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Sample records for effective biosolids management

  1. Successful biosolids management

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblum, E.; Braatelien, E. ); McHaney, S.; Stutz-McDonald, S. )

    1993-05-01

    The San Jose (Calif.) Department of Water Pollution Control has embarked on a program of beneficial biosolids reuse to deal with three decades of stored solids that filled 160 ha (400 ac) of lagoons at the San Jose-Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant in San Jose. The effort has taken 10 years of planning and development, and weathered changes in market conditions and federal regulations. It promises to be one of the most cost-effective solids management programs of its kind among similar-sized wastewater treatment agencies in the U.S. The operation includes anaerobic digestion with methane recovery, solar solids drying, and beneficial reuse of biosolids as landfill cover and as an agricultural soil amendment. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Biosolids and Sludge Management.

    PubMed

    Fitzmorris Brisolara, Kari; Ochoa, Helena

    2016-10-01

    This review section covers journal articles and conference papers related to biosolids and sludge management that were published in 2015. The literature review has been divided into the following sections: • Biosolids regulations and management issues; • Biosolids characteristics, quality and measurement including microconstituents, pathogens, nanoparticles and metals; • Sludge treatment technologies including pretreatment and sludge minimization, conditioning and dewatering, digestion, composting and innovative technologies; • Disposal and reuse including combustion/incineration, agricultural uses and innovative uses; • Odor and air emissions; and • Energy issues.

  3. Biosolids and Sludge Management.

    PubMed

    Fitzmorris Brisolara, Kari; Ochoa, Helena

    2016-10-01

    This review section covers journal articles and conference papers related to biosolids and sludge management that were published in 2015. The literature review has been divided into the following sections: • Biosolids regulations and management issues; • Biosolids characteristics, quality and measurement including microconstituents, pathogens, nanoparticles and metals; • Sludge treatment technologies including pretreatment and sludge minimization, conditioning and dewatering, digestion, composting and innovative technologies; • Disposal and reuse including combustion/incineration, agricultural uses and innovative uses; • Odor and air emissions; and • Energy issues. PMID:27620088

  4. Integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective biosolids management at a large Canadian wastewater treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, R J; Allain, C J; Laughton, P J; Henry, J G

    2004-01-01

    The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission's 115,000 m3/d advanced, chemically assisted primary wastewater treatment facility located in New Brunswick, Canada, has developed an integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective programme for the management and beneficial utilization of biosolids from lime stabilized raw sludge. The paper overviews biosolids production, lime stabilization, conveyance, and odour control followed by an indepth discussion of the wastewater sludge as a resource programme, namely: composting, mine site reclamation, landfill cover, land application for agricultural use, tree farming, sod farm base as a soil enrichment, topsoil manufacturing. The paper also addresses the issues of metals, pathogens, organic compounds, the quality control program along with the regulatory requirements. Biosolids capital and operating costs are presented. Research results on removal of metals from primary sludge using a unique biological process known as BIOSOL as developed by the University of Toronto, Canada to remove metals and destroy pathogens are presented. The paper also discusses an ongoing cooperative research project with the Université de Moncton where various mixtures of plant biosolids are composted with low quality soil. Integration, approach to sustainability and "cumulative effects" as part of the overall biosolids management strategy are also discussed.

  5. Integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective biosolids management at a large Canadian wastewater treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, R J; Allain, C J; Laughton, P J; Henry, J G

    2004-01-01

    The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission's 115,000 m3/d advanced, chemically assisted primary wastewater treatment facility located in New Brunswick, Canada, has developed an integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective programme for the management and beneficial utilization of biosolids from lime stabilized raw sludge. The paper overviews biosolids production, lime stabilization, conveyance, and odour control followed by an indepth discussion of the wastewater sludge as a resource programme, namely: composting, mine site reclamation, landfill cover, land application for agricultural use, tree farming, sod farm base as a soil enrichment, topsoil manufacturing. The paper also addresses the issues of metals, pathogens, organic compounds, the quality control program along with the regulatory requirements. Biosolids capital and operating costs are presented. Research results on removal of metals from primary sludge using a unique biological process known as BIOSOL as developed by the University of Toronto, Canada to remove metals and destroy pathogens are presented. The paper also discusses an ongoing cooperative research project with the Université de Moncton where various mixtures of plant biosolids are composted with low quality soil. Integration, approach to sustainability and "cumulative effects" as part of the overall biosolids management strategy are also discussed. PMID:15259950

  6. Biosolids management: Beneficial use comes of age

    SciTech Connect

    Hodson, C.O.

    1996-12-01

    The most important issues facing the biosolids management industry today are costs, odors and public perception. Of these, public perception has the biggest effect on the industry -- in the way biosolids are generated, used, destroyed, transported and reused. Even in the way they have been named. Officially, sludge is a term affixed to the product that comes out of sewage treatment plants and biosolids is what the processed end product is called. Although it sounds like two different things, the terms are used interchangeably. Still called sludge by some environmental professionals in the water and wastewater industries, biosolids is the official term for sludge being marketed to the public. And apparently it`s working. After years of public misperceptions, biosolids education and public relations programs thrust the organics into the Age of Beneficial Use.

  7. Managing urban biosolids: Beneficial uses

    SciTech Connect

    Forste, J.B.

    1998-07-01

    Biosolids (the primarily organic product produced by wastewater treatment processes that can be beneficially recycled) are becoming a significant challenge for operators of both small and large urban wastewater facilities. More stringent water quality standards, coupled with increasingly sensitive environmental and public health considerations, have made the treatment and use/disposal of solids from treatment processes a growing and complex field of environmental management.

  8. Streamside management zones effectiveness for protecting water quality after forestland application of biosolids.

    PubMed

    Pratt, W A; Fox, T R

    2009-01-01

    Biosolids, materials resulting from domestic sewage treatment, are surface applied to forest soils to increase phosphorus (P), nitrate, and ammonium availability. Retaining streamside management zones (SMZs) can limit nutrient pollution of streams. We delineated 15-m SMZs along three intermittent streams in an 18-yr-old Pinus taeda L. plantation. We applied biosolids at a rate of 1120 and 629 kg ha(-1) of total nitrogen and total P outside the SMZ on one side of each of the streams while maintaining the other side of the stream as control. We collected water samples from the three treated and six reference streams and from the perennial stream upstream and downstream from the intermittent streams for 12 mo after treatment. Along transects perpendicular to the treated streams, we collected overland flow samples, soil solution samples at 60 cm, and extracts from ion exchange membranes (IEMs) placed in the surface soil. We observed significantly elevated P concentrations adjacent to the stream in overland flow during one period on the treated side of the stream. We found significantly elevated nitrate concentrations outside the SMZ in the treated-side soil solution samples, in which concentrations remained below 1.5 mg L(-1). Phosphorus, nitrate, and ammonium concentrations outside the SMZ in treated-side IEM extracts showed significant increases after biosolids application, returning to near control levels after 1 yr. Phosphorus, nitrate, and ammonium concentrations in IEM extracts were not different adjacent to the streams. Stream P, nitrate, and ammonium concentrations showed few differences downstream from the treatment with concentrations below 1.5 mg L(-1). Our results indicate that at 15 m, SMZ protected streams from P, nitrate, and ammonium pollution for the first year after biosolids application to adjacent loblolly pine plantations in the Virginia Piedmont.

  9. Review of biosolids management options and co-incineration of a biosolid-derived fuel.

    PubMed

    Roy, Murari Mohon; Dutta, Animesh; Corscadden, Kenny; Havard, Peter; Dickie, Lucas

    2011-11-01

    This paper reviews current biosolids management options, and identifies incineration as a promising technology. Incineration is attractive both for volume reduction and energy recovery. Reported emissions from the incineration of biosolids were compared to various regulations to identify the challenges and future direction of biosolids incineration research. Most of the gaseous and metal emissions were lower than existing regulations, or could be met by existing technologies. This paper also presents the results of an experimental study to investigate the potential use of biosolids for co-incineration with wood pellets in a conventional wood pellet stove. Pilot scale combustion tests revealed that co-incineration of 10% biosolids with 90% premium grade wood pellets resulted in successful combustion without any significant degradation of efficiency and emissions. PMID:21763120

  10. Biosolids management strategies: an evaluation of energy production as an alternative to land application.

    PubMed

    Egan, Maureen

    2013-07-01

    Currently, more than half of the biosolids produced within the USA are land applied. Land application of biosolids introduces organic contaminants into the environment. There are potential ecological and human health risks associated with land application of biosolids. Biosolids may be used as a renewable energy source. Nutrients may be recovered from biosolids used for energy generation for use as fertilizer. The by-products of biosolids energy generation may be used beneficially in construction materials. It is recommended that energy generation replace land application as the leading biosolids management strategy.

  11. Storage management influences greenhouse gas emissions from biosolids.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Ramaprasad; Livesley, Stephen J; Gregory, David; Arndt, Stefan K

    2015-03-15

    Biosolids produced by wastewater treatment plants are often stored in stockpiles and can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHG). Growing trees in shallow stockpiled biosolids may remove nutrients, keep the biosolids drier and offset GHG emissions through C sequestration. We directly measured methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) flux from a large biosolid stockpile and two shallow stockpiles, one planted with Salix reichardtii (willow) trees, from December 2009 to January 2011. All stockpiles emitted large annual amounts of GHG ranging from 38 kg CO2-e Mg(-1) dry biosolid for the large stockpile, to 65 kg CO2-e Mg(-1) for the unplanted shallow stockpile, probably due to the greater surface area to volume ratio. GHG emissions were dominated by N2O and CO2 whilst CH4 emissions were negligible (<2%) from the large stockpile and the shallow stockpiles were actually a CH4 sink. Annual willow tree growth was 12 Mg dry biomass ha(-1), but this only offset 8% of the GHG emissions from the shallow planted stockpile. Our data highlight that biosolid stockpiles are significant sources for GHG emissions but alternate management options such as shallow stockpiles or planting for biomass production will not lead to GHG emission reductions.

  12. Storage management influences greenhouse gas emissions from biosolids.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Ramaprasad; Livesley, Stephen J; Gregory, David; Arndt, Stefan K

    2015-03-15

    Biosolids produced by wastewater treatment plants are often stored in stockpiles and can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHG). Growing trees in shallow stockpiled biosolids may remove nutrients, keep the biosolids drier and offset GHG emissions through C sequestration. We directly measured methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) flux from a large biosolid stockpile and two shallow stockpiles, one planted with Salix reichardtii (willow) trees, from December 2009 to January 2011. All stockpiles emitted large annual amounts of GHG ranging from 38 kg CO2-e Mg(-1) dry biosolid for the large stockpile, to 65 kg CO2-e Mg(-1) for the unplanted shallow stockpile, probably due to the greater surface area to volume ratio. GHG emissions were dominated by N2O and CO2 whilst CH4 emissions were negligible (<2%) from the large stockpile and the shallow stockpiles were actually a CH4 sink. Annual willow tree growth was 12 Mg dry biomass ha(-1), but this only offset 8% of the GHG emissions from the shallow planted stockpile. Our data highlight that biosolid stockpiles are significant sources for GHG emissions but alternate management options such as shallow stockpiles or planting for biomass production will not lead to GHG emission reductions. PMID:25585149

  13. MANAGING AVIAN FLU, CARCASS MANAGEMENT & BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The avian influenza virus is discussed with emphasis on the impact to poultry and possible movement of the highly pathogenic H5N 1 virus to humans. A review is made of the worldwide effects to date of the avian influenza viruses; methods for the viruses to enter recreational wate...

  14. EFFECTS OF BIOSOLIDS ON SORPTION AND DESORPTION BEHAVIOR OF CADMIUM IN BIOSOLIDS-AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cadmium sorption and desorption experiments were conducted on different fractions of soils amended with different biosolids with varying chemical properties and unamended soil (control). Biosolids addition increased the slope of the Cd sorption isotherms compared to the control s...

  15. NRMRL BIOSOLIDS RESEARCH UNDERWAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) has a reputation for producing useful and highly regarded research in the area of wastewater sludges and biosolids. Presently many projects are underway which uphold this reputation. NRMRL biosolids research can be categori...

  16. Meta-analysis of biosolid effects on persistence of triclosan and triclocarban in soil.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiuguo; Sanganyado, Edmond; Ye, Qingfu; Gan, Jay

    2016-03-01

    Biosolids are extensively used in agriculture as fertilizers while offering a practical solution for waste disposal. Many pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), such as triclosan and triclocarban, are enriched in biosolids. Biosolid amendment changes soil physicochemical properties, which may in turn alter the persistence of PPCPs and hence the risk for secondary contamination such as plant uptake. To delineate the effect of biosolids on PPCPs persistence, triclosan and triclocarban were used as model compounds in this study and their sorption (Kd) and persistence (t1/2) were determined in different soils before and after biosolid amendment. Biosolids consistently increased sorption of triclosan and triclocarban in soil. The Kd of triclosan increased by 3.9-21 times following amendment of a sandy loam soil with biosolids at 2-10%. The persistence of both compounds was prolonged, with t1/2 of triclosan increasing from 10 d in the unamended soil to 63 d after biosolid amendment at 10%. The relationship between t1/2 and Kd was further examined through a meta-analysis using data from this study and all relevant published studies. A significant linear relationship between t1/2 and Kd was observed for triclosan (r(2) = 0.69, p < 0.01) and triclocarban (r(2) = 0.38, p < 0.05) in biosolid-amended soils. On the average, when biosolid amendment increased by 1%, t1/2 of triclosan was prolonged by 7.5 d, while t1/2 of triclocarban was extended by 4.7 d. Therefore, biosolid amendment greatly enhances persistence of triclosan and triclocarban, likely due to enhanced sorption or decreased chemical bioavailability. This finding highlights the importance to consider the effect of biosolids when evaluating the environmental risks of these and other biosolid-borne PPCPs.

  17. Meta-analysis of biosolid effects on persistence of triclosan and triclocarban in soil.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiuguo; Sanganyado, Edmond; Ye, Qingfu; Gan, Jay

    2016-03-01

    Biosolids are extensively used in agriculture as fertilizers while offering a practical solution for waste disposal. Many pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), such as triclosan and triclocarban, are enriched in biosolids. Biosolid amendment changes soil physicochemical properties, which may in turn alter the persistence of PPCPs and hence the risk for secondary contamination such as plant uptake. To delineate the effect of biosolids on PPCPs persistence, triclosan and triclocarban were used as model compounds in this study and their sorption (Kd) and persistence (t1/2) were determined in different soils before and after biosolid amendment. Biosolids consistently increased sorption of triclosan and triclocarban in soil. The Kd of triclosan increased by 3.9-21 times following amendment of a sandy loam soil with biosolids at 2-10%. The persistence of both compounds was prolonged, with t1/2 of triclosan increasing from 10 d in the unamended soil to 63 d after biosolid amendment at 10%. The relationship between t1/2 and Kd was further examined through a meta-analysis using data from this study and all relevant published studies. A significant linear relationship between t1/2 and Kd was observed for triclosan (r(2) = 0.69, p < 0.01) and triclocarban (r(2) = 0.38, p < 0.05) in biosolid-amended soils. On the average, when biosolid amendment increased by 1%, t1/2 of triclosan was prolonged by 7.5 d, while t1/2 of triclocarban was extended by 4.7 d. Therefore, biosolid amendment greatly enhances persistence of triclosan and triclocarban, likely due to enhanced sorption or decreased chemical bioavailability. This finding highlights the importance to consider the effect of biosolids when evaluating the environmental risks of these and other biosolid-borne PPCPs. PMID:26708768

  18. Effects of Triclosan and biosolids on microbial community composition in an agricultural soil

    PubMed Central

    Ogunyoku, Temitope A.; Young, Thomas M.; Scow, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a widely used antimicrobial agent found at high concentrations in biosolids produced during municipal wastewater treatment. The effect of adding TCS, in the presence or absence of biosolids, on the composition of an agricultural soil microbial community was measured using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA). Most changes observed in microbial community composition were attributable to addition of biosolids or passage of time, with smaller changes due to TCS exposure, regardless of the biosolids presence. TCS slightly reduced the relative abundance of Gram positive and negative bacteria and fungi, both with or without biosolids. Bacteria were more sensitive than eukaryotes, consistent with the mode of action of TCS, which selectively targets fatty acid synthesis and disrupts cell membranes of bacteria. TCS slightly increased biomarkers of microbial stress, but stress biomarkers were lower in all biosolid treated soils, presumably due to increased availability of nutrients mitigating potential TCS toxicity. PMID:24597039

  19. Effects of triclosan and biosolids on microbial community composition in an agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Park, Inmyoung; Zhang, Nannan; Ogunyoku, Temitope A; Young, Thomas M; Scow, Kate M

    2013-12-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a widely used antimicrobial agent found at high concentrations in biosolids produced during municipal wastewater treatment. The effect of adding TCS, in the presence or absence of biosolids, on the composition of an agricultural soil microbial community was measured using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA). Most changes observed in microbial community composition were attributable to the addition of biosolids or to the passage of time, with smaller changes due to TCS exposure, regardless of the presence of biosolids. TCS slightly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi, with or without biosolids. Bacteria were more sensitive than eukaryotes, consistent with the mode of action of TCS, which selectively targets fatty acid synthesis and disrupts cell membranes of bacteria. TCS slightly increased biomarkers of microbial stress, but stress biomarkers were lower in all biosolid treated soils, presumably due to increased availability of nutrients mitigating potential TCS toxicity.

  20. Phosphorus forms in biosolids-amended soils and losses in runoff: effects of wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Penn, Chad J; Sims, J Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Continuous addition of municipal biosolids to soils based on plant nitrogen (N) requirements can cause buildup of soil phosphorus (P) in excess of crop requirements; runoff from these soils can potentially contribute to nonpoint P pollution of surface waters. However, because biosolids are often produced using lime and/or metal salts, the potential for biosolids P to cause runoff P losses can vary with wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) process. This study was conducted to determine the effect of wastewater treatment process on the forms and amounts of P in biosolids, biosolids-amended soils, and in runoff from biosolids-amended soils. We amended two soil types with eight biosolids and a poultry litter (PL) at equal rates of total P (200 kg ha(-1); unamended soils were used as controls. All biosolids and amended soils were analyzed for various types of extractable P, inorganic P fractions, and the degree of P saturation (acid ammonium oxalate method). Amended soils were placed under a simulated rainfall and all runoff was collected and analyzed for dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), iron-oxide-coated filter paper strip-extractable phosphorus (FeO-P), and total phosphorus (EPA3050 P). Results showed that biosolids produced with a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process caused the highest increases in extractable soil P and runoff DRP. Alternatively, biosolids produced with iron only consistently had the lowest extractable P and caused the lowest increases in extractable soil P and runoff DRP when added to soils. Differences in soil and biosolids extractable P levels as well as P runoff losses were related to the inorganic P forms of the biosolids.

  1. EFFECT OF BIOSOLIDS APPLICATION ON SOIL METAL CHEMISTRY AND PHYTOAVAILABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Addition of biosolids to soils increases the environmental loading of toxic metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, etc.) and alters the chemistry and phytoavailability of these metals. This alteration in phytoavailability associated with biosolids amended soil was recognized and utilized ...

  2. Surface biosolids application: effects on infiltration, erosion, and soil organic carbon in Chihuahuan Desert grasslands and shrublands.

    PubMed

    Moffet, C A; Zartman, R E; Wester, D B; Sosebee, R E

    2005-01-01

    Land application of biosolids is a beneficial-use practice whose ecological effects depend in part on hydrological effects. Biosolids were surface-applied to square 0.5-m2 plots at four rates (0, 7, 34, and 90 dry Mg ha(-1)) on each of three soil-cover combinations in Chihuahuan Desert grassland and shrubland. Infiltration and erosion were measured during two seasons for three biosolids post-application ages. Infiltration was measured during eight periods of a 30-min simulated rain. Biosolids application affected infiltration rate, cumulative infiltration, and erosion. Infiltration increased with increasing biosolids application rate. Application of biosolids at 90 dry Mg ha(-1) increased steady-state infiltration rate by 1.9 to 7.9 cm h(-1). Most of the measured differences in runoff among biosolids application rates were too large to be the result of interception losses and/or increased hydraulic gradient due to increased roughness. Soil erosion was reduced by the application of biosolids; however, the extent of reduction in erosion depended on the initial erodibility of the site. Typically, the greatest marginal reductions in erosion were achieved at the lower biosolids application rates (7 and 34 dry Mg ha(-1)); the difference in erosion between 34 and 90 dry Mg ha(-1) biosolids application rates was not significant. Surface application of biosolids has important hydrological consequences on runoff and soil erosion in desert grasslands that depend on the rate of biosolids applied, and the site and biosolids characteristics.

  3. Potential of an Alkaline-stabilized Biosolid to Manage Nematodes: Case Studies on Soybean Cyst and Root-knot Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2001 a collaborative research effort was initiated to evaluate an alkaline stabilized biosolid amendment for plant-parasitic nematode management. This biosolid amendment, N-Viro Soil (NVS), is produced from a unique process that destroys pathogens through a combination of the following stresses:...

  4. Earthworms (Oligochaeta: Acanthodrilidae and Lumbricidae) associated with Hornsby Bend Biosolids Management Plant, Travis County, Texas, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Earthworm populations were surveyed in soils from a variety of habitats associated with the Hornsby Bend Biosolids Management Plant, Austin, Texas, from November 2009 through March 2010. Seven species of terrestrial Oligochaeta, including one species new to science, are reported from two families, ...

  5. EFFECTS OF LIME (CAO) ON THE ENDOTOXIN LEVELS OF BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lime addition is a common practice for treating biosolids in order to meet EPA 503 requirements for land application. Since this treatment kills the majority of microorganisms, will it increase the level of endotoxins present in biosolids? And, if endotoxin levels are increased, ...

  6. Effects of surface applications of biosolids on soil, crops, ground water, and streambed sediment near Deer Trail, Colorado, 1999-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Tracy J.B.; Smith, David B.; Crock, James G.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Metro Wastewater Reclamation District and North Kiowa Bijou Groundwater Management District, studied natural geochemical effects and the effects of biosolids applications to the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District properties near Deer Trail, Colorado, during 1999 through 2003 because of public concern about potential contamination of soil, crops, ground water, and surface water from biosolids applications. Parameters analyzed for each monitoring component included arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc (the nine trace elements regulated by Colorado for biosolids), gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, and plutonium, as well as other parameters. Concentrations of the nine regulated trace elements in biosolids were relatively uniform and did not exceed applicable regulatory standards. All plutonium concentrations in biosolids were below the minimum detectable level and were near zero. The most soluble elements in biosolids were arsenic, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorus, and selenium. Elevated concentrations of bismuth, mercury, phosphorus, and silver would be the most likely inorganic biosolids signature to indicate that soil or streambed sediment has been affected by biosolids. Molybdenum and tungsten, and to a lesser degree antimony, cadmium, cobalt, copper, mercury, nickel, phosphorus, and selenium, would be the most likely inorganic 'biosolids signature' to indicate ground water or surface water has been affected by biosolids. Soil data indicate that biosolids have had no measurable effect on the concentration of the constituents monitored. Arsenic concentrations in soil of both Arapahoe and Elbert County monitoring sites (like soil from all parts of Colorado) exceed the Colorado soil remediation objectives and soil cleanup standards, which were determined by back-calculating a soil concentration equivalent to a one-in-a-million cumulative cancer risk. Lead concentrations

  7. Differing effects of biosolids on native plants in grasslands of southern british columbia.

    PubMed

    Newman, Reg F; Krzic, Maja; Wallace, Brian M

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if application of biosolids is beneficial for restoring semiarid grasslands. The effects of a one-time surface application of biosolids at a rate of 20 Mg ha on individual plant species and plant community composition were examined at three degraded semiarid grassland sites located in the southern interior of British Columbia, Canada. Biosolids application did not result in desirable changes in plant species composition at the two drier sites (with annual precipitation <400 mm) yet led to overall positive plant species changes at the least dry site (with annual precipitation of 400 mm). An important late-seral species of semiarid grasslands, bluebunch wheatgrass [ (Pursh) Á. Löve], did not respond or decreased at the two drier sites but increased at the least dry site. Exotic invasive plant species increased on all sites. The total vegetative cover of native perennial grasses increased from 41 to 99% at the least dry site, with important decreases in low-growing, early-seral forb species. Although cheatgrass ( L.) was not significantly increased by the biosolids treatment, the dominance of cheatgrass and lower growing season precipitation at the two drier sites were likely key reasons for the poor biosolids restoration success at these sites. Despite some concerns, there is potential to use biosolids to restore grassland plant communities successfully within 4 or 5 yr on more mesic grassland sites; however, biosolids use on drier sites where exotic invasives are present cannot be recommended. PMID:25603253

  8. Moisture Effects on Nitrogen Availability in Municipal Biosolids from End-of-Life Municipal Lagoons.

    PubMed

    Jeke, Nicholson N; Zvomuya, Francis; Ross, Lisette

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) availability affects plant biomass yield and, hence, phytoextraction of contaminants during phytoremediation of end-of-life municipal lagoons. End-of-life lagoons are characterized by fluctuating moisture conditions, but the effects on biosolid N dynamics have not been adequately characterized. This 130-d laboratory incubation investigated effects of three moisture levels (30, 60, and 90% water-filled pore space [WFPS]) on N mineralization (N) in biosolids from a primary (PB) and a secondary (SB) municipal lagoon cell. Results showed a net increase in N with time at 60% WFPS and a net decrease at 90% WFPS in PB, while N at 30% WFPS did not change significantly. Moisture level and incubation time had no significant effect on N in SB. Nitrogen mineralization rate in PB followed three-half-order kinetics. Potentially mineralizable N (N) in PB was significantly greater at 60% WFPS (222 mg kg) than at 30% WFPS (30 mg kg), but rate constants did not differ significantly between the moisture levels. Nitrogen mineralization in SB followed first-order kinetics, with N significantly greater at 60% WFPS (68.4 mg kg) and 90% WFPS (94.1 mg kg) than at 30% WFPS (32 mg kg). Low N in SB suggests high-N-demanding plants may eventually have limited effectiveness to remediate biosolids in the secondary cell. While high N in PB would provide sufficient N to support high biomass yield, phytoextraction potential is reduced under dry and near-saturated conditions. These results have important implications on the management of moisture during phytoextraction of contaminants in end-of-life municipal lagoons. PMID:26641340

  9. Moisture Effects on Nitrogen Availability in Municipal Biosolids from End-of-Life Municipal Lagoons.

    PubMed

    Jeke, Nicholson N; Zvomuya, Francis; Ross, Lisette

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) availability affects plant biomass yield and, hence, phytoextraction of contaminants during phytoremediation of end-of-life municipal lagoons. End-of-life lagoons are characterized by fluctuating moisture conditions, but the effects on biosolid N dynamics have not been adequately characterized. This 130-d laboratory incubation investigated effects of three moisture levels (30, 60, and 90% water-filled pore space [WFPS]) on N mineralization (N) in biosolids from a primary (PB) and a secondary (SB) municipal lagoon cell. Results showed a net increase in N with time at 60% WFPS and a net decrease at 90% WFPS in PB, while N at 30% WFPS did not change significantly. Moisture level and incubation time had no significant effect on N in SB. Nitrogen mineralization rate in PB followed three-half-order kinetics. Potentially mineralizable N (N) in PB was significantly greater at 60% WFPS (222 mg kg) than at 30% WFPS (30 mg kg), but rate constants did not differ significantly between the moisture levels. Nitrogen mineralization in SB followed first-order kinetics, with N significantly greater at 60% WFPS (68.4 mg kg) and 90% WFPS (94.1 mg kg) than at 30% WFPS (32 mg kg). Low N in SB suggests high-N-demanding plants may eventually have limited effectiveness to remediate biosolids in the secondary cell. While high N in PB would provide sufficient N to support high biomass yield, phytoextraction potential is reduced under dry and near-saturated conditions. These results have important implications on the management of moisture during phytoextraction of contaminants in end-of-life municipal lagoons.

  10. Amendment of biosolids with waste materials and lime: Effect on geoenvironmental properties and leachate production.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Claudia; Larkin, Tam; Singhal, Naresh

    2015-12-01

    Residuals from wastewater treatment operations (biosolids) were mixed with lime, fly ash, lime kiln dust, or two smelter slags to assess their efficacy as potential stabilisation agents by assessing their effects on the shear strength, compressibility, and solids content of mixtures. In addition, the minerals formed and leachate produced during stabilisation were determined. Tests were performed to explore the change of the geoenvironmental properties of the amended biosolids, while under pressure, at different scales using laboratory, pilot and field scale tests. The settlement characteristics of the amended biosolids under a range of applied pressures were determined using a consolidometer. All amended biosolids mixtures showed higher strength than the unamended biosolids, with mixtures containing a combination of 20% fly ash and 20% lime giving the highest (up to eightfold) increase in strength, and that with lime kiln dust and the smelter slags showing the lowest (up to twofold). The biosolids mixtures with only lime gave the second highest increase in strength (up to fourfold), but produced the largest amount of leachate, with higher level of dissolved calcium. The increase in strength correlated with availability of calcium oxide in the mixtures which lead to calcium carbonate formation, accompanied with higher leachate production and settlement during consolidation. Copper, nickel and zinc concentrations increased with alkaline additives and corresponded to higher pH and DOC levels. Nonetheless, concentrations were within the New Zealand regulatory limits for Class A landfills.

  11. Effects of chemical amendments on the lability and speciation of metals in anaerobically digested biosolids.

    PubMed

    Donner, Erica; Brunetti, Gianluca; Zarcinas, Bernie; Harris, Paul; Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Naidu, Ravi; Lombi, Enzo

    2013-10-01

    The interaction of inorganic contaminants present in biosolids with iron, aluminum, and manganese oxy/hydroxides has been advocated as a key mechanism limiting their bioavailability. In this study, we investigated whether this is indeed the case, and further, whether it can be exploited to produce optimized biosolids products through the addition of chemical additives during sewage sludge processing. Experiments were conducted to investigate whether the addition of iron- and aluminum-based amendments (at 5 different rates) during the anaerobic digestion phase of wastewater treatment can effectively change the speciation or lability of contaminant metals (copper, zinc and cadmium) in biosolids destined for use in agriculture. The performance of the bioreactors was monitored throughout and the speciation and lability were determined in both fresh and 3-month aged biosolids using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (Cu, Zn) and isotopic dilution ((65)Cu, (65)Zn, (109)Cd). The tested amendments (FeCl3, Al2(SO4)3, and Al-rich water treatment residual) did not cause significant changes in metal speciation and were of limited use for reducing the lability of contaminant metals in good quality biosolids (suitable for use in agriculture), suggesting that high affinity binding sites were already in excess in these materials. However, the use of chemical amendments may offer advantages in terms of treatment process optimization and may also be beneficial when biosolids are used for contaminated site remediation. PMID:23981056

  12. Amendment of biosolids with waste materials and lime: Effect on geoenvironmental properties and leachate production.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Claudia; Larkin, Tam; Singhal, Naresh

    2015-12-01

    Residuals from wastewater treatment operations (biosolids) were mixed with lime, fly ash, lime kiln dust, or two smelter slags to assess their efficacy as potential stabilisation agents by assessing their effects on the shear strength, compressibility, and solids content of mixtures. In addition, the minerals formed and leachate produced during stabilisation were determined. Tests were performed to explore the change of the geoenvironmental properties of the amended biosolids, while under pressure, at different scales using laboratory, pilot and field scale tests. The settlement characteristics of the amended biosolids under a range of applied pressures were determined using a consolidometer. All amended biosolids mixtures showed higher strength than the unamended biosolids, with mixtures containing a combination of 20% fly ash and 20% lime giving the highest (up to eightfold) increase in strength, and that with lime kiln dust and the smelter slags showing the lowest (up to twofold). The biosolids mixtures with only lime gave the second highest increase in strength (up to fourfold), but produced the largest amount of leachate, with higher level of dissolved calcium. The increase in strength correlated with availability of calcium oxide in the mixtures which lead to calcium carbonate formation, accompanied with higher leachate production and settlement during consolidation. Copper, nickel and zinc concentrations increased with alkaline additives and corresponded to higher pH and DOC levels. Nonetheless, concentrations were within the New Zealand regulatory limits for Class A landfills. PMID:26341830

  13. Effect of Pine Waste and Pine Biochar on Nitrogen Mobility in Biosolids.

    PubMed

    Paramashivam, Dharini; Clough, Timothy J; Dickinson, Nicholas M; Horswell, Jacqui; Lense, Obed; Clucas, Lynne; Robinson, Brett H

    2016-01-01

    Humanity produces ∼27 kg of dry matter in biosolids per person per year. Land application of biosolids can improve crop production and remediate soils but may result in excessive nitrate N (NO-N) leaching. Carbonaceous materials can reduce the environmental impact of biosolids application. We aimed to ascertain and compare the potentials for Monterey pine ( D. Don)-sawdust-derived biochars and raw sawdust to reduce NO-N leaching from biosolids. We used batch sorption experiments 1:10 ratio of material to solution (100 mg kg of NH or NO) and column leaching experiments with columns containing biosolids (2.7% total N, 130 mg kg NH and 1350 mg kg NO) mixed with soil, biochar, or sawdust. One type of low-temperature (350°C) biochar sorbed 335 mg kg NH, while the other biochars and sawdust sorbed <200 mg kg NH. None of the materials sorbed NO. Biochar added at rates of 20 to 50% reduced NH-N (<1% of total N) leaching from columns by 40 to 80%. Nitrate leaching (<7% of total N) varied little with biochar form or rate but was reduced by sawdust. Incorporating dried sawdust with biosolids showed promise for mitigating NO-N leaching. This effect likely is due to sorption into the pores of the biochar combined with denitrification and immobilization of N rather than chemical sorption onto surfaces. PMID:26828192

  14. Effect of land-applied biosolids on surface-water nutrient yields and groundwater quality in Orange County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Chad R.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Harden, Stephen L.; Gurley, Laura N.; Rogers, Shane W.

    2015-01-01

    The data, analysis, and conclusions associated with this study can be used by regulatory agencies, resource managers, and wastewater-treatment operators to (1) better understand the quantity and characteristics of nutrients, bacteria, metals, and contaminants of emerging concern that are transported away from biosolids land-application fields to surface water and groundwater under current regulations for the purposes of establishing effective total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) and restoring impaired water resources, (2) assess how well existing regulations protect waters of the State and potentially recommend effective changes to regulations or land-application procedures, and (3) establish a framework for developing guidance on effective techniques for monitoring and regulatory enforcement of permitted biosolids land-application fields.

  15. A unique, environmentally sustainable and cost-effective programme to re-vegetate military training lands utilising composted wastewater biosolids at a large Canadian military training centre.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, R J; Allain, C J; Downe, S; Pond, N; Laughton, P J

    2006-01-01

    The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission has developed, in concert with National Defence Canada, an environmentally sustainable and cost effective biosolids management and land reclamation programme at the Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Gagetown, New Brunswick, Canada (the second largest land based Military Training Facility in the British Commonwealth). The use of composted biosolids to revegetate military training lands is thought to be a unique application for the beneficial use of biosolids. Results and practical experience gained from this approach to successfully re-vegetate initial sections of extremely large and vast tracts of these lands are described. The paper also overviews the Commission's modern 115000 m3 x d(-1) advanced, chemically assisted primary wastewater treatment facility and associated alkaline (lime) sludge stabilisation process. Planning strategies, security aspects, special and unique challenges in operating adjacent to an active military training facility, costs, spreading techniques, monitoring, next steps and conclusions are also presented.

  16. Surface-applied biosolids enhance soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks but have contrasting effects on soil physical quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beneficial reuse of biosolids through land application can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) storage while also improving soil physical properties that affect fertility. The effects of continuous biosolids applications in the mid- to long-term, however, are likely to depend on application rate, me...

  17. Carbon storage in a heavy clay soil landfill site after biosolid application.

    PubMed

    Bolan, N S; Kunhikrishnan, A; Naidu, R

    2013-11-01

    Applying organic amendments including biosolids and composts to agricultural land could increase carbon (C) storage in soils and contribute significantly to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Although a number of studies have examined the potential value of biosolids as a soil conditioner and nutrient source, there has been only limited work on the impact of biosolid application on C sequestration in soils. The objective of this study was to examine the potential value of biosolids in C sequestration in soils. Two types of experiments were conducted to examine the effect of biosolid application on C sequestration. In the first laboratory incubation experiment, the rate of decomposition of a range of biosolid samples was compared with other organic amendments including composts and biochars. In the second field experiment, the effect of biosolids on the growth of two bioenergy crops, Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower) on a landfill site was examined in relation to biomass production and C sequestration. The rate of decomposition varied amongst the organic amendments, and followed: composts>biosolids>biochar. There was a hundred fold difference in the rate of decomposition between biochar and other organic amendments. The rate of decomposition of biosolids decreased with increasing iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) contents of biosolids. Biosolid application increased the dry matter yield of both plant species (by 2-2.5 fold), thereby increasing the biomass C input to soils. The rate of net C sequestration resulting from biosolid application (Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) Mg(-1) biosolids) was higher for mustard (0.103) than sunflower (0.087). Biosolid application is likely to result in a higher level of C sequestration when compared to other management strategies including fertilizer application and conservation tillage, which is attributed to increased microbial biomass, and Fe and Al oxide-induced immobilization of C. PMID:23380138

  18. Global climate change, land management, and biosolids application to semiarid grasslands

    SciTech Connect

    Loftin, S.R.

    1995-12-31

    Global climate change combined with improper land management, including over-grazing, can lead to a severe reduction in plant cover and soil productivity. This process is especially common in arid and semiarid regions with sparse vegetation cover. New and innovative methods of land management are needed to restore and maintain these ecosystems in a productive and sustainable state. Research conducted in New Mexico on the Rio Puerco Resource Area and the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge has shown that biosolids (municipal sewage sludge) application to semiarid grasslands can increase soil nutrient availability, increase plant cover and productivity, and decrease surface runoff and soil erosion without harming environmental quality.

  19. Processing biosolids for market value

    SciTech Connect

    Columbo, J.; Nelson, J.

    1994-09-01

    Until recently, publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) focused on complying with liquid effluent discharge requirements. A distant, secondary emphasis was placed on managing sludge, the other product of the wastewater treatment process. Consequently, the quality of municipal wastewater solids, as well as the cost-effectiveness of solids management, generally suffered.By adopting certain strategies commonly found in the manufacturing industry, municipalities can ensure proper and efficient biosolids production.

  20. Bacterial populations within copper mine tailings: long-term effects of amendment with Class A biosolids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluates the effect of surface application of dried Class A biosolids on microbial populations within copper mine tailings. Methods and Results: Mine tailing sites were established at ASARCO Mission Mine close to Sahuarita, Arizona. Site 1 (Dec. 1998) was amended with 248 tons ha-1 of C...

  1. EFFECTS OF COFIRING LIGNIN AND BIOSOLIDS WITH COAL ON FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE AND COMBUSTION PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin C. Galbreath

    2002-08-01

    Lignin, derived from municipal solid waste and biosolid feedstocks using Masada Resource Group's patented CES OxyNol{trademark} process, and acidified biosolids were evaluated as supplemental fuels with coal for producing steam and electricity. Tests were conducted in a pilot-scale (550,000-Btu/hr [580-MJ/hr]) combustion system to evaluate the effects of coal characteristics, blend mixture (on a dry wt% basis) and furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) on boiler heat-exchange surface slagging and fouling, NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} production, fly ash characteristics, and combustion efficiency. The effects of blending lignin and acidified biosolids with coal on fuel handling and pulverization characteristics were also addressed. An 80 wt% Colorado--20 wt% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal blend from the Tennessee Valley Authority Colbert Steam Plant, hereafter referred to as the Colbert coal, and a bituminous Pittsburgh No. 8 coal were tested. The lignin and acidified biosolids were characterized by possessing higher moisture content and lower carbon, hydrogen, and heating values relative to the coals. Ash contents of the fuels were similar. The lignin also possessed higher concentrations of TiO{sub 2}, CaO, and SO{sub 3} and lower concentrations of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, K{sub 2}O, and N relative to the coals. The sulfur content of lignin could be reduced through a more thorough washing and drying of the lignin in an efficient commercial-scale dewatering device. Acidified biosolids were distinguished by higher concentrations of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and MgO and lower SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relative to the other fuels. Trace element concentrations, especially for Cr, Pb, Hg, and Ni, were generally greater in the lignin and acidified biosolid fuels relative to the Colbert coal. Maximum trace element emission factors were calculated for 95:5 Colbert coal--lignin and 90:5:5 Colbert coal--lignin--acidified biosolid blends and compared to U

  2. Sustainable approaches for minimizing biosolids production and maximizing reuse options in sludge management: A review.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sung Hee; Dello Monaco, Francesca; Antmann, Eric; Chorath, Philip

    2015-08-01

    Sludge generation during wastewater treatment is inevitable even with proper management and treatment. Yet proper handling and disposal of sludge are still challenging in terms of treatment cost, presence of recalcitrant contaminants of concern, sanitary issues, and public acceptance. Conventional disposal methods (i.e. landfilling, incineration) have created concerns in terms of legislative restrictions and community perception, incentivizing consideration of substitute sludge management options. Furthermore, with proper treatment, biosolids from sludge, rich in organic materials and nutrients, could be utilizable as fertilizer. Despite the challenges of dealing with sludge, no review has dealt with integrated source reduction and reuse as the best sustainable management practices for sludge treatment. In this review, we present two main approaches as potentially sustainable controls: (i) pretreatment for minimizing extensive sludge treatment, and (ii) recycling and reuse of residual sludge. Drawing on these approaches, we also suggest strategies for efficient pretreatment mechanisms and residual reuse, presenting ideas for prospective future research. PMID:26001503

  3. Sustainable approaches for minimizing biosolids production and maximizing reuse options in sludge management: A review.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sung Hee; Dello Monaco, Francesca; Antmann, Eric; Chorath, Philip

    2015-08-01

    Sludge generation during wastewater treatment is inevitable even with proper management and treatment. Yet proper handling and disposal of sludge are still challenging in terms of treatment cost, presence of recalcitrant contaminants of concern, sanitary issues, and public acceptance. Conventional disposal methods (i.e. landfilling, incineration) have created concerns in terms of legislative restrictions and community perception, incentivizing consideration of substitute sludge management options. Furthermore, with proper treatment, biosolids from sludge, rich in organic materials and nutrients, could be utilizable as fertilizer. Despite the challenges of dealing with sludge, no review has dealt with integrated source reduction and reuse as the best sustainable management practices for sludge treatment. In this review, we present two main approaches as potentially sustainable controls: (i) pretreatment for minimizing extensive sludge treatment, and (ii) recycling and reuse of residual sludge. Drawing on these approaches, we also suggest strategies for efficient pretreatment mechanisms and residual reuse, presenting ideas for prospective future research.

  4. Effect of alkaline-stabilized biosolids on alfalfa molybdenum and copper content.

    PubMed

    Stehouwer, Richard C; Macneal, Kirsten E

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural utilization of biosolids poses a potential risk to ruminant animals due to transfer of Mo from biosolids to forage to the animal in amounts large enough to suppress Cu uptake by the animal. Alkaline-stabilized biosolids (ASB) must be given particular consideration in assessment of Mo risk because the high pH of these biosolids could increase Mo and decrease Cu uptake by forage legumes. In this 3-yr field experiment, ASB and ground agricultural limestone (AL) were applied based on their alkalinity at rates equivalent to 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the lime requirement of the soil and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was grown. Alfalfa yield was similar with AL and ASB except in the second year when ASB produced larger yields, apparently due to increased B availability with ASB. Application of ASB did not detectably increase extractable soil Mo (0- to 15-cm depth), but increased alfalfa Mo uptake in all cuttings with yield-weighted uptake coefficients (UCs) of 8.07 and 7.11 following the first and second ASB applications, respectively. Although ASB increased extractable soil Cu, and alfalfa Cu content was greater with ASB than with AL, yield-weighted alfalfa Cu to Mo ratio was decreased by ASB to levels near 3. These results suggest that ASB may have a greater effect on Mo uptake and Cu to Mo ratio of forage legumes than do other biosolids. Additional research is needed to determine implications of larger Mo cumulative loading with ASB for Mo risk, particularly in the soil pH range of 7 to 8. PMID:14964367

  5. Chemical Characterization of Phosphorus in Soils Amended with Biosolids and DWTRs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concept of co-application of biosolids and drinking water treatment residues (DWTRs) represents an environmentally sustainable and economically sound strategy for the management of municipal solid wastes. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of reducing water-soluble P in biosolids-amended ...

  6. Effect of biosolids-derived triclosan and triclocarban on the colonization of plant roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Prosser, R S; Lissemore, L; Shahmohamadloo, R S; Sibley, P K

    2015-03-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form a symbiotic relationship with the majority of crop plants. AMF provide plants with nutrients (e.g., P), modulate the effect of metal and pathogen exposure, and increase tolerance to moisture stress. The benefits of AMF to plant growth make them important to the development of sustainable agriculture. The land application of biosolids is becoming an increasingly common practice in sustainable agriculture, as a source of nutrients. However, biosolids have been found to contain numerous pharmaceutical and personal care products including antimicrobial chemicals such as triclosan and triclocarban. The potential risks that these two compounds may pose to plant-AMF interactions are poorly understood. The current study investigated whether biosolids-derived triclosan and triclocarban affect the colonization of the roots of lettuce and corn plants by AMF. Plants were grown in soil amended with biosolids that contained increasing concentrations of triclosan (0 to 307 μg/g dw) or triclocarban (0 to 304 μg/g dw). A relationship between the concentration of triclosan or triclocarban and colonization of plants roots by AMF was not observed. The presence of biosolids did not have a significant (p>0.05) effect on percent colonization of corn roots but had a significant, positive effect (p<0.05) on lettuce roots. Biosolids-derived triclosan and triclocarban did not inhibit the colonization of crop plant roots by AMF.

  7. Effects of unseeded areas on species richness of coal mines reclaimed with municipal biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    Halofsky, J.E.; McCormick, L.H.

    2005-12-01

    Land application of municipal biosolids on coal mine spoils can benefit vegetation establishment in mine reclamation. However, the application of biosolids leads to domination by early-successional species, such as grasses, and low establishment of woody and volunteer species, thus reducing potential for forestry as a postmining land use. In this experiment, tree seedlings were planted in strips (0.6-, 1-, and 4-m wide) that were not seeded with grasses, and the effects of unseeded strip width on seedling growth and species richness were assessed. Planted seedling mortality was high; therefore, the effect of unseeded strip width on seedling growth could not be determined. However, it was found that natural plant invasion and species richness were highest in the 4-m unseeded strips. The practice of leaving 4-m-wide unseeded strips in mine reclamation with biosolids in the eastern United States, along with the improvement of tree seedling planting practices and planting stock, would help promote a more species-rich plant community that could be utilized for forestry or a variety of other postmining land uses.

  8. Effects of biosolids and compost amendment on chemistry of soils contaminated with copper from mining activities.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Virinder; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Datta, Rupali

    2016-03-01

    Several million metric tons of mining wastes, called stamp sands, were generated in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan during extensive copper (Cu) mining activities in the past. These materials, containing large amounts of Cu, were discharged into various offshoots of Lake Superior. Due to evidences of Cu toxicity on aquatic organisms, in due course, the materials were dredged and dumped on lake shores, thus converting these areas into vast, fallow lands. Erosion of these Cu-contaminated stamp sands back to the lakes is severely affecting aquatic life. A lack of uniform vegetation cover on stamp sands is facilitating this erosion. Understanding the fact that unless the stamp sands are fertilized to the point of sustaining vegetation growth, the problem with erosion and water quality degradation will continue, amending the stamp sands with locally available biosolids and composts, was considered. The purpose of the reported study was to assess potential effects of such organic fertilizer amendments on soil quality. As the first step of a combined laboratory and greenhouse study, a 2-month-long incubation experiment was performed to investigate the effects of biosolids and compost addition on the soil nutrient profile of stamp sands and organic matter content. Results showed that both biosolids and compost amendments resulted in significant increase in nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and organic matter contents of stamp sands. Sequential extraction data demonstrated that Cu was mostly present as bound forms in stamp sands, and there was no significant increase in the plant available fraction of Cu because of fertilizer application.

  9. Biosolids, crop, and groundwater data for a biosolids-application area near Deer Trail, Colorado, 2009 and 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Tracy J.B.; Smith, David B.; Crock, James G.

    2012-01-01

    During 2009 and 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey monitored the chemical composition of biosolids, crops, and groundwater related to biosolids applications near Deer Trail, Colorado, in cooperation with the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District. This monitoring effort was a continuation of the monitoring program begun in 1999 in cooperation with the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District and the North Kiowa Bijou Groundwater Management District. The monitoring program addressed concerns from the public about potential chemical effects from applications of biosolids to farmland in the area near Deer Trail, Colo. This report presents chemical data from 2009 and 2010 for biosolids, crops, and alluvial and bedrock groundwater. The chemical data include the constituents of highest concern to the public (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, zinc, and plutonium) in addition to many other constituents. The groundwater section also includes data for precipitation, air temperature, and depth to groundwater at various groundwater-monitoring sites.

  10. Biosolids, crop, and groundwater data for a biosolids-application area near Deer Trail, Colorado, 2007 and 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Tracy J.B.; Smith, David B.; Crock, James G.

    2011-01-01

    During 2007 and 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey monitored the chemical composition of biosolids, crops, and groundwater related to biosolids applications near Deer Trail, Colorado, in cooperation with the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District. This monitoring effort was a continuation of the monitoring program begun in 1999 in cooperation with the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District and the North Kiowa Bijou Groundwater Management District. The monitoring program addressed concerns from the public about potential chemical effects from applications of biosolids to farmland in the area near Deer Trail, Colo. This report presents chemical data from 2007 and 2008 for biosolids, crops, and alluvial and bedrock groundwater. The chemical data include the constituents of highest concern to the public (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, zinc, and plutonium) in addition to many other constituents. The groundwater section also includes data for precipitation, air temperature, and depth to groundwater at various groundwater-monitoring sites.

  11. Biosolids, Crop, and Ground-Water Data for a Biosolids-Application Area Near Deer Trail, Colorado, 2004 Through 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Tracy J.B.; Smith, David B.; Crock, James G.

    2009-01-01

    From 2004 through 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey monitored the chemical composition of biosolids, crops, dust, and ground water related to biosolids applications near Deer Trail, Colorado, in cooperation with the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District. This monitoring effort was a continuation of the monitoring program begun in 1999 in cooperation with the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District and the North Kiowa Bijou Groundwater Management District. The monitoring program addresses concerns from the public about the chemical effects from applications of biosolids to farmland in the Deer Trail, Colorado, area. This report presents chemical data from 2004 through 2006 for biosolids, crops, and alluvial and bedrock ground water. The chemical data include the constituents of highest concern to the public (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, zinc, and plutonium) in addition to many other constituents. The ground-water section also includes climate and water-level data.

  12. EFFECT OF BIOSOLIDS ON PHYTOAVAILABILITY OF CD IN LONG-TERM AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cadmium sorption and desorption experiments were conducted on different fractions of soils amended with different biosolids with varying chemical properties and unamended soil (control). Biosolids addition increased the slope of the Cd sorption isotherms compared to the control s...

  13. EFFECT OF BIOSOLIDS APPLICATION ON SOIL METAL CHEMISTRY AND PHYTOAVAILABILITY (LAKE BUENA VISTA, FL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Addition of biosolids to soils increases the environmental loading of toxic metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, etc.) and alters the chemistry and phytoavailability of these metals. This alteration in phytoavailability associated with biosolids amended soil was recognized and utilized ...

  14. EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASE AGENTS AND ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH THE MANAGEMENT OF TREATED SLUDGES (BIOSOLIDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation looks at the pathogenic microorganisms present in municipal sludges and the public's concerns with the land application of sludges/biosolids. Methods for reducing pathogens in sludge; methods for reducing the vector attractiveness of sludge; and issues associate...

  15. Evaluation Of Airborne Endotoxin Concentrations Associated With Management Of Crop Grown On Applied Biosolids

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health concerns have been expressed regarding inhalation exposure associated with the application of biosolids on cropland, which is due to the potential aerosolization of microorganisms, cell wall products, volatile chemicals, and nuisance odors. Endotoxin is a component...

  16. Potential carbon and nitrogen mineralization in soils from a perennial forage production system amended with Class B biosolids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long-term sustainability of land-application for biosolids management depends on its impacts on soil carbon (C) and nutrient pools (i.e. nitrogen, N) and soil microbial activities. The effects of land-applying Class B biosolids on soil C, N, and microbial activities were measured over a 112-day...

  17. Toxicity of biosolids-derived triclosan and triclocarban to six crop species.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Ryan S; Lissemore, Linda; Solomon, Keith R; Sibley, Paul K

    2014-08-01

    Biosolids are an important source of nutrients and organic matter, which are necessary for the productive cultivation of crop plants. Biosolids have been found to contain the personal care products triclosan and triclocarban at high concentrations relative to other pharmaceuticals and personal care products. The present study investigates whether exposure of 6 plant species (radish, carrot, soybean, lettuce, spring wheat, and corn) to triclosan or triclocarban derived from biosolids has an adverse effect on seed emergence and/or plant growth parameters. Plants were grown in soil amended with biosolids at a realistic agronomic rate. Biosolids were spiked with triclosan or triclocarban to produce increasing environmentally relevant exposures. The concentration of triclosan and triclocarban in biosolids-amended soil declined by up to 97% and 57%, respectively, over the course of the experiments. Amendment with biosolids had a positive effect on the majority of growth parameters in radish, carrot, soybean, lettuce, and wheat plants. No consistent triclosan- or triclocarban-dependent trends in seed emergence and plant growth parameters were observed in 5 of 6 plant species. A significant negative trend in shoot mass was observed for lettuce plants exposed to increasing concentrations of triclocarban (p<0.001). If best management practices are followed for biosolids amendment, triclosan and triclocarban pose a negligible risk to seed emergence and growth of crop plants. PMID:24764246

  18. Toxicity of biosolids-derived triclosan and triclocarban to six crop species.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Ryan S; Lissemore, Linda; Solomon, Keith R; Sibley, Paul K

    2014-08-01

    Biosolids are an important source of nutrients and organic matter, which are necessary for the productive cultivation of crop plants. Biosolids have been found to contain the personal care products triclosan and triclocarban at high concentrations relative to other pharmaceuticals and personal care products. The present study investigates whether exposure of 6 plant species (radish, carrot, soybean, lettuce, spring wheat, and corn) to triclosan or triclocarban derived from biosolids has an adverse effect on seed emergence and/or plant growth parameters. Plants were grown in soil amended with biosolids at a realistic agronomic rate. Biosolids were spiked with triclosan or triclocarban to produce increasing environmentally relevant exposures. The concentration of triclosan and triclocarban in biosolids-amended soil declined by up to 97% and 57%, respectively, over the course of the experiments. Amendment with biosolids had a positive effect on the majority of growth parameters in radish, carrot, soybean, lettuce, and wheat plants. No consistent triclosan- or triclocarban-dependent trends in seed emergence and plant growth parameters were observed in 5 of 6 plant species. A significant negative trend in shoot mass was observed for lettuce plants exposed to increasing concentrations of triclocarban (p<0.001). If best management practices are followed for biosolids amendment, triclosan and triclocarban pose a negligible risk to seed emergence and growth of crop plants.

  19. Effects of Bauxsol and biosolids on soil conditions of acid-generating mine spoil for plant growth.

    PubMed

    Maddocks, G; Lin, C; McConchie, D

    2004-01-01

    Pot trials were conducted to examine the effects of Bauxsol and biosolids on mine soil conditions for plant growth. Sole application of biosolids did not significantly enhance the growth of the plant because the soils remained highly acidic with soluble concentrations of many metals in excess of toxic levels. Addition of Bauxsol generally resulted in an increase in biomass production by effectively correcting soil acidity and metal toxicity. However, sole application of Bauxsol did not enable meaningful establishment of the grass although the tree grew very well. The combination of Bauxsol and biosolids allowed the establishment of both the grass and the tree and therefore had the better effects on total biomass production, compared to the control and the sole treatments.

  20. Predicting pathogen transport and risk of infection from land-applied biosolids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, M. S.; Teng, J.; Kumar, A.; Gurian, P.

    2011-12-01

    Biosolids have been recycled as fertilizer to sustainably improve and maintain productive soils and to stimulate plant growth for over forty years, but may contain low levels of microbial pathogens. The Spreadsheet Microbial Assessment of Risk: Tool for Biosolids ("SMART Biosolids") is an environmental transport, exposure and risk model that compiles knowledge on the occurrence, environmental dispersion and attenuation of biosolids-associated pathogens to estimate microbial risk from biosolids land application. The SMART Biosolids model calculates environmental pathogen concentrations and assesses risk associated with exposure to pathogens from land-applied biosolids through five pathways: 1) inhalation of aerosols from land application sites, 2) consumption of groundwater contaminated by land-applied biosolids, 3) direct ingestion of biosolids-amended soils, 4) ingestion of plants contaminated by land-applied biosolids, and 5) consumption of surface water contaminated by runoff from a land application site. The SMART Biosolids model can be applied under a variety of scenarios, thereby providing insight into effective management practices. This study presents example results of the SMART Biosolids model, focusing on the groundwater and surface water pathways, following biosolids application to a typical site in Michigan. Volumes of infiltration and surface water runoff are calculated following a 100-year storm event. Pathogen transport and attenuation through the subsurface and via surface runoff are modeled, and pathogen concentrations in a downstream well and an adjacent pond are calculated. Risks are calculated for residents of nearby properties. For a 100-year storm event occurring immediately after biosolids application, the surface water pathway produces risks that may be of some concern, but best estimates do not exceed the bounds of what has been considered acceptable risk for recreational water use (Table 1); groundwater risks are very uncertain and at the

  1. Comparison of Overall Resource Consumption of Biosolids Management System Processes Using Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Alanya, Sevda; Dewulf, Jo; Duran, Metin

    2015-08-18

    This study focused on the evaluation of biosolids management systems (BMS) from a natural resource consumption point of view. Additionally, the environmental impact of the facilities was benchmarked using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to provide a comprehensive assessment. This is the first study to apply a Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) method for an in-depth resource use assessment of BMS where two full-scale BMS and seven system variations were analyzed. CEENE allows better system evaluation and understanding of how much benefit is achievable from the products generated by BMS, which have valorization potential. LCA results showed that environmental burden is mostly from the intense electricity consumption. The CEENE analysis further revealed that the environmental burden is due to the high consumption of fossil and nuclear-based natural resources. Using Cumulative Degree of Perfection, higher resource-use efficiency, 53%, was observed in the PTA-2 where alkaline stabilization rather than anaerobic digestion is employed. However, an anaerobic digestion process is favorable over alkaline stabilization, with 35% lower overall natural resource use. The most significant reduction of the resource footprint occurred when the output biogas was valorized in a combined heat and power system. PMID:26218291

  2. Comparison of Overall Resource Consumption of Biosolids Management System Processes Using Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Alanya, Sevda; Dewulf, Jo; Duran, Metin

    2015-08-18

    This study focused on the evaluation of biosolids management systems (BMS) from a natural resource consumption point of view. Additionally, the environmental impact of the facilities was benchmarked using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to provide a comprehensive assessment. This is the first study to apply a Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) method for an in-depth resource use assessment of BMS where two full-scale BMS and seven system variations were analyzed. CEENE allows better system evaluation and understanding of how much benefit is achievable from the products generated by BMS, which have valorization potential. LCA results showed that environmental burden is mostly from the intense electricity consumption. The CEENE analysis further revealed that the environmental burden is due to the high consumption of fossil and nuclear-based natural resources. Using Cumulative Degree of Perfection, higher resource-use efficiency, 53%, was observed in the PTA-2 where alkaline stabilization rather than anaerobic digestion is employed. However, an anaerobic digestion process is favorable over alkaline stabilization, with 35% lower overall natural resource use. The most significant reduction of the resource footprint occurred when the output biogas was valorized in a combined heat and power system.

  3. Effects of biosolids and compost amendment on chemistry of soils contaminated with copper from mining activities.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Virinder; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Datta, Rupali

    2016-03-01

    Several million metric tons of mining wastes, called stamp sands, were generated in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan during extensive copper (Cu) mining activities in the past. These materials, containing large amounts of Cu, were discharged into various offshoots of Lake Superior. Due to evidences of Cu toxicity on aquatic organisms, in due course, the materials were dredged and dumped on lake shores, thus converting these areas into vast, fallow lands. Erosion of these Cu-contaminated stamp sands back to the lakes is severely affecting aquatic life. A lack of uniform vegetation cover on stamp sands is facilitating this erosion. Understanding the fact that unless the stamp sands are fertilized to the point of sustaining vegetation growth, the problem with erosion and water quality degradation will continue, amending the stamp sands with locally available biosolids and composts, was considered. The purpose of the reported study was to assess potential effects of such organic fertilizer amendments on soil quality. As the first step of a combined laboratory and greenhouse study, a 2-month-long incubation experiment was performed to investigate the effects of biosolids and compost addition on the soil nutrient profile of stamp sands and organic matter content. Results showed that both biosolids and compost amendments resulted in significant increase in nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and organic matter contents of stamp sands. Sequential extraction data demonstrated that Cu was mostly present as bound forms in stamp sands, and there was no significant increase in the plant available fraction of Cu because of fertilizer application. PMID:26894907

  4. Effects of surface applications of biosolids on groundwater quality and trace-element concentrations in crops near Deer Trail, Colorado, 2004-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Tracy J.B.; Crock, James G.; Smith, David B.; Furlong, Edward T.; Hageman, Philip L.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Metro Wastewater Reclamation District (Metro District), studied biosolids composition and the effects of biosolids applications on groundwater quality and trace-element concentrations in crops of the Metro District properties near Deer Trail, Colorado, during 2004 through 2010. Priority parameters for each monitoring component included the nine trace elements regulated by Colorado for biosolids (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc); other constituents also were analyzed. All concentrations for the priority parameters in monthly biosolids samples were less than Colorado regulatory limits, and the concentrations were relatively consistent. Biosolids likely were the largest source of nitrogen and phosphorus on the Metro District properties. Plutonium isotopes were not detected in the biosolids, but many organic wastewater compounds (organic wastewater compounds: wastewater indicators, pharmaceuticals, and hormones) were detected in substantial concentrations relative to minimum reporting levels and various surface-water concentrations. Bismuth, copper, mercury, nitrogen, phosphorus, silver, biogenic sterols, detergent degradates, disinfectants, fire retardants, fragrances, pharmaceuticals, and plasticizers would be the most likely biosolids signature to indicate the presence of Metro District biosolids in soil or streambed sediment from the study area. Antimony, cadmium, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen, phosphorus, selenium, tungsten, vanadium, zinc, detergent degradates, disinfectants, fire retardants, fragrances, pharmaceuticals or their degradates, and plasticizers would be the most likely biosolids signature for groundwater and surface water in the study area. More biosolids-signature components detected and larger concentration differences from untreated materials, baseline, and blank samples indicate more evidence of biosolids presence or effects

  5. Effects of surface applications of biosolids on groundwater quality and trace-element concentrations in crops near Deer Trail, Colorado, 2004-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Tracy J.B.; Crock, James G.; Smith, David B.; Furlong, Edward T.; Hageman, Philip L.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Metro Wastewater Reclamation District (Metro District), studied biosolids composition and the effects of biosolids applications on groundwater quality and trace-element concentrations in crops of the Metro District properties near Deer Trail, Colorado, during 2004 through 2010. Priority parameters for each monitoring component included the nine trace elements regulated by Colorado for biosolids (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc); other constituents also were analyzed. All concentrations for the priority parameters in monthly biosolids samples were less than Colorado regulatory limits, and the concentrations were relatively consistent. Biosolids likely were the largest source of nitrogen and phosphorus on the Metro District properties. Plutonium isotopes were not detected in the biosolids, but many organic wastewater compounds (organic wastewater compounds: wastewater indicators, pharmaceuticals, and hormones) were detected in substantial concentrations relative to minimum reporting levels and various surface-water concentrations. Bismuth, copper, mercury, nitrogen, phosphorus, silver, biogenic sterols, detergent degradates, disinfectants, fire retardants, fragrances, pharmaceuticals, and plasticizers would be the most likely biosolids signature to indicate the presence of Metro District biosolids in soil or streambed sediment from the study area. Antimony, cadmium, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen, phosphorus, selenium, tungsten, vanadium, zinc, detergent degradates, disinfectants, fire retardants, fragrances, pharmaceuticals or their degradates, and plasticizers would be the most likely biosolids signature for groundwater and surface water in the study area. More biosolids-signature components detected and larger concentration differences from untreated materials, baseline, and blank samples indicate more evidence of biosolids presence or effects

  6. The effect of lignite on nitrogen mobility in a low-fertility soil amended with biosolids and urea.

    PubMed

    Paramashivam, Dharini; Clough, Tim J; Carlton, Anna; Gough, Kelsi; Dickinson, Nicholas; Horswell, Jacqui; Sherlock, Robert R; Clucas, Lynne; Robinson, Brett H

    2016-02-01

    Lignite has been proposed as a soil amendment that reduces nitrate (NO3(-)) leaching from soil. Our objective was to determine the effect of lignite on nitrogen (N) fluxes from soil amended with biosolids or urea. The effect of lignite on plant yield and elemental composition was also determined. Batch sorption and column leaching experiments were followed by a lysimeter trial where a low fertility soil was amended with biosolids (400 kg N/ha equivalent) and urea (200 kg N/ha equivalent). Treatments were replicated three times, with and without lignite addition (20 t/ha equivalent). Lignite did not reduce NO3(-) leaching from soils amended with either biosolids or urea. While lignite decreased NO3(-) leaching from an unamended soil, the magnitude of this effect was not significant in an agricultural context. Furthermore, lignite increased cumulative N2O production from soils receiving urea by 90%. Lignite lessened the beneficial growth effects of adding biosolids or urea to soil. Further work could investigate whether coating urea granules with lignite may produce meaningful environmental benefits.

