Science.gov

Sample records for effective open geometry

  1. Cost Effective Open Geometry HTS MRI System amended to BSCCO 2212 Wire for High Field Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kennth Marken

    2006-08-11

    The original goal of this Phase II Superconductivity Partnership Initiative project was to build and operate a prototype Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system using high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils wound from continuously processed dip-coated BSCCO 2212 tape conductor. Using dip-coated tape, the plan was for MRI magnet coils to be wound to fit an established commercial open geometry, 0.2 Tesla permanent magnet system. New electronics and imaging software for a prototype higher field superconducting system would have added significantly to the cost. However, the use of the 0.2 T platform would allow the technical feasibility and the cost issues for HTS systems to be fully established. Also it would establish the energy efficiency and savings of HTS open MRI compared with resistive and permanent magnet systems. The commercial goal was an open geometry HTS MRI running at 0.5 T and 20 K. This low field open magnet was using resistive normal metal conductor and its heat loss was rather high around 15 kolwatts. It was expected that an HTS magnet would dissipate around 1 watt, significantly reduce power consumption. The SPI team assembled to achieve this goal was led by Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology (OST), who developed the method of producing commercial dip coated tape. Superconductive Components Inc. (SCI), a leading US supplier of HTS powders, supported the conductor optimization through powder optimization, scaling, and cost reduction. Oxford Magnet Technology (OMT), a joint venture between Oxford Instruments and Siemens and the world’s leading supplier of MRI magnet systems, was involved to design and build the HTS MRI magnet and cryogenics. Siemens Magnetic Resonance Division, a leading developer and supplier of complete MRI imaging systems, was expected to integrate the final system and perform imaging trials. The original MRI demonstration project was ended in July 2004 by mutual consent of Oxford Instruments and Siemens. Between

  2. Effect of solar-cell junction geometry on open-circuit voltage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, V. G.; Godlewski, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    Simple analytical models have been found that adequately describe the voltage behavior of both the stripe junction and dot junction grating cells as a function of junction area. While the voltage in the former case is found to be insensitive to junction area reduction, significant voltage increases are shown to be possible for the dot junction cell. With regard to cells in which the junction area has been increased in a quest for better performance, it was found that (1) texturation does not affect the average saturation current density J0, indicating that the texturation process is equivalent to a simple extension of junction area by a factor of square root of 3 and (2) the vertical junction cell geometry produces a sizable decrease in J0 that, unfortunately, is more than offset by the effects of attendant areal increases.

  3. Assessment of Geometry and In-Flow Effects on Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Broadband Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zawodny, Nikolas S.; Nark, Douglas M.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Application of previously formulated semi-analytical models for the prediction of broadband noise due to turbulent rotor wake interactions and rotor blade trailing edges is performed on the historical baseline F31/A31 contra-rotating open rotor configuration. Simplified two-dimensional blade element analysis is performed on cambered NACA 4-digit airfoil profiles, which are meant to serve as substitutes for the actual rotor blade sectional geometries. Rotor in-flow effects such as induced axial and tangential velocities are incorporated into the noise prediction models based on supporting computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results and simplified in-flow velocity models. Emphasis is placed on the development of simplified rotor in-flow models for the purpose of performing accurate noise predictions independent of CFD information. The broadband predictions are found to compare favorably with experimental acoustic results.

  4. Stability analysis of underground mining openings with complex geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cała, Marek; Stopkowicz, Agnieszka; Kowalski, Michał; Blajer, Mateusz; Cyran, Katarzyna; D'obyrn, Kajetan

    2016-03-01

    Stability of mining openings requires consideration of a number of factors, such as: geological structure, the geometry of the underground mining workings, mechanical properties of the rock mass, changes in stress caused by the influence of neighbouring workings. Long-term prediction and estimation of workings state can be analysed with the use of numerical methods. Application of 3D numerical modelling in stability estimation of workings with complex geometry was described with the example of Crystal Caves in Wieliczka Salt Mine. Preservation of the Crystal Caves reserve is particularly important in view of their unique character and the protection of adjacent galleries which are a part of tourist attraction included in UNESCO list. A detailed 3D model of Crystal Caves and neighbouring workings was built. Application of FLAC3D modelling techniques enabled indication of the areas which are in danger of stability loss. Moreover, the area in which protective actions should be taken as well as recommendations concerning the convergence monitoring were proposed.

  5. The Effect of Geometry Instruction with Dynamic Geometry Software; GeoGebra on Van Hiele Geometry Understanding Levels of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutluca, Tamer

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of dynamic geometry software GeoGebra on Van Hiele geometry understanding level of students at 11th grade geometry course. The study was conducted with pre and posttest control group quasi-experimental method. The sample of the study was 42 eleventh grade students studying in the spring term of…

  6. Effective geometries in self-gravitating polytropes

    SciTech Connect

    Bini, D.; Cherubini, C.; Filippi, S.

    2008-09-15

    Perturbations of a perfect barotropic and irrotational Newtonian self-gravitating fluid are studied using a generalization of the so-called 'effective geometry' formalism. The case of polytropic spherical stars, as described by the Lane-Emden equation, is studied in detail in the known cases of existing explicit solutions. The present formulation gives a natural scenario in which the acoustic analogy has relevance for both stellar and galactic dynamics.

  7. Multiscale Talbot effects in Fibonacci geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, I.-Lin; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2015-04-01

    This article investigates the Talbot effects in Fibonacci geometry by introducing the cut-and-projection construction, which allows for capturing the entire infinite Fibonacci structure in a single computational cell. Theoretical and numerical calculations demonstrate the Talbot foci of Fibonacci geometry at distances that are multiples (τ +2){{({{F}μ }+τ {{F}μ +1})}-1}p/(2q) or (τ +2){{({{L}μ }+τ {{L}μ +1})}-1}p/(2q) of the Talbot distance. Here (p, q) are coprime integers, μ is an integer, τ is the golden mean, and {{F}μ } and {{L}μ } are Fibonacci and Lucas numbers, respectively. The image of a single Talbot focus exhibits a multiscale-interval pattern due to the self-similarity of the scaling Fourier spectrum.

  8. Cloud geometry effects on atmospheric solar absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Q.; Cribb, M.C.; Barker, H.W.; Krueger, S.K.; Grossman, A.

    2000-04-15

    A 3D broadband solar radiative transfer scheme is formulated by integrating a Monte Carlo photon transport algorithm with the Fu-Liou radiation model. It is applied to fields of tropical mesoscale convective clouds and subtropical marine boundary layer clouds that were generated by a 2D cloud-resolving model. The effects of cloud geometry on the radiative energy budget are examined by comparing the full-resolution Monte Carlo results with those from the independent column approximation (ICA) that applies the plane-parallel radiation model to each column. For the tropical convective cloud system, it is found that cloud geometry effects always enhance atmospheric solar absorption regardless of solar zenith angle. In a large horizontal domain (512 km), differences in domain-averaged atmospheric absorption between the Monte Carlo and the ICA are less than 4 W m{sup {minus}2} in the daytime. However, for a smaller domain (e.g., 75 km) containing a cluster of deep convective towers, domain-averaged absorption can be enhanced by more than 20 W m{sup {minus}2}. For a subtropical marine boundary layer cloud system during the stratus-to-cumulus transition, calculations show that the ICA works very well for domain-averaged fluxes of the stratocumulus cloud fields even for a very small domain (4.8 km). For the trade cumulus cloud field, the effects of cloud sides and horizontal transport of photons become more significant. Calculations have also been made for both cloud systems including black carbon aerosol and a water vapor continuum. It is found that cloud geometry produces no discernible effects on the absorption enhancement due to the black carbon aerosol and water vapor continuum. The current study indicates that the atmospheric absorption enhancement due to cloud-related 3D photon transport is small. This enhancement could not explain the excess absorption suggested by recent studies.

  9. The Effect of Dynamic Geometry Software and Physical Manipulatives on Candidate Teachers' Transformational Geometry Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Gül Kaleli

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of using Dynamic Geometry Software (DGS) Cabri II Plus and physical manipulatives on the transformational geometry achievement of candidate teachers. In this study, the semi-experimental method was used, consisting of two experimental and one control groups. The samples of this study were 117 students. A…

  10. Modeling cavities exhibiting strong lateral confinement using open geometry Fourier modal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häyrynen, Teppo; Gregersen, Niels

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a computationally efficient Fourier-Bessel expansion based open geometry formalism for modeling the optical properties of rotationally symmetric photonic nanostructures. The lateral computation domain is assumed infinite so that no artificial boundary conditions are needed. Instead, the leakage of the modes due to an imperfect field confinement is taken into account by using a basis functions that expand the whole infinite space. The computational efficiency is obtained by using a non-uniform discretization in the frequency space in which the lateral expansion modes are more densely sampled around a geometry specific dominant transverse wavenumber region. We will use the developed approach to investigate the Q factor and mode confinement in cavities where top DBR mirror has small rectangular defect confining the modes laterally on the defect region.

  11. Effective geometry of a white dwarf

    SciTech Connect

    Bini, D.; Cherubini, C.; Filippi, S.

    2011-03-15

    The ''effective geometry'' formalism is used to study the perturbations of a white dwarf described as a self-gravitating fermion gas with a completely degenerate relativistic equation of state of barotropic type. The quantum nature of the system causes an absence of homological properties, manifested instead by polytropic stars, and requires a parametric study of the solutions both at the numerical and analytical level. We have explicitly derived a compact analytical parametric approximate solution of Pade type, which gives density curves and stellar radii in good accordance with already existing numerical results. After validation of this new type of approximate solutions, we use them to construct the effective acoustic metric governing general perturbations following Chebsch's formalism. Even in this quantum case, the stellar surface exhibits a curvature singularity due to the vanishing of density, as already evidenced in past studies on nonquantum self-gravitating polytropic stars. The equations of the theory are finally numerically integrated in the simpler case of irrotational spherical pulsating perturbations, including the effect of backreaction, in order to have a dynamical picture of the process occurring in the acoustic metric.

  12. A low-power, linear-geometry Hall plasma source with an open electron-drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, D. P.; Meezan, N. B.; Hargus, W. A., Jr.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2000-02-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the physics of modern Hall plasma thrusters and its impact on the design of new plasma thrusters of varying geometry and power. A particular emphasis is placed on the design and development of a linear-geometry (non- coaxial) source with an open electron-drift current. The operating characteristics of a linear-geometry Hall discharge scaled to operate in the 50 to 100 W power range are presented. Two thruster acceleration channels were fabricated—one of alumina and one of boron nitride. Differences in operation with the two channel materials are attributable to differences in the secondary electron emission properties. In either case, however, operation is achieved despite the lack of a closed electron current drift in the Hall direction, suggesting that there is an anomalous axial electron mobility, due to either plasma fluctuations or collisions with the channel wall. Strong low-frequency oscillations in the discharge current, associated with the depletion of propellant within the discharge, are seen to appear and vary with changes in the applied magnetic field strength. The frequency of this oscillatory mode is higher than that seen in larger (and higher power) discharges, due to the decreased residence time of the propellant within the channel.

  13. Effective loop quantum geometry of Schwarzschild interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortez, Jerónimo; Cuervo, William; Morales-Técotl, Hugo A.; Ruelas, Juan C.

    2017-03-01

    The success of loop quantum cosmology to resolve classical singularities of homogeneous models has led to its application to the classical Schwarszchild black hole interior, which takes the form of a homogeneous Kantowski-Sachs model. The first steps of this were done in pure quantum mechanical terms, hinting at the traversable character of the would-be classical singularity, and then others were performed using effective heuristic models capturing quantum effects that allowed a geometrical description closer to the classical one but avoided its singularity. However, the problem of establishing the link between the quantum and effective descriptions was left open. In this work, we propose to fill in this gap by considering the path-integral approach to the loop quantization of the Kantowski-Sachs model corresponding to the Schwarzschild black hole interior. We show that the transition amplitude can be expressed as a path integration over the imaginary exponential of an effective action which just coincides, under some simplifying assumptions, with the heuristic one. Additionally, we further explore the consequences of the effective dynamics. We prove first that such dynamics imply some rather simple bounds for phase-space variables, and in turn—remarkably, in an analytical way—they imply that various phase-space functions that were singular in the classical model are now well behaved. In particular, the expansion rate, its time derivative, and the shear become bounded, and hence the Raychaudhuri equation is finite term by term, thus resolving the singularities of classical geodesic congruences. Moreover, all effective scalar polynomial invariants turn out to be bounded.

  14. Effects of Liner Geometry on Acoustic Impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G.; Tracy, Maureen B.; Watson, Willie R.; Parrott, Tony L.

    2002-01-01

    Current aircraft engine nacelles typically contain acoustic liners consisting of perforated sheets bonded onto honeycomb cavities. Numerous models have been developed to predict the acoustic impedance of these liners in the presence of grazing flow, and to use that information with aeroacoustic propagation codes to assess nacelle liner noise suppression. Recent efforts have provided advances in impedance education methodologies that offer more accurate determinations of acoustic liner properties in the presence of grazing flow. The current report provides the results of a parametric study, in which a finite element method was used to assess the effects of variations of the following geometric parameters on liner impedance, with and without the presence of grazing flow: percent open area, sheet thickness, sheet thickness-to-hole diameter ratio and cavity depth. Normal incidence acoustic impedances were determined for eight acoustic liners, consisting of punched aluminum facesheets bonded to hexcell honeycomb cavities. Similar liners were tested in the NASA Langley Research Center grazing incidence tube to determine their response in the presence of grazing flow. The resultant data provide a quantitative assessment of the effects of these perforate, single-layer liner parameters on the acoustic impedance of the liner.

  15. Doppler effect in Schwarzschild and Kerr geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radosz, A.; Augousti, A. T.; Ostasiewicz, K.

    2008-03-01

    Calculation of the Doppler shift in general relativity involves contributions of gravitational and kinematical origins and for most metrics or trajectories these contributions are coupled. The exact expression for this Doppler shift may simplify for particular symmetries. Here the specific case for a light signal emitted by a distant inertial observer and received by an in-falling observer in a Schwarzschild geometry is discussed. The resulting expression the Doppler shift is composed of simple factors that can be clearly identified with contributions arising from classical kinematical, special relativistic and general relativistic origins. This result turns out to be more general and it holds for a case of an arbitrary radial in-fall in Schwarzschild geometry and for a particular type of in-fall in the case of a Kerr metric.

  16. DL-FIND: An Open-Source Geometry Optimizer for Atomistic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kästner, Johannes; Carr, Joanne M.; Keal, Thomas W.; Thiel, Walter; Wander, Adrian; Sherwood, Paul

    2009-07-01

    Geometry optimization, including searching for transition states, accounts for most of the CPU time spent in quantum chemistry, computational surface science, and solid-state physics, and also plays an important role in simulations employing classical force fields. We have implemented a geometry optimizer, called DL-FIND, to be included in atomistic simulation codes. It can optimize structures in Cartesian coordinates, redundant internal coordinates, hybrid-delocalized internal coordinates, and also functions of more variables independent of atomic structures. The implementation of the optimization algorithms is independent of the coordinate transformation used. Steepest descent, conjugate gradient, quasi-Newton, and L-BFGS algorithms as well as damped molecular dynamics are available as minimization methods. The partitioned rational function optimization algorithm, a modified version of the dimer method and the nudged elastic band approach provide capabilities for transition-state search. Penalty function, gradient projection, and Lagrange-Newton methods are implemented for conical intersection optimizations. Various stochastic search methods, including a genetic algorithm, are available for global or local minimization and can be run as parallel algorithms. The code is released under the open-source GNU LGPL license. Some selected applications of DL-FIND are surveyed.

  17. DL-FIND: an open-source geometry optimizer for atomistic simulations.

    PubMed

    Kästner, Johannes; Carr, Joanne M; Keal, Thomas W; Thiel, Walter; Wander, Adrian; Sherwood, Paul

    2009-10-29

    Geometry optimization, including searching for transition states, accounts for most of the CPU time spent in quantum chemistry, computational surface science, and solid-state physics, and also plays an important role in simulations employing classical force fields. We have implemented a geometry optimizer, called DL-FIND, to be included in atomistic simulation codes. It can optimize structures in Cartesian coordinates, redundant internal coordinates, hybrid-delocalized internal coordinates, and also functions of more variables independent of atomic structures. The implementation of the optimization algorithms is independent of the coordinate transformation used. Steepest descent, conjugate gradient, quasi-Newton, and L-BFGS algorithms as well as damped molecular dynamics are available as minimization methods. The partitioned rational function optimization algorithm, a modified version of the dimer method and the nudged elastic band approach provide capabilities for transition-state search. Penalty function, gradient projection, and Lagrange-Newton methods are implemented for conical intersection optimizations. Various stochastic search methods, including a genetic algorithm, are available for global or local minimization and can be run as parallel algorithms. The code is released under the open-source GNU LGPL license. Some selected applications of DL-FIND are surveyed.

  18. Effects of Spatial Ability and Instructional Program on Geometry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannafin, Robert D.; Truxaw, Mary P.; Vermillion, Jennifer R.; Liu, Yingjie

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of student spatial ability, as measured by Raven's Progressive Colored Matrices (J. C. Raven, 1938) and type of instructional program on geometry achievement. Sixth-grade students worked through either 6 instructional activities in Geometer's Sketchpad (Key Curriculum Press, 1993), a dynamic geometry program,…

  19. The effects of split keyboard geometry on upper body postures.

    PubMed

    Rempel, David; Nathan-Roberts, Dan; Chen, Bing Yune; Odell, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Split, gabled keyboard designs can prevent or improve upper extremity pain among computer users; the mechanism appears to involve the reduction of awkward wrist and forearm postures. This study evaluated the effects of changes in opening angle, slope and height (independent variables) of a gabled (14 degrees) keyboard on typing performance and upper extremity postures. Twenty-four experienced touch typists typed on seven keyboard conditions while typing speed and right and left wrist extension, ulnar deviation, forearm pronation and elbow position were measured using a motion tracking system. The lower keyboard height led to a lower elbow height (i.e. less shoulder elevation) and less wrist ulnar deviation and forearm pronation. Keyboard slope and opening angle had mixed effects on wrist extension and ulnar deviation, forearm pronation and elbow height and separation. The findings suggest that in order to optimise wrist, forearm and upper arm postures on a split, gabled keyboard, the keyboard should be set to the lowest height of the two heights tested. Keyboard slopes in the mid-range of those tested, 0 degrees to -4 degrees, provided the least wrist extension, forearm pronation and the lowest elbow height. A keyboard opening angle in the mid-range of those tested, 15 degrees, may provide the best balance between reducing ulnar deviation while not increasing forearm pronation or elbow separation. These findings may be useful in the design of computer workstations and split keyboards. The geometry of a split keyboard can influence wrist and forearm postures. The findings of this study are relevant to the positioning and adjustment of split keyboards. The findings will also be useful for engineers who design split keyboards.

  20. Phenomenology of effective geometries from quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torromé, Ricardo Gallego; Letizia, Marco; Liberati, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    In a recent paper [M. Assanioussi, A. Dapor, and J. Lewandowski, Phys. Lett. B 751, 302 (2015)] a general mechanism for the emergence of cosmological spacetime geometry from a quantum gravity setting was devised and a departure from standard dispersion relations for an elementary particle was predicted. We elaborate here on this approach extending the results obtained in that paper and showing that generically such a framework will not lead to higher order modified dispersion relations in the matter sector. Furthermore, we shall discuss possible phenomenological constraints to this scenario showing that spacetime will have to be classical to a very high degree by now in order to be consistent with current observations.

  1. Second Landau level fractional quantum Hall effects in the Corbino geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, B. A.; Bennaceur, K.; Bilodeau, S.; Gervais, G.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.

    2015-09-01

    For certain measurements, the Corbino geometry has a distinct advantage over the Hall and van der Pauw geometries, in that it provides a direct probe of the bulk 2DEG without complications due to edge effects. This may be important in enabling detection of the non-Abelian entropy of the 5/2 fractional quantum Hall state via bulk thermodynamic measurements. We report the successful fabrication and measurement of a Corbino-geometry sample in an ultra-high mobility GaAs heterostructure, with a focus on transport in the second and higher Landau levels. In particular, we report activation energy gaps of fractional quantum Hall states, with all edge effects ruled out, and extrapolate σ0 from the Arrhenius fits. Our results show that activated transport in the second Landau level remains poorly understood. The development of this Corbino device opens the possibility to study the bulk of the 5/2 state using techniques not possible in other geometries.

  2. Nambu Geometry in Quantum Hall Effect and Topological Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasebe, Kazuki

    2017-08-01

    This short review is a contribution to the conference proceeding of IF-YITP Symposium VI, 2016. We discuss how Nambu geometry emerges in the context of higher dimensional quantum Hall effect or A-class topological insulators [1].

  3. Nozzle and wing geometry effects on OTW aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U.; Groesbeck, D.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of nozzle geometry and wing size on the aerodynamic performance of several 5:1 aspect ratio slot nozzles are presented for over-the-wing (OTW) configurations. Nozzle geometry variables include roof angle, sidewall cutback, and nozzle chordwise location. Wing variables include chord size, and flap deflection. Several external deflectors also were included for comparison. The data indicate that good flow turning may not necessarily provide the best aerodynamic performance. The results suggest that a variable exhaust nozzle geometry offers the best solution for a viable OTW configuration.

  4. Reconstructing the open-field magnetic geometry of solar corona using coronagraph images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.; Jones, Shaela; Burkepile, Joan

    2015-04-01

    The upcoming Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter missions will provide an new insight into the inner heliosphere magnetically connected with the topologically complex and eruptive solar corona. Physical interpretation of these observations will be dependent on the accurate reconstruction of the large-scale coronal magnetic field. We argue that such reconstruction can be performed using photospheric extrapolation codes constrained by white-light coronagraph images. The field extrapolation component of this project is featured in a related presentation by S. Jones et al. Here, we focus on our image-processing algorithms conducting an automated segmentation of coronal loop structures. In contrast to the previously proposed segmentation codes designed for detecting small-scale closed loops in the vicinity of active regions, our technique focuses on the large-scale geometry of the open-field coronal features observed at significant radial distances from the solar surface. Coronagraph images are transformed into a polar coordinate system and undergo radial detrending and initial noise reduction followed by an adaptive angular differentiation. An adjustable threshold is applied to identify candidate coronagraph features associated with the large-scale coronal field. A blob detection algorithm is used to identify valid features against a noisy background. The extracted coronal features are used to derive empirical directional constraints for magnetic field extrapolation procedures based on photospheric magnetograms. Two versions of the method optimized for processing ground-based (Mauna Loa Solar Observatory) and satellite-based (STEREO Cor1 and Cor2) coronagraph images are being developed.

  5. The Sagnac effect and pure geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartaglia, Angelo; Ruggiero, Matteo Luca

    2015-05-01

    The Sagnac effect is usually deemed to be a special-relativistic effect produced in an interferometer when the device is rotating. Two light beams traveling around the interferometer in opposite directions require different times of flight to complete their closed path, giving rise to a phase shift proportional to the angular velocity of the apparatus. Here, we show that the same result can be obtained in the absence of rotation, when there is relative motion (be it inertial or not) between the source/receiver of light and the interferometer. Our argument will use both a simple algebraic analysis and a plain geometric approach in flat spacetime. We present an explicit example to illustrate our point and briefly discuss other apparently correct interpretations of the Sagnac effect, including an analogy to the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Finally, we sketch a possible application of the non-rotational Sagnac effect.

  6. Effects of geometry on slot-jet film cooling performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hyams, D.G.; McGovern, K.T.; Leylek, J.H.

    1995-10-01

    The physics of the film cooling process for shaped, inclined slot-jets with realistic slot-length-to-width ratios (L/s) is studied for a range of blowing ratio (M) and density ratio (DR) parameters typical of gas turbine operations. For the first time in the open literature, the effect of inlet and exit shaping of the slot-jet on both flow and thermal field characteristics is isolated, and the dominant mechanisms responsible for differences in these characteristics are documented. A previously documented computational methodology was applied for the study of four distinct configurations: (1) slot with straight edges and sharp corners (reference case); (2) slot with shaped inlet region; (3) slot with shaped exit region; and (4) slot with both shaped inlet and exit regions. Detailed field results as well as surface phenomena involving adiabatic film effectiveness ({eta}) and heat transfer coefficient (h) are presented. It is demonstrated that both {eta} and h results are vital in the proper assessment of film cooling performance. All simulations were carried out using a multi-block, unstructured/adaptive grid, fully explicit, time-marching solver with multi-grid, local time stepping, and residual smoothing type acceleration techniques. Special attention was paid to and full documentation provided for: (1) proper modeling of the physical phenomena; (2) exact geometry and high quality grid generation techniques; (3) discretization schemes; and (4) turbulence modeling issues. The key parameters M and DR were varied from 1.0 to 2.0 and 1.5 to 2.0, respectively, to show their influence. Simulations were repeated for slot length-to-width ratio (L/s) of 3.0 and 4.5 in order to explain the effects of this important parameter. Additionally, the performance of two popular turbulence models, standard k-F, and RNG k-E, were studied to establish their ability to handle highly elliptic jet/crossflow interaction type processes.

  7. Geometry and starvation effects in hydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewe, D. E.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical methods were used to determine the effects of lubricant starvation on the minimum film thickness under conditions of a hydrodynamic point contact. Starvation was effected by varying the fluid inlet level. The Reynolds boundary conditions were applied at the cavitation boundary and zero pressure was stipulated at the meniscus or inlet boundary. A minimum-film-thickness equation as a function of both the ratio of dimensionless load to dimensionless speed and inlet supply level was determined. By comparing the film generated under the starved inlet condition with the film generated from the fully flooded inlet, an expression for the film reduction factor was obtained. Based on this factor a starvation threshold was defined as well as a critically starved inlet. The changes in the inlet pressure buildup due to changing the available lubricant supply are presented in the form of three dimensional isometric plots and also in the form of contour plots.

  8. Applied-field MPD thruster geometry effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.

    1991-01-01

    Eight MPD thruster configurations were used to study the effects of applied field strength, propellant, and facility pressure on thruster performance. Vacuum facility background pressures higher than approx. 0.12 Pa were found to greatly influence thruster performance and electrode power deposition. Thrust efficiency and specific impulse increased monotonically with increasing applied field strength. Both cathode and anode radii fundamentally influenced the efficiency specific impulse relationship, while their lengths influence only the magnitude of the applied magnetic field required to reach a given performance level. At a given specific impulse, large electrode radii result in lower efficiencies for the operating conditions studied. For all test conditions, anode power deposition was the largest efficiency loss, and represented between 50 and 80 pct. of the input power. The fraction of the input power deposited into the anode decreased with increasing applied field and anode radii. The highest performance measured, 20 pct. efficiency at 3700 seconds specific impulse, was obtained using hydrogen propellant.

  9. Effect of nanogroove geometry on adipogenic differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. S.; Kim, A. Y.; Jang, K. J.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. B.; Suh, K. Y.

    2011-12-01

    We present the effect of nanotopographically defined surfaces on adipocyte differentiation using various nanogroove patterns. Parallel nanogroove arrays with equal inter-groove distance (400, 550, 800 nm width) and varying distances (550 nm width with three different spacings of 550, 1100, and 2750 nm) were fabricated by UV-assisted capillary force lithography (CFL) on 18 mm diameter glass coverslips using biocompatible polyurethane (PU)-based material. After coating with fibronectin and subsequent culture of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, the degree of adipocyte differentiation was determined by Oil Red O staining and adipogenic gene expression. We observed that adipocyte differentiation was slightly but substantially affected by culture on various nanogrooved surfaces. In particular, the cell crawling into nanogrooves contributed substantially to an enhanced level of differentiation with higher contact guidance, suggesting that cell-to-surface interactions would play a role for the adipocyte differentiation.

  10. Spark Ignition: Effects of Fluid Dynamics and Electrode Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bane, Sally; Ziegler, Jack; Shepherd, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    The concept of minimum ignition energy (MIE) has traditionally formed the basis for studying ignition hazards of fuels, and standard test methods for determining the MIE use a capacitive spark discharge as the ignition source. Developing the numerical tools necessary to quantitatively predict ignition is a challenging research problem and remains primarily an experimental issue. In this work a two-dimensional model of spark discharge in air and spark ignition was developed using the non-reactive and reactive Navier-Stokes equations. The simulations were performed with three different electrode geometries to investigate the effect of the geometry on the fluid mechanics of the evolving spark kernel and on flame formation. The computational results were compared with high-speed schlieren visualization of spark and ignition kernels. It was found that the electrode geometry had a significant effect on the fluid motion following spark discharge and hence influences the ignition process and the required spark energy.

  11. Geometry and fluence effects on photorefractive polymer devices for holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynn, Brittany

    This work presents the recent advances in photorefractive polymers for use in updatable holographic displays. A model with which to predict the effect of coplanar electrode geometry on diffraction uniformity in photorefractive (PR) polymer display devices was developed. Assumptions made in the standard use cases with constant electric field throughout the bulk of the media are no longer valid in the regions of extreme electric fields present in this type of device. Using electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISHG) observed with multiphoton microscopy, the physical response in regions of internal electric fields which fall outside the standard regimes of validity were probed. Adjustments to the standard model were made, and the results of the new model were corroborated by holographic four-wave mixing measurements. The recent development of a single mode fiber-based pulsed laser with variable pulse length, energy, and repetition rate has enabled the characterization of photorefractive devices in a previously inaccessible regime located between millisecond and nanosecond pulse recording. A pulse width range of nine orders of magnitude opens the door to device and supporting laser optimization for use in video-rate holographic display. Device optimization has resulted in 5x improvement in single pulse four-wave mixing diffraction efficiencies to 10 - 11.5 % at pulse widths ranging between 6 ns and 100 mus. The grating recording time was likewise reduced by 5x to 16 ms at an applied bias of 72.5 V/mum. These improvements support 30 Hz update rates, which combined with the 3.3 - 10 kHz repetition rate pulsed laser, pave the way for real-time updatable holographic display.

  12. A dimensionless number describing the effects of recharge and geometry on discharge from simple karstic aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covington, M. D.; Wicks, C. M.; Saar, M. O.

    2009-11-01

    The responses of karstic aquifers to storms are often used to obtain information about aquifer geometry. In general, spring hydrographs are a function of both system geometry and recharge. However, the majority of prior work on storm pulses through karst has not studied the effect of recharge on spring hydrographs. To examine the relative importance of geometry and recharge, we break karstic aquifers into elements according to the manner of their response to transient flow and demonstrate that each element has a characteristic response timescale. These fundamental elements are full pipes, open channels, reservoir/constrictions, and the porous matrix. Taking the ratio of the element timescale with the recharge timescale produces a dimensionless number, γ, that is used to characterize aquifer response to a storm event. Using sets of simulations run with randomly selected element parameters, we demonstrate that each element type has a critical value of γ below which the shape of the spring hydrograph is dominated by the shape of the recharge hydrograph and above which the spring hydrograph is significantly modified by the system geometry. This allows separation of particular element/storm pairs into recharge-dominated and geometry-dominated regimes. While most real karstic aquifers are complex combinations of these elements, we draw examples from several karst systems that can be represented by single elements. These examples demonstrate that for real karstic aquifers full pipe and open channel elements are generally in the recharge-dominated regime, whereas reservoir/constriction elements can fall in either the recharge- or geometry-dominated regimes.

  13. The effects of solidification on sill propagation dynamics and geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lola, Chanceaux; Thierry, Menand

    2015-04-01

    The effects of solidification on sill propagation dynamics and geometry are studied by means of analogue laboratory experiments. Hot fluid vegetable oil (a magma analogue), that solidifies during its propagation, is injected as a sill in a colder layered gelatine solid (an elastic host rock analogue). The injection flux and temperature are maintained constant during an experiment. In order to vary the importance of solidification and quantify its effect on sill propagation, the injection flux and temperature are systematically varied between each experiment. Depending on the importance of solidification effects, two extreme behaviours for sill propagation dynamics and geometry are observed. When solidification effects are small (high injection temperatures and fluxes), the propagation is continuous and the sill has a regular and smooth surface. Inversely, when solidification effects are important (low injection temperatures and fluxes), sill propagation is discontinuous and occurs by steps. After each propagation step, the sill stalls, thickens progressively by storing hot fluid vegetable oil beneath the partially solidified intrusion, without growing neither in length nor in breadth, and after a pause, the propagation initiates again, soon followed by a new episode of momentary arrest. The geometry of these sills displays folds, ropy structures on their surface, and lobes with imprints of the leading fronts that correspond to each step of surface creation. These experiments show that for a given, constant injected volume, as solidification effects increase, the surface of the sills decreases, their thickness increases, and the number of propagation steps increases. In the same way lower solidification effects promote larger sill surfaces, lower thicknesses, and a lower number of propagation steps. These results have various geological and geophysical implications. Regarding the geometry of sills, 3D seismic studies in sedimentary basins reveal sills with lobate

  14. Effect of Dust Coagulation Dynamics on the Geometry of Aggregates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, R.

    1996-01-01

    Master equation gives a more fundamental description of stochastic coagulation processes rather than popular Smoluchowski's equation. In order to examine the effect of the dynamics on the geometry of resulting aggregates, we study Master equation with a rigorous Monte Carlo algorithm. It is found that Cluster-Cluster aggregation model is a good approximation of orderly growth and the aggregates have fluffy structures with a fractal dimension approx. 2. A scaling analysis of Smoluchowski's equation also supports this conclusion.

  15. Effect of Dust Coagulation Dynamics on the Geometry of Aggregates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, R.

    1996-01-01

    Master equation gives a more fundamental description of stochastic coagulation processes rather than popular Smoluchowski's equation. In order to examine the effect of the dynamics on the geometry of resulting aggregates, we study Master equation with a rigorous Monte Carlo algorithm. It is found that Cluster-Cluster aggregation model is a good approximation of orderly growth and the aggregates have fluffy structures with a fractal dimension approx. 2. A scaling analysis of Smoluchowski's equation also supports this conclusion.

  16. Particle Geometry and Its Effect on Optical Trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Rachael Victoria

    The ability to manipulate small particles with light has opened new avenues for synthesis and experimentation. Building upon expansive previous work in the theoretical study of light scattering, the forces which make optical manip- ulation of matter possible have been extensively studied both analytically and computationally. In this dissertation we will examine the forces on complex particle geometries, in the presence of a focused beam of light, using a two dimensional geometric optics simulation. We begin with a brief overview on the background of optical trapping as well as the theoretical approaches avail- able to model optical trapping forces both analytically and numerically. The results of our numerical geometric optics simulation are shown to be in exact agreement with a previously published, closed form, analytic solution for the optical forces on a solid homogeneous sphere in the geometric optics regime. 1 The trapping behavior of two dimensional circles with an inner cavity of varying size is then investigated. Generalized Lorenz-Mie theory is employed to calculate the force on the particle interacting with an unfocused beam. An infinite cylinder with an inner cavity size on the order of the wavelength of incident light and an unfocused beam, incident normal to the cylinder axis, are used. This result is compared to that found with our geometric optics simulation. We find that, for an inner cavity diameter an order of magnitude or smaller than the wavelength of the incident light, the geometric optics simulation underestimates this force. The same holds true for very large inner cavities, where the dielectric wall thickness is less than half the wavelength. For cavity sizes between these two extremes we find the geometric optics simulation overestimates the force in the direction of beam incidence, by as much as a factor of two. Finally the effect of breaking axial symmetry on the trapping behavior of a two dimensional planar shape is studied

  17. Pin Tool Geometry Effects in Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querin, J. A.; Rubisoff, H. A.; Schneider, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW) there is significant evidence that material can take one of two different flow paths when being displaced from its original position in front of the pin tool to its final position in the wake of the weld. The geometry of the pin tool, along with the process parameters, plays an important role in dictating the path that the material takes. Each flow path will impart a different thermomechanical history on the material, consequently altering the material microstructure and subsequent weld properties. The intention of this research is to isolate the effect that different pin tool attributes have on the flow paths imparted on the FSWed material. Based on published weld tool geometries, a variety of weld tools were fabricated and used to join AA2219. Results from the tensile properties and microstructural characterization will be presented.

  18. Effects of nanostructure geometry on nanoimprinted polymer photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Mielczarek, Kamil; Aryal, Mukti; Zakhidov, Anvar; Hu, Walter

    2014-07-07

    We demonstrate the effects of nanostructure geometry on the nanoimprint induced poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) chain alignment and the performance of nanoimprinted photovoltaic devices. Out-of-plane and in-plane grazing incident X-ray diffraction techniques are employed to characterize the nanoimprint induced chain alignment in P3HT nanogratings with different widths, spacings and heights. We observe the dependence of the crystallite orientation on nanostructure geometry such that a larger width of P3HT nanogratings leads to more edge-on chain alignment while the increase in height gives more vertical alignment. Consequently, P3HT/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric-acid-methyl-ester (PCBM) solar cells with the highest density and aspect ratio P3HT nanostructures show the highest power conversion efficiency among others, which is attributed to the efficient charge separation, transport and light absorption.

  19. Effect of curvature on cholesteric liquid crystals in toroidal geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fialho, Ana R.; Bernardino, Nelson R.; Silvestre, Nuno M.; Telo da Gama, Margarida M.

    2017-01-01

    The confinement of liquid crystals inside curved geometries leads to exotic structures, with applications ranging from biosensors to optical switches and privacy windows. Here we study how curvature affects the alignment of a cholesteric liquid crystal. We model the system on the mesoscale using the Landau-de Gennes model. Our study was performed in three stages, analyzing different curved geometries from cylindrical walls and pores, to toroidal domains, in order to isolate the curvature effects. Our results show that the stresses introduced by the curvature influence the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules, and cause distortions in the natural periodicity of the cholesteric that depend on the radius of curvature, on the pitch, and on the dimensions of the system. In particular, the cholesteric layers of toroidal droplets exhibit a symmetry breaking not seen in cylindrical pores and that is driven by the additional curvature.

  20. Effect of varying internal geometry on the static performance of rectangular thrust-reverser ports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Re, Richard J.; Mason, Mary L.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to evaluate the effects of several geometric parameters on the internal performance of rectangular thrust-reverser ports for nonaxisymmetric nozzles. Internal geometry was varied with a test apparatus which simulated a forward-flight nozzle with a single, fully deployed reverser port. The test apparatus was designed to simulate thrust reversal (conceptually) either in the convergent section of the nozzle or in the constant-area duct just upstream of the nozzle. The main geometric parameters investigated were port angle, port corner radius, port location, and internal flow blocker angle. For all reverser port geometries, the port opening had an aspect ratio (throat width to throat height) of 6.1 and had a constant passage area from the geometric port throat to the exit. Reverser-port internal performance and thrust-vector angles computed from force-balance measurements are presented.

  1. Luminescent tunable polydots: Charge effects in confined geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Maskey, Sabina; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2017-06-01

    Long-lived soft nanoparticles, formed by conjugated polymers, constitute a new class of far-from-equilibrium responsive structures for nano-medicine. Tethering ionizable groups to the polymers enables functionality. However concurrently, the ionic groups perturb the delicate balance of interactions that governs these particles. Using fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, this study probed the effects of charged groups tethered to poly para phenylene ethynylene substituted by alkyl groups on the polymer conformation and dynamics in confined geometry. We find that the ionizable groups affect the entire shape of the polydots and impact the conformation and dynamics of the polymer.

  2. Luminescent tunable polydots: Charge effects in confined geometry

    DOE PAGES

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Maskey, Sabina; Perahia, Dvora; ...

    2017-06-28

    Long-lived soft nanoparticles, formed by conjugated polymers, constitute a new class of far-from-equilibrium responsive structures for nano-medicine. Tethering ionizable groups to the polymers enables functionality. However concurrently, the ionic groups perturb the delicate balance of interactions that governs these particles. Using fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, this study probed the effects of charged groups tethered to poly para phenylene ethynylene substituted by alkyl groups on the polymer conformation and dynamics in confined geometry. As a result, we find that the ionizable groups affect the entire shape of the polydots and impact the conformation and dynamics of the polymer.

  3. Long GPS coordinate time series: multipath and geometry effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, M. A.; Watson, C. S.

