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Sample records for effective one-electron description

  1. Angle-Differential Cross Sections for Radiative Recombination and the Photoelectric Effect in the K, L, and M Shells of One-Electron Systems Calculated Within AN Exact Relativistic Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Akira; Eichler, Jörg

    2001-11-01

    An extensive tabulation of angle-differential cross sections for radiative recombination and, consequently, for the photoelectric effect of hydrogen-like ions with representative charge numbers Z=18, 36, 54, 66, 79, 82, and 92 is presented for the K, L, and M shells and electron energies ranging from 1.0 keV to 1.5 MeV. The cross sections, accurate to three digits, are based on fully relativistic calculations including the effects of the finite nuclear size and all multipole orders of the photon field. In order to provide a good overview, the following procedure has been adopted: For the charge numbers 18, 54, and 92, the differential cross sections are presented in figures for all subshells and for representative energies. Furthermore, as a sample of the calculations, we present a complete table for the case of Z=79. The full tabulation for all charge numbers mentioned above is provided in electronic form (http://www.idealibrary.com/links/doi/10.1006/adnd.2001.0868/dat). By simple scaling, the dependence on the projectile energy in MeV/u can be derived for accelerator experiments, and, by using elementary formulas, the differential cross section for the photoelectric effect as a function of the electron emission angle can also be obtained.

  2. One-electron excitations, correlation effects, and the plasmon in cesium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Fleszar, A. ||; Stumpf, R.; Eguiluz, A.G. ||

    1997-01-01

    We study the dynamical electronic response of Cs at a first-principles level. The spatially localized 5p semicore shell induces a physical interplay between crystal local fields and electron correlations, leading to a novel, and relatively large, many-body shift of the plasmon energy. This effect, combined with that of one-electron transitions into empty states near the plasmon energy, yields a plasmon dispersion curve which is in excellent agreement with experiment for small wave vectors. In addition, our results feature a flat dispersion for large wave vectors, in qualitative agreement with experiment. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Charge transfer in collisions of the effectively-one-electron isocharged ions Si3+, C3+, and O3+ with atomic hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara, N. L.; Teixeira, E.; Hall, B.; Öhrn, Y.; Deumens, E.; Sabin, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.77.064702 77, 064702 (2008)], Bruhns reported on an experimental investigation of charge transfer in collisions of Si3+ ions with atomic hydrogen and compared the energy dependence of the transfer cross sections with published theoretical results and with earlier experimental results for other effectively-one-electron isocharged ions, including C3+ and O3+. These authors observe that these three ions all have the structure of a single electron outside a closed subshell and thus might be expected to behave similarly. However, their results show quite different behavior, and they conclude that the influence of quantum-mechanical effects from the ionic core is clearly seen. We have investigated theoretically three collision systems, Si3+, C3+, and O3+ with atomic hydrogen, at projectile energies up to 10 keV/amu using the method of electron nuclear dynamics (END). In this paper we want to clarify and describe in some detail these quantum-mechanical effects by showing the time-dependent dynamics of the electrons during the collision of these three ions with atomic hydrogen. Total charge transfer cross sections were calculated for all three ions and compared with other theoretical and experimental results, showing good overall agreement. With this validation of the END description of the processes, we analyze the details of the computed dynamics of the electrons in each of the processes and illustrate the different mechanisms underlying observed differences in reaction outcomes.

  4. An experimental comparison of the Marcus-Hush and Butler-Volmer descriptions of electrode kinetics applied to cyclic voltammetry. The one electron reductions of europium (III) and 2-methyl-2-nitropropane studied at a mercury microhemisphere electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henstridge, Martin C.; Wang, Yijun; Limon-Petersen, Juan G.; Laborda, Eduardo; Compton, Richard G.

    2011-11-01

    We present a comparative experimental evaluation of the Butler-Volmer and Marcus-Hush models using cyclic voltammetry at a microelectrode. Numerical simulations are used to fit experimental voltammetry of the one electron reductions of europium (III) and 2-methyl-2-nitropropane, in water and acetonitrile, respectively, at a mercury microhemisphere electrode. For Eu (III) very accurate fits to experiment were obtained over a wide range of scan rates using Butler-Volmer kinetics, whereas the Marcus-Hush model was less accurate. The reduction of 2-methyl-2-nitropropane was well simulated by both models, however Marcus-Hush required a reorganisation energy lower than expected.

  5. Consequence of one-electron oxidation and one-electron reduction for aniline.

    PubMed

    Raczyńska, Ewa D; Stępniewski, Tomasz M; Kolczyńska, Katarzyna

    2011-12-01

    Quantum-chemical calculations were performed for all possible isomers of neutral aniline and its redox forms, and intramolecular proton-transfer (prototropy) accompanied by π-electron delocalization was analyzed. One-electron oxidation (PhNH(2) - e → [PhNH(2)](+•)) has no important effect on tautomeric preferences. The enamine tautomer is preferred for oxidized aniline similarly as for the neutral molecule. Dramatical changes take place when proceeding from neutral to reduced aniline. One-electron reduction (PhNH(2) + e → [PhNH(2)](-•)) favors the imine tautomer. Independently on the state of oxidation, π- and n-electrons are more delocalized for the enamine than imine tautomers. The change of the tautomeric preferences for reduced aniline may partially explain the origin of the CH tautomers for reduced nucleobases (cytosine, adenine, and guanine).

  6. Generalized effective description of loop quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Gupt, Brajesh

    2015-10-01

    The effective description of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) has proved to be a convenient platform to study phenomenological implications of the quantum bounce that resolves the classical big bang singularity. Originally, this description was derived using Gaussian quantum states with small dispersions. In this paper we present a generalization to incorporate states with large dispersions. Specifically, we derive the generalized effective Friedmann and Raychaudhuri equations and propose a generalized effective Hamiltonian which are being used in an ongoing study of the phenomenological consequences of a broad class of quantum geometries. We also discuss an interesting interplay between the physics of states with larger dispersions in standard LQC, and of sharply peaked states in (hypothetical) LQC theories with larger area gap.

  7. Optical Hall effect-model description: tutorial.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Mathias; Kühne, Philipp; Darakchieva, Vanya; Hofmann, Tino

    2016-08-01

    The optical Hall effect is a physical phenomenon that describes the occurrence of magnetic-field-induced dielectric displacement at optical wavelengths, transverse and longitudinal to the incident electric field, and analogous to the static electrical Hall effect. The electrical Hall effect and certain cases of the optical Hall effect observations can be explained by extensions of the classic Drude model for the transport of electrons in metals. The optical Hall effect is most useful for characterization of electrical properties in semiconductors. Among many advantages, while the optical Hall effect dispenses with the need of electrical contacts, electrical material properties such as effective mass and mobility parameters, including their anisotropy as well as carrier type and density, can be determined from the optical Hall effect. Measurement of the optical Hall effect can be performed within the concept of generalized ellipsometry at an oblique angle of incidence. In this paper, we review and discuss physical model equations, which can be used to calculate the optical Hall effect in single- and multiple-layered structures of semiconductor materials. We define the optical Hall effect dielectric function tensor, demonstrate diagonalization approaches, and show requirements for the optical Hall effect tensor from energy conservation. We discuss both continuum and quantum approaches, and we provide a brief description of the generalized ellipsometry concept, the Mueller matrix calculus, and a 4×4 matrix algebra to calculate data accessible by experiment. In a follow-up paper, we will discuss strategies and approaches for experimental data acquisition and analysis.

  8. Optical Hall effect-model description: tutorial.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Mathias; Kühne, Philipp; Darakchieva, Vanya; Hofmann, Tino

    2016-08-01

    The optical Hall effect is a physical phenomenon that describes the occurrence of magnetic-field-induced dielectric displacement at optical wavelengths, transverse and longitudinal to the incident electric field, and analogous to the static electrical Hall effect. The electrical Hall effect and certain cases of the optical Hall effect observations can be explained by extensions of the classic Drude model for the transport of electrons in metals. The optical Hall effect is most useful for characterization of electrical properties in semiconductors. Among many advantages, while the optical Hall effect dispenses with the need of electrical contacts, electrical material properties such as effective mass and mobility parameters, including their anisotropy as well as carrier type and density, can be determined from the optical Hall effect. Measurement of the optical Hall effect can be performed within the concept of generalized ellipsometry at an oblique angle of incidence. In this paper, we review and discuss physical model equations, which can be used to calculate the optical Hall effect in single- and multiple-layered structures of semiconductor materials. We define the optical Hall effect dielectric function tensor, demonstrate diagonalization approaches, and show requirements for the optical Hall effect tensor from energy conservation. We discuss both continuum and quantum approaches, and we provide a brief description of the generalized ellipsometry concept, the Mueller matrix calculus, and a 4×4 matrix algebra to calculate data accessible by experiment. In a follow-up paper, we will discuss strategies and approaches for experimental data acquisition and analysis. PMID:27505654

  9. One-electron oxidation of DNA: mechanism and consequences.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Gary B

    2009-01-01

    All living organisms store the information necessary to maintain life in their DNA. Any process that damages DNA and causes loss or corruption of that information threatens the viability of the organism. One-electron oxidation is such a process. Loss of an electron from DNA generates a radical cation that is located primarily on its nucleobases. The radical cation migrates reversibly through duplex DNA by hopping until it is eventually trapped in an irreversible chemical reaction. The particular sequence of nucleobases in a DNA oligomer determines both the efficiency of hopping and the specific location and nature of the damaging chemical reaction. In its normal aqueous solutions, DNA is a polyanion because of the negative charge carried by its phosphate groups. Counter ions (typically Na(+)) to the phosphate groups play an important role in facilitating both the migration of the radical cation and in its eventual reaction with H(2)O. Irreversible reaction of a radical cation with H(2)O in duplex DNA occurs preferentially at the most reactive site. In normal DNA that is comprised of the four common DNA nucleobases, reaction occurs most commonly at a guanine and results in its conversion primarily to 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-OxoG). Both electronic and steric effects control the outcome of this process. If the DNA oligomer does not contain a suitable guanine, then reaction of the radical cation occurs at the thymine of a TT step primarily by a tandem process. The general outcomes revealed in the one-electron oxidation of DNA oligomers in solution appear to be generally valid also for more complex DNA structures and for the cellular DNA of living organisms.

  10. On the consistent definition of spin-orbit effects calculated by relativistic effective core potentials with one-electron spin-orbit operators: Comparison of spin-orbit effects for Tl, TlH, TlH3, PbH2, and PbH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Young-Kyu; Bae, Cheolbeom; Lee, Yoon Sup

    1999-05-01

    The spin-orbit effects for Tl, TlH, TlH3, PbH2, and PbH4 are evaluated by two-component calculations using several relativistic effective core potentials (RECP) with one-electron spin-orbit operators. The used RECPs are shape-consistent RECPs derived by Wildman et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 107, 9975 (1997)] and three sets of energy-consistent (or adjusted) RECPs published by Schwerdtfeger et al. [Phys. Scr. 36, 453 (1987); J. Chem. Phys. 90, 762 (1989)], Küchle et al. [Mol. Phys. 74, 1245 (1991)], and Leininger et al. [Chem. Phys. 217, 19 (1997)]. The shape-consistent RECP results are in very good agreement with the Küchle et al. energy-consistent RECP results for all the molecules studied here and all-electron results for TlH. The RECPs of Schwerdtfeger et al. and Leininger et al. seem to provide qualitatively different spin-orbit effects. If one defines spin-free RECP as the potential average of the corresponding two-component RECP, all RECPs give very similar spin-orbit effects for all the cases. Most of the discrepancies of molecular spin-orbit effects among various RECPs reported in the literature may originate from different definitions of RECPs with or without a spin-orbit term and not from the inherent difference in spin-orbit operators.

  11. Effective string description of confining flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Bastian B.; Meineri, Marco

    2016-08-01

    We review the current knowledge about the theoretical foundations of the effective string theory for confining flux tubes and the comparison of the predictions to pure gauge lattice data. A concise presentation of the effective string theory is provided, incorporating recent developments. We summarize the predictions for the spectrum and the profile/width of the flux tube and their comparison to lattice data. The review closes with a short summary of open questions for future research.

  12. Transformations on Data Sets and Their Effects on Descriptive Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Thomas B.

    2005-01-01

    The activity asks students to examine the effects on the descriptive statistics of a data set that has undergone either a translation or a scale change. They make conjectures relative to the effects on the statistics of a transformation on a data set and then they defend their conjectures and deductively verify several of them.

  13. From information theory to quantitative description of steric effects.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Mojtaba; Safari, Zahra

    2016-07-21

    Immense efforts have been made in the literature to apply the information theory descriptors for investigating the electronic structure theory of various systems. In the present study, the information theoretic quantities, such as Fisher information, Shannon entropy, Onicescu information energy, and Ghosh-Berkowitz-Parr entropy, have been used to present a quantitative description for one of the most widely used concepts in chemistry, namely the steric effects. Taking the experimental steric scales for the different compounds as benchmark sets, there are reasonable linear relationships between the experimental scales of the steric effects and theoretical values of steric energies calculated from information theory functionals. Perusing the results obtained from the information theoretic quantities with the two representations of electron density and shape function, the Shannon entropy has the best performance for the purpose. On the one hand, the usefulness of considering the contributions of functional groups steric energies and geometries, and on the other hand, dissecting the effects of both global and local information measures simultaneously have also been explored. Furthermore, the utility of the information functionals for the description of steric effects in several chemical transformations, such as electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions and host-guest chemistry, has been analyzed. The functionals of information theory correlate remarkably with the stability of systems and experimental scales. Overall, these findings show that the information theoretic quantities can be introduced as quantitative measures of steric effects and provide further evidences of the quality of information theory toward helping theoreticians and experimentalists to interpret different problems in real systems.

  14. Progress towards Generating Rydberg State, One Electron Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreiling, Joan; Fogwell Hoogerheide, Shannon; Naing, Aung; Tan, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    We report on progress towards producing hydrogen-like ions in Rydberg states from bare nuclei. Fully stripped neon atoms (Ne10+) are produced by the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at NIST. These ions are extracted via a beamline from the EBIT into a second apparatus where they are captured at low energy in a unitary Penning trap. The second apparatus has a cross-beam configuration, with a perpendicular beam of laser excited Rb atoms intersecting the ion beam at the Penning trap. While stored in the trap, the ions can interact with the Rb and, through charge exchange interactions, the bare nuclei can capture one or more electrons from the Rb. The ions are then analyzed by dumping the trap to a time-of-flight detector, which allows determination of the ion charge state evolution. This work builds towards laser spectroscopy on hydrogen-like ions in circular Rydberg states to obtain a value for the Rydberg constant independent of nuclear size effects. Such a measurement could shed some light on the proton radius puzzle.

  15. Oxygen dependency of one-electron reactions generating ascorbate radicals and hydrogen peroxide from ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Boatright, William L

    2016-04-01

    The effect of oxygen on the two separate one-electron reactions involved in the oxidation of ascorbic acid was investigated. The rate of ascorbate radical (Asc(-)) formation (and stability) was strongly dependent on the presence of oxygen. A product of ascorbic acid oxidation was measurable levels of hydrogen peroxide, as high as 32.5 μM from 100 μM ascorbic acid. Evidence for a feedback mechanism where hydrogen peroxide generated during the oxidation of ascorbic acid accelerates further oxidation of ascorbic acid is also presented. The second one-electron oxidation reaction of ascorbic acid leading to the disappearance of Asc(-) was also strongly inhibited in samples flushed with argon. In the range of 0.05-1.2 mM ascorbic acid, maximum levels of measurable hydrogen peroxide were achieved with an initial concentration of 0.2 mM ascorbic acid. Hydrogen peroxide generation was greatly diminished at ascorbic acid levels of 0.8 mM or above.

  16. Nonsingular bouncing cosmology: Consistency of the effective description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehn, Michael; Lehners, Jean-Luc; Ovrut, Burt

    2016-05-01

    We explicitly confirm that spatially flat nonsingular bouncing cosmologies make sense as effective theories. The presence of a nonsingular bounce in a spatially flat universe implies a temporary violation of the null energy condition, which can be achieved through a phase of ghost condensation. We calculate the scale of strong coupling and demonstrate that the ghost-condensate bounce remains trustworthy throughout, and that all perturbation modes within the regime of validity of the effective description remain under control. For this purpose we require the perturbed action up to third order in perturbations, which we calculate in both flat and co-moving gauge—since these two gauges allow us to highlight different physical aspects. Our conclusion is that there exist healthy descriptions of nonsingular bouncing cosmologies providing a viable resolution of the big-bang singularities in cosmological models. Our results also suggest a variant of ekpyrotic cosmology, in which entropy perturbations are generated during the contracting phase, but are only converted into curvature perturbations after the bounce.

  17. One-electron reduced density matrices of strongly correlated harmonium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Cioslowski, Jerzy

    2015-03-21

    Explicit asymptotic expressions are derived for the reduced one-electron density matrices (the 1-matrices) of strongly correlated two- and three-electron harmonium atoms in the ground and first excited states. These expressions, which are valid at the limit of small confinement strength ω, yield electron densities and kinetic energies in agreement with the published values. In addition, they reveal the ω{sup 5/6} asymptotic scaling of the exchange components of the electron-electron repulsion energies that differs from the ω{sup 2/3} scaling of their Coulomb and correlation counterparts. The natural orbitals of the totally symmetric ground state of the two-electron harmonium atom are found to possess collective occupancies that follow a mixed power/Gaussian dependence on the angular momentum in variance with the simple power-law prediction of Hill’s asymptotics. Providing rigorous constraints on energies as functionals of 1-matrices, these results are expected to facilitate development of approximate implementations of the density matrix functional theory and ensure their proper description of strongly correlated systems.

  18. One-electron reduced density matrices of strongly correlated harmonium atoms.

    PubMed

    Cioslowski, Jerzy

    2015-03-21

    Explicit asymptotic expressions are derived for the reduced one-electron density matrices (the 1-matrices) of strongly correlated two- and three-electron harmonium atoms in the ground and first excited states. These expressions, which are valid at the limit of small confinement strength ω, yield electron densities and kinetic energies in agreement with the published values. In addition, they reveal the ω(5/6) asymptotic scaling of the exchange components of the electron-electron repulsion energies that differs from the ω(2/3) scaling of their Coulomb and correlation counterparts. The natural orbitals of the totally symmetric ground state of the two-electron harmonium atom are found to possess collective occupancies that follow a mixed power/Gaussian dependence on the angular momentum in variance with the simple power-law prediction of Hill's asymptotics. Providing rigorous constraints on energies as functionals of 1-matrices, these results are expected to facilitate development of approximate implementations of the density matrix functional theory and ensure their proper description of strongly correlated systems.

  19. Zeeman energy and spin relaxation in a one-electron quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Hanson, R; Witkamp, B; Vandersypen, L M K; van Beveren, L H Willems; Elzerman, J M; Kouwenhoven, L P

    2003-11-01

    We have measured the relaxation time, T1, of the spin of a single electron confined in a semiconductor quantum dot (a proposed quantum bit). In a magnetic field, applied parallel to the two-dimensional electron gas in which the quantum dot is defined, Zeeman splitting of the orbital states is directly observed by measurements of electron transport through the dot. By applying short voltage pulses, we can populate the excited spin state with one electron and monitor relaxation of the spin. We find a lower bound on T1 of 50 micros at 7.5 T, only limited by our signal-to-noise ratio. A continuous measurement of the charge on the dot has no observable effect on the spin relaxation.

  20. One-Electron Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide by a Stable Oxidant: Hexachloroiridate(IV).

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; Stanbury, David M

    2016-08-01

    Detailed reports on the oxidation of aqueous H2S by mild one-electron oxidants are lacking, presumably because of the susceptibility of these reactions to trace metal-ion catalysis and the formation of turbid sulfur sols. Here we report on the reaction of [IrCl6](2-) with H2S in acetate buffers. Dipicolinic acid (dipic) is shown to be effective in suppressing metal-ion catalysis. In the presence of dipic the reaction produces [IrCl6](3-) and polysulfides; turbidity develops primarily after the Ir(IV) oxidant is consumed. Water-soluble phosphines are shown to prevent the development of turbidity; in the case of tris-hydroxymethylphosphine (THMP) the product is the corresponding sulfide, THMP═S. THMP diminishes the rates of reduction of Ir(IV), and the rate law with sufficient THMP is first order in [Ir(IV)] and first order in [HS(-)]. The rate-limiting step is inferred to be electron transfer from HS(-) to Ir(IV) with ket = 2.9 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) at 25.0 °C and μ = 0.1 M. The kinetic inhibition by THMP is attributed to its interception of a polysulfide chain elongation process. PMID:27410173

  1. Boron-Boron One-Electron Sigma Bonds versus B-X-B Bridged Structures.

    PubMed

    Kusevska, Elena; Montero-Campillo, M Merced; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel

    2016-09-12

    The existence of one-electron B-B σ bonds, for two different sets of compounds, was investigated by analyzing their electron density with different tools, namely QTAIM, ELF, NCIPLOT, and NBO approaches. Our results indicate that although the generic label "one-electron sigma bond" is often used in the literature, the nature of these bonds varies considerably, or they even do not exist. The [B2 X6 ](-) radical anions give place to true covalent one-electron σ bonds, the stronger the more electronegative is the X substituent. When both boron atoms are substituents in a rigid aromatic moiety, such as naphthalene, to yield 1,8-disubstituted derivatives, two kinds of equilibrium structures are found, those also stabilized through a one-electron σ bond (X=OH, F, Cl, CN) and those stabilized by the formation of B-X-B bridges (X=H, OMe). These 1,8-BX2 naphthalene derivatives can be considered as analogues of 1,8-NX2 naphthalene proton sponges. While the latter are able to stabilize a proton between the two basic sites, the former are able to stabilize an electron between the two electron-deficient B atoms. Interestingly, when all the H atoms attached to B are substituted by phenyl groups no one-electron σ bonds B-B bonds are formed, due to the dispersion of the unpaired electron in the aromatic substituents. PMID:27530734

  2. Optimal control of the electronic current density: Application to one- and two-dimensional one-electron systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kammerlander, David; Marques, Miguel A. L.; Castro, Alberto

    2011-04-15

    Quantum optimal control theory is a powerful tool for engineering quantum systems subject to external fields such as the ones created by intense lasers. The formulation relies on a suitable definition for a target functional, that translates the intended physical objective to a mathematical form. We propose the use of target functionals defined in terms of the one-particle density and its current. A strong motivation for this is the possibility of using time-dependent density-functional theory for the description of the system dynamics. We exemplify this idea by defining an objective functional that on one hand attempts a large overlap with a target density and on the other hand minimizes the current. The latter requirement leads to optimized states with increased stability, which we prove with a few examples of one- and two-dimensional one-electron systems.

  3. One-Electron Reduction of Penicillins in Relation to the Oxidative Stress Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Szabó, László; Tóth, Tünde; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2015-12-11

    Certain bactericidal antibiotics target mitochondrial components and, due to the leakage of electrons from the electron transport chain, one-electron reduction might occur that can lead to intermediates passing the electron to suitable acceptors. This study aimed at investigating the one-electron reduction mechanism of selected penicillin derivatives using pulse radiolysis techniques. Penicillins can accommodate the electron on each of their carbonyl carbon. Ketyl radicals are thus produced, which are reducing agents with possibility to interact with suitable biomolecules. A detailed mechanism of the reduction is reported.

  4. One-Electron Reduction of Penicillins in Relation to the Oxidative Stress Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Szabó, László; Tóth, Tünde; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2015-01-01

    Certain bactericidal antibiotics target mitochondrial components and, due to the leakage of electrons from the electron transport chain, one-electron reduction might occur that can lead to intermediates passing the electron to suitable acceptors. This study aimed at investigating the one-electron reduction mechanism of selected penicillin derivatives using pulse radiolysis techniques. Penicillins can accommodate the electron on each of their carbonyl carbon. Ketyl radicals are thus produced, which are reducing agents with possibility to interact with suitable biomolecules. A detailed mechanism of the reduction is reported. PMID:26690427

  5. One-electron standard reduction potentials of nitroaromatic and cyclic nitramine explosives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive studies have been conducted in the past decades to predict the environmental abiotic and biotic redox fate of nitroaromatic and nitramine explosives. However, surprisingly little information is available on one-electron standard reduction potentials (Eo(R-NO2/R-NO2_)). The Eo(R-NO2/R-NO2...

  6. COMPUTATIONAL ELECTROCHEMISTRY: AQUEOUS ONE-ELECTRON OXIDATION POTENTIALS FOR SUBSTITUTED ANILINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semiempirical molecular orbital theory and density functional theory are used to compute one-electron oxidation potentials for aniline and a set of 21 mono- and di-substituted anilines in aqueous solution. Linear relationships between theoretical predictions and experiment are co...

  7. A polar copper-boron one-electron σ-bond.

    PubMed

    Moret, Marc-Etienne; Zhang, Limei; Peters, Jonas C

    2013-03-13

    Virtually all chemical bonds consist of one or several pairs of electrons shared by two atoms. Examples of σ-bonds made of a single electron delocalized over two neighboring atoms were until recently found only in gas-phase cations such as H2(+) and Li2(+) and in highly unstable species generated in solid matrices. Only in the past decade was bona fide one-electron bonding observed for molecules in fluid solution. Here we report the isolation and structural characterization of a thermally stable compound featuring a Cu-B one-electron bond, as well as its oxidized (nonbonded) and reduced (two-electrons-bonded) congeners. This triad provides an excellent opportunity to study the degree of σ-bonding in a metalloboratrane as a function of electron count. PMID:23418750

  8. Improving Institutional Effectiveness: Description and Application of an Implementation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, Michael R.; Golub, Andrew J.; Langevin, John R.; St. Ours, Paulette A.; Swartzlander, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    The higher education literature continues to highlight difficulties with efforts to implement and sustain institutional effectiveness activities. This article describes an implementation effectiveness model from the field of organizational management and applies it to the implementation of institutional effectiveness initiatives in higher…

  9. One-electron pseudopotential investigation of the RbAr and FrAr van der Waals systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhiflaoui, J.; Berriche, H.

    2012-12-01

    The potential energy curves of the ground state and many excited states of RbAr and FrAr van der Waals systems have been determined using a one-electron pseudopotential approach. The pseudopotential technique is used to replace the effect of the Rb+ and Fr+ cores and the electron-Ar interaction. In addition a core-core interaction is included. This has permitted to reduce the number of active electrons of the RbAr and FrAr systems to only one electron, the valence electron. This has led to use very large basis sets for Rb, Fr and Ar atoms. In this context, the potential energy curves of the ground and many excited states are performed at the SCF level. The core-core interactions for Rb+Ar and Fr+Ar are included using the CCSD(T) accurate potentials of Hickling et al. [H. Hickling, L. Viehland, D. Shepherd, P. Soldan, E. Lee and T. Wright, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6 (2004) 4233]. In addition, the spectroscopic constants of these states are derived and compared with the available theoretical works. Such comparison for RbAr has shown a very good agreement for the ground and the first excited states. However, the FrAr system was not studied previously and its spectroscopic constants are presented here for the first time.

  10. Redox behaviour of nifuroxazide: generation of the one-electron reduction product.

    PubMed

    Squella, J A; Letelier, M E; Lindermeyer, L; Nuñez-Vergara, L J

    1996-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of nifuroxazide have been investigated in aqueous and aqueous-DMF mixed solvents. In aqueous media, a single, irreversible four-electron reduction occurs to give the hydroxylamine derivative. In mixed media, a reversible one-electron reduction to form a nitro radical anion takes place. Cyclic voltammetric studies show that the anion radical product is stable, although the nitro radical anion intermediate shows a tendency to undergo further chemical reactions. A comparison with the voltammetric behaviour of other nitrofurans such as nifurtimox, nitrofurazone and furazolidone is made. The electrochemically-obtained parameters are correlated with the in vivo studies of oxygen consumption on Trypanosoma cruzi cell suspensions. PMID:8620571

  11. Generalization of the Kohn-Sham system that can represent arbitrary one-electron density matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, Hubertus J. J.

    2016-05-01

    Density functional theory is currently the most widely applied method in electronic structure theory. The Kohn-Sham method, based on a fictitious system of noninteracting particles, is the workhorse of the theory. The particular form of the Kohn-Sham wave function admits only idempotent one-electron density matrices whereas wave functions of correlated electrons in post-Hartree-Fock methods invariably have fractional occupation numbers. Here we show that by generalizing the orbital concept and introducing a suitable dot product as well as a probability density, a noninteracting system can be chosen that can represent the one-electron density matrix of any system, even one with fractional occupation numbers. This fictitious system ensures that the exact electron density is accessible within density functional theory. It can also serve as the basis for reduced density matrix functional theory. Moreover, to aid the analysis of the results the orbitals may be assigned energies from a mean-field Hamiltonian. This produces energy levels that are akin to Hartree-Fock orbital energies such that conventional analyses based on Koopmans' theorem are available. Finally, this system is convenient in formalisms that depend on creation and annihilation operators as they are trivially applied to single-determinant wave functions.

  12. QED calculations in heavy many-electron atoms and one-electron quasi-molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupitsyn, I. I.; Safronova, M. S.; Kozlov, M. G.; Porsev, S. G.; Shabaev, V. M.

    2016-05-01

    Construction of simple one-electron approach to one-loop QED operator is an important task for the relativistic quantum theory of atoms and molecules. In this work we used two modifications of the model QED potential approach to calculations of the Lamb shift in many-electron atoms and one-electron quasi-molecules. The model potential is constructed as a sum of local and nonlocal (separable) potentials. The nonlocal part of the model potential was introduced to reproduce exactly the diagonal elements and also off-diagonal elements of the one-loop ab initio QED operator. The one-particle model QED operator was introduced in the Dirac-Fock and CI+MBPT relativistic calculations of the heavy and super-heavy atoms and in the calculations of the diatomic quasi-molecules. The comparison of the data obtained in different approaches to the one-loop QED operator is presented. Model QED potential is applied to calculate Lamb shift in the U91+- U92+ dimer. The results are compared with Ref..

  13. Generalization of the Kohn-Sham system that can represent arbitrary one-electron density matrices

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hubertus J. J. van Dam

    2016-05-23

    Density functional theory is currently the most widely applied method in electronic structure theory. The Kohn-Sham method, based on a fictitious system of noninteracting particles, is the workhorse of the theory. The particular form of the Kohn-Sham wave function admits only idempotent one-electron density matrices whereas wave functions of correlated electrons in post-Hartree-Fock methods invariably have fractional occupation numbers. Here we show that by generalizing the orbital concept and introducing a suitable dot product as well as a probability density, a noninteracting system can be chosen that can represent the one-electron density matrix of any system, even one with fractionalmore » occupation numbers. This fictitious system ensures that the exact electron density is accessible within density functional theory. It can also serve as the basis for reduced density matrix functional theory. Moreover, to aid the analysis of the results the orbitals may be assigned energies from a mean-field Hamiltonian. This produces energy levels that are akin to Hartree-Fock orbital energies such that conventional analyses based on Koopmans' theorem are available. Lastly, this system is convenient in formalisms that depend on creation and annihilation operators as they are trivially applied to single-determinant wave functions.« less

  14. The isolable cation radical of disilene: synthesis, characterization, and a reversible one-electron redox system.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shigeyoshi; Ichinohe, Masaaki; Sekiguchi, Akira

    2008-05-14

    The highly twisted tetrakis(di-tert-butylmethylsilyl)disilene 1 was treated with Ph3C+.BAr4- (BAr4-: TPFPB = tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate) in toluene, producing disilene cation radical 3 upon one-electron oxidation. Cation radical 3 was isolated in the form of its borate salt as extremely air- and moisture-sensitive red-brown crystals. The molecular structure of 3 was established by X-ray crystallography, which showed a highly twisted structure (twisting angle of 64.9 degrees) along the central Si-Si bond with a bond length of 2.307(2) A, which is 2.1% elongated relative to that of 1. The cation radical is stabilized by sigma-pi hyperconjugation by the four tBu2MeSi groups attached to the two central sp2-Si atoms. An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of the hyperfine coupling constants (hfcc) of the 29Si nuclei indicates delocalization of the spin over the central two Si atoms. A reversible one-electron redox system between disilene, cation radical, and anion radical is also reported.

  15. Pulse radiolysis of silybin: One-electron oxidation of the flavonoid at neutral pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    György, I.; Antus, S.; Földiák, G.

    One-electron oxidation of silybin, a flavonoid drug used in human therapy of liver, was investigated by pulse radiolysis at neutral pH. Phenoxyl radicals formed from the substrate by oxidising N .3 radicals were identified by comparing the transient optical absorption spectra with those obtained from model compounds. The orto-methoxy-phenolic structure (ring B) is the exclusive target for one-electron oxidation of silybin. The 5.7-dihydroxy-chromanone moiety (ring A) withstands free-radical attack at neutral pH due to the chelatic H-bond (p Ka = 10.2) existing between the 5-OH and 4-oxo groups. Hydroxyl radicals react with silybin at diffusion controlled rate ( k = 1.8 x 10 10 dm 3 mol -1 s -1). The reactivity of silybin towards free radicals at neutral pH is conform with the assumption that the physiological activity of the flavonoid is due to its chain-breaking antioxidant behaviour.

  16. The Effect of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainuddin

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at finding out the effectiveness of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement. In other words, the objective of this study was to find out if there was a significant effect of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC)…

  17. XeF(2) /fluoride acceptors as versatile one-electron oxidants.

    PubMed

    Poleschner, Helmut; Seppelt, Konrad

    2013-12-01

    No phlogiston but xenon is released when XeF2 /F(-) acceptors act as new one-electron oxidants. F(-) acceptors are Lewis acids BF3 , B(C6 F5 )3 , and Al{OC(CF3 )3 }3 , and silyl derivatives TfOSiMe3 , Tf2 NSiMe3 , Me3 Si(+)  B(C6 F5 )4 (-) , and Me3 Si(+)  CHB11 Cl11 (-) . The anions BF4 (-) , TfO(-) , Tf2 N(-) , FB(C6 F5 )3 (-) , FAl{OC(CF3 )3 }3 (-) , B(C6 F5 )4 (-) , or CHB11 Cl11 (-) can be introduced into oxidation products of R2 E2 (E=S, Se, Te), [FeCp2 ], [(FeCpS)4 ], tetrathiafulvalene, thianthrene, and (2,4-Br2 C6 H3 )3 N. PMID:24127390

  18. Role descriptions induce gender mismatch effects in eye movements during reading

    PubMed Central

    Reali, Chiara; Esaulova, Yulia; Öttl, Anton; von Stockhausen, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The present eye-tracking study investigates the effect of gender typicality on the resolution of anaphoric personal pronouns in English. Participants read descriptions of a person performing a typically male, typically female or gender-neutral occupational activity. The description was followed by an anaphoric reference (he or she) which revealed the referent's gender. The first experiment presented roles which were highly typical for men (e.g., blacksmith) or for women (e.g., beautician), the second experiment presented role descriptions with a moderate degree of gender typicality (e.g., psychologist, lawyer). Results revealed a gender mismatch effect in early and late measures in the first experiment and in early stages in the second experiment. Moreover, eye-movement data for highly typical roles correlated with explicit typicality ratings. The results are discussed from a cross-linguistic perspective, comparing natural gender languages and grammatical gender languages. An interpretation of the cognitive representation of typicality beliefs is proposed. PMID:26579003

  19. The Effect of Time Pressure on Risky Financial Decisions from Description and Decisions from Experience

    PubMed Central

    Wegier, Pete; Spaniol, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Time pressure has been found to impact decision making in various ways, but studies on the effects time pressure in risky financial gambles have been largely limited to description-based decision tasks and to the gain domain. We present two experiments that investigated the effect of time pressure on decisions from description and decisions from experience, across both gain and loss domains. In description-based choice, time pressure decreased risk seeking for losses, whereas for gains there was a trend in the opposite direction. In experience-based choice, no impact of time pressure was observed on risk-taking, suggesting that time constraints may not alter attitudes towards risk when outcomes are learned through experience. PMID:25885034

  20. Role descriptions induce gender mismatch effects in eye movements during reading.

    PubMed

    Reali, Chiara; Esaulova, Yulia; Öttl, Anton; von Stockhausen, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The present eye-tracking study investigates the effect of gender typicality on the resolution of anaphoric personal pronouns in English. Participants read descriptions of a person performing a typically male, typically female or gender-neutral occupational activity. The description was followed by an anaphoric reference (he or she) which revealed the referent's gender. The first experiment presented roles which were highly typical for men (e.g., blacksmith) or for women (e.g., beautician), the second experiment presented role descriptions with a moderate degree of gender typicality (e.g., psychologist, lawyer). Results revealed a gender mismatch effect in early and late measures in the first experiment and in early stages in the second experiment. Moreover, eye-movement data for highly typical roles correlated with explicit typicality ratings. The results are discussed from a cross-linguistic perspective, comparing natural gender languages and grammatical gender languages. An interpretation of the cognitive representation of typicality beliefs is proposed. PMID:26579003

  1. The reversed description-experience gap: Disentangling sources of presentation format effects in risky choice.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Andreas; Hilbig, Benjamin E; Henninger, Felix; Fiedler, Susann

    2016-04-01

    Previous literature has suggested that risky choice patterns in general--and probability weighting in particular--are strikingly different in experience-based as compared with description-based formats. In 2 reanalyses and 3 new experiments, we investigate differences between experience-based and description-based decisions using a parametric approach based on cumulative prospect theory (CPT). Once controlling for sampling biases, we consistently find a reversal of the typical description-experience gap, that is, a reduced sensitivity to probabilities and increased overweighting of small probabilities in decisions from experience as compared with decisions from descriptions. This finding supports the hypothesis that regression to the mean effects in probability estimation are a crucial source of differences between both presentation formats. Further analyses identified task specific information asymmetry prevalent in gambles involving certainty as a third source of differences. We present a novel conceptualization of multiple independent sources of bias that contribute to the description-experience gap, namely sampling biases and task specific information asymmetry on the one hand, and regression to the mean effects in probability estimation on the other hand. PMID:26974209

  2. The reversed description-experience gap: Disentangling sources of presentation format effects in risky choice.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Andreas; Hilbig, Benjamin E; Henninger, Felix; Fiedler, Susann

    2016-04-01

    Previous literature has suggested that risky choice patterns in general--and probability weighting in particular--are strikingly different in experience-based as compared with description-based formats. In 2 reanalyses and 3 new experiments, we investigate differences between experience-based and description-based decisions using a parametric approach based on cumulative prospect theory (CPT). Once controlling for sampling biases, we consistently find a reversal of the typical description-experience gap, that is, a reduced sensitivity to probabilities and increased overweighting of small probabilities in decisions from experience as compared with decisions from descriptions. This finding supports the hypothesis that regression to the mean effects in probability estimation are a crucial source of differences between both presentation formats. Further analyses identified task specific information asymmetry prevalent in gambles involving certainty as a third source of differences. We present a novel conceptualization of multiple independent sources of bias that contribute to the description-experience gap, namely sampling biases and task specific information asymmetry on the one hand, and regression to the mean effects in probability estimation on the other hand.

  3. The Effect of Progressive Sentence Development Activities on 5th Graders' Description Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamzadayi, Ergun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of progressive sentence development activities on 5th graders' description skills. The study was conducted based on the pretest-posttest quasi-experimental model with a control group. A total of 58 students participated in the study; 29 in the control group, and 29 in the experimental group. The…

  4. Effects of a Training Package to Improve the Accuracy of Descriptive Analysis Data Recording

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Kimberly L.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2013-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment is an important precursor to developing interventions to address a problem behavior. Descriptive analysis, a type of functional behavior assessment, is effective in informing intervention design only if the gathered data accurately capture relevant events and behaviors. We investigated a training procedure to improve…

  5. Predicting Reduction Rates of Energetic Nitroaromatic Compounds Using Calculated One-Electron Reduction Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Salter-Blanc, Alexandra; Bylaska, Eric J.; Johnston, Hayley; Tratnyek, Paul G.

    2015-02-11

    The evaluation of new energetic nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) for use in green munitions formulations requires models that can predict their environmental fate. The susceptibility of energetic NACs to nitro reduction might be predicted from correlations between rate constants (k) for this reaction and one-electron reduction potentials (E1NAC) / 0.059 V, but the mechanistic implications of such correlations are inconsistent with evidence from other methods. To address this inconsistency, we have reevaluated existing kinetic data using a (non-linear) free-energy relationship (FER) based on the Marcus theory of outer-sphere electron transfer. For most reductants, the results are inconsistent with rate limitation by an initial, outer-sphere electron transfer, suggesting that the strong correlation between k and E1NAC is justified only as an empirical model. This empirical correlation was used to calibrate a new quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) using previously reported values of k for non-energetic NAC reduction by Fe(II) porphyrin and newly reported values of E1NAC determined using density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) level with the COSMO solvation model. The QSAR was then validated for energetic NACs using newly measured kinetic data for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN). The data show close agreement with the QSAR, supporting its applicability to energetic NACs.

  6. Predicting Reduction Rates of Energetic Nitroaromatic Compounds Using Calculated One-Electron Reduction Potentials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Salter-Blanc, Alexandra; Bylaska, Eric J.; Johnston, Hayley; Tratnyek, Paul G.

    2015-02-11

    The evaluation of new energetic nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) for use in green munitions formulations requires models that can predict their environmental fate. The susceptibility of energetic NACs to nitro reduction might be predicted from correlations between rate constants (k) for this reaction and one-electron reduction potentials (E1NAC) / 0.059 V, but the mechanistic implications of such correlations are inconsistent with evidence from other methods. To address this inconsistency, we have reevaluated existing kinetic data using a (non-linear) free-energy relationship (FER) based on the Marcus theory of outer-sphere electron transfer. For most reductants, the results are inconsistent with rate limitation bymore » an initial, outer-sphere electron transfer, suggesting that the strong correlation between k and E1NAC is justified only as an empirical model. This empirical correlation was used to calibrate a new quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) using previously reported values of k for non-energetic NAC reduction by Fe(II) porphyrin and newly reported values of E1NAC determined using density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) level with the COSMO solvation model. The QSAR was then validated for energetic NACs using newly measured kinetic data for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN). The data show close agreement with the QSAR, supporting its applicability to energetic NACs.« less

  7. Phase stability under irradiation in alloys with a positive heat of mixing: Effective thermodynamics description

    SciTech Connect

    Enrique, Raul A.; Bellon, Pascal

    1999-12-01

    The alteration of phase stability due to the continuous production of forced atomic displacements, as is the case under irradiation, is studied. A simple kinetic model of a binary alloy exhibiting phase separation is investigated, and two limiting cases are considered: nearest-neighbor ballistic exchanges and arbitrary-length ballistic exchanges. The model is simultaneously studied by direct kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, and by theoretical approaches based in the description of the steady state by effective thermodynamics. Two theoretical frameworks are considered: a microscopic description based in effective interactions, and a macroscopic description based in effective free energies constructed over a modified Cahn-Hilliard equation. Developments of these models are proposed to allow for quantitative predictions. For nearest-neighbor ballistic exchanges, the steady-state phase diagram is evaluated for each of the approaches and the results are directly compared. In the case of arbitrary-length ballistic exchanges, the appearance of labyrinthine mesoscopic structures at steady state is rationalized in terms of the competition between short-range attractive and long-range repulsive effective interactions. The favorable comparison between the theoretical results and the direct Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations shows that the long-term behavior of this inherently far-from-equilibrium system can be described in terms of effective thermodynamic potentials. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  8. On the effectiveness of vocal imitations and verbal descriptions of sounds.

    PubMed

    Lemaitre, Guillaume; Rocchesso, Davide

    2014-02-01

    Describing unidentified sounds with words is a frustrating task and vocally imitating them is often a convenient way to address the issue. This article reports on a study that compared the effectiveness of vocal imitations and verbalizations to communicate different referent sounds. The stimuli included mechanical and synthesized sounds and were selected on the basis of participants' confidence in identifying the cause of the sounds, ranging from easy-to-identify to unidentifiable sounds. The study used a selection of vocal imitations and verbalizations deemed adequate descriptions of the referent sounds. These descriptions were used in a nine-alternative forced-choice experiment: Participants listened to a description and picked one sound from a list of nine possible referent sounds. Results showed that recognition based on verbalizations was maximally effective when the referent sounds were identifiable. Recognition accuracy with verbalizations dropped when identifiability of the sounds decreased. Conversely, recognition accuracy with vocal imitations did not depend on the identifiability of the referent sounds and was as high as with the best verbalizations. This shows that vocal imitations are an effective means of representing and communicating sounds and suggests that they could be used in a number of applications. PMID:25234894

  9. Simultaneous evaluation of one-electron reducing systems and radical reactions in cells by nitroxyl biradical as probe.