  7. The effect of lignite on nitrogen mobility in a low-fertility soil amended with biosolids and urea.

    PubMed

    Paramashivam, Dharini; Clough, Tim J; Carlton, Anna; Gough, Kelsi; Dickinson, Nicholas; Horswell, Jacqui; Sherlock, Robert R; Clucas, Lynne; Robinson, Brett H

    2016-02-01

    Lignite has been proposed as a soil amendment that reduces nitrate (NO3(-)) leaching from soil. Our objective was to determine the effect of lignite on nitrogen (N) fluxes from soil amended with biosolids or urea. The effect of lignite on plant yield and elemental composition was also determined. Batch sorption and column leaching experiments were followed by a lysimeter trial where a low fertility soil was amended with biosolids (400 kg N/ha equivalent) and urea (200 kg N/ha equivalent). Treatments were replicated three times, with and without lignite addition (20 t/ha equivalent). Lignite did not reduce NO3(-) leaching from soils amended with either biosolids or urea. While lignite decreased NO3(-) leaching from an unamended soil, the magnitude of this effect was not significant in an agricultural context. Furthermore, lignite increased cumulative N2O production from soils receiving urea by 90%. Lignite lessened the beneficial growth effects of adding biosolids or urea to soil. Further work could investigate whether coating urea granules with lignite may produce meaningful environmental benefits. PMID:26615483

  8. Effect of drying and composting biosolids on the movement of nitrate and phosphate through repacked soil columns under steady-state hydrological conditions.

    PubMed

    Cooke, C M; Gove, L; Nicholson, F A; Cook, H F; Beck, A J

    2001-08-01

    Effects of two "enhanced" treatments (drying and composting mesophilic anaerobically digested (MAD) biosolid) on nutrient leaching were investigated. Repacked sandy or sandy loam textured soil cores amended with fresh, dried and composted MAD biosolid (250 kg N ha(-1)), were investigated under steady-state hydrological conditions. Two 24 h, 4.5 mm h(-1) rainfall events, with a 14-day interval, were simulated using water-tracers. Losses of nitrate from the sandy loam soil during rainfall event 1 (43.9-68.0 mg kg(-1)) were significantly greater (P < or = 0.05) than during event 2 (6.4-11.9 mg kg(-1)). Phosphate losses were significantly greater (P < or = 0.05) during event 2 (up to 0.30 mg kg(-1)) compared to the first (< 0.05 mg kg(-1)). The sand soil showed similar effects. Losses of nitrate-N (percentage of total N applied) from the sand soil were small (around 0.06% for fresh/dried and 0.63% for composted MAD biosolids). Losses of nitrate-N from the sandy loam soil were greater; 4% for fresh and dried and 3% for composted MAD biosolids. This research showed that drying MAD biosolid had little impact on nitrate and phosphate losses from soil compared to fresh MAD biosolid. The effect of composting MAD biosolid on nutrient losses was more variable.

  9. Biosolids application to no-till dryland agroecosytems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dryland agroecosystems are generally ideal environments for recycling biosolids. However, what is the efficacy of biosolids addition to a no-till dryland management agroecosystem? From 2000 to 2010, we studied application of biosolids from the Littleton/Englewood, CO Wastewater Treatment Plant ver...

  10. Phosphorous Speciation in WTR-treated Biosolids Using XANES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T. Q.; Huff, D.; Lin, Z.-Q.

    2009-04-01

    The concept of co-application of biosolids and drinking water treatment residues (DWTRs) represents an environmentally sustainable and economically sound strategy for the management of municipal solid wastes. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of reducing water-soluble P in biosolids-amended agricultural soil by the addition of DWTRs. Results showed that total P in soil leachate was significantly reduced during the initial 42-days of a 200-day greenhouse study when biosolids (50 g kg-1) were applied along with DWTRs (40 g kg-1). Particulate P was the dominant fraction of P in the soil leachate, which decreases with increasing DWTR application rate. The application of DWTRs does not significantly decrease the growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The primary P chemical composition in biosolids include cupper phytate [Cu(IP6)6], barium phytate [Ba6IP6], and cupper phosphate [Cu3(PO4)2]. The addition of DWTRs to biosolids alternated the P speciation, and the P speciation change became significant with increasing the incubation time of the mixture of biosolids and DWTRs. The chemical component of Cu3(PO4)2 became non significant (<5%) with the addition of DWTRs. During the 14-day incubation time period, the proportion of P that was adsorbed on amorphous Fe(OH)3 increased substantially from 8 to 46% and Ba6IP6 increased steadily from 30 to 50%, while the proportion of Cu(IP6)6 decreased significantly from 53 to 5%. The amorphous Fe(OH)3-adsorbed P and Ba6IP6 formed the dominant P chemical components in the mixture of biosolids and DWTRs.

  11. EFFECTS OF STORAGE ON STABILITY AND PATHOGEN REDUCTION IN BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Storage can be an effective means of stabilizing small quantities of wastewater sludge. This paper summarizes the performance of two laboratory-scale sludge storage units and that of four full-scale tanks sampled at four treatment facilities in eastern Nebraska. The bench-scale u...

  12. Biosolids inhibit bioavailability and plant uptake of triclosan and triclocarban.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiuguo; Wu, Xiaoqin; Ye, Qingfu; Ernst, Fredrick; Gan, Jay

    2016-10-01

    Biosolids from wastewater treatment are primarily disposed of via land applications, where numerous pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) may contaminate food crops and pose a human exposure risk. Biosolids are rich in organic carbon and addition of biosolids can increase the sorption of certain PPCPs in soil, decreasing their bioavailability. This study tested the hypothesis that the relative plant uptake of PPCPs decreases with increasing biosolids amendment. Accumulation of triclosan and triclocarban was measured in roots of radish and carrot grown in soils with or without biosolids. Addition of biosolids significantly prolonged the persistence of triclosan in soil. When expressed in bioaccumulation factor (BCF), accumulation of triclosan drastically decreased in biosolids-amended soils, while the effect was limited for triclocarban. Compared to the unamended soil, amending biosolids at 2% (w/w) decreased BCF of triclosan in the edible tissues of radish and carrot by 85.4 and 89.3%, respectively. Measurement using a thin-film passive sampler provided direct evidence showing that the availability of triclosan greatly decreased in biosolids-amended soils. Partial correlation analysis using data from this and published studies validated that biosolids decreased plant uptake primarily by increasing soil organic carbon content and subsequently sorption. Therefore, contamination of food crops by biosolids-borne contaminants does not linearly depend on biosolids use rates. This finding bears significant implications in the overall risk evaluation of biosolids-borne contaminants. PMID:27337347

  13. Biosolids applied to agricultural land: Influence on structural and functional endpoints of soil fauna on a short- and long-term scale.

    PubMed

    Coors, Anja; Edwards, Mark; Lorenz, Pascale; Römbke, Jörg; Schmelz, Rüdiger M; Topp, Edward; Waszak, Karolina; Wilkes, Graham; Lapen, David R

    2016-08-15

    Biosolids have well-documented crop and soil benefits similar to other sources of organic amendment, but there is environmental concern due to biosolids-associated pollutants. The present study investigated two field sites that had received biosolids at commercial-scale rates in parallel to associated field sections which were managed similarly but without receiving biosolids (controls). The investigated endpoints were abundance and diversity of soil organisms (nematodes, enchytraeids and earthworms) and soil fauna feeding activity as measured by the bait lamina assay. Repeated sampling of one of the field sites following the only biosolids application demonstrated an enrichment effect typical for organic amendments, which was mostly exhausted after 44months. After an initial suppression, the proportion of free-living plant-parasitic nematodes tended to increase in the biosolids-amended soil over time. Yet, none of the endpoints at this site indicated significant negative effects resulting from the biosolids until 44months post application. In contrast to the repeatedly tilled first field site, the second one was left fallow after three biosolids applications, and was sampled 96months post last application. It was only at this field site that potential evidence for a long-term impact of biosolids was detected with regard to two endpoints: earthworm abundance and structure of the nematode assemblage. Agricultural management and correlation with abiotic soil parameters explained the observed difference in earthworm abundance. Yet, the development of a highly structured and mature nematode assemblage at the control but not at the biosolids-amended section of this fallow field could not be explained by such correlations nor by soil metal concentrations. Overall, the present study found only weak evidence for negative long-term impacts of biosolids applied at commercial rates on soil fauna. High-level community parameters such as the nematode structure index (SI

  14. Biosolids applied to agricultural land: Influence on structural and functional endpoints of soil fauna on a short- and long-term scale.

    PubMed

    Coors, Anja; Edwards, Mark; Lorenz, Pascale; Römbke, Jörg; Schmelz, Rüdiger M; Topp, Edward; Waszak, Karolina; Wilkes, Graham; Lapen, David R

    2016-08-15

    Biosolids have well-documented crop and soil benefits similar to other sources of organic amendment, but there is environmental concern due to biosolids-associated pollutants. The present study investigated two field sites that had received biosolids at commercial-scale rates in parallel to associated field sections which were managed similarly but without receiving biosolids (controls). The investigated endpoints were abundance and diversity of soil organisms (nematodes, enchytraeids and earthworms) and soil fauna feeding activity as measured by the bait lamina assay. Repeated sampling of one of the field sites following the only biosolids application demonstrated an enrichment effect typical for organic amendments, which was mostly exhausted after 44months. After an initial suppression, the proportion of free-living plant-parasitic nematodes tended to increase in the biosolids-amended soil over time. Yet, none of the endpoints at this site indicated significant negative effects resulting from the biosolids until 44months post application. In contrast to the repeatedly tilled first field site, the second one was left fallow after three biosolids applications, and was sampled 96months post last application. It was only at this field site that potential evidence for a long-term impact of biosolids was detected with regard to two endpoints: earthworm abundance and structure of the nematode assemblage. Agricultural management and correlation with abiotic soil parameters explained the observed difference in earthworm abundance. Yet, the development of a highly structured and mature nematode assemblage at the control but not at the biosolids-amended section of this fallow field could not be explained by such correlations nor by soil metal concentrations. Overall, the present study found only weak evidence for negative long-term impacts of biosolids applied at commercial rates on soil fauna. High-level community parameters such as the nematode structure index (SI

  15. Biosolids use for reclaiming fluvial mine tailings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of biosolids and lime on reclamation of a heavily contaminated metal site. Within the Superfund area near Leadville, CO, biosolids and lime were amended (1998) to a 1 ha site at rates of 240 Mg per ha each. In 2006, soil samples were collected on a ...

  16. Biosolids-derived nitrogen mineralization and transformation in forest soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hailong; Kimberley, Mark O; Schlegelmilch, Mirko

    2003-01-01

    Utilization of biosolids through land application is becoming increasingly popular among wastewater managers. To minimize the potential contamination of receiving waters from biosolids-derived nitrogen (N), it is important to understand the availability of N after land application of biosolids. In this study, four secondary biosolids (two municipal and two pulp and paper industrial biosolids) were used in a laboratory incubation experiment to simulate N mineralization and transformation after land application. Municipal biosolids were from either aerobically or anaerobically digested sources, while pulp and paper industrial biosolids were from aerated wastewater stabilization lagoons. These biosolids were mixed with two New Zealand forest soils (top 100 mm of a volcanic soil and a brown soil) and incubated at two temperatures (10 and 20 degrees C) for 26 wk. During incubation, mineralized N was periodically leached from the soil-biosolids mixture with 0.01 M CaCl2 solution and concentrations of NH4 and NO3 in leachate were determined. Mineralization of N from aerobically digested municipal biosolids (32.1%) was significantly more than that from anaerobically digested biosolids (15.2%). Among the two pulp and paper industrial biosolids, little N leached from one, while as much as 18.0% of total organic N was leached from the other. As expected, mineralization of N was significantly greater at 20 degrees C (average 22.8%) than at 10 degrees C (average 9.7%). It was observed that more N in municipal biosolids was mineralized in the brown soil, whereas more N in pulp and paper industrial biosolids mineralized in the volcanic soil. Transformation of NH4 to NO3 was affected by soil type and temperature. PMID:14535329

  17. Effects of phytoextraction on heavy metal concentrations and pH of pore-water of biosolids determined using an in situ sampling technique.

    PubMed

    Huynh, T T; Laidlaw, W S; Singh, B; Gregory, D; Baker, A J M

    2008-12-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and pH of pore-water in contaminated substrates are important factors in controlling metal uptake by plants. We investigated the effects of phytoextraction on these properties in the solution phase of biosolids and diluted biosolids in a 12-month phytoextraction column experiment. Phytoextraction using Salix and Populus spp. temporarily decreased pore-water pH of the substrates over the experimental period followed by a return to initial pH conditions. Salixxreichardtii and Populus balsamifera effectively extracted Ni, Zn and Cd and actively mobilized these metals from the solid to the solution phase. S.xreichardtii had the stronger effect on mobilization of metals due to its larger root system. Phytoextraction did not affect Cu in the solution phase of the biosolids. Heavy metals were leached down to lower depths of the columns during the phytoextraction process.

  18. The effect of liming on antibacterial and hormone levels in wastewater biosolids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to meet Class B quality requirements, wastewater biosolids are regulated for pathogen levels, metal concentrations, and vector attraction. One common method to decrease pathogen levels in these solids is to stabilize them by lime addition (CaO), which raises the pH and temperature of the m...

  19. Study on risk management of heavy metals for reuse of biosolids.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, M; Suwa, M; Suzuki, Y

    2006-01-01

    The behaviour of heavy metals was investigated at 22 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In addition, the survey of heavy metal balance was conducted in detail at one WWTP. For the measurement, 22 types of heavy metals were selected from the chemical materials of pollutant release and transfer register (PRTR). There were some heavy metals, which were detected not in wastewater but in dewatered sludge. By means of the detailed survey at one WWTP, 60 to 80% of some heavy metals, such as B, Mn, Co, Ni and Mo, were discharged with treated water. According to the results of PRTR, Zn, B and Mn accounted for a large part of the discharge into the water course. To estimate the behaviour of heavy metals in the environment, leaching tests were applied to the products made of biosolids. During a series of leaching tests for building materials, it was observed that the concentration of heavy metals was very small, but the ratio of increase keeps a constant value. Therefore, it was considered that the acid extractable contents of heavy metal would be important.

  20. Path analyses of grain P, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni in a biosolids-amended dryland wheat agroecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosolids land application is an effective means of recycling plant nutrients and is the preferred method of biosolids reuse by the US Environmental Protection Agency. One issue concerning biosolids application is the extent of the contribution of biosolids-borne plant nutrients to the overall crop...

  1. Effects of biosolid amendment on populations of Meloidogyne hapla and soils with different textures and pHs.

    PubMed

    Mennan, Sevilhan; Melakeberhan, Haddish

    2010-09-01

    Temperate vegetable and nursery industries face significant challenges in managing Meloidogyne hapla, a plant-parasite for which few resistant cultivars and/or viable alternatives to methyl bromide exist. N-Viro Soil(R) (NVS), an alkaline-stabilized biosolid product, has soil nutrition enrichment capacity and potential for plant-parasitic nematode suppression. In three sets of experiments, we investigated the effects of NVS on M. hapla populations from Rhode Island (RI), Connecticut (CT), New York, Geneva (NYG) and Lyndonville (NYL), and Michigan (MI), and growth of tomato cv 'Rutgers' in five soils commonly used for vegetable and nursery crop production in the Great Lakes Region of the USA. Either 0 (control) or 600 eggs/100 cm(3) of soil per M. hapla population were added in all experiments. In the first set, NVS was applied at rates of 0, 1, 2 and 4 g/100 cm(3) of sandy loam soil (pH 7) and resulted in variable responses on the numbers of nematodes recovered and plant growth at 30 and 90 days (25+/-2 degrees C); however, the 2g NVS treatment consistently increased plant growth. Either 0 or 2 NVS/100 cm(3) were applied to a coarse loamy (pH 4.5) and sandy loam (pH 8, second set of experiments), and muck (pH 5.5), loamy sand (pH 7.1) and sandy loam (pH 7.5, third set of experiments) soils and experiments terminated four weeks after nematode inoculation. Across experiments, the effect of NVS on the M. hapla populations varied. Generally nematode infection decreased plant growth. NVS increased soil pH the most in muck and the least in sandy loam soil. The most consistent interaction effects of NVS*soil, NVS*M. hapla, soil*M. hapla and/or NVS*soil*M. hapla across the experiments indicate that NVS affects M. hapla populations in different ways in different soil types, suggesting that NVS application is likely to be site-specific. These findings further provide basis that may potentially explain reports of variable effects of NVS on nematodes and how future studies may

  2. Effects of biosolid amendment on populations of Meloidogyne hapla and soils with different textures and pHs.

    PubMed

    Mennan, Sevilhan; Melakeberhan, Haddish

    2010-09-01

    Temperate vegetable and nursery industries face significant challenges in managing Meloidogyne hapla, a plant-parasite for which few resistant cultivars and/or viable alternatives to methyl bromide exist. N-Viro Soil(R) (NVS), an alkaline-stabilized biosolid product, has soil nutrition enrichment capacity and potential for plant-parasitic nematode suppression. In three sets of experiments, we investigated the effects of NVS on M. hapla populations from Rhode Island (RI), Connecticut (CT), New York, Geneva (NYG) and Lyndonville (NYL), and Michigan (MI), and growth of tomato cv 'Rutgers' in five soils commonly used for vegetable and nursery crop production in the Great Lakes Region of the USA. Either 0 (control) or 600 eggs/100 cm(3) of soil per M. hapla population were added in all experiments. In the first set, NVS was applied at rates of 0, 1, 2 and 4 g/100 cm(3) of sandy loam soil (pH 7) and resulted in variable responses on the numbers of nematodes recovered and plant growth at 30 and 90 days (25+/-2 degrees C); however, the 2g NVS treatment consistently increased plant growth. Either 0 or 2 NVS/100 cm(3) were applied to a coarse loamy (pH 4.5) and sandy loam (pH 8, second set of experiments), and muck (pH 5.5), loamy sand (pH 7.1) and sandy loam (pH 7.5, third set of experiments) soils and experiments terminated four weeks after nematode inoculation. Across experiments, the effect of NVS on the M. hapla populations varied. Generally nematode infection decreased plant growth. NVS increased soil pH the most in muck and the least in sandy loam soil. The most consistent interaction effects of NVS*soil, NVS*M. hapla, soil*M. hapla and/or NVS*soil*M. hapla across the experiments indicate that NVS affects M. hapla populations in different ways in different soil types, suggesting that NVS application is likely to be site-specific. These findings further provide basis that may potentially explain reports of variable effects of NVS on nematodes and how future studies may

  3. Native Australian species are effective in extracting multiple heavy metals from biosolids.

    PubMed

    Mok, Hoi-Fei; Majumder, Ramaprasad; Laidlaw, W Scott; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Arndt, Stefan K

    2013-01-01

    Selecting native plant species with characteristics suitable for extraction of heavy metals may have multiple advantages over non-native plants. Six Australian perennial woody plant species and one willow were grown in a pot trial in heavy metal-contaminated biosolids and a potting mix. The plants were harvested after fourteen months and above-ground parts were analysed for heavy metal concentrations and total metal contents. All native species were capable of growing in biosolids and extracted heavy metals to varying degrees. No single species was able to accumulate heavy metals at particularly high levels and metal extraction depended upon the bioavailability of the metal in the substrate. Metal extraction efficiency was driven by biomass accumulation, with the species extracting the most metals also having the greatest biomass yield. The study demonstrated that Grevillea robusta, Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus polybractea, and E. cladocalyx have the greatest potential as phytoextractor species in the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated biosolids. Species survival and growth were the main determinants of metal extraction efficiency and these traits will be important for future screening of native species. PMID:23819263

  4. Biosolids, soil, crop, ground-water, and streambed-sediment data for a biosolids-application area near Deer Trail, Colorado, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Tracy J.B.; Smith, David B.; Crock, James G.

    2004-01-01

    In January 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey began an expanded monitoring program near Deer Trail, Colorado, in cooperation with the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District and the North Kiowa Bijou Groundwater Management District. Monitoring components were biosolids, soils, crops, ground water, and streambed sediments. The monitoring program addresses concerns from the public about chemical effects from applications of biosolids to farmland in the Deer Trail, Colorado, area. Constituents of primary concern to the public are arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, zinc, plutonium, and gross alpha and gross beta activity, and they are included for all monitoring components. This report presents chemical data from the fourth and fifth years of the monitoring program, 2002 through 2003, for biosolids, soils, crops, alluvial and bedrock ground water, and streambed sediment. The ground-water section also includes climate data and water levels. The chemical data include the constituents of highest concern to the public in addition to many other constituents.

  5. Pretreatment raises biosolids quality

    SciTech Connect

    Shimp, G.; McMillian, S.; Hunter, G.

    1994-06-01

    Since publication of the Clean Water Act`s proposed Part 503 regulations on the use and disposal of biosolids in February 1989, the U.S. waste water industry has been sensitized to the issue of biosolids quality. As Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) prepare for compliance with the new rule, their focus is the Alternate Pollutant Limits that define a clean biosolids product.

  6. Restoring Ecosystem Function in Degraded Urban Soil Using Biosolids, Biosolids Blend, and Compost.

    PubMed

    Basta, N T; Busalacchi, D M; Hundal, L S; Kumar, K; Dick, R P; Lanno, R P; Carlson, J; Cox, A E; Granato, T C

    2016-01-01

    Many soils at former industrial sites are degraded. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of compost, biosolids, and biosolids blends to improve soil ecosystem function with minimal potential impact to surface water. Treatments rototilled into the top 12.5 cm of soil were biosolids at 202 Mg ha; biosolids at 404 Mg ha; compost at 137 Mg ha; or a blend consisting of biosolids applied at 202 Mg ha, drinking water treatment residual, and biochar. Rainfall runoff from experimental plots was collected for 3 yr. One year after soil amendments were incorporated, a native seed mix containing grasses, legumes, and forbs was planted. Soil amendments improved soil quality and nutrient pools, established a dense and high-quality vegetative cover, and improved earthworm reproductive measures. Amendments increased soil enzymatic activities that support soil function. Biosolids treatments increased the Shannon-Weaver Diversity Index for grasses. For the forbs group, control plots had the lowest diversity index and the biosolids blend had the highest diversity index. Biosolids and compost increased the number of earthworm juveniles. In general, biosolids outperformed compost. Biosolids increased N and P in rainfall runoff more than compost before vegetation was established. Several microconstituents (i.e., pharmaceutical and personal care products) were detected in runoff water but at concentrations below the probable no-effect levels and therefore should pose little impact to the aquatic environment. Future restoration design should ensure that runoff control measures are used to control sediment loss from the restored sites at least until vegetation is established.

  7. Restoring Ecosystem Function in Degraded Urban Soil Using Biosolids, Biosolids Blend, and Compost.

    PubMed

    Basta, N T; Busalacchi, D M; Hundal, L S; Kumar, K; Dick, R P; Lanno, R P; Carlson, J; Cox, A E; Granato, T C

    2016-01-01

    Many soils at former industrial sites are degraded. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of compost, biosolids, and biosolids blends to improve soil ecosystem function with minimal potential impact to surface water. Treatments rototilled into the top 12.5 cm of soil were biosolids at 202 Mg ha; biosolids at 404 Mg ha; compost at 137 Mg ha; or a blend consisting of biosolids applied at 202 Mg ha, drinking water treatment residual, and biochar. Rainfall runoff from experimental plots was collected for 3 yr. One year after soil amendments were incorporated, a native seed mix containing grasses, legumes, and forbs was planted. Soil amendments improved soil quality and nutrient pools, established a dense and high-quality vegetative cover, and improved earthworm reproductive measures. Amendments increased soil enzymatic activities that support soil function. Biosolids treatments increased the Shannon-Weaver Diversity Index for grasses. For the forbs group, control plots had the lowest diversity index and the biosolids blend had the highest diversity index. Biosolids and compost increased the number of earthworm juveniles. In general, biosolids outperformed compost. Biosolids increased N and P in rainfall runoff more than compost before vegetation was established. Several microconstituents (i.e., pharmaceutical and personal care products) were detected in runoff water but at concentrations below the probable no-effect levels and therefore should pose little impact to the aquatic environment. Future restoration design should ensure that runoff control measures are used to control sediment loss from the restored sites at least until vegetation is established. PMID:26828162

  8. Land application of biosolids: Comparison among stabilization methods

    SciTech Connect

    Theis, T.L.; Brown, R.L.; Gibbs, J.; Collins, A.G.

    1998-07-01

    The land application of municipal wastewater biosolids provides several commercial and economical advantages if properly administered. The presence of both macro and micro nutrients necessary for plant growth enable biosolids to be used as a fertilizer for agricultural lands, forests, yards, and gardens. Despite these advantages, it is important to remember that biosolids are a by-product of wastewater treatment. Trace metals and organic compounds often found in biosolids can be detrimental to the environment and/or toxic to animals and humans and may accumulate in the food chain. In this study, the long-term effects of accelerated weathering of several biosolids products were investigated with respect to trace element leaching, and plant uptake of trace metals. Emphasis in this paper is placed on comparisons of leachate and uptake data across the biosolid types.

  9. Effect of plants on the bioavailability of metals and other chemical properties of biosolids in a column study.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Trang T; Laidlaw, W Scott; Singh, Balwant; Zhang, Hao; Baker, Alan J M

    2012-10-01

    The effects of metal-accumulating plants (Salix x reichardtii and Populus balsamifera) on the chemical properties and dynamics of metals in biosolids were investigated using different techniques including diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT), sequential extraction procedures and partitioning coefficient (K(d)). Plants could effectively extract Cd, Ni, and Zn and decreased dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The presence of plants increased the potential bioavailability of these metals, as assessed by an increase in the ratio of metal measured by DGT and metals in the solution. The plants affected the Cd, Ni, and Zn pools (soluble/exchangeable; Fe/Mn oxide and organic matter bound) characterised by sequential extraction and K(d) but did not reduce the total metals in either substrate. However, plants had no effect on Cu, presumably because of the effective buffering of available Cu by organic matter in both solution and solid phases. A high density of plant roots was associated with increased leaching of metals.

  10. Regression modeling weather and biosolids effects on dryland on dryland wheat yields in Eastern Colorado, 2011-2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the western Great Plains, climate dictates dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum, L) and corn (Zea mays, L.) production. Municipalities also use this region to recycle sewage biosolids. Will biosolids (from the Littleton/Englewood, CO Wastewater Treatment Plant) applications to western Great Plains ...

  11. Long-term effects of biosolid-amended soils on phosphorus, copper, manganese and zinc uptake by wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosolids have been applied to agricultural land for many years as a source of plant nutrients. There are growing concerns of residual phosphorus and metals from long-term biosolids amended fields and their potential impact on the environment. Objectives of this study were to determine, i) phosphor...

  12. Water Treatment Residuals and Biosolids Long-Term Co-application Effects to Semi-arid Grassland Soils and Vegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) and biosolids are byproducts from municipal water treatment processes. Both byproducts have been studied separately for land application benefits. There are possible environmental benefits of WTRs and biosolids co-application but these studies are limited. Our obj...

  13. Protecting groundwater resources at biosolids recycling sites.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Kumarasamy, Karthik; Brobst, Robert B; Hais, Alan; Schmitz, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    In developing the national biosolids recycling rule (Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulation Part 503 or Part 503), the USEPA conducted deterministic risk assessments whose results indicated that the probability of groundwater impairment associated with biosolids recycling was insignificant. Unfortunately, the computational capabilities available for performing risk assessments of pollutant fate and transport at that time were limited. Using recent advances in USEPA risk assessment methodology, the present study evaluates whether the current national biosolids pollutant limits remain protective of groundwater quality. To take advantage of new risk assessment approaches, a computer-based groundwater risk characterization screening tool (RCST) was developed using USEPA's Multimedia, Multi-pathway, Multi-receptor Exposure and Risk Assessment program. The RCST, which generates a noncarcinogenic human health risk estimate (i.e., hazard quotient [HQ] value), has the ability to conduct screening-level risk characterizations. The regulated heavy metals modeled in this study were As, Cd, Ni, Se, and Zn. Results from RCST application to biosolids recycling sites located in Yakima County, Washington, indicated that biosolids could be recycled at rates as high as 90 Mg ha, with no negative human health effects associated with groundwater consumption. Only under unrealistically high biosolids land application rates were public health risks characterized as significant (HQ ≥ 1.0). For example, by increasing the biosolids application rate and pollutant concentrations to 900 Mg ha and 10 times the regulatory limit, respectively, the HQ values varied from 1.4 (Zn) to 324.0 (Se). Since promulgation of Part 503, no verifiable cases of groundwater contamination by regulated biosolids pollutants have been reported.

  14. Effects of long-term application of biosolids for mine land reclamation on groundwater chemistry: trace metals.

    PubMed

    Oladeji, Olawale O; Tian, Guanglong; Cox, Albert E; Granato, Thomas C; Pietz, Richard I; Carlson, Carl R; Abedin, Zainul

    2012-01-01

    Data collected for 35 yr from a 1790-ha strip mine reclamation site in Fulton County, Illinois, where biosolids were applied from 1972 to 2004, were used to evaluate the impacts of long-term biosolids application on metal concentrations in groundwater. Groundwater samples were collected between 1972 and 2006 from wells installed in seven strip-mined fields treated with biosolids at cumulative loading rates of 801 to 1815 dry Mg ha and from another seven fields (also strip mined) treated with mineral fertilizer. Samples were collected monthly between 1972 and 1986 and quarterly between 1987 and 2004 and were analyzed for total metals. The concentrations of metals in groundwater were generally below regulatory limits. Lead, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Hg concentrations in groundwater were similar for the biosolids-amended and fertilizer-treated sites across all sampling intervals. Zinc concentration was increased by biosolids application only for samples collected before the 1993 promulgation of the USEPA 40 CFR Part 503 rule. Iron and Mn were the only metals that were consistently increased after biosolids application; however, Mn concentrations did not exceed the 10 mg L regulatory limits. Zinc, Cu, Cd, Pb, Fe, Al, and Mn concentrations in groundwater decreased with time, coupled with the change from pre-part 503 to post-Part 503 biosolids. The concentrations of other metals, including Ni, Cr, and Hg, did not increase in groundwater with the prolonged biosolids application. The study suggests that the long-term application of biosolids at high loading rates does not result in trace metal pollution of groundwater.

  15. Select chemical and engineering properties of wastewater biosolids.

    PubMed

    Arulrajah, A; Disfani, M M; Suthagaran, V; Imteaz, M

    2011-12-01

    The select chemical and engineering characteristics of biosolids produced at a wastewater treatment plant in Eastern Australia were investigated to assess its suitability as structural fill material in road embankments. Results of comprehensive set of geotechnical experimentation including compaction, consolidation, creep, hydraulic conductivity and shear strength tests implied that biosolids demonstrate behavior similar to highly organic clays with a higher potential for consolidation and settlement. Results of chemical study including heavy metals, dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane (and derivatives) and organochlorine pesticides, indicate that biosolids samples are within the acceptable limits which allows their usage under certain guidelines. Results of tests on pathogens (bacteria, viruses or parasites) also indicated that biosolids were within the safe acceptable limits. Technical and management suggestions have been provided to minimize the possible environmental risks of using biosolids in road embankment fills.

  16. Biosolids decomposition after surface applications in west Texas.

    PubMed

    Jaynes, W F; Zartman, R E; Sosebee, R E; Wester, D B

    2003-01-01

    In a semiarid environment, climate is a critical factor in the decomposition of surface-applied biosolids. This study examined the effect of 2- to 7-yr exposure times on the composition of single applications of New York, NY biosolids in western Texas. Exposure time effects on organic matter, N, P, S, Cu, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Zn were studied near Sierra Blanca, TX. Due to organic matter decomposition, total organic C decreased from 340 g kg(-1) in fresh biosolids to 180 g kg(-1) in biosolids after 82 mo of exposure, whereas the inorganic ash content of the biosolids increased from 339 to 600 g kg(-1). Total N decreased from 50 to 10 g N kg(-1) and total S decreased from 12 to 6 g S kg(-1). Bicarbonate-available P in the biosolids decreased from 0.9 to 0.2 g kg(-1). Successive H2O extractions yielded soluble P concentrations consistent with dicalcium phosphate (dical) for fresh biosolids and tricalcium phosphate (trical) for biosolids exposed for 59 months or more. Sparingly soluble phosphates, such as dical and trical, potentially yield > 0.5 mg P L(-1) in runoff waters for extended periods after biosolids applications, especially after multiple applications. Selective dissolution of the biosolids indicated that as much as 66 to 78% of P exists as iron phosphates, 16 to 21% as Fe oxides, and 5 to 12% as insoluble Ca phosphates. Chemical analyses of ash samples suggest that Cu and Zn have been lost from biosolids through leaching or runoff and no losses of Pb, Cr, or Hg have occurred since application.

  17. Application of self-sustaining smouldering combustion for the destruction of wastewater biosolids.

    PubMed

    Rashwan, Tarek L; Gerhard, Jason I; Grant, Gavin P

    2016-04-01

    Managing biosolids, the major by-product from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), persists as a widespread challenge that often constitutes the majority of WWTP operating costs. Self-sustained smouldering combustion is a new approach for organic waste treatment, in which the waste - the combustion fuel - is destroyed in an energy efficient manner after mixing it with sand. Smouldering has never been applied to biosolids. Column experiments, using biosolids obtained from a WWTP, were employed to identify if, and under what conditions, smouldering could be used for treating biosolids. The parameter space in which smouldering was self-sustaining was mapped as a function of key system metrics: (1) sand/biosolids mass fraction, (2) biosolids moisture content, and (3) forced air flux. It was found that a self-sustaining reaction is achievable using biosolids with water content as high as 80% (with a biosolids lower heating value greater than 1.6 kJ/g). Moreover, results suggest that operator-controlled air flux can assist in keeping the reaction self-sustaining in response to fluctuations in biosolids properties. This proof-of-concept demonstrates the potential for smouldering as a new energy efficient biosolids disposal method for very wet (i.e., minimally processed) biosolids that may offer WWTPs significant operating cost savings. This study emphasizes smouldering's usefulness as a novel waste management technique. PMID:26898476

  18. Application of self-sustaining smouldering combustion for the destruction of wastewater biosolids.

    PubMed

    Rashwan, Tarek L; Gerhard, Jason I; Grant, Gavin P

    2016-04-01

    Managing biosolids, the major by-product from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), persists as a widespread challenge that often constitutes the majority of WWTP operating costs. Self-sustained smouldering combustion is a new approach for organic waste treatment, in which the waste - the combustion fuel - is destroyed in an energy efficient manner after mixing it with sand. Smouldering has never been applied to biosolids. Column experiments, using biosolids obtained from a WWTP, were employed to identify if, and under what conditions, smouldering could be used for treating biosolids. The parameter space in which smouldering was self-sustaining was mapped as a function of key system metrics: (1) sand/biosolids mass fraction, (2) biosolids moisture content, and (3) forced air flux. It was found that a self-sustaining reaction is achievable using biosolids with water content as high as 80% (with a biosolids lower heating value greater than 1.6 kJ/g). Moreover, results suggest that operator-controlled air flux can assist in keeping the reaction self-sustaining in response to fluctuations in biosolids properties. This proof-of-concept demonstrates the potential for smouldering as a new energy efficient biosolids disposal method for very wet (i.e., minimally processed) biosolids that may offer WWTPs significant operating cost savings. This study emphasizes smouldering's usefulness as a novel waste management technique.

  19. Distinct Responses in Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria after Addition of Biosolids to an Agricultural Soil▿

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John J.; Policht, Katherine; Grancharova, Tanya; Hundal, Lakhwinder S.

    2011-01-01

    The recently discovered ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) have been suggested as contributors to the first step of nitrification in terrestrial ecosystems, a role that was previously assigned exclusively to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The current study assessed the effects of agricultural management, specifically amendment of soil with biosolids or synthetic fertilizer, on nitrification rates and copy numbers of archaeal and bacterial ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes. Anaerobically digested biosolids or synthetic fertilizer was applied annually for three consecutive years to field plots used for corn production. Biosolids were applied at two loading rates, a typical agronomic rate (27 Mg hectare−1 year−1) and double the agronomic rate (54 Mg hectare−1 year−1), while synthetic fertilizer was applied at an agronomic rate typical for the region (291 kg N hectare−1 year−1). Both biosolids amendments and synthetic fertilizer increased soil N and corn yield, but only the biosolids amendments resulted in significant increases in nitrification rates and increases in the copy numbers of archaeal and bacterial amoA genes. In addition, only archaeal amoA gene copy numbers increased in response to biosolids applied at the typical agronomic rate and showed a significant correlation with nitrification rates. Finally, copy numbers of archaeal amoA genes were significantly higher than copy numbers of bacterial amoA genes for all treatments. These results implicate AOA as being primarily responsible for the increased nitrification observed in an agricultural soil amended with biosolids. These results also support the hypothesis that physiological differences between AOA and AOB may enable them to occupy distinct ecological niches. PMID:21803892

  20. Phosphorus leaching from biosolids-amended sandy soils.

    PubMed

    Elliott, H A; O'Connor, G A; Brinton, S

    2002-01-01

    Increasing emphasis on phosphorus (P)-based nutrient management underscores the need to understand P behavior in soils amended with biosolids and manures. Laboratory and greenhouse column studies characterized P forms and leachability of eight biosolids products, chicken manure (CM), and commercial fertilizer (triple superphosphate, TSP). Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) was grown for 4 mo on two acid, P-deficient Florida sands, representing both moderate (Candler series: hyperthermic, uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments) and very low (Immokalee series: sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Alaquods) P-sorbing capacities. Amendments were applied at 56 and 224 kg P(T) ha(-1), simulating P-based and N-based nutrient loadings, respectively. Column leachate P was dominantly inorganic and lower for biosolids P sources than TSP. For Candler soil, only TSP at the high P rate exhibited P leaching statistically greater (alpha = 0.05) than control (soil-only) columns. For the high P rate and low P-sorbing Immokalee soil, TSP and CM leached 21 and 3.0% of applied P, respectively. Leachate P for six biosolids was <1.0% of applied P and not statistically different from controls. Largo biosolids, generated from a biological P removal process, exhibited significantly greater leachate P in both cake and pelletized forms (11 and 2.5% of applied P, respectively) than other biosolids. Biosolids P leaching was correlated to the phosphorus saturation index (PSI = [Pox]/[Al(ox) + Fe(ox)]) based on oxalate extraction of the pre-applied biosolids. For hiosolids with PSI < or = approximately 1.1, no appreciable leaching occurred. Only Largo cake (PSI = 1.4) and pellets (PSI = 1.3) exhibited P leaching losses statistically greater than controls. The biosolids PSI appears useful for identifying biosolids with potential to enrich drainage P when applied to low P-sorbing soils. PMID:11931462

  1. Native plant restoration of biosolids-amended copper mine tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, P.A.; Zabowski, D.; Everett, R.L.; Scherer, G.

    1998-12-31

    Copper mine tailings are difficult to revegetate due to nutrient deficiencies, high levels of acidity, and potential metal toxicities. An amendment of biosolids could ameliorate these harsh growing conditions through the addition of available nutrients, improvement of physical soil properties (e.g., increased water holding capacity), and possible lowering of toxic metal availability through complexation with organic matter. A study was conducted on mine tailings at Holden, WA to evaluate the effect of an amendment of biosolids on the survival and growth of five native plant species (Sitka alder, big leaf maple, fireweed, w. yarrow, and pearly everlasting). Plots were established in tailings, gravel over tailings (G/T), and biosolids plus gravel over tailings. Each of the native plant species, except maple, had their highest survival in the biosolids-amended plot with 3 species at 100% survival. The biosolids amendment was shown to improve the growth of all species except maple. Fireweed produced 62 times more biomass in the biosolids-amended plot compared to the unamended plot (G/T). Plant analysis revealed a dramatic increase in nutrient content with the amendment of biosolids. Biosolids improved the survival, growth, and nutritional status of native plant species on the copper mine tailings.

  2. Sorption and desorption of cadmium by different fractions of biosolids-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Ryan, James A; Chaney, Rufus L; La Fleur, Cherie M

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of both the inorganic and organic fractions in biosolids on Cd chemistry, a series of Cd sorption and desorption batch experiments (at pH 5.5) were conducted on different fractions of soils from a long-term field experimental site. The slope of the Cd sorption isotherm increased with rate of biosolids and was different for the different biosolids. Removal of organic carbon (OC) reduced the slope of the Cd sorption isotherm but did not account for the observed differences between biosolids-amended soils and a control soil, indicating that the increased adsorption associated with biosolids application was not limited to the increased OC from the addition of biosolids. Removal of both OC and Fe/Mn further reduced the slopes of Cd sorption isotherms and the sorption isotherm of the biosolids-amended soil was the same as that of the control, indicating both OC and Fe/Mn fractions added by the biosolids were important to the increased sorption observed for the biosolids-amended soil samples. Desorption experiments failed to remove from 60 to 90% of the sorbed Cd. This "apparent hysteresis" was higher for biosolids-amended soil than the control soil. Removal of both OC and Fe/Mn fractions was more effective in removing the observed differences between the biosolids-amended soil and the control than either alone. Results show that Cd added to biosolids-amended soil behaves differently than Cd added to soils without biosolids and support the hypothesis that the addition of Fe and Mn in the biosolids increased the retention of Cd in biosolids-amended soils.

  3. Biosolids recycling at a pulp and paper mill

    SciTech Connect

    Gratton, P.F.; Montgomery, K.L.; Page, S.H.

    1997-12-31

    The Bio Gro Division of Wheelabrator Water Technologies Inc. has traditionally been involved in recycling biosolids from domestic wastewater treatment plants. The biosolids, or primarily organic residuals that result from the treatment of wastewater, have long been used in agriculture as a soil conditioner, fertilizer, organic lime material and also for other soil fertility practices. It has long been known that residuals from certain industrial wastewater processes are very high in nutrients and organic matter which can also be successfully used in agricultural activities. One of these industrial biosolids with well-documented agricultural value is the organic residual from the treatment of wastewater from pulp and paper mills. Most pulp and paper producers in the US recognize the value of pulp and paper biosolids as a material that can fertilize their own tree stands or can be used in normal agricultural practices. In 1995, Bio Gro entered into a contract with a two large pulp and paper mills in Maine for the management of its pulp and paper biosolids. Bio Gro was responsible for implementing the beneficial use options for a mixture of primary and secondary biosolids from the wastewater treatment process which was combined with combustion ash from the facility`s power generation facilities. The contract included the layout of spreading areas, mixing of the residuals and spreading the material on the sites. This paper will explain the process that Bio Gro employed to manage the pulp and paper biosolids generated at the mill.

  4. Effects of silver sulfide nanomaterials on mycorrhizal colonization of tomato plants and soil microbial communities in biosolid-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Judy, Jonathan D; Kirby, Jason K; Creamer, Courtney; McLaughlin, Mike J; Fiebiger, Cathy; Wright, Claire; Cavagnaro, Timothy R; Bertsch, Paul M

    2015-11-01

    We investigated effects of Ag2S engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated Ag ENMs (PVP-Ag), and Ag(+) on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), their colonization of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and overall microbial community structure in biosolids-amended soil. Concentration-dependent uptake was measured in all treatments. Plants exposed to 100 mg kg(-1) PVP-Ag ENMs and 100 mg kg(-1) Ag(+) exhibited reduced biomass and greatly reduced mycorrhizal colonization. Bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi were inhibited by all treatment classes, with the largest reductions measured in 100 mg kg(-1) PVP-Ag ENMs and 100 mg kg(-1) Ag(+). Overall, Ag2S ENMs were less toxic to plants, less disruptive to plant-mycorrhizal symbiosis, and less inhibitory to the soil microbial community than PVP-Ag ENMs or Ag(+). However, significant effects were observed at 1 mg kg(-1) Ag2S ENMs, suggesting that the potential exists for microbial communities and the ecosystem services they provide to be disrupted by environmentally relevant concentrations of Ag2S ENMs. PMID:26196315

  5. Effects of silver sulfide nanomaterials on mycorrhizal colonization of tomato plants and soil microbial communities in biosolid-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Judy, Jonathan D; Kirby, Jason K; Creamer, Courtney; McLaughlin, Mike J; Fiebiger, Cathy; Wright, Claire; Cavagnaro, Timothy R; Bertsch, Paul M

    2015-11-01

    We investigated effects of Ag2S engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated Ag ENMs (PVP-Ag), and Ag(+) on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), their colonization of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and overall microbial community structure in biosolids-amended soil. Concentration-dependent uptake was measured in all treatments. Plants exposed to 100 mg kg(-1) PVP-Ag ENMs and 100 mg kg(-1) Ag(+) exhibited reduced biomass and greatly reduced mycorrhizal colonization. Bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi were inhibited by all treatment classes, with the largest reductions measured in 100 mg kg(-1) PVP-Ag ENMs and 100 mg kg(-1) Ag(+). Overall, Ag2S ENMs were less toxic to plants, less disruptive to plant-mycorrhizal symbiosis, and less inhibitory to the soil microbial community than PVP-Ag ENMs or Ag(+). However, significant effects were observed at 1 mg kg(-1) Ag2S ENMs, suggesting that the potential exists for microbial communities and the ecosystem services they provide to be disrupted by environmentally relevant concentrations of Ag2S ENMs.

  6. Effect of turfgrass establishment practices and composted biosolids on water quality.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Ronnie W; Vietor, Donald M; Munster, Clyde L; White, Richard H; Provin, Tony L

    2010-01-01

    Land application of composted municipal biosolids (CMB) enhances soil physical properties and turf establishment. Yet large, volume-based rates of CMB can increase nonpoint source losses of sediment and nutrients from urban soils to surface waters. The objectives were (i) to compare runoff losses of sediment, N, P, and organic C among contrasting establishment treatments for bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy, var. Tifway] and (ii) to evaluate relationships between runoff and soil measurements of N, P, and organic C. Three replications of seven establishment treatments were installed on an excavated slope (8.5%) under field conditions. Five treatments comprised sod transplanted from Tifway bermudagrass grown with and without CMB on soil with and without incorporation of CMB. Two other treatments were composed of Tifway sprigged in soil with and without CMB. Runoff from seven natural rain events was channeled into collection tanks for sampling and analysis. Runoff concentrations and mass loss of dissolved P and organic C forms were greater for CMB-amended sod than for sprigs planted in soil with or without CMB or treatments comprising sod established without CMB. In addition, a linear relationship (R(2) = 0.87) was observed between water extractable soil P of sodded and sprigged treatments and concentrations and mass losses of dissolved P in runoff. Transplanted sod reduced sediment loss compared with sprigged treatments and incorporation of CMB reduced sediment loss from sprigged treatments. Incorporation of CMB within soil on which sod grown without CMB was transplanted proved the best option for achieving benefits of CMB while reducing nutrient runoff loss compared to sod transplanted from Tifway grown with CMB.

  7. Effect of liquid municipal biosolid application method on tile and ground water quality.

    PubMed

    Lapen, D R; Topp, E; Edwards, M; Sabourin, L; Curnoe, W; Gottschall, N; Bolton, P; Rahman, S; Ball-Coelho, B; Payne, M; Kleywegt, S; McLaughlin, N

    2008-01-01

    This study examined bacteria and nutrient quality in tile drainage and shallow ground water resulting from a fall land application of liquid municipal biosolids (LMB), at field application rates of 93,500 L ha(-1), to silt-clay loam agricultural field plots using two different land application approaches. The land application methods were a one-pass AerWay SSD approach (A), and surface spreading plus subsequent incorporation (SS). For both treatments, it took between 3 and 39 min for LMB to reach tile drains after land application. The A treatment significantly (p < 0.1) reduced application-induced LMB contamination of tile drains relative to the SS treatment, as shown by mass loads of total Kjeldahl N (TKN), NH(4)-N, Total P (TP), PO(4)-P, E. coli., and Clostridium perfringens. E. coli contamination resulting from application occurred to at least 2.0-m depth in ground water, but was more notable in ground water immediately beneath tile depth (1.2 m). Treatment ground water concentrations of selected nutrients and bacteria for the study period ( approximately 46 d) at 1.2-m depth were significantly higher in the treatment plots, relative to control plots. The TKN and TP ground water concentrations at 1.2-m depth were significantly (p < 0.1) higher for the SS treatment, relative to the A treatment, but there were no significant (p > 0.1) treatment differences for the bacteria. For the macroporous field conditions observed, pre-tillage by equipment such as the AerWay SSD, will reduce LMB-induced tile and shallow ground water contamination compared to surface spreading over non-tilled soil, followed by incorporation.

  8. Metal stress and decreased tree growth in response to biosolids application in greenhouse seedlings and in situ Douglas-fir stands.

    PubMed

    Cline, Erica T; Nguyen, Quyen T N; Rollins, Lucy; Gawel, James E

    2012-01-01

    To assess physiological impacts of biosolids on trees, metal contaminants and phytochelatins were measured in Douglas-fir stands amended with biosolids in 1982. A subsequent greenhouse study compared these same soils to soils amended with fresh wastewater treatment plant biosolids. Biosolids-amended field soils had significantly higher organic matter, lower pH, and elevated metals even after 25 years. In the field study, no beneficial growth effects were detected in biosolids-amended stands and in the greenhouse study both fresh and historic biosolids amendments resulted in lower seedling growth rates. Phytochelatins - bioindicators of intracellular metal stress - were elevated in foliage of biosolids-amended stands, and significantly higher in roots of seedlings grown with fresh biosolids. These results demonstrate that biosolids amendments have short- and long-term negative effects that may counteract the expected tree growth benefits.

  9. Effects of biosolids application on nitrogen dynamics and microbial structure in a saline-sodic soil of the former Lake Texcoco (Mexico).

    PubMed

    Rojas-Oropeza, M; Dendooven, L; Garza-Avendaño, L; Souza, V; Philippot, L; Cabirol, N

    2010-04-01

    The saline-sodic soil of the former Lake Texcoco, a large area exposed to desertification, is a unique environment, but little is known about its microbial ecology. The objective of this study was to examine bacterial community structure, activity, and function when biosolids were added to microcosms. The application rates were such that 0, 66, 132, or 265 mg total Nk g(-1) were added with the biosolids (total C and N content 158 and 11.5 g kg(-1) dry biosolids, respectively). Approximately 60% of the biosolids were mineralized within 90 days. Microbial respiration and to a lesser extent ammonification and nitrification, increased after biosolids application. The rRNA intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) patterns for the biosolids and unamended soil bacterial communities were different, indicating that the microorganisms in the biosolids were distinct from the native population. It appears that the survival of the allochthonous microorganisms was short, presumably due to the adverse soil conditions.

  10. Effects of biosolids and FGD-gypsum amended soil on metal uptake by lettuce and Edamame soybean and nodules development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosolids and flue gas desulfurization (FGD)-gypsum amended soils are a rich nutrient source for plant growth and could reduce soil contamination by synthetic fertilizers. According to previous studies, these soil amendments have also enhanced some rhizobacteria (Bradyrhizobium japonicum) in the rh...

  11. Effect of land-applied biosolids on surface-water nutrient yields and groundwater quality in Orange County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Chad R.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Harden, Stephen L.; Gurley, Laura N.; Rogers, Shane W.

    2015-01-01

    Shallow groundwater in the transitional zone wells, which were located adjacent to and topographically downgradient from all the biosolids land-application fields, were found to be statistically different and had higher nitrate concentrations (medians greater than 12 milligrams per liter) than all the other wells sampled as part of the study. Surface-water nutrient concentrations

  12. Increasing thermal drying temperature of biosolids reduced nitrogen mineralisation and soil N2O emissions.

    PubMed

    Case, Sean D C; Gómez-Muñoz, Beatriz; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies found that thermally dried biosolids contained more mineralisable organic nitrogen (N) than the raw or anaerobically digested (AD) biosolids they were derived from. However, the effect of thermal drying temperature on biosolid N availability is not well understood. This will be of importance for the value of the biosolids when used to fertilise crops. We sourced AD biosolids from a Danish waste water treatment plant (WWTP) and dried it in the laboratory at 70, 130, 190 or 250 °C to >95 % dry matter content. Also, we sourced biosolids from the WWTP dried using its in-house thermal drying process (input temperature 95 °C, thermal fluid circuit temperature 200 °C, 95 % dry matter content). The drying process reduced the ammonium content of the biosolids and reduced it further at higher drying temperatures. These findings were attributed to ammonia volatilisation. The percentage of mineralisable organic N fraction (min-N) in the biosolids, and nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) production were analysed 120 days after addition to soil. When incubated at soil field capacity (pF 2), none of the dried biosolids had a greater min-N than the AD biosolids (46.4 %). Min-N was lowest in biosolids dried at higher temperatures (e.g. 19.3 % at 250 °C vs 35.4 % at 70 °C). Considering only the dried biosolids, min-N was greater in WWTP-dried biosolids (50.5 %) than all of the laboratory-dried biosolids with the exception of the 70 °C-dried biosolids. Biosolid carbon mineralisation (CO2 release) and N2O production was also the lowest in treatments of the highest drying temperature, suggesting that this material was more recalcitrant. Overall, thermal drying temperature had a significant influence on N availability from the AD biosolids, but drying did not improve the N availability of these biosolids in any case. PMID:27068895

  13. Interactions of triclosan, gemfibrozil and galaxolide with biosolid-amended soils: Effects of the level and nature of soil organic matter.

    PubMed

    Usyskin, Alla; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda; Borisover, Mikhail

    2015-11-01

    Triclosan, gemfibrozil and galaxolide, representing acidic and non-ionized hydrophobic organic compounds, are biologically active and can be accumulated during wastewater treatment in sewage sludge. The interactions of these substances with the soils amended by sewage sludge-originating biosolids may control their environmental fate. Therefore, the sorption of three organic compounds was studied in dune sand, loess soil, clay soil and mixtures of these media with three different sewage sludge-originating biosolids that were incubated under aerobic conditions for 6 months. For each compound, 15 sorption isotherms were produced at pH 7.8-8.0. The sorption of triclosan and gemfibrozil on sand-containing sorbents was examined also under acidic conditions. In some soil series, the compound's Freundlich constants (KF) are linearly related to the soil organic carbon (OC) content. Notably, for a given OC content, the sand-containing sorbents tend to demonstrate enhanced interactions with triclosan and galaxolide. This may be related with more hydrophobic and/or less rigid soil organic matter (SOM) as compared with the clay-containing soils, implying indirect effects of minerals. Generally the OC-normalized KF vary among different soil-biosolid combinations which is explained by the differences in the composition and properties of SOM, and is also contributed by the non-zero intercepts of the linear KF upon soil OC dependencies. The negative intercepts suggest that below a certain OC level no considerable organic compound-soil interactions would occur. Interactions of molecular and anionic forms of triclosan with a sand-containing sorbent may be comparable, but interactions involving gemfibrozil molecules could be stronger than interactions involving its anion.

  14. Monitoring Alkyl Phenol Ethoxylates And Degradation Products After Land Application Of Anaerobically Digested Biosolids

    EPA Science Inventory

    Annually, over 3 million dry tons of treated sewage sludge (or biosolids) are applied on agricultural lands in the U.S. In 2002, the National Research Council (NRC) recommended an examination of biosolids management practices including chemicals such as surfactants used in clean...

  15. Economic Analysis of a Pine Plantation Receiving Repeated Applications of Biosolids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hailong; Kimberley, Mark O.; Wilks, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Treated biosolids have been applied to 750-ha of a Pinus radiata forest plantation on Rabbit Island near Nelson City in New Zealand since 1996. A long-term research trial was established in 1997 to investigate the effects of the biosolids applications on the receiving environment and tree growth. An analysis of the likely economic impact of biosolids application shows that biosolids application has been beneficial. Stem volume of the high treatment (biosolids applied at 600 kg N ha-1 every three years) was 36% greater than the control treatment (no biosolids applied), and stem volume of the standard treatment (300 kg N ha-1) was 27% greater than the control treatment at age 18 years of age. Biosolids treatments have effectively transformed a low productivity forest site to a medium productivity site. Although this increased productivity has been accompanied by some negative influences on wood quality attributes with reduced wood stiffness, wood density, and larger branches, an economic analysis shows that the increased stem volume and greater average log diameter in the biosolids treatments outweighs these negative effects. The high and standard biosolids treatments are predicted to increase the net stumpage value of logs by 24% and 14% respectively at harvesting, providing a large positive impact on the forest owner’s economic return. PMID:23451262

  16. Biosolids applications affect runoff water quality following forest fire.

    PubMed

    Meyer, V F; Redente, E F; Barbarick, K A; Brobst, R

    2001-01-01

    Soil erosion and nutrient losses are great concerns following forest wildfires. Biosolids application might enhance revegetation efforts while reducing soil erodibility. Consequently, we applied Denver Metro Wastewater District composted biosolids at rates of 0, 40, and 80 Mg ha(-1) to a severely burned, previously forested site near Buffalo Creek, CO to increase plant cover and growth. Soils were classified as Ustorthents, Ustochrepts, and Haploborols. Simulated rainfall was applied for 30 min at a rate of 100 mm h(-1) to 3- x 10-m paired plots. Biosolids application rates did not significantly affect mean total runoff (p < 0.05). Sediment concentrations were significantly greater (p < 0.05) from the control plots compared with the plots that had received the 80 Mg biosolids ha(-1) rate. Biosolids application rate had mixed effects on water-quality constituents; however, concentrations of all runoff constituents for all treatment rates were below levels recommended for drinking water standards, except Pb. Biosolids application to this site increased plant cover, which should provide erosion control.

  17. Biosolids impact soil phosphorus accountability, fractionation, and potential environmental risk.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, J A; Barbarick, K A; Norvell, K L

    2007-01-01

    Biosolids land application rates are typically based on crop N requirements but can lead to soil P accumulation. The Littleton/Englewood, Colorado, wastewater treatment facility has supported biosolids beneficial-use on a dryland wheat-fallow agroecosystem site since 1982, with observable soil P concentration increases as biyearly repeated biosolids applications increased from 0, 6.7, 13, 27, to 40 Mg ha(-1). The final study year was 2003, after which P accountability, fractionation, and potential environmental risk were assessed. Between 93 and 128% of biosolids-P added was accounted for when considering conventional tillage soil displacement, grain removal, and soil adsorption. The Fe-P fraction dominated all soil surface P fractions, likely due to an increase in amorphous Fe-oxide because Fe2(SO4)3 was added at the wastewater treatment facility inflow for digester H2S reduction. The Ca-P phase dominated all soil subsurface P fractions due to calcareous soil conditions. A combination of conventional tillage, drought from 1999 to 2003, and repeated and increasing biosolids application rates may have forced soil surface microorganism dormancy, reduction, or mortality; thus, biomass P reduction was evident. Subsurface biomass P was greater than surface biomass, possibly due to protection against environmental and anthropogenic variables or to increased dissolved organic carbon inputs. Even given years of biosolids application, the soil surface had the ability to sorb additional P as determined by shaking the soil in an excessive P solution. Biosolids-application regulations based on the Colorado Phosphorus Index would not impede current site practices. Proper monitoring, management, and addition of other best management practices are needed for continued assurance that P movement off-site does not become a major issue. PMID:17412911

  18. Biosolids, Soil, Crop, Ground-Water, and Streambed-Sediment Data for a Biosolids-Application Area Near Deer Trail, Colorado, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Tracy J.B.; Smith, David B.; Crock, James G.; Stevens, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    In January 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey began an expanded monitoring program near Deer Trail, Colorado, in cooperation with the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District and the North Kiowa Bijou Groundwater Management District. Monitoring components were biosolids, soils, crops, ground water, and streambed sediments. The monitoring program addresses concerns from the public about chemical effects from applications of biosolids to agricultural land in the Deer Trail area. Constituents of primary concern to the public are arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, zinc, plutonium, and gross alpha and beta activity, and they are included for all monitoring components. This report presents chemical data from the second year of the monitoring program, January?December 2000, for biosolids, crops, alluvial and bedrock ground water, and streambed sediments. The ground-water section also includes climate data, water levels, and results of statistical testing of selected data for trends and for exceedance of Colorado regulatory standards. The chemical data included are for the constituents of highest concern to the public as well as for many other constituents.

  19. Biosolids, soil, crop, ground-water, and streambed-sediment data for a biosolids-application area near Deer Trail, Colorado, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Tracy J.B.; Smith, David B.; Crock, James G.

    2004-01-01

    In January 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an expanded monitoring program near Deer Trail, Colorado, in cooperation with the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District and the North Kiowa Bijou Groundwater Management District. Monitoring components were biosolids, soils, crops, ground water, and streambed sediment. The monitoring program addresses concerns from the public about chemical effects from applications of biosolids to farmland in the Deer Trail, Colorado, area. Constituents of primary concern to the public are arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, zinc, plutonium, and gross alpha and beta activity, and they are included for all monitoring components. This report presents chemical data from the third year of the monitoring program, JanuaryDecember 2001, for biosolids, soils, alluvial and bedrock ground water, and streambed sediment. The ground-water section also includes climate data, water levels, and results of statistical testing of selected data for trends and for exceedance of Colorado regulatory standards. The chemical data include the constituents of highest concern to the public in addition to many other constituents.

  20. Biosolids, soils, ground-water, and streambed-sediment data for a biosolids-application area near Deer Trail, Colorado, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Michael R.; Yager, Tracy J.B.; Smith, D.B.; Crock, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    In January 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey began an expanded monitoring program near Deer Trail, Colorado, in cooperation with the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District and the North Kiowa Bijou Groundwater Management District. Monitoring components were biosolids, soils, crops, ground water, and streambed sediments. The monitoring program addresses concerns from the public about chemical effects from applications of biosolids to farmland in the Deer Trail, Colorado, area. Constituents of primary concern to the public are arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, zinc, plutonium, and gross alpha and beta activity and are included for all monitoring components. This report presents chemical data from the first year of the monitoring program, January?December 1999, for biosolids, soils, alluvial and bedrock ground water, and streambed sediments. The groundwater section of this report also includes climate data, lithologic descriptions, well-completion diagrams, water levels, summary statistics for the water-quality data, and results of statistical testing of selected data for trends and for exceedance of Colorado regulatory standards. Data in this report provide a geochemical baseline for each monitoring component prior to the planned water transfer in 2000 from the Lowry Landfill Superfund site to Metro Wastewater Reclamation District treatment facilities.

  1. Growth, Root Formation, and Nutrient Value of Triticale Plants Fertilized with Biosolids

    PubMed Central

    Rauw, Wendy Mercedes; Teglas, Michael Bela; Chandra, Sudeep; Forister, Matthew Lewis

    2012-01-01

    Biosolids are utilized as nutrient rich fertilizer. Little material is available on benefits to forage crops resulting from fertilization with biosolids. This paper aimed to compare the effects of fertilization with biosolids versus commercial nitrogen fertilizer on growth, root formation, and nutrient value of triticale plants in a greenhouse experiment. Per treatment, five pots were seeded with five triticale seeds each. Treatments included a nonfertilized control, fertilization with 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ml biosolids per pot, and fertilization with a commercial nitrogen fertilizer at the recommended application rate and at double that rate. Biomass production, root length, root diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentration were analyzed at harvest. Fertilization with biosolids increased triticale production (P < 0.001); production was similar for the 100 to 400 mL treatments. Root length, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentration increased, and potassium concentration decreased linearly with application rate. At the recommended rate, biomass production was similar between fertilization with biosolids and commercial fertilizer. However, plants fertilized with commercial fertilizer had considerably longer roots (P < 0.001), higher nitrogen concentration (P < 0.05), and lower potassium concentration (P < 0.01) than those fertilized with biosolids. Our results indicate that at the recommended application rate, biomass production was similar between fertilization with biosolids and with commercial nitrogen fertilizer, indicating the value of biosolids fertilization as a potential alternative. PMID:22593686

  2. Histopathological changes in the perivisceral fat body of Rhinocricus padbergi (Diplopoda, Spirobolida) triggered by biosolids.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Annelise; Christofoletti, Cintya Aparecida; Righetto Neto, Nilton; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Human activities generate a great amount of sewage daily, which is dumped into the sewer system. After sewage-treatment processes, sewage sludge is generated. Such byproduct can be treated by different methods; the result of treatment is a stabilized compost of reduced pathogenicity that has a similar inorganic chemical composition to the raw sewage sludge. After such pretreatment, sewage sludge is called a biosolids, and it can be used in agriculture. In this contest, the present study evaluated the effects of a sample of biosolids on the perivisceral fat body of a diplopod. These invertebrates are soil organisms that play an important role in the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems, and as a consequence, they are in contact with xenobiotics present in this environmental compartment. Special emphasis is given on the interpretation of the effects of complex mixtures in target organs of diplopods. A semiquantitative analysis for the evaluation of histopathological changes in the perivisceral fat body was proposed. The sample-induced histopathological and ultrastructural changes in individuals exposed to it, and the severity of the effects was positively related to the exposure time, resulting in the deaths of exposed individuals after 90 days. Thus, the results indicate the need for caution in the use of biosolids as well as the need for improving waste management techniques, so they will produce environmentally innocuous final products. PMID:26396012

  3. Reclamation of acidic copper mine tailings using municipal biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, M.T.; Thompson, T.L.; Bengson, S.A.

