    Larson, Richard C; Diaz, Mauricio Gomez

    2012-03-01

    We model the set of tenure-track faculty members at a university as a queue, where "customers" in queue are faculty members in active careers. Arrivals to the queue are usually young, untenured assistant professors, and departures from the queue are primarily those who do not pass a promotion or tenure hurdle and those who retire. There are other less-often-used ways to enter and leave the queue. Our focus is on system effects of the elimination of mandatory retirement age. In particular, we are concerned with estimating the number of assistant professor slots that annually are no longer available because of the elimination of mandatory retirement. We start with steady-state assumptions that require use of Little's Law of Queueing, and we progress to a transient model using system dynamics. We apply these simple models using available data from our home university, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  3. Nonfixed Retirement Age for University Professors: Modeling Its Effects on New Faculty Hires

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Richard C.; Diaz, Mauricio Gomez

    2013-01-01

    We model the set of tenure-track faculty members at a university as a queue, where “customers” in queue are faculty members in active careers. Arrivals to the queue are usually young, untenured assistant professors, and departures from the queue are primarily those who do not pass a promotion or tenure hurdle and those who retire. There are other less-often-used ways to enter and leave the queue. Our focus is on system effects of the elimination of mandatory retirement age. In particular, we are concerned with estimating the number of assistant professor slots that annually are no longer available because of the elimination of mandatory retirement. We start with steady-state assumptions that require use of Little’s Law of Queueing, and we progress to a transient model using system dynamics. We apply these simple models using available data from our home university, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. PMID:23936582

  4. Effects of Adolescent Universal Substance Misuse Preventive Interventions on Young Adult Depression Symptoms: Mediational Modeling.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard; Mason, W Alex; Randall, G Kevin; Redmond, Cleve; Schainker, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Depression symptoms are associated with impairments in functioning and have substantial health and economic consequences. Universal substance misuse prevention programs have shown effects on non-targeted mental health-related symptoms, but long-term effects are understudied. This cluster randomized controlled trial examined effects of both the LifeSkills Training (LST) and Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10-14 (SFP 10-14) interventions, delivered during seventh grade, on age 22 young adult depression symptoms. The study was conducted in US rural Midwestern communities with a randomly-selected sample from a larger study (N = 670). Experimental conditions were LST+SFP 10-14, LST-only, and a control condition. Effects on age 22 depression symptoms were hypothesized as mediated through effects on age 21 relationship problems and illicit use of substances. Structural equation modeling with manifest and latent variables was conducted to test hypotheses; the intervention conditions were combined and compared with the control condition because analyses indicated a comparable pattern of effects between intervention conditions. Significant indirect intervention effects were found on age 22 depression symptoms via effects on the mediating variables (indirect effect: β = -0.06, 95 % CI [-0.10, -0.01], p = 0.011). Effect sizes for the young adult variables were between d = 0.17 and 0.29, which can be considered small, but nontrivial, especially in the context of public health benefits. Results support scaled-up implementation of school-based and family-focused universal substance misuse preventive interventions. PMID:25795013

  5. The Effects of a Communication and Conflict Resolution Skill Training Program on Sociotropy Levels of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karahan, T. Fikret

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the effect of a Communication and Conflict Resolution Skill Training Program on sociotropy levels of university students were investigated. The working group was consisted of thirty two voluntary university students. A pre-test and post-test model was used with control group and experimental group, each consisting of sixteen…

  6. Exploring the Teaching of Nigerian University Undergraduates in Large Classes: The Perceived Effectiveness of Closed-Circuit Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alba, O. Agbatogun

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the perception of the university lecturers on the effectiveness of Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) In teaching undergraduate students in large classes. One hundred lecturers randomly selected from University of Lagos, Nigeria constituted the sample for the study. The data generated through a self-designed questionnaire was…

  7. The Effect of Self-Regulated Jigsaw IV on University Students' Academic Achievements and Attitudes towards English Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özdemir, Esin; Arslan, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of self-regulated jigsaw IV upon university students' learning a new grammar structure within EFL learning process and also their attitudes towards the English course. The research was carried out with 40 students studying in two different prep classes at Bulent Ecevit University Foreign Languages College in…

  8. The Effect of Instructing Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies on the Academic Progress of Ilam Medical University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdolhosseini, Amir; Keikhavani, Sattar; Hasel, Kourosh Mohammadi

    2011-01-01

    This study reviewed the effect of instructing cognitive and metacognitive strategies on the academic progress of Medical Sciences of Ilam University students. The research is quasi-experimental including a pre-test and a post-test. The population of the research includes the students of Medical Sciences of Ilam University. The sample includes 120…

  9. An Assessment of Health Behavior Peer Effects in Peking University Dormitories: A Randomized Cluster-Assignment Design for Interference

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Changzheng; Lv, Jun; VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Relatively little is known about the peer influence in health behaviors within university dormitory rooms. Moreover, in China, the problem of unhealthy behaviors among university students has not yet been sufficiently recognized. We thus investigated health behavior peer influence in Peking University dormitories utilizing a randomized cluster-assignment design. Methods Study design: Cross-sectional in-dormitory survey. Study population: Current students from Peking University Health Science Center from April to June, 2009. Measurement: Self-reported questionnaire on health behaviors: physical activity (including bicycling), dietary intake and tobacco use. Results Use of bicycle, moderate-intensity exercise, frequency of sweet food and soybean milk intake, frequency of roasted/baked/toasted food intake were behaviors significantly or marginally significantly affected by peer influence. Conclusion Health behavior peer effects exist within dormitory rooms among university students. This could provide guidance on room assignment, or inform intervention programs. Examining these may demand attention from university administrators and policy makers. PMID:24040377

  10. Good pharmacovigilance practices: technology enabled.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Robert C; Palsulich, Bruce; Gogolak, Victor

    2002-01-01

    The assessment of spontaneous reports is most effective it is conducted within a defined and rigorous process. The framework for good pharmacovigilance process (GPVP) is proposed as a subset of good postmarketing surveillance process (GPMSP), a functional structure for both a public health and corporate risk management strategy. GPVP has good practices that implement each step within a defined process. These practices are designed to efficiently and effectively detect and alert the drug safety professional to new and potentially important information on drug-associated adverse reactions. These practices are enabled by applied technology designed specifically for the review and assessment of spontaneous reports. Specific practices include rules-based triage, active query prompts for severe organ insults, contextual single case evaluation, statistical proportionality and correlational checks, case-series analyses, and templates for signal work-up and interpretation. These practices and the overall GPVP are supported by state-of-the-art web-based systems with powerful analytical engines, workflow and audit trials to allow validated systems support for valid drug safety signalling efforts. It is also important to understand that a process has a defined set of steps and any one cannot stand independently. Specifically, advanced use of technical alerting methods in isolation can mislead and allow one to misunderstand priorities and relative value. In the end, pharmacovigilance is a clinical art and a component process to the science of pharmacoepidemiology and risk management. PMID:12071777

  11. Using NMR and molecular dynamics to link structure and dynamics effects of the universal base 8-aza, 7-deaza, N8 linked adenosine analog

    PubMed Central

    Spring-Connell, Alexander M.; Evich, Marina G.; Debelak, Harald; Seela, Frank; Germann, Markus W.

    2016-01-01

    A truly universal nucleobase enables a host of novel applications such as simplified templates for PCR primers, randomized sequencing and DNA based devices. A universal base must pair indiscriminately to each of the canonical bases with little or preferably no destabilization of the overall duplex. In reality, many candidates either destabilize the duplex or do not base pair indiscriminatingly. The novel base 8-aza-7-deazaadenine (pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin- 4-amine) N8-(2′deoxyribonucleoside), a deoxyadenosine analog (UB), pairs with each of the natural DNA bases with little sequence preference. We have utilized NMR complemented with molecular dynamic calculations to characterize the structure and dynamics of a UB incorporated into a DNA duplex. The UB participates in base stacking with little to no perturbation of the local structure yet forms an unusual base pair that samples multiple conformations. These local dynamics result in the complete disappearance of a single UB proton resonance under native conditions. Accommodation of the UB is additionally stabilized via heightened backbone conformational sampling. NMR combined with various computational techniques has allowed for a comprehensive characterization of both structural and dynamic effects of the UB in a DNA duplex and underlines that the UB as a strong candidate for universal base applications. PMID:27566150

  12. Effects of a Mindfulness Meditation Course on Learning and Cognitive Performance among University Students in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ching, Ho-Hoi; Koo, Malcolm; Tsai, Tsung-Huang; Chen, Chiu-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness training has recently gained much research interest because of its putative benefits for both mental and physical health. However, little is available in its effects on Asian students. Therefore, a quasi-experimental pre/posttest design was used to assess the effects of a one-semester mindfulness meditation course in 152 first-year Taiwanese university students and compared with 130 controls. The Chinese version of the College Learning Effectiveness Inventory (CLEI) and a computer software program focused on specific cognitive tasks were used for the evaluation. Results from the analysis of covariance revealed that while the score of the full CLEI scale was significantly higher in the intervention group compared with the control (P = 0.022), none of the comparisons between the nine CLEI subscales were significantly different between the two groups. For the computer cognitive tasks, the intervention group exhibited significantly better performance in the accuracy of the digital vigilance task (P = 0.048), choice reaction time (P = 0.004), spatial working memory (P = 0.042), and digital vigilance task reaction time (P = 0.004). This study showed that a one-semester mindfulness meditation course was able to improve learning effectiveness and both attention and memory aspects of cognitive performance among Taiwanese university students.

  13. Universal Access to Effective Antibiotics is Essential for Tackling Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Daulaire, Nils; Bang, Abhay; Tomson, Göran; Kalyango, Joan N; Cars, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Universal access to effective antimicrobials is essential to the realization of the right to health. At present, 5.7 million people die from treatable infections each year because they lack this access. Yet, community-based diagnosis and appropriate treatment for many of the leading causes of avoidable infectious deaths has been shown to be feasible and effective, demonstrating that strategies to reach the under-served need to receive high priority. This is a necessary part of a broad strategy to assure the long-term benefits of antimicrobials and to combat antimicrobial resistance, both because the lack of systematic and rigorous efforts to assure effective coverage increases the likelihood of antimicrobial resistance, and because global efforts aimed at antimicrobial stewardship and innovation cannot succeed without explicitly addressing the needs of the under-served. Elements of this strategy will include clear evidence-based treatment protocols, a robust international framework and locally tailored regulations, active engagement with communities and local health providers, strong attention to program management and cost considerations, a focus on the end user, and robust surveillance and response to emerging resistance patterns. Only by balancing the needs of universal access with stewardship and innovation, and assuring that they are mutually reinforcing can a global strategy hope to effectively address antimicrobial resistance. PMID:26243238

  14. The Effects of Student Involvement and College Environment on Students' Learning and Living Experience at World-Class Research Universities in China: A Comparative Case Study of the University of Hong Kong (HKU) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Roy Yew-Hung

    2011-01-01

    This comparative research examined the effects of student involvement and college environment on students' learning and living experience delivered by two aspiring world-class universities in Hong Kong and Shanghai. Few studies have shown how the levels of student involvement and college environment can benefit students at world-class institution.…

  15. Laboratory Astrophysics: Enabling Scientific Discovery and Understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, K.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Science Strategic Roadmap for Universe Exploration lays out a series of science objectives on a grand scale and discusses the various missions, over a wide range of wavelengths, which will enable discovery. Astronomical spectroscopy is arguably the most powerful tool we have for exploring the Universe. Experimental and theoretical studies in Laboratory Astrophysics convert "hard-won data into scientific understanding". However, the development of instruments with increasingly high spectroscopic resolution demands atomic and molecular data of unprecedented accuracy and completeness. How to meet these needs, in a time of severe budgetary constraints, poses a significant challenge both to NASA, the astronomical observers and model-builders, and the laboratory astrophysics community. I will discuss these issues, together with some recent examples of productive astronomy/lab astro collaborations.

  16. Highly effective sequencing whole chloroplast genomes of angiosperms by nine novel universal primer pairs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-Bo; Li, De-Zhu; Li, Hong-Tao

    2014-09-01

    Chloroplast genomes supply indispensable information that helps improve the phylogenetic resolution and even as organelle-scale barcodes. Next-generation sequencing technologies have helped promote sequencing of complete chloroplast genomes, but compared with the number of angiosperms, relatively few chloroplast genomes have been sequenced. There are two major reasons for the paucity of completely sequenced chloroplast genomes: (i) massive amounts of fresh leaves are needed for chloroplast sequencing and (ii) there are considerable gaps in the sequenced chloroplast genomes of many plants because of the difficulty of isolating high-quality chloroplast DNA, preventing complete chloroplast genomes from being assembled. To overcome these obstacles, all known angiosperm chloroplast genomes available to date were analysed, and then we designed nine universal primer pairs corresponding to the highly conserved regions. Using these primers, angiosperm whole chloroplast genomes can be amplified using long-range PCR and sequenced using next-generation sequencing methods. The primers showed high universality, which was tested using 24 species representing major clades of angiosperms. To validate the functionality of the primers, eight species representing major groups of angiosperms, that is, early-diverging angiosperms, magnoliids, monocots, Saxifragales, fabids, malvids and asterids, were sequenced and assembled their complete chloroplast genomes. In our trials, only 100 mg of fresh leaves was used. The results show that the universal primer set provided an easy, effective and feasible approach for sequencing whole chloroplast genomes in angiosperms. The designed universal primer pairs provide a possibility to accelerate genome-scale data acquisition and will therefore magnify the phylogenetic resolution and species identification in angiosperms.

  17. The effect of saliva decontamination procedures on dentin bond strength after universal adhesive curing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jayang; Hong, Sungok; Choi, Yoorina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of multiple decontamination procedures for salivary contamination after curing of a universal adhesive on dentin bond strength according to its etch modes. Materials and Methods Forty-two extracted bovine incisors were trimmed by exposing the labial dentin surfaces and embedded in cylindrical molds. A universal adhesive (All-Bond Universal, Bisco) was used. The teeth were randomly divided into groups according to etch mode and decontamination procedure. The adhesive was applied according to the manufacturer's instructions for a given etch mode. With the exception of the control groups, the cured adhesive was contaminated with saliva for 20 sec. In the self-etch group, the teeth were divided into three groups: control, decontamination with rinsing and drying, and decontamination with rinsing, drying, and adhesive. In the etch-and-rinse group, the teeth were divided into four groups: control, decontamination with rinsing and drying, decontamination with rinsing, drying, and adhesive, and decontamination with rinsing, drying, re-etching, and reapplication of adhesive. A composite resin (Filtek Z350XT, 3M ESPE) was used for filling and was cured on the treated surfaces. Shear bond strength was measured, and failure modes were evaluated. The data were subjected to one-way analysis of variation and Tukey's HSD test. Results The etch-and-rinse subgroup that was decontaminated by rinse, drying, re-etching, and reapplication of adhesive showed a significantly higher bond strength. Conclusions When salivary contamination occurs after curing of the universal adhesive, additional etching improves the bond strength to dentin. PMID:26587416

  18. The formation of Population III stars and their effect on cosmological structure in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, Brian William

    2005-11-01

    The first generation of stars to form in the universe have a profound impact on their environment. These stars are responsible for beginning the universe's transition from a "cosmic dark age" where no sources of visible light existed; to the bright universe seen today. Additionally, these stars were believed to be the first sources of all elements heavier than lithium, which strongly affected the ability of gas to cool and permanently changed how star formation occurred. In this dissertation I present results from numerical simulations of the formation of the first generation of stars to form in the universe ("Population III" stars) and their effects on later structure formation. I compare Enzo, the adaptive mesh refinement cosmology code used to perform all of the simulations in this work, to GADGET, a smoothed particle hydrodynamics cosmology code. Nearly identical results can be obtained when using two extremely different numerical methods, which helps to verify the correctness of both codes and strengthen the confidence of predictions made with these tools. I perform high dynamical range calculations of the formation of an ensemble of Population III stars, varying multiple simulation parameters, in a standard cold dark matter cosmology as well as with a soft ultraviolet background and in a generic warm dark matter cosmology. I find that the accretion rates of primordial protostars have been systematically overestimated by previously published work, which has profound implications for later structure formation and the reionization of the universe. Additionally, the presence of a soft ultraviolet background and warm dark matter serves to delay the onset of star formation. I propose limits on the possible mass of a warm dark matter particle. I also present results of simulations which demonstrate the effects of the HII regions and metal enrichment from Population III stars. It appears that HII regions from these stars may hasten the formation of later generations

  19. Universality, multiplicity, and the effect of iron impurities in the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffman, K. G.; McCormick, W. D.; Noszticzius, Z.; Simoyi, Reuben H.; Swinney, Harry L.

    1987-01-01

    In experiments on the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction in a flow reactor we have observed dynamical behavior that is described well by one-dimensional maps with a single maximum. A sequence of period doubling bifurcations was observed as a parameter was varied, and beyond the accumulation point for the period doubling sequence there was a sequence of periodic states that has the same symbolic dynamics as the states of the U (universal) sequence of Metropolis, Stein, and Stein (1973). However, in another experiment with malonic acid from a different vendor, we found that some states with particular symbol sequences occurred in three different parameter ranges rather than in one range as in the U sequence. Analysis of the effect of impurities in the reagents showed that some impurities (e.g., Fe3+ and esters of malonic acid) at concentrations of only a few ppm produced dramatic changes in the dynamics; such impurities are contained in commercially available malonic acid. Experiments with purified malonic acid indicate that the Fe2+/Fe3+ and Cu+/Cu2+ redox couples act as co-catalysts of the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction; their effect can be explained by a free radical mechanism. Other metal ions (e.g., Ni2+ and Co2+) at low concentrations have negligible effect on the dynamics. Finally, both the sequences with universal ordering and the sequences with multiplicity are described well by indented trapezoid maps of the type analyzed by Beyer, Mauldin, and Stein (1986).

  20. Costs and cost-effectiveness of a universal, school-based hepatitis B vaccination program.

    PubMed Central

    Krahn, M; Guasparini, R; Sherman, M; Detsky, A S

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the costs and cost-effectiveness of a school-based grade 6 universal vaccination program against hepatitis B. METHODS: We performed a descriptive cost study and cost-effectiveness analysis of British Columbia's vaccination program for 1994 and 1995. Since 1992, public health nurses have administered hepatitis B vaccine to grade 6 students in schools. We measured costs of vaccine, vaccine administration, and net program costs and used a validated Markov model to calculate the cost-effectiveness of the program. RESULTS: Vaccinating each student cost $44, $24 of which was the cost of vaccine administration. The net cost was $9 per person; considering productivity costs, net savings were $75 per person. Marginal cost per life year gained was $2100. Universal adolescent vaccination is also economically attractive in the United States but less attractive in regions with incidence rates below 3 cases per 100,000 per year. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatitis B vaccine can be delivered in North American schools at a reasonable cost. Adolescent vaccination is economically attractive in North American regions of high and average incidence rates. Our analysis supports vaccination in adolescents who remain at risk for hepatitis B virus infection. PMID:9807529

  1. Systematic Effects on the Genus Topology of the Large-scale Structure of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Rae; Choi, Yun-Young; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Kim, Kap-Sung; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Shin, Jihye; Kim, Minbae

    2014-06-01

    The large-scale structure of the universe is a useful cosmological probe of primordial non-Gaussianity and the expansion history of the universe because its topology does not change with time in the linear regime in the standard paradigm of structure formation. However, when the topology of iso-density contour surfaces is measured from observational data, many systematic effects are introduced due to the finite size of pixels used to define the density field, nonlinear gravitational evolution, redshift space distortion, shot noise (discrete sampling), and bias in the distribution of the density field tracers. We study the various systematic effects on the genus curve to a great accuracy by using the Horizon Run 2 simulation of a ΛCDM cosmology. We numerically measure the genus curve from the gravitationally evolved matter and dark matter halo density fields. It is found that all the non-Gaussian deviations due to systematic effects can be modeled by using a few low-order Hermite polynomials from H 0 to H 4. We compare our results with analytic theories whenever possible, and find many new terms in the Hermite series that are making significant contributions to the non-Gaussian deviations. In particular, it is found that the amplitude drop of the genus curve due to the nonlinear gravitational evolution can be accurately modeled by two terms, H 0 and H 2, with both coefficients proportional to \\sigma _0^2, the mean-square density fluctuation.