    PubMed

    Araki, Yoko; Koshiishi, Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, a novel probe for the simultaneous evaluation of one-electron reducing systems (electron transport chain) and one-electron oxidizing systems (free radical reactions) in cells by electron chemical detection was developed. Six-membered cyclic nitroxyl radicals (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl; TEMPO series) are sensitive to one-electron redox systems, generating the hydroxylamine form [TEMPO(H)] via one-electron reduction, and the secondary amine form [TEMPO(N)] via one-electron oxidation in the presence of thiols. In contrast, the sensitivities of five-membered cyclic nitroxyl radicals (2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl; PROXYL series) to the one-electron redox systems are comparatively low. The electron chemical detector can detect 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO), TEMPO(H) and PROXYL but not TEMPO(N). Therefore, nitroxyl biradical, TEMPO-PROXYL, as a probe for the evaluation of one-electron redox systems was employed. TEMPO-PROXYL was synthesized by the conjunction of 4-amino-TEMPO with 3-carboxyl-PROXYL via the conventional dicyclohexyl carbodiimide reaction. TEMPO-PROXYL, TEMPO(H)-PROXYL and TEMPO(N)-PROXYL were simultaneously quantified by HPLC with Coularray detection. Calibration curves for the quantification of TEMPO-PROXYL, TEMPO(H)-PROXYL and TEMPO(N)-PROXYL were linear in the range from 80 nm to 80 μm, and the lowest quantification limit of each molecule was estimated to be <80 nm. The relative standard deviations at 0.8 and 80 μm were within 10% (n = 5). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26613564

  10. One-electron oxidation of ruthenocene: reactions of the ruthenocenium ion in gentle electrolyte media.

    PubMed

    Swarts, Jannie C; Nafady, Ayman; Roudebush, John H; Trupia, Sabrina; Geiger, William E

    2009-03-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of ruthenocene, RuCp(2) (Cp = eta(5)-C(5)H(5)), 1, has been studied in dichloromethane using a supporting electrolyte containing either the [B(C(6)F(5))(4)](-) (TFAB) or the [B(C(6)H(3)(CF(3))(2))(4)](-) (BArF(24)) counteranion. A quasi-Nernstian process was observed in both cases, with E(1/2) values of 0.41 and 0.57 V vs FeCp(2) in the respective electrolyte media. The ruthenocenium ion 1(+) equilibrates with a metal-metal bonded dimer [Ru(2)Cp(4)](2+), 2(2+), that is increasingly preferred at low temperatures. Dimerization equilibrium constants determined by digital simulation of cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves were in the range of 10(2)-10(4) M(-1) at temperatures of 256 to 298 K. Near room temperature, and particularly when BArF(24) is the counteranion, the dinuclear species [Ru(2)Cp(2)(sigma:eta(5)-C(5)H(4))(2)] (2+), 3(2+), in which each metal is sigma-bonded to a cyclopentadienyl ring, was the preferred electrolytic oxidation product. Cathodic reduction of 3(2+) regenerated ruthenocene. The two dinuclear products, 2(2+) and 3(2+), were characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy on anodically electrolyzed solutions of 1 at low temperatures in CD(2)Cl(2)/[NBu(4)][BArF(24)]. The variable temperature NMR behavior of these solutions showed that 3(2+) and 2(2+) take part in a thermal equilibrium, the latter being dominant at the lowest temperatures. Ruthenocene hydride, [1-H](+), was also identified as being present in the electrolysis solutions. The oxidation of ruthenocene is shown to be an inherent one-electron process, giving a ruthenocenium ion which is highly susceptible to reactions that allow it to regain an 18-electron configuration. In a dry non-donor solvent, and in the absence of nucleophiles, this electronic configuration is attained by self-reactions involving formation of Ru-Ru or Ru-C bonds. The present data offer a mechanistic explanation for the previously described results on the chemical oxidation of osmocene (Droege, M

  11. π to σ Radical Tautomerization in One-Electron Oxidized 1-Methylcytosine and its Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Amitava; Kumar, Anil; Bishop, Casandra T.; Wiegand, Tyler J.; Hindi, Ragda M.; Adhikary, Ananya; Sevilla, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    In this work iminyl σ-radical formation in several one-electron oxidized cytosine analogs including 1-MeC, cidofovir, 2′-deoxycytidine (dCyd), and 2′-deoxycytidine 5′-monophosphate (5′-dCMP) were investigated in homogeneous aqueous (D2O or H2O) glassy solutions at low temperatures employing electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Employing density functional theory (DFT) (DFT/B3LYP/6-31G* method), the calculated hyperfine coupling constant (HFCC) values of iminyl σ-radical agree quite well with the experimentally observed ones thus confirming its assignment. ESR and DFT studies show that the cytosine-iminyl σ-radical is a tautomer of the deprotonated cytosine π-cation radical (cytosine π-aminyl radical, C(N4-H)•). Employing 1-MeC samples at various pHs ranging ca. 8 to ca. 11, ESR studies show that the tautomeric equilibrium between C(N4-H)• and the iminyl σ-radical at low temperature is too slow to be established without added base. ESR and DFT studies agree that in the iminyl-σ radical, the unpaired spin is localized to the exocyclic nitrogen (N4) in an in-plane pure p-orbital. This gives rise to an anisotropic nitrogen hyperfine coupling (Azz = 40 G) from N4 and a near isotropic β-nitrogen coupling of 9.7 G from the cytosine ring nitrogen at N3. Iminyl σ-radical should exist in its N3-protonated form as the N3-protonated iminyl σ-radical is stabilized in solution by over 30 kcal/mol (ΔG= −32 kcal/mol) over its conjugate base, the N3-deprotonated form. This is the first observation of an isotropic β-hyperfine ring nitrogen coupling in an N-centered DNA-radical. Our theoretical calculations predict that the cytosine iminyl σ-radical can be formed in dsDNA by a radiation-induced ionization–deprotonation process that is only 10 kcal/mol above the lowest energy path. PMID:26237072

  12. The intriguing enhancement of chloroperoxidase mediated one-electron oxidations by azide, a known active-site ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew, Daniel; Hager, Lowell; Manoj, Kelath Murali

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Azide is a well known heme-enzyme active site ligand and inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Herein, azide is reported to enhance a set of heme-enzyme mediated reactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This effect is disconnected from native enzyme-azide binding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Azide could enhance heme-enzyme reactions via a newly proposed mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Azide contained in reagents could impact reaction outcomes in redox biochemistry. -- Abstract: Azide is a well-known inhibitor of heme-enzymes. Herein, we report the counter-intuitive observation that at some concentration regimes, incorporation of azide in the reaction medium enhances chloroperoxidase (CPO, a heme-enzyme) mediated one-electron abstractions from several substrates. A diffusible azidyl radical based mechanism is proposed for explaining the phenomenon. Further, it is projected that the finding could have significant impact on routine in situ or in vitro biochemistry studies involving heme-enzyme systems and azide.

  13. Nonlinear, driven-dissipative hydrodynamics and effective chiral description of an exciton-polariton superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Manas; Kolmakov, German

    2015-03-01

    Given recent remarkable experimental success on capturing hydrodynamic features of exciton-polariton condensates in optical microcavities and their potential implications for quantum and optical computing and information technologies, we present an effective chiral description for such systems. This description captures the fingerprints of hydrodynamics, namely, nonlinearity, dispersion and dissipation in the exciton-polariton system. The resulting chiral equation for the condensate perturbation wave dynamics is found to be of Burgers-type thereby providing a more transparent understanding of the complicated underlying coupled exciton-photon dynamics. By using analytical calculations and numerical simulations, we describe the phenomenon of polariton shock waves, solitons and defects in such systems. Our mapping is expected to have broad implications for other polariton and photon systems including dipolar exciton and magnon condensates. This mapping can further help one in engineering a delicate balance between the pump and damping to produce stable optical signals propagating in polariton circuits.

  14. The Effects of Liking Norms and Descriptive Norms on Vegetable Consumption: A Randomized Experiment.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jason M; Liu, Jinyu; Robinson, Eric L; Aveyard, Paul; Herman, C Peter; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that social norm messages can be used to promote the selection of fruit and vegetables in low habitual consumers of these foods but it is unclear whether this effect is sustained over time. It is also unclear whether information about others' liking for a food (liking norm) could have the same effect. Using a 2 × 5 × 2 experimental design we investigated the effects of exposure to various messages on later intake from a food buffet and whether any effects were sustained 24 h after exposure in both low and high consumers of vegetables. There were three factors: delay (immediate food selection vs. food selection 24 h after exposure), message type (liking norm, descriptive norm, health message, vegetable variety condition, and neutral control message), and habitual consumption (low vs. high). The buffet consisted of three raw vegetables, three energy-dense foods, and two dips. For vegetables and non-vegetables there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay. There was a significant message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for vegetable consumption; however, follow up tests did not yield any significant effects. Examining each food individually, there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay, for any of the foods; however, there was a message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for broccoli. Consumption of broccoli in the health message and descriptive norm conditions did not differ from the control neutral condition. However, habitually low consumers of vegetables increased their consumption of broccoli in the vegetable variety and liking norm conditions relative to habitual low vegetable consumers in the neutral control condition (p < 0.05). Further, investigation of the effects of the liking norm and vegetable variety condition on vegetable intake is warranted. This trial is listed as NCT02618174 at clinicaltrials.gov.

  15. The Effects of Liking Norms and Descriptive Norms on Vegetable Consumption: A Randomized Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jason M.; Liu, Jinyu; Robinson, Eric L.; Aveyard, Paul; Herman, C. Peter; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that social norm messages can be used to promote the selection of fruit and vegetables in low habitual consumers of these foods but it is unclear whether this effect is sustained over time. It is also unclear whether information about others' liking for a food (liking norm) could have the same effect. Using a 2 × 5 × 2 experimental design we investigated the effects of exposure to various messages on later intake from a food buffet and whether any effects were sustained 24 h after exposure in both low and high consumers of vegetables. There were three factors: delay (immediate food selection vs. food selection 24 h after exposure), message type (liking norm, descriptive norm, health message, vegetable variety condition, and neutral control message), and habitual consumption (low vs. high). The buffet consisted of three raw vegetables, three energy-dense foods, and two dips. For vegetables and non-vegetables there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay. There was a significant message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for vegetable consumption; however, follow up tests did not yield any significant effects. Examining each food individually, there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay, for any of the foods; however, there was a message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for broccoli. Consumption of broccoli in the health message and descriptive norm conditions did not differ from the control neutral condition. However, habitually low consumers of vegetables increased their consumption of broccoli in the vegetable variety and liking norm conditions relative to habitual low vegetable consumers in the neutral control condition (p < 0.05). Further, investigation of the effects of the liking norm and vegetable variety condition on vegetable intake is warranted. This trial is listed as NCT02618174 at clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:27065913

  16. The Effects of Liking Norms and Descriptive Norms on Vegetable Consumption: A Randomized Experiment.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jason M; Liu, Jinyu; Robinson, Eric L; Aveyard, Paul; Herman, C Peter; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that social norm messages can be used to promote the selection of fruit and vegetables in low habitual consumers of these foods but it is unclear whether this effect is sustained over time. It is also unclear whether information about others' liking for a food (liking norm) could have the same effect. Using a 2 × 5 × 2 experimental design we investigated the effects of exposure to various messages on later intake from a food buffet and whether any effects were sustained 24 h after exposure in both low and high consumers of vegetables. There were three factors: delay (immediate food selection vs. food selection 24 h after exposure), message type (liking norm, descriptive norm, health message, vegetable variety condition, and neutral control message), and habitual consumption (low vs. high). The buffet consisted of three raw vegetables, three energy-dense foods, and two dips. For vegetables and non-vegetables there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay. There was a significant message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for vegetable consumption; however, follow up tests did not yield any significant effects. Examining each food individually, there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay, for any of the foods; however, there was a message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for broccoli. Consumption of broccoli in the health message and descriptive norm conditions did not differ from the control neutral condition. However, habitually low consumers of vegetables increased their consumption of broccoli in the vegetable variety and liking norm conditions relative to habitual low vegetable consumers in the neutral control condition (p < 0.05). Further, investigation of the effects of the liking norm and vegetable variety condition on vegetable intake is warranted. This trial is listed as NCT02618174 at clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:27065913

  17. A protocol to evaluate one electron redox potential for iron complexes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyungjun; Park, Joungwon; Lee, Yoon Sup

    2013-10-01

    Density functional theory calculation has been performed to calculate the redox potential and the correct ground spin state of iron complexes in acetonitrile. Widely used B3LYP functional is applied with the spin state corrected basis sets. The newly developed protocol for the set of 21 iron complexes is to optimize the structure at the level of the B3LYP/6-31G* and to calculate the single point electronic energy with the same functional and the modified basis sets s6-31G* for the iron atom and 6-31+G* for other ligand atoms. The solvation energy is considered through the polarized continuum model and the cavity creation energy is included for the accurate spin state description. Modifying the cavity size by employing the different scaling factor according to the mean absolute value of the natural population analysis charge (MA-NPA) is introduced. The molecule with the large MA-NPA requires the cavity size smaller than the less polar one. This protocol gives only 1 wrong ground spin state among the 18 iron complexes for which experimental data are known. For the open circuit voltage (OCV) calculation, our protocol performs well yielding the mean absolute error of 0.112 V for the test set. The close correlation between the calculated and the experimental OCV are obtained.

  18. Mean-field description of ionic size effects with nonuniform ionic sizes: a numerical approach.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shenggao; Wang, Zhongming; Li, Bo

    2011-08-01

    Ionic size effects are significant in many biological systems. Mean-field descriptions of such effects can be efficient but also challenging. When ionic sizes are different, explicit formulas in such descriptions are not available for the dependence of the ionic concentrations on the electrostatic potential, that is, there is no explicit Boltzmann-type distributions. This work begins with a variational formulation of the continuum electrostatics of an ionic solution with such nonuniform ionic sizes as well as multiple ionic valences. An augmented Lagrange multiplier method is then developed and implemented to numerically solve the underlying constrained optimization problem. The method is shown to be accurate and efficient, and is applied to ionic systems with nonuniform ionic sizes such as the sodium chloride solution. Extensive numerical tests demonstrate that the mean-field model and numerical method capture qualitatively some significant ionic size effects, particularly those for multivalent ionic solutions, such as the stratification of multivalent counterions near a charged surface. The ionic valence-to-volume ratio is found to be the key physical parameter in the stratification of concentrations. All these are not well described by the classical Poisson-Boltzmann theory, or the generalized Poisson-Boltzmann theory that treats uniform ionic sizes. Finally, various issues such as the close packing, limitation of the continuum model, and generalization of this work to molecular solvation are discussed. PMID:21929014

  19. Description of light nuclei in pionless effective field theory using the stochastic variational method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lensky, Vadim; Birse, Michael C.; Walet, Niels R.

    2016-09-01

    We construct a coordinate-space potential based on pionless effective field theory (EFT) with a Gaussian regulator. Charge-symmetry breaking is included through the Coulomb potential and through two- and three-body contact interactions. Starting with the effective field theory potential, we apply the stochastic variational method to determine the ground states of nuclei with mass number A ≤4 . At next-to-next-to-leading order, two out of three independent three-body parameters can be fitted to the three-body binding energies. To fix the remaining one, we look for a simultaneous description of the binding energy of 4He and the charge radii of 3He and 4He. We show that at the order considered we can find an acceptable solution, within the uncertainty of the expansion. We find that the EFT expansion shows good agreement with empirical data within the estimated uncertainty, even for a system as dense as 4He.

  20. DFT Studies of the Extent of Hole Delocalization in One-electron Oxidized Adenine and Guanine base Stacks

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anil

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the extent of hole delocalization in one-electron oxidized adenine (A)- and guanine (G)-stacks and shows that new IR vibrational bands are predicted that are characteristic of hole delocalization within A-stacks. The geometries of A-stack (Ai; i = 2 – 8) and G-stack (GG and GGG) in their neutral and one-electron oxidized states were optimized with the bases in a B-DNA conformation using the M06-2X/6-31G* method. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) is localized on a single adenine in A-stacks and on a single guanine in GG and GGG stacks; located at the 5′-site of the stack. On one-electron oxidation (removal of an electron from the HOMO of the neutral A- and G-stacks) a “hole” is created. Mulliken charge analysis shows that these “holes” are delocalized over 2 – 3 adenine bases in the A-stack. The calculated spin density distribution of (Ai)•+ (i = 2 – 8), also, showed delocalization of the hole predominantly on two adenine bases with some delocalization on a neighboring base. For GG and GGG radical cations, the hole was found to be localized on a single G in the stack. The calculated HFCCs of GG and GGG are in good agreement with the experiment. Further, from the vibrational frequency analysis, it was found that IR spectra of neutral and the corresponding one-electron oxidized adenine stacks are quite different. The IR spectra of (A2)•+ has intense IR peaks between 900 – 1500 cm−1 which are not present in the neutral A2 stack. The presence of (A2)•+ in the adenine stack has a characteristic intense peak at ~1100 cm−1. Thus IR and Raman spectroscopy has potential for monitoring the extent of hole delocalization in A stacks. PMID:21417208

  1. The effect of simplifying the building description on the numerical modeling of its thermal performance

    SciTech Connect

    Stetiu, C.

    1993-07-01

    A thermal building simulation program is a numerical model that calculates the response of the building envelopes to weather and human activity, simulates dynamic heating and cooling loads, and heating and cooling distribution systems, and models building equipment operation. The scope of the research is to supply the users of such programs with information about the dangers and benefits of simplifying the input to their models. The Introduction describes the advantages of modeling the heat transfer mechanisms in a building. The programs that perform this type of modeling have, however, limitations. The user is therefore often put in the situation of simplifying the floor plans of the building under study, but not being able to check the effects that this approximation introduces in the results of the simulation. Chapter 1 is a description of methods. It also introduces the floor plans for the office building under study and the ``reasonable`` floor plans simplifications. Chapter 2 presents DOE-2, the thermal building simulation program used in the sensitivity study. The evaluation of the accuracy of the DOE-2 program itself is also presented. Chapter 3 contains the sensitivity study. The complicated nature of the process of interpreting the temperature profile inside a space leads to the necessity of defining different building modes. The study compares the results from the model of the detailed building description with the results from the models of the same building having simplified floor plans. The conclusion is reached that a study of the effects of simplifying the floor plans of a building is important mainly for defining the cases in which this approximation is acceptable. Different results are obtained for different air conditioning/load regimes of the building. 9 refs., 24 figs.

  2. One-electron oxidation of gemcitabine and analogs: mechanism of formation of C3' and C2' sugar radicals.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Amitava; Kumar, Anil; Rayala, Ramanjaneyulu; Hindi, Ragda M; Adhikary, Ananya; Wnuk, Stanislaw F; Sevilla, Michael D

    2014-11-01

    Gemcitabine is a modified cytidine analog having two fluorine atoms at the 2'-position of the ribose ring. It has been proposed that gemcitabine inhibits RNR activity by producing a C3'• intermediate via direct H3'-atom abstraction followed by loss of HF to yield a C2'• with 3'-keto moiety. Direct detection of C3'• and C2'• during RNR inactivation by gemcitabine still remains elusive. To test the influence of 2'- substitution on radical site formation, electron spin resonance (ESR) studies are carried out on one-electron oxidized gemcitabine and other 2'-modified analogs, i.e., 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-2'-C-methylcytidine (MeFdC) and 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (2'-FdC). ESR line components from two anisotropic β-2'-F-atom hyperfine couplings identify the C3'• formation in one-electron oxidized gemcitabine, but no further reaction to C2'• is found. One-electron oxidized 2'-FdC is unreactive toward C3'• or C2'• formation. In one-electron oxidized MeFdC, ESR studies show C2'• production presumably from a very unstable C3'• precursor. The experimentally observed hyperfine couplings for C2'• and C3'• match well with the theoretically predicted ones. C3'• to C2'• conversion in one-electron oxidized gemcitabine and MeFdC has theoretically been modeled by first considering the C3'• and H3O(+) formation via H3'-proton deprotonation and the subsequent C2'• formation via HF loss induced by this proximate H3O(+). Theoretical calculations show that in gemcitabine, C3'• to C2'• conversion in the presence of a proximate H3O(+) has a barrier in agreement with the experimentally observed lack of C3'• to C2'• conversion. In contrast, in MeFdC, the loss of HF from C3'• in the presence of a proximate H3O(+) is barrierless resulting in C2'• formation which agrees with the experimentally observed rapid C2'• formation.

  3. Prototropic Equilibria in DNA Containing One-electron Oxidized GC: Intra-duplex vs. Duplex to Solvent Deprotonation

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Amitava; Kumar, Anil; Munafo, Shawn A.; Khanduri, Deepti; Sevilla, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    By use of ESR and UV-vis spectral studies, this work identifies the protonation states of one-electron oxidized G:C (viz. G•+:C, G(N1-H)•:C(+H+), G(N1-H)•:C, and G(N2-H)•:C) in a DNA oligomer d[TGCGCGCA]2. Benchmark ESR and UV-vis spectra from one electron oxidized 1-Me-dGuo are employed to analyze the spectral data obtained in one-electron oxidized d[TGCGCGCA]2 at various pHs. At pH ≥7, the initial site of deprotonation of one-electron oxidized d[TGCGCGCA]2 to the surrounding solvent is found to be at N1 forming G(N1-H)•:C at 155 K. However, upon annealing to 175 K, the site of deprotonation to the solvent shifts to an equilibrium mixture of G(N1-H)•:C and G(N2-H)•:C. For the first time, the presence of G(N2-H)•:C in a ds DNA-oligomer is shown to be easily distinguished from the other prototropic forms, owing to its readily observable nitrogen hyperfine coupling (Azz(N2)= 16 G). In addition, for the oligomer in H2O, an additional 8 G N2-H proton HFCC is found. This ESR identification is supported by a UV-vis absorption at 630 nm which is characteristic for G(N2-H)• in model compounds and oligomers. We find that the extent of photo-conversion to the C1′ sugar radical (C1′•) in the one-electron oxidized d[TGCGCGCA]2 allows for a clear distinction among the various G:C protonation states which can not be easily distinguished by ESR or UV-vis spectroscopies with this order for the extent of photo-conversion: G•+:C > G(N1-H)•:C(+H+) >> G(N1-H)•:C. We propose that it is the G•+:C form that undergoes deprotonation at the sugar and this requires reprotonation of G within the lifetime of exited state. PMID:21491657

  4. Prototropic equilibria in DNA containing one-electron oxidized GC: intra-duplex vs. duplex to solvent deprotonation.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Amitava; Kumar, Anil; Munafo, Shawn A; Khanduri, Deepti; Sevilla, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    By use of ESR and UV-vis spectral studies, this work identifies the protonation states of one-electron oxidized G:C (viz. G˙+:C, G(N1–H)˙:C(+H+), G(N1–H)˙:C, and G(N2-H)˙:C) in a DNA oligomer d[TGCGCGCA]2. Benchmark ESR and UV-vis spectra from one electron oxidized 1-Me-dGuo are employed to analyze the spectral data obtained in one-electron oxidized d[TGCGCGCA]2 at various pHs. At pH ≥7, the initial site of deprotonation of one-electron oxidized d[TGCGCGCA]2 to the surrounding solvent is found to be at N1 forming G(N1–H)˙:C at 155 K. However, upon annealing to 175 K, the site of deprotonation to the solvent shifts to an equilibrium mixture of G(N1–H)˙:C and G(N2–H)˙:C. For the first time, the presence of G(N2–H)˙:C in a ds DNA-oligomer is shown to be easily distinguished from the other prototropic forms, owing to its readily observable nitrogen hyperfine coupling (Azz(N2) = 16 G). In addition, for the oligomer in H2O, an additional 8 G N2–H proton HFCC is found. This ESR identification is supported by a UV-vis absorption at 630 nm which is characteristic for G(N2–H)˙ in model compounds and oligomers. We find that the extent of photo-conversion to the C1′ sugar radical (C1′˙) in the one-electron oxidized d[TGCGCGCA]2 allows for a clear distinction among the various G:C protonation states which can not be easily distinguished by ESR or UV-vis spectroscopies with this order for the extent of photo-conversion: G˙+:C > G(N1–H)˙:C(+H+) ≫ G(N1–H)˙:C. We propose that it is the G˙+:C form that undergoes deprotonation at the sugar and this requires reprotonation of G within the lifetime of exited state

  5. Nursing students' perspectives on clinical instructors' effective teaching strategies: A descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Valiee, Sina; Moridi, Glorokh; Khaledi, Shahnaz; Garibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    An important factor contributing to the quality of clinical education is instructors' teaching performance. The aim of this study was to identify clinical instructors' most effective teaching strategies from nursing and midwifery students' perspectives. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. All third- and fourth-year bachelor's nursing and midwifery students studying at the Nursing and Midwifery Faculty of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences were recruited to the study by using the census method. The study instrument consisted of a demographic questionnaire and the self-report 30-item Clinical Instructors' Effective Teaching Strategies Inventory. The SPSS v.16.0 was used for data analysis. The most effective teaching strategies of clinical instructors from nursing and midwifery students' perspectives were respectively 'treating students, clients, and colleagues with respect' and 'being eager for guiding students and manage their problems'. Clinical instructors need to be eager for education and also be able to establish effective communication with students. Empowering clinical instructors in specialized and technical aspects of clinical education seems necessary.

  6. Binding of benzo(a)pyrene to DNA by cytochrome P-450 catalyzed one-electron oxidation in rat liver microsomes and nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalieri, E.L.; Rogan, E.G.; Devanesan, P.D.; Cremonesi, P. ); Cerny, R.L.; Gross, M.L. ); Bodell, W.J. )

    1990-05-22

    To investigate whether cytochrome P-450 catalyzes the covalent binding of substrates to DNA by one-electron oxidation, the ability of both uninduced and 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) induced rat liver microsomes and nuclei to catalyze covalent binding of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) to DNA and formation of the labile adduct 7-(benzo(a)pyren-6-yl)guanine (BP-N7Gua) was investigated. In the various systems studied, 1-9 times more BP-N7Gua adduct was isolated than the total amount of stable BP adducts in the DNA. The specific cytochrome P-450 inhibitor 2-((4,6-dichloro-o-biphenyl)oxy)ethylamine hydrobromide (DPEA) reduced or eliminated BP metabolism, binding of BP to DNA, and formation of BP-N7Gua by cytochrome P-450 in both microsomes and nuclei. The effects of the antioxidants cysteine, glutathione, and p-methoxythiophenol were also investigated. This study represents the first demonstration of cytochrome P-450 mediating covalent binding of substrates to DNA via one-electron oxidation and suggests that this enzyme can catalyze peroxidase-type electron-transfer reactions.

  7. One-electron reduction of 8-bromo-2-aminoadenosine in the aqueous phase: radiation chemical and DFT studies of the mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kaloudis, Panagiotis; D'Angelantonio, Mila; Guerra, Maurizio; Gimisis, Thanasis; Mulazzani, Quinto G; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos

    2008-04-24

    Two tautomeric forms of one-electron oxidized 2-aminoadenosine (2AA) have been produced by reactions of hydrated electrons (e aq-) with 8-bromo-2-aminoadenosine (8-Br-2AA) at natural pH, whereas only one tautomer is formed by oxidation of 2AA. Tailored experiments by pulse radiolysis and time-dependent DFT (TD-B3LYP/6-311G**//B1B95/6-31+G**) calculations allowed the definition of the reaction mechanism in some detail. The electron adducts of 8-Br-2AA protonated at C8 eject Br- and produce the two short-lived tautomers (8 and 9). The first observable species decays by first-order kinetics to produce the second intermediate, which is also obtained by oxidation of 2AA by SO4*-. The rate of tautomerization (k taut = 4.5 x 104 s-1) is strongly accelerated by phosphate and is retarded in D2O (kinetic isotope effect 7). B1B95/6-31+G** calculations showed that the tautomerization is a water-assisted process. In acidic or basic solutions, the "instantaneous" formation of one-electron oxidized 2AA or its deprotonated forms has been produced by reactions of e aq- with 8-Br-2AA. gamma-Radiolysis of 8-Br-2AA in aqueous solutions followed by product studies led to the formation of 2AA as a single product.

  8. Electrochemical and spectroscopic evidence on the one-electron reduction of U(VI) to U(V) on magnetite

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Ke; Ilton, Eugene S.; Antonio, Mark R.; Li, Zhongrui; Cook, Peter J.; Becker, Udo

    2015-05-19

    Reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) on mineral surfaces has been considered as a one-step two electron process. However, stabilized U(V), with no evidence of U(IV), found in recent studies indicates U(VI) can undergo a one electron reduction to U(V) without further progression to U(IV). We investigated the mechanisms of uranium reduction by reducing U(VI) electrochemically on a magnetite electrode at pH 3.4 . The one electron reduction of U(VI) was first confirmed using the cyclic voltammetry method. Formation of nano-size uranium precipitates on the surface of magnetite at reducing potentials and dissolution of the solids at oxidizing potentials were observed by in situ electrochemical AFM. XPS analysis of the magnetite electrodes polarized in uranium solutions at voltages from 0.1 ~ 0.9 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) showed the presence of only U(V) and U(VI). The highest amount of U(V) relative to U(VI) was prepared at 0.7 V, where the longest average U–Oaxial distance of 2.05 ± 0.01 Å was evident in the same sample revealed by EXAFS analysis. The results demonstrate that the electrochemical reduction of U(VI) on magnetite only yields U(V), even at a potential of 0.9 V, which favors the one-electron reduction mechanism. U(V) did not disproportionate but stabilized on magnetite through precipitation of mixed-valence state U(VI)/U(V) solids.

  9. A lifting surface computer code with jet-in-crossflow interference effects. Volume 1: Theoretical description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furlong, K. L.; Fearn, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    A method is proposed to combine a numerical description of a jet in a crossflow with a lifting surface panel code to calculate the jet/aerodynamic-surface interference effects on a V/STOL aircraft. An iterative technique is suggested that starts with a model for the properties of a jet/flat plate configuration and modifies these properties based on the flow field calculated for the configuration of interest. The method would estimate the pressures, forces, and moments on an aircraft out of ground effect. A first-order approximation to the method suggested is developed and applied to two simple configurations. The first-order approximation is a noniterative precedure which does not allow for interactions between multiple jets in a crossflow and also does not account for the influence of lifting surfaces on the jet properties. The jet/flat plate model utilized in the examples presented is restricted to a uniform round jet injected perpendicularly into a uniform crossflow for a range of jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios from three to ten.

  10. Achieving Low Overpotential Li-O₂ Battery Operations by Li₂O₂ Decomposition through One-Electron Processes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jin; Dong, Qi; Madden, Ian; Yao, Xiahui; Cheng, Qingmei; Dornath, Paul; Fan, Wei; Wang, Dunwei

    2015-12-01

    As a promising high-capacity energy storage technology, Li-O2 batteries face two critical challenges, poor cycle lifetime and low round-trip efficiencies, both of which are connected to the high overpotentials. The problem is particularly acute during recharge, where the reactions typically follow two-electron mechanisms that are inherently slow. Here we present a strategy that can significantly reduce recharge overpotentials. Our approach seeks to promote Li2O2 decomposition by one-electron processes, and the key is to stabilize the important intermediate of superoxide species. With the introduction of a highly polarizing electrolyte, we observe that recharge processes are successfully switched from a two-electron pathway to a single-electron one. While a similar one-electron route has been reported for the discharge processes, it has rarely been described for recharge except for the initial stage due to the poor mobilities of surface bound superoxide ions (O2(-)), a necessary intermediate for the mechanism. Key to our observation is the solvation of O2(-) by an ionic liquid electrolyte (PYR14TFSI). Recharge overpotentials as low as 0.19 V at 100 mA/g(carbon) are measured.

  11. Representation-free description of light-pulse atom interferometry including non-inertial effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinert, Stephan; Kajari, Endre; Roura, Albert; Schleich, Wolfgang P.

    2015-12-01

    Light-pulse atom interferometers rely on the wave nature of matter and its manipulation with coherent laser pulses. They are used for precise gravimetry and inertial sensing as well as for accurate measurements of fundamental constants. Reaching higher precision requires longer interferometer times which are naturally encountered in microgravity environments such as drop-tower facilities, sounding rockets and dedicated satellite missions aiming at fundamental quantum physics in space. In all those cases, it is necessary to consider arbitrary trajectories and varying orientations of the interferometer set-up in non-inertial frames of reference. Here we provide a versatile representation-free description of atom interferometry entirely based on operator algebra to address this general situation. We show how to analytically determine the phase shift as well as the visibility of interferometers with an arbitrary number of pulses including the effects of local gravitational accelerations, gravity gradients, the rotation of the lasers and non-inertial frames of reference. Our method conveniently unifies previous results and facilitates the investigation of novel interferometer geometries.

  12. Drought description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matalas, N.C.

    1991-01-01

    What constitutes a comprehensive description of drought, a description forming a basis for answering why a drought occurred is outlined. The description entails two aspects that are "naturally" coupled, named physical and economic, and treats the set of hydrologic measures of droughts in terms of their multivariate distribution, rather than in terms of a collection of the marginal distributions. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Effect of postmortem deboning time on sensory descriptive flavor and texture profiles of cooked boneless skinless chicken thighs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three replicate trials were conducted to investigate the effect of deboning time on sensory descriptive profiles of cooked boneless skinless thigh meat (iliotibialis, iliofibularis and the femoritibialis). Carcasses (42-d old birds) were obtained from a commercial processing plant. Thighs were hot-b...

  14. Extraction-equilibrium description from a solvent-effect scale and from a multiparameter free energy linearity equation

    SciTech Connect

    Makitra, R.G.; Pirig, Ya.N.

    1988-07-01

    Extraction-equilibria descriptions have been compared: from a multiparameter free-energy linearity equation and from a solvent-effect (SE) parameter. The first is more versatile and characterizes the extraction chemistry better. The SE* parameter varies in parallel with the solvent electrophilic solvation parameter, but the full correlation requires one to incorporate the cohesion energy density and polarity.

  15. Communication: satisfying fermionic statistics in the modeling of open time-dependent quantum systems with one-electron reduced density matrices.

    PubMed

    Head-Marsden, Kade; Mazziotti, David A

    2015-02-01

    For an open, time-dependent quantum system, Lindblad derived the most general modification of the quantum Liouville equation in the Markovian approximation that models environmental effects while preserving the non-negativity of the system's density matrix. While Lindblad's modification is correct for N-electron density matrices, solution of the Liouville equation with a Lindblad operator causes the one-electron reduced density matrix (1-RDM) to violate the Pauli exclusion principle. Consequently, after a short time, the 1-RDM is not representable by an ensemble N-electron density matrix (not ensemble N-representable). In this communication, we derive the necessary and sufficient constraints on the Lindbladian matrix within the Lindblad operator to ensure that the 1-RDM remains N-representable for all time. The theory is illustrated by considering the relaxation of an excitation in several molecules F2, N2, CO, and BeH2 subject to environmental noise.

  16. From 0 to II in One-Electron Steps: A Series of Ruthenium Complexes Supported by TropPPh2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiuxiu; Gianetti, Thomas L; Harbort, Joshua; Wörle, Michael D; Tan, Lilin; Su, Cheng-Yong; Jurt, Pascal; Harmer, Jeffrey R; Grützmacher, Hansjörg

    2016-09-19

    We report the synthesis of a series of ruthenium complexes supported by the phosphine olefin ligand tropPPh2 (trop=5-H-dibenzo-[a,d]cyclohepten-5-yl) in the oxidation states 0, +I, and +II, formed via successive one-electron oxidization steps from Ru(0) (tropPPh2 )2 . The bidentate character of the tropPPh2 ligand and its steric hindrance force the complexes to adopt uncommon geometries, which were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. EPR data of the mononuclear Ru(I) complex reveal couplings of the unpaired spin with the ruthenium and two phosphorus nuclei, as well as the olefinic protons which show that the spin is mainly localized on the Ru(I) center. PMID:27557780

  17. Dynamic approach to description of entrance channel effects in angular distributions of fission fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremenko, D. O.; Drozdov, V. A.; Fotina, O. V.; Platonov, S. Yu.; Yuminov, O. A.

    2016-07-01

    Background: It is well known that the anomalous behavior of angular anisotropies of fission fragments at sub- and near-barrier energies is associated with a memory of conditions in the entrance channel of the heavy-ion reactions, particularly, deformations and spins of colliding nuclei that determine the initial distributions for the components of the total angular momentum over the symmetry axis of the fissioning system and the beam axis. Purpose: We develop a new dynamic approach, which allows the description of the memory effects in the fission fragment angular distributions and provides new information on fusion and fission dynamics. Methods: The approach is based on the dynamic model of the fission fragment angular distributions which takes into account stochastic aspects of nuclear fission and thermal fluctuations for the tilting mode that is characterized by the projection of the total angular momentum onto the symmetry axis of the fissioning system. Another base of our approach is the quantum mechanical method to calculate the initial distributions over the components of the total angular momentum of the nuclear system immediately following complete fusion. Results: A method is suggested for calculating the initial distributions of the total angular momentum projection onto the symmetry axis for the nuclear systems formed in the reactions of complete fusion of deformed nuclei with spins. The angular distributions of fission fragments for the 16O+232Th,12C+235,236,238, and 13C+235U reactions have been analyzed within the dynamic approach over a range of sub- and above-barrier energies. The analysis allowed us to determine the relaxation time for the tilting mode and the fraction of fission events occurring in times not larger than the relaxation time for the tilting mode. Conclusions: It is shown that the memory effects play an important role in the formation of the angular distributions of fission fragments for the reactions induced by heavy ions. The

  18. Effects of Modeling Instruction on Descriptive Writing and Observational Skills in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Do-Yong; Logsdon, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Before science can be completely understood, one of the fundamental skills that must be developed is observation. Improving descriptive writing and investigating students' observational skills in the classroom is the purpose of this study. The study was designed to determine if such skills, practiced through modeling activities, serve as a…

  19. Deboning time effect on sensory descriptive flavor profiles of cooked broiler pectoralis major

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profiling sensory texture characteristics of cooked chicken pectoralis major (breast fillets) deboned at different postmortem (PM) times has been research interests for decades. However, there is lack of peer-reviewed studies to compare sensory descriptive flavor profiles of hot-deboned versus 2-h c...

  20. Hydroxyl ion addition to one-electron oxidized thymine: Unimolecular interconversion of C5 to C6 OH-adducts

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Amitava; Kumar, Anil; Heizer, Alicia N.; Palmer, Brian J.; Pottiboyina, Venkata; Liang, Yong; Wnuk, Stanislaw F.; Sevilla, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, addition of OH− to one-electron oxidized thymidine (dThd) and thymine nucleotides in basic aqueous glasses is investigated. At pHs ca. 9–10 where the thymine base is largely deprotonated at N3, one-electron oxidation of the thymine base by Cl2•− at ca. 155 K results in formation of a neutral thyminyl radical, T(−H)•. Assignment to T(−H)• is confirmed by employing 15N substituted 5'-TMP. At pH ≥ ca. 11.5, formation of the 5-hydroxythymin-6-yl radical, T(5OH)•, is identified as a metastable intermediate produced by OH− addition to T(−H)• at C5 at ca. 155 K. Upon further annealing to ca. 170 K, T(5OH)• readily converts to the 6-hydroxythymin-5-yl radical, T(6OH)•. One-electron oxidation of N3-methyl-thymidine (N3-Me-dThd) by Cl2•− at ca. 155 K produces the cation radical (N3-Me-dThd•+) for which we find a pH dependent competition between deprotonation from the methyl group at C5 and addition of OH− to C5. At pH 7 the 5-methyl deprotonated species is found; however, at pH ca. 9, N3-Me-dThd•+ produces T(5OH)• that on annealing up to 180 K forms T(6OH)•. Through use of deuterium substitution at C5' and on the thymine base, i.e., specifically employing [5',5”-D,D]-5'-dThd, [5',5”-D,D]-5'-TMP, [CD3]-dThd and [CD3,6D]-dThd, we find unequivocal evidence for T(5OH)• formation and its conversion to T(6OH)•. The addition of OH− to the C5 position in T(−H)• and N3-Me-dThd•+ is governed by spin and charge localization. DFT calculations predict that the conversion of the “reducing” T(5OH)• to the “oxidizing” T(6OH)• occurs by a unimolecular OH group transfer from C5 to C6 in the thymine base. The T(5OH)• to T(6OH)• conversion is found to occur more readily for deprotonated dThd and its nucleotides than for N3-Me-dThd. In agreement, calculations predict that the deprotonated thymine base has a lower energy barrier (ca. 6 kcal/mol) for OH transfer than its corresponding N3-protonated thymine

  1. Oxidation reactions of cytosine DNA components by hydroxyl radical and one-electron oxidants in aerated aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Wagner, J Richard; Cadet, Jean

    2010-04-20

    Indirect evidence strongly suggests that oxidation reactions of cytosine and its minor derivative 5-methylcytosine play a major role in mutagenesis and cancer. Therefore, there is an emerging necessity to identify the final oxidation products of these reactions, to search for their formation in cellular DNA, and to assess their mutagenic features. In this Account, we report and discuss the main *OH and one-electron-mediated oxidation reactions, two of the most potent sources of DNA damage, of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine nucleosides that have been recently characterized. The addition of *OH to the 5,6-unsaturated double bond of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine generates final degradation products that resemble those observed for uracil and thymine. The main product from the oxidation of cytosine, cytosine glycol, has been shown to undergo dehydration at a much faster rate as a free nucleoside than when inserted into double-stranded DNA. On the other hand, the predominant *OH addition at C5 of cytosine or 5-methylcytosine leads to the formation of 5-hydroxy-5,6-dihydro radicals that give rise to novel products with an imidazolidine structure. The mechanism of the formation of imidazolidine products is accounted for by rearrangement reactions that in the presence of molecular oxygen likely involve an intermediate pyrimidine endoperoxide. The reactions of the radical cations of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine are governed by competitive hydration, mainly at C6 of the pyrimidine ring, and deprotonation from the exocyclic amino and methyl group, leading in most cases to products similar to those generated by *OH. 5-Hydroxypyrimidines, the dehydration products of cytosine and uracil glycols, have a low oxidation potential, and their one-electron oxidation results in a cascade of decomposition reactions involving the formation of isodialuric acid, dialuric acid, 5-hydroxyhydantoin, and its hydroxyketone isomer. In biology, GC --> AT transitions are the most common mutations

  2. A simple quasi-diabatization scheme suitable for spectroscopic problems based on one-electron properties of interacting states.

    PubMed

    Cave, Robert J; Stanton, John F

    2016-02-01

    We present a simple quasi-diabatization scheme applicable to spectroscopic studies that can be applied using any wavefunction for which one-electron properties and transition properties can be calculated. The method is based on rotation of a pair (or set) of adiabatic states to minimize the difference between the given transition property at a reference geometry of high symmetry (where the quasi-diabatic states and adiabatic states coincide) and points of lower symmetry where quasi-diabatic quantities are desired. Compared to other quasi-diabatization techniques, the method requires no special coding, facilitates direct comparison between quasi-diabatic quantities calculated using different types of wavefunctions, and is free of any selection of configurations in the definition of the quasi-diabatic states. On the other hand, the method appears to be sensitive to multi-state issues, unlike recent methods we have developed that use a configurational definition of quasi-diabatic states. Results are presented and compared with two other recently developed quasi-diabatization techniques. PMID:26851911

  3. One-electron pseudopotential investigation of CsAr van der Waals system including the spin-orbit interaction.

    PubMed

    Dhiflaoui, J; Berriche, H

    2010-07-01

    The potential energy curves of the ground state and many excited states of the CsAr van der Waals system have been determined using [Cs(+)] and [Ar] core pseudopotentials and by considering core polarization operators on both atoms. This has permitted to reduce the number of active electrons of the CsAr system to only one electron, i.e., the valence electron, which led to use of large basis sets for Cs and Ar atoms. In this context, the potential energy curves of the ground state and many excited states are performed at the self consistent field (SCF) level. Spin-orbit interaction is also considered within a semiempirical scheme for the states dissociating into Cs(6p) and Cs(5d). The core-core interactions for Cs(+)Ar is included using the coupled cluster simple and double excitation (CCSD) accurate potential of Hickling et al. (Hickling, H.; Viehland, L.; Shepherd, D.; Soldan, P.; Lee, E.; Wright, T. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2004, 6, 4233). In addition, the spectroscopic constants of these states are derived and compared with the available theoretical and experimental works. Such comparison has shown a very good agreement for the ground and the first excited states. However, the spectroscopic data for the higher excited states are presented for the first time.