    2009-04-01

    Within analyses of Global Positioning System (GPS) observations, unmodelled sub-daily signals are known to propagate into long-period signals via a number of different mechanisms. In this paper, we investigate the effects of time-variable satellite geometry and the propagation of an unmodelled multipath signal that is analogous to a change in the elevation dependant phase centre of the receiving antenna. Multipath reflectors at H=0.1 m, 0.2 m and 1.5 m below the antenna are modeled and their effects on GPS coordinate time series are examined. Simulated time series at 20 global IGS sites for 2000-2008 were derived using the satellite geometry as defined by daily broadcast orbits, in addition to that defined using a perfectly repeating synthetic orbit. For the simulations generated using the broadcast orbits with a perfectly clear horizon, we observe the introduction of a time variable bias in the time series of up to several centimeters. Considerable site to site variability of the frequency and magnitude of the signal is observed, in addition to variation as a function of multipath source. When adopting realistic GPS observation geometries obtained from real data (e.g., those that include the effects of tracking outages, local obstructions, etc.), we observe concerning levels of temporal coordinate variation in the presence of the multipath signals. In these cases, we observe spurious signals across the frequency domain, in addition to what appears as offsets and secular trends. Velocity biases of more than 1mm/yr are evident at some few sites. The propagated signal in the vertical component is consistent with a noise model with a spectral index marginally above flicker noise (mean index -1.4), with some sites exhibiting power law magnitudes at comparable levels to actual height time series generated in GIPSY. The propagated signal also shows clear spectral peaks across all coordinate components at harmonics of the draconitic year for a GPS satellite (351.4 days

  4. Long GPS coordinate time series: multipath and geometry effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, M.; Watson, C. S.

    2009-12-01

    Within analyses of Global Positioning System (GPS) observations, unmodelled sub-daily signals are known to propagate into long-period signals via a number of different mechanisms. We report on the effects of time-variable satellite geometry and the propagation of an unmodelled multipath signal. Multipath reflectors at H=0.1 m, 0.2 m and 1.5 m below the antenna are modeled and their effects on GPS coordinate time series are examined. Simulated time series at 20 global IGS sites for 2000-2008 were derived using the satellite geometry as defined by daily broadcast orbits, in addition to that defined using a perfectly repeating synthetic orbit. For the simulations generated using the broadcast orbits with a perfectly clear horizon, we observe the introduction of a time variable bias in the time series of up to several centimeters. Considerable site to site variability of the frequency and magnitude of the signal is observed, in addition to variation as a function of multipath source. When adopting realistic GPS observation geometries obtained from real data (e.g., those that include the effects of tracking outages, local obstructions, etc.), we observe concerning levels of temporal coordinate variation in the presence of the multipath signals. In these cases, we observe spurious signals across the frequency domain, in addition to what appears as offsets and secular trends. Velocity biases of more than 1mm/yr are evident at some few sites. The propagated signal in the vertical component is consistent with a noise model with a spectral index marginally above flicker noise (mean index -1.4), with some sites exhibiting power law magnitudes at comparable levels to actual height time series generated in GIPSY. The propagated signal also shows clear spectral peaks across all coordinate components at harmonics of the draconitic year for a GPS satellite (351.2 days). When a perfectly repeating synthetic GPS constellation is used, the simulations show near-negligible power law

  5. Effects of Measurement Geometry on Spectral Reflectance and Color

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    calibration of outdoor color imagery were made using integrating sphere and 45°/0° geometry. The differing results are discussed using CIELAB linear... CIELAB color coordinate results were obtained for different measurement geometries. Such results should affect the digital photographic measurements...measurement geometry on spectral reflectance and CIELAB values using integrating sphere and 45°/0° measurement geometries. An example of the phenomenology

  6. Symmetric airfoil geometry effects on leading edge noise.

    PubMed

    Gill, James; Zhang, X; Joseph, P

    2013-10-01

    Computational aeroacoustic methods are applied to the modeling of noise due to interactions between gusts and the leading edge of real symmetric airfoils. Single frequency harmonic gusts are interacted with various airfoil geometries at zero angle of attack. The effects of airfoil thickness and leading edge radius on noise are investigated systematically and independently for the first time, at higher frequencies than previously used in computational methods. Increases in both leading edge radius and thickness are found to reduce the predicted noise. This noise reduction effect becomes greater with increasing frequency and Mach number. The dominant noise reduction mechanism for airfoils with real geometry is found to be related to the leading edge stagnation region. It is shown that accurate leading edge noise predictions can be made when assuming an inviscid meanflow, but that it is not valid to assume a uniform meanflow. Analytic flat plate predictions are found to over-predict the noise due to a NACA 0002 airfoil by up to 3 dB at high frequencies. The accuracy of analytic flat plate solutions can be expected to decrease with increasing airfoil thickness, leading edge radius, gust frequency, and Mach number.

  7. Status of geometry effects on structural nuclear composite properties

    SciTech Connect

    Will Windes; Y. Katoh; L.L. Snead; E. Lara-Curzio; C. Henagar, Jr.

    2005-09-01

    structural ceramic composites being considered for control rod applications within the VHTR design. While standard sized (i.e. 150-mm long or longer) test specimens can be used for baseline non-irradiated thermal creep studies, very small, compact, tensile specimens will be required for the irradiated creep studies. Traditionally, it is standard practice to use small, representative test samples in place of full-size components for an irradiated study. However, a real problem exists for scale-up of composite materials. Unlike monolithic materials, these composites are engineered from two distinct materials using complicated infiltration techniques to provide full density and maximum mechanical properties. The material properties may be significantly affected when the component geometry or size is changed. It must be demonstrated that the smaller test samples used in an irradiated study will adequately represent larger composite tubes used for control rod applications. To accomplish this, two different test programs are being implemented to establish that small, flat test specimens are representative of the mechanical response for large, cylindrical composite tubes: a size effect study and a geometry effect study.

  8. Study of the geometry effect on land surface temperature retrieval in urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinxin; Wong, Man Sing; Menenti, Massimo; Nichol, Janet

    2015-11-01

    This study presents a Single Channel Method using Urban Exitance Model (UEM-SCM) to retrieve land surface temperature (LST) from satellite data in an urbanized city, and evaluates the geometry effect on land surface temperature retrieval using single channel method and split-window algorithm. The UEM-SCM incorporates the effect of urban geometry and considers both reflection caused by the target pixel and its neighboring pixels. In order to evaluate the geometry effect, the retrieved LSTs with and without geometry effect were studied. Results show that the LSTs without geometry effect are generally higher than the LSTs with geometry effect. The temperature difference occurs because the material emissivity is always lower than the effective emissivity caused by multiple scattering and reflection in urban areas (cavity effect). The LST without geometry effect also cannot fully capture the variability and complexity of urban thermal patterns. The temperature difference between with and without the geometry effect can reach 2 K in built-up areas. A comparison was also conducted between LST retrieved by split-window algorithm with and without geometry effect. Results show that the LST retrieved by split-window algorithm without geometry effect has generally higher values than the one with the geometry effect, e.g. 1.1 K on average and 1.5-2 K in built-up areas. The geometry effect will be removed and mis-deemed as atmospheric effect when the split-window algorithm without geometry effect is applied in urban areas. The split-window algorithm with the geometry effect can be used to distinguish between geometry and atmospheric effect in further study.

  9. Effects of parent vessel geometry on intraaneurysmal flow patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Marcelo A.; Putman, Christopher M.; Cebral, Juan R.

    2006-03-01

    This study shows the influence of the upstream parent artery geometry on intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics of cerebral aneurysms. Patient-specific models of four cerebral aneurysms at four typical locations were constructed from 3D rotational angiography images. Two geometrical models were constructed for each patient, one with the native parent vessel geometry and another with the parent vessel truncated approximately 1cm upstream from the aneurysm. For one aneurysm, two images were used to construct a model as realistic and large as possible - down to the carotid bifurcation - which was cut at seven different locations. Corresponding finite element grids were generated and computational fluid dynamics simulations were carried out under pulsatile flow conditions. It was found that truncated models tended to underestimate the wall shear stress in the aneurysm and to shift the impaction zone to the neck when compared with the native geometry. In one aneurysm the parent vessel included a tortuous segment close to the neck that strongly influenced the flow pattern entering the aneurysm. Thus, including longer portions of the parent vessel beyond this segment did not have a substantial effect. Depending on the dominant geometrical features the length of the parent artery needed for an accurate representation of the intraaneurysmal hemodynamics may vary among individuals. In conclusion, failure to properly model the inflow stream determined by the upstream parent artery can significantly influence the results of intra-aneurysmal hemodynamic models. The upstream portion of the parent vessel of cerebral aneurysms should be included in order to accurately represent the intraaneurysmal hemodynamics.

  10. Open carbon frameworks - a search for optimal geometry for hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Bogdan; Firlej, Lucyna; Mohammadhosseini, Ali; Beckner, Matthew; Romanos, Jimmy; Pfeifer, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Properties of a new class of hypothetical high-surface-area porous carbons (open carbon frameworks) have been discussed. The limits of hydrogen adsorption in these carbon porous structures have been analyzed in terms of competition between increasing surface accessible for adsorption and the lowering energy of adsorption. From an analysis of an analytical model and simulations of adsorption the physical limits of hydrogen adsorption have been defined: (i) higher storage capacities in slit-shaped pores can be obtained by fragmentation/truncation of graphene sheets into nano-metric elements which creates surface areas in excess of 2600 m(2)/g, the surface area for infinite graphene sheets; (ii) the positive influence of increasing surface area is compensated by the decreasing energy of adsorption in the carbon scaffolds of nano-metric sizes; (iii) for open carbon frameworks (OCF) built from coronene and benzene molecules with surface areas 6500 m(2) g(-1), we find an impressive excess adsorption of 75-110 g H2/kg C at 77 K, and high storage capacity of 110-150 g H2/kg C at 77 K and 100 bar; (iv) the new OCF, if synthesized and optimized, could lead to required hydrogen storage capacity for mobile applications.

  11. Effects of Hole Length, Supply Plenum Geometry, and Freestream Turbulence on Film Cooling Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burd, Steven W.; Simon, Terrence W.; Thurman, Douglas (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Experimental measurements are presented in this report to document the sensitivity of film cooling performance to the hole length and coolant delivery plenum geometry. Measurements with hot-wire anemometry detail velocity, local turbulence, and spectral distributions over the exit plane of film cooling holes and downstream of injection in the coolant-freestream interaction zone. Measurements of discharge coefficients and adiabatic effectiveness are also provided. Coolant is supplied to the film cooling holes by means of a large, open plenum and through plenums which force the coolant to approach the holes either co-current or counter-current to the freestream. A single row of film cooling holes with 35 degree-inclined streamwise at two coolant-to-freestream velocity ratios, 0.5 and 1.0, is investigated. The coolant-to-freestream density ratio is maintained in the range 0.96 to 1.0. Measurements were taken under high-freestream (FSTI = 12%) and low-freestream turbulence intensity (FSTI = 0.5%) conditions. The results document the effects of the hole L/D, coolant supply plenum geometry, velocity ratio, and FSTI. In general, hole L/D and the supply plenum geometry play influential roles in the film cooling performance. Hole L/D effects, however, are more pronounced. Film cooling performance is also dependent upon the velocity ratio and FSTI.

  12. Update on single-screw expander geometry model integrated into an open-source simulation tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziviani, D.; Bell, I. H.; De Paepe, M.; van den Broek, M.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a mechanistic steady-state model of a single-screw expander is described with emphasis on the geometric description. Insights into the calculation of the main parameters and the definition of the groove profile are provided. Additionally, the adopted chamber model is discussed. The model has been implemented by means of the open-source software PDSim (Positive Displacement SIMulation), written in the Python language, and the solution algorithm is described. The single-screw expander model is validated with a set of steady-state measurement points collected from a 11 kWe organic Rankine cycle test-rig with SES36 and R245fa as working fluid. The overall performance and behavior of the expander are also further analyzed.

  13. Effect of specimen geometry on tensile strength of cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Feng, Liang; Jasiuk, Iwona

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the effect of specimen geometry on the ultimate tensile strength of cortical bone measured by a tensile test. This article is motivated by the fact that there is no clear consensus in the literature on a suitable specimen shape for cortical bone testing. We consider three commonly used tensile test specimen shapes: strip, dumbbell with sharp junctions, and dumbbell with rounded junctions. We conduct this study computationally, using a finite element method, and experimentally by testing porcine femurs. Our results show that local stress concentration factors in the specimen lead to reduced values in the measured tensile strength. The higher the stress concentrations are, the lower is the measured strength. We find that the strip specimens are not a good choice due to high stress concentrations. For the same reason, dumbbell specimens with sharp junctions between the grip and gage sections should also be avoided. The dumbbell shaped tensile test specimens with an arc transition and a maximized radius of fillet are a better choice because such geometry lowers stress concentrations.

  14. The Effects of Accretion Disk Geometry on AGN Reflection Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Corbin James; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2017-08-01

    Despite being the gravitational engines that power galactic-scale winds and mega parsec-scale jets in active galaxies, black holes are remarkably simple objects, typically being fully described by their angular momenta (spin) and masses. The modelling of AGN X-ray reflection spectra has proven fruitful in estimating the spin of AGN, as well as giving insight into their accretion histories and the properties of plasmas in the strong gravity regime. However, current models make simplifying assumptions about the geometry of the reflecting material in the accretion disk and the irradiating X-ray corona, approximating the disk as an optically thick, infinitely thin disk of material in the orbital plane. We present results from the new relativistic raytracing suite, Fenrir, that explore the effects that disk thickness may have on the reflection spectrum and the accompanying reverberation signatures. Approximating the accretion disk as an optically thick, geometrically thin, radiation pressure dominated disk (Shakura & Sunyaev 1973), one finds that the disk geometry is non-negligible in many cases, with significant changes in the broad Fe K line profile. Finally, we explore the systematic errors inherent in approximating the disk as being infinitely thin when modeling reflection spectrum, potentially biasing determinations of black hole and corona properties.

  15. Weld geometry strength effect in 2219-T87 aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Novak, H. L.; Mcilwain, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    A theory of the effect of geometry on the mechanical properties of a butt weld joint is worked out based upon the soft interlayer weld model. Tensile tests of 45 TIG butt welds and 6 EB beads-on-plate in 1/4-in. 2219-T87 aluminum plate made under a wide range of heat sink and power input conditions are analyzed using this theory. The analysis indicates that purely geometrical effects dominate in determining variations in weld joint strength with heat sink and power input. Variations in weld dimensions with cooling rate are significant as well as with power input. Weld size is suggested as a better indicator of the condition of a weld joint than energy input.

  16. Effects of forebody geometry on subsonic boundary-layer stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodbele, Simha S.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an effort to develop computational techniques for design of natural laminar flow fuselages, a computational study was made of the effect of forebody geometry on laminar boundary layer stability on axisymmetric body shapes. The effects of nose radius on the stability of the incompressible laminar boundary layer was computationally investigated using linear stability theory for body length Reynolds numbers representative of small and medium-sized airplanes. The steepness of the pressure gradient and the value of the minimum pressure (both functions of fineness ratio) govern the stability of laminar flow possible on an axisymmetric body at a given Reynolds number. It was found that to keep the laminar boundary layer stable for extended lengths, it is important to have a small nose radius. However, nose shapes with extremely small nose radii produce large pressure peaks at off-design angles of attack and can produce vortices which would adversely affect transition.

  17. Effects of Visual Working Memory Training and Direct Instruction on Geometry Problem Solving in Students with Geometry Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dake

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of (a) a working memory (WM) training program and (b) a combination program involving both WM training and direct instruction for students with geometry difficulties (GD). Four students with GD participated. A multiple-baseline design across participants was employed. During the Phase 1, students received six sessions…

  18. An Interactive Geometry Program and Its Effect on Elementary Students' Achievement and Understanding of Geometry: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMarinis, Matthew David

    2011-01-01

    While many studies examining the effectiveness of using dynamic geometry software exist, few studies exist at the elementary school level. An extensive data analysis of student performance on New York State Math Assessments revealed that students in the fifth grade may not have had a clear understanding of interior angles sums of polygons, more…

  19. An Interactive Geometry Program and Its Effect on Elementary Students' Achievement and Understanding of Geometry: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMarinis, Matthew David

    2011-01-01

    While many studies examining the effectiveness of using dynamic geometry software exist, few studies exist at the elementary school level. An extensive data analysis of student performance on New York State Math Assessments revealed that students in the fifth grade may not have had a clear understanding of interior angles sums of polygons, more…

  20. Effects of gauge theory based number scaling on geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benioff, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Effects of local availability of mathematics (LAM) and space time dependent number scaling on physics and, especially, geometry are described. LAM assumes separate mathematical systems as structures at each space time point. Extension of gauge theories to include freedom of choice of scaling for number structures, and other structures based on numbers, results in a space time dependent scaling factor based on a scalar boson field. Scaling has no effect on comparison of experimental results with one another or with theory computations. With LAM all theory expressions are elements of mathematics at some reference point. Changing the reference point introduces (external) scaling. Theory expressions with integrals or derivatives over space or time include scaling factors (internal scaling) that cannot be removed by reference point change. Line elements and path lengths, as integrals over space and/or time, show the effect of scaling on geometry. In one example, the scaling factor goes to 0 as the time goes to 0, the big bang time. All path lengths, and values of physical quantities, are crushed to 0 as t goes to 0. Other examples have spherically symmetric scaling factors about some point, x. In one type, a black scaling hole, the scaling factor goes to infinity as the distance, d, between any point y and x goes to 0. For scaling white holes, the scaling factor goes to 0 as d goes to 0. For black scaling holes, path lengths from a reference point, z, to y become infinite as y approaches x. For white holes, path lengths approach a value much less than the unscaled distance from z to x.

  1. Effects of electrode geometry on transient plasma induced ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, B.; Gururajan, V.; Eisazadeh-Far, K.; Windom, B.; Singleton, D.; Gundersen, M. A.; Egolfopoulos, F. N.

    2013-05-01

    Achieving effective ignition of reacting mixtures using nanosecond pulsed discharge non-equilibrium transient plasma (TP), requires that the effects of several experimental parameters be quantified and understood. Among them are the electrode geometry, the discharge location especially in non-premixed systems, and the relative ignition performance by spark and TP under the same experimental conditions. In the present investigation, such issues were addressed experimentally using a cylindrical constant volume combustion chamber and a counterflow flame configuration coupled with optical shadowgraph that enables observation of how and where the ignition process starts. Results were obtained under atmospheric pressure and showed that the electrode geometry has a notable influence on ignition, with the needle-to-semicircle exhibiting the best ignition performance. Furthermore, it was determined that under non-premixed conditions discharging TP in the reactants mixing layer was most effective in achieving ignition. It was also determined that in the cases considered, the TP induced ignition initiates from the needle head where the electric field and electron densities are the highest. In the case of a spark, however, ignition was found to initiate always from the hot region between the two electrodes. Comparison of spark and TP discharges in only air (i.e. without fuel) and ignition phenomena induced by them also suggest that in the case of TP ignition is at least partly non-thermal and instead driven by the production of active species. Finally, it was determined that single pulsed TP discharges are sufficient to ignite both premixed and non-premixed flames of a variety of fuels ranging from hydrogen to heavy fuels including F-76 diesel and IFO380 bunker fuel even at room temperature.

  2. Solvent effect on columnar formation in solar-cell geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Sosa-Vargas, L.; Takanishi, Y.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, Y. S.; Park, Y. W.; Yamamoto, J.; Labardi, M.; Lagerwall, J. P. F.; Shimizu, Y.; Scalia, G.

    2016-03-01

    The efficiency of the conduction of photocurrent in discotic liquid crystals is known to depend on the quality of the columnar organization. Solvents have shown to be able to influence the formation of wire structures on substrates promoting very long and ordered wired formations or bulkier structures depending on the affinity of the solvent with parts of the molecular structure of discotics. Here we present a study on the effect of solvents when the liquid crystal is confined between two substrates with the columns running perpendicular to them, geometry used in solar cells. We focused on toluene and dodecane, solvents that have shown to promote on substrates the formation of aligned and long nanowires and bulk large and isolated fibers, respectively. The phase transition behavior indicates that toluene does not interfere with the columnar formation while dodecane strongly influence increasing the disorder in the structure.

  3. The Effect of Geometry on Fatigue Life for Bellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinbong

    A bellows is a component installed in the automobile exhaust system to reduce or prevent the impact from engine. Generally, the specifications on the bellows are determined in the system design process of exhaust system and the component design is carried out to meet the specifications such as stiffness. Consideration of fatigue is generally an important aspect of design on metallic bellows expansion joints. These components are subject to displacement loading which frequently results in cyclic strains. This study has been investigated to analyze the effect of geometry on fatigue life for automotive bellows. 8 node shell element and non-linear method is employed for the analysis. The optimized shapes of the bellows are expected to give good guidelines to the practical designs.

  4. Investigation of the Influence of Tool Geometry on Effective Strain Distribution in Full Forward Extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merklein, Marion; Ndzomssi, Franck; Engel, Ulf

    2011-05-01

    Due to strain hardening of the material, the hardness of cold forged parts is considerably improved. It is well known that the hardness of cold forged parts is closely related to its deformation, and that this relation is not dependent on the deformation process. The effective strain defines the local deformation, and can be determined in simulation of the cold forming process. In order to reach the required or to set specific hardness distribution with cold forging without any heat treatment processes, it is necessary to find out which manufacturing parameters influence the effective strain, and determine the effects of these parameters. The research work covered in this paper investigates the influence of the die geometry (as manufacturing parameter) on the effective strain. For that, a full forward extrusion process was modeled using the FE-software Simufact. Forming and three parameters of the die geometry, namely the deformation ratio, the shoulder radius and the opening angle were varied. The maximum effective strain from each combination is determined, and the effects of each considered parameter as well as the effects of interactions between these factors are checked.

  5. The Effects of Using Dynamic Geometry on Eighth Grade Students' Achievement and Attitude towards Triangles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Halime Samur; Akyuz, Didem

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of dynamic geometry based computer instruction on eighth grade students' achievement in geometry and their attitudes toward geometry and technology compared to traditional instruction. Central to the study was a controlled experiment, which contained experimental and control groups both instructed by the same…

  6. The Effects of Using Dynamic Geometry on Eighth Grade Students' Achievement and Attitude towards Triangles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Halime Samur; Akyuz, Didem

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of dynamic geometry based computer instruction on eighth grade students' achievement in geometry and their attitudes toward geometry and technology compared to traditional instruction. Central to the study was a controlled experiment, which contained experimental and control groups both instructed by the same…

  7. Neoclassical viscosity effects on resistive magnetohydrodynamic modes in toroidal geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.G.; Oh, Y.H.; Choi, D.I. ); Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W. )

    1992-03-01

    The flux-surface-averaged linearized resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary-layer equations including the compressibility, diamagnetic drift, and neoclassical viscosity terms are derived in toroidal geometry. These equations describe the resistive layer dynamics of resistive MHD modes over the collisionality regime between the banana plateau and the Pfirsch--Schlueter. From the resulting equations, the effects of neoclassical viscosity on the stability of the tearing and resistive ballooning modes are investigated numerically. Also, a study is given for the problem of how the neoclassical resistive MHD mode is generated as the collisionality is reduced. It is shown that the neoclassical viscosity terms give a significant destabilizing effect for the tearing and resistive ballooning modes. This destabilization comes mainly from the reduction of the stabilizing effect of the parallel ion sound compression by the ion neoclassical viscosity. In the banana-plateau collisionality limit, where the compressibility is negligible, the dispersion relations of the tearing and resistive ballooning modes reduce to the same form, with the threshold value of the driving force given by {Delta}{sub {ital c}}=0. On the other hand, with the finite neoclassical effect it is found that the neoclassical resistive MHD instability is generated in agreement with previous results. Furthermore, it is shown that this later instability can be generated in a wide range of the collisionality including near the Pfirsch--Schlueter regime as well as the banana-plateau regime, suggesting that this mode is a probable cause of anomalous transport.

  8. Effects of Geometry on Turbulent Rayleigh-Benard Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hao

    A systematic study of turbulent thermal convection is carried out in horizontal cylindrical cells of different lengths filled with water. The aim of the thesis work is to study the geometry effect on the fluid dynamics of the large-scale circulation (LSC) and the scaling laws in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection. The results obtained in the horizontal cylinders are compared with those obtained in the upright cylinders. The large-scale flow shows interesting new dynamics in the horizontal cylindrical cells. Four different flow modes are found in the cells with varying aspect ratio Gamma: two-dimensional rotation (2DR), small-Gamma diagonal switching (SDS), large-Gamma diagonal switching (LDS) and periodic reversals (PR). In the 2DR phase (Gamma ≤ 0.16), the flow is quasi-two-dimensional and is confined in the circular plane of the horizontal cylinder. In this phase, a well-defined in-plane oscillation of LSC is observed, resulting from the periodical eruption of thermal plumes from the top and bottom thermal boundary layers. In the SDS phase (0.16 < Gamma < 0.82), the rotation plane of LSC switches periodically between the two diagonals of the cell, spanning across the curved sidewalls. The switching period is found to be equal to the LSC turnover time. In the LDS phase (0.82 ≤ Gamma ≤ 1.69), the periodic switching of the LSC orientation still remains, but the switching is now spanning across the flat end walls of the cell. The switching period has a large jump at the transition aspect ratio Gammac = 0.82 and then exponentially decays with increasing Gamma. For even larger aspect ratios (1.30 ≤ Gamma ≤ 1.69), the bulk fluid as a whole rotates around the central axis of the horizontal cylinder with periodic reversals. The reversal period is found to change linearly with the length of the cell. The scaling laws of turbulent convection are also investigated in the horizontal cylinders. The scaling behavior of the measured Nusselt number (total heat flux

  9. Electrically heated tube investigation of cooling channel geometry effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael L.

    1995-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation on the combined effects of cooling channel aspect ratio and curvature for rocket engines are presented. Symmetrically heated tubes with average heat fluxes up to 1.7 MW/m(exp 2) were used. The coolant was gaseous nitrogen at an inlet temperature of 280 K (500 R) and inlet pressures up to 1.0 x 10(exp 7) N/m(exp 2) (1500 psia). Two different tube geometries were tested: a straight, circular cross-section tube, and an aspect-ratio 10 cross-section tube with a 45 deg bend. The circular tube results are compared to classical models from the literature as validation of the system. The curvature effect data from the curved aspect-ratio 10 tube compare favorably to the empirical equations available in the literature for low aspect ratio tubes. This latter results suggest that thermal stratification of the coolant due to diminished curvature effect mixing may not be an issue for high aspect-ratio cooling channels.

  10. Quantifying the combined effects of multiple extreme floods on river channel geometry and on flood hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Mingfu; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Wright, Nigel G.; Sleigh, P. Andy; Staines, Kate E. H.

    2016-07-01

    Effects of flood-induced bed elevation and channel geometry changes on flood hazards are largely unexplored, especially in the case of multiple floods from the same site. This study quantified the evolution of river channel and floodplain geometry during a repeated series of hypothetical extreme floods using a 2D full hydro-morphodynamic model (LHMM). These experiments were designed to examine the consequences of channel geometry changes on channel conveyance capacity and subsequent flood dynamics. Our results revealed that extreme floods play an important role in adjusting a river channel to become more efficient for subsequent propagation of floods, and that in-channel scour and sediment re-distribution can greatly improve the conveyance capacity of a channel for subsequent floods. In our hypothetical sequence of floods the response of bed elevation was of net degradation, and sediment transport successively weakened even with floods of the same magnitude. Changes in river channel geometry led to significant impact on flood hydraulics and thereby flood hazards. We found that flood-induced in-channel erosion can disconnect the channel from its floodplain resulting in a reduction of floodwater storage. Thus, the frequency and extent of subsequent overbank flows and floodplain inundation decreased, which reduced downstream flood attenuation and increased downstream flood hazard. In combination and in summary, these results suggest that changes in channel capacity due to extreme floods may drive changes in flood hazard. The assumption of unchanging of river morphology during inundation modelling should therefore be open to question for flood risk management.

  11. The effect of geometry on three-dimensional tissue growth

    PubMed Central

    Rumpler, Monika; Woesz, Alexander; Dunlop, John W.C; van Dongen, Joost T; Fratzl, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Tissue formation is determined by uncountable biochemical signals between cells; in addition, physical parameters have been shown to exhibit significant effects on the level of the single cell. Beyond the cell, however, there is still no quantitative understanding of how geometry affects tissue growth, which is of much significance for bone healing and tissue engineering. In this paper, it is shown that the local growth rate of tissue formed by osteoblasts is strongly influenced by the geometrical features of channels in an artificial three-dimensional matrix. Curvature-driven effects and mechanical forces within the tissue may explain the growth patterns as demonstrated by numerical simulation and confocal laser scanning microscopy. This implies that cells within the tissue surface are able to sense and react to radii of curvature much larger than the size of the cells themselves. This has important implications towards the understanding of bone remodelling and defect healing as well as towards scaffold design in bone tissue engineering. PMID:18348957

  12. Effect of fjord geometry on tidewater glacier stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åkesson, Henning; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Nick, Faezeh M.

    2016-04-01

    Many marine-terminating glaciers have thinned, accelerated and retreated during the last two decades, broadly consistent with warmer atmospheric and oceanic conditions. However, these patterns involve considerable spatial and temporal variability, with diverse glacier behavior within the same regions. Similarly, reconstructions of marine-terminating glaciers indicate highly asynchronous retreat histories. While it is well known that retrograde slopes can cause marine ice sheet instabilities, the effect of lateral drag and fjord width has received less attention. Here, we test the hypothesis that marine outlet glacier stability is largely controlled by fjord width, and to a less extent by regional climate forcing. We employ a dynamic flowline model on idealized glacier geometries (representative of different outlet glaciers) to investigate geometric controls on decadal and longer times scales. The model accounts for driving and resistive stresses of glacier flow as well as along-flow stress transfer. It has a physical treatment of iceberg calving and a time-adaptive grid allowing for continuous tracking of grounding-line migration. We apply changes in atmospheric and oceanic forcing and show how wide and narrow fjord sections foster glacier (in)stabilities. We also evaluate the effect of including a surface mass balance - elevation feedback in such a setting. Finally, the relevance of these results to past and future marine-terminating glacier stability is discussed.

  13. Schwinger effect and entanglement entropy in confining geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodrati, Mahdis

    2015-09-01

    By using AdS /CFT , we study the critical electric field, the Schwinger pair creation rate and the potential phase diagram for the quark and antiquark in four confining supergravity backgrounds which are the Witten QCD (WQCD), the Maldacena-Nunez (MN), the Klebanov-Tseytlin (KT) and the Klebanov-Strassler (KS) models. We compare the rate of phase transition in these models and compare it also with the conformal case. We then present the phase diagrams of the entanglement entropy of a strip in these geometries and find the predicted butterfly shape in the diagrams. We found that the phase transitions have a higher rate in WQCD and KT relative to MN and KS. Finally we show the effect of turning on an additional magnetic field on the rate of pair creation by using the imaginary part of the Euler-Heisenberg effective Lagrangian. The result is increasing the parallel magnetic field would increase the pair creation rate and increasing the perpendicular magnetic field would decrease the rate.

  14. Signatures of lattice geometry in quantum and topological Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göbel, Börge; Mook, Alexander; Henk, Jürgen; Mertig, Ingrid

    2017-06-01

    The topological Hall effect (THE) of electrons in skyrmion crystals (SkXs) is strongly related to the quantum Hall effect (QHE) on lattices. This relation suggests to revisit the QHE because its Hall conductivity can be unconventionally quantized. It exhibits a jump and changes sign abruptly if the Fermi level crosses a van Hove singularity. In this Paper, we investigate the unconventional QHE features by discussing band structures, Hall conductivities, and topological edge states for square and triangular lattices; their origin are Chern numbers of bands in the SkX (THE) or of the corresponding Landau levels (QHE). Striking features in the energy dependence of the Hall conductivities are traced back to the band structure without magnetic field whose properties are dictated by the lattice geometry. Based on these findings, we derive an approximation that allows us to determine the energy dependence of the topological Hall conductivity on any two-dimensional lattice. The validity of this approximation is proven for the honeycomb lattice. We conclude that SkXs lend themselves for experiments to validate our findings for the THE and—indirectly—the QHE.

  15. The effect of acute mechanical left ventricular unloading on ovine tricuspid annular size and geometry.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Marcin; Wilton, Penny; Khaghani, Asghar; Brown, Michael; Langholz, David; Hooker, Victoria; Eberhart, Lenora; Hooker, Robert L; Timek, Tomasz A

    2016-09-01

    Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation may alter right ventricular shape and function and lead to tricuspid regurgitation. This in turn has been reported to be a determinant of right ventricular (RV) failure after LVAD implantation, but the effect of mechanical left ventricular (LV) unloading on the tricuspid annulus is unknown. The aim of the study was to provide insight into the effect of LVAD support on tricuspid annular geometry and dynamics that may help to optimize LV unloading with the least deleterious effect on the right-sided geometry. In seven open-chest anaesthetized sheep, nine sonomicrometry crystals were implanted on the right ventricle. Additional nine crystals were implanted around the tricuspid annulus, with one crystal at each commissure defining three separate annular regions: anterior, posterior and septal. Left ventricular unloading was achieved by connecting a cannula in the left atrium and the aorta to a continuous-flow pump. The pump was used for 15 min at a full flow of 3.8 ± 0.3 l/min. Epicardial echocardiography was used to assess the degree of tricuspid insufficiency. Haemodynamic, echocardiographic and sonomicrometry data were collected before and during full unloading. Tricuspid annular area, and the regional and total perimeter were calculated from crystal coordinates, while 3D annular geometry was expressed as the orthogonal distance of each annular crystal to the least squares plane of all annular crystals. There was no significant tricuspid regurgitation observed either before or during LV unloading. Right ventricular free wall to septum diameter increased significantly at end-diastole during unloading from 23.6 ± 5.8 to 26.3 ± 6.5 mm (P = 0.009), but the right ventricular volume, tricuspid annular area and total perimeter did not change from baseline. However, the septal part of the annulus significantly decreased its maximal length (38.6 ± 8.1 to 37.9 ± 8.2 mm, P = 0.03). Annular contraction was not altered. The

  16. Effects of spaceflight on rat humerus geometry, biomechanics, and biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vailas, A. C.; Zernicke, R. F.; Grindeland, R. E.; Kaplansky, A.; Durnova, G. N.; Li, K. C.; Martinez, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of a 12.5-day spaceflight (Cosmos 1887 biosatellite) on the geometric, biomechanical, and biochemical characteristics of humeri of male specific pathogen-free rats were examined. Humeri of age-matched basal control, synchronous control, and vivarium control rats were contrasted with the flight bones to examine the influence of growth and space environment on bone development. Lack of humerus longitudinal growth occurred during the 12.5 days in spaceflight. In addition, the normal mid-diaphysial periosteal appositional growth was affected; compared with their controls, the spaceflight humeri had less cortical cross-sectional area, smaller periosteal circumferences, smaller anterior-posterior periosteal diameters, and smaller second moments of area with respect to the bending and nonbending axes. The flexural rigidity of the flight humeri was comparable to that of the younger basal control rats and significantly less than that of the synchronous and vivarium controls; the elastic moduli of all four groups, nonetheless, were not significantly different. Generally, the matrix biochemistry of the mid-diaphysial cross sections showed no differences among groups. Thus, the spaceflight differences in humeral mechanical strength and flexural rigidity were probably a result of the differences in humeral geometry rather than material properties.

  17. Effects of spaceflight on rat humerus geometry, biomechanics, and biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vailas, A. C.; Zernicke, R. F.; Grindeland, R. E.; Kaplansky, A.; Durnova, G. N.; Li, K. C.; Martinez, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of a 12.5-day spaceflight (Cosmos 1887 biosatellite) on the geometric, biomechanical, and biochemical characteristics of humeri of male specific pathogen-free rats were examined. Humeri of age-matched basal control, synchronous control, and vivarium control rats were contrasted with the flight bones to examine the influence of growth and space environment on bone development. Lack of humerus longitudinal growth occurred during the 12.5 days in spaceflight. In addition, the normal mid-diaphysial periosteal appositional growth was affected; compared with their controls, the spaceflight humeri had less cortical cross-sectional area, smaller periosteal circumferences, smaller anterior-posterior periosteal diameters, and smaller second moments of area with respect to the bending and nonbending axes. The flexural rigidity of the flight humeri was comparable to that of the younger basal control rats and significantly less than that of the synchronous and vivarium controls; the elastic moduli of all four groups, nonetheless, were not significantly different. Generally, the matrix biochemistry of the mid-diaphysial cross sections showed no differences among groups. Thus, the spaceflight differences in humeral mechanical strength and flexural rigidity were probably a result of the differences in humeral geometry rather than material properties.

  18. Geometry and cooperativity effects in adenosine-carboxylic acid complexes.

    PubMed

    Schlund, Sebastian; Mladenovic, Milena; Basílio Janke, Eline M; Engels, Bernd; Weisz, Klaus

    2005-11-23

    NMR experiments and theoretical investigations were performed on hydrogen bonded complexes of specifically 1- and 7-15N-labeled adenine nucleosides with carboxylic acids. By employing a freonic solvent of CDClF2 and CDF3, NMR spectra were acquired at temperatures as low as 123 K, where the regime of slow hydrogen bond exchange is reached and several higher-order complexes were found to coexist in solution. Unlike acetic acid, chloroacetic acid forms Watson-Crick complexes with the proton largely displaced from oxygen to the nitrogen acceptor in an ion pairing structure. Calculated geometries and chemical shifts of the proton in the hydrogen bridge favorably agree with experimentally determined values if vibrational averaging and solvent effects are taken into account. The results indicate that binding a second acidic ligand at the adenine Hoogsteen site in a ternary complex weakens the hydrogen bond to the Watson-Crick bound carboxylic acid. However, substituting a second adenine nucleobase for a carboxylic acid in the trimolecular complex leads to cooperative binding at Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen faces of adenosine.

  19. Effect of Geometry on Electrokinetic Characterization of Solid Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhijeet; Kleinen, Jochen; Venzmer, Joachim; Gambaryan-Roisman, Tatiana

    2017-08-01

    An analytical approach is presented to describe pressure-driven streaming current (Istr) and streaming potential (Ustr) generation in geometrically complex samples, for which the classical Helmholtz-Smoluchowski (H-S) equation is known to be inaccurate. The new approach is valid under the same prerequisite conditions that are used for the development of the H-S equation, that is, the electrical double layers (EDLs) are sufficiently thin and surface conductivity and electroviscous effects are negligible. The analytical methodology is developed using linear velocity profiles to describe liquid flow inside of EDLs and using simplifying approximations to describe macroscopic flow. At first, a general expression is obtained to describe the Istr generated in different cross sections of an arbitrarily shaped sample. Thereafter, assuming that the generated Ustr varies only along the pressure-gradient direction, an expression describing the variation of generated Ustr along the sample length is obtained. These expressions describing Istr and Ustr generation constitute the theoretical foundation of this work, which is first applied to a set of three nonuniform cross-sectional capillaries and thereafter to a square array of cylindrical fibers (model porous media) for both parallel and transverse fiber orientation cases. Although analytical solutions cannot be obtained for real porous substrates because of their random structure, the new theory provides useful insights into the effect of important factors such as fiber orientation, sample porosity, and sample dimensions. The solutions obtained for the model porous media are used to device strategies for more accurate zeta potential determination of porous fiber plugs. The new approach could be thus useful in resolving the long-standing problem of sample geometry dependence of zeta potential measurements.

  20. Finite-size effects and percolation properties of Poisson geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmier, C.; Dumonteil, E.; Malvagi, F.; Mazzolo, A.; Zoia, A.

    2016-07-01

    Random tessellations of the space represent a class of prototype models of heterogeneous media, which are central in several applications in physics, engineering, and life sciences. In this work, we investigate the statistical properties of d -dimensional isotropic Poisson geometries by resorting to Monte Carlo simulation, with special emphasis on the case d =3 . We first analyze the behavior of the key features of these stochastic geometries as a function of the dimension d and the linear size L of the domain. Then, we consider the case of Poisson binary mixtures, where the polyhedra are assigned two labels with complementary probabilities. For this latter class of random geometries, we numerically characterize the percolation threshold, the strength of the percolating cluster, and the average cluster size.

