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Sample records for effective cross sections

  1. Krypton charge exchange cross sections for Hall effect thruster models

    SciTech Connect

    Hause, Michael L.; Prince, Benjamin D.; Bemish, Raymond J.

    2013-04-28

    Following discharge from a Hall effect thruster, charge exchange occurs between ions and un-ionized propellant atoms. The low-energy cations produced can disturb operation of onboard instrumentation or the thruster itself. Charge-exchange cross sections for both singly and doubly charged propellant atoms are required to model these interactions. While xenon is the most common propellant currently used in Hall effect thrusters, other propellants are being considered, in particular, krypton. We present here guided-ion beam measurements and comparisons to semiclassical calculations for Kr{sup +} + Kr and Kr{sup 2+} + Kr cross sections. The measurements of symmetric Kr{sup +} + Kr charge exchange are in good agreement with both the calculations including spin-orbit effects and previous measurements. For the symmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr reaction, we present cross section measurements for center-of-mass energies between 1 eV and 300 eV, which spans energies not previously examined experimentally. These cross section measurements compare well with a simple one-electron transfer model. Finally, cross sections for the asymmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr {yields} Kr{sup +} + Kr{sup +} reaction show an onset near 12 eV, reaching cross sections near constant value of 1.6 A{sup 2} with an exception near 70-80 eV.

  2. Effect of strongly coupled plasma on photoionization cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Madhusmita

    2014-01-01

    The effect of strongly coupled plasma on the ground state photoionization cross section is studied. In the non relativistic dipole approximation, cross section is evaluated from bound-free transition matrix element. The bound and free state wave functions are obtained by solving the radial Schrodinger equation with appropriate plasma potential. We have used ion sphere potential (ISP) to incorporate the plasma effects in atomic structure calculation. This potential includes the effect of static plasma screening on nuclear charge as well as the effect of confinement due to the neighbouring ions. With ISP, the radial equation is solved using Shooting method approach for hydrogen like ions (Li+2, C+5, Al+12) and lithium like ions (C+3, O+5). The effect of strong screening and confinement is manifested as confinement resonances near the ionization threshold for both kinds of ions. The confinement resonances are very much dependent on the edge of the confining potential and die out as the plasma density is increased. Plasma effect also results in appearance of Cooper minimum in lithium like ions, which was not present in case of free lithium like ions. With increasing density the position of Cooper minimum shifts towards higher photoelectron energy. The same behaviour is also true for weakly coupled plasma where plasma effect is modelled by Debye-Huckel potential.

  3. Effect of strongly coupled plasma on photoionization cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Madhusmita

    2014-01-15

    The effect of strongly coupled plasma on the ground state photoionization cross section is studied. In the non relativistic dipole approximation, cross section is evaluated from bound-free transition matrix element. The bound and free state wave functions are obtained by solving the radial Schrodinger equation with appropriate plasma potential. We have used ion sphere potential (ISP) to incorporate the plasma effects in atomic structure calculation. This potential includes the effect of static plasma screening on nuclear charge as well as the effect of confinement due to the neighbouring ions. With ISP, the radial equation is solved using Shooting method approach for hydrogen like ions (Li{sup +2}, C{sup +5}, Al{sup +12}) and lithium like ions (C{sup +3}, O{sup +5}). The effect of strong screening and confinement is manifested as confinement resonances near the ionization threshold for both kinds of ions. The confinement resonances are very much dependent on the edge of the confining potential and die out as the plasma density is increased. Plasma effect also results in appearance of Cooper minimum in lithium like ions, which was not present in case of free lithium like ions. With increasing density the position of Cooper minimum shifts towards higher photoelectron energy. The same behaviour is also true for weakly coupled plasma where plasma effect is modelled by Debye-Huckel potential.

  4. [Study for differential cross section of ring effect].

    PubMed

    Han, Dong; Chen, Liang-fu; Su, Lin; Tao, Jin-hua; Li, Shen-shen; Yu, Chao; Wang, Zi-feng

    2010-08-01

    The Ring effect is a significant limitation to the accuracy of the retrieval of trace gas constituents in atmosphere, while using satellite data with differential optical absorption spectroscopy technique. The Ring effect refers to the filling in of Fraunhofer lines, known as solar absorption lines, caused almost entirely by rotational Raman scattering. The inelastic component of the molecular scattering results in a net increase in radiance in the line because more radiation is shifted to the wavelength of an absorption line than shifted from this wavelength to other wavelengths. The rotational Raman scattering by N2 and Oz in the atmosphere is the main factor that leads to Ring effect. Basically, the Ring effect is considered as a pseudo-absorption process in retrieval of trace gas constituents in atmosphere. The solar spectrum measured by OMI/AURA is convolved with rotational Raman cross sections of N2 and O2, divided by the original solar spectrum, with a cubic polynomial subtracted off, to create differential Ring spectrum. This method has been suggested in order to obtain an effective differential Ring cross-section for the DOAS fitting process. The differential Ring spectrum could be used to improve the accuracy of the retrieval of the trace gases concentration. The results in this paper have been in basic agreement with the corresponding results calculated with RTM, and the R2 Statistic is 0. 966 3. PMID:20939324

  5. Effect of finite range of the NN force and NN cross section on reaction cross section for neutron rich nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, M.; Ellithi, A.Y.; Abou-Shady, H.

    2005-02-01

    The reaction cross section ({sigma}{sub R}) is calculated using the optical limit of the Glauber theory. A density-dependent effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) cross section {sigma}{sub NN} is considered. Finite and zero range NN interactions are studied. The effect of finite range and an appropriate local density can increase {sigma}{sub R} up to 20% compared to the zero range at constant density (0.16 fm{sup -3}), while a zero range calculation with free NN cross section increases {sigma}{sub R} up to 13%. These factors affect the values of the rms radii for neutron rich nuclei extracted from {sigma}{sub R}.

  6. Isospin effect on probing nuclear dissipation with fission cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, J.; Ye, W.

    2016-08-01

    Nuclear dissipation retards fission. Using the stochastic Langevin model, we calculate the drop of fission cross section caused by friction over its standard statistical-model value, σfdrop, as a function of the presaddle friction strength for fissioning nuclei 195Bi, 202Bi, and 209Bi as well as for different angular momenta. We find that friction effects on σfdrop are substantially enhanced with increasing isospin of the Bi system and become greater with decreasing angular momentum. Our findings suggest that in experiments, to better constrain the strength of presaddle dissipation through the measurement of fission excitation functions, it is optimal to yield those compound systems with a high isospin and a low spin. Furthermore, we analyze the data of fission excitation functions of 210Po and 209Bi systems, which are populated in p +209Bi and p +208Pb reactions and which have a high isospin and a low spin, and find that Langevin calculations with a presaddle friction strength of (3-5) ×10-21 s-1 describe these experimental fission data very well.

  7. Effect of core polarizability on photoionization cross-section calculations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Demonstration of the importance of core polarizability in a case where cancellation is only moderate, with suggestion of an improvement to the scaled Thomas-Fermi (STF) wave functions of Stewart and Rotenberg (1965). The inclusion of dipole polarizability of the core for argon is shown to substantially improve the agreement between the theoretical and experimental photoionization cross sections for the ground-state configuration.

  8. Reducing cross-sectional data using a genetic algorithm method and effects on cross-section geometry and steady-flow profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of reduced cross-sectional data points on steady-flow profiles were also determined. Thirty-five cross sections of the original steady-flow model of the Kootenai River were used. These two methods were tested for all cross sections with each cross section resolution reduced to 10, 20 and 30 data points, that is, six tests were completed for each of the thirty-five cross sections. Generally, differences from the original water-surface elevation were smaller as the number of data points in reduced cross sections increased, but this was not always the case, especially in the braided reach. Differences were smaller for reduced cross sections developed by the genetic algorithm method than the standard algorithm method.

  9. Effects of cross-section on mechanical properties of Au nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazinishayan, Ali; Yang, Shuming; Duongthipthewa, Anchalee; Wang, Yiming

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this paper is study of the effects of multiple cross-section of Au nanowire on mechanical properties. Different cross-section models of Au nanowires including circular, hexagonal, pentagonal and rectangular were simulated by finite element modeling using ABAQUS. In this study, the bending technique was applied so that both ends of the model were clamped with mid-span under loading condition. The cross-sections had the length of 400 nm and the diameter of 40 nm, except the circular cross-section while the rest of the cross-sections had an equivalent diameter. Von Misses stresses distribution were used to define the stress distribution in the cross-section under loading condition, and elastic deformation was analyzed by the beam theory. The results disclosed that the circular and the rectangular models had highest and lowest strengths against plastic deformation, respectively.

  10. Effects of nuclear cross sections at different energies on the radiation hazard from galactic cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Lin, Z W; Adams, J H

    2007-03-01

    The radiation hazard for astronauts from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a major obstacle to long-duration human space exploration. Space radiation transport codes have been developed to calculate the radiation environment on missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. We have studied how uncertainties in fragmentation cross sections at different energies affect the accuracy of predictions from such radiation transport calculations. We find that, in deep space, cross sections at energies between 0.3 and 0.85 GeV/nucleon have the largest effect in solar maximum GCR environments. At the International Space Station, cross sections at higher energies have the largest effect due to the geomagnetic cutoff.

  11. Nuclear effects in Neutrino Nuclear Cross-sections

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S. K.; Athar, M. Sajjad

    2008-02-21

    Nuclear effects in the quasielastic and inelastic scattering of neutrinos(antineutrinos) from nuclear targets have been studied. The calculations are done in the local density approximation which take into account the effect of nucleon motion as well as renormalisation of weak transition strengths in the nuclear medium. The inelastic reaction leading to production of pions is calculated in a {delta} dominance model taking into account the renormalization of {delta} properties in the nuclear medium.

  12. Effects of Nuclear Cross Sections at Different Energies on the Radiation Hazard from Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Z. W.; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The radiation hazard for astronauts from galactic cosmic rays is a major obstacle in long duration human space explorations. Space radiation transport codes have been developed to calculate radiation environment on missions to the Moon, Mars or beyond. We have studied how uncertainties in fragmentation cross sections at different energies affect the accuracy of predictions from such radiation transport. We find that, in deep space, cross sections between 0.3 and 0.85 GeV/u usually have the largest effect on dose-equivalent behind shielding in solar minimum GCR environments, and cross sections between 0.85 and 1.2 GeV/u have the largest effect in solar maximum GCR environments. At the International Space Station, cross sections at higher energies have the largest effect due to the geomagnetic cutoff.

  13. Nonadiabatic calculations of ultraviolet absorption cross section of sulfur monoxide: Isotopic effects on the photodissociation reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Danielache, Sebastian O.; Tomoya, Suzuki; Nanbu, Shinkoh; Kondorsky, Alexey; Tokue, Ikuo

    2014-01-28

    Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of the main and substituted sulfur monoxide (SO) isotopologues were calculated using R-Matrix expansion technique. Energies, transition dipole moments, and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements were calculated at MRCI/AV6Z level. The calculated absorption cross section of {sup 32}S{sup 16}O was compared with experimental spectrum; the spectral feature and the absolute value of photoabsorption cross sections are in good agreement. Our calculation predicts a long lived photoexcited SO* species which causes large non-mass dependent isotopic effects depending on the excitation energy in the ultraviolet region.

  14. Effects of target shape and reflection on laser radar cross sections.

    PubMed

    Steinvall, O

    2000-08-20

    Laser radar cross sections have been evaluated for a number of ideal targets such as cones, spheres, paraboloids, and cylinders by use of different reflection characteristics. The time-independent cross section is the ratio of the cross section of one of these forms to that of a plate with the same maximum radius. The time-dependent laser radar cross section involves the impulse response from the object shape multiplied by the beam's transverse profile and the surface bidirectional reflection distribution function. It can be clearly seen that knowledge of the combined effect of object shape and reflection characteristics is important for determining the shape and the magnitude of the laser radar return. The results of this study are of interest for many laser radar applications such as ranging, three-dimensional imaging-modeling, tracking, antisensor lasers, and target recognition.

  15. Effect of Fuselage Cross Sections on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Reusable Launch Vehicles in Subsonic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadakuma, Kenji; Morita, Wataru; Aso, Shigeru; Tani, Yasuhiro

    An experimental study on aerodynamic effect of RLVs (Reusable Launch Vehicles) due to fuselage cross sections has been conducted in subsonic flow. Three fuselage models and two wing-body models have been considered. Fuselage models have a circular, a square and a triangular cross section. Wing-body models have a square and a triangular cross section with wings. Experiments have been conducted under test conditions of free-stream Mach number M∞=0.3 and Reynolds number Re=3.2×106. Aerodynamic forces are measured and flow fields are visualized by smoke-wire technique and oil-flow technique. Results show that fuselage cross sections have much effect on whole aerodynamic characteristics, the fuselage model with a triangular cross section has higher lift coefficient in high angle of attack region than that of the other fuselage models and the wing-body model with a triangular fuselage cross section does not stall till high angle of attack region compared with the “Square” fuselage wing-body model.

  16. Effects of Nuclear Cross Sections at Different Energies on Space Radiation Exposure from Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zi-Wei; Adams, James H., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a major hazard to space crews, especially in long duration human space explorations. For this reason, they will be protected by radiation shielding that fragments the GCR heavy ions. Here we investigate how sensitive the crew's radiation exposure is to nuclear fragmentation cross sections at different energies. We find that in deep space cross sections between about 0.2 and 1.2 GeV/u have the strongest effect on dose equivalent behind shielding in solar minimum GCR environments, and cross sections between about 0.6 and 1.7 GeV/u are the most important at solar maximum'. On the other hand, at the location of the International Space Station, cross sections at_higher -energies, between about 0.6 and 1.7 GeV /u at solar minimum and between about 1.7 and 3.4 GeV/u'at,solar maximum, are the most important This is. due-to the average geomagnetic cutoff for the ISS orbit. We also show the effect of uncertainties in the fragmentation cross sections on the elemental energy spectra behind shielding. These results help to focus the studies of fragmentation cross sections on the proper energy range in order to improve our predictions of crew exposures.

  17. Validation of Cross Sections for Monte Carlo Simulation of the Photoelectric Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Han Sung; Pia, Maria Grazia; Basaglia, Tullio; Batic, Matej; Hoff, Gabriela; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Saracco, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Several total and partial photoionization cross section calculations, based on both theoretical and empirical approaches, are quantitatively evaluated with statistical analyses using a large collection of experimental data retrieved from the literature to identify the state of the art for modeling the photoelectric effect in Monte Carlo particle transport. Some of the examined cross section models are available in general purpose Monte Carlo systems, while others have been implemented and subjected to validation tests for the first time to estimate whether they could improve the accuracy of particle transport codes. The validation process identifies Scofield's 1973 non-relativistic calculations, tabulated in the Evaluated Photon Data Library(EPDL), as the one best reproducing experimental measurements of total cross sections. Specialized total cross section models, some of which derive from more recent calculations, do not provide significant improvements. Scofield's non-relativistic calculations are not surpassed regarding the compatibility with experiment of K and L shell photoionization cross sections either, although in a few test cases Ebel's parameterization produces more accurate results close to absorption edges. Modifications to Biggs and Lighthill's parameterization implemented in Geant4 significantly reduce the accuracy of total cross sections at low energies with respect to its original formulation. The scarcity of suitable experimental data hinders a similar extensive analysis for the simulation of the photoelectron angular distribution, which is limited to a qualitative appraisal.

  18. Inverse bremsstrahlung cross section estimated within evolving plasmas using effective ion potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F.; Weckert, E.; Ziaja, B.

    2009-06-01

    We estimate the total cross sections for field-stimulated photoemissions and photoabsorptions by quasi-free electrons within a non-equilibrium plasma evolving from the strong coupling to the weak coupling regime. Such a transition may occur within laser-created plasmas, when the initially created plasma is cold but the heating of the plasma by the laser field is efficient. In particular, such a transition may occur within plasmas created by intense vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation from a free-electron laser (FEL) as indicated by the results of the first experiments performed by Wabnitz at the FLASH facility at DESY. In order to estimate the inverse bremsstrahlung cross sections, we use point-like and effective atomic potentials. For ions modelled as point-like charges, the total cross sections are strongly affected by the changing plasma environment. The maximal change of the cross sections may be of the order of 75 at the change of the plasma parameters: inverse Debye length, κ, in the range κ = 0 - 3 Å-1 and the electron density, ρe, in the range ρe = 0.01 - 1 Å-3. These ranges correspond to the physical conditions within the plasmas created during the first cluster experiments performed at the FLASH facility at DESY. In contrast, for the effective atomic potentials the total cross sections for photoemission and photoabsorption change only by a factor of seven at most in the same plasma parameter range. Our results show that the inverse bremsstrahlung cross section estimated with the effective atomic potentials is not affected much by the plasma environment. This observation validates the estimations of the enhanced heating effect obtained by Walters, Santra and Greene. This is important as this effect may be responsible for the high-energy absorption within clusters irradiated with VUV radiation.

  19. Effects of nuclear cross sections at different energies on the radiation hazard from galactic cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Lin, Z W; Adams, J H

    2007-03-01

    The radiation hazard for astronauts from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a major obstacle to long-duration human space exploration. Space radiation transport codes have been developed to calculate the radiation environment on missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. We have studied how uncertainties in fragmentation cross sections at different energies affect the accuracy of predictions from such radiation transport calculations. We find that, in deep space, cross sections at energies between 0.3 and 0.85 GeV/nucleon have the largest effect in solar maximum GCR environments. At the International Space Station, cross sections at higher energies have the largest effect due to the geomagnetic cutoff. PMID:17316078

  20. Resonance effects in elastic cross sections for electron scattering on pyrimidine: Experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Regeta, Khrystyna; Allan, Michael; Winstead, Carl; McKoy, Vincent; Mašín, Zdeněk; Gorfinkiel, Jimena D

    2016-01-14

    We measured differential cross sections for elastic (rotationally integrated) electron scattering on pyrimidine, both as a function of angle up to 180(∘) at electron energies of 1, 5, 10, and 20 eV and as a function of electron energy in the range 0.1-14 eV. The experimental results are compared to the results of the fixed-nuclei Schwinger variational and R-matrix theoretical methods, which reproduce satisfactorily the magnitudes and shapes of the experimental cross sections. The emphasis of the present work is on recording detailed excitation functions revealing resonances in the excitation process. Resonant structures are observed at 0.2, 0.7, and 4.35 eV and calculations for different symmetries confirm their assignment as the X̃(2)A2, Ã(2)B1, and B̃(2)B1 shape resonances. As a consequence of superposition of coherent resonant amplitudes with background scattering the B̃(2)B1 shape resonance appears as a peak, a dip, or a step function in the cross sections recorded as a function of energy at different scattering angles and this effect is satisfactorily reproduced by theory. The dip and peak contributions at different scattering angles partially compensate, making the resonance nearly invisible in the integral cross section. Vibrationally integrated cross sections were also measured at 1, 5, 10 and 20 eV and the question of whether the fixed-nuclei cross sections should be compared to vibrationally elastic or vibrationally integrated cross section is discussed.

  1. Effect of Surface Energy Pulses on Supersonic Flow in a Channel of Variable Cross Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamuraev, V. P.; Kalinina, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    The influence of a surface pulse-periodic supply of energy on the formation of shock-wave structures in a plane channel of variable cross section has been studied. Energy is supplied to the constant cross-section units of the channel with the flow Mach number M = 2. The time-average supplied power corresponds to the combustion of hydrogen with the excess-air coefficient from 1 to 10. The problem is solved within the framework of the Euler equations. A dimensionless approach is used to analyze the effect of sources. The applicability of the analytical relations obtained is confirmed by numerical solution of two-dimensional Euler equations.

  2. Effect of pressure broadening on molecular absorption cross sections in exoplanetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedges, Christina; Madhusudhan, Nikku

    2016-05-01

    Spectroscopic observations of exoplanets are leading to unprecedented constraints on their atmospheric compositions. However, molecular abundances derived from spectra are degenerate with the absorption cross-sections which form critical input data in atmospheric models. Therefore, it is important to quantify the uncertainties in molecular cross-sections to reliably estimate the uncertainties in derived molecular abundances. However, converting line lists into cross-sections via line broadening involves a series of prescriptions for which the uncertainties are not well understood. We investigate and quantify the effects of various factors involved in line broadening in exoplanetary atmospheres - the profile evaluation width, pressure versus thermal broadening, broadening agent, spectral resolution and completeness of broadening parameters - on molecular absorption cross-sections. We use H2O as a case study as it has the most complete absorption line data. For low-resolution spectra (R ≲ 100) for representative temperatures and pressures (T ˜ 500-3000 K, P ≲ 1 atm) of H2-rich exoplanetary atmospheres, we find the median difference in cross-sections (δ) introduced by various aspects of pressure broadening to be ≲1 per cent. For medium resolutions (R ≲ 5000), including those attainable with James Webb Space Telescope, we find that δ can be up to 40 per cent. For high resolutions (R ˜ 105), δ can be ≳100 per cent, reaching ≳1000 per cent for low temperatures (T ≲ 500 K) and high pressures (P ≳ 1 atm). The effect is higher still for self-broadening. We generate a homogeneous data base of absorption cross-sections of molecules of relevance to exoplanetary atmospheres for which high-temperature line lists are available, particularly H2O, CO, CH4, CO2, HCN, and NH3.

  3. Use of Relativistic Effective Core Potentials in the Calculation of Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Kim, Yong-Ki

    1999-01-01

    Based on the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, the advantage of using relativistic effective core potentials (RECP) in the calculation of total ionization cross sections of heavy atoms or molecules containing heavy atoms is discussed. Numerical examples for Ar, Kr, Xe, and WF6 are presented.

  4. Doppler broadening effect on collision cross section functions - Deconvolution of the thermal averaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The surprising feature of the Doppler problem in threshold determination is the 'amplification effect' of the target's thermal energy spread. The small thermal energy spread of the target molecules results in a large dispersion in relative kinetic energy. The Doppler broadening effect in connection with thermal energy beam experiments is discussed, and a procedure is recommended for the deconvolution of molecular scattering cross-section functions whose dominant dependence upon relative velocity is approximately that of the standard low-energy form.

  5. Evaluation of safety effectiveness of multiple cross sectional features on urban arterials.

    PubMed

    Park, Juneyoung; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    This research evaluates the safety effectiveness of multiple roadway cross-section elements on urban arterials for different crash types and severity levels. In order to consider the nonlinearity of predictors and obtain more reliable estimates, the generalized nonlinear models (GNMs) were developed using 5-years of crash records and roadway characteristics data for urban roadways in Florida. The generalized linear models (GLMs) were also developed to compare model performance. The cross-sectional method was used to develop crash modification factors (CMFs) for various safety treatments. The results from this paper indicated that increasing lane, bike lane, median, and shoulder widths were safety effective to reduce crash frequency. In particular, the CMFs for changes in median and shoulder widths consistently decreased as their widths increased. On the other hand, the safety effects of increasing lane and bike lane widths showed nonlinear variations. It was found that crash rates decrease as the lane width increases until 12ft width and it increases as the lane width exceeds 12ft. The crash rates start to decrease again after 13ft. It was also found that crash rates decreases as the bike lane width increases until 6ft width and it increases as the bike lane width exceeds 6ft. This paper demonstrated that the GNMs clearly captured the nonlinear relationship between crashes and multiple roadway cross-sectional features, which cannot be reflected by the estimated CMFs from the GLMs. Moreover, the GNMs showed better model fitness than GLMs in general. Therefore, in order to estimate more accurate CMFs, the proposed methodology of utilizing the GNMs in the cross-sectional method is recommended over using conventional GLMs when there are nonlinear relationships between the crash rate and roadway characteristics. PMID:27110644

  6. The effect of halo nuclear density on reaction cross-section for light ion collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M. A. M.; Nour El-Din, M. S. M.; Ellithi, A.; Ismail, E.; Hosny, H.

    2015-08-01

    In the framework of the optical limit approximation (OLA), the reaction cross-section for halo nucleus — stable nucleus collision at intermediate energy, has been studied. The projectile nuclei are taken to be one-neutron halo (1NHP) and two-neutron halo (2NHP). The calculations are carried out for Gaussian-Gaussian (GG), Gaussian-Oscillator (GO), and Gaussian-2S (G2S) densities for each considered projectile. As a target, the stable nuclei in the range 4-28 of the mass number are used. An analytic expression of the phase shift function has been derived. The zero range approximation is considered in the calculations. Also, the in-medium effect is studied. The obtained results are analyzed and compared with the geometrical reaction cross-section and the available experimental data.

  7. Soft-collinear mode for jet cross sections in soft collinear effective theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Yang-Ting; Hornig, Andrew; Lee, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We propose the addition of a new "soft-collinear" mode to soft collinear effective theory (SCET) below the usual soft scale to factorize and resum logarithms of jet radii R in jet cross sections. We consider exclusive 2-jet cross sections in e+e- collisions with an energy veto Λ on additional jets. The key observation is that there are actually two pairs of energy scales whose ratio is R : the transverse momentum Q R of the energetic particles inside jets and their total energy Q , and the transverse momentum Λ R of soft particles that are cut out of the jet cones and their energy Λ . The soft-collinear mode is necessary to factorize and resum logarithms of the latter hierarchy. We show how this factorization occurs in the jet thrust cross section for cone and kT -type algorithms at O (αs) and using the thrust cone algorithm at O (αs2) . We identify the presence of hard-collinear, in-jet soft, global (veto) soft, and soft-collinear modes in the jet thrust cross section. We also observe here that the in-jet soft modes measured with thrust are actually the "csoft" modes of the theory SCET+ . We dub the new theory with both csoft and soft-collinear modes "SCET++ ." We go on to explain the relation between the "unmeasured" jet function appearing in total exclusive jet cross sections and the hard-collinear and csoft functions in measured jet thrust cross sections. We do not resum logs that are nonglobal in origin, arising from the ratio of the scales of soft radiation whose thrust is measured at Q τ /R and of the soft-collinear radiation at 2 Λ R . Their resummation would require the introduction of additional operators beyond those we consider here. The steps we outline here are a necessary part of summing logs of R that are global in nature and have not been factorized and resummed beyond leading-log level previously.

  8. Effect of light state transitions on the apparent absorption cross section of Photosystem II in Chlorella

    SciTech Connect

    Falkowski, P.G.; Fujita, Yoshihiko

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of excitation energy between photosystems may profoundly affect the quantum yield of photosynthetic oxygen evolution. Excitation energy absorbed by pigment molecules is transferred to reaction centers, where it may potentially drive a photochemical event. To balance the photochemical events in PSII with those in PSI, excitation energy may be transferred between PSII and PSI. This type of energy transfer has been inferred primarily in the steady state quantum yield of oxygen evolution and/or fluorescence with changes in excitation wavelength. These so called ''state transitions'' have been attributed to changes in either the absorption cross section of PSII or ''spillover'' of excitation energy between the two photosystems. We report here on measurements of relative absorption cross sections of PSII under state I and state II light conditions. We simultaneously followed the yields of O/sub 2/ and the change in fluorescence yields, ..delta.. phi, as a function of flash energy using single turnover xenon flashes. Our data suggest that the effective absorption cross section of PSII does not change within +- 10% under physiological conditions in unpoisoned Chlorella pyrenoidosa. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Solid-state effects on thermal-neutron cross sections and on low-energy resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, J.A.; Mook, H.A.; Hill, N.W.; Shahal, O.

    1982-01-01

    The neutron total cross sections of several single crystals (Si, Cu, sapphire), several polycrystalline samples (Cu, Fe, Be, C, Bi, Ta), and a fine-powder copper sample have been measured from 0.002 to 5 eV. The Cu powder and polycrystalline Fe, Be and C data exhibit the expected abrupt changes in cross section. The cross section of the single crystal of Si is smooth with only small broad fluctuations. The data on two single Cu crystals, the sapphire crystal, cast Bi, and rolled samples of Ta and Cu have many narrow peaks approx. 10/sup -3/ eV wide. High resolution (0.3%) transmission measurements were made on the 1.057-eV resonance in /sup 240/Pu and the 0.433-eV resonance in /sup 180/Ta, both at room and low temperatures to study the effects of crystal binding. Although the changes in Doppler broadening with temperature were apparent, no asymmetries due to a recoilless contribution were observed.

  10. Deformation effects on sub-barrier fusion cross sections in 16O+174,176Yb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajbongshi, Tapan; Kalita, K.; Nath, S.; Gehlot, J.; Banerjee, Tathagata; Mukul, Ish; Dubey, R.; Madhavan, N.; Lin, C. J.; Shamlath, A.; Laveen, P. V.; Shareef, M.; Kumar, Neeraj; Jisha, P.; Sharma, P.

    2016-05-01

    Background: Couplings with various reaction channels are known to enhance sub-barrier fusion cross sections by several orders in magnitude. However, a few open questions still remain. For example, the influence of higher order static deformations on sub-barrier fusion cross sections is yet to be comprehensively understood. Purpose: We study the role of hexadecapole nuclear deformation effect on sub-barrier fusion cross sections. Also, this work aims to extract hexadecapole deformation (β4) in nuclei in the lanthanide region. Method: The evaporation residue (ER) excitation functions for 16O+174,176Yb were measured at laboratory beam energies (Elab) in the range of 64.6-103.6 MeV. Measurements were carried out by employing the recoil mass spectrometer Heavy Ion Reaction Analyzer (HIRA) at IUAC, New Delhi. Fusion barrier distributions (BDs) were extracted from data. Results from the experiment were subjected to coupled-channels analysis, in which β4 was varied as a free parameter. Results: Experimental fusion cross sections at energies below the barrier expectedly showed strong enhancement compared to the predictions from the one-dimensional barrier penetration model. Data were satisfactorily reproduced after inclusion of negative β4 for both the targets in the coupled-channels calculation. Conclusions: The significant role of hexadecapole deformation was observed in the sub-barrier fusion of 16O+174,176Yb. The proposed value of β4 reproduced the measured fusion excitation function reasonably well. The BDs from these data were also extracted but no definitive conclusions could be drawn from them.

  11. The correction of pebble bed reactor nodal cross sections for the effects of leakage and depletion history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Nathanael Harrison

    An accurate and computationally fast method to generate nodal cross sections for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) was presented. In this method, named Spectral History Correction (SHC), a set of fine group microscopic cross section libraries, pre-computed at specified depletion and moderation states, was coupled with the nodal nuclide densities and group bucklings to compute the new fine group spectrum for each node. The relevant fine group cross-section library was then recollapsed to the local broad group cross-section structure with this new fine group spectrum. This library set was tracked in terms of fuel isotopic densities. Fine group modulation factors (to correct the homogeneous flux for heterogeneous effects) and fission spectra were also stored with the cross section library. As the PBR simulation converges to a steady state fuel cycle, the initial nodal cross section library becomes inaccurate due to the burnup of the fuel and the neutron leakage into and out of the node. Because of the recirculation of discharged fuel pebbles with fresh fuel pebbles, a node can consist of a collection of pebbles at various burnup stages. To account for the nodal burnup, the microscopic cross sections were combined with nodal averaged atom densities to approximate the fine group macroscopic cross-sections for that node. These constructed, homogeneous macroscopic cross sections within the node were used to calculate a numerical solution for the fine group spectrum with B1 theory. This new fine spectrum was used to collapse the pre-computed microscopic cross section library to the broad group structure employed by the fuel cycle code. This SHC technique was developed and practically implemented as a subroutine within the PBR fuel cycle code PEBBED. The SHC subroutine was called to recalculate the broad group cross sections during the code convergence. The result was a fast method that compared favorably to the benchmark scheme of cross section calculation with the lattice

  12. Effects of projectile resonances on the total, Coulomb, and nuclear breakup cross sections in the 6Li+152Sm reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukeru, B.; Lekala, M. L.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we analyze the effects of the projectile resonances on the total, Coulomb, and nuclear breakup cross sections as well as on the Coulomb-nuclear interferences at different arbitrary incident energies. It is found that these resonances have non-negligible effects on the total, Coulomb, and nuclear breakup cross sections. Qualitatively, they have no effects on the constructiveness or destructiveness of the Coulomb-nuclear interferences. Quantitatively, we obtained that these resonances increase by 7.38%, 7.58%, and 20.30% the integrated total, Coulomb, and nuclear breakup cross sections, respectively at Elab=35 MeV . This shows that the nuclear breakup cross sections are more affected by the effects of the projectile resonances than their total and Coulomb breakup counterparts. We also obtain that the effects of the resonances on the total, Coulomb, and nuclear breakup cross sections decrease as the incident energy increases.

  13. Radar cross section of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    X-band measurements of radar cross section as a function of the angle between insect body axis and the plane of polarization are presented. A finding of particular interest is that in larger insects, maximum cross section occurs when the E-vector is perpendicular to the body axis. A new range of measurements on small insects (aphids, and planthoppers) is also described, and a comprehensive summary of insect cross-section data at X-band is given.

  14. Effective Absorption Cross-Sections in Porphyridium cruentum: Implications for Energy Transfer between Phycobilisomes and Photosystem II Reaction Centers.

    PubMed

    Ley, A C

    1984-02-01

    Effective absorption cross-sections for O(2) production by Porphyridium cruentum were measured at 546 and 596 nanometers. Although all photosystem II reaction centers are energetically coupled to phycobilisomes, any single phycobilisome acts as antenna for several photosystem II reaction centers. The cross-section measured in state I was 50% larger than that measured in state II.

  15. Anharmonic-potential-effective-charge approach for computing Raman cross sections of a gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutteh, Ramzi; van Zandt, L. L.

    1993-05-01

    An anharmonic-potential-effective-charge approach for computing relative Raman intensities of a gas is developed. The equations of motion are set up and solved for the driven anharmonic molecular vibrations. An explicit expression for the differential polarizability tensor is derived and its properties discussed. This expression is then used within the context of Placzek's theory [Handbuch der Radiologie (Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig, 1934), Vol. VI] to compute the Raman cross section and depolarization ratio of a gas. The computation is carried out for the small molecules CO2, CS2, SO2, and CCl4; results are compared with experimental measurements and discussed.

  16. Effective absorption cross sections and photolysis rates of anthropogenic and biogenic secondary organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romonosky, Dian E.; Ali, Nujhat N.; Saiduddin, Mariyah N.; Wu, Michael; Lee, Hyun Ji (Julie); Aiona, Paige K.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.

    2016-04-01

    Mass absorption coefficient (MAC) values were measured for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) samples produced by flow tube ozonolysis and smog chamber photooxidation of a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically: α-pinene, β-pinene, β-myrcene, d-limonene, farnesene, guaiacol, imidazole, isoprene, linalool, ocimene, p-xylene, 1-methylpyrrole, and 2-methylpyrrole. Both low-NOx and high-NOx conditions were employed during the chamber photooxidation experiments. MAC values were converted into effective molecular absorption cross sections assuming an average molecular weight of 300 g/mol for SOA compounds. The upper limits for the effective photolysis rates of SOA compounds were calculated by assuming unity photolysis quantum yields and convoluting the absorption cross sections with a time-dependent solar spectral flux. A more realistic estimate for the photolysis rates relying on the quantum yield of acetone was also obtained. The results show that condensed-phase photolysis of SOA compounds can potentially occur with effective lifetimes ranging from minutes to days, suggesting that photolysis is an efficient and largely overlooked mechanism of SOA aging.

  17. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  18. Inelastic cross sections for low-energy electrons in liquid water: exchange and correlation effects.

    PubMed

    Emfietzoglou, Dimitris; Kyriakou, Ioanna; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Abril, Isabel; Nikjoo, Hooshang

    2013-11-01

    Low-energy electrons play a prominent role in radiation therapy and biology as they are the largest contributor to the absorbed dose. However, no tractable theory exists to describe the interaction of low-energy electrons with condensed media. This article presents a new approach to include exchange and correlation (XC) effects in inelastic electron scattering at low energies (below ∼10 keV) in the context of the dielectric theory. Specifically, an optical-data model of the dielectric response function of liquid water is developed that goes beyond the random phase approximation (RPA) by accounting for XC effects using the concept of the many-body local-field correction (LFC). It is shown that the experimental energy-loss-function of liquid water can be reproduced by including into the RPA dispersion relations XC effects (up to second order) calculated in the time-dependent local-density approximation with the addition of phonon-induced broadening in N. D. Mermin's relaxation-time approximation. Additional XC effects related to the incident and/or struck electrons are included by means of the vertex correction calculated by a modified Hubbard formula for the exchange-only LFC. Within the first Born approximation, the present XC corrections cause a significantly larger reduction (∼10-50%) to the inelastic cross section compared to the commonly used Mott and Ochkur approximations, while also yielding much better agreement with the recent experimental data for amorphous ice. The current work offers a manageable, yet rigorous, approach for including non-Born effects in the calculation of inelastic cross sections for low-energy electrons in liquid water, which due to its generality, can be easily extended to other condensed media.

  19. Effect of cross-sectional geometry on thermal conductivity of Si1-xGex nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Peixin

    2016-06-01

    By incorporating the direction-dependent phonon-boundary scattering from the surface of the nanowires with different cross-sectional shapes into the linearized phonon Boltzmann transport equation, we theoretically investigate the effect of cross-sectional geometry on the thermal conductivity of Si1-xGex nanowires. It is demonstrated that the surface-to-volume ratio (SVR) is a universal gauge for both pure silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and silicon-germanium nanowires (SiGe NWs), and the thermal conductivity of nanowires decreases monotonically with the increase of SVR. We also find that the thermal conductivity of high-frequency phonons in nanowires is more strongly SVR dependent than that of low-frequency phonons, and the thermal conductivity of high-frequency phonons is severely suppressed by alloy scattering, therefore the SVR dependence on thermal conductivity of Si1-xGex NWs decreases with the increase of Ge atom concentration x (x < 0.5). These findings are useful for understanding and tuning the thermal conductivity of nanowires by geometry.

  20. Effects of meteor head plasma distribution on radar cross sections and derived meteoroid masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, R. A.; Close, S.; Brown, P.; Dimant, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present calculations that relate meteor head echo radar cross sections to the meteor head plasma distribution. We use a forward model of radar scattering from meteor plasma using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) model of the electromagnetic wave interaction with the plasma. This model computes the meteor head RCS for a given meteor plasma distribution, specified with a peak plasma density and a characteristic size. We then relate measured RCS values to the input size and density parameters to better characterize the meteor plasma. We present simulation results that show that the RCS is directly related to the overdense meteor area; that is, the cross-section area of the meteor inside which the plasma frequency exceeds the radar frequency. This provides a direct estimate of the meteor plasma size from a given RCS measurement. Next we investigate the effect of the assumed plasma distribution. We study the RCS resulting from Gaussian, parabolic exponential and 1/r2 distributions. Comparing the different calculated RCS from these different distributions to three-frequency head echo data from the CMOR radar, we show that the 1/r2 distribution provides the best fit to the data. However, given uncertainties in the data, we cannot conclude that any distribution is the most valid. In addition, we show that the choice of distribution assumed can alter the resulting line density q by an order of magnitude for the same data.

  1. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  2. Effects of Inelastic Collisions on Transport Cross Sections for Helium Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, A. V.

    2002-10-01

    We review experimental and theoretical cross sections for elastic and inelastic collisions between ground state helium atoms from 0.01 eV to 10 keV. Pure elastic scattering is calculated using potentials from thermal transport coefficients, beam attenuation data, and theory. Inelastic collisions cause rapid decreases in measured elastic differential cross sections at angle times energy products greater than ˜ 3 degree keV for collision energies above 100 eV.(R. Morgenstern et al), J. Phys. B 4, L330 (1973); M. Barat et al, J. Phys. B 6, 1206 (1973); J. C. Brenot et al, Phys. Rev A 11, 1245 (1975). At these angles, the sum of the inelastic differential cross sections is roughly half theory for elastic scattering only. The inelastic collisions extrapolate to a 40 eV threshold and significantly decrease viscosity cross sections at higher energies. The change in total cross section is small. We correct the normalization of experimental ionization and excitation to theory.(V. Kempter, in The Physics of Electronic and Atomic Collisions), ed. by J. S. Risley and R. Geballe (U. Washington, Seattle, 1975) p. 327; J. P. Gauyacq, J. Phys. B 9, 3067 (1976).

  3. Effects of Cross-Sectional Ovalization on Springback and Strain Distribution of Circular Tubes Under Bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yafei; E, Daxin

    2011-12-01

    Springback and cross-sectional ovalization are two important defects in the bending formation of tubular parts. In this article, an analytic model considering ovalization is presented to calculate the springback and tangential strain in tube bending. Compared with the calculation neglecting ovalization, the proposed model could better predict the trends of springback angle over bending radius ratio and wall thickness ratio. Moreover, calculation of the tangential strain indicates that the bending deformation is more severe in the middle than at the ends of a bent tube. Through comparison of the results of this model and the calculations neglecting ovalization, it is shown that the effects of ovalization on springback are negligible only if the bending radius ratio and the wall thickness ratio are large enough. Also, the influence of ovalization differs a lot from one material to another.

  4. 2p2h effects on the weak pion production cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Mariano, A.; Barbero, C.

    2015-05-15

    The ν{sub l}n → l{sup −}p QE reaction on the A-target is used as a signal event or/and to reconstruct the neutrino energy, using two-body kinematics. Competition of another processes could lead to misidentification of the arriving neutrinos, being important the fake events coming from the CC1π background. A precise knowledge of cross sections is a prerequisite in order to make simulations in event generators to substract the fake ones from the QE countings, and in this contribution we analyze the different nuclear effects on the CC1π channel. Our calculations also can be extended for the NC case.

  5. Elastic Differential Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werneth, Charles M.; Maung, Khin M.; Ford, William P.; Norbury, John W.; Vera, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The eikonal, partial wave (PW) Lippmann-Schwinger, and three-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger (LS3D) methods are compared for nuclear reactions that are relevant for space radiation applications. Numerical convergence of the eikonal method is readily achieved when exact formulas of the optical potential are used for light nuclei (A less than or equal to 16) and the momentum-space optical potential is used for heavier nuclei. The PW solution method is known to be numerically unstable for systems that require a large number of partial waves, and, as a result, the LS3D method is employed. The effect of relativistic kinematics is studied with the PW and LS3D methods and is compared to eikonal results. It is recommended that the LS3D method be used for high energy nucleon- nucleus reactions and nucleus-nucleus reactions at all energies because of its rapid numerical convergence and stability.

  6. Diaphragm opening effects on shock wave formation and acceleration in a rectangular cross section channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakdaman, S. A.; Garcia, M.; Teh, E.; Lincoln, D.; Trivedi, M.; Alves, M.; Johansen, C.

    2016-03-01

    Shock wave formation and acceleration in a high-aspect ratio cross section shock tube were studied experimentally and numerically. The relative importance of geometric effects and diaphragm opening time on shock formation are assessed. The diaphragm opening time was controlled through the use of slit-type (fast opening time) and petal-type (slow opening time) diaphragms. A novel method of fabricating the petal-type diaphragms, which results in a consistent burst pressure and symmetric opening without fragmentation, is presented. High-speed schlieren photography was used to visualize the unsteady propagation of the lead shock wave and trailing gas dynamic structures. Surface-mounted pressure sensors were used to capture the spatial and temporal development of the pressure field. Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulation predictions using the shear-stress-transport turbulence model are compared to the experimental data. Simulation results are used to explain the presence of high-frequency pressure oscillations observed experimentally in the driver section as well as the cause of the initial acceleration and subsequent rapid decay of shock velocity measured along the top and bottom channel surfaces. A one-dimensional theoretical model predicting the effect of the finite opening time of the diaphragm on the rate of driver depressurization and shock acceleration is proposed. The model removes the large amount of empiricism that accompanies existing models published in the literature. Model accuracy is assessed through comparisons with experiments and simulations. Limitations of and potential improvements in the model are discussed.

  7. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Interference effects on the photoionization cross sections between two neighbouring atoms: nitrogen as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian-Hua; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2009-12-01

    Interference effects on the photoionization cross sections between two neighbouring atoms are considered based on the coherent scattering of the ionized electrons by the two nuclei when their separation is less than or comparable to the de Broglie wave length of the ionized electrons. As an example, the single atomic nitrogen ionization cross section and the total cross sections of two nitrogen atoms with coherently added photoionization amplitudes are calculated from the threshold to about 60 Å (1 Å = 0.1 nm) of the photon energy. The photoionization cross sections of atomic nitrogen are obtained by using the close-coupling R-matrix method. In the calculation 19 states are included. The ionization energy of the atomic nitrogen and the photoionization cross sections agree well with the experimental results. Based on the R-matrix results of atomic nitrogen, the interference effects between two neighbouring nitrogen atoms are obtained. It is shown that the interference effects are considerable when electrons are ionized just above the threshold, even for the separations between the two atoms are larger than two times of the bond length of N2 molecules. Therefore, in hot and dense samples, effects caused by the coherent interference between the neighbours are expected to be observable for the total photoionization cross sections.

  8. Deformation effect on total reaction cross sections for neutron-rich Ne isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Minomo, Kosho; Sumi, Takenori; Ogata, Kazuyuki; Shimizu, Yoshifumi R.; Yahiro, Masanobu; Kimura, Masaaki

    2011-09-15

    The isotope dependence of measured reaction cross sections in the scattering of {sup 28-32}Ne isotopes from a {sup 12}C target at 240 MeV/nucleon is analyzed by the double-folding model with the Melbourne g matrix. The density of the projectile is calculated by the mean-field model with the deformed Woods-Saxon potential. The deformation is evaluated by antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. The deformation of the projectile enhances calculated reaction cross sections to the measured values.

  9. Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Rez, Peter

    2002-01-01

    To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a few elements. Results of systematic plane wave Born approximation calculations with exchange for K, L, and M shell ionization cross sections over the range of electron energies used in microanalysis are presented. Comparisons are made with experimental measurement for selected K shells and it is shown that the plane wave theory is not appropriate for overvoltages less than 2.5 V. PMID:27446747

  10. Silicon Detector System for Cross Section Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In order to estimate the radiation shielding effectiveness of materials it is necessary to know cosmic ray particles are broken up as they pass though these materials. The breakup of cosmic ray particles is characterized by the nuclear fragmentation cross sections, i.e. an effective geometrical cross section assigned to each target nucleus that represents its apparent size for fragmenting the incident particle. The values of these cross sections depend on the details of nuclear physics and cannot be calculated from first principles owing to the many-body nature of the interactions. The only way to determine them is to measure them. Once a sufficient number of cross sections have been measured, the systematic nature of the interactions allows other cross-sections to be estimated. The number of cross sections that contribute to the estimation of shielding effectiveness is very large 10,000. Fortunately most make minor contributions. These can be estimated from nuclear systematics. Only those who's uncertainties make significant contributions to the error in the shielding effectiveness estimations need to be measured. In the past it has proven difficult to measure light fragment production cross sections from the interactions of heavy cosmic rays owing to the size of the detectors used. We have developed a highly pixilated silicon (Si) detector system that can individually identify these light fragments while making efficient use of costly accelerator time. This system is an outgrowth of detector technology developed under a CDDF and a Code S sponsored cosmic ray experiment.

  11. Effects of chundosunbup Qi-training on psychological adjustments: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lee, M S; Jeong, S M; Oh, S W; Ryu, H; Chung, H T

    1998-01-01

    This cross-sectional investigation evaluated the trend of psychological changes by ChunDoSunBup (CDSB) Qi-training using a self-report inventory of emotional distress, Symptom Check List-90-Revision (SCL-90-R). 41 normal healthy subjects (mean age = 20.98 +/- 5.39) and 123 CDSB Qi-trainees (divided into three groups, Q1, Q2 and Q3) participated in this study. Group Q1 has received 1-4 months CDSB Qi-training (age 21.95 +/- 7.82, n = 41); Q2 has 5-12 months Qi-training (age 20.0 +/- 7.75, n = 41); and Q3 has more than 13 months Qi-training (age 22.68 +/- 6.72, n = 41). Our results show that Qi-trainees over 13 months had significantly lower scores compared to controls. A significant negative correlation was found between the Qi-training period and all SCL-90-R subscales except phobic anxiety. These results suggest that CDSB Qi-training is effective in protection as well as reduction of psychological symptomatology.

  12. Mental health effects from urban bed bug infestation (Cimex lectularius L.): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Susser, Stephanie Rebecca; Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Jacques, Louis; Denis, Geoffroy; Tessier, François; Roberge, Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess whether bed bug infestation was linked to sleep disturbances and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Design Exploratory cross-sectional study. Setting Convenience sample of tenants recruited in apartment complexes from Montreal, Canada. Participants 39 bed bug-exposed tenants were compared with 52 unexposed tenants. Main outcome measures The effect of bed bug-exposed tenants on sleep disturbances, anxiety and depression symptoms measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, 5th subscale, Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale and Patient Health Questionnaire, 9-item, respectively. Results In adjusted models, bed bug infestation was strongly associated with measured anxiety symptoms (OR (95% CI)=4.8 (1.5 to 14.7)) and sleep disturbance (OR (95% CI)=5.0 (1.3–18.8)). There was a trend to report more symptoms of depression in the bed bug-infested group, although this finding was not statistically significant ((OR (95% CI)=2.5(0.8 to 7.3)). Conclusions These results suggest that individuals exposed to bed bug infestations are at risk of experiencing sleep disturbance and of developing symptoms of anxiety and possibly depression. Greater clinical awareness of this problem is needed in order for patients to receive appropriate mental healthcare. These findings highlight the need for undertaking of deeper inquiry, as well as greater collaboration between medical professionals, public health and community stakeholders. PMID:23015597

  13. Effective Potential Energies and Transport Cross Sections for Interactions of Hydrogen and Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, Eugene; Arnold, James R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The interaction energies for N2-He and N2-H2 are calculated by accurate ab initio methods. The virial coefficient and differential scattering cross section for N2-H2 are calculated; the theoretical results are compared with experimental data. The transport collision integrals for N2-H2 and N2-N2 interactions are calculated and tabulated; the results yield transport coefficients that compare well with measured data. Transport coefficients are found to be determined accurately from the interaction energies for a specific configuration of the molecule formed from the interaction partners. Comparisons with results of measurement and accurate calculations demonstrate that the transport properties of complex molecular interactions can be determined rapidly and fairly accurately from the interaction energies of simpler system using combination rules for the short-range parameters of effective interaction energies and the coefficients for the long-range forces. The coefficients for a two-parameter temperature expansion of diffusion and viscosity are tabulated for a realistic universal potential energy that is based primarily on the results of very accurate calculations of the He-He interaction energy.

  14. Generalized warping effect in the dynamic analysis of beams of arbitrary cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikaros, I. C.; Sapountzakis, E. J.; Argyridi, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper a general formulation for the nonuniform warping dynamic analysis of beams of arbitrary simply or multiply connected cross section, under arbitrary external loading and general boundary conditions is presented taking into account the effects of rotary and warping inertia. The nonuniform warping distributions are taken into account by employing four independent warping parameters multiplying a shear warping function in each direction and two torsional warping functions, respectively, which are obtained by solving the corresponding boundary value problems, formulated exploiting the longitudinal local equilibrium equation. A shear stress "correction" is also performed in order to improve the stress field arising from the employed kinematical considerations. Ten initial boundary value problems are formulated with respect to the displacement and rotation components as well as to the independent warping parameters and solved using the Analog Equation Method, a Boundary Element Method based technique in combination with an appropriate time integration scheme. The warping functions and the geometric constants including the additional ones due to warping are evaluated employing a pure BEM approach.

  15. Homogenization of rectangular cross-section fibre-reinforced materials: bending-torsion effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Jarroudi, Mustapha; Er-Riani, Mustapha

    2016-07-01

    We study the homogenization of an elastic material in contact with periodic parallel elastic rectangular cross-section fibres of higher rigidity. The interactions between the matrix and the fibres are described by a local adhesion contact law with interfacial adhesive stiffness parameter depending on the period. Assuming that the Lamé constants in the fibres and the stiffness parameter have appropriate orders of magnitude, we derive a class of energy functionals involving extension, flexure and torsion terms.

  16. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  17. Effectiveness Measures for Cross-Sectional Studies: A Comparison of Value-Added Models and Contextualised Attainment Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenkeit, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Educational effectiveness research often appeals to "value-added models (VAM)" to gauge the impact of schooling on student learning net of the effect of student background variables. A huge amount of cross-sectional studies do not, however, meet VAM's requirement for longitudinal data. "Contextualised attainment models (CAM)" measure the influence…

  18. The effect of scaling physiological cross-sectional area on musculoskeletal model predictions.

    PubMed

    Bolsterlee, Bart; Vardy, Alistair N; van der Helm, Frans C T; Veeger, H E J DirkJan

    2015-07-16

    Personalisation of model parameters is likely to improve biomechanical model predictions and could allow models to be used for subject- or patient-specific applications. This study evaluates the effect of personalising physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSA) in a large-scale musculoskeletal model of the upper extremity. Muscle volumes obtained from MRI were used to scale PCSAs of five subjects, for whom the maximum forces they could exert in six different directions on a handle held by the hand were also recorded. The effect of PCSA scaling was evaluated by calculating the lowest maximum muscle stress (σmax, a constant for human skeletal muscle) required by the model to reproduce these forces. When the original cadaver-based PCSA-values were used, strongly different between-subject σmax-values were found (σmax=106.1±39.9 N cm(-2)). A relatively simple, uniform scaling routine reduced this variation substantially (σmax=69.4±9.4 N cm(-2)) and led to similar results to when a more detailed, muscle-specific scaling routine was used (σmax=71.2±10.8 N cm(-2)). Using subject-specific PCSA values to simulate an shoulder abduction task changed muscle force predictions for the subscapularis and the pectoralis major on average by 33% and 21%, respectively, but was <10% for all other muscles. The glenohumeral (GH) joint contact force changed less than 1.5% as a result of scaling. We conclude that individualisation of the model's strength can most easily be done by scaling PCSA with a single factor that can be derived from muscle volume data or, alternatively, from maximum force measurements. However, since PCSA scaling only marginally changed muscle and joint contact force predictions for submaximal tasks, the need for PCSA scaling remains debatable. PMID:26050956

  19. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Cardiovascular Effects of Welding Fumes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiqi; Hedmer, Maria; Kåredal, Monica; Björk, Jonas; Stockfelt, Leo; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Albin, Maria; Broberg, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Occupational exposure to particulate air pollution has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the risk to welders working today remains unclear. We aimed to elucidate the cardiovascular effects of exposure to welding fumes. Methods In a cross-sectional study, structured interviews and biological sampling were conducted for 101 welders and 127 controls (all non-smoking males) from southern Sweden. Personal breathing zone sampling of respirable dust was performed. Blood pressure (BP) and endothelial function (using peripheral arterial tonometry) were measured. Plasma and serum samples were collected from peripheral blood for measurement of C-reactive protein, low-density lipoprotein, homocysteine, serum amyloid A, and cytokines. Results Welders were exposed to 10-fold higher levels of particles than controls. Welders had significantly higher BP compared to controls, an average of 5 mm Hg higher systolic and diastolic BP (P≤0.001). IL-8 was 3.4 ng/L higher in welders (P=0.010). Years working as a welder were significantly associated with increased BP (β=0.35, 95%CI 0.13 – 0.58, P=0.0024 for systolic BP; β=0.32, 95%CI 0.16 – 0.48, P<0.001 for diastolic BP, adjusted for BMI) but exposure to respirable dust was not associated with BP. No clear associations occurred between welding and endothelial function, or other effect markers. Conclusions A modest increase in BP was found among welders compared to controls suggesting that low-to-moderate exposure to welding fumes remains a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. PMID:26147298

  20. Measurement of Effective Cross Section of Th-233(n,γ)Th-234 Reaction Using the KUR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatani, Hiroshi

    2005-05-01

    Thorium nitrate was irradiated together with Au and Co neutron fluence monitors in the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). The thorium was chemically purified using the solvent extraction and ion-exchange methods. The γ-rays in the decay of Th-234 were measured using high-purity Ge detectors (HPGes). Thermal neutron fluxes and epithermal indexes, i.e., the relative strength of the epithermal dE/E component, were determined using the Westcott convention. Five effective cross sections were determined for epithermal indexes from 0.01 to 0.04 using three irradiation facilities. The cross section for 2200 m/s neutrons and the resonance integral were deduced to be (1270±50) b and (1680±930) b, respectively, from the results of the five effective cross sections.