  4. Sex effects in leader behavior self-descriptions and job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Bartol, K M; Wortman, M S

    1976-11-01

    This study investigated possible sex differences in leadership among supervisory employees (N = 72) of a large psychiatric hospital by comparing male and female self-descriptions of their own leader behaviors, as well as their satisfaction with various aspects of their jobs. Female leaders described themselves as performing more consideration and tolerance of uncertainty leader behaviors and as being more satisfied with co-workers than male leaders. The possibility, suggested by sex role stereotypes, that self-perceptions of consideration behavior for females and initiating structure for males are related to job satisfaction was not affirmed by the findings. Although some differences were found, the results generally support indications from studies based on subordinate descriptions that there actually may be few job-related differences between male and female leaders.

  5. Sex effects in leader behavior self-descriptions and job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Bartol, K M; Wortman, M S

    1976-11-01

    This study investigated possible sex differences in leadership among supervisory employees (N = 72) of a large psychiatric hospital by comparing male and female self-descriptions of their own leader behaviors, as well as their satisfaction with various aspects of their jobs. Female leaders described themselves as performing more consideration and tolerance of uncertainty leader behaviors and as being more satisfied with co-workers than male leaders. The possibility, suggested by sex role stereotypes, that self-perceptions of consideration behavior for females and initiating structure for males are related to job satisfaction was not affirmed by the findings. Although some differences were found, the results generally support indications from studies based on subordinate descriptions that there actually may be few job-related differences between male and female leaders. PMID:994067

  6. Job descriptions made easy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The act of writing a job description can be a daunting and difficult task for many managers. This article focuses on the key concepts of What, How, and Measureable Results as they relate to an employee's job duties. When the answers to these three elements are articulated, they define the core responsibilities of any job that form the basis for an effective job description.

  7. Descriptive thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, David; Huntsman, Steven

    2006-06-01

    Thermodynamics (in concert with its sister discipline, statistical physics) can be regarded as a data reduction scheme based on partitioning a total system into a subsystem and a bath that weakly interact with each other. Whereas conventionally, the systems investigated require this form of data reduction in order to facilitate prediction, a different problem also occurs, in the context of communication networks, markets, etc. Such “empirically accessible” systems typically overwhelm observers with the sort of information that in the case of (say) a gas is effectively unobtainable. What is required for such complex interacting systems is not prediction (this may be impossible when humans besides the observer are responsible for the interactions) but rather, description as a route to understanding. Still, the need for a thermodynamical data reduction scheme remains. In this paper, we show how an empirical temperature can be computed for finite, empirically accessible systems, and further outline how this construction allows the age-old science of thermodynamics to be fruitfully applied to them.

  8. Deviations from one-electron behavior in the Ag and Pd M4,5-VV Auger spectra of AgcPd1-c alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariot, J.-M.; Hague, C. F.; Dufour, G.

    1981-04-01

    A systematic investigation of the Ag and Pd M4,5-VV Auger spectra in the pure metals and in the AgcPd1-c(0.1<=c<=0.9) alloys is presented. The shape of the Auger spectra is discussed in relation to the values of the effective Coulomb interaction Ueff between the two holes present in the final state of the Auger transition and of the width W of the one-electron local densities of states as obtained from Lβ2,15 soft-x-ray emission bands. The Auger spectra of Ag in the metal and the alloys have a pronounced quasiatomic character, as can be expected from the Ueff2W ratio which is found to be close to unity. The Auger spectrum of pure Pd (Ueff2W~0.4) can be explained in terms of an atomic model in which strong band effects are present. For alloys with low-Pd content where Pd forms an impurity state, it is shown that final states other than the localized [4d2] two-hole state have to be invoked to explain the line shape.

  9. Quantum description of an atom with an induced electric dipole moment under the effects of rotation and a linear potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. B.; Bakke, K.

    2016-08-01

    A quantum description of a neutral particle (atom or molecule) with an induced electric dipole moment in a region with an effective magnetic field under the effects of rotation and a linear scalar potential is discussed. It is shown that analytical solutions to the Schrödinger equation can be achieved. Besides, it is shown that the degeneracy of the Landau-type levels is broken and there exists a restriction on the possible values of the cyclotron frequency associated with the Landau-type system.

  10. The Mediating Role of Perceived Descriptive and Injunctive Norms in the Effects of Media Messages on Youth Smoking.

    PubMed

    Nan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2016-01-01

    This research advances and tests a normative mediation model of media effects on youth smoking. The model predicts that exposure to various types of smoking-related media messages, including anti-smoking ads, cigarette ads, and smoking scenes in movies and television shows, exerts indirect effects on youth smoking intentions through the mediation of perceived descriptive and injunctive norms. Analysis of the data from the 3rd Legacy Media Tracking Survey offers general support for the proposed model with some unexpected findings, revealing a complex picture of media influence on youth smoking via normative and non-normative mechanisms. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  11. Consideration for the dynamic depolarization in the effective-medium model for description of optical properties for anisotropic nanostructured semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Golovan, L. A.; Zabotnov, S. V. Timoshenko, V. Yu.; Kashkarov, P. K.

    2009-02-15

    The effective-medium model has been generalized within the dipole approximation, with allowance for the shape anisotropy and dynamic depolarization of semiconductor nanoparticles. The calculations revealed nonmonotonic dependences for the birefringence and dichroism on the nanoparticle size. Comparison of the measured and calculated refractive index dispersion of birefringent porous silicon layers in the near-IR region indicates that consideration for the dynamic depolarization gives a better description of the optical properties for this material in comparison with the generally used effective-medium electrostatic approximation.

  12. The Mediating Role of Perceived Descriptive and Injunctive Norms in the Effects of Media Messages on Youth Smoking.

    PubMed

    Nan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2016-01-01

    This research advances and tests a normative mediation model of media effects on youth smoking. The model predicts that exposure to various types of smoking-related media messages, including anti-smoking ads, cigarette ads, and smoking scenes in movies and television shows, exerts indirect effects on youth smoking intentions through the mediation of perceived descriptive and injunctive norms. Analysis of the data from the 3rd Legacy Media Tracking Survey offers general support for the proposed model with some unexpected findings, revealing a complex picture of media influence on youth smoking via normative and non-normative mechanisms. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:26225619

  13. Quantum-like model of diauxie in Escherichia coli: operational description of precultivation effect.

    PubMed

    Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we apply the quantum-like (QL) approach to microbiology to present an operational description of the complex process of diauxie in Escherichia coli. We take as guaranteed that dynamics in cells is adaptive, i.e., it depends crucially on the microbiological context. This very general assumption is sufficient to appeal to quantum and more general QL probabilistic models. The next step is to find the operational representation - by operators in complex Hilbert space (as in quantum physics). To determine QL operators, we used the statistical data from Inada et al. (1996). To improve the QL-representation, we needed better experimental data. Corresponding experiments were recently done by two of the authors and in this paper we use these new data. In these data we found that bio-chemical context of precultivation of populations of E. coli plays a crucial role in E. coli preferences with respect to sugars. Hence, the form of the QL operator representing lactose operon activation also depends crucially on precultivation. One of our results is decomposition of the lactose operon activation operator to extract the factor determined by precultivation. The QL operational approach developed in this paper can be used not only for description of the process of diauxie in E. coli, but also other processes of gene expression. However, new experimental statistical data are demanded. PMID:22982333

  14. π-Radical to σ-Radical Tautomerization in One-Electron-Oxidized 1-Methylcytosine and Its Analogs.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Amitava; Kumar, Anil; Bishop, Casandra T; Wiegand, Tyler J; Hindi, Ragda M; Adhikary, Ananya; Sevilla, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    In this work, iminyl σ-radical formation in several one-electron-oxidized cytosine analogs, including 1-MeC, cidofovir, 2'-deoxycytidine (dCyd), and 2'-deoxycytidine 5'-monophosphate (5'-dCMP), were investigated in homogeneous, aqueous (D2O or H2O) glassy solutions at low temperatures by employing electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Upon employing density functional theory (DFT) (DFT/B3LYP/6-31G* method), the calculated hyperfine coupling constant (HFCC) values of iminyl σ-radical agree quite well with the experimentally observed ones, thus confirming its assignment. ESR and DFT studies show that the cytosine iminyl σ-radical is a tautomer of the deprotonated cytosine π-cation radical [cytosine π-aminyl radical, C(N4-H)(•)]. Employing 1-MeC samples at various pHs ranging from ca. 8 to 11, ESR studies show that the tautomeric equilibrium between C(N4-H)(•) and the iminyl σ-radical at low temperature is too slow to be established without added base. ESR and DFT studies agree that, in the iminyl σ-radical, the unpaired spin is localized on the exocyclic nitrogen (N4) in an in-plane pure p-orbital. This gives rise to an anisotropic nitrogen hyperfine coupling (Azz = 40 G) from N4 and a near isotropic β-nitrogen coupling of 9.7 G from the cytosine ring nitrogen at N3. Iminyl σ-radical should exist in its N3-protonated form, as the N3-protonated iminyl σ-radical is stabilized in solution by over 30 kcal/mol (ΔG = -32 kcal/mol) over its conjugate base, the N3-deprotonated form. This is the first observation of an isotropic β-hyperfine ring nitrogen coupling in an N-centered DNA radical. Our theoretical calculations predict that the cytosine iminyl σ-radical can be formed in double-stranded DNA by a radiation-induced ionization-deprotonation process that is only 10 kcal/mol above the lowest energy path.

  15. Detection of Structural Changes upon One-Electron Oxidation and Reduction of Stilbene Derivatives by Time-Resolved Resonance Raman Spectroscopy during Pulse Radiolysis and Theoretical Calculations.

    PubMed

    Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Cho, Dae Won; Choi, Jungkweon; Tojo, Sachiko; Majima, Tetsuro

    2015-07-01

    Stilbene (St) derivatives have been investigated for many years because of their interesting photochemical reactions such as cis-trans isomerization in the excited states and charged states and their relation to poly(p-phenylenevinylene)s. To clarify their charged state properties, structural information is indispensable. In the present study, radical cations and radical anions of St derivatives were investigated by radiation chemical methods. Absorption spectra of radical ion states were obtained by transient absorption measurements during pulse radiolysis; theoretical calculations that included the solvent effect afforded reasonable assignments. The variation in the peak position was explained by using HOMO and LUMO energy levels. Structural changes upon one-electron oxidation and reduction were detected by time-resolved resonance Raman measurements during pulse radiolysis. Significant downshifts were observed with the CC stretching mode of the ethylenic groups, indicative of the decrease in the bonding order. It was confirmed that the downshifts observed with reduction were larger than those with oxidation. On the other hand, the downshift caused by oxidation depends significantly on the electron-donating or electron-withdrawing nature of the substituents.

  16. Communication: Satisfying fermionic statistics in the modeling of open time-dependent quantum systems with one-electron reduced density matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Head-Marsden, Kade; Mazziotti, David A.

    2015-02-07

    For an open, time-dependent quantum system, Lindblad derived the most general modification of the quantum Liouville equation in the Markovian approximation that models environmental effects while preserving the non-negativity of the system’s density matrix. While Lindblad’s modification is correct for N-electron density matrices, solution of the Liouville equation with a Lindblad operator causes the one-electron reduced density matrix (1-RDM) to violate the Pauli exclusion principle. Consequently, after a short time, the 1-RDM is not representable by an ensemble N-electron density matrix (not ensemble N-representable). In this communication, we derive the necessary and sufficient constraints on the Lindbladian matrix within the Lindblad operator to ensure that the 1-RDM remains N-representable for all time. The theory is illustrated by considering the relaxation of an excitation in several molecules F{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO, and BeH{sub 2} subject to environmental noise.

  17. Quantum Switching of Magnetic Fields by Circularly Polarized Re-Optimized π Laser Pulses: From One-Electron Atomic Ions to Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Ingo; Manz, Jörn

    Circularly polarized re-optimized π laser pulses may induce electronic and/or nuclear ring currents in model systems, from one-electron atomic ions till molecules which should have three-, four-, or higher-fold axes of rotations or reflection-rotations, in order to support doubly or more degenerate, complex-valued eigenstates which support these ring currents. The ring currents in turn induce magnetic fields. The effects are about two orders of magnitude larger than for traditional ring currents which are induced by external magnetic fields. Moreover, the laser pulses allow to control the strengths and shapes of the ring currents and, therefore, also the induced magnetic fields. We present a survey of the development of the field, together with new quantum simulations which document ultrafast switchings of magnetic fields. We discuss various criteria such as strong ring currents with small radii, in order to generate huge magnetic fields, approaching 1,000T, in accord with the Biot-Savart law. Moreover, we consider various methods for monitoring the fields, and for applications, in particular ultrafast deflections of neutrons by means of quantum switching of the ring currents and induced magnetic fields.

  18. Detection of Structural Changes upon One-Electron Oxidation and Reduction of Stilbene Derivatives by Time-Resolved Resonance Raman Spectroscopy during Pulse Radiolysis and Theoretical Calculations.

    PubMed

    Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Cho, Dae Won; Choi, Jungkweon; Tojo, Sachiko; Majima, Tetsuro

    2015-07-01

    Stilbene (St) derivatives have been investigated for many years because of their interesting photochemical reactions such as cis-trans isomerization in the excited states and charged states and their relation to poly(p-phenylenevinylene)s. To clarify their charged state properties, structural information is indispensable. In the present study, radical cations and radical anions of St derivatives were investigated by radiation chemical methods. Absorption spectra of radical ion states were obtained by transient absorption measurements during pulse radiolysis; theoretical calculations that included the solvent effect afforded reasonable assignments. The variation in the peak position was explained by using HOMO and LUMO energy levels. Structural changes upon one-electron oxidation and reduction were detected by time-resolved resonance Raman measurements during pulse radiolysis. Significant downshifts were observed with the CC stretching mode of the ethylenic groups, indicative of the decrease in the bonding order. It was confirmed that the downshifts observed with reduction were larger than those with oxidation. On the other hand, the downshift caused by oxidation depends significantly on the electron-donating or electron-withdrawing nature of the substituents. PMID:26052901

  19. A study on the immobilization of selenium oxyanions by H2/Pd(s) in aqueous solution: confirmation of the one-electron reduction barrier of selenate.

    PubMed

    Puranen, Anders; Jansson, Mats; Jonsson, Mats

    2010-07-30

    Selenium is a trace element of concern in several geochemical contexts, due to the potentially high mobility of the selenium oxyanions and the narrow range between deficiency and toxicity of the element. For high level nuclear waste repositories the long-lived fission product 79Se has been identified as a potential key dose contributor for the long-term safety. This paper deals with the catalytic effect of Pd(s) on the H2 reduction of selenium oxyanions which was studied experimentally in aqueous solutions containing bicarbonate and chloride. Pd-catalysts and hydrogen have been proposed for the remediation of various groundwater contaminants and can also serve as a model substance for catalytic noble metal inclusions present in spent nuclear fuel. In this study selenite (SeO3(2)--) was found to adsorb on Pd. In the presence of hydrogen the rate of selenite removal increased yielding elemental Se. However, no adsorption or reduction of selenate (SeO4(2)--) was observed. A simple radiation chemical experiment revealed a notable barrier towards stepwise one-electron reduction of selenate to selenite. This provides an explanation for the lower reactivity of selenate in systems where reductive immobilization of selenite as well as selenate is thermodynamically favorable.

  20. Towards a more accurate microscopic description of the moving contact line problem - incorporating nonlocal effects through a statistical mechanics framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nold, Andreas; Goddard, Ben; Sibley, David; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2014-03-01

    Multiscale effects play a predominant role in wetting phenomena such as the moving contact line. An accurate description is of paramount interest for a wide range of industrial applications, yet it is a matter of ongoing research, due to the difficulty of incorporating different physical effects in one model. Important small-scale phenomena are corrections to the attractive fluid-fluid and wall-fluid forces in inhomogeneous density distributions, which often previously have been accounted for by the disjoining pressure in an ad-hoc manner. We systematically derive a novel model for the description of a single-component liquid-vapor multiphase system which inherently incorporates these nonlocal effects. This derivation, which is inspired by statistical mechanics in the framework of colloidal density functional theory, is critically discussed with respect to its assumptions and restrictions. The model is then employed numerically to study a moving contact line of a liquid fluid displacing its vapor phase. We show how nonlocal physical effects are inherently incorporated by the model and describe how classical macroscopic results for the contact line motion are retrieved. We acknowledge financial support from ERC Advanced Grant No. 247031 and Imperial College through a DTG International Studentship.

  1. Anaphoric Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beller, Charley

    2013-01-01

    The study of definite descriptions has been a central part of research in linguistics and philosophy of language since Russell's seminal work "On Denoting" (Russell 1905). In that work Russell quickly dispatches analyses of denoting expressions with forms like "no man," "some man," "a man," and "every…

  2. Experimental Observation and Theoretical Description of the Pure Fano Effect in the Valence-Band Photoemission of Ferromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Minar, J.; Ebert, H.; De Nadaie, C.; Brookes, N.B.; Venturini, F.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Chioncel, L.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Lichtenstein, A. I.

    2005-10-14

    The pure Fano effect in angle-integrated valence-band photoemission of ferromagnets has been observed for the first time. A contribution of the intrinsic spin polarization to the spin polarization of the photoelectrons has been avoided by an appropriate choice of the experimental parameters. The theoretical description of the resulting spectra reveals a complete analogy to the Fano effect observed before for paramagnetic transition metals. While the theoretical photocurrent and spin-difference spectra are found in good quantitative agreement with experiment in the case of Fe and Co, only a qualitative agreement could be achieved in the case of Ni by calculations on the basis of plain local spin-density approximation. Agreement with experimental data could be improved in this case in a very substantial way by a treatment of correlation effects on the basis of dynamical mean field theory.

  3. Atomic level description of the protecting effect of osmolytes against thermal denaturation of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieraccini, Stefano; Burgi, Luigi; Genoni, Alessandro; Benedusi, Anna; Sironi, Maurizio

    2007-04-01

    The protecting effect of the osmolyte molecule taurine against thermal denaturation of the protein Chimotripsin Inhibitor 2 was modelled using Molecular Dynamics simulations. The protein was simulated in denaturing conditions at different taurine concentrations. Analysis of the molecular details of its behaviour shows that the protective effect of the osmolyte is concentration dependent. Moreover, the influence of taurine on the solvent structure was studied. A concentration dependent ordering effect of taurine on water molecules emerges from solvent structure analysis and is well correlated to the protecting effect observed. Based on these observations an interpretation of the osmoprotective effect is proposed.

  4. Identification and Descriptions of the Momentum Effect in Studies of Learning: An Abstract Science Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Jae-Sool; Mayer, Victor J.

    1985-01-01

    Several studies of the validity of the intensive time-series design have revealed a post-intervention increase in the level of achievement data (the "momentum effect"). Reports on the development and use of a technique to study the effect as it is observed in several data sets on the learning of plate tectonics. (Author/JN)

  5. Teacher Effectiveness, Mobility, and Attrition in Florida: A Descriptive Analysis. Working Paper 2008-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Martin; Chingos, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    We use value-added models to calculate measures of effectiveness for new elementary school teachers in Florida between 2001-02 and 2005-06, then compare the attrition and mobility patterns of more and less effective teachers overall and across various types of schools. While we do not find evidence that schools are disproportionately losing their…

  6. Deformed suq(2) with deformed Coriolis effect description of superdeformed nuclei in A ~ 190 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, Hamoud; Alhendi, Hamad; Aloyayd, Turki

    2015-04-01

    The deformed suq(2) model with Coriolis effect is applied to 79 superdeformed bands in the region A ~ 190. The transition energies and the moments of inertia are calculated within the model and their validity is investigated by comparing them with the experimental data. The effect of deformation of Coriolis effect in the transition energies and the moments of inertia was investigated. A comparison between the suq(2) with and without deformed Coriolis effect is made and shows significant improvements in fitting the experimental data. It was shown that deformation of improve the standard deviation of the transition energies up to 80%. Correlation between the deformation parameter ? and the excesses of neutrons over protons, S, has been observed. This correlation shows a decaying behavior. As a result, the deformation of Coriolis effect becomes weak with the increase of S.

  7. Failure to confirm the Rauscher and Shaw description of recovery of the Mozart effect.

    PubMed

    Steele, K M; Brown, J D; Stoecker, J A

    1999-06-01

    The Mozart effect is an increase in spatial reasoning scores detected immediately after listening to the first movement of a Mozart piano sonata. Rauscher and Shaw (1998) suggested that failure to produce a Mozart effect could arise from carryover effects of a spatial reasoning pretest which may interfere with the effect of listening to Mozart. They cited an unpublished study in which a verbal distractor was inserted between the pretest and listening condition, and the manipulation produced the recovery of a Mozart effect. This experiment attempted to confirm the unpublished study. 206 college students were exposed to one of three sequences, pretest-Verbal distractor material-Mozart, pretest-Mozart-Verbal distractor material, and pretest-Verbal distractor material. An immediate posttest indicated no significant difference on solution of paper folding and cutting items among the three groups. The results do not support Rauscher and Shaw (1998). Our negative results are consistent with prior failures in other laboratories to produce a Mozart effect.

  8. Effects of sensory augmentation on postural control and gait symmetry of transfemoral amputees: a case description.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Anna; Arieta, Alejandro Hernandez; Riener, Robert; Vallery, Heike

    2016-10-01

    Despite recent advances in leg prosthetics, transfemoral amputees still experience limitations in postural control and gait symmetry. It has been hypothesized that artificial sensory information might improve the integration of the prosthesis into the human sensory-motor control loops and, thus, reduce these limitations. In three transfemoral amputees, we investigated the effect of Electrotactile Moving Sensation for Sensory Augmentation (EMSSA) without training and present preliminary findings. Experimental conditions included standing with open/closed eyes on stable/unstable ground as well as treadmill walking. For standing conditions, spatiotemporal posturographic measures and sample entropy were derived from the center of pressure. For walking conditions, step length and stance duration were calculated. Conditions without feedback showed effects congruent with findings in the literature, e.g., asymmetric weight bearing and step length, and validated the collected data. During standing, with EMSSA a tendency to influence postural control in a negative way was found: Postural control was less effective and less efficient and the prosthetic leg was less involved. Sample entropy tended to decrease, suggesting that EMSSA demanded increased attention. During walking, with EMSSA no persistent positive effect was found. This contrasts the positive subjective assessment and the positive effect on one subject's step length. PMID:26718557

  9. Quantum fluctuations and isotope effects in ab initio descriptions of water

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lu; Markland, Thomas E.; Ceriotti, Michele

    2014-09-14

    Isotope substitution is extensively used to investigate the microscopic behavior of hydrogen bonded systems such as liquid water. The changes in structure and stability of these systems upon isotope substitution arise entirely from the quantum mechanical nature of the nuclei. Here, we provide a fully ab initio determination of the isotope exchange free energy and fractionation ratio of hydrogen and deuterium in water treating exactly nuclear quantum effects and explicitly modeling the quantum nature of the electrons. This allows us to assess how quantum effects in water manifest as isotope effects, and unravel how the interplay between electronic exchange and correlation and nuclear quantum fluctuations determine the structure of the hydrogen bond in water.

  10. SPELT (Strategies Program for Effective Learning/Thinking): A Description and Analysis of Instructional Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes an instructional model, Strategies Program for Effective Learning/Thinking (SPELT), that was developed to translate cognitive psychological theory and research into a practical instructional program. The extent to which SPELT conforms to current instructional design principles is examined, and macro versus micro instructional sequencing…

  11. Promoting Inclusion? "Inclusive" and Effective Head Teachers' Descriptions of Their Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindqvist, Gunilla; Nilholm, Claes

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the reported interview study from Sweden is to contribute to our understanding of how head teachers can promote inclusive practices. Five head teachers were selected from a larger sample of head teachers working in compulsory schools (6-16) according to specific criteria in order to obtain head teachers who work effectively and…

  12. Writing Simple Sentences and Descriptive Paragraphs: Effects of an Intervention on Adolescents with Writing Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datchuk, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a multicomponent intervention on the writing behavior of adolescents with writing difficulties. A single-case design consisting of a combination of multiple-probe design across participants and pre-post test was used. Four participants completed two intervention phases: (a) sentence instruction and…

  13. Non-singular bounce scenarios in loop quantum cosmology and the effective field description

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yi-Fu; Wilson-Ewing, Edward E-mail: wilson-ewing@phys.lsu.edu

    2014-03-01

    A non-singular bouncing cosmology is generically obtained in loop quantum cosmology due to non-perturbative quantum gravity effects. A similar picture can be achieved in standard general relativity in the presence of a scalar field with a non-standard kinetic term such that at high energy densities the field evolves into a ghost condensate and causes a non-singular bounce. During the bouncing phase, the perturbations can be stabilized by introducing a Horndeski operator. Taking the matter content to be a dust field and an ekpyrotic scalar field, we compare the dynamics in loop quantum cosmology and in a non-singular bouncing effective field model with a non-standard kinetic term at both the background and perturbative levels. We find that these two settings share many important properties, including the result that they both generate scale-invariant scalar perturbations. This shows that some quantum gravity effects of the very early universe may be mimicked by effective field models.

  14. Whack-A-Mole Model: Towards a Unified Description of Biological Effects Caused by Radiation Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, Yuichiro; Wada, Takahiro; Tsunoyama, Yuichi; Nakajima, Hiroo; Nakamura, Issei; Bando, Masako

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel model to for estimating biological effects caused by artificial radiation exposure, i.e., the Whack-A-Mole (WAM) model. It is important to take into account the recovery effects during the time course of cellular reactions. The inclusion of dose-rate dependence is essential in the risk estimation of low-dose radiation, while nearly all the existing theoretical models rely on the total dose dependence only. By analyzing experimental data of the relationship between the radiation dose and the induced mutation frequency of five organisms, namely, mouse, Drosophila, chrysanthemum, maize, Tradescantia, we found that all the data can be reproduced by the WAM model. Most remarkably, a scaling function, which is derived from the WAM model, consistently accounts for the observed mutation frequencies of the five organisms. This is the first rationale to account for the dose rate dependence as well as to provide a unified understanding of a general feature of organisms.

  15. Applicability of effective medium description to photonic crystals in higher bands: Theory and numerical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markel, Vadim A.; Tsukerman, Igor

    2016-06-01

    We consider conditions under which photonic crystals (PCs) can be homogenized in the higher photonic bands and, in particular, near the Γ point. By homogenization we mean introducing some effective local parameters ɛeff and μeff that describe reflection, refraction, and propagation of electromagnetic waves in the PC adequately. The parameters ɛeff and μeff can be associated with a hypothetical homogeneous effective medium. In particular, if the PC is homogenizable, the dispersion relations and isofrequency lines in the effective medium and in the PC should coincide to some level of approximation. We can view this requirement as a necessary condition of homogenizability. In the vicinity of a Γ point, real isofrequency lines of two-dimensional PCs can be close to mathematical circles, just like in the case of isotropic homogeneous materials. Thus, one may be tempted to conclude that introduction of an effective medium is possible and, at least, the necessary condition of homogenizability holds in this case. We, however, show that this conclusion is incorrect: complex dispersion points must be included into consideration even in the case of strictly nonabsorbing materials. By analyzing the complex dispersion relations and the corresponding isofrequency lines, we have found that two-dimensional PCs with C4 and C6 symmetries are not homogenizable in the higher photonic bands. We also draw a distinction between spurious Γ -point frequencies that are due to Brillouin-zone folding of Bloch bands and "true" Γ -point frequencies that are due to multiple scattering. Understanding of the physically different phenomena that lead to the appearance of spurious and "true" Γ -point frequencies is important for the theory of homogenization.

  16. Accurate description of aqueous carbonate ions: an effective polarization model verified by neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Mason, Philip E; Wernersson, Erik; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2012-07-19

    The carbonate ion plays a central role in the biochemical formation of the shells of aquatic life, which is an important path for carbon dioxide sequestration. Given the vital role of carbonate in this and other contexts, it is imperative to develop accurate models for such a high charge density ion. As a divalent ion, carbonate has a strong polarizing effect on surrounding water molecules. This raises the question whether it is possible to describe accurately such systems without including polarization. It has recently been suggested the lack of electronic polarization in nonpolarizable water models can be effectively compensated by introducing an electronic dielectric continuum, which is with respect to the forces between atoms equivalent to rescaling the ionic charges. Given how widely nonpolarizable models are used to model electrolyte solutions, establishing the experimental validity of this suggestion is imperative. Here, we examine a stringent test for such models: a comparison of the difference of the neutron scattering structure factors of K2CO3 vs KNO3 solutions and that predicted by molecular dynamics simulations for various models of the same systems. We compare standard nonpolarizable simulations in SPC/E water to analogous simulations with effective ion charges, as well as simulations in explicitly polarizable POL3 water (which, however, has only about half the experimental polarizability). It is found that the simulation with rescaled charges is in a very good agreement with the experimental data, which is significantly better than for the nonpolarizable simulation and even better than for the explicitly polarizable POL3 model.

  17. [The narghile and its effects on health. Part I: the narghile, general description and properties].

    PubMed

    Ben Saad, H

    2009-12-01

    A narghile is a water-pipe used to smoke a tobacco preparation. As the smoker inhales, the tobacco smoke is sucked down from the bowl and then bubbles up through the water into the air of the smoke chamber and then through the hose to the smoker. Its origins are mysterious and controversial. Nevertheless it remains, under different names, an object used regularly by more than one hundred million people in the world. Since the eighties and especially nineties, its consumption has grown significantly and is now considered to be a worldwide epidemic. However, the knowledge about the effects of narghile smoke on health is partial and sometimes contradictory. Indeed, we are witnessing increasing confusion in biomedical studies and scientific debate about its health impact is unresolved. Given this situation, revealing a serious and profound lack of information about the real nature and toxicity of hookah smoke, the authors conducted this two-part study. The first part presents epidemiological data, describes the narghile and the different types of narghile tobacco and exposes the composition of narghile smoke. The second part highlights the lack of reliable data about the detrimental effects of the narghile pipe on health and especially on the cardiopulmonary function.

  18. [The narghile and its effects on health. Part I: the narghile, general description and properties].

    PubMed

    Ben Saad, H

    2009-12-01

    A narghile is a water-pipe used to smoke a tobacco preparation. As the smoker inhales, the tobacco smoke is sucked down from the bowl and then bubbles up through the water into the air of the smoke chamber and then through the hose to the smoker. Its origins are mysterious and controversial. Nevertheless it remains, under different names, an object used regularly by more than one hundred million people in the world. Since the eighties and especially nineties, its consumption has grown significantly and is now considered to be a worldwide epidemic. However, the knowledge about the effects of narghile smoke on health is partial and sometimes contradictory. Indeed, we are witnessing increasing confusion in biomedical studies and scientific debate about its health impact is unresolved. Given this situation, revealing a serious and profound lack of information about the real nature and toxicity of hookah smoke, the authors conducted this two-part study. The first part presents epidemiological data, describes the narghile and the different types of narghile tobacco and exposes the composition of narghile smoke. The second part highlights the lack of reliable data about the detrimental effects of the narghile pipe on health and especially on the cardiopulmonary function. PMID:19995660

  19. Macroscopic description of nonequilibrium effects in thermal transpiration flows in annular microchannels.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Peyman; Bahrami, Majid

    2012-09-01

    Thermal transpiration flow of rarefied gases in annular channels is considered where the driving force for the flow is a temperature gradient applied in the channel walls. The influence of gas rarefaction, aspect ratio of the annulus, and surface accommodation coefficient on mass and heat transfer in the process are investigated. An analytical approach to the problem is conducted based on linearized Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NSF) and regularized 13-moment (R13) equations, and a closed-form expression for Knudsen boundary layers is obtained. The results are compared to available solutions of the Boltzmann equation to highlight the advantages of the R13 over the NSF equations in describing nonequilibrium effects in this particular thermally driven flow. Through comparisons with kinetic data, it is shown that R13 equations are valid for moderate Knudsen numbers, i.e., Kn<0.5 where NSF equations fail to describe the flow fields properly.

  20. Molecular collisions: Effect on the HD infrared spectrum and development of a Moyal quantum mechanical description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuarrie, Barry Robert

    1998-06-01

    Interference is possible between the allowed dipole moment of the molecule HD and the pair dipole moment induced by collision with a foreign gas atom. The resulting line shape can be described by the sum of a Lorentzian and an asymmetric profile. The mixing of rotational levels by an anisotropic interaction potential call permit components of the induced dipole moment that do not have the same symmetry of the allowed moment to interfere with it. For the rotational spectrum of HD-He and HD-Ar the effect of each component of the induced dipole moment on the line shape parameters is determined for various temperatures and transitions. For line intensity, the component with the same symmetry as the allowed moment always dominates, but the effect of the other components is shown to be significant. The line shape parameters for the vibrorotational spectrum of HD-He are calculated for P1(1),/ R1(0),/ R1(1) transitions at 77, 195, and 295 K. Moyal quantum mechanics is an alternative to Heisenberg or Schrodinger quantum mechanics. The method yields a semiclassical expansion of phase space trajectories in terms of Planck's constant, h. The Moyal correction to the classical part of the solution is found to O(h2). The first computational version of Moyal quantum mechanics to calculate average values for three dimensional systems with physically relevant parameters is developed. The system treated is the scattering of a Gaussian wave packet by the helium, neon, and argon interaction potentials. The Gaussian is squeezed in momentum so that the momentum average can be done analytically. This introduces a momentum correction and the Gaussian is taken to have a single initial velocity. We examine scattering at velocities of 300-1200 m/s. Sensitive areas of the phase space average are identified. Integrals over coordinate phase space (impact parameter and displacement y) are examined in detail. The region of phase space which produces rainbow scattering is determined to result in

  1. Descriptive risk assessment of the effects of acidic deposition on Rocky Mountain amphibians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Paul Stephen; Vertucci, Frank A.

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated the risk of habitat acidification to the six species of amphibians that occur in the mountains of Colorado and Wyoming. Our evaluation included extrinsic environmental factors (habitat sensitivity and amount of acidic atmospheric deposition) and species-specific intrinsic factors (sensitivity to acid conditions, habitat preferences, and timing of breeding). Only one of 57 surveyed localities had both acid neutralizing capacity μeq/L and sulfate deposition >10 kg/ha/yr, extrinsic conditions with a possible risk of acidification. Amphibian breeding habitats in the Rocky Mountains do not appear to be sufficiently acidic to kill amphibian embryos. Some species breed in high-elevation vernal pools during snowmelt, and an acidic pulse during snowmelt may pose a risk to embryos of these species. However, the acidic pulse, if present, probably occurs before open water appears and before breeding begins. Although inherent variability of amphibian population size may make detection of declines from anthropogenic effects difficult, acidic deposition is unlikely to have caused the observed declines of Bufo boreas and Rana pipiens in Colorado and Wyoming. Amphibians in the Rocky Mountains are not likely to be at risk with acidification inputs at present levels.

  2. Is access to the body structural description sensitive to a body part's significance for action and cognition? A study of the sidedness effect using feet.

    PubMed

    Tessari, Alessia; Ottoboni, Giovanni; Baroni, Giulia; Symes, Ed; Nicoletti, Roberto

    2012-05-01

    There is evidence suggesting that viewing hands triggers automatic access to the Body Structural Description, a visual-spatial representation of human body parts configuration. Hands, however, have a special representational status within the brain because of their significance for action and cognition. We tested whether feet, less important in gestural and object-directed action, would similarly show automatic access to the Body Structural Description. Positive evidence of that would be finding a Sidedness effect (Ottoboni et al. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 31:778-789, 2005), a Simon-like paradigm previously used to study automatic hand recognition. This effect demonstrates that processing hands generates spatial codes corresponding to the side of the body on which the hand would be located within the Body Structural Description map. Feet were shown with toes pointing upwards (Experiment 1), without any connection to the ankle and the leg (Experiment 2) and with toes pointing downwards (Experiment 3). Results revealed a Sidedness effect in both Experiments 1 and 3: spatial compatibility occurred according to the side of the body that each foot would assume within the Body Structural Description. In Experiment 2, as already found in stimuli similarly featured, no effect emerged, due to the lack of the necessary anatomical links connecting the foot to a body. Results suggest that body parts with variable degrees of significance for action and cognition can access automatically the Body Structural Description hence reinforcing the hypothesis of its pure visuo-spatial nature.

  3. Formation of isodialuric acid lesion within DNA oligomers via one-electron oxidation of 5-hydroxyuracil: characterization, stability and excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Philippe; Gasparutto, Didier; Gambarelli, Serge; Saint-Pierre, Christine; Favier, Alain; Cadet, Jean

    2006-01-01

    5-Hydroxyuracil is a major oxidized nucleobase that can be generated by the action of •OH radical and one-electron oxidants. The latter modified base that exhibits a low ionization potential is highly susceptible to further degradation upon exposure to various oxidants. Emphasis was placed in thiswork on the formation and characterization of one-electron oxidation products of 5-hydroxyuracil within DNA fragments of defined sequence. For this purpose, 5-hydroxyuracil containing single- and double-stranded oligonucleotides of various lengths were synthesized and then exposed to the oxidizing action of iridium salts. Isodialuric acid was found to be formed almost quantitatively by a one-electron oxidation mechanism for which relevant information was inferred from a freeze-quenched ESR study. Information on the stability of isodialuric acid thus formed and its conversion products in aqueous solutions was also gained from experiments performed at acidic, neutral and alkali pH’s. Moreover, biochemical features dealing with the substrate specificity of several bacterial and yeast base excision repair enzymes to remove isodialuric acid from site-specifically modified DNA fragments were determined. PMID:16885239

  4. The Teaching-Family Model: A Program Description and Its Effects on the Aggressive Behaviors and Quality of Life of Two Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Wein, Matthieu; Miller, L. Keith

    2009-01-01

    This article is a description of a program that may be effective for reducing the aggressive behaviors of adults with intellectual disabilities. Data are presented in the form of a naturally occurring multiple baseline across two participants. Results suggest that an intervention anchored in teaching-family model (TFM) procedures was effective to…

  5. Formation of aminyl radicals on electron attachment to AZT: Abstraction from the sugar phosphate backbone vs. one-electron oxidation of Guanine

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Amitava; Khanduri, Deepti; Pottiboyina, Venkata; Rice, Cory T.; Sevilla, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Employing electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we have characterized the radicals formed in 3′-Azido-3′-deoxythymidine (3′-AZT) and in its 5′-analog 5′-azido-5′-deoxythymidine (5′-AZT) after electron attachment in γ-irradiated aqueous (H2O or D2O) glassy (7.5 M LiCl) systems. ESR spectral studies and theoretical calculations show that the predominant site of electron capture in 3′-AZT and in 5′-AZT is at the azide group and not at the thymine moiety. The azide group in AZT is therefore more electron affinic than the most electron affinic DNA base, thymine. Electron attachment to 3′-AZT and 5′-AZT results in an unstable azide anion radical intermediate (RN3•−) that is too short lived to be observed in our work even at 77 K. At 77 K we observe the neutral aminyl radical (RNH•) after loss of N2 from RN3•− followed by protonation of nitrene anion radical (RN•−) to give RNH•. The expected RN•− intermediate is not observed as protonation from water is complete at 77 K even in under highly basic conditions. Formation of RND• in D2O solutions confirms water as the source of the NH proton in the RNH•. Our assignments to these radicals are aided by DFT calculations for hyperfine coupling constants which closely match the experimental values. On annealing to higher temperatures (ca. 160–170 K), RNH• undergoes bimolecular hydrogen abstraction reactions from the thymine methyl group and the sugar moiety resulting in the formation of the thymine allyl radical (UCH2•) and two sugar radicals - C3′•, C5′•. RNH• also results in one-electron oxidation of the guanine base in 3′-AZG. This work provides a potential mechanism for the reported radiosensitization effects of AZT. PMID:20575557

  6. One-Electron Oxidation of Gemcitabine and Analogs: Mechanism of Formation of C3′ and C2′ Sugar Radicals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Gemcitabine is a modified cytidine analog having two fluorine atoms at the 2′-position of the ribose ring. It has been proposed that gemcitabine inhibits RNR activity by producing a C3′• intermediate via direct H3′-atom abstraction followed by loss of HF to yield a C2′• with 3′-keto moiety. Direct detection of C3′• and C2′• during RNR inactivation by gemcitabine still remains elusive. To test the influence of 2′- substitution on radical site formation, electron spin resonance (ESR) studies are carried out on one-electron oxidized gemcitabine and other 2′-modified analogs, i.e., 2′-deoxy-2′-fluoro-2′-C-methylcytidine (MeFdC) and 2′-fluoro-2′-deoxycytidine (2′-FdC). ESR line components from two anisotropic β-2′-F-atom hyperfine couplings identify the C3′• formation in one-electron oxidized gemcitabine, but no further reaction to C2′• is found. One-electron oxidized 2′-FdC is unreactive toward C3′• or C2′• formation. In one-electron oxidized MeFdC, ESR studies show C2′• production presumably from a very unstable C3′• precursor. The experimentally observed hyperfine couplings for C2′• and C3′• match well with the theoretically predicted ones. C3′• to C2′• conversion in one-electron oxidized gemcitabine and MeFdC has theoretically been modeled by first considering the C3′• and H3O+ formation via H3′-proton deprotonation and the subsequent C2′• formation via HF loss induced by this proximate H3O+. Theoretical calculations show that in gemcitabine, C3′• to C2′• conversion in the presence of a proximate H3O+ has a barrier in agreement with the experimentally observed lack of C3′• to C2′• conversion. In contrast, in MeFdC, the loss of HF from C3′• in the presence of a proximate H3O+ is barrierless resulting in C2′• formation which agrees with the experimentally observed rapid C2′• formation. PMID:25296262

  7. Teaching Descriptive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brashers, H. C.

    1968-01-01

    As the inexperienced writer becomes aware of the issues involved in the composition of effective descriptive prose, he also develops a consistent control over his materials. The persona he chooses, if coherently thought out, can function as an index of many choices, helping him to manipulate the tone, intent, and mood of this style; to regulate…

  8. Spacelab J experiment descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.Y.

    1993-08-01

    Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  9. Spacelab J experiment descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Teresa Y. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm.

  10. Descriptions of Personal Experiences: Effects on Students' Learning and Behavioral Intentions toward Peers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saecker, Lee B.; Skinner, Amy L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Rowland, Emily; Kirk, Emily

    2010-01-01

    High-school students were shown an educational video designed to dispel 12 common myths regarding Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by describing each myth and then presenting accurate information. The experimental group viewed a video that was supplemented by the speaker acknowledging that he had ADHD and providing descriptions of…

  11. Orthogonal natural atomic orbitals form an appropriate one-electron basis for expanding CASSCF wave functions into localized bonding schemes and their weights.

    PubMed

    Bachler, Vinzenz

    2007-09-01

    Localized bonding schemes and their weights have been obtained for the pi-electron system of nitrone by expanding complete active space self-consistent field wave functions into a set of Slater determinants composed of orthogonal natural atomic orbitals (NAOs) of Weinhold and Landis (Valency and Bonding: A Natural Bond Orbital Donor-Acceptor Perspective, 2005). Thus, the derived bonding schemes are close to orthogonal valence bond structures. The calculated sequence of bonding scheme weights accords with the sequence of genuine resonance structure weights derived previously by Ohanessian and Hiberty (Chem Phys Lett 1987, 137, 437), who employed nonorthogonal atomic orbitals. This accord supports the notion that NAOs form an appropriate orthogonal one-electron basis for expanding complete active space self-consistent field wave functions into meaningful bonding schemes and their weights.