  1. Tunneling into microstate geometries: quantum effects stop gravitational collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Mayerson, Daniel R.; Puhm, Andrea; Vercnocke, Bert

    2016-07-01

    Collapsing shells form horizons, and when the curvature is small classical general relativity is believed to describe this process arbitrarily well. On the other hand, quantum information theory based (fuzzball/firewall) arguments suggest the existence of some structure at the black hole horizon. This structure can only form if classical general relativity stops being the correct description of the collapsing shell before it reaches the horizon size. We present strong evidence that classical general relativity can indeed break down prematurely, by explicitly computing the quantum tunneling amplitude of a collapsing shell of branes into smooth horizonless microstate geometries. We show that the amplitude for tunneling into microstate geometries with a large number of topologically non-trivial cycles is parametrically larger than e - S BH , which indicates that the shell can tunnel into a horizonless configuration long before the horizon has any chance to form. We also use this technology to investigate the tunneling of M2 branes into LLM bubbling geometries.

  2. Effect of hexagonal patterned arrays and defect geometry on the critical current of superconducting films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovskyy, I. A.; Wang, Y. L.; Xiao, Z.-L.; Kwok, W.-K.; Glatz, A.

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the effect of pinning on the vortex dynamics in superconductors is a key factor towards controlling critical current values. Large-scale simulations of vortex dynamics can provide a rational approach to achieve this goal. Here, we use the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations to study thin superconducting films with artificially created pinning centers arranged periodically in hexagonal lattices. We calculate the critical current density for various geometries of the pinning centers—varying their size, strength, and density. Furthermore, we shed light upon the influence of pattern distortion on the magnetic-field-dependent critical current. We compare our result directly with available experimental measurements on patterned molybdenum-germanium films, obtaining good agreement. Our results give important systematic insights into the mechanisms of pinning in these artificial pinning landscapes and open a path for tailoring superconducting films with desired critical current behavior.

  3. Effect of hexagonal patterned arrays and defect geometry on the critical current of superconducting films

    DOE PAGES

    Sadovskyy, I. A.; Wang, Y. L.; Xiao, Z. -L.; ...

    2017-02-07

    Understanding the effect of pinning on the vortex dynamics in superconductors is a key factor towards controlling critical current values. Large-scale simulations of vortex dynamics can provide a rational approach to achieve this goal. Here, we use the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations to study thin superconducting films with artificially created pinning centers arranged periodically in hexagonal lattices. We calculate the critical current density for various geometries of the pinning centers—varying their size, strength, and density. Furthermore, we shed light upon the influence of pattern distortion on the magnetic-field-dependent critical current. We compare our result directly with available experimental measurements on patternedmore » molybdenum-germanium films, obtaining good agreement. In conclusion, our results give important systematic insights into the mechanisms of pinning in these artificial pinning landscapes and open a path for tailoring superconducting films with desired critical current behavior.« less

  4. Coincidence technique to reduce geometry and matrix effects in assay

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, M.S.; Gozani, T.; Bernatowicz, H.

    1983-01-01

    Algebraic combinations of coincidence multiplicities can be formed which are relatively independent of detection efficiency, yet proportional to the amount of nuclear material being assayed. Considering these combinations, rather than the coincidence alone as signatures, has the demonstrable advantage that the assay results are comparatively independent of sample geometry or even matrix.

  5. The Effects of Instructional Practices on Computation and Geometry Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVaney, Thomas A.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between classroom instructional practices and computation and geometry achievement. Relationships between mathematics achievement and classroom characteristics were also explored. The sample of 1,032 students and their teachers (n=147) was selected from the 1992 Trial State Mathematics…

  6. Effect of geometry of rice kernels on drying modeling results

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Geometry of rice grain is commonly represented by sphere, spheroid or ellipsoid shapes in the drying models. Models using simpler shapes are easy to solve mathematically, however, deviation from the true grain shape might lead to large errors in predictions of drying characteristics such as, moistur...

  7. Casimir effects for classical and quantum liquids in slab geometry: A brief review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Shyamal

    2015-05-01

    We analytically explore Casimir effects for confinement of classical and quantum fluctuations in slab (film) geometry (i) for classical (critical) fluctuations over 4He liquid around the λ point, and (ii) for quantum (phonon) fluctuations of Bogoliubov excitations over an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate. We also briefly review Casimir effects for confinement of quantum vacuum fluctuations confined to two plates of different geometries.

  8. Effect of probe geometry and optical properties on the sampling depth for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Ricky; Goth, Will; Sharma, Manu; Markey, Mia K; Tunnell, James W

    2014-01-01

    The sampling depth of light for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is analyzed both experimentally and computationally. A Monte Carlo (MC) model was used to investigate the effect of optical properties and probe geometry on sampling depth. MC model estimates of sampling depth show an excellent agreement with experimental measurements over a wide range of optical properties and probe geometries. The MC data are used to define a mathematical expression for sampling depth that is expressed in terms of optical properties and probe geometry parameters.

  9. Geometry in Medias Res

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cukier, Mimi; Asdourian, Tony; Thakker, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Geometry provides a natural window into what it is like to do mathematics. In the world of geometry, playful experimentation is often more fruitful than following a procedure, and logic plus a few axioms can open new worlds. Nonetheless, teaching a geometry course in a way that combines both rigor and play can be difficult. Many geometry courses…

  10. Geometry in Medias Res

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cukier, Mimi; Asdourian, Tony; Thakker, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Geometry provides a natural window into what it is like to do mathematics. In the world of geometry, playful experimentation is often more fruitful than following a procedure, and logic plus a few axioms can open new worlds. Nonetheless, teaching a geometry course in a way that combines both rigor and play can be difficult. Many geometry courses…

  11. Effects of Hip Geometry on Fracture Patterns of Proximal Femur

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Seyyed Morteza; Qoreishy, Mohamad; Keipourfard, Ali; Sajjadi, Mohammadreza Minator; Shokraneh, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some studies have previously shown that geometry of proximal femur can affect the probability of fracture and type of fracture. It happens since the geometry of the proximal femur determines how a force is applied to its different parts. In this study, we have compared proximal femur’s geometric characteristics in femoral neck (FNF), intertrochanteric (ITF) and Subtrochanteric (STF) fractures. Methods: In this study, 60 patients who had hip fractures were studied as case studies. They were divided into FNF, ITF and STF groups based on their fracture types (20 patients in each group). Patients were studied with x-ray radiography and CT scans. Radiological parameters including femoral neck length from lateral cortex to center of femoral head (FNL), diameter of femoral head (FHD), diameter of femoral neck (FND), femoral head neck offset (FHNO), neck-shaft angle (alpha), femoral neck anteversion (beta) were measured and compared in all three groups. Results: Amount of FNL was significantly higher in STF group compared to FNF (0.011) while ITF and STF as well as FNT and ITF did not show a significant different. Also, FND in FNF group was significantly lower than the other two groups, i.e. ITF and STF. In other cases there were no instances of significant statistical difference. Conclusion: Hip geometry can be used to identify individuals who are at the risk of fracture with special pattern. Also, it is important to have more studies in different populations and more in men. PMID:27517071

  12. Effect of channel geometry on the electrostatic potential in acetylcholine channels.

    PubMed

    Aidoo, Anthony Y

    2003-12-01

    We study the effect of channel geometry on the potential barrier encountered by ions as they permeate the acetylcholine receptor channel. Among the various channel geometries which have been used to represent the acetylcholine receptor channel include the cylinder and the toroidal catenary. The main reasons for those choices appear to be the facilitation of separation of the Poisson equation, rather than biological considerations. We consider a novel and realistic acetylcholine channel geometry, and calculate the electrostatic potential profiles within it, and compare our results with results from other channel geometries.

  13. The Effect of Origami-Based Instruction on Spatial Visualization, Geometry Achievement, and Geometric Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arici, Sevil; Aslan-Tutak, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the effect of origami-based geometry instruction on spatial visualization, geometry achievement, and geometric reasoning of tenth-grade students in Turkey. The sample ("n" = 184) was chosen from a tenth-grade population of a public high school in Turkey. It was a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design. A…

  14. The Effect of Origami-Based Instruction on Spatial Visualization, Geometry Achievement, and Geometric Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arici, Sevil; Aslan-Tutak, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the effect of origami-based geometry instruction on spatial visualization, geometry achievement, and geometric reasoning of tenth-grade students in Turkey. The sample ("n" = 184) was chosen from a tenth-grade population of a public high school in Turkey. It was a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design. A…

  15. The Effect of Learning Geometry Topics of 7th Grade in Primary Education with Dynamic Geometer's Sketchpad Geometry Software to Success and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesan, Cenk; Caliskan, Sevdane

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of learning geometry topics of 7th grade in primary education with dynamic geometer's sketchpad geometry software to student's success and retention. The experimental research design with The Posttest-Only Control Group was used in this study. In the experimental group, dynamic geometer's…

  16. Testing Accommodation or Modification?: The Effects of Integrated Object Representation on Enhancing Geometry Performance in Children with and without Geometry Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dake; Wang, Qiu; Ding, Yi; Liu, Jeremy Jian

    2014-01-01

    According to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, geometry and spatial sense are fundamental components of mathematics learning. However, learning disabilities (LD) research has shown that many K-12 students encounter particular geometry difficulties (GD). This study examined the effect of an integrated object representation (IOR)…

  17. Effects of probe geometry on transscleral diffuse optical spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Svenmarker, Pontus; Xu, Can T.; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Krohn, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the geometry of a fiber optic probe affects the transmission and reflection of light through the scleral eye wall. Two geometrical parameters of the fiber probe were investigated: the source-detector distance and the fiber protrusion, i.e. the length of the fiber extending from the flat surface of the fiber probe. For optimization of the fiber optic probe geometry, fluorescence stained choroidal tumor phantoms in ex vivo porcine eyes were measured with both diffuse reflectance- and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The strength of the fluorescence signal compared to the excitation signal was used as a measure for optimization. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and temperature were monitored to assess the impact of the probe on the eye. For visualizing any possible damage caused by the probe, the scleral surface was imaged with scanning electron microscopy after completion of the spectroscopic measurements. A source-detector distance of 5 mm with zero fiber protrusion was considered optimal in terms of spectroscopic contrast, however, a slight fiber protrusion of 0.5 mm is argued to be advantageous for clinical measurements. The study further indicates that transscleral spectroscopy can be safely performed in human eyes under in vivo conditions, without leading to an unacceptable IOP elevation, a significant rise in tissue temperature, or any visible damage to the scleral surface. PMID:22076267

  18. The effect of realistic geometries on the susceptibility-weighted MR signal in white matter.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tianyou; Foxley, Sean; Kleinnijenhuis, Michiel; Chen, Way Cherng; Miller, Karla L

    2017-04-10

    To investigate the effect of realistic microstructural geometry on the susceptibility-weighted MR signal in white matter (WM), with application to demyelination. Previous work has modeled susceptibility-weighted signals under the assumption that axons are cylindrical. In this study, we explored the implications of this assumption by considering the effect of more realistic geometries. A three-compartment WM model incorporating relevant properties based on the literature was used to predict the MR signal. Myelinated axons were modeled with several cross-sectional geometries of increasing realism: nested circles, warped/elliptical circles, and measured axonal geometries from electron micrographs. Signal simulations from the different microstructural geometries were compared with measured signals from a cuprizone mouse model with varying degrees of demyelination. Simulation results suggest that axonal geometry affects the MR signal. Predictions with realistic models were significantly different compared with circular models under the same microstructural tissue properties, for simulations with and without diffusion. The geometry of axons affects the MR signal significantly. Literature estimates of myelin susceptibility, which are based on fitting biophysical models to the MR signal, are likely to be biased by the assumed geometry, as will any derived microstructural properties. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Geometry Modeling and Grid Generation for "Icing Effects" and "Ice Accretion" Simulations on Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choo, Yung; Vickerman, Mary; Lee, Ki D.; Thompson, David S.

    2000-01-01

    There are two distinct icing-related problems for airfoils that can be simulated. One is predicting the effects of ice on the aerodynamic performance of airfoils when ice geometry is known ("icing effects" study). The other is simulating ice accretion under specified icing conditions ("ice accretion" simulation). This paper will address development of two different software packages for two-dimensional geometry preparation and grid generation for both "icing effects" and "ice accretion" studies.

  20. Modeling Fluid Flow by Exploring Different Flow Geometries and Effect of Weak Compressibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    EXPLORING DIFFERENT FLOW GEOMETRIES AND EFFECT OF WEAK COMPRESSIBILITY by James J. Sopko June 2006 Thesis Advisor: Hong Zhou Second...Flow Geometries and Effect of Weak Compressibility. 6. AUTHOR James J. Sopko 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS...velocity field. This yields a weakly compressible fluid flow. The basis of this study is to use numerical analysis to explore the effects of weak

  1. The effects of spherical geometry on baroclinic instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moura, A. D.; Stone, P. H.

    1976-01-01

    A baroclinic stability analysis is performed for a simple family of zonal shear profiles over a sphere, using a two-layer, quasi-geostrophic model. The stability properties and the structure of the most unstable waves are qualitatively similar to those on a beta-plane. However, the spherical geometry plays a major role in locating some of the important features of the most unstable waves. In particular, the locations of the maximum wave amplitude, maximum eddy heat fluxes, and maximum convergence of the eddy angular momentum flux are all well correlated with the location of the maximum excess of the vertical shear over the minimum value necessary for local instability on a sphere. Consequently the eddy momentum flux tends to generate a mid-latitude jet even if there is no preexisting mid-latitude jet in the basic state zonal flow. These findings suggest some of the elements needed for parameterizing the meridional variations of baroclinic eddy fluxes accurately.

  2. Effect of geometry in frequency response modeling of nanomechanical resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Esfahani, M. Nasr; Yilmaz, M.; Sonne, M. R.; Hattel, J. H.; Alaca, B. Erdem

    2016-06-08

    The trend towards nanomechanical resonator sensors with increasing sensitivity raises the need to address challenges encountered in the modeling of their mechanical behavior. Selecting the best approach in mechanical response modeling amongst the various potential computational solid mechanics methods is subject to controversy. A guideline for the selection of the appropriate approach for a specific set of geometry and mechanical properties is needed. In this study, geometrical limitations in frequency response modeling of flexural nanomechanical resonators are investigated. Deviation of Euler and Timoshenko beam theories from numerical techniques including finite element modeling and Surface Cauchy-Born technique are studied. The results provide a limit beyond which surface energy contribution dominates the mechanical behavior. Using the Surface Cauchy-Born technique as the reference, a maximum error on the order of 50 % is reported for high-aspect ratio resonators.

  3. Effects of photometric geometry on spectral reflectance measurements. [celestial bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.; Gradie, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported in obtaining valuable results needed for the full interpretation of the spectral reflectance curves of solar system objects. The degree to which photometric geometry affects spectral reflectance curves was demonstrated. Various forms of photometric functions were compared and a function adequate for describing the scattering properties of low and moderately reflecting materials was developed and applied in a study of the phase coefficients of various materials, as well as in a study of how the shape of a body affects the spectral reflectance properties. The adequacy of the photometric function for Mars-like analogs was studied. The goniometer system is being converted to a computer driven mode. As soon as computer controls are integrated in the goniometer, the phase dependence 0.95 micron feature in meteorite spectra is scheduled to begin.

  4. The effects of spherical geometry on baroclinic instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moura, A. D.; Stone, P. H.

    1976-01-01

    A baroclinic stability analysis is performed for a simple family of zonal shear profiles over a sphere, using a two-layer, quasi-geostrophic model. The stability properties and the structure of the most unstable waves are qualitatively similar to those on a beta-plane. However, the spherical geometry plays a major role in locating some of the important features of the most unstable waves. In particular, the locations of the maximum wave amplitude, maximum eddy heat fluxes, and maximum convergence of the eddy angular momentum flux are all well correlated with the location of the maximum excess of the vertical shear over the minimum value necessary for local instability on a sphere. Consequently the eddy momentum flux tends to generate a mid-latitude jet even if there is no preexisting mid-latitude jet in the basic state zonal flow. These findings suggest some of the elements needed for parameterizing the meridional variations of baroclinic eddy fluxes accurately.

  5. Effects of cell geometry on reversible vesicular transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamched, Bhargav R.; Bressloff, Paul C.

    2017-02-01

    A major question in cell biology concerns the biophysical mechanism underlying delivery of newly synthesized macromolecules to specific targets within a cell. A recent modeling paper investigated this phenomenon in the context of vesicular delivery to en passant synapses in neurons (Bressloff and Levien 2015 Phys. Rev. Lett.). It was shown how reversibility in vesicular delivery to synapses could play a crucial role in achieving uniformity in the distribution of resources throughout an axon, which is consistent with experimental observations in C. elegans and Drosophila. In this work we generalize the previous model by investigating steady-state vesicular distributions on a Cayley tree, a disk, and a sphere. We show that for irreversible transport on a tree, branching increases the rate of decay of the steady-state distribution of vesicles. On the other hand, the steady-state profiles for reversible transport are similar to the 1D case. In the case of higher-dimensional geometries, we consider two distinct types of radially-symmetric microtubular network: (i) a continuum and (ii) a discrete set. In the continuum case, we model the motor-cargo dynamics using a phenomenologically-based advection-diffusion equation in polar (2D) and spherical (3D) coordinates. On the other-hand, in the discrete case, we derive the population model from a stochastic model of a single motor switching between ballistic motion and diffusion. For all of the geometries we find that reversibility in vesicular delivery to target sites allows for a more uniform distribution of vesicles, provided that cargo-carrying motors are not significantly slowed by their cargo. In each case we characterize the loss of uniformity as a function of the dispersion in velocities.

  6. Effects of Welding Parameters Onto Keyhole Geometry for Partial Penetration Laser Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vänskä, M.; Abt, F.; Weber, R.; Salminen, A.; Graf, T.

    The material and parameters like welding speed and laser beam parameters define the geometry of the keyhole. The keyhole geometry affects the weld geometry, such as width and depth, and in some cases it should be considered when selecting welding parameters. In-situ X-ray videography makes it possible to obtain time-and space resolved information about the keyhole geometry during the welding process. This paper describes the partial penetration laser welding experiments and shows the effects of a welding speed and a focal point position change onto some geometry values of the keyhole. Two different joint types were used, bead on plate to simulate a very good machined joint preparation and laser cut I-butt joint.

  7. Interfacial geometry and D-variation effects in two-phase systems. [binary alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, D. R.; Unnam, J.

    1979-01-01

    Numerical solutions of the governing diffusion equation for two-phase concentration dependent diffusion coefficients are examined. Solutions were also calculated for planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries to compare the effect of interface geometries with those caused by concentration-dependent diffusion coefficients, and two methods of averaging D were considered to determine the best averaging method for different types of D-variations. The effects of interface-location criteria on mass conservation and convergence of interface location, diffusion coefficient variation in the alpha and beta-phases of a two-phase binary alloy system, effect of D(alpha) variation in a cylindrical couple on beta-phase thickness, and geometry and D-variation effects on the degree of homogenization were determined. It is concluded that typical D(alpha)-variations can have a greater influence on the kinetics of interdiffusion than the geometry.

  8. Shear-flow Effects in Open Traps

    SciTech Connect

    Beklemishev, A. D.

    2008-11-01

    Interaction between shear flows and plasma instabilities and turbulence in open traps can lead to improved confinement both in experiments and in simulations. Shear flows, driven by biasing end-plates and limiters or by off-axis electron heating, in combination with the finite-larmor-radius (FLR) effects are shown to be efficient in confining plasmas even with unstable flute modes. Interpretation of the observed effects as the ''vortex confinement,'' i.e., confinement of the plasma core in the dead-flow zone of the driven vortex, is shown to agree well with simulations.

  9. Casimir effects for classical and quantum liquids in slab geometry: A brief review

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Shyamal

    2015-05-15

    We analytically explore Casimir effects for confinement of classical and quantum fluctuations in slab (film) geometry (i) for classical (critical) fluctuations over {sup 4}He liquid around the λ point, and (ii) for quantum (phonon) fluctuations of Bogoliubov excitations over an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate. We also briefly review Casimir effects for confinement of quantum vacuum fluctuations confined to two plates of different geometries.

  10. Effects of hillslope geometry on surface and subsurface flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabzevari, T.; Noroozpour, S.

    2014-07-01

    Dividing a catchment to subcatchment or hillslope scales allows for better scrutiny of the changes in spatial distribution of rainfall, soil attributes and plant cover across the catchment. An instantaneous unit hydrograph model is suggested for simulating runoff hydrographs for complex hillslopes. This model is able to estimate surface and subsurface flows of the catchment based on the Dunne-Black mechanism. For this purpose, a saturation model is used to separate the saturated and unsaturated zones in complex hillslopes. The profile curvatures (concave, straight and convex) and plan shapes (convergent, parallel and divergent) of complex hillslopes are considered, in order to compute the travel time of surface and subsurface flows. The model was used for prediction of the direct runoff hydrograph and subsurface flow hydrograph of Walnut Gulch No. 125 catchment in Arizona (USA). Based on results, the geometry of hillslopes can change the peak of the direct runoff hydrograph up to two-fold, either higher or lower. The divergent hillslopes show higher peaks in comparison with the parallel and convergent hillslopes. The highest and lowest peak flows correspond to divergent-concave and convergent-straight hillslopes, respectively.

  11. Effect of channel geometry on cell adhesion in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Green, James V; Kniazeva, Tatiana; Abedi, Mehdi; Sokhey, Darshan S; Taslim, Mohammad E; Murthy, Shashi K

    2009-03-07

    Microfluidic channels coated with ligands are a versatile platform for the separation or enrichment of cells from small sample volumes. This adhesion-based mode of separation is mediated by ligand-receptor bonds between the cells and channel surface and also by fluid shear stress. This paper demonstrates how aspects of microchannel geometry can play an additional role in controlling cell adhesion. With a combination of computational fluid dynamics modeling and cell adhesion experiments, channels with sharp turns are shown to have regions with near-zero velocity at the turn regions where large numbers of cells adhere or become collected. The lack of uniform adhesion in the turn regions compared to other regions of these channels, together with the large variability in observed cell adhesion indicates that channels with sharp turns are not optimal for cell-capture applications where predictable cell adhesion is desired. Channels with curved turns, on the other hand are shown to provide more uniform and predictable cell adhesion provided the gap between parallel arms of the channels is sufficiently wide. The magnitude of cell adhesion in these curved channels is comparable to that in straight channels with no turns.

  12. Experimental validation on the effect of material geometries and processing methodology of Polyoxymethylene (POM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafizzal, Y.; Nurulhuda, A.; Izman, S.; Khadir, AZA

    2017-08-01

    POM-copolymer bond breaking leads to change depending with respect to processing methodology and material geometries. This paper present the oversights effect on the material integrity due to different geometries and processing methodology. Thermo-analytical methods with reference were used to examine the degradation of thermomechanical while Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to judge the thermal stability of sample from its major decomposition temperature. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) investigation performed to identify the thermal behaviour and thermal properties of materials. The result shown that plastic gear geometries with injection molding at higher tonnage machine more stable thermally rather than resin geometries. Injection plastic gear geometries at low tonnage machine faced major decomposition temperatures at 313.61°C, 305.76 °C and 307.91 °C while higher tonnage processing method are fully decomposed at 890°C, significantly higher compared to low tonnage condition and resin geometries specimen at 398°C. Chemical composition of plastic gear geometries with injection molding at higher and lower tonnage are compare based on their moisture and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) content, polymeric material content and the absence of filler. Results of higher moisture and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) content are report in resin geometries (0.120%) compared to higher tonnage of injection plastic gear geometries which is 1.264%. The higher tonnage of injection plastic gear geometry are less sensitive to thermo-mechanical degradation due to polymer chain length and molecular weight of material properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, fatigue strength and creep resistance.

  13. Effect of probe geometry and optical properties on the sampling depth for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Ricky; Goth, Will; Sharma, Manu; Markey, Mia K.; Tunnell, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. The sampling depth of light for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is analyzed both experimentally and computationally. A Monte Carlo (MC) model was used to investigate the effect of optical properties and probe geometry on sampling depth. MC model estimates of sampling depth show an excellent agreement with experimental measurements over a wide range of optical properties and probe geometries. The MC data are used to define a mathematical expression for sampling depth that is expressed in terms of optical properties and probe geometry parameters. PMID:25349033

  14. Effects of nozzle lip geometry on spray atomization and emissions advanced gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micklow, Gerald J.; Roychoudhury, Subir; Nguyen, H. L.

    1991-01-01

    A parametric study is conducted to investigate the effect of nozzle lip geometry on nozzle fuel distribution, emissions and temperature distribution for a rich burn section of a rich burn/quick quench/lean burn combustor. It is seen that the nozzle lip geometry greatly affects the fuel distribution, emissions and temperature distribution. It is determined that at an equivalence ratio of 1.6 the NO concentration could be lowered by a factor greater than three by changing the nozzle lip geometry.

  15. No Chemisorption on Ni(111): Coverage Effects, Site Preferences and Adsorption Geometry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-03

    U 01TECHNICAL REPORT No. 14 In NO CHEMISORPTION ON Ni(111): COVERAGE EFFECTS, SITE PREFERENCES AND ADSORPTION GEOMETRY by Shen-Shu Sung, Roald ...Adsorption Geometry 6. pER Op ,,GoRG. R --OAT NUmSER 7. ;.-.; T) hOR ( 2) .\\B. CONTRACT OR GRANT N’,UMaEA.I) Shen-Shu Sung, Roald Hoffman and Patricia...PREFERENCES AND ADSORPTION GEOMETRY Shen-Shu Sung , Roald Hoffmann and Patricia A. ThielT t Departent of Chemistry, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853

  16. Geometry and Material Constraint Effects on Creep Crack Growth Behavior in Welded Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Wang, G. Z.; Xuan, F. Z.; Tu, S. T.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the geometry and material constraint effects on creep crack growth (CCG) and behavior in welded joints were investigated. The CCG paths and rates of two kinds of specimen geometry (C(T) and M(T)) with initial cracks located at soft HAZ (heat-affected zone with lower creep strength) and different material mismatches were simulated. The effect of constraint on creep crack initiation (CCI) time was discussed. The results show that there exists interaction between geometry and material constraints in terms of their effects on CCG rate and CCI time of welded joints. Under the condition of low geometry constraint, the effect of material constraint on CCG rate and CCI time becomes more obvious. Higher material constraint can promote CCG due to the formation of higher stress triaxiality around crack tip. Higher geometry constraint can increase CCG rate and reduce CCI time of welded joints. Both geometry and material constraints should be considered in creep life assessment and design for high-temperature welded components.

  17. Modeling of divertor geometry effects in China fusion engineering testing reactor by SOLPS/B2-Eirene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, M. L.; Chen, Y. P.; Li, G. Q.; Luo, Z. P.; Guo, H. Y.; Ye, M. Y.; Tendler, M.

    2014-05-15

    The China Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR) is currently under design. The SOLPS/B2-Eirene code package is utilized for the design and optimization of the divertor geometry for CFETR. Detailed modeling is carried out for an ITER-like divertor configuration and one with relatively open inner divertor structure, to assess, in particular, peak power loading on the divertor target, which is a key issue for the operation of a next-step fusion machine, such as ITER and CFETR. As expected, the divertor peak heat flux greatly exceeds the maximum steady-state heat load of 10 MW/m{sup 2}, which is a limit dictated by engineering, for both divertor configurations with a wide range of edge plasma conditions. Ar puffing is effective at reducing divertor peak heat fluxes below 10 MW/m{sup 2} even at relatively low densities for both cases, favoring the divertor configuration with more open inner divertor structure.

  18. Urban geometry effects on the microclimate of streets near the river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.; Lee, D. K.; Asawa, T.; Murakami, A.; Kim, H. G.; Jeong, W.

    2016-12-01

    These days, many urbans have undergone urban heat islands (UHIs) which mean urban areas have higher temperature than surrounding areas. Because of UHIs, extreme heat waves and tropical nights threaten citizen's health. For reducing UHI effects, UHIs mitigation strategies related with urban planning (cooling elements, urban geometry, and urban materials) are studied in many fields. Especially, cooling elements such as vegetation and water are important for making sustainable cities. However, while the each effects of cooling elements are known, combination effects between urban geometry and elements are not clearly defined. To determine which urban geometry is effective to decrease air temperature, we analyzed urban geometry effects on the microclimate of streets near the river. The urban streets located in commercial area near the Cheonggye River and they had different aspect ratio. For doing this, we used field measurement. Field measurement were takin in the sunny days of July and August 2016. Air temperature measurement used T-type thermometers with cylindrical tube and ventilation fan. Wind measurements used kestrel 4500 for wind speed and wind direction. We measured air temperature in the screen level and repeated three times an hour. Measurement results showed that large aspect ratio street show lower air temperature than small ones. And they received cooling effect farther than others from the river. This is because that cooling air flows well in the wide road streets. Large aspect ratio streets are effective to receive river's cooling air. These results can be used in the urban geometry planning near the river.

  19. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Student Achievement and Motivation in a High School Geometry Class

    PubMed

    Nichols

    1996-10-01

    In this study, the effects of a form of cooperative group instruction (Student Teams Achievement Divisions) on student motivation and achievement in a high school geometry class were examined. Eighty students were randomly assigned to either a control group receiving traditional instruction or one of two treatment groups receiving cooperative learning instruction. Geometry achievement was assessed using scores from the IOWA Test of Basic Skills and teacher-made exams. An 83-item questionnaire was used as a pretest, posttest, and post-posttest assessment of efficacy, intrinsic valuing, goal orientation, and cognitive processing. Students in the cooperative treatment groups exhibited significantly greater gains than the control group in geometry achievement, efficacy, intrinsic valuing of geometry, learning goal orientation, and reported uses of deep processing strategies. The implications for cooperative group structures and motivation theory are discussed.

  20. Size and Geometry Effects on the Mechanical Properties of Carrara Marble Under Dynamic Loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Chunjiang; Wong, Louis Ngai Yuen

    2016-05-01

    The effects of specimen size and geometry on the dynamic mechanical properties of Carrara marble including compressive strength, failure strain and elastic modulus are investigated in this research. Four different groups of specimens of different sizes and cross-sectional geometries are loaded under a wide range of strain rates by the split Hopkinson pressure bar setup. The experimental results indicate that all these mechanical properties are significantly influenced by the specimen size and geometry to different extent, hence highlighting the importance of taking into account of the specimen size and geometry in dynamic tests on rock materials. In addition, the transmission coefficient and the determination of strain rate under dynamic tests are discussed in detail.

  1. Propranolol reverses open field effects on frustration.

    PubMed

    Justel, Nadia; Psyrdellis, Mariana; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Mustaca, Alba

    2014-12-01

    Reactivity to a reward is affected by prior experience with different reinforcer values of that reward, a phenomenon known as incentive relativity. Incentive relativity can be studied via the consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) paradigm, in which acceptance of 4% sucrose is assessed in animals that had been exposed to 32% sucrose. These downshifted animals usually exhibit significantly less sucrose acceptance than animals that always received the 4% sucrose solution. In previous work, we found that exploration of a novel open field (OF) before the first trial with the downshifted solution attenuated the contrast effect. The goal of the present experiments was to expand the knowledge on the effects of OF exposure on cSNC. We evaluated the effect OF exposure before the second downshift trial and assessed the mediational role of the adrenergic system in the effects of OF during the first and second trial of cSNC. The results indicate that OF applied before the first or second downshift trials exert opposite effects and that the adrenergic system is involved in the acquisition and consolidation of the OF information.

  2. Ordered Pinning Arrays with Tunable Geometry via Thermal Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trastoy, Juan; Bernard, Rozenn; Briatico, Javier; Villegas, Javier E.; Malnou, Maxime; Bergeal, Nicolas; Lesueur, Jerome; Ulysse, Christian; Faini, Giancarlo

    2015-03-01

    We have used geometrically frustrated pinning arrays to create artificial vortex-ice. The pinning arrays are fabricated via ion irradiation of high-Tc superconducting films. These arrays present a very unique characteristic: the frustration can be reversibly switched on/off using temperature as a control knob, which allows stabilizing either a vortex-ice or a square vortex lattice. We have further investigated the thermal switching mechanism by studying the matching of the flux lattice to arrays that are incrementally deformed upon fabrication by introducing minute variations of the distance between pins. The array deformation exacerbates the thermal effects, leading to dramatic variations of the vortex distribution as a function of temperature. These results illustrate the strength of the temperature-induced reconfiguration effects, which may constitute a novel knob in fluxtronic devices based on vortex manipulation. Work supported by the French ANR MASTHER, the COST Action NanoSC, the Ville de Paris and the Galician Fundacion Barrie.

  3. Multicomponent Density Functional Theory: Impact of Nuclear Quantum Effects on Proton Affinities and Geometries.

    PubMed

    Brorsen, Kurt R; Yang, Yang; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2017-08-03

    Nuclear quantum effects such as zero point energy play a critical role in computational chemistry and often are included as energetic corrections following geometry optimizations. The nuclear-electronic orbital (NEO) multicomponent density functional theory (DFT) method treats select nuclei, typically protons, quantum mechanically on the same level as the electrons. Electron-proton correlation is highly significant, and inadequate treatments lead to highly overlocalized nuclear densities. A recently developed electron-proton correlation functional, epc17, has been shown to provide accurate nuclear densities for molecular systems. Herein, the NEO-DFT/epc17 method is used to compute the proton affinities for a set of molecules and to examine the role of nuclear quantum effects on the equilibrium geometry of FHF(-). The agreement of the computed results with experimental and benchmark values demonstrates the promise of this approach for including nuclear quantum effects in calculations of proton affinities, pKa's, optimized geometries, and reaction paths.

  4. Effect of Tube Geometry on Regenerative Cooling Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parris, Daniel K.; Landrum, D. Brian

    2005-01-01

    The flowfield characteristics in a rocket engine coolant channels are analyzed by use of a commercial CFD and multiphysics software developed by the CFD Research Corp. called CFD-ACE+. The channels are characterized by high Reynolds number flow, varying aspect ratio, varying curvature, asymmetric and symmetric heating. The supercritical hydrogen coolant introduces large property variations that have a strong influence on the developing flow and the resulting heat transfer. This paper only shows the effect of aspect ratio and curvature for constant properties.

  5. Modeling the effect of preexisting joints on normal fault geometries using a brittle and cohesive material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettermann, M.; van Gent, H. W.; Urai, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    Brittle rocks, such as for example those hosting many carbonate or sandstone reservoirs, are often affected by different kinds of fractures that influence each other. Understanding the effects of these interactions on fault geometries and the formation of cavities and potential fluid pathways might be useful for reservoir quality prediction and production. Analogue modeling has proven to be a useful tool to study faulting processes, although usually the used materials do not provide cohesion and tensile strength, which are essential to create open fractures. Therefore, very fine-grained, cohesive, hemihydrate powder was used for our experiments. The mechanical properties of the material are scaling well for natural prototypes. Due to the fine grain size structures are preserved in in great detail. The used deformation box allows the formation of a half-graben and has initial dimensions of 30 cm width, 28 cm length and 20 cm height. The maximum dip-slip along the 60° dipping predefined basement fault is 4.5 cm and was fully used in all experiments. To setup open joints prior to faulting, sheets of paper placed vertically within the box to a depth of about 5 cm from top. The powder was then sieved into the box, embedding the paper almost entirely. Finally strings were used to remove the paper carefully, leaving open voids. Using this method allows the creation of cohesionless open joints while ensuring a minimum impact on the sensitive surrounding material. The presented series of experiments aims to investigate the effect of different angles between the strike of a rigid basement fault and a distinct joint set. All experiments were performed with a joint spacing of 2.5 cm and the fault-joint angles incrementally covered 0°, 4°, 8°, 12°, 16°, 20° and 25°. During the deformation time lapse photography from the top and side captured every structural change and provided data for post-processing analysis using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). Additionally

  6. Geometry effects on magnetization dynamics in circular cross-section wires

    SciTech Connect

    Sturma, M.; Toussaint, J.-C. E-mail: daria.gusakova@cea.fr; Gusakova, D. E-mail: daria.gusakova@cea.fr

    2015-06-28

    Three-dimensional magnetic memory design based on circular-cross section nanowires with modulated diameter is the emerging field of spintronics. The consequences of the mutual interaction between electron spins and local magnetic moments in such non-trivial geometries are still open to debate. This paper describes the theoretical study of domain wall dynamics within such wires subjected to spin polarized current. We used our home-made finite element software to characterize the variety of domain wall dynamical regimes observed for different constriction to wire diameter ratios d/D. Also, we studied how sizeable geometry irregularities modify the internal micromagnetic configuration and the electron spin spatial distribution in the system, the geometrical reasons underlying the additional contribution to the system's nonadiabaticity, and the specific domain wall width oscillations inherent to fully three-dimensional systems.

  7. Geometry effects on magnetization dynamics in circular cross-section wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturma, M.; Toussaint, J.-C.; Gusakova, D.

    2015-06-01

    Three-dimensional magnetic memory design based on circular-cross section nanowires with modulated diameter is the emerging field of spintronics. The consequences of the mutual interaction between electron spins and local magnetic moments in such non-trivial geometries are still open to debate. This paper describes the theoretical study of domain wall dynamics within such wires subjected to spin polarized current. We used our home-made finite element software to characterize the variety of domain wall dynamical regimes observed for different constriction to wire diameter ratios d/D. Also, we studied how sizeable geometry irregularities modify the internal micromagnetic configuration and the electron spin spatial distribution in the system, the geometrical reasons underlying the additional contribution to the system's nonadiabaticity, and the specific domain wall width oscillations inherent to fully three-dimensional systems.

  8. Reflection on the Analytic Geometry Courses: The Geogebra Software and Its Effect on Creative Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Avni; Baltaci, Serdal; Demir, Betül Küçük

    2017-01-01

    Creativity has a significant role in individuals' lives. This research aims to examine the reflection of the learning process of analytic geometry concepts through GeoGebra software and its effect upon the development of preservice mathematics teachers' creative thinking skills. This effect is expected to make a significant contribution to the…

  9. Blade dynamics analysis using NASTRAN. [effects of blade geometry, temperature gradients, and rotational speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, P. S.

    1973-01-01

    The complexities of turbine engine blade vibration are compounded by blade geometry, temperature gradients, and rotational speeds. Experience indicates that dynamics analysis using the finite element approach provides an effective means for predicting vibration characteristics of compressor and turbine blades whose geometry may be irregular, have curved boundaries, and be subjected to high temperatures and speeds. The NASTRAN program was chosen to help analyze the dynamics of normal modes, rotational stiffening and thermal effects on the normal modes, and forced responses. The program has produced reasonable success. This paper presents the analytical procedures and the NASTRAN results, in comparison with a conventional beam element program and laboratory data.

  10. The geometry effect on energy transfer rate in a coupled-quantum-wires structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafee, Vahdat

    2016-03-01

    The geometry effect on energy transfer rate in a coupled cylindrical quantum wires system is investigated. The corrected random phase approximation by the zero-temperature static Hubbard correction is employed to calculate dielectric function of the system. The geometry effect on energy transfer rate is studied for statically and dynamically screened electron-electron interaction. Both the linear and nonlinear regimes correspond respectively to weak and strong external field are considered. The calculations show that increasing wire radius increases energy transfer rate in both the static and dynamic screening approximations for electron-electron interactions. Moreover, the same trend is predicted by the calculations for both the linear and nonlinear regimes.