  2. Solar Glitter -- Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, Gregory N.

    2012-02-01

    Many products have significantly benefitted from, or been enabled by, the ability to manufacture structures at an ever decreasing length scale. Obvious examples of this include integrated circuits, flat panel displays, micro-scale sensors, and LED lighting. These industries have benefited from length scale effects in terms of improved performance, reduced cost, or new functionality (or a combination of these). In a similar manner, we are working to take advantage of length scale effects that exist within solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. While this is a significant step away from traditional approaches to solar power systems, the benefits in terms of new functionality, improved performance, and reduced cost for solar power are compelling. We are exploring scale effects that result from the size of the solar cells within the system. We have developed unique cells of both crystalline silicon and III-V materials that are very thin (5-20 microns thick) and have very small lateral dimensions (on the order of hundreds of microns across). These cells minimize the amount of expensive semiconductor material required for the system, allow improved cell performance, and provide an expanded design space for both module and system concepts allowing optimized power output and reduced module and balance of system costs. Furthermore, the small size of the cells allows for unique high-efficiency, high-flexibility PV panels and new building-integrated PV options that are currently unavailable. These benefits provide a pathway for PV power to become cost competitive with grid power and allow unique power solutions independent of grid power.

  3. Second order gravitational effects on CMB temperature anisotropy in {lambda} dominated flat universes

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, Kenji; Inoue, Kaiki Taro

    2008-05-15

    We study second order gravitational effects of local inhomogeneities on the cosmic microwave background radiation in flat universes with matter and a cosmological constant {lambda}. We find that the general relativistic correction to the Newtonian approximation is negligible at second order provided that the size of the inhomogeneous region is sufficiently smaller than the horizon scale. For a spherically symmetric top-hat type quasilinear perturbation, the first order temperature fluctuation corresponding to the linear integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect is enhanced (suppressed) by the second order one for a compensated void (lump). As a function of redshift of the local inhomogeneity, the second order temperature fluctuations due to evolution of the gravitational potential have a peak before the matter-{lambda} equality epoch for a fixed comoving size and a density contrast. The second order gravitational effects from local quasilinear inhomogeneities at a redshift z{approx}1 may significantly affect the cosmic microwave background.

  4. Social desirability effects on measures of adjustment to university, independence from parents, and self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, N A; Gekoski, W L

    1995-03-01

    Results of regression analyses on data from 96 first-year undergraduates indicated that social desirability (Jackson and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scales), particularly scores on the Jackson scale, is related strongly to scores on measures of adjustment (Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire), self-efficacy (Hale-Fibel Generalized Expectation for Success Scale), and independence (Psychological Separation Inventory) from mother, but not from father. In addition, both the Jackson and Marlowe-Crowne scales were correlated highly. Independence from parents and self-efficacy each continued to show a relationship with adjustment to university after social desirability effects were removed. Failure to remove the effect(s) of social desirability from the present measures is likely to lead to inflated estimates of their relation to each other or to other measures.

  5. Qualities of effective secondary science teachers: Perspectives of university biology students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, Madelon J.

    This research was an attempt to hear the student voice concerning secondary science teacher effectiveness and to share that voice with those who impact the educational process. It was a snapshot of university freshmen biology students' opinions of the qualities of effective secondary science teachers based on their high school science experiences. The purpose of this study was to compile a list of effective secondary science teacher qualities as determined through a purposeful sampling of university second semester biology students and determine the role of the secondary science teacher in promoting interest and achievement in science, as well as the teacher's influence on a students' choice of a science career. The research was a mixed methods design using both quantitative and qualitative data obtained through the use of a 24 question electronic survey. There were 125 participants who provided information concerning their high school science teachers. Respondents provided information concerning the qualities of effective secondary science teachers and influences on the students' present career choice. The quantitative data was used to construct a hierarchy of qualities of effective secondary science teachers, divided into personal, professional, and classroom management qualities. The qualitative data was used to examine individual student responses to questions concerning secondary science teacher effectiveness and student career choice. The results of the research indicated that students highly value teachers who are both passionate about the subject taught and passionate about their students. High school science students prefer teachers who teach science in a way that is both interesting and relevant to the student. It was determined that the greatest influence on a secondary student's career choice came from family members and not from teachers. The secondary teacher's role was to recognize the student's interest in the career and provide encouragement

  6. Replication RCT of Early Universal Prevention Effects on Young Adult Substance Misuse

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda; Redmond, Cleve; Shin, Chungyeol

    2014-01-01

    Objective For many substances, more frequent and problematic use occurs in young adulthood; these types of use are predicted by the timing of initiation during adolescence. We replicated and extended an earlier study examining whether delayed substance initiation during adolescence, resulting from universal preventive interventions implemented in middle school, reduces problematic use in young adulthood. Method Participants were middle school students from 36 Iowa schools randomly assigned to the Strengthening Families Program plus Life Skills Training (SFP 10–14 + LST), LST-only, or a control condition. Self-report questionnaires were collected at 11 time points, including four during young adulthood. The intercept (average level) and rate of change (slope) in young adult frequency measures (drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, cigarettes, and illicit drugs) across ages 19–22 were modeled as outcomes influenced by growth factors describing substance initiation during adolescence. Analyses entailed testing a two-step hierarchical latent growth curve model; models included the effects of baseline risk, intervention condition assignment, and their interaction. Results Analyses showed significant indirect intervention effects on the average levels of all young adult outcomes, through effects on adolescent substance initiation growth factors, along with intervention by risk interaction effects favoring the higher-risk subsample. Additional direct effects on young adult use were observed in some cases. Relative reduction rates were larger for the higher-risk subsample at age 22, ranging from 5.8% to 36.4% on outcomes showing significant intervention effects. Conclusions Universal preventive interventions implemented during early adolescence have the potential to decrease the rates of substance use and associated problems, into young adulthood. PMID:24821095

  7. Enabling Space Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, William J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation on enabling space science and exploration covers the following topics: 1) Today s Deep Space Network; 2) Next Generation Deep Space Network; 3) Needed technologies; 4) Mission IT and networking; and 5) Multi-mission operations.

  8. Computer Security Systems Enable Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Gary

    1989-01-01

    A good security system enables access and protects information from damage or tampering, but the most important aspects of a security system aren't technical. A security procedures manual addresses the human element of computer security. (MLW)

  9. ISW effect as probe of features in the expansion history of the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Santanu; Souradeep, Tarun; Shafieloo, Arman E-mail: arman@apctp.org

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, using and implementing a new line of sight CMB code, called CMBAns [1], that allows us to modify H(z) for any given feature at any redshift we study the effect of changes in the expansion history of the Universe on the CMB power spectrum. Motivated by the detailed analytical calculations of the effects of the changes in H(z) on ISW plateau and CMB low multipoles, we study two phenomenological parametric form of the expansion history using WMAP data and through MCMC analysis. Our MCMC analysis shows that the standard ΛCDM cosmological model is consistent with the CMB data allowing the expansion history of the Universe vary around this model at different redshifts. However, our analysis also shows that a decaying dark energy model proposed in [2] has in fact a marginally better fit than the standard cosmological constant model to CMB data. Concordance of our studies here with the previous analysis showing that Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) and supernovae data (SN Ia) also prefer mildly this decaying dark energy model to ΛCDM, makes this finding interesting and worth further investigation.

  10. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Swedish Universal Parenting Program All Children in Focus

    PubMed Central

    Ulfsdotter, Malin

    2015-01-01

    Objective There are few health economic evaluations of parenting programs with quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) as the outcome measure. The objective of this study was, therefore, to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of the universal parenting program All Children in Focus (ABC). The goals were to estimate the costs of program implementation, investigate the health effects of the program, and examine its cost-effectiveness. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted. Costs included setup costs and operating costs. A parent proxy Visual Analog Scale was used to measure QALYs in children, whereas the General Health Questionnaire-12 was used for parents. A societal perspective was adopted, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated. To account for uncertainty in the estimate, the probability of cost-effectiveness was investigated, and sensitivity analyses were used to account for the uncertainty in cost data. Results The cost was €326.3 per parent, of which €53.7 represented setup costs under the assumption that group leaders on average run 10 groups, and €272.6 was the operating costs. For health effects, the QALY gain was 0.0042 per child and 0.0027 per parent. These gains resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the base case of €47 290 per gained QALY. The sensitivity analyses resulted in ratios from €41 739 to €55 072. With the common Swedish threshold value of €55 000 per QALY, the probability of the ABC program being cost-effective was 50.8 percent. Conclusion Our analysis of the ABC program demonstrates cost-effectiveness ratios below or just above the QALY threshold in Sweden. However, due to great uncertainty about the data, the health economic rationale for implementation should be further studied considering a longer time perspective, effects on siblings, and validated measuring techniques, before full scale implementation. PMID:26681349

  11. Systematic effects of local large scale structure on the measured expansion history of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderveld, Riva Ashley

    2007-10-01

    We discuss some of the ways that local cosmological inhomogeneity has been found to affect our interpretation of the measurements of the redshifts and luminosity distances of Type la supernovae, so that we may ask: Can a matter dominated universe, with gravity governed by general relativity, appear to be accelerating? This discussion focuses on the systematic corrections to measured cosmological parameters that one would find as a result of the "fitting problem", wherein the fitting of data to what we would see in a homogeneous universe introduces errors due to the nonlinearity of general relativity. It has been suggested that this fitting effect could explain the supernova data without introducing dark energy or modifications of general relativity. We explore this claim within the context of several cosmological scenarios, all of which use standard general relativity and are dust dominated, with no dark energy. First, we use the spherically-symmetric Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi cosmological models, then we look at a simple model for cosmological voids and sheets, and finally we treat the problem in full three dimensional generality. In each of these contexts, we analyze the systematic corrections to the luminosity distances and redshifts of Type Ia supernovae that result from local large scale structure. We then find how such corrections affect the properties of the Universe that we infer from this measured luminosity distance-redshift relation. We show how, in principle, a very large degree of inhomogeneity can trick us into thinking that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating when it is not. However, within the confines of more realistic models, such effects are shown to be small. In the full three dimensional case, we find that the error in the best-fit cosmological constant is approximately DO L [approximate] 0.004 for a large sample of supernovae at small redshifts, between z min = 0.02 and z max = 0.15. Although this error is not large enough to explain

  12. Effective student teams for collaborative learning in an introductory university physics course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, Jason J. B.; Harrison, David M.; Meyertholen, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    We have studied the types of student teams that are most effective for collaborative learning in a large freshman university physics course. We compared teams in which the students were all of roughly equal ability to teams with a mix of student abilities, we compared teams with three members to teams with four members, and we examined teams with only one female student and the rest of the students male. We measured team effectiveness by the gains on the Force Concept Inventory and by performance on the final examination. None of the factors that we examined had significant impact on student learning. We also investigated student satisfaction as measured by responses to an anonymous evaluation at the end of the term, and found small but statistically significant differences depending on how the nine teams in the group were constructed.

  13. Universal construction of controlled-unitary gates using dynamical decoupling and the quantum Zeno effect

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Shojun; Soeda, Akihito; Murao, Mio

    2014-12-04

    We present two new algorithms that universally construct a quantum circuit approximating a controlled-U(t) up to a global phase factor of U(t), denoted by Λ{sub θ}U(t), where U(t) = e{sup −iHt} is the unitary evolution operator of an unknown Hamiltonian H of the system, and is given as a black box with tunable parameter t. We show that it is possible to approximately construct Λ{sub θ}U(t) with arbitrarily high accuracy. This algorithm is based on the dynamical decoupling effect [1]. If another black box consisting of a time-inverted version of U(t), namely U(−t), is also available we can implement Λ{sub θ}U(t) exactly with arbitrarily high success probability. This algorithm is based on the quantum Zeno effect.

  14. Bose and Fermi gases in the early Universe with self-gravitational effect

    SciTech Connect

    Niu Yuezhen; Huang Junwu; Ma Boqiang

    2011-03-15

    We study the self-gravitational effect on the equation of state (EoS) of Bose and Fermi gases in thermal equilibrium at the end of reheating, the period after quark-hadron transition and before big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). After introducing new grand canonical partition functions based on the work of Uhlenbeck and Gropper, we notice some interesting features of the newly developed EoSs with distinct behaviors of relativistic and nonrelativistic gases under self-gravity. The usual negligence of the self-gravitational effect when solving the background expansion of the early Universe is justified with numerical results, showing the magnitude of the self-gravitational modification of the state constant to be less than O(10{sup -78}). This helps us to clarify the background thermal evolution of the primordial patch. Such clarification is crucial in testing gravity theories, evaluating inflation models and determining element abundances in BBN.

  15. Delivering compassionate care: the enablers and barriers.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Angela; O'Brien, Mary R; Kirton, Jennifer A; Zubairu, Kate; Bray, Lucy

    The importance of providing compassionate care to patients is well established. While compassionate care can be understood as an individual response to others' vulnerability, it is acknowledged that healthcare environments can impact significantly on this aspect of practice. This study sought to explore how health professionals and pre-qualifying healthcare students (HCS) understand compassionate care and factors that hinder or enable them to practice compassionately. The perceptions of health professionals (n=146) and HCS (n=166) registered at a university in Northwest England were explored using mixed methods. This article reports on the data gained from the qualitative interviews and responses to open-text questions from the mainly quantitative questionnaire. The findings are discussed under the following themes: individual and relationship factors that impact on compassionate care practice; organisational factors that impact on the clinical environment and team; and leadership factors that hinder or enable a compassionate care culture. This article argues that there are a number of enabling factors that enhance a culture conducive to providing compassionate care. These include leaders who act as positive role models, good relationships between team members and a focus on staff wellbeing. PMID:26355360

  16. 75 FR 13235 - IP-Enabled Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... 47 CFR 63.60(a) and (f), published on August 7, 2009 (74 FR 39551), were approved by the Office of... published a document in the Federal Register, 74 FR 39551, August 7, 2009, that sets forth an effective date... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 63 IP-Enabled Services AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission ACTION: Final...

  17. Effects of contact with treatment users on mental illness stigma: evidence from university roommate assignments.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Daniel; Downs, Marilyn F; Golberstein, Ezra

    2012-09-01

    Mental illness stigma refers to negative stereotypes and prejudices about people with mental illness, and is a widespread phenomenon with damaging social, psychological, and economic consequences. Despite considerable policy attention, mental illness stigma does not appear to have declined significantly in recent years. Interpersonal contact with persons with mental illness has been identified as a promising approach to reducing mental illness stigma. This study investigates the effect of contact with mental health treatment users on stigma using an observational research design that is free of self-selection bias. The research design is based on the quasi-experiment in which university students are assigned to live together as roommates. Survey data were collected from first-year undergraduates at two large universities in the United States (N = 1605). Multivariable regressions were used to estimate the effect of assignment to a roommate with a history of mental health treatment on a brief measure of stigmatizing attitudes. Contact with a treatment user caused a modest increase in stigma (standardized effect size = 0.15, p = 0.03). This effect was present among students without a prior treatment history of their own, but not among those with a prior history. The findings indicate that naturalistic contact alone does not necessarily yield a reduction in mental illness stigma. This may help explain why stigma has not declined in societies such as the United States even as treatment use has risen substantially. The findings also highlight the importance of isolating the specific components, beyond contact per se, that are necessary to reduce stigma in contact-based interventions.

  18. The Effect of a Universal Cervical Length Screening Program on Antepartum Management and Birth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Shainker, Scott A.; Modest, Anna M.; Hacker, Michele R.; Ralston, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a universal cervical length screening program on the incidence of antepartum interventions. Study Design This retrospective cohort study included women delivering ≥ 20 weeks of gestation with singleton pregnancies before and after implementing universal cervical length screening. Antepartum interventions included admission for threatened preterm birth, ≥ 2 cervical length measurements, cervical cerclage, neonatology consultation, betamethasone, antibiotic administration for preterm premature rupture of membranes, and tocolysis. Results There were 1,131 women—506 before the screening program (unexposed) and 625 afterward (exposed). The screening program resulted in significantly more women screened (3.0 vs. 69.9%, p < 0.0001). The exposed group was more likely to undergo ≥ 1 intervention (20.0 vs. 9.5%, p < 0.0001); specifically, admission for threatened preterm birth (3.8 vs. 1.8%, p = 0.04) and ≥ 2 cervical measurements (11.2 vs. 2.0%, p < 0.001). Other interventions were similar between groups (all p ≥ 0.06). Median gestation length was significantly longer in the exposed (39.6 weeks [interquartile, IQR: 38.6–40.4] vs. 39.0 weeks [IQR: 38.0–40.0, p < 0.001]); however, preterm delivery incidence was unaffected (9.4 vs. 10.9%, p = 0.43). Remaining neonatal outcomes were similar (all p ≥ 0.14). Conclusion Implementing universal cervical length screening significantly increased the proportion of women undergoing ≥ 1 antepartum intervention. With the exception of a modestly prolonged gestation, other outcomes were unaffected. PMID:27280063

  19. The Effect of a Universal Cervical Length Screening Program on Antepartum Management and Birth Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shainker, Scott A; Modest, Anna M; Hacker, Michele R; Ralston, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a universal cervical length screening program on the incidence of antepartum interventions. Study Design This retrospective cohort study included women delivering ≥ 20 weeks of gestation with singleton pregnancies before and after implementing universal cervical length screening. Antepartum interventions included admission for threatened preterm birth, ≥ 2 cervical length measurements, cervical cerclage, neonatology consultation, betamethasone, antibiotic administration for preterm premature rupture of membranes, and tocolysis. Results There were 1,131 women-506 before the screening program (unexposed) and 625 afterward (exposed). The screening program resulted in significantly more women screened (3.0 vs. 69.9%, p < 0.0001). The exposed group was more likely to undergo ≥ 1 intervention (20.0 vs. 9.5%, p < 0.0001); specifically, admission for threatened preterm birth (3.8 vs. 1.8%, p = 0.04) and ≥ 2 cervical measurements (11.2 vs. 2.0%, p < 0.001). Other interventions were similar between groups (all p ≥ 0.06). Median gestation length was significantly longer in the exposed (39.6 weeks [interquartile, IQR: 38.6-40.4] vs. 39.0 weeks [IQR: 38.0-40.0, p < 0.001]); however, preterm delivery incidence was unaffected (9.4 vs. 10.9%, p = 0.43). Remaining neonatal outcomes were similar (all p ≥ 0.14). Conclusion Implementing universal cervical length screening significantly increased the proportion of women undergoing ≥ 1 antepartum intervention. With the exception of a modestly prolonged gestation, other outcomes were unaffected. PMID:27280063

  20. The Effect of a Universal Cervical Length Screening Program on Antepartum Management and Birth Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shainker, Scott A; Modest, Anna M; Hacker, Michele R; Ralston, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a universal cervical length screening program on the incidence of antepartum interventions. Study Design This retrospective cohort study included women delivering ≥ 20 weeks of gestation with singleton pregnancies before and after implementing universal cervical length screening. Antepartum interventions included admission for threatened preterm birth, ≥ 2 cervical length measurements, cervical cerclage, neonatology consultation, betamethasone, antibiotic administration for preterm premature rupture of membranes, and tocolysis. Results There were 1,131 women-506 before the screening program (unexposed) and 625 afterward (exposed). The screening program resulted in significantly more women screened (3.0 vs. 69.9%, p < 0.0001). The exposed group was more likely to undergo ≥ 1 intervention (20.0 vs. 9.5%, p < 0.0001); specifically, admission for threatened preterm birth (3.8 vs. 1.8%, p = 0.04) and ≥ 2 cervical measurements (11.2 vs. 2.0%, p < 0.001). Other interventions were similar between groups (all p ≥ 0.06). Median gestation length was significantly longer in the exposed (39.6 weeks [interquartile, IQR: 38.6-40.4] vs. 39.0 weeks [IQR: 38.0-40.0, p < 0.001]); however, preterm delivery incidence was unaffected (9.4 vs. 10.9%, p = 0.43). Remaining neonatal outcomes were similar (all p ≥ 0.14). Conclusion Implementing universal cervical length screening significantly increased the proportion of women undergoing ≥ 1 antepartum intervention. With the exception of a modestly prolonged gestation, other outcomes were unaffected.