  12. Nitrite Reduction to Nitrous Oxide and Ammonia by TiO2 Electrons in a Colloid Solution via Consecutive One-Electron Transfer Reactions.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Sara; Behar, David; Rajh, Tijana; Rabani, Joseph

    2016-04-21

    The mechanism of nitrite reduction by excess electrons on TiO2 nanoparticles (eTiO2(-)) was studied under anaerobic conditions. TiO2 was loaded with up to 75 electrons per particle, induced by γ-irradiation of acidic TiO2 colloid solutions containing 2-propanol. Time-resolved kinetics and material analysis were performed, mostly at 1.66 g L(-1) TiO2. At relatively low nitrite concentrations (R = [eTiO2(-)]o/[nitrite]o > 1.5), eTiO2(-) decays via two consecutive processes; at higher concentrations, only one decay step is observed. The stoichiometric ratio Δ[eTiO2(-)]/[nitrite]o of the faster process is about 2. This process involves the one-electron reduction of nitrite, forming the nitrite radical (k1 = (2.0 ± 0.2) × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)), which further reacts with eTiO2(-) (k2) in competition with its dehydration to nitric oxide (NO) (k3). The ratios k2/k3 = (3.0 ± 0.5) × 10(3) M(-1) and k2 > 1 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) were derived from kinetic simulations and product analysis. The major product of this process is NO. The slower stage of the kinetics involves the reduction of NO by eTiO2(-), and the detailed mechanism of this process has been discussed in our earlier publication. The results reported in this study suggest that several intermediates, including NO and NH2OH, are adsorbed on the titanium nanoparticles and give rise to inverse dependency of the respective reaction rates on the TiO2 concentration. It is demonstrated that the reduction of nitrite by eTiO2(-) yields mainly N2O and NH3 via consecutive one-electron transfer reactions.

  13. Nitrite Reduction to Nitrous Oxide and Ammonia by TiO2 Electrons in a Colloid Solution via Consecutive One-Electron Transfer Reactions.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Sara; Behar, David; Rajh, Tijana; Rabani, Joseph

    2016-04-21

    The mechanism of nitrite reduction by excess electrons on TiO2 nanoparticles (eTiO2(-)) was studied under anaerobic conditions. TiO2 was loaded with up to 75 electrons per particle, induced by γ-irradiation of acidic TiO2 colloid solutions containing 2-propanol. Time-resolved kinetics and material analysis were performed, mostly at 1.66 g L(-1) TiO2. At relatively low nitrite concentrations (R = [eTiO2(-)]o/[nitrite]o > 1.5), eTiO2(-) decays via two consecutive processes; at higher concentrations, only one decay step is observed. The stoichiometric ratio Δ[eTiO2(-)]/[nitrite]o of the faster process is about 2. This process involves the one-electron reduction of nitrite, forming the nitrite radical (k1 = (2.0 ± 0.2) × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)), which further reacts with eTiO2(-) (k2) in competition with its dehydration to nitric oxide (NO) (k3). The ratios k2/k3 = (3.0 ± 0.5) × 10(3) M(-1) and k2 > 1 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) were derived from kinetic simulations and product analysis. The major product of this process is NO. The slower stage of the kinetics involves the reduction of NO by eTiO2(-), and the detailed mechanism of this process has been discussed in our earlier publication. The results reported in this study suggest that several intermediates, including NO and NH2OH, are adsorbed on the titanium nanoparticles and give rise to inverse dependency of the respective reaction rates on the TiO2 concentration. It is demonstrated that the reduction of nitrite by eTiO2(-) yields mainly N2O and NH3 via consecutive one-electron transfer reactions. PMID:27050805

  14. Culture effects on adults' earliest childhood recollection and self-description: implications for the relation between memory and the self.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q

    2001-08-01

    American and Chinese college students (N = 256) reported their earliest childhood memory on a memory questionnaire and provided self-descriptions on a shortened 20 Statements Test (M. H. Kuhn & T. S. McPartland, 1954). The average age at earliest memory of Americans was almost 6 months earlier than that of Chinese. Americans reported lengthy, specific, self-focused, and emotionally elaborate memories; they also placed emphasis on individual attributes in describing themselves. Chinese provided brief accounts of childhood memories centering on collective activities, general routines, and emotionally neutral events; they also included a great number of social roles in their self-descriptions. Across the entire sample, individuals who described themselves in more self-focused and positive terms provided more specific and self-focused memories. Findings are discussed in light of the interactive relation between autobiographical memory and cultural self-construal.

  15. Charlie brown versus snow white: the effects of descriptiveness on young and older adults' retrieval of proper names.

    PubMed

    Fogler, Kethera A; James, Lori E

    2007-07-01

    The nondescriptive nature of proper names has been suggested as one reason that people experience particular difficulty learning and recalling names. This experiment tested whether the exacerbated difficulty experienced by older adults in retrieving proper names is partly due to names' nondescriptive quality. Young and older participants named pictures of well-known cartoon characters that have either descriptive names (e.g., Snow White, Big Bird) or nondescriptive names (e.g., Charlie Brown, Garfield). Older adults were particularly impaired at retrieving nondescriptive names. Results indicate that theories of name memory must represent the nondescriptive nature of names and account for the decreased retrieval difficulty for descriptive compared with nondescriptive names in aging.

  16. Calmodulin Methionine Residues are Targets For One-Electron Oxidation by Hydroxyl Radicals: Formation of S therefore N three-electron bonded Radical Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Nauser, Thomas; Jacoby, Michael E.; Koppenol, Willem H.; Squier, Thomas C.; Schoneich, Christian

    2005-02-01

    The one-electron (1e) oxidation of organic sulfides and methionine (Met) constitutes an important reaction mechanism in vivo.1,2 Evidence for a Cu(II)-catalyzed oxidation of Met35 in the Alzheimer's disease -amyloid peptide was obtained,3 and, based on theoretical studies, Met radical cations were proposed as intermediates.4 In the structure of -amyloid peptide, the formation of Met radical cations appears to be facilitated by a preexisting close sulfur-oxygen (S-O) interaction between the Met35 sulfur and the carbonyl oxygen of the peptide bond C-terminal to Ile31.5 Substitution of Ile31 with Pro31 abolishes this S-O interaction,5 significantly reducing the ability of -amyloid to reduce Cu(II), and converts the neurotoxic wild-type -amyloid into a non-toxic peptide.6 The preexisting S-O bond characterized for wild-type -amyloid suggests that electron transfer from Met35 to Cu(II) is supported through stabilization of the Met radical cation by the electron-rich carbonyl oxygen, generating an SO-bonded7 sulfide radical cation (Scheme 1, reaction 1).5

  17. Proton Transfer Induced SOMO-to-HOMO Level Switching in One-Electron Oxidized A-T and G-C Base Pairs: A Density Functional Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we show that for one-electron oxidized A-T or G-C base pairs the singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) is located on A or G and is lower in energy than the doubly occupied highest-occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) localized to the pyrimidines, T or C. This directs second ionizations to the pyrimidine bases resulting in triplet state diradical dications, (A•+-T•+) and (G•+-C•+). On interbase proton transfer, the SOMO and HOMO levels switch and the second oxidation is redirected to G and A. For G-C, the doubly oxidized singlet G(-H)+-C(H+) is more stable than its triplet (G•+-C•+); however, for A-T, the triplet (A•+-T•+) lies lowest in energy. The study demonstrates that double ionization of the A-T base pair results in a triplet dication diradical, which is more stable than the proton-transferred triplet or singlet species; whereas, double ionization of the G-C base pair, the proton transferred doubly oxidized singlet, G(-H)+-C(H+), is more stable and has both oxidations on guanine. In DNA, with both A-T and G-C, multiple oxidations would transfer to the guanine base alone. PMID:24798145

  18. Solution of the Dirac equation using the Rayleigh-Ritz method: Flexible basis coupling large and small components. Results for one-electron systems.

    PubMed

    Bağcı, A; Hoggan, P E

    2016-07-01

    An algebraic solution of the Dirac equation is reinvestigated. Slater-type spinor orbitals and their corresponding system of differential equations are defined in two- and four-component formalism. They describe the radial function in components of the wave function of the Dirac equation solution to high accuracy. They constitute the matrix elements arising in a generalized eigenvalue equation. These terms are evaluated through prolate spheroidal coordinates. The corresponding integrals are calculated by the numerical global-adaptive method taking into account the Gauss-Kronrod numerical integration extension. Sample calculations are performed using flexible basis sets generated with both signs of the relativistic angular momentum quantum number κ. Applications to one-electron atoms and diatomics are detailed. Variationally optimum values for orbital parameters are obtained at given nuclear separation. Methods discussed in this work are capable of yielding highly accurate relativistic two-center integrals for all ranges of orbital parameters. This work provides an efficient way to overcome the problems that arise in relativistic calculations. PMID:27575231

  19. Photoinduced One-Electron Oxidation of Benzyl Methyl Sulfides in Acetonitrile: Time-Resolved Spectroscopic Evidence for a Thionium Ion Intermediate.

    PubMed

    Bettoni, Marta; Del Giacco, Tiziana; Stradiotto, Marina; Elisei, Fausto

    2015-08-21

    The photo-oxidation of 4-methoxybenzyl methyl sulfide (1a), benzyl methyl sulfide (1b), and 4-cyanobenzyl methyl sulfide (1c) has been investigated in the presence of N-methoxy phenanthridinium hexafluorophosphate (MeOP(+)PF6(-)) under nitrogen in CH3CN. The steady-state photolysis experiments showed for the investigated sulfides exclusively the formation of the corresponding benzaldehyde as the oxidation product, reasonably due to a deprotonation of the sulfide radical cations. Photo-oxidation of 1a-1c occurs through an electron transfer process. Indeed, laser flash photolysis measurements showed an efficient formation of sulfide radical cations, detected in their dimeric form [(4-X-C6H4CH2SCH3)2(+•)] at ≈520 nm. At longer delay times, the absorption of the dimer radical cation was replaced by an absorption band assigned to the (α-thio)benzyl cation (thionium ion, λmax = 420-400 nm), formed by oxidation of the benzyl radical and not by that of the (α-thiomethyl)benzyl radical, as expected if a Cα-H bond cleavage is operative. This finding highlights a particular stability of this kind of cation never reported before, even though its involvement in one-electron oxidation mechanisms of various sulfides has already been invoked. Density functional theory calculations allowed identification of a significant charge and spin delocalization involving both the phenyl ring and the sulfur atom of the radical cations.

  20. New Measurement of the Electron Magnetic Moment and the Fine Structure Constant: A First Application of a One-Electron Quantum Cyclotron

    ScienceCinema

    Gabrielse, Gerald [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

    2016-07-12

    Remarkably, the famous UW measurement of the electron magnetic moment has stood since 1987. With QED theory, this measurement has determined the accepted value of the fine structure constant. This colloquium is about a new Harvard measurement of these fundamental constants. The new measurement has an uncertainty that is about six times smaller, and it shifts the values by 1.7 standard deviations. One electron suspended in a Penning trap is used for the new measurement, like in the old measurement. What is different is that the lowest quantum levels of the spin and cyclotron motion are resolved, and the cyclotron as well as spin frequencies are determined using quantum jump spectroscopy. In addition, a 0.1 mK Penning trap that is also a cylindrical microwave cavity is used to control the radiation field, to suppress spontaneous emission by more than a factor of 100, to control cavity shifts, and to eliminate the blackbody photons that otherwise stimulate excitations from the cyclotron ground state. Finally, great signal-to-noise for one-quantum transitions is obtained using electronic feedback to realize the first one-particle self-excited oscillator. The new methods may also allow a million times improved measurement of the 500 times small antiproton magnetic moment.

  1. Solution of the Dirac equation using the Rayleigh-Ritz method: Flexible basis coupling large and small components. Results for one-electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baǧcı, A.; Hoggan, P. E.

    2016-07-01

    An algebraic solution of the Dirac equation is reinvestigated. Slater-type spinor orbitals and their corresponding system of differential equations are defined in two- and four-component formalism. They describe the radial function in components of the wave function of the Dirac equation solution to high accuracy. They constitute the matrix elements arising in a generalized eigenvalue equation. These terms are evaluated through prolate spheroidal coordinates. The corresponding integrals are calculated by the numerical global-adaptive method taking into account the Gauss-Kronrod numerical integration extension. Sample calculations are performed using flexible basis sets generated with both signs of the relativistic angular momentum quantum number κ . Applications to one-electron atoms and diatomics are detailed. Variationally optimum values for orbital parameters are obtained at given nuclear separation. Methods discussed in this work are capable of yielding highly accurate relativistic two-center integrals for all ranges of orbital parameters. This work provides an efficient way to overcome the problems that arise in relativistic calculations.

  2. Perspectives of Halogen Bonding Description in Scoring Functions and QSAR/QSPR: Substituent Effects in Aromatic Core.

    PubMed

    Titov, Oleg I; Shulga, Dmitry A; Palyulin, Vladimir A; Zefirov, Nikolay S

    2015-06-01

    Halogen bonding (XB) is a new promising interaction pattern in medicinal chemistry. It has predominantly electrostatic nature - high electrostatic potential anisotropy. However to fully unleash the potential of XB in rational drug design fast and robust empirical methods of XB description should be developed. Current approaches rely heavily on ab initio calculation for each molecule studied. Thus fast prediction of electrostatic parameters for description of XB for arbitrary organic molecules is of paramount importance to promptly establish QSAR/QSPR, virtual screening and molecular docking pipelines suitable for today's agile development requirements. The two most promising approaches to describe anisotropic electrostatic models - the extra point (EP) charge model and the multipole expansion (ME) model - were studied on their ability (1) to describe ab initio molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and (2) to produce parameters that can be predicted for each molecule empirically rather than estimated via ab initio calculations. The reference ab initio MEP was calculated for a set of 730 substituted halobenzenes. Parameters for anisotropic electrostatics of both empirical models (EP and ME) studied were extracted from ab initio MEP. The FreeWilson and Hansch type QSPR models relating XB parameters with aromatic substituents were built and analyzed, providing the guidelines for further development. PMID:27490386

  3. Consumer perceptions, descriptive profile, and mechanical properties of a novel product with chickpea flour: Effect of ingredients.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, María José; Tárrega, Amparo; Fuentes, Raúl; Canet, Wenceslao; Álvarez, María Dolores

    2016-09-01

    Increasingly popular in the West is hummus, a spread that is made with pureed chickpeas and other healthful ingredients. The changes in texture measurements and sensory properties in a novel chickpea flour-based product occurring when water is partially replaced by common ingredients of hummus were investigated. Eleven chickpea gels containing different amounts of minced garlic, lemon juice, curry powder, and inulin were prepared and compared with two control gels. These ingredients were chosen to make the product tastier, appealing, and similar to hummus. Instrumental texture tests were carried out: uniaxial compression, stress relaxation, and texture profile analysis. Quantitative descriptive analysis was used to describe differences in sensory properties perceived by a trained panel, whereas repertory grid method combined with free choice profile was used to determine differences perceived by untrained consumers. Gels with higher curry powder content presented lower force to breakdown, whereas increasing inulin content led to gels with higher hardness. Principal component analysis was applied to instrumental parameters and quantitative descriptive analysis data, whereas generalized Procrustes analysis was applied to free choice profile data. This newly developed chickpea gel may make a nutrition claim with respect to protein ("high in protein," or at least a "source of protein").

  4. Constant-phase descriptions of canine lung, chest wall, and total respiratory system viscoelasticity: effects of distending pressure.

    PubMed

    Kaczka, David W; Smallwood, Jennifer L

    2012-08-15

    The dynamic mechanical properties of the respiratory system reflect the ensemble behavior of its constituent structural elements. This study assessed the appropriateness of constant-phase descriptions of respiratory tissue viscoelasticity at various distending pressures. We measured the mechanical input impedance (Z) of the lungs, chest wall and total respiratory system in 12 dogs at mean airway pressures from 5 to 30 cm H(2)O. Each Z was fitted with a constant-phase model which provided estimates tissue damping (G), elastance (H), and hysteresivity (η=G/H). Both G and H sharply increased with increasing distending pressure for the lungs and chest wall, while η attained a minimum near 15-20 cm H(2)O. Model fitting errors for the lungs and total respiratory system increased for distending pressures greater than 20 cm H(2)O, indicating that constant-phase descriptions of parenchymal and respiratory system viscoelasticty may be inappropriate at volumes closer to total lung capacity. Such behavior may reflect alterations in load distribution across various parenchymal stress-bearing elements.

  5. Consumer perceptions, descriptive profile, and mechanical properties of a novel product with chickpea flour: Effect of ingredients.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, María José; Tárrega, Amparo; Fuentes, Raúl; Canet, Wenceslao; Álvarez, María Dolores

    2016-09-01

    Increasingly popular in the West is hummus, a spread that is made with pureed chickpeas and other healthful ingredients. The changes in texture measurements and sensory properties in a novel chickpea flour-based product occurring when water is partially replaced by common ingredients of hummus were investigated. Eleven chickpea gels containing different amounts of minced garlic, lemon juice, curry powder, and inulin were prepared and compared with two control gels. These ingredients were chosen to make the product tastier, appealing, and similar to hummus. Instrumental texture tests were carried out: uniaxial compression, stress relaxation, and texture profile analysis. Quantitative descriptive analysis was used to describe differences in sensory properties perceived by a trained panel, whereas repertory grid method combined with free choice profile was used to determine differences perceived by untrained consumers. Gels with higher curry powder content presented lower force to breakdown, whereas increasing inulin content led to gels with higher hardness. Principal component analysis was applied to instrumental parameters and quantitative descriptive analysis data, whereas generalized Procrustes analysis was applied to free choice profile data. This newly developed chickpea gel may make a nutrition claim with respect to protein ("high in protein," or at least a "source of protein"). PMID:27000135

  6. One electron reduced square planar bis(benzene-1,2-dithiolato) copper dianionic complex and redox switch by O2/HO(-).

    PubMed

    Maiti, Biplab K; Maia, Luisa B; Pal, Kuntal; Pakhira, Bholanath; Avilés, Teresa; Moura, Isabel; Pauleta, Sofia R; Nuñez, José L; Rizzi, Alberto C; Brondino, Carlos D; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Moura, José J G

    2014-12-15

    The complex [Ph4P]2[Cu(bdt)2] (1(red)) was synthesized by the reaction of [Ph4P]2[S2MoS2CuCl] with H2bdt (bdt = benzene-1,2-dithiolate) in basic medium. 1(red) is highly susceptible toward dioxygen, affording the one electron oxidized diamagnetic compound [Ph4P][Cu(bdt)2] (1(ox)). The interconversion between these two oxidation states can be switched by addition of O2 or base (Et4NOH = tetraethylammonium hydroxide), as demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry and UV-visible and EPR spectroscopies. Thiomolybdates, in free or complex forms with copper ions, play an important role in the stability of 1(red) during its synthesis, since in its absence, 1(ox) is isolated. Both 1(red) and 1(ox) were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. EPR experiments showed that 1(red) is a Cu(II)-sulfur complex and revealed strong covalency on the copper-sulfur bonds. DFT calculations confirmed the spin density delocalization over the four sulfur atoms (76%) and copper (24%) atom, suggesting that 1(red) has a "thiyl radical character". Time dependent DFT calculations identified such ligand to ligand charge transfer transitions. Accordingly, 1(red) is better described by the two isoelectronic structures [Cu(I)(bdt2, 4S(3-,)*)](2-) ↔ [Cu(II)(bdt2, 4S(4-))](2-). On thermodynamic grounds, oxidation of 1(red) (doublet state) leads to 1(ox) singlet state, [Cu(III)(bdt2, 4S(4-))](1-). PMID:25470763

  7. One-Electron Oxidation of a Disilicon(0) Compound: An Experimental and Theoretical Study of [Si2](+) Trapped by N-Heterocyclic Carbenes.

    PubMed

    Arz, Marius I; Straßmann, Martin; Meyer, Andreas; Schnakenburg, Gregor; Schiemann, Olav; Filippou, Alexander C

    2015-08-24

    One-electron oxidation of the disilicon(0) compound Si2(Idipp)2 (1, Idipp = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolin-2-ylidene) with [Fe(C5Me5)2][B(Ar(F))4] (Ar(F) = C6H3-3,5-(CF3)2) affords selectively the green radical salt [Si2(Idipp)2][B(Ar(F))4] (1-[B(Ar(F))4). Oxidation of the centrosymmetric 1 occurs reversibly at a low redox potential (E1/2 = -1.250 V vs. Fc(+)/Fc), and is accompanied by considerable structural changes as shown by single-crystal X-ray structural analysis of 1-B(Ar(F))4. These include a shortening of the Si-Si bond, a widening of the Si-Si-CNHC angles, and a lowering of the symmetry, leading to a quite different conformation of the NHC substituents at the two inequivalent Si sites in 1(+). Comparative quantum chemical calculations of 1 and 1(+) indicate that electron ejection occurs from the symmetric (n+) combination of the Si lone pairs (HOMO). EPR studies of 1-B(Ar(F))4 in frozen solution verified the inequivalency of the two Si sites observed in the solid-state, and point in agreement with the theoretical results to an almost equal distribution of the spin density over the two Si atoms, leading to quite similar (29)Si hyperfine coupling tensors in 1(+). EPR studies of 1-B(Ar(F))4 in liquid solution unraveled a topomerization with a low activation barrier that interconverts the two Si sites in 1(+). PMID:26246231

  8. Characterization of lysine-guanine cross-links upon one-electron oxidation of a guanine-containing oligonucleotide in the presence of a trilysine peptide.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Sandrine; Hau, Jörg; Gasparutto, Didier; Cadet, Jean; Favier, Alain; Ravanat, Jean-Luc

    2006-05-01

    Formation of DNA-protein cross-links involving the initial formation of a guanine radical cation was investigated. For this purpose, riboflavin-mediated photosensitization of a TGT oligonucleotide in aerated aqueous solution in the presence of the KKK tripeptide was performed. We have shown that the nucleophilic addition of the epsilon-amino group of the central lysine residue of KKK to the C8 atom of either the guanine radical cation or its deprotonated form gives rise to the efficient formation of a Nepsilon-(guanin-8-yl)-lysine cross-link. Interestingly, the time course of formation of the above-mentioned cross-link was found to be not linear with the time of irradiation, and its formation rapidly reached a plateau. This is explained by secondary decomposition of the initially generated cross-link which could be further oxidized more efficiently than starting TGT oligonucleotide. One-electron oxidation of the initially generated cross-link was found to produce mainly two diastereomeric cross-links exhibiting a spiroimino-trilysine-dihydantoin structure as inferred from enzymatic digestion, CD, UV, NMR and mass spectrometry measurements. In addition, other minor cross-links, for which formation was favored at acidic pH, were assigned as lysine-guanine adducts in which the modified guanine base exhibits a guanidino-trilysine-iminohydantoin structure. A proposed mechanism for the formation of the different detected oligonucleotide-peptide cross-links is given. The high yield of formation of the detected cross-links strongly suggests that a DNA-protein cross-link involving a lysine residue linked to the C8 position of guanine could be generated in cellular systems if a lysine is located in the close vicinity of a guanine radical cation.

  9. A job description for the effective self-management of a long-term condition: experiences of living with difficult asthma.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Maureen; Rickards, Emma

    2013-04-01

    This paper concerns a study exploring the salience of a 'job description' for the effective self-management of a long-term condition to the experiences of a group of women living with difficult asthma. This is a life-threatening disease. It has been claimed that sufferers are a marginalised, misunderstood, mistreated and vulnerable group. The method involved secondary analysis of focus group data. The job description has been developed as a tool to enable nurses to facilitate and support effective self-management. This study was designed to examine the application of this tool to a particular case. Long-term conditions are a growing feature of the developed world and are strongly implicated in health inequalities. They are more prevalent in socially and economically disadvantaged populations and therefore add further burden to already vulnerable people. Effective self-management is critical to adapting and adjusting to the experience of a long-term condition and nurses have a responsibility to promote this process.

  10. Acquisition of teleological descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, David W.

    1992-03-01

    Teleology descriptions capture the purpose of an entity, mechanism, or activity with which they are associated. These descriptions can be used in explanation, diagnosis, and design reuse. We describe a technique for acquiring teleological descriptions expressed in the teleology language TeD. Acquisition occurs during design by observing design modifications and design verification. We demonstrate the acquisition technique in an electronic circuit design.

  11. Writing job descriptions.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, M

    1990-01-01

    The skill of writing job descriptions begins with an understanding of the advantages, as well as the basic elements, of a well written description. The end result should be approved and updated as needed. Having a better understanding of this process makes writing the job description a challenge rather than a chore.

  12. Sensitivity of effective rainfall amount to land use description using GIS tool. Case of a small mediterranean catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payraudeau, S.; Tournoud, M. G.; Cernesson, F.

    Distributed modelling in hydrology assess catchment subdivision to take into account physic characteristics. In this paper, we test the effect of land use aggregation scheme on catchment hydrological response. Evolution of intra-subcatchment land use is studied using statistic and entropy methods. The SCS-CN method is used to calculate effective rainfall which is here assimilated to hydrological response. Our purpose is to determine the existence of a critical threshold-area appropriate for the application of hydrological modelling. Land use aggregation effects on effective rainfall is assessed on small mediterranean catchment. The results show that land use aggregation and land use classification type have significant effects on hydrological modelling and in particular on effective rainfall modelling.

  13. A Qualitative Descriptive Study of Perceived Sexual Effects of Club Drug Use in Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Palamar, Joseph J.; Kiang, Mathew V.; Storholm, Erik D.; Halkitis, Perry N.

    2013-01-01

    Club drug use is often associated with unsafe sexual practices and use remains prevalent among gay and bisexual men. Although epidemiological studies commonly report the risk of engaging in unsafe sex due to the effects of particular club drugs, there remain gaps in the literature regarding the specific sexual effects of such substances and the context for their use in this population. We examined secondary data derived from interviews with 198 club drug using gay and bisexual males in New York City and qualitatively describe subjective sexual effects of five drugs: ecstasy, GHB, ketamine, powder cocaine and methamphetamine. Differences and commonalities across the five drugs were examined. Results suggest that each drug tends to provide: 1) unique sexual effects, 2) its own form of disinhibition, and 3) atypical sexual choices, often described as “lower sexual standards.” Differences across drugs emerged with regard to social, sensual and sexual enhancement, sexual interest, and impotence. Although some common perceived sexual effects exist across drugs, the wide variation in these effects suggests different levels of risk and may further suggest varying motivations for using each substance. This study seeks to educate public health officials regarding the sexual effects of club drug use in this population. PMID:24883174

  14. Multimedia content description framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Lawrence David (Inventor); Kim, Michelle Yoonk Yung (Inventor); Li, Chung-Sheng (Inventor); Mohan, Rakesh (Inventor); Smith, John Richard (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A framework is provided for describing multimedia content and a system in which a plurality of multimedia storage devices employing the content description methods of the present invention can interoperate. In accordance with one form of the present invention, the content description framework is a description scheme (DS) for describing streams or aggregations of multimedia objects, which may comprise audio, images, video, text, time series, and various other modalities. This description scheme can accommodate an essentially limitless number of descriptors in terms of features, semantics or metadata, and facilitate content-based search, index, and retrieval, among other capabilities, for both streamed or aggregated multimedia objects.

  15. Evaluation of influenza vaccine effectiveness and description of circulating strains in outpatient settings in South Africa, 2014

    PubMed Central

    McAnerney, Johanna M; Treurnicht, Florette; Walaza, Sibongile; Cohen, Adam L; Tempia, Stefano; Mtshali, Senzo; Buys, Amelia; Blumberg, Lucille; Cohen, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of the trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine during the 2014 season in South Africa was assessed using a test-negative case–control study design including 472 cases and 362 controls. Influenza A(H3N2) was the dominant strain circulating. The overall vaccine effectiveness estimate, adjusted for age and underlying conditions, was 43·1% (95% CI: −26·8–74·5). 2014 H3N2 viruses from South Africa were mainly in sublineage 3C.3 with accumulation of amino acid changes that differentiate them from the vaccine strain in 3C.1. PMID:25865249

  16. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  17. Description and Preliminary Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Childcare Voucher Program at the University of Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ernest R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a new system of providing portable vouchers to student-parents for the purchase of child care services at the University of Washington. A preliminary analysis of its effectiveness indicates the Childcare Voucher Program is serving its intended purpose well. (JAC)

  18. Local description of the through phenyl transfer of a negative charge within resonance theory: topological effects in xylylene radical anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karafiloglou, Padeleimon; Launay, Jean-Pierre

    1999-11-01

    The topological effects specifying a di-substituted phenyl ring bearing a negative charge are investigated by considering the radical anions of para- and meta-xylylene isomers as model systems. The super exchange (SE) and double exchange (DE) component mechanisms describing the through phenyl transfer of a negative charge are considered and examined within `resonance' or `mesomeric' theory. The radical anion electronic events characterizing the DE and SE resonance structures are investigated by means of poly-electron population analysis. Correlated ab initio MO wavefunctions are used as the starting material in our calculations, and the various second quantized density operators are built on the basis of natural AOs. Conditional electronic events specifying SE or DE mechanisms are defined, and the corresponding probabilities are compared for meta and para topologies. The main trends are rationalized by comparing the effects provoked in phenyl ring when the negative charge is transferred from one substituent or the other. In para topology the effects are additive for the most important resonance structures, while in meta (characterized from `quantum interferences') the same effects are antagonist in all structures and for both SE and DE mechanisms.

  19. Elementary Bilingual and ESL Education Programs and Their Effectiveness within Schools. A Descriptive Study, Teaching Methods, and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Cassandra Leigh; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    The purpose of this report was to collect a summary of information on instructional programs for bilingual students in Irving Independepent School District (Texas), so the parents of these students as well as staff members could evaluate the existing bilingual programs. The effectiveness of improving English-as-a-Second-Language skills for…

  20. Effect Sizes as Result Interpretation Aids in Single-Subject Experimental Research: Description and Application of Four Nonoverlap Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakap, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Single-subject experimental research (SSER), one of the most commonly used research methods in special education and applied behaviour analysis, is a scientific, rigorous and valid method to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioural, educational and psychological treatments. However, studies using single-subject experimental research designs are…

  1. Effectiveness of muscle strengthening and description of protocols for preventing falls in the elderly: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ishigaki, Erika Y.; Ramos, Lidiane G.; Carvalho, Elisa S.; Lunardi, Adriana C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Falls are a geriatric syndrome that is considered a significant public health problem in terms of morbidity and mortality because they lead to a decline in functional capacity and an impaired quality of life in the elderly. Lower limb muscle strengthening seems to be an effective intervention for preventing falls; however, there is no consensus regarding the best method for increasing lower limb muscle strength. Objectives To analyze the effectiveness of lower limb muscle strengthening and to investigate and describe the protocols used for preventing falls in elderly subjects. Method We performed a systematic review of randomized and controlled clinical trials published between 2002 and 2012 in the databases PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and PEDro that cited some type of lower limb muscle strengthening protocol and that evaluated the incidence of falls as the primary outcome exclusively in elderly subjects. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Qualitative analysis was performed by independent reviewers applying the PEDro scale. Results The data obtained from the selected studies showed lower fall rates in the intervention groups compared to controls. Six studies described the lower limb muscle strengthening protocol in detail. High methodological quality was found in 6 studies (PEDro score ≥7/10 points). Conclusions The methodological quality of the studies in this area appears to leave little doubt regarding the effectiveness of lower limb strengthening exercises for preventing falls in elderly subjects, however the interventions in these studies were poorly reported. PMID:24760166

  2. Effect of Na+ and Ca2+ ions on a lipid Langmuir monolayer: an atomistic description by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Giner Casares, Juan José; Camacho, Luis; Martín-Romero, Maria Teresa; López Cascales, José Javier

    2008-12-01

    Studying the effect of alkali and alkaline-earth metal cations on Langmuir monolayers is relevant from biophysical and nanotechnological points of view. In this work, the effect of Na(+) and Ca(2+) on a model of an anionic Langmuir lipid monolayer of dimyristoylphosphatidate (DMPA(-)) is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The influence of the type of cation on lipid structure, lipid-lipid interactions, and lipid ordering is analyzed in terms of electrostatic interactions. It is found that for a lipid monolayer in its solid phase, the effect of the cations on the properties of the lipid monolayer can be neglected. The influence of the cations is enhanced for the lipid monolayer in its gas phase, where sodium ions show a high degree of dehydration compared with calcium ions. This loss of hydration shell is partly compensated by the formation of lipid-ion-lipid bridges. This difference is ascribed to the higher charge-to-radius ratio q/r for Ca(2+), which makes ion dehydration less favorable compared to Na(+). Owing to the different dehydration behavior of sodium and calcium ions, diminished lipid-lipid coordination, lipid-ion coordination, and lipid ordering are observed for Ca(2+) compared to Na(+). Furthermore, for both gas and solid phases of the lipid Langmuir monolayers, lipid conformation and ion dehydration across the lipid/water interface are studied. PMID:19012310

  3. Effect of Na+ and Ca2+ ions on a lipid Langmuir monolayer: an atomistic description by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Giner Casares, Juan José; Camacho, Luis; Martín-Romero, Maria Teresa; López Cascales, José Javier

    2008-12-01

    Studying the effect of alkali and alkaline-earth metal cations on Langmuir monolayers is relevant from biophysical and nanotechnological points of view. In this work, the effect of Na(+) and Ca(2+) on a model of an anionic Langmuir lipid monolayer of dimyristoylphosphatidate (DMPA(-)) is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The influence of the type of cation on lipid structure, lipid-lipid interactions, and lipid ordering is analyzed in terms of electrostatic interactions. It is found that for a lipid monolayer in its solid phase, the effect of the cations on the properties of the lipid monolayer can be neglected. The influence of the cations is enhanced for the lipid monolayer in its gas phase, where sodium ions show a high degree of dehydration compared with calcium ions. This loss of hydration shell is partly compensated by the formation of lipid-ion-lipid bridges. This difference is ascribed to the higher charge-to-radius ratio q/r for Ca(2+), which makes ion dehydration less favorable compared to Na(+). Owing to the different dehydration behavior of sodium and calcium ions, diminished lipid-lipid coordination, lipid-ion coordination, and lipid ordering are observed for Ca(2+) compared to Na(+). Furthermore, for both gas and solid phases of the lipid Langmuir monolayers, lipid conformation and ion dehydration across the lipid/water interface are studied.

  4. Provocative Opinion: Descriptive Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Henry A.; Bent, Brian E.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses many of the distinctions that chemists draw between theoretical chemistry and descriptive chemistry, along with the tendency for chemical educators to adopt the type of chemistry they feel is most important to teach. Uses examples to argue that theoretical chemistry and descriptive chemistry are, at the bottom line, the same. (TW)

  5. A Descriptive Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Josef

    1979-01-01

    In this experiment in description, students in a high school honors English class were asked to select a surrealistic painting and capture it in writing. Their compositions were given to art students who tried to reproduce the paintings from the written descriptions. (SJL)

  6. Physics 3204. Course Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newfoundland and Labrador Dept. of Education.

    A description of the physics 3204 course in Newfoundland and Labrador is provided. The description includes: (1) statement of purpose, including general objectives of science education; (2) a list of six course objectives; (3) course content for units on sound, light, optical instruments, electrostatics, current electricity, Michael Faraday and…

  7. Short and long term health effects of parental tobacco smoking during pregnancy and lactation: a descriptive review.

    PubMed

    Banderali, G; Martelli, A; Landi, M; Moretti, F; Betti, F; Radaelli, G; Lassandro, C; Verduci, E

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been focused on adverse effects of tobacco smoking on conception, pregnancy, fetal, and child health. The aim of this paper is to discuss the current evidence regarding short and long-term health effects on child health of parental smoking during pregnancy and lactation and the potential underlying mechanisms. Studies were searched on MEDLINE(®) and Cochrane database inserting, individually and using the Boolean ANDs and ORs, 'pregnancy', 'human lactation', 'fetal growth', 'metabolic outcomes', 'obesity', 'cardiovascular outcomes', 'blood pressure', 'brain development', 'respiratory outcomes', 'maternal or paternal or parental tobacco smoking', 'nicotine'. Publications coming from the reference list of studies were also considered from MEDLINE. All sources were retrieved between 2015-01-03 and 2015-31-05. There is overall consistency in literature about negative effects of fetal and postnatal exposure to parental tobacco smoking on several outcomes: preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, neurodevelopmental and behavioral problems, obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, impaired lung function, asthma and wheezing. While maternal smoking during pregnancy plays a major role on adverse postnatal outcomes, it may also cumulate negatively with smoking during lactation and with second-hand smoking exposure. Although this review was not strictly designed as a systematic review and the PRISMA Statement was not fully applied it may benefit the reader with a promptly and friendly readable update of the matter. This review strengthens the need to plan population health policies aimed to implement educational programs to hopefully minimize tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:26472248

  8. Short and long term health effects of parental tobacco smoking during pregnancy and lactation: a descriptive review.

    PubMed

    Banderali, G; Martelli, A; Landi, M; Moretti, F; Betti, F; Radaelli, G; Lassandro, C; Verduci, E

    2015-10-15

    A great deal of attention has been focused on adverse effects of tobacco smoking on conception, pregnancy, fetal, and child health. The aim of this paper is to discuss the current evidence regarding short and long-term health effects on child health of parental smoking during pregnancy and lactation and the potential underlying mechanisms. Studies were searched on MEDLINE(®) and Cochrane database inserting, individually and using the Boolean ANDs and ORs, 'pregnancy', 'human lactation', 'fetal growth', 'metabolic outcomes', 'obesity', 'cardiovascular outcomes', 'blood pressure', 'brain development', 'respiratory outcomes', 'maternal or paternal or parental tobacco smoking', 'nicotine'. Publications coming from the reference list of studies were also considered from MEDLINE. All sources were retrieved between 2015-01-03 and 2015-31-05. There is overall consistency in literature about negative effects of fetal and postnatal exposure to parental tobacco smoking on several outcomes: preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, neurodevelopmental and behavioral problems, obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, impaired lung function, asthma and wheezing. While maternal smoking during pregnancy plays a major role on adverse postnatal outcomes, it may also cumulate negatively with smoking during lactation and with second-hand smoking exposure. Although this review was not strictly designed as a systematic review and the PRISMA Statement was not fully applied it may benefit the reader with a promptly and friendly readable update of the matter. This review strengthens the need to plan population health policies aimed to implement educational programs to hopefully minimize tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and lactation.

  9. Description and evaluation of the effects of urban and agricultural development on the surficial aquifer system, Palm Beach County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    The surficial aquifer system in Palm Beach County was studied during 1982-85 to determine the effects of increased urban and agricultural development on groundwater levels, flow directions, and quality. The surficial aquifer system and its geologic matrix are divisible into three zones on the bases of relative permeabilities and lithologic characteristics. The two greatest water users in the county, public supply utilities and agricultural irrigators, increased total water withdrawals by 123 and 50%, respectively, during 1970-80. By 1980, 76% of public supply withdrawals were from zones I and II of the surficial aquifer system, whereas groundwater pumpage for irrigation decreased to 9% of the total irrigation water used. Increases in groundwater withdrawals for public supply were greatest in the southeast and central coastal parts of the county and served as an indicator for potential changes of flow directions and water quality in the surficial aquifer system. Residual seawater, emplaced in the aquifer system during the Pleistocene Epoch, is still prevalent in the central and western parts of Palm Beach County where low permeabilities in the geologic matrix have retarded its dilution. Chemical analyses of canal-water and groundwater samples collected in April 1984 were used to evaluate the effects of groundwater/surface water exchange on the quality of water during canal conveyance across the area containing residual seawater. (USGS)

  10. Forest Management in Earth System Modelling: a Vertically Discretised Canopy Description for ORCHIDEE and Effects on European Climate Since 1750

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, M.; Luyssaert, S.; Naudts, K.; Chen, Y.; Ryder, J.; Otto, J.; Valade, A.

    2015-12-01

    Forest management has the potential to impact surface physical characteristics to the same degree that changes in land cover do. The impacts of land cover changes on the global climate are well-known. Despite an increasingly detailed understanding of the potential for forest management to affect climate, none of the current generation of Earth system models account for forest management through their land surface modules. We addressed this gap by developing and reparameterizing the ORCHIDEE land surface model to simulate the biogeochemical and biophysical effects of forest management. Through vertical discretization of the forest canopy and corresponding modifications to the energy budget, radiation transfer, and carbon allocation, forest management can now be simulated much more realistically on the global scale. This model was used to explore the effect of forest management on European climate since 1750. Reparameterization was carried out to replace generic forest plant functional types with real tree species, covering the most dominant species across the continent. Historical forest management and land cover maps were created to run the simulations from 1600 until the present day. The model was coupled to the atmospheric model LMDz to explore differences in climate between 1750 and 2010 and attribute those differences to changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and concurrent warming, land cover, species composition, and wood extraction. Although Europe's forest are considered a carbon sink in this century, our simulations show the modern forests are still experiencing carbon debt compared to their historical values.

  11. Expanding the Description of Spaceflight Effects beyond Bone Mineral Density [BMD]: Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] in ISS Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Spector, E. R.; King, L. J.; Evans, H. J.; Smith, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA] is the widely-applied bone densitometry method used to diagnose osteoporosis in a terrestrial population known to be at risk for age-related bone loss. This medical test, which measures areal bone mineral density [aBMD] of clinically-relevant skeletal sites (e.g., hip and spine), helps the clinician to identify which persons, among postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years, are at high risk for low trauma or fragility fractures and might require an intervention. The most recognized osteoporotic fragility fracture is the vertebral compression fracture which can lead to kyphosis or hunched backs typically seen in the elderly. DXA measurement of BMD however is recognized to be insufficient as a sole index for assessing fracture risk. DXA's limitation may be related to its inability to monitor changes in structural parameters, such as trabecular vs. cortical bone volumes, bone geometry or trabecular microarchitecture. Hence, in order to understand risks to human health and performance due to space exposure, NASA needs to expand its measurements of bone to include other contributors to skeletal integrity. To this aim, the Bone and Mineral Lab conducted a pilot study for a novel measurement of bone microarchitecture that can be obtained by retrospective analysis of DXA scans. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) assesses changes to trabecular microarchitecture by measuring the grey color "texture" information extracted from DXA images of the lumbar spine. An analysis of TBS in 51 ISS astronauts was conducted to assess if TBS could detect 1) an effect of spaceflight and 2) a response to countermeasures independent of DXA BMD. In addition, changes in trunk body lean tissue mass and in trunk body fat tissue mass were also evaluated to explore an association between body composition, as impacted by ARED exercise, and bone microarchitecture. The pilot analysis of 51 astronaut scans of the lumbar spine suggests that, following an ISS

  12. Microgravity Environment Description Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; McPherson, Kevin; Hrovat, Kenneth; Moskowitz, Milton; Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Reckart, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    The Microgravity Measurement and Analysis Project (MMAP) at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) manages the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) and the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) instruments to measure the microgravity environment on orbiting space laboratories. These laboratories include the Spacelab payloads on the shuttle, the SPACEHAB module on the shuttle, the middeck area of the shuttle, and Russia's Mir space station. Experiments are performed in these laboratories to investigate scientific principles in the near-absence of gravity. The microgravity environment desired for most experiments would have zero acceleration across all frequency bands or a true weightless condition. This is not possible due to the nature of spaceflight where there are numerous factors which introduce accelerations to the environment. This handbook presents an overview of the major microgravity environment disturbances of these laboratories. These disturbances are characterized by their source (where known), their magnitude, frequency and duration, and their effect on the microgravity environment. Each disturbance is characterized on a single page for ease in understanding the effect of a particular disturbance. The handbook also contains a brief description of each laboratory.