  11. The effect of chromosome geometry on genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Harris, Leigh K; Houmiel, Kathryn; Slater, Steven C; Ochman, Howard

    2008-05-01

    Although organisms with linear chromosomes must solve the problem of fully replicating their chromosome ends, this chromosome configuration has emerged repeatedly during bacterial evolution and is evident in three divergent bacterial phyla. The benefit usually ascribed to this topology is the ability to boost genetic variation through increased recombination. But because numerous processes can impact linkage disequilibrium, such an effect is difficult to assess by comparing across bacterial taxa that possess different chromosome topologies. To test directly the contribution of chromosome architecture to genetic diversity and recombination, we examined sequence variation in strains of Agrobacterium Biovar 1, which are unique among sequenced bacteria in having both a circular and a linear chromosome. Whereas the allelic diversity among strains is generated principally by mutations, intragenic recombination is higher within genes situated on the circular chromosome. In contrast, recombination between genes is, on average, higher on the linear chromosome, but it occurs at the same rate as that observed between genes mapping to the distal portion of the circular chromosome. Collectively, our findings indicate that chromosome topology does not contribute significantly to either allelic or genotypic diversity and that the evolution of linear chromosomes is not based on a facility to recombine.

  12. Effects of artificial openings of intermittently opening estuaries on macroinvertebrate assemblages of the entrance barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, William; Hacking, Nicole; Owen, Vanessa

    2006-05-01

    Intermittently opening estuaries are artificially opened to manage flood risk, water quality, recreational amenity, and fisheries; however, the ecological impacts of this management technique are incompletely understood. During 2001 and 2004, this study assessed the impacts of artificial openings on the macroinvertebrates of entrance barriers of intermittently opening estuaries in New South Wales (Australia). In 2001 macroinvertebrates were sampled once before artificial opening and 9 and 25 d after re-formation of the entrance barrier. A multiple before-after-control-impact analysis found that, although entrance barriers were destroyed by the artificial openings and then re-formed naturally by wave action, significant interactions for taxonomic richness, density of the amphipod Paracalliope australis (Gammaridae) and density of the gastropod mollusc Aschoris victoriae (Hydrobiidae) meant that the effects of this disturbance could not be distinguished from the natural variations that occurred in unopened estuaries. Multivariate analyses found that assemblages at both opened and unopened estuaries changed from before to after the openings, and the magnitude of the dissimilarity between times varied between estuaries. In 2004, macroinvertebrates were sampled on three randomly selected days within each of three periods (before, 3 d and 42 d after) at one opened and three unopened estuaries. Asymmetrical analysis of this modified before-after-control-impact study found that the change in taxonomic richness at the opened estuary from before to after opening did not differ from temporal changes that occurred in unopened estuaries. Short-term variation (i.e. between days) in total density of macroinvertebrates and density of P. australis in the re-formed entrance barrier of the opened estuary also did not differ from the variation in the control estuaries. Additionally, assemblage structure was not significantly changed by the opening and assemblages at two control

  13. Reynolds number and geometry effects in laminar axisymmetric isothermal counterflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scribano, Gianfranco; Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2016-12-01

    The counterflow configuration is a canonical stagnation flow, featuring two opposed impinging round jets and a mixing layer across the stagnation plane. Although counterflows are used extensively in the study of reactive mixtures and other applications where mixing of two streams is required, quantitative data on the scaling properties of the flow field are lacking. The aim of this work is to characterize the velocity and mixing fields in isothermal counterflows over a wide range of conditions. The study features both experimental data from particle image velocimetry and results from detailed axisymmetric simulations. The scaling laws for the nondimensional velocity and mixture fraction are obtained as a function of an appropriate Reynolds number and the ratio of the separation distance of the nozzles to their diameter. In the range of flow configurations investigated, the nondimensional fields are found to depend primarily on the separation ratio and, to a lesser extent, the Reynolds number. The marked dependence of the velocity field with respect to the separation ratio is linked to a high pressure region at the stagnation point. On the other hand, Reynolds number effects highlight the role played by the wall boundary layer on the interior of the nozzles, which becomes less important as the separation ratio decreases. The normalized strain rate and scalar dissipation rate at the stagnation plane are found to attain limiting values only for high values of the Reynolds number. These asymptotic values depend markedly on the separation ratio and differ significantly from the values produced by analytical models. The scaling of the mixing field does not show a limiting behavior as the separation ratio decreases to the smallest practical value considered.

  14. Ultrasonic flowmeters: temperature gradients and transducer geometry effects.

    PubMed

    Willatzen, M

    2003-03-01

    Ultrasonic flowmeter performance is addressed for the case of cylindrically shaped flowmeters employing two reciprocal ultrasonic transducers A and B so as to measure time-of-flight differences between signals transmitted from transducer A towards B followed by an equivalent signal transmitted from transducer B towards A. In the case where a liquid flows through the flowmeter's measuring section ("spoolpiece"), the arrival times of the two signals differ by an amount related to the flow passing between the two transducers. Firstly, a detailed study of flow measurement errors with mean flow in the laminar flow regime is carried out as a function of the mode index and the transducer diameter/cylinder diameter ratio in the case where no temperature gradients are present in the flowmeter sensor. It is shown that all modes except the fundamental mode overestimate the mean flow by a factor of 33.33% while excitation of the fundamental mode solely give error-free measurements. The immediate consequences are that the flowmeter error decreases as the transducer diameter/cylinder diameter ratio approaches 1 from 0 reflecting the fact that the excitation level of the fundamental mode increases from almost 0 to 1 as this ratio approaches 1 from 0. Secondly, the effect on flowmeter performance due to flow-induced temperature gradients is examined. It is shown that the presence of temperature gradients leads to flowmeter errors at the higher-flow values even in the case where the fundamental mode is the only mode excited. It is also deduced that flowmeter errors in general depend on the distance between transducers A and B whether temperature gradients exist or not. This conclusion is not reflected in the usual definition of flowmeter errors given by the so-called mode-dependent deviation of measurement introduced in earlier works.

  15. The effects of transducer geometry on artifacts common to diagnostic bone imaging with conventional medical ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, F William; Owen, Kevin; Tiouririne, Mohamed; Hossack, John A

    2012-06-01

    The portability, low cost, and non-ionizing radiation associated with medical ultrasound suggest that it has potential as a superior alternative to X-ray for bone imaging. However, when conventional ultrasound imaging systems are used for bone imaging, clinical acceptance is frequently limited by artifacts derived from reflections occurring away from the main axis of the acoustic beam. In this paper, the physical source of off-axis artifacts and the effect of transducer geometry on these artifacts are investigated in simulation and experimental studies. In agreement with diffraction theory, the sampled linear-array geometry possessed increased off-axis energy compared with single-element piston geometry, and therefore, exhibited greater levels of artifact signal. Simulation and experimental results demonstrated that the linear-array geometry exhibited increased artifact signal when the center frequency increased, when energy off-axis to the main acoustic beam (i.e., grating lobes) was perpendicularly incident upon off-axis surfaces, and when off-axis surfaces were specular rather than diffusive. The simulation model used to simulate specular reflections was validated experimentally and a correlation coefficient of 0.97 between experimental and simulated peak reflection contrast was observed. In ex vivo experiments, the piston geometry yielded 4 and 6.2 dB average contrast improvement compared with the linear array when imaging the spinous process and interlaminar space of an animal spine, respectively. This work indicates that off-axis reflections are a major source of ultrasound image artifacts, particularly in environments comprising specular reflecting (i.e., bone or bone-like) objects. Transducer geometries with reduced sensitivity to off-axis surface reflections, such as a piston transducer geometry, yield significant reductions in image artifact.

  16. Effects of growth on geometry of gastrocnemius muscle in children: a three-dimensional ultrasound analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bénard, Menno R; Harlaar, Jaap; Becher, Jules G; Huijing, Peter A; Jaspers, Richard T

    2011-01-01

    During development, muscle growth is usually finely adapted to meet functional demands in daily activities. However, how muscle geometry changes in typically developing children and how these changes are related to functional and mechanical properties is largely unknown. In rodents, longitudinal growth of the pennate m. gastrocnemius medialis (GM) has been shown to occur mainly by an increase in physiological cross-sectional area and less by an increase in fibre length. Therefore, we aimed to: (i) determine how geometry of GM changes in healthy children between the ages of 5 and 12 years, (ii) test whether GM geometry in these children is affected by gender, (iii) compare normalized growth of GM geometry in children with that in rats at similar normalized ages, and (iv) investigate how GM geometry in children relates to range of motion of angular foot movement at a given moment. Thirty children (16 females, 14 males) participated in the study. Moment-angle data were collected over a range of angles by rotating the foot from plantar flexion to dorsal flexion at standardized moments. GM geometry in the mid-longitudinal plane was measured using three-dimensional ultrasound imaging. This geometry was compared with that of GM geometry in rats. During growth from 5 to 12 years of age, the mean neutral footplate angle (0 Nm) occurred at −5° (SD 7°) and was not a function of age. Measured at standardized moments (4 Nm), footplate angles towards plantar flexion and dorsal flexion decreased by 25 and 40%, respectively. In both rats and children, GM muscle length increased proportionally with tibia length. In children, the length component of the physiological cross-sectional area and fascicle length increased by 7 and 5% per year, respectively. Fascicle angle did not change over the age range measured. In children, the Achilles tendon length increased by 6% per year. GM geometry was not affected by gender. We conclude that, whereas the length of GM in rat develops mainly

  17. Effects of growth on geometry of gastrocnemius muscle in children: a three-dimensional ultrasound analysis.

    PubMed

    Bénard, Menno R; Harlaar, Jaap; Becher, Jules G; Huijing, Peter A; Jaspers, Richard T

    2011-09-01

    During development, muscle growth is usually finely adapted to meet functional demands in daily activities. However, how muscle geometry changes in typically developing children and how these changes are related to functional and mechanical properties is largely unknown. In rodents, longitudinal growth of the pennate m. gastrocnemius medialis (GM) has been shown to occur mainly by an increase in physiological cross-sectional area and less by an increase in fibre length. Therefore, we aimed to: (i) determine how geometry of GM changes in healthy children between the ages of 5 and 12 years, (ii) test whether GM geometry in these children is affected by gender, (iii) compare normalized growth of GM geometry in children with that in rats at similar normalized ages, and (iv) investigate how GM geometry in children relates to range of motion of angular foot movement at a given moment. Thirty children (16 females, 14 males) participated in the study. Moment-angle data were collected over a range of angles by rotating the foot from plantar flexion to dorsal flexion at standardized moments. GM geometry in the mid-longitudinal plane was measured using three-dimensional ultrasound imaging. This geometry was compared with that of GM geometry in rats. During growth from 5 to 12 years of age, the mean neutral footplate angle (0 Nm) occurred at -5° (SD 7°) and was not a function of age. Measured at standardized moments (4 Nm), footplate angles towards plantar flexion and dorsal flexion decreased by 25 and 40%, respectively. In both rats and children, GM muscle length increased proportionally with tibia length. In children, the length component of the physiological cross-sectional area and fascicle length increased by 7 and 5% per year, respectively. Fascicle angle did not change over the age range measured. In children, the Achilles tendon length increased by 6% per year. GM geometry was not affected by gender. We conclude that, whereas the length of GM in rat develops mainly

  18. Laser cutting of rectangular geometry into aluminum alloy: Effect of cut sizes on thermal stress field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, Sohail; Kardas, Omer Ozgur; Keles, Omer; Yilbas, Bekir Sami

    2014-10-01

    Laser cutting of a rectangular geometry into aluminum alloy 2024 is carried out. Temperature and stress fields are predicted in the cutting section using the ABAQUS finite element code in line with the experimental conditions. Effect of the size of the rectangular geometry on the thermal stress fields is examined in the cutting section. Temperature predictions are validated through the thermocouple data. To identify the morphological changes in the cutting section, an experiment is carried out and the resulting cutting sections are examined under optical and scanning electron microscopes. It is found that temperature and stress fields are affected by the size of the rectangular cut geometry. Temperature and von Mises stress attains higher values for small size rectangular geometry as compared to its counterpart corresponding to the large size geometry. Laser cut sections are free from large size asperities including sideways burning and out-off flatness at the cut edges. Locally scattered some small dross attachments are observed at the kerf exit.

  19. Evaluation of Flow Fields and Orientation Effects Around Ring Geometries During Quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banka, Andrew L.; Ferguson, B. L.; MacKenzie, D. Scott

    2013-07-01

    The orientation in which parts are held during the quenching operation can have a strong effect on the overall success of heat treating. Certain orientations can result in significantly greater distortion than other orientations, even when high-quality quenchants are used. In this study, various simple, rolled ring geometries are examined at two different orientations to quenchant flow using computational fluid dynamics with the software program AZORE®. These parts were examined singly without the influence of other parts in close proximity. Three rolled ring geometries were examined, using the same outside diameter, while the inside diameter was varied. These flow fields will be used for understanding the likely distortion occurring during quenching.

  20. Minimizing the effect of automotive pollution in urban geometry using mathematical optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, K. J.; de Kock, D. J.; Snyman, J. A.

    One of the factors that needs to be considered during the layout of new urban geometry (e.g. street direction, spacing and width, building height restrictions) is the effect of the air pollution associated with the automotive transport that would use routes in this urban area. Although the pollution is generated at street level, its effect can be widespread due to interaction of the pollutant dispersion and diffusion with the wind speed and direction. In order to study the effect of a new urban geometry on the pollutant levels and dispersion, a very time-consuming experimental or parametric numerical study would have to be performed. This paper proposes an alternative approach, that of combining mathematical optimization with the techniques of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In essence, the meteorological information as represented by a wind rose (wind speed and direction), is used to calculate pollutant levels as a function of urban geometry variables: street canyon depth and street canyon width. The pollutant source specified in conjunction with a traffic scenario with CO is used as pollutant. The main aim of the study is to be able to suggest the most beneficial configuration of an idealized urban geometry that minimizes the peak pollutant levels due to assumed traffic distributions. This study uses two mathematical optimization methods. The first method is implemented through a successive maximization-minimization approach, while the second method determines the location of saddle points of the pollutant level, considered as a function of urban geometry and wind rose. Locally, a saddle point gives the best urban geometry for the worst meteorological scenario. The commercial CFD code, STAR-CD, is coupled with a version of the DYNAMIC-Q optimization algorithm of Snyman, first to successively locate maxima and minima in a min-max approach; and then to locate saddle points. It is shown that the saddle-point method is more cost-effective. The methodology

  1. Effects analysis of array geometry for resolving performance based on spatial average ambiguity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Guofeng; Wang, Hongqiang; Cheng, Yongqiang; Qin, Yuliang

    2016-03-01

    For analyzing the three dimension (3D) spatial resolving performance of Multi-Transmitter Single-Receiver (MTSR) array radar with stochastic signals, the spatial average ambiguity function (SAAF) was introduced. The analytic expression of SAAF of array radar with stochastic is derived. To analyze the effects of array geometry, comparisons are implemented for three typical array geometries including circular, decussate and planar configuration. Simulated results illustrate that the spatial resolving performance is better for the circular array than that of others. Furthermore, it is shown that the array aperture size and the target's radial range are the main factors impacting the resolving performance.

  2. Effect of discharge duct geometry on centrifugal fan performance and noise emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, David A.; Butrymowicz, William; Thomas, Christopher

    2005-09-01

    Non-ideal inlet and discharge duct geometries can cause significant changes to both the aerodynamic performance (``fan curve'') and specific sound power emission of a fan. A proper understanding of actual installed performance, as well as a good estimate of the system backpressure curve, is critical to achieving flow and acoustic goals as well as other criteria such as power consumption, mass and volume. To this end a battery of ISO 10302 tests was performed on a blower assembly which supports the Advanced Animal Habitat, being developed by ORBITEC for deployment on the International Space Station. The blower assembly consists of (4) identical centrifugal fans that, amongst themselves and across two prototypes, incorporated several discharge geometries. The inlet geometries were identical in all cases. Thus by comparing the dimensionless pressure-flow and noise emission characteristics across the cases, significant insight into the nature and potential magnitude of these effects is gained.

  3. The effect of geometry on the properties of a dense alumina-carbon/epoxy laminate

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, D.; Lemaitre, J.; Leckie, F.A.

    1995-09-01

    This is a study of the effects of geometry on the properties of a laminate made of dense, thin alumina plates alternating with carbon/epoxy (C/E) prepreg. An advantage of this system is the elimination of the large flaws occurring in fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites which are responsible for the low stresses at first matrix cracking. Previous studies have been restricted to small specimens of simple geometry. In this study attention has been directed to the influences of size, the introduction of notches and a geometry in which a large specimen is formed from a mosaic of small elements. The loss of stiffness with increase of the applied strain is compared to the predictions of a simple one-dimensional, elastic-plastic shear lag theory. Although this model does not account for the branching phenomena observed in experiment, there is good agreement with experiment, suggesting that branching has only a second order influence on mechanical properties.

  4. Study of skin model and geometry effects on thermal performance of thermal protective fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Fanglong; Ma, Suqin; Zhang, Weiyuan

    2008-05-01

    Thermal protective clothing has steadily improved over the years as new materials and improved designs have reached the market. A significant method that has brought these improvements to the fire service is the NFPA 1971 standard on structural fire fighters’ protective clothing. However, this testing often neglects the effects of cylindrical geometry on heat transmission in flame resistant fabrics. This paper deals with methods to develop cylindrical geometry testing apparatus incorporating novel skin bioheat transfer model to test flame resistant fabrics used in firefighting. Results show that fabrics which shrink during the test can have reduced thermal protective performance compared with the qualities measured with a planar geometry tester. Results of temperature differences between skin simulant sensors of planar and cylindrical tester are also compared. This test method provides a new technique to accurately and precisely characterize the thermal performance of thermal protective fabrics.

  5. THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS DETECTOR GEOMETRIES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF CZT USING ONE CRYSTAL

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, A.; Duff, M.; Teague, L.

    2011-06-21

    CdZnTe (CZT) continues to be a major thrust interest mainly due to its potential application as a room temperature radiation detector. The performance of CZT detectors is directly related to the charge collection ability which can be affected by the configuration of the electrical contact. The charge collection efficiency is determined in part by the specific geometry of the anode contact which serves as the readout electrode. In this report, contact geometries including single pixel, planar, coplanar, and dual anode will be systematically explored by comparing the performance efficiencies of the detector using both low and high energy gamma rays. To help eliminate the effect of crystal quality variations, the contact geometries were fabricated on the same crystal detector with minimal polishing between contact placements.

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF THE EFFECT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON GEOMETRY ON THE HYDROLYSIS OF DIOL EPOXIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative studies of the effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon geometry on the hydrolysis of diol epoxides

    The interaction of the diol epoxides (DEs) of both planar and non-planar PAHs with water have been examined using quantum mechanical and molecular dynamics. Th...

  7. The Effect of the Success in Teaching Geometry of Basic Level Education Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavuz, Ayse; Aydin, Bünyamin; Avci, Musa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate primary and secondary mathematics teachers' candidates' effect of the success in geometry education. The sample of the study consists of students first and last class preservice primary mathematics teachers which are enrolled program education at department of mathematics and students first and last…

  8. The Effects of Differentiation of Content in Problem-Solving in Learning Geometry in Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bikic, Naida; Maricic, Sanja M.; Pikula, Milenko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of problem-based learning which was established on differentiation of content at three levels of complexity in the processing of the content of Analytical geometry in the plane. In this context, an experimental research was conducted, on a sample of secondary school students (N = 165) in order to…

  9. Non-commutative geometry in higher dimensional quantum hall effect as A-class topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasebe, K.

    2014-09-01

    We clarify relations between the higher dimensional quantum Hall effect and A-class topological insulator. In particular, we elucidate physical implications of the higher dimensional non-commutative geometry in the context of A-class topological insulator. This presentation is based on arXiv:1403.5066.

  10. Fastening on the F-14A for cost effective fatigue resistance. [considering variable geometry wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beal, B. H.

    1972-01-01

    Cost effectiveness airframe considerations dictated a variable geometry wing design that requires weight optimization, maximum working stress resistance and minimum fatigue concentration factors. The extensive use of titanium structural materials employed electron beam welding methods and interference fit fastening techniques as principle mechanical joining means for economic F-14A production and reliability engineering.

  11. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF THE EFFECT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON GEOMETRY ON THE HYDROLYSIS OF DIOL EPOXIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative studies of the effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon geometry on the hydrolysis of diol epoxides

    The interaction of the diol epoxides (DEs) of both planar and non-planar PAHs with water have been examined using quantum mechanical and molecular dynamics. Th...

  12. The Effect of Intervention on Accuracy of Students' Responses and Reaction Times to Geometry Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babai, Reuven; Zilber, Hanna; Stavy, Ruth; Tirosh, Dina

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect on student performance in drawing their attention to relevant task variables, focusing on accuracy of responses and reaction times. We chose this methodology in order to better understand how such interventions affect the reasoning process. The study employs a geometry task in which the irrelevant salient…

  13. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Student Achievement and Motivation in a High School Geometry Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Joe D.; Hall, Neff

    In this study, the effects of a form of cooperative group instruction (Student Teams Achievement Divisions) on student motivation and achievement in a high school geometry class were examined. Ninety (mostly 10th-grade) students were randomly assigned to either a control group receiving traditional instruction or one of two treatment groups…

  14. The Effects of Differentiation of Content in Problem-Solving in Learning Geometry in Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bikic, Naida; Maricic, Sanja M.; Pikula, Milenko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of problem-based learning which was established on differentiation of content at three levels of complexity in the processing of the content of Analytical geometry in the plane. In this context, an experimental research was conducted, on a sample of secondary school students (N = 165) in order to…

  15. Logo and Transfer of Geometry Knowledge: Evaluating the Effects of Student Ability Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knupfer, Nancy Nelson

    1993-01-01

    Sixth-grade students (n=53) were paired homogeneously and heterogeneously by ability to determine the effect of LOGO on the transfer of knowledge in geometry. Low-ability students benefited from heterogeneous grouping, whereas the impact on average- and high-ability students was not clear. (Contains 21 references.) (MDH)

  16. Comparative Effects of Two Modes of Computer-Assisted Instructional Package on Solid Geometry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Isiaka Amosa; Ezenwa, Victoria Ifeoma; Anyanwu, Romanus Chogozie

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the effects of two modes of computer-assisted instructional package on solid geometry achievement amongst senior secondary school students in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. Also, the influence of gender on the performance of students exposed to CAI(AT) and CAI(AN) packages were examined. This study adopted a pretest-posttest…

  17. Effects of idealized joint geometry on finite element predictions of cartilage contact stresses in the hip.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Andrew E; Ellis, Benjamin J; Maas, Steve A; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2010-05-07

    Computational models may have the ability to quantify the relationship between hip morphology, cartilage mechanics and osteoarthritis. Most models have assumed the hip joint to be a perfect ball and socket joint and have neglected deformation at the bone-cartilage interface. The objective of this study was to analyze finite element (FE) models of hip cartilage mechanics with varying degrees of simplified geometry and a model with a rigid bone material assumption to elucidate the effects on predictions of cartilage stress. A previously validated subject-specific FE model of a cadaveric hip joint was used as the basis for the models. Geometry for the bone-cartilage interface was either: (1) subject-specific (i.e. irregular), (2) spherical, or (3) a rotational conchoid. Cartilage was assigned either a varying (irregular) or constant thickness (smoothed). Loading conditions simulated walking, stair-climbing and descending stairs. FE predictions of contact stress for the simplified models were compared with predictions from the subject-specific model. Both spheres and conchoids provided a good approximation of native hip joint geometry (average fitting error approximately 0.5mm). However, models with spherical/conchoid bone geometry and smoothed articulating cartilage surfaces grossly underestimated peak and average contact pressures (50% and 25% lower, respectively) and overestimated contact area when compared to the subject-specific FE model. Models incorporating subject-specific bone geometry with smoothed articulating cartilage also underestimated pressures and predicted evenly distributed patterns of contact. The model with rigid bones predicted much higher pressures than the subject-specific model with deformable bones. The results demonstrate that simplifications to the geometry of the bone-cartilage interface, cartilage surface and bone material properties can have a dramatic effect on the predicted magnitude and distribution of cartilage contact pressures in

  18. Modeling high power magnetron copper seed deposition: Effect of feature geometry on coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Phillip J.; Zhang, Da; Ventzek, Peter L. G.

    2003-05-01

    The deposition of copper using a high power magnetron (HPM) has been studied using reactor and feature scale models. Discussed are results for Cu seed HPM deposition on trench, via, and dual inlaid features with different geometries (aspect ratio and side wall angles). At low wafer powers the Cu seed feature coverage is characterized by geometric shadowing due to the broad angular distribution of the dominant Cu athermal. At high wafer powers the metal deposited at feature bottom is sputtered by Ar+ and redistributed to the side walls. The deposition rate within a feature is nonlinear with time as metal deposited at the feature opening obstructs incoming metal from reaching the inside of the feature. Competing trends of higher copper flux at wafer center versus edge and higher Ar+ flux at wafer center versus edge result in a transition of the field thickness heights from edge>center at low wafer powers to centergeometry of a feature in which metal is being deposited plays a major role in the final metal coverage. Vias have less coverage than trenches given the smaller opening for incoming metal to enter. For instance trenches with aspect ratio (AR) equal to 4 still have more Cu side wall coverage than vias of AR=1. In the dual inlaid geometry studied the via inner side wall and trench bottom corners are the most difficult regions to deposit a Cu seed. Both side wall angle and AR can have equal control of a thickness change. For instance in a via a similar side wall thickness decrease (at low wafer power) can be achieved with AR=4 and θvia=4°-0° or AR=1-4 and θvia=4°.

  19. Hip joint geometry effects on cartilage contact stresses during a gait cycle.

    PubMed

    Hui-Hui Wu; Dong Wang; An-Bang Ma; Dong-Yun Gu

    2016-08-01

    The cartilage surface geometry of natural human hip joint is commonly regarded as sphere. It has been widely applied in computational simulation and hip joint prosthesis design. Some new geometry models have been developed and the sphere assumption has been questioned recently. The objective of this study was to analyze joint geometry effects on cartilage contact stress distribution and investigate contact patterns during a whole gait cycle. Hip surface was reconstructed from CT data of a healthy volunteer. Three finite element (FE) models of hip joint were developed from different cartilage geometries: natural geometry, sphere and rotational ellipsoid. Loads at ten instants of gait cycle were applied to these models based on published in-vivo data. FE predictions of peak contact pressure during gait of natural hip were compared with sphere and rotational ellipsoid replaced hip joint. Contact occurs mainly in upper anterior region of both acetabulum and femur distributing along sagittal plane of human body. It moves towards inferolateral aspect as the resultant joint reaction force changes during walking for natural hip. Peak pressures at the instant with maximum contact force were 7.48 MPa, 14.97 MPa and 13.12 MPa for models with natural hip surface, sphere replaced and rotational ellipsoid replaced surface respectively. During the whole gait cycle, contact pressure of natural hip ranked lowest in most of the instants, followed by rotational ellipsoid replaced and sphere replaced hip. The results indicate that rotational ellipsoid is more consistent with natural hip cartilage geometry than sphere during normal walking. This means rotational ellipsoid prosthesis could give a better description of physiological structure compared with standard sphere prosthesis. Therefore, rotational ellipsoid would be a better choice for prosthesis design.

  20. Effects of Active Subsidence Vs. Existing Basin Geometry on Fluviodeltaic Channels and Stratal Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, M.; Kim, W.; Passalacqua, P.

    2015-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence and basin topography, both determining the accommodation, are fundamental controls on the basin filling processes. Their effects on the fluvial organization and the resultant subsurface patterns remain difficult to predict due to the lack of understanding about interaction between internal dynamics and external controls. Despite the intensive studies on tectonic steering effects on alluvial architecture, how the self-organization of deltaic channels, especially the distributary channel network, respond to tectonics and basin geometry is mostly unknown. Recently physical experiments and field studies have hinted dramatic differences in fluviodeltaic evolution between ones associated with active differential subsidence and existing basin depth. In this work we designed a series of numerical experiments using a reduced-complexity channel-resolving model for delta formation, and tested over a range of localized subsidence rates and topographic depression in basin geometry. We also used a set of robust delta metrics to analyze: i) shoreline planform asymmetry, ii) channel and lobe geometry, iii) channel network pattern, iv) autogenic timescales, and v) subsurface structure. The modeling results show that given a similar final thickness, active subsidence enhances channel branching with smaller channel sand bodies that are both laterally and vertically connected, whereas existing topographic depression causes more large-scale channel avulsions with larger channel sand bodies. In general, both subsidence and existing basin geometry could steer channels and/or lock channels in place but develop distinct channel patterns and thus stratal architecture.

  1. The Effect of Tip Geometry on Active-Twist Rotor Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Sekula, Martin K.

    2005-01-01

    A parametric examination of the effect of tip geometry on active-twist rotor system response is conducted. Tip geometry parameters considered include sweep, taper, anhedral, nonlinear twist, and the associated radial initiation location for each of these variables. A detailed study of the individual effect of each parameter on active-twist response is presented, and an assessment offered of the effect of combining multiple tip shape parameters. Tip sweep is shown to have the greatest affect on active-twist response, significantly decreasing the response available. Tip taper and anhedral are shown to increase moderately the active-twist response, while nonlinear twist is shown to have a minimal effect. A candidate tip shape that provides active-twist response equivalent to or greater than a rectangular planform blade is presented.

  2. Effective Results of an Open Concept School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobos, Irma; Lewallen, Joy

    2009-01-01

    Open concept schools were a popular architectural design in the 70s. They were built to provide large areas of flexible space for team teaching with small enclosed areas for restrooms, science labs, and special needs classrooms. Because there are no barriers and no closed doors, an attitude of inclusiveness is created merely by the building's…

  3. Effective Results of an Open Concept School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobos, Irma; Lewallen, Joy

    2009-01-01

    Open concept schools were a popular architectural design in the 70s. They were built to provide large areas of flexible space for team teaching with small enclosed areas for restrooms, science labs, and special needs classrooms. Because there are no barriers and no closed doors, an attitude of inclusiveness is created merely by the building's…

  4. Polarizability of acetanilide and RDX in the crystal: effect of molecular geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiaousis, D.; Munn, R. W.; Smith, P. J.; Popelier, P. L. A.

    2004-10-01

    Density-functional theory with the B3LYP functional at the 6-311++G** level is used to calculate the dipole moment and the static polarizability for acetanilide and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) in their in-crystal structures. For acetanilide the dipole moment is 2{1}/{2}% larger than for the gas-phase structure and for RDX (where there is a gross geometry change) it is 15% larger. The polarizability for the in-crystal structure is smaller than for the gas-phase structure by 3% for both species, whereas the in-crystal effective optical polarizability is larger than the gas-phase static polarizability for both crystals. Hence, effects in addition to the molecular geometry change in the crystal must be considered in order to interpret the effective polarizability completely.

  5. Effect of geometry on the screened acceptor binding energy in a quantum wire

    SciTech Connect

    Shanthi, R. Vijaya Nithiananthi, P.

    2014-04-24

    The effect of various Geometries G(x, y) of the GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As Quantum wire like G{sub 1}: (L, L) {sub 2}: (L, L/2) {sub 3}: (L/2, L/4) on the binding energy of an on-center acceptor impurity has been investigated through effective mass approximation using variational technique. The observations were made including the effect of spatial dependent dielectric screening for different concentration of Al, at T=300K. The influence of spatial dielectric screening on different geometries of the wire has been compared and hence the behavior of the acceptor impurity in GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As Quantum wire has been discussed.

  6. Specimen geometry effects on graphite/PMR-15 composites during thermo-oxidative aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, K. J.; Meyers, A.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were conducted to establish the effects of specimen geometry on the thermo-oxidative stability and the mechanical properties retention of unidirectional Celion 12000 graphite fiber reinforced PMR-15 polyimide composites. Weight loss, flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength are measured at isothermal aging times as long as 1639 hr at a temperature of 316 C for three different specimen geometries. It is found that the three different types of specimen surfaces exhibit different values of weight loss/unit area. The mechanical properties retention is also found to be dependent on geometry for these composites. The interlaminar shear strength decreases significantly over the complete range of aging times. The flexural strength retention starts showing geometric dependency after about 1000 hr of aging at 316C. Weight loss fluxes, associated with the three different types of exposed surfaces, are calculated and used to develop an empirical mathematical model for predicting the weight loss behavior of unidirectional composites of arbitrary geometries. Data are presented comparing experimentally determined weight loss with weight loss values predicted using the empirical model.

  7. Testing accommodation or modification? The effects of integrated object representation on enhancing geometry performance in children with and without geometry difficulties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dake; Wang, Qiu; Ding, Yi; Liu, Jeremy Jian

    2014-01-01

    According to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, geometry and spatial sense are fundamental components of mathematics learning. However, learning disabilities (LD) research has shown that many K-12 students encounter particular geometry difficulties (GD). This study examined the effect of an integrated object representation (IOR) accommodation on the test performance of students with GD compared to students without GD. Participants were 118 elementary students who took a researcher-developed geometry problem solving test under both a standard testing condition and an IOR accommodation condition. A total of 36 students who were classified with GD scored below 40% correct in the geometry problem solving test in the standard testing condition, and 82 students who were classified without GD scored equal to or above 40% correct in the same test and condition. All students were tested in both standard testing condition and IOR accommodation condition. The results from both ANOVA and regression discontinuity (RD) analyses suggested that students with GD benefited more than students without GD from the IOR accommodation. Implications of the study are discussed in terms of providing accommodations for students with mathematics learning difficulties and recommending RD design in LD research.

  8. Development methods of steam turbines 3D geometry optical control for effective heat power equipment quality improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvoynishnikov, Sergey

    2014-08-01

    A method for steam turbines 3D geometry optical control for effective heat power equipment quality improvement is proposed. It is shown that technical characteristics of the developed optical phase triangulation method for precision contactless geometry diagnostics of steam turbines meet modern requirements to 3D geometry measuring instruments and are perspective for further development. It is shown that used phase step method provides measurement error less than 0.024% of measurement range.

  9. [Evaluating the effectiveness of "open lung" maneuvre].

    PubMed

    Eremenko, A A; Borisov, R Iu; Egorov, V M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study--a comparative evaluation of the treatment of postoperative acute respiratory insufficiency in cardio surgical patients with lung opening maneuver and conventional mechanical ventilation. The study included 81 patients operated on the heart and magistral vessels in which the immediate postoperative period was complicated by the development of acute lung injury. Patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 (main) group (48 patients), on which the open lung technique was used, 2 (control) group (33 patients) who underwent a standard respiratory support. The initial values of the partial oxygen pressure in arterial blood and the oxygenation index in patients of both groups were significantly reduced, and the fraction of intrapulmonary shunting - significantly increased. Starting with 1 day sharp increase in PaO2 and IE in patients with the first group was noticed, which coincides with the beginning of the opening of the alveoli. At the same time, the dynamics of these indicators in the second group had the reverse tendency. After the recruiting maneuver in all patients significant improvements in the mechanics of breathing were noticed. As a result of the recruiting maneuver in the first group sustained improvement of arterial oxygenation was achieved in 35 patients. In patients with acute postoperative respiratory failure recruiting maneuver led to a significant increase in arterial oxygenation and reduce the fraction of intrapulmonary shunt. Application of "open lung" maneuver leads to the resolution of respiratory failure, which greatly reduces the timing of mechanical ventilation and length of stay of patients in intensive care units in comparison with traditional methods of respiratory therapy.

  10. Openings

    PubMed Central

    Selwyn, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing his clinic patient schedule for the day, a physician reflects on the history of a young woman he has been caring for over the past 9 years. What starts out as a routine visit then turns into a unique opening for communication and connection. A chance glimpse out the window of the exam room leads to a deeper meditation on parenthood, survival, and healing, not only for the patient but also for the physician. How many missed opportunities have we all had, without even realizing it, to allow this kind of fleeting but profound opening? PMID:26195687

  11. 14 CFR 1203.401 - Effect of open publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of open publication. 1203.401 Section 1203.401 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.401 Effect of open publication. Public...

  12. 14 CFR 1203.401 - Effect of open publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effect of open publication. 1203.401 Section 1203.401 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.401 Effect of open publication. Public...

  13. 14 CFR 1203.401 - Effect of open publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Effect of open publication. 1203.401 Section 1203.401 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.401 Effect of open publication. Public...

  14. 14 CFR 1203.401 - Effect of open publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Effect of open publication. 1203.401 Section 1203.401 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.401 Effect of open publication. Public...

  15. Determination of the bead geometry considering formability and stiffness effect using generalized forming limit concept (GFLC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Wan-Gi; Vogel, Sabrina; Bursac, Nikola; Albers, Albert; Volk, Wolfram

    2016-08-01

    Beads are used in deep drawn sheet metal parts for increasing the part stiffness. Thus, reductions of sheet metal thickness and consequently weight reduction can be reached. Style guides for types and positions of beads exist, which are often applied. However, higher stiffness effects can be realized using numeric optimization. The optimization algorithm considers the two-stepped manufacturing process consisting of deep drawing and bead stamping. The formability in both manufacturing steps represents a limiting factor. Considering nonlinear strain paths using generalized forming limit concept (GFLC), acceptable geometries will be determined in simulation. Among them, the efficient geometry which has higher stiffness effects will be selected in numerical and experimental tests. These will be integrated in the optimization algorithm.

  16. Geometry effect on energy transfer rate in a coupled-quantum-well structure: nonlinear regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salavati-fard, T.; Vazifehshenas, T.

    2014-12-01

    We study theoretically the effect of geometry on the energy transfer rate at nonlinear regime in a coupled-quantum-well system using the balance equation approach. To investigate comparatively the effect of both symmetric and asymmetric geometry, different structures are considered. The random phase approximation dynamic dielectric function is employed to include the contributions from both quasiparticle and plasmon excitations. Also, the short-range exchange interaction is taken into account through the Hubbard approximation. Our numerical results show that the energy transfer rate increases by increasing the well thicknesses in symmetric structures. Furthermore, by increasing spatial asymmetry, the energy transfer rate decreases for the electron temperature range of interest. From numerical calculations, it is obtained that the nonlinear energy transfer rate is proportional to the square of electron drift velocity in all structures and also, found that the influence of Hubbard local field correction on the energy transfer rate gets weaker by increasing the strength of applied electric field.

  17. On the Effects of Imaging Geometry on Multipolarization SAR Features for Oil Spill Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrunes, Stine; Jones, Cathleen E.; Brekke, Camilla; Holt, Benjamin; Espeseth, Martine M.

    2016-08-01

    Polarimetric SAR is increasingly used for oil spill observation. In order to develop reliable methods for oil spill detection and characterization, the sensitivity of these measurements to the imaging geometry, including incidence angle and look direction relative to the wind, must be investigated. In this paper, we study the effects of these parameters on L-band SAR data collected with the UAVSAR instrument over experimental oil spills. The relative look direction is found to have a larger effect on the slick detectability than the incidence angle, and the detectability is better in the downwind direction compared to upwind. The features showing the best slick detectability in the conditions investigated here are the VV intensity, HV intensity, the geometric intensity and the polarization difference. The latter feature shows low dependency on imaging geometry.

  18. The effect of nose geometry on the aerothermodynamic environment of shuttle entry configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertin, J. J.; Martindale, W. R.; Faria, H. T.; Graumann, B. W.; Horn, M. K.; Johnson, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    The effect was studied of nose geometry on the transition criteria for the windward boundary layer, on the extent of separation, on the heat transfer perturbation due to the canopy, and on the surface pressure and the heat transfer in the separated region. The data for each of these problems is analyzed. A literature review that concentrates on separation and the leeward flow-field is presented.

  19. Effective geometry of the n=1 uniformly rotating self-gravitating polytrope

    SciTech Connect

    Bini, D.; Cherubini, C.; Filippi, S.; Geralico, A.

    2010-08-15

    The ''effective geometry'' formalism is used to study the perturbations of a perfect barotropic Newtonian self-gravitating rotating and compressible fluid coupled with gravitational backreaction. The case of a uniformly rotating polytrope with index n=1 is investigated, due to its analytical tractability. Special attention is devoted to the geometrical properties of the underlying background acoustic metric, focusing, in particular, on null geodesics as well as on the analog light cone structure.

  20. Effect of fracture network geometry on density-driven flow in fractured porous rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujevic, Katharina; Graf, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    fractures whose length is close to the domain size. Fractures tend to destabilise the system and promote convection if fracture spacing is large, if fracture aperture is high and if fractures form closed circuits. In that case the fracture network provides continuous high-velocity flow paths throughout much of the domain. Closed circuits are most effective in terms of mass transport if they cover a large area and have a large vertical extension. Simulations of discontinuous fracture networks show that a continuous fracture path between solute source and sink is not necessary for free convection. Therefore, knowledge of the equivalent permeability of a fractured porous medium is not sufficient for the prediction of free convective flow. In addition, the geometry of the fracture network has to be considered.