  1. Measuring the acute cardiovascular effects of shisha smoking: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jaffery, Ali; Haq, Adnaan; Bacon, Jenny; Madden, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the acute cardiovascular effects of smoking shisha. Design A cross-sectional study was carried out in six shisha cafes. Participants smoked shisha for a period between 45 min (minimum) and 90 min (maximum). The same brand of tobacco and coal was used. Setting London, UK. Participants Participants were those who had ordered a shisha to smoke and consented to have their blood pressure, heart rate and carbon monoxide levels measured. Excluded subjects were those who had smoked shisha in the previous 24 h, who smoke cigarettes or who suffered from cardiorespiratory problems. Main outcome measures Blood pressure was measured using a sphygmomanometer. Pulse was measured by palpation of the radial artery. Carbon monoxide levels were obtained via a carbon monoxide monitor. These indices were measured before the participants began to smoke shisha and after they finished or when the maximum 90 min time period was reached. Results Mean arterial blood pressure increased from 96 mmHg to 108 mmHg (p < 0.001). Heart rate increased from 77 to 91 bpm (p < 0.001). Carbon monoxide increased from an average of 3 to 35 ppm (p < 0.001). A correlation analysis showed no relationship between carbon monoxide and the other indices measured. Conclusion The acute heart rate, blood pressure and carbon monoxide levels were seen to rise significantly after smoking shisha. The weak correlation between carbon monoxide levels and the other variables suggests that carbon monoxide levels had not contributed to their significant increase. PMID:25057403

  2. Evidence for the healthy immigrant effect in older Chinese immigrants: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous work has found that first-generation immigrants to developed nations tend to have better health than individuals born in the host country. We examined the evidence for the healthy immigrant effect and convergence of health status between Chinese immigrants (n = 147) and U.S. born whites (n = 167) participating in the cross-sectional Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health study and residing in the same neighborhoods. Methods We used bivariate and multivariate models to compare disease prevalence and clinical biomarkers. Results Despite an older average age and lower socioeconomic status, Chinese immigrants were less likely to have asthma (OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.09–0.48) or cardiovascular disease (OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.20–0.94), had lower body mass index (BMI), lower inflammation biomarker levels, lower average sex-adjusted low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and higher average sex-adjusted high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. However, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of diabetes or hypertension. Duration of time in the U.S. was related to cardiovascular disease and asthma but was not associated with diabetes, hypertension, BMI, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, socioeconomic status, or health behaviors. Conclusions The lower CVD and asthma prevalence among the Chinese immigrants may be partially attributed to healthier diets, more physical activity, lower BMI, and less exposure to cigarette smoke. First generation immigrant status may be protective even after about two decades. PMID:24928348

  3. Determination of the effective inelastic p anti-p cross-section for the D0 Run II luminosity measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.; Yacoob, S.; Andeen, T.; Begel, M.; Casey, B.C.K.; Partridge, R.; Schellman, H.; Sznajder, A.; /Rio de Janeiro State U.

    2004-11-01

    The authors determine the effective inelastic p{bar p} cross-section into the D0 Luminosity Monitor for all run periods prior to September 2004. This number is used to relate the measured inelastic collision rate to the delivered luminosity. The key ingredients are the inelastic p{bar p} cross-section, the Luminosity Monitor efficiency, and the modeling of kinematic distributions for various inelastic processes used to determine the detector acceptance. The resulting value is {sigma}{sub p{bar p},eff} = 46 {+-} 3 mb.

  4. Effect of the 2 p 2 h cross-section uncertainties on an analysis of neutrino oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankowski, Artur M.; Benhar, Omar; Mariani, Camillo; Vagnoni, Erica

    2016-06-01

    We report the results of a study aimed at quantifying the impact on the oscillation analysis of the uncertainties associated with the description of the neutrino-nucleus cross section in the two-particle-two-hole sector. The results of our calculations, based on the kinematic method of energy reconstruction and carried out comparing two data-driven approaches, show that the existing discrepancies in the neutrino cross sections have a sizable effect on the extracted oscillation parameters, particularly in the antineutrino channel.

  5. EFFECTS OF NITROGEN PHOTOABSORPTION CROSS SECTION RESOLUTION ON MINOR SPECIES VERTICAL PROFILES IN TITAN’S UPPER ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Luspay-Kuti, A.; Mandt, K. E.; Greathouse, T. K.; Plessis, S.

    2015-03-01

    The significant variations in both measured and modeled densities of minor species in Titan’s atmosphere call for the evaluation of possible influencing factors in photochemical modeling. The effect of nitrogen photoabsorption cross section selection on the modeled vertical profiles of minor species is analyzed here, with particular focus on C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and HCN. Our results show a clear impact of cross sections used on all neutral and ion species studied. Affected species include neutrals and ions that are not primary photochemical products, including species that do not even contain nitrogen. The results indicate that photochemical models that employ low-resolution cross sections may significantly miscalculate the vertical profiles of minor species. Such differences are expected to have important implications for Titan’s overall atmospheric structure and chemistry.

  6. Effects of Instructional Strategies Using Cross Sections on the Recognition of Anatomical Structures in Correlated CT and MR Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Paas, Fred; Johnson, Tristan E.; Su, Yung K.; Payer, Andrew F.

    2008-01-01

    This research is an effort to best utilize the interactive anatomical images for instructional purposes based on cognitive load theory. Three studies explored the differential effects of three computer-based instructional strategies that use anatomical cross-sections to enhance the interpretation of radiological images. These strategies include:…

  7. Systematic study of deformation effects on fusion cross-sections using various proximity potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajbongshi, Tapan; Kalita, Kushal

    2014-06-01

    The influence of static quadrupole and hexadecapole (positive & negative) deformation of targets are studied using eleven different versions of nuclear potentials. The height and position of the interaction barrier for the reactions induced by spherical projectile (16O) on the deformed targets such as 166Er, 154Sm and 176Yb have been estimated. It is found that the nucleus-nucleus potential strongly depends on the value of the deformation parameters and orientation of the target. The experimental fusion cross-section of the reactions 16O + 176Yb, 16O +166Er and 16O +154Sm are investigated by applyingWong's formula using various parameterizations of the proximity potential as well as an assessment of the results of a multi-dimensional barrier penetration model (BPM). The fusion cross-sections by Prox 77, Prox 88, Prox 00, Prox 00DP, Denisov DP, Bass 80, CW 76 and AW 95 potentials are found to be better than the rest in comparison to experimental data.

  8. Effect of exercise intervention on thigh muscle volume and anatomical cross-sectional areas--quantitative assessment using MRI.

    PubMed

    Hudelmaier, Martin; Wirth, Wolfgang; Himmer, Maria; Ring-Dimitriou, Susanne; Sänger, Alexandra; Eckstein, Felix

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the location-specific magnitudes of an exercise intervention on thigh muscle volume and anatomical cross-sectional area, using MRI. Forty one untrained women participated in strength, endurance, or autogenic training for 12 weeks. Axial MR images of the thigh were acquired before and after the intervention, using a T1-weighted turbo-spin-echo sequence (10 mm sections, 0.78 mm in-plane resolution). The extensor, flexor, adductor, and sartorius muscles were segmented between the femoral neck and the rectus femoris tendon. Muscle volumes were determined, and anatomical cross-sectional areas were derived from 3D reconstructions at 10% (proximal-to-distal) intervals. With strength training, the volume of the extensors (+3.1%), flexors (+3.5%), and adductors (+3.9%) increased significantly (P < 0.05) between baseline and follow-up, and with endurance training, the volume of the extensor (+3.7%) and sartorius (+5.1%) increased significantly (P < 0.05). No relevant or statistically significant change was observed with autogenic training. The greatest standardized response means were observed for the anatomical cross-sectional area in the proximal aspect (10-30%) of the thigh and generally exceeded those for muscle volumes. The study shows that MRI can be used to monitor location-specific effects of exercise intervention on muscle cross-sectional areas, with the proximal aspect of the thigh muscles being most responsive. PMID:20665894

  9. Geometry effects on magnetization dynamics in circular cross-section wires

    SciTech Connect

    Sturma, M.; Toussaint, J.-C. E-mail: daria.gusakova@cea.fr; Gusakova, D. E-mail: daria.gusakova@cea.fr

    2015-06-28

    Three-dimensional magnetic memory design based on circular-cross section nanowires with modulated diameter is the emerging field of spintronics. The consequences of the mutual interaction between electron spins and local magnetic moments in such non-trivial geometries are still open to debate. This paper describes the theoretical study of domain wall dynamics within such wires subjected to spin polarized current. We used our home-made finite element software to characterize the variety of domain wall dynamical regimes observed for different constriction to wire diameter ratios d/D. Also, we studied how sizeable geometry irregularities modify the internal micromagnetic configuration and the electron spin spatial distribution in the system, the geometrical reasons underlying the additional contribution to the system's nonadiabaticity, and the specific domain wall width oscillations inherent to fully three-dimensional systems.

  10. Tunable electromechanical coupling of a carbon nanotube-reinforced variable cross-section nanoswitch with a piezoelectric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. D.; Li, Y. D.; Wang, X.

    2016-08-01

    An analytical method is presented to investigate the pull-in instability of a carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced variable cross-section nanoswitch with a piezoelectric effect. Governing equations with variable coefficients are derived based on the nonlocal beam model with geometrical nonlinearity and are solved using the shooting method. All the nonlinear effects of the piezoelectric voltage, van der Waals force, Casimir force, CNT volume fraction, nonlocal parameters and width ratio on the pull-in instability are investigated. The pull-in electrostatic voltage increases with the increment of nonlocal parameters, which exhibits the significant scale-dependent behavior of nanostructures. The results show that the variable cross-section improves the flexural rigidity of the cantilever-type nanoswitch effectively, and that the piezoelectric effect of the piezoelectric layer is utilized to control the electrostatic force induced by the voltage exerted on the elastic layer, owing to piezoelectric materials’ advantages of rapid response, light weight and low energy consumption.

  11. Recommended Dosimetry Cross Section Compendium.

    1994-07-11

    Version 00 The data is recommended for spectrum determination applications and for the prediction of neutron activation of typical radiation sensor materials. The library has been tested for consistency of the cross sections in a wide variety of neutron environments. The results and cautions from this testing have been documented. The data has been interfaced with radiation transport codes, such as TWODANT-SYS (CCC-547) and MCNP (CCC-200), in order to compare calculated and measured activities formore » benchmark reactor experiments.« less

  12. Cross sections for 14-eV e-H{sub 2} resonant collisions: Isotope effect in dissociative electron attachment

    SciTech Connect

    Celiberto, R.; Janev, R. K.; Wadehra, J. M.; Laricchiuta, A.

    2011-07-15

    The process of dissociative attachment of electrons to molecular hydrogen and its isotopes in the energy range at approximately 14 eV is investigated. The dissociative electron attachment cross sections for all six hydrogen isotopes are calculated over an extended range of electron energies using the local complex potential model with the excited Rydberg {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +} electronic state of H{sub 2}{sup -} acting as the intermediate resonant state. A significant isotope effect in theoretical electron attachment cross sections is observed, in agreement with previous predictions and experimental observations. A two-parameter analytic expression for the cross section is derived from the theory that fits accurately the numerically calculated cross sections for all isotopes. Similarly, an analytic mass-scaling relation is derived from the theory that accurately reproduces the numerically calculated rate coefficients for all isotopes in the 0.1-1000 eV temperature range by using the rate coefficient for the H{sub 2} isotope only. The latter is represented by an analytic fit expression with two parameters only.

  13. Effect of diameter of nanoparticles and capture cross-section library on macroscopic dose enhancement in boron neutron capture therapy

    PubMed Central

    Farhood, Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is evaluation of the effect of diameter of 10B nanoparticles and various neutron capture cross-section libraries on macroscopic dose enhancement in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Material and methods MCNPX Monte Carlo code was used for simulation of a 252Cf source, a soft tissue phantom and a tumor containing 10B nanoparticles. Using 252Cf as a neutron source, macroscopic dose enhancement factor (MDEF) and total dose rate in tumor in the presence of 100, 200, and 500 ppm of 10B nanoparticles with 25 nm, 50 nm, and 100 nm diameters were calculated. Additionally, the effect of ENDF, JEFF, JENDL, and CENDL neutron capture cross-section libraries on MDEF was evaluated. Results There is not a linear relationship between the average MDEF value and nanoparticles’ diameter but the average MDEF grows with increased concentration of 10B nanoparticles. There is an increasing trend for average MDEF with the tumor distance. The average MDEF values were obtained the same for various neutron capture cross-section libraries. The maximum and minimum doses that effect on the total dose in tumor were neutron and secondary photon doses, respectively. Furthermore, the boron capture related dose component reduced in some extent with increase of diameter of 10B nanoparticles. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that from physical point of view, various nanoparticle diameters have no dominant effect on average MDEF value in tumor. Furthermore, it is concluded that various neutron capture cross-section libraries are resulted to the same macroscopic dose enhancements. However, it is predicted that taking into account the biological effects for various nanoparticle diameters will result in different dose enhancements. PMID:25834582

  14. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

  15. The effects of body mass index and age on cross-sectional properties of the femoral neck.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Rachel L; Hampton, Aaron D; Langley, Natalie R

    2015-11-01

    Research on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and cross-sectional geometry of long bone diaphyses demonstrates that strength properties are significantly greater in obese versus normal BMI individuals. However, articular dimensions do not differ appreciably. If femoral head size remains constant, we hypothesize that the femoral neck remodels to accommodate greater loads associated with increased BMI. High-resolution CT scans (n = 170 males) were divided into three BMI groups (normal, overweight, and obese) and two age groups (21-50 and >50). OsiriX software was used to obtain a cross-sectional slice at the waist of the femoral neck. Cortical area (CA), total cross-sectional area (TA), percent cortical area (%CA), circularity index (Imax /Imin ), section modulus (Zpol ), and second moment of area (J) were measured with ImageJ software. The effects of age and BMI were evaluated statistically. Pairwise comparisons in the younger group only detected significant differences between normal and obese males in the circularity index (P = 0.022). The older cohort showed significant differences in CA (P < 0.001), %CA (P = 0.004), Zpol (P = 0.007), and J (P < 0.001) between normal and obese groups. This study shows that the effects of obesity on the cross-sectional geometry of the femoral neck are more pronounced in older males relative to younger males. Older males with increased BMI have greater cortical area and bone strength in the femoral neck relative to younger males, thus making the femoral neck less susceptible to fractures in obese individuals.

  16. Terahertz radar cross section measurements.

    PubMed

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-12-01

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar on full-size objects. The measurements are performed in a terahertz time-domain system with freely propagating terahertz pulses generated by tilted pulse front excitation of lithium niobate crystals and measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The application of a time domain system provides ranging information and also allows for identification of scattering points such as weaponry attached to the aircraft. The shapes of the models and positions of reflecting parts are retrieved by the filtered back projection algorithm.

  17. Cross Sections From Scalar Field Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank; Norman, Ryan B.; Nasto, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    A one pion exchange scalar model is used to calculate differential and total cross sections for pion production through nucleon- nucleon collisions. The collisions involve intermediate delta particle production and decay to nucleons and a pion. The model provides the basic theoretical framework for scalar field theory and can be applied to particle production processes where the effects of spin can be neglected.

  18. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: The effect of dynamical screening on helium (e, 2e) fully differential cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shi-Yan; Jia, Xiang-Fu; Miao, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Feng; Xie, Yi; Li, Xiong-Wei; Shi, Wen-Qiang

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the fully differential cross sections (FDCS) for 102eV electron impact single ionization of helium for both the coplanar and perpendicular plane asymmetric geometries within the framework of dynamically screened three-Coulomb-wave theory. Comparisons are made with the experimental data and those of the three-Coulomb wave function model and second-order distorted-wave Born method. The angular distribution and relative heights of the present FDCS is found to be in very good agreement with the experimental data in the perpendicular plane geometry. It is shown that dynamical screening effects are significant in this geometry. Three-body coupling is expected to be weak in the coplanar geometry, although the precise absolute value of the cross section is still sensitive to the interaction details.

  19. Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking Fwd, No 1 Hold Section at Fr 28 Looking Aft, No 2 Hold Section at Fr 48 Looking Aft, No 3 Hold Section at Fr 70 Looking Aft, No 4 Hold Section at Fr 90 Looking Aft - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  20. Experimental investigation of the effect orifice shape and fluid pressure has on high aspect ratio cross-sectional jet behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wakes, S J; Holdø, A E; Meares, A J

    2002-01-01

    Prevention of major disasters such as Piper Alpha is a concern of oil and gas companies when commissioning a new offshore superstructure. Safety studies are undertaken to identify potential major hazards, risks to personnel and that sufficient precautions have been employed to minimise these. Such an assessment will also include the consideration of the protection from gas leaks such as the optimum positions of gas leak detectors and startup safety procedures after a leak. This requires a comprehensive knowledge of the behaviour of the leaking hydrocarbons as they emerge from the leak into the area of concern. Such leaks are most likely to emanate from a high aspect ratio cross-sectional curved slot in a pipeline. This paper challenges the conventional view that it is sufficient to model such leaks as axisymmetric jets. This paper is therefore concerned with an experimental study carried out on a series of more realistic high aspect ratio cross-sectional jets issuing from a flange orifice. Both high quality photographs in both planes of the jets and some quantitative pressure data is examined for a high aspect ratio cross-sectional jet of air at pressures up to 4.136bar. The effect of changing aspect ratio, fluid pressure and orifice shape will be discussed and put into context with regard to how this relates to offshore analysis studies.

  1. Effect of shell drilling stiffness on response calculations of rectangular plates and tubes of rectangular cross-section under compression.

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, Jhana; Hales, Jason Dean; Corona, Edmundo

    2010-05-01

    This report considers the calculation of the quasi-static nonlinear response of rectangular flat plates and tubes of rectangular cross-section subjected to compressive loads using quadrilateralshell finite element models. The principal objective is to assess the effect that the shell drilling stiffness parameter has on the calculated results. The calculated collapse load of elastic-plastic tubes of rectangular cross-section is of particular interest here. The drilling stiffness factor specifies the amount of artificial stiffness that is given to the shell element drilling Degree of freedom (rotation normal to the plane of the element). The element formulation has no stiffness for this degree of freedom, and this can lead to numerical difficulties. The results indicate that in the problems considered it is necessary to add a small amount of drilling tiffness to obtain converged results when using both implicit quasi-statics or explicit dynamics methods. The report concludes with a parametric study of the imperfection sensitivity of the calculated responses of the elastic-plastic tubes with rectangular cross-section.

  2. Introduction effects of the Australian plain packaging policy on adult smokers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Hayes, Linda; Durkin, Sarah; Borland, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether smokers smoking from packs required under Australia's plain packaging law had different smoking beliefs and quitting thoughts, compared with those still smoking from branded packs. Design Cross-sectional survey during the roll-out phase of the law, analysed by timing of survey. Setting Australian state of Victoria, November 2012. Participants 536 cigarette smokers with a usual brand, of whom 72.3% were smoking from a plain pack and 27.7% were smoking from a branded pack. Primary outcome measures Perceived quality and satisfaction of cigarettes compared with 1 year ago, frequency of thoughts of smoking harm, perceived exaggeration of harms, frequency of thoughts of quitting, quitting priority in life, intention to quit, approval of large graphic health warnings and plain packaging. Results Compared with branded pack smokers, those smoking from plain packs perceived their cigarettes to be lower in quality (adjusted OR (AdjOR)=1.66, p=0.045), tended to perceive their cigarettes as less satisfying than a year ago (AdjOR=1.70, p=0.052), were more likely to have thought about quitting at least once a day in the past week (AdjOR=1.81, p=0.013) and to rate quitting as a higher priority in their lives (F=13.11, df=1, p<0.001). Plain pack smokers were more likely to support the policy than branded pack smokers (AdjOR=1.51, p=0.049). Branded and plain pack smokers did not differ on measures of less immediate smoking intentions, frequency of thoughts about harms or perceived exaggeration of harms. Appeal outcomes, but not other outcomes, were sensitive to the extent of roll-out, with responses from branded pack smokers approaching those of plain pack smokers, once 80% of survey respondents were smoking from plain packs 1–2 weeks before the December implementation date. Conclusions The early indication is that plain packaging is associated with lower smoking appeal, more support for the policy and more urgency to quit among adult smokers

  3. Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections

    2014-11-01

    Version 00 The Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections, EPICS, provides the atomic data needed to perform coupled Electron-Photon transport calculations, to produce accurate macroscopic results, such as energy deposit and dose. Atomic data is provided for elements, Z = 1 to 100, over the energy range 10 eV to 100 GeV; note that nuclear data, such as photo-nuclear, and data for compounds, are not included. All data is in a simple computer independent text formatmore » that is standard and presented to a high precision that can be easily read by computer codes written in any computer language, e.g., C, C++, and FORTRAN. EPICS includes four separate data bases that are designed to be used in combination, these include, • The Evaluated Electron Data Library (EEDL), to describe the interaction of electrons with matter. • The Evaluated Photon Data Library (EPDL), to describe the interaction of photons with matter. • The Evaluated Atomic Data Library (EADL), to describe the emission of electrons and photons back to neutrality following an ionizing event, caused by either electron or photon interactions. • The Evaluated Excitation Data Library (EXDL), to describe the excitation of atoms due to photon interaction. All of these are available in the Extended ENDL format (ENDLX) in which the evaluations were originally performed. The first three are also available in the ENDF format; as yet ENDF does not include formats to handle excitation data (EXDL).« less

  4. Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D. E.

    2014-11-01

    Version 00 The Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections, EPICS, provides the atomic data needed to perform coupled Electron-Photon transport calculations, to produce accurate macroscopic results, such as energy deposit and dose. Atomic data is provided for elements, Z = 1 to 100, over the energy range 10 eV to 100 GeV; note that nuclear data, such as photo-nuclear, and data for compounds, are not included. All data is in a simple computer independent text format that is standard and presented to a high precision that can be easily read by computer codes written in any computer language, e.g., C, C++, and FORTRAN. EPICS includes four separate data bases that are designed to be used in combination, these include, • The Evaluated Electron Data Library (EEDL), to describe the interaction of electrons with matter. • The Evaluated Photon Data Library (EPDL), to describe the interaction of photons with matter. • The Evaluated Atomic Data Library (EADL), to describe the emission of electrons and photons back to neutrality following an ionizing event, caused by either electron or photon interactions. • The Evaluated Excitation Data Library (EXDL), to describe the excitation of atoms due to photon interaction. All of these are available in the Extended ENDL format (ENDLX) in which the evaluations were originally performed. The first three are also available in the ENDF format; as yet ENDF does not include formats to handle excitation data (EXDL).

  5. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  6. Recent fission cross section standards measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson, O.A.

    1985-01-01

    The /sup 235/U(n,f) reaction is the standard by which most neutron induced fission cross sections are determined. Most of these cross sections are derived from relatively easy ratio measurements to /sup 235/U. However, the more difficult /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section measurements require the use of advanced neutron detectors for the determination of the incident neutron fluence. Examples of recent standard cross section measurements are discussed, various neutron detectors are described, and the status of the /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section standard is assessed. 23 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Effect of wave function on the proton induced L XRP cross sections for {sub 62}Sm and {sub 74}W

    SciTech Connect

    Shehla,; Kaur, Rajnish; Kumar, Anil; Puri, Sanjiv

    2015-08-28

    The L{sub k}(k= 1, α, β, γ) X-ray production cross sections have been calculated for {sub 74}W and {sub 62}Sm at different incident proton energies ranging 1-5 MeV using theoretical data sets of different physical parameters, namely, the Li(i=1-3) sub-shell X-ray emission rates based on the Dirac-Fork (DF) model, the fluorescence and Coster Kronig yields based on the Dirac- Hartree-Slater (DHS) model and two sets the proton ionization cross sections based on the DHS model and the ECPSSR in order to assess the influence of the wave function on the XRP cross sections. The calculated cross sections have been compared with the measured cross sections reported in the recent compilation to check the reliability of the calculated values.

  8. Effect of wave function on the proton induced L XRP cross sections for 62Sm and 74W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehla, Kaur, Rajnish; Kumar, Anil; Puri, Sanjiv

    2015-08-01

    The Lk(k= 1, α, β, γ) X-ray production cross sections have been calculated for 74W and 62Sm at different incident proton energies ranging 1-5 MeV using theoretical data sets of different physical parameters, namely, the Li(i=1-3) sub-shell X-ray emission rates based on the Dirac-Fork (DF) model, the fluorescence and Coster Kronig yields based on the Dirac- Hartree-Slater (DHS) model and two sets the proton ionization cross sections based on the DHS model and the ECPSSR in order to assess the influence of the wave function on the XRP cross sections. The calculated cross sections have been compared with the measured cross sections reported in the recent compilation to check the reliability of the calculated values.

  9. Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at No 154 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 195 Looking Fwd Showing Trans 194, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 198 Looking Fwd - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  10. Well-Being and Institutional Care in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional and Time Effects of Provided and Received Support

    PubMed Central

    Kroemeke, Aleksandra; Gruszczynska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of provided and received support on older adults’ subjective well-being (positive affect and depression) and to examine whether being a recipient of institutional care moderates these effects. Methods Social support (provided and received), positive affect, and depressive symptoms were assessed twice (at baseline and 1 month later) for 277 older adults (age 77.39 ± 9.20 years, 67.50% women, 65% residents of an institutional care facility). Findings Two structural equation models were analyzed: cross-sectional (at baseline) and longitudinal (after 1 month). The first model revealed a significant positive relationship between providing and receiving support and positive affect, and a negative relationship between receiving support and depression. However, being a recipient of institutional care appeared to be a significant moderator in the longitudinal model. Specifically, the findings indicated effects of both providing and receiving support on positive affect but only for noninstitutionalized older adults. Discussion Although both types of support may be beneficial for older adults, their effects depend on the nature of social exchange and the dimensions of well-being. This suggests that such factors should be systematically investigated in future research. PMID:27548721

  11. Primary pressure standard based on piston-cylinder assemblies. Calculation of effective cross sectional area based on rarefied gas dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharipov, Felix; Yang, Yuanchao; Ricker, Jacob E.; Hendricks, Jay H.

    2016-10-01

    Currently, the piston-cylinder assembly known as PG39 is used as a primary pressure standard at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the range of 20 kPa to 1 MPa with a standard uncertainty of 3× {{10}-6} as evaluated in 2006. An approximate model of gas flow through the crevice between the piston and sleeve contributed significantly to this uncertainty. The aim of this work is to revise the previous effective cross sectional area of PG39 and its uncertainty by carrying out more exact calculations that consider the effects of rarefied gas flow. The effective cross sectional area is completely determined by the pressure distribution in the crevice. Once the pressure distribution is known, the elastic deformations of both piston and sleeve are calculated by finite element analysis. Then, the pressure distribution is recalculated iteratively for the new crevice dimension. As a result, a new value of the effective area is obtained with a relative difference of 3× {{10}-6} from the previous one. Moreover, this approach allows us to reduce significantly the standard uncertainty related to the gas flow model so that the total uncertainty is decreased by a factor of three.

  12. Formulation and solution of the delayed gamma dose rate problem using the concept of effective delayed gamma production cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Liew, S.L.; Ku, L.P.

    1989-06-01

    With appropriate approximations, the delayed gamma dose rate problem can be formulated in terms of the effective delayed gamma production cross section. The coupled neutron-delayed-gamma transport equations then take the same form as the coupled neutron-prompt-gamma transport equations and they can, therefore, be solved directly in the same manner. This eliminates the need for the tedious and error prone flux coupling step in conventional calculations. Mathematical formulation and solution algorithms are derived. The advantages of this method are illustrated by an example of its application in the solution of a practical design problem. 62 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  14. Theoretical antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, W. W.; Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections for intermediate to high energies are calculated using an ion-ion optical model. Good agreement with experiment (within 15 percent) is obtained in this same model for (bar p)-nucleus cross sections at laboratory energies up to 15 GeV. We describe a technique for estimating antinucleus-nucleus cross sections from NN data and suggest that further cosmic ray studies to search for antideuterons and other antinuclei be undertaken.

  15. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Itikawa, Yukikazu; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  16. Pulse duration effects on laser-assisted electron transfer cross section for He2+ ions colliding with atomic hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Gutiérrez, Francisco Javier; Cabrera-Trujillo, Remigio

    2014-08-01

    We study the effect of the pulse duration for an ultra-fast and intense laser on the fundamental process of electron capture by analyzing the excitation probability into the n = 2 and n = 3 states when He2+ collides with atomic hydrogen in the 0.05-10 keV/amu energy range, a region of interest for diagnostic processes on plasma and fusion power reactors. We solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation to calculate the electron capture probability by means of a finite-differences, as well as by an electron-nuclear dynamics approach. In particular, we study the effects of 1, 3, 6, and 10 fs laser pulses at FWHM, wavelength of 780 nm and intensity of 3.5 × 1012 W/cm2. We report good agreement for the laser-free state and total electron transfer cross-sections when compared to available theoretical and experimental data. The effect of the laser pulse on the electron capture probability as a function of the impact parameter is such that the charge exchange probability increases considerably in the impact parameter radial region with an increase in the amplitude oscillations and a phase shift on the Stückelberg oscillations. We find an increase on the total electron exchange cross-section for low projectile collision energy when compared to the laser-free case with a minimal effect at high collision energies. We find that the 1 fs laser pulse has a minimal effect, except for very low collision energies. Although in general, the longer the laser pulse, the larger the electron capture probability, at very low collision energies all pulse widths have an effect. For processes in the atto-second region, our findings suggest that to enhance the laser-assisted charge exchange, the best region for short pulses is at very low collision energies. We also find that the s and p state charge exchange cross section are equally affected. We provide a qualitative discussion of these findings.

  17. Cross sections required for FMIT dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.; Mann, F.M.; Oberg, D.L.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1980-05-02

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility, currently under construction, is designed to produce a high flux of high energy neutrons for irradiation effects experiments on fusion reactor materials. Characterization of the flux-fluence-spectrum in this rapidly varying neutron field requires adaptation and extension of currently available dosimetry techniques. This characterization will be carried out by a combination of active, passive, and calculational dosimetry. The goal is to provide the experimenter with accurate neutron flux-fluence-spectra at all positions in the test cell. Plans have been completed for a number of experimental dosimetry stations and provision for these facilities has been incorporated into the FMIT design. Overall needs of the FMIT irradiation damage program delineate goal accuracies for dosimetry that, in turn, create new requirements for high energy neutron cross section data. Recommendations based on these needs have been derived for required cross section data and accuracies.

  18. Proton Pair Production Cross Sections at BESIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaorong

    Using data samples collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider, the Born cross section of e + e - to pbar{p} at 12 center-of-mass energies from 2232.4 to 3671.0 MeV is provided. The corresponding effective electromagnetic form factor of the proton is deduced under the assumption that the electric and magnetic form factors are equal. In addition, the ratio of electric to magnetic form factors are extracted for the data samples with larger statistics. The measured cross sections are in agreement with recent results from BaBar, improving the overall uncertainty by about 30%. The |GE/GM| ratios are close to unity and consistent with BaBar results in the same q2 region.

  19. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Effects of Racism on Mental Health Among Residents of Black Neighborhoods in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Melody S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the impact of reported racism on the mental health of African Americans at cross-sectional time points and longitudinally, over the course of 1 year. Methods. The Black Linking Inequality, Feelings, and the Environment (LIFE) Study recruited Black residents (n = 144) from a probability sample of 2 predominantly Black New York City neighborhoods during December 2011 to June 2013. Respondents completed self-report surveys, including multiple measures of racism. We conducted assessments at baseline, 2-month follow-up, and 1-year follow-up. Weighted multivariate linear regression models assessed changes in racism and health over time. Results. Cross-sectional results varied by time point and by outcome, with only some measures associated with distress, and effects were stronger for poor mental health days than for depression. Individuals who denied thinking about their race fared worst. Longitudinally, increasing frequencies of racism predicted worse mental health across all 3 outcomes. Conclusions. These results support theories of racism as a health-defeating stressor and are among the few that show temporal associations with health. PMID:25521873

  20. Studies on mass energy-absorption coefficients and effective atomic energy-absorption cross sections for carbohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladhaf, Bibifatima M.; Pawar, Pravina P.

    2015-04-01

    We measured here the mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) of carbohydrates, Esculine (C15H16O9), Sucrose (C12H22O11), Sorbitol (C6H14O6), D-Galactose (C6H12O6), Inositol (C6H12O6), D-Xylose (C5H10O5) covering the energy range from 122 keV up to 1330 keV photon energies by using gamma ray transmission method in a narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma-rays were detected using NaI(Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 8.2% at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the total attenuation cross-section (σtot), molar extinction coefficients (ε), mass-energy absorption coefficients (μen/ρ) and effective (average) atomic energy-absorption cross section (σa,en) of the compounds. These values are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated based on XCOM data.

  1. Intense laser field effects on the linear and nonlinear optical properties in a semiconductor quantum wire with triangle cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barseghyan, M. G.; Duque, C. A.; Niculescu, E. C.; Radu, A.

    2014-02-01

    We study the laser field effects on the intersubband optical absorption and the refractive index changes in a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wire with equilateral triangle cross section. The wire is under the action of a laser beam which is assumed to be non-resonant with the semiconductor structure and linearly polarized perpendicularly to the triangle side. In the effective mass approximation and for a finite potential barrier we calculate the subband states by using a finite element method. Linear, non linear and total absorption coefficients and refractive index changes are calculated as functions of the laser field for the allowed intersubband transitions. Two polarizations of the pump radiation, parallel and perpendicular to the laser field direction, are discussed.

  2. Effects of bone-specific physical activity, gender and maturity on tibial cross-sectional bone material distribution: a cross-sectional pQCT comparison of children and young adults aged 5-29 years.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, Timo; Weeks, Benjamin K; Nogueira, Rossana C; Beck, Belinda R

    2015-03-01

    Growth is the opportune time to modify bone accrual. While bone adaptation is known to be dependent on local loading and consequent deformations (strain) of bone, little is known about the effects of sex, and bone-specific physical activity on location-specific cross-sectional bone geometry during growth. To provide more insight we examined bone traits at different locations around tibial cross sections, and along the tibia between individuals who vary in terms of physical activity exposure, sex, and pubertal status. Data from 304 individuals aged 5-29 years (172 males, 132 females) were examined. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was applied at 4%, 14%, 38%, and 66% of tibial length. Maturity was established by estimating age at peak height velocity (APHV). Loading history was quantified with the bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ). Comparisons, adjusted for height, weight and age were made between sex, maturity, and BPAQ tertile groups. Few to no differences were observed between sexes or BPAQ tertiles prior to APHV, whereas marked sexual dimorphism and differences between BPAQ tertiles were observed after APHV. Cross-sectional location-specific differences between BPAQ tertiles were not evident prior to APHV, whereas clear location-specificity was observed after APHV. In conclusion, the skeletal benefits of physical activity are location-specific in the tibia. The present results indicate that the peri- or post-pubertal period is likely a more favourable window of opportunity for enhancing cross-sectional bone geometry than pre-puberty. Increased loading during the peri-pubertal period may enhance the bone of both sexes.

  3. Nonperturbative corrections in resummed cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korchemsky, Gregory P.; Sterman, George

    1995-02-01

    We show that the resummation of large perturbative corrections in QCD leads to ambiguities in high energy cross sections that are suppressed by powers of large momentum scales. These ambiguities are caused by infrared renormalons, which are a general feature of resummed hardscattering functions in perturbative QCD, even though these functions are infrared safe order-by-order in perturbation theory. As in the case of the operator product expansion, the contributions of infrared renormalons to coefficient functions may be absorbed into the definition of higher-dimensional operators, which induce nonperturbative corrections that are power-suppressed at high energies. The strength of the suppression is determined by the location of the dominant infrared renormalon, which may be identified explicitly in the resummed series. In contrast to the operator product expansion, however, the relevant operators in factorized hadron-hadron scattering and jet cross sections are generally nonlocal in QCD, although they may be expressed as local operators in an effective theory for eikonalized quarks. In this context, we verify and interpret the presence of 1 / Q corrections to the inclusive Drell-Yan cross section with Q the pair mass. In a similar manner, we find exp (- b2 In Q) corrections in the impact parameter space of the transverse momentum distributions of the Drell-Yan process and e +6 - annihilation. We also show that the dominant nonperturbative corrections to cone-based jet cross sections behave as 1 /( Qδ), with δ the opening angle of the jet and Q the center of mass energy.

  4. Effective Potential Energies and Transport Cross Sections for Atom-Molecule Interactions of Nitrogen and Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, Eugene; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The potential energy surfaces for H2-N and N2-N interactions are calculated by accurate ab initio methods and applied to determine transport data. The results confirm that an effective potential energy for accurately determining transport properties can be calculated using a single orientation. A simple method is developed to determine the dispersion coefficients of effective potential energies Effective potential energies required for O2-O collisions are determ=ined. The H2-N, N2-N, O2-H, and O2-O collision integrals are calculated and tabulated for a large range of temperatures. The theoretical values of the N2-N and O2-O diffusion coefficients compare well with measured data available at room temperature.

  5. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  6. The effect of family size on savings: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Esquerra-powers, V

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of rising population on economic growth was conducted in the Philippines through the effects on savings and investment. Census data were used to extract income, expenditure, and consumption for 1957, 1961, and 1965. Regression analysis on income by income class showed rural families have the highest marginal savings potential when the effect of family size was not a factor. However, when family size was considered, the expenditure-income coefficients were reduced for all areas except rural areas which remained relatively high. Family size coefficients were absolutely greater for urban areas, but proportionately greater for rural areas in relation to expenditure. The study did not show that economies of scale in family spending were important.

  7. Electron collisions with phenol: Total, integral, differential, and momentum transfer cross sections and the role of multichannel coupling effects on the elastic channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Romarly F.; de Oliveira, Eliane M.; Bettega, Márcio H. F.; Varella, Márcio T. do N.; Jones, Darryl B.; Brunger, Michael J.; Blanco, Francisco; Colmenares, Rafael; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; García, Gustavo; Lima, Marco A. P.

    2015-03-01

    We report theoretical and experimental total cross sections for electron scattering by phenol (C6H5OH). The experimental data were obtained with an apparatus based in Madrid and the calculated cross sections with two different methodologies, the independent atom method with screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR), and the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials (SMCPP). The SMCPP method in the Nopen-channel coupling scheme, at the static-exchange-plus-polarization approximation, is employed to calculate the scattering amplitudes at impact energies ranging from 5.0 eV to 50 eV. We discuss the multichannel coupling effects in the calculated cross sections, in particular how the number of excited states included in the open-channel space impacts upon the convergence of the elastic cross sections at higher collision energies. The IAM-SCAR approach was also used to obtain the elastic differential cross sections (DCSs) and for correcting the experimental total cross sections for the so-called forward angle scattering effect. We found a very good agreement between our SMCPP theoretical differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections and experimental data for benzene (a molecule differing from phenol by replacing a hydrogen atom in benzene with a hydroxyl group). Although some discrepancies were found for lower energies, the agreement between the SMCPP data and the DCSs obtained with the IAM-SCAR method improves, as expected, as the impact energy increases. We also have a good agreement among the present SMCPP calculated total cross section (which includes elastic, 32 inelastic electronic excitation processes and ionization contributions, the latter estimated with the binary-encounter-Bethe model), the IAM-SCAR total cross section, and the experimental data when the latter is corrected for the forward angle scattering effect [Fuss et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 042702 (2013)].

  8. Electron collisions with phenol: Total, integral, differential, and momentum transfer cross sections and the role of multichannel coupling effects on the elastic channel

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, Romarly F. da; Oliveira, Eliane M. de; Lima, Marco A. P.; Bettega, Márcio H. F.; Varella, Márcio T. do N.; Jones, Darryl B.; Brunger, Michael J.; Blanco, Francisco; Colmenares, Rafael; and others

    2015-03-14

    We report theoretical and experimental total cross sections for electron scattering by phenol (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH). The experimental data were obtained with an apparatus based in Madrid and the calculated cross sections with two different methodologies, the independent atom method with screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR), and the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials (SMCPP). The SMCPP method in the N{sub open}-channel coupling scheme, at the static-exchange-plus-polarization approximation, is employed to calculate the scattering amplitudes at impact energies ranging from 5.0 eV to 50 eV. We discuss the multichannel coupling effects in the calculated cross sections, in particular how the number of excited states included in the open-channel space impacts upon the convergence of the elastic cross sections at higher collision energies. The IAM-SCAR approach was also used to obtain the elastic differential cross sections (DCSs) and for correcting the experimental total cross sections for the so-called forward angle scattering effect. We found a very good agreement between our SMCPP theoretical differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections and experimental data for benzene (a molecule differing from phenol by replacing a hydrogen atom in benzene with a hydroxyl group). Although some discrepancies were found for lower energies, the agreement between the SMCPP data and the DCSs obtained with the IAM-SCAR method improves, as expected, as the impact energy increases. We also have a good agreement among the present SMCPP calculated total cross section (which includes elastic, 32 inelastic electronic excitation processes and ionization contributions, the latter estimated with the binary-encounter-Bethe model), the IAM-SCAR total cross section, and the experimental data when the latter is corrected for the forward angle scattering effect [Fuss et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 042702 (2013)].

  9. The Effect of N2 Photoabsorption Cross Section Resolution on C2H6 Production in Titan’s Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luspay-Kuti, Adrienn; Mandt, Kathleen E.; Plessis, Sylvain; Greathouse, Thomas K.

    2014-11-01

    Titan’s rich organic chemistry begins with the photochemistry of only two molecules: N2 and CH4. The details on how higher-order hydrocarbons and nitriles are formed from these molecules have key implications for both the structure and evolution of Titan’s atmosphere, and for its surface-atmosphere interactions. Of high importance is the production of C2H6, which is a sink for CH4, and a main component in the polar lakes. Results of photochemical models, though, may be sensitive to the choice of input parameters, such as the N2 photoabsorption cross section resolution, as previously shown for nitrogen (Liang et al. (2007) ApJL 664, 115-118), and CH4 (Lavvas et al. (2011) Icarus 213, 233-251). Here we investigate the possibility of the same effect on the production rates of C2H6. We modeled production and loss rates, as well as mixing ratio and density profiles between an altitude of 600 and 1600 km for low and high resolution N2 cross sections via a coupled ion-neutral-thermal model (De La Haye et al. (2008) Icarus 197, 110-136; Mandt et al. (2012) JGR 117, E10006). Our results show a clear impact of photoabsorption cross section resolution used on all neutral and ion species contributing to C2H6 production. The magnitude of the influence varies amongst species. Ethane production profiles exhibit a significant increase with better resolution; a factor of 1.2 between 750 and 950 km, and a factor of 1.1 in the total column-integrated production rate. These values are lower limits, as additional reactions involving C2H5 not included in the model may also contribute to the production rates. The clear effect on C2H6 (which is not a parent molecule, nor does it bear nitrogen) may have important implications for other molecules in Titan’s atmosphere as well. The possible non-negligible impact of an isotope of nitrogen may argue for the inclusion of isotopes in photochemical models. For future analysis, development of a more efficient and streamlined model called

  10. Effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of children: a cross-sectional study

    SciTech Connect

    Spinaci, S.; Arossa, W.; Bugiani, M.; Natale, P.; Bucca, C.; de Candussio, G.

    1985-09-01

    To investigate the effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of children, a subject of some controversy, a comparative study was undertaken of 2,385 school children who lived in central urban, peripheral urban, and suburban areas. Daily monitoring of sulfur dioxide and total suspended particle concentrations in all areas showed that pollutant concentrations in central and peripheral urban areas were above commonly accepted safety levels for respiratory health, while concentrations in the suburban area were within acceptable limits. A questionnaire administered to each mother assessed environmental exposure to pollutants in the household, the occurrence of respiratory symptoms as well as lung diseases as diagnosed by a physician, and general information. Children were interviewed about smoking habits and any acute respiratory symptoms. Children also performed standard lung function tests. Results showed that children from both urban areas had lessened pulmonary function and a higher prevalence of bronchial secretion with common colds than did those from the suburban area. These differences persisted after corrections for exposure to indoor pollutants, active or passive smoking, socioeconomic status, and sex. Parental cigarette smoking was related to a fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second and an increased incidence of acute respiratory illnesses and chronic cough in children. Although boys had higher lung volumes and lower air flow, regression analysis showed no significant influence of the interactions sex-geographic area and sex-smoking on lung function. It was concluded that air pollution has a significant effect on the respiratory health of children.

  11. Photoinitiated electron transfer to selected physisorbed alkyl bromides: The effects of alkyl chain length on dissociation cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, K.A.; Camillone, N. III; Osgood, R.M. Jr.

    1999-06-01

    We report the results of measurements of the cross section as a function of wavelength (351, 248, and 193 nm) for photoinitiated dissociative electron attachment to three normal alkyl bromides [CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub n{minus}1}Br, n=1, 2, and 3] physisorbed on GaAs(110). Upon UV exposure, the molecules undergo C{endash}Br bond cleavage due to a substrate-mediated electron-transfer process. The cross sections for all three molecules increase monotonically with decreasing wavelength. Our results suggest a {approximately}1 eV higher threshold for dissociation of ethyl and propyl bromide than for methyl bromide. A simple model of the electron-transfer process is employed to estimate the peak per-electron cross section for dissociative attachment in the monolayer. We find that the cross sections for the physisorbed molecules are approximately five times smaller than those for gas-phase molecules, due to a reduction in the lifetime of the molecular anion in the vicinity of the surface. In addition, we also find an increase in cross section with chain length very similar to that observed in the gas phase; the gas-phase behavior has been explained by an increase in the anion lifetime with chain length. Our results suggest that while quenching of the molecular anion at the surface is important, it does not eliminate the progression of anion lifetime with chain length. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Cross-Sectional Investigations on Epitaxial Silicon Solar Cells by Kelvin and Conducting Probe Atomic Force Microscopy: Effect of Illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narchi, Paul; Alvarez, Jose; Chrétien, Pascal; Picardi, Gennaro; Cariou, Romain; Foldyna, Martin; Prod'homme, Patricia; Kleider, Jean-Paul; i Cabarrocas, Pere Roca

    2016-02-01

    Both surface photovoltage and photocurrent enable to assess the effect of visible light illumination on the electrical behavior of a solar cell. We report on photovoltage and photocurrent measurements with nanometer scale resolution performed on the cross section of an epitaxial crystalline silicon solar cell, using respectively Kelvin probe force microscopy and conducting probe atomic force microscopy. Even though two different setups are used, the scans were performed on locations within 100-μm distance in order to compare data from the same area and provide a consistent interpretation. In both measurements, modifications under illumination are observed in accordance with the theory of PIN junctions. Moreover, an unintentional doping during the deposition of the epitaxial silicon intrinsic layer in the solar cell is suggested from the comparison between photovoltage and photocurrent measurements.

  13. Cross-Sectional Investigations on Epitaxial Silicon Solar Cells by Kelvin and Conducting Probe Atomic Force Microscopy: Effect of Illumination.

    PubMed

    Narchi, Paul; Alvarez, Jose; Chrétien, Pascal; Picardi, Gennaro; Cariou, Romain; Foldyna, Martin; Prod'homme, Patricia; Kleider, Jean-Paul; I Cabarrocas, Pere Roca

    2016-12-01

    Both surface photovoltage and photocurrent enable to assess the effect of visible light illumination on the electrical behavior of a solar cell. We report on photovoltage and photocurrent measurements with nanometer scale resolution performed on the cross section of an epitaxial crystalline silicon solar cell, using respectively Kelvin probe force microscopy and conducting probe atomic force microscopy. Even though two different setups are used, the scans were performed on locations within 100-μm distance in order to compare data from the same area and provide a consistent interpretation. In both measurements, modifications under illumination are observed in accordance with the theory of PIN junctions. Moreover, an unintentional doping during the deposition of the epitaxial silicon intrinsic layer in the solar cell is suggested from the comparison between photovoltage and photocurrent measurements.

  14. Effect of Communication Skills Training on the Burnout of Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Darban, Fatemeh; Balouchi, Abbas; Narouipour, Abdullreza; Shahdadi, Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the factors influencing the burnout of nurses is their difficult and complicated relations with patients and other members of the medical team. Therefore, it is necessary that nurses to be trained on communication skills. Aim The present research aims to study the effect of communication skills training on the burnout of nurses. Materials and Methods The present research was an experimental study using pretest-posttest method. The subjects included 60 nurses working in Khatamolanbia Hospital in Iranshahr, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups. The required data and information were collected using Jackson and Maslach Burnout Inventory which was filled out by subjects in three steps including before the intervention, at the end of the second session, and one month after the intervention. The intervention included training on communication skills which was carried out for the intervention group as a 2-day workshop for 8 hours within a week. Results The findings showed that the mean score of frequency and intensity of burnout in the intervention group before the intervention, at the end of the intervention, and one month after the intervention was 39.3±6.2 and 61.1±8.0, 37.5±4.6 and 58.8±7.6, and 34.2±4.4 and 54.6±7.0, respectively. These changes suggest a significant decreasing trend (p=0.01). On the other hand, mean scores of burnout in the control group showed no significant difference in three steps (p<0.05). Conclusion Since communication skills training is an effective and inexpensive way for reducing the burnout among nurses, it is recommended that this approach to be taken into account by managers in order to reduce the burnout among nurses and improve the quality of healthcare services provided by them. PMID:27190832

  15. Effects of Psychological Stress on Hypertension in Middle-Aged Chinese: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bo; Liu, Xiaoyu; Yin, Sufeng; Fan, Hongmin; Feng, Fumin; Yuan, Juxiang

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect and relative contributions of different types of stress on the risk of hypertension. Using cluster sampling, 5,976 community-dwelling individuals aged 40–60 were selected. Hypertension was defined according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee, and general psychological stress was defined as experiencing stress at work or home. Information on known risk factors of hypertension (e.g., physical activity levels, food intake, smoking behavior) was collected from participants. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associations between psychological stress and hypertension, calculating population-attributable risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). General stress was significantly related to hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 1.247, 95% CI [1.076, 1.446]). Additionally, after adjustment for all other risk factors, women showed a greater risk of hypertension if they had either stress at work or at home: OR = 1.285, 95% CI (1.027, 1.609) and OR = 1.231, 95% CI (1.001, 1.514), respectively. However, this increased risk for hypertension by stress was not found in men. General stress contributed approximately 9.1% (95% CI [3.1, 15.0]) to the risk for hypertension. Thus, psychological stress was associated with an increased risk for hypertension, although this increased risk was not consistent across gender. PMID:26043027

  16. Quality of life in colon cancer patients with skin side effects: preliminary results from a monocentric cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors are widely prescribed anticancer drugs. Patients treated commonly develop dermatologic adverse drugs reactions, but rarely they are involved in systematic evaluation of their quality of life. This monocentric cross sectional study is carried out to assess quality of life in colon cancer patients experienced skin side effects due to anti epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors therapy. Methods Consecutive patients with skin side effects to therapy treated at Fondazione Poliambulanza were enrolled in this study. Quality of life was evaluated with the Italian validated version of Skindex-29 questionnaire, exploring three dimensions: symptoms, emotional, and physical functioning. Skindex-29 was administered one time between the eighth and the twelfth week of the treatment. Results Forty-five consecutive patients, mainly with metastatic colon cancer (29 female, 16 male), with an average age of 59.31 years (ranging from 34-78) were included in the study and analyzed. Patients showed a great impact of skin side effects on symptoms (mean 43), followed by emotional (mean 30), and functioning (mean 26) scales. In general women, the 55-65 age class, and patients with partial remission reported the worst quality of life. Conclusions Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors' skin side effects have an important impact on quality of life in advanced colon cancer patients; symptoms scale is the most effect respect to emotional and functioning scales. PMID:20398332

  17. Effect of Spinal Cord Injury on Quality of Life of Affected Soldiers in India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bhawna

    2016-01-01

    Study Design A prospective cross-sectional study with convenience sampling approach was done to assess quality of life (QoL) in 100 soldiers and veterans affected by spinal cord injury (SCI). Purpose SCI affects almost every aspect of the life of an affected individual. This study was done to measure the impact of SCI on QoL of affected soldiers and veterans using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Overview of Literature The devastating effect of SCI on QoL is well known. However, this study is unique in that it includes soldiers and veterans, who constitute a large, but excluded, cohort in most demographic studies. Methods A cross-sectional study was done at two SCI rehabilitation centres of the Indian armed forces. Data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 100 patients, which included both sociodemographic data as well as all the questions included in WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results Age and marital status did not have any influence on QoL. Level of injury (paraplegic or quadriplegic), level of education and presence of other medical co-morbidities had the most significant influence on QoL. Presence of other medical co-morbidities had a negative influence on QoL. Conclusions Identification of factors having a positive and negative influence on QoL help in formulating measures and policies that positively influence the QoL following SCI in soldiers. Future longitudinal studies with larger sample sizes and assessment of additional variables in addition to WHOQOL-BREF, like presence/absence of secondary complications, are required to bring about policy changes to provide SCI patients with additional support and increased access to equipment or lifestyle interventions. PMID:27114767

  18. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the effect of water exercise in controlling bone loss in Japanese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, N; Toda, A; Goto, J; Ezawa, I

    1994-02-01

    The effects of water exercise, as a form of daily physical activity (water exercise in a warm water pool), on bone loss in healthy Japanese postmenopausal women have been cross-sectionally and longitudinally investigated from the viewpoint of preventing osteoporosis. In the cross-sectional study, the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (Z-score (%)) in the Veterans group (N = 27), who had been exercising for 35.2 months on average, was significantly higher than that in the Newcomers (N = 40), who had only begun to exercise 3 or 4 weeks before, and that in the Non-exercisers (N = 30), serving as a control group. The rate of change in the BMD of the lumbar spine was -0.92%/year in the Non-exercisers (N = 30), +1.55%/year in the Veterans (N = 20), and +2.16%/year in the Newcomers (N = 15), based on BMD Z-scores. In the Exercisers groups, it was found that the rate of change in the BMD showed a slight increase rather than a decrease irrespective of the duration of menopause. On the other hand, in the Non-exercisers group, the rate of change in the BMD decreased slightly. The results of questionnaires showed that the subjects' general awareness of health and fitness in daily life was enhanced after starting the water exercise program. These results suggest that consistently participating in water exercise is an important factor in preventing bone loss, and moreover, appears not only to indirectly improve awareness of daily physical activity but also to promote health and improve daily life.

  19. International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, A. D.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Smith, D. L.; Larson, N. M.; Chen, Zhenpeng; Hale, G. M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Gai, E. V.; Oh, Soo-Youl; Badikov, S. A.; Kawano, T.; Hofmann, H. M.; Vonach, H.; Tagesen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Neutron cross section standards are the basis for the determination of most neutron cross sections. They are used for both measurements and evaluations of neutron cross sections. Not many cross sections can be obtained absolutely - most cross sections are measured relative to the cross section standards and converted using evaluations of the standards. The previous complete evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was finished in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B-VI standards. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for all the cross sections in the evaluation were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but they assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The largest experimental database used in the evaluation was prepared by Poenitz and included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. For the evaluation GMA, a least-squares code developed by Poenitz, was used to fit all types of cross sections (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum-averaged cross sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. But, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R-matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group's Standards Subcommittee for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise

  20. A cross-sectional analysis of dioxins and health effects in municipal and private waste incinerator workers in Japan

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, Kenya; KUDO, Mitsuhiro; ARITO, Heihachiro; OGAWA, Yasutaka; TAKATA, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was intended to examine health effects of 678 male workers employed during an 8-yr period from 2000 to 2007 at 36 municipal and private waste incineration plants in Japan. Blood samples were obtained for analysis of concentrations of dioxins including coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) and evaluation of health effects. Health effects including diabetes were surveyed via a physician’s interview or clinical data from blood samples. There was a certain difference in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) between the incinerator workers and Japanese general population, although no differences in the concentrations of total dioxins or polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) were found between the two groups. A few positive correlations between serum levels of PCDDs and PCDFs and the results of laboratory and physiological tests were found, but coplanar PCBs showed significant relations with 14 parameters of the tests. The background serum levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and total dioxins were significantly associated with the prevalence of diabetes. No essential differences in serum concentrations of total dioxins and in prevalence of diabetes between our subjects and the general population suggested that the incinerator workers were marginally exposed to dioxins in the workplace without any recognizable adverse health effects. PMID:26212412

  1. A cross-sectional analysis of dioxins and health effects in municipal and private waste incinerator workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kenya; Kudo, Mitsuhiro; Arito, Heihachiro; Ogawa, Yasutaka; Takata, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was intended to examine health effects of 678 male workers employed during an 8-yr period from 2000 to 2007 at 36 municipal and private waste incineration plants in Japan. Blood samples were obtained for analysis of concentrations of dioxins including coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) and evaluation of health effects. Health effects including diabetes were surveyed via a physician's interview or clinical data from blood samples. There was a certain difference in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) between the incinerator workers and Japanese general population, although no differences in the concentrations of total dioxins or polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) were found between the two groups. A few positive correlations between serum levels of PCDDs and PCDFs and the results of laboratory and physiological tests were found, but coplanar PCBs showed significant relations with 14 parameters of the tests. The background serum levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and total dioxins were significantly associated with the prevalence of diabetes. No essential differences in serum concentrations of total dioxins and in prevalence of diabetes between our subjects and the general population suggested that the incinerator workers were marginally exposed to dioxins in the workplace without any recognizable adverse health effects. PMID:26212412

  2. Cross Section Evaluations for Arsenic Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; McNabb, D P; Ormand, W E

    2005-03-10

    The authors present an evaluation of cross sections describing reactions with neutrons incident on the arsenic isotopes with mass numbers 75 and 74. Particular attention is paid to (n,2n) reactions. The evaluation for {sup 75}As, the only stable As isotope, is guided largely by experimental data. Evaluation for {sup 74}As is made through calculations with the EMPIRE statistical-model reaction code. Cross sections describing the production and destruction of the 26.8 ns isomer in {sup 74}As are explicitly considered. Uncertainties and covariances in some evaluated cross sections are also estimated.

  3. Differential cross-sections with hard targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, J. L.; Pacheco, A. F.

    2005-09-01

    When the concept of scattering differential cross-section is introduced in classical mechanics textbooks, usually it is first supposed that the target is a fixed, hard sphere. In this paper we calculate the scattering differential cross-section in the case of the hard target being a fixed figure of revolution of any shape. When the target is a paraboloid of revolution, we find the well-known formula corresponding to Rutherford's scattering. In addition, we analyse the inverse problem, i.e. given a differential cross-section, what is the profile of the corresponding hard target?