  13. Large measles outbreak in Geneva, Switzerland, January to August 2011: descriptive epidemiology and demonstration of quarantine effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Delaporte, E; Wyler Lazarevic, C A; Iten, A; Sudre, P

    2013-01-01

    Between January and August 2011, the canton of Geneva, Switzerland, experienced a large measles outbreak with 219 cases (47 cases per 100,000 inhabitants) in the context of an extensive epidemic in a neighbouring region of France. Most cases were young adults (median age: 18 years), often unaware of their vaccination status. The vast majority of cases were either not (81%) or incompletely vaccinated (8%). Thirty clusters with a total of 119 cases and a median cluster size of three (range: 2–15 cases) were identified. Overall, 44 cases were imported or linked to imported cases. Of 73 contacts of cases who were quarantined, 50 developed measles and caused six secondary cases. This compares to 81 secondary cases among 173 non-quarantined cases (relative risk: 0.26; 95% confidence interval: 0.06–0.65), demonstrating the effectiveness of well targeted quarantine measures in reducing transmission. PMID:23410259

  14. Effects of exchange-correlation potentials in density functional descriptions of ground-state and photoionization of fullerenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jinwoo; Chang, Eonho; Anstine, Dylan M.; Chakraborty, Himadri

    2016-05-01

    We study the ground state properties of C60 and C240 molecules in a spherical frame of local density approximation (LDA). Within this mean-field theory, two different approximations to the exchange-correlation (xc) functional are used: (i) The Gunnerson-Lundqvist parametrization augmented by a treatment to correct for the electron self-interaction and (ii) the van Leeuwen and Baerends (LB94) model potential that inclusively restores electron's asymptotic properties. Results show differences in the ground-state potential, level energies and electron densities between the two xc choices. We then use the ground structure to find the excited and ionized states of the systems and calculate dipole single-photoionization cross sections in a time-dependent LDA method that incorporates linear-response dynamical correlations. Comparative effects of the choices of xc on collective plasmon and single-excitation Auger resonances as well as on geometry driven cavity oscillations are found significant. The work is supported by the NSF, USA.

  15. Towards a conceptual framework demonstrating the effectiveness of audiovisual patient descriptions (patient video cases): a review of the current literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Technological advances have enabled the widespread use of video cases via web-streaming and online download as an educational medium. The use of real subjects to demonstrate acute pathology should aid the education of health care professionals. However, the methodology by which this effect may be tested is not clear. Methods We undertook a literature review of major databases, found relevant articles relevant to using patient video cases as educational interventions, extracted the methodologies used and assessed these methods for internal and construct validity. Results A review of 2532 abstracts revealed 23 studies meeting the inclusion criteria and a final review of 18 of relevance. Medical students were the most commonly studied group (10 articles) with a spread of learner satisfaction, knowledge and behaviour tested. Only two of the studies fulfilled defined criteria on achieving internal and construct validity. The heterogeneity of articles meant it was not possible to perform any meta-analysis. Conclusions Previous studies have not well classified which facet of training or educational outcome the study is aiming to explore and had poor internal and construct validity. Future research should aim to validate a particular outcome measure, preferably by reproducing previous work rather than adopting new methods. In particular cognitive processing enhancement, demonstrated in a number of the medical student studies, should be tested at a postgraduate level. PMID:23256787

  16. Description and validation of a method for simultaneous estimation of effective population size and mutation rate from human population data.

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, R; Neel, J V

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for utilizing population data on electrophoretic variants of proteins to estimate simultaneously the effective sizes (Ne values) of the populations in question and the rate of mutation resulting in electromorphs at the loci whose products were surveyed. The method is applied to data from 12 relatively unacculturated Amerindian tribes for whom census data and independent estimates of the number of different electrophoretic variants at 27 loci are available. Because of tribal demographic structure, Ne should be less than the current number of reproductive-aged adults. In fact, it is substantially greater for 7 tribes, most likely due to intertribal migration and a recent decrease in tribal size. Estimates of locus mutation rates for the 27 loci vary by more than a factor of 20, with an average of 1.1 x 10(-5) per locus per generation. This latter estimate is in satisfactory agreement with the results of other indirect approaches to the estimation of mutation rates in these tribes but about two times higher than the results of direct estimates based on these same loci in studies on civilized populations. This discrepancy could be due to the above-hypothesized migration and to decreases in tribal size. PMID:2594777

  17. Hardware description languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Jerry H.

    1994-01-01

    Hardware description languages are special purpose programming languages. They are primarily used to specify the behavior of digital systems and are rapidly replacing traditional digital system design techniques. This is because they allow the designer to concentrate on how the system should operate rather than on implementation details. Hardware description languages allow a digital system to be described with a wide range of abstraction, and they support top down design techniques. A key feature of any hardware description language environment is its ability to simulate the modeled system. The two most important hardware description languages are Verilog and VHDL. Verilog has been the dominant language for the design of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's). However, VHDL is rapidly gaining in popularity.

  18. GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION.

    SciTech Connect

    PAQUETTE,D.E.; BENNETT,D.B.; DORSCH,W.R.; GOODE,G.A.; LEE,R.J.; KLAUS,K.; HOWE,R.F.; GEIGER,K.

    2002-05-31

    THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDER 5400.1, GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM, REQUIRES THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUNDWATER PROTECTION PROGRAM. THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF HOW THE LABORATORY ENSURES THAT PLANS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION, MONITORING, AND RESTORATION ARE FULLY DEFINED, INTEGRATED, AND MANAGED IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.

  19. Developing Your Employee Handbook: Job Descriptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perreault, Joe

    1988-01-01

    A job description is a brief document that conveys to employees the importance of their jobs to the overall success of the day-care center. If properly written, it can contribute to effective employee motivation and supervision. (RJC)

  20. Effect of the tensor part of Skyrme interaction on the description of elastic nucleon-nucleus scattering on the basis of the optical model

    SciTech Connect

    Kuprikov, V. I.; Pilipenko, V. V.

    2013-01-15

    A microscopic optical nucleon-nucleus potential constructed on the basis of calculating the mass operator for the single-particle Green's function with Skyrme nucleon-nucleon forces was used to study the effect of the tensor part of Skyrme forces on describing differential cross sections for elastic nucleon-nucleus scattering and the structure of nuclei within a self-consistent approach. It was shown that an increase in the tensor terms of nucleon-nucleon forces impaired the description of nucleon-nucleus scattering within the model being considered. The parameters of Skyrme forces were optimized on the basis of an analysis of cross sections for neutron-nucleus scattering, the properties of nuclear matter and the structure of nuclei being tested in doing this. This optimization led to nucleon-nucleon force versions where the tensor part was small or zero and which described satisfactorily the structure of nuclei and cross sections for elastic neutron and proton scattering on nuclei over a broad range of target mass numbers.

  1. Effect of the barometric phase transition of a DMPA bilayer on the lipid/water interface. An atomistic description by molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Casares, J J Giner; Camacho, L; Romero, M T Martín; Cascales, J J López

    2007-12-13

    Understanding the structure and dynamics of phospholipid bilayers is of fundamental relevance in biophysics, biochemistry, and chemical physics. Lipid Langmuir monolayers are used as a model of lipid bilayers, because they are much more easily studied experimentally, although some authors question the validity of this model. With the aim of throwing light on this debate, we used molecular dynamics simulations to obtain an atomistic description of a membrane of dimyristoylphosphatidic acid under different surface pressures. Our results show that at low surface pressure the interdigitation between opposite lipids (that is, back-to-back interactions) controls the system structure. In this setting and due to the absence of this effect in the Langmuir monolayers, the behavior between these two systems differs considerably. However, when the surface pressure increases the lipid interdigitation diminishes and so monolayer and bilayer behavior converges. In this work, four computer simulations were carried out, subjecting the phospholipids to lateral pressures ranging from 0.17 to 40 mN/m. The phospholipids were studied in their charged state because this approach is closer to the experimental situation. Special attention was paid to validating our simulation results by comparison with available experimental data, therebeing in general excellent agreement between experimental and simulation data. In addition, the properties of the lipid/solution interface associated with the lipid barometric phase transition were studied. PMID:18004836

  2. Effect of the barometric phase transition of a DMPA bilayer on the lipid/water interface. An atomistic description by molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Casares, J J Giner; Camacho, L; Romero, M T Martín; Cascales, J J López

    2007-12-13

    Understanding the structure and dynamics of phospholipid bilayers is of fundamental relevance in biophysics, biochemistry, and chemical physics. Lipid Langmuir monolayers are used as a model of lipid bilayers, because they are much more easily studied experimentally, although some authors question the validity of this model. With the aim of throwing light on this debate, we used molecular dynamics simulations to obtain an atomistic description of a membrane of dimyristoylphosphatidic acid under different surface pressures. Our results show that at low surface pressure the interdigitation between opposite lipids (that is, back-to-back interactions) controls the system structure. In this setting and due to the absence of this effect in the Langmuir monolayers, the behavior between these two systems differs considerably. However, when the surface pressure increases the lipid interdigitation diminishes and so monolayer and bilayer behavior converges. In this work, four computer simulations were carried out, subjecting the phospholipids to lateral pressures ranging from 0.17 to 40 mN/m. The phospholipids were studied in their charged state because this approach is closer to the experimental situation. Special attention was paid to validating our simulation results by comparison with available experimental data, therebeing in general excellent agreement between experimental and simulation data. In addition, the properties of the lipid/solution interface associated with the lipid barometric phase transition were studied.

  3. Effect of dry-air chilling on sensory descriptive profiles of cooked broiler breast meat deboned four hours after the initiation of chilling.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, H; Savage, E M; Smith, D P; Berrang, M E

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dry air-chilling (AC) method on sensory texture and flavor descriptive profiles of broiler pectoralis major (fillet) and pectoralis minor (tender). The profiles of the muscles immersion-chilled and deboned at the same postmortem time and the profiles of the muscles hot-boned (or no chill) were used for the comparison. A total of 108 eviscerated carcasses (6-wk-old broilers) were obtained from a commercial processing line before the chillers. Carcasses were transported to a laboratory facility where they were either i) chilled by a dry AC method (0.7 degrees C, 150 min in a cold room), ii) chilled by immersion chilling (IC; 0.3 degrees C, 50 min in a chiller), or iii) not chilled (9 birds per treatment per replication). Both IC and AC fillets and tenders were removed from the bone at 4 h after the initiation of chilling (approximately 4.75 h postmortem) in a processing area (18 degrees C). The no-chill muscles were removed immediately upon arrival. The sensory properties (21 attributes) of cooked broiler breast meat were evaluated by trained panelists using 0- to 15-point universal intensity scales. The average intensity scores of the 9 flavor attributes analyzed ranged from 0.9 to 4.0. Regardless of breast muscle type, there were no significant differences in sensory flavor descriptive profiles between the 3 treatments. The average intensity scores of the 12 texture attributes ranged from 1.5 to 7.5 and there were no significant differences between the AC and IC samples. The average intensity scores of the texture attributes, cohesiveness, hardness, cohesiveness of mass, rate of breakdown, and chewiness of the no chill fillets and tenders were significantly higher than those of either of the chilled samples. These results demonstrate that chicken breast meat from AC retains sensory flavor profile characteristics but AC results in sensory texture profile differences when compared with no-chill meat. Sensory

  4. Local unitary transformation method for large-scale two-component relativistic calculations: Case for a one-electron Dirac Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi

    2012-06-01

    An accurate and efficient scheme for two-component relativistic calculations at the spin-free infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (IODKH) level is presented. The present scheme, termed local unitary transformation (LUT), is based on the locality of the relativistic effect. Numerical assessments of the LUT scheme were performed in diatomic molecules such as HX and X2 (X = F, Cl, Br, I, and At) and hydrogen halide clusters, (HX)n (X = F, Cl, Br, and I). Total energies obtained by the LUT method agree well with conventional IODKH results. The computational costs of the LUT method are drastically lower than those of conventional methods since in the former there is linear-scaling with respect to the system size and a small prefactor.

  5. Photocatalytic Conversion of Nitrobenzene to Aniline through Sequential Proton-Coupled One-Electron Transfers from a Cadmium Sulfide Quantum Dot.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Stephen C; Homan, Stephanie Bettis; Weiss, Emily A

    2016-02-10

    This paper describes the use of cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs) as visible-light photocatalysts for the reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline through six sequential photoinduced, proton-coupled electron transfers. At pH 3.6-4.3, the internal quantum yield of photons-to-reducing electrons is 37.1% over 54 h of illumination, with no apparent decrease in catalyst activity. Monitoring of the QD exciton by transient absorption reveals that, for each step in the catalytic cycle, the sacrificial reductant, 3-mercaptopropionic acid, scavenges the excitonic hole in ∼5 ps to form QD(•-); electron transfer to nitrobenzene or the intermediates nitrosobenzene and phenylhydroxylamine then occurs on the nanosecond time scale. The rate constants for the single-electron transfer reactions are correlated with the driving forces for the corresponding proton-coupled electron transfers. This result suggests, but does not prove, that electron transfer, not proton transfer, is rate-limiting for these reactions. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the QD-molecule systems shows that the photoproduct aniline, left unprotonated, serves as a poison for the QD catalyst by adsorbing to its surface. Performing the reaction at an acidic pH not only encourages aniline to desorb but also increases the probability of protonated intermediates; the latter effect probably ensures that recruitment of protons is not rate-limiting.

  6. I've got 99 problems but a phone ain't one: Electronic and mobile health in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pratap; Paton, Chris; Kirigia, Doris

    2016-10-01

    Mobile technology is very prevalent in Kenya-mobile phone penetration is at 88% and mobile data subscriptions form 99% of all internet subscriptions. While there is great potential for such ubiquitous technology to revolutionise access and quality of healthcare in low-resource settings, there have been few successes at scale. Implementations of electronic health (e-Health) and mobile health (m-Health) technologies in countries like Kenya are yet to tackle human resource constraints or the political, ethical and financial considerations of such technologies. We outline recent innovations that could improve access and quality while considering the costs of healthcare. One is an attempt to create a scalable clinical decision support system by engaging a global network of specialist doctors and reversing some of the damaging effects of medical brain drain. The other efficiently extracts digital information from paper-based records using low-cost and locally produced tools such as rubber stamps to improve adherence to clinical practice guidelines. By bringing down the costs of remote consultations and clinical audit, respectively, these projects offer the potential for clinics in resource-limited settings to deliver high-quality care. This paper makes a case for continued and increased investment in social enterprises that bridge academia, public and private sectors to deliver sustainable and scalable e-Health and m-Health solutions.

  7. I've got 99 problems but a phone ain't one: Electronic and mobile health in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pratap; Paton, Chris; Kirigia, Doris

    2016-10-01

    Mobile technology is very prevalent in Kenya-mobile phone penetration is at 88% and mobile data subscriptions form 99% of all internet subscriptions. While there is great potential for such ubiquitous technology to revolutionise access and quality of healthcare in low-resource settings, there have been few successes at scale. Implementations of electronic health (e-Health) and mobile health (m-Health) technologies in countries like Kenya are yet to tackle human resource constraints or the political, ethical and financial considerations of such technologies. We outline recent innovations that could improve access and quality while considering the costs of healthcare. One is an attempt to create a scalable clinical decision support system by engaging a global network of specialist doctors and reversing some of the damaging effects of medical brain drain. The other efficiently extracts digital information from paper-based records using low-cost and locally produced tools such as rubber stamps to improve adherence to clinical practice guidelines. By bringing down the costs of remote consultations and clinical audit, respectively, these projects offer the potential for clinics in resource-limited settings to deliver high-quality care. This paper makes a case for continued and increased investment in social enterprises that bridge academia, public and private sectors to deliver sustainable and scalable e-Health and m-Health solutions. PMID:27296441

  8. Effect of temperature and salinity on egg hatching and description of the life cycle of Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) infecting barramundi, Lates calcarifer.

    PubMed

    Brazenor, Alexander K; Hutson, Kate S

    2013-10-01

    The parasite Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) is a major threat to the sustained mariculture of barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Perciformes: Latidae). We investigated the effect of water temperature and salinity on egg hatching success of L. latis and describe the life cycle for the first time. Wild and sea-caged L. calcarifer examined in tropical north Australia exhibited similar parasite prevalence (range: 80-100%) and mean parasite intensity (range: 3-6), whereas land-based maricultured fish were not infected. Hatching success and time to first and last hatch was determined for a range of water temperature (22, 30, 32 and 34°C) and salinity (0, 11, 22, 35 and 40‰) combinations representing current and predicted climate conditions. There was a significant interaction between water temperature and salinity on the hatching success of L. latis nauplii. Eggs hatched in all temperature treatments, with the greatest hatching success at 30°C and 32°C (98 and 92% success, respectively) in 35‰. Hatching did not occur at 0‰ and was severely reduced at 11‰ (1.6% success). Hatching began within 6h at all water temperatures with >95% of eggs hatched within 30h at 30, 32 and 34°C and within 60h at 22°C. Adult parasites differed from the original description by the presence of the parabasal flagellum, small setae on the legs and caudal rami and minor incongruences regarding morphological measurements. The life cycle of L. latis includes three free living stages and five parasitic stages. Although L. latis exhibits broad environmental tolerance, freshwater can be used as an effective management strategy to break the life cycle in aquaculture. PMID:23707229

  9. CRAC2 model description

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, L.T.; Alpert, D.J.; Burke, R.P.; Johnson, J.D.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Aldrich, D.C.; Blond, R.M.

    1984-03-01

    The CRAC2 computer code is a revised version of CRAC (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) which was developed for the Reactor Safety Study. This document provides an overview of the CRAC2 code and a description of each of the models used. Significant improvements incorporated into CRAC2 include an improved weather sequence sampling technique, a new evacuation model, and new output capabilities. In addition, refinements have been made to the atmospheric transport and deposition model. Details of the modeling differences between CRAC2 and CRAC are emphasized in the model descriptions.

  10. LIGKA: A linear gyrokinetic code for the description of background kinetic and fast particle effects on the MHD stability in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Lauber, Ph. Guenter, S.; Koenies, A.; Pinches, S.D.

    2007-09-10

    In a plasma with a population of super-thermal particles generated by heating or fusion processes, kinetic effects can lead to the additional destabilisation of MHD modes or even to additional energetic particle modes. In order to describe these modes, a new linear gyrokinetic MHD code has been developed and tested, LIGKA (linear gyrokinetic shear Alfven physics) [Ph. Lauber, Linear gyrokinetic description of fast particle effects on the MHD stability in tokamaks, Ph.D. Thesis, TU Muenchen, 2003; Ph. Lauber, S. Guenter, S.D. Pinches, Phys. Plasmas 12 (2005) 122501], based on a gyrokinetic model [H. Qin, Gyrokinetic theory and computational methods for electromagnetic perturbations in tokamaks, Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University, 1998]. A finite Larmor radius expansion together with the construction of some fluid moments and specification to the shear Alfven regime results in a self-consistent, electromagnetic, non-perturbative model, that allows not only for growing or damped eigenvalues but also for a change in mode-structure of the magnetic perturbation due to the energetic particles and background kinetic effects. Compared to previous implementations [H. Qin, mentioned above], this model is coded in a more general and comprehensive way. LIGKA uses a Fourier decomposition in the poloidal coordinate and a finite element discretisation in the radial direction. Both analytical and numerical equilibria can be treated. Integration over the unperturbed particle orbits is performed with the drift-kinetic HAGIS code [S.D. Pinches, Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Nottingham, 1996; S.D. Pinches et al., CPC 111 (1998) 131] which accurately describes the particles' trajectories. This allows finite-banana-width effects to be implemented in a rigorous way since the linear formulation of the model allows the exchange of the unperturbed orbit integration and the discretisation of the perturbed potentials in the radial direction. Successful benchmarks for toroidal Alfven

  11. LIGKA: A linear gyrokinetic code for the description of background kinetic and fast particle effects on the MHD stability in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauber, Ph.; Günter, S.; Könies, A.; Pinches, S. D.

    2007-09-01

    In a plasma with a population of super-thermal particles generated by heating or fusion processes, kinetic effects can lead to the additional destabilisation of MHD modes or even to additional energetic particle modes. In order to describe these modes, a new linear gyrokinetic MHD code has been developed and tested, LIGKA (linear gyrokinetic shear Alfvén physics) [Ph. Lauber, Linear gyrokinetic description of fast particle effects on the MHD stability in tokamaks, Ph.D. Thesis, TU München, 2003; Ph. Lauber, S. Günter, S.D. Pinches, Phys. Plasmas 12 (2005) 122501], based on a gyrokinetic model [H. Qin, Gyrokinetic theory and computational methods for electromagnetic perturbations in tokamaks, Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University, 1998]. A finite Larmor radius expansion together with the construction of some fluid moments and specification to the shear Alfvén regime results in a self-consistent, electromagnetic, non-perturbative model, that allows not only for growing or damped eigenvalues but also for a change in mode-structure of the magnetic perturbation due to the energetic particles and background kinetic effects. Compared to previous implementations [H. Qin, mentioned above], this model is coded in a more general and comprehensive way. LIGKA uses a Fourier decomposition in the poloidal coordinate and a finite element discretisation in the radial direction. Both analytical and numerical equilibria can be treated. Integration over the unperturbed particle orbits is performed with the drift-kinetic HAGIS code [S.D. Pinches, Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Nottingham, 1996; S.D. Pinches et al., CPC 111 (1998) 131] which accurately describes the particles' trajectories. This allows finite-banana-width effects to be implemented in a rigorous way since the linear formulation of the model allows the exchange of the unperturbed orbit integration and the discretisation of the perturbed potentials in the radial direction. Successful benchmarks for toroidal Alfv

  12. A descriptive study of the reported effects of state-mandated testing on the instructional practices and beliefs of middle school science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font-Rivera, Miriam Josefa

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of state-level testing on the instructional practices and beliefs of middle school science teachers. The study addressed four questions: (a) What are the beliefs of middle school science teachers regarding the pressure to improve their students' test scores? (b) What are the beliefs of middle school science teachers about how standardized tests influence their class time? (c) What are the attitudes of middle school science teachers toward state testing? and (d) What commonalities emerge from teachers' responses about the state tests? The sample was composed of 86 middle school science teachers from states that have state mandated testing programs in the area of science. Descriptive statistics and an inductive analysis were performed to answer the research questions. Teachers reported that they and their students were under a great amount of pressure to increase test scores from central office administrators and from the school principal. Teachers reported spending considerable time on certain test preparation activities throughout the school year. Teachers reported that the three strongest influences in instructional planning were reviewing the content and skills covered on the state tests prior to the test administration, having to prepare students for state tests, and adjusting the curriculum sequence based on the content tested by the state tests. Multiple-choice items were reported to be the most often used assessment strategy. Teachers reported that state-mandated tests were not very helpful because the test results presented an inaccurate picture of student learning. The categories formed from the teachers' written comments reflected the findings of the survey questions. Comments concentrated on the negative effects of the tests in the areas of pressure, overemphasis on the test, accountability, reduction of instructional time due to test preparation, and negative uses of state-mandated tests

  13. How Do DFT-DCP, DFT-NL, and DFT-D3 Compare for the Description of London-Dispersion Effects in Conformers and General Thermochemistry?

    PubMed

    Goerigk, Lars

    2014-03-11

    The dispersion-core-potential corrected B3LYP-DCP method (Torres and DiLabio J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2012, 3, 1738) is for the first time thoroughly assessed and compared with the B3LYP-NL (Hujo and Grimme J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2011, 7, 3866) and B3LYP-D3 (Grimme et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2011, 32, 1456) methods for a broad range of chemical problems that particularly shed light on intramolecular London-dispersion effects in conformers and general thermochemistry. The analysis is based on a compilation of 473 reference cases, the majority of which are taken from the GMTKN30 database (Goerigk and Grimme J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2010, 6, 107; 2011, 7, 291). The results confirm previous findings that B3LYP-DCP indeed predicts very good binding energies for noncovalently bound complexes, particularly with small basis sets. However, problems are identified for the description of intramolecular effects in some conformers and chemical reactions, for which B3LYP-DCP sometimes gives results similar or worse than uncorrected B3LYP. Surprisingly large errors for total atomization energies reveal an unwanted influence of the DCPs on the short-range electronic structure of the investigated systems. However, a recently modified carbon potential for B3LYP-DCP (DiLabio et al. Theor. Chem. Acc. 2013, 132, 1389) was additionally tested that seems to solve most of those problems and provides improved results. An overall comparison between all tested methods shows that B3LYP-NL is the most robust and accurate approach, closely followed by B3LYP-D3. This is also true when small basis sets of double-ζ quality are applied for which those methods have not been parametrized. However, binding energies of noncovalently bound complexes can be more strongly influenced by basis-set superposition-error effects than for B3LYP-DCP. Finally, it is noted that the DFT-D3 and DFT-NL schemes are readily applicable to a large range of chemical elements and they are therefore particularly recommended for

  14. Management control system description

    SciTech Connect

    Bence, P. J.

    1990-10-01

    This Management Control System (MCS) description describes the processes used to manage the cost and schedule of work performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Richland, Washington. Westinghouse Hanford will maintain and use formal cost and schedule management control systems, as presented in this document, in performing work for the DOE-RL. This MCS description is a controlled document and will be modified or updated as required. This document must be approved by the DOE-RL; thereafter, any significant change will require DOE-RL concurrence. Westinghouse Hanford is the DOE-RL operations and engineering contractor at the Hanford Site. Activities associated with this contract (DE-AC06-87RL10930) include operating existing plant facilities, managing defined projects and programs, and planning future enhancements. This document is designed to comply with Section I-13 of the contract by providing a description of Westinghouse Hanford's cost and schedule control systems used in managing the above activities. 5 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Computational studies of the geometry and electronic structure of an all-inorganic and homogeneous tetra-Ru-polyoxotungstate catalyst for water oxidation and its four subsequent one-electron oxidized forms.

    PubMed

    Quiñonero, David; Kaledin, Alexey L; Kuznetsov, Aleksey E; Geletii, Yurii V; Besson, Claire; Hill, Craig L; Musaev, Djamaladdin G

    2010-01-14

    Geometry and electronic structure of five species [{Ru(4)O(4)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(4)}(gamma-SiW(10)O(36))(2)](10-) (1), [{Ru(4)O(4)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(4)}(gamma-SiW(10)O(36))(2)](9-) (2), [{Ru(4)O(4)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(4)}(gamma-SiW(10)O(36))(2)](8-) (3), [{Ru(4)O(4)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(4)}(gamma-SiW(10)O(36))(2)](7-) (4), and [{Ru(4)O(4)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(4)}(gamma-SiW(10)O(36))(2)](6-) (5) with different oxidation states of Ru centers were studied at the density functional and COSMO levels of theory. These species are expected to be among the possible intermediates of the recently reported 1-catalyzed water oxidation (Geletii, Y. V.; Botar, B.; Kogerler, P.; Hillesheim, D. A.; Musaev, D. G.; Hill, C. L. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 3896-3899 and Sartorel, A.; Carraro, M.; Scorrano, G.; Zorzi, R. D.; Geremia, S.; McDaniel, N. D.; Bernhard, S.; Bonchio, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 5006-5007). It was shown that RI-BP86 correctly describes the geometry and energy of the low-lying electronic states of compound 1, whereas the widely used B3LYP approach overestimates the energy of its high-spin states. Including the solvent and/or countercation effects into calculations improves the agreement between the calculated and experimental data. It was found that the several HOMOs and LUMOs of the studied complexes are bonding and antibonding orbitals of the [Ru(4)O(4)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(4)](6+) core, and four subsequent one-electron oxidations of 1, leading to formation of 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively, involve only {Ru(4)} core orbitals. In other words, catalyst instability due to ligand oxidation in the widely studied Ru-blue dimer, [(bpy)(2)(O)Ru(V)-(mu-O)-Ru(V)(O)(bpy)(2)](4+), is not operable for 1: the latter all-inorganic catalyst is predicted to be stable under water oxidation turnover conditions. The calculated HOMOs and LUMOs of all the studied species are very close in energy and exhibit a "quasi-continuum" or "nanoparticle-type" electronic structure similar to that of nanosized transition

  16. A prospective, longitudinal, descriptive study of the effect of a customized wheelchair cushion on clinical variables, satisfaction, and functionality among patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Vilchis-Aranguren, Rodrigo; Gayol-Mérida, Diana; Quinzaños-Fresnedo, Jimena; Pérez-Zavala, Ramiro; Galíndez-Novoa, Carmen

    2015-02-01

    The Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación (Rehabilitation National Institute) (INR) developed a prototype wheelchair cushion (INR cushion) designed to adjust to the anthropometry of the user's ischiogluteal area and prevent pressure ulcer formation while maintaining or promoting functionality. A prospective, longitudinal, descriptive study was conducted from February 2010 to February 2011 to evaluate the effect of using the INR cushion on clinical variables, functionality, and user satisfaction. Sixteen patients were recruited (9 male, 7 female, average age 31.8 [range 22-47] years, average body mass index 25 [range 22-34], average time in a wheelchair 10.1 [range 3-26] years) who met the study protocol inclusion criteria of being pressure ulcer-free for at least 6 months and capable of propulsion and transfer without assistance, chronic spinal cord injury (>2 years), and without chronic-degenerative diseases or cognitive problems. Each participant received the cushion for a 2-month evaluation. Eight clinical variables were assessed: trunk control, posture, spasticity, transfer capacity, comfort, skin reaction, propulsion capacity, and pressure release capacity. The clinical assessment was performed using validated scales and instruments: Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Functional Independence Measure™ (FIM), Norton Scale, and assessment of skin reaction. Interface pressures were measured using force sensing array, and participants completed a structured interview to assess user expectation, perceived functionality, perceived quality, and likelihood of recommending the device. Two patients withdrew due to appointment conflicts; of the remaining 14, significant differences between the user's experience with other products and the INR were found with regard to pressure redistribution (P = 0.012); all participants but 1 graded the INR as good in all interview categories. No participants developed a pressure ulcer during the study. The customized cushion was

  17. The Case for Descriptive Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauck, Marian K.

    An approach to teaching descriptive writing and its values are discussed. Benefits derived from a descriptive writing unit are said to be the following: (1) Descriptive writing is fun; (2) It enables the instructor to demonstrate that the first word that pops into the writer's mind is often not the best one; (3) There is no easier way in which to…

  18. Three Approaches to Descriptive Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart

    This report compares three approaches to descriptive research, focusing on the kinds of descriptions developed and on the methods used to develop the descriptions. The main emphasis in all three approaches is on verbal data. In these approaches the importance of interpretation and its intuitive nature are emphasized. The three approaches, however,…

  19. Radical cations as precursors in the metabolic formation of quinones from benzo[a]pyrene and 6-fluorobenzo[a]pyrene. Fluoro substitution as a probe for one-electron oxidation in aromatic substrates.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, E L; Rogan, E G; Cremonesi, P; Devanesan, P D

    1988-06-01

    Three classes of products are formed when benzo[a]pyrene (BP) is metabolized by cytochrome P-450: dihydrodiols, phenols and the quinones, BP 1,6-, 3,6- and 6,12-dione. These products have been thought to arise from attack of a catalytically-activated electrophilic oxygen atom. In this paper we report chemical and biochemical experiments which demonstrate that BP quinones arise from an initial one-electron oxidation of BP to form its radical cation. BP, 6-fluorobenzo[a]pyrene (6-FBP), 6-chlorobenzo[a]pyrene (6-ClBP), and 6-bromobenzo[a]pyrene (6-BrBP) were metabolized by uninduced and 3-methylcholanthrene-induced rat liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH or cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) as cofactor. BP and 6-FBP produced similar metabolic profiles with induced microsomes in the presence of NADPH or 2 mM CHP. With NADPH both compounds produced dihydrodiols, phenols and quinones, whereas with CHP, they yielded only quinones. Metabolism of BP and 6-FBP was also similar with uninduced microsomes and 2 mM CHP, yielding the same BP quinones. With uninduced microsomes in the presence of NADPH, BP produced all three classes of metabolites, whereas 6-FBP afforded only quinones. At a low concentration of CHP (0.10 mM), BP was metabolized to phenols and quinones, whereas 6-FBP gave only quinones. 6-ClBP and 6-BrBP were poor substrates, forming metabolites only with induced microsomes and NADPH. One-electron oxidation of BP by Mn(OAc)3 occurred exclusively at C-6 with predominant formation of 6-acetoxyBP and small amounts of BP quinones. In the one-electron oxidation of 6-FBP by Mn(OAc)3, the major products obtained were 6-acetoxyBP, a mixture of 1,6- and 3,6-diacetoxyBP, and BP quinones. Reaction of BP and 6-FBP radical cation perchlorates with water produced the same BP quinones. Conversely, electrophilic substitution of 6-FBP with bromine or deuterium ion afforded C-1 and/or C-3 derivatives with retention of the fluoro substituent at C-6. These results indicate that

  20. Description scheme for video editing work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiloba, Rosa I.; Joly, Philippe

    2001-03-01

    This article presents a Description Scheme (DS) to describe the audio-visual documents from the video editing work point of view. This DS is based on edition techniques used in the video edition domain. The main objective of this DS is to provide a complete, modular and extensible description of the structure of the video documents based on editing process. This VideoEditing DS is generic in the sense that it may be used in a large number of applications such as video document indexing and analysis, description of Edit Decision List and elaboration of editing patterns. It is based on accurate and complete definitions of shots and transition effects required for video document analysis applications. The VideoEditing DS allows three levels of description : analytic, synthetic and semantic. In the DS, the higher (resp. the lower) is the element of description, the more analytic (resp. synthetic) is the information. %Phil This DS allows describing the editing work made by editing boards, using more detailed descriptors of Shots and Transition DSs. These elements are provided to define editing patterns that allow several possible reconstructions of movies depending on, for example, the target audience. A part of the video description made with this DS may be automatically produced by the video to shots segmentation algorithms (analytic DSs ) or by editing software, at the same time the edition work is made. This DS gives an answer to the needs related to the exchange of editing work descriptions between editing softwares. At the same time, the same DS provide an analytic description of editing work which is complementary to existing standards for Edit Decision Lists like SMPTE or AAF.

  1. One-Electron Oxidation of [M(P(t) Bu3 )2 ] (M=Pd, Pt): Isolation of Monomeric [Pd(P(t) Bu3 )2 ](+) and Redox-Promoted C-H Bond Cyclometalation.

    PubMed

    Troadec, Thibault; Tan, Sze-Yin; Wedge, Christopher J; Rourke, Jonathan P; Unwin, Patrick R; Chaplin, Adrian B

    2016-03-01

    Oxidation of zero-valent phosphine complexes [M(P(t) Bu3 )2 ] (M=Pd, Pt) has been investigated in 1,2-difluorobenzene solution using cyclic voltammetry and subsequently using the ferrocenium cation as a chemical redox agent. In the case of palladium, a mononuclear paramagnetic Pd(I) derivative was readily isolated from solution and fully characterized (EPR, X-ray crystallography). While in situ electrochemical measurements are consistent with initial one-electron oxidation, the heavier congener undergoes C-H bond cyclometalation and ultimately affords the 14 valence-electron Pt(II) complex [Pt(κ(2) PC -P(t) Bu2 CMe2 CH2 )(P(t) Bu3 )](+) with concomitant formation of [Pt(P(t) Bu3 )2 H](+) .

  2. Direction and Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Menahem, Yemima

    This paper deals with the dependence of directionality in the course of events-or our claims concerning such directionality-on the modes of description we use in speaking of the events in question. I argue that criteria of similarity and individuation play a crucial role in assessments of directionality. This is an extension of Davidson's claim regarding the difference between causal and explanatory contexts. The argument is based on a characterisation of notions of necessity and contingency that differ from their modal logic counterparts on the one hand, and from causality and chance on the other. I show that some types of directionality are perfectly compatible with both determinism and indeterminism at the microscopic level, and that there is no likelihood of, or advantage to, reducing such directionality to other laws or causal processes.

  3. Symmetrical gait descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunajewski, Adam; Dusza, Jacek J.; Rosado Muñoz, Alfredo

    2014-11-01

    The article presents a proposal for the description of human gait as a periodic and symmetric process. Firstly, the data for researches was obtained in the Laboratory of Group SATI in the School of Engineering of University of Valencia. Then, the periodical model - Mean Double Step (MDS) was made. Finally, on the basis of MDS, the symmetrical models - Left Mean Double Step and Right Mean Double Step (LMDS and RMDS) could be created. The method of various functional extensions was used. Symmetrical gait models can be used to calculate the coefficients of asymmetry at any time or phase of the gait. In this way it is possible to create asymmetry, function which better describes human gait dysfunction. The paper also describes an algorithm for calculating symmetric models, and shows exemplary results based on the experimental data.

  4. Task Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  5. Description of Jet Breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.

    1996-01-01

    In this article we review recent results on the breakup of cylindrical jets of a Newtonian fluid. Capillary forces provide the main driving mechanism and our interest is in the description of the flow as the jet pinches to form drops. The approach is to describe such topological singularities by constructing local (in time and space) similarity solutions from the governing equations. This is described for breakup according to the Euler, Stokes or Navier-Stokes equations. It is found that slender jet theories can be applied when viscosity is present, but for inviscid jets the local shape of the jet at breakup is most likely of a non-slender geometry. Systems of one-dimensional models of the governing equations are solved numerically in order to illustrate these differences.

  6. Lagrangian description of warm plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, H.

    1970-01-01

    Efforts are described to extend the averaged Lagrangian method of describing small signal wave propagation and nonlinear wave interaction, developed by earlier workers for cold plasmas, to the more general conditions of warm collisionless plasmas, and to demonstrate particularly the effectiveness of the method in analyzing wave-wave interactions. The theory is developed for both the microscopic description and the hydrodynamic approximation to plasma behavior. First, a microscopic Lagrangian is formulated rigorously, and expanded in terms of perturbations about equilibrium. Two methods are then described for deriving a hydrodynamic Lagrangian. In the first of these, the Lagrangian is obtained by velocity integration of the exact microscopic Lagrangian. In the second, the expanded hydrodynamic Lagrangian is obtained directly from the expanded microscopic Lagrangian. As applications of the microscopic Lagrangian, the small-signal dispersion relations and the coupled mode equations are derived for all possible waves in a warm infinite, weakly inhomogeneous magnetoplasma, and their interactions are examined.

  7. Effect of preservative addition on sensory and dynamic profile of Lucanian dry-sausages as assessed by quantitative descriptive analysis and temporal dominance of sensations.

    PubMed

    Braghieri, Ada; Piazzolla, Nicoletta; Galgano, Fernanda; Condelli, Nicola; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Napolitano, Fabio

    2016-12-01

    The quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) was combined with temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) to assess the sensory properties of Lucanian dry-sausages either added with nitrate, nitrite and l-ascorbic acid (NS), or not (NNS). Both QDA and TDS differentiated the two groups of sausages. NNS products were perceived with higher intensity of hardness (P<0.05) and tended to be perceived with higher intensities of flavor (P<0.10), pepper (P<0.20), and oiliness (P<0.20), while resulting lower in chewiness (P<0.20). TDS showed that in all the sausages hardness was the first dominant attribute; then, in NNS products flavor remained dominant until the end of tasting, whereas in NS products oiliness prevailed. In conclusion, TDS showed that the perception of some textural parameters, such as oiliness, during mastication was more dominant in NS products, whereas using conventional QDA this attribute appeared higher in sausages manufactured without preservatives. Therefore, TDS provided additional information for the description and differentiation of Lucanian sausages. PMID:27486959

  8. CGL description revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunana, P.; Zank, G. P.; Goldstein, M. L.; Webb, G. M.; Adhikari, L.

    2016-03-01

    Solar wind observational studies have emphasized that the solar wind plasma data is bounded by the mirror and firehose instabilities, and it is often believed that these instabilities are of a purely kinetic nature. The simplest fluid model that generalizes magnetohydrodynamics with anisotropic temperatures is the Chew-Goldberger-Low model (CGL). Here we briefly revisit the CGL description and discuss its (otherwise well-documented) linear firehose and mirror instability thresholds; namely that the firehose instability threshold is identical to the one found from linear kinetic theory and that the mirror threshold contains a factor of 6 error. We consider a simple higher-order fluid model with time dependent heat flux equations and show that the mirror instability threshold is correctly reproduced. We also present fully nonlinear three-dimensional simulations of freely decaying turbulence for the Hall-CGL model with isothermal electrons. The spatial resolution of these simulations is 5123 and the formation of a spectral break in magnetic and velocity field spectra around the proton inertial length is found.

  9. Aesthetic Description and Realism in Art Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Neil C. M.

    1989-01-01

    Looks at the usefulness of a stable realism for questions related to the description and understanding of art works. Explores two theories which may resolve the antagonism between representational meanings and their assertion as true properties of the work: (1) Wiggin's concept of authentic effect; and (2) Petit's theory of rectification and…

  10. Trusting Description: Authenticity, Accountability, and Archival Description Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeil, Heather

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that one of the purposes of archival description is to establish grounds for presuming the authenticity of the records being described. The article examines the implications of this statement by examining the relationship between and among authenticity, archival description, and archival accountability, assessing how this…

  11. Job descriptions for differentiated nursing practice and differentiated pay.

    PubMed

    Forsey, L M; Cleland, V S; Miller, B

    1993-05-01

    Compensation of nurses in differentiated practice is based on distinctive job descriptions. The employer can then pay according to education, position, and actual performance level and seek to hire the staff mix that is most cost-effective for the institution. Both staff nursing and manager job descriptions are presented in this article. The authors discuss generic job descriptions that differentiate the practice of the staff nurse and the nurse unit manager according to the incumbent's educational level.

  12. Effectiveness of the statistical potential in the description of fermions in a worm-algorithm path-integral Monte Carlo simulation of 3He atoms placed on a 4He layer adsorbed on graphite.

    PubMed

    Ghassib, Humam B; Sakhel, Asaad R; Obeidat, Omar; Al-Oqali, Amer; Sakhel, Roger R

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of a statistical potential (SP) in the description of fermions in a worm-algorithm path-integral Monte Carlo simulation of a few 3He atoms floating on a 4He layer adsorbed on graphite. The SP in this work yields successful results, as manifested by the clusterization of 3He, and by the observation that the 3He atoms float on the surface of 4He. We display the positions of the particles in 3D coordinate space, which reveal clusterization of the 3He component. The correlation functions are also presented, which give further evidence for the clusterization.

  13. Towards Reproducible Descriptions of Neuronal Network Models

    PubMed Central

    Nordlie, Eilen; Gewaltig, Marc-Oliver; Plesser, Hans Ekkehard

    2009-01-01

    Progress in science depends on the effective exchange of ideas among scientists. New ideas can be assessed and criticized in a meaningful manner only if they are formulated precisely. This applies to simulation studies as well as to experiments and theories. But after more than 50 years of neuronal network simulations, we still lack a clear and common understanding of the role of computational models in neuroscience as well as established practices for describing network models in publications. This hinders the critical evaluation of network models as well as their re-use. We analyze here 14 research papers proposing neuronal network models of different complexity and find widely varying approaches to model descriptions, with regard to both the means of description and the ordering and placement of material. We further observe great variation in the graphical representation of networks and the notation used in equations. Based on our observations, we propose a good model description practice, composed of guidelines for the organization of publications, a checklist for model descriptions, templates for tables presenting model structure, and guidelines for diagrams of networks. The main purpose of this good practice is to trigger a debate about the communication of neuronal network models in a manner comprehensible to humans, as opposed to machine-readable model description languages. We believe that the good model description practice proposed here, together with a number of other recent initiatives on data-, model-, and software-sharing, may lead to a deeper and more fruitful exchange of ideas among computational neuroscientists in years to come. We further hope that work on standardized ways of describing—and thinking about—complex neuronal networks will lead the scientific community to a clearer understanding of high-level concepts in network dynamics, and will thus lead to deeper insights into the function of the brain. PMID:19662159

  14. 14 CFR 93.152 - Description of area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 93.152 Description of area. Within that airspace below 3,000 feet MSL within the lateral boundary of the surface area of the Ketchikan Class E airspace regardless of whether that airspace is in effect. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Description of area. 93.152 Section...

  15. 14 CFR 93.152 - Description of area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 93.152 Description of area. Within that airspace below 3,000 feet MSL within the lateral boundary of the surface area of the Ketchikan Class E airspace regardless of whether that airspace is in effect. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Description of area. 93.152 Section...

  16. 14 CFR 93.152 - Description of area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 93.152 Description of area. Within that airspace below 3,000 feet MSL within the lateral boundary of the surface area of the Ketchikan Class E airspace regardless of whether that airspace is in effect. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Description of area. 93.152 Section...

  17. 14 CFR 93.152 - Description of area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 93.152 Description of area. Within that airspace below 3,000 feet MSL within the lateral boundary of the surface area of the Ketchikan Class E airspace regardless of whether that airspace is in effect. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Description of area. 93.152 Section...

  18. 14 CFR 93.152 - Description of area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 93.152 Description of area. Within that airspace below 3,000 feet MSL within the lateral boundary of the surface area of the Ketchikan Class E airspace regardless of whether that airspace is in effect. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Description of area. 93.152 Section...