  1. Acyclic Cucurbit[n]uril-Type Molecular Container Enables Systemic Delivery of Effective Doses of Albendazole for Treatment of SK-OV-3 Xenograft Tumors.

    PubMed

    Hettiarachchi, Gaya; Samanta, Soumen K; Falcinelli, Shane; Zhang, Ben; Moncelet, Damien; Isaacs, Lyle; Briken, Volker

    2016-03-01

    Approximately, 40-70% of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) are severely limited by their extremely poor aqueous solubility, and consequently, there is a high demand for excipients that can be used to formulate clinically relevant doses of these drug candidates. Here, proof-of-concept studies demonstrate the potential of our recently discovered acyclic cucurbit[n]uril-type molecular container Motor1 (M1) as a solubilizing agent for insoluble drugs. M1 did not induce significant rates of mutations in various Salmonella typhimurium test strains during the Ames test, suggesting low genotoxicity. M1 also has low risk of causing cardiac toxicity in humans since it did not inhibit the human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene channel as tested on transfected CHO cell lines via patch clamp analysis. Albendazole (ABZ) is a widely used antihelminthic agent but that has also shown promising efficacy against cancerous cells in vitro. However, due to its low aqueous solubility (2.7 μM) and poor pharmacokinetics, ABZ is clinically limited as an anticancer agent. Here we investigated the potential of M1 as a solubilizing excipient for ABZ formulation. A pharmacokinetic study indicated that ABZ escapes the peritoneal cavity resulting in 78% absolute bioavailability, while its active intermediate metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide, achieved 43% absolute bioavailability. The daily dosing of 681 mg/kg M1 complexed with 3.2 mg/kg of ABZ for 14 days did not result in significant weight loss or pathology in Swiss Webster mice. In vivo efficacy studies using this M1·ABZ inclusion complex showed significant decreases in tumor growth rates and increases in survival of mice bearing SK-OV-3 xenograft tumors. In conclusion, we provide substantial new evidence demonstrating that M1 is a safe and efficient excipient that enables in vivo parenteral delivery of poorly water-soluble APIs.

  2. Acyclic Cucurbit[n]uril-Type Molecular Container Enables Systemic Delivery of Effective Doses of Albendazole for Treatment of SK-OV-3 Xenograft Tumors.

    PubMed

    Hettiarachchi, Gaya; Samanta, Soumen K; Falcinelli, Shane; Zhang, Ben; Moncelet, Damien; Isaacs, Lyle; Briken, Volker

    2016-03-01

    Approximately, 40-70% of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) are severely limited by their extremely poor aqueous solubility, and consequently, there is a high demand for excipients that can be used to formulate clinically relevant doses of these drug candidates. Here, proof-of-concept studies demonstrate the potential of our recently discovered acyclic cucurbit[n]uril-type molecular container Motor1 (M1) as a solubilizing agent for insoluble drugs. M1 did not induce significant rates of mutations in various Salmonella typhimurium test strains during the Ames test, suggesting low genotoxicity. M1 also has low risk of causing cardiac toxicity in humans since it did not inhibit the human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene channel as tested on transfected CHO cell lines via patch clamp analysis. Albendazole (ABZ) is a widely used antihelminthic agent but that has also shown promising efficacy against cancerous cells in vitro. However, due to its low aqueous solubility (2.7 μM) and poor pharmacokinetics, ABZ is clinically limited as an anticancer agent. Here we investigated the potential of M1 as a solubilizing excipient for ABZ formulation. A pharmacokinetic study indicated that ABZ escapes the peritoneal cavity resulting in 78% absolute bioavailability, while its active intermediate metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide, achieved 43% absolute bioavailability. The daily dosing of 681 mg/kg M1 complexed with 3.2 mg/kg of ABZ for 14 days did not result in significant weight loss or pathology in Swiss Webster mice. In vivo efficacy studies using this M1·ABZ inclusion complex showed significant decreases in tumor growth rates and increases in survival of mice bearing SK-OV-3 xenograft tumors. In conclusion, we provide substantial new evidence demonstrating that M1 is a safe and efficient excipient that enables in vivo parenteral delivery of poorly water-soluble APIs. PMID:26756920

  3. Enabling individualized therapy through nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Jason H.; van de Ven, Anne L.; Godin, Biana; Blanco, Elvin; Serda, Rita E.; Grattoni, Alessandro; Ziemys, Arturas; Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Tony; Ranganathan, Shivakumar I.; De Rosa, Enrica; Martinez, Jonathan O.; Smid, Christine A.; Buchanan, Rachel M.; Lee, Sei-Young; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Landry, Matthew; Meyn, Anne; Tasciotti, Ennio; Liu, Xuewu; Decuzzi, Paolo; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Individualized medicine is the healthcare strategy that rebukes the idiomatic dogma of ‘losing sight of the forest for the trees’. We are entering a new era of healthcare where it is no longer acceptable to develop and market a drug that is effective for only 80% of the patient population. The emergence of “-omic” technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and advances in systems biology are magnifying the deficiencies of standardized therapy, which often provide little treatment latitude for accommodating patient physiologic idiosyncrasies. A personalized approach to medicine is not a novel concept. Ever since the scientific community began unraveling the mysteries of the genome, the promise of discarding generic treatment regimens in favor of patient-specific therapies became more feasible and realistic. One of the major scientific impediments of this movement towards personalized medicine has been the need for technological enablement. Nanotechnology is projected to play a critical role in patient-specific therapy; however, this transition will depend heavily upon the evolutionary development of a systems biology approach to clinical medicine based upon “-omic” technology analysis and integration. This manuscript provides a forward looking assessment of the promise of nanomedicine as it pertains to individualized medicine and establishes a technology “snapshot” of the current state of nano-based products over a vast array of clinical indications and range of patient specificity. Other issues such as market driven hurdles and regulatory compliance reform are anticipated to “self-correct” in accordance to scientific advancement and healthcare demand. These peripheral, non-scientific concerns are not addressed at length in this manuscript; however they do exist, and their impact to the paradigm shifting healthcare transformation towards individualized medicine will be critical for its success. PMID:20045055

  4. The experience of dysmenorrhoea among Ghanaian senior high and university students: pain characteristics and effects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dysmenorrhoea is a common problem of women at the reproductive age and may have negative effect on the education of females at various stages on the educational ladder. Context and purpose This study sought to gain an in-depth understanding of the experience of dysmenorrhoea and its effect on female students in a secondary and a tertiary institution in Accra, Ghana. Methods The study employed a descriptive phenomenology design and was conducted at a University and a Senior High School (SHS) in Accra. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit participants and data was saturated with 16 participants. Concurrent analysis was done by applying the processes of content analysis and the NVivo software was used to manage the data. Results It was realized that dysmenorrhoea is associated with symptoms such as diarrhoea, headache and vomiting. Pain may start one week to the day of menstruation and the severity differed across the days of menstruation. The effect of dysmenorrhoea included activity intolerance, altered emotion and interaction, altered sleep pattern, absenteeism and inattentiveness, wishes and regrets, and misconceptions. Conclusions It was concluded that severe dysmenorrhoea has a debilitating effect on female students and is associated with misconceptions that could result in drastic action with fatal consequences. Thus, there is the need to enhance education on dysmenorrhoea, and an aggressive step should be taken to effectively manage dysmenorrhoea. PMID:25064081

  5. The effect of backreaction of non-minimally coupled massless quintom fields in FLRW universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setare, M. R.; Sahraee, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper the quantum backreaction of non-minimally coupled massless quintom fields in FLRW universe has been discussed. quintom model contains two massless scalar fields where one of scalar fields has positive kinetic energy and another one has negative kinetic energy term. In this model, we obtain the vacuum expectation value of the full energy-momentum tensor in different cosmological eras including inflation, radiation and matter dominated eras on FRLW universe with constant ɛ . This quantity is divergent in different cases. In order to renormalize it, we separate the vacuum expectation values of the full energy-momentum tensor to the UV and IR parts by using μ cutoff. Then we eliminate the UV divergences by introducing a counterterm action and adding it to the action of the model. Also we calculate the IR part of the energy-momentum tensor during inflation and different transitions. For this purpose, we assume that the transition from one period to the next happens fast. Therefore we use a sudden transition approximation at matching time. In order to study behavior of the backreaction, we obtain the ratio of the dominant contribution of quantum energy density to the corresponding background quantity in different cosmological eras. Moreover, we show that the one-loop fluctuations of quintom model on de Sitter space give a contribution to the cosmological constant. Finally we obtain the effect of the quantum backreaction on the background geometry leading to new scale factor for cosmological eras.

  6. Smoking spaces as enabling spaces of wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qian Hui

    2013-11-01

    A persistent emphasis on the negative biomedical effects of cigarette smoking effectively glosses over the affectual-sensual and social wellbeing that smoking can enable. In addition, while tobacco research has recently been more attuned to the stigmatizing affects brought about by smoking de-normalization efforts, a lot less attention has been placed on how smokers negotiate these feelings of stigmatization so as to restore their personal spaces of wellbeing. In this paper, I situate my investigation of smoking geographies in the burgeoning literature on enabling spaces which focuses on how places co-constitute our ability to act/affect in empowering ways. By deploying qualitative research methods such as in-depth interviews, I argue that an acknowledgment of how smoking spaces in Singapore can be enabling along affectual, sensorial and social registers is long overdue. While it is not my purpose to systematically downplay the damaging health effects that smoking can engender, a focus on enabling smoking spaces emphasizes the role of smokers as creative agents capable of (re)fashioning their own holistic and subjective versions of wellbeing. In so doing, I hope to contribute to the existing research on smoking spaces and a recent profusion of work on relational geographies of affect.

  7. Effects of quintessence on observations of Type Ia supernovae in the clumpy universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sereno, M.; Piedipalumbo, E.; Sazhin, M. V.

    2002-10-01

    We discuss the amplification dispersion in the observed luminosity of standard candles, such as supernovae (SNe) of Type Ia, induced by gravitational lensing in a universe with dark energy (quintessence). We derive the main features of the magnification probability distribution function (pdf) of SNe in the framework of on average Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) models for both lensing by large-scale structures and compact objects. Analytic expressions, in terms of hypergeometric functions, for luminosity distance-redshift relations in a flat universe with homogeneous dark energy have been corrected for the effects of inhomogeneities in the pressureless dark matter (DM). The magnification pdf is strongly dependent on the equation of state, wQ, of the quintessence. With no regard to the nature of DM (microscopic or macroscopic), the dispersion increases with the redshift of the source and is maximum for dark energy with very large negative pressure; the effects of gravitational lensing on the magnification pdf, i.e. the mode biased towards de-amplified values and the long tail towards large magnifications, are reduced for both microscopic DM and quintessence with an intermediate wQ. Different equations of state of the dark energy can deeply change the dispersion in amplification for the projected observed samples of SNe Ia by future space-borne missions. The `noise' in the Hubble diagram due to gravitational lensing strongly affects the determination of the cosmological parameters from SNe data. The errors on the pressureless matter density parameter, ΩM, and on wQ are maximum for quintessence with not very negative pressure. The effect of the gravitational lensing is of the same order as the other systematics affecting observations of SNe Ia. As a result of the lensing by large-scale structures, in a flat universe with ΩM= 0.4, at z= 1 a cosmological constant (wQ=- 1) can be interpreted as dark energy with wQ < -0.84 (at 2σ confidence limit).

  8. Cost-effectiveness of universal and platelet reactivity assay-driven antiplatelet therapy in acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Craig I; Limone, Brendan L

    2013-08-01

    Assays monitoring P2Y12 platelet reactivity can accurately predict which patients will have a poor response to clopidogrel. We sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of using platelet reactivity assays (PRAs) to select a dual-antiplatelet regimen for patients with acute coronary syndrome. A hybrid decision tree Markov model was developed to determine the cost-effectiveness of universal clopidogrel, ticagrelor, or prasugrel (given to all patients) or PRA-driven ticagrelor or prasugrel (given to patients with high platelet reactivity, defined as >230 on the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay; the others received generic clopidogrel). We assumed a cohort of 65-year-old patients with acute coronary syndrome and an incidence of high platelet reactivity of 32% and 13% at ~24 to 48 hours after revascularization and 1 month, respectively. The 5-year costs, quality-adjusted life-years, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated for PRA-driven ticagrelor and prasugrel compared with universal clopidogrel, ticagrelor, or prasugrel. PRA-driven ticagrelor and prasugrel were cost-effective compared with universal clopidogrel (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio $40,100 and $49,143/quality-adjusted life-year, respectively); however, universal ticagrelor and prasugrel were not (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio $61,651 and $96,261/quality-adjusted life-year, respectively). Monte Carlo simulation suggested PRA-driven ticagrelor, PRA-driven prasugrel, universal ticagrelor, and universal prasugrel would have an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio <$50,000/quality-adjusted life-year in 52%, 40%, 23%, and 2% of the iterations compared with universal clopidogrel, respectively. Universal ticagrelor and prasugrel were not cost-effective compared with their respective PRA-driven regimens (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio $68,182; $116,875/quality-adjusted life-year, respectively). Monte Carlo simulation suggested universal ticagrelor and prasugrel would have an incremental

  9. Lingering Effects of the Past on a University Merger Process in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabokela, Reitumetse Obakeng; Wei, Na

    2007-01-01

    This article is based on an exploratory case study of an institution that is currently undergoing merger under the directive of the Minister of Education in South Africa. The findings reported here illuminate perspectives of senior administrators at Settlers University, an historically White university (or historically advantaged university),…

  10. Internally Generated Revenue (IGR) and Effectiveness of University Administration in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoegbu, Felicia I.; Alonge, Hezekiah O.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was mainly to identify the major sources and utilization of internally generated financial revenue by Nigerian University administrators. The population of the study consisted of all the 102 university administrators from the seventeen Federal Universities in Southern Nigeria. Descriptive statistics and Pearson Product…

  11. Determination of Factors Effected Dietary Glycemic Index in Turkish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumus, Huseyin; Akdevelioglu, Yasemin; Bulduk, Sidika

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine how factors such as smoking, regular activity, etc. affected dietary glycemic index in university students. Methods: This study was carried out at Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey. The participants were 577 randomly selected Turkish healthy female university students aged 17-32 years. The survey included a questionnaire that…

  12. The Psychological Impact from Hurricane Katrina: Effects of Displacement and Trauma Exposure on University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Thompson E., III; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    The following study examined the reactions of university students to Hurricane Katrina. A group of 68 New Orleans area students who were displaced from their home universities as a result of the hurricane were matched on race, gender, and age to a sample of 68 students who had been enrolled at Louisiana State University (LSU) prior to the…

  13. Effect of Learning Organization Perception to the Organizational Commitment: A Comparison between Private and Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balay, Refik

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to examine the impact of faculty members' learning organization perceptions to the organizational commitment through quantitative method. The study group consists of 172 faculty members working in two universities, which are private (Zirve University) and public (Harran University) ones. The research results show that faculty…

  14. The Effectiveness of External Quality Audits: A Study of Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Mahsood

    2013-01-01

    External quality audits have been introduced in many countries as part of higher education reforms. This article is based on research on 30 Australian universities to assess the extent to which audits by the Australian Universities Quality Agency (AUQA) have improved quality assurance in the core and support areas of the universities. The article…

  15. Causal Attributions for Failure and the Effect of Gender among Moroccan EFL University Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohri, Abdelaziz

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a study that sought to investigate Moroccan university learners' perceptions of failure. 333 subjects studying English at university ranked their perceptions of failure in a Causal Attribution Scale of University Failure (CASUF). The results show that Moroccan learners attribute their failure to teachers' attitude, effort,…

  16. Interactive Effects of the BIS and the BAS on Trajectories of Alcohol Misuse after University Graduation.

    PubMed

    Keough, Matthew T; O'Connor, Roisin M

    2015-01-01

    Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory predicts that those with a strong behavioral inhibition system (BIS) likely experience considerable anxiety and uncertainty during the transition out of university. Accordingly, they may continue to drink heavily to cope during this time (a period associated with normative reductions in heavy drinking), but only if they also have a strong behavioral approach system (BAS) to enhance the anxiolytic effects of drinking. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis. Participants completed online measures prior to and at 3-month intervals over the course of the year following graduation. As hypothesized, results showed that an elevated BIS predicted impeded maturing out, but only when the impulsivity facet of BAS was also elevated. In contrast, a strong BIS predicted rapid maturing out if BAS impulsivity was weak. Study findings advance our understanding of BIS-related alcohol misuse trajectories in young adulthood and provide direction for clinical interventions. PMID:26823652

  17. Interactive Effects of the BIS and the BAS on Trajectories of Alcohol Misuse after University Graduation.

    PubMed

    Keough, Matthew T; O'Connor, Roisin M

    2015-01-01

    Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory predicts that those with a strong behavioral inhibition system (BIS) likely experience considerable anxiety and uncertainty during the transition out of university. Accordingly, they may continue to drink heavily to cope during this time (a period associated with normative reductions in heavy drinking), but only if they also have a strong behavioral approach system (BAS) to enhance the anxiolytic effects of drinking. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis. Participants completed online measures prior to and at 3-month intervals over the course of the year following graduation. As hypothesized, results showed that an elevated BIS predicted impeded maturing out, but only when the impulsivity facet of BAS was also elevated. In contrast, a strong BIS predicted rapid maturing out if BAS impulsivity was weak. Study findings advance our understanding of BIS-related alcohol misuse trajectories in young adulthood and provide direction for clinical interventions.

  18. Effects of a brief video intervention on White university students' racial attitudes.

    PubMed

    Soble, Jason R; Spanierman, Lisa B; Liao, Hsin-Ya

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of a brief video intervention on the racial attitudes of White university students. One hundred thirty-eight self-identified White students were randomly assigned to either an experimental condition in which they viewed a video documenting the pervasiveness of institutional racism and White privilege in the United States or a neutral control condition. Findings offer preliminary support that participants in the experimental, but not the control, condition showed significant increases in racial awareness (i.e., decrease in racial color-blindness), White empathy, and White guilt, at posttest. However, no significant differences in racial prejudice or White fear of racial minorities were observed at posttest. Implications for multicultural counseling training, diversity programming, and future research are discussed.

  19. Universality of Effective Medium and Random Resistor Network models for disorder-induced linear unsaturating magnetoresistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, Silvia; Lai, Ying Tong; Love, Cameron; Ramakrishnan, Navneeth; Adam, Shaffique

    In recent years, the Effective Medium Theory (EMT) and the Random Resistor Network (RRN) have been separately used to explain disorder induced magnetoresistance that is quadratic at low fields and linear at high fields. We demonstrate that the quadratic and linear coefficients of the magnetoresistance and the transition point from the quadratic to the linear regime depend only on the inhomogeneous carrier density profile. We use this to find a mapping between the two models using dimensionless parameters that determine the magnetoresistance and show numerically that they belong to the same universality class. This work is supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation (NRF-NRFF2012-01) and the Singapore Ministry of Education and Yale-NUS College through Grant Number R-607-265-01312.

  20. The uncertain universality of the Macbeth effect with a Spanish sample.

    PubMed

    Gámez, Elena; Díaz, José M; Marrero, Hipólito

    2011-05-01

    Recently a psychological mechanism has been proposed between bodily purity and moral purity: the "Macbeth effect". The act of washing their hands seems to free individuals of their guilt. However, the universality of this psychological mechanism is an empirical question that should be studied. In four studies we replicated the original Zhong & Liljenquist's experiments with Spanish samples. We were unsuccessful in replicating the Zhong & Liljenquist's results that supported cleansing as a psychological mechanism for compensating guilty: results couldn't confirm an increased mental accessibility of cleansing-related concepts or even a greater desire for cleansing products, neither a greater likelihood of taking antiseptic wipes. In addition we didn't find that physical cleansing alleviates the upsetting consequences of unethical behaviour. Spanish samples showed sensibility to morality and helping behaviour but not with cleansing as a way to reduce their threatened morality.