    1998-12-31

    Reclamation of copper mine tailings in a cost effective, successful, and sustainable manner is an ongoing area of evaluation in the arid southwest. A study was initiated in September, 1996 near Hayden, Arizona to evaluate the use of municipal biosolids for reclaiming acidic copper mine tailings (pH of 2.5 to 4.0). The main objectives of the study were to (1) define an appropriate level of biosolids application for optimum plant growth, and (2) evaluate the effects of green waste and lime amendments. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with four biosolid rates of 20, 70, 100 and 135 dry tons/acre, three amendment treatments (none, green waste, and green waste plus lime); with three replications. Non-replicated controls (no treatment, green waste only and lime only) were included for comparison. Shortly after biosolids incorporation to a depth of 10--12 inches, composite soil samples (0--12 inches) of each plot were taken. Biosolids incorporation increased the pH of the tailings (>5.75) and additional increases in pH were noted with lime application. In January 1997, the plots were seeded and sprinkler irrigation was commenced. A total of 4.47 inches of rainfall and 3.8 inches of irrigation were applied until harvest in May 1997. Data from the first growing season indicates optimum growth (>66 lbs/acre) at biosolids rates of 70--100 dry tons/acre. There was a significant positive effect on growth of green waste and lime amendments. Surface NO{sub 3}-N concentrations in biosolids amended plots were greatly reduced (from 23 to 6 mg/kg) by addition of green waste. There was no evidence for NO{sub 3}N leaching below 12 inches.

  4. The effect of liming on antibacterial and hormone levels in wastewater biosolids.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Jennifer M; Lozano, Nuria; Haines, Christine; Rice, Clifford P; Ramirez, Mark; Torrents, Alba

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the effect of liming on levels of triclocarban (TCC), triclosan (TCS), estrone (E1), and progesterone (P), two antimicrobial agents and two natural hormones, respectively. Factors studied include lime particle size, mixing time, and overall lime contact time. The study results suggest that coarse lime may be more active than fine lime due to less interaction with surrounding air. Both TCS and TCC concentrations were lower in coarse limed samples versus unlimed samples and the decrease was a function of time. A similar, but statistically insignificant trend in TCC and TCS levels was observed in fine lime samples with respect to unlimed samples. Liming was also found to decrease apparent E1 levels, with more notable decreases in samples amended with coarse lime. P-levels significantly increased after 1-day of contact time, stabilizing over the next 14 days of the study period. This increase and stabilization of P-levels was attributed to the pH and moisture-driven conversion of more chemically complex steroids into P. PMID:23485235

  5. Effect of biosolid waste compost on soil respiration in salt-affected soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raya, Silvia; Gómez, Ignacio; García, Fuensanta; Navarro, José; Jordán, Manuel Miguel; Belén Almendro, María; Martín Soriano, José

    2013-04-01

    respiration, compost, electrical conductivity, salinization, Bac-Trac References: Abdelbasset Lakhdar, Mokded Rabhi, Tahar Ghnaya, Francesco Montemurro, Naceur Jedidi , Chedly Abdelly. Effectiveness of compost use in salt-affected soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials 171 (2009) pp 29-37. M. Tejada, C. Garcia, J.L. Gonzalez , M.T. Hernandez . Use of organic amendment as a strategy for saline soil remediation:Influence on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) pp 1413-1421. I. Gomez; J.M. Disla Soriano; J. Navarro-Pedreño; F. García-Orenes; M.B. Almendro-Candel; M.M. Jordan. Quantification of soil respiration in different saline soil of Alicante (Spain). EGU General Assembly (2012). Viena. Ed. Geophysycal Research Abstracts. Vol 14 EGU2012-2399,(2012). (Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MICINN. Project Ref.: CGL2009-11194)

  6. LIMITED PHYTO-AND BIO-AVAILABILITY PREVENT RISK FROM CADMIUM IN REGULATED BIOSOLIDS (ABSTRACT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biosolids are a complex mixture which usually contain 100-times more Zn than Cd, and both inorganic and organic Cd adsorbents. Experiments were conducted to test the effect of persistent inorganic adsorbents in biosolids on phytoavailability of soil Cd to lettuce, and the role of...

  7. LIMITED PHYTO- AND BIO-AVAILABILITY PREVENT RISK FROM CADMIUM IN REGULATED BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biosolids are a complex mixture which usually contain 100-times more Zn than Cd, and both inorganic and organic Cd adsorbents. Experiments were conducted to test the effect of persistent inorganic adsorbents in biosolids on phytoavailability of soil Cd to lettuce, and the role of...

  8. Transformations of nitrogen and carbon in entrenched biosolids at a reclaimed mineral sands mining site.

    PubMed

    Kostyanovsky, K I; Evanylo, G K; Lasley, K K; Shang, C; Sukkariyah, B F; Daniels, W L

    2011-01-01

    Biosolids deep-row incorporation (DRI) provides high levels of nutrients to the reclamation sites; however, additions of N in excess of the vegetation requirements can potentially impair water quality. The effects of anaerobically digested (AD) and lime stabilized (LS) DRI biosolids and inorganic N fertilizer were compared on C and N transformations and transport at a reclaimed mineral sands mining site. Biosolids were applied at 213 and 426 Mg AD biosolids ha(-1) and 328 and 656 Mg LS biosolids ha)(-1) (dry mass), and inorganic N fertilizer was applied at 0 (control) and 504 kg N ha-(-1) yr(-1). Zero tension lysimeters were installed to collect leachate for determination of vertical N transport, and the biosolids seams were analyzed for N and C transformations after 28 mo aging. The leachijng masses from the DRI biosolids treatments were 139 to 291 kg ha(-1) NO3-N, 61 to 243 kg ha(-1) NH4-N, and 61 to 269 kg ha(-1) organic N, while the fertilizer treatment did not differ from the control. Aged biosolids analysis showed that total N lost over the course of 2 yr was 15.2 Mg ha(-1) and 10.9 Mg ha(-1) for LS and AD biosolids, respectively, which was roughly 50% of the N applied. Organic C losses were 81 Mg ha(-1) and 33 Mg ha(-1) for LS and AD biosolids, respectively. Our results indicated that entrenchment of biosolids in coarse-textured media should not be used as a mined land reclamation technique because the anaerobic conditions required to limit mineralization and nitrification cannot be maintained in such permeable soils. PMID:21488494

  9. Transformations of nitrogen and carbon in entrenched biosolids at a reclaimed mineral sands mining site.

    PubMed

    Kostyanovsky, K I; Evanylo, G K; Lasley, K K; Shang, C; Sukkariyah, B F; Daniels, W L

    2011-01-01

    Biosolids deep-row incorporation (DRI) provides high levels of nutrients to the reclamation sites; however, additions of N in excess of the vegetation requirements can potentially impair water quality. The effects of anaerobically digested (AD) and lime stabilized (LS) DRI biosolids and inorganic N fertilizer were compared on C and N transformations and transport at a reclaimed mineral sands mining site. Biosolids were applied at 213 and 426 Mg AD biosolids ha(-1) and 328 and 656 Mg LS biosolids ha)(-1) (dry mass), and inorganic N fertilizer was applied at 0 (control) and 504 kg N ha-(-1) yr(-1). Zero tension lysimeters were installed to collect leachate for determination of vertical N transport, and the biosolids seams were analyzed for N and C transformations after 28 mo aging. The leachijng masses from the DRI biosolids treatments were 139 to 291 kg ha(-1) NO3-N, 61 to 243 kg ha(-1) NH4-N, and 61 to 269 kg ha(-1) organic N, while the fertilizer treatment did not differ from the control. Aged biosolids analysis showed that total N lost over the course of 2 yr was 15.2 Mg ha(-1) and 10.9 Mg ha(-1) for LS and AD biosolids, respectively, which was roughly 50% of the N applied. Organic C losses were 81 Mg ha(-1) and 33 Mg ha(-1) for LS and AD biosolids, respectively. Our results indicated that entrenchment of biosolids in coarse-textured media should not be used as a mined land reclamation technique because the anaerobic conditions required to limit mineralization and nitrification cannot be maintained in such permeable soils.

  10. Comparison of simulated forest responses to biosolids application

    SciTech Connect

    Luxmoore, R.J.; Tharp, M.L.; Efroymson, R.A.

    1999-12-01

    Organic matter and N are added to humus pools of the LINKAGES simulator of forest growth and N cycling at a range of application rates to investigate long-term effects of biosolids (sewage sludge) on forest productivity. Two conifer plantations (Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii], loblolly pine [Pinus taeda L.]) and a northern hardwood forest located in contrasting climatic regions are investigated. Single applications of biosolids are given at 0.5, 10, 20, and 40 Mg/ha, and multiple applications are given on seven occasions at 3-yr intervals of rates of 5 and 10 Mg/ha. Highly significant increases in aboveground phytomass and net primary productivity of Douglas-fir plantations are obtained in a 100-yr simulation with increasing biosolids application rates. Results for loblolly pine from a 50-yr simulation produced about half the growth response of Douglas-fir. Long-term simulations of northern hardwoods showed modest growth responses and small increases in NPP with added biosolids. The phytomass of one overstory and three understory species in the hardwood forest changed in response to different biosolids applications and varying species sensitivity to N supply. Biosolids are a significant resource for enhancing forest productivity, particularly in conifer plantations. Estimates of N leaching losses from simulated forest sites combined with a literature review of leaching losses suggest that biosolids applications at 3-yr intervals with rates less than 8.5 Mg/ha (0.4 Mg N/ha) during active forest growth may pose little off-site contamination risk to ground water or surface waters.

  11. Runoff of pharmaceuticals and personal care products following application of biosolids to an agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Topp, Edward; Monteiro, Sara C; Beck, Andrew; Coelho, Bonnie Ball; Boxall, Alistair B A; Duenk, Peter W; Kleywegt, Sonya; Lapen, David R; Payne, Michael; Sabourin, Lyne; Li, Hongxia; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2008-06-15

    Municipal biosolids are a source of nutrients for crop production. Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) can be used to minimize the risk of contamination of adjacent water resources with chemical or microbial agents that are of public or environmental health concern. In this field study, we applied biosolids slurry at a commercial rate using either subsurface injection or broadcast application followed by incorporation. Precipitation was simulated at 1, 3, 7, 22, 36 and 266 days post-application on 2 m(2) microplots to evaluate surface runoff of 9 model pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), atenolol, carbamazepine, cotinine, gemfibrozil, naproxen, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole and triclosan. In runoff from the injected plots, concentrations of the model PPCPs were generally below the limits of quantitation. In contrast, in the broadcast application treatment, the concentrations of atenolol, carbamazepine, cotinine, gemfibrozil, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole and triclosan on the day following application ranged from 70-1477 ng L(-1) in runoff and generally declined thereafter with first order kinetics. The total mass of PPCPs mobilized in surface runoff per m(2) of the field ranged from 0.63 microg for atenolol to 21.1 microg for ibuprofen. For ibuprofen and acetaminophen, concentrations in runoff first decreased and then increased, suggesting that these drugs were initially chemically or physically sequestered in the biosolids slurry, and subsequently released in the soil. Carbamazepine and triclosan were detected at low concentrations in a runoff event 266 days after broadcast application. Overall, this study showed that injection of biosolids slurry below the soil surface could effectively eliminate surface runoff of PPCPs. PMID:18377955

  12. Biosolids applications to tall fescue have long-term influence on soil nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Cogger, Craig G; Bary, Andy I; Myhre, Elizabeth A; Fortuna, Ann-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Repeated applications of biosolids provide long-term benefits by increasing soil organic matter and N supply but can cause excess accumulation of P. Our objective was to determine the residual effects of repeated surface applications of biosolids on N availability and fate, tall fescue ( Schreb.) response, soil C, and P. A field experiment was started in 1993 to compare two biosolids products, each applied at three rates (6.7, 13.4, and 20.1 Mg ha yr), with synthetic N fertilizer (0 and 403 kg N ha yr as ammonium nitrate). Treatments were surface applied for 10 yr, followed by a 9-yr residual period where all plots received a reduced rate of inorganic N (202 kg N ha yr). Annual measurements included forage yield, N uptake, and soil nitrate N. Soil samples collected in 2002 and 2011 were analyzed for total C and N and Bray-1 P. Cumulative apparent N recoveries in harvested grass (1993-2010) were 51% for biosolids N and 72% for ammonium nitrate. Net fall soil nitrate N summed for the period 1993-2002 ranged from <1 to 3% of N applied. The N applied that was accounted for in forage and soil averaged 74% for biosolids and 73% for ammonium nitrate. Soil C increased in the biosolids treatments, and the increase was equivalent to 27% of biosolids C. Bray-1 P remained at excessive levels (338-629 mg P kg soil) 9 yr after the last biosolids application.

  13. Effects of direct land application of calcitic lime and lime- and cement kiln dust-sanitized biosolids on the chemical and spectroscopic characteristics of soil lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Dinel, H.; Schnitzer, M.; Pare, T.; Topp, E. ); Lemee, L.; Ambles, A. . Lab. de Chimie); Pelzer, N. )

    1999-05-01

    To determine the extent to which applications of calcitic lime and sanitized biosolids affect the quality of soil organic matter (SOM), lipids extracted from an unamended soil (CON) and from soils amended with calcitic lime (CAL), and lime (LSB)- and cement kiln dust (CDB)-sanitized biosolids were characterized by chemical analysis and Pyrolysis-Gas chromatography (Py-GC). From diethyl ether (DEE) and CHCl[sub 3] soluble lipids, and from weight ratios of the extracts, the organic matter in the soil amended with CDB-treated biosolids seemed to be more biodegraded and biochemically inert than the organic matter in soils that received LSB-treated biosolids and calcitic lime and that in the control soil.

  14. Water quality at a biosolids-application area near Deer Trail, Colorado, 1993-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Tracy J.B.

    2014-01-01

    The Metro Wastewater Reclamation District (Metro District) in Denver, Colo., applied biosolids resulting from municipal sewage treatment to farmland in eastern Colorado beginning in December 1993. In mid-1993, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Metro District began monitoring water quality at the biosolids-application area about 10 miles east of Deer Trail, Colo., to evaluate baseline water quality and the combined effects of natural processes, land uses, and biosolids applications on water quality of the biosolids application area. Water quality was characterized by baseline and post-biosolids-application sampling for selected inorganic and bacteriological constituents during 1993 through 1998, with some additional specialized sampling in 1999. The study included limited sampling of surface water and the unsaturated zone, but primarily focused on groundwater. See report for complete abstract.

  15. Nitrogen mineralization from anaerobically digested centrifuge cake and aged air-dried biosolids.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kuldip; Hundal, Lakhwinder S; Cox, Albert E; Granato, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to estimate nitrogen (N) mineralization of anaerobically digested centrifuge cake from the Stickney Water Reclamation Plant (SWRP) and Calumet Water Reclamation Plant (CWRP), lagoon-aged air-dried biosolids from the CWRP, and Milorganite at three rates of application (0, 12.5 and 25 Mg ha(-1)). The N mineralized varied among biosolids as follows: Milorganite (44%) > SWRP centrifuge cake (35%) > CWRP centrifuge cake (31%) > aged air-dried (13%). The N mineralized in the SWRP cake (32%) and CWRP aged air-dried biosolids (12%) determined from the 15N study were in agreement with the first study. The N mineralization value for centrifuge cake biosolids observed in our study is higher than the value given in the Part 503 rule and Illinois Part 391 guidelines. These results will be used to fine-tune biosolids application rate to match crop N demand without compromising yield while minimizing any adverse effect on the environment. PMID:25327023

  16. Nitrogen mineralization from anaerobically digested centrifuge cake and aged air-dried biosolids.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kuldip; Hundal, Lakhwinder S; Cox, Albert E; Granato, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to estimate nitrogen (N) mineralization of anaerobically digested centrifuge cake from the Stickney Water Reclamation Plant (SWRP) and Calumet Water Reclamation Plant (CWRP), lagoon-aged air-dried biosolids from the CWRP, and Milorganite at three rates of application (0, 12.5 and 25 Mg ha(-1)). The N mineralized varied among biosolids as follows: Milorganite (44%) > SWRP centrifuge cake (35%) > CWRP centrifuge cake (31%) > aged air-dried (13%). The N mineralized in the SWRP cake (32%) and CWRP aged air-dried biosolids (12%) determined from the 15N study were in agreement with the first study. The N mineralization value for centrifuge cake biosolids observed in our study is higher than the value given in the Part 503 rule and Illinois Part 391 guidelines. These results will be used to fine-tune biosolids application rate to match crop N demand without compromising yield while minimizing any adverse effect on the environment.

  17. The effect of thermal hydrolysis pretreatment on the anaerobic degradation of nonylphenol and short-chain nonylphenol ethoxylates in digested biosolids.

    PubMed

    McNamara, P J; Wilson, C A; Wogen, M T; Murthy, S N; Novak, J T; Novak, P J

    2012-06-01

    The presence of micropollutants can be a concern for land application of biosolids. Of particular interest are nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP(2)EO), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP(1)EO), and nonylphenol (NP), collectively referred to as NPE, which accumulate in anaerobically digested biosolids and are subject to regulation based on the environmental risks associated with them. Because biosolids are a valuable nutrient resource, it is essential that we understand how various treatment processes impact the fate of NPE in biosolids. Thermal hydrolysis (TH) coupled with mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) is an advanced digestion process that destroys pathogens in biosolids and increases methane yields and volatile solids destruction. We investigated the impact of thermal hydrolysis pretreatment on the subsequent biodegradation of NPE in digested biosolids. Biosolids were treated with TH, anaerobic digestion, and aerobic digestion in laboratory-scale reactors, and NPE were analyzed in the influent and effluent of the digesters. NP(2)EO and NP(1)EO have been observed to degrade to the more estrogenic NP under anaerobic conditions; therefore, changes in the ratio of NP:NPE were of interest. The increase in NP:NPE following MAD was 56%; the average increase of this ratio in four sets of TH-MAD samples, however, was only 24.6 ± 3.1%. In addition, TH experiments performed in pure water verified that, during TH, the high temperature and pressure alone did not directly destroy NPE; TH experiments with NP added to sludge also showed that NP was not destroyed by the high temperature and pressure of TH when in a more complex sludge matrix. The post-aerobic digestion phases removed NPE, regardless of whether TH pretreatment occurred. This research indicates that changes in biosolids processing can have impacts beyond just gas production and solids destruction. PMID:22494493

  18. Leachate From Biosolid Stockpiles: Nutrients and Metal Mobility.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckenham, J. M.; Nadeau, J. A.; Amirbahman, A.; Brutsaert, W.; Wilson, J.

    2004-05-01

    Field stacking of biosolids prior to utilization is a standard agricultural practice. The Maine Department of Environmental Protection is concerned about how this stacking affects groundwater quality, in particular, nitrate-N leached from stockpiles. Maine regulations have had much stricter siting standards for field stacking since 2002. In 2002 we initiated an experiment to characterize the nitrogen chemistry of leachate. Mass loading of nitrogen leaving stockpiles was determined experimentally by placing biosolids on plastic-lined cells to collect liquid flowing through and over the pile. These piles contained approximately 60 cubic meters of biosolids. Biosolid stockpile geometry affects the amount of leachate generated. In a parallel experiment, the composition of leachate moving through till-derived soil has been gauged using pan lysimeters and shallow wells under field conditions. Initial results indicate that ammonia is the dominant nitrogen species released (2,200 to 4,800 mg/L). Nitrate concentrations were found to be less than 1 mg/L in the leachate. Dissolved organic carbon loading was also high (5,800 to 10,000 mg/L). Several heavy metals and phosphorous were detected in association with the leachate in the surrounding lysimeters and boreholes. Additional data from sites reclaimed using biosolids substantiate the transport of nitrogen and metals to groundwater, even without the concentrating effect of stockpiles. These data suggest that soils may not significantly attenuate metal transport under ambient conditions.

  19. Perfluorinated Compounds In Lime-Treated Biosolids

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land application of wastewater treatment residuals, or biosolids, is a common practice in the United States, about 50% of all biosolids being applied to agricultural land as a soil amendment. Incidents have been reported in Germany and the United States where biosolids containin...

  20. A matrix approach for assessing biosolids stability

    SciTech Connect

    Switzenbaum, M.S.; Moss, L.H.; Epstein, E.; Pincince, A.B.; Donovan, J.F.

    1998-07-01

    Stability assessment of biosolids must be made on the basis of the stabilization process used and the intended use of the manufactured biosolids. In this manner, a matrix based on technology and use was developed as an approach for assessing biosolids stability. Specific tests were recommended as to the most useful methods of stability assessment for each of the stabilization technologies examined.

  1. SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF METALS IN BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of decades of research illustrate that metals in biosolids-amended soils are retained at a higher rate than soils without biosolids-amendments indicating that either an individual or combination of constituents within biosolids is responsible for the elevated sorption...

  2. Ecological impacts of long-term application of biosolids to a radiata pine plantation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianming; Kimberley, Mark O; Ross, Craig; Gielen, Gerty; Tremblay, Louis A; Champeau, Olivier; Horswell, Jacqui; Wang, Hailong

    2015-10-15

    Assessment of the ecological impact of applying biosolids is important for determining both the risks and benefits. This study investigated the impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, tree nutrition and growth of long-term biosolids applications to a radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation growing on a Sandy Raw Soil in New Zealand. Biosolids were applied to the trial site every 3 years from tree age 6 to 19 years at three application rates: 0 (Control), 300 (Standard) and 600 (High) kg nitrogen (N) ha(-1), equivalent to 0, 3 and 6 Mg ha(-1) of dry biosolids, respectively. Tree nutrition status and growth have been monitored annually. Soil samples were collected 13 years after the first biosolids application to assess the soil properties and functioning. Both the Standard and High biosolids treatments significantly increased soil (0-50 cm depth) total carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P), Olsen P and cation exchange capacity (CEC), reduced soil pH, but had no significant effects on soil (0-20 cm depth) physical properties including bulk density, total porosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The High biosolids treatment also increased concentrations of soil total cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) at 25-50 cm depth, but these concentrations were still considered very low for a soil. Ecotoxicological assessment showed no significant adverse effects of biosolids application on either the reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida) or substrate utilisation ability of the soil microbial community, indicating no negative ecological impact of bisolids-derived heavy metals or triclosan. This study demonstrated that repeated application of biosolids to a plantation forest on a poor sandy soil could significantly improve soil fertility, tree nutrition and pine productivity. However, the long-term fate of biosolids-derived N, P and litter-retained heavy metals needs to be further monitored in the receiving environment.

  3. Ecological impacts of long-term application of biosolids to a radiata pine plantation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianming; Kimberley, Mark O; Ross, Craig; Gielen, Gerty; Tremblay, Louis A; Champeau, Olivier; Horswell, Jacqui; Wang, Hailong

    2015-10-15

    Assessment of the ecological impact of applying biosolids is important for determining both the risks and benefits. This study investigated the impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, tree nutrition and growth of long-term biosolids applications to a radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation growing on a Sandy Raw Soil in New Zealand. Biosolids were applied to the trial site every 3 years from tree age 6 to 19 years at three application rates: 0 (Control), 300 (Standard) and 600 (High) kg nitrogen (N) ha(-1), equivalent to 0, 3 and 6 Mg ha(-1) of dry biosolids, respectively. Tree nutrition status and growth have been monitored annually. Soil samples were collected 13 years after the first biosolids application to assess the soil properties and functioning. Both the Standard and High biosolids treatments significantly increased soil (0-50 cm depth) total carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P), Olsen P and cation exchange capacity (CEC), reduced soil pH, but had no significant effects on soil (0-20 cm depth) physical properties including bulk density, total porosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The High biosolids treatment also increased concentrations of soil total cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) at 25-50 cm depth, but these concentrations were still considered very low for a soil. Ecotoxicological assessment showed no significant adverse effects of biosolids application on either the reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida) or substrate utilisation ability of the soil microbial community, indicating no negative ecological impact of bisolids-derived heavy metals or triclosan. This study demonstrated that repeated application of biosolids to a plantation forest on a poor sandy soil could significantly improve soil fertility, tree nutrition and pine productivity. However, the long-term fate of biosolids-derived N, P and litter-retained heavy metals needs to be further monitored in the receiving environment

  4. Biosolids affect soil barium in a dryland wheat agroecosystem.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, J A; Barbarick, K A

    2006-01-01

    In December 2003, the USEPA released an amended list of 15 "candidate pollutants for exposure and hazard screening" with regard to biosolids land application, including Ba. Therefore, we decided to monitor soil Ba concentrations from a dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow agroecosystem experiment. This experiment received 10 biennial biosolids applications (1982-2003) at rates from 0 to 26.8 dry Mg ha(-1) per application year. The study was conducted on a Platner loam (Aridic Paleustoll), approximately 30 km east of Brighton, CO. Total soil Ba, as measured by 4 M HNO(3), increased with increasing biosolids application rate. In the soil-extraction data from 1988 to 2003, however, we observed significant (P < 0.10) linear or exponential declines in ammonium bicarbonate-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (AB-DTPA) extractable Ba concentrations as a function of increasing biosolids application rates. This was observed in 6 of 7 and 3 of 7 yr for the 0- to 20- and 20- to 60-cm soil depths, respectively. Results suggest that while total soil Ba increased as a result of biosolids application with time, the mineral form of Ba was present in forms not extractable with AB-DTPA. Scanning electron microscopy using energy dispersive spectroscopy verified soil Ba-S compounds in the soil surface, probably BaSO(4). Wet chemistry sequential extraction suggested BaCO(3) precipitation was increasing in the soil subsurface. Our research showed that biosolids application may increase total soil Ba, but soil Ba precipitates are insoluble and should not be an environmental concern in similar soils under similar climatic and management conditions. PMID:17071904

  5. Using biosolids from agricultural processing as food for animals

    SciTech Connect

    Belyea, R.L.; Clevenger, T.E.; Van Dyne, D.L.; Eckhoff, S.E.; Wallig, M.A.; Tumbleson, M.E.

    1993-12-31

    A diverse inventory of secondary products arise from processing of agricultural commodities. Societal, economic and physical constraints will curtail traditional disposal methods and create a need for alternatives that conserve, recycle and capitalize on these underutilized resources. Economic viability of some processes or primary products may depend upon practical alternatives for disposing of secondary products. The broad nature of secondary products and the process from which they emanate along with the complex transformations needed for remediation will require the efforts of multidisciplinary teams of scientists to identify creative solutions. Most secondary products have significant nutritional value and could be fed to animals as a means of disposal. However, detailed chemical and biological characterization is needed to determine nutrient concentrations and to ensure safety and efficacy. Feeding studies will be necessary to demonstrate palatability and to determine effects upon animal health and performance. New bioprocessing techniques will be needed to remediate the attributes of some secondary products into more appropriate forms or qualities. The potential for using wash water biosolids as animal food was investigated. Wash water biosolids from a broad cross section of food processing plants were found to be free from pollutants and other harmful entities. Nutrient composition varied considerably within and among different types of food processing plants (i.e., milk vs poultry). However, within a particular plant, variation in mineral concentration of biosolids over several months was quite small. Wash water biosolids from a milk processing plant were found to be free of pollutants and to have nutritional value. Diets containing biosolids were palatable when fed to sheep, cows, turkeys, or swine. Safety and efficacy studies with sheep and swine indicated that feeding up to 20% biosolids did not adversely affect growth, reproduction or survival.

  6. Biodegradation of triclosan in biosolids-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Waria, Manmeet; O'Connor, George A; Toor, Gurpal S

    2011-11-01

    Land application of biosolids can constitute an important source of triclosan (TCS) input to soils, with uncertain effects. Several studies have investigated the degradation potential of TCS in biosolids-amended soils, but the results vary widely. We conducted a laboratory degradation study by mixing biosolids spiked with [¹⁴C]-TCS (final concentration = 40 mg/kg) with Immokalee fine sand and Ashkum silty clay loam soils at an agronomic application rate (22 Mg/ha). Biosolids-amended soils were aerobically incubated in biotic and inhibited conditions for 18 weeks. Subsamples removed at 0, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 weeks were sequentially extracted with an operationally defined extraction scheme to determine labile and nonlabile TCS fractions. Over the 18-week incubation, the proportion of [¹⁴C] in the nonlabile fraction increased and the labile fraction decreased, suggesting decreasing availability to biota. Partitioning of TCS into labile and nonlabile fractions depended on soil characteristics. Less than 0.5% of [¹⁴C]-TCS was mineralized to carbon dioxide (¹⁴CO₂) in both soils and all treatments. A degradation metabolite, methyl triclosan (Me-TCS), was identified in both soils only in the biotic treatment, and increased in concentration over time. Even under biotic conditions, biosolids-borne TCS is persistent, with a primary degradation (TCS to Me-TCS) half-life of 78 d in the silty clay loam and 421 d in the fine sand. A half-life of approximately 100 d would be a conservative first approximation of TCS half-life in biosolids-amended soils for risk estimation.

  7. The phytoavailability of cadmium to lettuce in long-term biosolids-amended soils

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.L.; Chaney, R.L.; Angle, J.S.; Ryan, J.A.

    1998-09-01

    A field study was conducted to assess the phytoavailability of Cd in long-term biosolids-amended plots managed at high and low pH. The experiment, established 13 to 15 yr prior to the present cropping, on a Christiana fine sandy loam soil used a variety of biosolids. Two of the biosolids had total Cd concentrations of 13.4 and 210 mg kg{sup {minus}1}. A Cd salt treatment, with Cd added to soil at a rate equivalent to the Cd added by the higher Cd biosolids applied at 100 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}, was also included. The lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia) cultivar (Paris Island Cos) used in the initial study was also used in the current study. Lettuce Cd was compared between treatments, and in relation to the soil Cd/soil organic C (OC) ratio. There has been no significant increase in plant Cd since the initial cropping. With 16% of the biosolids added OC remaining, lettuce grown on the soil amended with the more contaminated biosolids was not different than that of the initial cropping. Further, significantly less Cd was taken up by lettuce grown on biosolids-amended soil than lettuce grown on soil amended with equivalent rates of Cd salt. The Cd concentration in lettuce grown in the low Cd biosolids treatment was not different from the control. These results indicate that the potential hazards associated with food chain transfer of biosolids-applied Cd are substantially lower than equivalent Cd salt treatments, and that the hazards do not increase over time.

  8. Development of a novel, two-step process for treating municipal biosolids for beneficial reuse.

    PubMed

    Rivard, C J; Duff, B W; Nagle, N J

    1998-01-01

    Modern municipal sewage waste treatment plants use conventional mechanical and biological processes to reclaim wastewaters. This process has an overall effect of converting a water pollution problem into a solid waste disposal problem (sludges or biosolids). An estimated 10 million tons of biosolids, which require final disposal, are produced annually in the United States. Although numerous disposal options for biosolids are available, including land application, landfilling, and incineration, disposal costs have risen, partly because of increased federal and local environmental restrictions. A novel, thermomechanical biosolids pre-treatment process, which allows for a variety of potential value-added uses, was developed. This two-step process first employs thermal explosive decompression to inactivate or kill the microbial cells and viruses. This primary step also results in the rupture of a small amount of the microbial biomass and increases the intrinsic fluidity of the biosolids. The second step uses shear to effect a near-complete rupturing of the microbial biomass, and shears the nondigested organics, which increases the overall surface area. Pretreated biosolids may be subjected to a secondary anaerobic digestion process to produce additional fuel gas, and to provide for a high-quality, easily dewatered compost product. This novel biosolids pretreatment process was recently allowed a United States patent.

  9. Development of failure scenarios for biosolids land application risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Galada, Heather C; Gurian, Patrick L; Olson, Mira S; Teng, Jingjie; Kumar, Arun; Wardell, Michael; Eggers, Sara; Casman, Elizabeth

    2013-02-01

    Although deviations from standard guidance for land application of biosolids occur in practice, their importance is largely unknown. A list of such deviations (plausible failure scenarios) were identified at a workshop of industry, regulators, and academic professionals. Next, a survey of similar professionals was conducted to rank the plausible failure scenarios according to their severity, frequency, incentive to ignore control measures, gaps in existing control processes, public concern, and overall concern. Survey participants rated intentional dumping (unpermitted disposal) as the most severe of the failure scenarios, lack of worker protection as the most frequent scenario, and application of Class A biosolids that have failed to meet treatment standards as the scenario for which incentives to ignore control measures are highest. Failure of public access restrictions to application sites was the scenario for which existing controls were judged the weakest; application of biosolids too close to wells was ranked highest for public concern and for overall concern. Two scenarios for which existing controls were considered weaker, site restriction violations and animal contact leading to human exposure, were also rated as frequently occurring. Both scenarios are related in that they (1) involve inappropriate access to a site before the required time has elapsed, and (2) could be addressed through similar biosolids management measures. PMID:23472330

  10. Biosolids composting in Davenport, Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Boyette, R.A.; Williams, T.; Plett, S.

    1996-09-01

    The City of Davenport, Iowa constructed an aerated static pile composting facility to process 28 dry tons per day of dewatered biosolids and 25,000 cubic yards per year of yard wastes. This is the first large totally enclosed aerated static pile biosolids composting facility to be built in several years in the US. Design of the facility was completed in March 1994, construction began in July 1994, with substantial completion of the facility in August 1995. This paper outlines the major operating systems and describes the major components of the facility. The facility processes all of the City`s anaerobically digested biosolids which is currently dewatered by belt filter presses to 20% solids. Yard wastes are used as the primary bulking agent supplemented by wood chips and shredded rubber tires to minimize O and M costs. A mechanized continuous feed mixing system consisting of hoppers, conveyors, and pugmill mixers is used to combine bulk agents with the dewatered biosolids to the desired ratio for composting. Composting and drying of these materials occurs in a totally enclosed pre-fabricated metal building for maximum environmental control and odor control. Multiple aeration stations provide both positive and negative aeration through pre-cast aeration trenches beneath compost piles.

  11. Chemical, physical and microbial properties and microbial diversity in manufactured soils produced from co-composting green waste and biosolids.

    PubMed

    Belyaeva, O N; Haynes, R J; Sturm, E C

    2012-12-01

    The effects of adding biosolids to a green waste feedstock (100% green waste, 25% v/v biosolids or 50% biosolids) on the properties of composted products were investigated. Following initial composting, 20% soil or 20% fly ash/river sand mix was added to the composts as would be carried out commercially to produce manufactured soil. Temperatures during composting reached 50 °C, or above, for 23 days when biosolids were included as a composting feedstock but temperatures barely reached 40 °C when green waste alone was composted. Addition of biosolids to the feedstock increased total N, EC, extractable NH(4), NO(3) and P but lowered pH, macroporosity, water holding capacity, microbial biomass C and basal respiration in composts. Additions of soil or ash/sand to the composts greatly increased the available water holding capacity of the materials. Principal component analysis (PCA) of PCR-DGGE 16S rDNA amplicons separated bacterial communities according to addition of soil to the compost. For fungal ITS-RNA amplicons, PCA separated communities based on the addition of biosolids. Bacterial species richness and Shannon's diversity index were greatest for composts where soil had been added but for fungal communities these parameters were greatest in the treatments where 50% biosolids had been included. These results were interpreted in relation to soil having an inoculation effect and biosolids having an acidifying effect thereby favouring a fungal community. PMID:22770779

  12. A critical review of nitrogen mineralization in biosolids-amended soil, the associated fertilizer value for crop production and potential for emissions to the environment.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Hannah; Clarke, Bradley O; Pritchard, Deborah L; Meehan, Barry; Beshah, Firew; Smith, Stephen R; Porter, Nichola A

    2016-01-15

    , compared to cooler temperate areas. It is also probably influenced by differences in upstream wastewater treatment processes that affect the balance of primary and secondary, biological sludges in the final combined sludge output from wastewater treatment, as well as the relative effectiveness of sludge stabilization treatments at specific sites. Better characterization of biosolids used in N release and mineralization investigations is therefore necessary to improve comparison of system conditions. Furthermore, the review suggested that some international fertilizer recommendations may underestimate mineralizable N in biosolids, and the N fertilizer value. Consequently, greater inputs of supplementary mineral fertilizer N may be supplied than are required for crop production, potentially increasing the risk of fertilizer N emissions to the environment. Thus greater economic and environmental savings in mineral N fertilizer application are potentially possible than are currently realized from biosolids recycling programmes. PMID:26476511

  13. A critical review of nitrogen mineralization in biosolids-amended soil, the associated fertilizer value for crop production and potential for emissions to the environment.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Hannah; Clarke, Bradley O; Pritchard, Deborah L; Meehan, Barry; Beshah, Firew; Smith, Stephen R; Porter, Nichola A

    2016-01-15

    , compared to cooler temperate areas. It is also probably influenced by differences in upstream wastewater treatment processes that affect the balance of primary and secondary, biological sludges in the final combined sludge output from wastewater treatment, as well as the relative effectiveness of sludge stabilization treatments at specific sites. Better characterization of biosolids used in N release and mineralization investigations is therefore necessary to improve comparison of system conditions. Furthermore, the review suggested that some international fertilizer recommendations may underestimate mineralizable N in biosolids, and the N fertilizer value. Consequently, greater inputs of supplementary mineral fertilizer N may be supplied than are required for crop production, potentially increasing the risk of fertilizer N emissions to the environment. Thus greater economic and environmental savings in mineral N fertilizer application are potentially possible than are currently realized from biosolids recycling programmes.

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND REVIEW OF MONITORING METHODS AND RISK ASSESSMENT MODELS USED TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF BIOSOLIDS LAND APPLICATION ON HUMAN HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development and Review of monitoring methods and risk assessment models for biosolids land application impacts on air and land

    Ronald F Herrmann (NRMRL), Mike Broder (NCEA), and Mike Ware (NERL)

    Science Questions .

    MYP Science Question: What additional model...

  15. Low Cost Remediation of Mining Sites with Biosolids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Walter; Evanylo, Gregory; Stuczynski, Tomasz

    2010-05-01

    This paper will present collective results of 25 years of research by the authors into the use of municipal biosolids (sewage sludge) and other residuals to reclaim sites disturbed by a range of mining and construction activities. Loading rate experiments and demonstrations have been conducted on areas drastically disturbed by coal mining, sand mining, heavy mineral mining, urbanization, airport construction and heavy metal processing. At all sites, the post-mining soils were devoid of organic matter, very low in nutrients and frequently quite acidic. At all sites, addition of biosolids at higher than agronomic rates resulted in complete stabilization of the resultant mine soils and vigorous stable vegetation that persisted for > 5 years and has allowed enhanced invasion of native herbaceous species. Application of higher rates is not compatible with establishment of certain native tree species (e.g. Pinus sp.), however, due to adverse effects of soluble salts, nutrient enrichment and enhanced competition by grasses. An underlying goal of this program has been to develop approaches that use higher than agronomic rates of biosolids while simultaneously minimizing losses of N and P to local ground- and surface-waters. In the early 1980's, working on USA coal mining spoils, we determined that that approximately 100 Mg/ha of secondary cake biosolids was optimal for revegetation with herbaceous species, but water quality monitoring was not a concern at that time. This finding raised concerns, however, that the large amounts of total N applied (> 2500 kg/ha) would lead to nitrate-N contamination of local waters. Subsequent work in the early 1990's indicated that similar rates of biosolids could be mixed with woodchips (high palatable C source) and land-applied to large (> 100 ha) coal mining sites with no losses of nitrate-N to surface or ground-water due to microbial immobilization of the applied N. Follow-up work at three sand mining (sand & gravel and mineral sands

  16. Path Analyses of Grain P, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni in a Biosolids-Amended Dryland Wheat Agroecosystem.

    PubMed

    Barbarick, Kenneth A; Ippolito, James A; McDaniel, Jacob P

    2016-07-01

    Land application of biosolids is an effective means of recycling plant nutrients and is the primary method of biosolids reuse endorsed by the USEPA. One issue concerning biosolids application is the extent of the contribution of biosolids-borne plant nutrients to the overall crop concentration and uptake or removal of these nutrients. We studied the effects of biosolids application on wheat ( L.) grain P, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni concentrations and uptake (removal) at two dryland agroecosystem sites from 1993 to 2014. We hypothesized that biosolids would have the greatest impact on wheat grain and uptake compared with ammonium bicarbonate-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (AB-DTPA)-extractable nutrient levels, soil pH, or soil organic C concentrations. We used path analyses in combination with multiple linear regression to differentiate the direct, indirect, and total effects of cumulative biosolids applications, soil AB-DTPA, soil pH, and organic C. Biosolids rates, applied biennially from 1993 to 2014 at the beginning of a wheat-fallow rotation, were 0, 2.24, 4.48, 6.72, 8.96, and 11.2 Mg ha. None of the parameters had significant direct, indirect, or total effects on grain concentrations. Biosolids applications had the greatest positive direct impact compared with AB-DTPA levels, soil pH, or soil organic C on P, Zn, Fe, and Ni uptake (removal), whereas AB-DTPA had the greatest positive direct impact on Cu uptake. Soil AB-DTPA, pH, and organic C directly affected some grain concentrations and cumulative uptake, but no consistent trends were noted. This pathway approach allowed differentiation between causation and simple correlation for the effects of cumulative biosolids applications on wheat P, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni cumulative uptake but did not provide these same results for grain concentrations. PMID:27380090

  17. Earthworm bioassays and seedling emergence for monitoring toxicity, aging and bioaccumulation of anthropogenic waste indicator compounds in biosolids-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Chad A; Campbell, Bryan R; Thompson, Regina; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Burkhardt, Mark R; Zaugg, Steven D; Werner, Stephen L; Hay, Anthony G

    2012-09-01

    Land application of biosolids (treated sewage sludge) can be an important route for introducing xenobiotic compounds into terrestrial environments. There is a paucity of available information on the effects of biosolids amendment on terrestrial organisms. In this study, the influence of biosolids and biosolids aging on earthworm (Eisenia fetida) reproduction and survival and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling emergence was investigated. Earthworms were exposed to soils amended with varying quantities of biosolids (0, 1, 2, 3, or 4% dry mass). To investigate the influence of biosolids aging, the biosolids used in the study were aged for differing lengths of time (2 or 8 weeks) prior to exposure. All of the adult earthworms survived in the biosolids-amended soils at all concentrations that were aged for 2 weeks; however, only 20% of the adults survived in the soil amended with the highest concentration of biosolids and aged for 8 weeks. Reproduction as measured by mean number of juveniles and unhatched cocoons produced per treatment correlated inversely with biosolids concentration, although the effects were generally more pronounced in the 8-week aged biosolids-soil samples. Latent seedling emergence and reduced seedling fitness correlated inversely with biosolids concentration, but these effects were tempered in the 8-week aged versus the 2-week aged soil-biosolids mixtures. Anthropogenic waste indicator compounds (AWIs) were measured in the biosolids, biosolids-soil mixtures, and earthworm samples. Where possible, bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated or estimated. A wide variety of AWIs were detected in the biosolids (51 AWIs) and earthworm samples (≤19 AWI). The earthworms exposed to the 8-week aged biosolids-soil mixtures tended to accumulate greater quantities of AWIs compared to the 2-week aged mixture, suggesting that the bioavailability of some AWIs was enhanced with aging. The BAFs for a given AWI varied with treatment. Notably large BAFs were

  18. Characterization of the biosolids composting process by hyperspectral analysis.

    PubMed

    Ilani, Talli; Herrmann, Ittai; Karnieli, Arnon; Arye, Gilboa

    2016-02-01

    Composted biosolids are widely used as a soil supplement to improve soil quality. However, the application of immature or unstable compost can cause the opposite effect. To date, compost maturation determination is time consuming and cannot be done at the composting site. Hyperspectral spectroscopy was suggested as a simple tool for assessing compost maturity and quality. Nevertheless, there is still a gap in knowledge regarding several compost maturation characteristics, such as dissolved organic carbon, NO3, and NH4 contents. In addition, this approach has not yet been tested on a sample at its natural water content. Therefore, in the current study, hyperspectral analysis was employed in order to characterize the biosolids composting process as a function of composting time. This goal was achieved by correlating the reflectance spectra in the range of 400-2400nm, using the partial least squares-regression (PLS-R) model, with the chemical properties of wet and oven-dried biosolid samples. The results showed that the proposed method can be used as a reliable means to evaluate compost maturity and stability. Specifically, the PLS-R model was found to be an adequate tool to evaluate the biosolids' total carbon and dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen and dissolved nitrogen, and nitrate content, as well as the absorbance ratio of 254/365nm (E2/E3) and C/N ratios in the dry and wet samples. It failed, however, to predict the ammonium content in the dry samples since the ammonium evaporated during the drying process. It was found that in contrast to what is commonly assumed, the spectral analysis of the wet samples can also be successfully used to build a model for predicting the biosolids' compost maturity. PMID:26680688

  19. Evaluation of a biosolids minimization system

    SciTech Connect

    Bizier, P.A.

    1999-07-01

    The Micronair{trademark} residuals management system has been described by its manufacturer as a zero biosolids system. The system consists of three main parts--RAS screening, inerts removal, and an extremely fine bubble aeration system for the digester. The system's design assumes that trash and other non-biodegradable materials make up the bulk of residuals which would normally be digested. If these materials are removed, then the remaining biological material is assumed to biodegrade to either inerts or dissolved materials. This paper presents additional background on the design and operation of the residuals handling system. In addition, actual data from the facility detailing the operation of the residuals handling system. In addition, actual data from the facility detailing the operation of the Micronair{trademark} system since its initial start-up is provided. Finally, the benefits and drawbacks of the existing system are discussed and points for consideration in future installations identified.

  20. Recycling biosolids and lake-dredged materials to pasture-based animal agriculture: Alternative nutrient sources for forage productivity and sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic sewage sludge or biosolids and lake-dredged materials are examples of materials that can be used to cut fertilizer costs in pasture-based animal agriculture. Sustainable biosolids and lake-dredged materials management is based upon controlling and influencing the quantity, quality and chara...

  1. Phosphorus and cadmium availability in soil fertilized with biosolids and ashes.

    PubMed

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Brännvall, Evelina; Wolters, Martin; Skoglund, Nils; Čirba, Stasys; Aksamitauskas, Vladislovas Česlovas

    2016-05-01

    The recycling of hygienized municipal sewage sludge (biosolids) to soil as the source of phosphorus (P) is generally encouraged. The use of biosolids, however, has some concerns, such as the presence of elevated concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements, and the possible presence of pathogens, hormones and antibiotics. Organic substances are destroyed during combustion whereas trace elements could partly be separated from P in different ash fractions. Biomass combustion waste (ash) can instead be considered as an alternative P source. This study evaluates and compares the impact of biosolids and their combustion residues (ashes), when used as fertilizers, on P and Cd solubility in soil, plant growth and plant uptake of these elements. Biosolids were also amended with K and Ca to improve the composition and properties of P in ashes, and incinerated at either 800 °C or 950 °C. Combustion of biosolids improved the Cd/P ratio in ashes by 2-5 times, compared with the initial biosolids. The low Cd content in ashes (4-9 mg Cd (kg P)(-1)) makes this material a particularly attractive alternative to mineral fertilizers. Significantly higher pore water P (as well as total N) was measured in soils containing biosolids, but plants produced a higher biomass in soil fertilized with ashes. The K and Ca amendments prior to biosolids combustion generally decreased the total Cd in ash, but had little effect on P and Cd uptake and biomass growth. Similarly, the combustion temperature had negligible effect on these factors as well. PMID:26933903

  2. Wind erosion potential following application of biosolids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of biosolids to agricultural land has the potential to improve soil health and crop production. These benefits could also possibly reduce the threat of wind erosion in arid and semiarid regions. Therefore, we assessed the impact of biosolids on wind erosion of agricultural land at Li...

  3. Vegetation success, seepage, and erosion on tailing sites reclaimed with cattle and biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, J.; Jones, B.; Milczarek, M.; Hammermeister, D.; Word, J.

    1999-07-01

    Reclamation field studies were designed at the Phelps Dodge Morenci Mine in Arizona to evaluate the benefits of biosolids, cattle impact, and other treatment variables on soil-capped tailings. First-year monitoring has provided preliminary data about soil chemical and physical parameters, soil matrix potential profiles, erosion, and vegetation measurements of ground cover, biomass production and frequency. Plots were first seeded in January 1998 with a cover crop of oats or barley. Plots were seeded again in August 1998 with native and native plus non-native plant species. Early productivity from the second seeding was inversely related to seedling density. Plots capped with unamended Gila conglomerate (Gila) materials contained meager plant nutrient levels and produced numerous small seedlings that were poorly rooted and had little standing biomass. Vegetation on the cattle and biosolids treatments was vigorous and productive but at a much lower density than unamended Gila plots. Cattle treatment added little plant-nutrient value to the Gila cap compared to biosolids amendment. However, high rates of biosolids brought excessive salinity. Straw from the cattle treatment provided an effective mulch to improve soil moisture storage but increased the potential for deep seepage. Unamended Gila and biosolids plots had intermediate moisture storage and a modest potential for seepage compared to bare tailings. Mulch cover plus a lower rate of biosolids on Gila is seen as a promising, cost-effective amendment combination for future evaluation.

  4. Bioavailability of heavy metals in strongly acidic soils treated with exceptional quality biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    Basta, N.T.; Sloan, J.J.

    1999-03-01

    New federal regulations may increase application of exceptional quality (EQ) biosolids to acidic soils, and information on the effect of this practice on bioavailability of heavy metal is limited. The objective of this study was to compare bioavailability of heavy metal in soil treated with nonalkaline or alkaline EQ biosolids with limestone-treated soils. Three acidic soils (pH 3.7--4.3) were treated with three amounts of lime-stabilized biosolids (LS), anaerobic-digested biosolids (AN), or agricultural limestone (L), and incubated at 25 C. Soil solution Cd, Zn, and other chemical constituents were measured at 1, 30, 90, and 180 d incubation. Soil solution Cd and Zn were AN > LS {ge} L, C. Soil solution Cd and Zn increased with AN applied but decreased wit h LS applied. The high application of LS had soil solution Zn dramatically decreased at soil pH > 5.5 and >5.1, respectively. Soil solution Cd and Zn increases were AN > LS with incubation time. Biosolids treatments increased heavy metal in Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and NaOAc fractions. Except for Cd, most metal from biosolids were in EDTA and HNO{sub 3} fractions. Heavy metal bioavailability, measured using lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), was AN > LS {ge} L, C. Although state regulations prohibiting application of nonalkaline EQ biosolids to acidic soil is a prudent practice, application of EQ alkaline biosolids that achieves soil pH > 5 minimizes risk from soil solution Cd and Zn and plant uptake of heavy metal.

  5. Pyrolysis of wastewater biosolids significantly reduces estrogenicity.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, T C; Zitomer, D H; McNamara, P J

    2016-11-01

    Most wastewater treatment processes are not specifically designed to remove micropollutants. Many micropollutants are hydrophobic so they remain in the biosolids and are discharged to the environment through land-application of biosolids. Micropollutants encompass a broad range of organic chemicals, including estrogenic compounds (natural and synthetic) that reside in the environment, a.k.a. environmental estrogens. Public concern over land application of biosolids stemming from the occurrence of micropollutants hampers the value of biosolids which are important to wastewater treatment plants as a valuable by-product. This research evaluated pyrolysis, the partial decomposition of organic material in an oxygen-deprived system under high temperatures, as a biosolids treatment process that could remove estrogenic compounds from solids while producing a less hormonally active biochar for soil amendment. The estrogenicity, measured in estradiol equivalents (EEQ) by the yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay, of pyrolyzed biosolids was compared to primary and anaerobically digested biosolids. The estrogenic responses from primary solids and anaerobically digested solids were not statistically significantly different, but pyrolysis of anaerobically digested solids resulted in a significant reduction in EEQ; increasing pyrolysis temperature from 100°C to 500°C increased the removal of EEQ with greater than 95% removal occurring at or above 400°C. This research demonstrates that biosolids treatment with pyrolysis would substantially decrease (removal>95%) the estrogens associated with this biosolids product. Thus, pyrolysis of biosolids can be used to produce a valuable soil amendment product, biochar, that minimizes discharge of estrogens to the environment. PMID:27344259

  6. Biosolid stockpiles are a significant point source for greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Ramaprasad; Livesley, Stephen J; Gregory, David; Arndt, Stefan K

    2014-10-01

    CH4 production probably because of aerobic stockpile conditions or CH4 oxidation in the outer stockpile layers. Although the GHG emission rate decreased with biosolid age, managers of biosolid stockpiles should assess alternate storage or uses for biosolids to avoid nutrient losses and GHG emissions. PMID:24835360

  7. Biosolid stockpiles are a significant point source for greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Ramaprasad; Livesley, Stephen J; Gregory, David; Arndt, Stefan K

    2014-10-01

    CH4 production probably because of aerobic stockpile conditions or CH4 oxidation in the outer stockpile layers. Although the GHG emission rate decreased with biosolid age, managers of biosolid stockpiles should assess alternate storage or uses for biosolids to avoid nutrient losses and GHG emissions.

  8. Phosphorus availability for beneficial use in biosolids products.

    PubMed

    Hogan, F; McHugh, M; Morton, S

    2001-11-01

    It has become necessary to identify accurately the availability of phosphorus in biosolids products applied to land. The fertiliser value of these products must be quantified not only to satisfy the customer but also to ensure the best use of phosphorus when considering the need to avoid excess concentrations in the wider environment, With the advent of chemical phosphorus removal at more wastewater treatment works, the impact of iron and phosphate availability is particularly important. Existing research has indicated that there is a correlation between phosphate availability, and factors such as biosolids pH and iron concentration. However, it has not yet been possible to draw any firm conclusions, which can be used as a tool to manage the availability of phosphate in practice. Through a joint research programme for Anglian Water, involving literature investigation, laboratory tests on biosolid/soil interactions, and benchmarking phosphate availability over time, the study uses the best available input and output data to indicate the parts of the land bank most at risk from over-enrichment. PMID:11804356

  9. Dynamics of nitrogen in a PAHs contaminated soil amended with biosolid or vermicompost in the presence of earthworms.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Ramos, S M; Alvarez-Bernal, D; Dendooven, L

    2007-05-01

    Nitrogen mineralization in PAHs contaminated soil in presence of Eisenia fetida amended with biosolid or vermicompost was investigated. Sterilized and unsterilized soil was contaminated with PAHs, added with E. fetida and biosolid or vermicompost and incubated aerobically for 70 days, while dynamics of inorganic N were monitored. Addition of E. fetida to sterilized soil increased concentration of NH(4)(+) 100> mg N kg(-1), while concentrations in unsterilized remained <60 mg N kg(-1) except for soil amended with biosolid plus PAHs where it increased to >80 mg kg(-1). Addition of PAHs had no significant effect on concentration of NH(4)(+) compared to the unamended soil, except in the soil added with biosolid. Addition of E. fetida to sterilized soil increased concentration of NO(2)(-) 15> mg N kg(-1) while concentrations in unsterilized soil remained <7.5 mg N kg(-1) except for soil amended with biosolid where it increased to >20 mg kg(-1). Addition of PAHs had no significant effect on concentration of NO(2)(-) compared to the unamended soil. Addition of biosolid and vermicompost increased concentration of NO(3)(-), while addition of E. fetida decreased concentration of NO(3)(-) in biosolid amended soil. It was found that NH(4)(+) and NO(2)(-) oxidizers were present in the gut of E. fetida, but their activity was not sufficient enough to inhibit a temporarily increase in concentrations of NH(4)(+) and NO(2)(-). Contamination with PAHs induced immobilization of N in biosolid or vermicompost amended soil, as did feeding of E. fetida on biosolid or vermicompost.

  10. Improvements in biosolids quality resulting from the Clean Water Act.

    PubMed

    Hundal, Lakhwinder S; Kumar, Kuldip; Cox, Albert; Zhang, Heng; Granato, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Promulgation of the Clean Water Act (CWA) authorized the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) to regulate quality standards for surface waters and establish regulations limiting the amounts and types of pollutants entering the nation's waters. U.S. EPA imposed national pretreatment standards on industrial wastes discharged to the collection systems of publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and promulgated General Pretreatment Regulations in 1978. This study analyzed trace metals data from the National Sewage Sludge Surveys conducted by U.S. EPA and the American Metropolitan Sewage Agencies (AMSA) to evaluate the effect of implementation of the national industrial pretreatment standards on concentrations of trace metals in sludges generated by POTWs in the United States. The data showed that implementation of pretreatment programs has been highly effective in reducing the amount of pollutants that enter POTWs and has resulted in a substantial reduction in the levels of trace metals in the municipal sludges. Concentrations of chromium, lead, and nickel in sludge declined by 78, 73, and 63%, respectively, within a year after promulgation of General Pretreatment Regulations. Resulting from these measures, metal concentrations in the sludges generated by a majority of POTWs in the United States are sufficiently low that the sludges can be classified as biosolids and also meet the U.S. EPA's exceptional quality criteria for trace metals in biosolids. This improvement gives POTWs the option to use their biosolids beneficially through land application. PMID:24645543

  11. Management practice effects on phosphorus losses in runoff in corn production systems.

    PubMed

    Bundy, L G; Andraski, T W; Powell, J M

    2001-01-01

    Phosphorus losses in runoff from cropland can contribute to nonpoint-source pollution of surface waters. Management practices in corn (Zea mays L.) production systems may influence P losses. Field experiments with treatments including differing soil test P levels, tillage and manure application combinations, and manure and biosolids application histories were used to assess these management practice effects on P losses. Runoff from simulated rainfall (76 mm h(-1)) was collected from 0.83-m2 areas for 1 h after rainfall initiation and analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP), bioavailable P, total P (TP), and sediment. In no-till corn, both DRP concentration and load increased as Bray P1 soil test (STP) increased from 8 to 62 mg kg(-1). A 5-yr history of manure or biosolids application greatly increased STP and DRP concentrations in runoff. The 5-yr manure treatment had higher DRP concentration but lower DRP load than the 5-yr biosolids treatment, probably due to residue accumulation and lower runoff in the manure treatment. Studies of tillage and manure application effects on P losses showed that tillage to incorporate manure generally lowered runoff DRP concentration but increased TP concentration and loads due to increased sediment loss. Management practices have a major influence on P losses in runoff in corn production systems that may overshadow the effects of STP alone. Results from this work, showing that some practices may have opposite effects on DRP vs. TP losses, emphasize the need to design management recommendations to minimize losses of those P forms with the greatest pollution potential.

  12. Potential for enhanced phytoremediation of landfills using biosolids--a review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwon-Rae; Owens, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Despite the use of recyclable materials increasing worldwide, waste disposal to landfill remains the most common method of waste management because it is simple and relatively inexpensive. Although landfill disposal is an effective waste management system, if not managed correctly, a number of potential detrimental environmental impacts have been identified including soil and ground water contamination, leachate generation, and gas emissions. In particular, improper post-closure treatment of landfills or deterioration of the conventional clay landfill capping were shown to result in land degradation which required remediation to secure contaminants within the landfill site. Phytoremediation is an attractive technology for landfill remediation, as it can stabilize soil and simultaneously remediate landfill leachate. In addition, landfill phytoremediation systems can potentially be combined with landfill covers (Phytocapping) for hydrological control of infiltrated rainfall. However, for the successful application of any phytoremediation system, the effective establishment of appropriate, desired vegetation is critical. This is because the typically harsh and sterile nature of landfill capping soil limits the sustainable establishment of vegetation. Therefore, the physicochemical properties of landfill capping soils often need to be improved by incorporating soil amendments. Biosolids are a common soil amendment and will often meet these demanding conditions because they contain a variety of plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphate, potassium, as well as a large proportion of organic matter. Such amendment will also ameliorate the physical properties of the capping soils by increasing porosity, moisture content, and soil aggregation. Contaminants which potentially originate from biosolids will also be remediated by activities congruent with the establishment of plants and bacteria.

  13. SAMPLE COLLECTION AND HANDLING FOR MICROBIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this presentation is to discuss sample collection and handling methods currently in use for detection and enumeration of microorganisms in biosolids and municipal wastewater sludges. Untreated sludges and biosolids are rarely homogeneous and present a challenge ...

  14. Evaluation Of Odors Associated With Land Application Of Biosolids

    EPA Science Inventory

    An odor study was performed at a biosolids application demonstration site using several different gas collection devices and analytical methods to determine changes in air concentration of several organic and inorganic compounds associated with biosolids application over various ...

  15. MICROORGANISMS IN BIOSOLIDS: ANALYTICAL METHODS DEVELOPMENT, STANDARDIZATION, AND VALIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this presentation is to discuss pathogens of concern in biosolids, the analytical techniques used to evaluate microorganisms in biosolids, and to discuss standardization and validation of analytical protocols for microbes within such a complex matrix. Implicatio...

  16. Effects of sludge retention time on oxic-settling-anoxic process performance: Biosolids reduction and dewatering properties.

    PubMed

    Semblante, Galilee U; Hai, Faisal I; Bustamante, Heriberto; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on oxic-settling-anoxic (OSA) process was determined using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) attached to external aerobic/anoxic reactors. The SRT of the external reactors was varied from 10 to 40d. Increasing SRT from 10 to 20d enhanced volatile solids destruction in the external anoxic reactor as evidenced by the release of nutrients, however, increasing the SRT to 40d did not enhance volatile solids destruction further. Relatively short SRT (10-20d) favoured the conversion of destroyed solids into inert products. The application of an intermediate SRT (20d) of the external reactor showed the highest sludge reduction performance (>35%). Moreover, at the optimum SRT, OSA improved sludge dewaterability as demonstrated by lower capillary suction time and higher dewatered cake solids content. PMID:27474952

  17. Terrestrial ecological risk evaluation for triclosan in land-applied biosolids.

    PubMed

    Fuchsman, Phyllis; Lyndall, Jennifer; Bock, Michael; Lauren, Darrel; Barber, Timothy; Leigh, Katrina; Perruchon, Elyse; Capdevielle, Marie

    2010-07-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial compound found in many consumer products including soaps and personal care products. Most triclosan is disposed of down household drains, whereupon it is conveyed to wastewater treatment plants. Although a high percentage of triclosan biodegrades during wastewater treatment, most of the remainder is adsorbed to sludge, which may ultimately be applied to land as biosolids. We evaluated terrestrial ecological risks related to triclosan in land-applied biosolids for soil microbes, plants, soil invertebrates, mammals, and birds. Exposures are estimated using a probabilistic fugacity-based model. Triclosan concentrations in biosolids and reported biosolids application rates are compiled to support estimation of triclosan concentrations in soil. Concentrations in biota tissue are estimated using an equilibrium partitioning model for plants and worms and a steady-state model for small mammals; the resulting tissue concentrations are used to model mammalian and avian dietary exposures. Toxicity benchmarks are identified from a review of published and proprietary studies. The results indicate that adverse effects related to soil fertility (i.e., disruption of nitrogen cycling) would be expected only under "worst-case" exposures, under certain soil conditions and would likely be transient. The available data indicate that adverse effects on plants, invertebrates, birds, and mammals due to triclosan in land-applied biosolids are unlikely.

  18. THE PHYTOAVAILABILITY OF CADMIUM TO LETTUCE IN LONG-TERM BIOSOLIDS-AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field study was conducted to assess the phytoavailability of Cd in long-term biosolids-amended field plots managed at high and low pH. The experiment, established 13-15 yr prior to the present cropping, on a Christiana fine sandy loam soil (a clayey, kaolinitic, mesic Typic Pa...

  19. EVALUATION OF BACTERIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF DISINFECTION FOR ALKALINE TREATED BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, treated municipal sludge, also known as biosolids, may be land applied with certain site restrictions. According to U.S. regulations a Class B biosolid is any biosolid that following appropriate treatment, meets the criterion of 2 million or less fecal coli...

  20. Can biosolids reduce wind erosion of agricultural soils?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of biosolids to agricultural land has the potential to improve soil health and crop production. In addition, organic material contained in biosolids may enhance biological activity, retention of soil water, and soil aggregation. Thus, there is a likelihood that biosolids applied to s...

  1. A STUDY OF LAND APPLICATION OF ANAEROBICALLY DIGESTED BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field-scale research project was conducted in 2004-2005 to evaluate land application of anaerobically digested biosolids at agronomic levels. Biosolids had not been applied to this land previously. For this study, biosolids wee applied in a 100-m diameter circle by a side dis...

  2. Predicting plant available nitrogen in land-applied biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, J.T.; Skinner, V.

    1999-08-01

    The rate at which biosolids (municipal sewage sludge) may be applied to land is dependent on factors including concentrations of metals, pathogens, toxic organic compounds, and nutrients. Where other properties are not limiting, land application rates are often based on matching crop N needs with the plant available N (PAN). The objectives of this study were to quantify biosolids PAN under field conditions and to propose methods including computer simulation to estimate biosolids PAN in a land application program. Six biosolids were evaluated over a 2-yr period. Laboratory incubations were used to obtain decomposition kinetics. Field studies provided a relationship between inorganic fertilizer N rate and sorghum sudangrass [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] tissue N concentration, which was used to determine biosolids PAN in a Captina silt loam soil. Biosolids PAN released during the field experiment was linearly related to biosolids C/N ratio, organic N, or total N. Computer model predictions of PAN in the field were also linearly related to field estimates of biosolids PAN. Decay series obtained using the computer model, average biosolids decomposition kinetics, and average application site weather were very similar to decay series obtained using the computer model, actual weather, and kinetic data. Either decay series and routine analytical data for biosolids are proposed to estimate PAN for a given situation. Use of the computer model and weather data makes the approach site-specific, while analytical data for a specific biosolids makes the approach biosolids-specific.

  3. ADSORPTION OF CADMIUM ON BIOSOLIDS-AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A considerable controversy exists over the biosolid phase (organic or inorganic) responsible for the reduction in phytoavailable Cd in soils amended with biosolids as compared to soils amended with inorganic salts. To test the importance of these two phases, 2 biosolids, 15 bioso...

  4. Fate of triclosan and methyltriclosan in soil from biosolids application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosolids contain synthetic chemicals that have the potential to alter soil microbial communities and disrupt endocrine functions if they move offsite. In this study, the persistence of triclosan (TCS), an antibacterial compound normally found in biosolids and in soils after biosolids applications ...

  5. Fate of triclosan and methyltriclosan in soil from biosolids application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosolids contain synthetic chemicals that have the potential to alter soil microbial communities and disrupt endocrine functions if they move offsite. The persistence of triclosan (TCS), an antibacterial compound normally found in biosolids and in soils after biosolids applications was evaluated. ...