  19. Content of system design descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    A System Design Description (SDD) describes the requirements and features of a system. This standard provides guidance on the expected technical content of SDDs. The need for such a standard was recognized during efforts to develop SDDs for safety systems at DOE Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facilities. Existing guidance related to the corresponding documents in other industries is generally not suitable to meet the needs of DOE nuclear facilities. Across the DOE complex, different contractors have guidance documents, but they vary widely from site to site. While such guidance documents are valuable, no single guidance document has all the attributes that DOE considers important, including a reasonable degree of consistency or standardization. This standard is a consolidation of the best of the existing guidance. This standard has been developed with a technical content and level of detail intended to be most applicable to safety systems at DOE Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facilities. Notwithstanding that primary intent, this standard is recommended for other systems at such facilities, especially those that are important to achieving the programmatic mission of the facility. In addition, application of this standard should be considered for systems at other facilities, including non-nuclear facilities, on the basis that SDDs may be beneficial and cost-effective.

  20. Probabilistic description of traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahnke, R.; Kaupužs, J.; Lubashevsky, I.

    2005-03-01

    A stochastic description of traffic flow, called probabilistic traffic flow theory, is developed. The general master equation is applied to relatively simple models to describe the formation and dissolution of traffic congestions. Our approach is mainly based on spatially homogeneous systems like periodically closed circular rings without on- and off-ramps. We consider a stochastic one-step process of growth or shrinkage of a car cluster (jam). As generalization we discuss the coexistence of several car clusters of different sizes. The basic problem is to find a physically motivated ansatz for the transition rates of the attachment and detachment of individual cars to a car cluster consistent with the empirical observations in real traffic. The emphasis is put on the analogy with first-order phase transitions and nucleation phenomena in physical systems like supersaturated vapour. The results are summarized in the flux-density relation, the so-called fundamental diagram of traffic flow, and compared with empirical data. Different regimes of traffic flow are discussed: free flow, congested mode as stop-and-go regime, and heavy viscous traffic. The traffic breakdown is studied based on the master equation as well as the Fokker-Planck approximation to calculate mean first passage times or escape rates. Generalizations are developed to allow for on-ramp effects. The calculated flux-density relation and characteristic breakdown times coincide with empirical data measured on highways. Finally, a brief summary of the stochastic cellular automata approach is given.

  1. A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study of Graduate Students' Perceptions of Learning Effectiveness in Face-to-Face and Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Nicole Stayton

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of student perceptions of learning effectiveness is often used as a tool at universities to enhance the quality of course offerings. The recent growth in online course offerings creates new challenges in evaluating learning effectiveness. This study used three principles of adult learning theory, foundation, self-concept, and…

  2. Computational interferometric description of nested flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havener, A. George; Obergefell, L. A.

    1987-01-01

    Computer graphics and theoretical descriptions of density are used to obtain computer generated flow visualizations called computational interferograms. Computational interferograms are pictorially analogous to optical interferograms, and examples showing the fringe pattern for the flow about a sharp tip cone in a supersonic air stream are presented. To ascertain the effect of unsteady behavior, local density disturbances are added to the steady state flow field. This introduces irregularities to the computational interferogram like those seen in the optical interferograms. These theoretical disturbances can be varied in geometry, density description, translated with time, and strengthened or dissipated. The accuracy of computational interferometry relies on the accuracy of the theoretical density descriptions and therefore, it provides a way of verifying existing models of flow fields, especially those containing unsteady or turbulent behavior. In addition to being a unique method of flow visualization, computational interferometry can be used to develop and modify theories or numerical solutions to both simple and complex flow fields. The presented research is a general description of this process.

  3. BICEP2 in corpuscular description of inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Dvali, G.; Gomez, C.

    2015-03-15

    A corpuscular quantum description of inflation shows that there is no fundamental problem with trans-Planckian excursions of the inflaton field up to about 100 Planck masses, with the upper bound coming from the corpuscular quantum effects. In this description, the r parameter measures the ratio of occupation numbers of gravitons versus inflatons, which, according to BICEP2, was roughly a half at the time of 60 e-foldings prior to the end of inflation. We stress that in a non-Wilsonian UV self-completion of gravity, any trans-Planckian mode coupled to the inflaton is a black hole. Unlike the Wilsonian case, integrating them out gives an exponentially suppressed effect and is unable to prevent trans-Planckian excursions of the inflaton field.

  4. Comparison of the One-electron Oxidations of CO-Bridged vs Unbridged Bimetallic Complexes: Electron-transfer Chemistry of Os2Cp2(CO)4 and Os2Cp*2(μ-CO)2(CO)2 (Cp = η5-C5H5, Cp* = η5-C5Me5)

    SciTech Connect

    Laws, Derek R.; Bullock, R. Morris; Lee, Richmond; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Geiger, William J.

    2014-09-22

    The one-electron oxidations of two dimers of half-sandwich osmium carbonyl complexes have been examined by electrochemistry, spectro-electrochemistry, and computational methods. The all-terminal carbonyl complex Os2Cp2(CO)4 (1, Cp = η5-C5H5) undergoes a reversible one-electron anodic reaction at E1/2 = 0.41 V vs ferrocene in CH2Cl2/0.05 M [NBu4][B(C6F5)4], giving a rare example of a metal-metal bonded radical cation unsupported by bridging ligands. The IR spectrum of 1+ is consistent with an approximately 1:1 mixture of anti and gauche structures for the 33 e- radical cation in which it has retained all-terminal bonding of the CO ligands. DFT calculations, including orbital-occupancy-perturbed Mayer bond-order analyses, show that the HOMOs of anti-1 and gauche-1 are metal-ligand delocalized. Removal of an electron from 1 has very little effect on the Os-Os bond order, accounting for the resistance of 1+ to heterolytic cleavage. The Os-Os bond distance is calculated to decrease by 0.10 Å and 0.06 Å as a consequence of one-electron oxidation of anti-1 and gauche-1, respectively. The CO-bridged complex Os2Cp*2(μ-CO)2(CO)2 (Cp* = η5-C5Me5), trans-2, undergoes a more facile oxidation, E1/2 = - 0.11 V, giving a persistent radical cation shown by solution IR analysis to preserve its bridged-carbonyl structure. However, ESR analysis of frozen solutions of 2+ is interpreted in terms of the presence of two isomers, most likely anti-2+ and trans-2+, at low temperature. Calculations show that the HOMO of trans-2 is highly delocalized over the metal-ligand framework, with the bridging carbonyls accounting for about half of the orbital makeup. The Os-Os bond order again changes very little with removal of an electron, and the Os-Os bond length actually undergoes minor shortening. Calculations suggest that the second isomer of 2+ has both the trans CO-bridged and the anti all-terminal CO structures. DRL and WEG acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation under

  5. Beyond transition state theory: accurate description of nuclear quantum effects on the rate and equilibrium constants of chemical reactions using Feynman path integrals.

    PubMed

    Vanícek, Jirí

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear tunneling and other nuclear quantum effects have been shown to play a significant role in molecules as large as enzymes even at physiological temperatures. I discuss how these quantum phenomena can be accounted for rigorously using Feynman path integrals in calculations of the equilibrium and kinetic isotope effects as well as of the temperature dependence of the rate constant. Because these calculations are extremely computationally demanding, special attention is devoted to increasing the computational efficiency by orders of magnitude by employing efficient path integral estimators.

  6. Aerosol indirect effect on the grid-scale clouds in the two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ: model description, development, evaluation and regional analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study implemented first, second and glaciations aerosol indirect effects (AIE) on resolved clouds in the two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ modeling system by including parameterizations for both cloud drop and ice number concentrations on the basis of CMAQ predicted aerosol distribu...

  7. A Description and Analysis of the Perspectives on Leadership Effectiveness of African-American Student Leaders at the University of New Mexico. A Qualitative Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kustaa, Friedrich Freddy

    This report concerns a qualitative study on African-American leadership effectiveness as perceived and defined by African-American student leaders at the University of New Mexico (Albuquerque). Six African-American student leaders (three males and three females) participated in-depth interviews. The interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed.…

  8. A Descriptive Case Study: Effects of a School-Based Intervention Program and Family Involvement to Promote Healthy Lifestyles in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Joyce E. M.

    2013-01-01

    With an increasing amount of overweight children, especially among racial and ethnic minorities, effective population-level interventions are urgently needed (Wang et al., 2006). The purpose of this study was to provide insight into nutritional and physical activity intervention programs at a Connecticut public school in an urban setting.…

  9. The Effect Of Oral Description In Complementing Animated Instruction In A Web-based Learning Environment On Undergraduate Students Achievement Of Different Educational Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Jeff; Munyofu, Mine; Kidwai, Khusro; Lin, Huifen; Ausman, Bradley; Dwyer, Francis

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the principle of modality by using audio to deliver verbal information when that information is designed to support non-verbal information such as animations in a computer-based lesson. This was done by comparing the effect of two types of audio support mechanisms- a simple support mechanism consisting of…

  10. Kinetic description of metal nanocrystal oxidation: a combined theoretical and experimental approach for determining morphology and diffusion parameters in hollow nanoparticles by the nanoscale Kirkendall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoshiki; Mowbray, Ryan W.; Rice, Katherine P.; Stoykovich, Mark P.

    2014-10-01

    The oxidation of colloidal metal nanocrystals to form hollow shells via the nanoscale Kirkendall effect has been investigated using a combined theoretical and experimental approach. A generalized kinetic model for the formation of hollow nanoparticles describes the phenomenon and, unlike prior models, is applicable to any material system and accounts for the effect of surface energies. Phase diagrams of the ultimate oxidized nanoparticle morphology and the time to achieve complete oxidation are calculated, and are found to depend significantly upon consideration of surface energy effects that destabilize the initial formation of small voids. For the oxidation of Cu nanocrystals to Cu2O nanoparticles, we find that the diffusion coefficients dictate the morphological outcomes: the ratio of ? to ? controls the void size, ? determines the time of oxidation and ? is largely irrelevant in the kinetics of oxidation. The kinetic model was used to fit experimental measurements of 11 nm diameter Cu nanocrystals oxidized in air from which temperature-dependent diffusivities of ? and ? for 100 ≤ T ≤ 200 °C were determined. In contrast to previous interpretations of the nanoscale Kirkendall effect in the Cu/Cu2O system, these results are obtained without any a priori assumptions about the relative magnitudes of ? and ?. The theoretical and experimental approaches presented here are broadly applicable to any nanoparticle system undergoing oxidation, and can be used to precisely control the final nanoparticle morphology for applications in catalysis or optical materials.

  11. Field-exposure study for determining the effects of acid deposition on the corrosion and deterioration of materials: description of program and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Flinn, D.R.; Cramer, S.D.; Carter, J.P.; Spence, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Materials-exposure sites, fully instrumented to characterize environmental parameters related to air quality, meteorology, and rain chemistry, were established at four locations in the eastern and northeastern United States to study the effects of acid precipitation on atmospheric damage to metals, exterior paints, and building stone. A fifth, midwestern site has recently been added to the program. Utilizing short-term, seasonal, and long-term exposures, the corrosion behavior of five metal alloys (1010 carbon steel, Cor-Ten A, 3003-H14 aluminum, 110 copper, and 191 zinc) and two coated-steel products (galvanized steel and Galvalume) commonly used outdoors have been characterized using gravimetric, surface analytical, and corrosion film chemistry measurements. Monthly exposures indicate that the environments at the sites are significantly different in their effects on the metals.

  12. Depolarization measurements on the ATS-6 20 GHz downlink A description of the VPI&SU experiment and some initial results. [meteorological precipitation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bostian, C. W.; Stutzman, W. L.; Manus, E. A.; Wiley, P. H.; Marshall, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The experiment considered is mainly concerned with the depolarizing effects of precipitation at millimeter wavelengths. Excessive depolarization introduces cross talk into communication systems which employ orthogonal polarization for frequency reuse. An understanding of atmospheric depolarization phenomena is, therefore, required for the design of future earth-satellite communications systems. Attenuation and cross polarization ratio data obtained under various meteorological conditions, including rain and a snowstorm, are presented.

  13. Using plan reasoning in the generation of plan descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    Previous work on the generation of natural language descriptions of complex activities has indicated that the unwieldy amount of text needed to describe complete plans makes for ineffective and unnatural descriptions. We argue here that concise and effective text descriptions of plans can be generated by exploiting a model of the hearer`s plan reasoning capabilities. We define a computational model of the hearer`s interpretation process that views the interpretation of plan descriptions as refinement search through a space of partial plans. This model takes into account the hearer`s plan preferences and the resource limitations on her reasoning capabilities to determine the completed plans she will construct from a given partial description.

  14. CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Beesley

    2005-04-21

    The purpose of this facility description document (FDD) is to establish requirements and associated bases that drive the design of the Canister Handling Facility (CHF), which will allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This FDD identifies the requirements and describes the facility design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This FDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This FDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The FDD follows the design with regard to the description of the facility. The description provided in this FDD reflects the current results of the design process.

  15. Micropolar continuum in spatial description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Elena A.; Vilchevskaya, Elena N.

    2016-11-01

    Within the spatial description, it is customary to refer thermodynamic state quantities to an elementary volume fixed in space containing an ensemble of particles. During its evolution, the elementary volume is occupied by different particles, each having its own mass, tensor of inertia, angular and linear velocities. The aim of the present paper is to answer the question of how to determine the inertial and kinematic characteristics of the elementary volume. In order to model structural transformations due to the consolidation or defragmentation of particles or anisotropic changes, one should consider the fact that the tensor of inertia of the elementary volume may change. This means that an additional constitutive equation must be formulated. The paper suggests kinetic equations for the tensor of inertia of the elementary volume. It also discusses the specificity of the inelastic polar continuum description within the framework of the spatial description.

  16. Description of extended pre-harvest pig Salmonella surveillance-and-control programme and its estimated effect on food safety related to pork.

    PubMed

    Alban, L; Barfod, K; Petersen, J V; Dahl, J; Ajufo, J C; Sandø, G; Krog, H H; Aabo, S

    2010-11-01

    Salmonella in pork can be combated during pre- or post-harvest. For large slaughterhouses, post-harvest measures like decontamination might be cost-effective while this is less likely with small-to-medium sized slaughterhouses. In this study, pre-harvest measures might be more relevant. We describe an extended surveillance-and-control programme for Salmonella in finisher pigs, which, to establish equivalence to the Swedish control programme, is intended for implementation on the Danish island, Bornholm. The effect of the programme on food safety was estimated by analysing Salmonella data from pig carcasses originating from herds that would have qualified for the programme during 2006-2008. Food safety was interpreted as prevalence of Salmonella on carcasses as well as the estimated number of human cases of salmonellosis related to pork produced within the programme. Data from the Danish Salmonella programme were obtained from Bornholm. We used a simulation model developed to estimate the number of human cases based on the prevalence of Salmonella on carcass swabs. Herds are only accepted in the programme if they have one or less seropositive sample within the previous 6 months. In this way, the Salmonella load is kept to a minimum. The programme is not yet in operation and pigs that qualify for the programme are currently mixed at slaughter with those that do not qualify. Therefore, we had to assess the impact on the carcass prevalence indirectly. The prevalence of Salmonella in carcass swabs among qualifying herds was 0.46% for the 3 years as a whole, with 2006 as the year with highest prevalence. According to the simulation the expected number of human cases relating to pork produced within the programme was below 10. When the programme is in operation, an extra effect of separating pigs within the programme from those outside is expected to lower the prevalence of Salmonella even further.

  17. Fixed negative charge and the Donnan effect: a description of the driving forces associated with brain tissue swelling and oedema

    PubMed Central

    Elkin, Benjamin S.; Shaik, Mohammed A.; Morrison, Barclay

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral oedema or brain tissue swelling is a significant complication following traumatic brain injury or stroke that can increase the intracranial pressure (ICP) and impair blood flow. Here, we have identified a potential driver of oedema: the negatively charged molecules fixed within cells. This fixed charge density (FCD), once exposed, could increase ICP through the Donnan effect. We have shown that metabolic processes and membrane integrity are required for concealing this FCD as slices of rat cortex swelled immediately (within 30 min) following dissection if treated with 2 deoxyglucose + cyanide (2DG+CN) or Triton X-100. Slices given ample oxygen and glucose, however, did not swell significantly. We also found that dead brain tissue swells and shrinks in response to changes in ionic strength of the bathing medium, which suggests that the Donnan effect is capable of pressurizing and swelling brain tissue. As predicted, a non-ionic osmolyte, 1,2 propanediol, elicited no volume change at 2000×10−3 osmoles l−1 (Osm). Swelling data were well described by triphasic mixture theory with the calculated reference state FCD similar to that measured with a 1,9 dimethylmethylene blue assay. Taken together, these data suggest that intracellular fixed charges may contribute to the driving forces responsible for brain swelling. PMID:20047940

  18. Description of an experimental (hydrogen peroxide) rocket system and its use in measuring aileron and rudder effectiveness of a light airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obryan, T. C.; Goode, M. W.; Gregory, F. D.; Mayo, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A hydrogen peroxide fueled rocket system, which is to be used as a research tool in flight studies of stall and spin maneuvers, was installed on a light, four place general aviation airplane. The pilot controlled rocket system produces moments about either the roll or the yaw body axis to augment or oppose the aerodynamic forces and inertial moments acting on the airplane during various flight maneuvers, including the spin. These controlled moments of a known magnitude can be used in various ways to help analyze and interpret the importance of the various factors which influence airplane maneuvers. The rocket system and its installation in the airplane are described, and the results of flight rests used to measure rudder and aileron effectiveness at airspeeds above the stall are presented. These tests also serve to demonstrate the operational readiness of the rocket system for future research operations.

  19. Effect of internal noise on the oscillation of N{sub 2}O decomposition over Cu-ZSM-5 zeolites using a stochastic description

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Fuliang; Li, Yaping Sun, Xiaoming

    2014-01-28

    When considering stochastic oscillations of heterogeneous catalyst systems, most researches have focused on the surface of a metal or its oxide catalysts, but there have been few studies on porous catalysts. In this work, the effects of internal noise on oscillations of N{sub 2}O decomposition over Cu-ZSM-5 zeolites are investigated, using the chemical Langevin equation and a mesoscopic stochastic model. Considering that Cu-ZSM-5 particles are finely divided particles, the number of Cu ions (N{sub s}) is proportional to the particle size at a certain Cu/Al, and the internal noise is inversely proportional to N{sub s}. Stochastic oscillations can be observed outside the deterministic oscillatory region. Furthermore, the performance of the oscillation characterized by the signal-to-noise ratio has a maximum within the optimal size range of 4–8 nm. This suggests that a nanometer-sized zeolite may be best for oscillations.

  20. Feasibility and effectiveness of an Asthma/COPD service for primary care: a cross-sectional baseline description and longitudinal results

    PubMed Central

    Metting, Esther I; Riemersma, Roland A; Kocks, Janwillem H; Piersma-Wichers, Margriet G; Sanderman, Robbert; van der Molen, Thys

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2007, an Asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (AC) service was implemented in the North of the Netherlands to support General Practitioners (GPs) by providing advice from pulmonologists on a systematic basis. Aims: To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of this service on patient-related outcomes. Methods: We report baseline data on 11,401 patients and follow-up data from 2,556 patients. GPs can refer all patients with possible obstructive airway disease (OAD) to the service, which is conducted by the local laboratory. Patients are assessed in the laboratory using questionnaires and spirometry. Pulmonologists inspect the data through the internet and send the GP diagnosis and management advice. Results: A total of 11,401 patients were assessed by the service, covering almost 60% of all adult patients with projected asthma or COPD in the area. In all, 46% (n=5,268) of the patients were diagnosed with asthma, 18% (n=2,019) with COPD and 7% (n=788) with the overlap syndrome. A total of 740 (7%) patients were followed up after 3 months because the GP advised them to change medication. In this group, the proportion of unstable COPD patients (Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ)⩾1) decreased from 63% (n=92) at baseline to 49% (n=72). The proportion of patients with uncontrolled asthma (Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ)⩾1.5) decreased from 41% (n=204) to 23% (n=115). In all, 938 (8%) patients were followed up after 12 months. From these patients, the proportion of unstable COPD patients (CCQ⩾1) decreased from 47% (n=115) to 44% (n=107). The proportion of patients with uncontrolled asthma (ACQ⩾1.5) decreased from 16% (n=95) to 14% (n=85). Conclusion: The AC service assessed a considerable proportion of patients with OAD in the area, improved patients’ outcomes, and is considered to be feasible and effective. PMID:25569634

  1. Effectiveness of highway-drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt, Route 25, southeastern Massachusetts; description of study area, data collection programs, and methodology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, P.E.; Armstrong, D.S.; Granato, G.E.; Stone, V.J.; Smith, K.P.; Provencher, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    Four test sites along a 7-mile section of Route 25 in southeastern Massachusetts, each representing a specific highway-drainage system, were instrumented to determine the effectiveness of the drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt. One of the systems discharges highway runoff onsite through local drainpipes. The other systems use trunkline drainpipes through which runoff from highway surfaces, shoulders, and median strips is diverted and discharged into either a local stream or a coastal waterway. Route 25 was completed and opened to traffic in the summer of 1987. Road salt was first applied to the highway in the winter of 1987-88. The study area is on a thick outwash plain composed primarily of sand and gravel. Water-table depths range from 15 to 60 feet below land surface at the four test sites. Ground-water flow is in a general southerly direction, approximately perpendicular to the highway. Streamflow in the study area is controlled primarily by ground-water discharge. Background concentrations of dissolved chloride, sodium, and calcium-the primary constituents of road salt-are similar in ground water and surface water and range from 5 to 20, 5 to 10, and 1 to 5 milligrams per liter, respectively. Data-collection programs were developed for monitoring the application of road salt to the highway, the quantity of road-salt water entering the ground water, diverted through the highway-drainage systems, and entering a local stream. The Massachusetts Highway Department monitored road salt applied to the highway and reported these data to the U.S. Geological Survey. The U.S. Geological Survey designed and operated the ground-water, highway- drainage, and surface-water data-collection programs. A road-salt budget will be calculated for each test site so that the effectiveness of the different highway-drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt can be determined.

  2. Prevalence and perceived health effect of alcohol use among male undergraduate students in Owerri, South-East Nigeria: a descriptive cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol use during adolescence and young adulthood remains a prominent public health problem. Despite growing problems of global alcohol abuse, accurate information on the prevalence and pattern of use in Nigeria remain sparse. This study examines the prevalence and perceived health effects of alcohol use among undergraduate students in Owerri, Nigeria. Method The prevalence and perceived health effects of alcohol was estimated for 482 male undergraduates of four higher institutions in Owerri, South-East Nigeria between October 2008 and March 2009. Information was obtained using a semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire. Result The mean age of the students was 24.7 years. Majority of the respondents confirmed they were current users of alcohol given a prevalence of 78.4%, with twenty-seven percent of them being heavy drinkers (≥4 drinks per day). Reasons given by respondents for alcohol drinking include: makes them feel high (24.4%); makes them belong to the group of "most happening guys" on campus (6.6%); makes them feel relaxed (52.6%) while (16.4%) drinks it because their best friends do. Perceived health impacts of alcohol use among current users include: it enhances pleasure during moment of sex (51.1%), causes drowsiness and weakness (63.8%), may precipitate defective memory and impaired perception (64.3%) and serves as risk factor for most chronic diseases (68.5%). Conclusion High prevalence of alcohol use was established among study groups. Evaluation of full-scale community-level intervention, including community mobilisation and media advocacy aimed at supporting changes in policies on drinking, access and sales of alcohol to young people, could be helpful in reducing the trend. PMID:21333007

  3. Emplacement Drift System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-31

    The Emplacement Drift System is part of the Engineered Barrier System and provides the interface between the various waste package (WP) systems and the Ground Control System. In conjunction with the various WPs, the Emplacement Drift System limits the release and transport of radionuclides from the WP to the Natural Barrier following waste emplacement. Collectively, the Emplacement Drift System consists of the structural support hardware (emplacement drift invert and WP emplacement pallet) and any performance-enhancing barriers (drip shields and invert ballast) installed or placed in the emplacement drifts. The Emplacement Drift System is entirely located within the emplacement drifts in the subsurface portion of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR); specifically, it is physically bounded by the Subsurface Facility System, the Ground Support System, and the Natural Barrier. The Emplacement Drift System supports the key MGR functions of limiting radionuclide release to the Natural Barrier, minimizing the likelihood of a criticality external to the WPs, limiting natural and induced environmental effects, and providing WP support. The Emplacement Drift System limits radionuclide release to the Natural Barrier by controlling the movement of radionuclides within the emplacement drift and to the Natural Barrier, and by limiting water contact with the WPs. The Emplacement Drift System provides physical support and barriers for emplaced WPs that reduce water contact. The Emplacement Drift WP spacing supports the thermal loading performance by complimenting drift layout and orientation as described in the system description document for the Subsurface Facility System. The Emplacement Drift System supports the WP and also provides an environment that aids in enhancing WP confinement performance. As part of the Engineered Barrier System, the Emplacement Drift System interfaces with the WP systems. The Emplacement Drift System also interfaces with the Natural Barrier

  4. Effects of errors in velocity tilt on maximum longitudinal compression during neutralized drift compression of intense beam pulses: I. general description

    SciTech Connect

    Kaganovich, Igor D.; Massidda, Scottt; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Friedman, Alex

    2012-06-21

    Neutralized drift compression offers an effective means for particle beam pulse compression and current amplification. In neutralized drift compression, a linear longitudinal velocity tilt (head-to-tail gradient) is applied to the non-relativistic beam pulse, so that the beam pulse compresses as it drifts in the focusing section. The beam current can increase by more than a factor of 100 in the longitudinal direction. We have performed an analytical study of how errors in the velocity tilt acquired by the beam in the induction bunching module limit the maximum longitudinal compression. It is found that the compression ratio is determined by the relative errors in the velocity tilt. That is, one-percent errors may limit the compression to a factor of one hundred. However, a part of the beam pulse where the errors are small may compress to much higher values, which are determined by the initial thermal spread of the beam pulse. It is also shown that sharp jumps in the compressed current density profile can be produced due to overlaying of different parts of the pulse near the focal plane. Examples of slowly varying and rapidly varying errors compared to the beam pulse duration are studied. For beam velocity errors given by a cubic function, the compression ratio can be described analytically. In this limit, a significant portion of the beam pulse is located in the broad wings of the pulse and is poorly compressed. The central part of the compressed pulse is determined by the thermal spread. The scaling law for maximum compression ratio is derived. In addition to a smooth variation in the velocity tilt, fast-changing errors during the pulse may appear in the induction bunching module if the voltage pulse is formed by several pulsed elements. Different parts of the pulse compress nearly simultaneously at the target and the compressed profile may have many peaks. The maximum compression is a function of both thermal spread and the velocity errors. The effects of the

  5. A generalized theoretical framework for the description of spin decoupling in solid-state MAS NMR: Offset effect on decoupling performance.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kong Ooi; Agarwal, Vipin; Meier, Beat H; Ernst, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    We present a generalized theoretical framework that allows the approximate but rapid analysis of residual couplings of arbitrary decoupling sequences in solid-state NMR under magic-angle spinning conditions. It is a generalization of the tri-modal Floquet analysis of TPPM decoupling [Scholz et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 114510 (2009)] where three characteristic frequencies are used to describe the pulse sequence. Such an approach can be used to describe arbitrary periodic decoupling sequences that differ only in the magnitude of the Fourier coefficients of the interaction-frame transformation. It allows a ∼100 times faster calculation of second-order residual couplings as a function of pulse sequence parameters than full spin-dynamics simulations. By comparing the theoretical calculations with full numerical simulations, we show the potential of the new approach to examine the performance of decoupling sequences. We exemplify the usefulness of this framework by analyzing the performance of commonly used high-power decoupling sequences and low-power decoupling sequences such as amplitude-modulated XiX (AM-XiX) and its super-cycled variant SC-AM-XiX. In addition, the effect of chemical-shift offset is examined for both high- and low-power decoupling sequences. The results show that the cross-terms between the dipolar couplings are the main contributions to the line broadening when offset is present. We also show that the SC-AM-XIX shows a better offset compensation.

  6. Development of a dynamic model to evaluate the effect of natural-resource policies on recovery following nuclear attack: Volume I. Description and simulations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, H.B.; Silverman, W.S.; Peterson, D.W.

    1981-09-01

    A dynamic computer simulation model has been developed, which explicitly represents the production, import, and distribution of key groups of natural resources and the effects of many resource-related government policies. This model is a tool for assessing the vulnerability of the US economy to various degrees and types of damage to its natural resource sectors. It can be used to analyze the impacts of resource availability, and of US Government natural resource policies, on the process of post-nuclear-attack economic recovery. The model may be characterized as a dynamic, input-output simulation of the natural resources portion of the US economy. The natural resources portion of the economy is represented as four distinct sectors: (1) metallic durable materials; (2) non-metallic durable materials; (3) energy products; and (4) non-fuel consumable materials. The results of attack scenario and policy tests indicate that recovery following a nuclear attack requires reestablishing and maintaining dynamic balance among the interdependent sectors of the economy. Under a wide range of attack scenarios, the natural resource sectors will be sources of dangerous imbalances, and will constrain recovery of the overall US economy. Civil Defense policies can reduce these imbalances and thus merit serious consideration.

  7. A generalized theoretical framework for the description of spin decoupling in solid-state MAS NMR: Offset effect on decoupling performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kong Ooi; Agarwal, Vipin; Meier, Beat H.; Ernst, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    We present a generalized theoretical framework that allows the approximate but rapid analysis of residual couplings of arbitrary decoupling sequences in solid-state NMR under magic-angle spinning conditions. It is a generalization of the tri-modal Floquet analysis of TPPM decoupling [Scholz et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 114510 (2009)] where three characteristic frequencies are used to describe the pulse sequence. Such an approach can be used to describe arbitrary periodic decoupling sequences that differ only in the magnitude of the Fourier coefficients of the interaction-frame transformation. It allows a ˜100 times faster calculation of second-order residual couplings as a function of pulse sequence parameters than full spin-dynamics simulations. By comparing the theoretical calculations with full numerical simulations, we show the potential of the new approach to examine the performance of decoupling sequences. We exemplify the usefulness of this framework by analyzing the performance of commonly used high-power decoupling sequences and low-power decoupling sequences such as amplitude-modulated XiX (AM-XiX) and its super-cycled variant SC-AM-XiX. In addition, the effect of chemical-shift offset is examined for both high- and low-power decoupling sequences. The results show that the cross-terms between the dipolar couplings are the main contributions to the line broadening when offset is present. We also show that the SC-AM-XIX shows a better offset compensation.

  8. Flight survey of the 757 wing noise field and its effects on laminar boundary layer transition. Volume 1: Program description and data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    It was previously observed that an incident acoustic field on a wing with laminar flow can cause transition to turbulent flow if the fluctuating acoustic velocities are of sufficient amplitude and in the critical frequency range for an unstable laminar boundary layer. A section of a wing was modified with a natural laminar flow (NLF) glove to allow direct measurement of the effect of varying engine noise on the extent of laminar flow. The flight test program was completed in June, 1985. At each flight condition, the engine power was varied from about 2600 r/min (idle) to about 4500 r/min (maximum continuous power). The spectral data provides considerable insight into the influences of the various sound sources that contribute to the overall noise levels. Additional analysis will be required to assess the impact of these sources on boundary layer transition. These results demonstrate that substantial laminar flow on the wing of a transport configuration with wing-mounted engines can be obtained.

  9. A generalized theoretical framework for the description of spin decoupling in solid-state MAS NMR: Offset effect on decoupling performance.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kong Ooi; Agarwal, Vipin; Meier, Beat H; Ernst, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    We present a generalized theoretical framework that allows the approximate but rapid analysis of residual couplings of arbitrary decoupling sequences in solid-state NMR under magic-angle spinning conditions. It is a generalization of the tri-modal Floquet analysis of TPPM decoupling [Scholz et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 114510 (2009)] where three characteristic frequencies are used to describe the pulse sequence. Such an approach can be used to describe arbitrary periodic decoupling sequences that differ only in the magnitude of the Fourier coefficients of the interaction-frame transformation. It allows a ∼100 times faster calculation of second-order residual couplings as a function of pulse sequence parameters than full spin-dynamics simulations. By comparing the theoretical calculations with full numerical simulations, we show the potential of the new approach to examine the performance of decoupling sequences. We exemplify the usefulness of this framework by analyzing the performance of commonly used high-power decoupling sequences and low-power decoupling sequences such as amplitude-modulated XiX (AM-XiX) and its super-cycled variant SC-AM-XiX. In addition, the effect of chemical-shift offset is examined for both high- and low-power decoupling sequences. The results show that the cross-terms between the dipolar couplings are the main contributions to the line broadening when offset is present. We also show that the SC-AM-XIX shows a better offset compensation. PMID:27608994

  10. A descriptive study to provide evidence of the teratogenic and cellular effects of sibutramine and ephedrine on cardiac- and liver-tissue of chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Oberholzer, Hester Magdalena; Van Der Schoor, Ciska; Taute, Helena; Bester, Megan Jean

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to drugs during pregnancy is a major concern, as some teratogenic compounds can influence normal foetal development. Although the use of drugs during pregnancy should generally be avoided, exposure of the developing foetus to teratogens may occur unknowingly since these compounds may be hidden in products that are being marketed as "all natural." The aim of the current study was to investigate the possible teratogenic and cellular effects of sibutramine-a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor used in the treatment of obesity-on the heart and liver tissue of chick embryos. Ephedrine was used as a positive control. The chick embryo model was chosen because it has been used in studying developmental and experimental biology and teratology with great success. The embryos were exposed to three different concentrations of sibutramine and ephedrine respectively. The results obtained revealed that both compounds exhibited embryotoxicity when compared to the control groups. Liver and heart tissue of the exposed embryos was severely affected by these compounds in a dose-related manner. Morphology similar to that of muscle dystrophy was observed in the heart, where the muscle tissue was infiltrated by adipose and connective tissue. Severe liver steatosis was also noted. A more in-depth investigation into the molecular pathways involved might provide more information on the exact mechanism of toxicity of these products influencing embryonic development.

  11. Natural Language Description of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemzadeh, Abe

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation studies how people describe emotions with language and how computers can simulate this descriptive behavior. Although many non-human animals can express their current emotions as social signals, only humans can communicate about emotions symbolically. This symbolic communication of emotion allows us to talk about emotions that we…

  12. Developmental Kindergarten: Definition and Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    This paper sets forth a definition and operational description of a developmental program that should be of use as a guide, especially to Virginia's teachers and administrators. Also included in the paper are kindergarten curriculum objectives in the areas of language arts, mathematics, science, art, social studies, family life, health, mental…

  13. Integrating values in job descriptions.

    PubMed

    Craig, R P

    1987-12-01

    The Mission Services Division of the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word Health Care Corporation, Houston, has established training sessions to help various facilities develop criteria-based job descriptions that integrate values. A major problem with traditional job descriptions is that they do not contain enough information for value integration to occur. Each facet of the job description--the responsibility statement, the task statement, and the standard--can integrate the facilities' values in explicit and implicit ways. Such integration reduces the possibility of a supervisor arbitrarily defining the qualitative aspects of how an employee performs the job and provides a better method for evaluating the quality of the employee's performance. The first step in value integration is to identify the organization's values. Next, illustrative behaviors are identified to emphasize value integration in both activity-based task statements and results-based standards. The final step is to integrate the values in the job description, which makes the value operational and bridges the gap between commitment to values and behavior that exemplifies those values. Although values cannot be measured as objectively as the successful accomplishment of a procedure with a specified method of measurement, evaluation of values is not fruitless. When the employee and supervisor agree on specific qualitative aspects of patient care or other tasks, the consistency of the qualitative aspects of the job can be evaluated.

  14. Aerosol indirect effect on the grid-scale clouds in the two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ: model description, development, evaluation and regional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Mathur, R.; Pleim, J.; Wong, D.; Gilliam, R.; Alapaty, K.; Zhao, C.; Liu, X.

    2014-10-01

    This study implemented first, second and glaciation aerosol indirect effects (AIE) on resolved clouds in the two-way coupled Weather Research and Forecasting Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF-CMAQ) modeling system by including parameterizations for both cloud drop and ice number concentrations on the basis of CMAQ-predicted aerosol distributions and WRF meteorological conditions. The performance of the newly developed WRF-CMAQ model, with alternate Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) and Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for GCMs (RRTMG) radiation schemes, was evaluated with observations from the Clouds and the See http://ceres.larc.nasa.gov/. Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite and surface monitoring networks (AQS, IMPROVE, CASTNET, STN, and PRISM) over the continental US (CONUS) (12 km resolution) and eastern Texas (4 km resolution) during August and September of 2006. The results at the Air Quality System (AQS) surface sites show that in August, the normalized mean bias (NMB) values for PM2.5 over the eastern US (EUS) and the western US (WUS) are 5.3% (-0.1%) and 0.4% (-5.2%) for WRF-CMAQ/CAM (WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG), respectively. The evaluation of PM2.5 chemical composition reveals that in August, WRF-CMAQ/CAM (WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG) consistently underestimated the observed SO42- by -23.0% (-27.7%), -12.5% (-18.9%) and -7.9% (-14.8%) over the EUS at the Clean Air Status Trends Network (CASTNET), Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and Speciated Trends Network (STN) sites, respectively. Both configurations (WRF-CMAQ/CAM, WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG) overestimated the observed mean organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and and total carbon (TC) concentrations over the EUS in August at the IMPROVE sites. Both configurations generally underestimated the cloud field (shortwave cloud forcing, SWCF) over the CONUS in August due to the fact that the AIE on the subgrid convective clouds was not

  15. Assessing the Effect of Timing of Availability for Carbon Dioxide Storage in the Largest Oil and Gas Pools in the Alberta Basin: Description of Data and Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Bachu, Stefan

    2007-03-05

    Carbon dioxide capture from large stationary sources and storage in geological media is a technologically-feasible mitigation measure for the reduction of anthropogenic emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere in response to climate change. Carbon dioxide (CO2) can be sequestered underground in oil and gas reservoirs, in deep saline aquifers, in uneconomic coal beds and in salt caverns. The Alberta Basin provides a very large capacity for CO2 storage in oil and gas reservoirs, along with significant capacity in deep saline formations and possible unmineable coal beds. Regional assessments of potential geological CO2 storage capacity have largely focused so far on estimating the total capacity that might be available within each type of reservoir. While deep saline formations are effectively able to accept CO2 immediately, the storage potential of other classes of candidate storage reservoirs, primarily oil and gas fields, is not fully available at present time. Capacity estimates to date have largely overlooked rates of depletion in these types of storage reservoirs and typically report the total estimated storage capacity that will be available upon depletion. However, CO2 storage will not (and cannot economically) begin until the recoverable oil and gas have been produced via traditional means. This report describes a reevaluation of the CO2 storage capacity and an assessment of the timing of availability of the oil and gas pools in the Alberta Basin with very large storage capacity (>5 MtCO2 each) that are being looked at as likely targets for early implementation of CO2 storage in the region. Over 36,000 non-commingled (i.e., single) oil and gas pools were examined with effective CO2 storage capacities being individually estimated. For each pool, the life expectancy was estimated based on a combination of production decline analysis constrained by the remaining recoverable reserves and an assessment of economic viability, yielding an estimated depletion date, or year

  16. Aerosol indirect effect on the grid-scale clouds in the two-way coupled WRF–CMAQ: model description, development, evaluation and regional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Mathur, R.; Pleim, J.; Wong, D.; Gilliam, R.; Alapaty, K.; Zhao, C.; Liu, X.

    2014-01-01

    This study implemented first, second and glaciation aerosol indirect effects (AIE) on resolved clouds in the two-way coupled Weather Research and Forecasting Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF–CMAQ) modeling system by including parameterizations for both cloud drop and ice number concentrations on the basis of CMAQ-predicted aerosol distributions and WRF meteorological conditions. The performance of the newly developed WRF–CMAQ model, with alternate Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) and Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for GCMs (RRTMG) radiation schemes, was evaluated with observations from the Clouds and the See http://ceres.larc.nasa.gov/. Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite and surface monitoring networks (AQS, IMPROVE, CASTNET, STN, and PRISM) over the continental US (CONUS) (12 km resolution) and eastern Texas (4 km resolution) during August and September of 2006. The results at the Air Quality System (AQS) surface sites show that in August, the normalized mean bias (NMB) values for PM2.5 over the eastern US (EUS) and the western US (WUS) are 5.3% (-0.1%) and 0.4% (-5.2%) for WRF–CMAQ/CAM (WRF–CMAQ/RRTMG), respectively. The evaluation of PM2.5 chemical composition reveals that in August, WRF–CMAQ/CAM (WRF–CMAQ/RRTMG) consistently underestimated the observed SO42- by -23.0% (-27.7%), -12.5% (-18.9%) and -7.9% (-14.8%) over the EUS at the Clean Air Status Trends Network (CASTNET), Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and Speciated Trends Network (STN) sites, respectively. Both configurations (WRF–CMAQ/CAM, WRF–CMAQ/RRTMG) overestimated the observed mean organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and and total carbon (TC) concentrations over the EUS in August at the IMPROVE sites. Both configurations generally underestimated the cloud field (shortwave cloud forcing, SWCF) over the CONUS in August due to the

  17. Comparing probabilistic and descriptive analyses of time-dose-toxicity relationship for determining no-observed-adverse-effect level in drug development.

    PubMed

    Glatard, Anaïs; Berges, Aliénor; Sahota, Tarjinder; Ambery, Claire; Osborne, Jan; Smith, Randall; Hénin, Emilie; Chen, Chao

    2015-10-15

    The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of a drug defined from animal studies is important for inferring a maximal safe dose in human. However, several issues are associated with its concept, determination and application. It is confined to the actual doses used in the study; becomes lower with increasing sample size or dose levels; and reflects the risk level seen in the experiment rather than what may be relevant for human. We explored a pharmacometric approach in an attempt to address these issues. We first used simulation to examine the behaviour of the NOAEL values as determined by current common practice; and then fitted the probability of toxicity as a function of treatment duration and dose to data collected from all applicable toxicology studies of a test compound. Our investigation was in the context of an irreversible toxicity that is detected at the end of the study. Simulations illustrated NOAEL's dependency on experimental factors such as dose and sample size, as well as the underlying uncertainty. Modelling the probability as a continuous function of treatment duration and dose simultaneously to data from multiple studies allowed the estimation of the dose, along with its confidence interval, for a maximal risk level that might be deemed as acceptable for human. The model-based data integration also reconciled between-study inconsistency and explicitly provided maximised estimation confidence. Such alternative NOAEL determination method should be explored for its more efficient data use, more quantifiable insight to toxic doses, and the potential for more relevant animal-to-human translation. PMID:26232187

  18. Macroscopic Description for Networks of Spiking Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montbrió, Ernest; Pazó, Diego; Roxin, Alex

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of neuroscience, statistical physics, and nonlinear dynamics is to understand how brain function arises from the collective dynamics of networks of spiking neurons. This challenge has been chiefly addressed through large-scale numerical simulations. Alternatively, researchers have formulated mean-field theories to gain insight into macroscopic states of large neuronal networks in terms of the collective firing activity of the neurons, or the firing rate. However, these theories have not succeeded in establishing an exact correspondence between the firing rate of the network and the underlying microscopic state of the spiking neurons. This has largely constrained the range of applicability of such macroscopic descriptions, particularly when trying to describe neuronal synchronization. Here, we provide the derivation of a set of exact macroscopic equations for a network of spiking neurons. Our results reveal that the spike generation mechanism of individual neurons introduces an effective coupling between two biophysically relevant macroscopic quantities, the firing rate and the mean membrane potential, which together govern the evolution of the neuronal network. The resulting equations exactly describe all possible macroscopic dynamical states of the network, including states of synchronous spiking activity. Finally, we show that the firing-rate description is related, via a conformal map, to a low-dimensional description in terms of the Kuramoto order parameter, called Ott-Antonsen theory. We anticipate that our results will be an important tool in investigating how large networks of spiking neurons self-organize in time to process and encode information in the brain.

  19. Aerosol indirect effect on the grid-scale clouds in the two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ: model description, development, evaluation and regional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Mathur, R.; Pleim, J.; Wong, D.; Gilliam, R.; Alapaty, K.; Zhao, C.; Liu, X.