  1. Flow visualization study of the effect of injection hole geometry on an inclined jet in crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Frederick F.; Ciancone, Michael L.

    1987-01-01

    A flow visualization was studied by using neutrally buoyant, helium-filled soap bubbles, to determine the effect of injection hole geometry on the trajectory of an air jet in a crossflow and to investigate the mechanisms involved in jet deflection. Experimental variables were the blowing rate, and the injection hole geometry cusp facing upstream (CUS), cusp facing downstream (CDS), round, swirl passage, and oblong. It is indicated that jet deflection is governed by both the pressure drag forces and the entrainment of free-stream fluid into the jet flow. For injection hole geometries with similar cross-sectional areas and similar mass flow rates, the jet configuration with the larger aspect ratio experienced a greater deflection. Entrainment arises from lateral shearing forces on the sides of the jet, which set up a dual vortex motion within the jet and thereby cause some of the main-stream fluid momentum to be swept into the jet flow. This additional momentum forces the jet nearer the surface. Of the jet configurations, the oblong, CDS, and CUS configurations exhibited the largest deflections. The results correlate well with film cooling effectiveness data, which suggests a need to determine the jet exit configuration of optimum aspect ratio to provide maximum film cooling effectiveness.

  2. Flow visualization study of the effect of injection hole geometry on an inclined jet in crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.; Ciancone, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    A flow visualization was studied by using neutrally buoyant, helium-filled soap bubbles, to determine the effect of injection hole geometry on the trajectory of an air jet in a crossflow and to investigate the mechanisms involved in jet deflection. Experimental variables were the blowing rate, and the injection hole geometry cusp facing upstream (CUS), cusp facing downstream (CDS), round, swirl passage, and oblong. It is indicated that jet deflection is governed by both the pressure drag forces and the entrainment of free-stream fluid into the jet flow. For injection hole geometries with similar cross-sectional areas and similar mass flow rates, the jet configuration with the larger aspect ratio experienced a greater deflection. Entrainment arises from lateral shearing forces on the sides of the jet, which set up a dual vortex motion within the jet and thereby cause some of the main-stream fluid momentum to be swept into the jet flow. This additional momentum forces the jet nearer the surface. Of the jet configurations, the oblong, CDS, and CUS configutations exhibited the largest deflections. The results correlate well with film cooling effectiveness data, which suggests a need to determine the jet exit configuration of optimum aspect ratio to provide maximum film cooling effectiveness.

  3. Flow visualization study of the effect of injection hole geometry on an inclined jet in crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Frederick F.; Ciancone, Michael L.

    1987-01-01

    A flow visualization was studied by using neutrally buoyant, helium-filled soap bubbles, to determine the effect of injection hole geometry on the trajectory of an air jet in a crossflow and to investigate the mechanisms involved in jet deflection. Experimental variables were the blowing rate, and the injection hole geometry cusp facing upstream (CUS), cusp facing downstream (CDS), round, swirl passage, and oblong. It is indicated that jet deflection is governed by both the pressure drag forces and the entrainment of free-stream fluid into the jet flow. For injection hole geometries with similar cross-sectional areas and similar mass flow rates, the jet configuration with the larger aspect ratio experienced a greater deflection. Entrainment arises from lateral shearing forces on the sides of the jet, which set up a dual vortex motion within the jet and thereby cause some of the main-stream fluid momentum to be swept into the jet flow. This additional momentum forces the jet nearer the surface. Of the jet configurations, the oblong, CDS, and CUS configurations exhibited the largest deflections. The results correlate well with film cooling effectiveness data, which suggests a need to determine the jet exit configuration of optimum aspect ratio to provide maximum film cooling effectiveness.

  4. Flow visualization study of the effect of injection hole geometry on an inclined jet in crossflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Frederick F.; Ciancone, Michael L.

    A flow visualization was studied by using neutrally buoyant, helium-filled soap bubbles, to determine the effect of injection hole geometry on the trajectory of an air jet in a crossflow and to investigate the mechanisms involved in jet deflection. Experimental variables were the blowing rate, and the injection hole geometry cusp facing upstream (CUS), cusp facing downstream (CDS), round, swirl passage, and oblong. It is indicated that jet deflection is governed by both the pressure drag forces and the entrainment of free-stream fluid into the jet flow. For injection hole geometries with similar cross-sectional areas and similar mass flow rates, the jet configuration with the larger aspect ratio experienced a greater deflection. Entrainment arises from lateral shearing forces on the sides of the jet, which set up a dual vortex motion within the jet and thereby cause some of the main-stream fluid momentum to be swept into the jet flow. This additional momentum forces the jet nearer the surface. Of the jet configurations, the oblong, CDS, and CUS configurations exhibited the largest deflections. The results correlate well with film cooling effectiveness data, which suggests a need to determine the jet exit configuration of optimum aspect ratio to provide maximum film cooling effectiveness.

  5. Flow visualization study of the effect of injection hole geometry on an inclined jet in crossflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, F. F.; Ciancone, M. L.

    A flow visualization was studied by using neutrally buoyant, helium-filled soap bubbles, to determine the effect of injection hole geometry on the trajectory of an air jet in a crossflow and to investigate the mechanisms involved in jet deflection. Experimental variables were the blowing rate, and the injection hole geometry cusp facing upstream (CUS), cusp facing downstream (CDS), round, swirl passage, and oblong. It is indicated that jet deflection is governed by both the pressure drag forces and the entrainment of free-stream fluid into the jet flow. For injection hole geometries with similar cross-sectional areas and similar mass flow rates, the jet configuration with the larger aspect ratio experienced a greater deflection. Entrainment arises from lateral shearing forces on the sides of the jet, which set up a dual vortex motion within the jet and thereby cause some of the main-stream fluid momentum to be swept into the jet flow. This additional momentum forces the jet nearer the surface. Of the jet configurations, the oblong, CDS, and CUS configutations exhibited the largest deflections. The results correlate well with film cooling effectiveness data, which suggests a need to determine the jet exit configuration of optimum aspect ratio to provide maximum film cooling effectiveness.

  6. Finite element analysis of magnetohydrodynamic effects on blood flow in an aneurysmal geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raptis, Anastasios; Xenos, Michalis; Tzirtzilakis, Efstratios; Matsagkas, Miltiadis

    2014-10-01

    Blood flow in an aneurysmal geometry, subjected to a static and uniform magnetic field, was studied. Blood was considered as a Newtonian, incompressible, and electrically conducting fluid. The nonlinear system of partial differential equations, describing the blood flow under the presence of a magnetic field, was discretized by the Galerkin weighted residual method. The transformation in generalized curvilinear coordinates facilitates the solution of the governing equations within arbitrary geometries. Pressure and velocity fields along with wall shear stress distributions were obtained for varying magnetic field intensities and directions. The visualization of the blood streamlines in the dilatation region highlights the effect of a magnetic field on the recirculation zones. The application of static magnetic fields can yield spatio-temporal description of blood flow patterns. The current study discusses implications of the hemodynamic properties estimated by respective screening techniques since the static magnetic field might cause alterations that possibly cannot be detected and thus eliminated.

  7. Effects of valence, geometry and electronic correlations on transport in transition metal benzene sandwich molecules.

    PubMed

    Karolak, M; Jacob, D

    2016-11-09

    We study the impact of the valence and the geometry on the electronic structure and transport properties of different transition metal-benzene sandwich molecules bridging the tips of a Cu nanocontact. Our density-functional calculations show that the electronic transport properties of the molecules depend strongly on the molecular geometry which can be controlled by the nanocontact tips. Depending on the valence of the transition metal center certain molecules can be tuned in and out of half-metallic behaviour facilitating potential spintronics applications. We also discuss our results in the framework of an Anderson impurity model, indicating cases where the inclusion of local correlations alters the ground state qualitatively. For Co and V centered molecules we find indications of an orbital Kondo effect.

  8. Effects of valence, geometry and electronic correlations on transport in transition metal benzene sandwich molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karolak, M.; Jacob, D.

    2016-11-01

    We study the impact of the valence and the geometry on the electronic structure and transport properties of different transition metal-benzene sandwich molecules bridging the tips of a Cu nanocontact. Our density-functional calculations show that the electronic transport properties of the molecules depend strongly on the molecular geometry which can be controlled by the nanocontact tips. Depending on the valence of the transition metal center certain molecules can be tuned in and out of half-metallic behaviour facilitating potential spintronics applications. We also discuss our results in the framework of an Anderson impurity model, indicating cases where the inclusion of local correlations alters the ground state qualitatively. For Co and V centered molecules we find indications of an orbital Kondo effect.

  9. The effects of scattering geometry on the spectrophotometric properties of powdered material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradie, J.; Veverka, J.; Buratti, B.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of reflectance spectra are being used as a basis in investigations to infer the composition of planetary surfaces. However, the reflectance spectra of powdered materials depend not only on the composition of these materials, but also on other variables. A description is presented of the results of an exploratory series of measurements designed to investigate the importance of scattering geometry as a variable in determining the shapes of spectral reflectance curves, taking into account half a dozen materials of planetary interest. It is noted that the considered results are consistent with those reported by Adams and Felice (1967), especially the results on the variation with phase angle of the Red/Blue color ratio for various silicate materials. The measurements demonstrate in detail that scattering geometry does affect the shapes of spectral reflectance curve. In some cases this effect is quite significant.

  10. Finite difference predictions of P-SV wave propagation inside submerged solids. II. Effect of geometry.

    PubMed

    Dahake, G; Gracewski, S M

    1997-10-01

    To understand better direct stress wave contributions to stone fragmentation during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), the numerical formulation developed in part I is applied to study the time evolution of stress wave fields produced inside submerged isotropic elastic solids having irregular geometries. Cut spheres are used to model stones that have already had an initial fracture. Ellipses are used to approximate other deviations from a spherical geometry. The propagation and focusing of the longitudinal (P) and shear (S) wave fronts are visualized by presenting internal strain contours. Internal strain measurements are obtained from strain gauges embedded inside plaster specimens to confirm the focusing effect obtained from the concave back surfaces of the stones. Fragmentation experiments indicate damage caused by spalling and direct stress wave focusing as well as a front surface pit presumably created by cavitation activity.

  11. Effect of microneedle geometry and supporting substrate on microneedle array penetration into skin.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, Jaspreet Singh; Quek, Ten Cheer; Soon, Wei Jun; Choi, Jaewoong; Zou, Shui; Kang, Lifeng

    2013-11-01

    Microneedles are being fast recognized as a useful alternative to injections in delivering drugs, vaccines, and cosmetics transdermally. Owing to skin's inherent elastic properties, microneedles require an optimal geometry for skin penetration. In vitro studies, using rat skin to characterize microneedle penetration in vivo, require substrates with suitable mechanical properties to mimic human skin's subcutaneous tissues. We tested the effect of these two parameters on microneedle penetration. Geometry in terms of center-to-center spacing of needles was investigated for its effect on skin penetration, when placed on substrates of different hardness. Both hard (clay) and soft (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS) substrates underneath rat skin and full-thickness pig skin were used as animal models and human skins were used as references. It was observed that there was an increase in percentage penetration with an increase in needle spacing. Microneedle penetration with PDMS as a support under stretched rat skin correlated better with that on full-thickness human skin, while penetration observed was higher when clay was used as a substrate. We showed optimal geometries for efficient penetration together with recommendation for a substrate that could better mimic the mechanical properties of human subcutaneous tissues, when using microneedles fabricated from poly(ethylene glycol)-based materials.

  12. Evaluation of the effect of geometry for measuring section thickness in tomosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Ryohei; Ishii, Rie; Kishimoto, Junichi; Yamato, Shinichiro; Takahata, Akira; Kohama, Chiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Our aim in this study was to evaluate the effect of geometry for measuring section thickness in tomosynthesis by using a metal bead device (bead method). Tomosynthesis images were obtained from two types of tomosynthesis equipment, Safire17 (ST, Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan) and XR650 (GT, GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI). After tomosynthesis radiography with each device, the bead tomosynthesis images were obtained by image reconstruction. The digital profile was obtained from the digital value of the bead central coordinate in the perpendicular direction, and we acquired the slice sensitivity profile (SSP). The section thickness was defined with the full width at half maximum obtained from the SSP. We investigated the change in section thickness under different evaluation conditions: the angular range, the height of the bead position, the source-image receptor distance (SID), and image processing. The section thickness decreased when the angular range and height of the bead position increased. Also, the section thickness varied with a change in the SID. The section thickness differed according to the geometry for measuring the section thickness. Thus, the effect of the geometry used for measurement should be considered when the section thickness in tomosynthesis is measured by the bead method.

  13. The Effect of Geometry on the Efficiency and Hemolysis of Centrifugal Implantable Blood Pumps.

    PubMed

    Mozafari, Sahand; Rezaienia, Mohammad A; Paul, Gordon M; Rothman, Martin T; Wen, Pihua; Korakianitis, Theodosios

    The application of centrifugal pumps as heart assist devices imposes design limitations on the impeller geometry. Geometry and operating parameters will affect the performance and the hemocompatibility of the device. Among all the parameters affecting the hemocompatibility, pressure, rotational speed, blade numbers, angle, and width have significant impact on the blood trauma. These parameters directly (pressure, speed) and indirectly (geometry) affect the efficiency of the pump as well. This study describes the experimental investigation on geometric parameters and their effect on the performance of small centrifugal pumps suitable for Mechanical Circulatory Support (MCS) devices. Experimental and numerical techniques were implemented to analyze the performance of 15 centrifugal impellers with different characteristics. The effect of each parameter on the pump performance and hemolysis was studied by calculating the normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) and the shear stress induced in each pump. The results show five and six blades, 15-35° outlet angle, and the lowest outlet width that meets the required pressure rise are optimum values for an efficient hemocompatible pump.

  14. Effects of change in slab geometry on the mantle flow and slab fabric in Southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezevic Antonijevic, Sanja; Wagner, Lara S.; Beck, Susan L.; Long, Maureen D.; Zandt, George; Tavera, Hernando

    2016-10-01

    The effects of complex slab geometries on the surrounding mantle flow field are still poorly understood. Here we combine shear wave velocity structure with Rayleigh wave phase anisotropy to examine these effects in southern Peru, where the slab changes its geometry from steep to flat. To the south, where the slab subducts steeply, we find trench-parallel anisotropy beneath the active volcanic arc that we attribute to the mantle wedge and/or upper portions of the subducting plate. Farther north, beneath the easternmost corner of the flat slab, we observe a pronounced low-velocity anomaly. This anomaly is caused either by the presence of volatiles and/or flux melting that could result from southward directed, volatile-rich subslab mantle flow or by increased temperature and/or decompression melting due to small-scale vertical flow. We also find evidence for mantle flow through the tear north of the subducting Nazca Ridge. Finally, we observe anisotropy patterns associated with the fast velocity anomalies that reveal along strike variations in the slab's internal deformation. The change in slab geometry from steep to flat contorts the subducting plate south of the Nazca Ridge causing an alteration of the slab petrofabric. In contrast, the torn slab to the north still preserves the primary (fossilized) petrofabric first established shortly after plate formation.

  15. Designing and Examining the Effects of a Dynamic Geometry Task Analysis Framework on Teachers' Written Geometer's Sketchpad Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trocki, Aaron David

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the usefulness of a Dynamic Geometry Task Analysis Framework for indicating task quality in dynamic geometry environments in general, and The Geometer's Sketchpad in particular. This research sought to first establish the validity of the framework for indicating task quality, and to second explore the effects of the…

  16. Effects of Using Dynamic Mathematics Software on Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Spatial Visualization Skills: The Case of Spatial Analytic Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kösa, Temel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using dynamic geometry software on preservice mathematics teachers' spatial visualization skills and to determine whether spatial visualization skills can be a predictor of success in learning analytic geometry of space. The study used a quasi-experimental design with a control group.…

  17. Designing and Examining the Effects of a Dynamic Geometry Task Analysis Framework on Teachers' Written Geometer's Sketchpad Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trocki, Aaron David

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the usefulness of a Dynamic Geometry Task Analysis Framework for indicating task quality in dynamic geometry environments in general, and The Geometer's Sketchpad in particular. This research sought to first establish the validity of the framework for indicating task quality, and to second explore the effects of the…

  18. The Effects of Specimen Geometry and Size on the Dynamic Failure of Aluminum Alloy 2219-T8 Under Impact Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolling, Denzell Tamarcus

    A significant amount of research has been devoted to the characterization of new engineering materials. Searching for new alloys which may improve weight, ultimate strength, or fatigue life are just a few of the reasons why researchers study different materials. In support of that mission this study focuses on the effects of specimen geometry and size on the dynamic failure of AA2219 aluminum alloy subjected to impact loading. Using the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) system different geometric samples including cubic, rectangular, cylindrical, and frustum samples are loaded at different strain rates ranging from 1000s-1 to 6000s-1. The deformation properties, including the potential for the formation of adiabatic shear bands, of the different geometries are compared. Overall the cubic geometry achieves the highest critical strain and the maximum stress values at low strain rates and the rectangular geometry has the highest critical strain and the maximum stress at high strain rates. The frustum geometry type consistently achieves the lowest the maximum stress value compared to the other geometries under equal strain rates. All sample types clearly indicated susceptibility to strain localization at different locations within the sample geometry. Micrograph analysis indicated that adiabatic shear band geometry was influenced by sample geometry, and that specimens with a circular cross section are more susceptible to shear band formation than specimens with a rectangular cross section.

  19. Finite Element Simulations for Investigating the Effects of Specimen Geometry in Superplastic Tensile Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazzal, Mohammad; Abu-Farha, Fadi; Curtis, Richard

    2011-08-01

    Characterizing the behavior of superplastic materials is largely based on the uniaxial tensile test; yet the unique nature of these materials requires a particularly tailored testing methodology, different to that used with conventional materials. One of the crucial testing facets is the specimen geometry, which has a great impact on the outcome of a superplastic tensile test, as a result of the associated extreme conditions. And while researchers agree that it should take a notably different form than the typical dog-bone shape; there is no universal agreement on the specimen's particular size and dimensions, as evident by the disparities in test specimens used in the various superplastic testing efforts found throughout the literature. In view of that, this article is dedicated to understanding the effects of specimen geometry on the superplastic behavior of the material during tensile testing. Deformation of the Ti6Al4V titanium alloy is FE simulated based on a multitude of specimen geometries, covering a wide range of gauge length, gauge width, grip length, and grip width values. The study provides key insights on the influences of each geometrical parameter as well as their interactions, and provides recommendations on selecting the specimen's proportions for accurate and unified tensile testing of superplastic materials.

  20. The effect of surface anisotropy and viewing geometry on the estimation of NDVI from AVHRR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, David; Verstraete, M.; Pinty, B.

    1995-01-01

    Since terrestrial surfaces are anisotropic, all spectral reflectance measurements obtained with a small instantaneous field of view instrument are specific to these angular conditions, and the value of the corresponding NDVI, computed from these bidirectional reflectances, is relative to the particular geometry of illumination and viewing at the time of the measurement. This paper documents the importance of these geometric effects through simulations of the AVHRR data acquisition process, and investigates the systematic biases that result from the combination of ecosystem-specific anisotropies with instrument-specific sampling capabilities. Typical errors in the value of NDVI are estimated, and strategies to reduce these effects are explored. -from Authors

  1. Helicopter rotor wake geometry and its influence in forward flight. Volume 1: Generalized wake geometry and wake effect on rotor airloads and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    An analytic investigation to generalize wake geometry of a helicopter rotor in steady level forward flight and to demonstrate the influence of wake deformation in the prediction of rotor airloads and performance is described. Volume 1 presents a first level generalized wake model based on theoretically predicted tip vortex geometries for a selected representative blade design. The tip vortex distortions are generalized in equation form as displacements from the classical undistorted tip vortex geometry in terms of vortex age, blade azimuth, rotor advance ratio, thrust coefficient, and number of blades. These equations were programmed to provide distorted wake coordinates at very low cost for use in rotor airflow and airloads prediction analyses. The sensitivity of predicted rotor airloads, performance, and blade bending moments to the modeling of the tip vortex distortion are demonstrated for low to moderately high advance ratios for a representative rotor and the H-34 rotor. Comparisons with H-34 rotor test data demonstrate the effects of the classical, predicted distorted, and the newly developed generalized wake models on airloads and blade bending moments. Use of distorted wake models results in the occurrence of numerous blade-vortex interactions on the forward and lateral sides of the rotor disk. The significance of these interactions is related to the number and degree of proximity to the blades of the tip vortices. The correlation obtained with the distorted wake models (generalized and predicted) is encouraging.

  2. Light shadowing effect of large breast lesions imaged by optical tomography in reflection geometry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Zhu, Quing

    2010-01-01

    When a large, highly absorbing breast lesion is imaged by optical tomography in reflection geometry, most of the photons are absorbed by the top portion of the lesion. As a result, the lower portion of the lesion is not quantified correctly. This posterior light shadowing effect is similar to the sound shadowing effect frequently seen in pulse-echo ultrasound images. The presence of significant posterior shadowing of a lesion in ultrasound images suggests malignance. The light shadowing effect due to optical contrast is characterized using a simple measure and validated by the Monte Carlo photon-tracking method and phantom experiments. Clinical examples of large malignant and benign lesions are presented to demonstrate the shadowing effect and the utility of the measure. Understanding and quantifying the shadowing effect due to optical contrast is important for characterizing larger malignant cancers from benign lesions.

  3. Effects of fatigue on driving performance under different roadway geometries: a simulator study.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongji; Zhao, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xingjian; Zhang, Yunlong; Rong, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the effects of fatigue on driving performance under different roadway geometries using a driving simulator. Twenty-four participants each completed a driving scenario twice: while alert and while experiencing fatigue. The driving scenario was composed of straight road segments and curves; there were 6 curves with 3 radius values (i.e., 200, 500, and 800 m) and 2 turning directions (i.e., left and right). Analysis was conducted on driving performance measures such as longitudinal speed, steering wheel movements, and lateral position. RESULTS confirmed that decremental changes in driving performance due to fatigue varied among road conditions. On straight segments, drivers' abilities to steer and maintain lane position were impaired, whereas on curves we found decremental changes in the quality of longitudinal speed as well as steering control and keeping the vehicle in the lane. Moreover, the effects of fatigue on driving performance were relative to the radius and direction of the curve. Fatigue impaired drivers' abilities to control the steering wheel, and the impairment proved more obvious on curves. The degree varied significantly as the curve radius changed. Drivers tended to drive closer to the right side due to fatigue, and the impairment in maintaining lane position became more obvious as the right-turn curve radius decreased. Driver fatigue has detrimental effects on driving performance, and the effects differ under different roadway geometries.

  4. Casimir Force on a Surface with Shallow Nanoscale Corrugations: Geometry and Finite Conductivity Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Y.; Guerout, R.; Lussange, J.; Lambrecht, A.; Cirelli, R. A.; Klemens, F.; Mansfield, W. M.; Pai, C. S.; Chan, H. B.

    2010-12-17

    We measure the Casimir force between a gold sphere and a silicon plate with nanoscale, rectangular corrugations with a depth comparable to the separation between the surfaces. In the proximity force approximation (PFA), both the top and bottom surfaces of the corrugations contribute to the force, leading to a distance dependence that is distinct from a flat surface. The measured Casimir force is found to deviate from the PFA by up to 10%, in good agreement with calculations based on scattering theory that includes both geometry effects and the optical properties of the material.

  5. A nonlinear theory of dust voids in cylindrical geometry with the convective effect

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yue; Mao Songtao; Wang Zhengxiong; Wang Xiaogang

    2006-06-15

    A time-dependent, self-consistent nonlinear model with the convective term for the void formation in dusty plasmas is given. Furthermore, the cylindrical configuration is applied instead of the Cartesian system, considering the device geometry in experiments. The nonlinear evolution of the dust void is then investigated numerically. It is shown that, similar to the slab model, the ion drag plays a crucial role in the evolution of the void. However, the effect of the convective term slows down the void formation process and the void size obtained in the cylindrical coordinate is larger than that obtained in the Cartesian coordinates.

  6. Numerical investigation of the effects of shear waves in transcranial photoacoustic tomography with a planar geometry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Using a recently developed reconstruction method for photoacoustic tomography (PAT) valid for a planar measurement geometry parallel to a layered medium, we investigate the effects of shear wave propagation in the solid layer upon the ability to estimate Fourier components of the object. We examine this ability as a function of the thickness of the layer supporting shear waves as well as of the incidence angle of the field in the planewave representation. Examples are used to demonstrate the importance of accounting for shear waves in transcranial PAT. Error measures are introduced to quantify the error found when omitting shear waves from the forward model in PAT. PMID:22734745

  7. General Relativity Without General Relativity: Self-Gravitating Systems and Effective Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Donato; Cherubini, Christian; Filippi, Simonetta; Geralico, Andrea

    Perturbations of Newtonian self-gravitating barotropic perfect fluid systems can be studied via an extension of the "effective geometry" formalism. The case of polytropic spherical stars described by the Lane-Emden equation has been studied in the past in the known cases of existing explicit solutions relevant for both stellar and galactic dynamics. Applications of the formalism in the case of rotating configurations found via William's "matching method" and possible generalizations are here discussed. The present formulation represents another natural scenario, in addition with the usual one of quantum condensates in laboratories, in which the acoustic analogy has physical relevance.

  8. Numerical investigation of the effects of shear waves in transcranial photoacoustic tomography with a planar geometry.

    PubMed

    Schoonover, Robert W; Wang, Lihong V; Anastasio, Mark A

    2012-06-01

    Using a recently developed reconstruction method for photoacoustic tomography (PAT) valid for a planar measurement geometry parallel to a layered medium, we investigate the effects of shear wave propagation in the solid layer upon the ability to estimate Fourier components of the object. We examine this ability as a function of the thickness of the layer supporting shear waves as well as of the incidence angle of the field in the planewave representation. Examples are used to demonstrate the importance of accounting for shear waves in transcranial PAT. Error measures are introduced to quantify the error found when omitting shear waves from the forward model in PAT.

  9. Effects of trade openness and market scale on different regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Renqu; Yang, Zisheng

    2017-04-01

    This paper revisits the relationship between growth, trade openness and market scale. Empirical studies have provided that area develops lopsided problem in China is increasingly serious, while large trade openness and market scale bring about more economic growth. We use a number of data set from province-level’s gross domestic product and socio-economic, as well as statistical methods panel ordinary least squares and instrumental variables estimation techniques to explore the effects of trade openness and regional market scale on the three major economic regions. The results indicate: Firstly, the impact of market scale and trade openness on economic growth is found to be positive. Secondly, the overall regional disparity is owing to the trade openness, market scale and macroeconomic policies. Thirdly, midland and western region should take advantage of regional geographical location and resource to expand exports and narrow the regional difference.

  10. Numerical modelling of the effect of changing surface geometry on mountain glacier mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C.; Carrivick, J.; Evans, A.; Carver, S.

    2012-12-01

    Mountain glaciers and ice caps are extremely useful indicators of environmental change. Due to their small size, they have much faster response times to climate changes than the large ice masses of Greenland and Antarctica. Mountain glaciers are important for society as sources of water for energy production and irrigation. The meltwater cycles significantly impact local ecology. Consequently, models assessing the effect of complicated glacier surface geometry on glacier mass balance are becoming increasingly popular. Here we apply such a model to a glacier record spanning 100 years. Our study encompasses the creation of a GIS enabling analysis of changing glacier geometry over the 20th and early 21st Centuries and the development and testing of a novel user-friendly distributed-surface energy balance model that is designed specifically to consider the effect that these changes have on mountain glacier mass balance. Long-term records of mass balance are rare for arctic Mountain glaciers, making model development and evaluation difficult. One exception is Kårsaglaciären in arctic Sweden for which there is a variety of data for the past 100 years, sourced from historical surveys, satellite imagery and recent field work. Firstly, we present the construction of robust three-dimensional glacier surface reconstructions for Kårsaglaciären within a GIS, specifically discussing the methods of interpolation used to create the surfaces. We highlight the methods and importance of inter-model sensitivity analyses as well as Monte Carlo simulations used to assess the effect of the input data utilised in the kriging algorithms. Analyses integral to the modelling stage of the project, such as the geometries of the resultant surfaces as well as the interrelationships between them, will be discussed. Secondly, we present the melt model which has been constructed in order to test the effect of changing geometry on mass balance. Our melt model can carry out systematic testing of

  11. Effect of forebody tangential slot blowing on flow about a full aircraft geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, Ken; Rizk, Yehia M.; Schiff, Lewis B.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of forebody tangential slot blowing on the flowfield about an F/A-18 aircraft is investigated numerically using solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. Computed solutions are obtained for a full aircraft geometry, including the fuselage, wing with deflected leading-edge flap, empennage, and a faired-over engine inlet. The computational slot geometry corresponds to that used in full-scale wind tunnel tests. Solutions are computed using flight test conditions and jet mass flow ratios equivalent to wind tunnel test conditions. The effect of slot location is analyzed by computing two non-time-accurate solutions with a 16 in. slot located 3 in. and 11 in. aft of the nose of the aircraft. These computations resolve the trends observed in the full-scale wind tunnel test data. The flow aft of the leading edge extension (LEX) vortex burst is unsteady. A time-accurate solution is obtained to investigate the flow characteristics aft of the vortex burst, including the effect of blowing on tail buffet.

  12. Effect of toroidal plasma rotation on double tearing modes in cylindrical geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. B.; Lu, X. Q.; Huang, Q. H.; Dong, J. Q.; Gong, X. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of toroidal plasma rotation on q = 3 double tearing modes (DTMs) was studied numerically in cylindrical geometry using the method of reduced magnetohydrodynamic simulation. The results indicate that toroidal plasma rotation can reduce the growth rate of DTMs, but the magnitude of toroidal velocity has weak effect, especially without shear. When the shear of toroidal velocity exists, the suppression effect becomes better. Whether the velocity flow has shear or not, the growth rate of DTMs decreases as the magnitude of toroidal velocity increases. With the increase of velocity shear, the DTMs grow slowly. And the suppression effect of toroidal plasma rotation in early growth and transition stage is better, which means that the toroidal plasma rotation can suppress the linear growth of islands. Furthermore, the toroidal plasma rotation can suppress the evolution of poloidal stream. And the toroidal velocity shear on the q = 3 rational surface is more dominant than the magnitude of toroidal velocity in determining the DTM characteristics.

  13. Learning Geometry through Dynamic Geometry Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsythe, Sue

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates effective teaching and learning of geometrical concepts using dynamic geometry software (DGS). Based from her students' reactions to her project, the author found that her students' understanding of the concepts was better than if they had learned geometry through paper-based tasks. However, mixing computer…

  14. Learning Geometry through Dynamic Geometry Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsythe, Sue

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates effective teaching and learning of geometrical concepts using dynamic geometry software (DGS). Based from her students' reactions to her project, the author found that her students' understanding of the concepts was better than if they had learned geometry through paper-based tasks. However, mixing computer…

  15. The effect of cathode felt geometries on electrochemical characteristics of sodium sulfur (NaS) cells: Planar vs. tubular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Goun; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Lee, Younki; Cho, Namung; Kim, Chang-Soo; Jung, Keeyoung

    2016-09-01

    Two sodium sulfur (NaS) cells, one with a planar design and the other with a tubular design, were subject to discharge-charge cycles in order to investigate the effect of cathode felt geometries on electrochemical characteristics of NaS cells. Their discharge-charge behaviors over 200 cycles were evaluated at the operation temperature of 350 °C with the current densities of 100 mA cm-2 for discharge and 80 mA cm-2 for charge. The results showed that the deviation from theoretical open circuit voltage changes of a planar cell was smaller than those of a tubular cell resulting in potential specific power loss reduction during operation. In order to understand the effect, a three dimensional statistically representative matrix for a cathode felt has been generated using experimentally measured data. It turns out that the area specific fiber number density in the outer side area of a tubular cathode felt is smaller than that of a planar felt resulting in occurrence of larger voltage drops via retarded convection of cathode melts during cell operation.

  16. Effect of pressure depletion on fracture geometry evolution and production performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, H.; Poe, B.; Heidt, H.

    1995-12-31

    A fractured well performance evaluation study, in the Frontier formation of the Moxa Arch area (Southwestern Wyoming), revealed pressure depletion due to older 640 and 320 acre-spaced producers along the NE-SW diagonal in 640 acre sections. This was confirmed by six buildup tests across these sections. Reservoir simulation also showed that the production history of some of these old, 320-acre-spaced wells causes enough pore pressure depletion to affect the fracture geometry in the new 160 acre infill offsets on the other diagonal in the same section. This paper presents the simulated pore pressure distribution in the drainage area of these older wells validated by buildup tests and their effects on the principal effective stress field and con- sequent fracture geometry evolution around the newer wells. The present paper also shows that depending on the location of the new well in the depleted zone and the original azimuth of the induced fractures, the newly-created fracture may be asymmetric with only one wing of the fracture extending into the depleted area developing significant length and conductivity. This happens at the cost of development of the other fracture wing. Such asymmetric development of fracture wings can negatively impact production, in addition to the production loss due to actual reservoir pressure depletion.

  17. The effect of wall geometry in particle-laden turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdehkakha, Hoora; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2016-11-01

    Particle-laden turbulent flow plays a significant role in various industrial applications, as turbulence alters the exchange of momentum and energy between particles and fluid flow. In wall-bounded flows, inhomogeneity in turbulent properties is the primary cause of turbophoresis that leads the particles toward the walls. Conversely, shear-induced lift force on the particles can become important if large scale vortical structures are present. The objective of this study is to understand the effects of geometry on fluid flows and consequently on particles transport and concentration. Direct numerical simulations combined with point particle Lagrangian tracking are performed for several geometries such as a pipe, channel, square duct, and squircle (rounded-corners duct). In non-circular ducts, anisotropic and inhomogeneous Reynolds stresses are the most influential phenomena that produce the secondary flows. It has been shown that these motions can have a significant impact on transporting momentum, vorticity, and energy from the core of the duct to the corners. The main focus of the present study is to explore the effects of near the wall structures and secondary flows on turbophoresis, lift, and particle concentration.

  18. The effect of urban geometry on mean radiant temperature under future climate change: a study of three European cities.

    PubMed

    Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Lindberg, Fredrik; Rayner, David; Thorsson, Sofia

    2015-07-01

    Future anthropogenic climate change is likely to increase the air temperature (T(a)) across Europe and increase the frequency, duration and magnitude of severe heat stress events. Heat stress events are generally associated with clear-sky conditions and high T(a), which give rise to high radiant heat load, i.e. mean radiant temperature (T(mrt)). In urban environments, T mrt is strongly influenced by urban geometry. The present study examines the effect of urban geometry on daytime heat stress in three European cities (Gothenburg in Sweden, Frankfurt in Germany and Porto in Portugal) under present and future climates, using T(mrt) as an indicator of heat stress. It is found that severe heat stress occurs in all three cities. Similar maximum daytime T(mrt) is found in open areas in all three cities despite of the latitudinal differences in average daytime T(mrt). In contrast, dense urban structures like narrow street canyons are able to mitigate heat stress in the summer, without causing substantial changes in T(mrt) in the winter. Although the T(mrt) averages are similar for the north-south and east-west street canyons in each city, the number of hours when T(mrt) exceeds the threshold values of 55.5 and 59.4 °C-used as indicators of moderate and severe heat stress-in the north-south canyons is much higher than that in the east-west canyons. Using statistically downscaled data from a regional climate model, it is found that the study sites were generally warmer in the future scenario, especially Porto, which would further exacerbate heat stress in urban areas. However, a decrease in solar radiation in Gothenburg and Frankfurt reduces T(mrt) in the spring, while the reduction in T(mrt) is somewhat offset by increasing T(a) in other seasons. It suggests that changes in the T(mrt) under the future scenario are dominated by variations in T(a). Nonetheless, the intra-urban differences remain relatively stable in the future. These findings suggest that dense urban

  19. Effect of pylon cross-sectional geometries on propulsion integration for a low-wing transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingraldi, Anthony M.; Naik, Dinesh A.; Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to evaluate the performance effects of various types of pylons on a 1/17th-scale, low-wing transport model. The model wing was designed for cruise at a Mach number of 0.77 and a lift coefficient of 0.55. The pylons were tested at two wing semispan locations over a range of toe-in angles. The effects of toe-in angle were found to be minimal, but the variation in geometry had a more pronounced effect on the lift characteristics of the model. A pylon whose maximum thickness occurred at the wing trailing edge, known as a compression pylon, proved to be the best choice in terms of retaining the flow characteristics of the wing without pylons. Practical considerations such as structural viability may necessitate modification of the compression pylon concept in order to take advantage of its apparent benefits.

  20. Numerical Investigation of the Effects of Channel Geometry on Platelet Activation and Blood Damage

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jingshu; Yun, B. Min; Fallon, Anna M.; Hanson, Stephen R.; Aidun, Cyrus K.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2011-01-01

    Thromboembolic complications in Bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) are believed to be due to the combination of high shear stresses and large recirculation regions. Relating blood damage to design geometry is therefore essential to ultimately optimize the design of BMHVs. The aim of this research is to quantitatively study the effect of 3D channel geometry on shear-induced platelet activation and aggregation, and to choose an appropriate blood damage index (BDI) model for future numerical simulations. The simulations in this study use a recently developed lattice-Boltzmann with external boundary force (LBM-EBF) method [Wu, J., and C. K. Aidun. Int. J. Numer. Method Fluids 62(7):765–783, 2010; Wu, J., and C. K. Aidun. Int. J. Multiphase flow 36:202–209, 2010]. The channel geometries and flow conditions are re-constructed from recent experiments by Fallon [The Development of a Novel in vitro Flow System to Evaluate Platelet Activation and Procoagulant Potential Induced by Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve Leakage Jets in School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. Atlanta: Georgia Institute of Technology] and Fallon et al. [Ann. Biomed. Eng. 36(1):1]. The fluid flow is computed on a fixed regular ‘lattice’ using the LBM, and each platelet is mapped onto a Lagrangian frame moving continuously throughout the fluid domain. The two-way fluid–solid interactions are determined by the EBF method by enforcing a no-slip condition on the platelet surface. The motion and orientation of the platelet are obtained from Newtonian dynamics equations. The numerical results show that sharp corners or sudden shape transitions will increase blood damage. Fallon’s experimental results were used as a basis for choosing the appropriate BDI model for use in future computational simulations of flow through BMHVs. PMID:20976558

  1. Numerical investigation of the effects of channel geometry on platelet activation and blood damage.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingshu; Yun, B Min; Fallon, Anna M; Hanson, Stephen R; Aidun, Cyrus K; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2011-02-01

    Thromboembolic complications in Bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) are believed to be due to the combination of high shear stresses and large recirculation regions. Relating blood damage to design geometry is therefore essential to ultimately optimize the design of BMHVs. The aim of this research is to quantitatively study the effect of 3D channel geometry on shear-induced platelet activation and aggregation, and to choose an appropriate blood damage index (BDI) model for future numerical simulations. The simulations in this study use a recently developed lattice-Boltzmann with external boundary force (LBM-EBF) method [Wu, J., and C. K. Aidun. Int. J. Numer. Method Fluids 62(7):765-783, 2010; Wu, J., and C. K. Aidun. Int. J. Multiphase flow 36:202-209, 2010]. The channel geometries and flow conditions are re-constructed from recent experiments by Fallon [The Development of a Novel in vitro Flow System to Evaluate Platelet Activation and Procoagulant Potential Induced by Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve Leakage Jets in School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. Atlanta: Georgia Institute of Technology] and Fallon et al. [Ann. Biomed. Eng. 36(1):1]. The fluid flow is computed on a fixed regular 'lattice' using the LBM, and each platelet is mapped onto a Lagrangian frame moving continuously throughout the fluid domain. The two-way fluid-solid interactions are determined by the EBF method by enforcing a no-slip condition on the platelet surface. The motion and orientation of the platelet are obtained from Newtonian dynamics equations. The numerical results show that sharp corners or sudden shape transitions will increase blood damage. Fallon's experimental results were used as a basis for choosing the appropriate BDI model for use in future computational simulations of flow through BMHVs.