  6. Towards a comprehensive greenhouse gas emissions inventory for biosolids.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Gaitan, J P; Short, Michael D; Lundie, Sven; Stuetz, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Effective handling and treatment of the solids fraction from advanced wastewater treatment operations carries a substantial burden for water utilities relative to the total economic and environmental impacts from modern day wastewater treatment. While good process-level data for a range of wastewater treatment operations are becoming more readily available, there remains a dearth of high quality operational data for solids line processes in particular. This study seeks to address this data gap by presenting a suite of high quality, process-level life cycle inventory data covering a range of solids line wastewater treatment processes, extending from primary treatment through to biosolids reuse in agriculture. Within the study, the impacts of secondary treatment technology and key parameters such as sludge retention time, activated sludge age and primary-to-waste activated sludge ratio (PS:WAS) on the life cycle inventory data of solids processing trains for five model wastewater treatment plant configurations are presented. BioWin(®) models are calibrated with real operational plant data and estimated electricity consumption values were reconciled against overall plant energy consumption. The concept of "representative crop" is also introduced in order to reduce the uncertainty associated with nitrous oxide emissions and soil carbon sequestration offsets under biosolids land application scenarios. Results indicate that both the treatment plant biogas electricity offset and the soil carbon sequestration offset from land-applied biosolids, represent the main greenhouse gas mitigation opportunities. In contrast, fertiliser offsets are of relatively minor importance in terms of the overall life cycle emissions impacts. Results also show that fugitive methane emissions at the plant, as well as nitrous oxide emissions both at the plant and following agricultural application of biosolids, are significant contributors to the overall greenhouse gas balance and combined are

  7. Towards a comprehensive greenhouse gas emissions inventory for biosolids.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Gaitan, J P; Short, Michael D; Lundie, Sven; Stuetz, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Effective handling and treatment of the solids fraction from advanced wastewater treatment operations carries a substantial burden for water utilities relative to the total economic and environmental impacts from modern day wastewater treatment. While good process-level data for a range of wastewater treatment operations are becoming more readily available, there remains a dearth of high quality operational data for solids line processes in particular. This study seeks to address this data gap by presenting a suite of high quality, process-level life cycle inventory data covering a range of solids line wastewater treatment processes, extending from primary treatment through to biosolids reuse in agriculture. Within the study, the impacts of secondary treatment technology and key parameters such as sludge retention time, activated sludge age and primary-to-waste activated sludge ratio (PS:WAS) on the life cycle inventory data of solids processing trains for five model wastewater treatment plant configurations are presented. BioWin(®) models are calibrated with real operational plant data and estimated electricity consumption values were reconciled against overall plant energy consumption. The concept of "representative crop" is also introduced in order to reduce the uncertainty associated with nitrous oxide emissions and soil carbon sequestration offsets under biosolids land application scenarios. Results indicate that both the treatment plant biogas electricity offset and the soil carbon sequestration offset from land-applied biosolids, represent the main greenhouse gas mitigation opportunities. In contrast, fertiliser offsets are of relatively minor importance in terms of the overall life cycle emissions impacts. Results also show that fugitive methane emissions at the plant, as well as nitrous oxide emissions both at the plant and following agricultural application of biosolids, are significant contributors to the overall greenhouse gas balance and combined are

  8. Earthworm bioassays and seedling emergence for monitoring toxicity, aging and bioaccumulation of anthropogenic waste indicator compounds in biosolids-amended soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinney, Chad A.; Campbell, Bryan R.; Thompson, Regina; Furlong, Edward T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Werner, Stephen L.; Hay, Anthony G.

    2012-01-01

    Land application of biosolids (treated sewage sludge) can be an important route for introducing xenobiotic compounds into terrestrial environments. There is a paucity of available information on the effects of biosolids amendment on terrestrial organisms. In this study, the influence of biosolids and biosolids aging on earthworm (Eisenia fetida) reproduction and survival and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling emergence was investigated. Earthworms were exposed to soils amended with varying quantities of biosolids (0, 1, 2, 3, or 4% dry mass). To investigate the influence of biosolids aging, the biosolids used in the study were aged for differing lengths of time (2 or 8 weeks) prior to exposure. All of the adult earthworms survived in the biosolids–amended soils at all concentrations that were aged for 2 weeks; however, only 20% of the adults survived in the soil amended with the highest concentration of biosolids and aged for 8 weeks. Reproduction as measured by mean number of juveniles and unhatched cocoons produced per treatment correlated inversely with biosolids concentration, although the effects were generally more pronounced in the 8-week aged biosolids–soil samples. Latent seedling emergence and reduced seedling fitness correlated inversely with biosolids concentration, but these effects were tempered in the 8-week aged versus the 2-week aged soil–biosolids mixtures. Anthropogenic waste indicator compounds (AWIs) were measured in the biosolids, biosolids–soil mixtures, and earthworm samples. Where possible, bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated or estimated. A wide variety of AWIs were detected in the biosolids (51 AWIs) and earthworm samples (≤ 19 AWI). The earthworms exposed to the 8-week aged biosolids–soil mixtures tended to accumulate greater quantities of AWIs compared to the 2-week aged mixture, suggesting that the bioavailability of some AWIs was enhanced with aging. The BAFs for a given AWI varied with treatment. Notably large

  9. Analytical Results for Municipal Biosolids Samples from a Monitoring Program near Deer Trail, Colorado (U.S.A.), 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Yager, T.J.B.; Berry, C.J.; Adams, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Since late 1993, the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District of Denver (Metro District), a large wastewater treatment plant in Denver, Colorado, has applied Grade I, Class B biosolids to about 52,000 acres of nonirrigated farmland and rangeland near Deer Trail, Colorado (U.S.A.). In cooperation with the Metro District in 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began monitoring ground water at part of this site. In 1999, the USGS began a more comprehensive monitoring study of the entire site to address stakeholder concerns about the potential chemical effects of biosolids applications to water, soil, and vegetation. This more comprehensive monitoring program recently has been extended through 2010. Monitoring components of the more comprehensive study include biosolids collected at the wastewater treatment plant, soil, crops, dust, alluvial and bedrock ground water, and streambed sediment. Streams at the site are dry most of the year, so samples of streambed sediment deposited after rain were used to indicate surface-water effects. This report will present only analytical results for the biosolids samples collected at the Metro District wastewater treatment plant in Denver and analyzed during 2007. We have presented earlier a compilation of analytical results for the biosolids samples collected and analyzed for 1999 through 2006. More information about the other monitoring components is presented elsewhere in the literature. Priority parameters for biosolids identified by the stakeholders and also regulated by Colorado when used as an agricultural soil amendment include the total concentrations of nine trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc), plutonium isotopes, and gross alpha and beta activity. Nitrogen and chromium also were priority parameters for ground water and sediment components. In general, the objective of each component of the study was to determine whether concentrations of priority parameters (1

  10. Leaching and ponding of viral contaminants following land application of biosolids on sandy-loam soil.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kelvin; Harrigan, Tim; Xagoraraki, Irene

    2012-12-15

    Much of the land available for application of biosolids is cropland near urban areas. Biosolids are often applied on hay or grassland during the growing season or on corn ground before planting or after harvest in the fall. In this study, mesophilic anaerobic digested (MAD) biosolids were applied at 56,000 L/ha on a sandy-loam soil over large containment lysimeters seeded to perennial covers of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), or planted annually to maize (Zea mays L.). Portable rainfall simulators were to maintain the lysimeters under a nearly saturated (90%, volumetric basis) conditions. Lysimeter leachate and surface ponded water samples were collected and analyzed for somatic phage, adenoviruses, and anionic (chloride) and microbial (P-22 bacteriophage) tracers. Neither adenovirus nor somatic phage was recovered from the leachate samples. P-22 bacteriophage was found in the leachate of three lysimeters (removal rates ranged from 1.8 to 3.2 log(10)/m). Although the peak of the anionic tracer breakthrough occurred at a similar pore volume in each lysimeter (around 0.3 pore volume) the peak of P-22 breakthrough varied between lysimeters (<0.1, 0.3 and 0.7 pore volume). The early time to peak breakthrough of anionic and microbial tracers indicated preferential flow paths, presumably from soil cracks, root channels, worm holes or other natural phenomena. The concentration of viral contaminants collected in ponded surface water ranged from 1 to 10% of the initial concentration in the applied biosolids. The die off of somatic phage and P-22 in the surface water was fit to a first order decay model and somatic phage reached background level at about day ten. In conclusion, sandy-loam soils can effectively remove/adsorb the indigenous viruses leached from the land-applied biosolids, but there is a potential of viral pollution from runoff following significant rainfall events when biosolids remain on the soil surface. PMID:22885066

  11. Risk assessment of land-applied biosolids-borne triclocarban (TCC).

    PubMed

    Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; O'Connor, George A

    2013-01-01

    Triclocarban (TCC) is monitored under the USEPA High Production Volume (HPV) chemical program and is predominantly used as the active ingredient in select antibacterial bar soaps and other personal care products. The compound commonly occurs at parts-per-million concentrations in processed wastewater treatment residuals (i.e. biosolids), which are frequently land-applied as fertilizers and soil conditioners. Human and ecological risk assessment parameters measured by the authors in previous studies were integrated with existing data to perform a two-tiered human health and ecological risk assessment of land-applied biosolids-borne TCC. The 14 exposure pathways identified in the Part 503 Biosolids Rule were expanded, and conservative screening-level hazard quotients (HQ values) were first calculated to estimate risk to humans and a variety of terrestrial and aquatic organisms (Tier 1). The majority of biosolids-borne TCC exposure pathways resulted in no screening-level HQ values indicative of significant risks to exposed organisms (including humans), even under worst-case land application scenarios. The two pathways for which the conservative screening-level HQ values exceeded one (i.e. Pathway 10: biosolids➔soil➔soil organism➔predator, and Pathway 16: biosolids➔soil➔surface water➔aquatic organism) were then reexamined using modified parameters and scenarios (Tier 2). Adjusted HQ values remained greater than one for Exposure Pathway 10, with the exception of the final adjusted HQ values under a one-time 5 Mg ha(-1) (agronomic) biosolids loading rate scenario for the American woodcock (Scolopax minor) and short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda). Results were used to prioritize recommendations for future biosolids-borne TCC research, which include additional measurements of toxicological effects and TCC concentrations in environmental matrices at the field level.

  12. Risk assessment of land-applied biosolids-borne triclocarban (TCC).

    PubMed

    Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; O'Connor, George A

    2013-01-01

    Triclocarban (TCC) is monitored under the USEPA High Production Volume (HPV) chemical program and is predominantly used as the active ingredient in select antibacterial bar soaps and other personal care products. The compound commonly occurs at parts-per-million concentrations in processed wastewater treatment residuals (i.e. biosolids), which are frequently land-applied as fertilizers and soil conditioners. Human and ecological risk assessment parameters measured by the authors in previous studies were integrated with existing data to perform a two-tiered human health and ecological risk assessment of land-applied biosolids-borne TCC. The 14 exposure pathways identified in the Part 503 Biosolids Rule were expanded, and conservative screening-level hazard quotients (HQ values) were first calculated to estimate risk to humans and a variety of terrestrial and aquatic organisms (Tier 1). The majority of biosolids-borne TCC exposure pathways resulted in no screening-level HQ values indicative of significant risks to exposed organisms (including humans), even under worst-case land application scenarios. The two pathways for which the conservative screening-level HQ values exceeded one (i.e. Pathway 10: biosolids➔soil➔soil organism➔predator, and Pathway 16: biosolids➔soil➔surface water➔aquatic organism) were then reexamined using modified parameters and scenarios (Tier 2). Adjusted HQ values remained greater than one for Exposure Pathway 10, with the exception of the final adjusted HQ values under a one-time 5 Mg ha(-1) (agronomic) biosolids loading rate scenario for the American woodcock (Scolopax minor) and short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda). Results were used to prioritize recommendations for future biosolids-borne TCC research, which include additional measurements of toxicological effects and TCC concentrations in environmental matrices at the field level. PMID:23183124

  13. 17 β-estradiol and 17 α-ethinylestradiol mineralization in sewage sludge and biosolids.

    PubMed

    Rose, Karin P; Farenhorst, Annemieke; Claeys, Anne; Ascef, Bruna

    2014-01-01

    Natural steroid estrogens (e.g., 17 β-estradiol, E2), synthetic steroid estrogens (e.g., 17 α-ethinylestradiol, EE2) and pharmaceutical antibiotics (e.g., ciprofloxacin) are chemicals detected in biosolids and sewage sludges because they partition into the solids fraction during the wastewater treatment process. This research utilized a three-way factorial design (six media × two estrogens × three antibiotic treatments) to quantify cumulative E2 and EE2 mineralization over 133 d (MAX) in a range of sewage sludge and biosolid samples in the presence (4 and 40 mg kg(-1)) and absence of ciprofloxacin. The same three-way factorial design was utilized to quantify the impact of the six media, E2 or EE2, and ciprofloxacin on cumulative soil respiration over 133 d (RESP). Minimal ciprofloxacin mineralization was observed (<0.05% over 133 d), but despite its persistence, ciprofloxacin had no significant effect on MAX of E2 or EE2, and, in general, no significant effect on RESP. MAX ranged from 38.38% to 48.44% for E2 but from only 0.72% to 24.27% for EE2 although RESP was relatively similar, ranging from 101.00 to 866.54 mg CO2 in the presence of E2 and from 69.55 to 893.95 mg CO2 in the presence of EE2. The sorption-limited bioavailability of EE2, which is inherently resistant to biodegradation due to chemical structure, as MAX and Freundlich sorption coefficients (Kf) were negatively correlated. As such, the Kf values of EE2 were largest in composted biosolids in which EE2 was particularly resistant to microbial degradation as the MAX of EE2 was <3%. In contrast, the MAX of E2 showed a positive association with the Kf values of E2 because some steps in the E2 transformation process have been found to occur in the sorbed phase. The MAX of E2 was significantly greater in the biosolid and composted biosolid media than in any other media, whereas the MAX of E2 decreased in the following order: secondary sewage sludge > primary sewage sludge > biosolid = composted

  14. Analytical Results for Municipal Biosolids Samples from a Monitoring Program Near Deer Trail, Colorado (USA), 1999 through 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Yager, T.J.B.; Brown, Z.A.; Adams, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Since late 1993, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District of Denver (Metro District), a large wastewater treatment plant in Denver, Colorado, has applied Grade I, Class B biosolids to about 52,000 acres of non-irrigated farmland and rangeland near Deer Trail, Colorado. In cooperation with the Metro District in 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began monitoring ground water at part of this site (Yager and Arnold, 2003). In 1999, the USGS began a more comprehensive monitoring study of the entire site to address stakeholder concerns about the potential chemical effects of biosolids applications. This more comprehensive monitoring program has recently been extended through 2010. Monitoring components of the more comprehensive study include biosolids collected at the wastewater treatment plant, soil, crops, dust, alluvial and bedrock ground water, and stream bed sediment. Streams at the site are dry most of the year, so samples of stream bed sediment deposited after rain were used to indicate surface-water effects. This report will present only analytical results for the biosolids samples collected at the Metro District wastewater treatment plant in Denver and analyzed during 1999 through 2006. More information about the other monitoring components is presented elsewhere in the literature (e.g., Yager and others, 2004a, 2004b, 2004c, 2004d). Priority parameters for biosolids identified by the stakeholders and also regulated by Colorado when used as an agricultural soil amendment include the total concentrations of nine trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc), plutonium isotopes, and gross alpha and beta activity. Nitrogen and chromium also were priority parameters for ground water and sediment components. In general, the objective of each component of the study was to determine whether concentrations of priority parameters (1) were higher than regulatory limits, (2) were increasing with time, or (3) were

  15. ORD'S RESEARCH ON PATHOGENS IN BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2002 the National Academy of Sciences issued a report on EPA's regulations governing the preparation of class A and B biosolids. They stated that the science supporting the rule was outdated and recommended that EPA develop new standardized methods for measuring pathogens in ...

  16. Endotoxin Studies And Biosolids Stabilization Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation has three parts; a review of bench-scale endotoxin research, a review of observations from a field scale endotoxin release study, and discussion of biosolids stabilization and characterization by PLFA/FAME microbial community analysis. Endotoxins are part of th...

  17. EVALUATION OF BACTERIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF BIOSOLIDS DISINFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the current regulations (CFR 503), Class B biosolids may be land applied with certain site restrictions. One method for achieving Class B status is to raise the pH of the sludge to >12 for a minimum of 2 hours with an alkaline material (normally lime). Alternately, a Clas...

  18. RESTORATION OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS USING BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biosolids in combination with different types of limestone have been applied to metal mine tailings in Bunker Hill, ID, Leadville, Co, Joplin, MO and Tar Creek, OK. For each of these sites, tailings were unable to support a vegetative cover prior to amendment addition. Elevated...

  19. Nitrate and phosphate leaching in a Phaeozem soil treated with biosolids, composted biosolids and inorganic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Esteller, M V; Martínez-Valdés, H; Garrido, S; Uribe, Q

    2009-06-01

    The use of organic wastes in agriculture may increase the production of crops by incorporating organic matter and nutrients into the soil, and by improving its physical characteristics; however, this use may cause environmental problems such as the leaching of certain ions. The objective of this study was to establish possible nitrogen and phosphorus leaching under real field conditions in Phaeozem soils. The experimental work was performed in a corn (Zea mays L.) field where three plots were conditioned with inorganic fertilizer, three plots with 4.5 Mgha(-1) of biosolids on dry basis, and three plots with the same amount of composted biosolids. The quality of biosolids and composted biosolids complied with the Mexican Official Standards. Soil water samples were collected with suction cups during two agricultural cycles and were analysed. Soil samples were also taken and analysed. The N-NO(3) concentrations in soil water fluctuated between 0.9 and 98mgL(-1) in the composted biosolid treatment, between 0.7 and 64 mgL(-1) in the biosolid treatment, and between 1 and 61 mgL(-1) in the inorganic fertilizer treatment. The maximum concentration of N-NO(2) and N-NH(3) in soil water was 1.02 and 2.65 mgL(-1), respectively. The greatest percentage of nitrogen leached is produced when inorganic fertilizer is used (37.4% and 24.0% N leached in the first and second years, respectively), followed by composted biosolids (17.1% and 13.5% N leached in the first and second years, respectively) and last by biosolids (11% for both years). This difference could be related to the form in which nitrogen is present in the fertilizers, while commercial fertilizer is as inorganic nitrogen, organic wastes are basically presented as organic nitrogen. The maximum PO(4)(3-) concentration in soil water was 1.9 mgL(-1) in the composted biosolid treatment, 1.7mgL(-1) in the biosolid treatment and 0.9 mgL(-1) in the inorganic fertilizer treatment. The estimated percentage of leached phosphorus

  20. Nitrate and phosphate leaching in a Phaeozem soil treated with biosolids, composted biosolids and inorganic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Esteller, M V; Martínez-Valdés, H; Garrido, S; Uribe, Q

    2009-06-01

    The use of organic wastes in agriculture may increase the production of crops by incorporating organic matter and nutrients into the soil, and by improving its physical characteristics; however, this use may cause environmental problems such as the leaching of certain ions. The objective of this study was to establish possible nitrogen and phosphorus leaching under real field conditions in Phaeozem soils. The experimental work was performed in a corn (Zea mays L.) field where three plots were conditioned with inorganic fertilizer, three plots with 4.5 Mgha(-1) of biosolids on dry basis, and three plots with the same amount of composted biosolids. The quality of biosolids and composted biosolids complied with the Mexican Official Standards. Soil water samples were collected with suction cups during two agricultural cycles and were analysed. Soil samples were also taken and analysed. The N-NO(3) concentrations in soil water fluctuated between 0.9 and 98mgL(-1) in the composted biosolid treatment, between 0.7 and 64 mgL(-1) in the biosolid treatment, and between 1 and 61 mgL(-1) in the inorganic fertilizer treatment. The maximum concentration of N-NO(2) and N-NH(3) in soil water was 1.02 and 2.65 mgL(-1), respectively. The greatest percentage of nitrogen leached is produced when inorganic fertilizer is used (37.4% and 24.0% N leached in the first and second years, respectively), followed by composted biosolids (17.1% and 13.5% N leached in the first and second years, respectively) and last by biosolids (11% for both years). This difference could be related to the form in which nitrogen is present in the fertilizers, while commercial fertilizer is as inorganic nitrogen, organic wastes are basically presented as organic nitrogen. The maximum PO(4)(3-) concentration in soil water was 1.9 mgL(-1) in the composted biosolid treatment, 1.7mgL(-1) in the biosolid treatment and 0.9 mgL(-1) in the inorganic fertilizer treatment. The estimated percentage of leached phosphorus

  1. Analytical results for municipal biosolids samples from a monitoring program near Deer Trail, Colorado (U.S.A.), 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Yager, T.J.B.; Berry, C.J.; Adams, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Since late 1993, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District of Denver, a large wastewater treatment plant in Denver, Colo., has applied Grade I, Class B biosolids to about 52,000 acres of nonirrigated farmland and rangeland near Deer Trail, Colo., U.S.A. In cooperation with the Metro District in 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey began monitoring groundwater at part of this site. In 1999, the Survey began a more comprehensive monitoring study of the entire site to address stakeholder concerns about the potential chemical effects of biosolids applications to water, soil, and vegetation. This more comprehensive monitoring program has recently been extended through the end of 2010. Monitoring components of the more comprehensive study include biosolids collected at the wastewater treatment plant, soil, crops, dust, alluvial and bedrock groundwater, and stream-bed sediment. Streams at the site are dry most of the year, so samples of stream-bed sediment deposited after rain were used to indicate surface-water effects. This report presents analytical results for the biosolids samples collected at the Metro District wastewater treatment plant in Denver and analyzed for 2009. In general, the objective of each component of the study was to determine whether concentrations of nine trace elements ('priority analytes') (1) were higher than regulatory limits, (2) were increasing with time, or (3) were significantly higher in biosolids-applied areas than in a similar farmed area where biosolids were not applied. Previous analytical results indicate that the elemental composition of biosolids from the Denver plant was consistent during 1999-2008, and this consistency continues with the samples for 2009. Total concentrations of regulated trace elements remain consistently lower than the regulatory limits for the entire monitoring period. Concentrations of none of the priority analytes appear to have increased during the 11 years of this study.

  2. Analytical results for minicipal biosolids samples from a monitoring program near Deer Trail, Colorado (U.S.A.) 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Yager, T.J.B.; Berry, C.J.; Adams, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Since late 1993, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District of Denver (Metro District), a large wastewater treatment plant in Denver, Colo., has applied Grade I, Class B biosolids to about 52,000 acres of nonirrigated farmland and rangeland near Deer Trail, Colo., U.S.A. In cooperation with the Metro District in 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began monitoring groundwater at part of this site. In 1999, the USGS began a more comprehensive monitoring study of the entire site to address stakeholder concerns about the potential chemical effects of biosolids applications to water, soil, and vegetation. This more comprehensive monitoring program was recently extended through the end of 2010 and is now completed. Monitoring components of the more comprehensive study include biosolids collected at the wastewater treatment plant, soil, crops, dust, alluvial and bedrock groundwater, and stream-bed sediment. Streams at the site are dry most of the year, so samples of stream-bed sediment deposited after rain were used to indicate surface-water runoff effects. This report summarizes analytical results for the biosolids samples collected at the Metro District wastewater treatment plant in Denver and analyzed for 2010. In general, the objective of each component of the study was to determine whether concentrations of nine trace elements ("priority analytes") (1) were higher than regulatory limits, (2) were increasing with time, or (3) were significantly higher in biosolids-applied areas than in a similar farmed area where biosolids were not applied (background). Previous analytical results indicate that the elemental composition of biosolids from the Denver plant was consistent during 1999-2009, and this consistency continues with the samples for 2010. Total concentrations of regulated trace elements remain consistently lower than the regulatory limits for the entire monitoring period. Concentrations of none of the priority analytes appear to have increased during the 12 years

  3. Analytical Results for Municipal Biosolids Samples from a Monitoring Program Near Deer Trail, Colorado (U.S.A.), 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Yager, T.J.B.; Berry, C.J.; Adams, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Since late 1993, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District of Denver (Metro District), a large wastewater treatment plant in Denver, Colo., has applied Grade I, Class B biosolids to about 52,000 acres of nonirrigated farmland and rangeland near Deer Trail, Colo. (U.S.A.). In cooperation with the Metro District in 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began monitoring groundwater at part of this site. In 1999, the USGS began a more comprehensive monitoring study of the entire site to address stakeholder concerns about the potential chemical effects of biosolids applications to water, soil, and vegetation. This more comprehensive monitoring program has recently been extended through 2010. Monitoring components of the more comprehensive study include biosolids collected at the wastewater treatment plant, soil, crops, dust, alluvial and bedrock groundwater, and stream-bed sediment. Streams at the site are dry most of the year, so samples of stream-bed sediment deposited after rain were used to indicate surface-water effects. This report will present only analytical results for the biosolids samples collected at the Metro District wastewater treatment plant in Denver and analyzed during 2008. Crock and others have presented earlier a compilation of analytical results for the biosolids samples collected and analyzed for 1999 thru 2006, and in a separate report, data for the 2007 biosolids are reported. More information about the other monitoring components is presented elsewhere in the literature. Priority parameters for biosolids identified by the stakeholders and also regulated by Colorado when used as an agricultural soil amendment include the total concentrations of nine trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc), plutonium isotopes, and gross alpha and beta activity. Nitrogen and chromium also were priority parameters for groundwater and sediment components.

  4. Electrical energy production from biosolids: a comparative study between anaerobic digestion and ultra-high-temperature gasification.

    PubMed

    Gikas, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Biosolids management is one of the most expensive and complicated processes in sanitation engineering. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is often employed for the stabilization ofbiomass and for energy production, as approximately 50% of the carbon entering the anaerobic digester is recovered as methane (CH4). Gasification has been used recently for the thermal reformation of biosolids to synthesis gas (syngas), which primarily consists ofcarbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2). In the present work, the net electrical energy production from biosolids has been calculated, for a typical activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, with an inlet flow rate of 75,708 m3/d (equal to 20 Mgd). The calculations suggest that the ultra-high-temperature gasification (UHTG) system can achieve a net electrical energy output of about 15.40 MJ/kg (dry biosolids), whereas the AD system can achieve values between 8.45 MJ/kg(dry biosolids). The latter values correspond to approximate net electrical energy power of 18.8 kW for UHTG, versus 9.9 kW for AD, for a wastewater treatment plant with capacity of 1000 m3/d; thus, the UHTG process yields approximately 190% of the energy that may be produced by the AD process. PMID:25145165

  5. Reducing biosolids disposal costs using land application in forested areas

    SciTech Connect

    Huffines, R.L.

    1995-11-01

    Switching biosolids land application from a reclamation site to a forested site significantly reduced the cost of biosolids disposal at the Savannah River Site. Previous beneficial reuse programs focused on reclamation of existing borrow pits. While extremely beneficial, this program became very costly due to the regulatory requirements for groundwater monitoring, soil monitoring and frequent biosolids analyses. A new program was developed to reuse biosolids in forested areas where the biosolids could be used as a soil conditioner and fertilizer to enhance timber yield. The forested land application site was designed so that groundwater monitoring and soil monitoring could be eliminated while biosolids monitoring and site maintenance were minimized. Monitoring costs alone were reduced by 80%. Capital costs for site preparation were also significantly reduced since there was no longer a need for expensive groundwater monitoring wells.

  6. Feasibility of vermicomposting dairy biosolids using a modified system to avoid earthworm mortality.

    PubMed

    Nogales, R; Elvira, C; Benítez, E; Thompson, R; Gomez, M

    1999-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine the feasibility of vermicomposting dairy biosolids (dairy sludge), either alone or with either of the bulking agents-cereal straw or wood shavings, using the epigeic earthworm-Eisinea andrei. Earthworms added directly to these three substrates died within 48 hours. A system was developed to overcome the toxic effect of unprocessed dairy biosolids. The substrates were placed over a layer of vermicomposted sheep manure into which the earthworms were inoculated. Within two weeks, all earthworms were within the upper layer of substrate. Compared to sheep manure which is a favourable substrate for vermicomposting, the three substrates containing dairy biosolids were more effective in supporting earthworm growth and reproduction. The final products obtained after 63 days of vermicomposting had 39-53% less organic carbon than the initial substrates. Organic fractionation indicated that vermicomposting increased the stability of the materials to biological decomposition. The vermicomposts obtained from the three substrates with dairy biosolids had low heavy metal contents and electrical conductivities, and did not inhibit plant growth when compared with a commercial vermicompost in a bioassay. PMID:10048210

  7. Effect of citric acid on metals mobility in pruning wastes and biosolids compost and metals uptake in Atriplex halimus and Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Y; Eymar, E; Gárate, A; Masaguer, A

    2013-05-01

    To assess metal mobility in pruning waste and biosolids compost (pH 6.9 and total concentration of metals in milligram per kilogram of Cd 1.9, Cu 132, Fe 8,513, Mn 192, Pb 81, and Zn 313), shrubs species Atriplex halimus and Rosmarinus officinalis were transplanted in this substrate and irrigated with citric acid (4 g L(-1), pH 2.9) and nutrient solution daily for 60 days. Citric acid significantly increased the concentrations of soluble Mn and Fe in the nutrient substrate solution measured by suction probes, while other metals did not vary in concentration (Cu and Zn) or were not observed at detectable levels (Cd and Pb). In plants, citric acid significantly increased the concentrations of Cu (2.7 ± 0.1-3.3 ± 0.1 mg kg(-1)), Fe (49.2 ± 5.2-76.8 ± 6.8 mg kg(-1)), and Mn (7.2 ± 1.1-11.4 ± 0.7 mg kg(-1)) in leaves of R. officinalis, whereas the concentration of only Mn (25.4 ± 0.3-42.2 ± 2.9 mg kg(-1)) was increased in A. halimus. Increasing Fe and Mn solubility by citric acid addition indicates the possibility of using it to improve plant nutrition. The mobility of metals in this substrate was influenced for the concentration of the metal, the degree of humification of organic matter and its high Fe content.

  8. Impacts of tilling and covering treatments on the biosolids solar drying conversion from class B to class A.

    PubMed

    Song, Inhong; O'Shaughnessy, Susan A; Choi, Christopher Y; Gerba, Charles P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of tillage and cover treatments of solar drying on the conversion of class B treated sewage sludge to a class A product. The experiments were performed over two years at Green Valley, Arizona in steel-constructed sand-filled drying beds of 1.0 m (width) x 3.0 m (length) x 0.6 m (depth). Freshly produced aerobically and anaerobically digested biosolids from nearby wastewater treatment plants received tillage and cover treatments for expediting solar drying and microbial inactivation. During the summer drying, covered drying bed increased faecal inactivation rate by 26% over other treatments and automated rain shield abated faecal coliform regrowth from summer rains. Tilling accelerated evaporation of moisture from the biosolids and increased the inactivation rate of faecal coliforms during the summer season. An automated retractable roof to protect the biosolids from rain aided in maintaining class A criteria by preventing dried biosolids from re-wetting by rainfall. However, results from tilling and passive solar heating during the cold winter seasons did not improve the faecal coliform inactivation rate due mainly to lower ambient temperatures. Thus, tilling and cover treatments can be effective in accelerating biosolids solar drying and thus enhancing pathogen inactivation during the summer season. Investigation on the effects of tillage depth and frequency is recommended to determine optimal tilling practice.

  9. Alkylphenol ethoxylate degradation products in land-applied sewage sludge (biosolids).

    PubMed

    La Guardia, M J; Hale, R C; Harvey, E; Mainor, T M

    2001-12-15

    Alkylphenol ethoxylates, widely used in commercial and household detergents in the United States, can degrade during the wastewater treatment process to more toxic, estrogenic, and lipophilic compounds. These include octylphenol (OP), nonylphenols (NPs), nonylphenol monoethoxylates (NP1EOs), and nonylphenol diethoxylates (NP2EOs). These compounds have received considerable attention due to their acute toxicity and ability to disrupt the endocrine system. In Europe, regulations have been established to control their impact on the environment. In this study, biosolids derived from all 11 U.S. wastewater treatment plants examined contained detectable levels of OP, NPs, NP1EOs, and NP2EOs. Nine exceeded the current Danish land application limit (30 mg/kg; sum of NPs, NP1EOs, and NP2EOs) by 6-33x. NPs were the major component, and their concentrations therein ranged from 5.4 to 887 mg/kg (dry weight). OP, reportedly 10-20x more estrogenic than NP, was detected in these same nine biosolids at levels up to 12.6 mg/kg. Three biosolids were also subjected to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure Method 1311. NPs and NP1EOs were both detected in the leachate; the former at concentrations from 9.4 to 309 microg/L. On the basis of effect levels published in the literature, alkylphenol ethoxylate degradates in U.S. biosolids may cause adverse environmental impacts. PMID:11775155

  10. Irrigation water quality influences heavy metal uptake by willows in biosolids.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, W Scott; Baker, Alan J M; Gregory, David; Arndt, Stefan K

    2015-05-15

    Phytoextraction is an effective method to remediate heavy metal contaminated landscapes but is often applied for single metal contaminants. Plants used for phytoextraction may not always be able to grow in drier environments without irrigation. This study investigated if willows (Salix x reichardtii A. Kerner) can be used for phytoextraction of multiple metals in biosolids, an end-product of the wastewater treatment process, and if irrigation with reclaimed and freshwater influences the extraction process. A plantation of willows was established directly onto a tilled stockpile of metal-contaminated biosolids and irrigated with slightly saline reclaimed water (EC ∼2 dS/cm) at a wastewater processing plant in Victoria, Australia. Biomass was harvested annually and analysed for heavy metal content. Phytoextraction of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc was benchmarked against freshwater irrigated willows. The minimum irrigation rate of 700 mm per growing season was sufficient for willows to grow and extract metals. Increasing irrigation rates produced no differences in total biomass and also no differences in the extraction of heavy metals. The reclaimed water reduced both the salinity and the acidity of the biosolids significantly within the first 12 months after irrigation commenced and after three seasons the salinity of the biosolids had dropped to <15% of initial values. A flushing treatment to remove excess salts was therefore not necessary. Irrigation had an impact on biosolids attributes such as salinity and pH, and that this had an influence on metal extraction. Reclaimed water irrigation reduced the biosolid pH and this was associated with reductions of the extraction of Ni and Zn, it did not influence the extraction of Cu and enhanced the phytoextraction of Cd, which was probably related to the high chloride content of the reclaimed water. Our results demonstrate that flood-irrigation with reclaimed water was a successful treatment to grow willows in a

  11. Interactions of inorganic oxide nanoparticles with sewage biosolids.

    PubMed

    Rottman, Jeff; Shadman, Farhang; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2012-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles (NPs) in manufacturing continues to increase despite the growing concern over their potential environmental and health effects. Understanding the interaction of NPs and sewage sludge is crucial for determining the ultimate fate of NPs released to municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as those interactions will determine whether the bulk of the material is retained in the sludge or released in the effluent stream. Analyzing the affinity of aluminum oxide, cerium oxide, and silicon oxide NPs, which are commonly used in semiconductor manufacturing processes, for biosolids used in municipal WWTPs provides a basis for estimating their removal efficiency. Batch studies were performed and the NPs were shown to partition onto the cellular surface. At the maximum equilibrium values tested (75-92 mg nanoparticles/L), the concentration of Al(2)O(3), CeO(2) and SiO(2) associated with the sludge was 137, 238, and 28 mg/g-sludge VSS, respectively. These results suggest that electrostatic interactions play a major role in determining NP association with biosolids.

  12. Application of municipal biosolids to dry-land wheat fields - A monitoring program near Deer Trail, Colorado (USA). A presentation for an international conference: "The Future of Agriculture: Science, Stewardship, and Sustainability", August 7-9, 2006, Sacramento, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, James G.; Smith, David B.; Yager, Tracy J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Since late 1993, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District of Denver (Metro District), a large wastewater treatment plant in Denver, Colorado, has applied Grade I, Class B biosolids to about 52,000 acres of non-irrigated farmland and rangeland near Deer Trail, Colorado. In cooperation with the Metro District in 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began monitoring ground water at part of this site. In 1999, the USGS began a more comprehensive study of the entire site to address stakeholder concerns about the chemical effects of biosolids applications. This more comprehensive monitoring program has recently been extended through 2010. Monitoring components of the more comprehensive study included biosolids collected at the wastewater treatment plant, soil, crops, dust, alluvial and bedrock ground water, and stream bed sediment. Streams at the site are dry most of the year, so samples of stream bed sediment deposited after rain were used to indicate surface-water effects. This presentation will only address biosolids, soil, and crops. More information about these and the other monitoring components are presented in the literature (e.g., Yager and others, 2004a, b, c, d) and at the USGS Web site for the Deer Trail area studies at http://co.water.usgs.gov/projects/CO406/CO406.html. Priority parameters identified by the stakeholders for all monitoring components, included the total concentrations of nine trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc), plutonium isotopes, and gross alpha and beta activity, regulated by Colorado for biosolids to be used as an agricultural soil amendment. Nitrogen and chromium also were priority parameters for ground water and sediment components. In general, the objective of each component of the study was to determine whether concentrations of priority parameters (1) were higher than regulatory limits, (2) were increasing with time, or (3) were significantly higher in biosolids

  13. Biosolids and dredged materials: alternative sources of nutrients for crop productivity and sustainability of pasture-based agroecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic sewage sludge or “biosolids” and lake-dredged materials are examples of materials that can be used to cut fertilizer costs in pasture-based animal agriculture. Sustainable biosolids and lake-dredged materials management is based upon controlling and influencing the quantity, quality and cha...

  14. Uptake of pharmaceutical and personal care products by soybean plants from soils applied with biosolids and irrigated with contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenxi; Spongberg, Alison L; Witter, Jason D; Fang, Min; Czajkowski, Kevin P

    2010-08-15

    Many pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are commonly found in biosolids and effluents from wastewater treatment plants. Land application of these biosolids and the reclamation of treated wastewater can transfer those PPCPs into the terrestrial and aquatic environments, giving rise to potential accumulation in plants. In this work, a greenhouse experiment was used to study the uptake of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diphenhydramine, and fluoxetine) and two personal care products (triclosan and triclocarban) by an agriculturally important species, soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Two treatments simulating biosolids application and wastewater irrigation were investigated. After growing for 60 and 110 days, plant tissues and soils were analyzed for target compounds. Carbamazepine, triclosan, and triclocarban were found to be concentrated in root tissues and translocated into above ground parts including beans, whereas accumulation and translocation for diphenhydramine and fluoxetine was limited. The uptake of selected compounds differed by treatment, with biosolids application resulting in higher plant concentrations, likely due to higher loading. However, compounds introduced by irrigation appeared to be more available for uptake and translocation. Degradation is the main mechanism for the dissipation of selected compounds in biosolids applied soils, and the presence of soybean plants had no significant effect on sorption. Data from two different harvests suggest that the uptake from soil to root and translocation from root to leaf may be rate limited for triclosan and triclocarban and metabolism may occur within the plant for carbamazepine.

  15. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of biosolids-borne triclocarban (TCC) in terrestrial organisms.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; O'Connor, George A; McAvoy, Drew C

    2011-01-01

    Triclocarban (TCC) toxicity and bioaccumulation data are primarily limited to direct human and animal dermal exposures, animal ingestion exposures to neat and feed-spiked TCC, and/or aquatic organism exposures. Three non-human, terrestrial organism groups anticipated to be the most highly exposed to land-applied, biosolids-borne TCC are soil microbes, earthworms, and plants. The three ecological receptors are expected to be at particular risk due to unique modes of exposure (e.g. constant, direct contact with soil; uptake of amended soil and pore water), inherently greater sensitivity to environmental contaminants (e.g. increased body burdens, permeable membranes), and susceptibility to minute changes in the soil environment. The toxicities of biosolids-borne TCC to Eisenia fetida earthworms and soil microbial communities were characterized using adaptations of the USEPA Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) Guidelines 850.6200 (Earthworm Subchronic Toxicity Test) and 850.5100 (Soil Microbial Community Toxicity Test), respectively. The resultant calculated TCC LC50 value for E. fetida was 40 mg TCC kg amended fine sand(-1). Biosolids-borne TCC in an amended fine sand had no significant effect on soil microbial community respiration, ammonification, or nitrification. Bioaccumulation of biosolids-borne TCC by E. fetida and Paspulum notatum was measured to characterize potential biosolids-borne TCC movement through the food chain. Dry-weight TCC bioaccumulation factor (BAF) values in E. fetida and P. notatum ranged from 5.2-18 and 0.00041-0.007 (gsoil gtissue(-1)), respectively. PMID:21035164

  16. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of biosolids-borne triclocarban (TCC) in terrestrial organisms.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; O'Connor, George A; McAvoy, Drew C

    2011-01-01

    Triclocarban (TCC) toxicity and bioaccumulation data are primarily limited to direct human and animal dermal exposures, animal ingestion exposures to neat and feed-spiked TCC, and/or aquatic organism exposures. Three non-human, terrestrial organism groups anticipated to be the most highly exposed to land-applied, biosolids-borne TCC are soil microbes, earthworms, and plants. The three ecological receptors are expected to be at particular risk due to unique modes of exposure (e.g. constant, direct contact with soil; uptake of amended soil and pore water), inherently greater sensitivity to environmental contaminants (e.g. increased body burdens, permeable membranes), and susceptibility to minute changes in the soil environment. The toxicities of biosolids-borne TCC to Eisenia fetida earthworms and soil microbial communities were characterized using adaptations of the USEPA Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) Guidelines 850.6200 (Earthworm Subchronic Toxicity Test) and 850.5100 (Soil Microbial Community Toxicity Test), respectively. The resultant calculated TCC LC50 value for E. fetida was 40 mg TCC kg amended fine sand(-1). Biosolids-borne TCC in an amended fine sand had no significant effect on soil microbial community respiration, ammonification, or nitrification. Bioaccumulation of biosolids-borne TCC by E. fetida and Paspulum notatum was measured to characterize potential biosolids-borne TCC movement through the food chain. Dry-weight TCC bioaccumulation factor (BAF) values in E. fetida and P. notatum ranged from 5.2-18 and 0.00041-0.007 (gsoil gtissue(-1)), respectively.

  17. Ecotoxicological assessment of biosolids by microcosms.

    PubMed

    Groth, Vitor Avelar; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana; da Silva, Eduardo Mendes; Niemeyer, Júlia Carina

    2016-10-01

    Biosolids have been applied as soil amendments to improve and maintain the soil fertility and faster plant growth. In spite of its beneficial use, the potential risks of land disposal should be analyzed, considering potential ecological receptors in soil and water. This work describes the use of an early warning laboratory microcosm system to evaluate the integrated ecotoxicological potential of two biosolids: BIO-1 and BIO-2 (18 and 28 months after landfarming, respectively), from an effluent treatment station in a petrochemical and industrial district. The endpoints related to habitat function were: a) germination, growth and biomass of Phaseolus vulgaris; b) survival, biomass and number of cocoons of Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta) and; c) reproduction of Folsomia candida (Collembola). The retention function was evaluated by testing the leachates using the tropical cladoceran Latonopsis australis (Cladocera) in a 48-h acute toxicity test, and growth of the aquatic plant Lemna minor in a 7-d chronic test. Tropical artificial soil (TAS) and a natural soil (NS) from the region were used as control soils. Results showed no chronic toxicity of BIO-1 and BIO-2 to the soil organisms tested, but acute toxicity of BIO-1 in the leachate for 50% of L. australis, and chronic toxicity of both biosolid leachates to L. minor (inhibition of growth rate), indicating potential risks to aquatic ecosystems. The results confirmed the ability of this microcosm system as a rapid tool to assess biosolid toxicity over time and its potential for hazardous waste characterization in environmental risk assessment, in a screening phase. PMID:27448314

  18. X-RAY MICROSCOPY AND SPECTROSCOPY STUDIES ON METAL BINDING IN BIOSOLIDS (ABSTRACT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption/desorption data from intact and different fractions of biosolids and biosolids-amended soils indicated the importance of Fe and Mn fractions on both sorption and desorption of metals in biosolids and biosolids-amended soils. Extraction procedures used to separate organi...

  19. X-RAY MICROSCOPY AND SPECTROSCOPY STUDIES ON METAL BINDING IN BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption/desorption data from intact and different fractions of biosolids and biosolids-amended soils indicated the importance of Fe and Mn fractions on both sorption and desorption of metals in biosolids and biosolids-amended soils. Extraction procedures used to separate organi...

  20. Wind Erodibility of Biosolids - Amended Soils: A Status Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metro Wastewater Reclamation District in Denver has been applying municipal biosolids to agricultural land known as the METROGRO Farm since 1993. The farm, located approximately 105 km (65 mi) east of Denver, is in an area historically susceptible to wind erosion. Since biosolids can potentially i...

  1. Hyperthermophilic hydrogen production from wastewater biosolids by caldicellulosiruptor bescii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wastewater biosolids are abundant renewable resources that are rich in organic matter and offer a low cost potential feedstock for biohydrogen production. Relevant literature indicates that biosolids conversion rates are relatively low and therefore this option is not considered feasible. This study...

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF IRON PHASES IN BIOSOLIDS VIA MOSSBAUER SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous debate regarding inorganic and organic phases in biosolids as prominent sorbents of metals has yielded limited definitive data. We have demonstrated with X-ray absorption and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopies that metals in biosolids have a significant association with...

  3. CD SPECIATION ASSOCIATED WITH IRON OXIDES AND BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental impact and potential hazards of metals in biosolids to plants, animals and the human food chain have been studied for decades. From this body of work, it has been concluded the addition of biosolids to the soil alters the chemical phases in the soil system beyon...

  4. Fate of Triclosan and Triclocarban in Land-Applied Biosolids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The heavily-used antimicrobials, triclosan and triclocarbon, are commonly present in biosolids generated in waste water treatment plants. A common practice for handling biosolids is to use them as soil amendments. We have embarked on a cooperative study with the Blue Plains Waste Water Treatment P...

  5. LAND REMEDIATION WITH BIOSOLIDS - SLUDGE MAGIC - TIME BOMB?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Addition of biosolids to soils increases the environmental loading of toxic metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, etc.) and alters the chemistry and phytoavailability of these metals. This alteration in phytoavailability associated with biosolids amended soil was recognized and utilized by...

  6. ADSORPTION OF CADMIUM ONTO ORGANIC, TOTAL INORGANIC, AND METAL OXIDE FRACTIONS IN BIOSOLIDS AND BIOSOLID-AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental impact and potential hazards of metals in biosolids to plants, animals and the human food chain from biosolids application on soils has been studied for decades. The early hypothesis known as "Time Bomb" has been questioned by recent research results which tend ...

  7. Evaluation of dioxin mobility and spoils leaching in a surface coal mine reclaimed with bleached kraft pulp and paper mill biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, D.P.; Krouskop, D.J.; Ayers, K.C.; Proctor, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    A surface coal mine in southeastern Ohio has been reclaimed with approximately 15 to 25 cm thickness of biosolids from a bleached kraft pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment plant. Soil, vegetation, rodents, earthworms, insects, fish, frogs, sediment, and algae samples were collected and analyzed for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran. Water samples from lakes receiving drainage from unreclaimed and biosolids reclaimed areas were collected and analyzed for various parameters, including pH and metals. The trace levels of dioxin and furan in the pulp and paper mill biosolids did not bioaccumulate in rodents, insects, or earthworms or translocate into plants living in the reclaimed area. The trace levels of dioxin and furan in biosolids did not sufficiently migrate to a drainage lake to result in significant concentrations in fish, frogs, algae, or vegetation. The biosolids reclamation resulted in dramatic decreases in spoils leaching of acid, aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, and zinc. This work supports the thesis that surface mine reclamation with pulp and paper mill biosolids is safe and effective. 4 refs., 6 tabs.

  8. ROLE OF IRON AND MANGANESE OXIDES IN BIOSOLIDS AND BIOSOLIDS-AMENDED SOILS ON METAL BINDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biosolids contain high levels of Fe, Mn, and Al. Surfaces of freshly precipitated metal oxides, especially Fe and Mn, are known to be highly active sites for most dissolved metal ion species. We nw have metal sorption/desorption data that illustrate the importance of Fe and Mn fr...

  9. Estimating potential risks to terrestrial invertebrates and plants exposed to bisphenol A in soil amended with activated sludge biosolids.

    PubMed

    Staples, Charles; Friederich, Urs; Hall, Tilghman; Klecka, Gary; Mihaich, Ellen; Ortego, Lisa; Caspers, Norbert; Hentges, Steven

    2010-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume substance primarily used to produce polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. During manufacture and use, BPA may enter wastewater treatment plants. During treatment, BPA may become adsorbed to activated sludge biosolids, which may expose soil organisms to BPA if added to soil as an amendment. To evaluate potential risks to organisms that make up the base of the terrestrial food web (i.e., invertebrates and plants) in accordance with international regulatory practice, toxicity tests were conducted with potworms (Enchytraeids) and springtails (Collembolans) in artificial soil, and six plant types using natural soil. No-observed-effect concentrations (NOEC) for potworms and springtails were equal to or greater than 100 and equal to or greater than 500 mg/kg (dry wt), respectively. The lowest organic matter-normalized NOEC among all tests (dry shoot weight of tomatoes) was 37 mg/kg-dry weight. Dividing by an assessment factor of 10, a predicted-no-effect concentration in soil (PNEC(soil)) of 3.7 mg/kg-dry weight was calculated. Following international regulatory guidance, BPA concentrations in soil hypothetically amended with biosolids were calculated using published BPA concentrations in biosolids. The upper 95th percentile BPA biosolids concentration in North America is 14.2 mg/kg-dry weight, and in Europe is 95 mg/kg-dry weight. Based on recommended biosolids application rates, predicted BPA concentrations in soil (PEC(soil)) would be 0.021 mg/kg-dry weight for North America and 0.14 mg/kg-dry weight for Europe. Hazard quotients (ratio of PEC(soil) and PNEC(soil)) for BPA were all equal to or less than 0.04. This indicates that risks to representative invertebrates and plants at the base of the terrestrial food web are low if exposed to BPA in soil amended with activated sludge biosolids.

  10. Estimating potential risks to terrestrial invertebrates and plants exposed to bisphenol A in soil amended with activated sludge biosolids.

    PubMed

    Staples, Charles; Friederich, Urs; Hall, Tilghman; Klecka, Gary; Mihaich, Ellen; Ortego, Lisa; Caspers, Norbert; Hentges, Steven

    2010-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume substance primarily used to produce polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. During manufacture and use, BPA may enter wastewater treatment plants. During treatment, BPA may become adsorbed to activated sludge biosolids, which may expose soil organisms to BPA if added to soil as an amendment. To evaluate potential risks to organisms that make up the base of the terrestrial food web (i.e., invertebrates and plants) in accordance with international regulatory practice, toxicity tests were conducted with potworms (Enchytraeids) and springtails (Collembolans) in artificial soil, and six plant types using natural soil. No-observed-effect concentrations (NOEC) for potworms and springtails were equal to or greater than 100 and equal to or greater than 500 mg/kg (dry wt), respectively. The lowest organic matter-normalized NOEC among all tests (dry shoot weight of tomatoes) was 37 mg/kg-dry weight. Dividing by an assessment factor of 10, a predicted-no-effect concentration in soil (PNEC(soil)) of 3.7 mg/kg-dry weight was calculated. Following international regulatory guidance, BPA concentrations in soil hypothetically amended with biosolids were calculated using published BPA concentrations in biosolids. The upper 95th percentile BPA biosolids concentration in North America is 14.2 mg/kg-dry weight, and in Europe is 95 mg/kg-dry weight. Based on recommended biosolids application rates, predicted BPA concentrations in soil (PEC(soil)) would be 0.021 mg/kg-dry weight for North America and 0.14 mg/kg-dry weight for Europe. Hazard quotients (ratio of PEC(soil) and PNEC(soil)) for BPA were all equal to or less than 0.04. This indicates that risks to representative invertebrates and plants at the base of the terrestrial food web are low if exposed to BPA in soil amended with activated sludge biosolids. PMID:20821466

  11. Acidic minespoil reclamation with alkaline biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    Drill, C.; Lindsay, B.J.; Logan, T.L.

    1998-12-31

    The effectiveness of an alkaline stabilized biosolids product, N-Viro Soil (NVS), was studied at a wild animal preserve in Cumberland, OH. The preserve occupies land that was strip mined for high-sulfur coal. While most of the land has been conventionally reclaimed, several highly acidic hot spots remain. Two of these hot spots were studied through concurrent field, greenhouse, and laboratory projects. In April 1995, NVS was applied at rates ranging from 0--960 mt/ha (wet wt.) to plots at the two sites. The plots were seeded using a standard reclamation mix and soil samples were analyzed for chemical characteristics before and after application and also in 1996 and 1997. Soil pH increased from 3.5 to about 11 in the amended plots and soil EC values increased from 21.0 mmho/cm to a maximum of 6.0 mmho/cm in the amended plots immediately after application. Soil Cu and Zn concentrations also increased in the NVS amended plots, but this did not affect plant germination or growth. By the summer of 1996, soil pH values had decreased to 7.3--8.7 and EC values decreased to 0.34--1.36 mmho/cm to the amended plots. Soil samples were collected in September 1995 for physical analyses. N-Viro Soil improved the moisture retention and water conductivity properties of the spoil. The plots were monitored for growth during the summer of 1995 and plant biomass and soil samples were taken in 1996 and 1997 for trace element and nutrient analysis. NVS did not significantly increase trace element concentrations in the biomass. The addition of NVS to acid mine spoil improves the chemical and physical properties of the spoil material thus aiding vegetative establishment and growth. NVS improves the chemical nature of the spoil by increasing pH and providing micro and macronutrients and improves the physical properties of the spoil with the addition of organic matter.

  12. Dispersion Modeling and Characterization of Particulates from Land Application of Class B Biosolids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Abhishek S.

    This study presents a comprehensive approach to understand the particle characteristics, identify the source profile, develop new equations for emission rates, analyze the source-receptor relationship, and develop and evaluate a numerical model for the dispersion and transport of particles released during the injection of biosolids. Two field studies were conducted in the summer of 2008 and 2009 to collect airborne particulate matter emitted during the injection application of class B biosolids. The sampling was carried out before (pre-application), during (application), and after (post-application) the application. The research work characterized the particulate emissions deposited on the aerosols spectrometer. The mass concentrations of fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine (PM 1.0) particles were highest during the pre-application. The mass concentration of thoracic fraction (PM2.5-10) increased significantly during the application. A bimodal size distribution was observed throughout the sampling. Nuclei mode formation was predominant during the pre-application and the post-application, whereas the accumulation mode was distinctive during the application. Airborne particles were collected on filter papers during the biosolids application process using an aerosol spectrometer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) tool was used to analyze particles collected before, during, and after injection of biosolids. The major emphasis of the analysis was on providing in depth information on particle count, size, shape, morphology, and chemical composition. The particle count was significantly sensitive towards the different activities surrounding the application. The combination of SEM, particle analysis software, and EDS technique was capable of revealing detailed information on the size, shape, morphology, and chemical composition of individual particles. These techniques proved to be an effective non-destructive method for the

  13. Phosphorus recovery prior to land application of biosolids using the “Quick Wash” process developed by USDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: To present the case study of a new treatment process, called “quick wash”, that was developed by the USDA-ARS for extraction and recovery of phosphorus from animal manure solids but research has shown the approach is equally effective to recover phosphorus from biosolids prior to applica...

  14. CRITICAL EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE DISINFECTION AND VECTOR ATTRACTION REDUCTION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    What is the current state of management practices for biosolids production and application, and how can those be made more effective? How effective are Class B disinfection and vector attraction processes, and public access and harvesting restrictions at reducing the public's exp...

  15. Interactions in Natural Colloid Systems "Biosolids" - Soil and Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinichenko, Kira V.; Nikovskaya, Galina N.; Ulberg, Zoya R.

    2016-04-01

    The "biosolids" are complex biocolloid system arising in huge amounts (mln tons per year) from biological municipal wastewater treatment. These contain clusters of nanoparticles of heavy metal compounds (in slightly soluble or unsoluble forms, such as phosphates, sulphates, carbonates, hydroxides, and etc.), cells, humic substances and so on, involved in exopolysaccharides (EPS) net matrix. One may consider that biosolids are the natural nanocomposite. Due to the presence of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other macro- and microelements (heavy metals), vitamins, aminoacids, etc., the biosolids are a depot of bioelements for plant nutrition. Thus, it is generally recognized that most rationally to utilize them for land application. For this purpose the biocolloid process was developed in biosolids system by initiation of microbial vital ability followed by the synthesis of EPS, propagation of ecologically important microorganisms, loosening of the structure and weakening of the coagulation contacts between biosolids colloids, but the structure integrity maintaining [1,2]. It was demonstrated that the applying of biosolids with metabolizing microorganisms to soil provided the improving soil structure, namely the increasing of waterstable aggregates content (70% vs. 20%). It occurs due to flocculation ability of biosolids EPS. The experimental modelling of mutual interactions in systems of soils - biosolids (with metabolizing microorganisms) were realized and their colloid and chemical mechanisms were formulated [3]. As it is known, the most harmonious plant growth comes at a prolonged entering of nutrients under the action of plant roots exudates which include pool of organic acids and polysaccharides [4]. Special investigations showed that under the influence of exudates excreted by growing plants, the biosolids microelements can release gradually from immobilized state into environment and are able to absorb by plants. Thus, the biosolids can serve as an active

  16. Impact of biosolids and wastewater effluent application to agricultural land on steroidal hormone content in lettuce plants.

    PubMed

    Shargil, Dorit; Gerstl, Zev; Fine, Pinchas; Nitsan, Ido; Kurtzman, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    One of the major concerns for human health in the past decade is the potential dangers posed by increased concentrations of steroidal hormones in soils and water. These hormones are considered to be endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), which may harm human health when exposed to high concentrations, or in the case of long term exposure to lower concentrations. In a 3 year study, two steroids, estrone and testosterone, were measured in lettuce plants irrigated with wastewater effluents and freshwater and treated with several types of biosolids. The relative contribution of the different factors, mainly irrigation water and biosolids, to the hormone levels in the lettuce plants was determined. It was found that irrigation water, which contained significant amounts of hormones, had the most substantial effect, whereas biosolids had only minor influence on hormone levels in the lettuce. The hormone levels in the plants were compared to the FDA recommendation for daily consumption in food, and were found to exceed the recommended level (when consumed by a typical individual), and therefore could have negative physiological impacts. Overall this study shows that biosolids have little effect on hormone uptake by lettuce, and it emphasizes the negative impact of irrigation water on these levels, which is of concern to public health.

  17. Bioaccumulation of emerging organic compounds (perfluoroalkyl substances and halogenated flame retardants) by earthworm in biosolid amended soils.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Irene; de la Torre, Adrián; Sanz, Paloma; Pro, Javier; Carbonell, Gregoria; Martínez, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, the bioaccumulation behavior of 49 target emerging organic compounds (20 perfluoroalkyl substances, PFASs, and 29 halogenated flame retardants, HFRs) was studied in soil invertebrates (Eisenia andrei). Multi species soil systems (MS·3) were used to assess the fate and the effects associated with the application of four biosolids in agricultural soil on terrestrial soil organisms. Biosolid amendment increased concentrations 1.5-14-fold for PFASs, 1.1-2.4-fold for polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs, and 1.1-3.6-fold for chlorinated flame retardants, CFRs. Perfluorooctanesulfonate, PFOS, (25%) and BDE-209 (60%) were the predominant PFAS and HFR compounds, respectively, in biosolids-amended soils. Total concentrations (ng/g dry weight) in earthworms from biosolid-amended soils ranged from 9.9 to 101 for PFASs, from 45 to 76 for PBDEs and 0.3-32 for CFRs. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated to evaluate the degree of exposure of pollutants in earthworms. The mean BAF ranged from 2.2 to 198 for PFASs, 0.6-17 for PBDEs and 0.5-20 for CFRs. The relationship of PFAS and PBDE BAFs in earthworms and their log Kow were compared: PFAS BAFs increased while PBDE BAFs declined with increasing log Kow values. The effect of the aging (21 days) on the bioavailability of the pollutants in amended soils was also assessed: the residence time affected differently to the compounds studied. PMID:27174781

  18. Transport and Fate of Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen from Biosolids leachates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilani, Talli; Trifonov, Pavel; Arye, Gilboa

    2014-05-01

    The use of biosolids as a means to ameliorate soil becomes prevalent in the last few years. In agricultural fields, the application of biosolids will be followed by irrigation; resulting in excessive leaching of the dissolved fraction of the organic matter. The dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the major players in the chemical, physical and biological processes in soils. The DOM mainly composed of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and lower proportions of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and phosphate (DOP). The DON is considered to be the primary source of mineralisable nitrogen in the soil and can be used as an estimate of the nitrogen supplying capacity of the organic matter. Most of the researches which are dealing with nitrogen fate in terrestrial environments focused on its inorganic fractions (mainly nitrate and ammonium) and their transport toward the dipper soil layers. Since DON can be the source of the inorganic nitrogen (by providing nutrients and energy to nitrifying microbes, which in turn increases the nitrogen source for plants as nitrate), knowledge about the nature of its transport characteristics in the soil is important in the case of biosolids amendment. In addition, irrigation water quality (e.g. fresh water, wastewater or desalinized water) may significantly affect the transport and fate of the various nitrogen forms. The main objective of this study is to examine the fate and co-transport of organic and inorganics nitrogen, originating from biosolids leachates in the subsoil. The effect of water quality and flow rate under saturated steady-state flow is examined by a series of flow-through soil column experiments. The established breakthrough curves of the co-transport of total nitrogen, organic nitrogen (will be calculated from the differences between the total nitrogen measurements and the inorganic nitrogen measurements), nitrate, ammonium, dissolved organic carbon and chloride is presented and discussed.

  19. Biosolids recycling: Beneficial technology for a better environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The booklet is written to provide an understanding of the great value that can be derived from the beneficial use of biosolids. The booklet then briefly discusses important aspects of its new regulation (40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 503) that govern the final use or disposal of biosolids. It concludes with a discussion of the scientific basis of the rule and names of people and references to contact for additional information regarding the rule and risk assessment.

  20. Phytotoxicity of biosolids and screening of selected plant species with potential for mercury phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Lomonte, Cristina; Doronila, Augustine I; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Kolev, Spas D

    2010-01-15

    Mercury contaminated stockpiles of biosolids (3.5-8.4 mg kg(-1) Hg) from Melbourne Water's Western Treatment Plant (MW-WTP) were investigated to evaluate the possibility for their phytoremediation. Nine plant species (Atriplex codonocarpa, Atriplex semibaccata, Austrodanthonia caespitosa, Brassica juncea, Brassica napus, Gypsophila paniculata, Sorghum bicolor, Themeda triandra and Trifolium subterraneum) were screened for phytoextraction potential in Hg-contaminated biosolids from MW-WTP. In addition, the same plant species were germinated and grown in two other substrates (i.e. potting mix and potting mix spiked with mercury(II)). Growth measurements and the mercury uptake for all three substrates were compared. Some plant species grown in potting mix spiked with mercury(II) grew more vigorously than in the other two substrates and showed higher levels of sulphur in their tissues. These results suggested that the mercury stress activated defence mechanisms and it was hypothesised that this was the likely reason for the enhanced production of sulphur compounds in the plant species studied which stimulated their growth. Some species did not grow in biosolids because of the combined effect of high mercury toxicity and high salt content. Atriplex conodocarpa and Australodanthonia caespitose proved to be the most suitable candidates for mercury phytoextraction because of their ability to translocate mercury from roots to the above-ground tissues. PMID:19775810

  1. Copper-binding ability of dissolved organic matter derived from anaerobically digested biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    Han, N.; Thompson, M.L.

    1999-05-01

    The fate of metals in soils where soluble organic compound are present may be strongly influenced by the degree to which they are complexed by organic ligands. The authors undertook this study to determine the combined effect of molecular weight (MW) and hydrophobicity on the Cu-binding ability of dissolved organic compounds in biosolids (i.e., sewage sludge). Dissolved organic matter (DOM) from anaerobically digested sewage biosolids was fractionated by using a combination of MW fractionation and XAD-8 resin chromatography. The Cu-binding abilities of the DOM fractions were obtained by using a Cu{sup 2+}-ion-selective electrode (Cu-ISE) technique. The Cu-binding ability of fractionated DOM decreased significantly with increasing molecular weight, indicating that low-MW DOM had more metal-binding sites than high-MW DOM. Within each MW fraction, the hydrophilic and the hydrophobic components also exhibited differences in Cu-binding ability. For the DOM with MW 500--3,500 Da, the hydrophilic fraction showed a greater Cu-binding capacity than did the hydrophobic fraction, whereas the hydrophobic acid components were most important in binding Cu for DOM with MW > 3,500 Da. The maximum Cu-binding capacities of different biosolids-derived DOM fractions, estimated by employing a Langmuir model, ranged from 1.85 to 14.3 mmol Cu mol{sup {minus}1} dissolved organic C (DOC), which is the same order of magnitude as similar measurements of DOM from other sources.

  2. Impact of biosolids and wastewater effluent application to agricultural land on corticosterone content in lettuce plants.

    PubMed

    Shargil, Dorit; Fine, Pinchas; Gerstl, Zev; Nitsan, Ido; Kurtzman, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    We studied corticosterone occurrence in lettuce plants grown on three biosolids amended soils under irrigation with either tap water or secondary wastewater effluent. Corticosterone was examined as it has possible implications for human health. It is a major glucocorticoid, and as such has an effect on regulation of metabolism, immune functions and stress response. The plants were grown in 220-L lysimeters packed with 3 soils which represent a wide range of physicochemical properties. Lettuce was grown in cycles (two in summer and two in winter) during 3 years, and in every spring season the sludges were re-applied. Corticosterone was quantified using ELISA and LCMS, and was found in the biosolids, tap water, wastewater effluent and lettuce plants. The respective ranges of concentrations were: 11-92 ng g(-1), 0.5-1.6 ng L(-1), 4.2-4.7 ng L(-1); and 1-900 ng g(-1) dry weight. A positive relationship was found between corticosterone concentrations in winter-grown lettuces and the plants fresh weight. The corticosterone content of the plants did not correspond with either the type of irrigation water or the biosolids type and rate of application or the soil properties.