  4. Evaluation of the effective cross-sections for recombination and trapping in the case of pure spinel.

    PubMed

    Boughariou, A; Damamme, G; Kallel, A

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the evolution of the secondary electron emission in the case of pure spinel during electron irradiation, achieved in a scanning electron microscope at room temperature, which is derived from the measurement of the induced and the secondary electron currents. It was observed from the experimental results, that there are two regimes during the charging process: a plateau followed by a linear variation, which are better identified by plotting the logarithm of the secondary electron emission yield lnσ as function of the total surface density of trapped charges in the material QT . For positive charging, E0 = 1.1 and 5 keV, the slope of the linear part, whose value is of about 10(-10) cm(2) charge(-1), is independent of the primary electron energy. It is interpreted as a microscopic cross section for electron-hole recombination. For negative charging of pure spinel, E0 = 15 and 30 keV, the slope is associated with an electron trapping cross section close to 10(-14) cm(2) charge(-1), which can be assigned to the microscopic cross section for electron trapping. This trapping cross section is four orders of magnitude lower than the recombination one.

  5. Health-promoting organization and organizational effectiveness of health promotion in hospitals: a national cross-sectional survey in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yea-Wen; Lin, Yueh-Ysen

    2011-09-01

    To assess the organizational health-promotion (HP) status and its effect on the organizational effectiveness of HP in a national cross-sectional survey of all hospitals above the local community hospital level in Taiwan's hospitals, questionnaires were sent to 474 hospitals, of which 162 (34.18%) hospitals returned them and were rendered valid. The results of the organizational HP status reveal that the standardized overall score achieved is 76.26, suggesting that there is considerable room for improvement. The results of correlation analysis partially support the proposition of this study, suggesting that the higher the organizational HP status, the better the self-evaluated overall organizational and administrative effectiveness of its HP. When hierarchical multiple regression was performed, support for ownership (private hospitals), hospital accreditation grades (academic medical centers) and overall score of the Organizational Health of Hospital Assessment Scale were significant predicators of self-evaluated overall organizational effectiveness (F = 11.097, p < 0.01, R(2) = 0.369). Moreover, drafted annually, HP policies and plans and the number of staff HP training activities were found to partially mediate the relation between the organizational HP status, hospital characteristics and self-evaluated overall organizational effectiveness. The results contribute to clarify the conception of health-promoting hospital organizations and to identify a number of dimensions of health-promoting organizations related to the organizational effectiveness of HP in hospitals, which could allow hospitals to establish a healthier organization and more effective HP programs. This study also supplies the research field with important data and insights that can be used in future research.

  6. Effects of Stabilization Exercise Using a Ball on Mutifidus Cross-Sectional Area in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Chung, SinHo; Lee, JuSang; Yoon, JangSoon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of lumbar stabilization exercises using balls to the effects of general lumbar stabilization exercises with respect to changes in the cross section of the multifidus (MF), weight bearing, pain, and functional disorders in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain. Twelve patients participated in either a 8 week (3 days per week) stabilization exercise program using balls and control group (n = 12). The computer tomography (CT) was used to analyze MF cross-sectional areas (CSA) and Tetrax balancing scale was used to analyze left and right weight bearing differences. Both groups had significant changes in the CSA of the MF by segment after training (p < 0.05) and the experimental group showed greater increases at the L4 (F = 9.854, p = 0.005) and L5 (F = 39. 266, p = 0.000). Both groups showed significant decreases in weight bearing, from 9.25% to 5.83% in the experimental group and from 9.33% to 4.25% in the control group (p < 0.05), but did not differ significantly between the two groups. These results suggests that stabilization exercises using ball can increases in the CSA of the MF segments, improvement in weight bearing, pain relief, and recovery from functional disorders, and the increases in the CSA of the MF of the L4 and L5 segments for patients with low back pain. Key Points Compared with the stabilization exercise using a ball and general stabilization exercise increased the CSA of the MF, weight bearing, pain, and functional ability in patients with low back pain. We verified that increases in the CSA of the MF of the L4 and L5 segments and functional ability during the stabilization exercise using a ball. The stabilization exercise using a ball was shown to be an effective exercise method for patients with low back pain in a rehabilitation program by increasing functional ability and the CSA of the MF. PMID:24149162

  7. Bibliography of photoabsorption cross-section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. D.; Kieffer, L. J.

    1970-01-01

    This bibliography contains only references which report a measured or calculated photoabsorption cross section (relative or normalized) in regions of continuous absorption. The bibliography is current as of January 1, 1970.

  8. Absorption cross section of canonical acoustic holes

    SciTech Connect

    Crispino, Luis C. B.; Oliveira, Ednilton S.; Matsas, George E. A.

    2007-11-15

    We compute numerically the absorption cross section of a canonical acoustic hole for sound waves with arbitrary frequencies. Our outputs are in full agreement with the expected low- and high-frequency limits.

  9. MODELING AND FISSION CROSS SECTIONS FOR AMERICIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN, D.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2005-05-01

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on the modeling and fission cross section for americium isotopes (May 2004-June 2005). The purpose of the contract was to provide fission cross sections for americium isotopes with the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE 2.19. The following work was performed: (1) Fission calculations capability suitable for americium was implemented to the EMPIRE-2.19 code. (2) Calculations of neutron-induced fission cross sections for {sup 239}Am to {sup 244g}Am were performed with EMPIRE-2.19 for energies up to 20 MeV. For the neutron-induced reaction of {sup 240}Am, fission cross sections were predicted and uncertainties were assessed. (3) Set of fission barrier heights for each americium isotopes was chosen so that the new calculations fit the experimental data and follow the systematics found in the literature.

  10. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (nonstatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner is shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks and perfect conductivity. The solution can also be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff type approximation without additional assumptions.

  11. A nuclear cross section data handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1989-12-01

    Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

  12. Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. L.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Demore, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections of hydrogen peroxide vapor and of neutral aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide were measured in the wavelength range from 195 to 350 nm at 296 K. The spectrophotometric procedure is described, and the reported cross-sections are compared with values obtained by other researchers. Photodissociation coefficients of atmospheric H2O2 were calculated for direct absorption of unscattered solar radiation, and the vertical distributions of these coefficients are shown for various solar zenith angles.

  13. QuickSite Cross Section Processing

    2003-05-27

    This AGEM-developed system produces cross sections by inputting data in both standard and custom file formats and outputting a graphic file that can be printed or further modified in a commercial graphic program. The system has evolved over several years in order to combine and visualize a changing set of field data more rapidly than was possible with commercially available cross section software packages. It uses some commercial packages to produce the input and tomore » modify the output files. Flexibility is provided by a dynamic set of programs that are customized to accept varying input and accomodate varying output requirements. There are two basic types of routines: conversion routines and cross section generation routines. The conversion routines convery various data files to logger file format which is compatible with a standard file format for LogPlot 98, a commonly used commercial log plotting program. The cross section routines generate cross sections and apply topography to these cross sections. All of the generation routines produce a standard graphic DXF file, which is the format used in AutoCAD and can then be modified in a number of available graphics programs.« less

  14. Health effects of perceived racial and religious bullying among urban adolescents in China: a cross-sectional national study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Stephen W; Spittal, Patricia M

    2013-07-01

    Research concerning ethnocultural bullying and adolescent health in China remains extremely limited. This study among Chinese urban adolescents examines associations between ethnocultural bullying and eight health-related outcomes: suicidal ideation, suicide planning, depressive symptomology, anxiety symptomatology, fighting, injury intentionally inflicted by another, smoking and moderate/heavy alcohol consumption. Data were obtained from the World Health Organisation's 2003 Chinese Global School-based Health Survey, a cross-sectional national survey of urban adolescents in four Chinese cities. The analytic sample size was n = 8182, which represented a sampling frame of 769,835 adolescents. Statistical analysis was conducted using generalised linear mixed effects models and sampling weights. Prevalence of ethnocultural bullying was significantly higher in Urumqi, Xinjiang province (2.08%) compared with Beijing municipality (0.72%) or Wuhan, Hubei province (0.67%). Compared to participants who were not bullied, religious bullying victimisation was significantly associated with suicidal ideation, injury intentionally inflicted by another and depressive symptomology. Racial bullying victimisation was significantly associated with suicidal ideation, injury intentionally inflicted by another and among females but not males, depressive symptomology. Health effects of ethnocultural bullying appear to be distinct from that of bullying in general. Additional research on ethnocultural adolescent health issues in China is warranted. PMID:23713464

  15. Health effects of perceived racial and religious bullying among urban adolescents in China: a cross-sectional national study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Stephen W; Spittal, Patricia M

    2013-07-01

    Research concerning ethnocultural bullying and adolescent health in China remains extremely limited. This study among Chinese urban adolescents examines associations between ethnocultural bullying and eight health-related outcomes: suicidal ideation, suicide planning, depressive symptomology, anxiety symptomatology, fighting, injury intentionally inflicted by another, smoking and moderate/heavy alcohol consumption. Data were obtained from the World Health Organisation's 2003 Chinese Global School-based Health Survey, a cross-sectional national survey of urban adolescents in four Chinese cities. The analytic sample size was n = 8182, which represented a sampling frame of 769,835 adolescents. Statistical analysis was conducted using generalised linear mixed effects models and sampling weights. Prevalence of ethnocultural bullying was significantly higher in Urumqi, Xinjiang province (2.08%) compared with Beijing municipality (0.72%) or Wuhan, Hubei province (0.67%). Compared to participants who were not bullied, religious bullying victimisation was significantly associated with suicidal ideation, injury intentionally inflicted by another and depressive symptomology. Racial bullying victimisation was significantly associated with suicidal ideation, injury intentionally inflicted by another and among females but not males, depressive symptomology. Health effects of ethnocultural bullying appear to be distinct from that of bullying in general. Additional research on ethnocultural adolescent health issues in China is warranted.

  16. Planetary gamma-ray spectroscopy: the effects of hydrogen absorption cross-section of the gamma-ray spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Lapides, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectroscopy of planet surfaces is one of several possible methods that are useful in determining the elemental composition of planet surfaces from orbiting spacecraft. This has been demonstrated on the Apollos 15 and 16 missions as well as the Soviet Mars-5 mission. Planetary gamma-ray emission is primarily the result of natural radioactive decay and cosmic-ray and solar-flare-induced nuclear reactions. Secondary neutron reactions play a large role in the more intense gamma-ray emission. The technique provides information on the elemental composition of the top few tens of centimeters of the planet surface. Varying concentrations of hydrogen and compositional variations that alter the macroscopic thermal-neutron absorption cross section have a significant effect on the neutron flux in the planet surface and therefore also on the gamma-ray emission from the surface. These effects have been systematically studied for a wide range of possible planetary compositions that include Mercury, the moon, Mars, the comets, and the asteroids. The problem of the Martian atmosphere was also investigated. The results of these calculations, in which both surface neutron fluxes and gamma-ray emission fluxes were determined, were used to develop general procedures for obtaining planet compositions from the gamma-ray spectrum. Several changes have been suggested for reanalyzing the Apollos 15 and 16 gamma-ray results. In addition, procedures have been suggested that can be applied to neutron-gamma techniques in mineral and oil exploration.

  17. Relationship between efficiency and clinical effectiveness indicators in an adjusted model of resource consumption: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adjusted clinical groups (ACG®) have been widely used to adjust resource distribution; however, the relationship with effectiveness has been questioned. The purpose of the study was to measure the relationship between efficiency assessed by ACG® and a clinical effectiveness indicator in adults attended in Primary Health Care Centres (PHCs). Methods Research design: cross-sectional study. Subjects: 196, 593 patients aged >14 years in 13 PHCs in Catalonia (Spain). Measures: Age, sex, PHC, basic care team (BCT), visits, episodes (diagnoses), and total direct costs of PHC care and co-morbidity as measured by ACG® indicators: Efficiency indices for costs, visits, and episodes (costs EI, visits EI, episodes EI); a complexity or risk index (RI); and effectiveness measured by a general synthetic index (SI). The relationship between EI, RI, and SI in each PHC and BCT was measured by multiple correlation coefficients (r). Results In total, 56 of the 106 defined ACG® were present in the study population, with five corresponding to 44.5% of the patients, 11 to 68.0% of patients, and 30 present in less than 0.5% of the sample. The RI in each PHC ranged from 0.9 to 1.1. Costs, visits, and episodes had similar trends for efficiency in six PHCs. There was moderate correlation between costs EI and visits EI (r = 0.59). SI correlation with episodes EI and costs EI was moderate (r = 0.48 and r = −0.34, respectively) and was r = −0.14 for visits EI. Correlation between RI and SI was r = 0.29. Conclusions The Efficiency and Effectiveness ACG® indicators permit a comparison of primary care processes between PHCs. Acceptable correlation exists between effectiveness and indicators of efficiency in episodes and costs. PMID:24139144

  18. Geometrical and band-structure effects on phonon-limited hole mobility in rectangular cross-sectional germanium nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, H. Mori, S.; Morioka, N.; Suda, J.; Kimoto, T.

    2014-12-21

    We calculated the phonon-limited hole mobility in rectangular cross-sectional [001], [110], [111], and [112]-oriented germanium nanowires, and the hole transport characteristics were investigated. A tight-binding approximation was used for holes, and phonons were described by a valence force field model. Then, scattering probability of holes by phonons was calculated taking account of hole-phonon interaction atomistically, and the linearized Boltzmann's transport equation was solved to calculate the hole mobility at low longitudinal field. The dependence of the hole mobility on nanowire geometry was analyzed in terms of the valence band structure of germanium nanowires, and it was found that the dependence was qualitatively reproduced by considering an average effective mass and the density of states of holes. The calculation revealed that [110] germanium nanowires with large height along the [001] direction show high hole mobility. Germanium nanowires with this geometry are also expected to exhibit high electron mobility in our previous work, and thus they are promising for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) applications.

  19. About the Effect of Control on Flutter and Post-Flutter of a Supersonic/Hypersonic Cross-Sectional Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzocca, Piergiovanni; Librescu, Liviu; Silva, Walter A.

    2000-01-01

    The control of the flutter instability and the conversion of the dangerous character of the flutter instability boundary into the undangerous one of a cross-sectional wing in a supersonic/hypersonic flow field is presented. The objective of this paper is twofold: i) to analyze the implications of nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics and physical nonlinearities on the character of the instability boundary in the presence of a control capability, and ii) to outline the effects played in the same respect by some important parameters of the aeroelastic system. As a by-product of this analysis, the implications of the active control on the linearized flutter behavior of the system are captured and emphasized. The bifurcation behavior of the open/closed loop aeroelastic system in the vicinity of the flutter boundary is studied via the use of a new methodology based on the Liapunov First Quantity. The expected outcome of this study is: a) to greatly enhance the scope and reliability of the aeroelastic analysis and design criteria of advanced supersonic/hypersonic flight vehicles and, b) provide a theoretical basis for the analysis of more complex nonlinear aeroelastic systems.

  20. About the Effect of Control on Flutter and Post-Flutter of a Supersonic/Hypersonic Cross-Sectional Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Librescu, Liviu; Marzocca, Piergiovanni

    2001-01-01

    The control of the flutter instability and the conversion of the dangerous character of the flutter instability boundary into the undangerous one of a cross-sectional wing in a supersonic/hypersonic flow field is presented. The objective of this paper is twofold: i) to analyze the implications of nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics and physical nonlinearities on the character of the instability boundary in the presence of a control capability, and ii) to outline the effects played in the same respect by some important parameters of the aeroelastic system. As a by-product of this analysis, the implications of the active control on the linearized flutter behavior of the system are captured and emphasized. The bifurcation behavior of the open/closed loop aeroelastic system in the vicinity of the flutter boundary is studied via the use of a new methodology based on the Liapunov First Quantity. The expected outcome of this study is: a) to greatly enhance the scope and reliability of the aeroelastic analysis and design criteria of advanced supersonic/hypersonic flight vehicles and, b) provide a theoretical basis for the analysis of more complex nonlinear aeroelastic systems.

  1. Effect of Activation Cross Section Uncertainties on the Radiological Assessment of the MFE/DEMO First Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Cabellos, O; Reyes, S; Sanz, J; Rodriguez, A; Youssef, M; Sawan, M

    2005-05-10

    A Monte Carlo procedure has been applied in this work in order to address the impact of activation cross sections (XS) uncertainties on contact dose rate and decay heat calculations for the outboard first wall (FW) of a magnetic fusion energy (MFE) demonstration (DEMO) reactor. The XSs inducing the major uncertainty in the prediction of activation related quantities have been identified. Results have shown that for times corresponding to maintenance activities the uncertainties effect is insignificant since the dominant XSs involved in these calculations are based on accurate experimental data evaluations. However, for times corresponding to waste management/recycling activities, the errors induced by the XSs uncertainties, which in this case are evaluated using systematic models, must be considered. It has been found that two particular isotopes, {sup 60}Co and {sup 94}Nb, are key contributors to the global DEMO FW activation uncertainty results. In these cases, the benefit from further improvements in the accuracy of the critical reaction XSs is discussed.

  2. Effect of antiepileptic drug therapy on thyroid hormones among adult epileptic patients: An analytical cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Adhimoolam, Mangaiarkkarasi; Arulmozhi, Ranjitha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the effect of conventional and newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on thyroid hormone levels in adult epileptic patients. Methods: A hospital-based, analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among the adult epileptic patients receiving conventional AEDs (Group 2) or newer AEDs (Group 3) for more than 6 months. Serum thyroid hormone levels including free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were analyzed and the hormonal status was compared with healthy control subjects (Group 1). Findings: Sodium valproate and phenytoin were commonly used conventional AEDs; levetiracetam and topiramate were common among the newer drugs. There was a statistically significant decrease in serum fT4 and increase in serum TSH levels (P < 0.0001) in patients on long-term therapy with conventional antiepileptic agents than in the control group. No significant change in thyroid hormone levels (fT3, fT4, and TSH; P = 0.68, 0.37, and 0.90, respectively) was observed with newer antiepileptics-treated patients when compared to control group. One-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc Dunnett's test was performed using SPSS version 17.0 software package. Conclusion: The present study showed that conventional AEDs have significant alteration in the thyroid hormone levels than the newer antiepileptics in adult epileptic patients. PMID:27512707

  3. Production cross sections from 82Se fragmentation as indications of shell effects close to the neutron drip-line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, O. B.; Portillo, M.; Morrissey, D. J.; Amthor, A. M.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.; Berryman, J. S.; Brown, B. A.; Chubarian, G.; Fukuda, N.; Gade, A.; Ginter, T. N.; Hausmann, M.; Inabe, N.; Kubo, T.; Pereira, J.; Sherrill, B. M.; Stolz, A.; Sumithrarachichi, C.; Thoennessen, M.; Weisshaar, D.

    2013-10-01

    Production cross sections for neutron-rich nuclei from the fragmentation of a 82Se beam at 139 MeV/u with beryllium and tungsten targets have been measured for a large number of nuclei. The nuclides 64Ti,67V,69Cr,72Mn, the most neutron-rich isotopes of the elements 22 <= Z <= 25 , have been observed for the first time. The measured cross sections were used to search for trends in the structure of nuclei around 54Ca and were compared with Abrasion-Ablation calculations under the assumption of various mass models. The results confirm our previous investigations from a similar measurement using a 76Ge beam and can be explained with a modified GXPF1B Hamiltonian where the energy of the f5 / 2 orbit is lowered by 0.5 MeV for neutron-rich isotopes around Z = 20. The subshell gap at N = 34 is reduced compared to the unmodified Hamiltonian.

  4. The effect of self-shielding of resonance cross-sections on lotus fusion-fission device

    SciTech Connect

    Pelloni, S.; Cheng, E.T.

    1985-07-01

    The LOTUS Swiss fusion fission hybrid test facility was used to investigate the influence of the self-shielding of resonance cross sections on the tritium breeding and on the thorium ratios. Nucleonic analyses were performed using some deterministic codes and the Monte Carlo method. It is shown that the self-shielding of resonance cross sections results in a decrease of the thorium capture rate and in an increase of the tritium breeding of about 6%. Therefore for hybrid blanket calculations it is important to define an adequate energy group structure with many groups within the resonances of the fissile-fertile material and the self-shielding should be included in neutronics calculations.

  5. Actinide cross section program at ORELA

    SciTech Connect

    Dabbs, J. W.T.

    1980-01-01

    The actinide cross section program at ORELA, the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator, is aimed at obtaining accurate neutron cross sections (primarily fission, capture, and total) for actinide nuclides which occur in fission reactors. Such cross sections, measured as a function of neutron energy over as wide a range of energies as feasible, comprise a data base that permits calculated predictions of the formation and removal of these nuclides in reactors. The present program is funded by the Division of Basic Energy Sciences of DOE, and has components in several divisions at ORNL. For intensively ..cap alpha..-active nuclides, many of the existing fission cross section data have been provided by underground explosions. New measurement techniques, developed at ORELA, now permit linac measurements on fissionable nuclides with alpha half-lives as short as 28 years. Capture and capture-plus-fission measurements utilize scintillation detectors (of capture ..gamma.. rays and fission neutrons) in which pulse shape discrimination plays an important role. Total cross sections can be measured at ORELA on samples of only a few milligrams. A simultaneous program of chemical and isotopic analyses of samples irradiated in EBR-II is in progress to provide benchmarks for the existing differential measurements. These analyses are being studied with updated versions of ORIGEN and with sensitivity determinations. Calculations of the sensitivity to cross section changes of various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle are also being made. Even in this relatively mature field, many cross sections still require improvements to provide an adequate data base. Examples of recent techniques and measurements are presented. 12 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Effect of Geographical Access to Health Facilities on Child Mortality in Rural Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Okwaraji, Yemisrach B.; Cousens, Simon; Berhane, Yemane; Mulholland, Kim; Edmond, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Background There have been few studies that have examined associations between access to health care and child health outcomes in remote populations most in need of health services. This study assessed the effect of travel time and distance to health facilities on mortality in children under five years in a remote area of rural north-western Ethiopia. Methods and Findings This study involved a randomly selected cross sectional survey of 2,058 households. Data were collected during home visits to all resident women of reproductive age (15–49 years). A geographic information system (GIS) was used to map all households and the only health centre in the district. The analysis was restricted to 2,206 rural children who were under the age of five years during the five years before the survey. Data were analysed using random effects Poisson regression. 90.4% (1,996/2,206) of children lived more than 1.5 hours walk from the health centre. Children who lived ≥1.5 hrs from the health centre had a two to three fold greater risk of death than children who lived <1.5 hours from the health centre (children with travel time 1.5–<2.5 hrs adjusted relative risk [adjRR] 2.3[0.95–5.6], travel time 2.5–<3.5 hrs adjRR 3.1[1.3–7.4] and travel time 3.5–<6.5 hrs adjRR 2.5[1.1–6.2]). Conclusion Distance to a health centre had a marked influence on under five mortality in a poor, rural, remote area of Ethiopia. This study provides important information for policy makers on the likely impact of new health centres and their most effective location in remote areas. PMID:22428070

  7. Activation evaluation and isotopic effects in the (n, p) reaction cross section on A-180 target nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Avrigeanu, M.; Forrest, R. A.; Roman, F. L.; Avrigeanu, V.

    2006-07-01

    The fast-neutron nuclear data for the stable isotopes of tungsten, tantalum and hafnium, which are important in nuclear technology applications, have been consistently analyzed by means of the nuclear model computer codes TALYS, EMPIRE-II and STAPRE-H. The latter code uses a unique parameter set. The long-lived Hf isomers, which could be produced after a few reactions on W and Ta in the first-wall material of fusion power plants, need special consideration. The analysis, making use of global as well as local parameters within different model assumptions, aims to increase the predictive power of the models, which is of interest to basic as well as applied questions. This work suggests a physical reason for some of the discrepancies between experimental and calculated cross sections for (n, p) and (n, {alpha}) reactions on {sup 181}Ta. Thus, the rather similar Q-values for the (n, p) reaction on the {sup 179}Hf, {sup 181}Ta, and {sup 183}W odd-A target nuclei, also with similar asymmetry-parameter values, support the comparable cross sections which are predicted by all three computer code calculations at variance with the lower measured cross sections of the {sup 181}Ta(n, p) {sup 181}Hf reaction. (authors)

  8. Effects of In-country and Cross-Border Mobility on Condom Use Among Transgender Women (hijras) in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Rana, A K M Masud; Reza, Md Masud; Alam, Md Shah; Khatun, Mahmuda; Khan, Sharful Islam; Azim, Tasnim

    2016-10-01

    In Bangladesh transgender women (hijras) are thought to be highly mobile that may be an impediment to condom use. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the extent of mobility of hijras, in-country and cross-border, and whether mobility affects condom use in anal intercourse. Hijras ≥15 years of age, receiving services from the Global Fund supported HIV prevention program were enrolled. A behavioral questionnaire was administered and blood was tested for antibodies to HIV and syphilis. Of 889 hijras sampled, 41.3 % never traveled, 26.4 % traveled in-country and 32.3 % crossed the border in the last year. HIV and active syphilis was at 0.8 and 1.8 % respectively. Among hijras who crossed the border condom use was less likely in last anal intercourse (AOR 0.68; 95 % CI 0.48-0.96), and consistently with new (AOR 0.59; 95 % CI 0.34-1.01) and regular clients (AOR 0.45; 95 % CI 0.27-0.76) in the last week. This study concludes that in Bangladesh hijras are highly mobile and cross-border mobility negatively affects condom use.

  9. The effects of insomnia and internet addiction on depression in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents: an exploratory cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Lee M; Wong, Wing S

    2011-06-01

    The negative association of insomnia and internet addiction with mental health is widely documented in the literature, yet little is known about their inter-relationships. The primary aim of this study was to examine the inter-relationships between insomnia, internet addiction and depression. A total of 719 Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong participated in this school-based cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), the 12-item version of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and questions assessing internet use pattern and sociodemographic characteristics. The classification of internet addiction and insomnia was based on the CIAS cutoff global score >63 and PSQI cutoff global score >5, respectively. Multiple regression analyses tested the effects of insomnia and internet addiction on depression. Among students with internet addiction (17.2%), 51.7% were also identified as insomniacs. Internet addicts scored significantly poorer on all PSQI components, except sleep duration, than their non-addicted counterparts. After adjustment for gender and internet use time, both internet addiction (β=0.05; Sobel test Z=6.50, P<0.001) and insomnia (β=0.59; Sobel test Z=4.49, P<0.001) demonstrated a significant association with depression. Overall, there is high comorbidity between internet addiction and insomnia. Both insomnia and internet addiction emerged as significant explanatory factors, but they exerted differential effects on depression. Future research should be directed at determining the causal relationship between internet addiction and insomnia, and its underlying mechanism with depression.

  10. Intraclass correlation and design effect in BMI, physical activity and diet: a cross-sectional study of 56 countries

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Mohd; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Measuring the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and design effect (DE) may help to modify the public health interventions for body mass index (BMI), physical activity and diet according to geographic targeting of interventions in different countries. The purpose of this study was to quantify the level of clustering and DE in BMI, physical activity and diet in 56 low-income, middle-income and high-income countries. Design Cross-sectional study design. Setting Multicountry national survey data. Methods The World Health Survey (WHS), 2003, data were used to examine clustering in BMI, physical activity in metabolic equivalent of task (MET) and diet in fruits and vegetables intake (FVI) from low-income, middle-income and high-income countries. Multistage sampling in the WHS used geographical clusters as primary sampling units (PSU). These PSUs were used as a clustering or grouping variable in this analysis. Multilevel intercept only regression models were used to calculate the ICC and DE for each country. Results The median ICC (0.039) and median DE (1.82) for BMI were low; however, FVI had a higher median ICC (0.189) and median DE (4.16). For MET, the median ICC was 0.141 and median DE was 4.59. In some countries, however, the ICC and DE for BMI were large. For instance, South Africa had the highest ICC (0.39) and DE (11.9) for BMI, whereas Uruguay had the highest ICC (0.434) for MET and Ethiopia had the highest ICC (0.471) for FVI. Conclusions This study shows that across a wide range of countries, there was low area level clustering for BMI, whereas MET and FVI showed high area level clustering. These results suggested that the country level clustering effect should be considered in developing preventive approaches for BMI, as well as improving physical activity and healthy diets for each country. PMID:26743697

  11. Photodisintegration Cross Section of 241Am

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, A. P.; Hammond, S.; Howell, C. R.; Huibregtse, C.; Hutcheson, A.; Karwowski, H. J.; Kelley, J. H.; Kwan, E.; Rusev, G.; Tornow, W.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2009-03-01

    The photodisintegration cross section of radioactive 241Am has been obtained for the first time using monoenergetic γ-ray beams from the HIγS facility. The induced activity of 240Am produced via the 241Am(γ,n) reaction in the γ-ray energy range from 9.5 to 16 MeV was measured by the activation technique utilizing high resolution HPGe detectors. The 241Am(γ,n) cross section was determined both by measuring the absolute γ-ray flux and by comparison to the 197Au(γ,n) and 58Ni(γ,n) cross section standards. The experimental data for the 241Am(γ,n) reaction in the giant dipole resonance energy region is compared with statistical nuclear-model calculations.

  12. Top differential cross section measurements (Tevatron)

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Andreas W.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cross sections in the top quark sector measured at the Fermilab Tevatron collider are presented. CDF used 2.7 fb{sup -1} of data and measured the differential cross section as a function of the invariant mass of the t{bar t} system. The measurement shows good agreement with the standard model and furthermore is used to derive limits on the ratio {kappa}/M{sub Pl} for gravitons which decay to top quarks in the Randall-Sundrum model. D0 used 1.0 fb{sup -1} of data to measure the differential cross section as a function of the transverse momentum of the top-quark. The measurement shows a good agreement to the next-to-leading order perturbative QCD prediction and various other standard model predictions.

  13. Algorithmic analysis of quantum radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador

    2015-05-01

    Sidelobe structures on classical radar cross section graphs are a consequence of discontinuities in the surface currents. In contrast, quantum radar theory states that sidelobe structures on quantum radar cross section graphs are due to quantum interference. Moreover, it is conjectured that quantum sidelobe structures may be used to detect targets oriented off the specular direction. Because of the high data bandwidth expected from quantum radar, it may be necessary to use sophisticated quantum signal analysis algorithms to determine the presence of stealth targets through the sidelobe structures. In this paper we introduce three potential quantum algorithmic techniques to compute classical and quantum radar cross sections. It is our purpose to develop a computer science-oriented tool for further physical analysis of quantum radar models as well as applications of quantum radar technology in various fields.

  14. The cross section for double Compton scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Employing elementary methods in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics, the cross section for gamma sub 0 + e yields e + gamma + gamma is computed for arbitrary energy in the spectrum of the outgoing photons. The final result is given, differential in the energy of one of these photons, for the case where the incident photon is unpolarized and has energy E sub 0 much less than mc-squared, a polarization sum and angular integration being performed for the final-state photons. The cross section has a simple algebraic form resulting from contributions from the sum of squared direct and exchange amplitudes; interference terms from these amplitudes do not contribute to the angular-integrated cross section.

  15. Total quadruple photoionization cross section of beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanouilidou, Agapi

    2007-11-15

    In a quasiclassical framework, we formulate the quadruple ionization by single-photon absorption of the Coulomb five-body problem. We present the quadruple photoionization total cross section of the ground state of beryllium for energies up to 620 eV. Our results for energies close to threshold are in agreement with the Wannier threshold law for four-electron escape. In addition, the agreement of our results with a shape formula provides support for the overall shape of our total quadruple cross section. Finally, we find that the photon energy where the maximum of the total photoionization cross section occurs for single, double, triple, and quadruple photoionization of H, He, Li, and Be, respectively, seems to follow a linear relation with the threshold energy for complete breakup of the respective element.

  16. Neutron capture cross section of 136 Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, Sean; Albert, Joshua; Johnson, Tessa; O'Conner, Thomasina; Kaufman, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    136 Xe is an important 0 νββ candidate, studied in experiments such as EXO-200 and, in the future, nEXO. These experiments require a precise study of neutron capture for their background models. The neutron capture cross section of 136 Xe has been measured at the Detector for Advanced Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. A neutron beam ranging from thermal energy to 100 keV was incident on a gas cell filled with isotopically pure 136 Xe . We will discuss the measurement of partial neutron capture cross sections at thermal and first neutron resonance energies along with corresponding capture gamma cascades.

  17. Infrared absorption cross sections of alternative CFCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clerbaux, Cathy; Colin, Reginald; Simon, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption cross sections have obtained in the infrared atmospheric window, between 600 and 1500 cm(exp -1), for 10 alternative hydrohalocarbons: HCFC-22, HCFC-123, HCFC-124, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, HFC-125, HFC-134a, and HFC-152a. The measurements were made at three temperatures (287K, 270K and 253K) with a Fourier transform spectrometer operating at 0.03 cm(exp -1) apodized resolution. Integrated cross sections are also derived for use in radiative models to calculate the global warming potentials.

  18. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  19. QSO ABSORPTION SYSTEMS DETECTED IN Ne VIII: HIGH-METALLICITY CLOUDS WITH A LARGE EFFECTIVE CROSS SECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Meiring, J. D.; Tripp, T. M.; Werk, J. K.; Prochaska, J. X.; Howk, J. C.; Jenkins, E. B.; Lehner, N.; Sembach, K. R.

    2013-04-10

    Using high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ultraviolet spectra of the z{sub em} = 0.9754 quasar PG1148+549 obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope, we study the physical conditions and abundances of Ne VIII+O VI absorption line systems at z{sub abs} = 0.68381, 0.70152, 0.72478. In addition to Ne VIII and O VI, absorption lines from multiple ionization stages of oxygen (O II, O III, O IV) are detected and are well aligned with the more highly ionized species. We show that these absorbers are multiphase systems including hot gas (T Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 5.7} K) that produces Ne VIII and O VI, and the gas metallicity of the cool phase ranges from Z = 0.3 Z{sub Sun} to supersolar. The cool ( Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 4} K) phases have densities n{sub H} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -4} cm{sup -3} and small sizes (<4 kpc); these cool clouds are likely to expand and dissipate, and the Ne VIII may be within a transition layer between the cool gas and a surrounding, much hotter medium. The Ne VIII redshift density, dN/dz{approx}7{sup +7}{sub -3}, requires a large number of these clouds for every L > 0.1 L* galaxy and a large effective absorption cross section ({approx}> 100 kpc), and indeed, we find a star-forming {approx}L {sup *} galaxy at the redshift of the z{sub abs} = 0.72478 system, at an impact parameter of 217 kpc. Multiphase absorbers like these Ne VIII systems are likely to be an important reservoir of baryons and metals in the circumgalactic media of galaxies.

  20. Neutron Fission of 235,237,239U and 241,243Pu: Cross Sections, Integral Cross Sections and Cross Sections on Excited States

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Britt, H C

    2003-07-10

    In a recent paper submitted to Phys. Rev. C they have presented estimates for (n,f) cross sections on a series of Thorium, Uranium and Plutonium isotopes over the range E{sub n} = 0.1-2.5 MeV. The (n,f) cross sections for many of these isotopes are difficult or impossible to measure in the laboratory. The cross sections were obtained from previous (t,pf) reaction data invoking a model which takes into account the differences between (t,pf) and (n,f) reaction processes, and which includes improved estimates for the neutron compound formation process. The purpose of this note is: (1) to compare the estimated cross sections to current data files in both ENDF and ENDL databases; (2) to estimate ratios of cross sections relatively to {sup 235}U integrated over the ''tamped flattop'' critical assembly spectrum that was used in the earlier {sup 237}U report; and (3) to show the effect on the integral cross sections when the neutron capturing state is an excited rotational state or an isomer. The isomer and excited state results are shown for {sup 235}U and {sup 237}U.

  1. The effects of health worker motivation and job satisfaction on turnover intention in Ghana: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Motivation and job satisfaction have been identified as key factors for health worker retention and turnover in low- and middle-income countries. District health managers in decentralized health systems usually have a broadened ‘decision space’ that enables them to positively influence health worker motivation and job satisfaction, which in turn impacts on retention and performance at district-level. The study explored the effects of motivation and job satisfaction on turnover intention and how motivation and satisfaction can be improved by district health managers in order to increase retention of health workers. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three districts of the Eastern Region in Ghana and interviewed 256 health workers from several staff categories (doctors, nursing professionals, allied health workers and pharmacists) on their intentions to leave their current health facilities as well as their perceptions on various aspects of motivation and job satisfaction. The effects of motivation and job satisfaction on turnover intention were explored through logistic regression analysis. Results Overall, 69% of the respondents reported to have turnover intentions. Motivation (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.92) and job satisfaction (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.96) were significantly associated with turnover intention and higher levels of both reduced the risk of health workers having this intention. The dimensions of motivation and job satisfaction significantly associated with turnover intention included career development (OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.86), workload (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.99), management (OR = 0.51. 95% CI: 0.30 to 0.84), organizational commitment (OR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.66), and burnout (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.91). Conclusions Our findings indicate that effective human resource management practices at district level influence health worker motivation and job satisfaction

  2. Differential effect of obesity on bone mineral density in White, Hispanic and African American women: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Jonathan P; Joseph, Linda A; Shin, John J; Arora, Surender K; Nicasio, John; Shatzkes, Joshua; Raklyar, Irina; Erlikh, Irina; Pantone, Vincent; Bahtiyar, Gul; Chandler, Leon; Pabon, Lina; Choudhry, Sara; Ghadiri, Nilofar; Gosukonda, Pramodini; Muniyappa, Rangnath; von-Gicyzki, Hans; McFarlane, Samy I

    2005-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health problem with low bone mass affecting nearly half the women aged 50 years or older. Evidence from various studies has shown that higher body mass index (BMI) is a protective factor for bone mineral density (BMD). Most of the evidence, however, is from studies with Caucasian women and it is unclear to what extent ethnicity plays a role in modifying the effect of BMI on BMD. A cross sectional study was performed in which records of postmenopausal women who presented for screening for osteoporosis at 2 urban medical centres were reviewed. Using logistic regression, we examined the interaction of race and BMI after adjusting for age, family history of osteoporosis, maternal fracture, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle on BMD. Low BMD was defined as T-score at the lumbar spine < -1. Among 3,206 patients identified, the mean age of the study population was 58.3 ± 0.24 (Years ± SEM) and the BMI was 30.6 kg/m2. 2,417 (75.4%) were African Americans (AA), 441(13.6%) were Whites and 348 (10.9%) were Hispanics. The AA women had lower odds of having low BMD compared to Whites [Odds ratio (OR) = 0.079 (0.03–0.24) (95% CI), p < 0.01]. The odds ratio of low BMD was not statistically significant between White and Hispanic women. We examined the interaction between race and BMD. For White women; as the BMI increases by unity, the odds of low BMD decreases [OR = 0.9 (0.87–0.94), p < 0.01; for every unit increase in BMI]. AA women had slightly but significantly higher odds of low BMD compared to Whites [OR 1.015 (1.007–1.14), p <0.01 for every unit increase in BMI]. This effect was not observed when Hispanic women were compared to Whites. There is thus a race-dependent effect of BMI on BMD. With each unit increase in BMI, BMD increases for White women, while a slight but significant decrease in BMD occurs in African American women. PMID:15817133

  3. Differential effect of obesity on bone mineral density in White, Hispanic and African American women: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Jonathan P; Joseph, Linda A; Shin, John J; Arora, Surender K; Nicasio, John; Shatzkes, Joshua; Raklyar, Irina; Erlikh, Irina; Pantone, Vincent; Bahtiyar, Gul; Chandler, Leon; Pabon, Lina; Choudhry, Sara; Ghadiri, Nilofar; Gosukonda, Pramodini; Muniyappa, Rangnath; von-Gicyzki, Hans; McFarlane, Samy I

    2005-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health problem with low bone mass affecting nearly half the women aged 50 years or older. Evidence from various studies has shown that higher body mass index (BMI) is a protective factor for bone mineral density (BMD). Most of the evidence, however, is from studies with Caucasian women and it is unclear to what extent ethnicity plays a role in modifying the effect of BMI on BMD.A cross sectional study was performed in which records of postmenopausal women who presented for screening for osteoporosis at 2 urban medical centres were reviewed. Using logistic regression, we examined the interaction of race and BMI after adjusting for age, family history of osteoporosis, maternal fracture, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle on BMD. Low BMD was defined as T-score at the lumbar spine < -1.Among 3,206 patients identified, the mean age of the study population was 58.3 +/- 0.24 (Years +/- SEM) and the BMI was 30.6 kg/m2. 2,417 (75.4%) were African Americans (AA), 441(13.6%) were Whites and 348 (10.9%) were Hispanics. The AA women had lower odds of having low BMD compared to Whites [Odds ratio (OR) = 0.079 (0.03-0.24) (95% CI), p < 0.01]. The odds ratio of low BMD was not statistically significant between White and Hispanic women. We examined the interaction between race and BMD. For White women; as the BMI increases by unity, the odds of low BMD decreases [OR = 0.9 (0.87-0.94), p < 0.01; for every unit increase in BMI]. AA women had slightly but significantly higher odds of low BMD compared to Whites [OR 1.015 (1.007-1.14), p <0.01 for every unit increase in BMI]. This effect was not observed when Hispanic women were compared to Whites.There is thus a race-dependent effect of BMI on BMD. With each unit increase in BMI, BMD increases for White women, while a slight but significant decrease in BMD occurs in African American women. PMID:15817133

  4. Testing (Validating?) Cross Sections with ICSBEP Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, Albert C. III

    2012-06-28

    We discuss how to use critical benchmarks from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments to determine the applicability of specific cross sections to the end-user's problem of interest. Particular attention is paid to making sure the selected suite of benchmarks includes the user's range of applicability (ROA).

  5. Neutron capture cross section of Am241

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    The neutron capture cross section of Am241 for incident neutrons from 0.02 eV to 320 keV has been measured with the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be 665±33 b. Our result is in good agreement with other recent measurements. Resonance parameters for En<12 eV were obtained using an R-matrix fit to the measured cross section. The results are compared with values from the ENDF/B-VII.0, Mughabghab, JENDL-3.3, and JEFF-3.1 evaluations. Γn neutron widths for the first three resonances are systematically larger by 5-15% than the ENDF/B-VII.0 values. The resonance integral above 0.5 eV was determined to be 1553±7 b. Cross sections in the resolved and unresolved energy regions above 12 eV were calculated using the Hauser-Feshbach theory incorporating the width-fluctuation correction of Moldauer. The calculated results agree well with the measured data, and the extracted averaged resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those for the resolved resonances.

  6. Cross sections relevant to gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, P.; Bodansky, D.; Maxson, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Gamma-ray production cross sections were measured for protons and alpha particles incident on targets consisting of nuclei of high cosmic abundance: C-12, N-14, O-16, Ne-20, Mg-24, Si-28 and Fe-56. Solid or gaseous targets were bombarded by monoenergetic beams of protons and alpha particles, and gamma rays were detected by two Ge(Li) detectors. The proton energy for each target was varied from threshold to about 24 MeV (lab); for alphas the range was from threshold to about 27 MeV. For most transitions, it was possible to measure the total cross section by placing the detectors at 30.5 deg and 109.9 deg where the fourth-order Legendre polynomial is zero. For the case of the 16O (E sub gamma = 6.13 MeV, multipolarity E3) cross sections, yields were measured at four angles. Absolute cross sections were obtained by integrating the beam current and by measuring target thicknesses and detector efficiencies. The Ge(Li) detector resolution was a few keV (although the peak widths were greater, due to Doppler broadening).

  7. Neutron Capture Cross Sections for Radioactive Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, Anton; Bedrossian, Peter; Escher, Jutta; Scielzo, Nicholas

    2015-10-01

    Accurate neutron-capture cross sections for radioactive nuclei near or far away from the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering, transfer reactions, and beta-delayed neutron emission. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes far from stability will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of US DOE by LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Funding was provided via the LDRD-ERD-069 project.

  8. On the effects of improved cross-section representation in one-dimensional flow routing models applied to ephemeral rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, Christopher J.; Brazier, Richard E.; Nicholas, Andrew P.; Nearing, Mark

    2012-04-01

    Flash floods are an important component of the semiarid hydrological cycle, and provide the potential for groundwater recharge as well as posing a dangerous natural hazard. A number of catchment models have been applied to flash flood prediction; however, in general they perform poorly. This study has investigated whether the incorporation of light detection and ranging (lidar) derived data into the structure of a 1-D flow routing model can improve the prediction of flash floods in ephemeral channels. Two versions of this model, one based on an existing trapezoidal representation of cross-section morphology (K-Tr), and one that uses lidar data (K-Li) were applied to 5 discrete runoff events measured at two locations on the main channel of The Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, United States. In general, K-Li showed improved performance in comparison to K-Tr, both when each model was calibrated to individual events and during an evaluation phase when the models (and parameter sets) were applied across events. Sensitivity analysis identified that the K-Li model also had more consistency in behavioral parameter sets across runoff events. In contrast, parameter interaction within K-Tr resulted in poorly constrained behavioral parameter sets across the multidimensional parameter space. These results, revealed with a modeling focus on the structure of a particular element of a distributed catchment model, suggest that lidar derived cross-section morphology can lead to improved, and more robust flash flood prediction.

  9. Cross-sectional schooling-health associations misrepresented causal schooling effects on adult health and health-related behaviors: evidence from the Chinese Adults Twins Survey.

    PubMed

    Behrman, Jere R; Xiong, Yanyan; Zhang, Junsen

    2015-02-01

    Adult health outcomes and health behaviors are often associated with schooling. However, such associations do not necessarily imply that schooling has causal effects on health with the signs or magnitudes found in the cross-sectional associations. Schooling may be proxying for unobserved factors related to genetics and family background that directly affect both health and schooling. Recently several studies have used within-monozygotic (MZ) twins methods to control for unobserved factors shared by identical twins. Within-MZ estimates for developed countries are generally smaller than suggested by cross-sectional associations, consistent with positive correlations between unobserved factors that determine schooling and those that determine health. This study contributes new estimates of cross-sectional associations and within-MZ causal effects using the Chinese Adults Twins Survey, the first study of its type for developing countries. The cross-sectional estimates suggest that schooling is significantly associated with adult health-related behaviors (smoking, drinking, exercising) but not with own or spouse health outcomes (general health, mental health, overweight, chronic diseases). However, within-MZ-twins estimators change the estimates for approximately half of these health indicators, in one case declining in absolute magnitudes and becoming insignificant and in the other cases increasing in absolute magnitudes. Within-MZ estimates indicate significant pro-health effects for at least one of the indicators for own health (better mental health), own health-related behaviors (less smoking) and spouse health (less overweight). PMID:25464872

  10. Cross-sectional schooling-health associations misrepresented causal schooling effects on adult health and health-related behaviors: Evidence from the Chinese Adults Twins Survey

    PubMed Central

    Behrman, Jere R.; Xiong, Yanyan; Zhang, Junsen

    2015-01-01

    Adult health outcomes and health behaviors are often associated with schooling. However, such associations do not necessarily imply that schooling has causal effects on health with the signs or magnitudes found in the cross-sectional associations. Schooling may be proxying for unobserved factors related to genetics and family background that directly affect both health and schooling. Recently several studies have used within-monozygotic (MZ) twins methods to control for unobserved factors shared by identical twins. Within-MZ estimates for developed countries are generally smaller than suggested by cross-sectional associations, consistent with positive correlations between unobserved factors that determine schooling and those that determine health. This study contributes new estimates of cross-sectional associations and within-MZ causal effects using the Chinese Adults Twins Survey, the first study of its type for developing countries. The cross-sectional estimates suggest that schooling is significantly associated with adult health-related behaviors (smoking, drinking, exercising) but not with own or spouse health outcomes (general health, mental health, overweight, chronic diseases). However, within-MZ-twins estimators change the estimates for approximately half of these health indicators, in one case declining in absolute magnitudes and becoming insignificant and in the other cases increasing in absolute magnitudes. Within-MZ estimates indicate significant pro-health effects for at least one of the indicators for own health (better mental health), own health-related behaviors (less smoking) and spouse health (less overweight). PMID:25464872

  11. Cross-section perimeter is a suitable parameter to describe the effects of different baffle geometries in shaken microtiter plates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biotechnological screening processes are performed since more than 8 decades in small scale shaken bioreactors like shake flasks or microtiter plates. One of the major issues of such reactors is the sufficient oxygen supply of suspended microorganisms. Oxygen transfer into the bulk liquid can in general be increased by introducing suitable baffles at the reactor wall. However, a comprehensive and systematic characterization of baffled shaken bioreactors has never been carried out so far. Baffles often differ in number, size and shape. The exact geometry of baffles in glass lab ware like shake flasks is very difficult to reproduce from piece to piece due to the hard to control flow behavior of molten glass during manufacturing. Thus, reproducibility of the maximum oxygen transfer capacity in such baffled shake flasks is hardly given. Results As a first step to systematically elucidate the general effect of different baffle geometries on shaken bioreactor performance, the maximum oxygen transfer capacity (OTRmax) in baffled 48-well microtiter plates as shaken model reactor was characterized. This type of bioreactor made of plastic material was chosen, as the exact geometry of the baffles can be fabricated by highly reproducible laser cutting. As a result, thirty different geometries were investigated regarding their maximum oxygen transfer capacity (OTRmax) and liquid distribution during shaking. The relative perimeter of the cross-section area as new fundamental geometric key parameter is introduced. An empirical correlation for the OTRmax as function of the relative perimeter, shaking frequency and filling volume is derived. For the first time, this correlation allows a systematic description of the maximum oxygen transfer capacity in baffled microtiter plates. Conclusions Calculated and experimentally determined OTRmax values agree within ± 30% accuracy. Furthermore, undesired out-of-phase operating conditions can be identified by using the

  12. Modeling elastic momentum transfer cross-sections from mobility data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitović, Ž. D.; Stojanović, V. D.; Raspopović, Z. M.

    2016-04-01

    In this letter we present a new method to simply obtain the elastic momentum transfer cross-section which predicts a maximum of reduced mobility and its sensitivity to the temperature variation at low energies. We first determined the transport cross-section which resembles mobility data for similar closed-shell systems by using the Monte Carlo method. Second, we selected the most probable reactive processes and compiled cross-sections from experimental and theoretical data. At the end, an elastic momentum transfer cross-section is obtained by subtracting the compiled cross-sections from the momentum transfer cross-section, taking into account the effects of the angular scattering distributions. Finally, the cross-section set determined in such a way is used as an input in a final Monte Carlo code run, to calculate the flux and bulk reduced mobility for Ne+ + CF4 which were discussed as functions of the reduced electric field E/N (N is the gas density) for the temperature T = 300 K.

  13. Molecular orientation effect on the differential cross sections for the electron-impact double ionization of oriented water molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Champion, C.; Dal Cappello, C.; Oubaziz, D.; Aouchiche, H.; Popov, Yu. V.

    2010-03-15

    Double ionization of isolated water molecules fixed in space is here investigated in a theoretical approach based on the first Born approximation. Secondary electron angular distributions are reported for particular (e,3e) kinematical conditions and compared in terms of shape and magnitude. Strong dependence of the fivefold differential cross sections on the molecular target orientation is clearly observed in (e,3-1e) as well as (e,3e) channels. Furthermore, for the major part of the kinematics considered, we identified the different mechanisms involved in the double ionization of water molecule, namely, the direct shake-off process as well as the two-step1 process. They are both discussed and analyzed with respect to the molecular target orientation.

  14. Effect of the variable cross-section channel on performance of a cusped field thruster at low power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Pengbo; Mao, Wei; Yu, Daren; Wang, Chunsheng

    2015-09-01

    The cusped field thruster has drawn much attention from many institutions due to its wide thrust range, high impulse, and long lifetime. However, lots of experimental results reveal that the cusped field thruster at low power has a poor performance. A cusped field thruster with a variable cross-section channel by putting a ceramic spacer in the channel is introduced in this paper, aimed at improving the thruster performance at low power. The DSMC results validate that the upstream atom density can be increased by a spacer, especially near the wall. Based on simulated results, spacers are put into different positions of the channel. The experimental results show that a suitable spacer can enhance thruster performance at low power, which can be confirmed by the results that the anode efficiency can achieve 40% at 400 V anode voltage and 20 sccm gas flow rate by contrast to 35% without a spacer under the same condition.

  15. Absolute np and pp Cross Section Determinations Aimed At Improving The Standard For Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, A. B.; Haight, R. C.; Tovesson, F.; Arndt, R. A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Paris, M. W.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1 GeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  16. Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  17. The hadronic cross section measurement at KLOE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeriani, B.; KLOE Collaboration

    2004-04-01

    KLOE uses the radiative return to measure the hadronic cross section e+e- → π +- at DANE. Theemission of one or more hard photons in the initial state ( ISR) reduces the collision energy, otherwise fixed at 1020 MeV, and allows to perform an effective scan of the two pions invariant mass squared, sπ, in the whole sπ, region from threshold to mφ2. An extremely accurate knowledge of experimental systematics, background, luminosity and, on the theoretical side, a precise description of initial state radiation are needed to perform a competitive measurement. We present here the status of the analysis of 140 pb -1 collected in 2001. A preliminary evaluation of the hadronic contribution to aμ in the sπ range between 0.37 GeV 2 and 0.93 GeV 2 yields aμ = 378.4 ± 0.8 stat ± 4.5 syst ± 3.0 theo ± 3.8 FSR, consistent with the CMD-2 result and confirming the present discrepancy between e+e - and τ data.

  18. Inclusive jet cross section at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The authors report preliminary measurements of the central inclusive jet cross section at 1.8 TeV by the D0 and the CDF collaborations at the p{anti p} Fermilab collider. They are based on an integrated luminosity of 92 and 87 pb-1, respectively. The cross sections are measured as a function of jet transverse energy in the pseudorapidity interval 0.1 < 1,711 < 0.7 (CDF), and the two pseudorapidity ranges 1,711 < 0.5 and 0.1 < Inj < 0.7 (D0). D0 reports good agreement with the Next-to-Leading Order QCD predictions currently available. CDF observes an excess above 200 GeV, which can be accommodated with a modification in the gluon distribution function at high x.

  19. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Daniel H. Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-28

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  20. Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliarone, C.

    1996-08-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  1. {sup 231}Pa photofission cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Soldatov, A.S.; Rudnikov, V.E.; Smirenkin, G.N.

    1995-12-01

    The measurements of the {sup 231}Pa yield and cross section photofission in the energy range 7-9 MeV are presented. These measurements are a continuation of similar measurements performed for the {gamma}-ray energy range 4.8-7 MeV. The entire collection of experimental data which combine the results obtained in the present work and in Ref. 1 was analyzed.

  2. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  3. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  4. Fusion cross sections measurements with MUSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Ugalde, C.; Paul, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Argentina, Grant SJ10/39.

  5. How to Calculate Colourful Cross Sections Efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Gleisberg, Tanju; Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank

    2008-09-03

    Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

  6. KLOE results on hadronic cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandaglio, Giuseppe; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Archilli, F.; Balwierz, I.; Bencivenni, G.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C; . Bocchetta, S.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Ceradini, F.; Ciambrone, P.; Czerwiński, E.; De Lucia, E.; De Santis, A.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Micco, B.; Dreucci, M.; Felici, G.; Fiore, S.; Franzini, P.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Graziani, E.; Jacewicz, M.; Kluge, W.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lukin, P.; Martemianov, M.; Martini, M.; Massarotti, P.; Meola, S.; Miscetti, S.; Morello, G.; Moulson, M.; Müller, S; . Napolitano, M.; Nguyen, F.; Palutan, M.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Prado Longhi, I.; Santangelo, P.; Sciascia, B.; Silarski, M.; Spadaro, T.; Taccini, C.; Tortora, L.; Venanzoni, G.; Versaci, R.; Xu, G.; Zdebik, J.; Babusci, D.; Badoni, D.; Bocci, V.; Budano, A.; Bulychjev, S. A; .; Caldeira Balkeståhl, L.; Campana, P.; Dané, E.; De Robertis, G.; Domenici, D.; Erriquez, O.; Fanizzi, G.; Giardina, G.; Gonnella, F.; Happacher, F.; Höistad, B.; Iafolla, L.; Iarocci, E.; Johansson, T.; Kowalewska, A.; Kulikov, V.; Kupsc, A.; Loddo, F.; Mandaglio, G.; Mascolo, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Messi, R.; Moricciani, D.; Ranieri, A.; Redmer, C. F.; Sarra, I.; Schioppa, M.; Sciubba, A.; Wiślicki, W.; Wolke, M.; KLOE/KLOE-2 Collaborations

    2012-03-01

    The KLOE experiment at the phi - factory DAΦNE is the first to have exploited Initial State Radiation (ISR) to precisely determine the e+e- → π+π-(γ) cross section below 1 GeV, representing the 70% of the leading order contribution to the muon anomaly. The leading order contribution ahloμ is presently the main source of uncertainty in the theoretical evaluation of the muon anomaly, and it can be evaluated by dispersion integral using the experimental measurement of hadronic cross section. A persistent discrepancy of about 3 σ between standard model (SM) prediction and experimental measurements of the muon anomalous magnetic moment has been up to now observed. The KLOE collaboration published two measurements of the π+π- cross section with the photon in the initial state emitted at small polar angle in Phys. Lett. B vol. 606 pg. 12 and vol. 670 pg. 285, and an independent measurement with the photon emitted at large polar angle in Phys. Lett. B vol. 700 pg. 102. These measurements were normalized to the DAΦNE luminosity. Recently, a new analysis deriving the pion form factor directly from measuring the bin-by-bin π+πγ and μ+μγ final states ratio has been performed. In this paper, the preliminary results of this new measurement and the comparison to the previous published ones, the impact on the evaluation of the hadronic contribution to the muon anomaly, the preliminary μ+μγ cross section measurement and the comparison with the PHOKHARA-MC prediction are presented.

  7. Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.

    2015-01-15

    Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the {sup 85}Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations.