  2. Investigating pyroclast ejection dynamics using shock-tube experiments: temperature, grain size and vent geometry effects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigala, V.; Kueppers, U.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions eject large quantities of gas and particles into the atmosphere. The portion directly above the vent commonly shows characteristics of underexpanded jets. Understanding the factors that influence the initial pyroclast ejection dynamics is necessary in order to better assess the resulting near- and far-field hazards. Field observations are often insufficient for the characterization of volcanic explosions due to lack of safe access to such environments. Fortunately, their dynamics can be simulated in the laboratory where experiments are performed under controlled conditions. We ejected loose natural particles from a shock-tube while controlling temperature (25˚ and 500˚C), overpressure (15MPa), starting grain size distribution (1-2 mm, 0.5-1 mm and 0.125-0.250 mm), sample-to-vent distance and vent geometry. For each explosion we quantified the velocity of individual particles, the jet spreading angle and the production of fines. Further, we varied the setup to allow for different sample-to-gas ratios and deployed four different vent geometries: 1) cylindrical, 2) funnel with a flaring of 30˚, 3) funnel with a flaring of 15˚ and 4) nozzle. The results showed maximum particle velocities up to 296 m/s, gas spreading angles varying from 21˚ to 37˚ and particle spreading angles from 3˚ to 40˚. Moreover we observed dynamically evolving ejection characteristics and variations in the production of fines during the course of individual experiments. Our experiments mechanistically mimic the process of pyroclast ejection. Thus the capability for constraining the effects of input parameters (fragmentation conditions) and conduit/vent geometry on ballistic pyroclastic plumes has been clearly established. These data obtained in the presence of well-documented conduit and vent conditions, should greatly enhance our ability to numerically model explosive ejecta in nature.

  3. Downstream effects of dams on channel geometry and bottomland vegetation: Regional patterns in the Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, J.M.; Osterkamp, W.R.; Scott, M.L.; Auble, G.T.

    1998-01-01

    The response of rivers and riparian forests to upstream dams shows a regional pattern related to physiographic and climatic factors that influence channel geometry. We carried out a spatial analysis of the response of channel geometry to 35 dams in the Great Plains and Central Lowlands, USA. The principal response of a braided channel to an upstream dam is channel-narrowing, and the principal response of a meandering channel is a reduction in channel migration rate. Prior to water management, braided channels were most common in the southwestern Plains where sand is abundant, whereas meandering channels were most common in the northern and eastern Plains. The dominant response to upstream dams has been channel-narrowing in the southwestern Plains (e.g., six of nine cases in the High Plains) and reduction in migration rate in the north and east (e.g., all of twelve cases in the Missouri Plateau and Western Lake Regions). Channel-narrowing is associated with a burst of establishment of native and exotic woody riparian pioneer species on the former channel bed. In contrast, reduction in channel migration rate is associated with a decrease in reproduction of woody riparian pioneers. Thus, riparian pioneer forests along large rivers in the southwestern Plains have temporarily increased following dam construction while such forests in the north and east have decreased. These patterns explain apparent contradictions in conclusions of studies that focused on single rivers or small regions and provide a framework for predicting effects of dams on large rivers in the Great Plains and elsewhere. These conclusions are valid only for large rivers. A spatial analysis of channel width along 286 streams ranging in mean annual discharge from 0.004 to 1370 cubic meters per second did not produce the same clear regional pattern, in part because the channel geometries of small and large streams are affected differently by a sandy watershed.

  4. Effect of conductor geometry on source localization: Implications for epilepsy studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schlitt, H.; Heller, L.; Best, E.; Ranken, D.; Aaron, R.

    1994-07-01

    We shall discuss the effects of conductor geometry on source localization for applications in epilepsy studies. The most popular conductor model for clinical MEG studies is a homogeneous sphere. However, several studies have indicated that a sphere is a poor model for the head when the sources are deep, as is the case for epileptic foci in the mesial temporal lobe. We believe that replacing the spherical model with a more realistic one in the inverse fitting procedure will improve the accuracy of localizing epileptic sources. In order to include a realistic head model in the inverse problem, we must first solve the forward problem for the realistic conductor geometry. We create a conductor geometry model from MR images, and then solve the forward problem via a boundary integral equation for the electric potential due to a specified primary source. One the electric potential is known, the magnetic field can be calculated directly. The most time-intensive part of the problem is generating the conductor model; fortunately, this needs to be done only once for each patient. It takes little time to change the primary current and calculate a new magnetic field for use in the inverse fitting procedure. We present the results of a series of computer simulations in which we investigate the localization accuracy due to replacing the spherical model with the realistic head model in the inverse fitting procedure. The data to be fit consist of a computer generated magnetic field due to a known current dipole in a realistic head model, with added noise. We compare the localization errors when this field is fit using a spherical model to the fit using a realistic head model. Using a spherical model is comparable to what is usually done when localizing epileptic sources in humans, where the conductor model used in the inverse fitting procedure does not correspond to the actual head.

  5. Theoretical study of the effect of stress-dependent remodeling on arterial geometry under hypertensive conditions.

    PubMed

    Rachev, A

    1997-08-01

    Remodeling of arterial geometry was studied on the basis of a theoretical model. Sustained hypertension was simulated by a step increase in blood pressure. The artery was considered to be a thick-walled two-layer tube made of nonlinear elastic incompressible material. The basic hypothesis is that the artery remodels its zero-stress configuration in such a way that the strain and stress distributions in the arterial wall under hypertensive conditions are the same as under normotensive conditions. Using this hypothesis, a method for determining the geometrical dimensions of the zero-stress configuration of the hypertensive artery was proposed. To ensure uniqueness of the solution, two side conditions on the remodeling process are imposed: (a) the inner radius of the artery in the unloaded state remains unchanged; and (b) the ratio between the thickness of the inner and outer layer of the hypertensive artery in the zero-stress configuration is known. The model predicts that the arterial wall remodeling causes: (i) an increase of the wall thickness both in the unloaded and physiological states; (ii) an increase of the inner diameter of the hypertensive vessel under high pressure compared to the diameter of the normotensive artery under normal pressure; (iii) the opened-up configuration which arises when the unloaded arterial segment is cut radially still contains residual strains and stresses. These results are consistent with published experimental findings. It is speculated that the origin of residual stresses that exist in the unloaded and opened-up configurations is the stress-modulated growth.

  6. The study of combined action of agents using differential geometry of dose-effect surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lam, G K

    1992-09-01

    Although graphic surfaces have been used routinely in the study of combined action of agents, they are mainly used for display purposes. In this paper, it is shown that useful mechanistic information can be obtained from an analytical study of these surfaces using the tools of differential geometry. From the analysis of some simple dose-effect surfaces, it is proposed that the intrinsic curvature, referred to in differential geometry as the Gaussian curvature, of a dose-effect surface can be used as a general criterion for the classification of interaction between different agents. This is analogous to the interpretation of the line curvature of a dose-effect curve as an indication of self-interaction between doses for an agent. In this framework, the dose-effect surface would have basic uniform fabric with zero curvature in the absence of interaction, tentatively referred to as null-interaction. Pictorially speaking, this fabric is distorted locally or globally like the stretching and shrinking of a rubber sheet by the presence of interaction mechanisms between different agents. Since self-interaction with dilution dummies does not generate intrinsic curvature, this criterion of null-interaction would describe the interaction between two truly different agents. It is shown that many of the published interaction mechanisms give rise to dose-effect surfaces with characteristic curvatures. This possible correlation between the intrinsic geometric curvature of dose-effect surfaces and the biophysical mechanism of interaction presents an interesting philosophical viewpoint for the study of combined action of agents.

  7. The shielding effect of small-scale martian surface geometry on ultraviolet flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, J. E.; Smith, P. H.; Tanner, R.; Schuerger, A. C.; Venkateswaran, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    The atmosphere of Mars does little to attenuate incoming ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Large amounts of UV radiation sterilize the hardiest of terrestrial organisms within minutes, and chemically alter the soil such that organic molecules at or near the surface are rapidly destroyed. Thus the survival of any putative martian life near the surface depends to a large extent on how much UV radiation it receives. Variations in small-scale geometry of the surface such as pits, trenches, flat faces and overhangs can have a significant effect on the incident UV flux and may create "safe havens" for organisms and organic molecules. In order to examine this effect, a 1-D radiative transfer sky model with 836 meshed points (plus the Sun) was developed which includes both diffuse and direct components of the surface irradiance. This model derives the variation of UV flux with latitude and an object's Geometric Shielding Ratio (a ratio which describes the geometry of each situation). The best protection is offered by overhangs with flux reduced to a factor of 1.8±0.2×10 of the unprotected value, a reduction which does not vary significantly by latitude. Pits and cracks are less effective with a reduction in UV flux of only up to 4.5±0.5×10 for the modeled scenarios; however, they are more effective for the same geometric shielding ratio than overhangs at high latitudes due to the low height of the Sun in the sky. Lastly, polar faces of rocks have the least effective shielding geometry with at most a 1.1±0.1×10 reduction in UV flux. Polar faces of rocks are most effective at mid latitudes where the Sun is never directly overhead, as at tropical latitudes, and never exposes the back of the rock, as at polar latitudes. In the most favorable cases, UV flux is sufficiently reduced such that organic in-fall could accumulate beneath overhanging surfaces and in pits and cracks. As well, hardy terrestrial microorganisms such as Bacillus pumilus could persist for up to 100 sols on

  8. The Effect of Geometry on the Wake Structure of a Surface Mounted Obstacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addepalli, Bhagirath; Pardyjak, Eric; Brown, Michael

    2007-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to better understand the flow structure in the wake of a square cylinder as a function of its height and develop a parameterization for tall buildings for the QUIC-URB wind model. The experiments were conducted in an open-circuit wind tunnel in a fully turbulent boundary layer. 2D PIV was used to measure the flow field along the vertical symmetry plane of the model buildings. Numerous experimental cases were run in which the geometry was varied by increasing the wall-normal height H of a square cylinder (where W=L; L is streamwise length and W is spanwise width) from H/L=1 to H/L=3 in increments of 0.3L. Preliminary results indicate that a saddle point appears for heights greater than H/L=1.6. The saddle is accompanied by a significant modification of the wake structure. This change can be attributed to the enhanced flux of momentum around the sidewall into the near-wake as the height of the model building is increased. Future work will include horizontal plane measurements in the wake of the model building to further explore the mechanisms that lead to the change in the flow structure.

  9. Effect of Ripple Geometry on Vortex Generation, Ejection, and Strength in Oscillatory Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, H. D.

    2012-12-01

    Turbulent vortex structures generated around bedforms have a large potential for significant suspended sediment transport. In the nearshore, the flow separation over ripples results in the generation of a lee vortex that can entrain sediment during half of the wave cycle. As the flow reverses, the sediment-laden vortex is ejected into the water column. The vortex is translated with the reversed flow and dissipates, releasing its sediment load back to the bed. The generation and ejection processes are functions of the ripple geometry and the wave acceleration. These same processes are also present for other geometries placed near the sea bed. Studies around bottom-seated cylindrical structures have shown multiple generation and ejection events off of the lee of the cylinder during half of the wave cycle. This generation is a function of Keulegan-Carpenter number, which balances the semi-excursion of the wave to the dominant length scale of the structure. In this work, the flow over rippled beds of various geometries over a range of hydrodynamic forcing will be numerically simulated to investigate the generation, ejection mechanisms, and strength of vortices created by this interaction. The simulations will be performed with the finite-difference CFD model, FLOW-3D. An advantage to this model is its ability to resolve complicated geometries in the flow with cartesian grids. In order to resolve the complex, three-dimensional flow field over an approximately two-dimensional rippled bed, a Smagorinsky Large Eddy Simulation closure scheme will be utilized. This model configuration has been shown to accurately predict the lift and drag force coefficients for bottom-mounted cylinders under linear waves, which are dominated by vortex generation and ejection. The three-dimensional vortex structure and strength will be evaluated with swirling strength criterion. Three-dimensional isosurfaces of the swirling strength will allow for the visual identification of the interaction

  10. Numerical modelling of the effect of changing surface geometry on mountain glacier mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Chris; Carrivick, Jonathan; Evans, Andrew; Carver, Steve

    2013-04-01

    Mountain glaciers and ice caps are extremely useful indicators of environmental change. Due to their small size, they have much faster response times to climate changes than the large ice masses of Greenland and Antarctica. Mountain glaciers are important for society as sources of water for energy production and irrigation and the meltwater cycles significantly impact local ecology. We have applied a spatially distributed surface energy balance model to a glacier record spanning 100 years. Our study encompasses (i) the creation of a GIS enabling quantitative analysis of changing glacier geometry; absolute length, area, surface lowering and volume change, over the 20th and early 21st Centuries and (ii) the development and testing of a novel user-friendly distributed-surface energy balance model that is designed specifically to consider the effect that these geometrical changes have on mountain glacier mass balance. Our study site is Kårsaglaciären in Arctic Sweden for which there is a variety of data for the past 100 years, sourced from historical surveys, satellite imagery and recent field work. This contrasts with other Arctic mountain glaciers where long-term records are rare, making model development and evaluation very difficult. Kårsaglaciären has been in a state of negative balance throughout the 20th century. Disintegration of the glacier occurred during the 1920s, breaking the glacier into two separate bodies. Between 1926 and 2008, the glacier retreated 1.3 km and reduced in area by 3.41km2. In 2008 the glacier had an estimated surface area of 0.89km2 and a length of approximately 1.0km. Firstly, we present the GIS based construction of robust three-dimensional glacier surface reconstructions for Kårsaglaciären from 1926 to 2010 using a decadal interval. We highlight the kriging interpolation methods used for surface development and the importance of inter-model sensitivity analyses as well as the use of Monte Carlo simulations used to assess the

  11. Effect of boattail geometry on the acoustics of parallel baffles in ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, P. T.; Unnever, G.; Dudley, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Sound attenuation and total pressure drop of parallel duct baffles incorporating certain boattail geometries were measured in the NASA Ames Research Center 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel. The baseline baffles were 1.56 m long and 20 cm thick, on 45-cm center-to-center spacings, and spanned the test section from floor to ceiling. Four different boattails were evaluated: a short, smooth (nonacoustic) boattail; a longer, smooth boattail; and two boattails with perforated surfaces and sound-absorbent filler. Acoustic measurements showed the acoustic boattails improved the sound attenuation of the baffles at approximately half the rate to be expected from constant-thickness sections of the same length; that is, 1.5 dB/n, where n is the ratio of acoustic treatment length to duct passage width between baffles. The aerodynamic total pressure loss was somewhat sensitive to tail geometry. Lengthening the tails to reduce the diffusion half-angle from 11 to 5 degrees reduced the total pressure loss approximately 9%. Perforating the boattails, which increased the surface roughness, did not have a large effect on the total pressure loss. Aerodynamic results are compared with a published empirical method for predicting baffle total pressure drop.

  12. Effects of molecular geometry on the properties of compressed diamondoid crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Fan; Lin, Yu; Baldini, Maria; ...

    2016-11-01

    Diamondoids are an intriguing group of carbon-based nanomaterials, which combine desired properties of inorganic nanomaterials and small hydrocarbon molecules with atomic-level uniformity. In this Letter, we report the first comparative study on the effect of pressure on a series of diamondoid crystals with systematically varying molecular geometries and shapes, including zero-dimensional (0D) adamantane; one-dimensional (1D) diamantane, [121]tetramantane, [123]tetramantane, and [1212]pentamantane; two-dimensional (2D) [12312]hexamantane; and three-dimensional (3D) triamantane and [1(2,3)4]pentamantane. We find the bulk moduli of these diamondoid crystals are strongly dependent on the diamondoids’ molecular geometry with 3D [1(2,3)4]pentamantane being the least compressible and 0D adamantane being the most compressible.more » These diamondoid crystals possess excellent structural rigidity and are able to sustain large volume deformation without structural failure even after repetitive pressure loading cycles. These properties are desirable for constructing cushioning devices. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that lower diamondoids outperform the conventional cushioning materials in both the working pressure range and energy absorption density.« less

  13. Effects of molecular geometry on the properties of compressed diamondoid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Fan; Lin, Yu; Baldini, Maria; Dahl, Jeremy E. P.; Carlson, Robert M. K.; Mao, Wendy L.

    2016-11-01

    Diamondoids are an intriguing group of carbon-based nanomaterials, which combine desired properties of inorganic nanomaterials and small hydrocarbon molecules with atomic-level uniformity. In this Letter, we report the first comparative study on the effect of pressure on a series of diamondoid crystals with systematically varying molecular geometries and shapes, including zero-dimensional (0D) adamantane; one-dimensional (1D) diamantane, [121]tetramantane, [123]tetramantane, and [1212]pentamantane; two-dimensional (2D) [12312]hexamantane; and three-dimensional (3D) triamantane and [1(2,3)4]pentamantane. We find the bulk moduli of these diamondoid crystals are strongly dependent on the diamondoids’ molecular geometry with 3D [1(2,3)4]pentamantane being the least compressible and 0D adamantane being the most compressible. These diamondoid crystals possess excellent structural rigidity and are able to sustain large volume deformation without structural failure even after repetitive pressure loading cycles. These properties are desirable for constructing cushioning devices. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that lower diamondoids outperform the conventional cushioning materials in both the working pressure range and energy absorption density.

  14. The Effect of Body Geometry on the Flow Noise of Cylinders in Cross Flow.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEachern, James F.

    This is an experimental thesis that examines the effects of body geometry on the flow noise of cylindrical inertial pressure gradient hydrophones in cross flow. Flow noise is characterized as a fluctuating force on the surface of the body. Variable geometry inertial hydrophones have been fabricated, calibrated and towed in water in an acoustically quiet facility. Flow noise expressed as equivalent sound pressure level is presented for a blunt ended cylinder with a length to diameter ratio of 0.5. The results of the acoustic tow testing show some agreement with existing models for noise generated by pressure fluctuations in the turbulent boundary layer. The fluctuating force is measured at Reynolds numbers from 4 cdot 10^3 to 1.8 cdot 10^4 on cylindrical bodies with length to diameter ratios ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 and end cap shapes ranging from flat to hemispherical. Results are expressed in terms of dimensionless spectra. The experimental results show that increased end cap radius and body aspect ratio can attenuate the fluctuating force level.

  15. Lysozyme adsorption onto mesoporous materials: effect of pore geometry and stability of adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Vinu, Ajayan; Miyahara, Masahiko; Hossain, Kazi Zakir; Takahashi, Motoi; Balasubramanian, Veerappan Vaithilingam; Mori, Toshiyuki; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, adsorption of lysozyme onto two kinds of mesoporous adsorbents (KIT-5 and AISBA-15) has been investigated and the results on the effects of pore geometry and stability of the adsorbents are also discussed. The KIT-5 mesoporous silica materials possess cage-type pore geometry while the AISBA-15 adsorbent has mesopores of cylindrical type with rather large diameter (9.7 nm). Adsorption of lysozyme onto AISBA-15 aluminosilicate obeys a Langmuir isotherm, resulting in pore occupation of 25 to 30%. In contrast, the KIT-5 adsorbents showed very small adsorption capacities for the lysozyme adsorption, typically falling in 6 to 13% of pore occupation. The cage-type KIT-5 adsorbents have narrow channel (4 to 6 nm) where penetration of the lysozyme (3 x 3 x 4.5 nm) might be restricted. The KIT-5 adsorbent tends to collapse after long-time immersion in water, as indicated by XRD patterns, while the AISBA-15 adsorbent retains its regular structure even after immersion in basic water for 4 days. These facts confirm superiority of the AISBA-15 as an adsorbent as compared with the KIT-5 mesoporous silicates. This research strikingly demonstrates the selection of mesoporous materials is crucial to achieve efficient immobilization of biomaterials in aqueous environment.

  16. Effect of Pin Geometry on the Mechanical Strength of Friction-Stir-Welded Polypropylene Composite Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordestani, F.; Ashenai Ghasemi, F.; Arab, N. B. M.

    2017-09-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding process, which has successfully been applied in aerospace and automotive industries for joining materials. The friction stir tool is the key element in the FSW process. In this study, the effect of four different tool pin geometries on the mechanical properties of two types of polypropylene composite plates, with 30% glass and carbon fiber, respectively, were investigated. For this purpose, four pins of different geometry, namely, a threaded-tapered pin, square pin, four-flute threaded pin, and threaded-tapered pin with a chamfer were made and used to carry out the butt welding of 5-mm-thick plates. The standard tensile and Izod impact tests were performed to evaluate the tensile strength and impact toughness of welded specimens. The results indicated that the threaded-tapered pin with a chamfer produced welds with a better surface appearance and higher tensile and impact strengths. The tests also showed that, with the threaded-tapered pin with a chamfer, the impact strength of the glass- and carbon-fiber composite welds were about 40 and 50%, respectively, of that of the base materials.

  17. Monte Carlo simulation of the effects of vesicle geometry on calcium microdomains and neurotransmitter release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limsakul, Praopim; Modchang, Charin

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the effects of synaptic vesicle geometry on Ca2+ diffusion dynamics in presynaptic terminals using MCell, a realistic Monte Carlo algorithm that tracks individual molecules. By modeling the vesicle as a sphere and an oblate or a prolate spheroid with a reflective boundary, we measure the Ca2+ concentration at various positions relative to the vesicle. We find that the presence of a vesicle as a diffusion barrier modifies the shape of the [Ca2+] microdomain in the vicinity of the vesicle. Ca2+ diffusion dynamics also depend on the distance between the vesicle and the voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and on the shape of the vesicle. The oblate spheroidal vesicle increases the [Ca2+] up to six times higher than that in the absence of a vesicle, while the prolate spheroidal vesicle can increase the [Ca2+] only 1.4 times. Our results also show that the presence of vesicles that have different geometries can maximally influence the [Ca2+] microdomain when the vesicle is located less than 50 nm from VGCCs.

  18. Geometry, Electronic Structure, and Pseudo Jahn-Teller Effect in Tetrasilacyclobutadiene Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Ya; Bersuker, Isaac B.

    2016-03-01

    We revealed the origin of the structural features of a series of tetrasilacyclobutadiene analogues based on a detailed study of their electronic structure and the pseudo Jahn-Teller effect (PJTE). Starting with the D4h symmetry of the Si4R4 system with a square four-membered silicon ring as a reference geometry, and employing ab initio calculations of energy profiles along lower-symmetry nuclear displacements in the ground and several excited states, we show that the ground-state boat-like and chair-like equilibrium configurations are produced by the PJT interaction with appropriate excited sates. For Si4F4 a full two-mode b1g‑b2g adiabatic potential energy surface is calculated showing explicitly the way of transformation from the unstable D4h geometry to the two equilibrium C2h configurations via the D2h saddle point. The PJTE origin of these structural features is confirmed also by estimates of the vibronic coupling parameters. For Si4R4 with large substituents the origin of their structure is revealed by analyzing the PJT interaction between the frontier molecular orbitals. The preferred chair-like structures of Si4R4 analogues with amido substituents, and heavier germanium-containing systems Ge4R4 (potential precursors for semiconducting materials) are predicted.

  19. Effects of Regional Topography and Spacecraft Observation Geometry on Surface Soil Moisture Estimation Accuracies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, M.; Akbar, R.; West, R. D.; Colliander, A.; Kim, S.; Dunbar, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA Soil Moisture Active-Passive Mission (SMAP), launched in January 2015, provides near-daily global surface soil moisture estimates via combined Active Radar and Passive Radiometer observations at various spatial resolutions. The goal of this mission is to enhance our understanding of global carbon and water cycles. This presentation will focus on a comprehensive assessment of the SMAP high resolution radar backscatter data (formally the L1C_S0_HiRes data product) obtained over a 3 km Woody Savanna region in north-central California during a 2.5 month period starting late May 2015. The effects of spacecraft observation geometry (fore- and aft-looks as well as ascending and descending obits) along with regional topography on soil moisture estimation abilities will be examined. Furthermore surface soil moisture retrievals, obtained through utilization of different combinations of observation geometries, will be compared to an existing network of in situsensors. Current electromagnetic scattering and emission models do not properly account for surface topography, therefore physical forward model predictions and observations have unaccounted mismatch errors which also affect soil moisture estimation accuracies. The goal of this study is to quantify these soil moisture prediction errors and highlight the need for new and complete Electromagnetic modeling efforts.

  20. Geometry, Electronic Structure, and Pseudo Jahn-Teller Effect in Tetrasilacyclobutadiene Analogues.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Ya; Bersuker, Isaac B

    2016-03-21

    We revealed the origin of the structural features of a series of tetrasilacyclobutadiene analogues based on a detailed study of their electronic structure and the pseudo Jahn-Teller effect (PJTE). Starting with the D4h symmetry of the Si4R4 system with a square four-membered silicon ring as a reference geometry, and employing ab initio calculations of energy profiles along lower-symmetry nuclear displacements in the ground and several excited states, we show that the ground-state boat-like and chair-like equilibrium configurations are produced by the PJT interaction with appropriate excited sates. For Si4F4 a full two-mode b1g-b2g adiabatic potential energy surface is calculated showing explicitly the way of transformation from the unstable D4h geometry to the two equilibrium C2h configurations via the D2h saddle point. The PJTE origin of these structural features is confirmed also by estimates of the vibronic coupling parameters. For Si4R4 with large substituents the origin of their structure is revealed by analyzing the PJT interaction between the frontier molecular orbitals. The preferred chair-like structures of Si4R4 analogues with amido substituents, and heavier germanium-containing systems Ge4R4 (potential precursors for semiconducting materials) are predicted.

  1. Geometry, Electronic Structure, and Pseudo Jahn-Teller Effect in Tetrasilacyclobutadiene Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Ya; Bersuker, Isaac B.

    2016-01-01

    We revealed the origin of the structural features of a series of tetrasilacyclobutadiene analogues based on a detailed study of their electronic structure and the pseudo Jahn-Teller effect (PJTE). Starting with the D4h symmetry of the Si4R4 system with a square four-membered silicon ring as a reference geometry, and employing ab initio calculations of energy profiles along lower-symmetry nuclear displacements in the ground and several excited states, we show that the ground-state boat-like and chair-like equilibrium configurations are produced by the PJT interaction with appropriate excited sates. For Si4F4 a full two-mode b1g−b2g adiabatic potential energy surface is calculated showing explicitly the way of transformation from the unstable D4h geometry to the two equilibrium C2h configurations via the D2h saddle point. The PJTE origin of these structural features is confirmed also by estimates of the vibronic coupling parameters. For Si4R4 with large substituents the origin of their structure is revealed by analyzing the PJT interaction between the frontier molecular orbitals. The preferred chair-like structures of Si4R4 analogues with amido substituents, and heavier germanium-containing systems Ge4R4 (potential precursors for semiconducting materials) are predicted. PMID:26996445

  2. Effect of geometry and flow conditions on particulates fouling plate heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Thonon, B.; Grandgeorge, S.; Jallut, C.

    1999-09-01

    This article describes particulate fouling experiments performed on small-scale and full-scale plate heat exchangers for three different corrugation angles (30{degree}, 45{degree}, and 60{degree}). The velocity effect has been studied as well as the particle type and concentration effects. The rest duration ranges between 20 and 1,500 h in order to reach asymptotic behavior. The results clearly indicate that the corrugation angle has a major influence on the asymptotic fouling resistance, Increasing the corrugation angle leads to lower values for the fouling resistance. Increasing the corrugation angle leads to lower values for the fouling resistance. Furthermore, for a given corrugation angle, the asymptotic fouling resistance is inversely proportional to the velocity squared. Finally, the asymptotic fouling resistance is proportional to the particle concentration. Fouling mitigation can be obtained by taking into account at the design stage the heat exchanger geometry and fluid velocity.

  3. Integral-geometry characterization of photobiomodulation effects on retinal vessel morphology

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Marconi; Natoli, Riccardo; Valter, Kriztina; Provis, Jan; Maddess, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The morphological characterization of quasi-planar structures represented by gray-scale images is challenging when object identification is sub-optimal due to registration artifacts. We propose two alternative procedures that enhances object identification in the integral-geometry morphological image analysis (MIA) framework. The first variant streamlines the framework by introducing an active contours segmentation process whose time step is recycled as a multi-scale parameter. In the second variant, we used the refined object identification produced in the first variant to perform the standard MIA with exact dilation radius as multi-scale parameter. Using this enhanced MIA we quantify the extent of vaso-obliteration in oxygen-induced retinopathic vascular growth, the preventative effect (by photobiomodulation) of exposure during tissue development to near-infrared light (NIR, 670 nm), and the lack of adverse effects due to exposure to NIR light. PMID:25071966

  4. Effects of pole geometry on recording performance of narrow track thin film heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, William C.; Thayamballi, Pradeep K.; Vea, Mathew P.

    1994-03-01

    The effects of pole trimming on the recording performance of thin film heads is investigated through experiment and modeling. Three dimensional head fields are computed numerically for various pole geometries, and are used by a simple two dimensional recording simulation to determine written width, erase width, read width, and isolated pulse response. These parameters are then compared to experimental values measured on trimmed and untrimmed heads. Both modeled and experimental parameters are then used as input to a system error rate simulation to determine the effects of pole trimming on system error rate as a function of track density. Good agreement is found between model and experimental parameters. The error rate results suggest that in a system with a reasonable track misregistration (TMR), a track density increase of 7 to 9% can be obtained by trimming the inductive head poles.

  5. Effect of restricted geometry on the superconducting properties of low-melting metals (Review Article)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumzerov, Yu. A.; Naberezhnov, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    This is a review of results from studies of the effect of artificially restricted geometry (the size effect) on the superconducting properties of nanoparticles of low-melting metals (Hg, Pb, Sn, In). Restricted geometrical conditions are created by embedding molten metals under high pressure into nanoporous matrices of two types: channel structures based on chrysotile asbestos and porous alkali-borosilicate glasses. Chrysotile asbestos is a system of parallel nanotubes with channel diameters ranging from 2 to 20 nm and an aspect ratio (channel length to diameter) of up to 107. The glasses are a random dendritic three-dimensional system of interconnected channels with a technologically controllable mean diameter of 2-30 nm. Temperature dependences of the resistance and heat capacity in the region of the superconducting transition and the dependences of the critical temperature on the mean pore diameter are obtained. The critical magnetic fields are also determined.

  6. Long-term changes in Jovian synchrotron radio emission - Intrinsic variations or effects of viewing geometry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, L. L.

    1993-04-01

    Possible causes of the observed long-term variation of Jovian synchrotron radio emission, including both intrinsic changes in the Jovian radiation belts and apparent changes due to variations in the Jovigraphic declination of the earth, DE, are investigated. An increase in diffusion rate with other parameters held constant results in an inward displacement of the peak emission radial distance that is not observed. Effects of viewing geometry changes are examined. The possible importance of such effects is suggested by a correlation between the total decimetric radio flux and DE, which varies between -3.3 and +3.3 deg during one Jovian orbital period. Because the Jovian central meridian longitudes where the magnetic latitude passes through zero during a given Jovian rotation change substantially with DE and since significant longitudinal asymmetries exist in both the volume emissivity and the latitudinal profile of the beam, the total intensity should be at least a partial function of D sub E.

  7. Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Installation Effects for Conventional and Unconventional Airframes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czech, Michael J.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2013-01-01

    As extensive experimental campaign was performed to study the aeroacoustic installation effects of an open rotor with respect to both a conventional tube and wing type airframe and an unconventional hybrid wing body airframe. The open rotor rig had two counter rotating rows of blades each with eight blades of a design originally flight tested in the 1980s. The aeroacoustic installation effects measured in an aeroacoustic wind tunnel included those from flow effects due to inflow distortion or wake interaction and acoustic propagation effects such as shielding and reflection. The objective of the test campaign was to quantify the installation effects for a wide range of parameters and configurations derived from the two airframe types. For the conventional airframe, the open rotor was positioned in increments in front of and then over the main wing and then in positions representative of tail mounted aircraft with a conventional tail, a T-tail and a U-tail. The interaction of the wake of the open rotor as well as acoustic scattering results in an increase of about 10 dB when the rotor is positioned in front of the main wing. When positioned over the main wing a substantial amount of noise reduction is obtained and this is also observed for tail-mounted installations with a large U-tail. For the hybrid wing body airframe, the open rotor was positioned over the airframe along the centerline as well as off-center representing a twin engine location. A primary result was the documentation of the noise reduction from shielding as a function of the location of the open rotor upstream of the trailing edge of the hybrid wing body. The effects from vertical surfaces and elevon deflection were also measured. Acoustic lining was specially designed and inserted flush with the elevon and airframe surface, the result was an additional reduction in open rotor noise propagating to the far field microphones. Even with the older blade design used, the experiment provided

  8. Organ and effective dose coefficients for cranial and caudal irradiation geometries: photons

    SciTech Connect

    Veinot, K. G.; Eckerman, K. F.; Hertel, N. E.

    2015-05-02

    With the introduction of new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in Publication 103, the methodology for determining the protection quantity, effective dose, has been modified. The modifications include changes to the defined organs and tissues, the associated tissue weighting factors, radiation weighting factors and the introduction of reference sex-specific computational phantoms. Computations of equivalent doses in organs and tissues are now performed in both the male and female phantoms and the sex-averaged values used to determine the effective dose. Dose coefficients based on the ICRP 103 recommendations were reported in ICRP Publication 116, the revision of ICRP Publication 74 and ICRU Publication 57. The coefficients were determined for the following irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right and left lateral (RLAT and LLAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO). In this work, the methodology of ICRP Publication 116 was used to compute dose coefficients for photon irradiation of the body with parallel beams directed upward from below the feet (caudal) and directed downward from above the head (cranial). These geometries may be encountered in the workplace from personnel standing on contaminated surfaces or volumes and from overhead sources. Calculations of organ and tissue kerma and absorbed doses for caudal and cranial exposures to photons ranging in energy from 10 keV to 10 GeV have been performed using the MCNP6.1 radiation transport code and the adult reference phantoms of ICRP Publication 110. As with calculations reported in ICRP 116, the effects of charged-particle transport are evident when compared with values obtained by using the kerma approximation. At lower energies the effective dose per particle fluence for cranial and caudal exposures is less than AP orientations while above similar to 30 MeV the cranial and caudal values are greater.

  9. Organ and effective dose coefficients for cranial and caudal irradiation geometries: photons.

    PubMed

    Veinot, K G; Eckerman, K F; Hertel, N E

    2016-02-01

    With the introduction of new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in Publication 103, the methodology for determining the protection quantity, effective dose, has been modified. The modifications include changes to the defined organs and tissues, the associated tissue weighting factors, radiation weighting factors and the introduction of reference sex-specific computational phantoms. Computations of equivalent doses in organs and tissues are now performed in both the male and female phantoms and the sex-averaged values used to determine the effective dose. Dose coefficients based on the ICRP 103 recommendations were reported in ICRP Publication 116, the revision of ICRP Publication 74 and ICRU Publication 57. The coefficients were determined for the following irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right and left lateral (RLAT and LLAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO). In this work, the methodology of ICRP Publication 116 was used to compute dose coefficients for photon irradiation of the body with parallel beams directed upward from below the feet (caudal) and directed downward from above the head (cranial). These geometries may be encountered in the workplace from personnel standing on contaminated surfaces or volumes and from overhead sources. Calculations of organ and tissue kerma and absorbed doses for caudal and cranial exposures to photons ranging in energy from 10 keV to 10 GeV have been performed using the MCNP6.1 radiation transport code and the adult reference phantoms of ICRP Publication 110. As with calculations reported in ICRP 116, the effects of charged-particle transport are evident when compared with values obtained by using the kerma approximation. At lower energies the effective dose per particle fluence for cranial and caudal exposures is less than AP orientations while above ∼30 MeV the cranial and caudal values are greater. Published by Oxford University

  10. Organ and effective dose coefficients for cranial and caudal irradiation geometries: photons

    DOE PAGES

    Veinot, K. G.; Eckerman, K. F.; Hertel, N. E.

    2015-05-02

    With the introduction of new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in Publication 103, the methodology for determining the protection quantity, effective dose, has been modified. The modifications include changes to the defined organs and tissues, the associated tissue weighting factors, radiation weighting factors and the introduction of reference sex-specific computational phantoms. Computations of equivalent doses in organs and tissues are now performed in both the male and female phantoms and the sex-averaged values used to determine the effective dose. Dose coefficients based on the ICRP 103 recommendations were reported in ICRP Publication 116, the revision ofmore » ICRP Publication 74 and ICRU Publication 57. The coefficients were determined for the following irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right and left lateral (RLAT and LLAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO). In this work, the methodology of ICRP Publication 116 was used to compute dose coefficients for photon irradiation of the body with parallel beams directed upward from below the feet (caudal) and directed downward from above the head (cranial). These geometries may be encountered in the workplace from personnel standing on contaminated surfaces or volumes and from overhead sources. Calculations of organ and tissue kerma and absorbed doses for caudal and cranial exposures to photons ranging in energy from 10 keV to 10 GeV have been performed using the MCNP6.1 radiation transport code and the adult reference phantoms of ICRP Publication 110. As with calculations reported in ICRP 116, the effects of charged-particle transport are evident when compared with values obtained by using the kerma approximation. At lower energies the effective dose per particle fluence for cranial and caudal exposures is less than AP orientations while above similar to 30 MeV the cranial and caudal values are greater.« less

  11. Effect of silver nanoparticle geometry on methicillin susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and osteoblast viability.

    PubMed

    Actis, Lisa; Srinivasan, Anand; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L; Ramasubramanian, Anand K; Ong, Joo L

    2015-07-01

    Orthopedic implant failure as a result of bacterial infection affects approximately 0.5-5% of patients. These infections are often caused by Staphylococcus aureus which is capable of attaching and subsequently forming a biofilm on the implant surface, making it difficult to eradicate with systemic antibiotics. Further, with the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, alternative treatments are necessary. Silver nanoparticles have received much attention for their broad spectrum antibacterial activity which has been reported to be both size and shape dependent. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of three different geometries on their effect on microbial susceptibility as well as evaluate their effect on bone cell viability. Silver nanoparticles of spherical, triangular and cuboid shapes were synthesized by chemical reduction methods. The susceptibility of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus was evaluated a 24 h period and determined using a colorimetric assay. Further, the viability of human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) cells in the presence of the silver nanoparticles was evaluated over a period of 7 days by AlmarBlue fluorescence assay. hFOB morphology was also evaluated by light microscopy imaging. Results indicated that silver nanoparticle geometry did not have an effect on microbiota susceptibility or hFOB viability. However, high concentrations of silver nanoparticles (0.5 nM) conferred significant susceptibility towards the bacteria and significantly reduced hFOB viability. It was also found that the hFOBs exhibited an increasingly reduced viability to lower silver nanoparticle concentrations with an increase in exposure time.

  12. Model based evaluation of the effect of pH and electrode geometry on microbial fuel cell performance.

    PubMed

    Picioreanu, Cristian; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Curtis, Thomas P; Scott, Keith

    2010-04-01

    A mathematical model for microbial fuel cells (MFC) which integrates macro-scale time-dependent mass balances for solutes and biomass in the anodic liquid with a micro-scale individual-based two-dimensional biofilm model is developed. Computational fluid dynamics and Nernst-Plank mass and charge balances with diffusion, electromigration, convection and electroneutrality in the biofilm are combined to calculate spatial pH distribution and solutes speciation. Soluble redox mediators are the electron shuttle between microbial cells and the electrode. The model describes the generally observed variations of pH, solute concentrations and electrical current produced over time from electroactive biofilms. Numerical simulations also show the effect of bicarbonate buffer and mass transfer through the proton exchange membrane on the microbial population within a mixed anaerobic digestion sludge consortium of methanogenic and electrogenic microorganisms. In addition, the new modeling approach opens the way to study the influence of fluid flow and any two- or three-dimensional biofilm and electrode geometry on the MFC output parameters. Hydrodynamic calculations show that porous bio-electrodes with greater specific surface area do not necessarily produce more current, as long as convection through the pores is absent. An innovative model solution strategy combines in a very efficient and flexible way MATLAB, COMSOL finite element and Java codes.