  3. Developing Effective Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, T.J.

    In this introductory work, the main principles on which British companies are basing management development programs are presented, and stages in assuring a supply of effective managerial talent are set forth: stages in assuring a supply of effective managerial t"lent are set forth: program planning based on clear objectives and communication;…

  4. Nanomaterials in Biosolids Inhibit Nodulation, Shift Microbial Community Composition, and Result in Increased Metal Uptake Relative to Bulk/Dissolved Metals.

    PubMed

    Judy, Jonathan D; McNear, David H; Chen, Chun; Lewis, Ricky W; Tsyusko, Olga V; Bertsch, Paul M; Rao, William; Stegemeier, John; Lowry, Gregory V; McGrath, Steve P; Durenkamp, Mark; Unrine, Jason M

    2015-07-21

    We examined the effects of amending soil with biosolids produced from a pilot-scale wastewater treatment plant containing a mixture of metal-based engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) on the growth of Medicago truncatula, its symbiosis with Sinorhizobium meliloti, and on soil microbial community structure. Treatments consisted of soils amended with biosolids generated with (1) Ag, ZnO, and TiO2 ENMs introduced into the influent wastewater (ENM biosolids), (2) AgNO3, Zn(SO4)2, and micron-sized TiO2 (dissolved/bulk metal biosolids) introduced into the influent wastewater stream, or (3) no metal added to influent wastewater (control). Soils were amended with biosolids to simulate 20 years of metal loading, which resulted in nominal metal concentrations of 1450, 100, and 2400 mg kg(-1) of Zn, Ag, and Ti, respectively, in the dissolved/bulk and ENM treatments. Tissue Zn concentrations were significantly higher in the plants grown in the ENM treatment (182 mg kg(-1)) compared to those from the bulk treatment (103 mg kg(-1)). Large reductions in nodulation frequency, plant growth, and significant shifts in soil microbial community composition were found for the ENM treatment compared to the bulk/dissolved metal treatment. These results suggest differences in metal bioavailability and toxicity between ENMs and bulk/dissolved metals at concentrations relevant to regulatory limits.

  5. Biomass, Nutrient, and Trace Element Accumulation and Partitioning in Cattail ( L.) during Wetland Phytoremediation of Municipal Biosolids.

    PubMed

    Jeke, Nicholson N; Zvomuya, Francis; Cicek, Nazim; Ross, Lisette; Badiou, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    Biomass and contaminant accumulation and partitioning in plants determine the harvest stage for optimum contaminant uptake during phytoremediation of municipal biosolids. This wetland microcosm bioassay characterized accumulation and partitioning of biomass, nutrients (N and P), and trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, and Cd) in cattail ( L.) in a growth room. Four cattail seedlings were transplanted into each 20-L plastic pail containing 3.9 kg (dry wt.) biosolids from an end-of-life municipal lagoon. A 10-cm-deep water column was maintained above the 12-cm-thick biosolids layer. Plants were harvested every 14 d over a period of 126 d for determination of aboveground biomass (AGB) and belowground biomass (BGB) yields, along with contaminant concentrations in these plant tissues. Logistic model fits to biomass yield data indicated no significant difference in asymptotic yield between AGB and BGB. Aboveground biomass accumulated significantly greater amounts of N and P and lower amounts of trace elements than BGB. Maximum N accumulation in AGB occurred 83 d after transplanting (DAT), and peak P uptake occurred at 86 DAT. Harvesting at maximum aboveground accumulation removed (percent of the initial element concentration in the biosolids) 4% N, 3% P, 0.05% Zn, 0.6% Cu, 0.1% Cd, and 0.2% Cr. Therefore, under the conditions of this study, phytoremediation would be most effective if cattail is harvested at 86 DAT. These results contribute toward the identification of the harvest stage that will optimize contaminant uptake and enhance in situ phytoremediation of biosolids using cattail. PMID:26436271

  6. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Archived U.S. Biosolids from the 2001 EPA National Sewage Sludge Survey

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, Kristin; Halden, Rolf U.

    2010-01-01

    In response to the U.S. National Academies’ call for a better assessment of chemical pollutants contained in the approximately 6.9 million dry tons of digested municipal sludge produced annually in the United States, the mean concentration of 72 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) were determined in 110 biosolids samples collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in its 2001 National Sewage Sludge Survey. Composite samples of archived biosolids, collected at 94 U.S. wastewater treatment plants from 32 states and the District of Columbia, were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using EPA Method 1694. Thirty-eight (54%) of the 72 analytes were detected in at least one composite sample at concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 48 mg kg−1 dry weight. Triclocarban and triclosan were the most abundant analytes with mean concentrations of 36 ± 8 and 12.6 ± 3.8 mg kg−1 (n = 5), respectively, accounting for 65% of the total PPCP mass found. The loading to U.S. soils from nationwide biosolids recycling was estimated at 210–250 metric tons per year for the sum of the 72 PPCPs investigated. The results of this nationwide reconnaissance of PPCPs in archived U.S. biosolids mirror in contaminant occurrences, frequencies and concentrations, those reported by the U.S. EPA for samples collected in 2006/07. This demonstrates that PPCP releases in U.S. biosolids have been ongoing for many years and the most abundant PPCPs appear to show limited fluctuations in mass over time when assessed on a nationwide basis. The here demonstrated use of five mega composite samples holds promise for conducting cost-effective, routine monitoring on a regional basis. PMID:20106500

  7. SPECTROSCOPIC APPROACHES TO DEFINING THE INORGANIC AND ORGANIC CONSTITUENTS OF BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The long-term debate over the fate of metals in biosolids and biosolids-amended soils has traditionally relied on intellectual theory and empirical data. The results of decades of research illustrate that metals in biosolids-amended soils are retained at a higher rate than soils...

  8. Triclosan and methyl-triclosan dissipation in soils after biosolid application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triclosan (TCS) is removed in waste water treatment plants (WWTP) primarily as biosolids (approx. 66%). Therefore, biosolids disposal as land applications represents a significant path for release to the environment. Biosolids collected over three years from a large WWTP had concentrations of TCS ...

  9. ADSORPTION OF CADMIUM ONTO DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF BIOSOLID-AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We hypothesized not only organic but also inorganic fraction in biosolids controls the metal availability in soil systems. To test this hypothesis we conducted Cd adsorption experiments on different fractions of biosolids, biosolid amended soils, and unamended soils. Soils were c...

  10. Effective Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Eng, Wong Kim; Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Hamzah, Mohd Izham Mohd; Hamid, Aida Hanim A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore and identify the characteristics of an effective teacher who teaches English as a second language to 10 year old students from different ethnics, various social economic background and multi-level language ability, at a private primary school in Malaysia. The study focused on classroom management using a case study…

  11. Tips for Effective Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supple, Kevin F.

    2009-01-01

    School business officials' days are filled with numbers and reports--audits, balance sheets, check registers, financial statements, journal entries, vouchers, and warrant reports, just to name a few. Those are all important tools that school business officers use to manage the financial resources of the district effectively. However, they are also…

  12. Effectively managing wound exudate.

    PubMed

    Chamanga, Edwin

    2015-09-01

    The management of wound exudate remains a clinical challenge despite technological advances in products with better exudate-handling capacities. This clinical challenge is occasionally encountered when thick exudate (viscous exudate) is present, and when most modern dressings do not possess the capabilities to manage the viscosity while enabling exudate absorption. Maceration to the peri-wound area poses another challenge, irrespective of the number of topical barrier application products on the market and the innovation of dressing products that lock exudate away or those that encourage vertical wicking. In addition to all the above, in clinical practice, the assessment and documentation of wound exudate remains sporadic, leading to the challenges of effective wound exudate dressing selection and cost-effective dressings.

  13. Metal and nanoparticle occurrence in biosolid-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Wang, Yifei; Westerhoff, Paul; Hristovski, Kiril; Jin, Virginia L; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V; Arnold, Jeffrey G

    2014-07-01

    Metals can accumulate in soils amended with biosolids in which metals have been concentrated during wastewater treatment. The goal of this study is to inspect agricultural sites with long-term biosolid application for a suite of regulated and unregulated metals, including some potentially present as commonly used engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Sampling occurred in fields at a municipal and a privately operated biosolid recycling facilities in Texas. Depth profiles of various metals were developed for control soils without biosolid amendment and soils with different rates of biosolid application (6.6 to 74 dry tons per hectare per year) over 5 to 25 years. Regulated metals of known toxicity, including chromium, copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc, had higher concentrations in the upper layer of biosolid-amended soils (top 0-30 cm or 0-15 cm) than in control soils. The depth profiles of unregulated metals (antimony, hafnium, molybdenum, niobium, gold, silver, tantalum, tin, tungsten, and zirconium) indicate higher concentrations in the 0-30 cm soil increment than in the 70-100 cm soil increment, indicating low vertical mobility after entering the soils. Titanium-containing particles between 50 nm and 250 nm in diameter were identified in soil by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. In conjunction with other studies, this research shows the potential for nanomaterials used in society that enter the sewer system to be removed at municipal biological wastewater treatment plants and accumulate in agricultural fields. The metal concentrations observed herein could be used as representative exposure levels for eco-toxicological studies in these soils. PMID:24742554

  14. Biogeochemical response of a northeastern forest ecosystem to biosolids amendments.

    PubMed

    Banaitis, Michael R; Fernandez, Ivan J; Wilson, Cullen; Norton, Stephen A; Dail, D Bryan

    2009-01-01

    In the northeastern United States interest in the use of biosolids on forest lands is growing due to the prevalence of extensive forests and market incentives for waste disposal, yet much of the regulatory framework for biosolids land application is based on agronomic practice. This study evaluated the response of soils in a young ( approximately 20 yr old) deciduous forest to lime-stabilized biosolids amendments focusing on (i) the temporal and spatial evolution of the pH response, (ii) soil exchangeable cation response, (iii) the risk of trace metal accumulations, and (iv) a bioindicator of treatments (i.e., foliar chemistry). Eighteen plots were established in two study phases with lime-stabilized biosolids loading targets of 0 (control), 4.5, 6.7, 13.4, 20.2, 26.9, and 33.6 Mg (megagram) calcium carbonate equivalents (CCE) ha(-1), with the lowest target rate of addition representing the current regulated loading limit for forest biosolids applications in Maine. The pH of the O horizon increased immediately >2 pH units, and then declined with time, while B horizon pH increased gradually, taking over 1 yr to achieve approximately 1.0 pH unit increase at the highest loading target. O-horizon exchangeable Ca concentration increases dominated soil chemical change and resulted in decreases in exchangeable H and Al. Few significant increases in soil trace metal concentrations had occurred at any soil depth after 1 yr of treatment. Foliar response generally reflected changes in soil chemistry, with Ca concentration increases most significant. This research provides critical insights on forest soil response to application of lime-stabilized biosolids and suggests opportunities for higher loading targets in forests should be examined.

  15. Siletz River nutrients: Effects of biosolids application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stream water nutrients were measured in the Siletz River, Oregon, with the goal of comparing dissolved nutrient concentrations, primarily the nitrogenous nutrients nitrate and ammonium, with previously collected data for the Yaquina and Alsea Rivers for the nutrient criteria prog...

  16. Comparison of arsenic content in pelletized poultry house waste and biosolids fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Nachman, Keeve E; Mihalic, Jana N; Burke, Thomas A; Geyh, Alison S

    2008-03-01

    Managers of human biosolids have been incorporating the practice of waste pelletization for use as fertilizer since the mid 1920s, and waste pelletization has recently been embraced by some poultry producers as a way to move nutrients away from saturated agricultural land. However, the presence of arsenic in pelletized poultry house waste (PPHW) resulting from the use of organoarsenical antimicrobial drugs in poultry production raises concerns regarding additional incremental population exposures. Arsenic concentrations were determined in PPHW and pelletized biosolids fertilizer (PBF) samples. Pellets were processed using strong acid microwave digestion and analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. The mean arsenic concentration in PPHW (20.1 ppm) fell within the lower part of the range of previously report arsenic concentrations in unpelletized poultry house waste. Arsenic concentrations in PBF, the source of which is less clear than for PPHW, were approximately a factor of 5 times lower than those in PPHW, with a mean concentration of 4.1 ppm. The pelletization and sale of these biological waste fertilizers present new pathways of exposure to arsenic in consumer populations who would otherwise not come into contact with these wastes. Arsenic exposures in humans resulting from use of these fertilizer pellets should be quantified to avoid potential unintended negative consequences of managing wastes through pelletization. PMID:18023841

  17. Bioaccumulation of triclosan and triclocarban in plants grown in soils amended with municipal dewatered biosolids.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Ryan S; Lissemore, Linda; Topp, Edward; Sibley, Paul K

    2014-05-01

    Biosolids generally contain the microbiocidal agents triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) that are persistent during wastewater treatment and sorp to organic material. The present study investigated the concentration of TCS in tissues of radish, carrot, and soybean grown in potted soil amended with biosolids. Highest mean concentrations of TCS in radish, carrot, and soybean root tissue midway through the life cycle were 24.8 ng/g, 49.8 ng/g, and 48.1 ng/g dry weight, respectively; by the conclusion of the test, however, concentrations had declined to 2.1 ng/g, 5.5 ng/g, and 8.4 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Highest mean concentrations of TCS in radish and carrot shoot tissue were 33.7 and 18.3 ng/g dry weight at days 19 and 45, respectively, but had declined to 13.7 ng/g and 5.5 ng/g dry weight at days 34 and 69, respectively. Concentration of TCS in all samples of soybean seeds was below method detection limit (i.e., 2.8 ng/g dry wt). The present study also examined the concentration of TCS and TCC in edible portions of green pepper, carrot, cucumber, tomato, radish, and lettuce plants grown in a field amended with biosolids. Triclosan was detected only in cucumber and radish up to 5.2 ng/g dry weight. Triclocarban was detected in carrot, green pepper, tomato, and cucumber up to 5.7 ng/g dry weight. On the basis of the present study and other studies, we estimate that vegetable consumption represents less than 0.5% of the acceptable daily intake of TCS and TCC. These results demonstrate that, if best management practices for land application of biosolids in Ontario are followed, the concentration of TCS and TCC in edible portions of plants represents a negligible exposure pathway to humans. PMID:24375516

  18. Bioaccumulation of triclosan and triclocarban in plants grown in soils amended with municipal dewatered biosolids.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Ryan S; Lissemore, Linda; Topp, Edward; Sibley, Paul K

    2014-05-01

    Biosolids generally contain the microbiocidal agents triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) that are persistent during wastewater treatment and sorp to organic material. The present study investigated the concentration of TCS in tissues of radish, carrot, and soybean grown in potted soil amended with biosolids. Highest mean concentrations of TCS in radish, carrot, and soybean root tissue midway through the life cycle were 24.8 ng/g, 49.8 ng/g, and 48.1 ng/g dry weight, respectively; by the conclusion of the test, however, concentrations had declined to 2.1 ng/g, 5.5 ng/g, and 8.4 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Highest mean concentrations of TCS in radish and carrot shoot tissue were 33.7 and 18.3 ng/g dry weight at days 19 and 45, respectively, but had declined to 13.7 ng/g and 5.5 ng/g dry weight at days 34 and 69, respectively. Concentration of TCS in all samples of soybean seeds was below method detection limit (i.e., 2.8 ng/g dry wt). The present study also examined the concentration of TCS and TCC in edible portions of green pepper, carrot, cucumber, tomato, radish, and lettuce plants grown in a field amended with biosolids. Triclosan was detected only in cucumber and radish up to 5.2 ng/g dry weight. Triclocarban was detected in carrot, green pepper, tomato, and cucumber up to 5.7 ng/g dry weight. On the basis of the present study and other studies, we estimate that vegetable consumption represents less than 0.5% of the acceptable daily intake of TCS and TCC. These results demonstrate that, if best management practices for land application of biosolids in Ontario are followed, the concentration of TCS and TCC in edible portions of plants represents a negligible exposure pathway to humans.

  19. Interfering with therapeutic tranquility: Debates surrounding biosolid waste processing in rural Ontario.

    PubMed

    Mason-Renton, Sarah; Luginaah, Isaac

    2016-09-01

    Uncertainty surrounding potential health effects of techno-industrial facilities continues to result in heightened debate about what are the best and safest options for future generations in rural places regarded by residents for their therapeutic tranquility. This research examines how a proposed biosolid processing facility in rural Ontario producing agricultural fertilizer from primarily urban sewage has in some residents elicited particularly strong concerns about potential health impacts, which are accompanied by perceptions that the tranquil and pastoral nature of their landscape is being altered. However, fueling community conflict between friends and relatives is the contested nature of the landscape's restorative qualities and the facility's disruption of this tranquil place. PMID:27541618

  20. Growth and Cadmium Phytoextraction by Swiss Chard, Maize, Rice, Noccaea caerulescens, and Alyssum murale in Ph Adjusted Biosolids Amended Soils.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, C Leigh; Chaney, Rufus L; Davis, Allen P; Cox, Albert; Kumar, Kuldip; Reeves, Roger D; Green, Carrie E

    2015-01-01

    Past applications of biosolids to soils at some locations added higher Cd levels than presently permitted. Cadmium phytoextraction would alleviate current land use constraints. Unamended farm soil, and biosolids amended farm and mine soils were obtained from a Fulton Co., IL biosolids management facility. Soils contained 0.16, 22.8, 45.3 mg Cd kg(-1) and 43.1, 482, 812 mg Zn kg(-1) respectively with initial pH 6.0, 6.1, 6.4. In greenhouse studies, Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla), a Cd-accumulator maize (inbred B37 Zea mays) and a southern France Cd-hyperaccumulator genotype of Noccaea caerulescens were tested for Cd accumulation and phytoextraction. Soil pH was adjusted from ∼5.5-7.0. Additionally 100 rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes and the Ni-hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale were screened for potential phytoextraction use. Chard suffered phytotoxicity at low pH and accumulated up to 90 mg Cd kg(-1) on the biosolids amended mine soil. The maize inbred accumulated up to 45 mg Cd kg(-1) with only mild phytotoxicity symptoms during early growth at pH>6.0. N. caerulescens did not exhibit phytotoxicity symptoms at any pH, and accumulated up to 235 mg Cd kg(-1) in 3 months. Reharvested N. caerulescens accumulated up to 900 mg Cd kg(-1) after 10 months. Neither Alyssum nor 90% of rice genotypes survived acceptably. Both N. caerulescens and B37 maize show promise for Cd phytoextraction in IL and require field evaluation; both plants could be utilized for nearly continuous Cd removal. Other maize inbreds may offer higher Cd phytoextraction at lower pH, and mono-cross hybrids higher shoot biomass yields. Further, maize grown only for biomass Cd maximum removal could be double-cropped.

  1. Determination of Biosolids Phosphorus Solubility and Its Relationship to Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jameson, Molly; White, Jeffrey G; Osmond, Deanna L; Aziz, Tarek

    2016-07-01

    In North Carolina (NC), biosolids land application rates governed by crop nitrogen (N) requirements typically surpass crop phosphorus (P) needs, increasing surface water pollution potential. The NC Department of Environmental Quality (NCDEQ) is considering P-based biosolids application guidelines for some nutrient-impaired watersheds using the P Loss Assessment Tool (PLAT), but important biosolids information is lacking: total P (TP), water-extractable P (WEP), and percent water-extractable P (PWEP). In each of three seasons, we sampled 28 biosolids from 26 participating water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) and analyzed for TP, WEP, and percent dry matter (DM), from which PWEP and nonsoluble P were calculated. Based on descriptive statistics and an online survey of treatment processes, biosolids were divided into Class A-alkaline, Class A-heat, Class B-slurry, and Class B-cake. The average TP in Class A alkaline stabilized biosolids was more than five times less than the average of the other biosolids, 5.0 vs. 26.6 g/kg, respectively. Averaged over biosolids, WEP and PWEP were 1.4 g/kg and 5.0%, respectively. Stabilization processes appeared to reduce WEP substantially, so biosolids potential soluble-P loss is low. Our data will allow PLAT to be used for biosolids P-loss risk assessments. PMID:27329056

  2. Human health risk assessment of triclosan in land-applied biosolids.

    PubMed

    Verslycke, Tim; Mayfield, David B; Tabony, Jade A; Capdevielle, Marie; Slezak, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Triclosan (5-chloro-2-[2,4-dichlorophenoxy]-phenol) is an antimicrobial agent found in a variety of pharmaceutical and personal care products. Numerous studies have examined the occurrence and environmental fate of triclosan in wastewater, biosolids, biosolids-amended soils, and plants and organisms exposed to biosolid-amended soils. Triclosan has a propensity to adhere to organic carbon in biosolids and biosolid-amended soils. Land application of biosolids containing triclosan has the potential to contribute to multiple direct and indirect human health exposure pathways. To estimate exposures and human health risks from biosolid-borne triclosan, a risk assessment was conducted in general accordance with the methodology incorporated into the US Environmental Protection Agency's Part 503 biosolids rule. Human health exposures to biosolid-borne triclosan were estimated on the basis of published empirical data or modeled using upper-end environmental partitioning estimates. Similarly, a range of published triclosan human health toxicity values was evaluated. Margins of safety were estimated for 10 direct and indirect exposure pathways, both individually and combined. The present risk assessment found large margins of safety (>1000 to >100 000) for potential exposures to all pathways, even under the most conservative exposure and toxicity assumptions considered. The human health exposures and risks from biosolid-borne triclosan are concluded to be de minimis. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2358-2367. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27552397

  3. Greening a Steel Mill Slag Brownfield with Biosolids and Sediments: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Brose, Dominic A; Hundal, Lakhwinder S; Oladeji, Olawale O; Kumar, Kuldip; Granato, Thomas C; Cox, Albert; Abedin, Zainul

    2016-01-01

    The former US Steel Corporation's South Works site in Chicago, IL, is a 230-ha bare brownfield consisting of steel mill slag fill materials that will need to be reclaimed to support and sustain vegetation. We conducted a case study to evaluate the suitability of biosolids and dredged sediments for capping the steel mill slag to establish good quality turfgrass vegetation. Eight study plots were established on a 0.4-ha parcel that received biosolids and dredged sediment blends of 0, 25, 50, or 100% biosolids (v/v). Turfgrass was successfully established and was thicker and greener in biosolids-amended sediments than in unamended sediments. Concentrations of N, P, K, and micronutrients in turfgrass tissues increased with increasing biosolids. Soil organic carbon, N, P, and micronutrients increased with increasing biosolids. Cadmium, Cu, Ni, and Zn concentrations in biosolids-amended sediments also increased with increasing biosolids but were far below phytotoxicity limits for turfgrass. Lead and Cr concentrations in biosolids-amended plots were comparable to concentrations in unamended sediments. Groundwater monitoring lysimeters and wells below the study site and near Lake Michigan were not affected by nutrients leaching from the amendments. Overall, the results from this case study demonstrated that blends of biosolids and dredged sediments could be successfully used for capping steel mill slag brownfield sites to establish good quality turfgrass vegetation. PMID:26828160

  4. Particulate matter composition and emission rates from the disk incorporation of class B biosolids into soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paez-Rubio, Tania; Xin, Hua; Anderson, James; Peccia, Jordan

    Biosolids contain metal, synthetic organic compound, endotoxin, and pathogen concentrations that are greater than concentrations in the agricultural soils to which they are applied. Once applied, biosolids are incorporated into soils by disking and the aerosols produced during this process may pose an airborne toxicological and infectious health hazard to biosolids workers and nearby residents. Field studies at a Central Arizona biosolids land application site were conducted to characterize the physical, chemical, and biological content of the aerosols produced during biosolids disking and the content of bulk biosolids and soils from which the aerosols emanate. Arrayed samplers were used to estimate the vertical source aerosol concentration profile to enable plume height and associated source emission rate calculations. Source aerosol concentrations and calculated emission rates reveal that disking is a substantial source of biosolids-derived aerosols. The biosolids emission rate during disking ranged from 9.91 to 27.25 mg s -1 and was greater than previously measured emission rates produced during the spreading of dewatered biosolids or the spraying of liquid biosolids. Adding biosolids to dry soils increased the moisture content and reduced the total PM 10 emissions produced during disking by at least three times. The combination of bulk biosolids and aerosol measurements along with PM 10 concentrations provides a framework for estimating aerosol concentrations and emission rates by reconstruction. This framework serves to eliminate the difficulty and inherent limitations associated with monitoring low aerosol concentrations of toxic compounds and pathogens, and can promote an increased understanding of the associated biosolids aerosol health risks to workers and nearby residents.

  5. Transformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Fresh, Aged, and Incinerated Biosolids

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract The purpose of this research was to assess the chemical transformation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in aged, fresh, and incinerated biosolids in order to provide information for AgNP life cycle analyses. Silver nanoparticles were introduced to the influent of a pilot...

  6. Risk assessment of persistent pharmaceuticals in biosolids: Dealing with uncertainty.

    PubMed

    García-Santiago, Xela; Franco-Uría, Amaya; Omil, Francisco; Lema, Juan M

    2016-01-25

    A screening-level risk assessment of biosolids-borne PPCPs in agricultural scenarios was developed in this work. While several of these compounds are efficiently removed in sewage treatment plants (STPs), others are recalcitrant to degradation and can be found in sludge at significant levels. As the rate of biosolids reuse for fertilising and/or amendment purposes is increasing, it is necessary to evaluate the fate in soil and possible biotransfer of this type of pollutants in the long-term. The study includes six compounds that were selected considering data availability, presence in sludge and persistence. Due to the scarce data still present in literature, a probabilistic assessment to address uncertainty was developed. A 95th percentile of the hazard index (HI) exceeding 1 was obtained, with main contributions of triclosan and carbamazepine. Although these estimates were obtained under a worst-case approach, and that they can vary depending on scenario characteristics, they change the least-concern classification associated to the presence of PPCPs in biosolids. A sensitivity analysis indicates the high influence of application rate and sludge concentration level on the results. Thus, the importance of developing new strategies of removal in advanced STPs and the establishment of a specific biosolids reuse regulation including this type of compounds acquires an added significance.

  7. Uptake coefficients for biosolids-amended dryland winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosolids regulations developed in the United States employed risk assessment impacts of trace element additions on plant uptake. The US Environmental Protection Agency adapted the uptake coefficient (ratio of plant concentration to quantity of element added) when developing limitations on selected...

  8. Fate of tricloasa and methyltriclosan from biosolids application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosolids contain synthetic chemicals such as Triclosan (TCS) which is heavily used as an antibacterial compound with endocrine disruptor properties. Thus, TCS has the potential to alter soil microbial communities and disrupt endocrine functions if they move offsite. Due to its low solubility and ...

  9. Modeling nitric oxide emissions from biosolid amended soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelle, Paul A.; Aneja, Viney P.; Mathur, Rohit; Vukovich, Jeff; Peirce, Jeffrey

    Utilizing a state-of-the-art mobile laboratory in conjunction with a dynamic flow-through chamber system, nitric oxide concentrations [NO] were measured and NO fluxes were calculated during the summer, winter and spring of 1999/2000. The field site where these measurements were conducted was an agricultural soil amended with biosolids from a municipal wastewater treatment facility. These NO flux values were then used to assess the impact of including biosolid amended soils as a land-use class in an air quality model. The average NO flux from this biosolid amended soil was found to be exponentially dependent on soil temperature [NO Flux ( ng N m-2 s-1)=1.07 exp(0.14 T soil) ; R2=0.81—NO Flux=71.3 ng N m -2 s-1 at 30°C]. Comparing this relationship to results of the widely applied biogenic emissions inventory system (BEIS2) model revealed that for this field site, if the BEIS2 model was used, the NO emissions would have been underestimated by a factor of 26. Using this newly developed NO flux algorithm, combined with North Carolina Division of Water Quality statistics on how many biosolid amended acres are permitted per county, county-based NO inventories from these biosolid amended soils were calculated. Results from this study indicate that county-level biogenic NO emissions can increase by as much as 18% when biosolid amended soils are included as a land-use class. The multiscale air quality simulation platform (MAQSIP) was then used to determine differences in ozone (O 3) and odd-reactive nitrogen compounds (NO y) between models run with and without the biosolid amended acreages included in the inventory. Results showed that during the daytime, when atmospheric mixing heights are typically at their greatest, any increase in O 3 or NO y concentrations predicted by the model were small (<3%). In some locations during late evening/early morning hours, ozone was found to be consumed by as much as 11%.

  10. Energy recovery from biosolids: The City of Los Angeles experience

    SciTech Connect

    Haug, R.T.; Moore, G.L.; Harrison, D.S.

    1995-11-01

    The City of Los Angeles` Hyperion Treatment Plant serves an area of 1,500 sq km (600 sq mi) with a contributory population of nearly 4 million. The plant currently produces more than 250 dry tonnes per day (dtpd) of digested, dewatered biosolids and is being expanded and upgraded to provide pure oxygen, full secondary treatment by 1998. The modern Hyperion Plant began operating in 1951. Since that time, Hyperion has provided anaerobic digestion for its biosolids and has used the produced biogas for power generation. In the 1980`s the City completed a major expansion of its power generation and biosolids handling facilities at Hyperion. These facilities became known as the Hyperion Energy Recovery System (HERS) and their objective is to maximize the recovery of energy from the renewable biosolids. Today, these facilities are operational and continue to be modified to optimize performance and expanded to meet the increased loadings from full secondary treatment. Biogas produced by the anaerobic digestion process is compressed, scrubbed to remove H{sub 2}S, and used to power a gas turbine, combined cycle cogeneration system. Emergency flares are provided in the event of a power plant outage. A portion of the biosolids are transported offsite for beneficial reuse, such as composting and direct land application. The remaining solids are centrifugally dewatered and dried by indirect rotary dryers to produce about 50 dtpd of dried biofuel. Biofuel produced from the drying processes is fired in a fluidized bed gasification and staged combustion process (FBC) designed to recover energy and reduce air emissions. Superheated steam is produced in a waste heat boiler and converted to electrical power is a condensing steam turbine. Bioash from the FBC`s is contracted for off-site reuse, primarily as a fluxing agent in copper smelting and as a source of silica, aluminum, iron and calcium for manufacture of portland cement.

  11. Effective Public Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Joseph L.

    1977-01-01

    Argues that public management differs from private management not just in degree but in quality, so that American business is an inappropriate analogy for evaluating public management. In particular, "purpose,""organization," and "people" have different meaning and significance in public agencies and private businesses. (JG)

  12. Bioaerosols from the land application of biosolids in the desert southwest USA.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J P; Tanner, B D; Josephson, K L; Gerba, C P; Pepper, I L

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated bioaerosol emissions during land application of Class B biosolids in and around Tucson, Arizona, to aid in developing models of the fate and transport of bioaerosols generated from the land application of biosolids. Samples were collected for 20 min at distances between 2 m and 20 m downwind of point sources, using an SKC BioSampler impinger. A total of six samples were collected per sampling event, which consisted of a biosolid spray applicator applying liquid biosolids to a cotton field. Each application represented one exposure. Samples were collected in deionised water amended with peptone and antifoam agent. Ambient weather conditions were also monitored every 10 min following initiation of sampling. Concurrently with downwind samples, background (ambient) air samples were collected to compensate for any ambient airborne microorganisms. In addition, biosolids samples were collected for analysis of target indicator and pathogenic organisms. Soil samples were also collected and analysed. Significant numbers of heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria were found in air samples collected during the biosolid application process. These could have arisen from soil particles being aerosolised during the land application process. Aerosolised soil may contribute significantly to the amount of aerosolised microorganisms. Soil particles may be able to more readily aerosolise, due to their low density, small particle size and low mass. Aerosolised HPC bacteria found during biosolids land application were similar to those found during normal tractor operation on non-biosolids applied fields. Coliforms and coliphages were not routinely detected even though they were found to be present in the biosolids at relatively high concentrations, 10(6) and 10(4)/g (dry weight) of biosolids respectively. This could be due to the die-off rate of aerosolised Gram-negative bacteria or sorption to the solid portion of the biosolids. Low numbers of aerosolised

  13. MOBILIZATION OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS AND ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY IN SIMULATED RAINFALL RUNOFF FROM LAND-APPLIED BIOSOLIDS

    PubMed Central

    Giudice, Ben D.; Young, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Municipal biosolids are commonly applied to land as soil amendment or fertilizer as a form of beneficial reuse of what could otherwise be viewed as waste. Balanced against this benefit are potential risks to groundwater and surface water quality from constituents that may be mobilized during storm events. The objective of the present study was to characterize the mobilization of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), heavy metals, and total estrogenic activity in rainfall runoff from land-applied biosolids. Rainfall simulations were conducted on soil plots amended with biosolids. Surface runoff and leachate was collected and analyzed for the EDCs bisphenol A, 17α-ethynylestradiol, triclocarban, triclosan, octylphenol, and nonylphenol; a suite of sixteen metals; and estrogenic activity via the ER-CALUX bioassay. Triclocarban (2.3–17.3 ng/L), triclosan (<51–309 ng/L), and octylphenol (<4.9–203 ng/L) were commonly detected. Chromium (2.0–22 µg/L), cobalt (2.5–10 µg/L), nickel (28–235 µg/L), copper (14–110 µg/L), arsenic (1.2–2.7 µg/L), and selenium (0.29–12 µg/L) were quantifiable over background levels. Triclosan, nickel, and copper were detected at levels that might pose some risk to aquatic life, though levels of metals in the biosolids were well below maximum allowable regulatory limits. ER-CALUX results were mostly explained by background bisphenol A contamination and octylphenol in runoff, though unknown contributors and/or matrix effects were also found. PMID:21786314

  14. Mobilization of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and estrogenic activity in simulated rainfall runoff from land-applied biosolids.

    PubMed

    Giudice, Ben D; Young, Thomas M

    2011-10-01

    Municipal biosolids are commonly applied to land as soil amendment or fertilizer as a form of beneficial reuse of what could otherwise be viewed as waste. Balanced against this benefit are potential risks to groundwater and surface water quality from constituents that may be mobilized during storm events. The objective of the present study was to characterize the mobilization of selected endocrine-disrupting compounds, heavy metals, and total estrogenic activity in rainfall runoff from land-applied biosolids. Rainfall simulations were conducted on soil plots amended with biosolids. Surface runoff and leachate was collected and analyzed for the endocrine-disrupting compounds bisphenol A, 17α-ethynylestradiol, triclocarban, triclosan, octylphenol, and nonylphenol; a suite of 16 metals; and estrogenic activity via the estrogen receptor-mediated chemical activated luciferase gene expression (ER-CALUX) bioassay. Triclocarban (2.3-17.3 ng/L), triclosan (<51-309 ng/L), and octylphenol (<4.9-203 ng/L) were commonly detected. Chromium (2.0-22 µg/L), Co (2.5-10 µg/L), Ni (28-235 µg/L), Cu (14-110 µg/L), As (1.2-2.7 µg/L), and Se (0.29-12 µg/L) were quantifiable over background levels. Triclosan, Ni, and Cu were detected at levels that might pose some risk to aquatic life, though levels of metals in the biosolids were well below the maximum allowable regulatory limits. The ER-CALUX results were mostly explained by background bisphenol A contamination and octylphenol in runoff, although unknown contributors or matrix effects were also found. PMID:21786314

  15. Mobilization of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and estrogenic activity in simulated rainfall runoff from land-applied biosolids.

    PubMed

    Giudice, Ben D; Young, Thomas M

    2011-10-01

    Municipal biosolids are commonly applied to land as soil amendment or fertilizer as a form of beneficial reuse of what could otherwise be viewed as waste. Balanced against this benefit are potential risks to groundwater and surface water quality from constituents that may be mobilized during storm events. The objective of the present study was to characterize the mobilization of selected endocrine-disrupting compounds, heavy metals, and total estrogenic activity in rainfall runoff from land-applied biosolids. Rainfall simulations were conducted on soil plots amended with biosolids. Surface runoff and leachate was collected and analyzed for the endocrine-disrupting compounds bisphenol A, 17α-ethynylestradiol, triclocarban, triclosan, octylphenol, and nonylphenol; a suite of 16 metals; and estrogenic activity via the estrogen receptor-mediated chemical activated luciferase gene expression (ER-CALUX) bioassay. Triclocarban (2.3-17.3 ng/L), triclosan (<51-309 ng/L), and octylphenol (<4.9-203 ng/L) were commonly detected. Chromium (2.0-22 µg/L), Co (2.5-10 µg/L), Ni (28-235 µg/L), Cu (14-110 µg/L), As (1.2-2.7 µg/L), and Se (0.29-12 µg/L) were quantifiable over background levels. Triclosan, Ni, and Cu were detected at levels that might pose some risk to aquatic life, though levels of metals in the biosolids were well below the maximum allowable regulatory limits. The ER-CALUX results were mostly explained by background bisphenol A contamination and octylphenol in runoff, although unknown contributors or matrix effects were also found.

  16. Ground-Water Quality in the Vicinity of Coal-Refuse Areas Reclaimed with Biosolids in Fulton County, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, William S.

    2007-01-01

    The Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago has applied biosolids, followed by revegetation, to reclaim three coal-refuse areas. Most of the reclamation at the three sites was done from 1989 through 1992, and included the application of lime, clay, and various loads of biosolids up to 1,000 dry tons per acre. Water samples collected from 12 monitoring wells installed in the vicinity of the three reclaimed coal-refuse areas were analyzed to better understand the hydrogeology and water-quality effects. Ground water probably flows along preferential paths in the disturbed coal-refuse areas, and is impeded by undisturbed glacial till. Most of the samples contained elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, and manganese, constituents associated with ground water in coal-mined areas. Concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, nickel, or zinc were somewhat elevated in samples from four wells, and greatest in water samples with pH less than 5. The smaller nutrient concentrations indicate that the applied biosolids are not identifiably affecting nutrients or metal concentrations in shallow ground water near the refuse piles. The coal refuse likely is the primary influence on the chemical characterization of ground-water in the area.

  17. Survey of organic wastewater contaminants in biosolids destined for land application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinney, C.A.; Furlong, E.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Werner, S.L.; Cahill, J.D.; Jorgensen, G.R.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the presence, composition, and concentrations of organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) were determined in solid materials produced during wastewater treatment. This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of these solids, collectively referred to as biosolids, as a source of OWCs to soil and water in contact with soil. Nine different biosolid products, produced by municipal wastewater treatment plants in seven different states, were analyzed for 87 different OWCs. Fifty-five of the OWCs were detected in at least one biosolid product. The 87 different OWCs represent a diverse cross section of emerging organic contaminants that enter wastewater treatment plants and may be discharged without being completely metabolized or degraded. A minimum of 30 and a maximum of 45 OWCs were detected in any one biosolid. The biosolids used in this study are produced by several production methods, and the plants they originate from have differing population demographics, yet the percent composition of total OWC content, and of the most common OWCs, typically did not vary greatly between the biosolids tested. The summed OWC content ranged from 64 to 1811 mg/kg dry weight. Six biosolids were collected twice, 3-18 months apart, and the total OWC content of each biosolid varied by less than a factor of 2. These results indicate that the biosolids investigated in this study have OWC compositions and concentrations that are more similar than different and that biosolids are highly enriched in OWCs (as mass-normalized concentrations) when compared to effluents or effluent-impacted water. These results demonstrate the need to better describe the composition and fate of OWCs in biosolids since about 50% of biosolids are land applied and thus become a potentially ubiquitous nonpoint source of OWCs into the environment. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  18. The fate of nitrogen in a moderately alkaline and calcareous soil amended with biosolids and urea.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Christina; Assadian, Naomi W; Lindemann, William

    2006-06-01

    The determination of nitrogen (N) based loading rates for land application of biosolids is challenging and site specific. Over loading may contribute to environmental, agricultural, or human health problems. The objective of this study was to monitor N mineralization and losses in a moderately alkaline and calcareous desert soil amended with either anaerobically digested (AN) or lime-stabilized (LS) biosolids, and irrigated with and without urea enriched water. For Experiment 1, N inputs, leaching and residuals in soil were evaluated in an open soil column system. For Experiment 2, ammonia (NH(3)) emissions were evaluated in a closed soil column system. In Experiment 1, AN and LS biosolids increased soil ON (organic N) by three and two fold, respectively. Respective net N mineralization of ON from biosolids alone was 90% and 62% without urea, and 71% and 77%, respectively with added urea. Nitrogen leaching losses and residuals in amended soil did not account for all N inputs into the soil/biosolids system. In Experiment 2, NH(3) emissions were not significantly different among treated soils with or without added urea, except LS amended soil receiving urea. Ammonia losses did not account for unaccounted N in Experiment 1. We concluded that deep placement and rapid mineralization of AN biosolids promoted anaerobic soil conditions and denitrification, in addition to the high denitrification potential of desert soil. LS biosolids showed greater potential than AN biosolids for safe and beneficial land application to desert soils regardless of biosolids placement and the inclusion of N rich irrigation water.

  19. Dynamics of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in soil amended with irradiated, pasteurized and limed biosolids.

    PubMed

    Franco-Hernández, Olivia; Mckelligan-Gonzalez, Alba Natalia; Lopez-Olguin, Ana Maria; Espinosa-Ceron, Fabiola; Escamilla-Silva, Eleazar; Dendooven, Luc

    2003-03-01

    Sewage biosolids contain high concentrations of pathogens, which limits their use as soil amendment. This study investigated how application of lime (Ca(OH)2), irradiation, or pasteurization reduced pathogens in biosolids and how its application affected soil characteristics. A soil sampled outside the canopy of Mesquite trees (Prosopis laevigata) and from a pasture at Lerma (Mexico) was amended with treated or untreated biosolids, characterized and incubated aerobically while dynamics of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) were monitored. Heavy metals concentrations in the biosolids were low, so it was of excellent quality (USEPA). The amount of pathogens in the biosolids made it a class "B" (USEPA) which can be used in forests. Only irradiation sufficiently reduced faecal coliforms to make it a class "A" biosolids without restrictions in application. C mineralization increased significantly when biosolids were added, but not concentrations of available P (P < 0.05). Ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in soil amended with biosolids were higher compared to unamended soil, but not the concentrations of nitrate (NO3-) except when biosolids treated with Ca(OH)2 was added to the Lerma soil.

  20. Field dissipation and plant uptake of benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers in biosolid-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hua-Jie; Ying, Guang-Guo; Ma, Yi-Bing; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Chen, Feng; Liu, You-Sheng

    2014-03-01

    Benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers (BUVSs) have been commonly used in industrial and household product formulations, and have been detected in biosolids from wastewater treatment plants. However, little is known about their occurrence and dissipation behavior in the soil environment associated with biosolid application. This study investigated the occurrence and dissipation of five typical BUVSs (UV-326, UV-327, UV-328, UV-329 and UV-P) in biosolid-amended soils, and the uptake of these biocides by plants. The field trial includes two treatment groups: old groups with biosolid application at rates of 5, 10, 20 and 40 t ha(-1) every year within 5 years, and new groups with only one biosolid application. The results showed that the five BUVSs could be detected in most biosolid-amended soils at a few to tens of ng g(-1) levels, but not detected in the control soils. These chemicals were not found in the crop plants collected from the trial plots. Moreover, high biosolid application rates and repeated biosolid applications resulted in high accumulation of these BUVSs in soil. During one year monitoring, the five BUVSs were significantly dissipated in the biosolid-amended soils with their half-lives ranging from 79 to 223 days, which were comparable with the modeling results. The results from this study demonstrated the persistence of BUVSs in soil environments with quite slow dissipation rates. PMID:24452637

  1. A greenhouse trial to investigate the ameliorative properties of biosolids and plants on physicochemical conditions of iron ore tailings: Implications for an iron ore mine site remediation.

    PubMed

    Cele, Emmanuel Nkosinathi; Maboeta, Mark

    2016-01-01

    An iron ore mine site in Swaziland is currently (2015) in a derelict state as a consequence of past (1964-1988) and present (2011 - current) iron ore mining operations. In order to control problems associated with mine wastes, the Swaziland Water Services Corporation (SWSC) recently (2013) proposed the application of biosolids in sites degraded by mining operations. It is thought that this practice could generally improve soil conditions and enhance plant reestablishment. More importantly, the SWSC foresees this as a potential solution to the biosolids disposal problems. In order to investigate the effects of biosolids and plants in soil physicochemical conditions of iron mine soils, we conducted two plant growth trials. Trial 1 consisted of tailings that received biosolids and topsoil (TUSB mix) while in trial 2, tailings received biosolids only (TB mix). In the two trials, the application rates of 0 (control), 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 t ha(-1) were used. After 30 days of equilibration, 25 seeds of Cynodon dactylon were sown in each pot and thinned to 10 plants after 4 weeks. Plants were watered twice weekly and remained under greenhouse conditions for 12 weeks, subsequent to which soils were subjected to chemical analysis. According to the results obtained, there were significant improvements in soil parameters related to fertility such as organic matter (OM), water holding capacity (WHC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), ammonium [Formula: see text] , magnesium (Mg(2+)), calcium (Ca(2+)) and phosphorus ( [Formula: see text] ). With regard to heavy metals, biosolids led to significant increases in soil total concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb. The higher concentrations of Zn and Cu in treated tailings compared to undisturbed adjacent soils are a cause for concern because in the field, this might work against the broader objectives of mine soil remediation, which include the recolonization of reclaimed sites by soil-dwelling organisms. Therefore, while

  2. A greenhouse trial to investigate the ameliorative properties of biosolids and plants on physicochemical conditions of iron ore tailings: Implications for an iron ore mine site remediation.

    PubMed

    Cele, Emmanuel Nkosinathi; Maboeta, Mark

    2016-01-01

    An iron ore mine site in Swaziland is currently (2015) in a derelict state as a consequence of past (1964-1988) and present (2011 - current) iron ore mining operations. In order to control problems associated with mine wastes, the Swaziland Water Services Corporation (SWSC) recently (2013) proposed the application of biosolids in sites degraded by mining operations. It is thought that this practice could generally improve soil conditions and enhance plant reestablishment. More importantly, the SWSC foresees this as a potential solution to the biosolids disposal problems. In order to investigate the effects of biosolids and plants in soil physicochemical conditions of iron mine soils, we conducted two plant growth trials. Trial 1 consisted of tailings that received biosolids and topsoil (TUSB mix) while in trial 2, tailings received biosolids only (TB mix). In the two trials, the application rates of 0 (control), 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 t ha(-1) were used. After 30 days of equilibration, 25 seeds of Cynodon dactylon were sown in each pot and thinned to 10 plants after 4 weeks. Plants were watered twice weekly and remained under greenhouse conditions for 12 weeks, subsequent to which soils were subjected to chemical analysis. According to the results obtained, there were significant improvements in soil parameters related to fertility such as organic matter (OM), water holding capacity (WHC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), ammonium [Formula: see text] , magnesium (Mg(2+)), calcium (Ca(2+)) and phosphorus ( [Formula: see text] ). With regard to heavy metals, biosolids led to significant increases in soil total concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb. The higher concentrations of Zn and Cu in treated tailings compared to undisturbed adjacent soils are a cause for concern because in the field, this might work against the broader objectives of mine soil remediation, which include the recolonization of reclaimed sites by soil-dwelling organisms. Therefore, while

  3. Relative risk assessment of cruise ships biosolids disposal alternatives.

    PubMed

    Avellaneda, Pedro M; Englehardt, James D; Olascoaga, Josefina; Babcock, Elizabeth A; Brand, Larry; Lirman, Diego; Rogge, Wolfgang F; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Tchobanoglous, George

    2011-10-01

    A relative risk assessment of biosolids disposal alternatives for cruise ships is presented in this paper. The area of study encompasses islands and marine waters of the Caribbean Sea. The objective was to evaluate relative human health and ecological risks of (a) dewatering/incineration, (b) landing the solids for disposal, considering that in some countries land-disposed solids might be discharged in the near-shore environment untreated, and (c) deep ocean disposal. Input to the Bayesian assessment consisted of professional judgment based on available literature and modeling information, data on constituent concentrations in cruise ship biosolids, and simulations of constituent concentrations in Caribbean waters assuming ocean disposal. Results indicate that human health and ecological risks associated with land disposal and shallow ocean disposal are higher than those of the deep ocean disposal and incineration. For incineration, predicted ecological impacts were lower relative to deep ocean disposal before considering potential impacts of carbon emissions.

  4. Land application of sewage sludge (biosolids) in Australia: risks to the environment and food crops.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, D L; Penney, N; McLaughlin, M J; Rigby, H; Schwarz, K

    2010-01-01

    Australia is a large exporter of agricultural products, with producers responsible for a range of quality assurance programs to ensure that food crops are free from various contaminants of detriment to human health. Large volumes of treated sewage sludge (biosolids), although low by world standards, are increasingly being recycled to land, primarily to replace plant nutrients and to improve soil properties; they are used in agriculture, forestry, and composted. The Australian National Biosolids Research Program (NBRP) has linked researchers to a collective goal to investigate nutrients and benchmark safe concentrations of metals nationally using a common methodology, with various other research programs conducted in a number of states specific to regional problems and priorities. The use of biosolids in Australia is strictly regulated by state guidelines, some of which are under review following recent research outcomes. Communication and research between the water industry, regulators and researchers specific to the regulation of biosolids is further enhanced by the Australian and New Zealand Biosolids Partnership (ANZBP). This paper summarises the major issues and constraints related to biosolids use in Australia using specific case examples from Western Australia, a member of the Australian NBRP, and highlights several research projects conducted over the last decade to ensure that biosolids are used beneficially and safely in the environment. Attention is given to research relating to plant nutrient uptake, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus (including that of reduced phosphorus uptake in alum sludge-amended soil); the risk of heavy metal uptake by plants, specifically cadmium, copper and zinc; the risk of pathogen contamination in soil and grain products; change to soil pH (particularly following lime-amended biosolids); and the monitoring of faecal contamination by biosolids in waterbodies using DNA techniques. Examples of products that are currently

  5. Soil carbon sequestration resulting from long-term application of biosolids for land reclamation.

    PubMed

    Tian, G; Granato, T C; Cox, A E; Pietz, R I; Carlson, C R; Abedin, Z

    2009-01-01

    Investigations on the impact of application of biosolids for land reclamation on C sequestration in soil were conducted at Fulton County, Illinois, where 41 fields (3.6-66 ha) received biosolids at a cumulative loading rate from 455 to 1654 dry Mg ha(-1) for 8 to 23 yr in rotation from 1972 to 2004. The fields were cropped with corn, wheat, and sorghum and also with soybean and grass or fallowed. Soil organic carbon (SOC) increased rapidly with the application of biosolids, whereas it fluctuated slightly in fertilizer controls. The peak SOC in the 0- to 15-cm depth of biosolids-amended fields ranged from 4 to 7% and was greater at higher rates of biosolids. In fields where biosolids application ceased for 22 yr, SOC was still much higher than the initial levels. Over the 34-yr reclamation, the mean net soil C sequestration was 1.73 (0.54-3.05) Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) in biosolids-amended fields as compared with -0.07 to 0.17 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) in fertilizer controls, demonstrating a high potential of soil C sequestration by the land application of biosolids. Soil C sequestration was significantly correlated with the biosolids application rate, and the equation can be expressed as y = 0.064x - 0.11, in which y is the annual net soil C sequestration (Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1)), and x is annual biosolids application in dry weight (Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)). Our results indicate that biosolids applications can turn Midwest Corn Belt soils from current C-neutral to C-sink. A method for calculating SOC stock under conditions in which surface soil layer depth and mass changes is also described.

  6. Source tracking aerosols released from land-applied class B biosolids during high-wind events.

    PubMed

    Baertsch, Carolina; Paez-Rubio, Tania; Viau, Emily; Peccia, Jordan

    2007-07-01

    DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) methods were developed and used to specifically and sensitively track the unintended aerosolization of land-applied, anaerobically digested sewage sludge (biosolids) during high-wind events. Culture and phylogenetic analyses of bulk biosolids provided a basis for the development of three different MST methods. They included (i) culture- and 16S rRNA gene-based identification of Clostridium bifermentans, (ii) direct PCR amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for an uncultured bacterium of the class Chloroflexi that is commonly present in anaerobically digested biosolids, and (iii) direct PCR amplification of a 16S rRNA gene of the phylum Euryarchaeota coupled with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism to distinguish terminal fragments that are unique to biosolid-specific microorganisms. Each method was first validated with a broad group of bulk biosolids and soil samples to confirm the target's exclusive presence in biosolids and absence in soils. Positive responses were observed in 100% of bulk biosolid samples and in less than 11% of the bulk soils tested. Next, a sampling campaign was conducted in which all three methods were applied to aerosol samples taken upwind and downwind of fields that had recently been land applied with biosolids. When average wind speeds were greater than 5 m/s, source tracking results confirmed the presence of biosolids in 56% of the downwind samples versus 3% of the upwind samples. During these high-wind events, the biosolid concentration in downwind aerosols was between 0.1 and 2 microg/m3. The application of DNA-based source tracking to aerosol samples has confirmed that wind is a possible mechanism for the aerosolization and off-site transport of land-applied biosolids. PMID:17513591

  7. Microbial safety of air-dried and rewetted biosolids.

    PubMed

    Rouch, Duncan A; Mondal, Tania; Pai, Sneha; Glauche, Florian; Fleming, Vennessa A; Thurbon, Nerida; Blackbeard, Judy; Smith, Stephen R; Deighton, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    To assess microbial safety of treated sewage sludge (biosolids), we examined the inactivation of microbial indicators for potential bacterial, viral and protozoan pathogens. The levels of indicators were determined throughout the air-drying and storage phases of anaerobically digested sewage sludge. Samples were collected from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPS) in Victoria, Australia. Established methods were applied for analysis of bacteria and coliphages, based on membrane filtration and layered plates, respectively. In the pan drying phase, the prevalence of Escherichia coli was reduced by >5 log10 compared with sludge entering the pan. Thus, after pan drying of 8-11 months at WWTP A and 15 months at WWTP B, the numbers of E. coli were reduced to below 10(2) cfu/g dry solids (DS). This level is acceptable for unrestricted use in agriculture in Australia (P1 treatment grade), the UK (enhanced treatment status) and the USA (Class A pathogen reduction). Coliphage numbers also decreased substantially during the air-drying phase, indicating that enteric viruses are also likely to be destroyed during this phase. Clostridium perfringens appeared to be an overly conservative indicator. Survival, but not regrowth, of E. coli or Salmonella was observed in rewetted biosolids (15-20% moisture content), after being seeded with these species, indicating a degree of safety of stored biosolids upon rewetting by rain.

  8. What Is Effective School Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cicco, James M.

    Effective school management requires managers who succeed in carrying out the organizational goals of their schools, utilizing the following leadership skills: planning (deciding how to accomplish the organization's goals); organizing (doing the necessary preparation); staffing (filling positions with the right people); directing (motivating staff…

  9. Effective School Management. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everard, K.B.; Morris, Geoffrey; Wilson, Ian

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this book is to help teachers with senior management responsibilities, and the schools and colleges that they work in, to become more effective. It is a book by practitioners for practitioners. They authors believe their book is unique, because there are so few people who have had enough management responsibility and training…

  10. INTERLABORATORY VALIDATION OF USEPA METHOD 1680: FECAL COLIFORMS IN BIOSOLIDS BY MULTIPLE-TUBE FERMENTATION PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the US, the use and disposal of biosolids (including domestic septage) are regulated under 40 CFR Part 503. Subpart D of this regulation protects public health and the environment through requirements designed to reduce the potential for contact with pathogens in biosolids app...

  11. Phosphorus recovery prior to land application of biosolids using the "quick wash" process developed by USDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excess soil phosphorus (P) beyond the assimilative capacity of soils is a major factor to discontinue application of biosolids to land nearby municipal wastewater treatment plants. For this reason, municipalities incur in hefty fees for transportation and landfilling biosolids that otherwise could b...

  12. Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    biosolids_cover.jpg" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" alt="Cover of the Land-Applied Biosolids 2011 Final Report "> Millions of tons of treated sewage sludges or “biosolids” are applied annually to f...

  13. Estimated occupational risk from bioaerosols generated during land application of Class B biosolids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been speculated that bioaerosols generated during land application of biosolids pose a serious occupational risk, but few scientific studies have been performed to assess levels of aerosolization of microorganisms from biosolids and to estimate the occupational risks of infection. This study ...

  14. Multimedia Sampling During The Application Of Biosolids On A Land Test Site (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this research study was to evaluate air and soil sampling methods and analytical techniques for commercial land application of biosolids. Biosolids, were surface applied at agronomic rates to an agricultural field. During the period of August 2004 to January 2005, 3...

  15. MONITORING MICROBES, ALKYL PHENOLS, AND SOIL TOXICITY AFTER LAND APPLICATION OF ANAEROBICALLY DIGESTED BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A common disposal practice for municipal biosolids is to spread this material on agricultural fields as a soil amendment. For example, over 3 million dry tons of treated sewage sludge (or biosolids) are applied on agricultural lands in the US. The regulations which govern the lan...

  16. VALIDATION OF EPA METHOD 1682: SALMONELLA IN BIOSOLIDS BY MODIFIED, SEMISOLID RAPPAPORT-VASSILIADIS (MSRV) MEDIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treated biosolids may be applied to land as a crop nutrient and soil conditioner. However, land application of biosolids may pose the risk of releasing pathogens into the environment if disinfection and use criteria established by EPA at 40 CFR part 503 are not met. Among these c...

  17. Copper and zinc speciation in a biosolids-amended, semiarid grassland soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predicting trace metal solid phase speciation changes associated with long-term biosolids land application is important for understanding and improving environmental quality. Biosolids were surface-applied (no incorporation; 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 15 tons per acre) to a semi-arid grassland in 1991 (si...

  18. SORPTION AND DESORPTION OF CADMIUM BY DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF BIOSOLIDS - AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Series of Cd sorption and desorption experiments were conducted on different fractions of soils amended with biosolids, Cd-salt, and unamended soils (control) to test the hypothesize that not only organic but also inorganic fraction in biosolids controls the metal availability in...

  19. Dewatered sewage biosolids provide a productive larval habitat for stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species diversity and seasonal abundance of muscoid flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in biosolid cake (dewatered biosolids) stored at a wastewater treatment facility in northeastern Kansas was evaluated. Emergence traps were deployed 19 May-20 Oct 2009 (22 wk) and 27 May-18 Nov 2010 (25 wk). A t...

  20. METAL-BINDING ROLE OF IRON AND MANGANESE OXIDES IN BIOSOLIDS-AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental impact and potential hazards of metals in biosolids to plants, animals and the human food chain have been studied for decades. From this body of work, it has been concluded that the addition of biosolids to the soil alters the soil system beyond that of the simp...

  1. IS "RECLAIMED WATER AND BIOSOLIDS: BENEFITS AND HAZARDS" IT: "BIOACCULULATION AND FOODCHAIN CONTAMINATION IN TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biosolids are a complex mixture which contain both inorganic and organic adsorbents. Thus, addition of biosolids to soil not only increases the environmental loading of toxic metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, etc.) it alters the phytoavailability of these metals. This reduction in ph...

  2. ALTERATION OF SOIL METAL CHEMISTRY AND PHYTOAVAILABILITY ASSOCIATED WITH BIOSOLIDS APPLICATION (ABSTRACT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biosolids are a complex mixture which contain both inorganic and organic adsorbents. Thus, addition of biosolids to soil not only increases the environmental loading of toxic metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, etc.) it alters the phytoavailability of these metals. This reduction in ph...

  3. SORPTION OF CADMIUM ONTO DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF BIOSOLIDS AND CADMIUM SALT AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biosolids and Cd salt-amended soils were collected from a long-term field experiment established in 1976. Cadmium sorption experiments were conducted on different fractions of soils amended with biosolids, Cd salt, and unamended soils (control). The organic carbon (OC) of soils ...

  4. VALIDATION OF USEPA METHODS 1680 AND 1682 FOR FECAL COLIFORMS AND SALMONELLA IN BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, the use and disposal of biosolids are regulated under 40 CFR part 503. Subpart D of this regulation protects public health and the environment through requirements designed to reduce the potential for contact with pathogens in biosolids applied to land or pl...

  5. Side Effects (Management)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ...

  6. Recovery of biosolids-applied heavy metals sixteen years after application

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, J.J.; Dowdy, R.H.; Dolan, M.S.

    1998-11-01

    Little is known of the long-term fate of biosolids-applied heavy metals in soil. The objective of this study was to quantify percent recovery of biosolids-applied heavy metals i a well-drained soil. Three annual applications of biosolids resulted in cumulative biosolids loadings of 0, 60, 120, and 180 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}. Cumulative metal loadings for the 180 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} biosolids rate were 25, 141, 127, 43, 173, and 348 kg ha{sup {minus}1} for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, respectively. Soils were sampled to a depth of 0.9 m. Soil organic carbon (OC) was measured. Soil was extracted with 1 M HNO{sub 3} and metals were determined in the supernatants. Soil OC concentrations were linearly correlated to biosolids loadings and did not change significantly during the 16 yr after biosolids applications. Concentrations of extractable Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in biosolids-treated soils were much greater than the control to a depth of 0.30 m, slightly greater at 0.30 to 0.45 m and same as the control below 0.45 m. For the 180 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} biosolids loading, percent recoveries for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 112, 59, 119, 114, 102, and 97%, respectively. Low recovery of Cr was probably due to incomplete extraction from the soil. These results show that complete recovery of biosolids-applied heavy metals is possible when plot size is large enough to prevent cross-mixing of treated soils during tillage operations and when sediment losses are minimal.

  7. Guide to soil suitability and site selection for beneficial use of domestic wastewater biosolids. Manual 8. (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Huddleston, J.H.; Ronayne, M.P.

    1995-09-01

    This guide is designed to help the reader (1) identify the important soil and biosolids characteristics for a particular situation, (2) judge the advantages and disadvantages of using biosolids, and (3) design practices that will make optimum use of the biosolids. This guide is designed for the use of both wastewater technicians unfamiliar with soil science and soil science students unfamiliar with biosolids. The guide reviews basic soil science concepts and helps the reader (1) quantify local soil and biosolids characteristics, (2) understand the potential benefits and disadvantages of biosolids for local soil characteristics, and (3) suggests procedures for designing a biosolids application. A checklist cross-referenced to the text is also provided.

  8. Establishment of vegetation in constructed wetlands using biosolids and quarry fines

    SciTech Connect

    Danehy, T.P.; Zick, R.; Brenner, F.; Chmielewski, J.; Dunn, M.H.; Cooper, D.C.

    1999-07-01

    A common problem with constructing wetlands on abandoned mine sties is the lack of adequate soil needed to establish vegetation. One component of a full-scale passive treatment system built at Jennings Environmental Education Center in Brady Township, Butler County, PA addressed this issue through the development of a field trial to find an inexpensive alternative substrate for wetland plants. A simple soil recipe was followed which called for the mixing of an inorganic material with a nutrient-rich organic material. The inorganic constituent used was silt-size pond cleanings from a sand and gravel operation. The organic material used was a composted product made from exceptional-quality biosolids. Both soil components were obtained from local sources (less than 16 kilometers (12 miles) from the site) and mixed on site with a Caterpillar 963 track loader. The soil was used to construct a channel wetland 3 meters (10 feet) wide by 61 meters (200 feet) long. A seed mixture which contained 24 different wetland plant species native to western Pennsylvania was added to the substrate prior to releasing the water from the vertical flow system into the wetland. After one year, the vegetation was studied to determine the percent cover and species composition in order to document the effectiveness of this method of wetland construction. The preliminary results of this study indicate that this is an effective means to establish and sustain wetland vegetation. The addition of a fabricated substrate consisting of composted biosolids and silt can be a very effective method to establish dense and diverse vegetation in a constructed wetland.

  9. Ciprofloxacin Residues in Municipal Biosolid Compost Do Not Selectively Enrich Populations of Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Youngquist, Caitlin P.; Liu, Jinxin; Orfe, Lisa H.; Jones, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    Biosolids and livestock manure are valuable high-carbon soil amendments, but they commonly contain antibiotic residues that might persist after land application. While composting reduces the concentration of extractable antibiotics in these materials, if the starting concentration is sufficiently high then remaining residues could impact microbial communities in the compost and soil to which these materials are applied. To examine this issue, ciprofloxacin was added to biosolid compost feedstock to achieve a total concentration of 19 ppm, approximately 5-fold higher than that normally detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (1 to 3.5 ppm). This feedstock was placed into mesh bags that were buried in aerated compost bays. Once a week, a set of bags was removed and analyzed (treated and untreated, three replicates of each; 4 weeks). Addition of ciprofloxacin had no effect on the recovery of resistant bacteria at any time point (P = 0.86), and a separate bioassay showed that aqueous extractions from materials with an estimated 59 ppm ciprofloxacin had no effect on the growth of a susceptible strain of Escherichia coli (P = 0.28). Regression analysis showed that growth of the susceptible strain of E. coli can be reduced given a sufficiently high concentration of ciprofloxacin (P < 0.007), a result that is consistent with adsorption being the primary mechanism of sequestration. While analytical methods detected biologically significant concentrations of ciprofloxacin in the materials tested here, the culture-based methods were consistent with the materials having sufficient adsorptive capacity to prevent typical concentrations of ciprofloxacin residues from selectively enriching populations of resistant bacteria. PMID:25261519

  10. Ciprofloxacin residues in municipal biosolid compost do not selectively enrich populations of resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Youngquist, Caitlin P; Liu, Jinxin; Orfe, Lisa H; Jones, Stephen S; Call, Douglas R

    2014-12-01

    Biosolids and livestock manure are valuable high-carbon soil amendments, but they commonly contain antibiotic residues that might persist after land application. While composting reduces the concentration of extractable antibiotics in these materials, if the starting concentration is sufficiently high then remaining residues could impact microbial communities in the compost and soil to which these materials are applied. To examine this issue, ciprofloxacin was added to biosolid compost feedstock to achieve a total concentration of 19 ppm, approximately 5-fold higher than that normally detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (1 to 3.5 ppm). This feedstock was placed into mesh bags that were buried in aerated compost bays. Once a week, a set of bags was removed and analyzed (treated and untreated, three replicates of each; 4 weeks). Addition of ciprofloxacin had no effect on the recovery of resistant bacteria at any time point (P = 0.86), and a separate bioassay showed that aqueous extractions from materials with an estimated 59 ppm ciprofloxacin had no effect on the growth of a susceptible strain of Escherichia coli (P = 0.28). Regression analysis showed that growth of the susceptible strain of E. coli can be reduced given a sufficiently high concentration of ciprofloxacin (P < 0.007), a result that is consistent with adsorption being the primary mechanism of sequestration. While analytical methods detected biologically significant concentrations of ciprofloxacin in the materials tested here, the culture-based methods were consistent with the materials having sufficient adsorptive capacity to prevent typical concentrations of ciprofloxacin residues from selectively enriching populations of resistant bacteria.