  1. Interactive Effects of the BIS and the BAS on Trajectories of Alcohol Misuse after University Graduation

    PubMed Central

    Keough, Matthew T.; O’Connor, Roisin M.

    2015-01-01

    Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory predicts that those with a strong behavioral inhibition system (BIS) likely experience considerable anxiety and uncertainty during the transition out of university. Accordingly, they may continue to drink heavily to cope during this time (a period associated with normative reductions in heavy drinking), but only if they also have a strong behavioral approach system (BAS) to enhance the anxiolytic effects of drinking. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis. Participants completed online measures prior to and at 3-month intervals over the course of the year following graduation. As hypothesized, results showed that an elevated BIS predicted impeded maturing out, but only when the impulsivity facet of BAS was also elevated. In contrast, a strong BIS predicted rapid maturing out if BAS impulsivity was weak. Study findings advance our understanding of BIS-related alcohol misuse trajectories in young adulthood and provide direction for clinical interventions. PMID:26823652

  2. Do Frameworks Enable Educational Psychologists to Work Effectively and Efficiently in Practice? A Critical Discussion of the Development of Executive Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicks, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores whether adopting an "executive framework" makes educational psychologists' (EPs) practice more efficient and effective. Whilst many EPs understand and value executive frameworks in theory, explicit use of such tools may not be fully integrated into their day-to-day practice. Why this might be is considered.…

  3. Support from Chief Executives to Sponsored Programs Administration at Baccalaureate Universities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Zoya

    2012-01-01

    This research study examined support to sponsored programs administrators (SPAs, or research administrators) at baccalaureate universities from their chief executives. Support to SPAs strengthens the shared purpose of the university, enabling SPAs to serve as effective organizational representatives in business transactions pertaining to grants…

  4. Enabling the Differently-Abled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pal, Sonali

    2009-01-01

    It is perhaps unfortunate that enabling technologies do not come with an "ability warning", as they generally require the user to already have acquired a certain level of IT skills, in a similar way that online courses require users to have a certain level of prior IT knowledge. Accessing a computer and making the most of e-learning…

  5. Effective Communication to Aid Collaboration for Digital Collections: A Case Study at Florida Gulf Coast University Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VandeBurgt, Melissa Minds; Rivera, Kaleena

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication is one of the most important resources for successful outreach efforts. This article addresses the benefits that can emerge from successful communication as well as the negative effects that may stem from ineffective communication. A case study of Florida Gulf Coast University Archives, Special Collections, & Digital…

  6. Impediments to Effective Utilisation of Information and Communication Technology Tools in Selected Universities in the North-Eastern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momoh, Mustapha

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impediments to effective use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools in Nigerian universities. Series of research conducted on the factors militating against computerisation indicated that, there were impediments to effective utilisation of ICT tools in most developing countries. In the light of this, the…

  7. The Effect of a Pedometer-based Program Improvement of Physical Activity in Tabriz University Employees

    PubMed Central

    Baghianimoghaddam, Mohammad Hossein; Bakhtari-Aghdam, Fatemeh; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Dabagh-Nikookheslat, Saeed; Nourizadeh, Roghaiyeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity (PA) has been shown to reduce risk of morbidity and overall mortality. A study has displayed that achieving 10,000 steps/day is associated with important health outcomes and have been used to promote PA. Pedometers are a popular tool for PA interventions in different setting. This study investigated the effects on pedometer-based and self-reported PA among Tabriz University employees. Methods: This experimental study assessed the effects of 16 weeks pedometer-based workplace intervention. Participants (n = 154) were employees of two worksites. Pedometer-based and self-reported PA from one intervention worksite was compared with the data of a comparison workplace. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for self-reported measure of PA, and demographic (age, marital status, educational level, employment status, and stage of change) variables were obtained. To measure PA objectively pedometer was used. Results: Participants reported to increase the step counts from baseline (end of summer) to posttest (winter). The intervention effect revealed significant increase in the intervention group (8279 ± 2759 steps/day than in the comparison work place (4118 ± 1136). Self-reported based on IPAQ concluded women in intervention worksite had a significant increase in the leisure time domain, but similar finding was not found in the comparison worksite. Conclusions: Pedometer used might rather benefit those individuals who want feedback on their current PA, also walking should be considered to increase PA in employee women. PMID:27076888

  8. Universal Intervention Effects on Substance Use Among Young Adults Mediated by Delayed Adolescent Substance Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda; Guyll, Max; Shin, Chungyeol; Redmond, Cleve

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine whether delayed substance initiation during adolescence, achieved through universal family-focused interventions conducted in middle school, can reduce problematic substance use during young adulthood. Sixth-grade students enrolled in 33 rural midwestern schools and their families were randomly assigned to 3 experimental conditions. Self-report questionnaires provided data at 7 time points for the Iowa Strengthening Families Program (ISFP), Preparing for the Drug Free Years (PDFY), and control groups through young adulthood. Five young adult substance frequency measures (drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, cigarettes, illicit drugs, and polysubstance use) were modeled as distal outcomes affected by the average level and rate of increase in substance initiation across the adolescent years in latent growth curve analyses. Results show that the models fit the data and that they were robust across outcomes and interventions, with more robust effects found for ISFP. The addition of direct intervention effects on young adult outcomes was not supported, suggesting long-term effects were primarily indirect. Relative reduction rates were calculated to quantify intervention-control differences on the estimated proportion of young adults indicating problematic substance use; they ranged from 19% to 31% for ISFP and from 9% to 16% for PDFY. PMID:19634956

  9. Copolymer Networks From Oligo(ε-caprolactone) and n-Butyl Acrylate Enable a Reversible Bidirectional Shape-Memory Effect at Human Body Temperature.

    PubMed

    Saatchi, Mersa; Behl, Marc; Nöchel, Ulrich; Lendlein, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Exploiting the tremendous potential of the recently discovered reversible bidirectional shape-memory effect (rbSME) for biomedical applications requires switching temperatures in the physiological range. The recent strategy is based on the reduction of the melting temperature range (ΔT m ) of the actuating oligo(ε-caprolactone) (OCL) domains in copolymer networks from OCL and n-butyl acrylate (BA), where the reversible effect can be adjusted to the human body temperature. In addition, it is investigated whether an rbSME in the temperature range close or even above Tm,offset (end of the melting transition) can be obtained. Two series of networks having mixtures of OCLs reveal broad ΔTm s from 2 °C to 50 °C and from -10 °C to 37 °C, respectively. In cyclic, thermomechanical experiments the rbSME can be tailored to display pronounced actuation in a temperature interval between 20 °C and 37 °C. In this way, the application spectrum of the rbSME can be extended to biomedical applications.

  10. Bonding Effectiveness of Universal Adhesive to Intracoronal Bleached Dentin Treated with Sodium Ascorbate.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Thaís Fantinato; Moura, Luana Kelle Batista; Raucci, Walter; Messias, Danielle Cristine Furtado; Colucci, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of restorative protocol with sodium ascorbate on the shear bond strength (SBS) of a universal adhesive to intracoronal bleached dentin. One hundred-and-twenty bovine dentin fragments were randomly divided into 12 groups (n=10), according to the bleaching procedure (unbleached and bleached) and restorative protocol (no treatment, 10% sodium ascorbate -10SA, 35% sodium ascorbate -35SA and two-step etch-and-rinse -ER or one-step self-etch -SE Scotchbond universal adhesive approaches). Four whitening sessions were performed using 35% hydrogen peroxide. The samples from control groups were kept in relative humidity at 37 °C. Immediately after bleaching procedures, the assigned antioxidant solution was applied on dentin and restorative procedures were performed following either the ER or the SE approach. After 24 h, the specimens were subjected to SBS test. Data (MPa) were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). Lower SBS values were found for bleached specimens (8.54 MPa) compared with those unbleached (12.13 MPa) (p<0.05). The bond strength of the sodium ascorbate-treated groups was higher than those untreated, regardless of the strategy employed (p<0.05). Groups restored without sodium ascorbate showed lower bond strength values for both ER (8.32 MPa) and SE (8.28 MPa) adhesive strategies. The group treated with 10SA submitted to ER approach (10.14 MPa) was similar to untreated groups (p>0.05). It may be concluded that bond strength of composite resin to intracoronal dentin was affected by restorative protocol and reduced by bleaching. PMID:27224564

  11. Enabling Exploration: NASA's Technology Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Carol W.

    2012-01-01

    Deputy Director of Science, Carol W. Carroll has been invited by University of Oregon's Materials Science Institute to give a presentation. Carol's Speech explains NASA's Technologies that are needed where NASA was, what NASA's current capabilities are. Carol will highlight many of NASA's high profile projects and she will explain what NASA needs for its future by focusing on the next steps in space exploration. Carol's audience will be University of Oregon's future scientists and engineer's and their professor's along with various other faculty members.

  12. Campus Cyberinfrastructure: A Crucial Enabler for Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Peter A.; Almes, Guy T.

    2005-01-01

    Driven by the needs of college/university researchers and guided by a blue-ribbon advisory panel chaired by Daniel E. Atkins, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a broad, multi-directorate activity to create modern cyberinfrastructure and to apply it to transforming the effectiveness of the scientific research enterprise in higher…

  13. Direct-current and radio-frequency characterizations of GaAs metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors enabled by self-assembled nanodielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H. C.; Kim, S. K.; Chang, D.; Xuan, Y.; Mohammadi, S.; Ye, P. D.; Lu, G.; Facchetti, A.; Marks, T. J.

    2007-08-01

    Direct-current and radio-frequency characterizations of GaAs metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) with very thin self-assembled organic nanodielectrics (SANDs) are presented. The application of SAND on compound semiconductors offers unique opportunities for high-performance devices. Thus, 1μm gate-length depletion-mode n-channel SAND/GaAs MISFETs exhibit low gate leakage current densities of 10-2-10-5A/cm2, a maximum drain current of 260mA/mm at 2V forward gate bias, and a maximum intrinsic transconductance of 127mS/mm. These devices achieve a current cutoff frequency (fT) of 10.6GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) of 6.9GHz. Nearly hysteresis-free Ids-Vgs characteristics and low flicker noise indicate that a high-quality SAND-GaAs interface is achieved.

  14. Convection-enhanced delivery of Ls-TPT enables an effective, continuous, low-dose chemotherapy against malignant glioma xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Saito, Ryuta; Krauze, Michal T; Noble, Charles O; Drummond, Daryl C; Kirpotin, Dmitri B; Berger, Mitchel S; Park, John W; Bankiewicz, Krystof S

    2006-07-01

    Treatment of malignant gliomas represents one of the most formidable challenges in oncology. The combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy yields median survivals of less than one year. Here we demonstrate the use of a minimally invasive surgical technique, convection-enhanced delivery (CED), for local administration of a novel nanoparticle liposome containing topotecan. CED of this liposomal topotecan (Ls-TPT) resulted in extended brain tissue retention (t1/2 = 1.5 days), whereas free topotecan was rapidly cleared (t1/2 = 0.1 days) after CED. The favorable pharmacokinetic profile of extended topotecan release for about seven days, along with biodistribution featuring perivascular accumulation of the nanoparticles, provided, in addition to the known topoisomerase I inhibition, an effective antiangiogenic therapy. In the rat intracranial U87MG tumor model, vascular targeting of Ls-TPT with CED was associated with reductions in laminin expression and vascular density compared to free topotecan or control treatments. A single CED treatment on day 7 showed that free topotecan conferred no survival benefit versus control. However, Ls-TPT produced a significant (P = 0.0002) survival benefit, with six of seven complete cures. Larger U87MG tumors, where CED of Ls-TPT on day 12 resulted in one of six cures, indicated the necessity to cover the entire tumor with the infused therapeutic agent. CED of Ls-TPT was also efficacious in the intracranial U251MG tumor model (P = 0.0005 versus control). We conclude that the combination of a novel nanoparticle Ls-TPT and CED administration was very effective in treating experimental brain tumors.

  15. Technologies for Networked Enabled Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B.; Levine, J.

    2005-01-01

    Current point-to-point data links will not scale to support future integration of surveillance, security, and globally-distributed air traffic data, and already hinders efficiency and capacity. While the FAA and industry focus on a transition to initial system-wide information management (SWIM) capabilities, this paper describes a set of initial studies of NAS network-enabled operations technology gaps targeted for maturity in later SWIM spirals (201 5-2020 timeframe).

  16. Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

    2012-06-28

    A recently proposed concept of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two laser modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation in a relativistic beam. This seeding technique holds promise of a one-stage soft x-ray FEL that radiates not only transversely but also longitudinally coherent pulses. Currently, an experimental verification of the concept is being conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory aimed at the demonstration of the EEHG.

  17. Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, Gennady

    2010-08-25

    A recently proposed concept of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two laser modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation in a relativistic beam. This seeding technique holds promise of a one-stage soft x-ray FEL that radiates not only transversely but also longitudinally coherent pulses. Currently, an experimental verification of the concept is being conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory aimed at the demonstration of the EEHG.

  18. MEMS: Enabled Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Angelica; Sheybani, Roya; Meng, Ellis

    2015-05-01

    Drug delivery systems play a crucial role in the treatment and management of medical conditions. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies have allowed the development of advanced miniaturized devices for medical and biological applications. This Review presents the use of MEMS technologies to produce drug delivery devices detailing the delivery mechanisms, device formats employed, and various biomedical applications. The integration of dosing control systems, examples of commercially available microtechnology-enabled drug delivery devices, remaining challenges, and future outlook are also discussed.

  19. The effectiveness of components of University of Wisconsin solution in improving human pancreatic islet purification.

    PubMed

    Robertson, G S; Chadwick, D R; Davies, J; Rose, S; Contractor, H; James, R F; Bell, P R; London, N J

    1994-02-01

    The purification of human pancreatic islets before transplantation relies on the density-dependent separation of islets from exocrine fragments after collagenase digestion of the donor pancreas. The results vary among pancreases despite increasing automation of the digestion and purification processes, reflecting variations in the overlapping densities of islets and contaminating exocrine tissue. Hypothermic storage of both the pancreas and the pancreatic digest alters cell volumes and tissue densities, thereby affecting islet purification. By biochemical analysis of the isopycnic distribution of islets and exocrine tissue fragments from 23 human pancreases on linear continuous density gradients, the effect of various solutions for cold storage of pancreatic digest was studied. The use of the University of Wisconsin cold storage solution, which resulted in a significant decrease in digest volume (P = 0.006) and increase in the densities of both exocrine tissue (P = 0.001) and islets (P = 0.005), produced a significant improvement in islet purity compared with tissue culture medium (P = 0.035), predominantly due to the inclusion of a colloid, which increased the difference in density between exocrine tissue and islets. The addition of large molecular weight cellular impermeants without alteration in the concentration of permeable anions produced no effect. The results of this study support the concept that the use of solutions that minimize cell swelling throughout the process of islet purification would result in significant improvements in density-dependent islet separation, and that such solutions should contain a colloid. PMID:8108869

  20. New Generation Sensor Web Enablement

    PubMed Central

    Bröring, Arne; Echterhoff, Johannes; Jirka, Simon; Simonis, Ingo; Everding, Thomas; Stasch, Christoph; Liang, Steve; Lemmens, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Many sensor networks have been deployed to monitor Earth’s environment, and more will follow in the future. Environmental sensors have improved continuously by becoming smaller, cheaper, and more intelligent. Due to the large number of sensor manufacturers and differing accompanying protocols, integrating diverse sensors into observation systems is not straightforward. A coherent infrastructure is needed to treat sensors in an interoperable, platform-independent and uniform way. The concept of the Sensor Web reflects such a kind of infrastructure for sharing, finding, and accessing sensors and their data across different applications. It hides the heterogeneous sensor hardware and communication protocols from the applications built on top of it. The Sensor Web Enablement initiative of the Open Geospatial Consortium standardizes web service interfaces and data encodings which can be used as building blocks for a Sensor Web. This article illustrates and analyzes the recent developments of the new generation of the Sensor Web Enablement specification framework. Further, we relate the Sensor Web to other emerging concepts such as the Web of Things and point out challenges and resulting future work topics for research on Sensor Web Enablement. PMID:22163760

  1. Rectification and tunneling effects enabled by Al2O3 atomic layer deposited on back contact of CdTe solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jun; Lin, Qinxian; Li, Hao; Su, Yantao; Yang, Xiaoyang; Wu, Zhongzhen; Zheng, Jiaxin; Wang, Xinwei; Lin, Yuan; Pan, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) is employed to optimize the back contact of thin film CdTe solar cells. Al2O3 layers with a thickness of 0.5 nm to 5 nm are tested, and an improved efficiency, up to 12.1%, is found with the 1 nm Al2O3 deposition, compared with the efficiency of 10.7% without Al2O3 modification. The performance improvement stems from the surface modification that optimizes the rectification and tunneling of back contact. The current-voltage analysis indicates that the back contact with 1 nm Al2O3 maintains large tunneling leakage current and improves the filled factor of CdTe cells through the rectification effect. XPS and capacitance-voltage electrical measurement analysis show that the ALD-Al2O3 modification layer features a desired low-density of interface state of 8 × 1010 cm-2 by estimation.

  2. Focused helium-ion beam irradiation effects on electrical transport properties of few-layer WSe2: enabling nanoscale direct write homo-junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanford, Michael G.; Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Belianinov, Alex; Cross, Nicholas; Noh, Joo Hyon; Koehler, Michael R.; Mandrus, David G.; Duscher, Gerd; Rondinone, Adam J.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Ward, T. Zac; Rack, Philip D.

    2016-06-01

    Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are currently receiving significant attention due to their promising opto-electronic properties. Tuning optical and electrical properties of mono and few-layer TMDs, such as tungsten diselenide (WSe2), by controlling the defects, is an intriguing opportunity to synthesize next generation two dimensional material opto-electronic devices. Here, we report the effects of focused helium ion beam irradiation on the structural, optical and electrical properties of few-layer WSe2, via high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical transport measurements. By controlling the ion irradiation dose, we selectively introduce precise defects in few-layer WSe2 thereby locally tuning the resistivity and transport properties of the material. Hole transport in the few layer WSe2 is degraded more severely relative to electron transport after helium ion irradiation. Furthermore, by selectively exposing material with the ion beam, we demonstrate a simple yet highly tunable method to create lateral homo-junctions in few layer WSe2 flakes, which constitutes an important advance towards two dimensional opto-electronic devices.

  3. Focused helium-ion beam irradiation effects on electrical transport properties of few-layer WSe2: Enabling nanoscale direct write homo-junctions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stanford, Michael; Noh, Joo Hyon; Koehler, Michael R.; Mandrus, David G.; Duscher, Gerd; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Ward, Thomas Zac; Rack, Philip D.; Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; et al

    2016-06-06

    Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are currently receiving significant attention due to their promising opto-electronic properties. Tuning optical and electrical properties of mono and few-layer TMDs, such as tungsten diselenide (WSe2), by controlling the defects, is an intriguing opportunity to synthesize next generation two dimensional material opto-electronic devices. Here, we report the effects of focused helium ion beam irradiation on the structural, optical and electrical properties of few-layer WSe2, via high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical transport measurements. By controlling the ion irradiation dose, we selectively introduce precise defects in few-layer WSe2 thereby locally tuningmore » the resistivity and transport properties of the material. Hole transport in the few layer WSe2 is degraded more severely relative to electron transport after helium ion irradiation. Moreover, by selectively exposing material with the ion beam, we demonstrate a simple yet highly tunable method to create lateral homo-junctions in few layer WSe2 flakes, which constitutes an important advance towards two dimensional opto-electronic devices.« less

  4. Rectification and tunneling effects enabled by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} atomic layer deposited on back contact of CdTe solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Jun; Lin, Qinxian; Li, Hao; Su, Yantao; Yang, Xiaoyang; Wu, Zhongzhen; Zheng, Jiaxin; Wang, Xinwei; Lin, Yuan; Pan, Feng

    2015-07-06

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is employed to optimize the back contact of thin film CdTe solar cells. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers with a thickness of 0.5 nm to 5 nm are tested, and an improved efficiency, up to 12.1%, is found with the 1 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposition, compared with the efficiency of 10.7% without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} modification. The performance improvement stems from the surface modification that optimizes the rectification and tunneling of back contact. The current-voltage analysis indicates that the back contact with 1 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} maintains large tunneling leakage current and improves the filled factor of CdTe cells through the rectification effect. XPS and capacitance-voltage electrical measurement analysis show that the ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} modification layer features a desired low-density of interface state of 8 × 10{sup 10 }cm{sup −2} by estimation.