    2013-10-01

    This study implemented first, second and glaciation aerosol indirect effects (AIE) on resolved clouds in the two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ modeling system by including parameterizations for both cloud drop and ice number concentrations on the basis of CMAQ-predicted aerosol distributions and WRF meteorological conditions. The performance of the newly-developed WRF-CMAQ model, with alternate CAM and RRTMG radiation schemes, was evaluated with the observations from the CERES satellite and surface monitoring networks (AQS, IMPROVE, CASTNet, STN, and PRISM) over the continental US (CONUS) (12 km resolution) and eastern Texas (4 km resolution) during August and September of 2006. The results at the AQS surface sites show that in August, the normalized mean bias (NMB) values for PM2.5 over the eastern (EUS) and western US (WUS) are 5.3% (-0.1%) and 0.4% (-5.2%) for WRF-CMAQ/CAM (WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG), respectively. The evaluation of PM2.5 chemical composition reveals that in August, WRF-CMAQ/CAM (WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG) consistently underestimated the observed SO42- by -23.0% (-27.7%), -12.5% (-18.9%) and -7.9% (-14.8%) over the EUS at the CASTNet, IMPROVE and STN sites, respectively. Both models (WRF-CMAQ/CAM, WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG) overestimated the observed mean OC, EC and TC concentrations over the EUS in August at the IMPROVE sites. Both models generally underestimated the cloud field (shortwave cloud forcing (SWCF)) over the CONUS in August due to the fact that the AIE on the subgrid convective clouds was not considered when the model simulations were run at the 12 km resolution. This is in agreement with the fact that both models captured SWCF and longwave cloud forcing (LWCF) very well for the 4 km simulation over the eastern Texas when all clouds were resolved by the finer domain. Both models generally overestimated the observed precipitation by more than 40% mainly because of significant overestimation in the southern part of the CONUS in August. The simulations of WRF-CMAQ/CAM and WRF

  20. Quantum description of T-odd correlations in ternary fission

    SciTech Connect

    Bunakov, V. E.; Kadmensky, S. G.

    2008-07-15

    A quantum version of a unified description of two T-odd effects recently observed in the ternary fission of nuclei that is induced by polarized neutrons is considered. These effects are explained by the effect of the Coriolis interaction of the rotating fissile system on the angular distributions of light charged particles in the interior and exterior regions of the nucleus.

  1. Research team training: moving beyond job descriptions.

    PubMed

    Nelson, LaRon E; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2008-08-01

    Providing appropriate training to research team members is essential to the effective implementation and overall operation of a research project. It is important to identify job requirements beyond those listed in the job description in order to fully assess basic and supplementary training needs. Training needs should be identified prior to and during the conduct of the study. Methods for delivering the training must also be identified. This article describes the identification of training needs and methods in the design of a research team training program using examples from an HIV prevention intervention trial with adolescent girls.

  2. Theoretical Description of the Fission Process

    SciTech Connect

    Witold Nazarewicz

    2003-07-01

    The main goals of the project can be summarized as follows: Development of effective energy functionals that are appropriate for the description of heavy nuclei. Our goal is to improve the existing energy density (Skyrme) functionals to develop a force that will be used in calculations of fission dynamics. Systematic self-consistent calculations of binding energies and fission barriers of actinide and trans-actinide nuclei using modern density functionals. This will be followed by calculations of spontaneous fission lifetimes and mass and charge divisions using dynamic adiabatic approaches based on the WKB approximation. Investigate novel microscopic (non-adiabatic) methods to study the fission process.

  3. Shell model description of zirconium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Sieja, K.; Nowacki, F.; Langanke, K.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.

    2009-06-15

    We calculate the low-lying spectra and several high-spin states of zirconium isotopes (Z=40) with neutron numbers from N=50 to N=58 using a large valence space with the {sup 78}Ni inert core, which a priori allows one to study the interplay between spherical and deformed configurations, necessary for the description of nuclides in this part of the nuclear chart. The effective interaction is derived by monopole corrections of the realistic G matrix. We reproduce essential nuclear properties, such as subshell closures in {sup 96}Zr and {sup 98}Zr. The spherical-to-deformed shape transition in {sup 100}Zr is addressed as well.

  4. Spacelab Mission 3 experiment descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. K. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The Spacelab 3 mission is the first operational flight of Spacelab aboard the shuttle transportation system. The primary objectives of this mission are to conduct application, science, and technology experimentation that requires the low gravity environment of Earth orbit and an extended duration, stable vehicle attitude with emphasis on materials processing. This document provides descriptions of the experiments to be performed during the Spacelab 3 mission.

  5. Phenomenological description of phase inversion.

    PubMed

    Piela, K; Ooms, G; Sengers, J V

    2009-02-01

    We propose an extended Ginzburg-Landau model for a description of the ambivalence region associated with the phenomenon of phase inversion observed in dispersed water-oil flow through a pipe. In analogy to the classical mean-field theory of phase transitions, it is shown that a good quantitative representation of the ambivalence region is obtained by using the injected phase volume fraction and a friction factor as the appropriate physical parameters.

  6. Closed terminologies in description logics

    SciTech Connect

    Weida, R.A. |

    1996-12-31

    We introduce a predictive concept recognition methodology for description logics based on a new closed terminology assumption. During knowledge engineering, our system adopts the standard open terminology assumption as it automatically classifies concept descriptions into a taxonomy via subsumption inferences. However, for applications like configuration, the terminology becomes fixed during problem solving. Then, closed terminology reasoning is more appropriate. In our interactive configuration application, a user incrementally specifies an individual computer system in collaboration with a configuration engine. Choices can be made in any order and at any level of abstraction. We distinguish between abstract and concrete concepts to formally define when an individual`s description may be considered finished. We also take advantage of the closed terminology assumption, together with the terminology`s subsumption-based organization, to efficiently track the types of systems and components consistent with current choices, infer additional constraints on current choices, and appropriately guide future choices. Thus, we can help focus the efforts of both user and configuration engine.

  7. Horizons of description: Black holes and complementarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokulich, Peter Joshua Martin

    dissertation is that we have as much to learn from the limitations facing our scientific descriptions as we do from the successes they enjoy. Because all of our scientific theories offer at best limited, effective accounts of the world, an important part of our interpretive efforts will be assessing the borders of these domains of description.

  8. ELECTRICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    S. Roy

    2004-06-24

    The purpose of this revision of the System Design Description (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical support system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience/users are design engineers. This type of SDD both ''leads'' and ''trails'' the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD trails the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to electrical support systems are obtained from the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher-level requirements documents such as the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), and fire hazards analyses. The above-mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canon and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD contains several appendices that include supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists, and Appendix C includes a list of system procedures.

  9. Standardizing the microsystems technology description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liateni, Karim; Thomas, Gabriel; Hui Bon Hoa, Christophe; Bensaude, David

    2002-04-01

    The microsystems industry is promising a rapid and widespread growth for the coming years. The automotive, network, telecom and electronics industries take advantage of this technology by including it in their products; thus, getting better integration and high energetic performances. Microsystems related software and data exchange have inherited from the IC technology experience or standards, which appear not to fit the advanced level of conception currently needed by microsystems designers. A typical design flow to validate a microsystem device involves several software from disconnected areas like layout editors, FEM simulators, HDL modeling and simulation tools. However, and fabricated microsystem is obtained through execution of a layered process. Process characteristics will be used at each level of the design and analysis. Basically, the designer will have to customize each of his tools after the process. The project introduced here intends to unify the process description language and speed up the critical and tedious CAD customization task. We gather all the information related to the technology of a microsystem process in a single file. It is based on the XML standard format to receive worldwide attention. This format is called XML-MTD, standing for XML Microsystems Technology Description. Built around XML, it is an ASCII format which gives the ability to handle a comprehensive database for technology data. This format is open, given under general public license, but the aim is to manage the format withing a XML-MTD consortium of leader and well-established EDA companies and Foundries. In this way, it will take profit of their experience. For automated configuration of design and analysis tools regarding process-dependant information, we ship the Technology Manger software. Technology Manager links foundries with a large panel of standard EDA and FEA packages used by design teams relying on the Microsystems Technology Description in XML-MTD format.

  10. SNF AGING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    L.L. Swanson

    2005-04-06

    The purpose of this system description document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) aging system and associated bases, which will allow the design effort to proceed. This SDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This SDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD reflects the current results of the design process. Throughout this SDD, the term aging cask applies to vertical site-specific casks and to horizontal aging modules. The term overpack is a vertical site-specific cask that contains a dual-purpose canister (DPC) or a disposable canister. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system were obtained from ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Curry 2004 [DIRS 170557]). Other requirements that support the design process were taken from documents such as ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (BSC 2004 [DES 171599]), ''Site Fire Hazards Analyses'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172174]), and ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 171512]). The documents address requirements in the ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003 [DIRS 166275]). This SDD includes several appendices. Appendix A is a Glossary; Appendix B is a list of key system charts, diagrams, drawings, lists and additional supporting information; and Appendix C is a list of

  11. ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    M. Maniyar

    2004-06-22

    The purpose of this revision of the System Description Document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical power system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience are design engineers. This type of SDD leads and follows the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. This SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system are obtained from ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway, 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher level requirements documents such as ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), the fire hazards analyses, and the preclosure safety analysis. The above mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD includes several appendices with supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists; and Appendix C is a list of system procedures.

  12. Orbiter active thermal control system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubach, G. E.

    1975-01-01

    A brief description of the Orbiter Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) including (1) major functional requirements of heat load, temperature control and heat sink utilization, (2) the overall system arrangement, and (3) detailed description of the elements of the ATCS.

  13. IUE/IRA system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, J.

    1977-01-01

    The IUE/IRA rate sensor system designed to meet the requirements of the International Ultraviolet Explorer spacecraft mission is described. The system consists of the sensor unit containing six rate sensor modules and the electronic control unit containing the rate sensor support electronics and the command/control circuitry. The inertial reference assembly formed by the combined units will provide spacecraft rate information for use in the stabilization and control system. The system is described in terms of functional description, operation redundancy performance, mechanical interface, and electrical interface. Test data obtained from the flight unit are summarized.

  14. Hadl: HUMS Architectural Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.; Adavi, V.; Agarwal, N.; Gullapalli, S.; Kumar, P.; Sundaram, P.

    2004-01-01

    Specification of architectures is an important prerequisite for evaluation of architectures. With the increase m the growth of health usage and monitoring systems (HUMS) in commercial and military domains, the need far the design and evaluation of HUMS architectures has also been on the increase. In this paper, we describe HADL, HUMS Architectural Description Language, that we have designed for this purpose. In particular, we describe the features of the language, illustrate them with examples, and show how we use it in designing domain-specific HUMS architectures. A companion paper contains details on our design methodology of HUMS architectures.

  15. Descriptive Model of Generic WAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hauer, John F.; DeSteese, John G.

    2007-06-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Transmission Reliability Program is supporting the research, deployment, and demonstration of various wide area measurement system (WAMS) technologies to enhance the reliability of the Nation’s electrical power grid. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE National SCADA Test Bed Program to conduct a study of WAMS security. This report represents achievement of the milestone to develop a generic WAMS model description that will provide a basis for the security analysis planned in the next phase of this study.

  16. Pathways to Provenance: "DACS" and Creator Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weimer, Larry

    2007-01-01

    "Describing Archives: A Content Standard" breaks important ground for American archivists in its distinction between creator descriptions and archival material descriptions. Implementations of creator descriptions, many using Encoded Archival Context (EAC), are found internationally. "DACS"'s optional approach of describing creators in authority…

  17. 36 CFR 1120.26 - Deficient descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deficient descriptions. 1120.26 Section 1120.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Information Available Upon Request § 1120.26 Deficient descriptions. (a) If the description of...

  18. 40 CFR 233.11 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... administration and evaluation of the program; (d) A description of the funding and manpower which will be... the State's compliance evaluation and enforcement programs, including a description of how the State... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program description. 233.11...

  19. 40 CFR 123.22 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... employees. The State need not submit complete job descriptions for every employee carrying out the State... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Program description. 123.22 Section... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS State Program Submissions § 123.22 Program description. Any State that seeks...

  20. 40 CFR 145.23 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... job descriptions for every employee carrying out the State program. (2) An itemization of the... responsibility requirements of §§ 144.51 and 144.52, and 40 CFR part 146; (7) A description of and schedule for... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Program description. 145.23...

  1. 40 CFR 145.23 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... job descriptions for every employee carrying out the State program. (2) An itemization of the... responsibility requirements of §§ 144.51 and 144.52, and 40 CFR part 146; (7) A description of and schedule for... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Program description. 145.23...

  2. 40 CFR 271.6 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program description. 271.6 Section 271... Program description. Any State that seeks to administer a program under this subpart shall submit a description of the program it proposes to administer in lieu of the Federal program under State law or...

  3. 40 CFR 271.6 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Program description. 271.6 Section 271... Program description. Any State that seeks to administer a program under this subpart shall submit a description of the program it proposes to administer in lieu of the Federal program under State law or...

  4. 40 CFR 271.6 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Program description. 271.6 Section 271... Program description. Any State that seeks to administer a program under this subpart shall submit a description of the program it proposes to administer in lieu of the Federal program under State law or...

  5. 40 CFR 271.6 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Program description. 271.6 Section 271... Program description. Any State that seeks to administer a program under this subpart shall submit a description of the program it proposes to administer in lieu of the Federal program under State law or...

  6. 40 CFR 123.22 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... employees. The State need not submit complete job descriptions for every employee carrying out the State... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program description. 123.22 Section... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS State Program Submissions § 123.22 Program description. Any State that seeks...

  7. 40 CFR 123.22 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... employees. The State need not submit complete job descriptions for every employee carrying out the State... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Program description. 123.22 Section... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS State Program Submissions § 123.22 Program description. Any State that seeks...

  8. 40 CFR 123.22 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... employees. The State need not submit complete job descriptions for every employee carrying out the State... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Program description. 123.22 Section 123... REQUIREMENTS State Program Submissions § 123.22 Program description. Any State that seeks to administer...

  9. 40 CFR 123.22 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... employees. The State need not submit complete job descriptions for every employee carrying out the State... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program description. 123.22 Section... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS State Program Submissions § 123.22 Program description. Any State that seeks...

  10. 40 CFR 271.6 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program description. 271.6 Section 271... Program description. Any State that seeks to administer a program under this subpart shall submit a description of the program it proposes to administer in lieu of the Federal program under State law or...

  11. Model Experiments and Model Descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Weisenstein, Debra; Scott, Courtney J.; Shia, Run-Lie; Rodriguez, Jose; Sze, N. D.; Vohralik, Peter; Randeniya, Lakshman; Plumb, Ian

    1999-01-01

    The Second Workshop on Stratospheric Models and Measurements Workshop (M&M II) is the continuation of the effort previously started in the first Workshop (M&M I, Prather and Remsberg [1993]) held in 1992. As originally stated, the aim of M&M is to provide a foundation for establishing the credibility of stratospheric models used in environmental assessments of the ozone response to chlorofluorocarbons, aircraft emissions, and other climate-chemistry interactions. To accomplish this, a set of measurements of the present day atmosphere was selected. The intent was that successful simulations of the set of measurements should become the prerequisite for the acceptance of these models as having a reliable prediction for future ozone behavior. This section is divided into two: model experiment and model descriptions. In the model experiment, participant were given the charge to design a number of experiments that would use observations to test whether models are using the correct mechanisms to simulate the distributions of ozone and other trace gases in the atmosphere. The purpose is closely tied to the needs to reduce the uncertainties in the model predicted responses of stratospheric ozone to perturbations. The specifications for the experiments were sent out to the modeling community in June 1997. Twenty eight modeling groups responded to the requests for input. The first part of this section discusses the different modeling group, along with the experiments performed. Part two of this section, gives brief descriptions of each model as provided by the individual modeling groups.

  12. Semiclassical description of autocorrelations in nuclear masses

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Garcia, Antonio M.; Hirsch, Jorge G.; Frank, Alejandro

    2006-08-15

    Nuclear mass autocorrelations are investigated as a function of the number of nucleons. The fluctuating part of these autocorrelations is modeled by a parameter free model in which the nucleons are confined in a rigid sphere. Explicit results are obtained by using periodic orbit theory. Despite the simplicity of the model we have found a remarkable quantitative agreement of the mass autocorrelations for all nuclei in the nuclear data chart. In order to achieve a similar degree of agreement for the nuclear masses themselves it is necessary to consider additional variables such as multipolar corrections to the spherical shape and an effective number of nucleons. Our findings suggest that higher order effects like nuclear deformations or residual interactions have little relevance in the description of the fluctuations of the nuclear autocorrelations.

  13. Accurate description of calcium solvation in concentrated aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Kohagen, Miriam; Mason, Philip E; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2014-07-17

    Calcium is one of the biologically most important ions; however, its accurate description by classical molecular dynamics simulations is complicated by strong electrostatic and polarization interactions with surroundings due to its divalent nature. Here, we explore the recently suggested approach for effectively accounting for polarization effects via ionic charge rescaling and develop a new and accurate parametrization of the calcium dication. Comparison to neutron scattering and viscosity measurements demonstrates that our model allows for an accurate description of concentrated aqueous calcium chloride solutions. The present model should find broad use in efficient and accurate modeling of calcium in aqueous environments, such as those encountered in biological and technological applications.

  14. A comparison of general and descriptive praise in teaching intraverbal behavior to children with autism.

    PubMed

    Polick, Amy S; Carr, James E; Hanney, Nicole M

    2012-01-01

    Descriptive praise has been recommended widely as an important teaching tactic for children with autism, despite the absence of published supporting evidence. We compared the effects of descriptive and general praise on the acquisition and maintenance of intraverbal skills with 2 children with autism. The results showed slight advantages of descriptive praise in teaching efficiency in the majority of comparisons; however, these effects dissipated over time.

  15. Do children prefer mentalistic descriptions?

    PubMed

    Dore, Rebecca A; Lillard, Angeline S

    2014-01-01

    Against a long tradition of childhood realism (Piaget, 1929), A. S. Lillard and J. H. Flavell (1990) found that 3-year-olds prefer to characterize people by their mental states (beliefs, desires, emotions) than by their visible behaviors. In this exploratory study, we extend this finding to a new cohort of 3-year-olds, examine how these preferences change from 3-4 years, and explore relationships with theory of mind and parental mind-mindedness. The results showed a developmental change and a possible cohort difference: at 3 years, children in the sample preferred behavioral descriptions, although by 4 years of age, they preferred mentalistic ones. Interestingly, mentalistic preferences were unrelated to theory of mind or parental mind-mindedness, concurrently or over time. Perspective-taking skills at 3 years, however, predicted an increase in mentalistic responses from 3 years to 4 years. Possible explanations for each finding are discussed. PMID:24796151

  16. Geometric moments for gait description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Morales-Batalla, V.; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Camacho-Bello, C.

    2013-09-01

    The optical flow associated with a set of digital images of a moving individual is analyzed in order to extract a gait signature. For this, invariant Hu moments are obtained for image description. A Hu Moment History (HMH) is obtained from K frames to describe the gait signature of individuals in a video. The gait descriptors are subsequences of the HMH of variable width. Each subsequence is generated by means of genetic algorithms and used for classification in a neuronal network. The database for algorithm evaluation is MoBo, and the gait classification results are above 90% for the cases of slow and fast walking and 100% for the cases of walking with a ball and inclined walking. An optical processor is also implemented in order to obtain the descriptors of the human gait.

  17. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF DIVALENT SALTS

    PubMed Central

    YANG, HEIDI HAI-LING; LAWLESS, HARRY T.

    2005-01-01

    Many divalent salts (e.g., calcium, iron, zinc), have important nutritional value and are used to fortify food or as dietary supplements. Sensory characterization of some divalent salts in aqueous solutions by untrained judges has been reported in the psychophysical literature, but formal sensory evaluation by trained panels is lacking. To provide this information, a trained descriptive panel evaluated the sensory characteristics of 10 divalent salts including ferrous sulfate, chloride and gluconate; calcium chloride, lactate and glycerophosphate; zinc sulfate and chloride; and magnesium sulfate and chloride. Among the compounds tested, iron compounds were highest in metallic taste; zinc compounds had higher astringency and a glutamate-like sensation; and bitterness was pronounced for magnesium and calcium salts. Bitterness was affected by the anion in ferrous and calcium salts. Results from the trained panelists were largely consistent with the psychophysical literature using untrained judges, but provided a more comprehensive set of oral sensory attributes. PMID:16614749

  18. Theoretical description of RESPIRATION-CP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Anders B.; Tan, Kong Ooi; Shankar, Ravi; Penzel, Susanne; Cadalbert, Riccardo; Samoson, Ago; Meier, Beat H.; Ernst, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    We present a quintuple-mode operator-based Floquet approach to describe arbitrary amplitude modulated cross polarization experiments under magic-angle spinning (MAS). The description is used to analyze variants of the RESPIRATION approach (RESPIRATIONCP) where recoupling conditions and the corresponding first-order effective Hamiltonians are calculated, validated numerically and compared to experimental results for 15N-13C coherence transfer in uniformly 13C,15N-labeled alanine and in uniformly 2H,13C,15N-labeled (deuterated and 100% back-exchanged) ubiquitin at spinning frequencies of 16.7 and 90.9 kHz. Similarities and differences between different implementations of the RESPIRATIONCP sequence using either CW irradiation or small flip-angle pulses are discussed.

  19. Demonstration Advanced Avionics System (DAAS) function description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, A. J.; Bailey, D. G.; Gaabo, R. J.; Lahn, T. G.; Larson, J. C.; Peterson, E. M.; Schuck, J. W.; Rodgers, D. L.; Wroblewski, K. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Demonstration Advanced Avionics System, DAAS, is an integrated avionics system utilizing microprocessor technologies, data busing, and shared displays for demonstrating the potential of these technologies in improving the safety and utility of general aviation operations in the late 1980's and beyond. Major hardware elements of the DAAS include a functionally distributed microcomputer complex, an integrated data control center, an electronic horizontal situation indicator, and a radio adaptor unit. All processing and display resources are interconnected by an IEEE-488 bus in order to enhance the overall system effectiveness, reliability, modularity and maintainability. A detail description of the DAAS architecture, the DAAS hardware, and the DAAS functions is presented. The system is designed for installation and flight test in a NASA Cessna 402-B aircraft.

  20. Hospital contract management: a descriptive profile.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, J A; Lewis, B L

    1984-01-01

    Despite the dramatic growth in hospital contract management in the last decade, research only recently has begun to provide insights into the structure, operation, and effectiveness of these arrangements. Two descriptive questions regarding hospital contract management are addressed in an effort to increase correspondence between theoretical and evaluative research in this area: (1) how do contract-managed hospitals differ from traditionally managed hospitals? and (2) how do contract-managed hospitals differ from each other? Principal discriminating variables in the analyses are hospital size, control, urban-rural location, region, management organization control, and management organization size. Results of the analysis on a sample of 406 contract-managed hospitals and 401 unaffiliated hospitals reveal important differences between contract-managed and traditionally managed hospitals as well as among contract management organizations. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and performance evaluations on contract management arrangements. PMID:6490376

  1. XML Translator for Interface Descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boroson, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program defines an XML schema for specifying the interface to a generic FPGA from the perspective of software that will interact with the device. This XML interface description is then translated into header files for C, Verilog, and VHDL. User interface definition input is checked via both the provided XML schema and the translator module to ensure consistency and accuracy. Currently, programming used on both sides of an interface is inconsistent. This makes it hard to find and fix errors. By using a common schema, both sides are forced to use the same structure by using the same framework and toolset. This makes for easy identification of problems, which leads to the ability to formulate a solution. The toolset contains constants that allow a programmer to use each register, and to access each field in the register. Once programming is complete, the translator is run as part of the make process, which ensures that whenever an interface is changed, all of the code that uses the header files describing it is recompiled.

  2. 7 CFR 621.20 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Floodplain Management Assistance § 621.20 Description. Floodplain management studies provide needed information and assistance to local and...

  3. 7 CFR 621.20 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Floodplain Management Assistance § 621.20 Description. Floodplain management studies provide needed information and assistance to local and...

  4. 7 CFR 621.20 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Floodplain Management Assistance § 621.20 Description. Floodplain management studies provide needed information and assistance to local and...

  5. 7 CFR 621.20 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Floodplain Management Assistance § 621.20 Description. Floodplain management studies provide needed information and assistance to local and...

  6. 7 CFR 621.20 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Floodplain Management Assistance § 621.20 Description. Floodplain management studies provide needed information and assistance to local and...

  7. Descriptive Question Answering with Answer Type Independent Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yeo-Chan; Lee, Chang-Ki; Kim, Hyun-Ki; Jang, Myung-Gil; Ryu, Pum Mo; Park, So-Young

    In this paper, we present a supervised learning method to seek out answers to the most frequently asked descriptive questions: reason, method, and definition questions. Most of the previous systems for question answering focus on factoids, lists or definitional questions. However, descriptive questions such as reason questions and method questions are also frequently asked by users. We propose a system for these types of questions. The system conducts an answer search as follows. First, we analyze the user's question and extract search keywords and the expected answer type. Second, information retrieval results are obtained from an existing search engine such as Yahoo or Google. Finally, we rank the results to find snippets containing answers to the questions based on a ranking SVM algorithm. We also propose features to identify snippets containing answers for descriptive questions. The features are adaptable and thus are not dependent on answer type. Experimental results show that the proposed method and features are clearly effective for the task.

  8. On the description of subsystems in relativistic hypersurface Bohmian mechanics.

    PubMed

    Dürr, Detlef; Lienert, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    A candidate for a realistic relativistic quantum theory is the hypersurface Bohm-Dirac model. Its formulation uses a foliation of space-time into space-like hypersurfaces. In order to apply the theory and to make contact with the usual quantum formalism, one needs a framework for the description of subsystems. The presence of spin together with the foliation renders the subsystem description more complicated than in the non-relativistic case with spin. In this paper, we provide such a framework in terms of an appropriate conditional density matrix and an effective wave function as well as clarify their relation, thereby generalizing previous subsystem descriptions in the non-relativistic case. PMID:25197244

  9. Chasing the limits of the one electron approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Kędziera, Dariusz; Mentel, Łukasz M.

    2014-10-06

    Rapid progress in the development of computational methods for quantum chemistry is not properly balanced by the development of basis sets. Even in the case of few-electron systems it is hard to find basis set which are able to reproduce the ECG benchmarks with the mhartree accuracy. In this paper we show early work on improvements of the basis sets for small atomic and molecular systems. As a starting point the ground state of lithium atom and the lowest states of lithium dimer will be investigated. The exploratory optimization of the exponents of primitive gaussians will be based on even tempered scheme combined with CISD method.

  10. FIRETEC: A transport description of wildfire behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Linn, R.R.; Harlow, F.H.

    1997-12-01

    Wildfires are a threat to human life and property, yet they are an unavoidable part of nature and in some instances they are necessary for the natural maintenance and evolution of forests. Investigators have attempted to describe the behavior (speed, direction, modes of spread) of wildfires for over fifty years. Current models for numerical description are mainly algebraic and based on statistical or empirical ideas. The authors describe, in contrast, a transport model called FIRETEC, which is a self-determining fire behavior model. The use of transport formulations connects the propagation rates to the full conservation equations for energy, momentum, species concentrations, mass, and turbulence. In this text, highlights of the model formulation and results are described. The goal of the FIRETEC model is to describe average behavior of the gases and fuels. It represents the essence of the combination of many small-scale processes without resolving each process in complete detail. The FIRETEC model is implemented into a computer code that examines line-fire propagation in a vertical spatial cut parallel to the direction of advancement. With this code the authors are able to examine wind effects, slope effects, and the effects of nonhomogeneous fuel distribution.

  11. 49 CFR 572.25 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General description. 572.25 Section 572.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 6-Month-Old Infant § 572.25 General description. (a) The...

  12. 42 CFR 430.0 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Program description. 430.0 Section 430.0 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Provisions § 430.0 Program description. Title XIX of the Social Security Act, enacted in 1965,...

  13. 24 CFR 300.3 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Description. 300.3 Section 300.3 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) GOVERNMENT NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL § 300.3 Description....

  14. 46 CFR 169.203 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Description. 169.203 Section 169.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Certificate of Inspection § 169.203 Description. The certificate of...

  15. 7 CFR 52.801 - Product description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.801 Product description. Frozen red tart pitted cherries is the food prepared from properly matured cherries of the domestic (Prunus cerasus) red sour varietal group which have been washed, pitted,...

  16. [Proposed job descriptions for nursing personnel].

    PubMed

    Plati, C

    1990-01-01

    Proposed job descriptions for nursing personnel. The paper is part of the nursing service of "Evangelismos" hospital proposed recommendations to the Central Council of Health. The proposals include nursing descriptions, patients' rights, and the general role of the nursing service within the hospital structure.

  17. 48 CFR 5416.203-1 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Description. 5416.203-1 Section 5416.203-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed Price Contracts 5416.203-1 Description. (a)(S-90) Adjustments based...

  18. 48 CFR 5416.203-1 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Description. 5416.203-1 Section 5416.203-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed Price Contracts 5416.203-1 Description. (a)(S-90) Adjustments based...

  19. 48 CFR 5416.203-1 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Description. 5416.203-1 Section 5416.203-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed Price Contracts 5416.203-1 Description. (a)(S-90) Adjustments based...

  20. 48 CFR 5416.203-1 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Description. 5416.203-1 Section 5416.203-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed Price Contracts 5416.203-1 Description. (a)(S-90) Adjustments based...

  1. Indexing Images: Testing an Image Description Template.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Corinne

    1996-01-01

    A template for pictorial image description to be used by novice image searchers in recording their descriptions of images was tested; image attribute classes derived in previous research were used to model the template. Results indicated that users may need training and/or more guidance to correctly assign descriptors to higher-level classes.…

  2. 37 CFR 1.435 - The description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The description. 1.435... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.435 The description. (a) The application must meet the requirements as to the content and...

  3. 37 CFR 1.435 - The description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The description. 1.435... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.435 The description. (a) The application must meet the requirements as to the content and...

  4. 37 CFR 1.435 - The description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The description. 1.435... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.435 The description. (a) The application must meet the requirements as to the content and...

  5. 37 CFR 1.435 - The description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The description. 1.435... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.435 The description. (a) The application must meet the requirements as to the content and...

  6. 37 CFR 1.435 - The description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The description. 1.435... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.435 The description. (a) The application must meet the requirements as to the content and...

  7. 15 CFR 100.2 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Description. 100.2 Section 100.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SEAL § 100.2 Description. Seal: On a shield an open book beneath which is a lamp...

  8. 7 CFR 52.3751 - Product description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3751 Product description. Canned ripe olives are prepared from properly matured olives which have first been properly treated to remove the characteristic bitterness; are...

  9. 7 CFR 52.3751 - Product description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3751 Product description. Canned ripe olives are prepared from properly matured olives which have first been properly treated to remove the characteristic bitterness; are...

  10. 7 CFR 52.3751 - Product description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3751 Product description. Canned ripe olives are prepared from properly matured olives which have first been properly treated to remove the... sufficiently processed by heat in hermetically sealed containers. Canned olives which are not oxidized...

  11. 7 CFR 52.3751 - Product description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3751 Product description. Canned ripe olives are prepared from properly matured olives which have first been properly treated to remove the characteristic bitterness; are...

  12. 7 CFR 52.3751 - Product description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3751 Product description. Canned ripe olives are prepared from properly matured olives which have first been properly treated to remove the... sufficiently processed by heat in hermetically sealed containers. Canned olives which are not oxidized...

  13. 34 CFR 675.32 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program description. 675.32 Section 675.32 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Job Location and Development Program § 675.32 Program description. An institution may expend up to the lesser of $50,000 or 10 percent of its FWS allocation...

  14. 48 CFR 5416.203-1 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Description. 5416.203-1 Section 5416.203-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed Price Contracts 5416.203-1 Description. (a)(S-90) Adjustments based...

  15. 14 CFR § 1259.200 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM Space Grant Program and Project Awards § 1259.200 Description. Awards are authorized to establish any Space Grant and/or fellowship program or project if such program or project will... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Description. § 1259.200 Section §...

  16. 14 CFR 1259.200 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM Space Grant Program and Project Awards § 1259.200 Description. Awards are authorized to establish any Space Grant and/or fellowship program or project if such program or project will further the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Description. 1259.200 Section...

  17. 14 CFR 1259.200 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM Space Grant Program and Project Awards § 1259.200 Description. Awards are authorized to establish any Space Grant and/or fellowship program or project if such program or project will further the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Description. 1259.200 Section...

  18. 14 CFR 1259.200 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM Space Grant Program and Project Awards § 1259.200 Description. Awards are authorized to establish any Space Grant and/or fellowship program or project if such program or project will further the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Description. 1259.200 Section...

  19. 14 CFR 1259.200 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM Space Grant Program and Project Awards § 1259.200 Description. Awards are authorized to establish any Space Grant and/or fellowship program or project if such program or project will further the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Description. 1259.200 Section...

  20. Description, Recognition and Analysis of Biological Images

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Donggang; Jin, Jesse S.; Luo Suhuai; Pham, Tuan D.; Lai Wei

    2010-01-25

    Description, recognition and analysis biological images plays an important role for human to describe and understand the related biological information. The color images are separated by color reduction. A new and efficient linearization algorithm is introduced based on some criteria of difference chain code. A series of critical points is got based on the linearized lines. The series of curvature angle, linearity, maximum linearity, convexity, concavity and bend angle of linearized lines are calculated from the starting line to the end line along all smoothed contours. The useful method can be used for shape description and recognition. The analysis, decision, classification of the biological images are based on the description of morphological structures, color information and prior knowledge, which are associated each other. The efficiency of the algorithms is described based on two applications. One application is the description, recognition and analysis of color flower images. Another one is related to the dynamic description, recognition and analysis of cell-cycle images.

  1. Preservice Elementary Teachers Increase Descriptive Science Vocabulary by Making Descriptive Adjective Object Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Crisafulli, Sherry; DeCare, Heather; DeLeo, Tonya; Eastman, Keri; Farrell, Liz; Geblein, Jennifer; Gioia, Chelsea; Joyce, Ashley; Killian, Kali; Knoop, Kelly; LaRocca, Alison; Meyer, Katie; Miller, Julianne; Roth, Vicki; Throo, Julie; Van Arsdale, Jim; Walker, Malissa

    2007-01-01

    Descriptive vocabulary is needed for communication and mental processing of science observations. Elementary preservice teachers in a science methods class at a mid-sized public college in central New York State increased their descriptive vocabularies through a course assignment of making a descriptive adjective object box. This teaching material…

  2. Dictator Game Giving: The Importance of Descriptive versus Injunctive Norms

    PubMed Central

    Raihani, Nichola J.; McAuliffe, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Human behaviour is influenced by social norms but norms can entail two types of information. Descriptive norms refer to what others do in this context, while injunctive norms refer to what ought to be done to ensure social approval. In many real-world situations these norms are often presented concurrently meaning that their independent effects on behaviour are difficult to establish. Here we used an online Dictator Game to test how descriptive and injunctive norms would influence dictator donations when presented independently of one another. In addition, we varied the cost of complying with the norm: By stating that $0.20 or $0.50 cent donations from a $1 stake were normal or suggested, respectively. Specifying a higher target amount was associated with increased mean donation size. In contrast to previous studies, descriptive norms did not seem to influence giving behaviour in this context, whereas injunctive norms were associated with increased likelihood to give at least the target amount to the partner. This raises the question of whether injunctive norms might be more effective than descriptive norms at promoting prosocial behaviour in other settings. PMID:25493945

  3. Impact of Performance Feedback Delivered via Electronic Mail on Preschool Teachers' Use of Descriptive Praise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Snyder, Patricia; Kinder, Kiersten; Artman, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of a professional development intervention that included data-based performance feedback delivered via electronic mail (e-mail) on preschool teachers' use of descriptive praise and whether increased use of descriptive praise was associated with changes in classroom-wide measures of child engagement and challenging behavior.…

  4. Increasing Activity Attendance and Engagement in Individuals with Dementia Using Descriptive Prompts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenske, Shasta; Rudrud, Eric H.; Schulze, Kimberly A.; Rapp, John T.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of providing descriptive prompts to increase activity attendance and engagement in 6 individuals with dementia were evaluated using a reversal design. The results showed that providing descriptive prompts increased activity attendance and engagement for all participants. The results support the use of antecedent interventions for…

  5. A Comparison of General and Descriptive Praise in Teaching Intraverbal Behavior to Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polick, Amy S.; Carr, James E.; Hanney, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Descriptive praise has been recommended widely as an important teaching tactic for children with autism, despite the absence of published supporting evidence. We compared the effects of descriptive and general praise on the acquisition and maintenance of intraverbal skills with 2 children with autism. The results showed slight advantages of…

  6. Soft Biometrics; Human Identification Using Comparative Descriptions.

    PubMed

    Reid, Daniel A; Nixon, Mark S; Stevenage, Sarah V

    2014-06-01

    Soft biometrics are a new form of biometric identification which use physical or behavioral traits that can be naturally described by humans. Unlike other biometric approaches, this allows identification based solely on verbal descriptions, bridging the semantic gap between biometrics and human description. To permit soft biometric identification the description must be accurate, yet conventional human descriptions comprising of absolute labels and estimations are often unreliable. A novel method of obtaining human descriptions will be introduced which utilizes comparative categorical labels to describe differences between subjects. This innovative approach has been shown to address many problems associated with absolute categorical labels-most critically, the descriptions contain more objective information and have increased discriminatory capabilities. Relative measurements of the subjects' traits can be inferred from comparative human descriptions using the Elo rating system. The resulting soft biometric signatures have been demonstrated to be robust and allow accurate recognition of subjects. Relative measurements can also be obtained from other forms of human representation. This is demonstrated using a support vector machine to determine relative measurements from gait biometric signatures-allowing retrieval of subjects from video footage by using human comparisons, bridging the semantic gap.

  7. Soft Biometrics; Human Identification Using Comparative Descriptions.

    PubMed

    Reid, Daniel A; Nixon, Mark S; Stevenage, Sarah V

    2014-06-01

    Soft biometrics are a new form of biometric identification which use physical or behavioral traits that can be naturally described by humans. Unlike other biometric approaches, this allows identification based solely on verbal descriptions, bridging the semantic gap between biometrics and human description. To permit soft biometric identification the description must be accurate, yet conventional human descriptions comprising of absolute labels and estimations are often unreliable. A novel method of obtaining human descriptions will be introduced which utilizes comparative categorical labels to describe differences between subjects. This innovative approach has been shown to address many problems associated with absolute categorical labels-most critically, the descriptions contain more objective information and have increased discriminatory capabilities. Relative measurements of the subjects' traits can be inferred from comparative human descriptions using the Elo rating system. The resulting soft biometric signatures have been demonstrated to be robust and allow accurate recognition of subjects. Relative measurements can also be obtained from other forms of human representation. This is demonstrated using a support vector machine to determine relative measurements from gait biometric signatures-allowing retrieval of subjects from video footage by using human comparisons, bridging the semantic gap. PMID:26353282

  8. Distinguishing Features and Similarities Between Descriptive Phenomenological and Qualitative Description Research.

    PubMed

    Willis, Danny G; Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan; Knafl, Kathleen; Cohen, Marlene Z

    2016-09-01

    Scholars who research phenomena of concern to the discipline of nursing are challenged with making wise choices about different qualitative research approaches. Ultimately, they want to choose an approach that is best suited to answer their research questions. Such choices are predicated on having made distinctions between qualitative methodology, methods, and analytic frames. In this article, we distinguish two qualitative research approaches widely used for descriptive studies: descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description. Providing a clear basis that highlights the distinguishing features and similarities between descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description research will help students and researchers make more informed choices in deciding upon the most appropriate methodology in qualitative research. We orient the reader to distinguishing features and similarities associated with each approach and the kinds of research questions descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description research address.

  9. The transportation operations system: A description

    SciTech Connect

    Best, R.E.; Danese, F.L.; Dixon, L.D.; Peterson, R.W. ); Pope, R.B. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a description of the system for transporting radioactive waste that may be deployed to accomplish the assigned system mission, which includes accepting spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from waste generator sites and transporting them to the FWMS destination facilities. The system description presented here contains, in part, irradiated fuel and waste casks, ancillary equipments, truck, rail, and barge transporters, cask and vehicle traffic management organizations, maintenance facilities, and other operations elements. The description is for a fully implemented system, which is not expected to be achieved, however, until several years after initial operations. 6 figs.

  10. Variational description of multifluid hydrodynamics: Uncharged fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prix, Reinhard

    2004-02-01

    We present a formalism for Newtonian multifluid hydrodynamics derived from an unconstrained variational principle. This approach provides a natural way of obtaining the general equations of motion for a wide range of hydrodynamic systems containing an arbitrary number of interacting fluids and superfluids. In addition to spatial variations we use “time shifts” in the variational principle, which allows us to describe dissipative processes with entropy creation, such as chemical reactions, friction or the effects of external non-conservative forces. The resulting framework incorporates the generalization of the entrainment effect originally discussed in the case of the mixture of two superfluids by Andreev and Bashkin. In addition to the conservation of energy and momentum, we derive the generalized conservation laws of vorticity and helicity, and the special case of Ertel’s theorem for the single perfect fluid. We explicitly discuss the application of this framework to thermally conducting fluids, superfluids, and superfluid neutron star matter. The equations governing thermally conducting fluids are found to be more general than the standard description, as the effect of entrainment usually seems to be overlooked in this context. In the case of superfluid 4He we recover the Landau-Khalatnikov equations of the two-fluid model via a translation to the “orthodox” framework of superfluidity, which is based on a rather awkward choice of variables. Our two-fluid model for superfluid neutron star matter allows for dissipation via mutual friction and also “transfusion” via β reactions between the neutron fluid and the proton-electron fluid.

  11. Colony Collapse Disorder: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D.; Saegerman, Claude; Mullin, Chris; Haubruge, Eric; Nguyen, Bach Kim; Frazier, Maryann; Frazier, Jim; Cox-Foster, Diana; Chen, Yanping; Underwood, Robyn; Tarpy, David R.; Pettis, Jeffery S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. Methods and Principal Findings Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels), no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor) were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. Conclusions/Significance This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted. PMID:19649264

  12. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  13. Microscopic Description of Scission Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Dubray, N.; Goutte, H.; Berger, J. F.

    2007-02-26

    Properties of 226Th, 256Fm, 258Fm and 260Fm nuclei in the scission region are described using a full-microscopic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach with the effective Gogny nucleon-nucleon interaction. In a first step, the Potential Energy Surfaces are computed in the (q 20, q30) plane, the scission lines are found, fulfilling a given criterion on the density in the nuclear neck. Finally a few properties of the fragments along this line are presented.

  14. 49 CFR 572.151 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Alpha Version § 572.151 General description. (a) The 12-month-old-infant crash test dummy is described... no contact between metallic elements throughout the range of motion or under simulated crash...

  15. 49 CFR 572.151 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Alpha Version § 572.151 General description. (a) The 12-month-old-infant crash test dummy is described... no contact between metallic elements throughout the range of motion or under simulated crash...

  16. 49 CFR 572.151 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Alpha Version § 572.151 General description. (a) The 12-month-old-infant crash test dummy is described... no contact between metallic elements throughout the range of motion or under simulated crash...

  17. 49 CFR 572.151 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Alpha Version § 572.151 General description. (a) The 12-month-old-infant crash test dummy is described... no contact between metallic elements throughout the range of motion or under simulated crash...

  18. Semantic description of signal and image databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Pedro; Kokuer, Munevver; Louys, Mireille; Murtagh, Fionn D.

    2003-03-01

    Information navigation and search on the part of a user requires thorough description of the information content of signal and image datasets and archives. Large signal and image databases need comprehensive metadata to facilitate user access. There is no unique way to describe the semantics of images and signals. Therefore a conceptual model serves as an initial platform. From the conceptual model, a database design can be derived, or a definition of metadata. The different steps from model to description can benefit from tools such as the Unified Modeling Language (UML) for the conceptual model, standard Entity/Relationship (ER) models for database design, and eXtensible Markup Language (XML) for metadata description. As examples of the process of conceptual design and semantic description, we consider the case of a signal database, and the case of astronomical image databases.