  13. Distribution of air-water mixtures in parallel vertical channels as an effect of the header geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Marchitto, Annalisa; Fossa, Marco; Guglielmini, Giovanni

    2009-07-15

    Uneven phase distribution in heat exchangers is a cause of severe reductions in thermal performances of refrigeration equipment. To date, no general design rules are available to avoid phase separation in manifolds with several outlet channels, and even predicting the phase and mass distribution in parallel channels is a demanding task. In the present paper, measurements of two-phase air-water distributions are reported with reference to a horizontal header supplying 16 vertical upward channels. The effects of the operating conditions, the header geometry and the inlet port nozzle were investigated in the ranges of liquid and gas superficial velocities of 0.2-1.2 and 1.5-16.5 m/s, respectively. Among the fitting devices used, the insertion of a co-axial, multi-hole distributor inside the header confirmed the possibility of greatly improving the liquid and gas flow distribution by the proper selection of position, diameter and number of the flow openings between the supplying distributor and the system of parallel channels connected to the header. (author)

  14. The effect of reservoir geometry, injection and production parameters and permeability structure on induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, S. M.; Goebel, T.; Aminzadeh, F.

    2015-12-01

    The recent increase in injection induced seismicity (IIS) in previously less seismically active regions highlighted a need for better mitigation strategies and physics-based models of induced seismicity. Previous models of pressure diffusion and fluid flow investigated the change in Coulomb stress as a result of induced pore-pressure perturbations (e.g. Zhang et al., 2013; Keranen et al., 2014; Hornbach et al., 2015; Segall and Lu, 2015). Here, we consider the additional effects of permeability structure, operational parameters and reservoir geometry. We numerically investigate the influence of net fluid injection volumes; linear, radial, and spherical reservoir geometry; as well as reservoir size. The latter can have a substantial effect on changes in Coulomb stress and subsequent induced seismicity. We report on results from two series of model runs, which explored pressure changes caused by wastewater disposal and water flooding. We observed that a typical water flooding operation that includes production wells and injectors has a lower probability of inducing seismicity. Our observations are in agreement with assessment by National Research Council report on induced seismicity (2012). We developed a third suite of models that investigate the effect of permeability structure on injection-induced seismicity. We examine two cases of wastewater disposal in proximity to active faults: 1) in Central Illinois Basin and 2) in central California. In both cases, we observed that the size of the reservoir, presence of faults, and permeability contrast relative to the host rock, strongly influences the pressure changes with distance and time. These pressure changes vary widely but can easily lead to fault instability and seismic activity at up to 10 km distance from the injection well. The results of this study may help to select safe injection sites and operational conditions in order to minimize injection induced seismicity hazard.

  15. Organ and Effective Dose Coefficients for Cranial and Caudal Irradiation Geometries: Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veinot, K. G.; Eckerman, K. F.; Hertel, N. E.; Hiller, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    With the introduction of new recommendations by ICRP Publication 103, the methodology for determining the protection quantity, effective dose, has been modified. The modifications include changes to the defined organs and tissues, the associated tissue weighting factors, radiation weighting factors, and the introduction of reference sex-specific computational phantoms (ICRP Publication 110). Computations of equivalent doses in organs and tissues are now performed in both the male and female phantoms and the sex-averaged values used to determine the effective dose. Dose coefficients based on the ICRP 103 recommendations were reported in ICRP Publication 116, the revision of ICRP Publication 74 and ICRU Publication 57. The coefficients were determined for the following irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right and left lateral (RLAT and LLAT), rotational (ROT), and isotropic (ISO). In this work, the methodology of ICRP Publication 116 was used to compute dose coefficients for neutron irradiation of the body with parallel beams directed upward from below the feet (caudal) and directed downward from above the head (cranial). These geometries may be encountered in the workplace from personnel standing on contaminated surfaces or volumes and from overhead sources. Calculations of organ and tissue absorbed doses for caudal and cranial exposures to neutrons ranging in energy from 10-9 MeV to 10 GeV have been performed using the MCNP6 radiation transport code and the adult reference voxel phantoms of ICRP Publication 110. At lower energies the effective dose per particle fluence for cranial and caudal exposures is less than AP orientations while above about 30 MeV the cranial and caudal values are greater.

  16. The effect of décollement dip on geometry and kinematics of model accretionary wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyi, Hemin A.; Vendeville, Bruno C.

    2003-09-01

    We conducted a series of sand-box models shortened asymmetrically above a frictional-plastic décollement to study the influence of amount and sense of the décollement dip on the geometry and kinematics of accretionary wedges. Model results illustrate that the amount and direction of décollement dip strongly influence the geometry and mode of deformation of the resulting wedge. In general, for models having similar décollement frictional parameters, the resulting wedge is steeper, grows higher and is shorter when shortened above a décollement that dips toward the hinterland. At 42% bulk shortening, the length/height ratio of wedges formed above a 5°-dipping décollement was equal to 2.4 whereas this ratio was equal to 3 for wedges shortened above a horizontal décollement. Moreover, models with a hinterland dipping décollement undergo larger amounts of layer parallel compaction (LPC) and area loss than models shortened above a non-dipping décollement. The effect of décollement dip on wedge deformation is most pronounced when basal friction is relatively high (μ b=0.55), whereas its effect is less significant in models where the basal décollement has a lower friction (μ b=0.37). Model results also show that increasing basal slope has a similar effect to that of increasing basal friction; the wedge grows taller and its critical taper steepens.

  17. Geometry-Induced Memory Effects in Isolated Quantum Systems: Cold-Atom Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chen-Yen; Chien, Chih-Chun

    2016-03-01

    Memory effects result from the history-dependent behavior of a system, are abundant in our daily life, and have broad applications. Here, we explore the possibilities of generating memory effects in simple isolated quantum systems. By utilizing geometrical effects from a class of lattices supporting flatbands consisting of localized states, memory effects could be observed in ultracold atoms in optical lattices. As the optical lattice continuously transforms from a triangular lattice into a kagome lattice with a flatband, history-dependent density distributions manifest quantum memory effects even in noninteracting systems, including fermionic as well as bosonic systems, in the proper ranges of temperatures. Rapid growth of ultracold technology predicts a bright future for quantum memory-effect systems, and here two prototypical applications of geometry-induced quantum memory effects are proposed: A cold-atom-based accelerometer using an atomic differentiator to record the mechanical change rate of a coupled probe, and an atomic quantum memory cell for storing information with write-in and readout schemes.

  18. Applications of superspace techniques to effective actions, complex geometry, and T duality in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrell, Willie Carl, II

    2007-12-01

    We describe the use of superspace techniques to discuss some of the issues in string theory. First we use superspace techniques to derive the effective action for the 10D N = 1 Heterotic string perturbatively to first order in the parameter alpha'. Next we demonstrate how to use the superspace description of the supersymmetric gauge multiplet for chiral superfield in 2d N = (2, 2) to discuss T duality for sigma models that realizes a particular case of generalized Kahler geometry. We find that the salient features of T duality are captured but at the cost of introducing unwanted fields in dual sigma model. Fortunately the extra fields decouple from the relevant fields under consideration. This leads us to introduce a new supersymmetric gauge multiplet that will eliminate the need to introduce extra fields in the dual sigma model.

  19. Effect of neck geometry of resonance cells on noise reduction efficiency in sound-absorbing structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarev, P. V.; Anoshkin, A. N.; Pan'kov, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    The present work formulates the physical and mathematical models capable to forecast acoustic properties of resonance cells in sound absorbing structures. Distribution of acoustic pressure inside the duct and on sidewall cell was found, loss factor of output acoustic pressure wave was calculated for variety of geometric forms of cell's chamber and neck for monochromatic wave in 100-600Hz frequency range. Analysis of the acoustic pressure fields revealed that cell neck geometry strongly influences on cell resonant frequency and on outlet acoustic pressure loss factor. The effectiveness of the proposed by the authors biconical design of the resonant cell was proved, which increased acoustic radiation at the resonance frequency resulting significant increase of loss ratio of wave acoustic pressure at duct outlet.

  20. Modeling the effects of 3-D slab geometry and oblique subduction on subduction zone thermal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, I.; Wang, K.; He, J.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we revisit the effects of along-strike variation in slab geometry and oblique subduction on subduction zone thermal structures. Along-strike variations in slab dip cause changes in the descending rate of the slab and generate trench-parallel pressure gradients that drive trench-parallel mantle flow (e.g., Kneller and van Keken, 2007). Oblique subduction also drives trench-parallel mantle flow. In this study, we use a finite element code PGCtherm3D and examine a range of generic subduction geometries and parameters to investigate the effects of the above two factors. This exercise is part of foundational work towards developing detailed 3-D thermal models for NE Japan, Nankai, and Cascadia to better constrain their 3-D thermal structures and to understand the role of temperature in controlling metamorphic, seismogenic, and volcanic processes. The 3-D geometry of the subducting slabs in the forearc and arc regions are well delineated at these three subduction zones. Further, relatively large compilations of surface heat flow data at these subduction zones make them excellent candidates for this study. At NE Japan, a megathrust earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011; at Nankai and Cascadia, there has been a great effort to constrain the scale of the next subduction thrust earthquake for the purpose of disaster prevention. Temperature influences the slip behavior of subduction faults by (1) affecting the rheology of the interface material and (2) controlling dehydration reactions, which can lead to elevated pore fluid pressure. Beyond the depths of subduction thrust earthquakes, the thermal structure is affected strongly by the pattern of mantle wedge flow. This flow is driven by viscous coupling between the subducting slab and the overriding mantle, and it brings in hot flowing mantle into the wedge. The trench-ward (up-dip) extent of the slab-mantle coupling is thus a key factor that controls the thermal structure. Slab-mantle decoupling at shallow

  1. Effects of Micro Solder Joint Geometry on Interfacial IMC Growth Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fenglian; Zhu, Yan; Li, Xuemei

    2017-07-01

    The effects of micro solder joint geometry on intermetallic compound (IMC) growth and electromigration during thermal aging and current stressing have been investigated using three groups of specimens: sandwich structure with solder layer of 10 μm to 50 μm, wire butt with solder layer of 60 μm to 240 μm, and solder ball with diameter of 200 μm to 500 μm, each having Cu/Sn/Cu structure. The results indicated that the geometrical size of the micro solder joint clearly affected the interfacial element diffusion and IMC evolution. Furthermore, when the solder layer thickness was less than 30 μm, the growth rate of the IMC layer decreased significantly with decreasing solder layer thickness, because Sn element was nearly exhausted in the micro solder joint during thermal aging.

  2. Competing effects of buckling and anchorage strength on optimal wheat stalk geometry.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, Tony; Zhou, Jiang; Wood, William H

    2002-08-01

    We seek the ideal wheat stalk, which minimizes the structural mass required to support a fixed grain load in the presence of gravity and wind. The optimization search is restricted to stepped cylindrical stems of known moduli and density but unknown dimension. Stem buckling and root anchorage strength are assumed to place restrictions on the permissible stalk resonant frequency in the presence of a specified wind forcing frequency. These effects are described mathematically, and the penalty parameter method is used to find stem mass minima for various stalk heights. In general, there are two alternative solution branches. The lower solution is the global minimum but it is probably impractical for field crops exposed to natural wind. The upper minimum is more conservative and therefore requires more stem mass. Due to the competing requirements of buckling versus anchorage strength, the parameter study shows that optimal wheat stem geometry has a nonlinear dependence on the intensity of gravity and the frequency spectra of the wind.

  3. Evaluation of stimulus parameters and electrode geometry for an effective suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Shivdasani, Mohit N; Luu, Chi D; Cicione, Rosemary; Fallon, James B; Allen, Penny J; Leuenberger, James; Suaning, Gregg J; Lovell, Nigel H; Shepherd, Robert K; Williams, Chris E

    2010-06-01

    Several approaches have been proposed for placement of retinal prostheses: epiretinal, subretinal and suprachoroidal. We aimed to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of varying a range of stimulus parameters and electrode geometry for a suprachoroidal electrode array, using cortical evoked responses to monopolar electrical stimulation in cats. Our results indicate that charge thresholds were not dependent on electrode size, pulse widths or position of the return electrode tested, but were dependent on the number of sites stimulated in parallel. Further, we found that the combination of monopolar stimulation with large diameter electrodes, wide pulse widths and parallel stimulation minimized the voltage requirements for stimulation. These results provide useful insights for the design specifications of a low voltage suprachoroidal stimulator.

  4. Anomalous dispersion effects in diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform spectroscopy: A study of optical geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Hembree, D. M., Jr.; Smyrl, H. R.

    1989-02-01

    In this report, the two most common diffuse reflectanceinfrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) optical geometries(on-axis and off-axis) are investigated in terms of adherence to theKubelka-Munk theory. It was found that specular reflection, whether inthe form of regular Fresnel reflection or diffuse Fresnel reflection,is the major cause of spectral distortion in typical diffusereflectance measurements. A discussion of the origin of the variationin specular background associated with resonances is presented.Once the adverse effects of specular reflection are minimized, thelinear relationship between response and concentration predictedby Kubelka-Munk theory was found to extend to concentrated samples.Up to a point, this was the case even for intense absorption bandswhere anomalous dispersion leads to large changes in specular intensity.

  5. Hybrid RHF/MP2 geometry optimizations with the effective fragment molecular orbital method.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Anders S; Steinmann, Casper; Fedorov, Dmitri G; Jensen, Jan H

    2014-01-01

    The frozen domain effective fragment molecular orbital method is extended to allow for the treatment of a single fragment at the MP2 level of theory. The approach is applied to the conversion of chorismate to prephenate by Chorismate Mutase, where the substrate is treated at the MP2 level of theory while the rest of the system is treated at the RHF level. MP2 geometry optimization is found to lower the barrier by up to 3.5 kcal/mol compared to RHF optimzations and ONIOM energy refinement and leads to a smoother convergence with respect to the basis set for the reaction profile. For double zeta basis sets the increase in CPU time relative to RHF is roughly a factor of two.

  6. Hybrid RHF/MP2 Geometry Optimizations with the Effective Fragment Molecular Orbital Method

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Anders S.; Steinmann, Casper; Fedorov, Dmitri G.; Jensen, Jan H.

    2014-01-01

    The frozen domain effective fragment molecular orbital method is extended to allow for the treatment of a single fragment at the MP2 level of theory. The approach is applied to the conversion of chorismate to prephenate by Chorismate Mutase, where the substrate is treated at the MP2 level of theory while the rest of the system is treated at the RHF level. MP2 geometry optimization is found to lower the barrier by up to 3.5 kcal/mol compared to RHF optimzations and ONIOM energy refinement and leads to a smoother convergence with respect to the basis set for the reaction profile. For double zeta basis sets the increase in CPU time relative to RHF is roughly a factor of two. PMID:24558430

  7. Helicopter Rotor Wake Geometry and Its Influence in Forward Flight. Volume 1. Generalized Wake Geometry and Wake Effect on Rotor Airloads and Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    performance. A first level generalized wake model was developed for a helicopter rotor operating in steady level forward flight based on theoretically...predicted wake geometries. The generalized wake model consists of wake geometry equations in which tip vortex distortions are generalized as displacements...of predicted rotor airloads and related rotor performanceand blade bending moments to various rotor inflow and wake geometry models are demonstrated

  8. Effect of impinging plate geometry on the self-excitation of subsonic impinging jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinoth, B. R.; Rathakrishnan, E.

    2011-11-01

    In the generation of discrete tones by subsonic impinging jets, there exists a difference of opinion as how the feedback is achieved, i.e., the path of the feedback acoustic waves is whether inside the jet or outside the jet? The only available model (Tam and Ahuja model) for the prediction of an average subsonic jet impingement tone frequency assumes that the upstream part of the feedback loop is closed by an upstream propagating neutral wave of the jet. But, there is no information about the plate geometry in the model. The present study aims at understanding the effect of the plate geometry (size and co-axial hole in the plate) on the self-excitation process of subsonic impinging jets and the path of the acoustic feedback to the nozzle exit. The present results show that there is no effect of plate diameter on the frequency of the self-excitation. A new type of tones is generated for plates with co-axial hole (hole diameter is equal to nozzle exit diameter) for Mach numbers 0.9 and 0.95, in addition to the axisymmetric and helical mode tones observed for plates without co-axial hole. The stability results show that the Strouhal number of the least dispersive upstream propagating neutral waves match with the average Strouhal number of the new tones observed in the present experiments. The present study extends the validity of the model of Tam and Ahuja to a plate with co-axial hole (annular plate) and by doing so, we indirectly confirmed that the major acoustic feedback path to the nozzle exit is inside the jet.

  9. Hip cortical thickness assessment in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and strontium ranelate effect on hip geometry.

    PubMed

    Briot, Karine; Benhamou, Claude Laurent; Roux, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the relationship between hip geometry and the 5-yr risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal osteoporotic women and the effects of strontium ranelate on these parameters. Using the 5-yr data of a randomized placebo-controlled trial of strontium ranelate (Treatment of Peripheral Osteoporosis Study [TROPOS]), we reanalyzed the hip dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans to determine the role of hip geometry in the risk of hip fractures (placebo group, n=636) and to analyze the effects of strontium ranelate (n=483). The outcomes included the hip structure analysis (HSA) parameters: cross-sectional area (CSA), section modulus, cortical thickness, and buckling ratio, measured at femoral neck, intertrochanteric (IT) region, and proximal shaft. The geometric parameters associated with an increased risk of hip fracture over 5yr were IT CSA and femoral shaft cortical thickness independent of age and total-hip bone mineral density (BMD). Using Bonferroni adjustment, IT cortical thickness was associated with the risk of hip fracture. Over 5yr, significant decreases in some femoral dimensions of the placebo group contrast with significant increases in strontium ranelate group after adjustment for age and BMD. Using Bonferroni adjustment, differences between placebo and strontium ranelate groups were no longer significant after adjustment on 5-yr BMD changes. Some HSA parameters have predictive value for hip fracture risk in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Strontium ranelate improves some HSA parameters, through the BMD increase. Copyright © 2012 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Welding polarity effects on weld spatters and bead geometry of hyperbaric dry GMAW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Long; Wu, Jinming; Huang, Junfen; Huang, Jiqiang; Zou, Yong; Liu, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Welding polarity has influence on welding stability to some extent, but the specific relationship between welding polarity and weld quality has not been found, especially under the hyperbaric environment. Based on a hyperbaric dry welding experiment system, gas metal arc welding(GMAW) experiments with direct current electrode positive(DCEP) and direct current electrode negative(DCEN) operations are carried out under the ambient pressures of 0.1 MPa, 0.4 MPa, 0.7 MPa and 1.0 MPa to find the influence rule of different welding polarities on welding spatters and weld bead geometry. The effects of welding polarities on the weld bead geometry such as the reinforcement, the weld width and the penetration are discussed. The experimental results show that the welding spatters gradually grow in quantity and size for GMAW with DCEP, while GMAW with DCEN can produce fewer spatters comparatively with the increase of the ambient pressure. Compared with DCEP, the welding current and arc voltage waveforms for DCEN is more stable and the distribution of welding current probability density for DCEN is more concentrated under the hyperbaric environment. When the ambient pressure is increased from 0.1 MPa to 1.0 MPa, the effects of welding polarities on the reinforcement, the weld width and the penetration are as follows: an increase of 0.8 mm for the weld reinforcement is produced by GMAW with DCEN and 1.3 mm by GMAW with DCEP, a decrease of 7.2 mm for the weld width is produced by DCEN and 6.1 mm by DCEP; and an increase of 3.9 mm for the penetration is produced by DCEN and 1.9 mm by DCEP. The proposed research indicates that the desirable stability in the welding procedure can be achieved by GMAW with DCEN operation under the hyperbaric environment.

  11. Surface Geometry and Stomatal Conductance Effects on Evaporation From Aquatic Macrophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Michael G.; Idso, Sherwood B.

    1987-06-01

    Evaporative water loss rates of several floating and emergent aquatic macrophytes were studied over a 4-year period through comparison of daily evaporative water losses from similar-sized vegetated (E) and open water (E0) surfaces. Two species with planate floating leaves (water fern and water lily) yielded E/E0 values of 0.90 for one and four growing seasons, respectively, and displayed stomatal regulation of potential evaporation. Water hyacinths grown in ponds with different diameters exhibited E/E0 ratios which decreased with increasing pond diameter for both short (0.06-0.36 m) and tall (0.63-0.81 m) plants, producing high linear correlations with amount of peripheral vegetative surface area. The latter relationships suggested an E/E0 value less than unity for a relatively extensive canopy of short water hyacinths and a value of the order of 1.4 for a tall canopy possessing similar two-dimensional surface area characteristics. The latter results were also demonstrated in a separate study utilizing polyurethane foam to insulate the peripheral exposure of tall water hyacinth canopies from advective energy. Finally, simultaneous stomatal conductance and daily E/E0 measurements on cattail and water hyacinth canopies with identical tank diameters indicated that although the mean stomatal conductance of the peripheral exposure of the cattail canopy was 72% less than that of the water hyacinth canopy, its total evaporative water loss was nearly equivalent, due to its greater height. Reducing the surface area of the peripheral cattail exposure by the fractional amount suggested by the stomatal conductance measurements harmonized its surface geometry-evaporation relationship with that of the water hyacinth canopy and once again demonstrated the reality of stomatal control of potential evaporation.

  12. Effect of changes in separatrix magnetic geometry on divertor behaviour in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, T. W.; Canik, J. M.; Lasnier, C. J.; Leonard, A. W.; Mahdavi, M. A.; Watkins, J. G.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Ferron, J. R.; Groebner, R. J.; Hill, D. N.; Hyatt, A. W.; Holcomb, C. T.; Luce, T. C.; Makowski, M.; Moyer, R. A.; Osborne, T. E.; Stangeby, P. C.

    2013-11-01

    Results and interpretation of recent experiments on DIII-D designed to evaluate divertor geometries favourable for radiative heat dispersal are presented. Two approaches examined here involved lengthening the parallel connection in the scrape-off layer, L‖, and increasing the radius of the outer divertor separatrix strike point, ROSP, with the goal of reducing target temperature, TTAR, and increasing target density, nTAR. From one-dimensional (1D) two-point modelling based on conducted parallel heat flux, it is expected that: n_{TAR} \\propto R_{OSP}^{2} L_{\\parallel}^{6/7} n_{SEP}^{3} and T_{TAR} \\propto R_{OSP}^{-2} L_{\\parallel}^{{-4}/7} n_{SEP}^{-2} , where nSEP is the midplane separatrix density. These scalings suggest that conditions conducive to a radiative divertor solution can be achieved at low nSEP by increasing either ROSP or L‖. Our data are consistent with the above L‖ scalings. On the other hand, the observed dependence of nTAR and TTAR on ROSP displayed a more complex behaviour, under certain conditions deviating from the above scalings. Our analysis indicates that deviations from the ROSP scaling were due to the presence of convected heat flux, driven by escaping neutrals, in the more open configurations of the larger ROSP cases. A comparison of ‘open’ versus ‘closed’ divertor configurations for the H-mode plasmas in this study show that the ‘closed’ case provides at least 30% reduction in the peaked heat flux at common density with the ‘open’ case and partial divertor detachment at lower plasma density.

  13. Effect of extraction vessel geometry and flow homogeneity on recoveries of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in pressurised hot water extraction.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Terhi; Pihtsalmi, Tina; Hartonen, Kari; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2003-08-01

    Extraction vessels of different length, internal diameter and volume were tested to evaluate the effect of vessel geometry on the recovery of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from certified sediment by pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE). Pressurised hot water extractions were performed at 300 degrees C with both liquid water (pressure 250 kg cm(-2)) and steam (pressure 50 kg cm(-2)). In addition, the effects on the recoveries of sediment packing and water flow direction were examined in two vessels. The geometry of the vessel, the packing of the sediment and the flow direction of the water had only minor effect on the recoveries.

  14. The effect of hypertension and obesity on left ventricular geometry and cardiac functions in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Alp, Hayrullah; Karaarslan, Sevim; Eklioğlu, Beray S; Atabek, Mehmet E; Baysal, Tamer

    2014-06-01

    Obesity and hypertension are associated with structural and functional cardiac change in children and adults. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of hypertension and obesity on left ventricular geometric patterns and cardiac functions assessed by conventional and Doppler echocardiography. Four hundred and thirty obese children, aged 6-17 years and 150 age and sex-matched healthy controls, were included in the study. Left ventricular geometry was classified as concentric hypertrophy, eccentric hypertrophy, concentric remodeling and normal geometry. Concentric hypertrophy group had the worst subclinical systolic and diastolic cardiac functions among all left ventricular geometric patterns. BMI and total adipose tissue mass are the predictors of abnormal ventricular geometry. Apart from the increase in carotid intima-media and epicardial adipose tissue thicknesses in different left ventricular geometry patterns, they are not predictable for abnormal geometry. The variety of alterations in cardiac function and morphology that has been observed in obese adults, appears to start earlier in life. Obesity and hypertension were clearly associated with the left ventricular geometry. Also, subclinical systolic and load-depended diastolic dysfunctions can be detected in obese hypertensive children with concentric hypertrophy.

  15. The Effect of Interfacial Geometry on Charge-Transfer States in the Phthalocyanine/Fullerene Organic Photovoltaic System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong H; Geva, Eitan; Dunietz, Barry D

    2016-05-19

    The dependence of charge-transfer states on interfacial geometry at the phthalocyanine/fullerene organic photovoltaic system is investigated. The effect of deviations from the equilibrium geometry of the donor-donor-acceptor trimer on the energies of and electronic coupling between different types of interfacial electronic excited states is calculated from first-principles. Deviations from the equilibrium geometry are found to destabilize the donor-to-donor charge transfer states and to weaken their coupling to the photoexcited donor-localized states, thereby reducing their ability to serve as charge traps. At the same time, we find that the energies of donor-to-acceptor charge transfer states and their coupling to the donor-localized photoexcited states are either less sensitive to the interfacial geometry or become more favorable due to modifications relative to the equilibrium geometry, thereby enhancing their ability to serve as gateway states for charge separation. Through these findings, we eludicate how interfacial geometry modifications can play a key role in achieving charge separation in this widely studied organic photovoltaic system.

  16. 14 CFR § 1203.401 - Effect of open publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... classification should be referred to the Chairperson, NASA Information Security Program Committee. ... SECURITY PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.401 Effect of open publication. Public... information in all programs, projects, or items incorporating or pertaining to the compromised items of...

  17. Effects of Intraframe Distortion on Measures of Cone Mosaic Geometry from Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Robert F.; Sulai, Yusufu N.; Dubis, Adam M.; Chui, Toco Y.; Rosen, Richard B.; Michaelides, Michel; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the effects of intraframe distortion due to involuntary eye motion on measures of cone mosaic geometry derived from adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) images. Methods We acquired AOSLO image sequences from 20 subjects at 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0° temporal from fixation. An expert grader manually selected 10 minimally distorted reference frames from each 150-frame sequence for subsequent registration. Cone mosaic geometry was measured in all registered images (n = 600) using multiple metrics, and the repeatability of these metrics was used to assess the impact of the distortions from each reference frame. In nine additional subjects, we compared AOSLO-derived measurements to those from adaptive optics (AO)-fundus images, which do not contain system-imposed intraframe distortions. Results We observed substantial variation across subjects in the repeatability of density (1.2%–8.7%), inter-cell distance (0.8%–4.6%), percentage of six-sided Voronoi cells (0.8%–10.6%), and Voronoi cell area regularity (VCAR) (1.2%–13.2%). The average of all metrics extracted from AOSLO images (with the exception of VCAR) was not significantly different than those derived from AO-fundus images, though there was variability between individual images. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that the intraframe distortion found in AOSLO images can affect the accuracy and repeatability of cone mosaic metrics. It may be possible to use multiple images from the same retinal area to approximate a “distortionless” image, though more work is needed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach. Translational Relevance Even in subjects with good fixation, images from AOSLOs contain intraframe distortions due to eye motion during scanning. The existence of these artifacts emphasizes the need for caution when interpreting results derived from scanning instruments. PMID:26933523

  18. Effect of minodronic acid hydrate on hip geometry in Japanese women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masako; Sone, Teruki; Fukunaga, Masao

    2010-05-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based hip structural analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of a bisphosphonate, minodronic acid hydrate, on the geometry of the proximal femur in Japanese patients with osteoporosis. The subjects were 103 postmenopausal patients (average age 63.9 +/- 6.4 years) with primary osteoporosis. Minodronic acid hydrate was administered orally at a dose of 1 mg/day for 12 months. Significant early responses at 3-6 months after the start of administration were observed in all three regions of the proximal femur (narrow neck, intertrochanter, and shaft) in terms of bone density, geometry, and bone strength indices. The outcomes of therapy included a reduction of the internal diameter of the cortical bone (-0.1, -0.6, and -0.2% in the neck, intertrochanter, and shaft, respectively, at 12 months; not significant) and a significant increase in cortical thickness (3.1, 3.7, and 2.0% in the respective regions at 12 months). Furthermore, minodronic acid hydrate induced a significant enlargement of the cross-sectional bone area, which is related to compressive strength; a significant increase in cross-sectional moment of inertia and section modulus (SM 4.9, 5.8, and 2.9% in the neck, intertrochanter, and shaft, respectively, at 12 months; P < 0.001), which are related to the bending strength; and a significant reduction in buckling ratio (BR -3.0% (P < 0.001), -4.2% (P < 0.001), and -1.4% (P < 0.05) in the respective regions at 12 months), which reflects improved cortical stability. These findings show that minodronic acid hydrate reduces age-related endocortical bone resorption, leading to increased cortical thickness and sustained or enhanced bone strength.

  19. Effects of Intraframe Distortion on Measures of Cone Mosaic Geometry from Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscopy.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Robert F; Sulai, Yusufu N; Dubis, Adam M; Chui, Toco Y; Rosen, Richard B; Michaelides, Michel; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    To characterize the effects of intraframe distortion due to involuntary eye motion on measures of cone mosaic geometry derived from adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) images. We acquired AOSLO image sequences from 20 subjects at 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0° temporal from fixation. An expert grader manually selected 10 minimally distorted reference frames from each 150-frame sequence for subsequent registration. Cone mosaic geometry was measured in all registered images (n = 600) using multiple metrics, and the repeatability of these metrics was used to assess the impact of the distortions from each reference frame. In nine additional subjects, we compared AOSLO-derived measurements to those from adaptive optics (AO)-fundus images, which do not contain system-imposed intraframe distortions. We observed substantial variation across subjects in the repeatability of density (1.2%-8.7%), inter-cell distance (0.8%-4.6%), percentage of six-sided Voronoi cells (0.8%-10.6%), and Voronoi cell area regularity (VCAR) (1.2%-13.2%). The average of all metrics extracted from AOSLO images (with the exception of VCAR) was not significantly different than those derived from AO-fundus images, though there was variability between individual images. Our data demonstrate that the intraframe distortion found in AOSLO images can affect the accuracy and repeatability of cone mosaic metrics. It may be possible to use multiple images from the same retinal area to approximate a "distortionless" image, though more work is needed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach. Even in subjects with good fixation, images from AOSLOs contain intraframe distortions due to eye motion during scanning. The existence of these artifacts emphasizes the need for caution when interpreting results derived from scanning instruments.

  20. The effects of aponeurosis geometry on strain injury susceptibility explored with a 3D muscle model.

    PubMed

    Rehorn, Michael R; Blemker, Silvia S

    2010-09-17

    In the musculoskeletal system, some muscles are injured more frequently than others. For example, the biceps femoris longhead (BFLH) is the most commonly injured hamstring muscle. It is thought that acute injuries result from large strains within the muscle tissue, but the mechanism behind this type of strain injury is still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to build computational models to analyze the stretch distributions within the BFLH muscle and to explore the effects of aponeurosis geometry on the magnitude and location of peak stretches within the model. We created a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of the BFLH based on magnetic resonance (MR) images. We also created a series of simplified models with a similar geometry to the MR-based model. We analyzed the stretches predicted by the MR-based model during lengthening contractions to determine the region of peak local fiber stretch. The peak along-fiber stretch was 1.64 and was located adjacent to the proximal myotendinous junction (MTJ). In contrast, the average along-fiber stretch across all the muscle tissue was 0.95. By analyzing the simple models, we found that varying the dimensions of the aponeuroses (width, length, and thickness) had a substantial impact on the location and magnitude of peak stretches within the muscle. Specifically, the difference in widths between the proximal and distal aponeurosis in the BFLH contributed most to the location and magnitude of peak stretch, as decreasing the proximal aponeurosis width by 80% increased peak average stretches along the proximal MTJ by greater than 60% while slightly decreasing stretches along the distal MTJ. These results suggest that the aponeurosis morphology of the BFLH plays a significant role in determining stretch distributions throughout the muscle. Furthermore, this study introduces the new hypothesis that aponeurosis widths may be important in determining muscle injury susceptibility.

  1. Effects of nanostructure geometry on polymer chain alignment and device performance in nanoimprinted polymer solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi; Mielczarek, Kamil; Zakhidov, Anvar; Hu, Walter

    2013-03-01

    Among the various organic photovoltaic devices, the conjugated polymer/fullerene approach has drawn the most research interest. The performance of these types of solar cells is greatly determined by the nanoscale morphology of the two components (donor/acceptor) and the molecular orientation/crystallinity in the photoactive layer. This article demonstrates our recent studies on the nanostructure geometry effects on the nanoimprint induced poly(3 hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) chain alignment and photovoltaic performance. Out-of-plane and in-plane grazing incident X-ray diffractions are employed to characterize the chain orientations in P3HT nanogratings with different widths and heights. It is found that nanoimprint procedure changes the initial edge-on alignment in non-imprinted P3HT thin film to a vertical orientation which favors the hole transport, with an organization height H≥ 170 nm and width in the range of 60 nm<= W< 210 nm. Samples with better aligned molecules lead to a larger crystallite sizes as well. Imprinted P3HT/[6,6]-penyl-C61-butyric-acid-methyl-ester (PCBM) solar cells show an increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) with the decrease of nanostructure width, and with the increase of height and junction area. Devices with the highest PCE are made by the fully aligned and highest P3HT nanostructures (width w= 60 nm, height h= 170 nm), allowing for the most efficient charge separation, transport and light absorption. We believe this work will contribute to the optimal geometry design of nanoimprinted polymer solar cells.

  2. Effect of Transmission Line Measurement (TLM) Geometry on Specific Contact Resistivity Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Sidhant

    Ohmic metal semiconductor contacts are indispensable part of a semiconductor device. These are characterized by their specific contact resistivity (rho c) in expressed in Ω-cm2, defined as the inverse slope of current density versus voltage curve at origin. Engineering and measurement of specific contact resistivity (rhoc) is becoming of increasing importance in the semiconductor industry. Devices ranging from integrated circuits to solar cells use contact resistivity as a measure of device performance. Novel methods such as contact silicidation, doped-metal contacts, dipole inserted contacts etc. are continually being developed to reduce specific contact resistivity and improve device performance. The Transmission Line Measurement (TLM) method is most commonly used to extract the specific contact resistivity for such applications. This method is, however, not fully understood and modeled to understand the flow of current and behavior of charge carriers for contacts of different dimensions. It has often been observed in literature that applications that involve smaller TLM geometries most often than not, show low values of rho c and applications that involve rhoc extraction through larger TLM geometries show significantly larger values. A perfect example of this would be the inconsistencies observed in extracted rhoc's from integrated circuit applications where TLM geometries range from 0.1 mum to 10 mum and extracted rhoc is of the order of 10-8 to 10-6 Ω-cm2 and photovoltaic applications where geometries are around 50 mum to 1000 mum and rho c is of the order of 10-5 to 10-2 Ω-cm 2. The transfer length or LT which is the characteristic length that the charge carriers travel beneath the contact before flowing up into the contact. It has also been seen that in certain cases of TLM device dimensions, the extracted LT is greater than the actual length of the contact. This occurence cannot be effectively explained through the conventional TLM analysis. In this

  3. On the Effects of Modeling As-Manufactured Geometry: Toward Digital Twin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerrone, Albert; Hochhalter, Jacob; Heber, Gerd; Ingraffea, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Asimple, nonstandardized material test specimen,which fails along one of two different likely crack paths, is considered herein.The result of deviations in geometry on the order of tenths of amillimeter, this ambiguity in crack pathmotivates the consideration of asmanufactured component geometry in the design, assessment, and certification of structural systems.Herein, finite elementmodels of as-manufactured specimens are generated and subsequently analyzed to resolve the crack-path ambiguity. The consequence and benefit of such a "personalized" methodology is the prediction of a crack path for each specimen based on its as-manufactured geometry, rather than a distribution of possible specimen geometries or nominal geometry.The consideration of as-manufactured characteristics is central to the Digital Twin concept. Therefore, this work is also intended to motivate its development.

  4. Numerical analysis of the effects of non-conventional laser beam geometries during laser melting of metallic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safdar, Shakeel; Li, Lin; Sheikh, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Laser melting is an important industrial activity encountered in a variety of laser manufacturing processes, e.g. selective laser melting, welding, brazing, soldering, glazing, surface alloying, cladding etc. The majority of these processes are carried out by using either circular or rectangular beams. At present, the melt pool characteristics such as melt pool geometry, thermal gradients and cooling rate are controlled by the variation of laser power, spot size or scanning speed. However, the variations in these parameters are often limited by other processing conditions. Although different laser beam modes and intensity distributions have been studied to improve the process, no other laser beam geometries have been investigated. The effect of laser beam geometry on the laser melting process has received very little attention. This paper presents an investigation of the effects of different beam geometries including circular, rectangular and diamond shapes on laser melting of metallic materials. The finite volume method has been used to simulate the transient effects of a moving beam for laser melting of mild steel (EN-43A) taking into account Marangoni and buoyancy convection. The temperature distribution, melt pool geometry, fluid flow velocities and heating/cooling rates have been calculated. Some of the results have been compared with the experimental data.

  5. Coulomb three-body effects in ([ital e],2[ital e]) collisions: The ionization of H in coplanar symmetric geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, C.T.; Allan, R.J.; Rasch, J.; Walters, H.R.J.; Zhang, X.; Roeder, J.; Jung, K.; Ehrhardt, H. Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, The Queen's University of Belfast, BT7 1NN Belfast, Northern Ireland Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Erwin Schroedinger Strasse, D6750, Kaiserslautern )

    1994-11-01

    The role of postcollisional and polarization-correlation effects in energy-sharing ([ital e],2[ital e]) collisions is considered. Theoretical and experimental results are presented for the ionization of hydrogen in a symmetric coplanar geometry. A kinematical regime is identified where the triple-differential cross section is sensitive to three-body effects in both the incident and final channels.

  6. Effect of AFM probe geometry on visco-hyperelastic characterization of soft materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccaccio, Antonio; Lamberti, Luciano; Papi, Massimiliano; De Spirito, Marco; Pappalettere, Carmine

    2015-08-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation is very suited for nano- and microscale mechanical characterization of soft materials. Although the structural response of polymeric networks that form soft matter depends on viscous effects caused by the relative slippage of polymeric chains, the usual assumption made in the AFM-based characterization is that the specimen behaves as a purely elastic material and viscous forces are negligible. However, for each geometric configuration of the AFM tip, there will be a limit indentation rate above which viscous effects must be taken into account to correctly determine mechanical properties. A parametric finite element study conducted on 12 geometric configurations of a blunt cone AFM tip (overall, the study included about 200 finite element analyses) allowed us to determine the limit indentation rate for each configuration. The selected tip dimensions cover commercially available products and account for changes in tip geometry caused by serial measurements. Nanoindentation rates cover typical experimental conditions set in AFM bio-measurements on soft matter. Viscous effects appear to be more significant in the case of sharper tips. This implies that, if quantitative data on sample viscosity are not available, using a rounded indenter and carrying out experiments below the limit indentation rate will allow errors in the determination of mechanical properties to be minimized.