  5. Focused helium-ion beam irradiation effects on electrical transport properties of few-layer WSe2: enabling nanoscale direct write homo-junctions.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Michael G; Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Belianinov, Alex; Cross, Nicholas; Noh, Joo Hyon; Koehler, Michael R; Mandrus, David G; Duscher, Gerd; Rondinone, Adam J; Ivanov, Ilia N; Ward, T Zac; Rack, Philip D

    2016-06-06

    Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are currently receiving significant attention due to their promising opto-electronic properties. Tuning optical and electrical properties of mono and few-layer TMDs, such as tungsten diselenide (WSe2), by controlling the defects, is an intriguing opportunity to synthesize next generation two dimensional material opto-electronic devices. Here, we report the effects of focused helium ion beam irradiation on the structural, optical and electrical properties of few-layer WSe2, via high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical transport measurements. By controlling the ion irradiation dose, we selectively introduce precise defects in few-layer WSe2 thereby locally tuning the resistivity and transport properties of the material. Hole transport in the few layer WSe2 is degraded more severely relative to electron transport after helium ion irradiation. Furthermore, by selectively exposing material with the ion beam, we demonstrate a simple yet highly tunable method to create lateral homo-junctions in few layer WSe2 flakes, which constitutes an important advance towards two dimensional opto-electronic devices.

  6. Focused helium-ion beam irradiation effects on electrical transport properties of few-layer WSe2: enabling nanoscale direct write homo-junctions

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Michael G.; Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Belianinov, Alex; Cross, Nicholas; Noh, Joo Hyon; Koehler, Michael R.; Mandrus, David G.; Duscher, Gerd; Rondinone, Adam J.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Ward, T. Zac; Rack, Philip D.

    2016-01-01

    Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are currently receiving significant attention due to their promising opto-electronic properties. Tuning optical and electrical properties of mono and few-layer TMDs, such as tungsten diselenide (WSe2), by controlling the defects, is an intriguing opportunity to synthesize next generation two dimensional material opto-electronic devices. Here, we report the effects of focused helium ion beam irradiation on the structural, optical and electrical properties of few-layer WSe2, via high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical transport measurements. By controlling the ion irradiation dose, we selectively introduce precise defects in few-layer WSe2 thereby locally tuning the resistivity and transport properties of the material. Hole transport in the few layer WSe2 is degraded more severely relative to electron transport after helium ion irradiation. Furthermore, by selectively exposing material with the ion beam, we demonstrate a simple yet highly tunable method to create lateral homo-junctions in few layer WSe2 flakes, which constitutes an important advance towards two dimensional opto-electronic devices. PMID:27263472

  7. Integrating metabolic performance, thermal tolerance, and plasticity enables for more accurate predictions on species vulnerability to acute and chronic effects of global warming.

    PubMed

    Magozzi, Sarah; Calosi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Predicting species vulnerability to global warming requires a comprehensive, mechanistic understanding of sublethal and lethal thermal tolerances. To date, however, most studies investigating species physiological responses to increasing temperature have focused on the underlying physiological traits of either acute or chronic tolerance in isolation. Here we propose an integrative, synthetic approach including the investigation of multiple physiological traits (metabolic performance and thermal tolerance), and their plasticity, to provide more accurate and balanced predictions on species and assemblage vulnerability to both acute and chronic effects of global warming. We applied this approach to more accurately elucidate relative species vulnerability to warming within an assemblage of six caridean prawns occurring in the same geographic, hence macroclimatic, region, but living in different thermal habitats. Prawns were exposed to four incubation temperatures (10, 15, 20 and 25 °C) for 7 days, their metabolic rates and upper thermal limits were measured, and plasticity was calculated according to the concept of Reaction Norms, as well as Q10 for metabolism. Compared to species occupying narrower/more stable thermal niches, species inhabiting broader/more variable thermal environments (including the invasive Palaemon macrodactylus) are likely to be less vulnerable to extreme acute thermal events as a result of their higher upper thermal limits. Nevertheless, they may be at greater risk from chronic exposure to warming due to the greater metabolic costs they incur. Indeed, a trade-off between acute and chronic tolerance was apparent in the assemblage investigated. However, the invasive species P. macrodactylus represents an exception to this pattern, showing elevated thermal limits and plasticity of these limits, as well as a high metabolic control. In general, integrating multiple proxies for species physiological acute and chronic responses to increasing

  8. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Rehabilitation Enablement in Chronic Heart Failure (REACH-HF) facilitated self-care rehabilitation intervention in heart failure patients and caregivers: rationale and protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, R S; Hayward, C; Eyre, V; Austin, J; Davies, R; Doherty, P; Jolly, K; Wingham, J; Van Lingen, R; Abraham, C; Green, C; Warren, FC; Britten, N; Greaves, C J; Singh, S; Buckingham, S; Paul, K; Dalal, H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Rehabilitation EnAblement in CHronic Heart Failure (REACH-HF) trial is part of a research programme designed to develop and evaluate a health professional facilitated, home-based, self-help rehabilitation intervention to improve self-care and health-related quality of life in people with heart failure and their caregivers. The trial will assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the REACH-HF intervention in patients with systolic heart failure and impact on the outcomes of their caregivers. Methods and analysis A parallel two group randomised controlled trial with 1:1 individual allocation to the REACH-HF intervention plus usual care (intervention group) or usual care alone (control group) in 216 patients with systolic heart failure (ejection fraction <45%) and their caregivers. The intervention comprises a self-help manual delivered by specially trained facilitators over a 12-week period. The primary outcome measure is patients’ disease-specific health-related quality of life measured using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire at 12 months’ follow-up. Secondary outcomes include survival and heart failure related hospitalisation, blood biomarkers, psychological well-being, exercise capacity, physical activity, other measures of quality of life, patient safety and the quality of life, psychological well-being and perceived burden of caregivers at 4, 6 and 12 months’ follow-up. A process evaluation will assess fidelity of intervention delivery and explore potential mediators and moderators of changes in health-related quality of life in intervention and control group patients. Qualitative studies will describe patient and caregiver experiences of the intervention. An economic evaluation will estimate the cost-effectiveness of the REACH-HF intervention plus usual care versus usual care alone in patients with systolic heart failure. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the North West

  9. The Effect of Instruction on Students' Ideas on Data Handling of Under Prepared Students at Two Historically Advantaged South African Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollnick, Marissa; Lubben, Fred; Dlamini, Betty; Lotz, Sandra

    This study investigated the effect of two different approaches to practical work on the procedural understanding of foundation level students at two historically similar universities in South Africa, the University of Cape Town (UCT) and the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits), both of which run programs to improve the access of disadvantaged…

  10. The Effectiveness of Screening with Interferon-Gamma Release Assays in a University Health Care Setting with a Diverse Global Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Samantha J.; Golbeck, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This analysis examined the effectiveness of utilizing interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) technology in a TB (TB) screening program at a university. Participants: Participants were 2299 students at a Montana university who had presented to the university health center for TB screening during 2012 and 2013. Methods: A retrospective…

  11. Universal leakage elimination

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, Mark S.; Lidar, Daniel A.; Wu, L.-A.; Zanardi, Paolo

    2005-05-15

    'Leakage' errors are particularly serious errors which couple states within a code subspace to states outside of that subspace, thus destroying the error protection benefit afforded by an encoded state. We generalize an earlier method for producing leakage elimination decoupling operations and examine the effects of the leakage eliminating operations on decoherence-free or noiseless subsystems which encode one logical, or protected qubit into three or four qubits. We find that by eliminating a large class of leakage errors, under some circumstances, we can create the conditions for a decoherence-free evolution. In other cases we identify a combined decoherence-free and quantum error correcting code which could eliminate errors in solid-state qubits with anisotropic exchange interaction Hamiltonians and enable universal quantum computing with only these interactions.

  12. The Effects of University Mergers in China since 1990s: From the Perspective of Knowledge Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mao, Ya-qing; Du, Yuan; Liu, Jing-juan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discover and better understand the efficiency of university mergers from the perspective of knowledge production, with the research capability as the point of contact. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 20 colleges and universities directly under the central ministries that merged in 2000 were taken as…

  13. University-Industry Linkages in Developing Countries: Perceived Effect on Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaaland, Terje I.; Ishengoma, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the perceptions of both universities and the resource-extractive companies on the influence of university-industry linkages (UILs) on innovation in a developing country. Design/Methodology/Approach: A total of 404 respondents were interviewed. Descriptive analysis and multinomial logistic regression…

  14. The Effect of Quality of School Life on Sense of Happiness: A Study on University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gökler, Riza; Gürgan, Ugur; Tastan, Nuray

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between quality of school life and happiness among university students. For this purpose, 326 students from five different faculties in Çankiri Karatekin University participated in the study. Participants filled in the "scale for quality of school life" and "scale for Oxford happiness-Compact…

  15. Staying Power: The Effect of Pathway into University on Student Achievement and Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesters, Jenny; Watson, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of the higher education sector in Australia opened up new pathways into university increasing the diversity of the student population. For non-traditional students, those who did not successfully complete secondary school, barriers to gaining entry into university have been dismantled, however, previous research suggests that…

  16. Data Mining of University Philanthropic Giving: Cluster-Discriminant Analysis and Pareto Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Blanc, Louis A.; Rucks, Conway T.

    2009-01-01

    A large sample of 33,000 university alumni records were cluster-analyzed to generate six groups relatively unique in their respective attribute values. The attributes used to cluster the former students included average gift to the university's foundation and to the alumni association for the same institution. Cluster detection is useful in this…

  17. The Effect of the HOPE Scholarship Program on Graduation Rates at Georgia State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elizabeth R.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the problem of student retention and graduation has resulted in a stagnant national rate of graduation at 50%. The admittance of HOPE scholars began in 1993 and the scholarship program did not significantly impact the graduation rate from colleges within the University System of Georgia or Georgia State University. In order…

  18. Principal Perceptions of the Effectiveness of University Educational Leadership Preparation and Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Arvin D.

    2016-01-01

    Principals and assistant principals currently serving in Florida and Georgia school districts were surveyed about their perceptions of university educational leadership preparation and professional learning. The results revealed that many principals and assistant principals agreed that university educational leadership preparation programs…

  19. The Effects of Peer Tutoring between Domestic and International Students: The Tutor System at Japanese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassegard, James P.

    2008-01-01

    International students often require extracurricular assistance upon arrival in the host country. Many universities operate programs pairing international and domestic students for academic and adjustment assistance. The tutor system operating at Japanese national universities has similar objectives. Although the literature has highlighted several…

  20. The Effect of Individual Learning Styles on Student GPA in Engineering Education at Morgan State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrove, S. Keith, Sr.; Wheatland, John A.; Ding, Duowen; Brown, Cordelia M.

    2008-01-01

    The Clarence M. Mitchell School of Engineering at Morgan State University (MSU) is one of nine historically Black colleges and universities with undergraduate engineering programs accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). Since 2001, the School of Engineering at MSU has been a participant in a multi-school…

  1. Representing Clarity: Using Universal Design Principles to Create Effective Hybrid Course Learning Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Cheri Lemieux

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how the author applied principles of universal design to hybrid course materials to increase student understanding and, ultimately, success. Pulling the three principles of universal design--consistency, color, and icon representation--into the author's Blackboard course allowed her to change the types of reading skills…

  2. The Effects of Disability-Focused Training on the Attitudes and Perceptions of University Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Christopher; Lombardi, Allison; Wren, Carol T.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the relationship between prior disability-focused training and university staff members' attitudes toward students with learning disabilities (LD). A survey containing items pertaining to prior disability-focused training experiences and attitudes about students with LD was administered to 300 university staff members.…

  3. Effectively Managing Copyright Clearance: Electronic Reserves in a Large Distance Education University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Hsiu; Baker, Megan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the automated copyright clearance process for electronic reserves materials by the electronic reserves staff at the Information and Library Services (ILS), at the University of Maryland University College (UMUC). Besides the standard practice to handle and post required course readings in digital format for UMUC's…

  4. Importance and Effectiveness of Student Health Services at a South Texas University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaig, Marilyn M.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the health needs of students at a south Texas university and documented the utility of the student health center. The descriptive study employed a mixed methods explanatory sequential design (ESD). The non-probability sample consisted of 140 students who utilized the university's health center during the period of March…

  5. Bandwidth Management in Universities in Zimbabwe: Towards a Responsible User Base through Effective Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitanana, Lockias

    2012-01-01

    This research was undertaken to investigate the issue of how to maximise or make efficient use of bandwidth. In particular, the research sought to find out about what universities in Zimbabwe are doing to manage their bandwidth. It was, therefore, appropriate to survey a sample of five universities and to catalogue their experiences. Results show…

  6. Commercializing Academic Research: Resource Effects on Performance of University Technology Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Joshua B.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated factors that may explain differential performance with university technology transfer, the process of transforming research into marketable products. Utilizing multi-source data on 108 universities, a set of internal and external resources were found to be significant predictors of one or more of three technology transfer…

  7. University Leadership in Crisis: The Need for Effective Leadership Positioning in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirat, Morshidi; Ahmad, Abdul Razak; Azman, Norzaini

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of the leadership crisis in Malaysia's public universities. Our main concern is about the leadership at the top levels of university management, and the administrative hierarchy as perceived by both outsiders and insiders. Critics have lamented that Malaysia lacks people with international stature to lead its public…

  8. The Effects of Accreditation on University Library Bookstock: The Nigerian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifidon, Betty I.

    1996-01-01

    A study of Nigerian university libraries revealed that government funds allocated to purchasing books were doubled following accreditation. Several thousand books and hundreds of journal titles were added to each library. Appendixes contain a list of Nigerian universities and a copy of the questionnaire used in the study. (PEN)

  9. Effect of Sex on Perceived Support and Burnout in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weckwerth, Amanda C.; Flynn, Deborah M.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in the experience of social support and frequency of burnout were examined in university students from a small Northern Ontario University. An altered version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) (Maslach & Jackson, 1996) termed the AMBI-HSS, and the Social Provisions Scale (SPS) (Cutrona & Russell,…

  10. An Unusually Effective School/University Programme: The Plymouth and Peninsula Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    la Velle, Linda; Reynolds, David; Nichol, Jon

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a novel UK school/university partnership, the "Plymouth Model" designed to encourage young people from disadvantaged backgrounds to aim for higher education (HE) study. The model incorporates the activity of university students, researchers and teachers working together to improve aspirations and outcomes for…

  11. University Student Death Response Plans Using a Structural Management Approach Provide Effective Coordinated Institutional Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusick, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Student death is an inevitable event in the long life of university communities. Although student death is uncommon, universities need to be able respond in a timely and appropriate way to bring the relationship with a deceased student to a dignified close. This article presents a review of factors previously identified in higher education and…

  12. Effects of the Islamic Revolution in Iran on Medical Education: The Shiraz University School of Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronaghy, Hossain A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Of 173 full-time faculty employed in 1978 at Shiraz University School of Medicine, 108 had left the university by December 1982, and 81 of these had left the country, aggravating the chronic shortage of medical personnel in Iran. Iranian authorities have not been able to counteract these trends. (GC)

  13. Early Assessment: Using a University-Wide Student Support Initiative to Effect Real Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Schalkwyk, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a university-wide initiative aimed at providing a holistic view of a student's academic standing by conducting early, formative assessment for all first-year students. It tracks the Early Assessment System as a student support intervention at Stellenbosch University and suggests that the system has been…

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of universal influenza vaccination with quadrivalent inactivated vaccine in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Karen M; Meier, Genevieve; McGarry, Lisa J; Pruttivarasin, Narin; Misurski, Derek A

    2014-01-01

    To address influenza B lineage mismatch and co-circulation, several quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV4s) containing two type A strains and both type B lineages have recently been approved in the United States. Currently available trivalent inactivated vaccines (IIV3s) or trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV3s) comprise two influenza A strains and one of the two influenza B lineages that have co-circulated in the United States since 2001. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a policy of universal vaccination with IIV4 vs. IIV3/LAIV3 during 1 year in the United States. On average per influenza season, IIV4 was predicted to result in 30 251 fewer influenza cases, 3512 fewer hospitalizations, 722 fewer deaths, 4812 fewer life-years lost, and 3596 fewer quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) lost vs. IIV3/LAIV3. Using the Fluarix QuadrivalentTM (GlaxoSmithKline) prices and the weighted average IIV3/LAIV3 prices, the model predicts that the vaccination program costs would increase by $452.2 million, while direct medical and indirect costs would decrease by $111.6 million and $218.7 million, respectively, with IIV4. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) comparing IIV4 to IIV3/LAIV3 is predicted to be $90 301/QALY gained. Deterministic sensitivity analyses found that influenza B vaccine-matched and mismatched efficacies among adults aged ≥65 years had the greatest impact on the ICER. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that the cost per QALY remained below $100 000 for 61% of iterations. In conclusion, vaccination with IIV4 in the US is predicted to reduce morbidity and mortality. This strategy is also predicted to be cost-effective vs. IIV3/LAIV3 at conventional willingness-to-pay thresholds. PMID:24609063

  15. Fuel properties to enable lifted-flame combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Eric

    2015-03-15

    The Fuel Properties to Enable Lifted-Flame Combustion project responded directly to solicitation DE-FOA-0000239 AOI 1A, Fuels and Lubricants for Advanced Combustion Regimes. This subtopic was intended to encompass clean and highly-efficient, liquid-fueled combustion engines to achieve extremely low engine-out nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) as a target and similar efficiency as state-of-the-art direct injection diesel engines. The intent of this project was to identify how fuel properties can be used to achieve controllable Leaner Lifted Flame Combustion (LLFC) with low NOx and PM emissions. Specifically, this project was expected to identify and test key fuel properties to enable LLFC and their compatibility with current fuel systems and to enhance combustion models to capture the effect of fuel properties on advanced combustion. Successful demonstration of LLFC may reduce the need for after treatment devices, thereby reducing costs and improving thermal efficiency. The project team consisted of key technical personnel from Ford Motor Company (FMC), the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL). Each partner had key roles in achieving project objectives. FMC investigated fuel properties relating to LLFC and sooting tendency. Together, FMC and UW developed and integrated 3D combustion models to capture fuel property combustion effects. FMC used these modeling results to develop a combustion system and define fuel properties to support a single-cylinder demonstration of fuel-enabled LLFC. UW investigated modeling the flame characteristics and emissions behavior of different fuels, including those with different cetane number and oxygen content. SNL led spray combustion experiments to quantify the effect of key fuel properties on combustion characteristics critical for LLFC, as well as single cylinder optical engine experiments to improve fundamental

  16. Improved Lesson Planning with Universal Design for Learning (UDL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courey, Susan Joan; Tappe, Phyllis; Siker, Jody; LePage, Pam

    2013-01-01

    Efficient lesson planning with universal design for learning (UDL) enables teachers to more effectively meet students' individual needs. In this study, a comparison of lesson plans by teacher candidates in a teacher preparation program before and after UDL training is presented. After training, teachers (n = 45) incorporated more differentiated…

  17. Effect of a mindfulness program on stress, anxiety and depression in university students.

    PubMed

    Gallego, José; Aguilar-Parra, José M; Cangas, Adolfo J; Langer, Álvaro I; Mañas, Israel

    2015-01-13

    Two of the problems that currently affect a large proportion of university students are high levels of anxiety and stress experienced in different situations, which are particularly high during the first years of their degree and during exam periods. The present study aims to investigate whether mindfulness training can bring about significant changes in the manifestations of depression, anxiety, and stress of students when compared to another group undergoing a physical activity program and a control group. The sample consisted of 125 students from the Bachelor of Education Program. The measuring instrument used was the Abbreviated Scale of Depression, Anxiety and Stress (DASS-21). The results indicate that the effects of reducing the identified variables were higher for the mindfulness group than for the physical education group and for the control group F(2) = 5.91, p = .004, η2 = .106. The total scores for all variables related to the mindfulness group decreased significantly, including an important stress reduction t(29) = 2.95, p = .006, d = .667. Mindfulness exercises and some individual relaxing exercises involving Physical Education could help to reduce manifestations of stress and anxiety caused by exams in students.