  11. Adsorption characteristics of benzene on biosolid adsorbent and commercial activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Hung-Lung Chiang; Kuo-Hsiung Lin; Chih-Yu Chen; Ching-Guan Choa; Ching-Shyung Hwu; Nina Lai

    2006-05-15

    This study selected biosolids from a petrochemical wastewater treatment plant as the raw material. The sludge was immersed in 0.5-5 M of zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}) solutions and pyrolyzed at different temperatures and times. Results indicated that the 1-M ZnCl{sub 2}-immersed biosolids pyrolyzed at 500{sup o}C for 30 min could be reused and were optimal biosolid adsorbents for benzene adsorption. Pore volume distribution analysis indicated that the mesopore contributed more than the macropore and micropore in the biosolid adsorbent. The benzene adsorption capacity of the biosolid adsorbent was 65 and 55% of the G206 (granular-activated carbon) and BPL (coal-based activated carbon; Calgon, Carbon Corp.) activated carbons, respectively. Data from the adsorption and desorption cycles indicated that the benzene adsorption capacity of the biosolid adsorbent was insignificantly reduced compared with the first-run capacity of the adsorbent; therefore, the biosolid adsorbent could be reused as a commercial adsorbent, although its production cost is high. 18 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Long-term land application of biosolids-a case study.

    PubMed

    Surampalli, R Y; Lai, K C K; Banerji, S K; Smith, J; Tyagi, R D; Lohani, B N

    2008-01-01

    Impact of long-term land application of biosolids on groundwater and soil quality of an application site, which had been operated for 8-15 years, was evaluated in this study. During and after the biosolids application, biosolids-amended soil, groundwater, and background soil samples were collected mainly for pathogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and heavy metal analyses. Soil test data showed that there was no heavy metal accumulation in the biosolids-amended soil even after 10 years of biosolids application. Similar results were also observed from the groundwater samples in which the heavy metal concentrations in all groundwater samples were well below the maximum contamination levels of the drinking water standards. In addition, bacteriological levels of the soil and groundwater samples were close to the background level and below the permissible limits, respectively, thereby showing no pathogen contamination. However, nitrate-nitrogen contamination of the groundwater was occasionally observed probably due to an excess loading of the biosolids in the past. This problem can be alleviated by applying biosolids at agronomic rates so that no excess nitrogen is available for leaching down to the groundwater.

  13. Growth, yield, and nutrient status of pecans fertilized with biosolids and inoculated with rizosphere fungi.

    PubMed

    Tarango Rivero, S H; Nevárez Moorillón, V G; Orrantia Borunda, E

    2009-03-01

    The application of anaerobically digested biosolids as a nutrient source for pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangeh.) K. Koch, cultivar Western, was evaluated. Conventional NPK fertilizers (CF) and biosolids included a treatment with the rhizospheric fungi Pisolithus tinctorius+Scleroderma sp. and Trichoderma sp. After an average of three years, the tree trunks with biosolid treatment grew 9.5% more than with CF; the length of the bearing shoots was 18.1 and 18.3cm and the production of nuts/tree was 9.26 and 8.75kg for pecans with CF and with biosolids, respectively. Western foliar nutrient concentration and nut quality were statistically equal in trees with CF and with biosolids. Soil inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi improved shoot growth by 19.4% when CF was applied, but did not when biosolids were used. Nutrient status and yield did not increase with mycorrhizal fungi. The addition of Trichoderma sp. did not favor any of the variables evaluated with both nutrient sources. Biosolids are efficient fertilizer at promoting the growth, production and nut quality of pecan trees. PMID:18993060

  14. Sludge, biosolids, and the propaganda model of communication.

    PubMed

    Rampton, Sheldon

    2002-01-01

    The Water Environment Federation's elaborate effort to rename sewage sludge as "biosolids" is an example in practice of the "propaganda model" of communications, which sees its task as indoctrinating target audiences with ideas favorable to the interests of the communicators. The propaganda model assumes that members of the public are irrational and focuses therefore on symbolic and emotional aspects of communication. This approach to communicating arouses public resentment rather than trust. In place of a "propaganda model," public officials should adopt a "democratic model," which assumes that audiences are rational and intellectually capable of meaningful participation in decision-making.

  15. Estimated occupational risk from bioaerosols generated during land application of class B biosolids.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Benjamin D; Brooks, John P; Gerba, Charles P; Haas, Charles N; Josephson, Karen L; Pepper, Ian L

    2008-01-01

    Some speculate that bioaerosols from land application of biosolids pose occupational risks, but few studies have assessed aerosolization of microorganisms from biosolids or estimated occupational risks of infection. This study investigated levels of microorganisms in air immediately downwind of land application operations and estimated occupational risks from aerosolized microorganisms. In all, more than 300 air samples were collected downwind of biosolids application sites at various locations within the United States. Coliform bacteria, coliphages, and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria were enumerated from air and biosolids at each site. Concentrations of coliforms relative to Salmonella and concentrations of coliphage relative to enteroviruses in biosolids were used, in conjunction with levels of coliforms and coliphages measured in air during this study, to estimate exposure to Salmonella and enteroviruses in air. The HPC bacteria were ubiquitous in air near land application sites whether or not biosolids were being applied, and concentrations were positively correlated to windspeed. Coliform bacteria were detected only when biosolids were being applied to land or loaded into land applicators. Coliphages were detected in few air samples, and only when biosolids were being loaded into land applicators. In general, environmental parameters had little impact on concentrations of microorganisms in air immediately downwind of land application. The method of land application was most correlated to aerosolization. From this large body of data, the occupational risk of infection from bioaerosols was estimated to be 0.78 to 2.1%/yr. Extraordinary exposure scenarios carried an estimated annual risk of infection of up to 34%, with viruses posing the greatest threat. Risks from aerosolized microorganisms at biosolids land application sites appear to be lower than those at wastewater treatment plants, based on previously reported literature. PMID:18948485

  16. Application of phytotoxicity data to a new Australian soil quality guideline framework for biosolids.

    PubMed

    Heemsbergen, Diane A; Warne, Michael St J; Broos, Kris; Bell, Mike; Nash, David; McLaughlin, Mike; Whatmuff, Mark; Barry, Glenn; Pritchard, Deb; Penney, Nancy

    2009-04-01

    To protect terrestrial ecosystems and humans from contaminants many countries and jurisdictions have developed soil quality guidelines (SQGs). This study proposes a new framework to derive SQGs and guidelines for amended soils and uses a case study based on phytotoxicity data of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) from field studies to illustrate how the framework could be applied. The proposed framework uses normalisation relationships to account for the effects of soil properties on toxicity data followed by a species sensitivity distribution (SSD) method to calculate a soil added contaminant limit (soil ACL) for a standard soil. The normalisation equations are then used to calculate soil ACLs for other soils. A soil amendment availability factor (SAAF) is then calculated as the toxicity and bioavailability of pure contaminants and contaminants in amendments can be different. The SAAF is used to modify soil ACLs to ACLs for amended soils. The framework was then used to calculate soil ACLs for copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). For soils with pH of 4-8 and OC content of 1-6%, the ACLs range from 8 mg/kg to 970 mg/kg added Cu. The SAAF for Cu was pH dependant and varied from 1.44 at pH 4 to 2.15 at pH 8. For soils with pH of 4-8 and OC content of 1-6%, the ACLs for amended soils range from 11 mg/kg to 2080 mg/kg added Cu. For soils with pH of 4-8 and a CEC from 5-60, the ACLs for Zn ranged from 21 to 1470 mg/kg added Zn. A SAAF of one was used for Zn as it concentrations in plant tissue and soil to water partitioning showed no difference between biosolids and soluble Zn salt treatments, indicating that Zn from biosolids and Zn salts are equally bioavailable to plants.

  17. Optimizing Learning Through Effective Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Earl S.; Wood, Duane R.

    A model of an instructional program which uses principles of effective management to optimize learning for adult learners is described. The model is a result of the authors' work with the Institute for Personal and Career Development which is responsible for the external degree program of Central Michigan University. Most adult learners have…

  18. Effective management of trust volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, Carol

    2012-04-01

    A robust, well-managed volunteer programme can help NHS trusts have a better patient experience, engage with local communities, and improve and maintain their reputations. This article looks at the benefits of involving volunteers in trust activities and sets out the requirements to do this effectively, to enable them to achieve these aims.

  19. Economic effects of managed care.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, L M

    1999-12-01

    There have been substantial changes in the way health care has been paid for in the last half of this century. The original contract between a physician and a patient has evolved to insurance companies paying usual and customary costs for physician services. Now, the medical care of a whole population is bid to organizations willing to insure the risk for managing the care of the population for a prospectively determined fee. The rising cost of health care has imposed new strategies to manage these escalating costs for physician, facilities, and patients. Despite the changes that have radically altered health care delivery, costs continue to rise. This fact ensures that there will be continuing evolution of strategies to decrease the rising rate of health care. Trauma care management traditionally has involved looking at the entire spectrum of the patient's disease process from the prehospital phase to his or her rehabilitation. The discipline that was necessary to identify each component of the system and quantify the cost associated with it has made trauma care a potential model for managed care. There are now systems of care in place that are fully dedicated to trauma. The facilities in them are verified by the American College of Surgeons or a similar professional body. These facilities are designated by a regulatory body, such as the state. It will become more common for payors to require that patients be enrolled in some trauma system of care because this will provide the most cost-effective management, especially for severely injured patients. Surgeons should clearly understand the historic and present strategies for cost-management and how they have evolved. A clear understanding of these forces will allow rational plans to be developed that will deliver the best, most cost effective care to trauma victims. PMID:10625976

  20. IMPLICATIONS OF BIOSOLIDS/COMPOST UTILIZATION ON THE RISK OF SOIL METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation summarizes the current work on the fundamental changes in soil mineralogical accomplished by additions of biosolids and P to the system which results in changes in phytoavailability/bioavailability. The concepts of phytoavailability/bioavailability are rather s...

  1. Synthetic organic chemicals in earthworms from agriculture soil amended with municipal biosolids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Biosolids resulting from municipal wastewater treatment are known to contain residues of pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs) and other synthetic organic compounds. Many of these are contaminants of emerging concern for their potential endocrine disruption of fish and wildli...

  2. EVALUATION OF A DNA PROBE TEST KIT FOR DETECTION OF SALMONELLAE IN BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: Current United States regulations (40 CFR 503) for "Class A" biosolids requires use of multiple-tube fermentation techniques for fecal coliform or multiple tube enrichment techniques for Salmonella spp. followed by isolation and biochemical and serological confirmation. T...

  3. Biosolids - a fuel or a waste? An integrated appraisal of five co-combustion scenarios with policy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Elise Cartmell; Peter Gostelow; Drusilla Riddell-Black; Nigel Simms; John Oakey; Joe Morris; Paul Jeffrey; Peter Howsam; Simon J. Pollard

    2006-02-01

    An integrated appraisal of five technology scenarios for the co-combustion of biosolids in the UK energy and waste management policy context is presented. Co-combustion scenarios with coal, municipal solid waste, wood, and for cement manufacture were subject to thermodynamic and materials flow modeling and evaluated by 19 stakeholder representatives. All scenarios provided a net energy gain (0.58-5.0 kWh/kg dry solids), having accounted for the energy required for transportation and sludge drying. Co-combustion within the power generation and industrial (e.g., cement) sectors is most readily implemented but provides poor water utility control, and it suffers from poor public perception. Co-combustion with wastes or biomass appears more sustainable but requires greater investment and presents significant risks to water utilities. Incongruities within current energy and waste management policy are discussed and conclusions for improved understanding are drawn. 28 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. A unified method to process biosolids samples for the recovery of bacterial, viral, and helminths pathogens.

    PubMed

    Alum, Absar; Rock, Channah; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    For land application, biosolids are classified as Class A or Class B based on the levels of bacterial, viral, and helminths pathogens in residual biosolids. The current EPA methods for the detection of these groups of pathogens in biosolids include discrete steps. Therefore, a separate sample is processed independently to quantify the number of each group of the pathogens in biosolids. The aim of the study was to develop a unified method for simultaneous processing of a single biosolids sample to recover bacterial, viral, and helminths pathogens. At the first stage for developing a simultaneous method, nine eluents were compared for their efficiency to recover viruses from a 100 gm spiked biosolids sample. In the second stage, the three top performing eluents were thoroughly evaluated for the recovery of bacteria, viruses, and helminthes. For all three groups of pathogens, the glycine-based eluent provided higher recovery than the beef extract-based eluent. Additional experiments were performed to optimize performance of glycine-based eluent under various procedural factors such as, solids to eluent ratio, stir time, and centrifugation conditions. Last, the new method was directly compared with the EPA methods for the recovery of the three groups of pathogens spiked in duplicate samples of biosolids collected from different sources. For viruses, the new method yielded up to 10% higher recoveries than the EPA method. For bacteria and helminths, recoveries were 74% and 83% by the new method compared to 34% and 68% by the EPA method, respectively. The unified sample processing method significantly reduces the time required for processing biosolids samples for different groups of pathogens; it is less impacted by the intrinsic variability of samples, while providing higher yields (P = 0.05) and greater consistency than the current EPA methods.

  5. Extractable trace elements in the soil profile after years of biosolids application

    SciTech Connect

    Barbarick, K.A.; Ippolito, J.A.; Westfall, D.G.

    1998-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and some state agencies regulate trace element additions to soil from land application of biosolids. The authors generally consider trace elements added in biosolids (sewage sludge) to accumulate in the soil surface without significant transport below the plow layer. They used 11 yr of field-study information from biosolids addition to dryland hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Vona or TAM107) to determine the distribution of NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (AB-DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn in 0 to 20 (plow layer), 20 to 60, 60 to 100, and 100 to 150 cm depth increments. This study is unique since it involves multiple biosolids application in a dryland summer fallow agroecosystem. The authors applied five or six applications of biosolids from the cities of Littleton and Englewood, CO, to Weld loam or Platner loam at four locations. This paper focuses on the 0 (control), the 56 or 67 kg of N ha{sup {minus}1} fertilizer rates, and the 6.7 and 26.8 dry Mg of biosolids ha{sup {minus}1} rates that they added every crop year. The authors observed significant (P < 0.10) accumulations of the trace elements in the plow layer of the biosolids-amended soils. Only Zn showed consistent increases in extractable levels below the plow layer at all four sites. The biosolids Zn concentration was larger than any other trace element resulting in larger loading of this element.

  6. Study of Mn Phytoavailability in Soil Treated with Biosolids Using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima Mateus, Natalina; Filho, Tufic Madi

    2011-08-01

    This work evaluated the behavior of Mn absorption by Eucalyptus grandis that was cultivated in soil treated with biosolid. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) followed by gamma ray spectrometry was the analytical method used to determine the Mn content. Manganese is an important micronutrient because it is an activator of enzymes, controller of oxyreduction reactions, essential to the photosynthesis and synthesis of chlorophyll and protein. The results showed that the phytoavailability of Mn was reduced increasing the doses of biosolid applied.

  7. Accumulation and partitioning of biomass, nutrients, and trace elements in switchgrass for phytoremediation of municipal biosolids.

    PubMed

    Jeke, Nicholson N; Zvomuya, Francis; Ross, Lisette

    2016-09-01

    In situ phytoremediation of municipal biosolids is a promising alternative to the land spreading and landfilling of biosolids from end-of-life municipal lagoons. Accumulation and partitioning of dry matter, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and trace elements were determined in aboveground biomass (AGB) and belowground biomass (BGB) of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) to determine the harvest stage that maximizes phytoextraction of contaminants from municipal biosolids. Seedlings were transplanted into 15-L plastic pails containing 3.9 kg (dry wt.) biosolids. Biomass yield components and contaminant concentrations were assessed every 14 days for up to 161 days. Logistic model fits to biomass yield data indicated no significant differences in asymptotic yield between AGB and BGB. Switchgrass partitioned significantly more N and P to AGB than to BGB. Maximum uptake occurred 86 days after transplanting (DAT) for N and 102 DAT for P. Harvesting at peak aboveground element accumulation removed 5% of N, 1.6% of P, 0.2% of Zn, 0.05% of Cd, and 0.1% of Cr initially present in the biosolids. These results will contribute toward identification of the harvest stage that will optimize contaminant uptake and enhance in situ phytoremediation of biosolids using switchgrass. PMID:26940512

  8. Occurrence and distribution of brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl substances in Australian landfill leachate and biosolids.

    PubMed

    Gallen, C; Drage, D; Kaserzon, S; Baduel, C; Gallen, M; Banks, A; Broomhall, S; Mueller, J F

    2016-07-15

    The levels of perfluroalkyl substances (PFASs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDDs) were studied in Australian landfill leachate and biosolids. Leachate was collected from 13 landfill sites and biosolids were collected from 16 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), across Australia. Perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) (12-5700ng/L) was the most abundant investigated persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemical in leachate. With one exception, mean concentrations of PFASs were higher in leachate of operating landfills compared to closed landfills. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane isomers (HBCDDs) were detected typically at operating landfills in comparatively lower concentrations than the PFASs. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) (<0.4-2300ng/g) and perfluoroctanesulfonate (PFOS) (biosolids. Using data provided by sites, the volume of leachate discharged to WWTPs for treatment was small (<1% total inflow), and masses of PBTs transferred reached a maximum of 16g/yr (PFHxA). A national estimate of masses of PBTs accumulated in Australian biosolids reached 167kg/yr (BDE-209), a per capita contribution of 7.2±7.2mg/yr. Nationally, approximately 59% of biosolids are repurposed and applied to agricultural land. To our knowledge this study presents the first published data of PFASs and HBCDDs in Australian leachate and biosolids. PMID:27016666

  9. Measured physicochemical characteristics and biosolids-borne concentrations of the antimicrobial Triclocarban (TCC).

    PubMed

    Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; O'Connor, George A; McAvoy, Drew C

    2010-06-01

    Triclocarban (TCC) is an active ingredient in antibacterial bar soaps, a common constituent of domestic wastewater, and the subject of recent criticism by consumer advocate groups and academic researchers alike. Activated sludge treatment readily removes TCC from the liquid waste stream and concentrates the antimicrobial in the solid fraction, which is often processed to produce biosolids intended for land application. Greater than half of the biosolids generated in the US are land-applied, resulting in a systematic release of biosolids-borne TCC into the terrestrial and, potentially, the aquatic environment. Multiple data gaps in the TCC literature (including basic physicochemical properties and biosolids concentrations) prevent an accurate, quantitative risk assessment of biosolids-borne TCC. We utilized the USEPA Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) harmonized test guidelines to measure TCC solubility and log K(ow) values as 0.045 mg L(-1) and 3.5, respectively. The measured physicochemical 2 properties differed from computer model predictions. The mean concentration of TCC in 23 biosolids representative of multiple sludge processing methods was 19+/-11 mg kg(-1).

  10. Measured physicochemical characteristics and biosolids-borne concentrations of the antimicrobial Triclocarban (TCC).

    PubMed

    Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; O'Connor, George A; McAvoy, Drew C

    2010-06-01

    Triclocarban (TCC) is an active ingredient in antibacterial bar soaps, a common constituent of domestic wastewater, and the subject of recent criticism by consumer advocate groups and academic researchers alike. Activated sludge treatment readily removes TCC from the liquid waste stream and concentrates the antimicrobial in the solid fraction, which is often processed to produce biosolids intended for land application. Greater than half of the biosolids generated in the US are land-applied, resulting in a systematic release of biosolids-borne TCC into the terrestrial and, potentially, the aquatic environment. Multiple data gaps in the TCC literature (including basic physicochemical properties and biosolids concentrations) prevent an accurate, quantitative risk assessment of biosolids-borne TCC. We utilized the USEPA Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) harmonized test guidelines to measure TCC solubility and log K(ow) values as 0.045 mg L(-1) and 3.5, respectively. The measured physicochemical 2 properties differed from computer model predictions. The mean concentration of TCC in 23 biosolids representative of multiple sludge processing methods was 19+/-11 mg kg(-1). PMID:20385403

  11. Field dissipation and risk assessment of typical personal care products TCC, TCS, AHTN and HHCB in biosolid-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Ma, Yi-Bing; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Lai, Hua-Jie; Peng, Feng-Jiao

    2014-02-01

    The antimicrobial agents triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) and synthetic musks AHTN (Tonalide) and HHCB (Galaxolide) are widely used in many personal care products. These compounds may release into the soil environment through biosolid application to agricultural land and potentially affect soil organisms. This paper aimed to investigate accumulation, dissipation and potential risks of TCC, TCS, AHTN and HHCB in biosolid-amended soils of the three field trial sites (Zhejiang, Hunan and Shandong) with three treatments (CK: control without biosolid application, T1: single biosolid application, T2: repeated biosolid application every year). The one-year monitoring results showed that biosolids application could lead to accumulation of these four chemicals in the biosolid-amended soils, with the residual concentrations in the following order: TCC>TCS>AHTN>HHCB. Dissipation of TCC, TCS, AHTN and HHCB in the biosolid-amended soils followed the first-order kinetics model. Half-lives for TCC, TCS, AHTN and HHCB under the field conditions of Shandong site were 191, 258, 336 and 900 days for T1, and 51, 106, 159 and 83 days for T2, respectively. Repeated applications of biosolid led to accumulation of these personal care products and result in higher ecological risks. Based on the residual levels in the trial sites and limited toxicity data, high risks to soil organisms are expected for TCC and TCS, while low-medium risks for AHTN and HHCB.

  12. Sport Management Graduate Programs: Characteristics of Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ming; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the characteristics that enable graduate sport management programs to achieve their objectives. Surveys of sport management educators found they agreed on 11 characteristics that indicated a sport management program's effectiveness. Respondents believed an effective program should produce sport managers, not…

  13. [Effectiveness of managing styles of nursing management staff].

    PubMed

    Stychno, Ewa

    2002-01-01

    There are many possibilities of the division of the managing styles. In theory one can distinguish two basic styles: directive and integrative. Generalisations describing both styles result in the fact that they do not reflect reality taking place at work. Because of it they cannot be applied in such a form. Therefore, it is necessary to build up the theoretical concept of the managing styles through decreasing their generality and adjusting them to the reality requirements at the same time. For the reality of management Reddin concept seems to be useful. It describes the organizational behaviour of managers. He noticed that the managing style is effective when it fits into the manager's situation whereas it is ineffective in such a situation, when the manager cannot select and adjust the managing techniques to the circumstances of the concrete decision-taking situation. Putting together 3 handling ways: orientation on assignments, orientation on staff, effectiveness, 8 managing can be differentiated. The aim of the paper was an attempt to check what managing styles are used by the nursing management staff working in hospitals. To determine the managing style a questionnaire consisting of 64 statements divided into 8 groups was applied. The examined persons were assigned to distribute 10 points among the statements belonging to each group of tasks which are supposed to specify their solution in the best way. The nursing management staff prefer the styles belonging to the more effective one in which there is a high orientation on staff.

  14. Negative Effects of Learning Spreadsheet Management on Learning Database Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vágner, Anikó; Zsakó, László

    2015-01-01

    A lot of students learn spreadsheet management before database management. Their similarities can cause a lot of negative effects when learning database management. In this article, we consider these similarities and explain what can cause problems. First, we analyse the basic concepts such as table, database, row, cell, reference, etc. Then, we…

  15. Application of WWTP biosolids and resulting perfluorinated compound contamination of surface and well water in Decatur, Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Andrew B; Strynar, Mark J; Delinsky, Amy D; Nakayama, Shoji F; McMillan, Larry; Libelo, E Laurence; Neill, Michael; Thomas, Lee

    2011-10-01

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been produced and used in a wide range of industrial and consumer products for many decades. Their resistance to degradation has led to their widespread distribution in the environment, but little is known about how humans become exposed. Recent studies have demonstrated that the application of PFC contaminated biosolids can have important effects on local environments, ultimately leading to demonstrable human exposures. This manuscript describes a situation in Decatur, Alabama where PFC contaminated biosolids from a local municipal wastewater treatment facility that had received waste from local fluorochemical facilities were used as a soil amendment in local agricultural fields for as many as twelve years. Ten target PFCs were measured in surface and groundwater samples. Results show that surface and well water in the vicinity of these fields had elevated PFC concentrations, with 22% of the samples exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Provisional Health Advisory level for PFOA in drinking water of 400 ng/L. Water/soil concentration ratios as high as 0.34 for perfluorohexanoic acid, 0.17 for perfluoroheptanoic acid, and 0.04 for PFOA verify decreasing mobility from soils with increasing chain length while indicating that relatively high transport from soils to surface and well water is possible.

  16. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Memory Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Memory Changes What is causing these changes? Your doctor ... thinking or remembering things Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Memory Changes Get help to remember things. Write down ...

  17. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid Retention)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Swelling (Fluid retention) “My hands and feet were swollen and ... at one time. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid retention) Weigh yourself. l Weigh yourself at the ...

  18. Evaluation of quicklime incorporation in bench-scale and full-scale lime stabilized biosolids using a flat surface pH electrode.

    PubMed

    Burns, Benjamin; Krach, Kenneth; Cole, Charles; Mangus, Jessica; Butler, Howard; Li, Baikun

    2007-07-01

    Uniform lime incorporation into sewage sludge is critical for biosolid lime stabilization processes. There is no class B biosolids regulation for lime incorporation. The slurry method is currently used to evaluate the pH of limed biosolids, but this method homogenizes the biosolids and potentially masks poor lime mixing. In this study, a flat-surface pH electrode was used in bench-scale and full-scale experiments to measure the pH of lime-stabilized biosolids without creating slurries. The standard deviation of 15 pH measurements at different locations in a biosolid sample was used to assess mixing quality. The bench-scale experimental study showed that well-mixed limed biosolids had consistently high pHs (approximately 12) with low standard deviations (< 0.5 pH units), whereas poorly mixed biosolids had areas with low pH (< 10) and high standard deviations (> 2 pH units). Poorly mixed biosolids exhibited rapid and marked pH reduction, as well as offensive odor generation, whereas well-mixed biosolids resisted pH reduction and offensive odor generation. The full-scale study aimed at improving lime incorporation and biosolids quality confirmed the use of a flat surface pH electrode to capture low pH regions in biosolids that were masked by the current slurry method.

  19. Occurrence and dissipation of benzotriazoles and benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers in biosolid-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hua-Jie; Ying, Guang-Guo; Ma, Yi-Bing; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Chen, Feng; Liu, You-Sheng

    2014-04-01

    Benzotriazoles (BTs) and benzotriazole ultraviolet (UV) stabilizers (BUVSs) are commonly used industrial and household chemicals, but little is known about their dissipation behavior in the soil environment associated with biosolid application. The authors investigated the occurrence and dissipation of 4 BTs (BT, 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole [5-TT], 5-chloro-1H-benzotriazole [CBT], and 5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzotriazole [XT]) and 5 BUVSs (UV-326, UV-327, UV-328, UV-329, and UV-P) in biosolid-amended soil of 3 trial sites (Zhejiang, Hunan, and Shandong) in China following 2 treatments (treatment 1: a single application of biosolid; treatment 2: repeated application of biosolid). The results showed that except for CBT and XT, the other 7 compounds could be detected in most of the biosolid and biosolid-amended soils at levels of a few to tens of nanograms per gram and that the concentrations of the 7 compounds for treatment 2 were obviously higher than those for treatment 1. In the 1-yr monitoring of the Shandong site, 2 BTs (BT and 5-TT) and 5 BUVSs (UV-326, UV-327, UV-328, UV-329, and UV-P) were significantly dissipated in the biosolid-amended soils. The field half-lives of BT and 5-TT ranged from 217 d to 345 d, while those for the BUVSs ranged between 75 d and 218 d. The field half-lives of target compounds in soil were found to be comparable to the modeling results. The results suggest the persistence of BTs and BUVSs in soil environments with quite slow dissipation rates. PMID:24812675

  20. Fifteen years of wheat yield, N uptake, and soil nitrate-N dynamics in a biosolids-amended agroecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding N dynamics in biosolids-amended agroecosystems can help avoid over-application and the potential for environmental degradation. We investigated 15-years of biosolids application to dryland-wheat, questioning what is the relationship between cumulative grain yield and N uptake (N remov...

  1. Growth and cadmium uptake of Swiss chard, Thlaspi caerulescens and corn in pH adjusted biosolids amended soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Before regulations were established, some biosolids applications added higher Cd levels than presently permitted. Cadmium phytoextraction from such soils would alleviate constraints on land use. Unamended farm soil, and biosolids amended farm soil and mine soil were obtained from Fulton County, Il...

  2. Decomposition and plant-available nitrogen in biosolids: laboratory studies, field studies, and computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, John T; Cogger, Craig G; Jacobs, Lee W; Evanylo, Gregory K; Sullivan, Dan M

    2003-01-01

    This research combines laboratory and field studies with computer simulation to characterize the amount of plant-available nitrogen (PAN) released when municipal biosolids are land-applied to agronomic crops. In the laboratory studies, biosolids were incubated in or on soil from the land application sites. Mean biosolids total C, organic N, and C to N ratio were 292 g kg(-1), 41.7 g kg(-1), and 7.5, respectively. Based on CO2 evolution at 25 degrees C and optimum soil moisture, 27 of the 37 biosolids-soil combinations had two decomposition phases. The mean rapid and slow fraction rate constants were 0.021 and 0.0015 d(-1), respectively, and the rapid fraction contained 23% of the total C assuming sequential decomposition. Where only one decomposition phase existed, the mean first order rate constant was 0.0046 d(-1). The mean rate constant for biosolids stored in lagoons for an extended time was 0.00097 d(-1). The only treatment process that was related to biosolids treatment was stabilization by storage in a lagoon. Biosolids addition rates (dry basis) ranged from 1.3 to 33.8 Mg ha(-1) with a mean value of 10.6 Mg ha(-1). A relationship between fertilizer N rate and crop response was used to estimate observed PAN at each site. Mean observed PAN during the growing season was 18.9 kg N Mg(-1) or 37% of the biosolids total N. Observed PAN was linearly related to biosolids total N. Predicted PAN using the computer model Decomposition, actual growing-season weather, actual analytical data, and laboratory decomposition kinetics compared well with observed PAN. The mean computer model prediction of growing-season PAN was 19.2 kg N Mg(-1) and the slope of the regression between predicted and observed PAN was not significantly different from unity. Predicted PAN obtained using mean decomposition kinetics was related to predicted PAN using actual decomposition kinetics suggesting that mean rate constants, actual weather, and actual analytical data could be used in

  3. Steroid hormone runoff from agricultural test plots applied with municipal biosolids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Yun-Ya; Gray, James L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Davis, Jessica G.; ReVollo, Rhiannon C.; Borch, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The potential presence of steroid hormones in runoff from sites where biosolids have been used as agricultural fertilizers is an environmental concern. A study was conducted to assess the potential for runoff of seventeen different hormones and two sterols, including androgens, estrogens, and progestogens from agricultural test plots. The field containing the test plots had been applied with biosolids for the first time immediately prior to this study. Target compounds were isolated by solid-phase extraction (water samples) and pressurized solvent extraction (solid samples), derivatized, and analyzed by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Runoff samples collected prior to biosolids application had low concentrations of two hormones (estrone -1 and androstenedione -1) and cholesterol (22.5 ± 3.8 μg L-1). In contrast, significantly higher concentrations of multiple estrogens (-1), androgens (-1), and progesterone (-1) were observed in runoff samples taken 1, 8, and 35 days after biosolids application. A significant positive correlation was observed between antecedent rainfall amount and hormone mass loads (runoff). Hormones in runoff were primarily present in the dissolved phase (<0.7-μm GF filter), and, to a lesser extent bound to the suspended-particle phase. Overall, these results indicate that rainfall can mobilize hormones from biosolids-amended agricultural fields, directly to surface waters or redistributed to terrestrial sites away from the point of application via runoff. Although concentrations decrease over time, 35 days is insufficient for complete degradation of hormones in soil at this site.

  4. Uptake of pharmaceuticals, hormones and parabens into vegetables grown in soil fertilized with municipal biosolids.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, Lyne; Duenk, Peter; Bonte-Gelok, Shelly; Payne, Michael; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward

    2012-08-01

    Several recent greenhouse studies have established the potential for uptake of human pharmaceuticals from soil fertilized with municipal biosolids into a variety of crops. In the present study, a field experiment was undertaken to evaluate the uptake of organic micropollutants from soil fertilized with municipal biosolids at a regulated application rate into tomatoes, carrots, potatoes and sweet corn produced under normal farming conditions. The vegetables were grown according to farming practices mandated by the province of Ontario Canada, the key feature being a one-year offset between biosolid application and the harvest of crops for human consumption. Biosolids at application, and crop samples following harvest were analyzed for 118 pharmaceuticals and transformation products, 17 hormones or hormone transformation products, and 6 parabens. Analyte concentrations in the biosolids were consistent with those detected in other surveys. Eight of the 141 analytes were detected in one or two crop replicates at concentrations ranging from 0.33 to 6.25 ng/g dry weight, but no analytes were consistently detected above the detection limit in all triplicate treated plots. Overall, this study suggests that the potential for micropollutant uptake into crops under normal farming conditions is low. PMID:22687432

  5. Field dissipation of four personal care products in biosolids-amended soils in North China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Ma, Yi-Bing; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Lai, Hua-Jie

    2014-11-01

    The present study investigated the dissipation behaviors of 4 typical personal care products (PCPs)-triclocarban (TCC), triclosan (TCS), tonalide (AHTN), and galaxolide (HHCB)- in soils amended with biosolids under field conditions in North China. The results showed that the 4 target compounds were detected in all biosolids-amended soils at levels of a few nanograms per gram to thousands of nanograms per gram (dry wt). The residual concentrations of the 4 PCPs were found in the following order: TCC > TCS > AHTN > HHCB. Significant dissipation of the 4 PCPs was observed in the biosolids-amended soils, with half-lives ranging from 26 d to 133 d. Furthermore, repeated biosolids applications and a higher biosolids application rate could lead to higher accumulation of the 4 PCPs in the agricultural soils. Based on the detected concentrations in the field trial and limited ecotoxicity data, high risks to soil organisms are expected for TCC, whereas low to medium risks are expected in most cases for AHTN, HHCB, and TCS.

  6. Uptake of pharmaceuticals, hormones and parabens into vegetables grown in soil fertilized with municipal biosolids.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, Lyne; Duenk, Peter; Bonte-Gelok, Shelly; Payne, Michael; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward

    2012-08-01

    Several recent greenhouse studies have established the potential for uptake of human pharmaceuticals from soil fertilized with municipal biosolids into a variety of crops. In the present study, a field experiment was undertaken to evaluate the uptake of organic micropollutants from soil fertilized with municipal biosolids at a regulated application rate into tomatoes, carrots, potatoes and sweet corn produced under normal farming conditions. The vegetables were grown according to farming practices mandated by the province of Ontario Canada, the key feature being a one-year offset between biosolid application and the harvest of crops for human consumption. Biosolids at application, and crop samples following harvest were analyzed for 118 pharmaceuticals and transformation products, 17 hormones or hormone transformation products, and 6 parabens. Analyte concentrations in the biosolids were consistent with those detected in other surveys. Eight of the 141 analytes were detected in one or two crop replicates at concentrations ranging from 0.33 to 6.25 ng/g dry weight, but no analytes were consistently detected above the detection limit in all triplicate treated plots. Overall, this study suggests that the potential for micropollutant uptake into crops under normal farming conditions is low.

  7. Non-labile silver species in biosolids remain stable throughout 50 years of weathering and ageing.

    PubMed

    Donner, E; Scheckel, K; Sekine, R; Popelka-Filcoff, R S; Bennett, J W; Brunetti, G; Naidu, R; McGrath, S P; Lombi, E

    2015-10-01

    Increasing commercial use of nanosilver has focussed attention on the fate of silver (Ag) in the wastewater release pathway. This paper reports the speciation and lability of Ag in archived, stockpiled, and contemporary biosolids from the UK, USA and Australia, and indicates that biosolids Ag concentrations have decreased significantly over recent decades. XANES revealed the importance of reduced-sulfur binding environments for Ag speciation in materials ranging from freshly produced sludge to biosolids weathered under ambient environmental conditions for more than 50 years. Isotopic dilution with (110 m)Ag showed that Ag was predominantly non-labile in both fresh and aged biosolids (13.7% mean lability), with E-values ranging from 0.3 to 60 mg/kg and 5 mM CaNO3 extractable Ag from 1.2 to 609 μg/kg (0.002-3.4% of the total Ag). This study indicates that at the time of soil application, biosolids Ag will be predominantly Ag-sulfides and characterised by low isotopic lability.

  8. Green production of hydrogen from excess biosolids originating from municipal waste water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bagchi, B.; Rawlston, J.; Counce, R.M.; Holmes, J.M.; Bienkowski, P.R.

    2006-07-01

    Technical and economic aspects of equivalent hydrogen (moles of H{sub 2} + moles of CO potentially converted to H{sub 2}) production from biosolids produced in wastewater treatment are evaluated in this paper. ASPEN+ simulation of the gasification of biosolids and coal provides the basis for the analysis of the technical performance of a gasification process. The General Electric (GE, formerly Texaco) Gasifier was chosen for the study. The solids are assumed to be slurried as 50 wt% or 70 wt% solids (typical and maximum attainable) as feed streams for the gasifier with water. In this study, the incremental raw material costs (feed+oxygen) for gasification plants producing the same annual quantity of H{sub 2} from coal and/or biosolids are compared. It may be seen that under the conditions of this study, the estimated cost of H{sub 2} production may be significantly reduced when biosolids are included in the feed materials to gasification, but only when the avoided disposal costs of the biosolids are considered.

  9. Preliminary assessment of sources of nitrogen in groundwater at a biosolids-application area near Deer Trail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Tracy J.B.; McMahon, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate increased fairly steadily in samples from four shallow groundwater monitoring wells after biosolids applications to nonirrigated farmland began in 1993. The U.S. Geological Survey began a preliminary assessment of sources of nitrogen in shallow groundwater at part of the biosolids-application area near Deer Trail, Colorado, in 2005 in cooperation with the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District. Possible nitrogen sources in the area include biosolids, animal manure, inorganic fertilizer, atmospheric deposition, and geologic materials (bedrock and soil). Biosolids from the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District plant in Denver and biosolids, cow manure, geologic materials (bedrock and soil), and groundwater from the study area were sampled to measure nitrogen content and nitrogen isotopic compositions of nitrate or total nitrogen. Biosolids also were leached, and the leachates were analyzed for nitrogen content and other concentrations. Geologic materials from the study area also were sampled to determine mineralogy. Estimates of nitrogen contributed from inorganic fertilizer and atmospheric deposition were calculated from other published reports. The nitrogen information from the study indicates that each of the sources contain sufficient nitrogen to potentially affect groundwater nitrate concentrations. Natural processes can transform the nitrogen in any of the sources to nitrate in the groundwater. Load calculations indicate that animal manure, inorganic fertilizer, or atmospheric deposition could have contributed the largest nitrogen load to the study area in the 13 years before biosolids applications began, but biosolids likely contributed the largest nitrogen load to the study area in the 13 years after biosolids applications began. Various approaches provided insights into sources of nitrate in the groundwater samples from 2005. The isotopic data indicate that, of the source materials considered, biosolids and (or

  10. Evaluation of thermophilic anaerobic digestion processes for full-scale Class A biosolids disinfection at Hyperion Treatment Plant.

    PubMed

    Iranpour, R; Cox, H H J

    2007-05-01

    This paper describes 5 phases of full-scale testing at the City of Los Angeles Hyperion Treatment Plant (HTP) for producing Class A biosolids (U.S. EPA Part 503 Biosolids Rule) by thermophilic anaerobic digestion. Phases I and II were tests with a two-stage continuous-batch process in a thermophilic battery of six digesters and a designated post-digestion train that was isolated from mesophilic operations. These tests demonstrated that digester outflow biosolids met the Class A limits for fecal coliforms and Salmonella sp. However, fecal coliform densities sharply increased during post-digestion. The recurrence was possibly related to a combination of a large drop of the biosolids temperature after the dewatering centrifuges and contamination of thermophilically digested biosolids from mesophilic operations. Phase III was conducted after insulation and electrical heat-tracing of the post-digestion train to maintain a biosolids temperature throughout post-digestion at about the same level as in the digester outflow. Biosolids monitoring at the last points of plant control (silos at Truck Loading Facility and farm for land application) indicated that fecal coliform recurrence was prevented. After completing the conversion of HTP to thermophilic operation, certification tests of Phases IV and V demonstrated Class A compliance of a two-stage continuous-batch process under Alternatives 1 and 3 of the Part 503 Biosolids Rule, respectively. HTP received the permit for Class A (indeed exceptional quality) biosolids land application in Kern County, California, in December 2002 under Alternative 3. Since 2003, HTP has consistently complied with the federal and local standards for Class A biosolids, indicating that Class A limits can be met under conditions less stringent than defined by the Alternative 1 time-temperature requirement for batch treatment. PMID:17054113

  11. Impact of long-term land application of biosolids on groundwater quality and surface soils

    SciTech Connect

    Surampalli, R.Y.; Lin, K.L.; Banerji, S.K.

    1995-11-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the long-term land application of Biosolids and its potential impact on groundwater quality and surface soils. For this study, an existing site, that has been in operation for 8--15 years were selected for sampling and analyses. From this site sludge applied soil samples, background soil samples, and groundwater monitoring samples were obtained. The samples were analyzed for the following: pH, conductivity, total solids, fecal coliform, fecal streptococci, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, TKN, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc. The results of this study indicate that groundwater at this biosolids application site was not contaminated with heavy metals or pathogens. The bacteriological soil data also indicated that the levels of fecal coliform and fecal streptococci were close to background level with no evidence of contamination. The results also indicate that there is no heavy metals buildup in biosolids-amended soils.

  12. Solving fecal coliform growth/reactivation in biosolids during full-scale post-digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Iranpour, R; Palacios, R; Cox, H H J; Abkian, V

    2005-01-01

    Fecal coliform recurrence has been observed at the City of Los Angeles Hyperion Treatment Plant during pilot-scale experiments with a designated thermophilic battery of six anaerobic digesters, while other digesters were still at a mesophilic temperature. Several lab and full-scale experiments indicated the following possible causes of the growth/reactivation of fecal coliforms in post-digestion: a) contamination of thermophilically digested biosolids with mesophilically digested biosolids; b) a large drop in the biosolids temperature between the centrifuges and silos, which could have allowed the reactivation and/or growth of fecal coliforms. These were resolved by the full plant conversion to thermophilic anaerobic digestion and design modifications of the post-digestion train.

  13. Biosolids-amended soils: Part II. Chemical lability as a measure of contaminant bioaccessability.

    PubMed

    Schwab, A P; Lewis, K; Banks, M K

    2006-10-01

    Biosolids recycling by amending agricultural soils has increased significantly over the last few decades. The presence of contaminants in small, bioavailable quantities has generated concerns about health threats resulting from accumulation of potential toxins in the food chain. In this study, land application of biosolids was evaluated for environmental risk. Chemical lability tests for metals were used for the test soils and included analyses for water soluble, exchangeable, and metals extractable by the physiologically based extraction test. Chemical extractions detected slight increases in labile metal concentrations for many of the treated soils, particularly those receiving long-term applications of 5 years or more. Significantly higher metal concentrations were observed in the soils that had been exposed to biosolids before the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Washington, D.C.) 503 Rule (U.S. EPA, 2004) was implemented. PMID:17120442

  14. Characterization of Phosphorus Species in Biosolids and Manures Using XANES Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Shober,A.; Hesterberg, D.; Sims, J.; Gardner, S.

    2006-01-01

    Received for publication March 10, 2006. Identification of the chemical P species in biosolids or manures will improve our understanding of the long-term potential for P loss when these materials are land applied. The objectives of this study were to determine the P species in dairy manures, poultry litters, and biosolids using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and to determine if chemical fractionation techniques can provide useful information when interpreted based on the results of more definitive P speciation studies. Our XANES fitting results indicated that the predominant forms of P in organic P sources included hydroxylapatite, PO{sub 4} sorbed to Al hydroxides, and phytic acid in lime-stabilized biosolids and manures; hydroxylapatite, PO{sub 4} sorbed on ferrihydrite, and phytic acid in lime- and Fe-treated biosolids; and PO{sub 4} sorbed on ferrihydrite, hydroxylapatite, {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP), and often PO{sub 4} sorbed to Al hydroxides in Fe-treated and digested biosolids. Strong relationships existed between the proportions of XANES PO{sub 4} sorbed to Al hydroxides and NH{sub 4}Cl- + NH{sub 4}F-extractable P, XANES PO{sub 4} sorbed to ferrihydrite + phytic acid and NaOH-extractable P, and XANES hydroxylapatite + {beta}-TCP and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB)- + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-extractable P ({gamma}{sup 2} = 0.67 [P = 0.01], 0.78 [P = 0.01], and 0.89 [P = 0.001], respectively). Our XANES fitting results can be used to make predictions about long-term solubility of P when biosolids and manures are land applied. Fractionation techniques indicate that there are differences in the forms of P in these materials but should be interpreted based on P speciation data obtained using more advanced analytical tools.

  15. Creating Competitive Advantage through Effective Management Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longenecker, Clinton O.; Ariss, Sonny S.

    2002-01-01

    Managers trained in executive education programs (n=203) identified ways in which management education can increase an organization's competitive advantage: exposure to new ideas and practices, skill development, and motivation. Characteristics of effective management education included experience-based learning orientation, credible instructors,…

  16. Odour reduction strategies for biosolids produced from a Western Australian wastewater treatment plant: results from Phase I laboratory trials.

    PubMed

    Gruchlik, Yolanta; Heitz, Anna; Joll, Cynthia; Driessen, Hanna; Fouché, Lise; Penney, Nancy; Charrois, Jeffrey W A

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated sources of odours from biosolids produced from a Western Australian wastewater treatment plant and examined possible strategies for odour reduction, specifically chemical additions and reduction of centrifuge speed on a laboratory scale. To identify the odorous compounds and assess the effectiveness of the odour reduction measures trialled in this study, headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS SPME-GC-MS) methods were developed. The target odour compounds included volatile sulphur compounds (e.g. dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl trisulphide) and other volatile organic compounds (e.g. toluene, ethylbenzene, styrene, p-cresol, indole and skatole). In our laboratory trials, aluminium sulphate added to anaerobically digested sludge prior to dewatering offered the best odour reduction strategy amongst the options that were investigated, resulting in approximately 40% reduction in the maximum concentration of the total volatile organic sulphur compounds, relative to control. PMID:24355840

  17. Investigation of biosolids degradation under flooded environments for use in underwater cover designs for mine tailing remediation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yu; Nason, Peter; Maurice, Christian; Alakangas, Lena; Öhlander, Björn

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the potential suitability of digested sewage sludge (frequently termed biosolids) for use as underwater cover material for mine waste tailings, the degradability of biosolids at 20 - 22 °C under flooded anaerobic conditions was evaluated during incubation for 230 days. Leaching of elements from the flooded anaerobic system was also evaluated. Biosolid degradation was confirmed by the generation and accumulation of CH4 and CO2. Specifically, approximately 1.65 mmoL gas/g biosolids was generated as a result of incubation, corresponding to degradation of 7.68% of the organic matter, and the residue was stable at the end of the laboratory experiment. Under field conditions in northern Sweden, it is expected that the degradation rate will be much slower than that observed in the present study (Nason et al. Environ Earth Sci 70:30933105, 2013). Although the majority of biosolid fractions (>92%) were shown to be recalcitrant during the incubation period, long-term monitoring of further degradability of residue is necessary. The leaching results showed that most of the metals and metalloids leached from the biosolids at day 230 were below the limit value for non-hazardous waste, although Ni was the only element approximately three times higher than the limit value for inert material at the landfill site. In conclusion, biosolids have potential for use as covering material for underwater storage of tailings based on their biodegradability and leaching of elements.

  18. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loss Potential from Biosolids-Amended Soils and Biotic Response in the Receiving Water.

    PubMed

    Hanief, Aslam; Matiichine, Denis; Laursen, Andrew E; Bostan, I Vadim; McCarthy, Lynda H

    2015-07-01

    Application of municipal biosolids to agricultural soil can improve soil quality and improve crop yields. However, runoff or tile leachate from biosolids-applied fields may contribute to localized eutrophication of surface water. A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine loss potential of nutrients from soils amended with two different biosolids (anaerobically digested and chemically stabilized) relative to loss from a reference soil and to determine response in freshwater microcosms to nutrients lost from soils. Total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) were measured in runoff, and equivalent amounts were added to reference microcosms to determine if aquatic systems would respond similarly to TN and TP loading in bioavailable forms (PO, NH, NO) simulating loading related to inorganic fertilizer application. Nutrient concentrations (TP, TN, PO, NH, NO, and organic P and N) were similar in the runoff from the two biosolids-amended soils and higher than those in the runoff from the reference soil. Runoff from biosolids-amended soils stimulated algal growth and production (chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen) relative to runoff from reference soil, but the response was weaker than in microcosms receiving equivalent amounts of inorganic N and P. Nutrient runoff from land-applied biosolids does have potential to increase algal production in receiving waters; however, this experiment suggests receiving waters may absorb a single large nutrient loading event associated with runoff from biosolids-amended soil without substantial impact. Moreover, the response to N and P in biosolids versus inorganic nutrient additions suggests biosolids may contribute relatively less to eutrophication than inorganic fertilizers, assuming equivalent TN and TP loading to aquatic systems. PMID:26437111

  19. Cost-Effective Stress Management Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Gordon F.

    1980-01-01

    Stress management training can be a cost effective way to improve productivity and job performance. Among many relaxation techniques, the most effective in terms of teachability, participant motivation, and profitability are self-hypnosis, progressive relaxation, and transcendental meditation. (SK)

  20. Sustainable biosolids--welcomed practice through community partnership and the consequential economic benefits.

    PubMed

    Evans, T; Lowe, N; Matthews, P

    2004-01-01

    Technically, most people agree that conserving soil organic matter and completing nutrient cycles by applying animal manures, treated organic wastes and biosolids to land is the most sustainable option in the majority of situations. It is also generally the least expensive. There has been a huge amount of research into the hazards, and this has concluded that the risks can be managed to acceptable levels. But there has been insufficient attention to communicating this knowledge, as so often in the scientific and technological arena. Perception is reality. Nowadays compliance with regulations (whilst essential) is not enough; public and stakeholder attitudes can be of decisive importance. Sometimes policy-makers speculate what public attitudes might be without really asking them. This paper will describe an initiative to create a partnership open to anybody with an interest in the use of organic materials on land to develop consensus on good practice and to share knowledge. It summarises an attitude survey of more than 140 organisations, which was then debated at a workshop in July 2002. The conclusion from this study was that all parties considered a partnership is essential to share knowledge, build mutual trust and agree practices that are welcomed by all in the food chain. The paper will describe the steps to establishing a partnership organisation, its aims and objectives, the work to date and the plans for the future. The Environment Agency considers this very important and has largely funded the work to date. The consequences of failing to establish welcomed practices would be loss of the facility to use organic resources on land.

  1. Mapping the total phosphorus concentration of biosolid amended surface soils using LANDSAT TM data.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, B B Maruthi; Vincent, Robert K; Witter, Jason D; Spongberg, Alison L

    2009-04-01

    Conventional methods for soil sampling and analysis for soil variability in chemical characteristics are too time-consuming and expensive for multi-seasonal monitoring over large-scale areas. Hence, the objectives of this study are: 1) to determine changes in chemical concentrations of soils that are amended with treated sewage sludge; and 2) to determine if LANDSAT TM data can be used to map surface chemical characteristics of such amended soils. For this study, we selected two fields in NW Ohio, designated as F34 and F11, that had been applied with 34 and 11 ton acre(-1) of biosolids, respectively. Soil samples from a total of 70 sampling locations across the two fields were collected one day prior to LANDSAT 5 overpass and were analyzed for several elemental concentrations. The accumulation of Ba, Cd, Cu, S and P were found to be significantly higher in the surface soils of field F34, compared to field F11. Regression equations were established to search for algorithms that could map these five elemental concentrations in the surface soils using six, dark-object-subtracted (DOS) LANDSAT TM bands and the 15 non-reciprocal spectral ratios derived from these six bands for the May 20, 2005, LANDSAT 5 TM image. Phosphorus (P) had the highest R(2) adjusted value (67.9%) among all five elements considered, and the resulting algorithm employed only spectral ratios. This model was successfully tested for robustness by applying it to another LANDSAT TM image obtained on June 5, 2005. Our results enabled us to conclude that LANDSAT TM imagery of bare-soil fields can be used to quantify and map the spatial variation of total phosphorous concentration in surface soils. This research has significant implications for identification and mapping of areas with high P, which is important for implementing and monitoring the best phosphorous management practices across the region.

  2. Determination of synthetic musk compounds in sewage biosolids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Osemwengie, Lantis I

    2006-09-01

    A review of sewage sludge regulations and land application practices by the United States National Research Council (2002) recommended development of improved analytical techniques to adequately identify and quantify new chemical contaminants, such as synthetic musk compounds in Class A sewage sludge (i.e., biosolids). This prompted the development of a rugged analytical method using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to detect this group of organic pollutants in biosolids. In this paper, the term "biosolids" is used interchangeably with "sewage sludge", which is defined in the regulations and used in the statue (Clean Water Act). Samples of Class A biosolids obtained from sewage treatment plants in Los Angeles, California, the City of Las Vegas, Nevada, and also in the form of a commercial fertilizer, were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction technique, subjected to gel permeation chromatography clean-up, and analyzed by GC/MS using the selected ion monitoring mode. The method developed has the potential to detect synthetic musk compounds in complex matrices, may provide accurate data useful in human health and environmental risk assessment, and may be useful in determining the efficacy of municipal sewage treatment plants for removing synthetic musk compounds. PMID:16951749

  3. Remote sensing of soybean stress as an indicator of chemical concentration of biosolid amended surface soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, B. B. Maruthi; Vincent, Robert K.; Roberts, Sheila J.; Czajkowski, Kevin

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in the biosolid amended soils and the risk of their uptake into different plant parts is a topic of great concern. This study examines the accumulation of several heavy metals and nutrients in soybeans grown on biosolid applied soils and the use of remote sensing to monitor the metal uptake and plant stress. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted with soybeans grown on soils applied with biosolids at varying rates. The plant growth was monitored using Landsat TM imagery and handheld spectroradiometer in field and greenhouse studies, respectively. Soil and plant samples were collected and then analyzed for several elemental concentrations. The chemical concentrations in soils and roots increased significantly with increase in applied biosolid concentrations. Copper (Cu) and Molybdenum (Mo) accumulated significantly in the shoots of the metal-treated plants. Our spectral and Landsat TM image analysis revealed that the Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) can be used to distinguish the metal stressed plants. The NDVI showed significant negative correlation with increase in soil Cu concentrations followed by other elements. This study suggests the use of remote sensing to monitor soybean stress patterns and thus indirectly assess soil chemical characteristics.

  4. µ-XANES AND µ-XRF INVESTIGATIONS OF METAL BINDING MECHANISMS IN BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) microprobe analysis and micro-X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (µ-XANES) were employed to identify Fe and Mn phases and their association with selected toxic elements in two biosolids (limed composted and Nu-Earth) containing low ...

  5. Pathogens and Indicators in United States Class B Biosolids: National and Historic Distributions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports on the first major study of the incidence of indicator organisms and pathogens found within Class B biosolids across the U.S. since the promulgation of the EPA Part 503 Rule in 1993. National distributions collected between 2005 and 2008, show that the incidence of bacterial and v...

  6. Impact of Joule Heating and pH on Biosolids Electro-Dewatering.

    PubMed

    Navab-Daneshmand, Tala; Beton, Raphaël; Hill, Reghan J; Frigon, Dominic

    2015-05-01

    Electro-dewatering (ED) is a novel technology to reduce the overall costs of residual biosolids processing, transport, and disposal. In this study, we investigated Joule heating and pH as parameters controlling the dewaterability limit, dewatering rate, and energy efficiency. Temperature-controlled electrodes revealed that Joule heating enhances water removal by increasing evaporation and electro-osmotic flow. High temperatures increased the dewatering rate, but had little impact on the dewaterability limit and energy efficiency. Analysis of horizontal layers after 15-min ED suggests electro-osmotic flow reversal, as evidenced by a shifting of the point of minimum moisture content from the anode toward the cathode. This flow reversal was also confirmed by the pH at the anode being below the isoelectric point, as ascertained by pH titration. The important role of pH on ED was further studied by adding acid/base solutions to biosolids prior to ED. An acidic pH reduced the biosolids charge while simultaneously increasing the dewatering efficiency. Thus, process optimization depends on trade-offs between speed and efficiency, according to physicochemical properties of the biosolids microstructure.

  7. Non-labile silver species in biosolids remain stable throughout 50 years of weathering and ageing.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing commercial use of nanosilver has focussed attention on the fate of silver (Ag) in the wastewater release pathway. This paper reports the speciation and lability of Ag in archived, stockpiled, and contemporary biosolids from the UK, USA and Australia, and indicates that...

  8. Land application of manure and class B biosolids: an occupational and public quantitative microbial risk assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public exposures to pathogens can vary from contact with fomites to foodborne exposures. Regulations and recommendations for land application of manure or Class B biosolids are designed to limit public exposures to pathogens in each residual waste. Lands receiving these residuals are more fertile ...

  9. Land application of manure and class B biosolids: an occupational and public quantitative microbial risk assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The land application of municipal Class B biosolids and manure has been a useful implement of these waste residuals. Lands receiving them have often become more fertile, nutritious, and tend to increase crop yields. Their application to non-food crop lands and adherence to rules and regulation tim...

  10. Determination of synthetic musk compounds in sewage biosolids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Osemwengie, Lantis I

    2006-09-01

    A review of sewage sludge regulations and land application practices by the United States National Research Council (2002) recommended development of improved analytical techniques to adequately identify and quantify new chemical contaminants, such as synthetic musk compounds in Class A sewage sludge (i.e., biosolids). This prompted the development of a rugged analytical method using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to detect this group of organic pollutants in biosolids. In this paper, the term "biosolids" is used interchangeably with "sewage sludge", which is defined in the regulations and used in the statue (Clean Water Act). Samples of Class A biosolids obtained from sewage treatment plants in Los Angeles, California, the City of Las Vegas, Nevada, and also in the form of a commercial fertilizer, were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction technique, subjected to gel permeation chromatography clean-up, and analyzed by GC/MS using the selected ion monitoring mode. The method developed has the potential to detect synthetic musk compounds in complex matrices, may provide accurate data useful in human health and environmental risk assessment, and may be useful in determining the efficacy of municipal sewage treatment plants for removing synthetic musk compounds.

  11. Real scale environmental monitoring of zoonotic protozoa and helminth eggs in biosolid samples in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bonatti, Taís Rondello; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-09-01

    Biosolid is the product of the activated sludge treatment system and its final disposition is subject of ongoing discussion as this residue can therefore harbor a great number and variety of pathogens. This study was aimed to (1) monitor the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in biosolid samples from a treatment plant in Campinas, SP, Brazil, (2) observe Giardia cyst wall morphological integrity in treated samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and (3) verify the presence and viability of helminth eggs. Cysts were present in 33.3 % of the samples, whereas oocysts were detected in 8.3 %. Viable Ascaris sp. Toxocara sp. and similar to Trichuris sp. eggs were found through the use of Mexican Official Norm. Results demonstrate the difficulties inherent in working with biosolid as factors such as temperature, ionic strength and pH influenced the recovery of cysts and oocysts. Pores and ruptures were not observed in cyst wall visualized by SEM following 45 days of exposure to sunlight, only minimal morphological changes. These observations emphasize both the importance of adequate treatment of sewage sludge and the need to develop appropriate techniques for the detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in this type of sample. This is the first time that a study was done in a real scale for biosolid samples in determining the presence of pathogenic protozoa as Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Brazil, and also observed minimal cyst wall damage after sunlight treatment.

  12. Fate of microconstituents in biosolids composted in an aerated silage bag

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of silage bags for composting was evaluated as a means to produce Class A Biosolids while minimizing vector attraction and odor emissions. While most composting studies report pathogen concentrations, little is known about the fate of Endocrine Disruptor Chemicals (EDCs) during composting. ...

  13. Herbaceous vegetation productivity, persistence, and metals uptake on a biosolids-amended mine soil

    SciTech Connect

    Evanylo, G.K.; Abaye, A.O.; Dundas, C.; Zipper, C.E.; Lemus, R.; Sukkariyah, B.; Rockett, J.

    2005-10-01

    The selection of plant species is critical for the successful establishment and long-term maintenance of vegetation on reclaimed surface mined soils. A study was conducted to assess the capability of 16 forage grass and legume species in monocultures and mixes to establish and thrive on a reclaimed Appalachian surface mine amended with biosolids. The 0.15-ha coarse-textured, rocky, non-acid forming mined site was prepared for planting by grading to a 2% slope and amending sandstone overburden materials with a mixture of composted and dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids at a rate of 368 Mg ha{sup -1} (dry weight). The high rate of biosolids applied provided favorable soil chemical properties but could not overcome physical property limitations due to shallow undeveloped soil perched atop a compacted soil layer at 25 cm depth. The plant species whose persistence and biomass production were the greatest after a decade or more of establishment (i.e., switchgrass, sericea lespedeza, reed canarygrass, tall fescue, and crownvetch) shared the physiological and reproductive characteristics of low fertility requirements, drought and moisture tolerance, and propagation by rhizome and/or stolons. Of these five species, two (tall fescue and sericea lespedeza) are or have been seeded commonly on Appalachian coal surface mines, and often dominate abandoned pasture sites. Despite the high rates of heavy metal-bearing biosolids applied to the soil, plant uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn were well within critical concentrations more than a decade after establishment of the vegetation.

  14. Biochar from Pyrolysis of Biosolids for Nutrient Adsorption and Turfgrass Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Carey, D E; McNamara, P J; Zitomer, D H

    2015-12-01

    At water resource recovery facilities, nutrient removal is often required and energy recovery is an ever-increasing goal. Pyrolysis may be a sustainable process for handling wastewater biosolids because energy can be recovered in the py-gas and py-oil. Additionally, the biochar produced has value as a soil conditioner. The objective of this work was to determine if biochar could be used to adsorb ammonia from biosolids filtrate and subsequently be applied as a soil conditioner to improve grass growth. The maximum carrying capacity of base modified biochar for NH3-N was 5.3 mg/g. Biochar containing adsorbed ammonium and potassium was applied to laboratory planters simulating golf course putting greens to cultivate Kentucky bluegrass. Planters that contained nutrient-laden biochar proliferated at a statistically higher rate than planters that contained biosolids, unmodified biochar, peat, or no additive. Nutrient-laden biochar performed as well as commercial inorganic fertilizer with no statistical difference in growth rates. Biochar from digested biosolids successfully immobilized NH3-N from wastewater and served as a beneficial soil amendment. This process offers a means to recover and recycle nutrients from water resource recovery facilities. PMID:26652122

  15. Elucidating the process of co-composting of biosolids and spent activated clay.

    PubMed

    Ho, C P; Yuan, S T; Jien, S H; Hseu, Z Y

    2010-11-01

    This study elucidates the co-composting of biosolids and spent activated clay (SAC) using physio-chemical, bioassay, and spectroscopic methods. A pilot-scale pile of blended limed biosolids, SAC, and rice husk was composted for 15weeks. The changes in temperature, pH, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, C/N, and germination index (GI) of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis) seeds with time support the goal of producing a mature compost with a decline in the SAC acidity of associated with biosolids. Cadmium, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in the initial biosolids were converted from labile fractions into relatively immobile phases upon maturation. Temperature, moisture, pH, C/N, and GI were used to separate the composting process into three phases - initial, thermophilic, and cooling, based on a score plot of principal component analysis (PCA). The values of the parameters of interest reveal that the compost fulfills the requirements of compost maturity in the literature. PMID:20594829

  16. RESEARCH TOWARDS DEVELOPING METHODS FOR SELECTED PHARMACEUTICAL AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCPS) ADAPTED FOR BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development, standardization, and validation of analytical methods provides state-of-the-science

    techniques to evaluate the presence, or absence, of select PPCPs in biosolids. This research

    provides the approaches, methods, and tools to assess the exposures and redu...