  8. Theoretical Studies on Photoionization Cross Sections of Solid Gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiao-Guang; Sun, Wei-Guo; Cheng, Yan-Song

    2005-01-01

    Accurate expression for photoabsorption (photoionization) cross sections of high density system proposed recently is used to study the photoionization of solid gold. The results show that the present theoretical photoionization cross sections have good agreement both in structure and in magnitude with the experimental results of gold crystal. The studies also indicate that both the real part ε' and the imaginary part ε'' of the complex dielectric constant ε, and the dielectric influence function of a nonideal system have rich structures in low energy side with a range about 50 eV, and suggest that the influence of particle interactions of surrounding particles with the photoionized particle on the photoionization cross sections can be easily investigated using the dielectric influence function. The electron overlap effects are suggested to be implemented in the future studies to improve the accuracy of theoretical photoionization cross sections of a solid system.

  9. Differential cross sections of positron–hydrogen collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong-Mei, Yu; Chun-Ying, Pu; Xiao-Yu, Huang; Fu-Rong, Yin; Xu-Yan, Liu; Li-Guang, Jiao; Ya-Jun, Zhou

    2016-07-01

    We make a detailed study on the angular differential cross sections of positron–hydrogen collisions by using the momentum-space coupled-channels optical (CCO) method for incident energies below the H ionization threshold. The target continuum and the positronium (Ps) formation channels are included in the coupled-channels calculations via a complex equivalent-local optical potential. The critical points, which show minima in the differential cross sections, as a function of the scattering angle and the incident energy are investigated. The resonances in the angular differential cross sections are reported for the first time in this energy range. The effects of the target continuum and the Ps formation channels on the different cross sections are discussed. Project supported by the Nanyang Normal University Science Foundation of China (Grant No. ZX2013017) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174066, 61306007, and U1304114).

  10. Aspects of the momentum dependence of the equation of state and of the residual N N cross section, and their effects on nuclear stopping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basrak, Z.; Eudes, P.; de la Mota, V.

    2016-05-01

    With the semiclassical Landau-Vlasov transport model we studied the stopping observable RE, the energy-based isotropy ratio, for the 129Xe+120Sn reaction at beam energies spanning 12 A to 100 A MeV. We investigated the impacts of the nonlocality of the nuclear mean field, of the in-medium modified nucleon-nucleon (N N ) cross section, and of the reaction centrality. A fixed set of model parameters yields RE values that favorably compare with the experimental ones, but only for energies below the Fermi energy EF. Above EF agreement is readily possible, but by a smooth evolution with energy of the parameter that controls the in-medium modification of N N cross section. By comparing the simulation correction factor F applied to the free N N cross section with the one deduced from experimental data [Phys. Rev. C 90, 064602 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevC.90.064602], we infer that the zero-range mean field almost entirely reproduces it. Also, in accordance with what has been deduced from experimental data, around EF a strong reduction of the free N N cross section is found. In order to test the impact of sampling central collisions by multiplicity, an event generator (hipse) was used. We obtain that high multiplicity events are spread over a broad impact parameter range, but it turns out that this has a small effect on the observable RE and, thus, on F as well.

  11. Effect of time of exposure to environmental risk on the lung function of foundry workers: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos de Moraes, Mônica; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; Bernardes, Rosane Andrea Bretas; Negreiros, Alexandher; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This cross-sectional study aimed to compare foundry workers of the metallurgical industry with high and low exposure time and with a control group. [Subject and Methods] The workers were evaluated for pulmonary function and peak expiratory flow (PEF), respiratory symptoms, smoking habits, and physical activity level. Descriptive statistical analysis and ANOVA one-way test were used. [Results] The mean age was 33.9 ± 8.25 years (18-59), pulmonary function: FVC: 95 ± 18% of predicted, FEV1: 95.0 ± 15.8% of predicted, FEV1/FVC ratio of 0.82 ± 0.09, and PEF = 499.7 ± 118.5 l/min. Overall, 85.1% of workers were classified that physically active, 7.93% of workers reported respiratory symptoms, and 14.28% reported being smokers. There was no statistically significant difference between groups for the variables of lung function. [Conclusion] The pulmonary function is preserved in foundry workers independently of exposure time. PMID:27064981

  12. Mass transfer through laminar boundary layer in 2-d microchannels with nonuniform cross section: the effect of wall curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedacchia, Augusta; Adrover, Alessandra

    2012-11-01

    We provide an analytical solution for the combined diffusive and convective 2-d mass transport from a surface film (of arbitrary shape at a given uniform concentration) to a pure solvent flowing in creeping flow conditions into a microchannel, delimited by a flat no-slip surface and by the releasing film itself. Such a problem arises in the study of swelling and dissolution of polimeric thin films under the action of a solvent tangential flow simulating the oral thin film dissolution for drug relase towards the buccal mucosa or oral cavity. We present a similarity solution for laminar forced convection mass (or heat) transfer that generalizes the classical boundary layer solution of the Graetz-Nusselt problem (valid for straight channels or pipes) to a solvent flowing in creeping flow conditions into a 2-d channel with cross-section continuously varying along the axial coordinate x. Close to the releasing boundary, parametrized by a curvilinear abscissa s, both tangential and normal velocity components play a role and their scaling behavior, as a function of wall distance r, should be taken into account in order to have an accurate description of the concentration profile in the boundary layer and of the dependence of the Sherwood number on the curvilinear abscissa s.

  13. Effect of time of exposure to environmental risk on the lung function of foundry workers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos de Moraes, Mônica; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; Bernardes, Rosane Andrea Bretas; Negreiros, Alexandher; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This cross-sectional study aimed to compare foundry workers of the metallurgical industry with high and low exposure time and with a control group. [Subject and Methods] The workers were evaluated for pulmonary function and peak expiratory flow (PEF), respiratory symptoms, smoking habits, and physical activity level. Descriptive statistical analysis and ANOVA one-way test were used. [Results] The mean age was 33.9 ± 8.25 years (18–59), pulmonary function: FVC: 95 ± 18% of predicted, FEV1: 95.0 ± 15.8% of predicted, FEV1/FVC ratio of 0.82 ± 0.09, and PEF = 499.7 ± 118.5 l/min. Overall, 85.1% of workers were classified that physically active, 7.93% of workers reported respiratory symptoms, and 14.28% reported being smokers. There was no statistically significant difference between groups for the variables of lung function. [Conclusion] The pulmonary function is preserved in foundry workers independently of exposure time. PMID:27064981

  14. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  15. Preliminary cross section of Englebright Lake sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Noah P.; Hampton, Margaret A.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- The Upper Yuba River Studies Program is a CALFED-funded, multidisciplinary investigation of the feasibility of introducing anadromous fish species to the Yuba River system upstream of Englebright Dam. Englebright Lake (Figure 1 on poster) is a narrow, 14-km-long reservoir located in the northern Sierra Nevada, northeast of Marysville, CA. The dam was completed in 1941 for the primary purpose of trapping sediment derived from mining operations in the Yuba River watershed. Possible management scenarios include lowering or removing Englebright Dam, which could cause the release of stored sediments and associated contaminants, such as mercury used extensively in 19th-century hydraulic gold mining. Transport of released sediment to downstream areas could increase existing problems including flooding and mercury bioaccumulation in sport fish. To characterize the extent, grain size, and chemistry of this sediment, a coring campaign was done in Englebright Lake in May and June 2002. More than twenty holes were drilled at 7 different locations along the longitudinal axis of the reservoir (Figure 4 on poster), recovering 6 complete sequences of post-reservoir deposition and progradation. Here, a longitudinal cross section of Englebright Lake is presented (Figure 5 on poster), including pre-dam and present-day topographic profiles, and sedimentologic sections for each coring site. This figure shows the deltaic form of the reservoir deposit, with a thick upper section consisting of sand and gravel overlying silt, a steep front, and a thinner lower section dominated by silt. The methodologies used to create the reservoir cross section are discussed in the lower part of this poster.

  16. Effective cross sections for production of single-strand breaks in plasmid DNA by 0.1 to 4.7 eV electrons.

    PubMed

    Panajotovic, Radmila; Martin, Frédéric; Cloutier, Pierre; Hunting, Darel; Sanche, Léon

    2006-04-01

    We determined effective cross sections for production of single-strand breaks (SSBs) in plasmid DNA [pGEM 3Zf(-)] by electrons of 10 eV and energies between 0.1 and 4.7 eV. After purification and lyophilization on a chemically clean tantalum foil, dry plasmid DNA samples were transferred into a high-vacuum chamber and bombarded by a monoenergetic electron beam. The amount of the circular relaxed DNA in the samples was separated from undamaged molecules and quantified using agarose gel electrophoresis. The effective cross sections were derived from the slope of the yield as a function of exposure and had values in the range of 10(-15)- 10(-14) cm2, giving an effective cross section of the order of 10(-18) cm2 per nucleotide. Their strong variation with incident electron energy and the resonant enhancement at 1 eV suggest that considerable damage is inflicted by very low-energy electrons to DNA, and it indicates the important role of pi* shape resonances in the bond-breaking process. Furthermore, the fact that the energy threshold for SSB production is practically zero implies that the sensitivity of DNA to electron impact is universal and is not limited to any particular energy range.

  17. Infrared absorption cross sections for trifluoromethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy J.

    2013-11-01

    High-resolution infrared absorption cross sections for trifluoromethane have been determined over the range 950-1500 cm-1 from spectra recorded using a high-resolution FTIR spectrometer (Bruker IFS 125HR) and a 26-cm-pathlength cell. Spectra of trifluoromethane/dry synthetic air mixtures were recorded at 0.015 cm-1 resolution (calculated as 0.9/MOPD) at a number of temperatures and pressures (23-762 Torr and 188-294 K) appropriate for atmospheric conditions. Intensities were calibrated using composite trifluoromethane spectra taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) IR database.

  18. Multicollinearity in cross-sectional regressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauridsen, Jørgen; Mur, Jesùs

    2006-10-01

    The paper examines robustness of results from cross-sectional regression paying attention to the impact of multicollinearity. It is well known that the reliability of estimators (least-squares or maximum-likelihood) gets worse as the linear relationships between the regressors become more acute. We resolve the discussion in a spatial context, looking closely into the behaviour shown, under several unfavourable conditions, by the most outstanding misspecification tests when collinear variables are added to the regression. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed. The conclusions point to the fact that these statistics react in different ways to the problems posed.

  19. The calculation of radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizer, R.

    1980-04-01

    The FORTRAN program CHAOS, used for calculating cross sections is described including the physical approximations used to simplify Maxwell's equations. The scattering bodies are extended to both open and closed surfaces. The numerical methods used are supplied. The problems of wire junctions, of finite conductivity and the attaching of lumped loads to the structure are considered. Techniques for dealing with bodies having rotational or left-right symmetries are examined as well as the sparse matrix approximation and the complex frequency version of CHAOS. The formula used to calculate the impedance matrix elements, and the conventions adopted concerning coordinate systems and polarization are included.

  20. Correlation cross sections along the international border

    SciTech Connect

    Martiniuk, C.D. ); Le Fever, J.A.; Anderson, S.B. )

    1991-06-01

    The Manitoba-North Dakota (Canada-US) stratigraphic correlation project is a joint study between the Petroleum Branch of Manitoba Energy and Mines and the North Dakota Geological Survey. It is an attempt to correlate the differing stratigraphic terminologies established in the two jurisdictions by providing a reference cross section across the international boundary. The study involves the subsurface correlation of logs of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences in the Manitoba and North Dakota portions of the Williston basin. The Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences are subdivided for presentation into the following stratigraphic intervals: (a) Cambrian-Ordovician-Silurian, (b) Devonian, (c) Mississippian, (d) Jurassic, and (e) Cretaceous. Wireline logs show the actual stratigraphic correlations. A nomenclature chart is also presented from each sequence. In addition, the sections include a generalized description of lithologies, thicknesses, environments of deposition, and petroleum potential for each geographic area.

  1. The 4He Total Photo-Absorption Cross Section With Two- Plus Three-Nucleon Interactions From Chiral Effective Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Quaglioni, S; Navratil, P

    2007-03-09

    The total photo-absorption cross section of {sup 4}He is evaluated microscopically using two- (NN) and three-nucleon (NNN) interactions based upon chiral effective field theory ({chi}EFT). The calculation is performed using the Lorentz integral transform method along with the ab initio no-core shell model approach. An important feature of the present study is the consistency of the NN and NNN interactions and also, through the Siegert theorem, of the two- and three-body current operators. This is due to the application of the {chi}EFT framework. The inclusion of the NNN interaction produces a suppression of the peak height and enhancement of the tail of the cross section. We compare to calculations obtained using other interactions and to representative experiments. The rather confused experimental situation in the giant resonance region prevents discrimination among different interaction models.

  2. Measured Absolute Cross Section of Charge Transfer in H + H2+ at Low Energy: Signature of vi = 2 and Trajectory Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, R. A.; Bacani, K. G.; Chi, R. M.; Heczko, S. L.; Singh, B. N.; Tobar, J. A.; Vassantachart, A. K.; Andrianarijaona, V. M.; Seely, D. G.; Havener, C. C.

    2015-04-01

    Measurements of absolute cross sections of charge transfer (CT) in H + H2+--> H+ + H2 were conducted at the merged-beam apparatus at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, which can reliably create and access collision energies as low as 0.1 eV/u. The measured absolute cross section shows evidence of trajectory effects at low energy. Also, the comparison to state-to-state calculations (PRA 67 022708 (2003) suggests a strong contribution from vi = 2 of the H2+that are produced by the electron cyclotron resonance ion source. The data analysis will be presented here. Research supported by the NASA Solar & Heliospheric Physics Program NNH07ZDA001N, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences and the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation through Grant No. PHY-1068877.

  3. Exclusive breastfeeding and its effect on growth of Malawian infants: results from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kuchenbecker, J; Jordan, I; Reinbott, A; Herrmann, J; Jeremias, T; Kennedy, G; Muehlhoff, E; Mtimuni, B; Krawinkel, M B

    2015-01-01

    Background: For the optimal nutrition of children under 2 years of age, it is considered important that they be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months before being given complementary food. Aims and Objectives: A cross-sectional nutritional baseline survey was undertaken in 2011 in the Kasungu and Mzimba Districts of Malawi to assess the nutritional status of children under 2 years of age and its determinants in order to prepare a nutrition education intervention programme. The intention of this study was to assess the nutritional status of infants aged 0–<6 months with regard to food intake. Methods: Interviews were conducted on randomly selected families with children under 2 years; anthropometric measurements were obtained from mothers and their children. Only infants between 0 and <6 months were selected for analysis (n  =  196). An ANCOVA test was performed on age of the infant with mothers’ height and weight as covariates. Results: Prevalence of stunting (infants’ length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) <−2SD) was 39%, wasting (WLZ <−2SD) 2%, and underweight (WAZ <−2SD) 13%. Of the infants under 6 months, 43% were exclusively breastfed. Predominant breastfeeding and mixed breastfeeding were less common (21% and 36%, respectively). The ANCOVA confirmed the association between exclusive breastfeeding and LAZ and WAZ: exclusively breastfed infants had a higher mean (SE) LAZ (−1·13, 0·12) and WAZ (−0·41, 0·13) than infants not being exclusively breastfed (−1·59, 0·11, and −0·97, 0·11, respectively). There was no overall significant association between breastfeeding practice and WLZ. Conclusion: Exclusive breastfeeding of infants under 6 months is associated with higher mean LAZ and WAZ. Promotion of exclusive breastfeeding in low-income countries is important in preventing growth retardation. PMID:25005815

  4. Body composition in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: effect of dietary intake of macronutrient: results from a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Asmae; Rostom, Samira; Hassani, Asmae; El Badri, Dalal; Bouaadi, Ilham; Barakat, Amina; Chkirat, Bouchra; Elkari, Khalid; Amine, Bouchra; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between macronutrient intake, body composition (lean body mass and fat mass) and bone mineral content in Moroccan children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods A cross-sectional study, conducted between May 2010 and June 2011, covering out patient with JIA. The characteristics of patients were collected. The nutritional status was assessed by a food questionnaire including data of food intake during 7 consecutive days using 24-hour dietary recall. Food intake was quantified using the software Bilnut (Bilnut version 2.01, 1991). Dietary intake of macronutrients was expressed as percentage contribution to total energy. Body composition was evaluated with DXA total-body measurements (bone mineral content BMC expressed in g, lean body mass LBM and fat mass FM expressed in kg). Results 33 patients were included. The mean age was 10.4 ± 4.3 years. The median disease duration was 2 (1-4.5) years. The median of LBM, FM and BMC were 19 kg (13.82-33.14), 5 kg (3.38-9.14) and 1044.90 g (630.40-1808.90) respectively. We found a positive correlation between LBM and dietary intake of carbohydrate (r= 0.4; p = 0.03). There were no significant association between LBM and intake of lipids, or protein. Moreover, no association was found between FM, BMC and intake of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Conclusion This study suggests that there is a positive correlation between carbohydrates intake and LBM; however, dietary intake does not influence FM and BMC. Prospective studies with larger numbers of patients appear to be needed to confirm our findings. PMID:26161167

  5. Effect of Pesticide Exposure on Immunological, Hematological and Biochemical Parameters in Thai Orchid Farmers—A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Aroonvilairat, Soraya; Kespichayawattana, Wannapa; Sornprachum, Thiwaree; Chaisuriya, Papada; Siwadune, Taweeratana; Ratanabanangkoon, Kavi

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have found that many Thai orchid farmers used excessive amounts of pesticides without proper protective gear, but no toxicological study has been made. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the immunological, hematological and biochemical statuses of these farmers. Sixty four orchid farmers and 60 controls were studied. Plasma cholinesterase activity, the percentage and absolute number of B lymphocytes (CD19+) were significantly lower in the farmers group (3966.32 ± 1165.48 U/L, 11.61 ± 4.09% and 312.26 ± 164.83 cells/mm3, respectively) as compared to those of controls (5048.85 ± 1139.40 U/L, 14.32 ± 4.23%, 420.34 ± 195.18 cells/mm3, respectively). There was a statistically significant higher level of serum IgE among the orchid farmers (0.031 ± 0.011 mg/dL vs. 0.018 ± 0.007 mg/dL) but not IgG, IgA and IgM, levels. Serum lysozyme level, lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogens, hematological parameters and kidney function test, were not significantly different between the two groups. The liver function profiles showed significantly lower levels of albumin and serum protein in the farmer group. Thus frequent pesticide exposure resulted in subtle changes of some biological parameters. These changes, though may not be clinically significant, strongly indicated that caution in handing pesticides by these farmers is warranted. PMID:26024358

  6. The Effects of Lead Exposure on Serum Uric Acid and Hyperuricemia in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Dai, Haijiang; Huang, Zhijun; Deng, Qihong; Li, Ying; Xiao, Ting; Ning, Xingping; Lu, Yao; Yuan, Hong

    2015-08-18

    The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between blood lead levels and both serum uric acid and hyperuricemia in adult residents living within an area of China with lead pollution. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 2120 subjects (1180 of whom were male) between the ages of 20 and 75 years who had undergone health examinations at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in a lead-polluted area of China between January 2013 and August 2014. Blood lead was positively correlated with serum uric acid in both males (r = 0.095, p = 0.001) and females (r = 0.134, p < 0.001). Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that for males, blood lead (p = 0.006), age (p = 0.001), current smoking (p = 0.012), education (p = 0.001), triglycerides (TG) (p < 0.001), and serum creatinine (p < 0.001) were independently associated with serum uric acid. For females, blood lead (p < 0.001), body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.009), and TG (p < 0.001) were independently associated with serum uric acid. After multiple adjustments, blood lead was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of hyperuricemia when female subjects were categorized into quartiles (for the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile, odds ratio (OR) = 2.190; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.106-4.338; p = 0.025); however, no such association was observed for male subjects. Continuous lead exposure has an independent impact on serum uric acid for both males and females, although this impact is more pronounced for females than for males. Lead exposure is significantly associated with hyperuricemia for females but not for males.

  7. Effect of pesticide exposure on immunological, hematological and biochemical parameters in thai orchid farmers- a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Aroonvilairat, Soraya; Kespichayawattana, Wannapa; Sornprachum, Thiwaree; Chaisuriya, Papada; Siwadune, Taweeratana; Ratanabanangkoon, Kavi

    2015-05-27

    Various studies have found that many Thai orchid farmers used excessive amounts of pesticides without proper protective gear, but no toxicological study has been made. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the immunological, hematological and biochemical statuses of these farmers. Sixty four orchid farmers and 60 controls were studied. Plasma cholinesterase activity, the percentage and absolute number of B lymphocytes (CD19+) were significantly lower in the farmers group (3966.32±1165.48 U/L, 11.61±4.09% and 312.26±164.83 cells/mm3, respectively) as compared to those of controls (5048.85±1139.40 U/L, 14.32±4.23%, 420.34±195.18 cells/mm3, respectively). There was a statistically significant higher level of serum IgE among the orchid farmers (0.031±0.011 mg/dL vs. 0.018±0.007 mg/dL) but not IgG, IgA and IgM, levels. Serum lysozyme level, lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogens, hematological parameters and kidney function test, were not significantly different between the two groups. The liver function profiles showed significantly lower levels of albumin and serum protein in the farmer group. Thus frequent pesticide exposure resulted in subtle changes of some biological parameters. These changes, though may not be clinically significant, strongly indicated that caution in handing pesticides by these farmers is warranted.

  8. Windowed multipole for cross section Doppler broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josey, C.; Ducru, P.; Forget, B.; Smith, K.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an in-depth analysis on the accuracy and performance of the windowed multipole Doppler broadening method. The basic theory behind cross section data is described, along with the basic multipole formalism followed by the approximations leading to windowed multipole method and the algorithm used to efficiently evaluate Doppler broadened cross sections. The method is tested by simulating the BEAVRS benchmark with a windowed multipole library composed of 70 nuclides. Accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a single assembly case where total neutron production rates and 238U capture rates compare within 0.1% to ACE format files at the same temperature. With regards to performance, clock cycle counts and cache misses were measured for single temperature ACE table lookup and for windowed multipole. The windowed multipole method was found to require 39.6% more clock cycles to evaluate, translating to a 7.9% performance loss overall. However, the algorithm has significantly better last-level cache performance, with 3 fewer misses per evaluation, or a 65% reduction in last-level misses. This is due to the small memory footprint of the windowed multipole method and better memory access pattern of the algorithm.

  9. Actinide Targets for Neutron Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Baker; Christopher A. McGrath

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and the Generation IV Reactor Initiative have demonstrated a lack of detailed neutron cross-sections for certain "minor" actinides, those other than the most common (235U, 238U, and 239Pu). For some closed-fuel-cycle reactor designs more than 50% of reactivity will, at some point, be derived from "minor" actinides that currently have poorly known or in some cases not measured (n,?) and (n,f) cross sections. A program of measurements under AFCI has begun to correct this. One of the initial hurdles has been to produce well-characterized, highly isotopically enriched, and chemically pure actinide targets on thin backings. Using a combination of resurrected techniques and new developments, we have made a series of targets including highly enriched 239Pu, 240Pu, and 242Pu. Thus far, we have electrodeposited these actinide targets. In the future, we plan to study reductive distillation to achieve homogeneous, adherent targets on thin metal foils and polymer backings. As we move forward, separated isotopes become scarcer, and safety concerns become greater. The chemical purification and electodeposition techniques will be described.

  10. Validity of approximate methods in molecular scattering. III - Effective potential and coupled states approximations for differential and gas kinetic cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monchick, L.; Green, S.

    1977-01-01

    Two dimensionality-reducing approximations, the j sub z-conserving coupled states (sometimes called the centrifugal decoupling) method and the effective potential method, were applied to collision calculations of He with CO and with HCl. The coupled states method was found to be sensitive to the interpretation of the centrifugal angular momentum quantum number in the body-fixed frame, but the choice leading to the original McGuire-Kouri expression for the scattering amplitude - and to the simplest formulas - proved to be quite successful in reproducing differential and gas kinetic cross sections. The computationally cheaper effective potential method was much less accurate.

  11. Evidence for a pairing anti-halo effect in the odd-even staggering in reaction cross sections of weakly bound nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hagino, K.; Sagawa, H.

    2011-07-15

    We investigate the spatial extension of weakly bound Ne and C isotopes by taking into account the pairing correlation with the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) method and a three-body model, respectively. We show that the odd-even staggering in the reaction cross sections of {sup 30,31,32}Ne and {sup 14,15,16}C are successfully reproduced, and thus the staggering can be attributed to the pairing anti-halo effect. A correlation between a one-neutron separation energy and the anti-halo effect is demonstrated for s and p waves using the HFB wave functions.

  12. Partial wave analysis of scattering with the nonlocal Aharonov-Bohm effect and the anomalous cross section induced by quantum interference

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, D.-H.

    2004-05-01

    Partial wave theory of a three dimensional scattering problem for an arbitrary short range potential and a nonlocal Aharonov-Bohm magnetic flux is established. The scattering process of a 'hard sphere'-like potential and the magnetic flux is examined. An anomalous total cross section is revealed at the specific quantized magnetic flux at low energy which helps explain the composite fermion and boson model in the fractional quantum Hall effect. Since the nonlocal quantum interference of magnetic flux on the charged particles is universal, the nonlocal effect is expected to appear in a quite general potential system and will be useful in understanding some other phenomena in mesoscopic physics.

  13. Effect of transition in cross-sectional shape on the development of the velocity and pressure distribution of turbulent flow in pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Edwin

    1939-01-01

    With regard to the change in shape of the cross section while the area remains constant, no investigation results are as yet available. Such an investigation will be the subject of the present paper. For this purpose it is necessary to consider the velocity and pressure relations over each entire cross section so that we are confronted with a three-dimensional problem.

  14. Theoretical Formalism To Estimate the Positron Scattering Cross Section.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suvam; Dutta, Sangita; Naghma, Rahla; Antony, Bobby

    2016-07-21

    A theoretical formalism is introduced in this article to calculate the total cross sections for positron scattering. This method incorporates positron-target interaction in the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The study of positron collision has been quite subtle until now. However, recently, it has emerged as an interesting area due to its role in atomic and molecular structure physics, astrophysics, and medicine. With the present method, the total cross sections for simple atoms C, N, and O and their diatomic molecules C2, N2, and O2 are obtained and compared with existing data. The total cross section obtained in the present work gives a more consistent shape and magnitude than existing theories. The characteristic dip below 10 eV is identified due to the positronium formation. The deviation of the present cross section with measurements at energies below 10 eV is attributed to the neglect of forward angle-discrimination effects in experiments, the inefficiency of additivity rule for molecules, empirical treatment of positronium formation, and the neglect of annihilation reactions. In spite of these deficiencies, the present results show consistent behavior and reasonable agreement with previous data, wherever available. Besides, this is the first computational model to report positron scattering cross sections over the energy range from 1 to 5000 eV. PMID:27333337

  15. Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

    2002-01-01

    Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

  16. Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Filipescu, D.; Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrom, T.; Tesileanu, O.; Shima, T.; Takahisa, K.; Miyamoto, S.

    2015-02-24

    Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 148}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Sm, have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing γ-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

  17. Collision cross sections for structural proteomics.

    PubMed

    Marklund, Erik G; Degiacomi, Matteo T; Robinson, Carol V; Baldwin, Andrew J; Benesch, Justin L P

    2015-04-01

    Ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) allows the structural interrogation of biomolecules by reporting their collision cross sections (CCSs). The major bottleneck for exploiting IM-MS in structural proteomics lies in the lack of speed at which structures and models can be related to experimental data. Here we present IMPACT (Ion Mobility Projection Approximation Calculation Tool), which overcomes these twin challenges, providing accurate CCSs up to 10(6) times faster than alternative methods. This allows us to assess the CCS space presented by the entire structural proteome, interrogate ensembles of protein conformers, and monitor molecular dynamics trajectories. Our data demonstrate that the CCS is a highly informative parameter and that IM-MS is of considerable practical value to structural biologists. PMID:25800554

  18. Review of Current and Future Neutrino Cross-Section Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, D.; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    There has been a surge of progress and published results in neutrino cross-section physics in recent years. In many cases, absolute differential cross-sections are being measured for the first time and can be compared to interaction models first developed decades ago. These measurements are important input for the next generation of accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments where precise understanding of both signal and background channels will be critical to the observation of sub-dominant oscillation effects. This paper discusses recent results from several experiments and describes new experiments currently under construction dedicated to making these measurements with unprecedented precision.

  19. Review of Current and Future Neutrino Cross-Section Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, D.

    2010-03-30

    There has been a surge of progress and published results in neutrino cross-section physics in recent years. In many cases, absolute differential cross-sections are being measured for the first time and can be compared to interaction models first developed decades ago. These measurements are important input for the next generation of accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments where precise understanding of both signal and background channels will be critical to the observation of sub-dominant oscillation effects. This paper discusses recent results from several experiments and describes new experiments currently under construction dedicated to making these measurements with unprecedented precision.

  20. Cross-Sectional Transport Imaging in a Multijunction Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Haegel, Nancy M.; Ke, Chi-Wen; Taha, Hesham; Guthrey, Harvey; Fetzer, C. M.; King, Richard

    2015-06-14

    Combining highly localized electron-beam excitation at a point with the spatial resolution capability of optical near-field imaging, we have imaged carrier transport in a cross-sectioned multijunction (GaInP/GaInAs/Ge) solar cell. We image energy transport associated with carrier diffusion throughout the full width of the middle (GaInAs) cell and luminescent coupling from point excitation in the top cell GaInP to the middle cell. Supporting cathodoluminescence and near-field photoluminescence measurements demonstrate excitation-dependent Fermi level splitting effects that influence cross-sectioned spectroscopy results as well as transport limitations on the spatial resolution of cross-sectional measurements.

  1. Hydraulic visibility and effective cross sections based on hydrodynamical modeling of flow lines gained by satellite altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biancamaria, S.; Garambois, P. A.; Calmant, S.; Roux, H.; Paris, A.; Monnier, J.; Santos da Silva, J.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrodynamic laws predict that irregularities in a river bed geometry produce spatial and temporal variations in the water level, hence in its slope. Conversely, observation of these changes is a goal of the SWOT mission with the determination of the discharge as a final objective. In this study, we analyse the relationship between river bed undulations and water surface for an ungauged reach of the Xingu river, a first order tributary of the Amazon river. It is crosscut more than 10 times by a single ENVISAT track over a hundred of km. We have determined time series of water levelsat each of these crossings, called virtual stations (VS), hence slopes of the flow line. Using the discharge series computed by Paiva et al. (2013) between 1998 and 2009, Paris et al. (submitted) determined at each VS a rating curve relating these simulated discharge with the ENVISAT height series. One parameter of these rating curves is the zero-flow depth Z 0 . We show that it is possible to explain the spatial and temporal variations of the water surface slope in terms of hydrodynamical response of the longitudinal changes of the river bed geometry given by the successive values of Z 0 . Our experiment is based on an effective, single thread representation of a braided river, realistic values for the Manning coefficient and river widths picked up on JERS images. This study confirms that simulated flow lines are consistent with water surface elevations (WSE) and slopes gained by satellite altimetry. Hydrodynamical signatures are more visible where the river bed geometry varies significantly, and for reaches with a strong downstream control. Therefore, this study suggests that the longitudinal variations of the slope might be an interesting criteria for the question of river segmentation into elementary reaches for the SWOT mission which will provide continuous measurements of the water surface elevation, the slope and the reach width.

  2. Inclined Bodies of Various Cross Sections at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Leland H.

    1958-01-01

    To aid in assessing effects of cross-sectional shape on body aerodynamics, the forces and moments have been measured for bodies with circular, elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections at Mach numbers 1.98 and 3.88. Results for bodies with noncircular cross sections have been compared with results for bodies of revolution having the same axial distribution of cross-sectional area (and, thus, the same equivalent fineness ratio). Comparisons have been made for bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 at angles of attack from 0 deg to about 20 deg and for Reynolds numbers, based on body length, of 4.0 x 10(exp 6) and 6.7 x 10(exp 6). The results of this investigation show that distinct aerodynamic advantages can be obtained by using bodies with noncircular cross sections. At certain angles of bank, bodies with elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections develop considerably greater lift and lift-drag ratios than equivalent bodies of revolution. For bodies with elliptic cross sections, lift and pitching-moment coefficients can be correlated with corresponding coefficients for equivalent circular bodies. It has been found that the ratios of lift and pitching-moment coefficients for an elliptic body to those for an equivalent circular body are practically constant with change in both angle of attack and Mach number. These lift and moment ratios are given very accurately by slender-body theory. As a result of this agreement, the method of NACA Rep. 1048 for computing forces and moments for bodies of revolution has been simply extended to bodies with elliptic cross sections. For the cases considered (elliptic bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 having cross-sectional axis ratios of 1.5 and 2), agreement of theory with experiment is very good. As a supplement to the force and moment results, visual studies of the flow over bodies have been made by use of the vapor-screen, sublimation, and white-lead techniques. Photographs from these studies are included in the report.

  3. Geometric phase effects in the H+H2 reaction: quantum wave-packet calculations of integral and differential cross sections.

    PubMed

    Juanes-Marcos, Juan Carlos; Althorpe, Stuart C

    2005-05-22

    We report quantum wave-packet calculations on the H+H(2) reaction, aimed at resolving the controversy over whether geometric phase (GP) effects can be observed in this reaction. Two sets of calculations are reported of the state-to-state reaction probabilities, and integral and differential cross sections (ICSs and DCSs). One set includes the GP using the vector potential approach of Mead and Truhlar; the other set neglects the phase. We obtain unequivocal agreement with recent results of Kendrick [J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 6739 (2003)], predicting GP effects in the state-to-state reaction probabilities, which cancel exactly on summing the partial waves to yield the ICS. Our results therefore contradict those of Kuppermann and Wu [Chem. Phys. Lett. 349 537 (2001)], which predicted pronounced GP effects in the cross sections. We also agree with Kendrick in predicting that there are no significant GP effects in the full DCS at energies below 1.8 eV, and in the partial (0effects, which may be experimentally measurable.

  4. Experiments on Antiprotons: Antiproton-Nucleon Cross Sections

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chamberlain, Owen; Keller, Donald V.; Mermond, Ronald; Segre, Emilio; Steiner, Herbert M.; Ypsilantis, Tom

    1957-07-22

    In this paper experiments are reported on annihilation and scattering of antiprotons in H{sub 2}O , D{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2}. From the data measured it is possible to obtain an antiproton-proton and an antiproton-deuteron cross section at 457 Mev (lab). Further analysis gives the p-p and p-n cross sections as 104 mb for the p-p reaction cross section and 113 mb for the p-n reaction cross section. The respective annihilation cross sections are 89 and 74 mb. The Glauber correction necessary in order to pass from the p-d to the p-n cross section by subtraction of the p-p cross section is unfortunately large and somewhat uncertain. The data are compared with the p-p and p-n cross sections and with other results on p-p collisions.

  5. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  6. Cross-section and panel estimates of peer effects in early adolescent cannabis use: With a little help from my 'friends once removed'.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, John; McVicar, Duncan; Higgins, Kathryn

    2016-08-01

    Peer effects in adolescent cannabis are difficult to estimate, due in part to the lack of appropriate data on behaviour and social ties. This paper exploits survey data that have many desirable properties and have not previously been used for this purpose. The data set, collected from teenagers in three annual waves from 2002 to 2004 contains longitudinal information about friendship networks within schools (N = 5020). We exploit these data on network structure to estimate peer effects on adolescents from their nominated friends within school using two alternative approaches to identification. First, we present a cross-sectional instrumental variable (IV) estimate of peer effects that exploits network structure at the second degree, i.e. using information on friends of friends who are not themselves ego's friends to instrument for the cannabis use of friends. Second, we present an individual fixed effects estimate of peer effects using the full longitudinal structure of the data. Both innovations allow a greater degree of control for correlated effects than is commonly the case in the substance-use peer effects literature, improving our chances of obtaining estimates of peer effects than can be plausibly interpreted as causal. Both estimates suggest positive peer effects of non-trivial magnitude, although the IV estimate is imprecise. Furthermore, when we specify identical models with behaviour and characteristics of randomly selected school peers in place of friends', we find effectively zero effect from these 'placebo' peers, lending credence to our main estimates. We conclude that cross-sectional data can be used to estimate plausible positive peer effects on cannabis use where network structure information is available and appropriately exploited.

  7. Cross-section and panel estimates of peer effects in early adolescent cannabis use: With a little help from my 'friends once removed'.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, John; McVicar, Duncan; Higgins, Kathryn

    2016-08-01

    Peer effects in adolescent cannabis are difficult to estimate, due in part to the lack of appropriate data on behaviour and social ties. This paper exploits survey data that have many desirable properties and have not previously been used for this purpose. The data set, collected from teenagers in three annual waves from 2002 to 2004 contains longitudinal information about friendship networks within schools (N = 5020). We exploit these data on network structure to estimate peer effects on adolescents from their nominated friends within school using two alternative approaches to identification. First, we present a cross-sectional instrumental variable (IV) estimate of peer effects that exploits network structure at the second degree, i.e. using information on friends of friends who are not themselves ego's friends to instrument for the cannabis use of friends. Second, we present an individual fixed effects estimate of peer effects using the full longitudinal structure of the data. Both innovations allow a greater degree of control for correlated effects than is commonly the case in the substance-use peer effects literature, improving our chances of obtaining estimates of peer effects than can be plausibly interpreted as causal. Both estimates suggest positive peer effects of non-trivial magnitude, although the IV estimate is imprecise. Furthermore, when we specify identical models with behaviour and characteristics of randomly selected school peers in place of friends', we find effectively zero effect from these 'placebo' peers, lending credence to our main estimates. We conclude that cross-sectional data can be used to estimate plausible positive peer effects on cannabis use where network structure information is available and appropriately exploited. PMID:27391251

  8. Effects of long-term low-level radiation exposure after the Chernobyl catastrophe on immunoglobulins in children residing in contaminated areas: prospective and cross-sectional studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background After the Chernobyl nuclear incident in 1986, children in the Narodichesky region, located 80 km west of the Chernobyl Power Plant, were exposed to 137Cesium (137Cs). Little is known about the effects of chronic low-level radiation on humoral immune responses in children residing in contaminated areas. Methods In four different approaches we investigated the effect of residential 137Cs exposure on immunoglobulins A, G, M, and specific immunoglobulin E in children. In a dynamic cohort (1993–1998) we included 617 children providing 2,407 repeated measurements; 421 and 523 children in two cross-sectional samples (1997–1998 and 2008–2010, respectively); and 25 participants in a small longitudinal cohort (1997–2010). All medical exams, blood collections, and analyses were conducted by the same team. We used mixed linear models to analyze repeated measurements in cohorts and general linear regression models for cross-sectional studies. Results Residential soil contamination in 2008 was highly correlated with the individual body burden of 137Cs. Serum IgG and IgM concentrations increased between 1993 and 1998. Children with higher 137Cs soil exposure had lower serum IgG levels, which, however, increased in the small cohort assessed between 1997 and 2010. Children within the fourth quintile of 137Cs soil exposure (266–310 kBq/m2) had higher IgM serum concentrations between 1993 and 1998 but these declined between 1997 and 2010. IgA remained stable with median 137Cs exposures related to higher IgA levels, which was corroborated in the cross-sectional study of 2008–2010. Specific IgE against indoor allergens was detected less often in children with higher 137Cs exposure. Conclusions Our findings show radiation-related alterations of immunoglobulins which by themselves do not constitute adverse health effects. Further investigations are necessary to understand how these changes affect health status. PMID:24886042

  9. Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 64 NIST Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of differential elastic-scattering cross sections, corresponding total elastic-scattering cross sections, phase shifts, and transport cross sections for elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 96 and for electron energies between 50 eV and 20,000 eV (in steps of 1 eV).

  10. High resolution imaging in cross-section of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor using super-higher-order nonlinear dielectric microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinone, N.; Yamasue, K.; Honda, K.; Cho, Y.

    2013-11-01

    Scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM) can evaluate carrier or charge distribution in semiconductor devices. High sensitivity to capacitance variation enables SNDM to measure the super-high-order (higher than 3rd) derivative of local capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics directly under the tip (dnC/dVn,n = 3, 4, ...). We demonstrate improvement of carrier density resolution by measurement of dnC/dVn,n = 1, 2, 3, 4 (super-higher-order method) in the cross-sectional observation of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor.

  11. Viscous Flow through Pipes of Various Cross-Sections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekner, John

    2007-01-01

    An interesting variety of pipe cross-sectional shapes can be generated, for which the Navier-Stokes equations can be solved exactly. The simplest cases include the known solutions for elliptical and equilateral triangle cross-sections. Students can find pipe cross-sections from solutions of Laplace's equation in two dimensions, and then plot the…

  12. Mental Visualization of Objects from Cross-Sectional Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Stetten, George D.

    2012-01-01

    We extended the classic anorthoscopic viewing procedure to test a model of visualization of 3D structures from 2D cross-sections. Four experiments were conducted to examine key processes described in the model, localizing cross-sections within a common frame of reference and spatiotemporal integration of cross sections into a hierarchical object…

  13. Extracting the photoproduction cross sections off the neutron, via the γn→π-p reaction, from deuteron data with final-state interaction effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, V. E.; Briscoe, W. J.; Gao, H.; Kudryavtsev, A. E.; Strakovsky, I. I.

    2011-09-01

    The incoherent pion photoproduction reaction γd→π-pp is considered theoretically in a wide energy region Eth≤Eγ≤2700 MeV. The model applied contains the impulse approximation as well as the NN and πN final-state-interaction (FSI) amplitudes. The aim of the paper is to study a reliable way for getting the information on elementary γn→π-p reaction cross sections beyond the impulse approximation for γd→π-pp. For the elementary γN→πN, NN→NN, and πN→πN amplitudes, the results of The George Washington University (GW) Data Analysis Center (DAC) are used. There are no additional theoretical constraints. The calculated cross sections dσ/dΩ(γd→π-pp) are compared with existing data. The procedure used to extract information on the differential cross section dσ/dΩ(γn→π-p) on the neutron from the deuteron data using the FSI correction factor R is discussed. The calculations for R versus π-p center-of-mass (CM) angle θ1 of the outgoing pion are performed at different photon-beam energies with kinematic cuts for a “quasifree” process γn→π-p. The results show a sizable FSI effect R≠1 from the S-wave part of pp-FSI at small angles close to θ1˜0: this region narrows as the photon energy increases. At larger angles, the effect is small (|R-1|≪1) and agrees with estimations of FSI in the Glauber approach.

  14. Prevention of malaria in Afghanistan through social marketing of insecticide-treated nets: evaluation of coverage and effectiveness by cross-sectional surveys and passive surveillance.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Mark; Webster, Jayne; Saleh, Padshah; Chandramohan, Daniel; Freeman, Tim; Pearcy, Barbara; Durrani, Naeem; Rab, Abdur; Mohammed, Nasir

    2002-10-01

    Malaria is often a major health problem in countries undergoing war or conflict owing to breakdown of health systems, displacement of vulnerable populations, and the increased risk of epidemics. After 23 years of conflict, malaria has become prevalent in many rural areas of Afghanistan. From 1993 to the present, a network of non-governmental organizations, co-ordinated by HealthNet International, has operated a programme of bednet sales and re-treatment in lowland areas. To examine whether a strategy based on insecticide-treated nets (ITN) is a viable public health solution to malaria, communities were given the opportunity to buy nets and then monitored to determine population coverage and disease control impact. This was carried out using two contrasting methods: cross-sectional surveys and passive surveillance from clinics using a case-control design. Nets were purchased by 59% of families. Cross-sectional surveys demonstrated a 59% reduction in the risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection among ITN users compared with non-users (OR 0.41; 95% CI 0.25-0.66). The passive surveillance method showed a comparable reduction in the risk of symptomatic P. falciparum malaria among ITN users (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.21-0.47). The cross-sectional method showed a 50% reduction in risk of P. vivax infection in ITN users compared with non-users (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.17-1.49) but this effect was not statistically significant. The passive surveillance method showed a 25% reduction in the risk of symptomatic P. vivax malaria (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.66-0.85). ITN appeared to be less effective against P. vivax because of relapsing infections; hence an effect took more than one season to become apparent. Passive surveillance was cheaper to perform and gave results consistent with cross-sectional surveys. Untreated nets provided some protection. Data on socioeconomic status, a potential confounding factor, was not collected. However, at the time of net sales, there was no difference in malaria

  15. Cross-sectional versus longitudinal age gradients of tower of Hanoi performance: the role of practice effects and cohort differences in education.

    PubMed

    Rönnlund, Michael; Lövdén, Martin; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2008-01-01

    We examined 5-year longitudinal changes in Tower of Hanoi (TOH) performance in a population-based sample of adults (35-85 years initially; n = 1480). An age-matched sample (n = 433) was included to estimate practice effects. The longitudinal age gradients differed substantially from the cross-sectional age gradients. This was the case even when practice effects, that were substantial in magnitude across the young/middle-aged groups, were controlled for. Instead of a continuous age-related deficit in performance from 35 and onwards, longitudinal data showed slowing of performance and increases of illegal moves past age 65. Cohort-related differences in educational attainment did not account for this discrepancy. Further analyses revealed a positive relation between practice-related gains and explicit memory of having performed the task at the first test occasion and a positive association between latent changes in TOH and Block Design, in line with cross-sectional findings. In conclusion, the results demonstrate a pattern of age-related changes indicating a late-onset decline of TOH performance and underscore the need to control for retest effects in longitudinal aging research. PMID:17924234

  16. SU-E-I-43: Photoelectric Cross Section Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Haga, A; Nakagawa, K; Kotoku, J; Horikawa, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The importance of the precision in photoelectric cross-section value increases for recent developed technology such as dual energy computed tomography, in which some reconstruction algorithms require the energy dependence of the photo-absorption in each material composition of human being. In this study, we revisited the photoelectric cross-section calculation by self-consistent relativistic Hartree-Fock (HF) atomic model and compared with that widely distributed as “XCOM database” in National Institute of Standards and Technology, which was evaluated with localdensity approximation for electron-exchange (Fock)z potential. Methods: The photoelectric cross section can be calculated with the electron wave functions in initial atomic state (bound electron) and final continuum state (photoelectron). These electron states were constructed based on the selfconsistent HF calculation, where the repulsive Coulomb potential from the electron charge distribution (Hartree term) and the electron exchange potential with full electromagnetic interaction (Fock term) were included for the electron-electron interaction. The photoelectric cross sections were evaluated for He (Z=2), Be (Z=4), C (Z=6), O (Z=8), and Ne (Z=10) in energy range of 10keV to 1MeV. The Result was compared with XCOM database. Results: The difference of the photoelectric cross section between the present calculation and XCOM database was 8% at a maximum (in 10keV for Be). The agreement tends to be better as the atomic number increases. The contribution from each atomic shell has a considerable discrepancy with XCOM database except for K-shell. However, because the photoelectric cross section arising from K-shell is dominant, the net photoelectric cross section was almost insensitive to the different handling in Fock potential. Conclusion: The photoelectric cross-section program has been developed based on the fully self-consistent relativistic HF atomic model. Due to small effect on the Fock

  17. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Başara, Işıl; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  18. APPARATUS FOR MEASURING TOTAL NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Cranberg, L.

    1959-10-13

    An apparatus is described for measuring high-resolution total neutron cross sections at high counting rate in the range above 50-kev neutron energy. The pulsed-beam time-of-flight technique is used to identify the neutrons of interest which are produced in the target of an electrostatic accelerator. Energy modulation of the accelerator . makes it possible to make observations at 100 energy points simultaneously. 761O An apparatus is described for monitoring the proton resonance of a liquid which is particulariy useful in the continuous purity analysis of heavy water. A hollow shell with parallel sides defines a meander chamber positioned within a uniform magnetic fieid. The liquid passes through an inlet at the outer edge of the chamber and through a spiral channel to the central region of the chamber where an outlet tube extends into the chamber perpendicular to the magnetic field. The radiofrequency energy for the monitor is coupled to a coil positioned coaxially with the outlet tube at its entrance point within the chamber. The improvement lies in the compact mechanical arrangement of the monitor unit whereby the liquid under analysis is subjected to the same magnetic field in the storage and sensing areas, and the entire unit is shielded from external electrostatic influences.

  19. [Fast neutron cross section measurements]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ``clean`` and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ``data production`` phase.

  20. Electron-impact-ionization cross section for the hydrogen atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, W.; Fang, D.; Wang, Y.; Yang, F.

    1994-02-01

    A distorted-wave Born exchange approximation was used to calculate the cross section for electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atoms. Both the integral and energy-differential cross section were calculated. The results were compared with the latest experimental data and other theoretical calculations. Comparison shows that the calculations agree with differential cross-section measurements in general. For integral cross sections the calculation shows a better agreement with an earlier measurement [M.B. Shah, D. S. Elliott, and H. B. Gilbody, J. Phys. B 20, 3501 (1987)] in which the cross sections are normalized to the first Born approximation.

  1. Graphs of the cross sections in the recommended Monte Carlo cross-section library at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Soran, P.D.; Seamon, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    Graphs of all neutron cross sections and photon production cross sections on the Recommended Monte Carlo Cross Section (RMCCS) library have been plotted along with local neutron heating numbers. Values for anti ..nu.., the average number of neutrons per fission, are also given.

  2. Elastic photonuclear cross sections for bremsstrahlung from relativistic ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelsen, Rune E.; Sørensen, Allan H.; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we provide a procedure to calculate the bremsstrahlung spectrum for virtually any relativistic bare ion with charge 6e or beyond, Z ⩾ 6 , in ultraperipheral collisions with target nuclei. We apply the Weizsäcker-Williams method of virtual quanta to model the effect of the distribution of nuclear constituents on the interaction of the ion with the radiation target. This leads to a bremsstrahlung spectrum peaking at 2 γ times the energy of the giant dipole resonance (γ is the projectile energy in units of its rest energy). A central ingredient in the calculation is the cross section for elastic scattering of photons on the ion. This is only available in the literature for a few selected nuclei and, usually, only in a rather restricted parameter range. Hence we develop a procedure applicable for all Z ⩾ 6 to estimate the elastic scattering. The elastic cross section is obtained at low to moderate photon energies, somewhat beyond the giant dipole resonance, by means of the optical theorem, a dispersion relation, and data on the total absorption cross section. The cross section is continued at higher energies by invoking depletion due to loss of coherence in the scattering. Our procedure is intended for any ion where absorption data is available and for moderate to high energies, γ ≳ 10 .

  3. Relationship between Physical Attractiveness, Physical Effectiveness, and Self-Esteem: A Cross-Sectional Analysis among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Bill; Ryckman, Richard M.

    1991-01-01

    Examined contributions of physical attractiveness and physical effectiveness to self-esteem among adolescents in grades 7, 9, and 11, and college freshmen. Both attractiveness and effectiveness were significantly related to self-esteem of males and females. Attractiveness and effectiveness did not appear to be differentially important to…

  4. Electron impact ionisation cross sections of iron hydrogen clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Stefan E.; Sukuba, Ivan; Urban, Jan; Limtrakul, Jumras; Probst, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We computed electron impact ionisation cross sections (EICSs) of iron hydrogen clusters, FeH n with n = 1,2, ...,10, from the ionisation threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The maxima of the cross sections for the iron hydrogen clusters range from 6.13 × 10-16 cm2 at 60 eV to 8.76 × 10-16 cm2 at 76 eV for BEB-AE (BEB method based on quantum-chemical data from all-electron basis sets) calculations, from 4.15 × 10-16 cm2 at 77 eV to 7.61 × 10-16 cm2 at 80 eV for BEB-ECP (BEB method based on quantum-chemical data from effective-core potentials for inner-core electrons) calculations and from 2.49 × 10-16 cm2 at 43.5 eV to 7.04 × 10-16 cm2 at 51 eV for the DM method. Cross sections calculated via the BEB method are substantially higher than the ones obtained via the DM method, up to a factor of about two for FeH and FeH2. The formation of Fe-H bonds depopulates the iron 4 s orbital, causing significantly lower cross sections for the small iron hydrides compared to atomic iron. Both the DM and BEB cross sections can be fitted perfectly against a simple expression used in modelling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. The energetics of the iron hydrogen clusters change substantially when exact exchange is present in the density functional, while the cluster geometries do not depend on this choice.

  5. Schooling has smaller or insignificant effects on adult health in the US than suggested by cross-sectional associations: new estimates using relatively large samples of identical twins.

    PubMed

    Amin, Vikesh; Behrman, Jere R; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2015-02-01

    Numerous theoretical reasons have been posited about why more schooling might improve health. Adult health outcomes and behaviors generally are significantly associated with schooling. However, such associations do not necessarily imply that schooling has causal effects on health outcomes and behaviors. Causal estimates based on schooling variation from policies and from within-MZ (monozygotic) twins have reached mixed conclusions. This study contributed new estimates of cross-sectional associations and within-MZ causal effects using three relatively large US twins samples. The estimates suggested that schooling was significantly associated with numerous health outcomes and behaviors. However, with within-MZ twins control for unobserved factors, schooling was no longer associated with most indicators of better health (with the exception of self-reported health), while it continued to be associated with outcomes such as fertility and spousal schooling. Similar patterns were observed for spousal schooling. PMID:25110343

  6. Absolute photoionization cross sections of the ions Ca+ Ni+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Kjeldsen, H.; Folkmann, F.; Martins, M.; West, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    Absolute measurements of the photoionization cross sections of the singly charged ions in the sequence Ca to Ni are presented, focussing on the 3p → 3d resonance region. Major differences are found in both spectral structure and cross section as the 3d shell is filled progressively. The behaviour of the total oscillator strength is studied as well as its relation to the collapse of the 3d orbital. The 3p53d 1P term is found to have an influence on the spectra even when further 3d electrons are added and this dependence combined with the effect of Hund's rule leads to a considerable simplification in the structure of the absorption spectra before the half-filled 3d shell, while from the half-filled 3d shell Hund's rule is the main simplifying effect.

  7. A cross-sectional developmental examination of the SNARC effect in a visually-guided grasping task.

    PubMed

    Mills, Kelly J; Rousseau, Ben R; Gonzalez, Claudia L R

    2014-05-01

    The present study documents the influence of numerical processing on hand and space use during a reach-to-grasp task. Three questions regarding the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect were asked: (1) would the SNARC effect influence hand and/or space preference for grasping?; (2) would the SNARC effect be demonstrated during the processing of one-digit numbers, two-digit numbers, or both?; and (3) would developmental age influence the strength of the SNARC effect? A total of 84 participants in three age/school level groups (Primary, Secondary, and Post-secondary) took part in the study. Two identical sets of small wooden blocks numbered from 0 to 19 were used. Each set was presented to the right and to the left of each participant. A number was called and participants were asked to find and grasp a block with the corresponding number as fast and accurately as possible. Hand and space used (L/R) was recorded for each grasp. Number magnitude was shown to influence the selection of hand and hemi-space in accordance with the SNARC effect. In the small percentage of trials where the left hand was used, it was more commonly recruited to grasp blocks displaying low numbers than high numbers. Participants grasped blocks from left and right space with equal frequency, but respectively left/right space was accessed more often for blocks displaying low/high numbers. Regression analyses revealed that developmental age is a powerful predictor of the SNARC effect on hand and space selection for grasping. This study provides the first description of the SNARC effect on hand and space preference for the reach-to-grasp action. Results are discussed with relevant literature of numerical processing in the human brain. PMID:24732383

  8. Disentangling effects of socioeconomic status on obesity: A cross-sectional study of the Spanish adult population.

    PubMed

    Merino Ventosa, María; Urbanos-Garrido, Rosa M Maria Merino Ven Gmail Com

    2016-09-01

    This paper complements previous estimations regarding socioeconomic inequalities in obesity for Spanish adults, and provides new evidence about the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status (SES) affects obesity. Microdata from the Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS) 2011-2012 are analysed. Corrected concentration indices (CCI) are calculated to measure inequality. Path analysis is employed to disentangle direct and indirect effects of SES on obesity, where dietary patterns, physical activity and sleep habits act as mediator variables. Multivariate logistic models are used to select those exogenous variables to be included in the path diagram. Men and women are analysed separately. Our results show significant pro-rich inequality in the distribution of obesity (the poorer the more obese), particularly for women (CCI=-0.070 for men, CCI=-0.079 for women). The indirect effects of SES on obesity (those transmitted via mediator variables) are quite modest (3.3% for males, 2.4% for females) due to three reasons. Firstly, dietary habits do not show a significant mediating effect. Secondly, the mediating effect of physical activity in leisure time, although significant (14% for males, 11.1% for females), is offset by that related to main activity. Finally, sleep habits contribution to total effect of SES on obesity is statistically significant but small (roughly 1%). Our results indicate that promoting physical activity in leisure time for those with a low SES, particularly for men, would contribute to prevent obesity and to reduce health inequalities. Promotion of adequate sleep habits for women with a low SES might have a similar effect. However, interventions aimed to reduce sedentarism related to main activity, although useful to prevent obesity, would amplify the obesity socioeconomic gradient. Since effects of SES are different for men and women, socioeconomic health inequalities should be addressed also from a gender perspective. PMID:27362523

  9. Disentangling effects of socioeconomic status on obesity: A cross-sectional study of the Spanish adult population.

    PubMed

    Merino Ventosa, María; Urbanos-Garrido, Rosa M Maria Merino Ven Gmail Com

    2016-09-01

    This paper complements previous estimations regarding socioeconomic inequalities in obesity for Spanish adults, and provides new evidence about the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status (SES) affects obesity. Microdata from the Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS) 2011-2012 are analysed. Corrected concentration indices (CCI) are calculated to measure inequality. Path analysis is employed to disentangle direct and indirect effects of SES on obesity, where dietary patterns, physical activity and sleep habits act as mediator variables. Multivariate logistic models are used to select those exogenous variables to be included in the path diagram. Men and women are analysed separately. Our results show significant pro-rich inequality in the distribution of obesity (the poorer the more obese), particularly for women (CCI=-0.070 for men, CCI=-0.079 for women). The indirect effects of SES on obesity (those transmitted via mediator variables) are quite modest (3.3% for males, 2.4% for females) due to three reasons. Firstly, dietary habits do not show a significant mediating effect. Secondly, the mediating effect of physical activity in leisure time, although significant (14% for males, 11.1% for females), is offset by that related to main activity. Finally, sleep habits contribution to total effect of SES on obesity is statistically significant but small (roughly 1%). Our results indicate that promoting physical activity in leisure time for those with a low SES, particularly for men, would contribute to prevent obesity and to reduce health inequalities. Promotion of adequate sleep habits for women with a low SES might have a similar effect. However, interventions aimed to reduce sedentarism related to main activity, although useful to prevent obesity, would amplify the obesity socioeconomic gradient. Since effects of SES are different for men and women, socioeconomic health inequalities should be addressed also from a gender perspective.