  18. The effects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder on clothing selection and habits among Turkish University students.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Emine; İpci, Melis; İnci, Sevim Berrin; Ercan, Elif; Ercan, Eyüp Sabri

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that influence the shopping attitudes of college students with and without ADHD. This study also examined the effects of ADHD on the academic and social lives of college students. The sample consisted of 219 university students. These students were interviewed by a psychiatrist with regard to ADHD symptoms according to the DSM-IV. The Adult ADHD Self Report Scale (ASRS), the Teen Interpersonal Influence Scale, and a demographic information form were used as measurement devices. The ADHD and control groups were classified in three different ways: (1) met the ADHD criteria for both Clinical Diagnosis and the ASRS; (2) met only the criteria for Clinical Diagnosis; or (3) met only the criteria of the ASRS. Our research shows that individuals with ADHD experience more problems with money management and are more affected by the media, friends, and brands compared with individuals without ADHD. Smoking and alcohol use disorders, accidents, being held back, and disciplinary actions often accompany ADHD in college students. To the best of our knowledge, the shopping attitudes of young adults with ADHD and the influence of the media, peers, family, and brands have not been studied until now.

  19. Effect of non-alcoholic beer on Subjective Sleep Quality in a university stressed population.

    PubMed

    Franco, L; Bravo, R; Galán, C; Rodríguez, A B; Barriga, C; Cubero, Javier

    2014-09-01

    Sleep deprivation affects the homeostasis of the physiological functions in the human organism. Beer is the only beverage that contains hops, a plant which has a sedative effect. Our objective is to determine the improvement of subjective sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The sample was conducted among a population of 30 university students. The study took place during a period of 3 weeks, the first 7 days were used for the Control, and during the following 14 days the students ingested beer (were asked to drink non-alcoholic beer) while having dinner. The results revealed that Subjective Sleep Quality improved in the case of those students who drank one beer during dinner compared to the Control, this is corroborated by the fact that Sleep Latency decreased (p < 0.05) compared to their Control. The overall rating Global Score of Quality of Sleep also improved significantly (p < 0.05). These results confirm that the consumption of non-alcoholic beer at dinner time helps to improve the quality of sleep at night.

  20. The effects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder on clothing selection and habits among Turkish University students.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Emine; İpci, Melis; İnci, Sevim Berrin; Ercan, Elif; Ercan, Eyüp Sabri

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that influence the shopping attitudes of college students with and without ADHD. This study also examined the effects of ADHD on the academic and social lives of college students. The sample consisted of 219 university students. These students were interviewed by a psychiatrist with regard to ADHD symptoms according to the DSM-IV. The Adult ADHD Self Report Scale (ASRS), the Teen Interpersonal Influence Scale, and a demographic information form were used as measurement devices. The ADHD and control groups were classified in three different ways: (1) met the ADHD criteria for both Clinical Diagnosis and the ASRS; (2) met only the criteria for Clinical Diagnosis; or (3) met only the criteria of the ASRS. Our research shows that individuals with ADHD experience more problems with money management and are more affected by the media, friends, and brands compared with individuals without ADHD. Smoking and alcohol use disorders, accidents, being held back, and disciplinary actions often accompany ADHD in college students. To the best of our knowledge, the shopping attitudes of young adults with ADHD and the influence of the media, peers, family, and brands have not been studied until now. PMID:25544506

  1. Effect of non-alcoholic beer on Subjective Sleep Quality in a university stressed population.

    PubMed

    Franco, L; Bravo, R; Galán, C; Rodríguez, A B; Barriga, C; Cubero, Javier

    2014-09-01

    Sleep deprivation affects the homeostasis of the physiological functions in the human organism. Beer is the only beverage that contains hops, a plant which has a sedative effect. Our objective is to determine the improvement of subjective sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The sample was conducted among a population of 30 university students. The study took place during a period of 3 weeks, the first 7 days were used for the Control, and during the following 14 days the students ingested beer (were asked to drink non-alcoholic beer) while having dinner. The results revealed that Subjective Sleep Quality improved in the case of those students who drank one beer during dinner compared to the Control, this is corroborated by the fact that Sleep Latency decreased (p < 0.05) compared to their Control. The overall rating Global Score of Quality of Sleep also improved significantly (p < 0.05). These results confirm that the consumption of non-alcoholic beer at dinner time helps to improve the quality of sleep at night. PMID:25183509

  2. Hemispheric Asymmetry and Universal Time Effects in Ionospheric Total Electron Content and Outflow Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlongo, N. J.; Welling, D. T.; Ridley, A. J.; Glocer, A.; Immel, T. J.; Katus, R. M.; Liemohn, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the strength of the ionospheric response to a geomagnetic storm may be a function of Universal Time (UT), with storms that peak in the post-noon UT having the strongest reaction. The strength of the ring current has also been observed to depend on the UT of the storm peak. A recent superposed epoch analysis found that storm intensity is enhanced when the storm peak occurs near 0 UT compared to 12 UT. Ionospheric outflow has been shown to be a significant contributor to magnetospheric dynamics, especially during storm time. It is possible that the changes in the ring current resulting from outflow significantly contribute to the subsequent UT effect. The Polar Wind Outflow Model (PWOM) and the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM) are used to investigate this dependence by simulating particular storms shifted both to each of the seasons, and in time during the day. The system response is analyzed and compared for both hemispheres using an unshifted base simulation for each storm. The total electron content, electron and ion temperatures, total ionospheric outflow fluence at different altitudes, as well as the magnitude and spatial distributions of outflow are investigated.

  3. The effectiveness of the installation of a mobile voice communication system in a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Eisuke; Fujiki, Tadayoshi; Nakakuni, Hideaki; Sullivan, Corbet Vernon

    2006-04-01

    In large hospitals, collaborative clinical practice is currently emphasized, with members of various departments expected to work as a team. The importance of accurate communication among the team members is of utmost importance. To improve such communication, the introduction of mobile voice communication systems has received much attention in Japan. Shimane University Hospital also introduced a Personal Handy-phone System (PHS) for doctors. In the traditional setting, much time was wasted searching for doctors through multiple calls on fixed-line telephones. In order to measure the effectiveness of our system, the change in the number of calls made on fixed-line telephones before and after PHS installation was compared. The total number of calls was reduced by more than 35%, and the number of calls to the wards on weekdays was reduced by half. Mobile telecommunication systems with small output power, such as PHS, are known to cause little interference with medical devices which makes it possible to use mobile voice communication safely in hospitals. The improvement in communication by this systems resulted in an improvement in labor efficiency.

  4. Universal public finance of tuberculosis treatment in India: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Verguet, Stéphane; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Jamison, Dean T

    2015-03-01

    Universal public finance (UPF)-government financing of an intervention irrespective of who is receiving it-for a health intervention entails consequences in multiple domains. First, UPF increases intervention uptake and hence the extent of consequent health gains. Second, UPF generates financial consequences including the crowding out of private expenditures. Finally, UPF provides insurance either by covering catastrophic expenditures, which would otherwise throw households into poverty or by preventing diseases that cause them. This paper develops a method-extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA)-for evaluating the consequences of UPF in each of these domains. It then illustrates ECEA with an evaluation of UPF for tuberculosis treatment in India. Using plausible values for key parameters, our base case ECEA concludes that the health gains and insurance value of UPF would accrue primarily to the poor. Reductions in out-of-pocket expenditures are more uniformly distributed across income quintiles. A variant on our base case suggests that lowering costs of borrowing for the poor could potentially achieve some of the health gains of UPF, but at the cost of leaving the poor more deeply in debt.

  5. Universal public finance of tuberculosis treatment in India: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Verguet, Stéphane; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Jamison, Dean T

    2015-03-01

    Universal public finance (UPF)-government financing of an intervention irrespective of who is receiving it-for a health intervention entails consequences in multiple domains. First, UPF increases intervention uptake and hence the extent of consequent health gains. Second, UPF generates financial consequences including the crowding out of private expenditures. Finally, UPF provides insurance either by covering catastrophic expenditures, which would otherwise throw households into poverty or by preventing diseases that cause them. This paper develops a method-extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA)-for evaluating the consequences of UPF in each of these domains. It then illustrates ECEA with an evaluation of UPF for tuberculosis treatment in India. Using plausible values for key parameters, our base case ECEA concludes that the health gains and insurance value of UPF would accrue primarily to the poor. Reductions in out-of-pocket expenditures are more uniformly distributed across income quintiles. A variant on our base case suggests that lowering costs of borrowing for the poor could potentially achieve some of the health gains of UPF, but at the cost of leaving the poor more deeply in debt. PMID:24497185

  6. Synergistic relationship between the Columbia University Appetitive Behavior Seminar and the satiating effect of cholecystokinin.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gerard P

    2013-12-01

    Synergism between the Columbia University Appetitive Behavior Seminar and the research program of Smith and Gibbs on the satiating effect of cholecystokinin during the past 40 years is described. The Seminar was synergistic with the research program in five ways. First, the steady parade of speakers gave us a window on the varied and interesting work going on in the field. Second, the Seminar was the kind of audience for presentations of the work-in-progress on CCK that scientists hope for and rarely find. Criticism by members of the Seminar was relentless and constructive, and ideas for further experiments or new ways to tackle problematic data poured forth. Third, members of the Seminar did experiments that facilitated the experimental success of the research program. Fourth, members of the Seminar tutored us on topics that we wanted to import into the research program on CCK. Fifth, and probably most important, members of the Seminar gave us the encouragement, good humor, and friendship so necessary for coping with the struggles of the scientific life.

  7. Optimized microsystems-enabled photovoltaics

    DOEpatents

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Nielson, Gregory N.; Young, Ralph W.; Resnick, Paul J.; Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-22

    Technologies pertaining to designing microsystems-enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) cells are described herein. A first restriction for a first parameter of an MEPV cell is received. Subsequently, a selection of a second parameter of the MEPV cell is received. Values for a plurality of parameters of the MEPV cell are computed such that the MEPV cell is optimized with respect to the second parameter, wherein the values for the plurality of parameters are computed based at least in part upon the restriction for the first parameter.

  8. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a universal parenting skills programme in deprived communities: multicentre randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Simkiss, D E; Snooks, H A; Stallard, N; Kimani, P K; Sewell, B; Fitzsimmons, D; Anthony, R; Winstanley, S; Wilson, L; Phillips, C J; Stewart-Brown, S

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and cost utility of a universally provided early years parenting programme. Design Multicentre randomised controlled trial with cost-effectiveness analysis. Setting Early years centres in four deprived areas of South Wales. Participants Families with children aged between 2 and 4 years. 286 families were recruited and randomly allocated to the intervention or waiting list control. Intervention The Family Links Nurturing Programme (FLNP), a 10-week course with weekly 2 h facilitated group sessions. Main outcome measures Negative and supportive parenting, child and parental well-being and costs assessed before the intervention, following the course (3 months) and at 9 months using standardised measures. Results There were no significant differences in primary or secondary outcomes between trial arms at 3 or 9 months. With ‘+’ indicating improvement, difference in change in negative parenting score at 9 months was +0.90 (95%CI −1.90 to 3.69); in supportive parenting, +0.17 (95%CI −0.61 to 0.94); and 12 of the 17 secondary outcomes showed a non-significant positive effect in the FLNP arm. Based on changes in parental well-being (SF-12), the cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained was estimated to be £34 913 (range 21 485–46 578) over 5 years and £18 954 (range 11 664–25 287) over 10 years. Probability of cost per QALY gained below £30 000 was 47% at 5 years and 57% at 10 years. Attendance was low: 34% of intervention families attended no sessions (n=48); only 47% completed the course (n=68). Also, 19% of control families attended a parenting programme before 9-month follow-up. Conclusions Our trial has not found evidence of clinical or cost utility for the FLNP in a universal setting. However, low levels of exposure and contamination mean that uncertainty remains. Trial registration The trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN13919732. PMID:23906953

  9. Does Higher Education Service Quality Effect Student Satisfaction, Image and Loyalty? A Study of International Students in Malaysian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Faizan; Zhou, Yuan; Hussain, Kashif; Nair, Pradeep Kumar; Ragavan, Neethiahnanthan Ari

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Malaysian public universities' service quality on international student satisfaction, institutional image and loyalty. Design/methodology/approach: A total number of 400 questionnaires were distributed to international students, selected using convenience sampling technique, at…

  10. How Institutional and University Counselor Policies Effectively Respond to Victims of Cyber Violent Acts: A Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gretchen M.

    2012-01-01

    This multisite case study examined how institutional and university counselor policies effectively respond to cyber violent acts. Stake's (2006) multisite case study methodology was used to identify seven themes from current literature. Two sites with four participants were selected. The participants included two counseling directors and the…

  11. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Acceptability and Effectiveness of University Smoke-Free Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupton, Joshua R.; Townsend, Joy L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Systematically review studies of support for, and effectiveness of, university campuses' smoke-free policies. Participants/Methods: A search was carried out for studies in English related to campus smoking bans through June 2013. Eligible studies had outcomes for student or faculty attitudes, or measures of smoking prevalence or…

  12. A Preliminary Analysis of the Effects of Response Cards on Student Performance and Participation in an Upper Division University Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmolejo, Erick K.; Wilder, David A.; Bradley, Lucas

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of response cards on student quiz scores and participation in an upper division undergraduate course at a small, private university. Results showed that response cards increased both quiz scores and student participation. In addition, a measure of the social validity of the response-card procedure suggested that students…

  13. Quasi-Experimental Evidence of Peer Effects in First-Year Economics Courses at a Chinese University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Qihui; Tian, Guoqiang; Okediji, Tade O.

    2014-01-01

    The authors of this article implement a quasi-experimental strategy to estimate peer effects in economic education by exploiting the institutional setting in a large public university in China, where roommates are randomly assigned conditional on a student's major and province of origin. They found significant impacts of peer academic…

  14. Effectiveness of Analogy Instructional Strategy on Undergraduate Student's Acquisition of Organic Chemistry Concepts in Mutah University, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Nawaf Ahmad Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of analogy instructional strategy on undergraduate students' acquisition of organic chemistry concepts in Mutah University, Jordan. A quasi-experimental design was used in the study; Participants were 97 students who enrolled in organic chemistry course at the department of chemistry during the…

  15. Effects on Coping Skills and Anxiety of a Universal School-Based Mental Health Intervention Delivered in Scottish Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Sabrina; Woolfson, Lisa Marks; Durkin, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are common in children and may signal risk of depression, social, or academic difficulties. This study evaluated the effects of a universal mental health promotion intervention delivered in primary schools. Three hundred and seventeen 9- to 10-year-olds were randomly allocated by class group to intervention conditions…

  16. Effects of a University CDA Teacher Education Program: Findings of a Three Year Study. Summary of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltz, Rosalyn; Boesen, Christine

    The results of an evaluation study of a university Child Development Associate (CDA) training program are summarized, focusing on the characteristics of this non-traditional educational program and its effects on the classroom performance and personal development of its adult students. The subjects were 215 female preschool teachers and staff…

  17. The Effect of Training Program for Staff Members to Develop Their Skills of Using Virtual Classrooms at King Saud University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alotaibi, Khaled Nahes; Almutairy, Sultan

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims at showing the effectiveness of a suggested training program for staff members at Teachers' College of King Saud University to develop their skills of using virtual classrooms. The research is empirical as it used two experimental groups. The first group is taught how to use the common teaching method and the second group is…

  18. The Attributes of Effective Lecturers of English as a Foreign Language as Perceived by Students in a Korean University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bruce D.; Lock, Graeme

    2010-01-01

    This study, conducted in a Korean university setting, examines student beliefs about the attributes of effective lecturers of English as a foreign language. Student opinions about rapport and delivery type attributes are particularly informative. Rapport attributes were the major focus of discussion and viewed as particularly important in Korean…

  19. Effects of an Employee Wellness Program on Physiological Risk Factors, Job Satisfaction, and Monetary Savings in a South Texas University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of an Employee Wellness Program on physiological risk factors, job satisfaction, and monetary savings in a South Texas University. The non-probability sample consisted of 31 employees from lower income level positions. The employees were randomly assigned to the treatment group which…

  20. Do University Teachers Become More Effective with Experience? A Multilevel Growth Model of Students' Evaluations of Teaching over 13 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.

    2007-01-01

    Do university teachers, like good wine, improve with age? The purpose of this methodological/substantive study is to apply a multiple-level growth modeling approach to the long-term stability of students' evaluations of teaching effectiveness (SETs). For a diverse cohort of 195 teachers who were evaluated continuously over 13 years (6,024 classes,…

  1. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments in Reducing Type A Behavior among University Faculty--One Year Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurman, Christopher W.

    1985-01-01

    Reports follow-up evaluations of effectiveness of cognitive-behavior modification (CBM) and cognitive-behavior modification plus assertion training (CBM/AT) treatments in reducing Type A behavior among university faculty. CBM and CBM/AT groups continued to report significantly less Type A behavior, less speed and impatience. No differences were…

  2. The Effects of Muslim Praying Meditation and Transcendental Meditation Programs on Mindfulness among the University of Nizwa Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldahadha, Basim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the Effects of Muslim Praying Meditation (MPM) and Transcendental Meditation (TM) Program on Mindfulness among the University of Nizwa students. The sample of the study consisted of (354) students. The questionnaires of MPM (Al-Kushooa) and Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS) were applied before…

  3. The Effects of a Changing Financial Context on the University of California. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.16.05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissler, Gerald R.; Switkes, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    California's loss of capital gains and stock options revenue during the recent economic downturn was one of the worst in the nation, and the resulting fiscal crisis led to reductions in State appropriations to the University of 15% over the past four years, while enrollments grew by 19%. This article examines the effects of this reduction in State…

  4. The Effect of Psychological Counselling in Group on Life Orientation and Loneliness Levels of the University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurgan, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    The present study was an experimental research which was applied for increasing of the life tendencies and decreasing the loneliness of the university students, and in which the effect of psychological counselling in group on loneliness level was analysed. The present study consisting of mix measurements was carried out by 2x2 split-plot in order…

  5. The Effect of Interactive e-Book on Students' Achievement at Najran University in Computer in Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebied, Mohammed Mohammed Ahmed; Rahman, Shimaa Ahmed Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to examine the effect of interactive e-books on students' achievement at Najran University in computer in education course. Quasi-experimental study design is used in the study and to collect data the researchers built achievement test to measure the dependent variable represented in the achievement affected by experimental…

  6. The Effectiveness of Student Extracurricular Activities in Evaluating Violent Behavior among Students in the Preparatory Year at Hail University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleid, Alkhamsah Saleh

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of student extracurricular activities in evaluating violent behavior among students in the preparatory year at Hail University. The researcher used the descriptive analytical method, and used two tools for the purpose of the study, the study sample consisted of 104 (violent) female students from the…

  7. Alcohol-Related Consequences among First-Year University Students: Effectiveness of a Web-Based Personalized Feedback Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Diana M.; Nelson, Kinsey; DeYoung, Amanda; Renteria, Camryn Conrad

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a web-based personalized feedback program using an objective measure of alcohol-related consequences. Participants were assigned to either the intervention group or an assessment-only control group during university orientation. Sanctions received for campus alcohol policy violations were tracked over the…

  8. Description and Preliminary Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Childcare Voucher Program at the University of Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ernest R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a new system of providing portable vouchers to student-parents for the purchase of child care services at the University of Washington. A preliminary analysis of its effectiveness indicates the Childcare Voucher Program is serving its intended purpose well. (JAC)

  9. Comparison of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy and Psychodynamic Therapy in the Treatment of Anxiety among University Students: An Effectiveness Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monti, Fiorella; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Ricci Bitti, Pio Enrico

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural (CBT) and psychodynamic (PDT) therapies in the treatment of anxiety among university students. To this aim, the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ) was completed by 30 students assigned to CBT and by 24 students assigned to PDT, both at the beginning and at the end of…

  10. A preliminary analysis of the effects of response cards on student performance and participation in an upper division university course.