  17. Preliminary evaluation of biosolids characteristics for anaerobic membrane reactors treating municipal wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qirong; Dagnew, Martha; Cumin, Jeff; Parker, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the characteristics of biosolids of a pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating municipal wastewater. The production of total solids (TS) and volatile solids (VS) was comparable to that reported for the extended aeration system at solids residence time (SRT) longer than 40 days. The yields of TS and VS were reduced as SRT increased from 40 to 100 days and increased with the addition of 26 mg/L of FeCl3. The AnMBR destroyed 60-82% of the VS loading in feed wastewater and hence it was concluded the biosolids met the requirements for vector attraction reduction for land application. The concentrations of volatile suspended solids and total suspended solids in the sludge were less than those reported after anaerobic digestion of conventional primary and secondary sludge mixtures, and hence dewatering of the waste stream may be required for some applications. The nutrient content in terms of total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total phosphorus was similar to that of anaerobically digested municipal sludges. The dewaterability of the biosolids was poorer than that reported for sludges from aerobic treatment and anaerobically digested sludges. Dewaterability was improved by addition of FeCl3 and reduced SRT. The biosolids met standards for land application with regards to the concentration of heavy metals but would need further treatment to meet Class B pathogen indicator criteria. PMID:26465317

  18. Real scale environmental monitoring of zoonotic protozoa and helminth eggs in biosolid samples in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bonatti, Taís Rondello; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-09-01

    Biosolid is the product of the activated sludge treatment system and its final disposition is subject of ongoing discussion as this residue can therefore harbor a great number and variety of pathogens. This study was aimed to (1) monitor the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in biosolid samples from a treatment plant in Campinas, SP, Brazil, (2) observe Giardia cyst wall morphological integrity in treated samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and (3) verify the presence and viability of helminth eggs. Cysts were present in 33.3 % of the samples, whereas oocysts were detected in 8.3 %. Viable Ascaris sp. Toxocara sp. and similar to Trichuris sp. eggs were found through the use of Mexican Official Norm. Results demonstrate the difficulties inherent in working with biosolid as factors such as temperature, ionic strength and pH influenced the recovery of cysts and oocysts. Pores and ruptures were not observed in cyst wall visualized by SEM following 45 days of exposure to sunlight, only minimal morphological changes. These observations emphasize both the importance of adequate treatment of sewage sludge and the need to develop appropriate techniques for the detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in this type of sample. This is the first time that a study was done in a real scale for biosolid samples in determining the presence of pathogenic protozoa as Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Brazil, and also observed minimal cyst wall damage after sunlight treatment. PMID:27605758

  19. [The characterization of biosolids produced by the San Fernando wastewater treatment plant in Itagui, Antioquia, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Bedoya-Urrego, Katherine; Acevedo-Ruíz, José M; Peláez-Jaramillo, Carlos A; Agudelo-López, Sonia Del Pilar

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective This study was aimed at evaluating pertinent physicochemical and microbiological (bacteria and parasites) parameters regarding the biosolids produced by the San Fernando wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Itagui, Antioquia, Colombia. Methods Twelve samples were collected and evaluated every month from January to December during 2010. The chemical, physical and microbiological tests followed the protocol described in Colombian technical guideline 5167. The protocol described in Mexican official Norm 004 (with some modifications) was used for identifying helminth ova and assessing their viability. Results All samples proved positive for Ascarislumbricoides, viable ova count ranging from 4 to 22 eggs/2gTS. Both Salmonella and Enterobacteriawere detected in all samples evaluated, the latter having 3,000 colony forming unit (CFU)/g minimum concentration. Biosolid sample values met the heavy metal concentration requirement established by national guidelines. There was no statistical association between rainfall and the pathogen's presence in the biosolids. Conclusion Our results suggested that the biosolids being produced by the San Fernando wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) could be used as organic fertilizer; however they should be treated/sanitized to meet the stipulations in Colombian technical guideline 5167.

  20. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl substances in limed biosolids from a large municipal water resource recovery facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While the recycling of wastewater biosolids via land-application is a commonly used practice for nutrient recovery and soil reclamation, concerns remain that they may become sources of toxic, persistent organic pollutants to the environment. This study concentrates on assessing the presence and the...

  1. Trace organic contaminants in biosolids: Impact of conventional wastewater and sludge processing technologies and emerging alternatives.

    PubMed

    Semblante, Galilee U; Hai, Faisal I; Huang, Xia; Ball, Andrew S; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2015-12-30

    This paper critically reviews the fate of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) in biosolids, with emphasis on identifying operation conditions that impact the accumulation of TrOCs in sludge during conventional wastewater and sludge treatment and assessing the technologies available for TrOC removal from biosolids. The fate of TrOCs during sludge thickening, stabilisation (e.g. aerobic digestion, anaerobic digestion, alkaline stabilisation, and composting), conditioning, and dewatering is elucidated. Operation pH, sludge retention time (SRT), and temperature have significant impact on the sorption and biodegradation of TrOCs in activated sludge that ends up in the sludge treatment line. Anaerobic digestion may exacerbate the estrogenicity of sludge due to bioconversion to more potent metabolites. Application of advanced oxidation or thermal pre-treatment may minimise TrOCs in biosolids by increasing the bioavailability of TrOCs, converting TrOCs into more biodegradable products, or inducing complete mineralisation of TrOCs. Treatment of sludge by bioaugmentation using various bacteria, yeast, or fungus has the potential to reduce TrOC levels in biosolids.

  2. IMPLICATION OF BIOSOLIDS ON ADSORPTION AND DESORPTION OF CD IN SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adsorption isotherms for soils from long-term biosolids-field experiments and their inorganic fractions were obtained by equilibration of the samples with cadmium nitrate. The cadmium nitrate solution was replaced with a calcium nitrate solution to obtain desorbed Cd. Results sho...

  3. USE OF A MOLECULAR PROBE ASSAY FOR MONITORING SALMONELLA SPP. IN BIOSOLIDS SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current federal regulations (40 CFR 503) require enumeration of fecal coliform or salmonellae prior to land application of biosolids. This regulation specifies use of enumeration methods included in "Standard methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 18th Edition," (SM)...

  4. EVALUATION OF BIOSOLID SAMPLE PROCESSING TECHNIQUES TO MAXIMIZE RECOVERY OF BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current federal regulations (40 CFR 503) require enumeration of fecal coliform or Salmoella prior to land application of Class A biosolids. This regulation specifies use of enumeration methods included in "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 18th Edition,...

  5. A BETTER INDICATOR STUDY EXAMINES ALTERNATIVE BIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF DISINFECTION IN LIME-TREATED BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the current regulations (CFR 503), Class B biosolids may be land applied with certain site restrictions. One method for achieving Class B status is to raise the pH of the sludge to >12 for a minimum of 2 hours with an alkaline material (normally lime). Alternately, a Clas...

  6. VOLATILE ORGANO-METALLOIDS IN BIO-SOLID MATERIALS: ANALYSIS BY VACUUM DISTILLATION-GC/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method based on vacuum distillation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (VD-GC-MS)

    was developed for determining volatile organo-metalloid contaminants in bio-solid materials. Method

    performance was evaluated for dimethylselenide (DMSe), dimethyldisel...

  7. INTERLABORATORY VALIDATION OF USEPA METHOD 1680: FECAL COLIFORMS IN BIOSOLIDS BY MULTIPLE-TUBE FERMENTATION PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, the use and disposal of biosolids (including domestic septage) are regulated under 40 CFR Part 503. Subpart D of this regulation protects public health and the environment through requirements designed to reduce the potential for contact with pathogens in bi...

  8. Effectiveness of Enhanced Safety Management

    SciTech Connect

    Waterfall, K.W. )

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an Enhanced Safety Management (ESM) campaign to improve safety and reduce risk in oil and gas exploration. The essentials of ESM are summarized by the author. The paper addresses the method developed to implement ESM and how the control of process designs to control operations minimizes the risk of a major accident.

  9. Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb distribution in biosolid pellets used as soil amendment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordán, Manuel M.; Rincón-Mora, Beatriz; Belén Almendro-Candel, María; Navarro Pedreño, Jose; Gómez Lucas, Ignacio; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria; Pardo, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    The application of biosolids to a soil is a method that offers important benefits (Navarro et al. 2003). The transport and application costs are quite low (mostly if they are dehydrated biosolids or pellets) if soils are located near a wastewater treatment plant. It is possible to recycle nutrients (N, P, and K) and organic matter by improving the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil and by reducing the fertilizer costs. However, the use of biosolids may also has several problems, such as the presence of quantities of metals that could be toxic for plants or could contaminate ground-waters after being leached. Heavy metals are one of the most serious environmental pollutants because of its high toxicity, abundance and easy accumulation by plant (Soriano-Disla et al. 2014; Rosen and Chen 2014). Contamination of soils by potentially toxic elements (e.g. Cd, Ni, Cr, Pb) from amendments of biosolids is subject to rigorous controls within the European Union. The present study was designed to examine the partition of selected heavy metals in biosolid pellets, and also to relate the distribution patterns of these metals. Samples were collected from the treatment of urban wastewater at the drying grounds of a wastewater processing plant. The samples correspond to biosolids with humidities below 20% and are representative of the three horizons within the pile: the isolation surface (H1), the mesophilous area (H2), and the thermophilous area (H3). Biosolid aggregates were placed in a pellet press and then compacted. Total content of metals was determined following microwave digestion and analysed by ICP/MS. Triplicate samples were weighed in polycarbonate centrifuge tubes and sequentially extracted. The distribution of chemical forms of Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb in the biosolids was studied using a sequential extraction procedure that fractionates the metal into soluble-exchangeable, specifically sorbed-carbonate bound, oxidizable, reducible, and residual forms. The

  10. Restoration of drastically eroded land using coal fly ash and poultry biosolid.

    PubMed

    Punshon, Tracy; Adriano, Domy C; Weber, John T

    2002-09-16

    A 3-year field study was conducted at a 12 ha soil-borrow area adjacent to the Columbia Metropolitan Airport, South Carolina to investigate the restorative effects of co-application of coal fly ash (FA) and a poultry biosolid (PB). FA was applied at 0, 22, 280, 560 and 1120 Mg (tonne) ha(-1), and PB at 5 and 10 Mg ha(-1). The area was seeded with erosion-control species Atlantic Coastal panic grass (Panicum amarum var amarum L.), sericea (Lespedeza cuneata var. appalow [Dumont] G. Don.) and weeping love grass (Eragrostis curvula Wolf.). Plant biomass and elemental composition were analyzed in sequential harvests. Soil and groundwater quality characteristics including pH, EC and elemental composition were also monitored throughout the study. In addition, the effect of amendments on the water holding capacity and bulk density of the soil was investigated. Amendment addition significantly increased plant biomass production by a maximum of 26% using 1120 Mg ha(-1) FA and 10 Mg ha(-1) PB. Application of the highest rate of FA significantly increased the plant tissue concentrations of Mn, As, Se and B. Soil pH was initially increased from 4.6 to 6.1 by amendments. Soil salinity was increased in the initial year only. Amended soils had higher concentrations of Ca, Mg, P and K, higher organic matter content and water holding capacity than unamended soil. Concentrations of plant-essential trace elements (B, Cu and Zn) that were marginally deficient in the unamended eroded soil increased to within typical soil concentrations following amendment with FA and PB. Groundwater quality was unaffected throughout the study. The co-application of FA and PB successfully promoted the revegetation of the eroded borrow area with no apparent adverse environmental side effects.

  11. Steroid hormone runoff from agricultural test plots applied with municipal biosolids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun-Ya; Gray, James L; Furlong, Edward T; Davis, Jessica G; Revello, Rhiannon C; Borch, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    The potential presence of steroid hormones in runoff from sites where biosolids have been used as agricultural fertilizers is an environmental concern. A study was conducted to assess the potential for runoff of seventeen different hormones and two sterols, including androgens, estrogens, and progestogens from agricultural test plots. The field containing the test plots had been applied with biosolids for the first time immediately prior to this study. Target compounds were isolated by solid-phase extraction (water samples) and pressurized solvent extraction (solid samples), derivatized, and analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Runoff samples collected prior to biosolids application had low concentrations of two hormones (estrone <0.8 to 2.23 ng L(-1) and androstenedione <0.8 to 1.54 ng L(-1)) and cholesterol (22.5 ± 3.8 μg L(-1)). In contrast, significantly higher concentrations of multiple estrogens (<0.8 to 25.0 ng L(-1)), androgens (<2 to 216 ng L(-1)), and progesterone (<8 to 98.9 ng L(-1)) were observed in runoff samples taken 1, 8, and 35 days after biosolids application. A significant positive correlation was observed between antecedent rainfall amount and hormone mass loads (runoff). Hormones in runoff were primarily present in the dissolved phase (<0.7-μm GF filter), and, to a lesser extent bound to the suspended-particle phase. Overall, these results indicate that rainfall can mobilize hormones from biosolids-amended agricultural fields, directly to surface waters or redistributed to terrestrial sites away from the point of application via runoff. Although concentrations decrease over time, 35 days is insufficient for complete degradation of hormones in soil at this site.

  12. Metagenomic Comparison of Antibiotic Resistance Genes Associated with Liquid and Dewatered Biosolids.

    PubMed

    McCall, Crystal A; Bent, Elizabeth; Jørgensen, Tue S; Dunfield, Kari E; Habash, Marc B

    2016-03-01

    Municipal biosolids (MBs) that are land-applied in North America are known to possess an active microbial population that can include human pathogens. Activated sludge is a hotspot for the accumulation of antibiotics and has been shown to be a selective environment for microorganisms that contain antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs); however, the prevalence of ARGs in MBs is not well characterized. In this study, we enriched the plasmid metagenome from raw sewage sludge and two CP2 MBs, a mesophilic anaerobic digestate and a dewatered digestate, to evaluate the presence of ARGs in mobile genetic elements. The CP2-class biosolids are similar to Class B biosolids in the United States. The CP2 biosolids must meet a microbiological cut off of 2 × 10 colony-forming units (CFU) per dry gram or 100 mL of biosolids. The enriched plasmid DNA was sequenced (Illumina MiSeq). Sequence matching against databases, including the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD), MG-RAST, and INTEGRALL, identified potential genes of interest related to ARGs and their ability to transfer. The presence and abundance of different ARGs varied between treatments with heterogeneity observed among the same sample types. The MBs plasmid-enriched metagenomes contained ARGs associated with resistance to a variety of antibiotics, including β-lactams, rifampicin, quinolone, and tetracycline as well as the detection of extended spectrum β-lactamase genes. Cultured bacteria from CP2 MBs possessed antibiotic resistances consistent with the MBs metagenome data including multiantibiotic-resistant isolates. The results from this study provide a better understanding of the ARG and MGE profile of the plasmid-enriched metagenome of CP2 MBs. PMID:27065392

  13. Effective maintenance practices to manage system aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chockie, Alan; Bjorkelo, Kenneth

    A study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission was recently undertaken to identify effective maintenance practices that could be adapted by the nuclear industry in the United States to assist in managing the aging degradation of plant systems and components. Four organizations were examined to assess the influence of maintenance programs on addressing the system and component aging degradation issues. An effective maintenance program was found to be essential to the management of system and component aging. Four key elements of an effective maintenance program that are important to an aging management were identified: (1) the selection of critical systems and components; (2) the development of an understanding of aging through the collection and analysis of equipment performance information; (3) the development of appropriate preventive and predictive maintenance tasks to manage equipment and system aging degradation; and (4) the use of feedback mechanisms to continuously improve the management of aging systems and components. These elements were found to be common to all four organizations.

  14. Quantifying effectiveness in emergency management.

    PubMed

    Weaver, John Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study looked at the relationship between the Departments of Defense (DOD) and Homeland Security (DHS). Moreover, it reviewed the interface between their two subordinate organizations (Northern Command under DOD and the Federal Emergency Management Agency under DHS) with primacy over domestic disasters. Understanding the importance of intergovernmental relations (IGRs), the article dissected the interrelatedness of these organizations regarding hurricanes and the subsequent involvement of federal preparation and response efforts. The informal networked relationships were evaluated using regression analysis focusing on secondary sources of data and several variables. The vitality of collaborative networks is grounded in literature and has been espoused by Waugh and Streib in the world of emergency management; this study expanded on their premise. PMID:25350357

  15. Quantifying effectiveness in emergency management.

    PubMed

    Weaver, John Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study looked at the relationship between the Departments of Defense (DOD) and Homeland Security (DHS). Moreover, it reviewed the interface between their two subordinate organizations (Northern Command under DOD and the Federal Emergency Management Agency under DHS) with primacy over domestic disasters. Understanding the importance of intergovernmental relations (IGRs), the article dissected the interrelatedness of these organizations regarding hurricanes and the subsequent involvement of federal preparation and response efforts. The informal networked relationships were evaluated using regression analysis focusing on secondary sources of data and several variables. The vitality of collaborative networks is grounded in literature and has been espoused by Waugh and Streib in the world of emergency management; this study expanded on their premise.

  16. Assessing Institutional Effectiveness: Issues, Methods, and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron, Ed.

    This collection of 12 papers was presented at a 1987 conference at which speakers presented personal perspectives on institutional effectiveness. Papers are organized under three major headings: "Managing Quality: Methods and Outcomes,""Institutional Response," and "Special Issues." Titles include: (1) "Managing the Meaning of Institutional…

  17. Ammonia removal from air stream and biogas by a H2SO4 impregnated adsorbent originating from waste wood-shavings and biosolids.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuejun Jack; Tak, Jin Kwon; Johnson, Richard L

    2009-07-15

    A new and cost-effective adsorbent N-TRAP, made from waste wood-shavings and anaerobically digestion biosolids and impregnated with H(2)SO(4), was applied for the ammonia removal from air stream and biogas with high efficiency and effectiveness. Bearing a 75-80 and 65 wt.% sulfuric acid, the N-TRAPs mediated with wood shavings and biosolids showed the maximum ammonia adsorption capacity of 260-280 and 230 mg g(-1), respectively. Gas temperatures (20 and 60 degrees C) and moisture content (100% relative humidity) had no significantly negative effect on ammonia capture performance when temperature in the fixed-bed column was kept equalled to or slightly above the feed gas temperature. The pressure drop increased significantly when NH(3) began to break through the N-TRAP stripper due to the formation of ammonium sulfate blocking the vacuum space of packed adsorbent. At last, an alternative N-TRAP filter bed design was proposed to resolve the problem of pressure drop evolution.

  18. Managing effectively in the downsized organization.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Edwin; Pulich, Marcia

    2003-01-01

    Many health care institutions have downsized in recent years for a variety of reasons including cost savings and the need to be proactive in restructuring the organization for more effective performance. In a downsized organization, top management must develop new strategies to enable line managers at all levels to operate effectively. New policies for human resource strategic planning, selective hiring, employee empowerment, training and development, reduction of status distinctions, sharing of appropriate information with employees, and paying for performance must be implemented.

  19. Assessment of plant availability and environmental risk of biosolids-phosphorus in a U.S. Midwest Corn-Belt Soil.

    PubMed

    Tian, G; Cox, A E; Kumar, K; Granato, T C; O'Connor, G A; Elliott, H A

    2016-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted from 2005 to 2008 in Fulton County, Western Illinois with biosolids from conventional wastewater treatment applied as corn fertilizer in a series of P rates (0, 163, 325, 488, 650 kg P ha(-1)) along with commercial P fertilizer - triple superphosphate P (TSP) as reference to assess biosolids-P plant availability and potential loss to waterbodies through runoff. Air-dried biosolids and TSP were incorporated into surface soil at end of 2005, and corn (Zea mays) was planted for three consecutive years (2006-2008). Concentrations of soil extractable P except for Mehlich-3 P were always lower in the biosolids than TSP treatments at the same P rates. The soil potentially available P in water extractable P (WEP) and Olsen P derived from biosolids-P estimated by the exponential depletion model was 2-4% and 15-24% of total P in the applied biosolids, respectively. The residence time of biosolids-induced WEP and Olsen P in Midwest soil under annual corn cropping was 5 and 2 years, respectively. Corn tissue analysis showed lower increase in P concentration by biosolids-P than TSP. The elevation rate of soluble reactive P (SRP) concentration in simulated runoff was less by biosolids than TSP. Based on the data in this study, the plant availability and environmental risk of biosolids-P are lower than those of TSP in the Midwest soil, thus use of biosolids as P nutrient for corn would not cause a major impairment to water sources even P applied through biosolids was not completely used by annual crop. PMID:26945189

  20. Fate of flame retardants and the antimicrobial agent triclosan in planted and unplanted biosolid-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Davis, Elizabeth F; Gunsch, Claudia K; Stapleton, Heather M

    2015-05-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the fate of contaminant-laden biosolids is needed to fully evaluate the environmental impacts of biosolid land application. The present study examined the fate of several flame retardants and triclosan in biosolid-amended soil in a 90-d greenhouse experiment. Objectives included evaluating the persistence of these compounds in soil, their phytoaccumulation potential by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and potential degradation reactions. Concentrations of the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners BDE-47 and BDE-209 and the antimicrobial triclosan declined significantly over time in biosolid-amended soil planted with alfalfa and then reached a steady state by day 28. In contrast, no significant losses of those analytes were observed from soil in nonvegetated pots. The amount of an analyte lost from vegetated soil ranged from 43% for the flame retardant di(2-ethylhexyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate to 61% for triclosan and was significantly and negatively related to the log octanol-water partition coefficient. Alfalfa roots and shoots were monitored for the compounds, but no clear evidence of phytoaccumulation was observed. Methyl triclosan formation was observed in the biosolid-amended soils during the study period, indicating in situ biotransformation of triclosan. The present study demonstrates that, although they are highly recalcitrant, PBDEs, selected alternate brominated flame retardants, and triclosan are capable of undergoing dissipation from biosolid-amended soils in the presence of plants. PMID:25546022

  1. Fate of flame retardants and the antimicrobial agent triclosan in planted and unplanted biosolid-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Davis, Elizabeth F; Gunsch, Claudia K; Stapleton, Heather M

    2015-05-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the fate of contaminant-laden biosolids is needed to fully evaluate the environmental impacts of biosolid land application. The present study examined the fate of several flame retardants and triclosan in biosolid-amended soil in a 90-d greenhouse experiment. Objectives included evaluating the persistence of these compounds in soil, their phytoaccumulation potential by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and potential degradation reactions. Concentrations of the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners BDE-47 and BDE-209 and the antimicrobial triclosan declined significantly over time in biosolid-amended soil planted with alfalfa and then reached a steady state by day 28. In contrast, no significant losses of those analytes were observed from soil in nonvegetated pots. The amount of an analyte lost from vegetated soil ranged from 43% for the flame retardant di(2-ethylhexyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate to 61% for triclosan and was significantly and negatively related to the log octanol-water partition coefficient. Alfalfa roots and shoots were monitored for the compounds, but no clear evidence of phytoaccumulation was observed. Methyl triclosan formation was observed in the biosolid-amended soils during the study period, indicating in situ biotransformation of triclosan. The present study demonstrates that, although they are highly recalcitrant, PBDEs, selected alternate brominated flame retardants, and triclosan are capable of undergoing dissipation from biosolid-amended soils in the presence of plants.

  2. Co-gasification of biosolids with biomass: Thermogravimetric analysis and pilot scale study in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming Ming; Masnadi, Mohammad S; Grace, John R; Bi, Xiaotao T; Lim, C Jim; Li, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    This work studied the feasibility of co-gasification of biosolids with biomass as a means of disposal with energy recovery. The kinetics study at 800°C showed that biomass, such as switchgrass, could catalyze the reactions because switchgrass ash contained a high proportion of potassium, an excellent catalyst for gasification. However, biosolids could also inhibit gasification due to interaction between biomass alkali/alkaline earth metals and biosolids clay minerals. In the pilot scale experiments, increasing the proportion of biosolids in the feedstock affected gasification performance negatively. Syngas yield and char conversion decreased from 1.38 to 0.47m(3)/kg and 82-36% respectively as the biosolids proportion in the fuel increased from 0% to 100%. Over the same range, the tar content increased from 10.3 to 200g/m(3), while the ammonia concentration increased from 1660 to 19,200ppmv. No more than 25% biosolids in the fuel feed is recommended to maintain a reasonable gasification.

  3. National inventory of perfluoroalkyl substances in archived U.S. biosolids from the 2001 EPA National Sewage Sludge Survey

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2013-01-01

    Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we determined the first nationwide inventories of 13 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in U.S. biosolids via analysis of samples collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the 2001 National Sewage Sludge Survey. Perfluorooctane sulfonate [PFOS; 403 ± 127 ng/g dry weight (dw)] was the most abundant PFAS detected in biosolids composites representing 32 U.S. states and the District of Columbia, followed by perfluorooctanoate [PFOA; 34 ± 22 ng/g dw] and perfluorodecanoate [PFDA; 26 ± 20 ng/g dw]. Mean concentrations in U.S. biosolids of the remaining ten PFASs ranged between 2 and 21 ng/g dw. Interestingly, concentrations of PFOS determined here in biosolids collected prior to the phase-out period (2002) were similar to levels reported in the literature for recent years. The mean load of ΣPFASs in U.S. biosolids was estimated at 2749–3450 kg/year, of which about 1375–2070 kg is applied on agricultural land and 467–587 kg goes to landfills as an alternative disposal route. This study informs the risk assessment of PFASs by furnishing national inventories of PFASs occurrence and environmental release via biosolids application on land. PMID:23562984

  4. Fly ash and lime-stabilized biosolid mixtures in mine spoil reclamation: simulated weathering.

    PubMed

    Abbott, D E; Essington, M E; Mullen, M D; Ammons, J T

    2001-01-01

    The use of large quantities of neutral coal fly ash (NFA) may be facilitated by co-application with a lime-stabilized biosolid (LSB) for the reclamation of acid mine spoil (AMS). Although NFA may not aid in the mitigation of acid drainage, questions concerning the leachability and mineralogy of native and NFA- and LSB-born metals must be addressed. In this study, the potential long-term influence of LSB and NFA on AMS leachate chemistry and trace element mineralogy was evaluated using laboratory weathering and selective dissolution techniques. The application of LSB at a rate sufficient to neutralize the potential acidity of the AMS increased leachate pH from approximately 3 to 7.5 for the duration of the study. Fly ash rates (1X, 1.5X, and 2X LSB rate) did not affect leachate pH. The dominant electrolytes in all leachates were Ca and SO4, the concentrations of which were mirrored by solution electrical conductivity (EC). Leachate concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, K, Cu, Ni, and Zn were significantly reduced by LSB application, whereas concentrations of Ca, SO4, Mg, Cl, F, B, and P were increased. Nitrate concentrations were not affected by LSB. With the exception of leachate B, which increased with increasing NFA rate and was regenerated during the weathering study, NFA did not affect leachate composition. Sequential selective dissolution indicated a transformation of Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn into less labile mineral pools with weathering. The results of these evaluations suggest that the application of NFA during AMS reclamation would have little effect on leachate chemistry or the mineralogy of trace elements. Thus, the high-volume application of NFA to AMS during reclamation may offer an additional opportunity for the use of this combustion by-product.

  5. Solubility of phosphorus and heavy metals in potting media amended with yard waste-biosolids compost.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M K; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Calvert, D V; Yang, X E; Xia, Y P; Wilson, S B

    2004-01-01

    The potential risk of surface and ground water contamination by phosphorus (P) and heavy metals leached from compost-based containerized media has become an environmental concern. Solubility and fractionation of P and heavy metals were evaluated in media containing 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100% compost derived from biosolids and yard trimmings for potential impacts on the environment. As compost proportion in peat-based media increased from 0 to 100%, concentrations of total P, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Mn in the media increased whereas concentrations of total Co and Cr decreased. Except for Cu, all heavy metals in the water-soluble fraction decreased with increasing compost proportion in the media, because of higher Fe, Al, and Ca concentrations and pH values of the composts than the peat. When the media pH is controlled and maintained at normal range of plant growth (5.5-6.5), leaching of the heavy metals is minimal. Incorporation of compost to the peat-based media also decreased the proportion of total P that was water-soluble. However, concentrations of bioavailable inorganic phosphorus (NaHCO3-IP), readily mineralizable organic phosphorus (NaHCO3-OP), potentially bioavailable inorganic phosphorus (NaOH-IP), and potentially bioavailable organic phosphorus (NaOH-OP) were still higher in the media amended with compost because of higher total P concentration in the compost. Further study is needed to verify if less or no topdressing of chemical P fertilizer should be applied to the compost-amended media to minimize P effect on the environment when compost-amended potting media are used for nursery or greenhouse crop production systems.

  6. Effective management of urinary discomfort.

    PubMed

    Hassay, K A

    1995-02-01

    Urinary discomfort is the second most common physical complaint affecting women. Although urinary discomfort is commonly a result of inflammation due to bacterial invasion, there are also nonbacterial causes. The development of antimicrobial resistance to bacteria is frequent and costs the patient and the medical community unnecessary time and money. Antimicrobial intervention should be instituted only after the uropathogen is identified through a urine culture. While awaiting the results of the urine culture or other laboratory or radiological tests, the patient's symptoms can be relieved with the use of urinary analgesics or antispasmodics. This conservative approach meets the immediate concern of the patient and better ensures a proper diagnostic workup and successful cure. Along with a conservative diagnostic approach, the patient should be included in all aspects of health care management.

  7. Rethinking Social Barriers to Effective Adaptive Management.

    PubMed

    West, Simon; Schultz, Lisen; Bekessy, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to environmental management based on learning-by-doing, where complexity, uncertainty, and incomplete knowledge are acknowledged and management actions are treated as experiments. However, while adaptive management has received significant uptake in theory, it remains elusively difficult to enact in practice. Proponents have blamed social barriers and have called for social science contributions. We address this gap by adopting a qualitative approach to explore the development of an ecological monitoring program within an adaptive management framework in a public land management organization in Australia. We ask what practices are used to enact the monitoring program and how do they shape learning? We elicit a rich narrative through extensive interviews with a key individual, and analyze the narrative using thematic analysis. We discuss our results in relation to the concept of 'knowledge work' and Westley's (2002) framework for interpreting the strategies of adaptive managers-'managing through, in, out and up.' We find that enacting the program is conditioned by distinct and sometimes competing logics-scientific logics prioritizing experimentation and learning, public logics emphasizing accountability and legitimacy, and corporate logics demanding efficiency and effectiveness. In this context, implementing adaptive management entails practices of translation to negotiate tensions between objective and situated knowledge, external experts and organizational staff, and collegiate and hierarchical norms. Our contribution embraces the 'doing' of learning-by-doing and marks a shift from conceptualizing the social as an external barrier to adaptive management to be removed to an approach that situates adaptive management as social knowledge practice.

  8. Management of adverse effects of mood stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Murru, Andrea; Popovic, Dina; Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Hidalgo, Diego; León-Caballero, Jordi; Vieta, Eduard

    2015-08-01

    Mood stabilizers such as lithium and anticonvulsants are still standard-of-care for the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). This systematic review aimed to assess the prevalence of their adverse effects (AEs) and to provide recommendations on their clinical management. We performed a systematic research for studies reporting the prevalence of AEs with lithium, valproate, lamotrigine, and carbamazepine/oxcarbazepine. Management recommendations were then developed. Mood stabilizers have different tolerability profiles and are eventually associated to cognitive, dermatological, endocrine, gastrointestinal, immunological, metabolic, nephrogenic, neurologic, sexual, and teratogenic AEs. Most of those can be transient or dose-related and can be managed by optimizing drug doses to the lowest effective dose. Some rare AEs can be serious and potentially lethal, and require abrupt discontinuation of medication. Integrated medical attention is warranted for complex somatic AEs. Functional remediation and psychoeducation may help to promote awareness on BD and better medication management.

  9. Application of biosolids in mineral sands mine rehabilitation: use of stockpiled topsoil decreases trace element uptake by plants.

    PubMed

    Rate, Andrew W; Lee, Karen M; French, Peter A

    2004-02-01

    Mineral sands mining involves stripping topsoil to access heavy-mineral bearing deposits, which are then rehabilitated to their original state, commonly pasture in south-west Western Australia. Organic amendments such as biosolids (digested sewage sludge) can contribute organic carbon to the rehabilitating system and improve soil chemical fertility and physical conditions. Use of biosolids also introduces the risk of contamination of the soil-plant system with heavy metals, but may be a useful source of trace elements to plants if the concentrations of these elements are low in unamended soil. We expected that biosolids amendment of areas mined for mineral sands would result in increased concentrations of metals in soils and plants, and that metal uptake would be decreased by adding stockpiled topsoil or by liming. A glasshouse experiment growing a mixed annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum)-subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) sward was conducted using two soil materials (residue sand/clay and conserved topsoil) from a mineral sands mine amended with different rates of biosolids (0, 10, 20, 50 dry t/ha), and including a liming treatment (2 t/ha). Total concentrations of metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in soil increased with increasing rate of biosolids application. Metal uptake was generally lower where topsoil was present and was decreased by liming. With increasing biosolids application, plant metal concentrations increased for Cd, Ni and Zn but decreased or were erratic for other elements. In clover, biosolids application removed the Zn deficiency observed where biosolids were not applied. Plant uptake of all elements increased with increasing biosolids application, suggesting dilution by increased plant biomass was responsible for erratic metal concentration results. Despite the observed increases in uptake of metals by plants, metal concentrations in both species were low and below food standard thresholds. It is unlikely that a single

  10. Thermophilic-anaerobic digestion to produce class A biosolids: initial full-scale studies at Hyperion Treatment Plant.

    PubMed

    Iranpour, R; Cox, H H J; Oh, S; Fan, S; Kearney, R J; Abkian, V; Haug, R T

    2006-02-01

    The highest quality of biosolids is called exceptional quality. To qualify for this classification, biosolids must comply with three criteria: (1) metal concentrations, (2) vector-attraction reduction, and (3) the Class A pathogen-density requirements. The City of Los Angeles Bureau of Sanitation Hyperion Treatment Plant (HTP) (Playa del Rey, California) meets the first two requirements. Thus, the objective of this study was to ensure that HTP's biosolids production would meet the Class A pathogen-reduction requirements following the time-temperature regimen for batch processing (U.S. EPA, 1993; Subsection 32, Alternative 1). Because regulations require the pathogen limits to be met at the last point of plant control, biosolids sampling was not limited to immediately after the digesters, i.e., the digester outflows. The sampling extended to several locations in HTP's postdigestion train, in particular, the last points of plant control, i.e., the truck loading facility and the farm for land application. A two-stage, thermophilic-continuous-batch process, consisting of a battery of six egg-shaped digesters, was established in late 2001 for phase I of this study and modified in early 2002 for phase II. As the biosolids were discharged from the second-stage digesters, the Salmonella sp. (pathogen) and fecal-coliform (indicator) densities were well below the limits for Class A biosolids, even though the second-stage-digester temperatures were a few degrees below the temperature required by Alternative 1. Salmonella sp. densities remained below the Class A limit at all postdigestion sampling locations. Fecal-coliform densities were also below the Class A limit at postdigestion-sampling locations, except the truck-loading facility (phases I and II) and the farm for final use of the biosolids (phase II). Although federal regulations require one of the limits for either fecal coliforms or Salmonella sp. to be met, local regulations in Kern County, California, where the

  11. Exploiting Allee effects for managing biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Patrick C; Berec, Luděk; Liebhold, Andrew M

    2011-06-01

    Biological invasions are a global and increasing threat to the function and diversity of ecosystems. Allee effects (positive density dependence) have been shown to play an important role in the establishment and spread of non-native species. Although Allee effects can be considered a bane in conservation efforts, they can be a benefit in attempts to manage non-native species. Many biological invaders are subject to some form of an Allee effect, whether due to a need to locate mates, cooperatively feed or reproduce or avoid becoming a meal, yet attempts to highlight the specific exploitation of Allee effects in biological invasions are surprisingly unprecedented. In this review, we highlight current strategies that effectively exploit an Allee effect, and propose novel means by which Allee effects can be manipulated to the detriment of biological invaders. We also illustrate how the concept of Allee effects can be integral in risk assessments and in the prioritization of resources allocated to manage non-native species, as some species beset by strong Allee effects could be less successful as invaders. We describe how tactics that strengthen an existing Allee effect or create new ones could be used to manage biological invasions more effectively.

  12. Toward the conceptual and quantitative understanding of biosolids conditioning: the gel approach.

    PubMed

    Dursun, Derya; Dentel, Steven K

    2009-01-01

    Proper chemical conditioning of wastewater solids is crucial for both operational and economic reasons, but the process has defied satisfactory description to date, in either conceptual or quantitative terms. In this research, a new conceptual model of biosolids structure--likening it to a colloidal gel--was assessed as a means of interpreting conditioning mechanisms. The basis of the gel approach lies in the colligative properties that are altered by lowering of the solvent chemical potential by introducing a solute. Results indicate that inorganic conditioners form precipitates and complexes thus collapsing the gel network and forming particulates, whereas organic polymers lead to heterogeneous collapse with limited diffusion inside the gel. A gel model, based on the osmotic pressure, was found reasonably successful in defining the conditioning efficacy of biosolids. Beyond the model's fundamental value, these results validate a new way of understanding how conditioning and dewatering operate, which should help to improve the selection and optimization of these processes.

  13. Rethinking Social Barriers to Effective Adaptive Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Simon; Schultz, Lisen; Bekessy, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to environmental management based on learning-by-doing, where complexity, uncertainty, and incomplete knowledge are acknowledged and management actions are treated as experiments. However, while adaptive management has received significant uptake in theory, it remains elusively difficult to enact in practice. Proponents have blamed social barriers and have called for social science contributions. We address this gap by adopting a qualitative approach to explore the development of an ecological monitoring program within an adaptive management framework in a public land management organization in Australia. We ask what practices are used to enact the monitoring program and how do they shape learning? We elicit a rich narrative through extensive interviews with a key individual, and analyze the narrative using thematic analysis. We discuss our results in relation to the concept of `knowledge work' and Westley's 2002) framework for interpreting the strategies of adaptive managers—`managing through, in, out and up.' We find that enacting the program is conditioned by distinct and sometimes competing logics—scientific logics prioritizing experimentation and learning, public logics emphasizing accountability and legitimacy, and corporate logics demanding efficiency and effectiveness. In this context, implementing adaptive management entails practices of translation to negotiate tensions between objective and situated knowledge, external experts and organizational staff, and collegiate and hierarchical norms. Our contribution embraces the `doing' of learning-by-doing and marks a shift from conceptualizing the social as an external barrier to adaptive management to be removed to an approach that situates adaptive management as social knowledge practice.

  14. Fate of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug naproxen in agricultural soil receiving liquid municipal biosolids.

    PubMed

    Topp, Edward; Hendel, John G; Lapen, David R; Chapman, Ralph

    2008-10-01

    Naproxen (2-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl) propionic acid) is widely used for the treatment of pain and swelling associated with arthritis, gout, and other inflammatory conditions. Naproxen has been detected in municipal sewage outflows and in surface waters and could reach agricultural land through the application of municipal biosolids or reclaimed water. The persistence characteristics of naproxen in three agricultural soils were investigated. In laboratory microcosms of moist soil incubated at 30 degrees C, [O-14CH3]naproxen was rapidly and thoroughly mineralized to 14CO2 with comparable kinetics in a sandy loam soil, a loam soil, and a silt loam soil. Naproxen mineralization was responsive to soil temperature and soil moisture content, consistent with the primary mechanism of dissipation being biodegradation. Mineralization of naproxen was hastened by the addition of liquid municipal biosolids (LMBs) from a municipal sewage treatment plant that aerated this material. Naproxen was stable in autoclaved soils with or without addition of autoclaved LMBs, whereas naproxen was rapidly mineralized in sterile soil supplemented with nonsterile LMBs. An enrichment culture was obtained from aerobically digested LMBs in a mineral salts medium with naproxen as the sole source of carbon. The culture converted the parent compound to the corresponding naphthol, O-desmethyl naproxen. In summary, naproxen was rapidly removed from soil, with mesophilic aerobic biodegradation being the primary mechanism of dissipation. Microorganisms carried in biosolids enhanced naproxen dissipation in soil, with the initial mechanism of attack likely being O-demethylation. We conclude on this basis that naproxen in soils receiving biosolids would be readily biodegradable and, in the absence of preferential flow or runoff, pose little risk for contamination of adjacent water or crops. PMID:18419173

  15. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl substances in limed biosolids from a large municipal water resource recovery facility.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Dana L; Lozano, Nuria; Rice, Clifford P; Ramirez, Mark; Torrents, Alba

    2016-01-01

    While the recycling of wastewater biosolids via land-application is a sustainable practice for nutrient recovery and soil reclamation that has become increasingly common worldwide, concerns remain that this practice may become a source of toxic, persistent organic pollutants to the environment. This study concentrates on assessing the presence and the temporal trends of 12 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), pollutants of global consequence, in limed Class B biosolids from a municipal water resource recovery facility (WRRF), also know as a wastewater treatment plant. PFASs are of significant concern due to their extensive presence and persistence in environmental and biotic samples worldwide, most notably human blood samples. Class B biosolids were collected from the WRRF, prior to land-application, approximately every two to three months, from 2005 to 2013. Overall, this study found that concentrations of the 7 detectable PFAS compounds remained unchanged over the 8-year period, a result that is consistent with other temporal studies of these compounds in sewage sludges. From these analyzed compounds, the highest mean concentrations observed over the study period were 25.1 ng/g dw, 23.5 ng/g dw, and 22.5 ng/g dw for perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), respectively, and these compounds were detected at concentrations 2.5-5 times higher than the remaining, detectable PFASs. Furthermore, it was observed that PFOS, while demonstrating no overall change during the study, exhibited a visible spike in concentration from late 2006 to early 2007. This study indicates that concentrations of PFASs in WRRFs have been stagnant over time, despite regulation. This study also demonstrates that the use of glass jars with polytetrafluoroethylene-lined lids, a common storage method for environmental samples, will not influence PFOA and PFNA concentrations in archived biosolids samples. PMID:26413802

  16. Runoff and leachate losses of phosphorus in a sandy Spodosol amended with biosolids.

    PubMed

    Alleoni, Luis R F; Brinton, Scott R; O'Connor, George A

    2008-01-01

    Florida Spodosols are sandy, inherently low in Fe- and Al-based minerals, and sorb phosphorus (P) poorly. We evaluated runoff and leachate P losses from a typical Florida Spodosol amended with biosolids and triple superphosphate (TSP). Phosphorus losses were evaluated with traditional indoor rainfall simulations but used a double-deck box arrangement that allowed leaching and runoff to be determined simultaneously. Biosolids (Lakeland, OCUD, Milorganite, and Disney) represented contrasting values of total P, percent water-extractable P (PWEP), and percentage of solids. All P sources were surface applied at 224 kg P ha(-1), representing a soil P rate typical of N-based biosolids application. All biosolids-P sources lost less P than TSP, and leachate-P losses generally dominated. For Lakeland-amended soil, bioavailable P (BAP) was mainly lost by runoff (81% of total BAP losses). This behavior was due to surface sealing and drying after application of the slurry (31 g kg(-1) solids) material. For all other P sources, BAP losses in leachate were much greater than in runoff, representing 94% of total BAP losses for TSP, 80% for Milorganite, 72% for Disney, and 69% for OCUD treatments. Phosphorus leaching can be extreme and represents a great concern in many coarse-textured Florida Spodosols and other coastal plain soils with low P-sorption capacities. The PWEP values of P sources were significantly correlated with total P and BAP losses in runoff and leachate. The PWEP of a source can serve as a good indicator of potential P loss when amended to sandy soils with low P-retention capacities. PMID:18178899

  17. A quantitative risk assessment for metals in surface water following the application of biosolids to grassland.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Rachel; Peyton, Dara; Healy, Mark G; Fenton, Owen; Cummins, Enda

    2016-10-01

    During episodic rainfall events, land application of treated municipal sludge ('biosolids') may give rise to surface runoff of metals, which may be potentially harmful to human health if not fully treated in a water treatment plant (WTP). This study used surface runoff water quality data generated from a field-scale study in which three types of biosolids (anaerobically digested (AD), lime stabilised (LS), and thermally dried (TD)) were spread on micro-plots of land and subjected to three rainfall events at time intervals of 24, 48 and 360h following application. Making the assumption that this water directly entered abstraction waters for a WTP without any grassed buffer zone being present, accounting for stream dilution, and modelling various performance scenarios within the WTP, the aim of this research was to conduct a human health risk assessment of metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr), which may still be present in drinking water after the WTP. Different dose-response relationships were characterised for the different metals with reference to the lifetime average daily dose (LADD) and the Hazard Quotient (HQ). The results for the LADD show that child exposure concentrations were highest for Cu when the measured surface runoff concentrations from the LS biosolids treatment were used as input into the model. The results for the HQ showed that of all the scenarios considered, Cu had the highest HQ for children. However, values were below the threshold value of risk (HQ<0.01 - no existing risk). Under the conditions monitored, metal concentrations in the biosolids applied to grassland were not considered to result in a risk to human health in surface water systems.

  18. Runoff and leachate losses of phosphorus in a sandy Spodosol amended with biosolids.

    PubMed

    Alleoni, Luis R F; Brinton, Scott R; O'Connor, George A

    2008-01-01

    Florida Spodosols are sandy, inherently low in Fe- and Al-based minerals, and sorb phosphorus (P) poorly. We evaluated runoff and leachate P losses from a typical Florida Spodosol amended with biosolids and triple superphosphate (TSP). Phosphorus losses were evaluated with traditional indoor rainfall simulations but used a double-deck box arrangement that allowed leaching and runoff to be determined simultaneously. Biosolids (Lakeland, OCUD, Milorganite, and Disney) represented contrasting values of total P, percent water-extractable P (PWEP), and percentage of solids. All P sources were surface applied at 224 kg P ha(-1), representing a soil P rate typical of N-based biosolids application. All biosolids-P sources lost less P than TSP, and leachate-P losses generally dominated. For Lakeland-amended soil, bioavailable P (BAP) was mainly lost by runoff (81% of total BAP losses). This behavior was due to surface sealing and drying after application of the slurry (31 g kg(-1) solids) material. For all other P sources, BAP losses in leachate were much greater than in runoff, representing 94% of total BAP losses for TSP, 80% for Milorganite, 72% for Disney, and 69% for OCUD treatments. Phosphorus leaching can be extreme and represents a great concern in many coarse-textured Florida Spodosols and other coastal plain soils with low P-sorption capacities. The PWEP values of P sources were significantly correlated with total P and BAP losses in runoff and leachate. The PWEP of a source can serve as a good indicator of potential P loss when amended to sandy soils with low P-retention capacities.

  19. A quantitative risk assessment for metals in surface water following the application of biosolids to grassland.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Rachel; Peyton, Dara; Healy, Mark G; Fenton, Owen; Cummins, Enda

    2016-10-01

    During episodic rainfall events, land application of treated municipal sludge ('biosolids') may give rise to surface runoff of metals, which may be potentially harmful to human health if not fully treated in a water treatment plant (WTP). This study used surface runoff water quality data generated from a field-scale study in which three types of biosolids (anaerobically digested (AD), lime stabilised (LS), and thermally dried (TD)) were spread on micro-plots of land and subjected to three rainfall events at time intervals of 24, 48 and 360h following application. Making the assumption that this water directly entered abstraction waters for a WTP without any grassed buffer zone being present, accounting for stream dilution, and modelling various performance scenarios within the WTP, the aim of this research was to conduct a human health risk assessment of metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr), which may still be present in drinking water after the WTP. Different dose-response relationships were characterised for the different metals with reference to the lifetime average daily dose (LADD) and the Hazard Quotient (HQ). The results for the LADD show that child exposure concentrations were highest for Cu when the measured surface runoff concentrations from the LS biosolids treatment were used as input into the model. The results for the HQ showed that of all the scenarios considered, Cu had the highest HQ for children. However, values were below the threshold value of risk (HQ<0.01 - no existing risk). Under the conditions monitored, metal concentrations in the biosolids applied to grassland were not considered to result in a risk to human health in surface water systems. PMID:27213676

  20. Use of coal combustion byproducts in biosolids stabilization: The N-Viro process

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, T.J.

    1999-07-01

    The patented N-Viro process for alkaline stabilization of municipal sewage sludge (biosolids) is a 10-year old technology that utilizes a variety of alkaline byproducts. These include cement kiln dust, lime kiln dust, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts, fluidized-bed coal combustion ashes, and Class C and F fly ashes. The alkaline byproducts are used in the N-Viro process to raise pH ({gt}12), produce heat (52--62 C) and increase solids content of the biosolids (50--65% solids). Typical operations use a blend of reactive (produces heat) and non-reactive byproducts in the process, with selection of materials being driven by local availability and cost. There are 38 N-Viro facilities in the US, Canada, Australia, the UK, and Belgium, with the majority in the eastern US. Of these, 15 use coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) on a regular basis. These facilities process more than 250,000 dry tons of biosolids a year, utilize about 125,000 tons of CCBs annually, and produce more than 1,000,000 tons of the resulting product, N-Viro Soil, per year. The use of CCBs is expected to increase dramatically in the next few years. N-Viro Soil, regulated by US EPA as an EQ biosolids, is marketed and distributed as agricultural lime, fertilizer, and as a soil substitute for reclamation and horticulture. This paper discusses the properties of alkaline materials that are required in the N-Viro process, compares those properties to that of various CCBs, and discusses the potential benefit to coal-burning power plants of recycling CCBs to beneficial uses rather than disposal.

  1. Establishment and growth of experimental grass species mixtures on coal mine sites reclaimed with municipal biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    Halofsky, J.E.; McCormick, L.H.

    2005-05-01

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 requires that coal mine sites in the United States be reclaimed to establish vegetative cover that is diverse, native, and capable of plant succession. However, there is a question as to whether vegetation established on coal mine sites reclaimed with biosolids is diverse and capable of plant succession. The influx of nutrients with the addition of biosolids leads to long-term dominance by early-successional species, most notably grasses, and consequently, a low establishment of woody and volunteer species. Additionally, many grass species commonly planted in reclamation have aggressive growth habits that lead to their dominance in coal mine plant communities. The establishment and growth of selected grass mixes was evaluated to determine whether alternative grass mixes would be less competitive with woody and volunteer species as compared to commonly used grass mixes. Percent vegetative cover, species richness, and the survival of direct-seeded woody species were assessed for each treatment grass mixture. It was found that Poa compress and a mixture of P. compress, Panicum virgatum, and Trifolium repens provided adequate coverage while still allowing the highest species richness and survival of woody species. Use of these species mixtures in coal mine reclamation with biosolids in the eastern United States would likely lead to establishment of a more species-rich plant community with a greater woody species component while still providing erosion control and site protection.

  2. Field drains as a route of rapid nutrient export from agricultural land receiving biosolids.

    PubMed

    Heathwaite, A L; Burke, S P; Bolton, L

    2006-07-15

    We report research on the environmental risk of incidental nutrient transfers from land to water for biosolids amended soils. We show that subsurface (drainflow) pathways of P transport may result in significant concentrations, up to 10 mg total P l(-1), in the drainage network of an arable catchment when a P source (recent biosolids application) coincides with a significant and active transport pathway (rainfall event). However, the high P concentrations were short-lived, with drainage ditch total P concentrations returning to pre-storm concentrations within a few days of the storm event. In the case of the drainflow concentrations reported here, the results are unusual in that they describe an 'incidental event' for a groundwater catchment where such events might normally be expected to be rare owing to the capacity of the hydrological system to attenuate nutrient fluxes for highly adsorbed elements such as P. Consequently, there is a potential risk of P transfers to shallow groundwater systems. We suggest that the findings are not specific to biosolids-alone, which is a highly regulated industry, but that similar results may be anticipated had livestock waste or mineral fertilizer been applied, although the magnitude of losses may differ. The risk appears to be more one of timing and the availability of a rapid transport pathway than of P source.

  3. Establishment and growth of experimental grass species mixtures on coal mine sites reclaimed with municipal biosolids.

    PubMed

    Halofsky, Jessica E; McCormick, Larry H

    2005-05-01

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 requires that coal mine sites in the United States be reclaimed to establish vegetative cover that is diverse, native, and capable of plant succession. However, there is a question as to whether vegetation established on coal mine sites reclaimed with biosolids is diverse and capable of plant succession. The influx of nutrients with the addition of biosolids leads to long-term dominance by early-successional species, most notably grasses, and consequently, a low establishment of woody and volunteer species. Additionally, many grass species commonly planted in reclamation have aggressive growth habits that lead to their dominance in coal mine plant communities. The establishment and growth of selected grass mixes was evaluated to determine whether alternative grass mixes would be less competitive with woody and volunteer species as compared to commonly used grass mixes. Percent vegetative cover, species richness, and the survival of direct-seeded woody species were assessed for each treatment grass mixture. It was found that Poa compressa and a mixture of P. compressa, Panicum virgatum, and Trifolium repens provided adequate coverage while still allowing the highest species richness and survival of woody species. Use of these species mixtures in coal mine reclamation with biosolids in the eastern United States would likely lead to establishment of a more species-rich plant community with a greater woody species component while still providing erosion control and site protection. PMID:15920668

  4. Pathogen risk assessment of land applied wastewater and biosolids: A fuzzy set approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dahab, M.F.; Fuerhacker, M.; Zibuschka, F.

    1998-07-01

    There are major concerns associated with land application of wastewater and biosolids including the potential risk to public health from water-borne pollutants that may enter the food chain and from pathogens that may be present in the wastewater. These risks are of particular concern when wastewater is applied to land where crops are grown as part of the human food chain or when direct human contact with the wastewater may occur. In many communities, toxic chemicals may not be present in the biosolids, or their concentrations may be reduced through source control measures. However, pathogens that enter wastewater from infected individuals cannot be controlled at the source and are often found in wastewater or biosolids applied to land. Public health officials have emphasized that microbial pathogens (or pathogen indicators) should not occur in areas where exposure to humans is likely. Under this criteria, the concept of risk assessment which requires the characterization of the occurrence of pathogens, almost seems to be contradictory to basic public health goals. As the understanding of pathogen and pathogen indicator occurrence becomes better refined, the arguments for finding practical application of risk assessment for pathogenic organisms become more compelling.

  5. Loss and in situ production of perfluoroalkyl chemicals in outdoor biosolids-soil mesocosms

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2014-01-01

    An outdoor mesocosm study was conducted in Baltimore, Maryland, to explore the fate of thirteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) over the course of three years in biosolids/soil mixtures (1:2) exposed to ambient outdoor conditions. Analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry showed perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) to be the most abundant analyte found early in the soil weathering experiment at 24.1 ng/g dry weight (dw), followed by perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) at 18.4 and 17.4 ng/g dw, respectively. Short-chain perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs; C4-C8) showed observable loss from biosolids/soil mixtures, with experimentally determined first-order half-lives in soil ranging from 385 to 866 days. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononaoate (PFNA) and PFUnDA levels in biosolids/soil mixtures remained stable, while other long-chain PFCAs [PFDA, perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA)] and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) levels increased over time, presumably due to the breakdown of unidentified precursors in a process analogous to that reported previously for wastewater treatment plants. This study informs risk assessment initiatives by furnishing data on the environmental persistence of PFASs while also constituting the first report on in situ production of long-chained PFASs in terrestrial environments. PMID:24834828

  6. Effective management of exudate with AQUACEL extra.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Joy

    2012-09-01

    The management of patients with highly-exuding wounds can often lead to the use of unreliable and costly treatments. Patients are frequently found to be at increased risk of infection and delayed healing, which results in a huge negative impact on their quality of life. In the political and health arena, reducing health-care costs yet maintaining high quality and productivity is high on the list. With current economic, health-care and political targets, it is crucial to address the importance of effective wound management, particularly the importance of managing exudate. Inappropriate management of wound exudate can lead to prolonged wound healing, peri-wound maceration and excoriation, and can result in deterioration of the wound.

  7. Quantitative determination of antidepressants and their select degradates by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in biosolids destined for land application.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Lydia M; Stencel, Katherine A; Murphy, Madigan J; Schultz, Melissa M

    2013-08-01

    Antidepressants are one of the most widely dispensed classes of pharmaceuticals in the United States. As wastewater treatment plants are a primary source of pharmaceuticals in the environment, the use of biosolids as fertilizer is a potential route for antidepressants to enter the terrestrial environment. A microsolvent extraction method, utilizing green chemistry, was developed for extraction of the target antidepressants and degradation products from biosolids, or more specifically lagoon biosolids. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used for quantitative determination of antidepressants in the lagoon biosolid extracts. Recoveries from matrix spiking experiments for the individual antidepressants had an average of 96%. The limits of detection for antidepressant pharmaceuticals and degradates ranged from 0.36 to 8.0 ng/kg wet weight. The method was applied to biosolids destined for land application. A suite of antidepressants was consistently detected in the lagoon biosolid samples, and thus antidepressants are being introduced to terrestrial environments through the land application of these biosolids. Sertraline and norsertraline were the most abundant antidepressant and degradation product detected in the biosolid samples. Detected, individual antidepressant concentrations ranged from 8.5 ng/kg (norfluoxetine) to 420 ng/kg wet weight (norsertraline). PMID:23841685

  8. Detection and Occurrence of N-Nitrosamines in Archived Biosolids from the Targeted National Sewage Sludge Survey of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of eight carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in biosolids from 74 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the contiguous United States was investigated. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, seven nitrosamines [(N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomethylethylamine, N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosodibutylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA)] were detected with varying detection frequency (DF) in 88% of the biosolids samples (n = 80), with five of the seven being reported here for the first time in biosolids. While rarely detected (DF 3%), NDMA was the most abundant compound at an average concentration of 504 ± 417 ng/g dry weight of biosolids. The most frequently detected nitrosamine was NDPhA (0.7—147 ng/g) with a DF of 79%, followed by NDPA (7–505 ng/g) and NPIP (51–1185 ng/g) at 21% and 11%, respectively. The DF of nitrosamines in biosolids was positively correlated with their respective n-octanol–water partition coefficients (R2 = 0.65). The DF and sum of mean concentrations of nitrosamines in biosolids increased with the treatment capacity of WWTPs. Given their frequent occurrence in nationally representative samples and the amount of U.S. biosolids being applied on land as soil amendment, this study warrants more research into the occurrence and fate of nitrosamines in biosolids-amended soils in the context of crop and drinking water safety. PMID:24697330

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in U.S. sewage sludges and biosolids: temporal and geographical trends and uptake by corn following land application.

    PubMed

    Hale, Robert C; La Guardia, Mark J; Harvey, Ellen; Chen, Da; Mainor, Thomas M; Luellen, Drew R; Hundal, Lakhwinder S

    2012-02-21

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used extensively to flame-retard polymers and textiles. These persistent chemicals enter wastewater streams following manufacture, use, and disposal, concentrating in the settled solids during treatment. Land application of stabilized sewage sludge (known as biosolids) can contribute PBDEs to terrestrial systems. Monitoring sludge/biosolids contaminant burdens may be valuable in revealing trends in societal chemical usage and environmental release. In archived Chicago area sludges/biosolids from 1975 to 2008, penta-BDE concentrations increased and then plateaued after about 2000. Penta-BDE manufacture in the United States ended in December 2004. Deca-BDE concentrations in biosolids rose from 1995 to 2008, doubling on a 5-year interval. Evaluation of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Targeted National Sewage Sludge Survey data from 2006 to 2007 revealed highest penta-BDE biosolids levels from western and lowest from northeastern wastewater treatment plants (2120 and 1530 μg/kg, respectively), consistent with patterns reported in some recent indoor dust and human blood studies. No significant regional trends were observed for deca-BDE concentrations. Congener patterns in contemporary Chicago biosolids support the contention that BDE-209 can be dehalogenated to less brominated congeners. Biosolids application on agricultural fields increased PBDE soil concentrations. However, corn grown thereon did not exhibit measurable PBDE uptake; perhaps due to low bioavailability of the biosolids-associated flame retardants.

  10. MICRO SCALE INVESTIGATIONS TO UNDERSTAND BINDING MECHANISMS OF METALS IN BIOSOLIDS USING SYNCHROTRON BASED X-RAY FLUORESCENCE AND X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental impact of metals in biosolids to plants, animals and the human food chain has been studied for decades. From the related literature, it can be concluded that, by addition of biosolids to soil, the overall chemical reactivity in the soil system is altered beyond ...

  11. Detection and occurrence of N-nitrosamines in archived biosolids from the targeted national sewage sludge survey of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Arjun K; Pycke, Benny F G; Halden, Rolf U

    2014-05-01

    The occurrence of eight carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in biosolids from 74 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the contiguous United States was investigated. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, seven nitrosamines [(N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomethylethylamine, N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosodibutylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA)] were detected with varying detection frequency (DF) in 88% of the biosolids samples (n = 80), with five of the seven being reported here for the first time in biosolids. While rarely detected (DF 3%), NDMA was the most abundant compound at an average concentration of 504 ± 417 ng/g dry weight of biosolids. The most frequently detected nitrosamine was NDPhA (0.7-147 ng/g) with a DF of 79%, followed by NDPA (7-505 ng/g) and NPIP (51-1185 ng/g) at 21% and 11%, respectively. The DF of nitrosamines in biosolids was positively correlated with their respective n-octanol-water partition coefficients (R(2) = 0.65). The DF and sum of mean concentrations of nitrosamines in biosolids increased with the treatment capacity of WWTPs. Given their frequent occurrence in nationally representative samples and the amount of U.S. biosolids being applied on land as soil amendment, this study warrants more research into the occurrence and fate of nitrosamines in biosolids-amended soils in the context of crop and drinking water safety.

  12. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then I got used ... uncovered.” Questions other people have asked: Why does hair fall out? Chemotherapy can harm the cells that ...

  13. Effective Classroom-Management & Positive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieberer-Nagler, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    This article offers practical information for primary teachers to become more knowledgable, skilled and effective in their work. Aspects of positive teaching and learning are explored. Innovative methods for transforming common classroom management struggles into opportunities for positive change and for changing negative behaviors into positive…

  14. Dissipation of contaminants of emerging concern in biosolids applied to non-irrigated farmland in eastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Tracy; Furlong, Edward T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kinney, Chad A.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Burkhardt, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, a 1.5-year field-scale study was initiated by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate the dissipation of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) following a first agronomic biosolids application to nonirrigated farmland. CECs with the greatest decrease in concentration in the surface biosolids at 180 days post-application included indole, d-limonene, p-cresol, phenol, and skatol. CECs that were present in the largest concentration in 180-day-weathered biosolids included stanols, nonylphenols, bisphenol A, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, hexahydrohexamethyl cyclopenta-benzopyran (HHCB), and triclosan. CECs that were detected in pre-application soil were 3-beta coprostanol, skatol, acetophenone, beta-sitosterol, beta-stigmastanol, cholesterol, indole, p-cresol, and phenol, most of which are biogenic sterols or fragrances that have natural plant sources in addition to anthropogenic sources, yet their concentrations increased (in some cases, substantially) following biosolids application. Preliminary data indicate the nonylphenols (including NPEO1, NPEO2), OPEO1, benzo[a]pyrene, diethyl phthalate, d-limonene, HHCB, triclosan, and possibly 3-beta coprostanol, skatol, beta-sitosterol, cholesterol, indole, and p-cresol, migrated downward through the soil by 468 days post-application, but indicated little uptake by mature wheat plants. This study indicates that some CECs are sufficiently persistent and mobile to be vertically transported into the soil column following biosolids applications to the land surface, even in semiarid regions.

  15. Long-term use of biosolids as organic fertilizers in agricultural soils: potentially toxic elements occurrence and mobility.

    PubMed

    Marguí, E; Iglesias, M; Camps, F; Sala, L; Hidalgo, M

    2016-03-01

    The presence of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) may hinder a more widespread application of biosolids in agriculture. At present, the European Directive 86/278/CEE limit the total concentrations of seven metals (Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Hg) in agricultural soils and in sewage sludges used as fertilizers but it has not taken into consideration the potential impacts of other emerging micropollutants that may be present in the biosolids as well as their mobility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accumulation and mobility of 13 elements (including regulated metals and other inorganic species) in agricultural soils repeatedly amended with biosolids for 15 years. Firstly, three digestions programs using different acid mixtures were tested to evaluate the most accurate and efficient method for analysis of soil and sludge. Results demonstrated that sewage sludge application increased concentrations of Pb and Hg in soil, but values did not exceed the quality standard established by legislation. In addition, other elements (As, Co, Sb, Ag, Se and Mn) that at present are not regulated by the Spanish and European directives were identified in the sewage sludge, and significant differences were found between Ag content in soils amended with biosolids in comparison with control soils. This fact can be related to the increasing use of silver nanoparticles in consumer products due to their antibacterial properties. Results from the leaching tests show up that, in general, the mobility degree for both regulated and non-regulated elements in soils amended with biosolids was quite low (<10 %).