  10. Differential collision cross-sections for atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    Differential collision cross-sections of O on N2 and other gases were measured to understand vehicle-environmental contamination effects in orbit. The following subject areas are also covered: groundbased scientific observations of rocket releases during NICARE-1; data compression study for the UVI; science priorities for UV imaging in the mid-1990's; and assessment of optimizations possible in UV imaging systems.

  11. Effects of Tai Chi on a Functional Arm Reaching Task in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Rini; Hui-Chan, Christina W; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2015-07-01

    This study quantified the effect of aging and the long-term practice of Tai Chi on upper limb movement control, indicated by performance outcome (temporal) and performance production (amplitude) measures, on a multiplanar stand-reaching (i.e., functional) task. Twelve Tai Chi practitioners (TCPs), 11 age-matched older nonpractitioners (ONPs), and 12 young subjects performed cued, flexion-reaching, and abduction-reaching tasks using a custom set-up. Surface EMG and acceleration data sampled from wireless sensors rendered performance outcome (reaction time, burst duration, time to peak, and movement time) and performance production (normalized EMG amplitude and peak acceleration) measures. Young subjects and TCPs demonstrated better performance outcome and performance production than ONPs. Relative-effect computations (i.e., the effect of Tai Chi expressed as a percentage of the effect of aging) showed that TCPs exhibited approximately 20-60% (flexion) and 20-100% (abduction) improvement in reaching task performance compared with ONPs. Tai Chi practitioners displayed better arm movement control than ONPs on a relatively challenging and functional stand-reaching task.

  12. A Cross-Sectional Comparison of the Effects of Phonotactic Probability and Neighborhood Density on Word Learning by Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Jill R.; Storkel, Holly L.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of phonotactic probability and neighborhood density on word learning by 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Nonwords orthogonally varying in probability and density were taught with learning and retention measured via picture naming. Experiment 1 used a within story probability/across story density exposure…

  13. Effect of sunlight exposure on cognitive function among depressed and non-depressed participants: a REGARDS cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Possible physiological causes for the effect of sunlight on mood are through the suprachiasmatic nuclei and evidenced by serotonin and melatonin regulation and its associations with depression. Cognitive function involved in these same pathways may potentially be affected by sunlight exposure. We evaluated whether the amount of sunlight exposure (i.e. insolation) affects cognitive function and examined the effect of season on this relationship. Methods We obtained insolation data for residential regions of 16,800 participants from a national cohort study of blacks and whites, aged 45+. Cognitive impairment was assessed using a validated six-item screener questionnaire and depression status was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Logistic regression was used to find whether same-day or two-week average sunlight exposure was related to cognitive function and whether this relationship differed by depression status. Results Among depressed participants, a dose-response relationship was found between sunlight exposure and cognitive function, with lower levels of sunlight associated with impaired cognitive status (odds ratio = 2.58; 95% CI 1.43–6.69). While both season and sunlight were correlated with cognitive function, a significant relation remained between each of them and cognitive impairment after controlling for their joint effects. Conclusion The study found an association between decreased exposure to sunlight and increased probability of cognitive impairment using a novel data source. We are the first to examine the effects of two-week exposure to sunlight on cognition, as well as the first to look at sunlight's effects on cognition in a large cohort study. PMID:19638195

  14. Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Upper Stringers, Typical Section Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Upper Stringers, Typical Section Showing End Framing, Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Lower Stringers, End Elevation - Covered Bridge, Spanning Contoocook River, Hopkinton, Merrimack County, NH

  15. Nucleon-nucleus interaction data base: Total nuclear and absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Buck, W. W.; Chun, S. Y.; Hong, B. S.; Lamkin, S. L.

    1988-01-01

    Neutron total cross sections are represented for Li to Pu targets at energies above 0.1 MeV and less than 100 MeV using a modified nuclear Ramsauer formalism. The formalism is derived for energies above 100 MeV by fitting theoretical cross sections. Neutron absorption cross sections are represented by analytic expressions of similar form, but shape resonance phenomena of the Ramsauer effect is not present. Elastic differential cross sections are given as a renormalized impulse approximation. These cross section data bases are useful for nucleon transport applications.

  16. The Effects of Plasma Shield on the Radar Cross Section of a Generic Missile in UHF Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Shen

    2011-10-01

    RF Stealth is the dominant technology in today's military aircraft, and most is achieved by shape design with a few reductions achieved by RAM, but most of these effects are only valid in X band. With the popularity of UHF radar again rising, the possibility of detecting a stealth object has increased due to resonance effect, and this is difficult to decrease with previous means due to the long wavelength. A plasma shield generated in front of an object may be suitable to alter the RCS in specific band without physically changing its shape. We examine the RCS of a generic missile in UHF band, and compared it with one with a cone-shape plasma generated in front of the missile. We find the plasma effectively changes the RCS of the missile, though not necessarily smaller. The RCS of the missile with the plasma shield is now dominated by the plasma instead of the missile. The RCS is a function of the size, shape, and density of the plasma shield. For higher frequency signals like the X band radar, it can still penetrate the plasma, and sees the original RCS of the missile. Due to the relatively lower UHF frequency, the plasma density needed is lower than one in X band and thus more practical to achieve.

  17. Empirical parametrization of the two-photon-exchange effect contributions to the electron-proton elastic scattering cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qattan, I. A.; Alsaad, A.

    2011-05-01

    The most recent electron-proton elastic scattering data were re-analyzed using an empirical parametrization of the two-photon-exchange (TPE) effect contributions to σR. The TPE effect contribution F(Q2,ɛ) was double Taylor series expanded as a polynomial of order n keeping only terms linear in ɛ to account for the experimentally observed and verified linearity of the Rosenbluth plots. We fix the ratio R=GEp/GMp to be that obtained from a fit to the recoil-polarization data and parametrize σR first by a three-parameter formula (fit I) and then by a two-parameter formula (fit III). In contrast to previous analyses, the fit parameter GMp2 as obtained from these fits is either smaller or equal to the values obtained from our conventional Rosenbluth fit (fit II) but never larger. The ratio g(Q2)/GMp2 which represents the ratio of the TPE and one-photon-exchange (OPE) effect contributions to the intercept of σR is large and it ranges 3%-88%. The ratio R1γ⊗2γ=τf(Q2)/GEp2 which represents the ratio of the TPE and OPE effect contributions to the slope of σR is also large, reaching a value of 12.0-14.4 at Q2= 5.25 (GeV/c)2. The ratio R1γ⊗2γ as obtained from fits I and III is consistent, within error, with those obtained from previous analyses. Our formulas seem to explain the linearity of σR. Moreover, our analysis shows that the extracted GEp2 and GMp2 using the conventional Rosenbluth separation method can in fact be broken into the usual OPE and TPE contributions. Therefore, σR can in fact be derived under weaker conditions than those imposed by the Born approximation. Our results show that the TPE amplitudes, g(Q2)/GMp2 and f(Q2)/GMp2, are sizable and grow with Q2 value up to Q2~ 6 (GeV/c)2 in agreement with previous studies. A revision of and comparison to previous analyses are also presented.

  18. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of effects of transcendental meditation practice on interhemispheric frontal asymmetry and frontal coherence.

    PubMed

    Travis, Frederick; Arenander, Alarik

    2006-12-01

    Two studies investigated frontal alpha lateral asymmetry and frontal interhemispheric coherence during eyes-closed rest, Transcendental Meditation (TM) practice, and computerized reaction-time tasks. In the first study, frontal coherence and lateralized asymmetry were higher in 13 TM subjects than in 12 controls. In the second study (N = 14), a one-year longitudinal study, lateral asymmetry did not change in any condition. In contrast, frontal coherence increased linearly during computer tasks and eyes-closed rest, and as a step-function during TM practice--rising to a high level after 2-months TM practice. Coherence was more sensitive than lateral asymmetry to effects of TM practice on brain functioning.

  19. Plasma p-Cresol Lowering Effect of Sevelamer in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Guida, Bruna; Cataldi, Mauro; Riccio, Eleonora; Grumetto, Lucia; Pota, Andrea; Borrelli, Silvio; Memoli, Andrea; Barbato, Francesco; Argentino, Gennaro; Salerno, Giuliana; Memoli, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    p-Cresol is a by-product of the metabolism of aromatic aminoacid operated by resident intestinal bacteria. In patients with chronic kidney disease, the accumulation of p-cresol and of its metabolite p-cresyl-sulphate causes endothelial dysfunction and ultimately increases the cardiovascular risk of these patients. Therapeutic strategies to reduce plasma p-cresol levels are highly demanded but not available yet. Because it has been reported that the phosphate binder sevelamer sequesters p-cresol in vitro we hypothesized that it could do so also in peritoneal dialysis patients. To explore this hypothesis we measured total cresol plasma concentrations in 57 patients with end-stage renal disease on peritoneal dialysis, 29 receiving sevelamer for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia and 28 patients not assuming this drug. Among the patients not assuming sevelamer, 16 were treated with lanthanum whereas the remaining 12 received no drug because they were not hyperphosphatemic. Patients receiving sevelamer had plasma p-cresol and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations significantly lower than those receiving lanthanum or no drug. Conversely, no difference was observed among the different groups either in residual glomerular filtration rate, total weekly dialysis dose, total clearance, urine volume, protein catabolic rate, serum albumin or serum phosphate levels. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that none of these variables predicted plasma p-cresol concentrations that, instead, negatively correlated with the use of sevelamer. These results suggest that sevelamer could be an effective strategy to lower p-cresol circulating levels in peritoneal dialysis patients in which it could also favorably affect cardiovascular risk because of its anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:24015307

  20. Short-term acute effects of gutkha chewing on heart rate variability among young adults: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Itagi, Afreen Begum H; Arora, Dimple; Patil, Navin A; Bailwad, Sandeep Anant; Yunus, GY; Goel, Ankit

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: An increase in the consumption of smokeless tobacco has been noticed among high school, college students, and adults. Despite the antiquity and popularity of chewing tobacco in India, its effects have not been investigated systematically in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate acute effects of gutkha chewing on heart rate variability (HRV) among healthy young adults. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 young adult males were included in the study. Each individual was asked to chew tobacco and subjected to HRV analysis. HRV analysis using short-term electrocardiogram recording was used to measure HRV parameters before gutkha chewing and at 5, 15, and 30 min after chewing tobacco. One-way analysis of variance and paired t-test was used to assess changes over time. Results: There was a significant increase in heart rate (HR) during tobacco chewing. Mean HR at baseline measured 73.0 ± 6.2 bpm. There was a rise in mean HR to 83.7 ± 9.1 bpm at 5 min during tobacco chewing and gradual reduction to baseline observed after 15 min followed by no significant change till 30 min. The normalized low-frequency power and LF/high-frequency (HF) power ratio were elevated after 5 min; however, normalized HF power was reduced after 5 min tobacco chewing. Conclusion: Gutkha is closely associated with traditional cardiovascular risk factors as detected by a transient enhancing sympathetic activity during tobacco chewing in the form of increased HRV parameters or an imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic neural activity among healthy young adults. PMID:26958522

  1. Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination on Serotype-Specific Carriage and Invasive Disease in England: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Flasche, Stefan; Van Hoek, Albert Jan; Sheasby, Elizabeth; Waight, Pauline; Andrews, Nick; Sheppard, Carmen; George, Robert; Miller, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigated the effect of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) programme in England on serotype-specific carriage and invasive disease to help understand its role in serotype replacement and predict the impact of higher valency vaccines. Methods and Findings Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken from children <5 y old and family members (n = 400) 2 y after introduction of PCV7 into routine immunization programs. Proportions carrying Streptococcus pneumoniae and serotype distribution among carried isolates were compared with a similar population prior to PCV7 introduction. Serotype-specific case∶carrier ratios (CCRs) were estimated using national data on invasive disease. In vaccinated children and their contacts vaccine-type (VT) carriage decreased, but was offset by an increase in non-VT carriage, with no significant overall change in carriage prevalence, odds ratio 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.76–1.49). The lower CCRs of the replacing serotypes resulted in a net reduction in invasive disease in children. The additional serotypes covered by higher valency vaccines had low carriage but high disease prevalence. Serotype 11C emerged as predominant in carriage but caused no invasive disease whereas 8, 12F, and 22F emerged in disease but had very low carriage prevalence. Conclusion Because the additional serotypes included in PCV10/13 have high CCRs but low carriage prevalence, vaccinating against them is likely to significantly reduce invasive disease with less risk of serotype replacement. However, a few serotypes with high CCRs could mitigate the benefits of higher valency vaccines. Assessment of the effect of PCV on carriage as well as invasive disease should be part of enhanced surveillance activities for PCVs. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21483718

  2. High E{sub T} jet cross sections at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, B.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    The inclusive jet cross section for {ital p}{ital {anti p}} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV as measured by the CDF collaboration will be presented. Preliminary CDF measurements of the {Sigma} E{sub T} cross section at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV and the central inclusive jet cross section at {radical}s = 0.630 TeV will also be shown.

  3. Measured microwave scattering cross sections of three meteorite specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    Three meteorite specimens were used in a microwave scattering experiment to determine the scattering cross sections of stony meteorites and iron meteorites in the frequency range from 10 to 14 GHz. The results indicate that the stony meteorites have a microwave scattering cross section that is 30 to 50 percent of their projected optical cross section. Measurements of the iron meteorite scattering were inconclusive because of specimen surface irregularities.

  4. Projectile and Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Electromagnetic Dissociation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Adamczyk, Anne; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Differential cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation in nuclear collisions are calculated for the first time. In order to be useful for three - dimensional transport codes, these cross sections have been calculated in both the projectile and lab frames. The formulas for these cross sections are such that they can be immediately used in space radiation transport codes. Only a limited amount of data exists, but the comparison between theory and experiment is good.

  5. Analytical formulation of the quantum electromagnetic cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandsema, Matthew J.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Lanzagorta, Marco

    2016-05-01

    It has been found that the quantum radar cross section (QRCS) equation can be written in terms of the Fourier transform of the surface atom distribution of the object. This paper uses this form to provide an analytical formulation of the quantum radar cross section by deriving closed form expressions for various geometries. These expressions are compared to the classical radar cross section (RCS) expressions and the quantum advantages are discerned from the differences in the equations. Multiphoton illumination is also briefly discussed.

  6. The Effect of Attending Steiner Schools during Childhood on Health in Adulthood: A Multicentre Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, H. Felix; Binting, Sylvia; Bockelbrink, Angelina; Heusser, Peter; Hueck, Christoph; Keil, Thomas; Roll, Stephanie; Witt, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Background It is speculated that attending Steiner schools, whose pedagogical principles include an account for healthy psycho-physical development, may have long-term beneficial health effects. We examined whether the current health status differed between former attendees of German Steiner schools and adults from the general population. Furthermore, we examined factors that might explain those differences. Methods We included former Steiner school attendees from 4 schools in Berlin, Hanover, Nuremberg and Stuttgart and randomly selected population controls. Using a self-report questionnaire we assessed sociodemographics, current and childhood lifestyle and health status. Outcomes were self-reports on 16 diseases: atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac insufficiency, angina pectoris, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, osteoarthritis, rheumatism, cancer, diabetes, depression and multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, participants rated the symptom burden resulting from back pain, cold symptoms, headache, insomnia, joint pain, gastrointestinal symptoms and imbalance. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated for each outcome. Results 1136 Steiner school attendees and 1746 controls were eligible for analysis. Both groups were comparable regarding sex, age and region, but differed in nationality and educational status. After adjusting for possible confounders, we found statistically significant effects of Steiner school attendance for osteoarthritis (OR 0.69 [0.49–0.97]) and allergic rhinitis (OR 0.77, [0.59–1.00]) as well as for symptom burden from back pain (OR 0.80, [0.64–1.00]), insomnia (OR 0.65, [0.50–0.84]), joint pain (OR 0.62, [0.48–0.82]), gastrointestinal symptoms (OR 0.76, [0.58–1.00]) and imbalance (OR 0.60, [0.38–0.93]). Conclusions The risk of most examined diseases did not differ between former Steiner school attendees and the

  7. The effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy on characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis in northern Malawi: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV infection reduces the likelihood that individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis are smear positive and that they have cavitatory disease. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) may shift the pattern of disease to be more similar to that of HIV negative patients. This would aid diagnosis- which often depends on sputum smears – but would also increase infectiousness. We assessed the effect of HIV and ART on smear positivity and cavitatory disease in laboratory-confirmed pulmonary TB patients. Methods Three sputum samples were collected per pulmonary TB suspect and were examined using microscopy and culture. Chest radiographs were available for a subset of patients as part of another study. The effect of HIV and ART status on sputum smear positivity and lung cavitation were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. Results Of 1024 laboratory-confirmed pulmonary TB patients who were identified between January 2005 and December 2011, 766 had HIV and ART status available. Positive sputum smears were significantly more common among HIV negative individuals than HIV positive individuals (adjusted OR = 2.91, 95% CI 1.53 – 5.55). Compared to those HIV positive but not on ART, patients on ART were more likely to be smear positive (adjusted OR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.01 – 5.39) if they had been on ART ≤ 6 months, but only slightly more likely to be smear positive (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI 0.68 – 2.99) if they were on ART > 6 months. HIV negative patients were more likely than HIV positive patients to have cavitatory disease (adjusted OR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.20 – 3.23). Patients on ART > 6 months had a slight increase in cavitatory disease compared to HIV positive patients not on ART (adjusted OR = 1.68, CI 0.78 – 3.63). Conclusions HIV infection is associated with less smear positivity and cavitation in pulmonary TB patients. Among HIV positive patients, the use of ART shifts the presentation of disease towards that seen in HIV

  8. Effects of congruence between preferred and perceived learning environments in nursing education in Taiwan: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Huang, Hsiu-Mei; Chan, Wing P; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of congruence between preferred and perceived learning environments on learning outcomes of nursing students. Setting A nursing course at a university in central Taiwan. Participants 124 Taiwanese nursing students enrolled in a 13-week problem-based Fundamental Nursing curriculum. Design and methods Students' preferred learning environment, perceptions about the learning environment and learning outcomes (knowledge, self-efficacy and attitudes) were assessed. On the basis of test scores measuring their preferred and perceived learning environments, students were assigned to one of two groups: a ‘preferred environment aligned with perceived learning environment’ group and a ‘preferred environment discordant with perceived learning environment’ group. Learning outcomes were analysed by group. Outcome measures Most participants preferred learning in a classroom environment that combined problem-based and lecture-based instruction. However, a mismatch of problem-based instruction with students' perceptions occurred. Learning outcomes were significantly better when students' perceptions of their instructional activities were congruent with their preferred learning environment. Conclusions As problem-based learning becomes a focus of educational reform in nursing, teachers need to be aware of students' preferences and perceptions of the learning environment. Teachers may also need to improve the match between an individual student's perception and a teacher's intention in the learning environment, and between the student's preferred and actual perceptions of the learning environment. PMID:27207620

  9. Individual and socioeconomic contextual effects on depressive symptom in Korea: multilevel analysis of cross-sectional nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Whan; Park, Jae-Hyun

    2015-02-01

    This study was aimed to examine the relationship between individual, socioeconomic context and depressive symptom among Korean population. Data were the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS), a nationwide survey collected from 253 local communities including 230,715 adults aged 19 yr or over. To identify depressive symptom, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was used. This study employed multilevel logistic regression to analyze the hierarchical data that included individual and community level variables. The results of this study showed that people in the highest level of community income had a higher risk of depressive symptom compared with people in the lowest (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.4-1.9). In a chi-square test for trend, the prevalence of depressive symptom was significantly increased with increased level of community income among all groups of the family income (P<0.001). Moreover a significant interaction was found between household income and community mean income (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.99). Among individual level variables, age, sex, education, income, living alone, and the number of illnesses were associated with depressive symptom. This study identified that the level of community income has an inverse association, and its effect is especially stronger among low income individuals.

  10. Cross-Section Measurements with the Radioactive Isotope Accelerator (ria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyer, M. A.; Moody, K. J.; Wild, J. F.; Patin, J. B.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Stoyer, N. J.; Harris, L. J.

    2003-10-01

    RIA will produce beams of exotic nuclei of unprecedented luminosity. Preliminary studies of the feasibility of measuring cross-sections of interest to the science based stockpile stewardship (SBSS) program will be presented, and several experimental techniques will be discussed. Cross-section modeling attempts for the A = 95 mass region will be shown. In addition, several radioactive isotopes could be collected for target production or medical isotope purposes while the main in-beam experiments are running. The inclusion of a broad range mass analyzer (BRAMA) capability at RIA will enable more effective utilization of the facility, enabling the performance of multiple experiments at the same time. This option will be briefly discussed.

  11. Cross-Section Measurements with the Radioactive Isotope Accelerator (RIA)

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, M A; Moody, K J; Wild, J F; Patin, J B; Shaughnessy, D A; Stoyer, N J; Harris, L J

    2002-11-19

    RIA will produce beams of exotic nuclei of unprecedented luminosity. Preliminary studies of the feasibility of measuring cross-sections of interest to the science based stockpile stewardship (SBSS) program will be presented, and several experimental techniques will be discussed. Cross-section modeling attempts for the A = 95 mass region will be shown. In addition, several radioactive isotopes could be collected for target production or medical isotope purposes while the main in-beam experiments are running. The inclusion of a broad range mass analyzer (BRAMA) capability at RIA will enable more effective utilization of the facility, enabling the performance of multiple experiments at the same time. This option will be briefly discussed.

  12. Acute effects of transcutaneous electrical diaphragmatic stimulation on respiratory pattern in COPD patients: cross-sectional and comparative clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Cancelliero-Gaiad, Karina M.; Ike, Daniela; Pantoni, Camila B. F.; Mendes, Renata G.; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Costa, Dirceu

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcutaneous electrical diaphragmatic stimulation (TEDS) has been used to improve respiratory muscle strength in patients with respiratory muscle weakness. However, this physical therapy resource has not been studied in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objective To evaluate the respiratory pattern during one session of TEDS in COPD patients. Method Fifteen COPD patients participated in one TEDS session for plethysmographic analysis and assessment of peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate (HR). After the session, patients were divided into two groups: Responder (R; n=9) and Non-Responder (NR; n=6) to TEDS. Statistic analysis was performed using the Shapiro-Wilk normality test and two-way ANOVA. For the parameters that showed interaction, the Student t test was used (P<0.05). Results R group consisted mainly of men, with lower SpO2 and higher HR than NR group. When time (before and during) and groups (R and NR) were compared (interaction), there were differences in the parameters minute ventilation (Vent), inspiratory tidal volume (ViVol), expiratory tidal volume (VeVol), and respiratory rate (Br/M). In the intergroup comparison, differences were observed in the parameters Vent, ViVol, and VeVol. A significant effect was also observed for time in change in end-expiratory lung volume level (qDEEL), phase relation during inspiration (PhRIB); phase relation during expiration (PhREB); phase relation of entire breath (PhRTB), and phase angle (PhAng). During TEDS, there was an increase in SpO2 and a reduction in HR in both groups. Conclusions The most hypoxemic group with greater HR responded to TEDS and there was interaction between group and time of analysis for the pulmonary volumes. The time factor had an influence on the two groups with an increase in thoracoabdominal asynchrony. PMID:24271095

  13. Effect of Weekend Admissions on the Treatment Process and Outcomes of Internal Medicine Patients: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Che; Huang, Yu-Tung; Hsu, Nin-Chieh; Chen, Jin-Shing; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2016-02-01

    Many studies address the effect of weekend admission on patient outcomes. This population-based study aimed to evaluate the relationship between weekend admission and the treatment process and outcomes of general internal medicine patients in Taiwan.A total of 82,340 patients (16,657 weekend and 65,683 weekday admissions) aged ≥20 years and admitted to the internal medicine departments of 17 medical centers between 2007 and 2009 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis was used to compare patients admitted on weekends and those admitted on weekdays.Patients who were admitted on weekends were more likely to undergo intubation (odds ratio [OR]: 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-1.39; P < 0.001) and/or mechanical ventilation (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.15-1.35; P < 0.001), cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.05-2.01; P = 0.026), and be transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) (OR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.03-1.30; P = 0.015) compared with those admitted on weekdays. Weekend-admitted patients also had higher odds of in-hospital mortality (OR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.09-1.30; P < 0.001) and hospital treatment cost (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.01-1.06; P = 0.008) than weekday-admitted patients.General internal medicine patients who were admitted on weekends experienced more intensive care procedures and higher ICU admission, in-hospital mortality, and treatment cost. Intensive care utilization may serve as early indicator of poorer outcomes and a potential entry point to offer preventive intervention before proceeding to intensive treatment. PMID:26871788

  14. Effect of Social Factors on Cesarean Birth in Primiparous Women: A Cross Sectional Study (Social Factors and Cesarean Birth)

    PubMed Central

    ONER, Can; CATAK, Binali; SÜTLÜ, Sevinç; KILINÇ, Selçuk

    2016-01-01

    Background: P Cesarean delivery rates have been increasing throughout the world. Parallel to the developments in the world the cesarean rate in Turkey has risen to 48.1% in 2013. Some of the social factors were related with cesarean births. The purpose of this study was to determine cesarean birth rates and to find out social factors affecting the cesarean birth in primiparous women. Methods: This study was conducted in Burdur Province, Turkey between the dates of 1 Jan 2012–31 Dec 2012 on 223 primiparous women. The data was collected with data collection form prepared by the researchers by using face-to-face interview technique. In these analyses, chi-square and Backward Logistic regression analyses were used. Results: In multivariate analyses, the place of delivery (OR: 11.2 [2.9–42.46] in private hospital and OR: 6.1 [2.6–14.1] in university hospital); time of the birth (OR: 7.1 [3.1–16.0]); doctor’s effect (OR: 4.0 [1.8–8.95]) and husband’s employment status (OR: 2.23 [1.0–4.7]) have been identified as factors affecting the caesarean delivery in primiparous women. Conclusion: Although the results do not show all of the factors affecting the caesarean delivery in primiparous women, they reveal that medical reasons are not the only reason in this increase trend. Health policy makers and health professionals are required to identify the causes of this increase and to take measures.

  15. Effect of Weekend Admissions on the Treatment Process and Outcomes of Internal Medicine Patients: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Che; Huang, Yu-Tung; Hsu, Nin-Chieh; Chen, Jin-Shing; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2016-02-01

    Many studies address the effect of weekend admission on patient outcomes. This population-based study aimed to evaluate the relationship between weekend admission and the treatment process and outcomes of general internal medicine patients in Taiwan.A total of 82,340 patients (16,657 weekend and 65,683 weekday admissions) aged ≥20 years and admitted to the internal medicine departments of 17 medical centers between 2007 and 2009 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis was used to compare patients admitted on weekends and those admitted on weekdays.Patients who were admitted on weekends were more likely to undergo intubation (odds ratio [OR]: 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-1.39; P < 0.001) and/or mechanical ventilation (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.15-1.35; P < 0.001), cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.05-2.01; P = 0.026), and be transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) (OR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.03-1.30; P = 0.015) compared with those admitted on weekdays. Weekend-admitted patients also had higher odds of in-hospital mortality (OR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.09-1.30; P < 0.001) and hospital treatment cost (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.01-1.06; P = 0.008) than weekday-admitted patients.General internal medicine patients who were admitted on weekends experienced more intensive care procedures and higher ICU admission, in-hospital mortality, and treatment cost. Intensive care utilization may serve as early indicator of poorer outcomes and a potential entry point to offer preventive intervention before proceeding to intensive treatment.

  16. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. CIRMIS data system. Volume 4. Driller's logs, stratigraphic cross section and utility routines

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrichs, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. Analysis of the long-term, far-field consequences of release scenarios requires the application of numerical codes which simulate the hydrologic systems, model the transport of released radionuclides through the hydrologic systems to the biosphere, and, where applicable, assess the radiological dose to humans. The various input parameters required in the analysis are compiled in data systems. The data are organized and prepared by various input subroutines for use by the hydrologic and transport codes. The hydrologic models simulate the groundwater flow systems and provide water flow directions, rates, and velocities as inputs to the transport models. Outputs from the transport models are basically graphs of radionuclide concentration in the groundwater plotted against time. After dilution in the receiving surface-water body (e.g., lake, river, bay), these data are the input source terms for the dose models, if dose assessments are required. The dose models calculate radiation dose to individuals and populations. CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) Data System is a storage and retrieval system for model input and output data, including graphical interpretation and display. This is the fourth of four volumes of the description of the CIRMIS Data System.

  17. Effect of Social Factors on Cesarean Birth in Primiparous Women: A Cross Sectional Study (Social Factors and Cesarean Birth)

    PubMed Central

    ONER, Can; CATAK, Binali; SÜTLÜ, Sevinç; KILINÇ, Selçuk

    2016-01-01

    Background: P Cesarean delivery rates have been increasing throughout the world. Parallel to the developments in the world the cesarean rate in Turkey has risen to 48.1% in 2013. Some of the social factors were related with cesarean births. The purpose of this study was to determine cesarean birth rates and to find out social factors affecting the cesarean birth in primiparous women. Methods: This study was conducted in Burdur Province, Turkey between the dates of 1 Jan 2012–31 Dec 2012 on 223 primiparous women. The data was collected with data collection form prepared by the researchers by using face-to-face interview technique. In these analyses, chi-square and Backward Logistic regression analyses were used. Results: In multivariate analyses, the place of delivery (OR: 11.2 [2.9–42.46] in private hospital and OR: 6.1 [2.6–14.1] in university hospital); time of the birth (OR: 7.1 [3.1–16.0]); doctor’s effect (OR: 4.0 [1.8–8.95]) and husband’s employment status (OR: 2.23 [1.0–4.7]) have been identified as factors affecting the caesarean delivery in primiparous women. Conclusion: Although the results do not show all of the factors affecting the caesarean delivery in primiparous women, they reveal that medical reasons are not the only reason in this increase trend. Health policy makers and health professionals are required to identify the causes of this increase and to take measures. PMID:27648420

  18. Flow in tubes of non-circular cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quadir, Raushan Ara

    Laminar, viscous, incompressible flow in tubes of noncircular cross sections is investigated. The specific aims of the investigation are (1) to look at the problems of both developing flow and fully developed flow, (2) to consider noncircular cross sections in a more systematic manner than has been done in the past, and (3) to develop a relatively simple finite element technique for producing accurate numerical solutions of flow in tubes of fairly arbitrary cross sections. Fully developed flow in tubes is governed by a Poisson type equation for the mainstream velocity. Both analytical and numerical solutions are considered. The cross sections studied include elliptic and rectangular cross sections of different aspect ratios, some triangular cross sections, and a series of crescent-shaped cross sections. The physical characteristics of the flow are examined in a systematic manner in order to determine how these characteristics are affected by certain geometrical features of the cross section. Solutions fall into three basic categories depending on the shape of the cross section. In the first category, which includes circular and elliptic cross sections, solutions are possible in closed form. In the second, including rectangular and some triangular cross sections, solutions are in the form of infinite series. In the third, including cross sections of more complicated or irregular shapes, only numerical solutions are possible. Results of calculations of velocity profiles, flow rate, pumping power, and friction factor are presented in a way which can be useful for engineering applications. In numerical studies of both developing and fully developed flow finite element techniques are used. Results are obtained for tubes of rectangular and elliptic cross sections of different aspect ratios, for tubes of crescent-shaped cross sections, and a tube whose cross section is an oval of Cassini. For fully developed flow, results are compared with the corresponding exact

  19. Flow in Tubes of Non-Circular Cross-Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quadir, Raushan Ara

    In this thesis steady, laminar, viscous, incompressible flow in tubes of non-circular cross sections is investigated. The specific aims of the investigation are (a) to look at the problems of both developing flow and fully developed flow, (b) to consider non-circular cross sections in a more systematic manner than has been done in the past, and (c) to develop a relatively simple finite element technique for producing accurate numerical solutions of flow in tubes of fairly arbitrary cross sections. Fully developed flow in tubes is governed by a Poisson type equation for the mainstream velocity. Both analytical and numerical solutions are considered. The cross sections studied include elliptic and rectangular cross sections of different aspect ratios, some triangular cross sections, and a series of crescent-shaped cross sections. The physical characteristics of the flow are examined in a systematic manner in order to determine how these characteristics are affected by certain geometrical features of the cross section. Solutions fall into three basic categories depending on the shape of the cross section. In the first category, which includes circular and elliptic cross sections, solutions are possible in closed form. In the second, including rectangular and some triangular cross sections, solutions are in the form of infinite series. In the third, including cross sections of more complicated or irregular shapes, only numerical solutions are possible. Results of calculations of velocity profiles, flow rate, pumping power, and friction factor are presented in a way which can be useful for engineering applications. In numerical studies of both developing and fully developed flow finite element techniques are used. Results are obtained for tubes of rectangular and elliptic cross sections of different aspect ratios, for tubes of crescent -shaped cross sections and a tube whose cross section is an oval of Cassini. For fully developed flow, results are compared with the

  20. Documentation of Uncertainties in Experimental Cross Sections for EXFOR

    SciTech Connect

    Otuka, N.; Smith, D.L.

    2014-06-15

    Documentation of uncertainties and covariances in experimental nuclear reaction cross sections has been assessed. Following consideration of the importance of covariances for nuclear data in various nuclear applications, and presentation of a simple numerical example to demonstrate this point, the minimum basic concepts (mean, covariance, standard derivation, partial uncertainties, micro- and macro-correlation coefficients) are introduced. A deterministic approach to propagating the covariances in primary measured parameters (e.g., counts) to the derived cross sections is discussed, using a neutron-induced activation cross section measurement as an example. Finally, various approaches to documentation (publication, compilation) of experimental cross sections to facilitate their use in future evaluations are mentioned.

  1. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  2. Thermal Neutron Capture Cross Section of 22Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgya, T.; Uberseder, E.; Petrich, D.; Käppeler, F.

    2009-01-01

    The radiative thermal neutron capture cross section of the astrophysically important 22Ne nucleus has been measured at the guided cold neutron beam of the Budapest Research Reactor. High-pressure gas-bottles filled with mixtures of enriched 22Ne and CH4 were used. The cross section was determined by means of the comparator method, and an improved decay-scheme obtained in this work. The new value for the thermal neutron cross section is 52.7±0.7 mb, 18% larger than the accepted value. The influence of the new cross section on the astrophysical reaction rate is under investigation.

  3. Reconciling cross-sectional with longitudinal observations on annual decline.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, W M

    1993-01-01

    In summary, numerous factors may contribute to observed differences between longitudinally and cross-sectionally derived measures of annual decline in lung function. The direction and magnitude of these differences appear hard to predict. Furthermore, although these differences can be minimized by careful modeling of the data, they cannot, in general, be completely avoided. It seems plausible, however, that both types of studies should give similar qualitative comparisons of risk factor effects if appropriately modeled. Longitudinal studies are likely to provide the most accurate and reliable estimates of lung function decline for both individuals and populations. Such data may be especially useful in identifying individuals with accelerated declines in lung function but who still have "normal" lung function as measured cross-sectionally. However, such studies require careful attention to quality control and typically require at least 4 years of follow-up before the noise in the data settles down. Multiple measurements, preferably four or more, are also necessary to reliably detect and adjust for survey effects. Cross-sectional studies, on the other hand, are simpler, cheaper, and quicker to conduct than are longitudinal studies. They may be particularly useful as a screening tool for identifying potentially affected or high-risk subjects (e.g., those with low levels of lung function) who may require further medical follow-up and/or ongoing monitoring. Both types of studies have a role in population-based occupational health hazard assessments.

  4. Cross Sections for Inner-Shell Ionization by Electron Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Llovet, Xavier; Powell, Cedric J.; Salvat, Francesc; Jablonski, Aleksander

    2014-03-15

    An analysis is presented of measured and calculated cross sections for inner-shell ionization by electron impact. We describe the essentials of classical and semiclassical models and of quantum approximations for computing ionization cross sections. The emphasis is on the recent formulation of the distorted-wave Born approximation by Bote and Salvat [Phys. Rev. A 77, 042701 (2008)] that has been used to generate an extensive database of cross sections for the ionization of the K shell and the L and M subshells of all elements from hydrogen to einsteinium (Z = 1 to Z = 99) by electrons and positrons with kinetic energies up to 1 GeV. We describe a systematic method for evaluating cross sections for emission of x rays and Auger electrons based on atomic transition probabilities from the Evaluated Atomic Data Library of Perkins et al. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-ID-50400, 1991]. We made an extensive comparison of measured K-shell, L-subshell, and M-subshell ionization cross sections and of Lα x-ray production cross sections with the corresponding calculated cross sections. We identified elements for which there were at least three (for K shells) or two (for L and M subshells) mutually consistent sets of cross-section measurements and for which the cross sections varied with energy as expected by theory. The overall average root-mean-square deviation between the measured and calculated cross sections was 10.9% and the overall average deviation was −2.5%. This degree of agreement between measured and calculated ionization and x-ray production cross sections was considered to be very satisfactory given the difficulties of these measurements.

  5. Suppression of Wake Vortices Using Periodic Cross-Section Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouabdallah, A.; Oualli, H.; Benlahnache, A.; Menad, Y.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2013-11-01

    Vortices in the wake of blunt bodies are responsible for significant portion of the drag. An active flow control strategy is designed to inhibit the shedding of such vortex structures. A numerical study is conducted to investigate the effect of periodic cross-section variations on the shed vortices. We use an LES scheme with a Smagorinsky-Lilly subgrid model. The two-dimensional body sinusoidally changes its cross-section from circular to elliptic. The amplitude varies in the range of 5-100% of the nominal cylinder's diameter, and the oscillation frequency varies in the range of 0.2-10 times the cylinder's natural shedding frequency. The von Kármán vortex street is most sensitive to the cross-section variations at a Reynolds number of 3,740. At this Re, the boundary layer is subcritical, and the wake is predominately bidimensional. The flow exhibits a cascade of bifurcations identified by the shifting of the shedding mode. When the flow control strategy is optimized, as much as 65% drag reduction is achieved, which is a direct result of the shedding mechanism inhibition. An experimental validation of this result is forthcoming.

  6. Cross Section and Analyzing Power Measurements for Neutron Scattering from Aluminum and Cobalt and Spin - Cross Section Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagadi, Mahmoud Mohamud

    Differential cross sections and analyzing power data have been measured for ^{27} Al and ^{59}Co at 15.5 MeV. Cross section data was also measured for ^{59}Co at 10, 12, 14, 17, and 19 MeV using standard time-of-flight techniques at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL). Absolute normalization of the sigma(theta) data was performed using n-p scattering measurements. Both sigma(theta) and rm A_{y}(theta) were corrected for finite geometry, attenuation, relative efficiency, and multiple scattering effects using Monte Carlo techniques. A large data base was formed from our data and the existing data on ^{27}Al and ^{59}Co. This data base was used to develop a Dispersive Optical Model (DOM) and a Coupled Channels Model (CCM). The DOM model describes the data quite well above 8 MeV for ^{27 }Al and ^{59}Co. However, for data below 8 MeV the model is not as satisfactory, perhaps because of angular momentum l-dependencies in the absorptive potential. The CCM improved the description of the data over the DOM, but still does not describe the data well at low energies. The DOM and CCM for ^{27} Al and ^{59}Co were used to describe the spin-spin cross section data for ^{27}Al and ^{59}Co. We obtained a good fit for the spin-spin cross section with both the DOM and CCM with the spin-spin real surface parameters of V _{rm ss} = 0.80 MeV, r _{rm ss} = 1.00 fm and a _{rm ss} = 0.654 for both ^{27}Al and ^{59}Co. A surprising relation between the spin-spin cross section and the derivative of the total cross section with respect to energy, was discovered: sigma_{ss } = c {dsigma_{T} over dE} where c is a constant related to the slope of the real central potential and spin-spin potential strength. This observation is not yet understood.

  7. Electron induced inelastic and ionization cross section for plasma modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Pankaj; Mahato, Dibyendu; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2016-09-01

    The present paper reports electron impact total inelastic and ionization cross section for silicon, germanium, and tin tetrahalides at energies varying from ionization threshold of the target to 5000 eV. These cross section data over a wide energy domain are very essential to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in various environments such as plasma modeling, semiconductor etching, atmospheric sciences, biological sciences, and radiation physics. However, the cross section data on the above mentioned molecules are scarce. In the present article, we report the computation of total inelastic cross section using spherical complex optical potential formalism and the estimation of ionization cross section through a semi-empirical method. The present ionization cross section result obtained for SiCl4 shows excellent agreement with previous measurements, while other molecules have not yet been investigated experimentally. Present results show more consistent behaviour than previous theoretical estimates. Besides cross sections, we have also studied the correlation of maximum ionization cross section with the square root of the ratio of polarizability to ionization potential for the molecules with known polarizabilities. A linear relation is observed between these quantities. This correlation is used to obtain approximate polarizability volumes for SiBr4, SiI4, GeCl4, GeBr4, and GeI4 molecules.

  8. Electron impact on atmospheric gases. I - Updated cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, C. H.; Garvey, R. H.; Green, A. E. S.

    1977-01-01

    The analytic characterizations of electron impact cross sections for important atmospheric gases (namely, O2, N2, O, CO, CO2, and He) are updated. With these cross sections it is simple to communicate massive quantities of experimental and theoretical results. In addition, these forms are convenient for applications in energy degradation calculations, including a new approach described in a companion paper.

  9. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Carbon Monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    2015-03-15

    Cross section data are collected and reviewed for electron collisions with carbon monoxide. Collision processes included are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational and electronic states, ionization, and dissociation. For each process, recommended values of the cross sections are presented, when possible. The literature has been surveyed through to the end of 2013.

  10. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  11. Cross sections for electron collisions with nitric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    2016-09-01

    Cross section data are reviewed for electron collisions with nitric oxide. Collision processes considered are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational, and electronic states, ionization, and dissociative electron attachment. After a survey of the literature (up to the end of 2015), recommended values of the cross section are determined, as far as possible.

  12. Benchmark Calculations of Electron-Impact Differential Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, I.; Bostock, C. J.; Fursa, D. V.; Hines, C. W.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Stelbovics, A. T.

    2011-05-11

    The calculation of electron-atom excitation and ionization cross section is considered in both the non-relativistic and relativistic scattering theory. We consider electron collisions with H, He, Cs, and Hg. Differential cross sections for elastic scattering and ionization are presented.

  13. Analysis of cross sections using various nuclear potential

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Azni Abdul; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Yusof, Norhasliza; Muhammad Zamrun, F.

    2014-05-02

    The relevant astrophysical reaction rates which are derived from the reaction cross sections are necessary input to the reaction network. In this work, we analyse several theoretical models of the nuclear potential which give better prediction of the cross sections for some selected reactions.

  14. Differences in length and cross-section of semitendinosus and gracilis tendons and their effect on anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Pichler, W; Tesch, N P; Schwantzer, G; Fronhöfer, G; Boldin, C; Hausleitner, L; Grechenig, W

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this anatomical study was to explore the morphological variations of the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons in length and cross-section and the statistical relationship between length, cross-section, and body height. We studied the legs of 93 humans in 136 cadavers. In 43 specimens (46.2%) it was possible to harvest the tendons from both legs. We found considerable differences in the length and cross-section of the semitendinosus and the gracilis tendons with a significant correlation between the two. A correlation between the length of the femur, reflecting height, and the length of the tendons was only observed in specimens harvested from women. The reason for this gender difference was unclear. Additionally, there was a correlation between the cross-sectional area of the tendons and the length of the femur. Surgeons should be aware of the possibility of encountering insufficient length of tendon when undertaking reconstructive surgery as a result of anatomical variations between patients. PMID:18378932

  15. Temperature-dependent high resolution absorption cross sections of propane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Christopher A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-10-01

    High resolution (0.005 cm-1) absorption cross sections have been measured for pure propane (C3H8). These cross sections cover the 2550-3500 cm-1 region at five temperatures (from 296 to 700 K) and were measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a quartz cell heated by a tube furnace. Calibrations were made by comparison to the integrated cross sections of propane from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These are the first high resolution absorption cross sections of propane for the 3 μm region at elevated temperatures. The cross sections provided may be used to monitor propane in combustion environments and in astronomical sources such as the auroral regions of Jupiter, brown dwarfs and exoplanets.

  16. Analytical approximations for x-ray cross sections III

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, F; Lighthill, R

    1988-08-01

    This report updates our previous work that provided analytical approximations to cross sections for both photoelectric absorption of photons by atoms and incoherent scattering of photons by atoms. This representation is convenient for use in programmable calculators and in computer programs to evaluate these cross sections numerically. The results apply to atoms of atomic numbers between 1 and 100 and for photon energiesgreater than or equal to10 eV. The photoelectric cross sections are again approximated by four-term polynomials in reciprocal powers of the photon energy. There are now more fitting intervals, however, than were used previously. The incoherent-scattering cross sections are based on the Klein-Nishina relation, but use simpler approximate equations for efficient computer evaluation. We describe the averaging scheme for applying these atomic results to any composite material. The fitting coefficients are included in tables, and the cross sections are shown graphically. 100 graphs, 1 tab.

  17. Fission cross section measurements of actinides at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, Fredrik; Laptev, Alexander B; Hill, Tony S

    2010-01-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the {sup 235}U standard. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239,242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for cross section data of {sup 243}Am and {sup 233}U will be presented.

  18. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1988-01-01

    Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

  19. Antinucleus-Nucleus Cross Sections Implemented in Geant4

    SciTech Connect

    Uzhinsky, V.; Apostolakis, J.; Galoyan, A.; Folger, G.; Grichine, V.M.; Ivanchenko, V.N.; Wright, D.H.; /SLAC

    2012-04-26

    Cross sections of antinucleus ({bar p}, {bar d}, {bar t}, {sup 3}{ovr He}, {sup 4}{ovr He}) interactions with nuclei in the energy range 100 MeV/c to 1000 GeV/c per antinucleon are calculated in the Glauber approximation which provides good description of all known {bar p}Across sections. The results were obtained using a new parameterization of the total and elastic {bar p}p cross sections. Simple parameterizations of the antinucleus-nucleus cross sections are proposed for use in estimating the efficiency of antinucleus detection and tracking in cosmic rays and accelerator experiments. These parameterizations are implemented in the Geant4 toolkit.

  20. Effects of Age, Gender, and Retirement on Perceived Sleep Problems: Results from the VISAT Combined Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Marquiáe, Jean-Claude; Folkard, Simon; Ansiau, David; Tucker, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the effects of age, gender, and retirement on the subjective frequency of various sleep problems in individuals on a normal work schedule. Design: Data were taken from the VISAT study (Aging, Health, – Work), which allowed both cross-sectional and longitudinal aspects of age-related changes to be examined. Setting: Various sorts of companies in southern France. Participants: The cohorts comprised 623 male and female, employed and retired, wage earners who were 32, 42, 52, and 62 years old at the time of the first measurement (t1, 1996), and who were seen again 5 (t2) and 10 (t3) years later. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Subjective ratings of the frequency of sleep problems and hypnotic usage were recorded on all 3 occasions, as was the employment status of the individuals. After controlling for age and gender, an effect of decade was observed for difficulty falling asleep and difficulty maintaining sleep, indicating that the frequency of these sleep problems was rated higher in 2006 than in 1996 by people of the same age at both measurement occasions. The perceived frequency of difficulty maintaining sleep, difficulty getting back to sleep, and premature awakening was found to increase up to the mid-50s but to then remain relatively constant, or even in the case of premature awakening to reduce, up to the age of 72. There was also a significant improvement in premature awakening among those individuals who changed from being active to being retired during the study period (n = 111). In contrast, the rated frequency of difficulty falling asleep and hypnotic usage increased fairly linearly over the entire age range. Conclusions: Sleep complaints were reported early in the workers’ lives, and were more frequent with age, but some of them improved after retirement, especially the complaint of premature awakening. Citation: Marquiáe JC; Folkard S; Ansiau D; Tucker P. Effects of age, gender, and retirement on

  1. Electron impact rotationally elastic total cross section for formamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Limbachiya, Chetan; Desai, Hardik; Vinodkumar, P. C.

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on formamide (HCONH2) over a wide range of energies from 0.01 eV to 5 keV. Total cross sections over such a wide range are reported for the first time as the earlier reported data is up to maximum of 12 eV. Below ionization threshold of the target, we performed ab initio calculations using UK molecular R-Matrix code within static, exchange plus polarization (SEP), and close coupling approximations. Twenty eight target states are included in close coupling formalism. Total 350 channels and 2410 configuration state functions are included in the calculations. We observe a π* shape resonance at 3.41 eV and a σ* resonance at 15.3 eV as against similar resonances reported at 3.77 eV and 14.9 eV, respectively, by Goumans et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 217 (2009)] using SEP model. The cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent with a smooth cross over at 18 eV. The vertical excitation energies, electronic excitation cross sections, differential cross sections, momentum transfer, and total cross sections are computed. In absence of experimental data, we compared our computed total cross sections with available other theoretical results.

  2. Electron impact rotationally elastic total cross section for formamide

    SciTech Connect

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Limbachiya, Chetan; Desai, Hardik Vinodkumar, P. C.

    2014-09-28

    This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on formamide (HCONH₂) over a wide range of energies from 0.01 eV to 5 keV. Total cross sections over such a wide range are reported for the first time as the earlier reported data is up to maximum of 12 eV. Below ionization threshold of the target, we performed ab initio calculations using UK molecular R-Matrix code within static, exchange plus polarization (SEP), and close coupling approximations. Twenty eight target states are included in close coupling formalism. Total 350 channels and 2410 configuration state functions are included in the calculations. We observe a π* shape resonance at 3.41 eV and a σ* resonance at 15.3 eV as against similar resonances reported at 3.77 eV and 14.9 eV, respectively, by Goumans et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 217 (2009)] using SEP model. The cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent with a smooth cross over at 18 eV. The vertical excitation energies, electronic excitation cross sections, differential cross sections, momentum transfer, and total cross sections are computed. In absence of experimental data, we compared our computed total cross sections with available other theoretical results.

  3. Electron impact ionisation cross sections of iron hydrogen clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Stefan E.; Sukuba, Ivan; Urban, Jan; Limtrakul, Jumras; Probst, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We computed electron impact ionisation cross sections (EICSs) of iron hydrogen clusters, FeHn with n = 1,2,...,10, from the ionisation threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The maxima of the cross sections for the iron hydrogen clusters range from 6.13 × 10-16 cm2 at 60 eV to 8.76 × 10-16 cm2 at 76 eV for BEB-AE (BEB method based on quantum-chemical data from all-electron basis sets) calculations, from 4.15 × 10-16 cm2 at 77 eV to 7.61 × 10-16 cm2 at 80 eV for BEB-ECP (BEB method based on quantum-chemical data from effective-core potentials for inner-core electrons) calculations and from 2.49 × 10-16 cm2 at 43.5 eV to 7.04 × 10-16 cm2 at 51 eV for the DM method. Cross sections calculated via the BEB method are substantially higher than the ones obtained via the DM method, up to a factor of about two for FeH and FeH2. The formation of Fe-H bonds depopulates the iron 4s orbital, causing significantly lower cross sections for the small iron hydrides compared to atomic iron. Both the DM and BEB cross sections can be fitted perfectly against a simple expression used in modelling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. The energetics of the iron hydrogen clusters change substantially when exact exchange is present in the density functional, while the cluster geometries do not depend on this choice. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page athttp://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2016-70292-4

  4. Comparison of the Effect of Thiazide Diuretics and Other Antihypertensive Drugs on Central Blood Pressure: Cross-Sectional Analysis Among Nondiabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Moura, Cristiano S; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Levesque, Linda E; Bernatsky, Sasha; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Tsadok, Meytal A; Rajabi, Shadi; Pilote, Louise

    2015-11-01

    Thiazide diuretics (TDs) are a cost-effective first-line therapy for uncomplicated hypertension; however, they are less prescribed than other options. The authors aimed to assess the noninferiority of TDs relative to different classes of antihypertensive medications in relation to central blood pressure. Cross-sectional data from the Quebec CARTaGENE project was used. Nondiabetic hypertensive participants on monotherapy for hypertension were studied. Separate adjusted models were constructed to establish noninferiority of TDs to non-TD antihypertensive medications for central blood pressure measurements. Models included a set of potential confounders. Of the 1194 hypertensive participants, 7.4% were taking TDs. We found that TDs were comparable with non-TD antihypertensive medications for central systolic blood pressure (adjusted regression coefficient, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, -1.61 to 2.50). No differences in other central measurements were noted. The results provide additional support that TDs are at least as effective as other first-line medications for treating uncomplicated hypertension.

  5. Social class, employment status and inequality in psychological well-being in the UK: Cross-sectional and fixed effects analyses over two decades.

    PubMed

    Richards, Lindsay; Paskov, Marii

    2016-10-01

    A body of academic research has shown a social class gradient in psychological well-being. Some recent work has also suggested that the gradient is worsening over time, though the evidence is mixed. We focus on two straightforward research questions: Is there a class gradient in mental health? Has this gradient changed over time? We answer these questions with attention to two specific causal pathways: employment status and unobserved heterogeneity. We use two data sources: repeated cross-sections from the Health Survey of England (HSE) and longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). The combination of pooled OLS regression (with HSE) and fixed effects analysis (with BHPS) allows for a robust analysis of the relationship between class and psychological well-being. We argue that employment status is a confounder in the analysis of class inequalities and show that, along with unobserved heterogeneity, these two pathways go a long way to explain the class gradient. The effects of employment status are substantive and, unlike social class, cannot be explained away by unobserved heterogeneity. We conclude that employment status deserves greater prominence in the debate as both a pathway by which the class gradient transpires, and as another 'dimension' of inequality in its own right. Our overtime analysis suggests that skilled and unskilled manual workers had higher psychological well-being in the 1990s but by 2008 were closer to the average. Class inequalities do not appear to be widening.

  6. Social class, employment status and inequality in psychological well-being in the UK: Cross-sectional and fixed effects analyses over two decades.

    PubMed

    Richards, Lindsay; Paskov, Marii

    2016-10-01

    A body of academic research has shown a social class gradient in psychological well-being. Some recent work has also suggested that the gradient is worsening over time, though the evidence is mixed. We focus on two straightforward research questions: Is there a class gradient in mental health? Has this gradient changed over time? We answer these questions with attention to two specific causal pathways: employment status and unobserved heterogeneity. We use two data sources: repeated cross-sections from the Health Survey of England (HSE) and longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). The combination of pooled OLS regression (with HSE) and fixed effects analysis (with BHPS) allows for a robust analysis of the relationship between class and psychological well-being. We argue that employment status is a confounder in the analysis of class inequalities and show that, along with unobserved heterogeneity, these two pathways go a long way to explain the class gradient. The effects of employment status are substantive and, unlike social class, cannot be explained away by unobserved heterogeneity. We conclude that employment status deserves greater prominence in the debate as both a pathway by which the class gradient transpires, and as another 'dimension' of inequality in its own right. Our overtime analysis suggests that skilled and unskilled manual workers had higher psychological well-being in the 1990s but by 2008 were closer to the average. Class inequalities do not appear to be widening. PMID:27598549

  7. A Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Ill Effects of Internet Addiction Among Medical Students in Northeastern India

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Kamal; Naskar, Subrata; Victor, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate Internet addiction among medical students in northeastern India and gain detailed knowledge about the prevalence, risk factors, and ill effects commonly associated with the disorder. Method The cross-sectional study sample comprised 188 medical students from Silchar Medical College and Hospital (Silchar, Assam, India). Students completed a sociodemographic form and an Internet use questionnaire, both created for this study, and the Young’s 20-Item Internet Addiction Test after they received brief instructions. Data were collected during a10-day period in June 2015. Results Of the 188 medical students, 46.8% were at increased risk of Internet addiction. Those who were found to be at increased risk had longer years of Internet exposure (P = .046) and always online status (P = .033). Also, among this group, the men were more prone to develop an online relationship. Excessive Internet usage also led to poor performance in college (P < .0001) and feeling moody, anxious, and depressed (P < .0001). Conclusions The ill effects of Internet addiction include withdrawal from real-life relationships, deterioration in academic activities, and a depressed and nervous mood. Internet use for nonacademic purposes is increasing among students, thus there is an immediate need for strict supervision and monitoring at the institutional level. The possibility of becoming addicted to the Internet should be emphasized to students and their parents through awareness campaigns so that interventions and restrictions can be implemented at the individual and family levels. PMID:27486546

  8. Assessment of knowledge of harmful effects and exposure to recreational music in college students of delhi: a cross sectional exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neelima; Sharma, Arun; Singh, P P; Goyal, Abhishek; Sao, Rahul

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to loud sounds results in a mild to profound degree of temporary or permanent hearing loss. Though occupational noise exposure remains the most commonly identified cause of noise-induced hearing loss, potentially hazardous noise can be encountered during recreational activities. Unfortunately not much attention is being given to the increasing trend of prolonged exposure to noisy environment, in the younger generation of Indians. The purpose of our study was to know the knowledge of college students about the harmful effects of loud music, prevailing practices with regard to exposure to recreational music and the subjective effects that this exposure is causing if any. Cross Sectional survey of College Students (n = 940), from randomly selected colleges of Delhi University. Majority of students listened to music using music-enabled phones; earphones were preferred and 56.6 % participants listened to music on a loud volume. Effects experienced due to loud sound were headache (58 %), inability to concentrate (48 %), and ringing sensation in the ear (41.8 %). Only 2.7 % respondents used ear protection device in loud volume settings. Twenty-three percent respondents complained of transient decreased hearing and other effects after exposure to loud music. 83.8 % knew that loud sound has harmful effect on hearing but still only 2.7 % used protection device. The survey indicates that we need to generate more such epidemiological data and follow up studies on the high risk group; so as to be able to convincingly sensitize the Indian young generation to take care of their hearing and the policy makers to have more information and education campaigns for this preventable cause of deafness. PMID:25032110

  9. Assessment of knowledge of harmful effects and exposure to recreational music in college students of delhi: a cross sectional exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neelima; Sharma, Arun; Singh, P P; Goyal, Abhishek; Sao, Rahul

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to loud sounds results in a mild to profound degree of temporary or permanent hearing loss. Though occupational noise exposure remains the most commonly identified cause of noise-induced hearing loss, potentially hazardous noise can be encountered during recreational activities. Unfortunately not much attention is being given to the increasing trend of prolonged exposure to noisy environment, in the younger generation of Indians. The purpose of our study was to know the knowledge of college students about the harmful effects of loud music, prevailing practices with regard to exposure to recreational music and the subjective effects that this exposure is causing if any. Cross Sectional survey of College Students (n = 940), from randomly selected colleges of Delhi University. Majority of students listened to music using music-enabled phones; earphones were preferred and 56.6 % participants listened to music on a loud volume. Effects experienced due to loud sound were headache (58 %), inability to concentrate (48 %), and ringing sensation in the ear (41.8 %). Only 2.7 % respondents used ear protection device in loud volume settings. Twenty-three percent respondents complained of transient decreased hearing and other effects after exposure to loud music. 83.8 % knew that loud sound has harmful effect on hearing but still only 2.7 % used protection device. The survey indicates that we need to generate more such epidemiological data and follow up studies on the high risk group; so as to be able to convincingly sensitize the Indian young generation to take care of their hearing and the policy makers to have more information and education campaigns for this preventable cause of deafness.