    PubMed Central

    Marmolejo, Erick K; Wilder, David A; Bradley, Lucas

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of response cards on student quiz scores and participation in an upper division undergraduate course at a small, private university. Results showed that response cards increased both quiz scores and student participation. In addition, a measure of the social validity of the response-card procedure suggested that students approved of the use of the cards. PMID:15529898

  11. The Effect of Reciprocal-Teaching Strategy on Learning Outcomes and Attitudes of Qassim-University Students in "Islamic Culture"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Harby, Jubeir Suleiman Samir

    2016-01-01

    The main intent of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of the reciprocal-teaching strategy in learning outcomes and attitudes of Qassim-University students in Islamic culture. The study was conducted in Oqlat Al-Soqour Faculty of Sciences and Arts for paucity of research conducted in such a faculty, as well as for being the…

  12. Effects of Parental Expectations and Cultural-Values Orientation on Career Decision-Making Difficulties of Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, S. Alvin; Hou, Zhi-Jin; Gati, Itamar; Li, Xixi

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of cultural-values conflict and parental expectations on the career decision-making difficulties of university students in three cities in China (Beijing, Wuhan, and Hong Kong, N = 1342). The Multidimensional Scales of Individual Traditionality and Modernity (Yang, Yu, & Ye, 1989) were used as a measure of…

  13. The Long-Term Effects of Contact and Noncontact Forms of Child Sexual Abuse in a Sample of University Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collings, Steven J.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 284 university men in South Africa found that a history of child sexual abuse involving physical contact was associated with elevated scores on all subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory, whereas a history of noncontact forms of abuse produced no significant abuse-related effects. (Author/JDD)

  14. Podcasts: Are They an Effective Tool to Enhance Student Learning? A Case Study from McMaster University, Hamilton Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vajoczki, Susan; Watt, Susan; Marquis, Nick; Holshausen, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    As universities turn to technology to become more learner-centred and address challenges created by increasing class sizes, changing consumer expectations, and increasing numbers of disability accommodation requests it is important to test the utility of technology solutions. This presentation describes a study to determine the effects of…

  15. Linking Academic Strengths to Economic Development: Seven Habits for Effective Partnership in University-Based Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Gregory M. St. L.; Grace, Norma E.; Williams, Elizabeth M.; Paradise, Louis V.; Gibbs, Patrick M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the University of New Orleans' Research and Technology Foundation, which relied heavily on Steven Covey's "The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People" to create an innovative model of ownership, construction, and financing to overcome paralyzing barriers to facility development. The effort has resulted in multiple development partnerships…

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of infant universal routine pneumococcal vaccination in Malaysia and Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Wu, David Bin-Chia; Roberts, Craig; Lee, Vivian Wing Yan; Hong, Li-Wen; Tan, Kah Kee; Mak, Vivienne; Lee, Kenneth Kwing Chin

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal disease causes large morbidity, mortality and health care utilization and medical and non-medical costs, which can all be reduced by effective infant universal routine immunization programs with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). We evaluated the clinical and economic benefits of such programs with either 10- or 13-valent PCVs in Malaysia and Hong Kong by using an age-stratified Markov cohort model with many country-specific inputs. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) was calculated to compare PCV10 or PCV13 against no vaccination and PCV13 against PCV10 over a 10-year birth cohort's vaccination. Both payer and societal perspectives were used. PCV13 had better public health and economic outcomes than a PCV10 program across all scenarios considered. For example, in the base case scenario in Malaysia, PCV13 would reduce more cases of IPD (+2,296), pneumonia (+705,281), and acute otitis media (+376,967) and save more lives (+6,122) than PCV10. Similarly, in Hong Kong, PCV13 would reduce more cases of IPD cases (+529), pneumonia (+172,185), and acute otitis media (+37,727) and save more lives (+2,688) than PCV10. During the same time horizon, PCV13 would gain over 74,000 and 21,600 additional QALYs than PCV10 in Malaysia and Hong Kong, respectively. PCV13 would be cost saving when compared against similar program with PCV10, under both payer and societal perspective in both countries. PCV13 remained a better choice over PCV10 in multiple sensitivity, scenario, and probabilistic analyses. PCV13s broader serotype coverage in its formulation and herd effect compared against PCV10 were important drivers of differences in outcomes. PMID:26451658

  17. Nanomaterial-Enabled Neural Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongchen; Guo, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Neural stimulation is a critical technique in treating neurological diseases and investigating brain functions. Traditional electrical stimulation uses electrodes to directly create intervening electric fields in the immediate vicinity of neural tissues. Second-generation stimulation techniques directly use light, magnetic fields or ultrasound in a non-contact manner. An emerging generation of non- or minimally invasive neural stimulation techniques is enabled by nanotechnology to achieve a high spatial resolution and cell-type specificity. In these techniques, a nanomaterial converts a remotely transmitted primary stimulus such as a light, magnetic or ultrasonic signal to a localized secondary stimulus such as an electric field or heat to stimulate neurons. The ease of surface modification and bio-conjugation of nanomaterials facilitates cell-type-specific targeting, designated placement and highly localized membrane activation. This review focuses on nanomaterial-enabled neural stimulation techniques primarily involving opto-electric, opto-thermal, magneto-electric, magneto-thermal and acousto-electric transduction mechanisms. Stimulation techniques based on other possible transduction schemes and general consideration for these emerging neurotechnologies are also discussed.

  18. Enabling Exploration Through Docking Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Caris A.

    2012-01-01

    Human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit will likely require international cooperation in order to leverage limited resources. International standards can help enable cooperative missions by providing well understood, predefined interfaces allowing compatibility between unique spacecraft and systems. The International Space Station (ISS) partnership has developed a publicly available International Docking System Standard (IDSS) that provides a solution to one of these key interfaces by defining a common docking interface. The docking interface provides a way for even dissimilar spacecraft to dock for exchange of crew and cargo, as well as enabling the assembly of large space systems. This paper provides an overview of the key attributes of the IDSS, an overview of the NASA Docking System (NDS), and the plans for updating the ISS with IDSS compatible interfaces. The NDS provides a state of the art, low impact docking system that will initially be made available to commercial crew and cargo providers. The ISS will be used to demonstrate the operational utility of the IDSS interface as a foundational technology for cooperative exploration.

  19. Nanomaterial-Enabled Neural Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongchen; Guo, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Neural stimulation is a critical technique in treating neurological diseases and investigating brain functions. Traditional electrical stimulation uses electrodes to directly create intervening electric fields in the immediate vicinity of neural tissues. Second-generation stimulation techniques directly use light, magnetic fields or ultrasound in a non-contact manner. An emerging generation of non- or minimally invasive neural stimulation techniques is enabled by nanotechnology to achieve a high spatial resolution and cell-type specificity. In these techniques, a nanomaterial converts a remotely transmitted primary stimulus such as a light, magnetic or ultrasonic signal to a localized secondary stimulus such as an electric field or heat to stimulate neurons. The ease of surface modification and bio-conjugation of nanomaterials facilitates cell-type-specific targeting, designated placement and highly localized membrane activation. This review focuses on nanomaterial-enabled neural stimulation techniques primarily involving opto-electric, opto-thermal, magneto-electric, magneto-thermal and acousto-electric transduction mechanisms. Stimulation techniques based on other possible transduction schemes and general consideration for these emerging neurotechnologies are also discussed. PMID:27013938

  20. Effects of Electromagnetic Field on the Dynamics of Bianchi Type VI0 Universe with Anisotropic Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, M.; Zubair, M.

    Spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type VI0 cosmological models with cosmological constant are investigated in the presence of anisotropic dark energy. We examine the effects of electromagnetic field on the dynamics of the universe and anisotropic behavior of dark energy. The law of variation of the mean Hubble parameter is used to find exact solutions of the Einstein field equations. We find that electromagnetic field promotes anisotropic behavior of dark energy which becomes isotropic for future evolution. It is concluded that the isotropic behavior of the universe model is seen even in the presence of electromagnetic field and anisotropic fluid.

  1. Enabling Radiation Tolerant Systems for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffman, Billy; Hardage, Donna

    1999-01-01

    A hazard to all spacecraft orbiting the Earth is the existence of a harsh environment with its subsequent effects. The effects can provide damaging or even disabling effects on spacecraft and its instruments. One of the most recognized and serious of the different space environments is ionizing radiation and its effects on spacecraft and spacecraft systems. This is increasingly becoming more of an issue for all missions due to the use of lighter composite materials, smaller satellites, and smaller electronics. NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program was established to develop new plateaus of technical capability to reduce the cost of NASA's missions and provide leading-edge exploratory and focused technology to promote continued U.S. preeminence in space. The SEE Program has an "Implementation Plan" to develop roadmaps and fund technical tasks to enable radiation systems for space.

  2. Effect of rising medical student debt on residency specialty selection at the University of Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Tonkin, Paul

    2006-06-01

    The cost of a medical education continues to increase while the real value of physician compensation is decreasing. The University of Minnesota Medical School is the most expensive public medical school in the country. Rising tuition costs combined with a relative decrease in scholarship money is resulting in dramatic increases in medical student debt. The average debt load of a medical student graduating from the University of Minnesota was dollars 119,868 in 2004 and dollars 132,988 in 2005. Experts in medical education speculate that such heavy debt affects medical students' career choices. However, prior to this study, the relationship between student debt and residency specialty selection at the University of Minnesota had not been analyzed. This study found a significant correlation between debt and specialty selection at the University of Minnesota, Duluth campus, and no significant correlation at the Twin Cities campus in Minneapolis. PMID:16846185

  3. Effect of rising medical student debt on residency specialty selection at the University of Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Tonkin, Paul

    2006-06-01

    The cost of a medical education continues to increase while the real value of physician compensation is decreasing. The University of Minnesota Medical School is the most expensive public medical school in the country. Rising tuition costs combined with a relative decrease in scholarship money is resulting in dramatic increases in medical student debt. The average debt load of a medical student graduating from the University of Minnesota was dollars 119,868 in 2004 and dollars 132,988 in 2005. Experts in medical education speculate that such heavy debt affects medical students' career choices. However, prior to this study, the relationship between student debt and residency specialty selection at the University of Minnesota had not been analyzed. This study found a significant correlation between debt and specialty selection at the University of Minnesota, Duluth campus, and no significant correlation at the Twin Cities campus in Minneapolis.

  4. Effect of university physical education courses on intention for physical activity adherence in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Soo; Lee, Hwa-Suk

    2010-10-01

    Individuals' intentions of adopting physical activity as part of their lifestyle changed after university physical education courses in Korea. Male students (N = 264) taking physical education courses at a university in Korea were tested on the first and last day of a semester using a physical activity adherence questionnaire. The results showed that the intention to continue physical activity increased after taking the courses. PMID:21162447

  5. Are Australian Universities Promoting Learning and Teaching Activity Effectively? An Assessment of the Effects on Science and Engineering Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cretchley, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Federal Government and Australian universities have embarked on a bid to raise the profile of learning and teaching (L&T) in universities. Current strategies include increased funding of competitive grants for L&T projects, a wider range of teaching awards and fellowships and a controversial new national competitive Learning and…

  6. Improvement of Mathematical Education in Faculty of Science and Technology, Meijo University and Verification of its Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Yukimasa; Suzuki, Atsushi

    Although the academic ability in science such as Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry is indispensable for Engineers, the fundamental ability of freshmen in Science has recently seemed to become lower and lower. The investigation was therefore conducted to grasp what subjects on science they‧ve learned before entering the university by Center for Educational Development in Science and Technology in Meijo University. This reveals that a part of freshmen has not learned the indispensable subjects to study in the university. According to the result of this investigation, the mathematical education has been first improved with the objective to raise the level of the ability of freshmen with low mathematical ability. As a result, the improvement of mathematical education yields positive effects on the freshmen with the low ability.

  7. Simulation enabled safeguards assessment methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, Robert; Bjornard, Trond; Larson, Tom

    2007-07-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wire-frame construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed. (authors)

  8. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean; Trond Bjornard; Thomas Larson

    2007-09-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology (SESAME) has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wireframe construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed.

  9. Context-Enabled Business Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2012-04-01

    To truly understand context and apply it in business intelligence, it is vital to understand what context is and how it can be applied in addressing organizational needs. Context describes the facets of the environment that impact the way that end users interact with the system. Context includes aspects of location, chronology, access method, demographics, social influence/ relationships, end-user attitude/ emotional state, behavior/ past behavior, and presence. To be successful in making Business Intelligence content enabled, it is important to be able to capture the context of use user. With advances in technology, there are a number of ways in which this user based information can be gathered and exposed to enhance the overall end user experience.

  10. Design and Simulation of MEMS Enabled Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Mark

    2001-03-01

    Over the past two decades considerable progress in microsystems (MEMS) fabrication technologies has been made resulting in a variety of commercially successful devices. Most of these devices have required application specific fabrication steps, which must be developed, and the lack of proper design tools often resulted in repeated prototyping that was expensive and time consuming. Further development of MEMS enabled commercial products and reduction of the time to market requires implementation of a concurrent design methodology through better design tools and standardization of the fabrication processes. The cross-disciplinary nature of MEMS-Enabled Systems necessitates designers with different backgrounds to work together in understanding the effects of one sub-system on another and this requires a top-down approach to integrated system design. Design tools that can facilitate this communication and reduce the need for excessive prototype fabrication and test iterations and significantly reduce cost and time-to-market are vitally important. The main focus of this article is to describe the top-down design methodology and and ongoing research on tools that facilitate concurrent design of MEMS enabled systems.

  11. A universal filament width? The effect of ambipolar diffusion on the size distribution of dense filaments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntormousi, Evangelia; Hennebelle, Patrick; André, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    The filamentary structure of molecular clouds and its potential link to star formation have been brought into focus by Herschel's high resolution observations of the local Interstellar Medium. An especially puzzling result from the same surveys is that local interstellar filaments have a preferred thickness of 0.1 pc, independent of their column density. What can be the origin of this apparently universal property?Filamentary structure is characteristic of MHD turbulence, appearing as a result of shear, magnetic tension and shocks. If the observed filaments are indeed the dissipative structures of interstellar turbulence, then ambipolar diffusion is the best candidate for setting a characteristic thickness by damping MHD waves. We test this hyporthesis with high-resolution, 3D MHD simulations performed with the AMR code RAMSES. To avoid confusion with grid effects, our simulations reach a physical resolution of 200 AU, resolving the observed 0.1 pc with about 100 cells.These simulations of both driven and decaying MHD turbulence show that the fluid assumes a different morphology when ambipolar diffusion is included in the models: ion-neutral friction acts on a characteristic scale to cut off the cascade, broadening the dense structures and flattening their mass spectra with respect to the corresponding ideal MHD situation. Altough the peak in the thickness distribution of filaments is not as dramatic in this series of simulations as in the observations, the comparison between ideal and non-ideal MHD points to ion-neutral friction as a very good candidate for setting a characteristic scale for interstellar filaments.

  12. The impacts of fear and disgust on the perceived effectiveness of smoking warning labels: a study on Turkish university students.

    PubMed

    Tugrul, Tugba Orten

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the perceived effectiveness of pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages on Turkish university students. In particular, the impacts of fear and disgust elicited by these labels were examined using the smoking decision process model. A survey was conducted with 344 undergraduate students at a private university in Izmir, the third largest city of Turkey. The findings showed differences in levels of fear and disgust evoked by pictorial warning labels for each stage in the smoking decision process, which in turn led to differences in the perceived effectiveness of the labels. Thus, this study underlines the importance of tailoring antismoking messages according to specific target groups and also suggests considering the smoking-decision-process model as segments and targeting groups in creating effective messages.

  13. Some cross-linguistic evidence for modulation of implicational universals by language-specific frequency effects in phonological development

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    While broad-focus comparisons of consonant inventories across children acquiring different language can suggest that phonological development follows a universal sequence, finer-grained statistical comparisons can reveal systematic differences. This cross-linguistic study of word-initial lingual obstruents examined some effects of language-specific frequencies on consonant mastery. Repetitions of real words were elicited from 2- and 3-year-old children who were monolingual speakers of English, Cantonese, Greek, or Japanese. The repetitions were recorded and transcribed by an adult native speaker for each language. Results found support for both language-universal effects in phonological acquisition and for language-specific influences related to phoneme and phoneme sequence frequency. These results suggest that acquisition patterns that are common across languages arise in two ways. One influence is direct, via the universal constraints imposed by the physiology and physics of speech production and perception, and how these predict which contrasts will be easy and which will be difficult for the child to learn to control. The other influence is indirect, via the way universal principles of ease of perception and production tend to influence the lexicons of many languages through commonly attested sound changes. PMID:19890438

  14. Emotional Effects on University Choice Behavior: The Influence of Experienced Narrators and Their Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Callejas-Albiñana, Ana I; Callejas-Albiñana, Fernando E; Martínez-Rodríguez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the influence that experienced users of university resources might have as narrative sources of information for other students in the process of choosing their schools. Informative videos about the benefits of studying at the university provide a reference model. In these videos, a group of young people present their views and explain their reasons for choosing the university in which they are pursuing their degrees; the various narrators detail all the resources available. This study investigates whether the individual identifiers of these narrators (e.g., gender, age, physical appearance, nonverbal gestures such as smiling, posture) influence perceptions of the credibility of the information they provide. Among a sample of 150 students in their last year of pre-university training, the results demonstrate that the students' ability to identify with the narrators provides information and arouses emotions that inform their perceptions of reliability and therefore their consumption choices. None of these predictors appear to serve as determinants that can be generalized, but if emotional attitudes in response to narratives about the topic (i.e., the university) are positive, then they prompt a change in attitude toward that reference topic too. PMID:27252664

  15. Emotional Effects on University Choice Behavior: The Influence of Experienced Narrators and Their Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Callejas-Albiñana, Ana I.; Callejas-Albiñana, Fernando E.; Martínez-Rodríguez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the influence that experienced users of university resources might have as narrative sources of information for other students in the process of choosing their schools. Informative videos about the benefits of studying at the university provide a reference model. In these videos, a group of young people present their views and explain their reasons for choosing the university in which they are pursuing their degrees; the various narrators detail all the resources available. This study investigates whether the individual identifiers of these narrators (e.g., gender, age, physical appearance, nonverbal gestures such as smiling, posture) influence perceptions of the credibility of the information they provide. Among a sample of 150 students in their last year of pre-university training, the results demonstrate that the students' ability to identify with the narrators provides information and arouses emotions that inform their perceptions of reliability and therefore their consumption choices. None of these predictors appear to serve as determinants that can be generalized, but if emotional attitudes in response to narratives about the topic (i.e., the university) are positive, then they prompt a change in attitude toward that reference topic too. PMID:27252664

  16. Enabling Participation In Exoplanet Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    2015-08-01

    Determining the distribution of exoplanets has required the contributions of a community of astronomers, who all require the support of colleagues to finish their projects in a manner to enable them to enter new collaborations to continue to contribute to understanding exoplanet science.The contributions of each member of the astronomy community are to be encouraged and must never be intentionally obstructed.We present a member’s long pursuit to be a contributing part of the exoplanet community through doing transit photometry as a means of commissioning the telescopes for a new observatory, followed by pursuit of interpreting the distributions in exoplanet parameter data.We present how the photometry projects have been presented as successful by the others who have claimed to have completed them, but how by requiring its employees to present results while omitting one member has been obstructive against members working together and has prevented the results from being published in what can genuinely be called a peer-reviewed fashion.We present how by tolerating one group to obstruct one member from finishing participation and then falsely denying credit is counterproductive to doing science.We show how expecting one member to attempt to go around an ostracizing group by starting something different is destructive to the entire profession. We repeat previously published appeals to help ostracized members to “go around the observatory” by calling for discussion on how the community must act to reverse cases of shunning, bullying, and other abuses. Without better recourse and support from the community, actions that do not meet standard good collegial behavior end up forcing good members from the community. The most important actions are to enable an ostracized member to have recourse to participating in group papers by either working through other authors or through the journal. All journals and authors must expect that no co-author is keeping out a major

  17. [Efforts to achieve and effects of acquiring ISO 15189 in Tokushima University Hospital].