  16. Effective executive management in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Tran, Hoang; Kleiner, Brian H

    2005-01-01

    Along with the boom in information technology and vast development in genomic and proteomic discoveries, the pharmaceutical and biotech industries have been provided the means and tools to create a new page in medicinal history. They are now able to alter the classic ways to cure complex diseases thanks to the completion of the human genome project. To be able to compete in this industry, pharmaceutical management has to be effective not only internally but also externally in socially acceptable conduct. The first department that requires focus is marketing and sales. As the main driving force to increase revenues and profits, marketing and sales employees should be highly motivated by compensation. Also, customer relationships should be maintained for long-term gain. As important as marketing, research and development requires the financial support as well as the critical decision making to further expand the product pipeline. Similarly, finance and technologies should be adequately monitored and invested to provide support as well as prepare for future expansion. On top of that, manufacturing processes and operations are operated per quality systems and FDA guidelines to ensure high quality. Human Resources, on the other hand, should carry the managing and motivation from upper management through systematic recruitment, adequate training, and fair compensation. Moreover, effective management in a pharmaceutical would also require the social welfare and charity to help patients who cannot afford the treatment as well as improving the organization's image. Last but not least, the management should also prepare for the globalization of the industry. Inevitably, large pharmaceutical companies are merging with each other or acquiring smaller companies to enhance the competitive advantages as well as expand their product mix. For effectiveness in a pharmaceutical industry, management should focus more than just the daily routine tasks and short-term goals. Rather, they

  17. Management Effectiveness of the World's Marine Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Camilo; Coll, Marta; Libralato, Simone; Pitcher, Tony J.; Sumaila, Rashid U.; Zeller, Dirk; Watson, Reg; Gaston, Kevin J.; Worm, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing declines in production of the world's fisheries may have serious ecological and socioeconomic consequences. As a result, a number of international efforts have sought to improve management and prevent overexploitation, while helping to maintain biodiversity and a sustainable food supply. Although these initiatives have received broad acceptance, the extent to which corrective measures have been implemented and are effective remains largely unknown. We used a survey approach, validated with empirical data, and enquiries to over 13,000 fisheries experts (of which 1,188 responded) to assess the current effectiveness of fisheries management regimes worldwide; for each of those regimes, we also calculated the probable sustainability of reported catches to determine how management affects fisheries sustainability. Our survey shows that 7% of all coastal states undergo rigorous scientific assessment for the generation of management policies, 1.4% also have a participatory and transparent processes to convert scientific recommendations into policy, and 0.95% also provide for robust mechanisms to ensure the compliance with regulations; none is also free of the effects of excess fishing capacity, subsidies, or access to foreign fishing. A comparison of fisheries management attributes with the sustainability of reported fisheries catches indicated that the conversion of scientific advice into policy, through a participatory and transparent process, is at the core of achieving fisheries sustainability, regardless of other attributes of the fisheries. Our results illustrate the great vulnerability of the world's fisheries and the urgent need to meet well-identified guidelines for sustainable management; they also provide a baseline against which future changes can be quantified. PMID:19547743

  18. Management effectiveness of the world's marine fisheries.

    PubMed

    Mora, Camilo; Myers, Ransom A; Coll, Marta; Libralato, Simone; Pitcher, Tony J; Sumaila, Rashid U; Zeller, Dirk; Watson, Reg; Gaston, Kevin J; Worm, Boris

    2009-06-16

    Ongoing declines in production of the world's fisheries may have serious ecological and socioeconomic consequences. As a result, a number of international efforts have sought to improve management and prevent overexploitation, while helping to maintain biodiversity and a sustainable food supply. Although these initiatives have received broad acceptance, the extent to which corrective measures have been implemented and are effective remains largely unknown. We used a survey approach, validated with empirical data, and enquiries to over 13,000 fisheries experts (of which 1,188 responded) to assess the current effectiveness of fisheries management regimes worldwide; for each of those regimes, we also calculated the probable sustainability of reported catches to determine how management affects fisheries sustainability. Our survey shows that 7% of all coastal states undergo rigorous scientific assessment for the generation of management policies, 1.4% also have a participatory and transparent processes to convert scientific recommendations into policy, and 0.95% also provide for robust mechanisms to ensure the compliance with regulations; none is also free of the effects of excess fishing capacity, subsidies, or access to foreign fishing. A comparison of fisheries management attributes with the sustainability of reported fisheries catches indicated that the conversion of scientific advice into policy, through a participatory and transparent process, is at the core of achieving fisheries sustainability, regardless of other attributes of the fisheries. Our results illustrate the great vulnerability of the world's fisheries and the urgent need to meet well-identified guidelines for sustainable management; they also provide a baseline against which future changes can be quantified.

  19. Effective executive management in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Tran, Hoang; Kleiner, Brian H

    2005-01-01

    Along with the boom in information technology and vast development in genomic and proteomic discoveries, the pharmaceutical and biotech industries have been provided the means and tools to create a new page in medicinal history. They are now able to alter the classic ways to cure complex diseases thanks to the completion of the human genome project. To be able to compete in this industry, pharmaceutical management has to be effective not only internally but also externally in socially acceptable conduct. The first department that requires focus is marketing and sales. As the main driving force to increase revenues and profits, marketing and sales employees should be highly motivated by compensation. Also, customer relationships should be maintained for long-term gain. As important as marketing, research and development requires the financial support as well as the critical decision making to further expand the product pipeline. Similarly, finance and technologies should be adequately monitored and invested to provide support as well as prepare for future expansion. On top of that, manufacturing processes and operations are operated per quality systems and FDA guidelines to ensure high quality. Human Resources, on the other hand, should carry the managing and motivation from upper management through systematic recruitment, adequate training, and fair compensation. Moreover, effective management in a pharmaceutical would also require the social welfare and charity to help patients who cannot afford the treatment as well as improving the organization's image. Last but not least, the management should also prepare for the globalization of the industry. Inevitably, large pharmaceutical companies are merging with each other or acquiring smaller companies to enhance the competitive advantages as well as expand their product mix. For effectiveness in a pharmaceutical industry, management should focus more than just the daily routine tasks and short-term goals. Rather, they

  20. Data Overload Impact on Project Management: How Knowledge Management Systems Can Improve Federal Agencies Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Jacinto

    2013-01-01

    This mixed method exploratory case study was used to explore the effect data overload has on project management, how data overload affects project management effectiveness, how prepared program office staff is to manage multiple projects effectively, and how the program office's organizational structure and data management systems affect project…

  1. Effective team management by district nurses.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Julie

    2004-12-01

    This article considers the key role played by the district nurse in managing the district nursing team in order to provide high quality health care. It considers how the district nurse can use key managerial roles (interpersonal, informational and decision-making) in order to ensure unity within the team. The importance of shared goals and trust to achieve unity is explored and a strategy for managing conflict is discussed. Finally, the article suggests a set of ground rules which could be used to facilitate effective team working.

  2. Effects of stakeholder involvement in river management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchecker, M.; Menzel, S.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decades, in many parts of Europe involving local stakeholders or the local public in river management has become a standard procedure. For many decision makers, the purpose of involving other interest groups is limited to achieving a sufficient local acceptance of the project, and accordingly they adopt minimal forms of involvement. Theoretical literature and first empirical studies, however, suggest that stakeholder involvement can have, if done in appropriate quality, have much more far-reaching benefits for a sustainable river management such as a better consensus, social learning and social capital building. But there is so far only little reliable evidence that and under which conditions such benefits or effects in fact result from stakeholder involvement processes. The reason for this is that such involvement processes represent very complex social interventions, and all"affordable"effect measurement methods have their weaknesses. In our project we wanted to find out which were the really robust social effects of stakeholder involvement in river management. We therefore evaluated a number of real Swiss case studies of participatory river management using three different approaches of effect measurements: a quasi-experimental approach using repeated standardized measurement of stakeholders' attitudes, a qualitative long-term ex-post measurement approach based on interviews with stakeholders of five participatory river projects, and a comparative analysis approach based on data of residents effect assessments of participatory river planning gathered in a Swiss national survey. The analysis of all three evaluation studies confirmed that stakeholder involvement in river management projects have substantive social effects. The comparison of the results of the three measurement approaches revealed that social learning and acceptance building were the most robust effects of stakeholder involvement, as they were confirmed by all the three measurement

  3. Smart Management in Effective Schools: Effective Management Configurations in General and Vocational Education in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofman, W. H. Adriaan; Hofman, Roelande H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this study the authors focus on different (configurations of) leadership or management styles in schools for general and vocational education. Findings: Using multilevel (students and schools) analyses, strong differences in effective management styles between schools with different student populations were observed. Conclusions: The…

  4. Field study of methidathion in soil amended with biosolid and a cationic surfactant under different irrigation regimes. Solute transport modeling.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, L; Romero, E; Castillo, A; Peña, A

    2006-04-01

    Four experimental plots located in Granada (Spain) were used to investigate the potential movement of the insecticide methidathion during three treatments in a period of three years. To increase pesticide soil retention a municipal biosolid and the cationic surfactant, tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (TDTMA), were used as soil amendments. The presence of the insecticide was monitored in soil and water samples at different depths up to one meter. Soil solution was sampled by ceramic suction cups installed at three depths (25, 75 and 100 cm). No effect of the amendments on pesticide mobility was observed. Experimental results showed that pesticide leaching occurred in the upper soil layer. Although some sporadic high water soil concentrations were found, these were attributed to preferential flow processes. This was confirmed by the absence of high pesticide concentration in soil samples at similar depths. Pesticide mobility was mainly affected by the irrigation employed. Experimental results were compared with theoretical data simulated with the mathematical model FocusPelmo. The resemblance between theoretical and experimental soil data seems to confirm the preferential flow processes. Otherwise, the lack of fit between the soil water data were attributed to the ceramic devices employed, that could suffer an "ageing process" which would cause bias in the determinations. PMID:16216306

  5. Cost effective management of space venture risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giuntini, Ronald E.; Storm, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a model for the cost-effective management of space venture risks is discussed. The risk assessment and control program of insurance companies is examined. A simplified system development cycle which consists of a conceptual design phase, a preliminary design phase, a final design phase, a construction phase, and a system operations and maintenance phase is described. The model incorporates insurance safety risk methods and reliability engineering, and testing practices used in the development of large aerospace and defense systems.

  6. Modeling Distributed Leadership and Management Effectiveness: Primary School Senior Management Teams in England and Wales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the significance of distributed leadership and management effectiveness; provides background for primary-school senior management teams research; reports headmasters' criteria for judging the effectiveness of senior management teams; reports findings from case studies of four senior management teams; discusses an inductively derived…

  7. Measurements of GEM fluxes and atmospheric mercury concentrations (GEM, RGM and Hg p) from an agricultural field amended with biosolids in Southern Ont., Canada (October 2004-November 2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobbett, Frank D.; Van Heyst, Bill J.

    Five weeks of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particle bound mercury (Hg p) concentrations as well as fluxes of GEM were measured at Maryhill, Ontario, Canada above a biosolids amended field. The study occurred during the autumn of 2004 (October-November) to capture the effects of cool weather conditions on the behaviour of mercury in the atmosphere. The initial concentration of total mercury (Hg) in the amended soil was relatively low (0.4 μg g -1±10%). A micrometeorological approach was used to infer the flux of GEM using a continuous two-level sampling system with inlets at 0.40 and 1.25 m above the soil surface to measure the GEM concentration gradient. The required turbulent transfer coefficients were derived from meteorological parameters measured on site. The average GEM flux over the study was 0.1±0.2 ng m -2 h -1(±one standard deviation). The highest averaged hourly GEM fluxes occurred when the averaged net radiation was highest, although the slight diurnal patterns observed were not statistically significant for the complete flux data series. GEM emission fluxes responded to various local events including the passage of a cold front when the flux increased to 2 ng m -2 h -1 and during a biosolids application event at an adjacent field when depositional fluxes peaked at -3 ng m -2 h -1. Three substantial rain events during the study kept the surface soil moisture near field capacity and only slightly increased the GEM flux. Average concentrations of RGM (2.3±3.0 pg m -3), Hg p (3.0±6.2 pg m -3) and GEM (1.8±0.2 ng m -3) remained relatively constant throughout the study except when specific local events resulted in elevated concentrations. The application of biosolids to an adjacent field produced large increases in Hg p (25.8 pg m -3) and RGM (21.7 pg m -3) concentrations only when the wind aligned to impact the experimental equipment. Harvest events (corn) in adjacent fields also corresponded to higher

  8. Controlling Legal Risk for Effective Hospital Management

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jun; Cho, Duk Young; Park, Yong Sug; Kim, Sun Wook; Park, Jae-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the types of medical malpractice, medical errors, and medical disputes in a university hospital for the proposal of countermeasures that maximize the efficiency of hospital management, medical departments, and healthcare providers. Materials and Methods This study retrospectively reviewed and analyzed 55 closed civil lawsuits among 64 medical lawsuit cases carried out in Pusan National University Hospital from January 2000 to April 2013 using medical records, petitions, briefs, and data from the Medical Dispute Mediation Committee. Results Of 55 civil lawsuits, men were the main plaintiffs in 31 cases (56.4%). The average period from medical malpractice to malpractice proceeding was 16.5 months (range, 1 month to 6.4 years), and the average period from malpractice proceeding to the disposition of a lawsuit was 21.7 months (range, 1 month to 4 years and 11 months). Conclusions Hospitals can effectively manage their legal risks by implementing a systematic medical system, eliminating risk factors in administrative service, educating all hospital employees on preventative strategies, and improving customer service. Furthermore, efforts should be made to establish standard coping strategies to manage medical disputes and malpractice lawsuits, operate alternative dispute resolution methods including the Medical Dispute Mediation Committee, create a compliance support center, deploy a specialized workforce including improved legal services for employees, and specialize the management-level tasks of the hospital. PMID:27169130

  9. Chemical evaluation of nutrient supply from fly ash-biosolids mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Schumann, A.W.; Sumner, M.E.

    2000-02-01

    Prediction of plant nutrient supply from fly ash and biosolids (sewage sludge and poultry manure) may enhance their agricultural use as crop fertilizer. Two mild extraction methods (42-d equilibration with ion-exchange resins; 2-d equilibration with pH 4.8 buffered nutrient solution) and analysis of nutrient data by the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) were tested with 29 fly ash samples, four biosolids samples, and their mixtures. The resin method was useful for major nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S) extraction from fly ashes and organic materials, particularly where mineralizable fractions of N and P under aerobic conditions are required. However, resins were inefficient in extracting P from high-Fe sewage sludges because organic waste samples caused premature failure of semipermeable membranes and fouling of resins. Extraction of fly ash with dilute buffered nutrient solution was more successful because micronutrient recovery was improved, major nutrients were correlated to the resin method, both addition and removal of nutrients were recorded. DRIS analysis was possible, and equilibration was rapid (2 d). The overall nutrient supply from these extremely variable fly ashes was: Cu = Fe {approx} B {approx} Mo > Ca > S > Zn >> Mn > N > Mg > P > K (high micronutrient, low major nutrient supply). For biosolids, the major nutrients ranked: P > N {approx} Ca > S > Mg > K (sewage sludges), and N > Ca {approx} K > P > Mg > S (poultry manures). In mixtures of fly ash with 26% sewage sludge the order was: Ca > S > N > Mg > P > K, while in mixtures of fly ash and 13% poultry manure, the nutrients ranked: Ca > K {approx} N {approx} S > Mg > P. Optimal plant nutrition (especially N-P-K balancing) should be possible by mixing these three waste materials.

  10. Manager. Outlining for Busy Managers the Key Points of Effective Management. The Supervisor's "Do-It-Yourself" Series 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabey, Gordon P.

    This guide, which is intended for new supervisors and managers to use in an independent study setting, deals with the key points of effective management. The following topics are discussed in the individual sections: understanding what a manager is and why managers are appointed; setting objectives and achieving results; planning and controlling…

  11. Copper, nickel and zinc speciation in a biosolid-amended soil: pH adsorption edge, μ-XRF and μ-XANES investigations.

    PubMed

    Mamindy-Pajany, Yannick; Sayen, Stéphanie; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Guillon, Emmanuel

    2014-07-01

    Metal solid phase speciation plays an important role in the control of the long-term stability of metals in biosolid-amended soils. The present work used pH-adsorption edge experiments and synchrotron-based spectroscopy techniques to understand the solid phase speciation of copper, nickel and zinc in a biosolid-amended soil. Comparison of metal adsorption edges on the biosolid-amended soil and the soil sample showed that Cu, Ni, and Zn can be retained by both soil and biosolid components such as amorphous iron phases, organic matter and clay minerals. These data are combined with microscopic results to obtain structural information about the surface complexes formed. Linear combination fitting of K-edge XANES spectra of metal hot-spots indicated consistent differences in metal speciation between metals. While organic matter plays a dominant role in Ni binding in the biosolid-amended soil, it was of lesser importance for Cu and Zn. This study suggests that even if the metals can be associated with soil components (clay minerals and organic matter), biosolid application will increase metals retention in the biosolid-amended soil by providing reactive organic matter and iron oxide fractions. Among the studied metals, the long-term mobility of Ni could be affected by organic matter degradation while Cu and Zn are strongly associated with iron oxides.

  12. Effective Management of Trigeminal Neuralgia by Neurostimulation

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A.; Grandhi, Ravi; Sachdeva, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment of trigeminal neuralgia can be challenging for many physicians; patients who do not respond to conventional treatments and traditional surgical approaches often continue to suffer with pain. The peripheral nerve stimulator (PNS) has been used to treat many chronic pain conditions, but few reports exist about its use to treat trigeminal neuralgia. Case Report We present the case of a patient with trigeminal neuralgia resistant to conventional techniques of pain management. Conservative pain management was attempted but was ineffective. As a result, a PNS was placed with minimally invasive surgery. Pain scores were recorded before and after the procedure, and the patient reported complete resolution of her pain. Conclusion PNS implantation can be a safe and effective method to treat trigeminal neuralgia. More research is needed to define its mechanism of action. PMID:26130986

  13. Herbaceous vegetation productivity, persistence, and metals uptake on a biosolids-amended mine soil.

    PubMed

    Evanylo, G K; Abaye, A O; Dundas, C; Zipper, C E; Lemus, R; Sukkariyah, B; Rockett, J

    2005-01-01

    The selection of plant species is critical for the successful establishment and long-term maintenance of vegetation on reclaimed surface mined soils. A study was conducted to assess the capability of 16 forage grass and legume species in monocultures and mixes to establish and thrive on a reclaimed Appalachian surface mine amended with biosolids. The 0.15-ha coarse-textured, rocky, non-acid forming mined site was prepared for planting by grading to a 2% slope and amending sandstone overburden materials with a mixture of composted and dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids at a rate of 368 Mg ha(-1) (dry weight). Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), caucasian bluestem (Bothriochloa caucasia L.), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), ladino clover (Trifolium repens L.), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), crownvetch (Coronilla varia L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), common sericea lespedeza and AULotan sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata L.), tall fescue-ladino clover, tall fescue-alfalfa, orchardgrass-birdsfoot trefoil, switchgrass-AULotan, and an herbaceous species mix intended for planting on reforested sites consisting of foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.], perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), redtop (Agrostis alba L.), kobe lespedeza (Kummerowia striata L.), appalow lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata L.), and birdsfoot trefoil were established between spring 1990 and 1991. Vegetative biomass and/or persistence were assessed in 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001, and 2002. The high rate of biosolids applied provided favorable soil chemical properties but could not overcome physical property limitations due to shallow undeveloped soil perched atop a compacted soil layer at 25 cm depth. The plant species whose persistence and biomass production were the greatest after a decade or more of establishment (i.e., switchgrass, sericea lespedeza, reed canarygrass, tall

  14. Discussion of and reply to ``Beneficial use of municipal wastewater biosolids through drying and pelletizing``

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, R.; Billman, R.B.; Krotz, R.W.; Hepp, M.P.; Wojichowski, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    The authors present some comments and questions that contribute to the content and appropriate use of this paper by Mark P. Hepp and David L. Wojichowski. It would be helpful if technical information about the energy requirements, as well as operational costs were provided. Information on product distribution is extremely important. This appears to be one of the largest municipal facilities on the east coast and reflects New York City`s commitment to solve its biosolids disposal problems. This article also contains the original authors` reply to the comments and questions.

  15. Volatile organic compound emissions during the composting of biosolids from a domestic wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Ramos, C X; Estévez, S L; Giraldo, E

    2002-01-01

    VOCs emitted by two composting static piles of biosolids coming from the "El Salitre" wastewater treatment plant (Bogotá, Colombia) were analysed during the composting process. Each pile in its sampling time was maintained with a different aeration system. The sampling was made using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME); separation and identifications were made using Gas Chromatography (GC) coupled to Mass Spectrometry (MS). Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated compounds, ketones, mercaptans, alcohols and amines were identified in concentrations greater than the norms stipulated by the EPA for inhalation in humans beings. The emission behavior varied according to the aeration system used.

  16. USA’S PRACTICES FOR CONTROLLING PATHOGENS IN BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.A. initially established regulations for the management of sewage sludge in 1979 and updated them in 1993. They are briefly discussed with emphasis on the rationale for the procedures chosen to disinfect sludge and control its vector attractiveness. By controlling pathoge...

  17. On-site assessment of extractable soil nutrients after long-term biosolids applications to perennial forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate soil nutrient loading and depth distributions of extractable nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) after long-term, continuous annual surface-applications of anaerobically-digested Class B biosolids at a municipal recycling facility in central Te...

  18. Science in Action: Study Examines the Fate of Multiple Contaminants when Biosolids Are Applied to Agricultural Land

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biosolids are defined as sewage sludge that has been treated to meet federal and state regulations for land application. In the years since regulations were issued, wastewater treatment technologies and practices have changed and public concerns about the land application of bios...

  19. FOOD CHAIN TRANSFER AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF CD AND OTHER ELEMENTS IN PLANTS GROWN ON BIOSOLIDS AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Application of biosolids, livestock manures, compost, and many byproducts add heavy metals to soil. Exposure of humans, livestock and wildlife to these added heavy metals continues to be a concern despite the research and risk assessments which suggest otherwise. Key concepts gov...

  20. Modeling uptake of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products into food crops from biosolids-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Ryan S; Trapp, Stefan; Sibley, Paul K

    2014-10-01

    Biosolids contain a variety of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Studies have observed the uptake of PPCPs into plants grown in biosolids-amended soils. This study examined the ability of Dynamic Plant Uptake (DPU) model and Biosolids-amended Soil Level IV (BASL4) model to predict the concentration of eight PPCPs in the tissue of plants grown in biosolids-amended soil under a number of exposure scenarios. Concentrations in edible tissue predicted by the models were compared to concentrations reported in the literature by calculating estimated human daily intake values for both sets of data and comparing them to an acceptable daily intake value. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) portion of BASL4 overpredicted the concentrations of triclosan, triclocarban, and miconazole in root and shoot tissue by two to three orders of magnitude, while the dynamic carrot root (DCR) portion overpredicted by a single order of magnitude. DPU predicted concentrations of triclosan, triclocarban, miconazole, carbamazepine, and diphenhydramine in plant tissues that were within an order of magnitude of concentrations reported in the literature. The study also found that more empirical data are needed on the uptake of cimetidine, fluoxetine, and gemfibrozil, and other ionizable PPCPs, to confirm the utility of both models. All hazard quotient values calculated from literature data were below 1, with 95.7% of hazard quotient values being below 0.1, indicating that consumption of the chosen PPCPs in plant tissue poses de minimus risk to human health. PMID:25207852

  1. Rapid determination of natural and synthetic hormones in biosolids and poultry manure by isotope dilution GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Albero, Beatriz; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Miguel, Esther; Aznar, Ramón; Tadeo, José L

    2014-04-01

    The release of hormones into the environment due to land application of biosolids and manure is a cause of concern for their potential impacts. This paper presents the development of a rapid and sensitive method, based on extraction, for the analysis of 13 hormones in biosolids and poultry manure. A simultaneous derivatization of hydroxyl and ketone groups was carried out for the determination of hormones by GC–MS/MS. The method was validated in three matrices (sewage sludge, manure, and broiler litter). Recoveries from spiked samples at three concentration levels (50, 25, and 10 ng/g) ranged from 76 to 124% with relative SDs ≤ 16%. Method detection limits for the three matrices were in the range of 0.5–3.0 ng/g dry weight. The optimized method was applied to biosolid and poultry manure samples collected in Spain. Only seven of the 13 studied hormones were detected in the different samples. trans-Androsterone was detected at high levels (up to 3.1 μg/g in biosolid samples). Estrone and estradiol were the two hormones detected at higher levels in layer manure, whereas estrone and 4-androstene-3,17-dione presented the highest levels in broiler litter.

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR ENUMERATION OF FECAL INDICATORS AND EMERGING CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2002 the National Research Council (NRC) issued a report which identified a number of issues regarding biosolids land application practices and pointed out the need for improved and validated analytical techniques for regulated indicator organisms and pathogens. They also call...

  3. 76 FR 30705 - Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... the public and an independent, external panel of scientific experts (73 FR 54400). Dated: May 18, 2011... AGENCY Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids... the availability of a final report titled, ``Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments...

  4. A multiphase analysis of partitioning and hazard index characteristics of siloxanes in biosolids.

    PubMed

    Surita, Sharon C; Tansel, Berrin

    2014-04-01

    Siloxanes are widely used in personal care and industrial products due to their soft texture, low surface tension, thermal stability, antimicrobial and hydrophobic properties, among other characteristics. As a result, they are released to gas phase during waste decompositions and found in biogas at landfills and digester gas at wastewater treatment facilities. The objectives of this study were to investigate the release of siloxanes in aqueous and gaseous phase as well as in biosolids in a local wastewater treatment facility. The formation reactions were estimated using first order kinetics for commonly found siloxanes (L3, D3, D4, D5 and D6) during waste decomposition. Expected concentrations and the risk factors of exposure to siloxanes were evaluated based on the initial concentrations, partitioning characteristics and persistence parameter. D4 and D5 presented the highest initial gaseous phase concentrations of 5000 and 1800 μg/m(3) respectively. Based on first order kinetics, partition coefficients and initial concentrations, the hazards potentials were largest for D4 in both liquid phase and biosolids while D6 poses the highest risk in gaseous phase.

  5. Determination of inorganic and organic priority pollutants in biosolids from meat processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, Rennio F. de Tambosi, Jose L.; Floriani, Silvia L.; Virmond, Elaine; Schroeder, Horst Fr.; Moreira, Regina F.P.M.; Jose, Humberto J.

    2009-09-15

    The biosolids (BS) generated in the wastewater treatment process of a meat processing plant were monitored and the priority pollutant content was characterized. The trace metal and organic pollutant content - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) - were determined quantitatively and compared to guideline limits established by the US EPA and EU. PCBs were not detected in the solid samples, while trace metals, PAHs and PCDD/PCDF were detected in concentrations below the limits established by international standards. Toxic equivalent factors were evaluated for the biosolids, and the results proved that these wastes can be safely deposited on land or used in combustion/incineration plants. Since no previous data were found for meat processing waste, comparisons were made using municipal sewage sludge data reported in the literature. Since, this report monitored part of the priority pollutants established by the US EPA for meat and poultry processing wastewater and sludge, the results verified that low pollution loads are generated by the meat processing plant located in the southern part of Brazil. However, the BS generated in the treatment processes are in accordance with the limits established for waste disposal and even for soil fertilizer.

  6. Nitrogen mineralization and transformation from composts and biosolids during field incubation in a sandy soil

    SciTech Connect

    He, Z.L.; Alva, A.K.; Yan, P.; Li, Y.C.; Calvert, D.V.; Stoffella, P.J.; Banks, D.J.

    2000-02-01

    Field evaluation of nutrient release from composts is important to estimate nutrient contribution to crops, potential leaching of nutrients, and, ultimately, to determine optimum application rates, timing, and placement of composts. Field incubation and laboratory analyses were conducted to evaluate the mineralization rate and transformation of N in biosolids (BSD), yard waste (YW), and West Palm Beach co-compost (WPCC). Each of the composts or biosolids was packed into PVC columns and inserted vertically into the upper layer of an Oldsmar fine sand of raised citrus beds. The top end of the PVC column was capped to prevent excessive leaching of nutrients from the columns. The moisture equilibrium between the incubated sample and the soil in the field was attained through the bottom and four side holes of each column, which were separated from the contacting soil by 400-mesh nylon screen. A set of the incubated columns was removed at monthly intervals, and the soil underlying each column was sampled to analyze for KCl-extractable NH{sub 4}-N and NO{sub 3}-N. Total C and N of the incubated samples were determined at the end of the 1-year incubation.

  7. Degradation of 4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, bisphenol A and triclosan following biosolids addition to soil under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Langdon, K A; Warne, M St J; Smernik, R J; Shareef, A; Kookana, R S

    2011-09-01

    Land application of biosolids is common practice in many countries, however, there are some potential risks associated with the presence of contaminants within the biosolids. This laboratory study examined the degradation of four commonly found organic compounds, 4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, bisphenol A, and triclosan, in soil following the addition of two biosolids over 32 weeks. The pattern of degradation was assessed to determine if it followed a standard first-order decay model or if a biphasic model with a degrading and a recalcitrant fraction better described the data. The time taken for the initial concentrations to decrease by 50% (DT50), based on a first-order model, was 12-25 d for 4-nonylphenol, 10-14 d for 4-t-octylphenol, 18-102 d for bisphenol A, and 73-301 d for triclosan. For 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and triclosan, the biphasic model fitted the degradation data better than the first-order model, indicating the presence of a degrading fraction and a non-degrading recalcitrant fraction. The recalcitrant fraction for these three compounds at the completion of the 32 week experiment was 17-21%, 24-42%, and 30-51% of the initial concentrations, respectively. For 4-t-octylphenol, the first-order model was sufficient in explaining the degradation data, indicating that no recalcitrant fraction was present. This study showed that biphasic degradation occurred for some organic compounds in biosolids amended soil and that the use of standard first-order degradation models may underestimate the persistence of some organic compounds following land application of biosolids.

  8. Biosolids pollutant levels in land application for beneficial re-use in the Houston Metropolitan Area of Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Pehl, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    Wastewater treatment plant biosolids have been land applied for beneficial re-use to agriculture sites around the Houston Metropolitan area for nearly ten years. After 1992, both federal and state regulations dramatically changed. The new Texas regulations required that all application sites five years or older be reregistered. Initially, the reregistration procedures required a soil analysis of ten pollutants: Arsenic, CAdmium, Chromium, Copper, Lead, Mercury, Molybdenum, Nickel, Selenium and Zinc, at three soil depths. This information could then compared with current average pollutant concentrations from required biosolids analyses of wastewater treatment plants in both the City of Houston and the surrounding metropolitan area, to evaluate future site longevity using new 40 CFR 503 application and concentration levels. Biosolids land applied in the Houston area during this period were generally {open_quotes}exceptional quality{close_quotes} in compliance with the 40 CFR 503 criterion, Table 3. The previously applied sites were well within the cumulative loading levels, Table 2, and should remain active sites for the foreseeable future. The Arsenic level for Kaechele Ranch, for example, had an average background level of 12.3 kg/ha, after nearly eight years of application and would still require 88 years to reach maximum pollutant loading, at an application rate of 26.9 dry metric tons/hectare/year (12 dry tons). The Bell site, which received no biosolids, had 3.3 kg/ha background for Arsenic, requiring 388 years at 269 dry metric tons/hectare/year. The 40 CFR 503 regulatory limits, developed from risk assessment models and evaluated by peer review, are conservative estimates. However, comparison with actual operational data illustrates that within the Houston Metropolitan area current biosolids recycling efforts, based on the agronomic loading rate, can continue and remain in compliance with new pollutant restrictions.

  9. Long-term use of biosolids as organic fertilizers in agricultural soils: potentially toxic elements occurrence and mobility.

    PubMed

    Marguí, E; Iglesias, M; Camps, F; Sala, L; Hidalgo, M

    2016-03-01

    The presence of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) may hinder a more widespread application of biosolids in agriculture. At present, the European Directive 86/278/CEE limit the total concentrations of seven metals (Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Hg) in agricultural soils and in sewage sludges used as fertilizers but it has not taken into consideration the potential impacts of other emerging micropollutants that may be present in the biosolids as well as their mobility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accumulation and mobility of 13 elements (including regulated metals and other inorganic species) in agricultural soils repeatedly amended with biosolids for 15 years. Firstly, three digestions programs using different acid mixtures were tested to evaluate the most accurate and efficient method for analysis of soil and sludge. Results demonstrated that sewage sludge application increased concentrations of Pb and Hg in soil, but values did not exceed the quality standard established by legislation. In addition, other elements (As, Co, Sb, Ag, Se and Mn) that at present are not regulated by the Spanish and European directives were identified in the sewage sludge, and significant differences were found between Ag content in soils amended with biosolids in comparison with control soils. This fact can be related to the increasing use of silver nanoparticles in consumer products due to their antibacterial properties. Results from the leaching tests show up that, in general, the mobility degree for both regulated and non-regulated elements in soils amended with biosolids was quite low (<10 %). PMID:26507732

  10. Effective Transition Management: The Seamless System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Marty

    1995-01-01

    In this age of shrinking resources, cost avoidance has become as critical as direct cost savings. There is no doubt that Effective Transition Management (ETM) achieves this aim. What then, is ETM and how does it achieve its goal? It is the introduction and use of a hierarchical decision model and computerized tracking system which successfully integrates capital acquisition into the support base. You will discover that because this proven system is generic, compatible and flexible, its applications are virtually unlimited. It is this highly dynamic process which I would like to share with you. Skilled specialists are now rotated rapidly through acquisition programs on a requirements-driven basis. Managers continue their quest for inefficient areas to trim, slash or cut. However, there is one area of operations in every major corporation and government department that, as yet, has not received the attention it deserves. This essential element is Transition Management. Capital acquisitions, at some point, must be handed off to a support matrix for the 'in-service' phase of their life cycle. Most of us who have been on the receiving end can usually cite outrageous examples of adjustment, recovery or disaster. This means buying what amounts to a second initial sparing package, re-aligning the range and depth of inventory to match a changed maintenance concept, interpreting contractor-developed configuration control data or ensuring that the latest information is contained in the technical publications. This list is endless. For major purchases, this 'in-service' phase is often fifteen, twenty or more years. The least desirable, yet most common condition, is to suffer up to five years of recovering from errors or omissions after the transition to the support matrix occurs. Without ETM, making new equipment fully operational may thus become a long and costly process.

  11. Data standardization. The key to effective management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, C. Russell

    1991-01-01

    Effective management of the nation's water resources is dependent upon accurate and consistent hydrologic information. Before the emergence of environmental concerns in the 1960's, most hydrologic information was collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and other Federal agencies that used fairly consistent methods and equipment. In the past quarter century, however, increased environmental awareness has resulted in an expansion of hydrologic data collection not only by Federal agencies, but also by state and municipal governments, university investigators, and private consulting firms. The acceptance and use of standard methods of collecting and processing hydrologic data would contribute to cost savings and to greater credibility of flow information vital to responsible assessment and management of the nation's water resources. This paper traces the evolution of the requirements and uses of open-channel flow information in the U.S., and the sequence of efforts to standardize the methods used to obtain this information in the future. The variable nature of naturally flowing rivers results in continually changing hydraulic properties of their channels. Those persons responsible for measurement of water flowing in open channels (streamflow) must use a large amount of judgement in the selection of appropriate equipment and technique to obtain accurate flow information. Standardization of the methods used in the measurement of streamflow is essential to assure consistency of data, but must also allow considerable latitude for individual judgement to meet constantly changing field conditions.

  12. High-Iron Biosolids Compost-Induced Changes in Lead and Arsenic Speciation and Bioaccessibility in Co-contaminated Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Sally L; Clausen, Ingrid; Chappell, Mark A; Scheckel, Kirk G; Newville, Matthew; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M

    2012-10-23

    The safety of urban farming has been questioned due to the potential for contamination in urban soils. A laboratory incubation, a field trial, and a second laboratory incubation were conducted to test the ability of high-Fe biosolids–based composts to reduce the bioaccessibility of soil Pb and As in situ. Lead and As bioaccessibility were evaluated using an in vitro assay. Changes in Pb, As, and Fe speciation were determined on select samples after the second laboratory incubation using μ–X-ray fluorescence mapping followed by μ–X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). A compost with Fe added to wastewater treatment residuals (Fe WTR compost) added to soils at 100 g kg-1 decreased Pb bioaccessibility in both laboratory incubations. Mixed results were observed for As. Composts tested in the field trial (Fe added as Fe powder or FeCl2) did not reduce bioaccessible Pb, and limited reductions were observed in bioaccessible As. These composts had no effect on Pb bioaccessibility during the second laboratory incubation. Bulk XANES showed association of Pb with sulfates and carbonates in the control soil. μ-XANES for three points in the Fe WTR amended soil showed Pb present as Fe-sorbed Pb (88 and 100% of two points) and pyromorphite (12 and 53% of two points). Bulk XANES of the Fe WTR compost showed 97% of total Fe present as Fe3+. The results of this study indicate that addition of high-Fe biosolids compost is an effective means to reduce Pb accessibility only for certain types of Fe-rich materials.

  13. Educating to manage the accelerated change environment effectively: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Menix, K D

    2001-01-01

    Without appropriate educational preparation, nurse managers may not have the competencies to manage accelerated change effectively. Part 1 of this two-part series provided the condensed findings from an extensive review of nursing, business, and higher education literature. Part 2 describes the results of a Delphi study whereby baccalaureate-prepared nurse manager experts and nurse educator experts in baccalaureate nursing programs validated what linear and nonlinear change management concepts they believed were relevant in managing change in today's dynamic environment. Staff development educators and administrators, as organizational change agents, can use the validated concepts to develop educational offerings to promote effective change management. PMID:12759940

  14. Guide to Effective Purchasing. Operational Management Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frediani, Pam

    This manual is intended to help create and sustain good relations between purchasers and suppliers of foods and related products. It is designed to guide anyone involved in the purchasing function: purchasing officers and managers in medium and large establishments, food and beverage managers, catering managers, chefs, caterers, restaurateurs,…

  15. Education for Effective Case Management Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Pamela S.; Mansfield, Jerry A.

    2003-01-01

    Managed care organization employees (n=115) attended case management training that included case studies, problem solving and communication skills, and focus on internal capability. Three-month follow-up showed that case managers now ask more questions, have more confidence, mentor new employees, and work with greater accuracy. (SK)

  16. Genomic and Functional Characterization of qnr-Encoding Plasmids from Municipal Wastewater Biosolid Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Ella; Sela, Noa; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Navon-Venezia, Shiri; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Cytryn, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities are considered to be “hotspots” for antibiotic resistance, since they conjoin high densities of environmental and fecal bacteria with selective pressure in the form of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics. Discharged effluents and biosolids from these facilities can disseminate antibiotic resistant genes to terrestrial and aquatic environments, potentially contributing to the increasing global trend in antibiotic resistance. This phenomenon is especially pertinent when resistance genes are associated with mobile genetic elements such as conjugative plasmids, which can be transferred between bacterial phyla. Fluoroquinolones are among the most abundant antibiotic compounds detected in wastewater treatment facilities, especially in biosolids, where due to their hydrophobic properties they accumulate to concentrations that may exceed 40 mg/L. Although fluoroquinolone resistance is traditionally associated with mutations in the gyrA/topoisomerase IV genes, there is increasing evidence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance, which is primarily encoded on qnr genes. In this study, we sequenced seven qnr-harboring plasmids from a diverse collection of Klebsiella strains, isolated from dewatered biosolids from a large wastewater treatment facility in Israel. One of the plasmids, termed pKPSH-11XL was a large (185.4 kbp), multi-drug resistance, IncF-type plasmid that harbored qnrB and 10 additional antibiotic resistance genes that conferred resistance to five different antibiotic families. It was highly similar to the pKPN3-like plasmid family that has been detected in multidrug resistant clinical Klebsiella isolates. In contrast, the six additional plasmids were much smaller (7–9 Kbp) and harbored a qnrS -type gene. These plasmids were highly similar to each other and closely resembled pGNB2, a plasmid isolated from a German wastewater treatment facility. Comparative genome analyses of pKPSH-11XL and other pKPN3

  17. Release dynamics of dissolved organic matter in soil amended with biosolids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, Pavel; Ilani, Talli; Arye, Gilboa

    2014-05-01

    Among the soil organic matter (SOM) components, dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the link between the solid phase and the soil solution. Previous studies emphasize the turnover of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) in soils as major pathways of element cycling. In addition to DOM contribution to carbon, nitrogen and other nutrient budgets, it also influence soil biological activity, reduces metal-ion toxicity, increase the transport of some compounds and contribute to the mineral weathering. Amending soils with biosolids originated from sludge have become very popular in the recent years. Those additions significantly affect the quantity and the composition of the DOM in agricultural soils. It should be noted that under most irrigation habitants, the soil is subjected to drying and re-wetting cycles, inducing a complex changes of soil structure, aggregation, SOM quality and micro-flora. However, most studies that addressed the above issues (directly or indirectly) are engaged with soils under cover of naturally occurring forests of relatively humid areas rather than agricultural soils in arid areas. In the current study we examined the DOC and DON release dynamic of sand and loess soils sampled from the Negev Desert of Israel. Each one of the soils were mixing with 5% (w/w) of one of the biosolids and packed into a Plexiglass column (I.d. 5.2 cm, L=20 cm). The flow-through experiments were conducted under low (1 ml/min) or high (10 ml/min) flow rates in a continuous or interrupted manner. The leachates were collected in time intervals equivalent to about 0.12 pore volume of a given soil-biosolids mixture. The established leaching curves of DOC, DON, NO3-, NH4+ and Cl- are analyzed by water flow and solute transport model for saturate (continuous runs) or variably saturate water flow conditions (interrupted runs). The chemical equilibrium or non-equilibrium (i.e. equilibrium and/or kinetics adsorption/desorption) versions of the convection dispersion

  18. Soil and biosolid nano- and macro-colloid properties and contaminant transport behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzi, Jessique L.

    Despite indications that they are potential contaminant transport systems and threats to groundwater quality, very little effort has been invested in comparing contaminant transport behavior of natural environmental nanocolloids and their corresponding macrocolloid fractions in the presence of As, Se, Pb, and Cu contaminants. This study involved physico-chemical, mineralogical, stability and contaminant-transport characterizations of nano- (< 100 nm) and macro-colloids (100-2000 nm) fractionated from three Kentucky soils and one biosolid waste. Particle size was investigated with SEM/TEM and dynamic light scattering. Surface reactivity was estimated using CEC and zeta potential. Mineralogical composition was determined by XRD, FTIR, and thermogravimetric analyses. Sorption isotherms assessed affinities for Cu2+, Pb2+, AsO3-, and SeO4 -2 contaminants, while settling kinetics experiments of suspensions at 0, 2 and 10 mg/L contaminants determined stability and transportability potential. Undisturbed 18x30 cm KY Ashton Loam soil monoliths were also used for transport experiments, involving infusion of 50 mg L-1 colloid suspensions spiked with 2 mg L-1 mixed contaminant loads in unsaturated, steady state, unit gradient downward percolation experiments. Overall, nanocolloids exhibited greater stability over corresponding macrocolloids in the presence and absence of contaminants following specific mineralogy trends. Physicochemical characterizations indicated that extensive organic carbon surface coatings and higher Al/Fe:Si ratios may have induced higher stability in the nanocolloid fractions, in spite of some hindrance by nano-aggregation phenomena. In the transport experiments, nanocolloids eluted significantly higher concentrations of colloids, total, and colloid-bound metals than corresponding macrocolloids. Contaminant elutions varied by colloid type, mineralogy and contaminant, with the following sequences: soil-colloids>bio-colloids, smectitic>mixed.kaolinitic>biosolid

  19. Genomic and Functional Characterization of qnr-Encoding Plasmids from Municipal Wastewater Biosolid Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Ella; Sela, Noa; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Navon-Venezia, Shiri; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Cytryn, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities are considered to be "hotspots" for antibiotic resistance, since they conjoin high densities of environmental and fecal bacteria with selective pressure in the form of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics. Discharged effluents and biosolids from these facilities can disseminate antibiotic resistant genes to terrestrial and aquatic environments, potentially contributing to the increasing global trend in antibiotic resistance. This phenomenon is especially pertinent when resistance genes are associated with mobile genetic elements such as conjugative plasmids, which can be transferred between bacterial phyla. Fluoroquinolones are among the most abundant antibiotic compounds detected in wastewater treatment facilities, especially in biosolids, where due to their hydrophobic properties they accumulate to concentrations that may exceed 40 mg/L. Although fluoroquinolone resistance is traditionally associated with mutations in the gyrA/topoisomerase IV genes, there is increasing evidence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance, which is primarily encoded on qnr genes. In this study, we sequenced seven qnr-harboring plasmids from a diverse collection of Klebsiella strains, isolated from dewatered biosolids from a large wastewater treatment facility in Israel. One of the plasmids, termed pKPSH-11XL was a large (185.4 kbp), multi-drug resistance, IncF-type plasmid that harbored qnrB and 10 additional antibiotic resistance genes that conferred resistance to five different antibiotic families. It was highly similar to the pKPN3-like plasmid family that has been detected in multidrug resistant clinical Klebsiella isolates. In contrast, the six additional plasmids were much smaller (7-9 Kbp) and harbored a qnrS -type gene. These plasmids were highly similar to each other and closely resembled pGNB2, a plasmid isolated from a German wastewater treatment facility. Comparative genome analyses of pKPSH-11XL and other pKPN3-like

  20. Effective knowledge management in translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The growing consensus that most valuable data source for biomedical discoveries is derived from human samples is clearly reflected in the growing number of translational medicine and translational sciences departments across pharma as well as academic and government supported initiatives such as Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) in the US and the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) of EU with emphasis on translating research for human health. Methods The pharmaceutical companies of Johnson and Johnson have established translational and biomarker departments and implemented an effective knowledge management framework including building a data warehouse and the associated data mining applications. The implemented resource is built from open source systems such as i2b2 and GenePattern. Results The system has been deployed across multiple therapeutic areas within the pharmaceutical companies of Johnson and Johnsons and being used actively to integrate and mine internal and public data to support drug discovery and development decisions such as indication selection and trial design in a translational medicine setting. Our results show that the established system allows scientist to quickly re-validate hypotheses or generate new ones with the use of an intuitive graphical interface. Conclusions The implemented resource can serve as the basis of precompetitive sharing and mining of studies involving samples from human subjects thus enhancing our understanding of human biology and pathophysiology and ultimately leading to more effective treatment of diseases which represent unmet medical needs. PMID:20642836

  1. Seed-colonizing bacterial communities associated with the suppression of Pythium seedling disease in a municipal biosolids compost.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Hsing; Jack, Allison L H; McGuire, I Cristina; Nelson, Eric B

    2012-05-01

    This study was designed to characterize seed-colonizing microbial communities that were previously shown to be involved in the suppression of seedling disease caused by Pythium ultimum in a municipal biosolids compost. Selective microbial inhibitors were employed to inactivate portions of the microbial community associated with seed germinated in a compost medium to evaluate their impact on disease suppression. After initial screenings for toxicity to both cucumber and P. ultimum, six selective inhibitors were eventually used to assess the impact of seed treatment on the reduction of bacterial and fungal populations and on disease suppression. Rifampicin was the most effective inhibitor for inactivating disease suppression. Bacterial communities that colonized cucumber seed sown in compost medium for 8 h and seed sown in compost medium for 8 h followed by a 3-h treatment of either rifampicin at 500 ppm or water were dislodged from seed surfaces and subjected to RNA extraction and reverse transcription to cDNA. Differences in the composition of seed-colonizing bacterial communities were assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rDNA genes. T-RFLP profiles revealed a diversity of distinct bacterial taxa, a number of which dominate seed surfaces within 8 h of sowing. Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) using terminal restriction fragment (T-RF) presence or absence showed that community profiles of nontreated and water-treated seed were quite similar whereas community profiles from rifampicin-treated seed were distinct. Differences in community profiles based on T-RF abundance (peak height and peak area) indicated that all treatments were unique (ANOSIM, all pairwise comparisons P < 0.05) Peaks heights and areas of relatively few T-RFs were reduced to zero following rifampicin treatment and 34 T-RFs explained 85% of the observed difference between treatments. Tentative taxon assignments for each of

  2. Case management: a management system for quality and cost effective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dees, J P; Anderson, N L

    1996-08-01

    1. Case management is an effective strategy for occupational health nurses to use to reduce corporate health insurance, workers' compensation, and disability expenditures. 2. Case management has evolved from a reactive to a proactive strategy useful in many arenas. While there are differences among group health, workers' compensation, and disability, the basic case management process is the same. 3. Early intervention and comprehensive assessment are the foundation of a successful case management process. 4. Occupational health nurses have extensive clinical, interpersonal, and management skills enabling them to excel as case managers. PMID:8852236

  3. Methanogenic population dynamics during start-up of anaerobic digesters treating municipal solid waste and biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, M.E.; McMahon, K.D.; Mackie, R.I.; Raskin, L.

    1998-02-05

    An aggressive start-up strategy was used to initiate codigestion in two anaerobic, continuously mixed bench-top reactors at mesophilic (37 C) and thermophilic (55 C) conditions. The digesters were inoculated with mesophilic anaerobic sewage sludge and cattle manure and were fed a mixture of simulated municipal solid waste and biosolids in proportions that reflect US production rates. The design organic loading rate was 3.1 kg volatile solids/m{sup 3}/day and the retention time was 20 days. Ribosomal RNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were used to determine the methanogenic community structure in the inocula and the digesters. Chemical analyses were performed to evaluate digester performance. The aggressive start-up strategy was successful for the thermophilic reactor, despite the use of a mesophilic inoculum.

  4. New mechanistically based model for predicting reduction of biosolids waste by ozonation of return activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Isazadeh, Siavash; Feng, Min; Urbina Rivas, Luis Enrique; Frigon, Dominic

    2014-04-15

    Two pilot-scale activated sludge reactors were operated for 98 days to provide the necessary data to develop and validate a new mathematical model predicting the reduction of biosolids production by ozonation of the return activated sludge (RAS). Three ozone doses were tested during the study. In addition to the pilot-scale study, laboratory-scale experiments were conducted with mixed liquor suspended solids and with pure cultures to parameterize the biomass inactivation process during exposure to ozone. The experiments revealed that biomass inactivation occurred even at the lowest doses, but that it was not associated with extensive COD solubilization. For validation, the model was used to simulate the temporal dynamics of the pilot-scale operational data. Increasing the description accuracy of the inactivation process improved the precision of the model in predicting the operational data.

  5. New mechanistically based model for predicting reduction of biosolids waste by ozonation of return activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Isazadeh, Siavash; Feng, Min; Urbina Rivas, Luis Enrique; Frigon, Dominic

    2014-04-15

    Two pilot-scale activated sludge reactors were operated for 98 days to provide the necessary data to develop and validate a new mathematical model predicting the reduction of biosolids production by ozonation of the return activated sludge (RAS). Three ozone doses were tested during the study. In addition to the pilot-scale study, laboratory-scale experiments were conducted with mixed liquor suspended solids and with pure cultures to parameterize the biomass inactivation process during exposure to ozone. The experiments revealed that biomass inactivation occurred even at the lowest doses, but that it was not associated with extensive COD solubilization. For validation, the model was used to simulate the temporal dynamics of the pilot-scale operational data. Increasing the description accuracy of the inactivation process improved the precision of the model in predicting the operational data. PMID:24572272

  6. Australian Teachers' Views of Their Effectiveness in Behaviour Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.

    1989-01-01

    Teachers (N=125) in Brisbane (Queensland, Australia) completing the Teacher Manageability Scale rated themselves as more effective in behavior management than 182 Ohio teachers. Behaviors difficult to manage included lack of communication, task dependency, negative aggressiveness, cognitive confusion, and inattention. Personal efficacy was the…

  7. Low Concentrations of Silver Nanoparticles in Biosolids Cause Adverse Ecosystem Responses under Realistic Field Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Colman, Benjamin P.; Arnaout, Christina L.; Anciaux, Sarah; Gunsch, Claudia K.; Hochella, Michael F.; Kim, Bojeong; Lowry, Gregory V.; McGill, Bonnie M.; Reinsch, Brian C.; Richardson, Curtis J.; Unrine, Jason M.; Wright, Justin P.; Yin, Liyan; Bernhardt, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    A large fraction of engineered nanomaterials in consumer and commercial products will reach natural ecosystems. To date, research on the biological impacts of environmental nanomaterial exposures has largely focused on high-concentration exposures in mechanistic lab studies with single strains of model organisms. These results are difficult to extrapolate to ecosystems, where exposures will likely be at low-concentrations and which are inhabited by a diversity of organisms. Here we show adverse responses of plants and microorganisms in a replicated long-term terrestrial mesocosm field experiment following a single low dose of silver nanoparticles (0.14 mg Ag kg−1 soil) applied via a likely route of exposure, sewage biosolid application. While total aboveground plant biomass did not differ between treatments receiving biosolids, one plant species, Microstegium vimeneum, had 32 % less biomass in the Slurry+AgNP treatment relative to the Slurry only treatment. Microorganisms were also affected by AgNP treatment, which gave a significantly different community composition of bacteria in the Slurry+AgNPs as opposed to the Slurry treatment one day after addition as analyzed by T-RFLP analysis of 16S-rRNA genes. After eight days, N2O flux was 4.5 fold higher in the Slurry+AgNPs treatment than the Slurry treatment. After fifty days, community composition and N2O flux of the Slurry+AgNPs treatment converged with the Slurry. However, the soil microbial extracellular enzymes leucine amino peptidase and phosphatase had 52 and 27% lower activities, respectively, while microbial biomass was 35% lower than the Slurry. We also show that the magnitude of these responses was in all cases as large as or larger than the positive control, AgNO3, added at 4-fold the Ag concentration of the silver nanoparticles. PMID:23468930

  8. Effective Learning & Teaching in Business & Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macfarlane, Bruce, Ed.; Ottewill, Roger, Ed.

    This book is a guide to surveying and understanding the key issues, best practices, and new developments in business and management studies. The chapters focus on teaching and learning in business and management education. The chapters are: (1) "Traditions and Tensions" (Bruce Macfarlane and Roger Ottewill); (2) "Understanding Learners" (Roger…

  9. How effective incident management retains market share.

    PubMed

    Enright, Courtenay

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the need for business continuity practitioners to make incident management a focal element of their programme. Particularly during the first few minutes and hours of a business disruption, an established incident management methodology is not only key to achieving a successful, coordinated recovery, but it can play an even more important role in maintaining customer confidence following a disruption or crisis.

  10. Reproduction Symposium: does grazing on biosolids-treated pasture pose a pathophysiological risk associated with increased exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds?

    PubMed

    Evans, N P; Bellingham, M; Sharpe, R M; Cotinot, C; Rhind, S M; Kyle, C; Erhard, H; Hombach-Klonisch, S; Lind, P M; Fowler, P A

    2014-08-01

    Biosolids (processed human sewage sludge), which contain low individual concentrations of an array of contaminants including heavy metals and organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans known to cause physiological disturbances, are increasingly being used as an agricultural fertilizer. This could pose a health threat to both humans and domestic and wild animal species. This review summarizes results of a unique model, used to determine the effects of exposure to mixtures of environmentally relevant concentrations of pollutants, in sheep grazed on biosolids-treated pastures. Pasture treatment results in nonsignificant increases in environmental chemical (EC) concentrations in soil. Whereas EC concentrations were increased in some tissues of both ewes and their fetuses, concentrations were low and variable and deemed to pose little risk to consumer health. Investigation of the effects of gestational EC exposure on fetal development has highlighted a number of issues. The results indicate that gestational EC exposure can adversely affect gonadal development (males and females) and that these effects can impact testicular morphology, ovarian follicle numbers and health, and the transcriptome and proteome in adult animals. In addition, EC exposure can be associated with altered expression of GnRH, GnRH receptors, galanin receptors, and kisspeptin mRNA within the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, gonadotroph populations within the pituitary gland, and regional aberrations in thyroid morphology. In most cases, these anatomical and functional differences do not result in altered peripheral hormone concentrations or reproductive function (e.g., lambing rate), indicating physiological compensation under the conditions tested. Physiological compensation is also suggested from studies that indicate that EC effects may be greater when exposure occurs either

  11. A model to evaluate quality and effectiveness of disease management.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, K M M; Nieboer, A P; van Schayck, C P; Asin, J D; Huijsman, R

    2008-12-01

    Disease management has emerged as a new strategy to enhance quality of care for patients suffering from chronic conditions, and to control healthcare costs. So far, however, the effects of this strategy remain unclear. Although current models define the concept of disease management, they do not provide a systematic development or an explanatory theory of how disease management affects the outcomes of care. The objective of this paper is to present a framework for valid evaluation of disease-management initiatives. The evaluation model is built on two pillars of disease management: patient-related and professional-directed interventions. The effectiveness of these interventions is thought to be affected by the organisational design of the healthcare system. Disease management requires a multifaceted approach; hence disease-management programme evaluations should focus on the effects of multiple interventions, namely patient-related, professional-directed and organisational interventions. The framework has been built upon the conceptualisation of these disease-management interventions. Analysis of the underlying mechanisms of these interventions revealed that learning and behavioural theories support the core assumptions of disease management. The evaluation model can be used to identify the components of disease-management programmes and the mechanisms behind them, making valid comparison feasible. In addition, this model links the programme interventions to indicators that can be used to evaluate the disease-management programme. Consistent use of this framework will enable comparisons among disease-management programmes and outcomes in evaluation research.

  12. Plant nutrient availability from mixtures of fly ashes and biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    Schumann, A.W.; Summer, M.E.

    1999-10-01

    Nutrient imbalances, both deficiencies and excesses, are one reason for the poor acceptance of waste materials as fertilizer substitutes. Two greenhouse experiments were established using 24 different fly ashes with sewage sludge and poultry manure to estimate nutrient availability and imbalances to maize (Zea mays L.). The maximum maize growth attained with fly ash amendment of 80 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} was significantly less (50%) than a fertilized control treatment. The additional growth improvements obtained from mixtures with sewage sludge or poultry manure ranged from 30 to 49% and 30 to 71%, respectively. Organic materials applied alone achieved only 54 and 62% of the maximum potential, while growth on poultry manure mixtures was up to 94% of the best performing fertilized treatment. Results of foliage and soil analyses suggest that P and K were the main nutrient deficiencies, while B phytotoxicity and an imbalance in the K/Ca/Mg ratio also were likely causes of plant growth reduction. Fly ashes did not contribute significant P or K to correct soil and plant deficiencies, but more often exacerbated the imbalances by precipitation or adsorption of soil P. Sewage sludge mixed at 26% and poultry manure at 13% (DM) with fly ash had negligible effect on availability of phytotoxic fly ash B, but were good sources of P (both) and K (poultry manure). Good agreement between plant nutrition in pot experiments and previous laboratory extraction studies implies that chemical analysis, efficient formulation and optimized application rates may overcome nutrient limitations for use of wastes as fertilizer substitutes.

  13. Start-up and operation of a biosolids dryer/pelletizer using indirect thermal technology in Baltimore, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.M.; Lindenberg, K. von

    1996-12-31

    On December 18, 1991, the City of Baltimore contracted with Wheelabrator Clean Water Systems Inc. (WCWS) (formerly Bio Gro Systems Inc.) for the construction and operation of a 54.8 dry tons per day (dtpd) biosolids dryer/pelletizer facility. The plant has been constructed at the Back River Wastewater Treatment Plant (BRWWTP) in Essex, Maryland and is in the first year of a 20-year operating contract. The facility is the largest indirect biosolids dryer facility in the world and the first of its type in North America. This paper discusses the development of the project and several of the key start-up issues that resulted in successful commercial operation by the end of 1994. Also, some process equipment difficulties that were experienced during start-up and resulting system modifications are reviewed.

  14. Uptake of human pharmaceuticals and personal care products by cabbage (Brassica campestris) from fortified and biosolids-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Holling, Cheryl S; Bailey, Jonathon L; Vanden Heuvel, Brian; Kinney, Chad A

    2012-11-01

    Human pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are routinely found in biosolids from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Once land applied, the PPCPs in biosolids are potentially available for plant uptake and bioaccumulation. This study used a greenhouse model to investigate uptake of PPCPs commonly detected in biosolids by the agricultural plant Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris). Two series of greenhouse experiments were conducted as part of this project. In the first set of experiments, four pharmaceuticals were added to an organic matter-rich soil in environmentally relevant concentrations based on typical biosolids application rates, resulting in final soil concentrations of 2.6 ng g(-1) carbamazepine, 3.1 ng g(-1) sulfamethoxazole, 5.4 ng g(-1) salbutamol, and 0.5 ng g(-1) trimethoprim. In the second set of experiments, the cabbage was grown in soil amended with an agronomic rate of biosolids from a local WWTP. The ambient concentration of PPCPs in the biosolids resulted in final soil concentrations of 93.1 ng g(-1) carbamazepine, 67.4 ng g(-1) sulfamethoxazole, 30.3 ng g(-1) salbutamol, 433.7 ng g(-1) triclosan, and 24.7 ng g(-1) trimethoprim. After growing to maturity, the aerials of the plants were separated from roots and the two tissue types were analyzed separately. All four human pharmaceuticals were detected in both tissues in the cabbage grown in the soil fortified with the four pharmaceuticals with median concentrations of 255.4 ng g(-1) aerials and 272.9 ng g(-1) roots carbamazepine; 222.8 ng g(-1) aerials and 260.3 ng g(-1) roots sulfamethoxazole; 108.3 ng g(-1) aerials and 140.6 ng g(-1) roots salbutamol; and 20.6 ng g(-1) aerials and 53.7 ng g(-1) roots trimethoprim. Although all study compounds were present in the biosolids-amended planting soil, only carbamazepine (317.6 ng g(-1) aerials and 416.2 ng g(-1) roots), salbutamol (21.2 ng g(-1) aerials and 187.6 ng g(-1) roots), and triclosan (22.9 ng g(-1) aerials and 1220.1 ng g(-1

  15. Net effect of 250 years of forest management in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Naudts, Kim; McGrath, Matthew M.; Ryder, James; Chen, Yiying; Otto, Juliane; Valade, Aude

    2015-04-01

    Globally, 70% of the forest is managed and the importance of management is still increasing both in relative and absolute terms. In Europe, almost all forest is intensively managed by humans. Forests not only influence the global carbon cycle, they also dramatically affect the water vapour and energy fluxes exchanged with the overlying atmosphere. Recently, forest management has become a top priority on the agenda of the political negotiations to mitigate climate change. However, the net effect of biogeochemical and biophysical impacts of forest management is poorly understood. To this aim, the land surface model ORCHIDEE was extended for studying the effects of forest management on the land-atmosphere interaction and forest management was reconstructed for Europe between 1600 and 2010. The effects of forest management on the C-budget was quantified by means of a factorial experiment between 1750 and 2000. Climate change alone was responsible for a cumulated terrestrial sink of 8.1 Pg between 1750 and 2000, land cover changes and forest management sequestered another 0.8 Pg. In the absence of forest management, climate change alone would not have been able to compensate for the losses due to land cover changes. The factorial experiment was extended by coupled land-atmopshere simulations to quantify the effects of forest management on the climate over Europe. The net effect of both biogeochemical and biophysical changes due to present day land management is an increase of the top of the atmosphere radiative forcing by 0.11 to 0.16 Wm-2 on top of the increase due to climate change. 0.09 to 0.14 Wm-2 can be attributed to forest management including litter raking, changes in management strategies and species changes.

  16. Brominated flame retardants in U.S. biosolids from the EPA national sewage sludge survey and chemical persistence in outdoor soil mesocosms

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2014-01-01

    We determined national baseline levels and release inventories of 77 traditional and novel brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in biosolids composites (prepared from 110 samples) from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s 2001 national sewage sludge survey (NSSS). Additionally, analyses were performed on archived samples from a 3-year outdoor mesocosm study to determine the environmental persistence of BFRs in biosolids-amended soil. The total polybrominated diphenylether (PBDE) concentration detected in biosolids composites was 9,400±960 μg/kg dry weight, of which deca-BDE constituted 57% followed by nona- and penta-BDE at 18 and 13%, respectively. The annual mean loading rate estimated from the detected concentrations and approximate annual biosolids production and disposal numbers in the U.S., of the sum of PBDEs and non-BDE BFRs was calculated to be 47,900–60,100 and 12,900–16,200 kg/year, of which 24,000–36,000 and 6,400–9,700 kg/year are applied on land, respectively. Mean concentration of PBDEs were higher in the 2001 samples compared to levels reported in EPA’s 2006/7 Targeted NSSS, reflecting on-going efforts in phasing-out PBDEs in the U.S. In outdoor soil mesocosms, >99% of the initial BFRs mass in the biosolids/soil mixtures (1:2) persisted over the monitoring duration of three years. Estimates of environmental releases may be refined in the future by analyzing individual rather than composited samples, and by integrating currently unavailable data on disposal of biosolids on a plant-specific basis. This study informs the risk assessment of BFRs by furnishing national inventories of BFR occurrence and environmental release via biosolids application on land. PMID:24607311

  17. Toward effectiveness assessment of health management education in Canada.

    PubMed

    Caro, D H

    1994-01-01

    A growing theme in the management education literature is that of effectiveness assessment. Integrated effectiveness assessment systems represent an important challenge in health management education in Canada. This article examines the service effectiveness paradigm that evolved from comprehensive auditing developments in the public domain. It presents an integrated model of effectiveness assessment systems and the barriers that currently impede its full development and implementation in Canada. Finally, the evolving effectiveness assessment challenge--which will fundamentally change health management education in Canada--is examined.

  18. Effective Instructional Management: Perceptions and Recommendations from High School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtel, Troy

    2010-01-01

    The two overarching research questions of this study are: What are the perceptions of high school administrators regarding the effectiveness of their current approach to instructional management? What recommendations do high school administrators have for effective strategies for instructional management? To answer these questions, a qualitative…

  19. How effective incident management retains market share.

    PubMed

    Enright, Courtenay

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the need for business continuity practitioners to make incident management a focal element of their programme. Particularly during the first few minutes and hours of a business disruption, an established incident management methodology is not only key to achieving a successful, coordinated recovery, but it can play an even more important role in maintaining customer confidence following a disruption or crisis. PMID:22948102

  20. Selective Quantification of Viable Escherichia coli Bacteria in Biosolids by Quantitative PCR with Propidium Monoazide Modification ▿

    PubMed Central

    Taskin, Bilgin; Gozen, Ayse Gul; Duran, Metin

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative differentiation of live cells in biosolids samples, without the use of culturing-based approaches, is highly critical from a public health risk perspective, as recent studies have shown significant regrowth and reactivation of indicator organisms. Persistence of DNA in the environment after cell death in the range of days to weeks limits the application of DNA-based approaches as a measure of live cell density. Using selective nucleic acid intercalating dyes like ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA) is one of the alternative approaches to detecting and quantifying viable cells by quantitative PCR. These compounds have the ability to penetrate only into dead cells with compromised membrane integrity and intercalate with DNA via their photoinducible azide groups and in turn inhibit DNA amplification during PCRs. PMA has been successfully used in different studies and microorganisms, but it has not been evaluated sufficiently for complex environmental samples such as biosolids. In this study, experiments were performed with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as the model organism and the uidA gene as the target sequence using real-time PCR via the absolute quantification method. Experiments with the known quantities of live and dead cell mixtures showed that PMA treatment inhibits PCR amplification from dead cells with over 99% efficiency. The results also indicated that PMA-modified quantitative PCR could be successfully applied to biosolids when the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration is at or below 2,000 mg·liter−1. PMID:21602375