  10. The Mediating Effects of Burnout on the Relationship between Anxiety Symptoms and Occupational Stress among Community Healthcare Workers in China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yanwei; Qu, Jianwei; Yu, Xiaosong; Wang, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    Background Several occupational stress studies of healthcare workers have predicted a high prevalence of anxiety symptoms, which can affect their quality of life and the care that they provide. However, few studies have been conducted among community healthcare workers in China. We attempted to explore whether burnout mediates the association between occupational stress and anxiety symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional survey was completed in Liaoning Province, China from November to December 2012. A total of 1,752 healthcare workers from 52 Community Health Centers participated in this study, and all participants were given self-administered questionnaires. These questionnaires addressed the following aspects: the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, the Chinese version of the effort-reward imbalance scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory–General Survey. Finally, the study included 1,243 effective respondents (effective response rate, 70.95%). Hierarchical linear regression analysis, performed with SPSS 17.0, was used to estimate the effect of burnout. Results The prevalence of anxiety symptoms among the community healthcare workers was 38.0%. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, the effort–reward ratio and overcommitment positively predicted anxiety symptoms. Meanwhile, the effort–reward ratio and overcommitment were positively related to the emotional exhaustion and cynicism subscales of burnout. In addition, the emotional exhaustion and cynicism subscales were positively related to anxiety symptoms. Thus, there is a link between burnout, occupational stress and anxiety symptoms. Conclusions Burnout mediates the effect of occupational stress on anxiety symptoms. To effectively reduce the impact of occupational stress on anxiety symptoms, burnout management should be considered. PMID:25211025

  11. Discrepancy between prevalence and perceived effectiveness of treatment methods in myofascial pain syndrome: Results of a cross-sectional, nationwide survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Myofascial pain is a common dysfunction with a lifetime prevalence affecting up to 85% of the general population. Current guidelines for the management of myofascial pain are not available. In this study we investigated how physicians on the basis of prescription behaviour evaluate the effectiveness of treatment options in their management of myofascial pain. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, nationwide survey with a standardized questionnaire among 332 physicians (79.8% male, 25.6% female, 47.5 ± 9.6 years) experienced in treating patients with myofascial pain. Recruitment of physicians took place at three German meetings of pain therapists, rheumatologists and orthopaedists, respectively. Physicians estimated the prevalence of myofascial pain amongst patients in their practices, stated what treatments they used routinely and then rated the perceived treatment effectiveness on a six-point scale (with 1 being excellent). Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results The estimated overall prevalence of active myofascial trigger points is 46.1 ± 27.4%. Frequently prescribed treatments are analgesics, mainly metamizol/paracetamol (91.6%), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs/coxibs (87.0%) or weak opioids (81.8%), and physical therapies, mainly manual therapy (81.1%), TENS (72.9%) or acupuncture (60.2%). Overall effectiveness ratings for analgesics (2.9 ± 0.7) and physical therapies were moderate (2.5 ± 0.8). Effectiveness ratings of the various treatment options between specialities were widely variant. 54.3% of all physicians characterized the available treatment options as insufficient. Conclusions Myofascial pain was estimated a prevalent condition. Despite a variety of commonly prescribed treatments, the moderate effectiveness ratings and the frequent characterizations of the available treatments as insufficient suggest an urgent need for clinical research to establish evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of myofascial

  12. Cross Section Sensitivity and Propagated Errors in HZE Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, John H.; Wilson, John W.; Blatnig, Steve R.; Qualls, Garry D.; Badavi, Francis F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been recognized that galactic cosmic rays are of such high energy that they tend to pass through available shielding materials resulting in exposure of astronauts and equipment within space vehicles and habitats. Any protection provided by shielding materials result not so much from stopping such particles but by changing their physical character in interaction with shielding material nuclei forming, hopefully, less dangerous species. Clearly, the fidelity of the nuclear cross-sections is essential to correct specification of shield design and sensitivity to cross-section error is important in guiding experimental validation of cross-section models and database. We examine the Boltzmann transport equation which is used to calculate dose equivalent during solar minimum, with units (cSv/yr), associated with various depths of shielding materials. The dose equivalent is a weighted sum of contributions from neutrons, protons, light ions, medium ions and heavy ions. We investigate the sensitivity of dose equivalent calculations due to errors in nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. We do this error analysis for all possible projectile-fragment combinations (14,365 such combinations) to estimate the sensitivity of the shielding calculations to errors in the nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. Numerical differentiation with respect to the cross-sections will be evaluated in a broad class of materials including polyethylene, aluminum and copper. We will identify the most important cross-sections for further experimental study and evaluate their impact on propagated errors in shielding estimates.

  13. Review of electron impact excitation cross sections for copper atom

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, N.W.; Hazi, A.U.

    1982-02-01

    Excitation of atomic copper by electron impact plays an important role in the copper vapor laser and accurate cross sections are needed for understanding and modeling laser performance. During the past seven years, there have been several attempts to normalize the relative elastic and inelastic cross sections measured by Trajmar and coworkers. However, each of these efforts have yielded different cross sections, and the uncertainty in the correct normalization of the data has been a source of confusion and concern for the kinetic modeling efforts. This difficulty has motivated us to review previous work on the electron impact excitation of copper atom and to perform new calculations of the inelastic cross sections using the impact parameter method. In this memorandum we review the previous attempts to normalize the experimental data and provide a critical assessment of the accuracy of the resulting cross sections. We also present new theoretical cross sections for the electron impact excitation of the /sup 2/S ..-->.. /sup 2/P/sup 0/ and /sup 2/S ..-->.. /sup 2/D transitions in copper. When the experimental cross sections are renormalized to the results of the impact parameter calculations, they are a factor of three smaller than those published in the latest paper of Trajmar et. al. At impact energies above 60 eV the excitation cross sections obtained with the impact parameter method agree well with the results of the very recent, unpublished, close-coupling calculations of Henry. This agreement suggests that the present normalization of the experimental cross sections is probably the most reliable one obtained to date.

  14. Electron impact ionization cross sections of beryllium-tungsten clusters*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukuba, Ivan; Kaiser, Alexander; Huber, Stefan E.; Urban, Jan; Probst, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We report calculated electron impact ionization cross sections (EICSs) of beryllium-tungsten clusters, BenW with n = 1,...,12, from the ionization threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The positions of the maxima of DM and BEB cross sections are mostly close to each other. The DM cross sections are more sensitive with respect to the cluster size. For the clusters smaller than Be4W they yield smaller cross sections than BEB and vice versa larger cross sections than BEB for clusters larger than Be6W. The maximum cross section values for the singlet-spin groundstate clusters range from 7.0 × 10-16 cm2 at 28 eV (BeW) to 54.2 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the DM cross sections and from 13.5 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (BeW) to 38.9 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the BEB cross sections. Differences of the EICSs in different isomers and between singlet and triplet states are also explored. Both the DM and BEB cross sections could be fitted perfectly to a simple expression used in modeling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by Gerardo Delgado Barrio, Andrey Solov'Yov, Pablo Villarreal, Rita Prosmiti.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2015-60583-7

  15. Effect of media use on HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and condom use in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo; Arya, Monisha; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and the degree of condom use varies by socioeconomic status (SES). However, there is limited research on the effect of mass media use on HIV/AIDS-related cognitive and behavioral outcomes in low-income countries and how it might influence the association between SES and HIV-related outcomes. We investigated the moderating effect of media use on the relationship between SES and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and condom use in sub-Saharan Africa in terms of communication inequalities. Cross-sectional data from the Demographic Health Surveys from 13 sub-Saharan countries (2004-10) were pooled. Gender-stratified multivariable poisson regression of 151,209 women and 68,890 men were used to calculate adjusted relative ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between SES, media use, HIV-related outcomes, and condom use. We found significant disparities in mass media use among people from different SES groups as well as among countries. Education and wealth are strongly and positively associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS and knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS and are significantly associated with condom use. These associations are attenuated when the use of various types of mass media is added to the models, with newspapers showing the strongest effect. The findings of this study suggest that media use has the potential to blunt the impact of socioeconomic status though not completely eliminate it. Thus, we need to pay attention to reducing communication inequalities among social groups and countries to moderate the effect of wealth and SES on HIV/AIDS.

  16. Top quark pair production cross section at Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Shary, V.; /DAPNIA, Saclay

    2009-05-01

    An overview of the recent measurements of the top antitop quark pair production cross section in proton antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV in lepton + jets and dilepton final states is presented. These measurements are based on 1-2.8 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 and CDF experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The cross section is measured with a precision close to 8 % and found to be compatible with the standard model prediction. Interpretations of the cross-section measurements for charge higgs search and for top quark mass measurement are also discussed.

  17. Relative charge transfer cross section from Rb (4d)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, M. H.; Camp, H. A.; Trachy, M. L.; Fléchard, X.; Gearba, M. A.; Nguyen, H.; Brédy, R.; Lundeen, S. R.; Depaola, B. D.

    2005-08-01

    Relative charge transfer cross section measurements for the excited state Rb(4d) with 7keV Na+ is reported. The specific channels reported are Na++Rb(4d5/2)→Na(nl)+Rb+ , where the dominant transfer cross sections channels were nl=3d and 4s . Using a combination of a magneto-optical trap and recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (MOTRIMS methodology), the cross sections were measured relative to the previously studied Na++Rb(5s,5p) systems at the same collision energy.

  18. Actinide neutron-induced fission cross section measurements at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, Fredrik K; Laptev, Alexander B; Hill, Tony S

    2010-01-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications in a wide energy range from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. A parallel-plate ionization chamber are used to measure fission cross sections ratios relative to the {sup 235}U standard while incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239-242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. Obtained data are presented in comparison with ex isting evaluations and previous data.

  19. Relative charge transfer cross section from Rb(4d)

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M.H.; Camp, H.A.; Trachy, M.L.; De Paola, B.D.; Flechard, X.; Gearba, M.A.; Nguyen, H.; Bredy, R.; Lundeen, S.R.

    2005-08-15

    Relative charge transfer cross section measurements for the excited state Rb(4d) with 7 keV Na{sup +} is reported. The specific channels reported are Na{sup +}+Rb(4d{sub 5/2}){yields}Na(nl)+Rb{sup +}, where the dominant transfer cross sections channels were nl=3d and 4s. Using a combination of a magneto-optical trap and recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (MOTRIMS methodology), the cross sections were measured relative to the previously studied Na{sup +}+Rb(5s,5p) systems at the same collision energy.

  20. Coriolis coupling effects in the calculation of state-to-state integral and differential cross sections for the H+D2 reaction.

    PubMed

    Chu, Tian-Shu; Han, Ke-Li; Hankel, Marlies; Balint-Kurti, Gabriel G

    2007-06-01

    The quantum wavepacket parallel computational code DIFFREALWAVE is used to calculate state-to-state integral and differential cross sections for the title reaction on the BKMP2 surface in the total energy range of 0.4-1.2 eV with D2 initially in its ground vibrational-rotational state. The role of Coriolis couplings in the state-to-state quantum calculations is examined in detail. Comparison of the results from calculations including the full Coriolis coupling and those using the centrifugal sudden approximation demonstrates that both the energy dependence and the angular dependence of the calculated cross sections are extremely sensitive to the Coriolis coupling, thus emphasizing the importance of including it correctly in an accurate state-to-state calculation.

  1. Photoionization and photoabsorption cross sections for the aluminum iso-nuclear sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Witthoeft, M.C.; García, J.; Kallman, T.R.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.

    2013-01-15

    K-shell photoionization and photoabsorption cross sections are presented for Li-like to Na-like Al. The calculations are performed using the Breit–Pauli R-matrix method where the effects of radiation and Auger dampings are included. We provide electronic data files for the raw cross sections as well as those convolved with a Gaussian of width ΔE/E=10{sup −4}. In addition to total cross sections for photoabsorption and photoionization, partial cross sections are available for photoionization.

  2. Production cross sections from 82Se fragmentation as indications of shell effects in neutron-rich isotopes close to the drip-line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, O. B.; Portillo, M.; Morrissey, D. J.; Amthor, A. M.; Bandura, L.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.; Berryman, J. S.; Brown, B. A.; Chubarian, G.; Fukuda, N.; Gade, A.; Ginter, T. N.; Hausmann, M.; Inabe, N.; Kubo, T.; Pereira, J.; Sherrill, B. M.; Stolz, A.; Sumithrarachichi, C.; Thoennessen, M.; Weisshaar, D.

    2013-05-01

    Production cross sections for neutron-rich nuclei from the fragmentation of a 82Se beam at 139 MeV/u were measured. The longitudinal momentum distributions of 126 neutron-rich isotopes of elements 11≤Z≤32 were scanned using an experimental approach of varying the target thickness. Production cross sections with beryllium and tungsten targets were determined for a large number of nuclei including several isotopes first observed in this work. These are the most neutron-rich nuclides of the elements 22≤Z≤25 (64Ti, 67V, 69Cr, and 72Mn). One event was registered consistent with 70Cr and another one with 75Fe. The production cross sections are correlated with Qg systematics to reveal trends in the data. The results presented here confirm our previous results from a similar measurement using a 76Ge beam and can be explained with a shell model that predicts a subshell closure at N=34 around Z=20. This is demonstrated by systematic trends and calculations with the abrasion-ablation model that are sensitive to separation energies.

  3. Topological Optimization of Beam Cross Section by Employing Extrusion Constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuberi, Rehan H.; Zhengxing, Zuo; Kai, Long

    2010-05-01

    Optimal cross-section design of beams plays a characteristic role which signifies the rigidity of the member in bending, shear and torsion load conditions. Practically modern overhead crane girders, railway bridge girders or rail tracks etc. require constant cross-section along the axial direction. Conventional topological optimization modeling procedures in such cases prove inadequate for the reason that these procedures generate non-uniform topologies along the axis of the bending member. To examine optimal topology of those structural bending members which commonly possess constant cross-section along the axis the topology optimization with extrusion constraint is more appropriate. The extrusion constraint method suggests a fresh approach to investigate optimal topologies of beam cross-section under the influence of realistic loading condition across the section at the beginning of design cycle. Presented study is focused upon the influence of various configuration and location of the load and boundary conditions on the topology of the of the beam cross-section which was not possible prior to the materialization of the extrusion or stamping constraint method. Several realistic loads and boundary conditions have been applied on the 3D beam model and optimal cross-section topologies obtained have uniform compliance history and convergent solutions. The lowest compliance criteria have been suggested to choose topologies as furthers shape and size optimization candidates during beam design process.

  4. A genetic algorithm to reduce stream channel cross section data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, C.

    2006-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to reduce cross section data for a hypothetical example consisting of 41 data points and for 10 cross sections on the Kootenai River. The number of data points for the Kootenai River cross sections ranged from about 500 to more than 2,500. The GA was applied to reduce the number of data points to a manageable dataset because most models and other software require fewer than 100 data points for management, manipulation, and analysis. Results indicated that the program successfully reduced the data. Fitness values from the genetic algorithm were lower (better) than those in a previous study that used standard procedures of reducing the cross section data. On average, fitnesses were 29 percent lower, and several were about 50 percent lower. Results also showed that cross sections produced by the genetic algorithm were representative of the original section and that near-optimal results could be obtained in a single run, even for large problems. Other data also can be reduced in a method similar to that for cross section data.

  5. Mass Spectra and Ion Collision Cross Sections of Hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yang; Terrier, Peran; Douglas, D. J.

    2011-02-01

    Mass spectra of commercially obtained hemoglobin (Hb) show higher levels of monomer and dimer ions, heme-deficient dimer ions, and apo-monomer ions than hemoglobin freshly prepared from blood. This has previously been attributed to oxidation of commercial Hb. Further, it has been reported that that dimer ions from commercial bovine Hb have lower collision cross sections than low charge state monomer ions. To investigate these effects further, we have recorded mass spectra of fresh human Hb, commercial human and bovine Hb, fresh human Hb oxidized with H2O2, lyophilized fresh human Hb, fresh human Hb both lyophilized and chemically oxidized, and commercial human Hb oxidized with H2O2. Masses of α-monomer ions of all hemoglobins agree with the masses expected from the sequences within 3 Da or better. Mass spectra of the β chains of commercial Hb and oxidized fresh human Hb show a peak or shoulder on the high mass side, consistent with oxidation of the protein. Both commercial proteins and oxidized fresh human Hb produce heme-deficient dimers with masses 32 Da greater than expected and higher levels of monomer and dimer ions than fresh Hb. Lyophilization or oxidation of Hb both produce higher levels of monomer and dimer ions in mass spectra. Fresh human Hb, commercial human Hb, commercial bovine Hb, and oxidized commercial human Hb all give dimer ions with cross sections greater than monomer ions. Thus, neither oxidation of Hb or the difference in sequence between human and bovine Hb make substantial differences to cross sections of ions.

  6. Validation of a cross-section interface for PARCS

    SciTech Connect

    Staalek, M.; Demaziere, C.

    2006-07-01

    This paper deals with the validation of a cross-section interface for the PARCS code. Such an interface, of which the development is reported in [1], allows providing realistic sets of material constants to PARCS, so that the full dependence of these data on history variables, instantaneous variables, and exposure can be accounted for. In order to check the proper implementation of this interface, the PARCS code was benchmarked against actual plant data (relative power distribution throughout the core and criticality condition). For that purpose, the Swedish Ringhals-3 Pressurized Water Reactor was considered. Different fuel cycles and within each cycle different core exposures were investigated. The cross-section data for each fuel/reflector assembly constituting the considered cores were created accordingly. The spatial distributions of the instantaneous conditions, of the history effects, as well as of the burnup, were taken from the results of SIMULATE-3 calculations. It was found that PARCS was able to reproduce the relative distribution of the power within the core. Both the measured axial and radial power profiles were correctly calculated by PARCS. On the average, the deviation between the calculated and measured power distributions is within acceptable limits. Concerning the determination of the core criticality, the deviation of the effective multiplication factor from unity is typically within {+-}200 pcm. (authors)

  7. Dynamical Processes in Stopping Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera-Trujillo, R.; Sabin, J. R.; Deumens, E.; Öhrn, Y.

    When a projectile collides with a target, several processes are involved, depending on the projectile energy. However, there is no single model that can treat all processes for the whole range of projectile energies without resorting to approximations, the accuracy of which depends on the projectile energy. In this work, we present an account of the efforts toward the solution of this problem by considering the time evolution of the collision for all the projectile energies. For that, we use the Electron-Nuclear Dynamics (END) approach to solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. A quantum mechanical Lagrangian formulation is employed to approximate the Schrödinger equation, via the time-dependent variational principle, by a set of coupled first-order differential equations in time for the END. We obtain the final wavefunction of the system as a function of the projectile energy, allowing us to determine collisional properties of interest. We discuss the relevance of the time-dependent description of the energy loss process by presenting our results for electron capture, threshold effects, projectile energy gain and quantum effects in the scattering processes.

  8. 8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT THAT SHOWS THE TRENCHING AND 1960 PIPELINE CORRIDOR BETWEEN THE WALL SEGMENTS, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  9. Radiative neutron capture cross sections on 176Lu at DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, O.; Jandel, M.; Méot, V.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.

    2016-03-01

    The cross section of the neutron capture reaction 176Lu(n ,γ ) has been measured for a wide incident neutron energy range with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be (1912 ±132 ) b for one of the Lu natural isotopes, 176Lu. The resonance part was measured and compared to the Mughabghab's atlas using the R -matrix code, sammy. At higher neutron energies the measured cross sections are compared to ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.2, and BRC evaluated nuclear data. The Maxwellian averaged cross sections in a stellar plasma for thermal energies between 5 keV and 100 keV were extracted using these data.

  10. Fluctuations of cross sections seen in cosmic ray data

    SciTech Connect

    Wilk, G. ); Wlodarczyk, Z. )

    1994-08-01

    We argue that the unexpected nonexponential behavior of some cosmic ray data is just a manifestation of cross section fluctuations discussed recently in the literature and observed in nuclear collisions and in diffraction dissociation experiments on accelerators.

  11. Local Deplanation Of Double Reinforced Beam Cross Section Under Bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltov, Anguel; Yanakieva, Ana

    2015-12-01

    Bending of beams, double reinforced by means of thin composite layers, is considered in the study. Approximate numerical solution is proposed, considering transitional boundary areas, where smooth quadratic transition of the elasticity modulus and deformations take place. Deplanation of the cross section is also accounted for in the areas. Their thickness is found equalizing the total stiffness of the cross section and the layer stiffness. Deplanation of the cross section of the transitional area is determined via the longitudinal deformation in the reinforcing layer, accounting for the equilibrium between the internal and the external moment, generated by the longitudinal stresses in the cross section. A numerical example is given as an illustration demonstrating model's plausibility. The model allows the design and the calculation of recycled concrete beams double reinforced by means of thin layers. The approach is in agreement with modern design of nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB).

  12. 36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER PLANT, LOOKING NORTH. ONLY TWO OF THE THREE UNITS ARE VISIBLE - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. 20. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING RIGHT SPILLWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING RIGHT SPILLWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE AND CONCRETE PLACEMENT LINES August 2, 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. On the cyclo-synchrotron cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliozzi, M.; Bodo, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Trussoni, E.

    1996-06-01

    The study of the synchrotron and cyclotron absorption processes and their relative cross-sections, recently analysed by Ghisellini & Svensson, is extended to the case of photons propagating along the direction of the magnetic field. In the relativistic regime we follow a quantum approach, which requires first the derivation of the particle emissivity for the assumed configuration. The expression for the cross-section coincides with that obtained through a classical treatment of the problem in the non-relativistic regime. In the frequency range where absorption is important, the cross-section is larger than the Thomson cross-section by several orders of magnitude, implying a strong coupling between radiation and magnetized plasma. The possible atrophysical implications of this process are briefly discussed; in particular, in a magnetized plasma the Eddington luminosity for synchrotron interaction can be much lower than the standard value.

  15. Photocopy of longitudinal, cross sections and roof plan of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of longitudinal, cross sections and roof plan of the C.B. & Q. R.R. roundhouse and locomotive shops. June 1980. - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

  16. Cross Sections for K-Shell Ionization by Electron Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. P.; Parente, F.; Kim, Yong-Ki

    2001-05-01

    The formula for the total ionization cross section by electron impact based on the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which has been very successful in reproducing electron-impact total ionization cross sections for atoms(Y.-K. Kim and M.E. Rudd, Phys. Rev A 50), 3954 (1994), was extended to provides reliable inner-shell ionization cross sections from the threshold to relativistic incident electron energies with simple input data for the target inner shell: the binding energy, the orbital kinetic energy and the electron occupation number(Y.-K. Kim, J. P. Santos, and F. Parente, Phys. Rev. A, 62), 052710 (2000). A comparison between the nonrelativistic BEB and the relativistic BEB (RBEB) K-shell ionization cross sections by electron impact for the carbon, argon, nickel, niobium, and silver atoms and the available experimental and theoretical data will be presented at the conference.

  17. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR FACINGS LINED WITH RUBBLE BACKING AND EARTH INFILL, LOOKING EAST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  18. Modeling ionization cross sections: Two decades of dreams come true

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Ki

    1996-03-01

    Modeling of differential and total ionization cross sections by electron impact is reviewed. A new theoretical model that does not depend on any empirical or arbitrary parameters is described. The prototype of this new model was proposed by Rudd and was originally based on the binary-encounter theory. The model has been improved by replacing a part of the binary-encounter theory with the dipole contribution as prescribed by the Bethe theory. The current model, henceforth referred to as the binary-encounter-dipole (BED) model, reproduces known singly differential and total ionization cross sections for small atoms and molecules accurately. The possibility of extending the BED theory to doubly differential cross sections as well as to proton-impact ionization cross sections is discussed.

  19. Section B, general view of steel cross with new World ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section B, general view of steel cross with new World Trade Center 7 in background, looking northwest. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York County, NY

  20. 15. Power plant elevations and cross sections, sheet 64 of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Power plant elevations and cross sections, sheet 64 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  1. Electron-Impact Total Ionization Cross Sections of Hydrocarbon Ions

    PubMed Central

    Irikura, Karl K.; Kim, Yong-Ki; Ali, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model for electron-impact total ionization cross sections has been applied to CH2+, CH3+, CH4+, C2H2+, C2H4+, C2H6+ and H3O+. The cross sections for the hydrocarbon ions are needed for modeling cool plasmas in fusion devices. No experimental data are available for direct comparison. Molecular constants to generate total ionization cross sections at arbitrary incident electron energies using the BEB formula are presented. A recent experimental result on the ionization of H3O+ is found to be almost 1/20 of the present theory at the cross section peak. PMID:27446718

  2. 28. CROSS SECTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. CROSS SECTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN SHOWING THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE OVEN. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  3. 12. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF SPILLWAY FIFTY FEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF SPILLWAY FIFTY FEET FROM LAKESHORE, SHOWING REMAINS OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS, LOOKING WEST - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  4. Photocopy of "sheet 6 of 8" showing cross section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of "sheet 6 of 8" showing cross section of house, front elevation, fire finder stand, hip roof cap, and shiplap roof sheathing. - Badger Mountain Lookout, .125 mile northwest of Badger Mountain summit, East Wenatchee, Douglas County, WA

  5. Excited state cross sections for Er-doped glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemon, Stanley A.; Lambert, Gary M.; Miniscalco, William J.; Davies, Richard W.; Hall, Bruce T.; Folweiler, Robert C.; Wei, Ta-Sheng; Andrews, Leonard J.; Singh, Mahendra P.

    1991-01-01

    Excited-state-absorption (ESA) cross sections were determined for the region between 760 and 900 nm for Er-doped fluorophosphate phosphate and silicate glasses. Measurements were performed on multimode fibers pumping at 647 nm with powers 1 . 5 Wto invert the population into the saturation regime. Over much of the 800-nm band ground-state-absorption (GSA) cross sections are equal to or greater than ESA cross sections. For comparison ESA was also measured for singlemode Al/P-doped silica fiber. The cross sections were incorporated into an amplifier model and the phosphate and fluorophosphate glasses were found to provide higher gain than silica for pumping in the 800-nm band. Photoexcited fluorozirconates were found to have substantial populations in the first four excited states and ESA transitions originating from these states are identified.

  6. Nuclear Cross Sections for Space Radiation Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werneth, C. M.; Maung, K. M.; Ford, W. P.; Norbury, J. W.; Vera, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    The eikonal, partial wave (PW) Lippmann-Schwinger, and three-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger (LS3D) methods are compared for nuclear reactions that are relevant for space radiation applications. Numerical convergence of the eikonal method is readily achieved when exact formulas of the optical potential are used for light nuclei (A = 16) and the momentum-space optical potential is used for heavier nuclei. The PW solution method is known to be numerically unstable for systems that require a large number of partial waves, and, as a result, the LS3D method is employed. The effect of relativistic kinematics is studied with the PW and LS3D methods and is compared to eikonal results. It is recommended that the LS3D method be used for high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions and nucleus-nucleus reactions at all energies because of its rapid numerical convergence and stability for both non-relativistic and relativistic kinematics.

  7. On the interweaving of partial cross sections of different parity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devries, P. L.; George, T. F.

    1979-01-01

    Partial cross sections of definite parity, calculated for electronic-rotational energy transfer in the F +H2 collision system, interweave with increasing total angular momentum J. An explanation, in terms of diabatic curve crossings induced by the centrifugal potential in the body-fixed coordinate system, predicts the interweaving to occur only in systems having half-integer J.

  8. Thermal neutron capture cross sections of tellurium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Tomandl, I.; Honzatko, J.; von Egidy, T.; Wirth, H.-F.; Belgya, T.; Lakatos, M.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Revay, Zs.; Molnar, G.L.; Firestone, R.B.; Bondarenko, V.

    2004-03-01

    New values for thermal neutron capture cross sections of the tellurium isotopes 122Te, 124Te, 125Te, 126Te, 128Te, and 130Te are reported. These values are based on a combination of newly determined partial g-ray cross sections obtained from experiments on targets contained natural Te and gamma intensities per capture of individual Te isotopes. Isomeric ratios for the thermal neutron capture on the even tellurium isotopes are also given.

  9. Modelling of reaction cross sections and prompt neutron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, F.-J.; Tudora, A.; Oberstedt, S.

    2010-10-01

    Accurate nuclear data concerning reaction cross sections and the emission of prompt fission neutrons (i.e. multiplicity and spectra) as well as other fission fragment data are of great importance for reactor physics design, especially for the new Generation IV nuclear energy systems. During the past years for several actinides (238U(n, f) and 237Np(n, f)) both the reaction cross sections and prompt neutron multiplicities and spectra have been calculated within the frame of the EFNUDAT project.

  10. Top Quark Pair Production Cross Section at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2015-09-25

    The top quark, discovered in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron proton antiproton collider at Fermilab, has undergone intense studies in the last 20 years. Currently, CDF and D0 converge on their measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections using the full Tevatron data sample. In these proceedings, the latest results on inclusive and differential measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections at the Tevatron are reported.

  11. Absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huder, K. J.; DeMore, W. B.

    1995-01-01

    The absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer, ClOOCl, are important to the photochemistry of ozone depletion in the Antarctic. In this work, new measurements were made of the dimer cross sections at 195 K. the results yield somewhat lower values in the long wavelength region, compared to those currently recommended in the NASA data evaluation (JPL 94-26). The corresponding solar photodissociation rates in the Antarctic are reduced by about 40%.

  12. Gendered effects of siblings on child malnutrition in South Asia: cross-sectional analysis of demographic and health surveys from Bangladesh, India, and Nepal.

    PubMed

    Raj, Anita; McDougal, Lotus P; Silverman, Jay G

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of number and sex of siblings on malnutrition of boys and girls under-5 in South Asia. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on Demographic and Health Surveys data on children under-5 in Bangladesh (N = 7,861), India (N = 46,655) and Nepal (N = 2,475). Data were pooled across countries, and multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between number and sex of siblings and malnutrition outcomes (wasting, stunting, underweight; based on anthropometric data), adjusting for country and key social and maternal-child health indicators in sex stratified analyses. Number of brothers increased the odds for severe wasting [1 vs. 0 brothers adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.31, 95 % CI = 1.11, 1.55; 2 vs. 0 brothers AOR = 1.36, 95 % CI = 1.07, 1.73] for girls but not boys. Having more male siblings and more female siblings increased the odds of stunting for boys and girls, but effect of 3+ sisters on severe stunting was significantly stronger for girls than boys (girls- 3+ vs. 0 sisters AOR = 2.25, 95 % CI = 1.88, 2.70; boys- 3+ vs. 0 sisters AOR = 1.37, 95 % CI = 1.13, 1.67). For underweight, three or more sisters increased the odds for severe underweight for girls (AOR = 1.27, 95 % CI = 1.04, 1.57) but not boys. Having brothers heightens girl risk for acute malnutrition (wasting), where having multiple sisters increases girl risk for chronic malnutrition (stunting/underweight). Boy malnutrition is less affected by siblings. Findings suggest that issues of son preference/daughter aversion may affect child malnutrition in South Asia.

  13. A national cross-sectional study on effects of fluoride-safe water supply on the prevalence of fluorosis in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Han, Hepeng; Shi, Yuxia; Yu, Guangqian; Sun, Dianjun

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of provided fluoride-safe drinking-water for the prevention and control of endemic fluorosis in China. Design A national cross-sectional study in China. Setting In 1985, randomly selected villages in 27 provinces (or cities and municipalities) in 5 geographic areas all over China. Participants Involved 81 786 children aged from 8 to 12 and 594 698 adults aged over 16. Main outcome measure The prevalence of dental fluorosis and clinical skeletal fluorosis, the fluoride concentrations in the drinking-water in study villages and in the urine of subjects. Results The study showed that in the villages where the drinking-water fluoride concentrations were higher than the government standard of 1.2 mg/l, but no fluoride-safe drinking-water supply scheme was provided (FNB areas), the prevalence rate and index of dental fluorosis in children, and prevalence rate of clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were all significantly higher than those in the historical endemic fluorosis villages after the fluoride-safe drinking-water were provided (FSB areas). Additionally, the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis as well as clinical skeletal fluorosis, and the concentration of fluoride in urine were found increased with the increase of fluoride concentration in drinking-water, with significant positive correlations in the FNB areas. While, the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis and clinical skeletal fluorosis in different age groups and their degrees of prevalence were significantly lower in the FSB areas than those in the FNB areas. Conclusions The provision of fluoride-safe drinking-water supply schemes had significant effects on the prevention and control of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis. The study also indicated that the dental and skeletal fluorosis is still prevailing in the high-fluoride drinking-water areas in China. PMID:23015601

  14. Blood mercury concentration among residents of a historic mercury mine and possible effects on renal function: a cross-sectional study in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghua; Zhang, Biao; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Hairong

    2013-04-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate blood mercury (B-Hg) concentration of residents living in the vicinity of Chatian mercury mine (CMM) in southwestern China and to assess the possible effects on renal function. It evaluates the effects of gender and age (children, <18 years; adults, 18-60 years; elderly, >60 years) on the B-Hg and serum creatinine (SCR) and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) levels. In the CMM, elevated levels were found for B-Hg, SCR, and SUN with mean values at 6.09 μg/L, 74.21 μmol/L, and 13.26 mmol/L, which were significantly higher than those in the control area, respectively. Moreover, the coefficients between paired results for B-Hg and SCR and SUN levels were positive at statistical significance (B-Hg vs. SCR, r = 0.45, p < 0.01; B-Hg vs. SUN, r = 0.20, p < 0.05). The aforementioned results revealed that mercury exposure can cause human renal function impairment. B-Hg, SCR, and SUN can also be useful biomarkers to assess the extent of mercury exposure among residents in areas with extensive mining activities. Furthermore, data analysis revealed that there was a tendency for higher B-Hg, SCR, and SUN levels in females than in males, and the levels of B-Hg, SCR, and SUN increased among the older residents. We conclude that females and the elderly in the mining area were more susceptible to mercury exposure, and therefore, they deserve further research.

  15. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been re-evaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding 50 years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross-section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  16. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-07-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been reevaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding fifty years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  17. Thermoelastic damping in microrings with circular cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pu; Fang, Yuming; Zhang, Jianrun

    2016-01-01

    Predicting thermoelastic damping (TED) is crucial in the design of high Q micro-resonators. Microrings are often critical components in many micro-resonators. Some analytical models for TED in microrings have already been developed in the past. However, the previous works are limited to the microrings with rectangular cross-section. The temperature field in the rectangular cross-section is one-dimensional. This paper deals with TED in the microrings with circular cross-section. The temperature field in the circular cross-section is two-dimensional. This paper first presents a 2-D analytical model for TED in the microrings with circular cross-section. Only the two-dimensional heat conduction in the circular cross-section is considered. The heat conduction along the circumferential direction of the microring is neglected in the 2-D model. Then the 2-D model has been extended to cover the circumferential heat conduction, and a 3-D analytical model for TED has been developed. The analytical results from the present 2-D and 3-D models show good agreement with the numerical results of FEM model. The limitations of the present 2-D analytical model are assessed.

  18. General Constraints on Cross Sections Deduced from Surrogate Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W

    2003-08-14

    Cross sections that cannot be measured in the laboratory, e.g. because the target lifetime is too short, can be inferred indirectly from a different reaction forming the same compound system, but with a more accessible beam/target combination (the ''surrogate-reaction'' technique). The reactions share the same compound system and a common decay mechanism, but they involve different formation processes. Therefore, an implicit constraint is imposed on the inferred cross section deduced from the measured surrogate-reaction data, through the common decay mechanism. In this paper, the mathematical consequences of this implicit constraint are investigated. General formulas are derived from upper and lower bounds on the inferred cross section, estimated from surrogate data in a procedure which does not require any modeling of the common decay process. As an example, the formulas developed here are applied to the case of the {sup 235}U(n,f) cross section, deduced from {sup 234}U(t,pf) surrogate data. The calculated bounds are not very tight in this particular case. However, by introducing a few qualitative assumptions about the physics of the fission process, meaningful bounds on the deduced cross section are obtained. Upper and lower limits for the cross-section ratio of the (n,f) reaction on the {sup 235}U isomer at E{sub x} = 77 eV relative to the (n,f) reaction on the ground state are also calculated. The generalization of this technique to other surrogate reactions is discussed.

  19. Urban city transportation mode and respiratory health effect of air pollution: a cross-sectional study among transit and non-transit workers in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ekpenyong, Chris E; Ettebong, E O; Akpan, E E; Samson, T K; Daniel, Nyebuk E

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess the respiratory health effect of city ambient air pollutants on transit and non-transit workers and compare such effects by transportation mode, occupational exposure and sociodemographic characteristics of participants. Design Cross-sectional, randomised survey. Setting A two primary healthcare centre survey in 2009/2010 in Uyo metropolis, South-South Nigeria. Participants Of the 245 male participants recruited, 168 (50 taxi drivers, 60 motorcyclists and 58 civil servants) met the inclusion criteria. These include age 18–35 years, a male transit worker or civil servant who had worked within Uyo metropolis for at least a year prior to the study, and had no history of respiratory disorders/impairment or any other debilitating illness. Main outcome measure The adjusted ORs for respiratory function impairment (force vital capacity (FVC) and/or FEV1<80% predicted or FEV1/FVC<70% predicted) using Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD) and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) criteria were calculated. In order to investigate specific occupation-dependent respiratory function impairment, a comparison was made between the ORs for respiratory impairment in the three occupations. Adjustments were made for some demographic variables such as age, BMI, area of residence, etc. Results Exposure to ambient air pollution by occupation and transportation mode was independently associated with respiratory functions impairment and incident respiratory symptoms among participants. Motorcyclists had the highest effect, with adjusted OR 3.10, 95% CI 0.402 to 16.207 for FVC<80% predicted and OR 1.71, 95% CI 0.61 to 4.76 for FEV1/FVC<70% predicted using GOLD and NICE criteria. In addition, uneducated, currently smoking transit workers who had worked for more than 1 year, with three trips per day and more than 1 h transit time per trip were significantly associated with higher odds for respiratory function

  20. Polarization effects in the ionization cross section of Ar, Kr, and Xe by laser-excited Ne sup ** ((2 p ) sup 5 (3 p ); J =3, M ) atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Driessen, J.P.J.; van de Weijer, F.J.M.; Zonneveld, M.J.; Somers, L.M.T.; Janssens, M.F.M.; Beijerinck, H.C.W.; Verhaar, B.J. )

    1990-10-01

    In a crossed-beam experiment the total ionization cross section for the title systems has been investigated in the range 0.1{le}{ital E} (eV) {lt}=4 of collision energies. The population of the short-lived Ne{sup **}((3{ital p});{ital J}=3) state is produced by saturated optical pumping of the Ne{sup *}((3{ital s});{ital J}=2){leftrightarrow}Ne{sup **}((3{ital p});{ital J}=3) two-level system with a polarized laser beam, resulting in a well-determined distribution of the magnetic substates {vert bar}{ital J},{ital M}{r angle} with respect to the relative velocity {bold g}. By measuring the ion yield in the scattering center at five different orientations of the laser polarization (linear and circular) with respect to {bold g}, the data can be analyzed in terms of pure-state total ionization cross sections {sup 3}{ital Q{vert bar}{ital M}{vert bar}} corresponding to a single asymptotic state {vert bar}{ital J},{ital M}{r angle}.

  1. Effect of emergency oral contraceptive use on condom utilization and sexual risk taking behaviours among university students, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years are both the most at risk of HIV and the greatest hope for turning the tide against HIV/AIDS. Although various surveys have been done on sexual behaviour of youth in Ethiopia, studies assessing the effect of emergency oral contraceptives on condom utilization of university students are lacking. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in two major universities of Ethiopia from January to May 2011 using structured self administered questionnaire with the aim to assess the effect of introducing oral emergency contraceptive pills on condom utilization and sexual risk taking behaviours among female university students. Study participants were selected by simple random sampling using the list from the associate registrars of each University. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with condom utilization. Results a total of 623 students out of 660 were included giving response rate of 94.4%. A total of 103(16.5%) had history of sexual intercourse and nearly half (45.6%) of them had sex before the age of 20 years. Forty (6.4%) students had history of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Sixty seven percent of students had heard about emergency oral contraceptives. One hundred and ninety one (45.7%) of students believe that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy. Believing that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy (adjusted Odds ratio, AOR = 0.22 95% CI 0.06, 0.87), condom prevents STI (AOR = 10.37, 95% CI 1.73, 62.24) and younger age below 20 years (AOR = 11.68 95% CI 1.25, 109.19) were statistically significantly associated with condom use. Conclusion a significant number of students had history of sexual intercourse and used emergency contraception. The belief in the effectiveness of EOC negatively affects condom use. The preference for the pill may make

  2. Calculation of Cross Sections in Electron-Nuclear Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera-Trujillo, R.; Sabin, John R.; Deumens, E.; Öhrn, Y.

    In this work, we present an overview of the study of total and differential cross section calculations within the electron-nuclear dynamics (END). END is a method to solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in a non-adiabatic approach to direct dynamics. The method takes advantage of a coherent state representation of the molecular wave function. A quantum-mechanical Lagrangian formulation is employed to approximate the Schrödinger equation, via the time-dependent variational principle, to a set of coupled first-order differential equations in time for the END. We obtain the final wave function for the system allowing the determination of collisional properties of interest, as for example, deflection functions, charge exchange probabilities and amplitudes, and differential cross sections. We discuss the use and selection of basis sets for both the electronic description of the colliding systems as well as for their importance in the description of electron capture. As quantum effects are important in many cases and lacking for classical nuclei, we discuss the Schiff methodology and its advantages over other traditional methods for including semiclassical corrections. Time-lapse rendering of the dynamics of the participating electrons and atomic nuclei provides for a detailed view of dynamical and reactive processes. Comparison to experimental and other theoretical results is provided where appropriate data are available.

  3. Rectification of elastic waves in beams with rectangular cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yukihiro; Kono, Daichi; Nishiguchi, Norihiko

    2016-10-01

    We propose two types of acoustic-wave rectifiers composed of a beam with rectangular cross sections. One is a beam with a triangular void and the other is a beam with wedgewise cuts. Using a finite-difference time-domain method, we numerically investigate the propagation of compressional and flexural modes in both beams. For two flexural modes with different polarizations, the beams show an effective rectification in wide frequency regions, while for compressional modes, they do not have an efficient rectification. We find that the acoustic-wave rectification in a beam with wedgewise cuts is more effective than that in a beam with a triangular void from a practical viewpoint. The characteristic unique to acoustic rectifiers composed of a beam is that their performance depends on the position where the incident wave is excited.

  4. Effects of drift gas on collision cross sections of a protein standard in linear drift tube and traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jurneczko, Ewa; Kalapothakis, Jason; Campuzano, Iain D G; Morris, Michael; Barran, Perdita E

    2012-10-16

    There has been a significant increase in the use of ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) to investigate conformations of proteins and protein complexes following electrospray ionization. Investigations which employ traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry (TW IM-MS) instrumentation rely on the use of calibrants to convert the arrival times of ions to collision cross sections (CCS) providing "hard numbers" of use to structural biology. It is common to use nitrogen as the buffer gas in TW IM-MS instruments and to calibrate by extrapolating from CCS measured in helium via drift tube (DT) IM-MS. In this work, both DT and TW IM-MS instruments are used to investigate the effects of different drift gases (helium, neon, nitrogen, and argon) on the transport of multiply charged ions of the protein myoglobin, frequently used as a standard in TW IM-MS studies. Irrespective of the drift gas used, recorded mass spectra are found to be highly similar. In contrast, the recorded arrival time distributions and the derived CCS differ greatly. At low charge states (7 ≤ z ≤ 11) where the protein is compact, the CCS scale with the polarizability of the gas; this is also the case for higher charge states (12 ≤ z ≤ 22) where the protein is more unfolded for the heavy gases (neon, argon, and nitrogen) but not the case for helium. This is here interpreted as a different conformational landscape being sampled by the lighter gas and potentially attributable to increased field heating by helium. Under nanoelectrospray ionization (nESI) conditions, where myoglobin is sprayed from an aqueous solution buffered to pH 6.8 with 20 mM ammonium acetate, in the DT IM-MS instrument, each buffer gas can yield a different arrival time distribution (ATD) for any given charge state.

  5. Effects of Selected Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Community Health Workers on Performance of Home Visits during Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Study in Busia District, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Crispin, Ndedda; Wamae, Annah; Ndirangu, Meshack; Wamalwa, David; Wangalwa, Gilbert; Watako, Patrick; Mbiti, Elijah

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Appropriate performance of home visits facilitates adoption of best practices at home and increased demand for facility based services. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study in which community health workers were observed conducting home visits during pregnancy. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and the Consultant Quality Index (CQI-2 tool) on record keeping, use of job aids, counselling, client satisfaction and client enablement. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Relationships were determined using chi square and odds ratios. Results: The study showed significant relationships of age with good record keeping (p = 0.0001), appropriate use of job aids (p=0.0001), client satisfaction (p = 0.018) and client enablement (p = 0.001). Male CHWs were 1.6 times more likely to keep better records than females (OR 1.64 CI (1.02-2.63), while females were more likely to counsel and enable their clients OR 0.42 CI (0.25-0.71) and OR 0.29 CI (012-070) respectively when compared to men. Moreover, higher levels of education were associated with good record keeping OR 0.30 CI (0.19-0.49), p=0.0001; appropriate use of job aids OR 0.30 CI (0.15-0.61) and to appropriately counsel their clients OR 0.34 CI (0.20-0.58) than their lower literacy level counterparts. Experience of CHWs was associated with appropriate use of job aids (p = 0.049); client satisfaction (p = 0.0001) and client enablement (p = 0.032). Conclusions: Socio-demographic characteristics of community health workers affect the performance of home visits in various ways. The study also confirmed that CHWs with lower literacy levels satisfy and enable their clients effectively. PMID:22980380

  6. The effect of maternal child marriage on morbidity and mortality of children under 5 in India: cross sectional study of a nationally representative sample

    PubMed Central

    Saggurti, Niranjan; Winter, Michael; Labonte, Alan; Decker, Michele R; Balaiah, Donta; Silverman, Jay G

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between maternal child marriage (marriage before age 18) and morbidity and mortality of infants and children under 5 in India. Design Cross-sectional analyses of nationally representative household sample. Generalised estimating equation models constructed to assess associations. Adjusted models included maternal and child demographics and maternal body mass index as covariates. Setting India. Population Women aged 15-49 years (n=124 385); data collected in 2005-6 through National Family Health Survey-3. Data about child morbidity and mortality reported by participants. Analyses restricted to births in past five years reported by ever married women aged 15-24 years (n=19 302 births to 13 396 mothers). Main outcome measures In under 5s: mortality related infectious diseases in the past two weeks (acute respiratory infection, diarrhoea); malnutrition (stunting, wasting, underweight); infant (age <1 year) and child (1-5 years) mortality; low birth weight (<2500 kg). Results The majority of births (73%; 13 042/19 302) were to mothers married as minors. Although bivariate analyses showed significant associations between maternal child marriage and infant and child diarrhoea, malnutrition (stunted, wasted, underweight), low birth weight, and mortality, only stunting (adjusted odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.33) and underweight (1.24, 1.14 to 1.36) remained significant in adjusted analyses. We noted no effect of maternal child marriage on health of boys versus girls. Conclusions The risk of malnutrition is higher in young children born to mothers married as minors than in those born to women married at a majority age. Further research should examine how early marriage affects food distribution and access for children in India. PMID:20093277

  7. Effects of drift gas on collision cross sections of a protein standard in linear drift tube and traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jurneczko, Ewa; Kalapothakis, Jason; Campuzano, Iain D G; Morris, Michael; Barran, Perdita E

    2012-10-16

    There has been a significant increase in the use of ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) to investigate conformations of proteins and protein complexes following electrospray ionization. Investigations which employ traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry (TW IM-MS) instrumentation rely on the use of calibrants to convert the arrival times of ions to collision cross sections (CCS) providing "hard numbers" of use to structural biology. It is common to use nitrogen as the buffer gas in TW IM-MS instruments and to calibrate by extrapolating from CCS measured in helium via drift tube (DT) IM-MS. In this work, both DT and TW IM-MS instruments are used to investigate the effects of different drift gases (helium, neon, nitrogen, and argon) on the transport of multiply charged ions of the protein myoglobin, frequently used as a standard in TW IM-MS studies. Irrespective of the drift gas used, recorded mass spectra are found to be highly similar. In contrast, the recorded arrival time distributions and the derived CCS differ greatly. At low charge states (7 ≤ z ≤ 11) where the protein is compact, the CCS scale with the polarizability of the gas; this is also the case for higher charge states (12 ≤ z ≤ 22) where the protein is more unfolded for the heavy gases (neon, argon, and nitrogen) but not the case for helium. This is here interpreted as a different conformational landscape being sampled by the lighter gas and potentially attributable to increased field heating by helium. Under nanoelectrospray ionization (nESI) conditions, where myoglobin is sprayed from an aqueous solution buffered to pH 6.8 with 20 mM ammonium acetate, in the DT IM-MS instrument, each buffer gas can yield a different arrival time distribution (ATD) for any given charge state. PMID:22974196

  8. Effects of cigarette smoking on early arthritis: a cross-sectional study-data from the Argentine Consortium for Early Arthritis (CONAART).

    PubMed

    Haye Salinas, María Jezabel; Retamozo, Soledad; Alvarez, Ana Cecilia; Maldonado Ficco, Hernán; Dal Pra, Fernando; Citera, Gustavo; Benegas, Mariana; Chaparro del Moral, Rafael; Rillo, Oscar; Secco, Anastasia; Marino Claverie, Lucila; Catalan Pellet, Antonio; Marcos, Josefina; García, Mercedes Argentina; Marcos, Juan Carlos; Barbaglia, Ana; Bellomio, Verónica; Berman, Alberto; Quiroz, Cristian; Soriano, Enrique R; Ceccato, Federico; Paira, Sergio; Vazquez, Doralia; Juarez, Vicente Ricardo; Velozo, Edson Javier; Salvatierra, Gabriela; Caeiro, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    Our objective was to analyze the effects of cigarette smoking on disease activity, functional capacity, radiographic damage, serology and presence of extraarticular manifestations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and undifferentiated arthritis. This is a cross-sectional study of 1,305 patients (729 with rheumatoid arthritis and 576 with undifferentiated arthritis) from CONAART, the Argentine Consortium for Early Arthritis that includes patients older than 16 years with <2 years of disease. Sociodemographic data, clinical characteristics of the disease and smoking history were collected. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis the disease activity score of 28 joints was 5.4 ± 1.3 in current smokers, 5.2 ± 1.4 in former smokers and 5.1 ± 1.4 in never smokers (p = 0.011). The simple erosion narrowing score was higher in current smokers and former smokers than in never smokers (M 14.0, R Q 6.0-21.0; M 15.0, R Q 7.0-24.0; M 10.0, R Q 5.0-17.0; p = 0.006). Current smokers had higher rheumatoid factor titer (M 160.0, R Q 80.0-341.0) than former smokers (M 146.8, R Q 6.03-255.5) and never smokers (M 15.0, R Q 9.0-80.0) (p = 0.004). The variable independently associated with tobacco exposure was simple erosion narrowing score (OR = 1.03, 95 % CI 1.00-1.05; p = 0.012). In patients with undifferentiated arthritis, an association between smoking status and parameters of activity or radiographic damage was not observed. Neither was tobacco exposure related to the presence of extraarticular manifestations or to the degree of disability in any of the two groups of patients. No relation was found between disease activity and severity, and number of packs smoked per year. Tobacco.

  9. 44. Cross section of the Blacksmith Shop from Construction Drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Cross section of the Blacksmith Shop from Construction Drawing 2042-F-15, entitled Machine and Blacksmith Shop; Plan, Elevations, and Sections. (Original drawing, in the possession of Wyre Dick and Company, Livingston, New Jersey.) - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Engine Terminal, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  10. 45. Cross Section through the Power House, from Construction Drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Cross Section through the Power House, from Construction Drawing 2042-F-23, entitled General Arrangement of Power Plant, Sections. (Original drawing, in the possession of Wyre Dick and Company, Livingston, New Jersey.) - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Engine Terminal, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  11. A Multigroup Reaction Cross-Section Collapsing Code and Library of 154-Group Fission-Product Cross Sections.

    1983-03-23

    Version 01/02 The code reads multigroup cross sections from a compatible data file and collapses user-selected reaction cross sections to any few-group structure using one of a variety of user neutron flux spectrum options given below: Option Flux description 1 Built-in function including Maxwellian, fission, fusion and slowing-down regions and requiring user-specified parameters and energy-region boundaries. 2 Set of log-log flux-energy interpolation points read from input cross-section data file. 3 Set of log-log flux-energy interpolationmore » points read from user-supplied card input. 4 - 6 Histogram flux values read from user-supplied card input in arbitrary group structure in units of flux-per unit-energy, flux-per-unit lethargy, or integral group flux. LAFPX-E may be used to collapse any set of multigroup reaction cross sections furnished in the required format. However, the code was developed for, and is furnished with, a library of 154-group fission-product cross sections processed from ENDF/B-IV with a typical light water reactor (LWR) flux spectrum and temperature. Four-group radiative capture cross sections produced for LWR calculations are tabulated in the code documentation and are incorporated in the EPRI-CINDER data library, RSIC Code Package CCC-309.« less

  12. ACTIV87: Fast Neutron Activation Cross Section File

    1993-08-01

    4. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND INFORMATION ACTIV87 is a compilation of fast neutron induced activation reaction cross-sections. The compilation covers energies from threshold to 20 MeV and is based on evaluated data taken from other evaluated data libraries and individual evaluations. The majority of these evaluations were performed by using available experimental data. The aforementioned available experimental data were used in the selection of needed parameters for theoretical computations and for normalizing the results of suchmore » computations. Theoretical calculations were also used for interpolation and extrapolation of experimental cross-section data. All of the evaluated data curves were compared with experimental data that had been reported over the four year period preceding 1987. Only those cross-sections not in contradiction with experimental data that was current in 1987 were retained in the activation file, ACTIV87. In cases of several conflicting evaluations, that evaluation was chosen which best corresponded to the experimental data. A few evaluated curves were renormalized in accordance with the results of the latest precision measurements. 5. APPLICATION OF THE DATA 6. SOURCE AND SCOPE OF DATA The following libraries and individual files of evaluated neutron cross-section data were used for the selection of the activation cross-sections: the BOSPOR Library, the Activation File of the Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, the Evaluated Neutron Data File (ENDF/B-V) Activation File, the International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-82), and individual evaluations carried out under various IAEA research contracts. The file of selected reactions contains 206 evaluated cross-section curves of the (n,2n), (n,p) and (n,a) reactions which lead to radioactive products and may be used in many practical applications of neutron activation analysis. Some competing activation reactions, usually with low cross-section values, are given for completeness.« less

  13. Measurement of the 242Pu neutron capture cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Dance Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Precision (n,f) and (n, γ) cross sections are important for the network calculations of the radiochemical diagnostic chain for the U.S. DOE's Stockpile Stewardship Program. 242Pu(n, γ) cross section is relevant to the network calculations of Pu and Am. Additionally, new reactor concepts have catalyzed considerable interest in the measurement of improved cross sections for neutron-induced reactions on key actinides. To date, little or no experimental data has been reported on 242Pu(n, γ) for incident neutron energy below 50 keV. A new measurement of the 242Pu(n, γ) reaction was performed with the DANCE together with an improved PPAC for fission-fragment detection at LANSCE during FY14. The relative scale of the 242Pu(n, γ) cross section spans four orders of magnitude for incident neutron energies from thermal to ~ 30 keV. The absolute scale of the 242Pu(n, γ) cross section is set according to the measured 239Pu(n,f) resonance at 7.8 eV; the target was spiked with 239Pu for this measurement. The absolute 242Pu(n, γ) neutron capture cross section is ~ 30% higher than the cross section reported in ENDF for the 2.7 eV resonance. Latest results to be reported. Funded by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL) and DE-AC52-06NA25396 (LANL). U.S. DOE/NNSA Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development. Isotopes (ORNL).