    PubMed

    Shono, Kazuko; Kishi, Misako; Satou, Mituyo; Nagamine, Yasunori; Doi, Tosio

    2009-12-01

    The medical laboratory of Tokushima University Hospital acquired ISO 15189, an international standard for medical laboratories, on July 6th, 2007, resulting in it achieving the 24th place in Japan and 5th place among national university hospitals. The first surveillance was just performed on October 6th, 2008. Tokushima University Hospital, in which our medical laboratory is included as one section, already succeeded in acquiring ISO 9001, PrivacyMark System, and Quality Health Care ver. 5 before accomplishing ISO 15189. To achieve ISO 15189, we prepared documents based on ISO 9001 without any consultation, resulting in a review of the difference between ISO 9001 and ISO 15189 after the preliminary survey. Although achieving ISO 15189 resulted in an improvement in the reliability of laboratory results and accuracy, leading to the development of our technical skills and awareness, and sharing of knowledge, we consider that the considerable investment of time to prepare the requirements remains to be overcome.

  18. The psychological impact from hurricane Katrina: effects of displacement and trauma exposure on university students.

    PubMed

    Davis, Thompson E; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2010-09-01

    The following study examined the reactions of university students to Hurricane Katrina. A group of 68 New Orleans area students who were displaced from their home universities as a result of the hurricane were matched on race, gender, and age to a sample of 68 students who had been enrolled at Louisiana State University (LSU) prior to the hurricane. All students were enrolled at LSU at the time they participated in an online survey, conducted 3 months following the hurricane. The survey included symptom measures of depression, anxiety, stress, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other variables. Results indicated displaced students experienced more trauma exposure and greater subsequent distress, more symptoms of PTSD, and more symptoms of depression. Moreover, traumatic exposure and distress from the traumatic exposure were found to fully mediate depressive symptoms and posttraumatic symptoms in the displaced students.

  19. Engaging Élitism: The Mediating Effect of Work Engagement on Affective Commitment and Quit Intentions in Two Australian University Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Justine L.; Morris, Leanne

    2013-01-01

    Some universities rely on their élitism as one mechanism to attract and retain talented faculty. This paper examines two groups of élite and non-élite universities and the mediating effect that work engagement has on affective commitment and intention to quit. Findings indicate partial support for the mediating effect of work engagement in the…

  20. Does Deuterium Enable the Formation of Primordial Brown Dwarfs?

    PubMed

    Uehara; Inutsuka

    2000-03-10

    We investigate thermal and dynamical evolution of a primordial gas cloud with an updated deuterium chemistry. We consider a fragment of a postshock-cooled sheet that is expected to form by collapse of a massive cloud ( greater, similar108 M middle dot in circle) and by blast waves due to supernova explosions. At first we investigate molecule formation in a primordial shock. We show that almost all deuterium can be converted to HD within the age of the universe at the collapsed redshift in the case of a cloud that has a virial temperature of approximately 106 K and collapses at z>1. When the postshock sheet fragments owing to gravitational instability, the fractional H2 and HD abundances become approximately 10-2 and approximately 10-5, respectively, which are 103-104 times higher than the result of molecule formation in the expanding universe after recombination. To study the subsequent evolution of a fragment, we performed one-dimensional simulations of a spherical/cylindrical cloud, of which initial conditions (e.g., fractional abundances of chemical composition, temperature) are derived from the result of the shock. It is found that, in case of a cylindrical collapse, the cooling by HD molecules keeps the temperature of the cloud less than 100 K and the cloud evolves almost isothermally. When the cloud becomes optically thick to the HD line emission ( approximately 1010 cm-3) and the gravitational fragmentation of the cylindrical cloud becomes effective, the Jeans mass becomes comparable to 0.1 M middle dot in circle. This series of processes enables the formation of primordial low-mass stars, and possibly brown dwarfs, in primordial gas clouds.

  1. Does Deuterium Enable the Formation of Primordial Brown Dwarfs?

    PubMed

    Uehara; Inutsuka

    2000-03-10

    We investigate thermal and dynamical evolution of a primordial gas cloud with an updated deuterium chemistry. We consider a fragment of a postshock-cooled sheet that is expected to form by collapse of a massive cloud ( greater, similar108 M middle dot in circle) and by blast waves due to supernova explosions. At first we investigate molecule formation in a primordial shock. We show that almost all deuterium can be converted to HD within the age of the universe at the collapsed redshift in the case of a cloud that has a virial temperature of approximately 106 K and collapses at z>1. When the postshock sheet fragments owing to gravitational instability, the fractional H2 and HD abundances become approximately 10-2 and approximately 10-5, respectively, which are 103-104 times higher than the result of molecule formation in the expanding universe after recombination. To study the subsequent evolution of a fragment, we performed one-dimensional simulations of a spherical/cylindrical cloud, of which initial conditions (e.g., fractional abundances of chemical composition, temperature) are derived from the result of the shock. It is found that, in case of a cylindrical collapse, the cooling by HD molecules keeps the temperature of the cloud less than 100 K and the cloud evolves almost isothermally. When the cloud becomes optically thick to the HD line emission ( approximately 1010 cm-3) and the gravitational fragmentation of the cylindrical cloud becomes effective, the Jeans mass becomes comparable to 0.1 M middle dot in circle. This series of processes enables the formation of primordial low-mass stars, and possibly brown dwarfs, in primordial gas clouds. PMID:10688760

  2. Enabling electroweak baryogenesis through dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, Marek; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Wells, James D.

    2016-06-01

    We study the impact on electroweak baryogenesis from a swifter cosmological expansion induced by dark matter. We detail the experimental bounds that one can place on models that realize it, and we investigate the modifications of these bounds that result from a non-standard cosmological history. The modifications can be sizeable if the expansion rate of the Universe increases by several orders of magnitude. We illustrate the impact through the example of scalar field dark matter, which can alter the cosmological history enough to enable a strong-enough first-order phase transition in the Standard Model when it is supplemented by a dimension six operator directly modifying the Higgs boson potential. We show that due to the modified cosmological history, electroweak baryogenesis can be realized, while keeping deviations of the triple Higgs coupling below HL-LHC sensitivies. The required scale of new physics to effectuate a strong-enough first order phase transition can change by as much as twenty percent as the expansion rate increases by six orders of magnitude.

  3. Shared Program Decisions and Qualities of Effective Players: Key Elements for School-University Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Jon J.

    This paper examines how selected characteristics of a program and attributes of key actors affected a particular collaborative effort to increase the supply of secondary math and science teachers. A funded grant created the need for collaborative linkage between schools and a university which had no prior experience with joint efforts. Elements of…

  4. The Effect of Group Diversity on Learning on a University-Based Foundation Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipperfield, Sarah R.

    2012-01-01

    To date, there appears to be a paucity of literature regarding the student experience on university-based foundation courses. There is some thought that such non-traditional, diverse groups of students might present problems during the learning and teaching experience and some students appear to have little insight into what foundation courses…

  5. Towards More Effective Vocationalisation of Business Education in Universities in South East of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwazor, Joseph Chukwudi; Nwaukwa, Faith Chukwudi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to ascertain the extent of vocationalization, of business education in universities in South East zone of Nigeria where lecture method dominated lesson delivery. Students had become more passive and engaged in lots of endless hard work. It could hardly be easy to state the differences between business education…

  6. HIV, AIDS, and Universal Precautions: The Optometry Curriculum's Effect on Students' Knowledge, Attitudes and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengren, Kenneth J.; Zoltoski, Rebecca K.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed entering optometry students (n=404) and again during their fourth year (n=314) for knowledge about and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. Analysis indicated significant improvement from pre- to post-test for general HIV/AIDS knowledge and optometric-specific HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes. For universal precautions implementation, no change in…

  7. Effects of an Introductory Geography Course on Student Perceptions of Geography at the University of Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowlick, Forrest J.; Kolden, Crystal A.

    2013-01-01

    This case study surveyed students in geography courses at the University of Idaho, investigating perceptions of geography's role in their daily lives, relevance to careers or academics, and parts of their geographic skill. Primarily, white, younger than 20, gender-balanced students in Introduction to Physical Geography and Human Geography…

  8. Job Search Strategies of Recent University Graduates in Poland: Plans and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piróg, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article was to highlight plans versus actual actions of university graduates in Poland aimed at finding employment. The paper also empirically verifies the impact of chosen job-seeking strategies on the success or failure of their transition to employment. The study was Polish-wide and included graduates of geography. It…

  9. Enhancing University Summer Session Programs: The Role and Effect of Visiting Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Anne K.; Lewis, Alcinda C.

    2009-01-01

    Many college and university summer session deans and directors face significant challenges in providing quality summer courses. At research institutions, for example, the number of regular tenured and tenure-track faculty who want to focus on research, scholarship, and other activities during summer, affects the composition of the summer session…

  10. A Case Study of University-Community Collaboration to Reduce the Negative Effects of Binge Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Binge drinking is a prevalent, persistent problem within U.S. university cities. Consequences of students' binge drinking can result in injury, assault, disruption in neighborhoods, and even death. Proponents of one potential solution to the problem, the environmental approach, propose changing the context of drinking by altering factors such…

  11. Evaluation of a University Faculty Mentoring Program: Its Effect on Latino College Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Silvia J.; Reigadas, Elena T.

    The Faculty Mentoring Program (FMP) at California State University, Dominguez Hills, provides faculty mentors to students defined as "at-risk." FMP aims to encourage faculty-student interaction through a mentoring relationship that will lead to improved student achievement, retention, and graduation and to better faculty understanding of at-risk…

  12. Effects of a Universal Positive Classroom Behavior Program on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diperna, James Clyde; Lei, Puiwa; Bellinger, Jillian; Cheng, Weiyi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a universal program to promote positive classroom behavior on students' approaches to learning and early academic skills. Second grade classrooms (N = 39) were randomly assigned to treatment and business-as-usual control conditions. Teachers in intervention classrooms implemented the Social…

  13. The Effect of Sonority on Word Segmentation: Evidence for the Use of a Phonological Universal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettlinger, Marc; Finn, Amy S.; Hudson Kam, Carla L.

    2012-01-01

    It has been well documented how language-specific cues may be used for word segmentation. Here, we investigate what role a language-independent phonological universal, the sonority sequencing principle (SSP), may also play. Participants were presented with an unsegmented speech stream with non-English word onsets that juxtaposed adherence to the…

  14. Understanding College and University Organization: Theories for Effective Policy and Practice. Two Volume Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, James L.; Dee, Jay R.

    2007-01-01

    This two-volume work is intended to help readers develop powerful new ways of thinking about organizational principles, and apply them to policy-making and management in colleges and universities. The book is written with two audiences in mind: administrative and faculty leaders in institutions of higher learning, and students (both doctoral and…

  15. Universal Basic Education in Nigeria: Availability of Schools' Infrastructure for Effective Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikoya, Peter O.; Onoyase, D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the availability and adequacy of schools' infrastructural facilities for implementation of the Universal Basic Education program in Nigeria. Adopting the "ex post facto" design, the researchers used existing school data on physical facilities, including a survey of key stakeholders in the education sector. Data analysed…

  16. Using Student Evaluations at a Cambodian University to Improve Teaching Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, John Lysne

    2012-01-01

    This is the first study done in Cambodia wherein students used the Student Evaluations of Educational Quality (SEEQ) evaluation tool to evaluate the teaching quality of their instructors. Respondents were instructors and students from the English Language Support Unit at the Royal University of Phnom Penh. This study generated data from mid- and…

  17. County-Level Estimates of the Effects of a Universal Preschool Program in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karoly, Lynn A.

    2005-01-01

    Growing interest in universal preschool education has prompted researchers to examine the potential costs and benefits of making high-quality preschool available for all children one or two years before kindergarten entry. The analysis reported in this document builds on a previous RAND study which estimated that a high-quality, one-year,…

  18. Organizational Effects on First-Year Students' Academic Outcomes at a New Public Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between organizational behavior and student outcomes has been understudied, especially in less selective public research universities and among students from underrepresented populations. This study draws on Berger and Milem's (2000) framework to examine the relationship between student entry characteristics, organizational…

  19. The Retention Dilemma: Effectively Reaching the First-Year University Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Kelly J.; Levesque-Bristol, Chantal

    2011-01-01

    Student success results from positive learning environments which strive to meet the basic psychological needs of students, foster self-determined forms of motivation, and cultivate learning outcomes such as knowledge transfer, meta-cognition, and engagement. Low first-year student retention rates lead many universities to assess factors…

  20. Effect of Prompted Reflection and Metacognitive Skill Instruction on University Freshmen's Use of Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erskine, Dana L.

    2010-01-01

    Research in metacognition has long demonstrated that applying metacognitive strategies improves students learning and performance. Incoming college and university freshmen are not typically trained in using the metacognitive skills that could enhance their academic performance and their satisfaction with the college experience. This study…

  1. Effective Governing Boards: A Guide for Members of Governing Boards of Independent Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The long history of volunteerism in America has its roots in colonial religious and educational enterprises. From the beginning, colleges and universities have been independently governed rather than subject to national or state control. This autonomy is a uniquely American tradition. Over the centuries, the work of academic governing…

  2. The Effectiveness of Using Mobile on EFL Learners' Reading Practices in Najran University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazaea, Abduljalil Nasr; Alzubi, Ali Abbas

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the efficiency of using mobile technology in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading classroom of 30 male students at Preparatory Year, Najran University. Specifically, the study aims to explore the role of this new integrated method in enhancing the EFL learners' reading practices. Integrating Freebody and Luke's…

  3. Effect of Student Feedback on the Motivation of Indian University Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jena, Ananta Kumar; Chakraborty, Piyali

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to measure the motivation of the teachers of higher education towards students' feedback policy of National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) established by Internal Quality Assurance Cell (IQAC) for different Universities. By the help of questionnaires, the data were gathered, which were earlier sent to the…

  4. The Effects of Generational Status and University Environment on Latina/o Undergraduates' Persistence Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguinaga, Arellys; Gloria, Alberta M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the importance of identity and cultural fit within the university on Latina/o undergraduates' academic persistence decisions. The psychosociocultural model (Gloria & Rodriguez, 2000) provided a framework for the study in which 128 Latino/a students' generational level in the United States, cultural congruity, perceptions of…

  5. Effects of Number and Location of Bins on Plastic Recycling at a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Ryan T.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Fritz, Jennifer N.; Hodde, Henry B.

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of plastic bottles that consumers placed in appropriate recycling receptacles rather than trash bins was examined across 3 buildings on a university campus. We extended previous research on interventions to increase recycling by controlling the number of recycling receptacles across conditions and by examining receptacle location…

  6. A Crisis of Competence: The Corrupting Effect of Political Activism in the University of California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Scholars, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report concerns the corruption of the University of California by activist politics, a condition which, as it shall show, sharply lowers the quality of academic teaching, analysis, and research, resulting in the troubling deficiencies found in the studies to which the authors have referred. This report shall show that this is an inevitable…

  7. Academic Self-Concept among Business Students in a Recruiting University: Definition, Measurement and Potential Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to devise a parsimonious instrument for evaluating academic self-concept (ASC) among British-born students entering "mass-market" (post-1992) universities that cater for diverse and "non-traditional" intakes. Three major facets of ASC were found to be particularly relevant to these students: "self-belief" in one's academic…

  8. The Impact of Framing Effect on Student Preferences for University Grading Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jeffrey K.; Smith, Lisa F.

    2009-01-01

    Kahneman and Tversky's (1979, 2000; Tversky & Kahneman, 1981) work in decision-making was applied to student preferences for grading practices. Undergraduate psychology students (n = 240) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 framing conditions related to how a university course might be graded: a 100 point system, a percentage system, and an open…

  9. Student Digital Piracy in the Florida State University System: An Exploratory Study on Its Infrastructural Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Digital piracy is a problem that may never disappear from society. Through readily available resources such as those found in a university, students will always have access to illegal goods. While piracy is a global phenomenon, an institution's resources combined with the typical college student's lack of funds makes it more lucrative. Students…

  10. Effectiveness of Different Medium of Education to Imparting Knowledge at Bangladesh Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Anwarul; Islam, Nasirul

    2008-01-01

    Open and distance learning system meanly based on different types of media to impart education to the learners. Bangladesh Open University (BOU) offered education through open and distance learning system. There are two largest programs one is Secondary School Certificate (SSC) and another one is Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) offered by BOU…

  11. A "Prepaid Package" for Obstetrics: Effect on Teaching and Patient Care in a University Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Philip E.

    1976-01-01

    The changing social milieu has removed the charity patient but not the need for a teaching population. The University Hospital's program is described, in which patients prepaid a fixed, single fee for all obstetrics-related care through the third post partum day. (LBH)

  12. The Effect of Secondary School Study Skills Preparation on First-Year University Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.; Suhre, Cor J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Although many studies have revealed the importance of study skills for students' first-year performance and college retention, the extent of the impact of study skills preparation on students' academic achievement is less clear. This paper explores the impact of pre-university study skills preparation on students' first-year study experiences,…

  13. Developing an Effective Instrument for Assessing the Performance of Public University Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Conducting a worthwhile assessment of the performance of senior leaders such as university presidents poses unique challenges for public institutions of higher education. One of the most difficult issues is determining the "content" and "format" of the assessment instrument. Due to the breadth and complexity of the job, the list of potential…

  14. Too Old to Teach? The Effect of Age on College and University Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonebraker, Robert J.; Stone, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    With the elimination of mandatory retirement, the average age of college and university faculty members has increased. While this has raised some concerns, relatively little research has tried to measure the impact of this aging on productivity inside the classroom. Using data from the RateMyProfessors.com website for a large sample of instructors…

  15. Japanese University Students' Willingness to Communicate in English: The Serendipitous Effect of Oral Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuoka, Rieko; Matsumoto, Kahoko; Poole, Gregory; Matsuoka, Misato

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which college students in Japan overcame sensitivity to external evaluation and increased their willingness to communicate in English. It is not uncommon for university students in Japan, who are otherwise proficient speakers of English and motivated to learn, fail to exhibit English competency in real communication…

  16. Mobile Learning via SMS at Open University Malaysia: Equitable, Effective, and Sustainable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Tina; Fadzil, Mansor; Mansor, Norziati

    2011-01-01

    This article describes Open University Malaysia's efforts at enhancing the blended learning approach for undergraduate distance learners with the successful implementation of the Mobile Learning via SMS initiative. The pilot project was implemented in the May 2009 semester, and this coming January 2011 semester will be in its sixth consecutive…

  17. Effectiveness of a Universal, Interdependent Group Contingency Program on Children's Academic Achievement: A Countywide Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Robert; Osborne, Karen J.; Dean, Emily L.

    2015-01-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a universal prevention program designed to increase academic engagement and to decrease disruptive behavior in elementary school-age children. Teachers and other school personnel use interdependent group contingencies to improve students' behavior in the classroom. Previous research indicates the GBG is efficacious…

  18. The Online University Classroom: One Perspective for Effective Student Engagement and Teaching in an Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Marsha

    2014-01-01

    Universities struggle with alternate means of instructional delivery to meet the demands of distant student needs, the competition for enrollments, and restraints from limited physical building space. For many, fully online programs of study using internet-based instruction commonly named online instruction have become viable solutions. There has…

  19. Effort Allocation in Tournaments: The Effect of Gender on Academic Performance in Italian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castagnetti, Carolina; Rosti, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    We consider the academic performance of Italian university graduates and their labor market position 3 years after graduation. Our data confirm the common finding that female students outperform male students in academia but are overcome in the labor market. Assuming that academic competition is fair and that individual talent is equally…

  20. Severe language effect in university rankings: particularly Germany and France are wronged in citation-based rankings.

    PubMed

    van Raan, Anthony F J; van Leeuwen, Thed N; Visser, Martijn S

    2011-08-01

    We applied a set of standard bibliometric indicators to monitor the scientific state-of-arte of 500 universities worldwide and constructed a ranking on the basis of these indicators (Leiden Ranking 2010). We find a dramatic and hitherto largely underestimated language effect in the bibliometric, citation-based measurements of research performance when comparing the ranking based on all Web of Science (WoS) covered publications and on only English WoS covered publications, particularly for Germany and France.