  19. 49 CFR 572.25 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 6-Month-Old Infant § 572.25 General description. (a) The infant dummy is specified in its entirety by means of 5 drawings (No. SA...

  20. 49 CFR 572.151 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES CRABI 12-Month-Old Infant, Alpha Version § 572.151 General description. (a) The 12-month-old-infant crash test dummy is...

  1. 50 CFR 261.101 - Standard description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCESSED FISHERY PRODUCTS, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRADES § 261.101 Standard description. A U.S....

  2. 50 CFR 261.101 - Standard description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCESSED FISHERY PRODUCTS, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRADES § 261.101 Standard description. A U.S....

  3. 50 CFR 261.101 - Standard description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCESSED FISHERY PRODUCTS, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRADES § 261.101 Standard description. A U.S....

  4. 50 CFR 261.101 - Standard description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCESSED FISHERY PRODUCTS, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRADES § 261.101 Standard description. A U.S....

  5. Medical staff committees benefit from job descriptions.

    PubMed

    Topham, A S

    1982-11-01

    When new medical staff officers and committees begin their terms, the confusion potential runs high. Job descriptions a la industry have helped facilitate the orientation of officers and the smooth running of committees.

  6. 7 CFR 52.1001 - Product description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Grades § 52.1001 Product description. Dates are the properly cured fresh fruit of the date tree (Phoenix... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN...

  7. 42 CFR 430.0 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions § 430.0 Program description. Title XIX of the Social Security Act, enacted in 1965, authorizes... Federal rules, each State decides eligible groups, types and range of services, payment levels...

  8. Spanish Reflexives: A Critique of Pedagogical Descriptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Anthony G.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses pedagogical descriptions in high school textbooks covering Spanish reflexive verb constructions. Points out that these textbooks rarely contain the full reflexive construction displayed with all the grammatical persons and complete English glosses. (17 references) (Author/CK)

  9. 7 CFR 52.3181 - Product description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Dried Prunes Product Description, Varietal... matured prune plums from which the greater portion of moisture is removed by drying. The dried prunes...

  10. 17 CFR 2.1 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Description. 2.1 Section 2.1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.1 Description. Pursuant to section 2(a)(10) of the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended, 7 U.S.C. 4(i), the Commodity Futures Trading Commission has adopted...

  11. 17 CFR 2.1 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Description. 2.1 Section 2.1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.1 Description. Pursuant to section 2(a)(10) of the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended, 7 U.S.C. 4(i), the Commodity Futures Trading Commission has adopted...

  12. A room with a viewpoint revisited: descriptive norms and hotel guests' towel reuse behavior.

    PubMed

    Bohner, Gerd; Schlüter, Lena E

    2014-01-01

    Field experiments on descriptive norms as a means to increase hotel guests' towel reuse [1] were replicated and extended. In two hotels in Germany (Study 1: N = 724; Study 2: N = 204), descriptive norm messages suggesting that 75% of guests had reused their towels, or a standard message appealing to environmental concerns, were placed in guests' bathrooms. Descriptive norm messages varied in terms of proximity of the reference group ("hotel guests" vs. "guests in this room") and temporal proximity (currently vs. two years previous). Reuse of towels was unobtrusively recorded. Results showed that reuse rates were high overall and that both standard and descriptive norm messages increased reuse rates compared to a no-message baseline. However, descriptive norm messages were not more effective than the standard message, and effects of proximity were inconsistent across studies. Discussion addresses cultural and conceptual issues in comparing the present findings with previous ones. PMID:25084348

  13. Describing Nanomaterials: A Uniform Description System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumble, John; Freiman, Steve; Teague, Clayton

    2014-03-01

    Products involving nanomaterials are growing rapidly and nanoparticles also occur naturally. Materials, scientists, engineers, health officials, and regulators have realized they need a common description system. Led by CODATA and VAMAS, a Uniform Description System (UDS) for nanomaterials is being developed to meet the requirements of a broad range of scientific and technical disciplines and different user communities. The goal of the CODATA/VAMAS effort is the creation of a complete set of descriptors that can be used by all communities, e.g., materials, physics, chemistry, agricultural, medical, etc., interested in nanomaterials. The description system must be relevant to researchers, manufacturers of nanomaterials, materials selectors, and regulators. The purpose of the UDS for materials on the nanoscale is twofold: Uniqueness and Equivalency. The first step in the development of the UDS has been the creation of a Framework that will be used by the different communities to guide in the selection of descriptors relevant to their needs. This talk is a brief description of the draft of such a Framework, and how the framework will be translated into a robust description system with input from many scientific communities including physics. A contribution from the CODATA/VAMAS Working Group on the Description of Nanomaterials.

  14. 41 CFR 101-29.209 - Purchase description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Purchase description. 101... DESCRIPTIONS 29.2-Definitions § 101-29.209 Purchase description. A purchase description is any informal product description prepared for one-time use only or for small purchases when issuance of a formal...

  15. 41 CFR 101-29.209 - Purchase description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Purchase description. 101... DESCRIPTIONS 29.2-Definitions § 101-29.209 Purchase description. A purchase description is any informal product description prepared for one-time use only or for small purchases when issuance of a formal...

  16. Theoretical description of the diimide molecule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, N. W.; Pitzer, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    The N2H2 molecule is only metastable and as a consequence is not well characterized experimentally. Therefore, we have carried out extensive Hartree-Fock calculations in order to determine equilibrium geometries, one-electron properties, and the relative energies of the cis and trans isomers. In addition, Hartree-Fock and multiconfiguration calculations were carried out to determine the mechanism for isomerization. The trans isomer was found to be 6.6 kcal/mole more stable than the cis form using a basis set which included polarization functions. The lowest energy path found for isomerization occurred by inversion about one nitrogen (rather than rotation about the NN bond) with an activation energy of 47 kcal/mole. Excitation energies for the lowest singlet and triplet excited states are also presented.

  17. Gravity Probe B spacecraft description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Norman R.; Burns, Kevin; Katz, Russell; Kirschenbaum, Jon; Mason, Gary; Shehata, Shawky

    2015-11-01

    The Gravity Probe B spacecraft, developed, integrated, and tested by Lockheed Missiles & Space Company and later Lockheed Martin Corporation, consisted of structures, mechanisms, command and data handling, attitude and translation control, electrical power, thermal control, flight software, and communications. When integrated with the payload elements, the integrated system became the space vehicle. Key requirements shaping the design of the spacecraft were: (1) the tight mission timeline (17 months, 9 days of on-orbit operation), (2) precise attitude and translational control, (3) thermal protection of science hardware, (4) minimizing aerodynamic, magnetic, and eddy current effects, and (5) the need to provide a robust, low risk spacecraft. The spacecraft met all mission requirements, as demonstrated by dewar lifetime meeting specification, positive power and thermal margins, precision attitude control and drag-free performance, reliable communications, and the collection of more than 97% of the available science data.

  18. 47 CFR 79.106 - Video description and emergency information accessibility requirements for recording devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CLOSED CAPTIONING AND VIDEO DESCRIPTION OF VIDEO PROGRAMMING.... (a) Effective May 26, 2015, all apparatus that is designed to record video programming transmitted... programming transmitted simultaneously with sound that manufacturers install into the devices they...

  19. Design and descriptive tools for systolic architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S.

    1984-01-01

    Automated design and descriptive tools are essential for the practical application of highly parallel special-purpose hardware such as systolic arrays. The use of special-purpose hardware can greatly increase the capabilities of signal processing systems. However, the more limited applications base makes design costs a critical factor in determining technical and economic viability. Systolic systems can be described at several levels of abstraction, each of which has unique descriptive requirements. This paper focuses on the descriptive issues involved at the system architectural level. Tools at this level must bridge the gap between logic- and circuit-oriented computer-aided design tools and algorithmic descriptions of systolic architectures. Traditionally, hardware description languages (HDLs) have been used at this level to describe conventional computer architectures. Systolic architectures, however, have different requirements. This paper examines these requirements and develops a set of criteria for evaluating HDLs. Four popular HDLs are evaluated and their strengths and weaknesses noted. The final section of the paper summarizes ongoing efforts at Los Alamos to develop a systolic array HDL based on the CONLAN family of languages.

  20. Design and descriptive tools for systolic architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S.

    1984-01-01

    Automated design and descriptive tools are essential for the practical application of highly parallel special-purpose hardware such as systolic arrays. The use of special-purpose hardware can greatly increase the capabilities of signal processing systems. However, the more limited applications base makes design costs a critical factor in determining technical and economic viability. Systolic systems can be described at several levels of abstraction, each of which has unique descriptive requirements. This paper focuses on the descriptive issues involved at the system architectural level. Tools at this level must bridge the gap between logic- and circuit-oriented computer-aided design tools and algorithmic descriptions of systolic architectures. Traditionally, hardware description languages (HDLs) have been used at this level to describe conventional computer architectures. Systolic architectures, however, have different requirements. This paper examines these requirements and develops a set of criteria for evaluating HDLs. Four popular DHLs are evaluated and their strengths and weaknesses noted. The final section of the paper summarizes ongoing efforts at Los Alamos to develop a systolic array HDL based on the CONLAN family of languages. 14 references.

  1. Math Description Engine Software Development Kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Robert O.; Smith, Stephanie L.; Dexter, Dan E.; Hodgson, Terry R.

    2010-01-01

    The Math Description Engine Software Development Kit (MDE SDK) can be used by software developers to make computer-rendered graphs more accessible to blind and visually-impaired users. The MDE SDK generates alternative graph descriptions in two forms: textual descriptions and non-verbal sound renderings, or sonification. It also enables display of an animated trace of a graph sonification on a visual graph component, with color and line-thickness options for users having low vision or color-related impairments. A set of accessible graphical user interface widgets is provided for operation by end users and for control of accessible graph displays. Version 1.0 of the MDE SDK generates text descriptions for 2D graphs commonly seen in math and science curriculum (and practice). The mathematically rich text descriptions can also serve as a virtual math and science assistant for blind and sighted users, making graphs more accessible for everyone. The MDE SDK has a simple application programming interface (API) that makes it easy for programmers and Web-site developers to make graphs accessible with just a few lines of code. The source code is written in Java for cross-platform compatibility and to take advantage of Java s built-in support for building accessible software application interfaces. Compiled-library and NASA Open Source versions are available with API documentation and Programmer s Guide at http:/ / prim e.jsc.n asa. gov.

  2. Tailored work hardening descriptions in simulation of sheet metal forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vegter, Henk; Mulder, Hans.; van Liempt, Peter; Heijne, Jan

    2013-12-01

    In the previous decades much attention has been given on an accurate material description, especially for simulations at the design stage of new models in the automotive industry. Improvements lead to shorter design times and a better tailored use of material. It also contributed to the design and optimization of new materials. The current description of plastic material behaviour in simulation models of sheet metal forming is covered by a hardening curve and a yield surface. In this paper the focus will be on modelling of work hardening for advanced high strength steels considering the requirements of present applications. Nowadays work hardening models need to include the effect of hard phases in a soft matrix and the effect of strain rate and temperature on work hardening. Most material tests to characterize work hardening are only applicable to low strains whereas many practical applications require hardening data at relatively high strains. Therefore, physically based hardening descriptions are needed allowing reliable extensions to high strain values.

  3. Qualitative Description of Spatial Quality in Inclusive Architecture.

    PubMed

    Ryhl, Camilla; Kajita, Masashi; Sørensen, René

    2016-01-01

    Universal design (UD) has gained global significance and is in the process of institutionalisation in the Nordic Region. This is despite an urgent necessity for developing the theoretical basis and practical applicability of UD. Reflecting this need for furthering the comprehensive understanding of spatial implication of UD, this paper aims to contribute for articulating a means to assess the quality of UD in architecture. Drawing upon numerous cases from research conducted at the Danish Building Research Institute, the paper focuses on sensory aspects of spatial quality, and discusses as well as reflects an applied method for producing the qualitative description of selected buildings that embody UD through creative solutions. The qualitative description of collected examples appears to be effective in delineating sensory aspects of spatial experience; however the systematic development of assessment criteria is essential in order to support students and designers to make responsible decisions in shaping built environments that are accessible and inclusive but also enjoyable. PMID:27534361

  4. A Domain Description Language for Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith

    2003-01-01

    We discuss an application of planning to data processing, a planning problem which poses unique challenges for domain description languages. We discuss these challenges and why the current PDDL standard does not meet them. We discuss DPADL (Data Processing Action Description Language), a language for describing planning domains that involve data processing. DPADL is a declarative, object-oriented language that supports constraints and embedded Java code, object creation and copying, explicit inputs and outputs for actions, and metadata descriptions of existing and desired data. DPADL is supported by the IMAGEbot system, which we are using to provide automation for an ecological forecasting application. We compare DPADL to PDDL and discuss changes that could be made to PDDL to make it more suitable for representing planning domains that involve data processing actions.

  5. Void fraction system computer software design description

    SciTech Connect

    Gimera, M.

    1995-02-15

    This document describes the software that controls the void fraction instrument. The format of the document may differ from typical Software Design Reports because it was created with a graphical programming language. Hardware is described in Section 2. The purpose of this document is describe the software, so the hardware description is brief. Software is described in Section 3. LabVIEW was used to develop the viscometer software, so Section 3 begins with an introduction to LabVIEW. This is followed by a description of the main program. Finally each Westinghouse developed subVI (sub program) is discussed.

  6. The first accurate description of an aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    2006-12-01

    As technology has advanced, the scientific study of auroral phenomena has increased by leaps and bounds. A look back at the earliest descriptions of aurorae offers an interesting look into how medieval scholars viewed the subjects that we study.Although there are earlier fragmentary references in the literature, the first accurate description of the aurora borealis appears to be that published by the German Catholic scholar Konrad von Megenberg (1309-1374) in his book Das Buch der Natur (The Book of Nature). The book was written between 1349 and 1350.

  7. Two pre-Willan descriptions of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    De Bersaques, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Accurate descriptions of skin lesions, and in particular of those of what we now call osiriasis vulgaris, are rare before the book of Willan's On Cutaneous Diseases at the very beginning of the 19th century. Here we present two instances in which such clinical descriptions are given. Benjamin Franklin wrote about his own skin lesions and their evolution. Dr. Willam Falconer, physician in Bath, England, presents the clinical symptoms and his results with 83 patients with 'lepra graecorum' (the name used at that time) treated between 1772 and 1775. One can wonder why such a now frequent, obvious and distinctive disease had not attracted more attention. PMID:22902228

  8. Description of the RDCDS Meteorological Component

    SciTech Connect

    Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.

    2007-10-01

    This report provides a detailed description of the Rapidly Deployable Chemical Defense System (RDCDS) Meteorological Component. The Meteorological Component includes four surface meteorological stations, miniSODAR, laptop computers, and communications equipment. This report describes the equipment that is used, explains the operation of the network, and gives instructions for setting up the Component and replacing defective parts. A detailed description of operation and use of the individual sensors, including the data loggers is not covered in the current document, and the interested reader should refer to the manufacturer’s documentation.

  9. Reasoning About Grasping From Task Descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huan; Iberall, Thea; Berkey, George A.

    1989-03-01

    The advent of multiple degree of freedom, dextrous robot hands has made robot hand control more complicated. Besides the existing problem of finding a suitable grasping position and ap-proach orientation, it is now necessary to decide the appropriate hand shape to use for a given task. In order to deal with this additional complexity, we focus on how to represent prehensile tasks for mapping task descriptions into suitable hand shapes, positions and orientations. A generic robot hand control system GeSAM is being implemented to refine task descriptions into suitable dextrous robot hand shapes using Knowledge Craft on a TI lisp machine.

  10. Descriptive Chemistry in High School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajan, Raj G.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses incorporation of descriptive chemistry and scientific/technical writing at the high school level. After discussing the periodic table, each student prepares a paper discussing the history, atomic data, occurring/extraction/purification, properties, and uses of an element. (JN)

  11. 42 CFR 412.70 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General description. 412.70 Section 412.70 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Determination of Transition Period Payment...

  12. 49 CFR 572.191 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to that set forth in Standard 214, Side Impact Protection (49 CFR 571.214). ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES SID-IIsD Side Impact Crash Test Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.191 General description. (a) The SID-IIsD Side Impact Crash...

  13. 49 CFR 572.191 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Side Impact Protection (49 CFR 571.214). ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES IIsD Side Impact Crash Test Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.191 General description. (a) The SID-IIsD Side Impact Crash Test...

  14. 49 CFR 572.191 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to that set forth in Standard 214, Side Impact Protection (49 CFR 571.214). ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES SID-IIsD Side Impact Crash Test Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.191 General description. (a) The SID-IIsD Side Impact Crash...

  15. 49 CFR 572.181 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 2re Side Impact Crash Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.181 General description. (a) The ES-2re Side Impact Crash Test...,” containing 9 pages, incorporated by reference, see § 572.180, (3) A listing of available...

  16. 49 CFR 572.181 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES ES-2re Side Impact Crash Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.181 General description. (a) The ES-2re Side Impact Crash...,” containing 9 pages, incorporated by reference, see § 572.180, (3) A listing of available...

  17. 49 CFR 572.181 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 2re Side Impact Crash Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.181 General description. (a) The ES-2re Side Impact Crash Test... transducers-crash test sensors for the ES-2re Crash Test Dummy is shown in drawing 175-0000 sheet 4 of...

  18. 49 CFR 572.191 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Side Impact Protection (49 CFR 571.214). ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES IIsD Side Impact Crash Test Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.191 General description. (a) The SID-IIsD Side Impact Crash Test...

  19. 49 CFR 572.191 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Side Impact Protection (49 CFR 571.214). ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES IIsD Side Impact Crash Test Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.191 General description. (a) The SID-IIsD Side Impact Crash Test...

  20. 49 CFR 572.181 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES ES-2re Side Impact Crash Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.181 General description. (a) The ES-2re Side Impact Crash...,” containing 9 pages, incorporated by reference, see § 572.180, (3) A listing of available...

  1. Sequence Variant Descriptions: HGVS Nomenclature and Mutalyzer.

    PubMed

    den Dunnen, Johan T

    2016-01-01

    Consistent and unambiguous description of sequence variants is essential to report and exchange information on the analysis of a genome, in particular in DNA diagnostics. The HGVS nomenclature-recommendations for the description of sequence variants as originally proposed by the Human Genome Variation Society-has gradually been accepted as the international standard for variant description. In this unit, we describe the current recommendations (HGVS version 15.11) regarding how to describe variants at the DNA, RNA, and protein level. We explain the rationale and give example descriptions for all variant types: substitution, deletion, duplication, insertion, inversion, conversion, and complex, as well as special types occurring only on the RNA (splicing) or protein level (nonsense, frame shift, extension). Finally, we point users to available support tools and give examples for the use of the freely available Mutalyzer suite. An extensive version of the HGVS recommendations is available online at http://varnomen.hgvs.org/. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27367167

  2. 40 CFR 501.12 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Program description. 501.12 Section 501.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STATE SLUDGE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Development and Submission of State Programs § 501.12...

  3. Teacher Curriculum Work Center: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiman, Sharon

    This monograph is one of a continuing series initiated to provide materials for teachers, parents, school administrators, and governmental decision-makers that might encourage reexamination of a range of evaluation issues and perspectives about schools and schooling. This monograph is a descriptive study of the Teacher Curriculum Work Center,…

  4. 7 CFR 621.10 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS USDA Cooperative Studies § 621.10 Description. Cooperative river basin studies provide USDA planning assistance to Federal, State, and local governments. The purpose of these studies is to assist in appraising water and related land...

  5. 7 CFR 621.10 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS USDA Cooperative Studies § 621.10 Description. Cooperative river basin studies provide USDA planning assistance to Federal, State, and local governments. The purpose of these studies is to assist in appraising water and related land...

  6. 7 CFR 621.10 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS USDA Cooperative Studies § 621.10 Description. Cooperative river basin studies provide USDA planning assistance to Federal, State, and local governments. The purpose of these studies is to assist in appraising water and related land...

  7. 7 CFR 621.10 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS USDA Cooperative Studies § 621.10 Description. Cooperative river basin studies provide USDA planning assistance to Federal, State, and local governments. The purpose of these studies is to assist in appraising water and related land...

  8. Microprocessor Design Using Hardware Description Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mita, Rosario; Palumbo, Gaetano

    2008-01-01

    The following paper has been conceived to deal with the contents of some lectures aimed at enhancing courses on digital electronic, microelectronic or VLSI systems. Those lectures show how to use a hardware description language (HDL), such as the VHDL, to specify, design and verify a custom microprocessor. The general goal of this work is to teach…

  9. Encoded Archival Description as a Halfway Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Elizabeth H.

    2009-01-01

    In the mid 1990s, Encoded Archival Description (EAD) appeared as a revolutionary technology for publishing archival finding aids on the Web. The author explores whether or not, given the advent of Web 2.0, the archival community should abandon EAD and look for something to replace it. (Contains 18 notes.)

  10. 49 CFR 572.91 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Newborn Infant § 572.91 General description. (a) The representative newborn infant dummy consists of a drawings and specifications..., (2) A construction manual entitled, “Construction of the Newborn Infant Dummy” (July 1992). (b)...

  11. 34 CFR 675.44 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Work-Colleges Program § 675.44 Program description. (a) An institution that satisfies the definition of “work-college” in § 675.41(a) and wishes to participate in the Work-Colleges program must apply to the Secretary at the time and in the manner...

  12. 49 CFR 572.71 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 6-Year-Old Child § 572.71 General description. (a) The representative 6-year-old dummy consists of a drawings and specifications..., “Six-Year-Old Size Child Test Dummy SA106C,” October 28, 1991. (b) The dummy is made up of...

  13. 49 CFR 572.91 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Newborn Infant § 572.91 General description. (a) The representative newborn infant dummy consists of a drawings and specifications..., (2) A construction manual entitled, “Construction of the Newborn Infant Dummy” (July 1992). (b)...

  14. 49 CFR 572.91 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Newborn Infant § 572.91 General description. (a) The representative newborn infant dummy consists of a drawings and specifications..., (2) A construction manual entitled, “Construction of the Newborn Infant Dummy” (July 1992). (b)...

  15. 49 CFR 572.91 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Newborn Infant § 572.91 General description. (a) The representative newborn infant dummy consists of a drawings and specifications..., (2) A construction manual entitled, “Construction of the Newborn Infant Dummy” (July 1992). (b)...

  16. 49 CFR 572.91 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Newborn Infant § 572.91 General description. (a) The representative newborn infant dummy consists of a drawings and specifications..., (2) A construction manual entitled, “Construction of the Newborn Infant Dummy” (July 1992). (b)...

  17. An Introduction to the Resource Description Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Eric

    1998-01-01

    Explains the Resource Description Framework (RDF), an infrastructure developed under the World Wide Web Consortium that enables the encoding, exchange, and reuse of structured metadata. It is an application of Extended Markup Language (XML), which is a subset of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), and helps with expressing semantics.…

  18. Outcrop descriptions of the Antrim shale

    SciTech Connect

    Hathon, C.; Sibley, D.; Cambray, F.W.

    1980-04-01

    Samples of Michigan Basin Antrim shale were taken from each of the three locations where the shale is exposed at the surface in sufficient quantity to be studied. Detailed stratigraphic descriptions were prepared. Although there is considerable variation between individual beds, there are no unique units which can be used for lithological correlation.

  19. Challenges in writing ecological site descriptions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) adopted the Ecological Site Description (ESD) concept in 1997. The State and Transition Model (STM) is used to describe vegetation dynamics and is an integral component of ESDs that meet users needs. NRCS is currently developing ESDs for much of the ...

  20. Network architecture functional description and design

    SciTech Connect

    Stans, L.; Bencoe, M.; Brown, D.; Kelly, S.; Pierson, L.; Schaldach, C.

    1989-05-25

    This report provides a top level functional description and design for the development and implementation of the central network to support the next generation of SNL, Albuquerque supercomputer in a UNIX{reg sign} environment. It describes the network functions and provides an architecture and topology.

  1. 46 CFR 169.203 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Description. 169.203 Section 169.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection... required to be carried, the maximum number of sailing school students and instructors and the...

  2. 46 CFR 169.203 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Description. 169.203 Section 169.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection... required to be carried, the maximum number of sailing school students and instructors and the...

  3. 46 CFR 169.203 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Description. 169.203 Section 169.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection... required to be carried, the maximum number of sailing school students and instructors and the...

  4. 46 CFR 169.203 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Description. 169.203 Section 169.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection... required to be carried, the maximum number of sailing school students and instructors and the...

  5. 7 CFR 52.1841 - Product description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 § 52.1841 Product description. Processed Raisins are dried grapes of the Vinifera varieties, such as Thompson...

  6. 7 CFR 52.1841 - Product description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 § 52.1841 Product description. Processed Raisins are dried grapes of the Vinifera varieties, such as Thompson...

  7. 7 CFR 52.1841 - Product description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 § 52.1841 Product description. Processed Raisins are dried grapes of the...

  8. 7 CFR 52.1841 - Product description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 § 52.1841 Product description. Processed Raisins are dried grapes of the...

  9. Publications on Toxic Substances: A Descriptive Listing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interagency Regulatory Liaison Group, Washington, DC.

    Presented are basic facts about toxic substances and a description of selected publications about them which are available from several federal agencies. Instructions on how to order publications from these agencies are provided. The booklet lists publications according to applicability to the home, the workplace, agriculture, the environment, and…

  10. Descriptive Discourse: Topic Familiarity and Disfluencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merlo, Sandra; Mansur, Leticia Lessa

    2004-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to address questions about topic familiarity and disfluencies during oral descriptive discourse of adult speakers. Participants expressed more attributes when the topic was familiar than when it was unfamiliar. Fillers and lexical pauses were the most frequent disfluencies. The mean duration of each hesitation…

  11. 14 CFR 1259.500 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... related to space. Awards will be made to institutions of higher education for fellowships. The student... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Description. 1259.500 Section 1259.500 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL SPACE GRANT COLLEGE...

  12. 14 CFR § 1259.500 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fields related to space. Awards will be made to institutions of higher education for fellowships. The... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Description. § 1259.500 Section § 1259.500 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL SPACE GRANT...

  13. 14 CFR 1259.500 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... related to space. Awards will be made to institutions of higher education for fellowships. The student... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Description. 1259.500 Section 1259.500 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL SPACE GRANT COLLEGE...

  14. 14 CFR 1259.500 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... related to space. Awards will be made to institutions of higher education for fellowships. The student... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Description. 1259.500 Section 1259.500 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL SPACE GRANT COLLEGE...

  15. 14 CFR 1259.500 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... related to space. Awards will be made to institutions of higher education for fellowships. The student... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Description. 1259.500 Section 1259.500 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL SPACE GRANT COLLEGE...

  16. 7 CFR 52.1841 - Product description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 § 52.1841 Product description. Processed Raisins are dried grapes of the Vinifera varieties, such as Thompson...

  17. Resources Description in the Digital Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younger, Jennifer A.

    1997-01-01

    Resource description (cataloging or indexing) is undergoing scrutiny with the growth of and access to digital resources. This article describes the evolving means of making documents and document-like objects bibliographically accessible by the library cataloging community. Discusses metadata elements, library cataloging objectives and record…

  18. TWRS information locator database system design description

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, B.J.

    1996-09-13

    This document gives an overview and description of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Information Locator Database (ILD)system design. The TWRS ILD system is an inventory of information used in the TWRS Systems Engineering process to represent the TWRS Technical Baseline. The inventory is maintained in the form of a relational database developed in Paradox 4.5.

  19. 7 CFR 621.10 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS USDA Cooperative Studies § 621.10 Description. Cooperative river basin studies provide USDA planning assistance to Federal, State, and local... the requesting agencies and citizen groups that are consistent with USDA authorities...

  20. Descriptive and Functional Classifications of Drug Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Albert S.; Stauss, Fred F.

    1977-01-01

    Polydrug (non-opiate-drug) abusers have previously been classified by a variety of typologies that can be characterized as either descriptive, functional, or a combination of both. This investigation proposes two objective scoring systems that classify polydrug users on a streetwise/straight dimension and on a self-medication/recreational-use…

  1. 22 CFR 1503.2 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION OFFICIAL SEAL § 1503.2 Description. The official seal of the African Development Foundation is described as follows: (a) Forming an outer circle is a ring of type in dark blue capital letters spelling the words “AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION—UNITED STATES OF...

  2. 22 CFR 1503.2 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION OFFICIAL SEAL § 1503.2 Description. The official seal of the African Development Foundation is described as follows: (a) Forming an outer circle is a ring of type in dark blue capital letters spelling the words “AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION—UNITED STATES OF...

  3. 22 CFR 1503.2 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION OFFICIAL SEAL § 1503.2 Description. The official seal of the African Development Foundation is described as follows: (a) Forming an outer circle is a ring of type in dark blue capital letters spelling the words “AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION—UNITED STATES OF...

  4. 22 CFR 1503.2 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION OFFICIAL SEAL § 1503.2 Description. The official seal of the African Development Foundation is described as follows: (a) Forming an outer circle is a ring of type in dark blue capital letters spelling the words “AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION—UNITED STATES OF...

  5. 22 CFR 1503.2 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION OFFICIAL SEAL § 1503.2 Description. The official seal of the African Development Foundation is described as follows: (a) Forming an outer circle is a ring of type in dark blue capital letters spelling the words “AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION—UNITED STATES OF...

  6. 49 CFR 3.1 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... “Department of Transportation”. The lower half of the ring shows the words “United States of America”. The... of the Secretary of Transportation OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.1 Description. The official seal of the Department of Transportation is described as follows: A white abstract triskelion figure signifying...

  7. 49 CFR 3.1 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... “Department of Transportation”. The lower half of the ring shows the words “United States of America”. The... of the Secretary of Transportation OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.1 Description. The official seal of the Department of Transportation is described as follows: A white abstract triskelion figure signifying...

  8. System design description cone penetrometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Seda, R.Y., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    The system design description documents in detail the design of the cone penetrometer system. The systems includes the cone penetrometer physical package, raman spectroscopy package and moisture sensor package. Information pertinent to the system design, development, fabrication and testing is provided.

  9. The AP Descriptive Chemistry Question: Student Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent; Brooks, David W.

    2005-01-01

    For over a decade, the authors have been involved in a design theory experiment providing software for high school students preparing for the descriptive question on the Advanced Placement (AP) chemistry examination. Since 1997, the software has been available as a Web site offering repeatable practice. This study describes a 4-year project during…

  10. Microcomputers for Libraries: Features, Descriptions, Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warden, William H.; Warden, Bette M.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses major features of microcomputers (word length, memory, size, disk size and capacity, central processing unit speed, peripherals, software) and provides descriptions of 19 models. Comparative analysis on basis of cost, software support, machine capacity, storage capacity, and types of peripherals is presented. A 173-item bibliography is…

  11. Cannabaceae (family description and keys) and Celtis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The family Cannabaceae is treated for The Jepson Manual of the higher plants of California, a detailed floristic manual for the state published by the University of California. Three species in the single genus Celtis are included, together with a description and keys for all genera of the family Ca...

  12. 49 CFR 572.31 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III Test Dummy § 572.31 General description. (a) The Hybrid III 50th percentile size dummy consists of components and... containing 16 pages, and a Parts List Index, dated June 26, 1998, containing 8 pages. (2) A listing of...

  13. 49 CFR 572.31 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III Test Dummy § 572.31 General description. (a) The Hybrid III 50th percentile size dummy consists of components and... containing 16 pages, and a Parts List Index, dated June 26, 1998, containing 8 pages. (2) A listing of...

  14. 49 CFR 572.111 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General description. 572.111 Section 572.111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Side Impact Hybrid...

  15. 49 CFR 572.111 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General description. 572.111 Section 572.111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Side Impact Hybrid...

  16. 49 CFR 572.111 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General description. 572.111 Section 572.111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Side Impact Hybrid...

  17. 49 CFR 572.111 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General description. 572.111 Section 572.111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Side Impact Hybrid...

  18. 49 CFR 572.111 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General description. 572.111 Section 572.111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Side Impact Hybrid...

  19. 40 CFR 145.23 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... this part and 40 CFR part 144. For Class VI programs, a schedule for issuing permits within two years... responsibility requirements of §§ 144.51 and 144.52, and 40 CFR part 146; (7) A description of and schedule for... information related to any EPA approved exemptions expanding the areal extent of existing aquifer...

  20. 40 CFR 145.23 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... this part and 40 CFR part 144. For Class VI programs, a schedule for issuing permits within two years... responsibility requirements of §§ 144.51 and 144.52, and 40 CFR part 146; (7) A description of and schedule for... information related to any EPA approved exemptions expanding the areal extent of existing aquifer...

  1. 7 CFR 621.30 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., development, use, and disposal of water; for flood control; for the conservation and proper use of land; and... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Description. 621.30 Section 621.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  2. 42 CFR 430.0 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program description. 430.0 Section 430.0 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATES FOR MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Introduction;...

  3. Word Processing Job Descriptions and Duties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajewski-Johnson, Marlyce

    In order to develop a word processing career file at Milwaukee Area Technical College, employment managers at 124 Milwaukee-area businesses were asked to provide job descriptions for all word processing positions in the company; skill and knowledge requirements necessary to obtain these positions; employee appraisal forms; wage scales; a list of…

  4. 14 CFR 415.109 - Launch description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.109 Launch description. An applicant's safety review document must... hazardous material; and (v) For an unguided suborbital launch vehicle, the location of the rocket's center... predicted impact point and dispersion of each spent stage. (f) Vehicle performance graphs. An applicant...

  5. 14 CFR 415.109 - Launch description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.109 Launch description. An applicant's safety review document must... hazardous material; and (v) For an unguided suborbital launch vehicle, the location of the rocket's center... predicted impact point and dispersion of each spent stage. (f) Vehicle performance graphs. An applicant...

  6. 14 CFR 415.109 - Launch description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.109 Launch description. An applicant's safety review document must... hazardous material; and (v) For an unguided suborbital launch vehicle, the location of the rocket's center... predicted impact point and dispersion of each spent stage. (f) Vehicle performance graphs. An applicant...

  7. 14 CFR 415.109 - Launch description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.109 Launch description. An applicant's safety review document must... hazardous material; and (v) For an unguided suborbital launch vehicle, the location of the rocket's center... predicted impact point and dispersion of each spent stage. (f) Vehicle performance graphs. An applicant...

  8. 14 CFR 415.109 - Launch description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.109 Launch description. An applicant's safety review document must... hazardous material; and (v) For an unguided suborbital launch vehicle, the location of the rocket's center... predicted impact point and dispersion of each spent stage. (f) Vehicle performance graphs. An applicant...

  9. 49 CFR 587.13 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) DEFORMABLE BARRIERS Offset Deformable Barrier § 587.13 General description. The offset deformable barrier is comprised of two elements: a fixed rigid barrier and a deformable face (Figure 1). The fixed rigid barrier is adequate to not deflect or displace...

  10. 7 CFR 621.30 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Description. 621.30 Section 621.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Joint Investigations and Reports With...

  11. 7 CFR 621.30 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Description. 621.30 Section 621.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Joint Investigations and Reports With...

  12. Descriptions of Paraprofessional Programs in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Univ., NY. New Careers Development Center.

    This collection of project descriptions of paraprofessional programs in education, originally compiled for use at the 1969 national conference, is designed to provide up-to-date information on various aspects of operating paraprofessional programs. The agencies conducting these seven programs, each of which is reported here by its project…

  13. 44 CFR 361.3 - Project description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.3 Project description. (a) An objective of the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act is to develop, in areas of seismic risk, improved...

  14. 44 CFR 361.3 - Project description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.3 Project description. (a) An objective of the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act is to develop, in areas of seismic risk, improved...

  15. 44 CFR 361.3 - Project description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.3 Project description. (a) An objective of the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act is to develop, in areas of seismic risk, improved...

  16. 44 CFR 361.3 - Project description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.3 Project description. (a) An objective of the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act is to develop, in areas of seismic risk, improved...

  17. Learning Unfamiliar Cultural Beliefs: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeSourd, Sandra J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a descriptive study of the influence of the learner's cultural schemata on instruction. Finds that students interpret new information in the light of cultural knowledge already possessed. Implications are that instructional designs that ignore the influence of background knowledge take a naive approach to the development of a…

  18. 42 CFR 457.1 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.1 Program description. Title XXI... States for provision of child health assistance to uninsured, low-income children. The program is...

  19. 42 CFR 457.1 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.1 Program description. Title XXI... States for provision of child health assistance to uninsured, low-income children. The program is...

  20. 42 CFR 457.1 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.1 Program description. Title XXI... States for provision of child health assistance to uninsured, low-income children. The program is...

  1. 42 CFR 457.1 - Program description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.1 Program description. Title XXI... States for provision of child health assistance to uninsured, low-income children. The program is...

  2. 7 CFR 52.801 - Product description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1....801 Product description. Frozen red tart pitted cherries is the food prepared from properly matured... substance permitted under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, and are frozen and stored...

  3. 7 CFR 52.801 - Product description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1....801 Product description. Frozen red tart pitted cherries is the food prepared from properly matured... substance permitted under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, and are frozen and stored...

  4. Automatic TLI recognition system, general description

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report is a general description of an automatic target recognition system developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the Department of Energy. A user`s manual is a separate volume, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide, and a programmer`s manual is Automatic TLI Recognition System, Programmer`s Guide. This system was designed as an automatic target recognition system for fast screening of large amounts of multi-sensor image data, based on low-cost parallel processors. This system naturally incorporates image data fusion, and it gives uncertainty estimates. It is relatively low cost, compact, and transportable. The software is easily enhanced to expand the system`s capabilities, and the hardware is easily expandable to increase the system`s speed. In addition to its primary function as a trainable target recognition system, this is also a versatile, general-purpose tool for image manipulation and analysis, which can be either keyboard-driven or script-driven. This report includes descriptions of three variants of the computer hardware, a description of the mathematical basis if the training process, and a description with examples of the system capabilities.

  5. Hydrodynamic description for ballistic annihilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia de Soria, Maria Isabel; Trizac, Emmanuel; Maynar, Pablo; Schehr, Gregory; Barrat, Alain

    2009-01-21

    The problem of the validity of a hydrodynamic description for a system in which there are no collisional invariants is addressed. Hydrodynamic equations have been derived and successfully tested against simulation data for a system where particles annihilate with a probability p, or collide elastically otherwise. The response of the system to a linear perturbation is analyzed as well.

  6. 14 CFR 1259.600 - Panel description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM Space Grant Review Panel § 1259.600 Panel description. An independent committee... established to advise the Administrator with respect to Space Grant program and project awards, the Space Grant fellowship program and the designation and operation of Space Grant colleges and consortia....

  7. 14 CFR 1259.600 - Panel description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM Space Grant Review Panel § 1259.600 Panel description. An independent committee, the Space... advise the Administrator with respect to Space Grant program and project awards, the Space Grant fellowship program and the designation and operation of Space Grant colleges and consortia. A majority of...

  8. 14 CFR 1259.600 - Panel description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM Space Grant Review Panel § 1259.600 Panel description. An independent committee... established to advise the Administrator with respect to Space Grant program and project awards, the Space Grant fellowship program and the designation and operation of Space Grant colleges and consortia....

  9. 14 CFR 1259.600 - Panel description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM Space Grant Review Panel § 1259.600 Panel description. An independent committee... established to advise the Administrator with respect to Space Grant program and project awards, the Space Grant fellowship program and the designation and operation of Space Grant colleges and consortia....

  10. 48 CFR 52.214-21 - Descriptive Literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Descriptive Literature. 52....214-21 Descriptive Literature. As prescribed in 14.201-6(p)(1), insert the following provision: Descriptive Literature (APR 2002) (a) Descriptive literature, as used in this provision, means...

  11. 48 CFR 52.214-21 - Descriptive Literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Descriptive Literature. 52....214-21 Descriptive Literature. As prescribed in 14.201-6(p)(1), insert the following provision: Descriptive Literature (APR 2002) (a) Descriptive literature, as used in this provision, means...

  12. 48 CFR 52.214-21 - Descriptive Literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Descriptive Literature. 52....214-21 Descriptive Literature. As prescribed in 14.201-6(p)(1), insert the following provision: Descriptive Literature (APR 2002) (a) Descriptive literature, as used in this provision, means...

  13. 48 CFR 52.214-21 - Descriptive Literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Descriptive Literature. 52....214-21 Descriptive Literature. As prescribed in 14.201-6(p)(1), insert the following provision: Descriptive Literature (APR 2002) (a) Descriptive literature, as used in this provision, means...

  14. 48 CFR 52.214-21 - Descriptive Literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Descriptive Literature. 52....214-21 Descriptive Literature. As prescribed in 14.201-6(p)(1), insert the following provision: Descriptive Literature (APR 2002) (a) Descriptive literature, as used in this provision, means...

  15. Short Descriptions of Selected Distance-Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerfert, F., Ed.; And Others

    This report contains short descriptions of about 200 selected distance education institutions throughout the world. Most of the descriptions are based on questionnaires completed by members of the institutions as well as on corrections of and comments on a preliminary version of the descriptions. Descriptions contain some or all of the following…

  16. 47 CFR 79.3 - Video description of video programming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... video description per calendar quarter during prime time or on children's programming, on each channel... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Video description of video programming. 79.3... CLOSED CAPTIONING AND VIDEO DESCRIPTION OF VIDEO PROGRAMMING § 79.3 Video description of...

  17. 47 CFR 79.3 - Video description of video programming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... provide 50 hours of video description per calendar quarter, either during prime time or on children's... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Video description of video programming. 79.3... CLOSED CAPTIONING AND VIDEO DESCRIPTION OF VIDEO PROGRAMMING § 79.3 Video description of...

  18. 47 CFR 79.3 - Video description of video programming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provide 50 hours of video description per calendar quarter, either during prime time or on children's... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Video description of video programming. 79.3... CLOSED CAPTIONING AND VIDEO DESCRIPTION OF VIDEO PROGRAMMING § 79.3 Video description of...

  19. Hydrodynamic description of spin Calogero-Sutherland model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abanov, Alexander; Kulkarni, Manas; Franchini, Fabio

    2009-03-01

    We study a non-linear collective field theory for an integrable spin-Calogero-Sutherland model. The hydrodynamic description of this SU(2) model in terms of charge density, charge velocity and spin currents is used to study non-perturbative solutions (solitons) and examine their correspondence with known quantum numbers of elementary excitations [1]. A conventional linear bosonization or harmonic approximation is not sufficient to describe, for example, the physics of spin-charge (non)separation. Therefore, we need this new collective bosonic field description that captures the effects of the band curvature. In the strong coupling limit [2] this model reduces to integrable SU(2) Haldane-Shastry model. We study a non-linear coupling of left and right spin currents which form a Kac-Moody algebra. Our quantum hydrodynamic description for the spin case is an extension for the one found in the spinless version in [3].[3pt] [1] Y. Kato,T. Yamamoto, and M. Arikawa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 66, 1954-1961 (1997).[0pt] [2] A. Polychronakos, Phys Rev Lett. 70,2329-2331(1993).[0pt] [3] A.G.Abanov and P.B. Wiegmann, Phys Rev Lett 95, 076402(2005)

  20. Reducing uncertainty in geostatistical description with well testing pressure data

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, A.C.; He, Nanqun; Oliver, D.S.

    1997-08-01

    Geostatistics has proven to be an effective tool for generating realizations of reservoir properties conditioned to static data, e.g., core and log data and geologic knowledge. Due to the lack of closely spaced data in the lateral directions, there will be significant variability in reservoir descriptions generated by geostatistical simulation, i.e., significant uncertainty in the reservoir descriptions. In past work, we have presented procedures based on inverse problem theory for generating reservoir descriptions (rock property fields) conditioned to pressure data and geostatistical information represented as prior means for log-permeability and porosity and variograms. Although we have shown that the incorporation of pressure data reduces the uncertainty below the level contained in the geostatistical model based only on static information (the prior model), our previous results assumed did not explicitly account for uncertainties in the prior means and the parameters defining the variogram model. In this work, we investigate how pressure data can help detect errors in the prior means. If errors in the prior means are large and are not taken into account, realizations conditioned to pressure data represent incorrect samples of the a posteriori probability density function for the rock property fields, whereas, if the uncertainty in the prior mean is incorporated properly into the model, one obtains realistic realizations of the rock property fields.