  14. Effect of the buoyancy force on natural convection in a cubical cavity with a heat source of triangular cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibanov, N. S.; Sheremet, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Numerical analysis of laminar natural convection inside a cubical cavity with a local heat source of triangular cross-section has been conducted. The mathematical model formulated in dimensionless variables such as "vector potential functions - vorticity vector" has been solved by the finite difference method of the second order accuracy. The three-dimensional temperature fields, 2D streamlines and isotherms in a wide range of the Rayleigh number from 104 to 106 have been presented illustrating variations of the fluid flow and heat transfer.

  15. Complexity-Based Measures Inform Effects of Tai Chi Training on Standing Postural Control: Cross-Sectional and Randomized Trial Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, Peter M.; Gow, Brian J.; Costa, Madalena D.; Peng, C.-K.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Roger B.; Walsh, Jacquelyn N.; Lough, Matthew; Novak, Vera; Yeh, Gloria Y.; Ahn, Andrew C.; Macklin, Eric A.; Manor, Brad

    2014-01-01

    Background Diminished control of standing balance, traditionally indicated by greater postural sway magnitude and speed, is associated with falls in older adults. Tai Chi (TC) is a multisystem intervention that reduces fall risk, yet its impact on sway measures vary considerably. We hypothesized that TC improves the integrated function of multiple control systems influencing balance, quantifiable by the multi-scale “complexity” of postural sway fluctuations. Objectives To evaluate both traditional and complexity-based measures of sway to characterize the short- and potential long-term effects of TC training on postural control and the relationships between sway measures and physical function in healthy older adults. Methods A cross-sectional comparison of standing postural sway in healthy TC-naïve and TC-expert (24.5±12 yrs experience) adults. TC-naïve participants then completed a 6-month, two-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Postural sway was assessed before and after the training during standing on a force-plate with eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC). Anterior-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) sway speed, magnitude, and complexity (quantified by multiscale entropy) were calculated. Single-legged standing time and Timed-Up–and-Go tests characterized physical function. Results At baseline, compared to TC-naïve adults (n = 60, age 64.5±7.5 yrs), TC-experts (n = 27, age 62.8±7.5 yrs) exhibited greater complexity of sway in the AP EC (P = 0.023), ML EO (P<0.001), and ML EC (P<0.001) conditions. Traditional measures of sway speed and magnitude were not significantly lower among TC-experts. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no significant effects of short-term TC training; however, increases in AP EC and ML EC complexity amongst those randomized to TC were positively correlated with practice hours (P = 0.044, P = 0.018). Long- and short-term TC training were positively associated with physical function

  16. Prevalence, Reasons, and Perceived Effects of Khat Chewing Among Students of a College in Gondar Town, Northwestern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Teni, FS; Surur, AS; Hailemariam, A; Aye, A; Mitiku, G; Gurmu, AE; Tessema, B

    2015-01-01

    Background: The estimate of the number of people chewing Khat globally ranges from 5 to 10 million people. Its use may result in a variety of effects due to the different compounds in it with effects on the gastro-intestinal system and nervous system being the principal ones. Aim: To assess the prevalence, factors, and effects of Khat chewing among students of a college in Gondar town, northwestern Ethiopia. Subjects and Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 15th to 20th of April 2009 on a total sample of 424 students who were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected by three of the principal investigators using a structured pretested data collection instrument and analyzed by Epi Info version 3.5.2. Results: The lifetime and current prevalence of Khat chewing among the respondents were 42% (168/400) and 32.5% (130/400), respectively. Sex (P < 0.01), religion (P < 0.001), and income (P < 0.01) showed statistically significant variation in Khat chewing. The commonest frequency of Khat chewing was once a day 33.1% (43/130) while alcohol (40.8% [53/130]) and cigarette (40.0% [52/130]) were the mostly used substances with Khat. More than half of the chewers (53.85% [70/130]) reported spending 1–4 h for one Khat chewing ceremony. Financially majority of the chewers reported spending up to 10 Ethiopian Birr (ETB) (1.13 United States Dollar) on Khat ( 54.6% [71/130]) and other substances (64.6% [84/130]). Nearly two-thirds (62.3% [81/130]) of the chewers mentioned seeking concentration during study as their main reason for chewing. Among chewers, 83.1% (108/130) reported they faced problem associated to sleep disturbance, 82.3% (107/130) loss of appetite, and 80.8% (105/130) constipation. Conclusion: The prevalence of Khat chewing was fairly high among the students and the majority among them used other substances together with Khat. Spending of a significant amount of money and facing health problems were

  17. New model for electron-impact ionization cross sections of atoms and molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.-K.; Hwang, W.; Rudd, M. E.

    1996-07-01

    A new theoretical model for electron-impact ionization cross sections for atoms and molecules is presented. The new model combines the binary-encounter theory and the Bethe theory for electron-impact ionization, and uses minimal theoretical data for the ground state of the target atom or molecule. Two versions of the model are presented. The first one, the Binary-Encounter-Dipole (BED) model, requires the knowledge of continuum oscillator strengths and produces the differential ionization cross section, i.e., energy distribution of ejected electrons. The differential cross section is then integrated over the ejected electron energy to obtain the total ionization cross section. The second version, the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, assumes a simple form of the continuum oscillator strength to obtain a compact and analytic form of the total ionization cross section. We found that both the BED and BEB models provide total ionization cross sections from threshold to several keV in incident energy within 5% to 15% of known experimental data for many neutral targets. The total ionization cross sections are expressed in compact analytic expressions suitable for use in modeling, e.g., of plasmas and radiation effects. We found that the BEB model is particularly effective in estimating total ionization cross sections of complex molecules.

  18. Improved Actinide Neutron Capture Cross Sections Using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauder, W.; Pardo, R. C.; Kondev, F. G.; Kondrashev, S.; Nair, C.; Nusair, O.; Palchan, T.; Scott, R.; Seweryniak, D.; Vondrasek, R.; Collon, P.; Paul, M.; Youinou, G.; Salvatores, M.; Palmotti, G.; Berg, J.; Maddock, T.; Imel, G.

    2014-09-01

    The MANTRA (Measurement of Actinide Neutron TRAnsmutations) project will improve energy-integrated neutron capture cross section data across the actinide region. These data are incorporated into nuclear reactor models and are an important piece in understanding Generation IV reactor designs. We will infer the capture cross sections by measuring isotopic ratios from actinide samples, irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at INL, with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at ATLAS (ANL). The superior sensitivity of AMS allows us to extract multiple cross sections from a single sample. In order to analyze the large number of samples needed for MANTRA and to meet the goal of extracting multiple cross sections per sample, we have made a number of modifications to the AMS setup at ATLAS. In particular, we are developing a technique to inject solid material into the ECR with laser ablation. With laser ablation, we can better control material injection and potentially increase efficiency in the ECR, thus creating less contamination in the source and reducing cross talk. I will present work on the laser ablation system and preliminary results from our AMS measurements. The MANTRA (Measurement of Actinide Neutron TRAnsmutations) project will improve energy-integrated neutron capture cross section data across the actinide region. These data are incorporated into nuclear reactor models and are an important piece in understanding Generation IV reactor designs. We will infer the capture cross sections by measuring isotopic ratios from actinide samples, irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at INL, with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at ATLAS (ANL). The superior sensitivity of AMS allows us to extract multiple cross sections from a single sample. In order to analyze the large number of samples needed for MANTRA and to meet the goal of extracting multiple cross sections per sample, we have made a number of modifications to the AMS setup at ATLAS. In particular, we are

  19. Electron Impact Ionization Cross Sections in Rb and Cs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddish, T. J.; Lukomski, M.; Sutton, S.; Kedzierski, W.; McConkey, J. W.; Bartschat, K.; Bartlett, P. L.; Stelbovics, A. T.; Bray, I.

    2006-05-01

    We present a new atom trapping technique for determining absolute, total ionisation cross sections (TICS) out of an excited atom. The novel feature of this method is in utilizing Doppler cooling of neutral atoms to determine ionisation cross sections. This fluorescence-monitoring experiment, which is a variant of the `trap loss' technique, has enabled us to obtain the experimental electron impact ionisation cross sections out of the Cs 6^2P3/2 excited state between 7 - 400 eV. New CCC, R-Matrix with Pseudo-States (RMPS), and Born approximation single ionisation cross sections (SICS) are also presented for both the ground and excited states of Cs and Rb, and compared with the available experimental data. The comparison of the results reveals the importance of the autoionisation and multiple ionisation contributions to the TICS. The autoionisation contribution appears to be substantial for ionisation out of the Cs 6^2P and Rb 5^2P excited states; ˜ 3-4 larger than the direct ionisation contribution predicted by CCC at ˜ 30-50 eV. This surprising result shows the importance of multi-electron processes in determining the ionisation cross sections of heavy alkali atoms.

  20. Simulation of multistatic and backscattering cross sections for airborne radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, Albert W.

    1986-07-01

    In order to determine susceptibilities of airborne radar to electronic countermeasures and electronic counter-countermeasures simulations of multistatic and backscattering cross sections were developed as digital modules in the form of algorithms. Cross section algorithms are described for prolate (cigar shape) and oblate (disk shape) spheroids. Backscattering cross section algorithms are also described for different categories of terrain. Backscattering cross section computer programs were written for terrain categorized as vegetation, sea ice, glacial ice, geological (rocks, sand, hills, etc.), oceans, man-made structures, and water bodies. PROGRAM SIGTERRA is a file for backscattering cross section modules of terrain (TERRA) such as vegetation (AGCROP), oceans (OCEAN), Arctic sea ice (SEAICE), glacial snow (GLASNO), geological structures (GEOL), man-made structures (MAMMAD), or water bodies (WATER). AGCROP describes agricultural crops, trees or forests, prairies or grassland, and shrubs or bush cover. OCEAN has the SLAR or SAR looking downwind, upwind, and crosswind at the ocean surface. SEAICE looks at winter ice and old or polar ice. GLASNO is divided into a glacial ice and snow or snowfields. MANMAD includes buildings, houses, roads, railroad tracks, airfields and hangars, telephone and power lines, barges, trucks, trains, and automobiles. WATER has lakes, rivers, canals, and swamps. PROGRAM SIGAIR is a similar file for airborne targets such as prolate and oblate spheroids.

  1. Cross Sections and Transport Properties of BR- Ions in AR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Jasmina; Stojanovic, Vladimir; Raspopovic, Zoran; Petrovic, Zoran

    2014-10-01

    We have used a combination of a simple semi-analytic theory - Momentum Transfer Theory (MTT) and exact Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to develop Br- in Ar momentum transfer cross section based on the available data for reduced mobility at the temperature T = 300 K over the range 10 Td <= E / N <= 300 Td. At very low energies, we have extrapolated obtained cross sections towards Langevin's cross section. Also, we have extrapolated data to somewhat higher energies based on behavior of similar ions in similar gases and by the addition of the total detachment cross section that was used from the threshold around 7.7 eV. Relatively complete set was derived which can be used in modeling of plasmas by both hybrid, particle in cell (PIC) and fluid codes. A good agreement between calculated and measured ion mobilities and longitudinal diffusion coefficients is an independent proof of the validity of the cross sections that were derived for the negative ion mobility data. In addition to transport coefficients we have also calculated the net rate coefficients of elastic scattering and detachment. Author acknowledge Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Proj. Nos. 171037 and 410011.

  2. Electromagnetic Dissociation Cross Sections using Weisskopf-Ewing Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, Anne M.; Norbury, John W.

    2011-01-01

    It is important that accurate estimates of crew exposure to radiation are obtained for future long-term space missions. Presently, several space radiation transport codes exist to predict the radiation environment, all of which take as input particle interaction cross sections that describe the nuclear interactions between the particles and the shielding material. The space radiation transport code HZETRN uses the nuclear fragmentation model NUCFRG2 to calculate Electromagnetic Dissociation (EMD) cross sections. Currently, NUCFRG2 employs energy independent branching ratios to calculate these cross sections. Using Weisskopf-Ewing (WE) theory to calculate branching ratios, however, is more advantageous than the method currently employed in NUCFRG2. The WE theory can calculate not only neutron and proton emission, as in the energy independent branching ratio formalism used in NUCFRG2, but also deuteron, triton, helion, and alpha particle emission. These particles can contribute significantly to total exposure estimates. In this work, photonuclear cross sections are calculated using WE theory and the energy independent branching ratios used in NUCFRG2 and then compared to experimental data. It is found that the WE theory gives comparable, but mainly better agreement with data than the energy independent branching ratio. Furthermore, EMD cross sections for single neutron, proton, and alpha particle removal are calculated using WE theory and an energy independent branching ratio used in NUCFRG2 and compared to experimental data.

  3. Cross-section fluctuations in chaotic scattering systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericson, Torleif E. O.; Dietz, Barbara; Richter, Achim

    2016-10-01

    Exact analytical expressions for the cross-section correlation functions of chaotic scattering systems have hitherto been derived only under special conditions. The objective of the present article is to provide expressions that are applicable beyond these restrictions. The derivation is based on a statistical model of Breit-Wigner type for chaotic scattering amplitudes which has been shown to describe the exact analytical results for the scattering (S )-matrix correlation functions accurately. Our results are given in the energy and in the time representations and apply in the whole range from isolated to overlapping resonances. The S -matrix contributions to the cross-section correlations are obtained in terms of explicit irreducible and reducible correlation functions. Consequently, the model can be used for a detailed exploration of the key features of the cross-section correlations and the underlying physical mechanisms. In the region of isolated resonances, the cross-section correlations contain a dominant contribution from the self-correlation term. For narrow states the self-correlations originate predominantly from widely spaced states with exceptionally large partial width. In the asymptotic region of well-overlapping resonances, the cross-section autocorrelation functions are given in terms of the S -matrix autocorrelation functions. For inelastic correlations, in particular, the Ericson fluctuations rapidly dominate in that region. Agreement with known analytical and experimental results is excellent.

  4. Electron-impact ionization cross section of rubidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Ki; Migdałek, Jacek; Siegel, Wojciech; Bieroń, Jacek

    1998-01-01

    A theoretical model for electron-impact ionization cross section has been applied to Rb and the theoretical cross section (from the threshold to 1 keV in incident energy) is in good agreement with the recent experimental data obtained using Rb atoms trapped in a magneto-optical trap. The theoretical model, called the binary-encounter-dipole (BED) model, combines a modified Mott cross section with the high-energy behavior of Born cross sections. To obtain the continuum dipole oscillator strength df/dE of the 5s electron required in the BED model, we used Dirac-Fock continuum wave functions with a core polarization potential that reproduced the known position of the Cooper minimum in the photoionization cross section. For inner-shell ionization, we used a simpler version of df/dE, which retained the hydrogenic shape. The contributions of the 4p-->4d, 5s, and 5p autoionizing excitations were estimated using the plane-wave Born approximation. As a by-product, we also present the dipole oscillator strengths for the 5s-->np1/2 and 5s-->np3/2 transitions for high principal quantum numbers n near the ionization threshold obtained from the Dirac-Fock wave functions with the same core polarization potential as that used for the continuum wave functions.

  5. Experience With the SCALE Criticality Safety Cross Section Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, S.M.

    2000-08-21

    This report provides detailed information on the SCALE criticality safety cross-section libraries. Areas covered include the origins of the libraries, the data on which they are based, how they were generated, past experience and validations, and performance comparisons with measured critical experiments and numerical benchmarks. The performance of the SCALE criticality safety cross-section libraries on various types of fissile systems are examined in detail. Most of the performance areas are demonstrated by examining the performance of the libraries vs critical experiments to show general trends and weaknesses. In areas where directly applicable critical experiments do not exist, performance is examined based on the general knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of the cross sections. In this case, the experience in the use of the cross sections and comparisons with the results of other libraries on the same systems are relied on for establishing acceptability of application of a particular SCALE library to a particular fissile system. This report should aid in establishing when a SCALE cross-section library would be expected to perform acceptably and where there are known or suspected deficiencies that would cause the calculations to be less reliable. To determine the acceptability of a library for a particular application, the calculational bias of the library should be established by directly applicable critical experiments.

  6. Effect of the Ebola-virus-disease epidemic on malaria case management in Guinea, 2014: a cross-sectional survey of health facilities

    PubMed Central

    Plucinski, Mateusz M; Guilavogui, Timothée; Sidikiba, Sidibe; Diakité, Nouman; Diakité, Souleymane; Dioubaté, Mohamed; Bah, Ibrahima; Hennessee, Ian; Butts, Jessica K; Halsey, Eric S; McElroy, Peter D; Kachur, S Patrick; Aboulhab, Jamila; James, Richard; Keita, Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The ongoing west Africa Ebola-virus-disease epidemic has disrupted the entire health-care system in affected countries. Because of the overlap of symptoms of Ebola virus disease and malaria, the care delivery of malaria is particularly sensitive to the indirect effects of the current Ebola-virus-disease epidemic. We therefore characterise malaria case management in the context of the Ebola-virus-disease epidemic and document the effect of the Ebola-virus-disease epidemic on malaria case management. Methods We did a cross-sectional survey of public health facilities in Guinea in December, 2014. We selected the four prefectures most affected by Ebola virus disease and selected four randomly from prefectures without any reported cases of the disease. 60 health facilities were sampled in Ebola-affected and 60 in Ebola-unaffected prefectures. Study teams abstracted malaria case management indicators from registers for January to November for 2013 and 2014 and interviewed health-care workers. Nationwide weekly surveillance data for suspect malaria cases reported between 2011 and 2014 were analysed independently. Data for malaria indicators in 2014 were compared with previous years. Findings We noted substantial reductions in all-cause outpatient visits (by 23 103 [11%] of 214 899), cases of fever (by 20249 [15%] of 131 330), and patients treated with oral (by 22 655 [24%] of 94 785) and injectable (by 5219 [30%] of 17 684) antimalarial drugs in surveyed health facilities. In Ebola-affected prefectures, 73 of 98 interviewed community health workers were operational (74%, 95% CI 65–83) and 35 of 73 were actively treating malaria cases (48%, 36–60) compared with 106 of 112 (95%, 89–98) and 102 of 106 (96%, 91–99), respectively, in Ebola-unaffected prefectures. Nationwide, the Ebola-virus-disease epidemic was estimated to have resulted in 74 000 (71 000–77 000) fewer malaria cases seen at health facilities in 2014. Interpretation The reduction in

  7. Experimental aerodynamic characteristics of missiles with square cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollars, G. J.; Yechout, R. T.; Daniel, D. C.; Lijewski, L. E.

    1983-05-01

    A series of quantitative and qualitative tests were conducted to expand the aerodynamic data base of square cross-section missiles. Quantitative tests included measuring forces and moments acting on square missiles, and measuring flowfield pressures on the leeward side of square missiles at various configurations and orientations in a subsonic wind tunnel. Force and moment data is presented showing the effects of variation in body corner radius, nose and fin shapes, pitch angle, and roll angle. Flowfield pressure and crossflow velocity data are presented for missiles of various pitch angles, roll angles, body corner radii, and fineness ratios (length to width ratio). In addition, flowfield data is shown along the axial length of a square missile. Qualitative tests included photographic tuft grids in the flowfield and photographing oil shear stress patterns on the surface of various missiles. These qualitative photographs are presented for various missile configurations and orientations.

  8. Extracting forward strong amplitudes from elastic differential cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    C.M. Chen; D.J. Ernst; Mikkel B. Johnson

    2001-07-01

    The feasibility of a model-independent extraction of the forward strong amplitude from elastic nuclear cross section data in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region is assessed for {pi} and K{sup +} scattering at intermediate energies. Theoretically-generated ''data'' are analyzed to provide criteria for optimally designing experiments to measure these amplitudes, whose energy dependence (particularly that of the real parts) is needed for disentangling various sources of medium modifications of the projectile-nucleon interaction. The issues considered include determining the angular region over which to make the measurements, the role of the most forward angles measured, and the effects of statistical and systematic errors. We find that there is a region near the forward direction where Coulomb-nuclear interference allows reliable extraction of the strong forward amplitude for both pions and the K{sup +} from .3 to 1 GeV/c.

  9. Advanced modeling of reaction cross sections for light nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Resler, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The shell model/R-matrix technique of calculating nuclear reaction cross sections for light projectiles incident on light nuclei is discussed, particularly in the application of the technique to thermonuclear reactions. Details are presented on the computational methods for the shell model which display how easily the calculations can be performed. Results of the shell model/R-matrix technique are discussed as are some of the problems encountered in picking an appropriate nucleon-nucleon interaction for the large model spaces which must be used for current problems. The status of our work on developing an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction for use in large-basis shell model calculations is presented. This new interaction is based on a combination of global constraints and microscopic nuclear data. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Effect of cross sectional geometry on PDMS micro peristaltic pump performance: comparison of SU-8 replica molding vs. micro injection molding.

    PubMed

    Graf, Neil J; Bowser, Michael T

    2013-10-01

    Two different fabrication methods were employed to fabricate micropumps with different cross-sectional channel geometries. The first was to fabricate rectangular cross-sectional microchannel geometries using the well known fabrication method of replica molding (REM). The second, and far less utilized fabrication technique, was to create microchannel molds using an in-house fabricated handheld micro injection molding apparatus. The injection mold apparatus was designed for use with elastomeric room temperature vulcanization (RTV) polymers, as opposed to most other injection molding machines, which are designed for use with thermoplastic polymers. The injection mold's bottom plate was used as a microchannel molding template. The molding template was created by threading a small-diameter wire (150 μm or less) through the injection mold's bottom plate, with subsequent adhesion and smoothing of a thin piece of aluminum foil over the wire-raised injection mold template. When molded against, the template produced a rounded/Gaussian-shaped PDMS microchannel. The design of the injection mold will be presented, along with a direct comparison for micropump performance metrics such as flow rate, valving characteristics, and maximum backpressures attainable for each of the respective micropump channel geometries.

  11. Effect of cross sectional geometry on PDMS micro peristaltic pump performance: comparison of SU-8 replica molding vs. micro injection molding.

    PubMed

    Graf, Neil J; Bowser, Michael T

    2013-10-01

    Two different fabrication methods were employed to fabricate micropumps with different cross-sectional channel geometries. The first was to fabricate rectangular cross-sectional microchannel geometries using the well known fabrication method of replica molding (REM). The second, and far less utilized fabrication technique, was to create microchannel molds using an in-house fabricated handheld micro injection molding apparatus. The injection mold apparatus was designed for use with elastomeric room temperature vulcanization (RTV) polymers, as opposed to most other injection molding machines, which are designed for use with thermoplastic polymers. The injection mold's bottom plate was used as a microchannel molding template. The molding template was created by threading a small-diameter wire (150 μm or less) through the injection mold's bottom plate, with subsequent adhesion and smoothing of a thin piece of aluminum foil over the wire-raised injection mold template. When molded against, the template produced a rounded/Gaussian-shaped PDMS microchannel. The design of the injection mold will be presented, along with a direct comparison for micropump performance metrics such as flow rate, valving characteristics, and maximum backpressures attainable for each of the respective micropump channel geometries. PMID:23917263

  12. The effects of magnetic-field geometry on longitudinal oscillations of solar prominences: Cross-sectional area variation for thin tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, M.; Díaz, A. J.; Oliver, R.; Terradas, J.; Karpen, J.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Solar prominences are subject to both field-aligned (longitudinal) and transverse oscillatory motions, as evidenced by an increasing number of observations. Large-amplitude longitudinal motions provide valuable information on the geometry of the filament-channel magnetic structure that supports the cool prominence plasma against gravity. Our pendulum model, in which the restoring force is the gravity projected along the dipped field lines of the magnetic structure, best explains these oscillations. However, several factors can influence the longitudinal oscillations, potentially invalidating the pendulum model. Aims: The aim of this work is to study the influence of large-scale variations in the magnetic field strength along the field lines, i.e., variations of the cross-sectional area along the flux tubes supporting prominence threads. Methods: We studied the normal modes of several flux tube configurations, using linear perturbation analysis, to assess the influence of different geometrical parameters on the oscillation properties. Results: We found that the influence of the symmetric and asymmetric expansion factors on longitudinal oscillations is small. Conclusions: We conclude that the longitudinal oscillations are not significantly influenced by variations of the cross-section of the flux tubes, validating the pendulum model in this context.

  13. Effect of Cross Sectional Geometry on PDMS Micro Peristaltic Pump Performance: Comparison of SU-8 Replica Molding vs. Micro Injection Molding

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Neil J.

    2013-01-01

    Two different fabrication methods were employed to fabricate micropumps with different cross-sectional channel geometries. The first was to fabricate rectangular cross-sectional microchannel geometries using the well known fabrication method of replica molding (REM).1 The second, and far less utilized fabrication technique, was to create microchannel molds using an in-house fabricated handheld micro injection molding apparatus. The injection mold apparatus was designed for use with elastomeric room temperature vulcanization (RTV) polymers, as opposed to most other injection molding machines, which are designed for use with thermoplastic polymers. The injection mold’s bottom plate was used as a microchannel molding template. The molding template was created by threading a small-diameter wire (150 μm or less) through the injection mold’s bottom plate, with subsequent adhesion and smoothing of a thin piece of aluminum foil over the wire-raised injection mold template. When molded against, the template produced a rounded/Gaussian-shaped PDMS microchannel. The design of the injection mold will be presented, along with a direct comparison for micropump performance metrics such as flow rate, valving characteristics, and maximum backpressures attainable for each of the respective micropump channel geometries. PMID:23917263

  14. Angle-Differential Cross Sections for Radiative Recombination and the Photoelectric Effect in the K, L, and M Shells of One-Electron Systems Calculated Within AN Exact Relativistic Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Akira; Eichler, Jörg

    2001-11-01

    An extensive tabulation of angle-differential cross sections for radiative recombination and, consequently, for the photoelectric effect of hydrogen-like ions with representative charge numbers Z=18, 36, 54, 66, 79, 82, and 92 is presented for the K, L, and M shells and electron energies ranging from 1.0 keV to 1.5 MeV. The cross sections, accurate to three digits, are based on fully relativistic calculations including the effects of the finite nuclear size and all multipole orders of the photon field. In order to provide a good overview, the following procedure has been adopted: For the charge numbers 18, 54, and 92, the differential cross sections are presented in figures for all subshells and for representative energies. Furthermore, as a sample of the calculations, we present a complete table for the case of Z=79. The full tabulation for all charge numbers mentioned above is provided in electronic form (http://www.idealibrary.com/links/doi/10.1006/adnd.2001.0868/dat). By simple scaling, the dependence on the projectile energy in MeV/u can be derived for accelerator experiments, and, by using elementary formulas, the differential cross section for the photoelectric effect as a function of the electron emission angle can also be obtained.

  15. Photon scattering cross sections of H2 and He measured with synchrotron radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ice, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    Total (elastic + inelastic) differential photon scattering cross sections have been measured for H2 gas and He, using an X-ray beam. Absolute measured cross sections agree with theory within the probable errors. Relative cross sections (normalized to theory at large S) agree to better than one percent with theoretical values calculated from wave functions that include the effect of electron-electron Coulomb correlation, but the data deviate significantly from theoretical independent-particle (e.g., Hartree-Fock) results. The ratios of measured absolute He cross sections to those of H2, at any given S, also agree to better than one percent with theoretical He-to-H2 cross-section ratios computed from correlated wave functions. It appears that photon scattering constitutes a very promising tool for probing electron correlation in light atoms and molecules.

  16. Lactiferous vessel detection from microscopic cross-sectional images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jariyawatthananon, Jirapath; Cooharojananone, Nagul; Lipikorn, Rajalida

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the methods to detect and segment lactiferous vessels or rubber latex vessels from gray scale microscopic cross-sectional images using polynomial curve-fitting with maximum and minimum stationary points. Polynomial curve-fitting is used to detect the location of lactiferous vessels from an image of a non-dyed cross-sectional slice which was taken by a digital camera through microscope lens. The lactiferous vessels are then segmented from an image using maximum and minimum stationary points with morphological closing operation. Two species of rubber trees of age between one to two years old are sampled namely, RRIM600 and RRIT251. Two data sets contain 30 microscopic cross-sectional images of one-year old rubber tree's stems from each species are used in the experiments and the results reveal that most of the lactiferous vessel areas can be segmented correctly.

  17. Inversion of rotationally inelastic differential cross sections under sudden conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinke, Reinhard

    1980-12-01

    An inversion method for rotationally inelastic atom-diatom differential cross sections based on the infinite-order-sudden (IOS) approximation is presented. It consists of two separate steps: (1) The scattering phase shift, which is a function of the partial wave parameter l and the orientation angle γ, is determined by least-squares fitting of the reference cross sections. (2) For fixed orientation γ the R dependence of the interaction potential in obtained from the l dependence of the phase shift using the Firsov technique. This method is applicable in the so-called strong coupling case when rotational rainbow features are dominant and yields information about the anisotropy of the potential surface in the repulsive region. Because of the centrifugal sudden condition, scattering systems with deep potential wells cannot be treated by the present method. Test calculations are performed using theoretical IOS cross sections obtained from a realistic He-Na2 surface as reference data.

  18. pi+- p differential cross sections at low energies

    SciTech Connect

    H. Denz; P. Amaudruz; J.T. Brack; J. Breitschopf; P. Camerini; J.L. Clark; H. Clement; L. Felawka; E. Fragiacomo; E.F. Gibson; N. Grion; G.J. Hofman; B. Jamieson; E.L. Mathie; R. Meier; G. Moloney; D. Ottewell; O. Patarakin; J.D. Patterson; M.M. Pavan; S. Piano; K. Raywood; R.A. Ristinen; R. Rui; M.E. Sevior; G.R. Smith; J. Stahov; R. Tacik; G.J. Wagner; F. von Wrochem; D.M. Yeomans

    2005-12-03

    Differential cross sections for pi- p and pi+ p elastic scattering were measured at five energies between 19.9 and 43.3 MeV. The use of the CHAOS magnetic spectrometer at TRIUMF, supplemented by a range telescope for muon background suppression, provided simultaneous coverage of a large part of the full angular range, thus allowing very precise relative cross section measurements. The absolute normalization was determined with a typical accuracy of 5 %. This was verified in a simultaneous measurement of muon proton elastic scattering. The measured cross sections show some deviations from phase shift analysis predictions, in particular at large angles and low energies. From the new data we determine the real part of the isospin forward scattering amplitude.

  19. 63Ni (n ,γ ) cross sections measured with DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Göbel, K.; Heftrich, T.; Jandel, M.; Käppeler, F.; Lederer, C.; Kivel, N.; Korschinek, G.; Krtička, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ostermöller, J.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Schumann, D.; Ullmann, J. L.; Wallner, A.

    2015-10-01

    The neutron capture cross section of the s -process branch nucleus 63Ni affects the abundances of other nuclei in its region, especially 63Cu and 64Zn. In order to determine the energy-dependent neutron capture cross section in the astrophysical energy region, an experiment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been performed using the calorimetric 4 π BaF2 array DANCE. The (n ,γ ) cross section of 63Ni has been determined relative to the well-known 197Au standard with uncertainties below 15%. Various 63Ni resonances have been identified based on the Q value. Furthermore, the s -process sensitivity of the new values was analyzed with the new network calculation tool NETZ.

  20. Photoabsorption cross section of acetylene in the EUV region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. Y. R.; Judge, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The measurement of the absolute photoabsorption cross sections of C2H2 in the 175-740 A region by means of a double ionization chamber is reported. The continuum background source is the synchrotron radiation emitted by the Wisconsin 240 MeV electron storage ring. It is found that the cross sections range from 2 to a maximum of 36 Mb. Two new Rydberg series are identified and the cross section data are applied in the analysis of various sum rules. From the rules, it is shown that the data of C2H2 in the 580-1088 A range may be too low, while the measured ionization transition moment may be too high.

  1. High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Elaine Schulte

    2002-05-01

    New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees

  2. Double-differential heavy-ion production cross sections.

    PubMed

    Miller, T M; Townsend, L W

    2004-01-01

    Current computational tools used for space or accelerator shielding studies transport energetic heavy ions either using a one-dimensional straight-ahead approximation or by dissociating the nuclei into protons and neutrons and then performing neutron and proton transport using Monte Carlo techniques. Although the heavy secondary particles generally travel close to the beam direction, a proper treatment of the light ions produced in these reactions requires that double-differential cross sections should be utilised. Unfortunately, no fundamental nuclear model capable of serving as an event generator to provide these cross sections for all ions and energies of interest exists currently. Herein, we present a model for producing double-differential heavy-ion production cross sections that uses heavy-ion fragmentation yields produced by the NUCFRG2 fragmentation code coupled with a model of energy degradation in nucleus-nucleus collisions and systematics of momentum distributions to provide energy and angular dependences of the heavy-ion production.

  3. Dosimetry and cross section measurements at RTNS II

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.; Kneff, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Numerous measurements have been conducted at TRNS-II in order to map the neutron field for materials irradiations, to measure activation cross sections, and to measure helium production cross sections. Experiments of up to two weeks duration irradiated large numbers of activation dosimetry and helium samples both close to the source and throughout the target room. Many other samples have been irradiated in piggy-back positions over periods lasting many months. All of these experiments fall into four main classes, namely, fluence-mapping, activation dosimetry, the production of long-lived isotopes, and helium generation measurements. Radiometric dosimetry and activation cross section measurements were performed at Argonne National Laboratory; helium production was measured at Rockwell International Corporation. This paper briefly summarizes the principal results of our measurements at RTNS-II; references are given for more detailed publications. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Cross section versus time delay and trapping probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna-Acosta, G. A.; Fernández-Marín, A. A.; Méndez-Bermúdez, J. A.; Poli, Charles

    2016-07-01

    We study the behavior of the s-wave partial cross section σ (k), the Wigner-Smith time delay τ (k), and the trapping probability P (k) as function of the wave number k. The s-wave central square well is used for concreteness, simplicity, and to elucidate the controversy whether it shows true resonances. It is shown that, except for very sharp structures, the resonance part of the cross section, the trapping probability, and the time delay, reach their local maxima at different values of k. We show numerically that τ (k) > 0 at its local maxima, occurring just before the resonant part of the cross section reaches its local maxima. These results are discussed in the light of the standard definition of resonance.

  5. Inelastic cross sections for positron scattering from atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, M.; Hofmann, A.; Raith, W.; Sperber, W.; Jacobsen, F.; Lynn, K.G.

    1994-12-31

    Positronium formation (Ps) cross sections for positrons impinging on atomic hydrogen were measured in the impact energy range from 13eV to 255eV at the High Intensity Positron (HIP) beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The Ps-formation cross section was found to rise rapidly from the threshold at 6.8eV to a maximum value of (2.98 {plus_minus} 0.18) {times} 10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 2} for {approx} 15eV positrons. By 75eV it drops below the detection limit of 0.17 {times} 10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 2} which is the present level of statistical uncertainty. The experiment was modified to enable the measurement of doubly differential scattering cross sections.

  6. Pion Total Cross Section in Nucleon - Nucleon Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2009-01-01

    Total cross section parameterizations for neutral and charged pion production in nucleon - nucleon collisions are compared to experimental data over the projectile momentum range from threshold to 300 GeV. Both proton - proton and proton - neutron reactions are considered. Overall excellent agreement between parameterizations and experiment is found, except for notable disagreements near threshold. In addition, the hypothesis that the neutral pion production cross section can be obtained from the average charged pion cross section is checked. The theoretical formulas presented in the paper obey this hypothesis for projectile momenta below 500 GeV. The results presented provide a test of engineering tools used to calculate the pion component of space radiation.

  7. Recent advances in modeling fission cross sections over intermediate structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bouland, Olivier; Lynn, J. Eric; Talou, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    More accurate fission cross section calculations in presence of underlying intermediate structure are strongly desired. This paper recalls the common approximations used below the fission threshold and quantifies their impact. In particular, an exact expanded R-matrix Monte Carlo calculation of the intermediate structure, deeply mixed with the fluctuations of the class-I and II decay amplitudes, is shown. This paper also insists on the microscopic structure of the level densities as a function of the nucleus deformation and show preliminary neutron induced fission cross section calculations for {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu using newly calculated combinatorial level densities. Comparisons with recent evaluated and measured fission cross sections are made.

  8. Scattered light and accuracy of the cross-section measurements of weak absorptions: Gas and liquid phase UV absorption cross sections of CH3CFCl2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahr, A.; Braun, W.; Kurylo, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of CH3CFCl2(HCFC-141b) were determined in the gas phase (190-260 nm) and liquid phase (230-260 mm) at 298 K. The liquid phase absorption cross sections were then converted into accurate gas phase values using a previously described procedure. It has been demonstrated that scattered light from the shorter-wavelength region (as little as several parts per thousand) can seriously compromise the absorption cross-section measurement, particularly at longer wavelengths where cross sections are low, and can be a source of discrepancies in the cross sections of weakly absorbing halocarbons reported in the literature. A modeling procedure was developed to assess the effect of scattered light on the measured absorption cross section in our experiments, thereby permitting appropriate corrections to be made on the experimental values. Modeled and experimental results were found to be in good agreement. Experimental results from this study were compared with other available determinations and provide accurate input for calculating the atmospheric lifetime of HCFC-141b.

  9. The viscosity cross section for electron scattering from the heavy noble gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Allan; McEachran, Robert

    2014-10-01

    The viscosity cross section is defined in terms of the elastic differential cross section σ (θ) as σv =∫0 π (1 -cos2 θ) sin θ σ (θ) dθ and appears in the Boltzmann equation for the electron distribution function in velocity space. If this distribution function is expanded in Legendre polynomials, the viscosity cross section arises from the third term. Normally, only the first two terms in this expansion are retained in the solution of the Boltzmann equation. We have recently published results for the elastic and momentum transfer cross section for electron scattering from the heavy noble gases (argon, krypton and xenon) using our complex, relativistic optical potential method which includes the effect of excitation and ionization channels on the elastic cross sections. We also provided simple analytic fits to these cross sections to aid in plasma modelling calculations. We will present similar results for the viscosity cross sections for these gases including fits using similar analytic functions. By including the third term in the expansion of the Boltzmann equation which depends on this cross section, an evaluation of the accuracy of the two-term solution can be made.

  10. A cross-sectional study of the effect of health literacy on diabetes prevention and control among elderly individuals with prediabetes in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Lulu; Xu, Huilan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to examine the effect of health literacy on diabetes prevention and control and risk factors for low diabetes health literacy among elderly individuals with prediabetes in rural areas in China. Design setting and participates A cross-sectional survey was conducted among elderly individuals in rural communities in Yiyang City in China. Multi-staged cluster random sampling was used to select 42 areas and 434 individuals with prediabetes who were interviewed using a questionnaire on diabetes health literacy in China. Main outcome measures Participants were asked for general information (age, gender, marital status, history of hyperglycaemia, family history of diabetes mellitus, presence of other diseases and level of education). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for poor health literacy concerning diabetes prevention and control among elderly subjects with prediabetes. Results The median health literacy score for diabetes prevention and prediabetes control was 10.0 (IQR 7.0–13.0). The level of diabetes health literacy among men was lower than among women (OR 2.831, 95% CI 1.818 to 4.408), and lower among respondents with 1–6 years of education than among those with 6 years or more of education (OR 14.274, 95% CI 5.927 to 34.375). Those with less than 1 year of education had the lowest literacy (OR 31.148, 95% CI 11.661 to 83.204). The level of diabetes health literacy among elderly individuals with prediabetes but no history of hyperglycaemia was lower than among those with a history of hyperglycaemia (OR 2.676, 95% CI 1.101 to 6.504). Conclusions Health literacy concerning diabetes prevention and control among elderly individuals with prediabetes was very low in rural China. Appropriate health education for elderly individuals with low educational levels should be incorporated into diabetes prevention efforts. Trial registration number ChiCTR-IOR-15007033; Results. PMID:27235299

  11. Higher order representation of the beam cross section deformation in large displacement finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengfei; Gantoi, Florentina M.; Shabana, Ahmed A.

    2011-12-01

    Most existing beam formulations assume that the cross section of the beam remains rigid regardless of the amplitude of the displacement. The absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF); however, allows for the deformation of the cross section and leads to a more general beam models that capture the coupling between different modes of displacement. This paper examines the effect of the order of interpolation on the modes of deformation of the beam cross section using ANCF finite elements. To this end, a new two-dimensional shear deformable ANCF beam element is developed. The new finite element employs a higher order of interpolation, and allows for new cross section deformation modes that cannot be captured using previously developed shear deformable ANCF beam elements. The element developed in this study relaxes the assumption of planar cross section; thereby allowing for including the effect of warping as well as for different stretch values at different points on the element cross section. The displacement field of the new element is assumed to be cubic in the axial direction and quadratic in the transverse direction. Using this displacement field, more expressions for the element extension, shear and the cross section stretch can be systematically defined. The change in the cross section area is measured using Nanson's formula. Measures of the shear angle, extension, and cross section stretch can also be systematically defined using coordinate systems defined at the element material points. Using these local coordinate systems, expressions for a nominal shear angle are obtained. The differences between the cross section deformation modes obtained using the new higher order element and those obtained using the previously developed lower order elements are highlighted. Numerical examples are presented in order to compare the results obtained using the new finite element and the results obtained using previously developed ANCF finite elements.

  12. Inclusive jet cross sections and jet shapes at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Wainer, N.

    1991-09-01

    The inclusive jet cross section and jet shapes at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV have been measured by CDF at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. results are compared to recent next-to-leading order QCD calculations, which predict variation of the cross section with cone size, as well as variation of the jet shape with energy. A lower limit on the parameter {Lambda}{sub c}, which characterize a contact interaction associated with quark sub-structure is determined to be 1400 GeV at the 95% confidence level. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Neutron capture cross section standards for BNL 325, Fourth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    This report evaluates the experimental data and recommends values for the thermal neutron cross sections and resonance integrals for the neutron capture reactions: /sup 55/Mn(n,..gamma..), /sup 59/Co(n,..gamma..) and /sup 197/Au(n,..gamma..). The failure of lithium and boron as standards due to the natural variation of the absorption cross sections of these elements is discussed. The Westcott convention, which describes the neutron spectrum as a thermal Maxwellian distribution with an epithermal component, is also discussed.

  14. Light ray tracing through a leaf cross section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, R.; Silva, L. F.

    1973-01-01

    A light ray, incident at about 5 deg to the normal, is geometrically plotted through the drawing of the cross section of a soybean leaf using Fresnel's equations and Snell's law. The optical mediums of the leaf considered for ray tracing are: air, cell sap, chloroplast, and cell wall. The ray is also drawn through the same leaf cross section with cell wall and air as the only optical mediums. The values of the reflection and transmission found from the ray tracing tests agree closely with the experimental results obtained using a Beckman Dk-2A Spectroreflector.

  15. Light ray tracing through a leaf cross section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, R.; Silva, L.

    1973-01-01

    A light ray, incident at about 5 deg to the normal, is geometrically plotted through the drawing of the cross section of a soybean leaf using Fresnel's equations and Snell's law. The optical mediums of the leaf considered for ray tracing are air, cell sap, chloroplast, and cell wall. The above ray is also drawn through the same leaf cross section considering cell wall and air as the only optical mediums. The values of the reflection and transmission found from ray tracing agree closely with the experimental results obtained using a Beckman DK-2A spectroreflectometer.

  16. Uncertainty Quantification in Fission Cross Section Measurements at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, F.

    2015-01-15

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections have been measured for several isotopes of uranium and plutonium at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) over a wide range of incident neutron energies. The total uncertainties in these measurements are in the range 3–5% above 100 keV of incident neutron energy, which results from uncertainties in the target, neutron source, and detector system. The individual sources of uncertainties are assumed to be uncorrelated, however correlation in the cross section across neutron energy bins are considered. The quantification of the uncertainty contributions will be described here.

  17. Inclusive jet cross section measurement at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Voutilainen, M.; /Nebraska U. /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.

    2006-09-01

    We present a new preliminary measurement of the inclusive jet cross section in p{bar p} collisions based on a integrated luminosity of about 0.8 fb{sup -1}. The data were acquired using the D0 detector between 2002 and 2005. Jets are reconstructed using an iterative cone algorithm with radius R{sub cone} = 0.7. The inclusive jet cross section is presented as a function of transverse jet momentum and rapidity. Predictions from perturbative QCD in next-to-leading order, plus threshold corrections in 2-loop accuracy describe the shape in the transverse jet momentum.

  18. Uncertainty quantification in fission cross section measurements at LANSCE

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tovesson, F.

    2015-01-09

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections have been measured for several isotopes of uranium and plutonium at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) over a wide range of incident neutron energies. The total uncertainties in these measurements are in the range 3–5% above 100 keV of incident neutron energy, which results from uncertainties in the target, neutron source, and detector system. The individual sources of uncertainties are assumed to be uncorrelated, however correlation in the cross section across neutron energy bins are considered. The quantification of the uncertainty contributions will be described here.

  19. Measurement of a metastability-exchange cross section in krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Brechignac, C.; Vetter, R.

    1980-08-01

    The metastability-exchange cross section between (/sup 3/P/sub 2/)Kr atoms and (/sup 1/S/sub 0/)Kr atoms is measured by means of a two-laser saturated-absorption experiment performed on the lambda=557-nm transition. A study of velocity changes occurring in pure /sup 86/Kr and in (/sup 86/Kr--/sup 78/Kr) discharges leads to a value for the cross section Q75=(plus-or-minus10) A/sup 2/.

  20. Inelastic cross sections from gamma-ray measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Ronald Owen

    2010-12-06

    Measurements of gamma rays following neutron induced reactions have been studied with the Germanium Array for Neutron-induced Excitations (GEANIE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) for many years. Gamma-ray excitation functions and coincidence studies provide insight into nuclear reaction mechanisms as well as expanding our knowledge of energy levels and gamma-rays. Samples studied with Ge detectors at LANSCE range from Be to Pu. Fe, Cr and Ti have been considered for use as reference cross sections. An overview of the measurements and efforts to create a reliable neutron-induced gamma-ray reference cross section will be presented.

  1. Total cross section of electron scattering by fluorocarbon molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.; Ushiroda, S.; Kondo, Y.

    2008-12-01

    A compact linear electron transmission apparatus was used for the measurement of the total electron scattering cross section at 4-500 eV. Total cross sections of chlorofluorocarbon (CCl2F2), hydrochlorofluorocarbon (CHClF2), perfluoropropane (C3F8), perfluoro-n-pentane (C5F12), perfluoro-n-hexane (C6F14) and perfluoro-n-octane (C8F18) were obtained experimentally and compared with the values obtained from a theoretical calculation and semi-empirical model calculation.

  2. Evaluation of the /sup 238/U neutron total cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.; Poenitz, W.P.; Howerton, R.J.

    1982-12-01

    Experimental energy-averaged neutron total cross sections of /sup 238/U were evaluated from 0.044 to 20.0 MeV using regorous numerical methods. The evaluated results are presented together with the associated uncertainties and correlation matrix. They indicate that this energy-averaged neutron total cross section is known to better than 1% over wide energy regions. There are somwewhat larger uncertainties at low energies (e.g., less than or equal to 0.2 MeV), near 8 MeV and above 15 MeV. The present evaluation is compard with values given in ENDF/B-V.

  3. Fast-neutron scattering cross sections of elemental zirconium

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.

    1982-12-01

    Differential neturon-elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental zirconium are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 200 keV. Inelastic-neutron-scattering cross sections corresponding to the excitation of levels at observed energies of: 914 +- 25, 1476 +- 37, 1787 +- 23, 2101 +- 26, 2221 +- 17, 2363 +- 14, 2791 +- 15 and 3101 +- 25 keV are determined. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of the optical-statistical model and are compared with corresponding quantities given in ENDF/B-V.

  4. Hadronic absorption cross sections of B{sub c}

    SciTech Connect

    Lodhi, M. A. K.; Akram, Faisal; Irfan, Shaheen

    2011-09-15

    The cross sections of B{sub c} absorption by {pi} mesons are calculated using a hadronic Lagrangian based on the SU(5) flavor symmetry. Calculated cross sections are found to be in the ranges 2-7 mb and 0.2-2 mb for the processes B{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{yields}DB and B{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{yields}D*B*, respectively, when the monopole form factor is included. These results could be useful in calculating the production rate of B{sub c} mesons in relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  5. Differential Cross Sections for Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Dick, Frank; Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2009-01-01

    Proton-proton elastic scattering is investigated within the framework of the one pion exchange model in an attempt to model nucleon-nucleon interactions spanning the large range of energies important to cosmic ray shielding. A quantum field theoretic calculation is used to compute both differential and total cross sections. A scalar theory is then presented and compared to the one pion exchange model. The theoretical cross sections are compared to proton-proton scattering data to determine the validity of the models.

  6. Propagation of sound waves in tubes of noncircular cross section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    Plane-acoustic-wave propagation in small tubes with a cross section in the shape of a flattened oval is described. Theoretical descriptions of a plane wave propagating in a tube with circular cross section and between a pair of infinite parallel plates, including viscous and thermal damping, are expressed in similar form. For a wide range of useful duct sizes, the propagation constant (whose real and imaginary parts are the amplitude attenuation rate and the wave number, respectively) is very nearly the same function of frequency for both cases if the radius of the circular tube is the same as the distance between the parallel plates. This suggests that either a circular-cross-section model or a flat-plate model can be used to calculate wave propagation in flat-oval tubing, or any other shape tubing, if its size is expressed in terms of an equivalent radius, given by g = 2 x (cross-sectional area)/(length of perimeter). Measurements of the frequency response of two sections of flat-oval tubing agree with calculations based on this idea. Flat-plate formulas are derived, the use of transmission-line matrices for calculations of plane waves in compound systems of ducts is described, and examples of computer programs written to carry out the calculations are shown.

  7. Froissart bound on inelastic cross section without unknown constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, André; Roy, S. M.

    2015-04-01

    Assuming that axiomatic local field theory results hold for hadron scattering, André Martin and S. M. Roy recently obtained absolute bounds on the D wave below threshold for pion-pion scattering and thereby determined the scale of the logarithm in the Froissart bound on total cross sections in terms of pion mass only. Previously, Martin proved a rigorous upper bound on the inelastic cross-section σinel which is one-fourth of the corresponding upper bound on σtot, and Wu, Martin, Roy and Singh improved the bound by adding the constraint of a given σtot. Here we use unitarity and analyticity to determine, without any high-energy approximation, upper bounds on energy-averaged inelastic cross sections in terms of low-energy data in the crossed channel. These are Froissart-type bounds without any unknown coefficient or unknown scale factors and can be tested experimentally. Alternatively, their asymptotic forms, together with the Martin-Roy absolute bounds on pion-pion D waves below threshold, yield absolute bounds on energy-averaged inelastic cross sections. For example, for π0π0 scattering, defining σinel=σtot-(σπ0π0→π0π0+σπ0π0→π+π-) , we show that for c.m. energy √{s }→∞, σ¯ inel(s ,∞)≡s ∫s∞d s'σinel(s')/s'2≤(π /4 )(mπ)-2[ln (s /s1)+(1 /2 )ln ln (s /s1)+1 ]2 where 1 /s1=34 π √{2 π }mπ-2 . This bound is asymptotically one-fourth of the corresponding Martin-Roy bound on the total cross section, and the scale factor s1 is one-fourth of the scale factor in the total cross section bound. The average over the interval (s,2s) of the inelastic π0π0 cross section has a bound of the same form with 1 /s1 replaced by 1 /s2=2 /s1.

  8. Single- and two-centre effects in fully differential cross sections for single ionization of H2 molecules by 75 keV protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciappina, M. F.; Tachino, C. A.; Rivarola, R. D.; Sharma, S.; Schulz, M.

    2015-06-01

    We present theoretical calculations of single ionization of H2 molecules by 75 keV proton impact. The computed fully differential cross sections for different electron ejection geometries and projectile kinematical conditions are compared with recent measurements made by Hasan et al (2014 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47 215201). We employ a molecular version of the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state model, where all the interactions present in the exit channel are considered on an equal footing. In addition, our approach allows us to incorporate different interference terms and to assess their influence. Overall, the agreement between experiment and theory is better than for the case of more sophisticated schemes for coplanar geometries.

  9. Calculation of pre-equilibrium effects in neutron-induced cross section on 32,34S isotopes using the EMPIRE 3.2 code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yettou, Leila; Belgaid, Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a new version EMPIRE 3.2 code was used in the cross section calculations of (n,p) reactions and in the calculation of proton emission spectra produced by (n,xp) reactions. Exciton model predictions combined with the Kalbach angular distribution systematics were used and some parameters such as those of mean free path, cluster emission in terms of Iwamoto-Harada model, optical model potentials of Morillon for neutrons and protons in the energy range up to 20 MeV, level density for spherical nuclei of Gilbert-Cameron model and width fluctuation correction in terms of compound nucleus have been investigated our calculations. The excitation functions and the proton emission spectra for 32,34S nuclei were calculated, discussed and found in good agreement with available experimental data.

  10. 35. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF PART III, SECTION 1, EQUIPMENT LAYOUT, BUILDINGS E-1 TO E-10 INCL., WASHING, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT 'B'.' From the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  11. 42. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION AND PLAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION AND PLAN LAYOUT OF PART I, SECTION 8, BUILDINGS NO. H-1 TO H-10 INCL., GRINDING, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT B AS OF 4-24-44.' From the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (NashVille, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  12. 34. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION AND PLAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION AND PLAN LAYOUT OF PART I, SECTION B, BUILDINGS NO. E-1 TO E-10 INCL., WASHING, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT B AS OF 4-24-44.' From the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  13. Radial Eigenmodes for a Toroidal Waveguide with Rectangular Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Rui Li

    2012-07-01

    In applying mode expansion to solve the CSR impedance for a section of toroidal vacuum chamber with rectangular cross section, we identify the eigenvalue problem for the radial eigenmodes which is different from that for cylindrical structures. In this paper, we present the general expressions of the radial eigenmodes, and discuss the properties of the eigenvalues on the basis of the Sturm-Liouville theory.

  14. 30. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF PART III, SECTION 1, EQUIPMENT LAYOUT, BUILDINGS D-1 TO D-10 INCL., NITRATION, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT 'B'.' From U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  15. 29. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION AND PLAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION AND PLAN LAYOUT OF PART I, SECTION 8, BUILDINGS NO. D-1 TO D-10 INCL., NITRATION, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT B AS OF 4-24-44.' From the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  16. SCWR Once-Through Calculations for Transmutation and Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    ganda, francesco

    2012-07-01

    It is the purpose of this report to document the calculation of (1) the isotopic evolution and of (2) the 1-group cross sections as a function of burnup of the reference Super Critical Water Reactor (SCWR), in a format suitable for the Fuel Cycle Option Campaign Transmutation Data Library. The reference SCWR design was chosen to be that described in [McDonald, 2005]. Super Critical Water Reactors (SCWR) are intended to operate with super-critical water (i.e. H2O at a pressure above 22 MPa and a temperature above 373oC) as a cooling – and possibly also moderating – fluid. The main mission of the SCWR is to generate lower cost electricity, as compared to current standard Light Water Reactors (LWR). Because of the high operating pressure and temperature, SCWR feature a substantially higher thermal conversion efficiency than standard LWR – i.e. about 45% versus 33%, mostly due to an increase in the exit water temperature from ~300oC to ~500oC – potentially resulting in a lower cost of generated electricity. The coolant remains single phase throughout the reactor and the energy conversion system, thus eliminating the need for pressurizers, steam generators, steam separators and dryers, further potentially reducing the reactor construction capital cost. The SCWR concept presented here is based on existing LWR technology and on a large number of existing fossil-fired supercritical boilers. However, it was concluded in [McDonald, 2005], that: “Based on the results of this study, it appears that the reference SCWR design is not feasible.” This conclusion appears based on the strong sensitivity of the design to small deviations in nominal conditions leading to small effects having a potentially large impact on the peak cladding temperature of some fuel rods. “This was considered a major feasibility issue for the SCWR” [McDonald, 2005]. After a description of the reference SCWR design, the Keno V 3-D single assembly model used for this analysis, as well as the

  17. Complex angular momentum theory of state-to-state integral cross sections: resonance effects in the F + HD → HF(v' = 3) + D reaction.

    PubMed

    Sokolovski, D; Akhmatskaya, E; Echeverría-Arrondo, C; De Fazio, D

    2015-07-28

    State-to-state reactive integral cross sections (ICSs) are often affected by quantum mechanical resonances, especially near a reactive threshold. An ICS is usually obtained by summing partial waves at a given value of energy. For this reason, the knowledge of pole positions and residues in the complex energy plane is not sufficient for a quantitative description of the patterns produced by resonance. Such description is available in terms of the poles of an S-matrix element in the complex plane of the total angular momentum. The approach was recently implemented in a computer code ICS_Regge, available in the public domain [Comput. Phys. Commun., 2014, 185, 2127]. In this paper, we employ the ICS_Regge package to analyse in detail, for the first time, the resonance patterns predicted for integral cross sections (ICSs) of the benchmark F + HD → HF(v' = 3) + D reaction. The v = 0, j = 0, Ω = 0 → v' = 3, j' = 0, 1, 2, and Ω' = 0, 1, 2 transitions are studied for collision energies from 58.54 to 197.54 meV. For these energies, we find several resonances, whose contributions to the ICS vary from symmetric and asymmetric Fano shapes to smooth sinusoidal Regge oscillations. Complex energies of metastable states and Regge pole positions and residues are found by Padé reconstruction of the scattering matrix elements. The accuracy of the ICS_Regge code, relation between complex energies and Regge poles, various types of Regge trajectories, and the origin of the J-shifting approximation are also discussed.

  18. Black carbon over Mexico: The effect of atmospheric transport on mixing state, mass absorption cross-section, and BC/CO ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, R.; Kok, G. L.; Baumgardner, Darrel; Clarke, A. D.; Shinozuka, Y.; Campos, Teresa; Heizer, CG; Stephens, Britton; de Foy, B.; Voss, Paul B.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2010-01-13

    A single particle soot photometer (SP2) was operated on the NCAR C-130 during the MIRAGE campaign (part of MILAGRO), sampling black carbon (BC) over Mexico. The highest BC concentrations were measured over Mexico City (sometimes as much as 2 Fg/m34 ) and over hill fires to the south of the city. The age of plumes outside of Mexico City was determined using a combination of HYSPLIT trajectories, WRF-FLEXPART modeling and CMET balloon tracks. As expected, older, diluted air masses had lower BC concentrations. A comparison of carbon monoxide (CO) and BC suggests a CO background of around 65 ppbv, and a backgroundcorrected BC/COnet ratio of 2.89±0.89 (ng/m39 -STP)/ppbv (average ± standard deviation). This ratio is similar for fresh emissions over Mexico City, as well as for aged airmasses. Comparison of light absorption measured with a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) and the SP2 BC suggests a BC mass-normalized absorption cross-section (MAC) of 10.9±2.1 m212 /g at 660 nm (or 13.1 m213 /g @ 550 nm, assuming MAC is inversely dependent on wavelength). This appears independent of aging and similar to the expected absorption cross-section for aged BC, but values, particularly in fresh emissions, could be biased high due to instrument artifacts. SP2-derived BC coating indicators show a prominent thinly-coated BC mode over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), while older air masses show both thinly-coated and thickly-coated BC. Some 2-day-old plumes do not show a prominent thickly-coated BC mode, possibly due to preferential wet scavenging of the likely-hydrophilic thickly-coated BC.

  19. A Cross-Sectional Study of Cognitive Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grippin, Pauline; And Others

    Students in grades K, 1, 3, and 5 were administered the Rod and Frame Test (RFT), the Matching Familiar Figures (MFF) Test, and the Piagetian tasks of Discontinuous Quantity, Class Inclusion, Multiplication of Classes, and Multiplication of Relations. Cross-sectional trends were found in all tasks with older children being less impulsive, more…

  20. Measurement campaign for astrophysically relevant 36Cl production cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Tyler; Skulski, Michael; Ostdiek, Karen; Lu, Wenting; Beard, Mary; Collon, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    The short-lived radionuclide 36Cl (t1/2 = 0.301 Ma) is known to have existed in the Early Solar System (ESS), and evaluating its production sources can lead to better understanding of the processes taking place in ESS formation and their timescales. The x-wind production model is used to explain 36Cl production via solar energetic particles from the young Sun, but is lacking empirical data for many relevant reactions. Bowers et al. (2013) measured the cross section of 33S(α,p)36Cl at various energies in the range of 0.70-2.42 MeV/A, and found them to be systematically under predicted by statistical Hauser-Feshbach model codes TALYS and NON-SMOKER, highlighting the need for more empirical data for these cross sections. A recent paper by Mohr (2013) called these results in to question, prompting the re-measurement of the cross section for 33S(α,p)36Cl at new energies in the same energy range as Bowers et al. This talk will also discuss two further planned measurements of cross sections suggested by Bowers et al. to be the next most significant in 36Cl production.

  1. RZ calculations for self shielded multigroup cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Sanchez, R.; Zmijarevic, I.; Stankovski, Z.

    2006-07-01

    A collision probability method has been implemented for RZ geometries. The method accounts for white albedo, specular and translation boundary condition on the top and bottom surfaces of the geometry and for a white albedo condition on the outer radial surface. We have applied the RZ CP method to the calculation of multigroup self shielded cross sections for Gadolinia absorbers in BWRs. (authors)

  2. 10. Photograph of a line drawing. SHEET 10, CROSS SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a line drawing. SHEET 10, CROSS SECTION BB; 9-16-1940. Assembly Building for Tank Plant for the Chrysler Corporation, Macomb County, Michigan. Delineator: S.B. - Detroit Arsenal, 6501 East Eleven Mile Road, Warren, Macomb County, MI

  3. 8. Photograph of a line drawing. SHEET 8, CROSS SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photograph of a line drawing. SHEET 8, CROSS SECTION ON LINE EE; 9-16-1940. Assembly Building for Tank Plant for the Chrysler Corporation, Macomb County, Michigan. Delineator: E.B. - Detroit Arsenal, 6501 East Eleven Mile Road, Warren, Macomb County, MI

  4. 7. Photograph of a line drawing. SHEET 7, CROSS SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photograph of a line drawing. SHEET 7, CROSS SECTION ON LINE CC AND DD; 9-16-1940. Assembly Building for Tank Plant for the Chrysler Corporation, Macomb County, Michigan. Delineator: E.B. - Detroit Arsenal, 6501 East Eleven Mile Road, Warren, Macomb County, MI

  5. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Paul, M.; Ugalde, C.; Giardina, G.; Eidelman, S.; Venanzoni, G.; Battaglieri, M.; Mandaglio, G.

    2015-06-02

    Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  6. 44. CROSS SECTION OF GRAND CANAL (not to scale, but ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. CROSS SECTION OF GRAND CANAL (not to scale, but representative of all six canals) Plan Sheet D-29976, Venice Canals Rehabilitation, Sheet No. 7 of 26 (delineated by T. Wu and E. Lee, March 1991) - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 35. 'Firing Pier, Cross Sections, Looking South,' submitted 29 December ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. 'Firing Pier, Cross Sections, Looking South,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3874-46, Y&D Drawing 190848. Scale 1/8' = 1'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  8. 11. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF GAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF GAS PRODUCER.' From George R. Cooper (Wilputte Corporation). 'Operating Overview of a Producer Gas Plant (12 Machines) at Kingsport, Tennessee.' Presented at the Fifth Annual International Conference on Coal Gasification, Liquefaction and Conversion to Electricity. University of Pittsburgh, August 2, 1978. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Producer Gas Plant, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  9. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  10. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the propargyl radical

    SciTech Connect

    Savee, John D.; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Soorkia, Satchin; Selby, Talitha M.

    2012-04-07

    Using synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet radiation and multiplexed time-resolved photoionization mass spectrometry we have measured the absolute photoionization cross-section for the propargyl (C{sub 3}H{sub 3}) radical, {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(E), relative to the known absolute cross-section of the methyl (CH{sub 3}) radical. We generated a stoichiometric 1:1 ratio of C{sub 3}H{sub 3} : CH{sub 3} from 193 nm photolysis of two different C{sub 4}H{sub 6} isomers (1-butyne and 1,3-butadiene). Photolysis of 1-butyne yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(26.1{+-}4.2) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(23.4{+-}3.2) Mb, whereas photolysis of 1,3-butadiene yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(23.6{+-}3.6) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(25.1{+-}3.5) Mb. These measurements place our relative photoionization cross-section spectrum for propargyl on an absolute scale between 8.6 and 10.5 eV. The cross-section derived from our results is approximately a factor of three larger than previous determinations.

  11. Predictions of diffractive cross sections in proton-proton collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, Konstantin

    2013-04-15

    We review our pre-LHC predictions of the total, elastic, total-inelastic, and diffractive components of proton-proton cross sections at high energies, expressed in the form of unitarized expressions based on a special parton-model approach to diffraction employing inclusive proton parton distribution functions and QCD color factors and compare with recent LHC results.

  12. Service building. Cross section thru dry dock nos. 4 & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Service building. Cross section thru dry dock nos. 4 & 5 showing service bldg & 20-75-150 ton cranes (dry dock associates, May 23, 1941). In files of Cushman & Wakefield, building no. 501, Philadelphia Naval Business Center. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Service Building, Dry Docks No. 4 & 5, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. Measurement of proton inelastic scattering cross sections on fluorine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, M.; Caciolli, A.; Calzolai, G.; Climent-Font, A.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.

    2016-10-01

    Differential cross-sections for proton inelastic scattering on fluorine, 19F(p,p')19F, from the first five excited levels of 19F at 110, 197, 1346, 1459 and 1554 keV were measured for beam energies from 3 to 7 MeV at a scattering angle of 150° using a LiF thin target (50 μg/cm2) evaporated on a self-supporting C thin film (30 μg/cm2). Absolute differential cross-sections were calculated with a method not dependent on the absolute values of collected beam charge and detector solid angle. The validity of the measured inelastic scattering cross sections was then tested by successfully reproducing EBS spectra collected from a thick Teflon (CF2) target. As a practical application of these measured inelastic scattering cross sections in elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS), the feasibility of quantitative light element (C, N and O) analysis in aerosol particulate matter samples collected on Teflon by EBS measurements and spectra simulation is demonstrated.

  14. Electron-Impact Total Ionization Cross Section of Rb.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.-K.; Migdalek, J.; Siegel, W.; Bieroń, J.

    1997-04-01

    The Binary-Encounter-Dipole (BED) model(Y.-K. Kim and M.E. Rudd, Phys. Rev. A 50), 3954 (1994). has been applied to electron-impact ionization of Rb. The BED cross section is in good agreement with a recent experimental data.(R.S. Schappe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76), 4328 (1996). The BED theory combines a modified Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Born cross section. The required continuum f-values were calculated from Dirac-Fock continuum wave functions with a core polarization potential.(J. Migdalek and W.E. Baylis, J. Phys. B 11), L497 (1978). The cut-off radius of the matching dipole transition operator was adjusted to reproduce the position of the known minimum in the photoionization cross section.(H. Suemitsu and J.A.R. Samson, Phys. Rev. 28), 2752 (1983). The contributions of the 4p arrow 4d, 5s, and 5p autoionizing excitations were included using the plane-wave Born approximation. We also present f-values for the 5s arrow np_1/2, np_3/2 transitions for high n near the ionization threshold.

  15. Neutron capture cross section of {sup 241}Am

    SciTech Connect

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2008-09-15

    The neutron capture cross section of {sup 241}Am for incident neutrons from 0.02 eV to 320 keV has been measured with the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be 665{+-}33 b. Our result is in good agreement with other recent measurements. Resonance parameters for E{sub n}<12 eV were obtained using an R-matrix fit to the measured cross section. The results are compared with values from the ENDF/B-VII.0, Mughabghab, JENDL-3.3, and JEFF-3.1 evaluations. {gamma}{sub n} neutron widths for the first three resonances are systematically larger by 5-15% than the ENDF/B-VII.0 values. The resonance integral above 0.5 eV was determined to be 1553{+-}7 b. Cross sections in the resolved and unresolved energy regions above 12 eV were calculated using the Hauser-Feshbach theory incorporating the width-fluctuation correction of Moldauer. The calculated results agree well with the measured data, and the extracted averaged resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those for the resolved resonances.

  16. Accurate momentum transfer cross section for the attractive Yukawa potential

    SciTech Connect

    Khrapak, S. A.

    2014-04-15

    Accurate expression for the momentum transfer cross section for the attractive Yukawa potential is proposed. This simple analytic expression agrees with the numerical results better than to within ±2% in the regime relevant for ion-particle collisions in complex (dusty) plasmas.

  17. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Paul, M.; Ugalde, C.

    2015-06-01

    Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  18. Commentary: Mediation Analysis, Causal Process, and Cross-Sectional Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrout, Patrick E.

    2011-01-01

    Maxwell, Cole, and Mitchell (2011) extended the work of Maxwell and Cole (2007), which raised important questions about whether mediation analyses based on cross-sectional data can shed light on longitudinal mediation process. The latest article considers longitudinal processes that can only be partially explained by an intervening variable, and…

  19. On total cross sections and slopes at superhigh energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeremian, S. S.; Zhamkochian, V. M.

    1985-01-01

    Hadron-hadron and hadron-nucleus interactions are investigated in the framework of the Reggeon field theory with critical and supercritical pomerons and multiple scattering theory. A good agreement is obtained with experimental data on cross sections of proton-proton and proton-nucleus interactions at high energies.

  20. Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the Lu isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Kaeppeler, F.; Kazakov, L.

    2006-01-15

    The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 175}Lu and {sup 176}Lu have been measured in the energy range 3-225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam, and capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4{pi} barium fluoride detector. The cross sections were determined relative to the gold standard using isotopically enriched as well as natural lutetium oxide samples. Overall uncertainties of {approx}1% could be achieved in the final cross section ratios to the gold standard, about a factor of 5 smaller than in previous works. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT = 8 and 100 keV. These values are systematically larger by {approx}7% than those reported in recent evaluations. These results are of crucial importance for the assessment of the s-process branchings at A 175/176.

  1. Neutrino Cross-Section Measurements at the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Stancu, Ion

    2008-02-21

    In this paper we discuss the proposal to build a neutrino facility at the recently-completed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This facility can host an extensive, long-term program to study neutrino-nucleus cross-sections in the range of interest for nuclear astrophysics and nuclear theory.

  2. Photoionization cross sections and oscillator strengths of neutral cesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, S. U.; Nadeem, Ali; Nawaz, M.

    2012-11-01

    The absolute photoionization cross sections from the 6p 2P1/2 excited state of cesium at threshold and above the threshold region have been measured using the saturation absorption technique. The photoionization cross section at the ionization threshold is determined as 22.6±3.6 Mb, whereas in the region above threshold its value ranges from 22 to 20 Mb for photoelectron energies up to 0.1 eV. A comparison of the photoionization cross sections with earlier reported theoretical and experimental data have been presented and are in good agreement within the uncertainty. In addition, the oscillator strengths of the 6p 2P1/2→n d 2D3/2 (21≤n≤60) Rydberg transitions of cesium have been calibrated using the threshold value of the photoionization cross section. A complete picture of the oscillator strengths from the present work and previously reported data from n=5-60 is presented.

  3. Average Neutron Total Cross Sections in the Unresolved Energy Range From ORELA High Resolutio Transmission Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Derrien, H

    2004-05-27

    Average values of the neutron total cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu have been obtained in the unresolved resonance energy range from high-resolution transmission measurements performed at ORELA in the past two decades. The cross sections were generated by correcting the effective total cross sections for the self-shielding effects due to the resonance structure of the data. The self-shielding factors were found by calculating the effective and true cross sections with the computer code SAMMY for the same Doppler and resolution conditions as for the transmission measurements, using an appropriate set of resonance parameters. Our results are compared to results of previous measurements and to the current ENDF/B-VI data.

  4. Thermal neutron capture cross sections of the potassium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, R. B.; Krtička, M.; Révay, Zs.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Belgya, T.

    2013-02-01

    Precise thermal neutron capture γ-ray cross sections σγ for 39,40,41K were measured on a natural potassium target with the guided neutron beam at the Budapest Reactor. The cross sections were internally standardized using a stoichiometric KCl target with well-known 35Cl(n,γ) γ-ray cross sections [Révay and Molnár, Radiochimica ActaRAACAP0033-823010.1524/ract.91.6.361.20027 91, 361 (2003); Molnár, Révay, and Belgya, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. BNIMBEU0168-583X10.1016/S0168-583X(03)01529-5 213, 32 (2004)]. These data were combined with γ-ray intensities from von Egidy [von Egidy, Daniel, Hungerford, Schmidt, Lieb, Krusche, Kerr, Barreau, Borner, Brissot , J. Phys. G. Nucl. Phys.JPHGBM0305-461610.1088/0305-4616/10/2/013 10, 221 (1984)] and Krusche [Krusche, Lieb, Ziegler, Daniel, von Egidy, Rascher, Barreau, Borner, and Warner, Nucl. Phys. ANUPABL0375-947410.1016/0375-9474(84)90506-2 417, 231 (1984); Krusche, Winter, Lieb, Hungerford, Schmidt, von Egidy, Scheerer, Kerr, and Borner, Nucl. Phys. ANUPABL0375-947410.1016/0375-9474(85)90429-4 439, 219 (1985)] to generate nearly complete capture γ-ray level schemes. Total radiative neutron cross sections were deduced from the total γ-ray cross section feeding the ground state, σ0=Σσγ(GS) after correction for unobserved statistical γ-ray feeding from levels near the neutron capture energy. The corrections were performed with Monte Carlo simulations of the potassium thermal neutron capture decay schemes using the computer code dicebox where the simulated populations of low-lying levels are normalized to the measured cross section depopulating those levels. Comparisons of the simulated and experimental level feeding intensities have led to proposed new spins and parities for selected levels in the potassium isotopes where direct reactions are not a significant contribution. We determined the total radiative neutron cross sections σ0(39K)=2.28±0.04 b, σ0(40K)=90±7 b, and σ0(41K)=1.62±0.03 b from the

  5. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, C. A.; Osborn, D. L.; Selby, T.; Meloni, G.; Fan, H.; Pratt, S. T.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; SNL

    2008-01-01

    The absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical has been measured using two completely independent methods. The CH{sub 3} photoionization cross-section was determined relative to that of acetone and methyl vinyl ketone at photon energies of 10.2 and 11.0 eV by using a pulsed laser-photolysis/time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry method. The time-resolved depletion of the acetone or methyl vinyl ketone precursor and the production of methyl radicals following 193 nm photolysis are monitored simultaneously by using time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Comparison of the initial methyl signal with the decrease in precursor signal, in combination with previously measured absolute photoionization cross-sections of the precursors, yields the absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical; {sigma}{sub CH}(10.2 eV) = (5.7 {+-} 0.9) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} and {sigma}{sub CH{sub 3}}(11.0 eV) = (6.0 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}. The photoionization cross-section for vinyl radical determined by photolysis of methyl vinyl ketone is in good agreement with previous measurements. The methyl radical photoionization cross-section was also independently measured relative to that of the iodine atom by comparison of ionization signals from CH{sub 3} and I fragments following 266 nm photolysis of methyl iodide in a molecular-beam ion-imaging apparatus. These measurements gave a cross-section of (5.4 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.460 eV, (5.5 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.466 eV, and (4.9 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.471 eV. The measurements allow relative photoionization efficiency spectra of methyl radical to be placed on an absolute scale and will facilitate quantitative measurements of methyl concentrations by photoionization mass spectrometry.

  6. Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the Nd isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Kaeppeler, F.; Kazakov, L.; Reffo, G.

    1998-01-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 142}Nd, {sup 143}Nd, {sup 144}Nd, {sup 145}Nd, {sup 146}Nd, and {sup 148}Nd have been measured in the energy range from 3 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4{pi} Barium Fluoride Detector. The cross sections were determined relative to the gold standard. The experiment was difficult due to the small cross sections of the even isotopes at or near the magic neutron number N=82, and also since the isotopic enrichment of some samples was comparably low. The necessary corrections for capture of scattered neutrons and for isotopic impurities could be determined reliably thanks to the high efficiency and the spectroscopic quality of the BaF{sub 2} detector, resulting in a consistent set of (n,{gamma}) cross sections for the six stable neodymium isotopes involved in the s process with typical uncertainties of 1.5{endash}2{percent}. From these data, Maxwellian averaged cross sections were calculated between kT=10 and 100 keV. The astrophysical implications of these results were investigated in an s-process analysis, which deals with the role of the s-only isotope {sup 142}Nd for the N{sub s}{l_angle}{sigma}{r_angle} systematics near the magic neutron number N=82, the decomposition of the Nd abundances into the respective r-, s-, and p-process components, and the interpretation of isotopic anomalies in meteoritic material. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Absolute doubly differential bremsstrahlung cross sections from rare gas atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portillo, Salvador

    The absolute doubly differential bremsstrahlung cross section has been measured for 28 and 50 keV electrons incident on the rare gases Xe, Kr, Ar and Ne. The cross sections are differential with respect to energy and photon emission. A SiLi solid state detector measured data at 90° with respect to the beam line. A thorough analysis of the experimental systematic error yielded a high degree of confidence in the experimental data. The absolute bremsstrahlung doubly differential cross sections provided for a rigorous test of the normal bremsstrahlung theory, tabulated by Kissel, Quarles and Pratt1 (KQP) and of the SA theory2 that includes the contribution from polarization bremsstrahlung. To test the theories a comparison of the overall magnitude of the cross section as well as comparison of the photon energy dependence was carried out. The KQP theoretical values underestimated the magnitude of the cross section for all targets and for both energies. The SA values were in excellent agreement with the 28 keV data. For the 50keV data the fit was also very good. However, there were energy regions where there was a small discrepancy between the theory and the data. This suggests that the Polarization Bremsstrahlung (PB) mechanism does contribute to the overall spectrum and is detectable in this parameter space. 1Kissel, L., Quarles, C. A., Pratt, R. H., Atom. Data Nucl. Data Tables 28, 381 (1983). 2Avdonina N. B., Pratt, R. H., J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32 4261 (1999).

  8. Profile variation impact on FIB cross-section metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, Aaron; Bunday, Benjamin; Nadeau, Jim

    2012-03-01

    The focused ion beam (FIB) milling tool is an important component of reference metrology and process characterization, both as a supporting instrument for bulk sample preparation before forwarding to the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and other instruments and as an in situ measurement instrument using angled scanning electron microscopy. As features grow denser, deeper and more demanding, full-profile reference metrology is needed, and this methodology will only grow in importance. Thus, the ability to extract accurate dimensional and profile information out of the crosssectional faces produced by FIB milling is critical. For features that demonstrate perfect symmetry in the plane of the cross section, analyzing images and extracting metrology data are straightforward. However, for industrial materials, symmetry is not a safe assumption: as features shrink, the line edge and sidewall roughness increases as a percentage of the overall feature dimension. Furthermore, with the introduction of more complex architectures such as 3D memory and FinFETs, the areas of greatest interest, such as the intersections of wrap-around gates, cannot be assumed to be symmetrical in any given plane if cut placement is not precisely controlled. Therefore it is important to establish the exact location and repeatability of the cross-section plane, both in terms of coordinate placement and effective angle of the milled surface. To this end, we prepared designed-in line edge roughness samples in the Albany Nanotech facility using SEMATECH's AMAG6 metrology reticle. The samples were thoroughly characterized before being milled by a non-destructive, sidewall-scanning atomic force microscope (AFM). These samples are then milled and measured under varying process and setup parameters using a single-beam FIB with angled SEM. We established methodologies that allow precise alignment of the cut planes of slice-and-view FIB milling to 3D-AFM scan lines to compare repeated sections

  9. Statistical model calculations for evaporation residue and fission cross sections in 210Po compound nucleus.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Ruchi; Behera, B. R.; Pal, Santanu

    2015-01-01

    Statistical model calculations for evaporation residue and fission cross-sections are performed for 210Po nucleus populated by 18O + 192Os system in the excitation energy range of 52.43 - 83.51 MeV. Experimental fusion cross-sections are fitted using CCFULL code. Evaporation residue and fission cross-sections are then fitted using Bohr-Wheeler formalism including shell effects in level density and fission barrier by using scaling factor (Kf) in the range of 1.0 to 0.75. The results of the calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  10. Amplification of high-order rainbows of a cylinder with an elliptical cross section.

    PubMed

    Lock, J A; Adler, C L; Stone, B R; Zajak, P D

    1998-03-20

    The intensity of high-order rainbows for normally incident light and certain rotation angles of a cylinder with an elliptical cross section is greatly amplified with respect to the intensity for a circular cross-sectional cylinder. The amplification is due to a number of the internal reflections occurring past the critical angle for total internal reflection, and the effect is especially strong for odd-order rainbows, beginning with the third order. Experimentally, the fourth- and the fifth-order rainbows of a nearly elliptical cross-sectional glass rod were observed and analyzed. PMID:18268744

  11. Turbulent combustion flow through variable cross section channel

    SciTech Connect

    Rogov, B.V.; Sokolova, I.A.

    1999-07-01

    The object of this study is to develop a new evolutionary numerical method for solving direct task of Laval nozzle, which provides non-iterative calculations of chemical reacting turbulent flows with detailed kinetic chemistry. The numerical scheme of fourth order along the normal coordinate and second order along the streamwise one is derived for calculation of difference-differential equations of the second order and the first order. Marching method provides the possibility of computing field flow in subsonic section of nozzle and near an expansion. Critical mass consumption is calculated with controlled accuracy. After critical cross section of nozzle a combined marching method with global iterations over axial pressure (only) makes it possible to overcome ill posedness of mixed supersonic flow and calculate the whole flow field near and after critical cross section. Numerical results are demonstrated on turbulent burning hydrogen-oxygen flow through Laval nozzle with curvature of wall K{sub w} = 0.5.

  12. Total electron scattering and electronic state excitations cross sections for O2, CO, and CH4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanik, I.; Trajmar, S.; Nickel, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    Available electron collision cross section data concerning total and elastic scattering, vibrational excitation, and ionization for O2, CO, and CH4 have been critically reviewed, and a set of cross sections for modeling of planetary atmospheric behavior is recommended. Utilizing these recommended cross sections, we derived total electronic state excitation cross sections and upper limits for dissociation cross sections, which in the case of CH4 should very closely equal the actual dissociation cross section.

  13. Modeling plasma-based CO2 conversion: crucial role of the dissociation cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaerts, Annemie; Wang, Weizong; Berthelot, Antonin; Guerra, Vasco

    2016-10-01

    Plasma-based CO2 conversion is gaining increasing interest worldwide. A large research effort is devoted to improving the energy efficiency. For this purpose, it is very important to understand the underlying mechanisms of the CO2 conversion. The latter can be obtained by computer modeling, describing in detail the behavior of the various plasma species and all relevant chemical processes. However, the accuracy of the modeling results critically depends on the accuracy of the assumed input data, like cross sections. This is especially true for the cross section of electron impact dissociation, as the latter process is believed to proceed through electron impact excitation, but it is not clear from the literature which excitation channels effectively lead to dissociation. Therefore, the present paper discusses the effect of different electron impact dissociation cross sections reported in the literature on the calculated CO2 conversion, for a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and a microwave (MW) plasma. Comparison is made to experimental data for the DBD case, to elucidate which cross section might be the most realistic. This comparison reveals that the cross sections proposed by Itikawa and by Polak and Slovetsky both seem to underestimate the CO2 conversion. The cross sections recommended by Phelps with thresholds of 7 eV and 10.5 eV yield a CO2 conversion only slightly lower than the experimental data, but the sum of both cross sections overestimates the values, indicating that these cross sections represent dissociation, but most probably also include other (pure excitation) channels. Our calculations indicate that the choice of the electron impact dissociation cross section is crucial for the DBD, where this process is the dominant mechanism for CO2 conversion. In the MW plasma, it is only significant at pressures up to 100 mbar, while it is of minor importance for higher pressures, when dissociation proceeds mainly through collisions of CO2 with heavy

  14. GIS-based data model and tools for creating and managing two-dimensional cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteaker, Timothy L.; Jones, Norm; Strassberg, Gil; Lemon, Alan; Gallup, Doug

    2012-02-01

    While modern Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software is robust in handling maps and data in plan view, the software generally falls short when representing features in section view. Further complicating the issue is the fact that geologic cross sections are often drawn by connecting a series of wells together that do not fall along a single straight line. In this case, the x-axis of the cross section represents the distance along the set of individual lines connecting the series of wells, effectively "flattening out" the cross section along this path to create a view of the subsurface with which geologists often work in printed folios. Even 3D-enabled GIS cannot handle this type of cross section. A GIS data model and tools for creating and working with two-dimensional cross sections are presented. The data model and tools create a framework that can be applied using ESRI's ArcGIS software, enabling users to create, edit, manage, and print two-dimensional cross sections from within one of the most well-known GIS software packages. The data model is a component of the arc hydro groundwater data model, which means all two-dimensional cross sections are inherently linked to other features in the hydrogeologic domain, including those represented by xyz coordinates in real world space. Thus, the creation of two-dimensional cross sections can be guided by or completely driven from standard GIS data, and geologic interpretations established on two-dimensional cross sections can be translated back to real world coordinates to create three-dimensional features such as fence diagrams, giving GIS users the capacity to characterize the subsurface environment in a variety of integrated views that was not possible before. A case study for the Sacramento Regional Model in California demonstrates the application of the methodology in support of a regional groundwater management plan.

  15. Cross section for absorption of partly shielded dielectric sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, S. S.; Sulima, A. V.

    1984-05-01

    The effect of an ideally conducting spherical metal cup, as a shield, on the microwave absorption characteristics of a dielectric sphere is evaluated on the basis of the known solution to the diffraction problem for a plane electromagnetic wave propagating along the axis of cup and sphere. The Debye electric and magnetic potentials are calculated for the shielded segment of the sphere and for the unshielded remainder of the dielectric sphere, the cup lying either on the front surface or the back surface of the sphere. The problem reduces to two coupled systems of linear algebraic equations of the second kind. The cross section for absorption, equal to the difference between total incident energy flux and scattered energy flux in accordance with power balance or conservation of diffraction energy, has been calculated as a function of kb (k- wave number in free space, b- radius of cup base circle). Numerical results indicate that within the resonance range (b- wavelength of incident radiation) correction must be made to include quasi-natural modes of the shield. A narrow shield behind the sphere increases the overall absorption level in the latter, while a narrow shield before the sphere has almost no effect on the absorption.

  16. Calculation of photoionization cross section near auto-ionizing lines and magnesium photoionization cross section near threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, E. N.; Altick, P. L.

    1972-01-01

    The research performed is briefly reviewed. A simple method was developed for the calculation of continuum states of atoms when autoionization is present. The method was employed to give the first theoretical cross section for beryllium and magnesium; the results indicate that the values used previously at threshold were sometimes seriously in error. These threshold values have potential applications in astrophysical abundance estimates.

  17. 70 Group Neutron Fast Reactor Cross Section Set and 25 Group Neutron Fast Reactor Cross Section Set.

    1984-10-29

    Version 00 These multigroup cross sections are used in fast reactor calculations. The benchmark calculations for the 23 fast critical assemblies used in the benchmark tests of JFS-2 were performed with one-dimensional diffusion theory by using the JFS-3-J2 set.

  18. Collisional cross sections and momentum distributions in astrophysical plasmas: dynamics and statistical mechanics link.

    PubMed

    Ferro, F; Quarati, P

    2005-02-01

    We show that in stellar core plasmas, the one-body momentum distribution function is strongly dependent, at least in the high velocity regime, on the microscopic dynamics of ion elastic collisions and therefore on the effective collisional cross sections if a random force field is present. We take into account two cross sections describing ion-dipole and ion-ion screened interactions. Furthermore, we introduce a third unusual cross section to link statistical distributions and a quantum effect originated by the energy-momentum uncertainty owing to many-body collisions. We also propose a possible physical interpretation in terms of a tidal-like force. We show that each collisional cross section gives rise to a slight peculiar correction on the Maxwellian momentum distribution function in a well defined velocity interval. We also find a possible link between microscopic dynamics of ions and statistical mechanics in interpreting our results in the framework of nonextensive statistical mechanics.

  19. Differential Photoproduction Cross Sections of the Sigma0(1385), Lambda(1405), and Lambda(1520)

    SciTech Connect

    Moriya, Kei; Schumacher, Reinhard A.

    2013-10-01

    We report the exclusive photoproduction cross sections for the Sigma(1385), Lambda(1405), and Lambda(1520) in the reactions gamma + p -> K+ + Y* using the CLAS detector for energies from near the respective production thresholds up to a center-of-mass energy W of 2.85 GeV. The differential cross sections are integrated to give the total exclusive cross sections for each hyperon. Comparisons are made to current theoretical models based on the effective Lagrangian approach and fitted to previous data. The accuracy of these models is seen to vary widely. The cross sections for the Lambda(1405) region are strikingly different for the Sigma+pi-, Sigma0 pi0, and Sigma- pi+ decay channels, indicating the effect of isospin interference, especially at W values close to the threshold.

  20. Ice Layer Cross-Section In False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This image of shows a cross sectional view of the ice layers. Note the subtle peach banding on the left side of the image. The time variation that the bands represent is not yet understood.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 83.5, Longitude 118.2 East (241.8 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Measurement of the inclusive jet cross-section in pp collisions at and comparison to the inclusive jet cross-section at using the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Atkinson, M.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. 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L.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Bittner, B.; Black, C. W.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boek, T. T.; Boelaert, N.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. 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A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bundock, A. C.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Byszewski, M.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. 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A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S. L.; Chevalier, L.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Cirkovic, P.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coelli, S.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Colas, J.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collins, N. J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Colon, G.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C. J.; Cuthbert, C.; Cwetanski, P.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Damiani, D. S.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G. L.; Dassoulas, J. A.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davignon, O.; Davison, A. R.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De La Taille, C.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; de Mora, L.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; De Zorzi, G.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dechenaux, B.; Dedovich, D. V.; Degenhardt, J.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delemontex, T.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Devetak, E.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dinut, F.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T. K. O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dodd, J.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Dohmae, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doxiadis, A. D.; Doyle, A. T.; Dressnandt, N.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dube, S.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M.-A.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Dwuznik, M.; Ebke, J.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edson, W.; Edwards, C. A.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evangelakou, D.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Fazio, S.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Ferencei, J.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fisher, M. J.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Frank, T.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, C.; Friedrich, F.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gadfort, T.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, Y. S.; Gaponenko, A.; Garberson, F.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Gemmell, A.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gershon, A.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillberg, D.; Gillman, A. R.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giordano, R.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giovannini, P.; Giraud, P. F.; Giugni, D.; Giunta, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glazov, A.; Glitza, K. W.; Glonti, G. L.; Goddard, J. R.; Godfrey, J.; Godlewski, J.; Goebel, M.; Goeringer, C.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Gomes, A.; Gomez Fajardo, L. S.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez Silva, M. L.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodson, J. J.; Goossens, L.; Göpfert, T.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gosselink, M.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Gough Eschrich, I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M. P.; Goussiou, A. G.; Goy, C.; Gozpinar, S.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grafström, P.; Grahn, K.-J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Grau, N.; Gray, H. M.; Gray, J. A.; Graziani, E.; Grebenyuk, O. G.; Greenshaw, T.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griffiths, J.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grillo, A. A.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grishkevich, Y. V.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Groth-Jensen, J.; Grybel, K.; Guest, D.; Guicheney, C.; Guido, E.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gunther, J.; Guo, B.; Guo, J.; Gutierrez, P.; Guttman, N.; Gutzwiller, O.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haas, S.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hadley, D. R.; Haefner, P.; Hahn, F.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Hall, D.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamer, M.; Hamilton, A.; Hamilton, S.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Handel, C.; Hanke, P.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hansson, P.; Hara, K.; Harenberg, T.; Harkusha, S.; Harper, D.; Harrington, R. D.; Harris, O. M.; Hartert, J.; Hartjes, F.; Haruyama, T.; Harvey, A.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, A. D.; Hayakawa, T.; Hayashi, T.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heinemann, B.; Heisterkamp, S.; Helary, L.; Heller, C.; Heller, M.; Hellman, S.; Hellmich, D.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henke, M.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hensel, C.; Henß, T.; Hernandez, C. M.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herrberg-Schubert, R.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillert, S.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hirose, M.; Hirsch, F.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoffman, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Hofmann, J. I.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holder, M.; Holmgren, S. O.; Holy, T.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Hong, T. M.; Hooft van Huysduynen, L.; Horner, S.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hou, S.; Hoummada, A.; Howard, J.; Howarth, J.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hu, D.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huettmann, A.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Hurwitz, M.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibbotson, M.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Idarraga, J.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Iliadis, D.; Ilic, N.; Ince, T.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Iordanidou, K.; Ippolito, V.; Irles Quiles, A.; Isaksson, C.; Ishino, M.; Ishitsuka, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Ivashin, A. V.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, J. N.; Jackson, P.; Jaekel, M. R.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakoubek, T.; Jakubek, J.; Jamin, D. O.; Jana, D. K.; Jansen, E.; Jansen, H.; Janssen, J.; Jantsch, A.; Janus, M.; Jared, R. C.; Jarlskog, G.; Jeanty, L.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Jennens, D.; Jenni, P.; Jež, P.; Jézéquel, S.; Jha, M. K.; Ji, H.; Ji, W.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jimenez Belenguer, M.; Jin, S.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joergensen, M. D.; Joffe, D.; Johansen, M.; Johansson, K. 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G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarrazin, B.; Sarri, F.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Sauvan, J. B.; Savard, P.; Savinov, V.; Savu, D. O.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D. H.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaelicke, A.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Schwoerer, M.; Sciacca, F. G.; Sciolla, G.; Scott, W. G.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekula, S. J.; Selbach, K. E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shamov, A. G.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shimizu, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Short, D.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simoniello, R.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sircar, A.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinnari, L. A.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skovpen, K. Yu.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B. C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Subramania, HS.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teinturier, M.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thong, W. M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; True, P.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuggle, J. M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urquijo, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Berg, R.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Vulpen, I.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Walsh, B.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watanabe, I.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, M. S.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Weydert, C.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wong, W. C.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wraight, K.; Wright, M.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xie, S.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimin, N. I.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2013-08-01

    The inclusive jet cross-section has been measured in proton-proton collisions at in a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2011. Jets are identified using the anti- k t algorithm with two radius parameters of 0.4 and 0.6. The inclusive jet double-differential cross-section is presented as a function of the jet transverse momentum p T and jet rapidity y, covering a range of 20≤ p T<430 GeV and | y|<4.4. The ratio of the cross-section to the inclusive jet cross-section measurement at , published by the ATLAS Collaboration, is calculated as a function of both transverse momentum and the dimensionless quantity , in bins of jet rapidity. The systematic uncertainties on the ratios are significantly reduced due to the cancellation of correlated uncertainties in the two measurements. Results are compared to the prediction from next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations corrected for non-perturbative effects, and next-to-leading order Monte Carlo simulation. Furthermore, the ATLAS jet cross-section measurements at and are analysed within a framework of next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations to determine parton distribution functions of the proton, taking into account the correlations between the measurements.

  2. Uncertainty in [ital K][sup +]-nucleus total cross section analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Arima, M. ); Masutani, K. )

    1993-03-01

    There exists a basic uncertainty in the extraction method of [ital K][sup +]-nucleus total cross sections with the usual transmission experimental data. Although the errors are very small for light nuclei, they amount to about 10% for medium and heavy nuclei. When nontraditional effects of [ital K][sup +]-nucleon interactions within the nucleus, such as swelling of nucleon, are investigated, only the total cross sections on light nuclei should be used in order to avoid this uncertainty.

  3. Cross sections of high-energy hadron interactions in LLA QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryskin, M. G.; Shabelski, Yu. M.

    1992-06-01

    Total, total elastic and diffraction dissociation cross sections ofpp(bar pp) interactions are calculated in the leading logarithmic approximation of QCD in the energy regionsqrt s = 0.05 - 200TeV accounting for absorption effects at the quark level. Our calculations with very large intercept of bare pomeron (Δ>1/2) are in qualitative agreement with the data; however, we predict comparatively large cross section of double-diffraction dissociation.

  4. Plume rise from a chimney with an elongated exit cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, A.; Shemer, L.

    The effect of using a nozzle with an elongated exit cross section as a passive device for increasing jet penetration into cross flow was studied experimentally in a wind tunnel. It was found that the smoke plume dispersion and jet penetration are governed not only by the ratio of flow velocities in the pipe and in the cross flour, but also by the shape of the exit cross section and its orientation with respect to the cross flow. An elongated exit cross section may be particularly effective whenever only a narrow wedge of wind directions leads to air pollution of populated areas. It was found that when such a nozzle is oriented along the wind direction, the chimney effective height is increased as compared to a circular exit cross section, in spite of the fact that the velocity ratio in our experiments was higher for the circular exit. Possible physical reasons for the advantage of the elongated over the circular section shape at the exit are discussed.

  5. Influence of strut cross-section of stents on local hemodynamics in stented arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yongfei; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Wanhua

    2016-05-01

    Stenting is a very effective treatment for stenotic vascular diseases, but vascular geometries altered by stent implantation may lead to flow disturbances which play an important role in the initiation and progression of restenosis, especially in the near wall in stented arterial regions. So stent designs have become one of the indispensable factors needed to be considered for reducing the flow disturbances. In this paper, the structural designs of strut cross-section are considered as an aspect of stent designs to be studied in details. Six virtual stents with different strut cross-section are designed for deployments in the same ideal arterial model. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods are performed to study how the shape and the aspect ratio (AR) of strut cross-section modified the local hemodynamics in the stented segments. The results indicate that stents with different strut cross-sections have different influence on the hemodynamics. Stents with streamlined cross-sectional struts for circular arc or elliptical arc can significantly enhance wall shear stress (WSS) in the stented segments, and reduce the flow disturbances around stent struts. The performances of stents with streamlined cross-sectional struts are better than that of stents with non-streamlined cross-sectional struts for rectangle. The results also show that stents with a larger AR cross-section are more conductive to improve the blood flow. The present study provides an understanding of the flow physics in the vicinity of stent struts and indicates that the shape and AR of strut cross-section ought to be considered as important factors to minimize flow disturbance in stent designs.

  6. Developing Scientific Reasoning Through Drawing Cross-Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannula, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Cross-sections and 3D models of subsurface geology are typically based on incomplete information (whether surface geologic mapping, well logs, or geophysical data). Creating and evaluating those models requires spatial and quantitative thinking skills (including penetrative thinking, understanding of horizontality, mental rotation and animation, and scaling). However, evaluating the reasonableness of a cross-section or 3D structural model also requires consideration of multiple possible geometries and geologic histories. Teaching students to create good models requires application of the scientific methods of the geosciences (such as evaluation of multiple hypotheses and combining evidence from multiple techniques). Teaching these critical thinking skills, especially combined with teaching spatial thinking skills, is challenging. My Structural Geology and Advanced Structural Geology courses have taken two different approaches to developing both the abilities to visualize and to test multiple models. In the final project in Structural Geology (a 3rd year course with a pre-requisite sophomore mapping course), students create a viable cross-section across part of the Wyoming thrust belt by hand, based on a published 1:62,500 geologic map. The cross-section must meet a number of geometric criteria (such as the template constraint), but is not required to balance. Each student tries many potential geometries while trying to find a viable solution. In most cases, the students don't visualize the implications of the geometries that they try, but have to draw them and then erase their work if it does not meet the criteria for validity. The Advanced Structural Geology course used Midland Valley's Move suite to test the cross-sections that they made in Structural Geology, mostly using the flexural slip unfolding algorithm and testing whether the resulting line lengths balanced. In both exercises, students seemed more confident in the quality of their cross-sections when the

  7. Compensating effect of sap velocity for stand density leads to uniform hillslope-scale forest transpiration across a steep valley cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Maik; Hassler, Sibylle; Blume, Theresa; Weiler, Markus; Hildebrandt, Anke; Guderle, Marcus; Schymanski, Stan; Kleidon, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Roberts (1983) found that forest transpiration is relatively uniform across different climatic conditions and suggested that forest transpiration is a conservative process compensating for environmental heterogeneity. Here we test this hypothesis at a steep valley cross-section composed of European Beech in the Attert basin in Luxemburg. We use sapflow, soil moisture, biometric and meteorological data from 6 sites along a transect to estimate site scale transpiration rates. Despite opposing hillslope orientation, different slope angles and forest stand structures, we estimated relatively similar transpiration responses to atmospheric demand and seasonal transpiration totals. This similarity is related to a negative correlation between sap velocity and site-average sapwood area. At the south facing sites with an old, even-aged stand structure and closed canopy layer, we observe significantly lower sap velocities but similar stand-average transpiration rates compared to the north-facing sites with open canopy structure, tall dominant trees and dense understorey. This suggests that plant hydraulic co-ordination allows for flexible responses to environmental conditions leading to similar transpiration rates close to the water and energy limits despite the apparent heterogeneity in exposition, stand density and soil moisture. References Roberts, J. (1983). Forest transpiration: A conservative hydrological process? Journal of Hydrology 66, 133-141.

  8. Health effects of air pollution due to coal combustion in the Chestnut Ridge region of Pennsylvania: cross-section survey of children

    SciTech Connect

    Schenker, M.B.; Vedal, S.; Batterman, S.; Samet, J.; Speizer, F.E.

    1986-03-01

    A cross-sectional study of 4071 children aged 6-11 yr of age from a rural region of Western Pennsylvania was conducted in spring of 1979. Standardized children's questionnaires were distributed to the parents and returned by the children to school, where spirometry was performed. The region was divided into low-, moderate-, and high-pollution areas on the basis of the 1974-1978, 3-hr, 24-hr, and annual averages for sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/). Seventeen monitoring stations in the region and a triangulation procedure were used to estimate centroid levels in each geographic residence area. After adjusting the respiratory symptom response outcomes and the pulmonary function levels for known predictors, no significant association was noted for level of SO/sub 2/. However, the highest exposure categories were only slightly above the present annual and 24-hr National Air Quality Standards for SO/sub 2/. We conclude that at levels of exposure to which these children were exposed, only by study of potentially sensitive subsets or measures of acute response would it be possible to detect respiratory outcomes associated with ambient air pollution.

  9. Economic development's effect on road transport-related mortality among different types of road users: a cross-sectional international study.

    PubMed

    Paulozzi, Leonard J; Ryan, George W; Espitia-Hardeman, Victoria E; Xi, Yongli

    2007-05-01

    The relationship between a country's stage of economic development and its motor vehicle crash (MVC) mortality rate is not defined for different road users. This paper presents a cross-sectional regression analysis of recent national mortality in 44 countries using death certificate data provided by the World Health Organization. For five types of road users, MVC mortality is expressed as deaths per 100,000 people and per 1000 motor vehicles. Economic development is measured as gross national income (GNI) per capita in U.S. dollars and as motor vehicles per 1000 people. Results showed overall MVC mortality peaked among low-income countries at about US$ 2000 GNI per capita and at about 100 motor vehicles per 1000 people. Overall mortality declined at higher national incomes up to about US$ 24,000. Most changes in MVC mortality associated with economic development were explained by changes in rates among nonmotorized travelers, especially pedestrians. Overall MVC rates were lowest when pedestrian exposure was low because there were few motor vehicles or few pedestrians, and were highest during a critical transition to motorized travel, when many pedestrians and other vulnerable road users vied for use of the roadways with many motor vehicles. PMID:17092473

  10. Effects of different metabolic states and surgical models on glucose metabolism and secretion of ileal L-cell peptides: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Alper; Dixon, John B; Pouwels, Sjaak; Celik, Bahri Onur; Karaca, Fatih Can; Gupta, Adarsh; Santoro, Sergio; Ugale, Surendra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are increasing worldwide, reaching pandemic proportions. The understanding of the role of functional restriction and gut hormones can be a beneficial tool in treating obesity and diabetes. However, the exact hormonal profiles in different metabolic states and surgical models are not known. Methods and analysis The HIPER-1 Study is a single-centre cross-sectional study in which 240 patients (in different metabolic states and surgical models) will receive an oral mixed-meal tolerance test (OMTT). At baseline and after 30, 60 and 120 min, peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide 1 levels and glucose and insulin sensitivity will be measured. The primary end point of the study will be the area under the glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY curves after the OMTT. Secondary study end points will include examination of the difference in plasma levels of the distal ileal hormones in subjects with various health statuses and in patients who have been treated with different surgical techniques. Ethics and dissemination An independent ethics committee, the Institutional Review Board of Istanbul Sisli Kolan International Hospital, Turkey, has approved the study protocol. Dissemination will occur via publication, national and international conference presentations, and exchanges with regional, provincial and national stakeholders. Trial registration number NCT02532829; Pre-results. PMID:26975937

  11. Analysis of state-to-state differential cross sections in two-dimensional Xe-CO{sub 2} scattering with long-range effects

    SciTech Connect

    Pliego, J.R. Jr.; Belchior, J.C.; Braga, J.P.

    1996-09-01

    Differential rotational cross sections as a function of {Delta}{ital j} and the scattering angle are calculated using the two-dimensional (2D) close-coupled equations and a comparison with the 2D classical trajectory method is presented. A full potential, i.e., including repulsive and attractive forces, is used and the analysis of rainbow structure is discussed in detail. The rainbow positions have been identified by following the classical trajectory and it has been found that the rainbows can be attributed mainly to the attractive part of the interaction potential. The 2D ellipsoid model [Phys. Rev. A {bold 22}, 2617 (1980)] is also applied to analyze the rainbow trajectory and did not predict the same number of rainbows obtained via 2D classical trajectory. In addition, it showed a large deviation for the angular region of the first impact. This model, as expected, was able to explain a larger {Delta}{ital j} transition when attractive forces were included. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  12. Radar-cross-section reduction of wind turbines. part 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, Billy C.; Loui, Hung; McDonald, Jacob J.; Paquette, Joshua A.; Calkins, David A.; Miller, William K.; Allen, Steven E.; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Patitz, Ward E.

    2012-03-05

    In recent years, increasing deployment of large wind-turbine farms has become an issue of growing concern for the radar community. The large radar cross section (RCS) presented by wind turbines interferes with radar operation, and the Doppler shift caused by blade rotation causes problems identifying and tracking moving targets. Each new wind-turbine farm installation must be carefully evaluated for potential disruption of radar operation for air defense, air traffic control, weather sensing, and other applications. Several approaches currently exist to minimize conflict between wind-turbine farms and radar installations, including procedural adjustments, radar upgrades, and proper choice of low-impact wind-farm sites, but each has problems with limited effectiveness or prohibitive cost. An alternative approach, heretofore not technically feasible, is to reduce the RCS of wind turbines to the extent that they can be installed near existing radar installations. This report summarizes efforts to reduce wind-turbine RCS, with a particular emphasis on the blades. The report begins with a survey of the wind-turbine RCS-reduction literature to establish a baseline for comparison. The following topics are then addressed: electromagnetic model development and validation, novel material development, integration into wind-turbine fabrication processes, integrated-absorber design, and wind-turbine RCS modeling. Related topics of interest, including alternative mitigation techniques (procedural, at-the-radar, etc.), an introduction to RCS and electromagnetic scattering, and RCS-reduction modeling techniques, can be found in a previous report.

  13. Cross-sectional survey of users of Internet depression communities

    PubMed Central

    Powell, John; McCarthy, Noel; Eysenbach, Gunther

    2003-01-01

    Background Internet-based depression communities provide a forum for individuals to communicate and share information and ideas. There has been little research into the health status and other characteristics of users of these communities. Methods Online cross-sectional survey of Internet depression communities to identify depressive morbidity among users of Internet depression communities in six European countries; to investigate whether users were in contact with health services and receiving treatment; and to identify user perceived effects of the communities. Results Major depression was highly prevalent among respondents (varying by country from 40% to 64%). Forty-nine percent of users meeting criteria for major depression were not receiving treatment, and 35% had no consultation with health services in the previous year. Thirty-six percent of repeat community users who had consulted a health professional in the previous year felt that the Internet community had been an important factor in deciding to seek professional help. Conclusions There are high levels of untreated and undiagnosed depression in users of Internet depression communities. This group represents a target for intervention. Internet communities can provide information and support for stigmatizing conditions that inhibit more traditional modes of information seeking. PMID:14664725

  14. Unintended Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Berta Badi, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Unintended pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy which is a sum of mistimed pregnancy (pregnancy wanted at a later time) and unwanted pregnancy (pregnancy which is not wanted at all). Unintended pregnancy is a global public health problem and its sequels are major causes for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality with its effect to maternal metal illness as well. Objective. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of unintended pregnancy in Debre Birhan town, northeast of Ethiopia, in 2014. Method. Community based cross-sectional study and questionnaire developed from Ethiopian demographic health survey 2011. Participants were 690 currently pregnant mothers. Association of unintended pregnancy with factors was measured with bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Result. In this study unintended pregnancy is found to be 23.5%. Being formerly married and never married, distance to the nearest health facility >80 minutes, gravidity >5, 1-2 parity, and partner disagreement on desired number of children are the variables significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Conclusion. Significant proportion of unintended pregnancy is found in the study area. To minimize unintended pregnancy concerned bodies should work on the identified factors, so we can minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and keep the health of the family specifically and country in general.

  15. Unintended Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Berta Badi, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Unintended pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy which is a sum of mistimed pregnancy (pregnancy wanted at a later time) and unwanted pregnancy (pregnancy which is not wanted at all). Unintended pregnancy is a global public health problem and its sequels are major causes for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality with its effect to maternal metal illness as well. Objective. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of unintended pregnancy in Debre Birhan town, northeast of Ethiopia, in 2014. Method. Community based cross-sectional study and questionnaire developed from Ethiopian demographic health survey 2011. Participants were 690 currently pregnant mothers. Association of unintended pregnancy with factors was measured with bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Result. In this study unintended pregnancy is found to be 23.5%. Being formerly married and never married, distance to the nearest health facility >80 minutes, gravidity >5, 1-2 parity, and partner disagreement on desired number of children are the variables significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Conclusion. Significant proportion of unintended pregnancy is found in the study area. To minimize unintended pregnancy concerned bodies should work on the identified factors, so we can minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and keep the health of the family specifically and country in general. PMID:27656213

  16. Unintended Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Getu Melese, Kidest; Gebrie, Mignote Hailu; Berta Badi, Martha; Fekadu Mersha, Wubalem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Unintended pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy which is a sum of mistimed pregnancy (pregnancy wanted at a later time) and unwanted pregnancy (pregnancy which is not wanted at all). Unintended pregnancy is a global public health problem and its sequels are major causes for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality with its effect to maternal metal illness as well. Objective. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of unintended pregnancy in Debre Birhan town, northeast of Ethiopia, in 2014. Method. Community based cross-sectional study and questionnaire developed from Ethiopian demographic health survey 2011. Participants were 690 currently pregnant mothers. Association of unintended pregnancy with factors was measured with bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Result. In this study unintended pregnancy is found to be 23.5%. Being formerly married and never married, distance to the nearest health facility >80 minutes, gravidity >5, 1-2 parity, and partner disagreement on desired number of children are the variables significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Conclusion. Significant proportion of unintended pregnancy is found in the study area. To minimize unintended pregnancy concerned bodies should work on the identified factors, so we can minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and keep the health of the family specifically and country in general. PMID:27656213

  17. Neutron Capture Cross Sections of 236U and 234U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundberg, R. S.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Haight, R. C.; Hunt, L. F.; Kronenberg, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Schwantes, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.

    2006-03-01

    Accurate neutron capture cross sections of the actinide elements at neutron energies up to 1 MeV are needed to better interpret archived nuclear test data, for post-detonation nuclear attribution, and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. The Detector for Advance Neutron Capture Experiments, DANCE, has unique capabilities that allow the differentiation of capture gamma rays from fission gamma rays and background gamma rays from scattered neutrons captured by barium isotopes in the barium fluoride scintillators. The DANCE array has a high granularity, 160 scintillators, high efficiency, and nearly 4-π solid angle. Through the use of cuts in cluster multiplicity and calorimetric energy the capture gamma-rays are differentiated from other sources of gamma rays. The preliminary results for the capture cross sections of 236U are in agreement with the ENDF/B-VI evaluation. The preliminary results for 234U lower are than ENDF/B-VI evaluation and are closer to older evaluations.

  18. Fast-neutron scattering cross sections of elemental silver

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.

    1982-05-01

    Differential neutron elastic- and inelastic-scattering cross sections of elemental silver are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 200 keV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160/sup 0/. Inelastically-scattered neutron groups are observed corresponding to the excitation of levels at; 328 +- 13, 419 +- 50, 748 +- 25, 908 +- 26, 1150 +- 38, 1286 +- 25, 1507 +- 20, 1623 +- 30, 1835 +- 20 and 1944 +- 26 keV. The experimental results are used to derive an optical-statistical model that provides a good description of the observed cross sections. The measured values are compared with corresponding quantities given in ENDF/B-V.

  19. Evolving roles of cross-sectional imaging in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Magarotto, Andrea; Orlando, Stefania; Coletta, Marina; Conte, Dario; Fraquelli, Mirella; Caprioli, Flavio

    2016-09-01

    The implementation of cross-sectional imaging techniques for the clinical management of Crohn's disease patients has steadily grown over the recent years, thanks to a series of technological advances, including the evolution of contrast media for magnetic resonance, computed tomography and bowel ultrasound. This has resulted in a continuous improvement of diagnostic accuracy and capability to detect Crohn's disease-related complications. Additionally, a progressive widening of indications for cross-sectional imaging in Crohn's disease has been put forward, thus leading to hypothesize that in the near future imaging techniques can increasingly complement endoscopy in most clinical settings, including the grading of disease activity and the assessment of mucosal healing or Crohn's disease post-surgical recurrence.

  20. A dissociative electron attachment cross-section estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, James J.; Harrison, Stephen; Fujimoto, Milton M.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2012-11-01

    Dissociative electron attachment (DEA) is the major process where molecules are destroyed in low-energy plasmas. DEA cross sections are therefore important for a whole variety of applications but are both hard to measure or compute accurately. A method for estimating DEA cross sections based a simple resonance plus survival model is presented. Test results are presented for DEA of molecular oxygen and molecular chlorine, for which experimental measurements are available for comparison, and SiBr and SiBr2, for which no previous data is available. The estimator has been implemented as part of Quantemol-N expert system which uses the R-matrix method to predict resonance positions and widths.