  7. Alternating current cloud point extraction on a microchip: the effect of electrode geometry.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Naoki; Maekawa, Chisaki; Sato, Kae

    2015-02-01

    We report on the effect of electrode geometry on alternating current cloud point extraction (ACPE). ACPE is a technique utilized to extract membrane-associated biomolecules in an electrode-integrated microfluidic channel. In this study, we investigated the effect of gap size (4∼22 μm) between microband electrodes on ACPE. A decrease in gap size resulted in efficient and rapid concentration of fluorescent-labeled phospholipids, a model of membrane-associated biomolecules. We also investigated the effect of applied voltage amplitude on ACPE using devices with decreased electrode gap size. When the gap was small, ACPE was achieved with low applied voltages. ACPE of membrane proteins extracted from HeLa cells was also studied to demonstrate the applicability of the ACPE to real samples. The results provide a guideline to improve the performance of ACPE and facilitate application of the ACPE technique as part of an overall analytical process. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Enhancement of affinity-based biosensors: effect of sensing chamber geometry on sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lynn, N Scott; Šípová, Hana; Adam, Pavel; Homola, Jiří

    2013-04-07

    Affinity-based biosensing systems have become an important analytical tool for the detection and study of numerous biomolecules. The merging of these sensing technologies with microfluidic flow cells allows for faster detection times, increased sensitivities, and lower required sample volumes. In order to obtain a higher degree of performance from the sensor, it is important to know the effects of the flow cell geometry on the sensor sensitivity. In these sensors, the sensor sensitivity is related to the overall diffusive flux of analyte to the sensing surface; therefore increases in the analyte flux will be manifested as an increase in sensitivity, resulting in a lower limit of detection (LOD). Here we present a study pertaining to the effects of the flow cell height H on the analyte flux J, where for a common biosensor design we predict that the analyte flux will scale as J ≈ H(-2/3). We verify this scaling behavior via both numerical simulations as well as an experimental surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. We show the reduction of the flow cell height can have drastic effects on the sensor performance, where the LOD of our experimental system concerning the detection of ssDNA decreases by a factor of 4 when H is reduced from 47 μm to 7 μm. We utilize these results to discuss the applicability of this scaling behavior with respect to a generalized affinity-based biosensor.

  9. Particle dispersion in porous media: Differentiating effects of geometry and fluid rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Jack D. C.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Conrad, Jacinta C.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the effects of geometric order and fluid rheology on the dispersion of micron-sized particles in two-dimensional microfluidic porous media. Particles suspended in a mixture of glycerol and water or in solutions of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) polymers were imaged as they flowed through arrays of microscale posts. From the trajectories of the particles, we calculated the velocity distributions and thereafter obtained the longitudinal and transverse dispersion coefficients. Particles flowed in the shear-thinning HPAM solution through periodic arrays of microposts were more likely to switch between streamlines, due to elastic instabilities. As a result, the distributions of particle velocity were broader in HPAM solutions than in glycerol-water mixtures for ordered geometries. In a disordered array of microposts, however, there was little difference between the velocity distributions obtained in glycerol-water and in HPAM solutions. Correspondingly, particles flowed through ordered post arrays in HPAM solutions exhibited enhanced transverse dispersion. This result suggests that periodic geometric order amplifies the effects of the elasticity-induced velocity fluctuations, whereas geometric disorder of barriers effectively averages out the fluctuations.

  10. Geometry and layering effects on the operating characteristics of integrated spiral inductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Eran J.

    The integration of some passive devices directly into electronic substrates has met with a considerable amount of success. Inductors, however, have encountered some difficulties with integration due to high resistance, low inductance, low quality factor and modeling issues. An experimental study was conducted to determine the effects of geometry and layering on the operating characteristics (i.e. inductance, capacitance, resistance, maximum quality factor, and frequency of maximum quality factor). In this study, a novel approach to multi-layer inductors was proposed and explored. This approach deviates from conventional multi-layer inductors by placing the second winding in parallel with the first. This has the effect of lowering the overall coil resistance and, thus, increasing the maximum quality factor. Empirical models were developed to calculate inductance of one and two layer inductors. Analytical models were developed to calculate do resistances of one and two layer inductors. A semi-empirical model was developed to determine parasitic capacitances of one and two layer inductors. The effects of ground plane encroachment were also examined.

  11. Effects of vehicle interior geometry and anthropometric variables on automobile driving posture.

    PubMed

    Reed, M P; Manary, M A; Flannagan, C A; Schneider, L W

    2000-01-01

    The effects of vehicle package, seat, and anthropometric variables on posture were studied in a laboratory vehicle mockup. Participants (68 men and women) selected their preferred driving postures in 18 combinations of seat height, fore-aft steering wheel position, and seat cushion angle. Two seats differing in stiffness and seat back contour were used in testing. Driving postures were recorded using a sonic digitizer to measure the 3D locations of body landmarks. All test variables had significant independent effects on driving posture. Drivers were found to adapt to changes in the vehicle geometry primarily by changes in limb posture, whereas torso posture remained relatively constant. Stature accounts for most of the anthropometrically related variability in driving posture, and gender differences appear to be explained by body size variation. Large intersubject differences in torso posture, which are fairly stable across different seat and package conditions, are not closely related to standard anthropometric measures. The findings can be used to predict the effects of changes in vehicle and seat design on driving postures for populations with a wide range of anthropometric characteristics.

  12. Evaluation of Boattail Geometry and Exhaust Plume Temperature Effects on Nozzle Afterbody Drag at Transonic Mach Numbers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    AEDC-TR-76-102 t / ,J • • EVALUATION OF BOATTAIL GEOMETRY AND EXHAUST PLUME ~’J_"~!":f~y"~ TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON NOZZLE AFTERBODY DRAG AT...BOATTAIL GEOMETRY AND EXHAUST PLUME TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON NOZZLE AFTERBODY DRAG AT TRANSONIC MACH NUMBERS 7 AUTHOR(s ) L. L. G a l i g h e r...combustion) jet test techniques were used to simulate and duplicate, respectively, the nozzle exhaust flow for a sonic jet installatlon. Nozzle exhaust

  13. Jet array impingement flow distributions and heat transfer characteristics: Effects of initial crossflow and nonuniform array geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florschuetz, L. W.; Metzger, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    Flow distributions and heat transfer characteristics for two-dimensional arrays of circular air jets impinging on a surface parallel to the jet orifice plate were determined. The configurations considered were intended to model those of interest in current and contemplated gas turbine airfoil midchord cooling applications. The geometry of the airfoil applications considered dictates that all of the jet flow, after impingement, exit in the chordwise (i.e., streamwise) direction toward the trailing edge. Experimental results for the effect of an initial crossflow on both flow distributions and heat transfer characteristics for a number of the prior uniform array geometries. The effects of nonuniform array geometries on flow distributions and heat transfer characteristics for noninitial crossflow configurations are discussed.

  14. Comparative effectiveness of topical drugs in dermatologic priority diseases: geometry of randomized trial networks.

    PubMed

    Karimkhani, Chante; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    This commentary explores the fundamentals of network theory, a branch of applied mathematics that has numerous applications in many fields. Maruani et al. (2014) used network theory to analyze the geometry of the evidence base for dermatologic treatments. This is a prime example of the innovative nature of network theory: the mapping of a complex system into an abstract geometry for easier analysis. The interpretation rests upon the two concepts of diversity and co-occurrence. The mathematical foundation of these concepts is briefly reviewed. In addition, examples of the application of network geometry in other dermatologic settings as well as in science and technology are presented.

  15. Long-term changes in Jovian synchrotron radio emission - Intrinsic variations or effects of viewing geometry?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Lon L.

    1993-01-01

    Possible causes of the observed long-term variation of Jovian synchrotron radio emission, including both intrinsic changes in the Jovian radiation belts and apparent changes due to variations in the Jovigraphic declination of the earth, D sub E, are investigated. An increase in diffusion rate with other parameters held constant results in an inward displacement of the peak emission radial distance that is not observed. Effects of viewing geometry changes are examined. The possible importance of such effects is suggested by a correlation between the total decimetric radio flux and D sub E, which varies between -3.3 and +3.3 deg during one Jovian orbital period. Because the Jovian central meridian longitudes where the magnetic latitude passes through zero during a given Jovian rotation change substantially with D sub E and since significant longitudinal asymmetries exist in both the volume emissivity and the latitudinal profile of the beam, the total intensity should be at least a partial function of D sub E.

  16. A new class of actuator surface models incorporating wind turbine blade and nacelle geometry effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaolei; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2015-11-01

    It was shown by Kang, Yang and Sotiropoulos that the nacelle has significant effects on the turbine wake even in the far wake region, which the standard actuator line model is not able to predict. We develop a new class of actuator surface models for the blades and nacelle, which is able to resolve the effects of both tip vortices and nacelle vortex. The new nacelle model, which is based on distributing forces from the actual nacelle geometry as in the diffused interface immersed boundary methods, is first tested by carrying out LES of the flow past a sphere and demonstrating good agreement with available in the literature DNS results. The proposed model is subsequently validated by simulating the flow past the hydrokinetic turbine used in the simulations of Kang et al. and good agreement with the measurements is demonstrated. Finally, the proposed model is applied to utility scale wind turbines to elucidate the role of nacelle vortex dynamics on turbine wake meandering. This work was supported by Department of Energy DOE (DE-EE0002980, DE-EE0005482 and DE-AC04-94AL85000), and Sandia National Laboratories. Computational resources were provided by SNL and MSI.

  17. Effect of leading-edge geometry on boundary-layer receptivity to freestream sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Nay; Reed, Helen L.; Saric, W. S.

    1991-01-01

    The receptivity to freestream sound of the laminar boundary layer over a semi-infinite flat plate with an elliptic leading edge is simulated numerically. The incompressible flow past the flat plate is computed by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates. A finite-difference method which is second-order accurate in space and time is used. Spatial and temporal developments of the Tollmien-Schlichting wave in the boundary layer, due to small-amplitude time-harmonic oscillations of the freestream velocity that closely simulate a sound wave travelling parallel to the plate, are observed. The effect of leading-edge curvature is studied by varying the aspect ratio of the ellipse. The boundary layer over the flat plate with a sharper leading edge is found to be less receptive. The relative contribution of the discontinuity in curvature at the ellipse-flat-plate juncture to receptivity is investigated by smoothing the juncture with a polynomial. Continuous curvature leads to less receptivity. A new geometry of the leading edge, a modified super ellipse, which provides continuous curvature at the juncture with the flat plate, is used to study the effect of continuous curvature and inherent pressure gradient on receptivity.

  18. Effects of 3D geometries on cellular gradient sensing and polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spill, Fabian; Andasari, Vivi; Mak, Michael; Kamm, Roger D.; Zaman, Muhammad H.

    2016-06-01

    During cell migration, cells become polarized, change their shape, and move in response to various internal and external cues. Cell polarization is defined through the spatio-temporal organization of molecules such as PI3K or small GTPases, and is determined by intracellular signaling networks. It results in directional forces through actin polymerization and myosin contractions. Many existing mathematical models of cell polarization are formulated in terms of reaction-diffusion systems of interacting molecules, and are often defined in one or two spatial dimensions. In this paper, we introduce a 3D reaction-diffusion model of interacting molecules in a single cell, and find that cell geometry has an important role affecting the capability of a cell to polarize, or change polarization when an external signal changes direction. Our results suggest a geometrical argument why more roundish cells can repolarize more effectively than cells which are elongated along the direction of the original stimulus, and thus enable roundish cells to turn faster, as has been observed in experiments. On the other hand, elongated cells preferentially polarize along their main axis even when a gradient stimulus appears from another direction. Furthermore, our 3D model can accurately capture the effect of binding and unbinding of important regulators of cell polarization to and from the cell membrane. This spatial separation of membrane and cytosol, not possible to capture in 1D or 2D models, leads to marked differences of our model from comparable lower-dimensional models.

  19. Geometry effects on cooling in a standing wave cylindrical thermoacousic resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd-Ghazali, Normah; Ghazali, Ahmad Dairobi; Ali, Irwan Shah; Rahman, Muhammad Aminullah A.

    2012-06-01

    Numerous reports have established the refrigeration applications of thermoacoustic cooling without compressors and refrigerants. Significant cooling effects can be obtained in a thermoacoustic resonator fitted with a heat exchanging stack and operated at resonance frequency. Past studies, however, have hardly referred to the fundamental relationship between resonant frequency and the resonator geometry. This paper reports the thermoacoustic cooling effects at resonance obtained by changing the diameter of the resonator while holding the length constant and vice versa. Experiments were completed at atmospheric pressure with air as the working fluid using a number of pvc tubes having parallel plate stack from Mylar. The temperature difference measured across the stack showed that a volume increase in the working fluid in general increases the temperature gradient for the quarter-and half-wavelength resonators. Doubling the diameter from 30 mm to 60 mm produced the highest temperature difference due to the greater number of stack plates resulting in a higher overall thermoacaoustic cooling. Increasing the resonator length only produced a small increase in temperature gradient since the resonant frequency at operation is only slightly changed. Investigation on the aspect ratio exhibits no influence on the temperature difference across the stack. This study have shown that the resonator length and diameter do affect the temperature difference across the thermoacoustic stack, and further research should be done to consider the contribution of the stack mass on the overall desired thermoacoustic cooling.

  20. Experimental study of effects of forebody geometry on high angle of attack static and dynamic stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, J. M.; Nguyen, L. T.

    1986-01-01

    A series of low speed wind tunnel tests on a generic fighter model with a cylindrical fuselage were made to investigate the effects of forebody shape on static and dynamic lateral/directional stability. Five forebodies, including a chine nose of unconventional cross-sectional shape, were tested. Conventional force tests were conducted to determine static stability characteristics and single degree-of-freedom free-to-roll tests were used to study the wing rock susceptibility of the model with the various forebodies. Flow visualization data were obtained to aid in analysis of the complex flow phenomena involved. The results show that forebody cross-sectional shape can strongly effect both static and dynamic (roll) stability at high angles of attack. Large variations in stability were obtained for the various forebody geometries. These characteristics result from the impact of cross-sectional shape on forebody vortex development, the behavior of the vortices at sideslip conditions, and their interaction with the wing and empennage flow fields.

  1. Unravelling the geometry of data matrices: effects of water stress regimes on winemaking

    PubMed Central

    Fushing, Hsieh; Hsueh, Chih-Hsin; Heitkamp, Constantin; Matthews, Mark A.; Koehl, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    A new method is proposed for unravelling the patterns between a set of experiments and the features that characterize those experiments. The aims are to extract these patterns in the form of a coupling between the rows and columns of the corresponding data matrix and to use this geometry as a support for model testing. These aims are reached through two key steps, namely application of an iterative geometric approach to couple the metric spaces associated with the rows and columns, and use of statistical physics to generate matrices that mimic the original data while maintaining their inherent structure, thereby providing the basis for hypothesis testing and statistical inference. The power of this new method is illustrated on the study of the impact of water stress conditions on the attributes of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ Grapes, Juice, Wine and Bottled Wine from two vintages. The first step, named data mechanics, de-convolutes the intrinsic effects of grape berries and wine attributes due to the experimental irrigation conditions from the extrinsic effects of the environment. The second step provides an analysis of the associations of some attributes of the bottled wine with characteristics of either the matured grape berries or the resulting juice, thereby identifying statistically significant associations between the juice pH, yeast assimilable nitrogen, and sugar content and the bottled wine alcohol level. PMID:26468072

  2. Effects of frequency, irradiation geometry and polarisation on computation of SAR in human brain.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongmei; Su, Zhentao; Ning, Jing; Wang, Changzhen; Xie, Xiangdong; Qu, Decheng; Wu, Ke; Zhang, Xiaomin; Pan, Jie; Yang, Guoshan

    2014-12-01

    The power absorbed by the human brain has possible implications in the study of the central nervous system-related biological effects of electromagnetic fields. In order to determine the specific absorption rate (SAR) of radio frequency (RF) waves in the human brain, and to investigate the effects of geometry and polarisation on SAR value, the finite-difference time-domain method was applied for the SAR computation. An anatomically realistic model scaled to a height of 1.70 m and a mass of 63 kg was selected, which included 14 million voxels segmented into 39 tissue types. The results suggested that high SAR values were found in the brain, i.e. ∼250 MHz for vertical polarisation and 900-1200 MHz both for vertical and horizontal polarisation, which may be the result of head resonance at these frequencies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Full-orbit effects in the dynamics of runaway electrons in toroidal geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del-Castillo-Negrete, D.; Carbajal-Gomez, L.; Spong, D. A.; Baylor, L.; Seal, S. K.

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of RE (runaway electrons) in fusion plasmas spans a wide range of temporal scales from the fast gyro-motion 10-11 sec to the observational time scales 10-2 -> 1 sec. To cope with this scale separation RE are usually studied within the bounce-average or the guiding center approximations. Although these approximations have yielded valuable insights, a study with predictive capabilities of RE in fusion plasmas calls for the incorporation of full-orbits effects in configuration space in the presence of 3-D integrable and stochastic magnetic fields. Here we present numerical results on this problem using the Kinetic Orbit Runaway electrons Code (KORC) that follows relativistic electrons in general electric and magnetic fields under the full Lorentz force and collisions. At relativistic energies, the main energy loss is due to synchrotron radiation, which we incorporate using the Landau-Lifshitz formulation of the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac force. Following a study of potential limitations of the bounce-average and the guiding center approximations, we discuss the role of full-orbit effects on the evolution of the pitch-angle, the RE energy limit, the critical electric field, and the emission patterns of synchrotron radiation in toroidal geometry. Research sponsored by the LDRD Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. DOE.

  4. Development of kink bands in granodiorite: Effect of mechanical heterogeneities, fault geometry, and friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chheda, T. D.; Nevitt, J. M.; Pollard, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    The formation of monoclinal right-lateral kink bands in Lake Edison granodiorite (central Sierra Nevada, CA) is investigated through field observations and mechanics based numerical modeling. Vertical faults act as weak surfaces within the granodiorite, and vertical granodiorite slabs bounded by closely-spaced faults curve into a kink. Leucocratic dikes are observed in association with kinking. Measurements were made on maps of Hilgard, Waterfall, Trail Fork, Kip Camp (Pollard and Segall, 1983b) and Bear Creek kink bands (Martel, 1998). Outcrop scale geometric parameters such as fault length andspacing, kink angle, and dike width are used to construct a representative geometry to be used in a finite element model. Three orders of fault were classified, length = 1.8, 7.2 and 28.8 m, and spacing = 0.3, 1.2 and 3.6 m, respectively. The model faults are oriented at 25° to the direction of shortening (horizontal most compressive stress), consistent with measurements of wing crack orientations in the field area. The model also includes a vertical leucocratic dike, oriented perpendicular to the faults and with material properties consistent with aplite. Curvature of the deformed faults across the kink band was used to compare the effects of material properties, strain, and fault and dike geometry. Model results indicate that the presence of the dike, which provides a mechanical heterogeneity, is critical to kinking in these rocks. Keeping properties of the model granodiorite constant, curvature increased with decrease in yield strength and Young's modulus of the dike. Curvature increased significantly as yield strength decreased from 95 to 90 MPa, and below this threshold value, limb rotation for the kink band was restricted to the dike. Changing Poisson's ratio had no significant effect. The addition of small faults between bounding faults, decreasing fault spacing or increasing dike width increases the curvature. Increasing friction along the faults decreases slip, so

  5. Modelling transdermal drug delivery using microneedles: effect of geometry on drug transport behaviour.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Ololade; Das, Diganta B; Nassehi, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery using microneedles (MNs) depends on the rate of drug transport through the viable epidermis. Therefore, minimising the distance between the drug-loaded surface and the microcirculation in the dermis where the drug is absorbed into the body is significant in improving drug delivery efficiency. A quantifiable relationship between MN design parameters and skin diffusion properties is therefore desirable, which is what this study aims to achieve. A framework is presented to quantitatively determine the effects of design parameters on drug diffusion through skin, where the effects of compressive strain on skin due to insertion of MN are considered. The model is then used to analyse scenarios of practical importance. For all scenarios analysed, predicted steady-state flux was found to be lower when effect of MN strain on diffusion coefficient was accounted for. For example, simulations results indicated increasing tip radius from 5 to 20 µm and flux increased from 6.56 × 10(-6) to 7.02 × 10(-6) mol/(m(2) s) for constant diffusion coefficient. However, if the effect of strain on diffusion coefficient is considered, the calculated flux increases from 5.30 × 10(-6) to a peak value of 5.32 × 10(-6) mol/(m(2) s) (at 10 µm) and decreases to 5.29 × 10(-6) mol/(m(2) s). This paper contributes by reporting a framework to relate MN geometry to permeability with inclusion of the possible effects the MN design may pose on the diffusion coefficient. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Effects of branched defect geometry on the propagation of Rayleigh waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Valle, F.; Clough, A. R.; Dutton, B.; Edwards, R. S.

    2014-02-01

    Rayleigh waves can be used for characterisation of surface-breaking defects, giving a measure of the depth and the angle of propagation of a defect with simple (i.e. single crack) geometry. However, surface breaking defects will often grow with a more complicated geometry. We present here results of experimental measurements using laser generated and detected Rayleigh waves on aluminium samples containing machined slots with varied branched geometries. The signal enhancement found in the near-field, and the reflection and transmission of different wavemodes can be used to position the defect and gain an idea of its geometry. This research can be applied to monitor components prone to developing stress corrosion cracking (branched-like defects). Results are shown of the near-field interactions of Rayleigh waves with this type of cracking in stainless steel pipe samples, in order to resolve the spatial extent and geometric alignment of those defects.

  7. Effects of obesity and race on left ventricular geometry in hypertensive children.

    PubMed

    Pruette, Cozumel S; Fivush, Barbara A; Flynn, Joseph T; Brady, Tammy M

    2013-10-01

    Like left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), abnormal left ventricular (LV) geometry increases cardiovascular risk, but little data utilizing age and sex-specific norms are currently available on LV geometry in hypertensive children. This was a cross-sectional study of 141 hypertensive children aimed at determining the prevalence of LVH and abnormal LV geometry in the patient population and whether clinical characteristics associated with these findings differ by race. LVH was defined as an LV mass index of ≥95th percentile or cardiologist diagnosis. Abnormal geometry was defined as the presence of LVH or a relative wall thickness of >0.41. The prevalence of LVH was 35 % overall. According to race, LVH prevalence was 49 % among African-Americans (AA) versus 30 % among non-AA (p < 0.05). Overweight/obesity was also highly prevalent among AA compared to non-AA (87 vs. 71 %, respectively; p = 0.03). After multivariable adjustment, the body mass index (BMI) z-score and 95 % diastolic blood pressure (BP) index were the sole independent predictors of LVH. Of the 141 hypertensive children, 40 % had abnormal LV geometry; 63 % among AA vs. 32 % among non-AA (p = 0.001). Multivariable analyses revealed a 3.8-fold increased odds of abnormal geometry among AA (p = 0.002). While LVH, abnormal geometry and overweight/obesity are more prevalent among AA hypertensive children, after multivariable adjustment, BMI and race were independently associated with LVH and abnormal geometry, respectively. This result suggests that both race and obesity have important roles in the development of end-organ damage among children with primary hypertension.

  8. An investigation into geometry and microstructural effects upon the ultimate tensile strengths of butt welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S.

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical theory was evaluated empirically. This theory predicts weld ultimate tensile strength based on material properties and fusion line angles, mismatch, peaking, and weld widths. Welds were made on 1/4 and 1/2 in. aluminum 2219-T87, their geometries were measured, they were tensile tested, and these results were compared to theoretical predictions. Statistical analysis of results was performed to evaluate correlation of theory to results for many different categories of weld geometries.

  9. Subtracted geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, Zain Hamid

    In this thesis we study a special class of black hole geometries called subtracted geometries. Subtracted geometry black holes are obtained when one omits certain terms from the warp factor of the metric of general charged rotating black holes. The omission of these terms allows one to write the wave equation of the black hole in a completely separable way and one can explicitly see that the wave equation of a massless scalar field in this slightly altered background of a general multi-charged rotating black hole acquires an SL(2, R) x SL(2, R) x SO(3) symmetry. The "subtracted limit" is considered an appropriate limit for studying the internal structure of the non-subtracted black holes because new 'subtracted' black holes have the same horizon area and periodicity of the angular and time coordinates in the near horizon regions as the original black hole geometry it was constructed from. The new geometry is asymptotically conical and is physically similar to that of a black hole in an asymptotically confining box. We use the different nice properties of these geometries to understand various classically and quantum mechanically important features of general charged rotating black holes.

  10. Effect of capillary geometry on predicting electroosmotic volumetric flowrates in porous or fibrous media.

    PubMed

    Pascal, Jennifer; Oyanader, Mario; Arce, Pedro

    2012-07-15

    Electrokinetic-based methods are used in a variety of applications including drug delivery and separation of biomolecules, among others. Many of these applications feature a fibrous or a porous medium that can be modeled by using capillary bundle models to predict the behavior of the electroosmotic flow within the particular system. The role of geometry in predicting volumetric flowrates in porous media is investigated by modeling the electroosmotic flow in idealized capillaries of rectangular, cylindrical, and annular geometries. This is achieved by the coupling of electrostatics and continuum hydrodynamics to obtain analytical expressions that govern the electrokinetically - driven volumetric flow within these idealized capillary geometries. A previous study developed a model to compare the cylindrical and annular capillary geometries by utilizing two methods that compare the areas of the two geometries. The methods used in this previous work will also be used in the present contribution to compare the volumetric flowrates in the cylindrical and annular capillaries with a rectangular capillary. Illustrative results will be presented to aid in the understanding of the influence of the various geometrical and electrostatic parameters that arise from the analysis of these volumetric flowrates. It was found that the electroosmotic volumetric flowrates are significantly affected by the capillary geometry. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Effect of flow field and geometry on the dynamic contact angle.

    PubMed

    Lukyanov, A V; Shikhmurzaev, Y D

    2007-05-01

    A number of recent experiments suggest that, at a given wetting speed, the dynamic contact angle formed by an advancing liquid-gas interface with a solid substrate depends on the flow field and geometry near the moving contact line. In the present work, this effect is investigated in the framework of an earlier developed theory that was based on the fact that dynamic wetting is, by its very name, a process of formation of a new liquid-solid interface (newly "wetted" solid surface) and hence should be considered not as a singular problem but as a particular case from a general class of flows with forming or/and disappearing interfaces. The results demonstrate that, in the flow configuration of curtain coating, where a liquid sheet ("curtain") impinges onto a moving solid substrate, the actual dynamic contact angle indeed depends not only on the wetting speed and material constants of the contacting media, as in the so-called slip models, but also on the inlet velocity of the curtain, its height, and the angle between the falling curtain and the solid surface. In other words, for the same wetting speed the dynamic contact angle can be varied by manipulating the flow field and geometry near the moving contact line. The obtained results have important experimental implications: given that the dynamic contact angle is determined by the values of the surface tensions at the contact line and hence depends on the distributions of the surface parameters along the interfaces, which can be influenced by the flow field, one can use the overall flow conditions and the contact angle as a macroscopic multiparametric signal-response pair that probes the dynamics of the liquid-solid interface. This approach would allow one to investigate experimentally such properties of the interface as, for example, its equation of state and the rheological properties involved in the interface's response to an external torque, and would help to measure its parameters, such as the coefficient of

  12. Effect of planetary rotation on the differentiation of a terrestrial magma ocean in spherical geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Ulrich; Maas, Christian

    2017-04-01

    About 4.5 billion years ago the early Earth experienced several giant impacts that lead to one or more deep terrestrial magma oceans of global extent. The crystallization of these vigorously convecting magma oceans is of key importance for the chemical structure of the Earth, the subsequent mantle evolution as well as for the initial conditions for the onset of plate tectonics. Due to the fast planetary rotation of the early Earth and the small magma viscosity, rotation probably had a profound effect on early differentiation processes and could for example influence the presence and distribution of chemical heterogeneities in the Earth's mantle [e.g. Matyska et al., 1994, Garnero and McNamara, 2008]. Previous work in Cartesian geometry revealed a strong influence of rotation as well as of latitude on the crystal settling in a terrestrial magma ocean [Maas and Hansen, 2015]. Based on the preceding study we developed a spherical shell model that allows to study crystal settling in-between pole and equator as well as the migration of crystals between these regions. Further we included centrifugal forces on the crystals, which significantly affect the lateral and radial distribution of the crystals. Depending on the strength of rotation the particles accumulate at mid-latitude or at the equator. At high rotation rates the dynamics of fluid and particles are dominated by jet-like motions in longitudinal direction that have different directions on northern and southern hemisphere. All in all the first numerical experiments in spherical geometry agree with Maas and Hansen [2015] that the crystal distribution crucially depends on latitude, rotational strength and crystal density. References E. J. Garnero and A. K. McNamara. Structure and dynamics of earth's lower mantle. Science, 320(5876):626-628, 2008. C. Maas and U. Hansen. Eff ects of earth's rotation on the early di erentiation of a terrestrial magma ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 120

  13. Experimental studies of the effect target geometry on the evolution of laser produced plasma plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatty, Cuyler; Anderson, Austin; Iratcabal, Jeremy; Dutra, Eric; Covington, Aaron

    2016-10-01

    The expansion of the laser plumes was shown to be dependent on the initial target geometry. A 16 channel framing camera was used to record the plume shape and propagation speeds were determined from analysis of the images. Plastic targets were manufactured using different methods including 3D printing, CNC machining and vacuum casting. Preliminary target designs were made using a 3D printer and ABS plastic material. These targets were then tested using a 3 J laser with a 5 ns duration pulse. Targets with a deep conical depression were shown to produce highly collimated plumes when compared to flat top targets. Preliminary results of these experiments will be discussed along with planned future experiments that will use the indented targets with a 30 J laser with a 0.8 ns duration pulse in preparation for pinched laser plume experiments at the Nevada Terawatt Facility. Other polymers that are readily available in a deuterated form will also be explored as part of an effort to develop a cost effective plasma plume target for follow on neutron production experiments. Dr. Austin Anderson.

  14. The effect of material properties on the performance of a new geometry PEM fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazaee, Iman; Ghazikhani, Mohsen

    2012-05-01

    In this paper a computational dynamics model for duct-shaped geometry proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell was used to investigate the effect of changing gas diffusion layer and membrane properties on the performances, current density and gas concentration. The proposed model is a full cell model, which includes all the parts of the PEM fuel cell, flow channels, gas diffusion electrodes, catalyst layers and the membrane. Coupled transport and electrochemical kinetics equations are solved in a single domain; therefore no interfacial boundary condition is required at the internal boundaries between cell components. This computational fluid dynamics code is used as the direct problem solver, which is used to simulate the 2-dimensional mass, momentum and species transport phenomena as well as the electron- and proton-transfer process taking place in a PEMFC that cannot be investigated experimentally. The results show that by increasing the thickness and decreasing the porosity of GDL the performance of the cell enhances that it is different with planner PEM fuel cell. Also the results show that by increasing the thermal conductivity of the GDL and membrane, the overall cell performance increases.

  15. Effects of Nozzle Geometry and Intermittent Injection of Aerodynamic Tab on Supersonic Jet Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Mikiya; Sano, Takayuki; Fukuda, Masayuki; Kojima, Takayuki; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Shiga, Seiichi; Obokata, Tomio

    Effects of the nozzle geometry and intermittent injection of aerodynamic tabs on exhaust noise from a rectangular plug nozzle were investigated experimentally. In JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency), a pre-cooled turbojet engine for an HST (Hypersonic transport) is planned. A 1/100-scaled model of the rectangular plug nozzle is manufactured, and the noise reduction performance of aerodynamic tabs, which is small air jet injection from the nozzle wall, was investigated. Compressed air is injected through the rectangular plug nozzle into the atmosphere at the nozzle pressure ratio of 2.7, which corresponds to the take-off condition of the vehicle. Aerodynamic tabs were installed at the sidewall ends, and 4 kinds of round nozzles and 2 kinds of wedge nozzles were applied. Using a high-frequency solenoid valve, intermittent gas injection is also applied. It is shown that, by use of wedge nozzles, the aerodynamic tab mass flow rate, necessary to gain 2.3dB reduction in OASPL (Overall sound pressure level), decreases by 29% when compared with round nozzles. It is also shown that, by use of intermittent injection, the aerodynamic tab mass flow rate, necessary to gain 2.3dB reduction in OASPL, decreases by about 40% when compared with steady injection. By combination of wedge nozzles and intermittent injection, the aerodynamic tab mass flow rate significantly decreases by 57% when compared with the conventional strategy.

  16. Effect of Nozzle Geometry on Characteristics of Submerged Gas Jet and Bubble Noise.

    PubMed

    Bie, Hai-Yan; Ye, Jian-Jun; Hao, Zong-Rui

    2016-10-01

    Submerged exhaust noise is one of the main noise sources of underwater vehicles. The nozzle features of pipe discharging systems have a great influence on exhaust noise, especially on the noise produced by gas-liquid two-phase flow outside the nozzle. To study the influence of nozzle geometry on underwater jet noises, a theoretical study was performed on the critical weber number at which the jet flow field morphology changes. The underwater jet noise experiments of different nozzles under various working conditions were carried out. The experimental results implied that the critical weber number at which the jet flow transformed from bubbling regime to jetting regime was basically identical with the theoretical analysis. In the condition of jetting regime, the generated cavity of elliptical and triangular nozzles was smaller than that of the circular nozzle, and the middle- and high-frequency bands increased nonlinearly. The radiated noise decreased with the decrease in nozzle diameter. Combined with theoretical analysis and experimental research, three different submerged exhaust noise reduction devices were designed, and the validation tests proved that the noise reduction device with folds and diversion cone was the most effective.

  17. Effect of combustor geometry and fuel injection scheme on the combustion process in a supersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zun; Wang, Zhenguo; Sun, Mingbo; Bai, Xue-Song

    2016-12-01

    The combustion process in a hydrogen fueled scramjet combustor with a rearwall-expansion cavity was investigated numerically under inflow conditions of Ma=2.52 with stagnation pressure P0=1.6 Mpa and stagnation temperature T0=1486 K. The numerical solver was first evaluated for supersonic reactive flows in a similar combustor configuration where experimental data is available. Wall-pressure distribution was compared with the experiments, and grid independency analysis and chemical mechanism comparison were conducted. The numerical results showed fairly good agreements with the available experimental data under supersonic combustion conditions. Then the numerical solver was used to study the effects of combustor geometry, fuel injection scheme and injection equivalence ratio on the combustion process. It was found that under the same fuel injection condition, the combustor configuration with a rearwall-expansion cavity is in favor of the supersonic combustion mode and present better ability of thermal choking prevention than the other combustor configurations. For the rearwall-expansion cavity combustor, the supersonic flow field was found to be sensitive to the injector position and injection scheme, but not highly sensitive to the injection pressure. Besides, rearwall-expansion cavity with the combined fuel injection scheme (with an injection upstream the cavity and a direct injection on the rear wall) is an optimized injection scheme during the flame stabilization process.

  18. Effect of nonuniform geometries on flow distributions and heat transfer characteristics for arrays of impinging jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florschuetz, L. W.; Tseng, H. H.

    1984-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays of circular jets impinging on a surface parallel to the jet orifice plate are considered. The jet flow, after impingement, is constrained to exit in a single direction along the channel formed by the jet orifice plate and the impingement surface. Experimental results for the effects of streamwise nonuniform array geometries on streamwise flow distributions and heat transfer characteristics are presented. A flow distribution model for nonuniform arrays is developed and validated by comparison with the measured flow distributions. The model is then employed to compare nonuniform array streamwise resolved heat transfer coefficient data with previously reported uniform array data and with a previously developed correlation based on the uniform array data. It was found that uniform array results can, in general, serve as a satisfactory basis from which to predict heat transfer coefficients at individual spanwise rows of nonuniform arrays. However, significant differences were observed in some cases over the first one or two rows downstream of the geometric transition line of the nonuniform array.

  19. Effects of reading-oriented tasks on students' reading comprehension of geometry proof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai-Lin; Lin, Fou-Lai

    2012-06-01

    This study compared the effects of reading-oriented tasks and writing-oriented tasks on students' reading comprehension of geometry proof (RCGP). The reading-oriented tasks were designed with reading strategies and the idea of problem posing. The writing-oriented tasks were consistent with usual proof instruction for writing a proof and applying it. Twenty-two classes of ninth-grade students ( N = 683), aged 14 to 15 years, and 12 mathematics teachers participated in this quasi-experimental classroom study. While the experimental group was instructed to read and discuss the reading tasks in two 45-minute lessons, the control group was instructed to prove and apply the same propositions. Generalised estimating equation (GEE) method was used to compare the scores of the post-test and the delayed post-test with the pre-test scores as covariates. Results showed that the total scores of the delayed post-test of the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group. Furthermore, the scores of the experimental group on all facets of reading comprehension except the application facet were significantly higher than those of the control group for both the post-test and delayed post-test.

  20. A highly distributed Bragg stack with unique geometry provides effective camouflage for Loliginid squid eyes.

    PubMed

    Holt, Amanda L; Sweeney, Alison M; Johnsen, Sönke; Morse, Daniel E

    2011-10-07

    Cephalopods possess a sophisticated array of mechanisms to achieve camouflage in dynamic underwater environments. While active mechanisms such as chromatophore patterning and body posturing are well known, passive mechanisms such as manipulating light with highly evolved reflectors may also play an important role. To explore the contribution of passive mechanisms to cephalopod camouflage, we investigated the optical and biochemical properties of the silver layer covering the eye of the California fishery squid, Loligo opalescens. We discovered a novel nested-spindle geometry whose correlated structure effectively emulates a randomly distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), with a range of spatial frequencies resulting in broadband visible reflectance, making it a nearly ideal passive camouflage material for the depth at which these animals live. We used the transfer-matrix method of optical modelling to investigate specular reflection from the spindle structures, demonstrating that a DBR with widely distributed thickness variations of high refractive index elements is sufficient to yield broadband reflectance over visible wavelengths, and that unlike DBRs with one or a few spatial frequencies, this broadband reflectance occurs from a wide range of viewing angles. The spindle shape of the cells may facilitate self-assembly of a random DBR to achieve smooth spatial distributions in refractive indices. This design lends itself to technological imitation to achieve a DBR with wide range of smoothly varying layer thicknesses in a facile, inexpensive manner.

  1. The effect of wedge position and inlet geometry on shock wave reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, R. E.; da Silva, N. P.; Skews, B. W.; Paton, R. T.

    2017-02-01

    Experiments were conducted in a shock tube to determine the effect of planar wedge inlet geometry on the shock wave reflection pattern that occurred on a wedge. High-speed schlieren imaging was used to visualize the experiments conducted in air with a nominal incident shock strength of Mach 1.31. The experimental test pieces consisted of a wedge mounted above the floor of the shock tube where the underside wedge angle was varied. The upper wedge angle was fixed at 30°, resulting in a Mach reflection. The underside wedge angle was either 30° or 90°, corresponding to a conventional and blunt wedge respectively. For the cases presented here, the reflected shock from the initial interaction reflects off of the shock tube floor and diffracts around the wedge apex. A density gradient is formed at the wedge apex due to this process and results in a vortex being shed for the 90° wedge. It was shown by simple measurements that the diffracted wave could reach the triple point of the upper Mach reflection if the wedge were of sufficient length.

  2. Resistive effects on line-tied magnetohydrodynamic modes in cylindrical geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Delzanno, Gian Luca; Evstatiev, E. G.; Finn, John M.

    2007-09-15

    An investigation of the effect of resistivity on the linear stability of line-tied magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes is presented in cylindrical geometry, based on the method recently developed in the paper by Evstatiev et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 072902 (2006)]. The method uses an expansion of the full solution of the problem in one-dimensional radial eigenfunctions. This method is applied to study sausage modes (m=0, m being the poloidal wavenumber), kink modes (m=1), and m=2 modes. All these modes can be resistively unstable. It is found that m{ne}0 modes can be unstable below the ideal MHD threshold due to resistive diffusion of the field lines, with growth rates proportional to resistivity. For these resistive modes, there is no indication of tearing, i.e., current sheets or boundary layers due to ideal MHD singularities. That is, resistivity acts globally on the whole plasma column and not in layers. Modes with m=0, on the other hand, can exist as tearing modes if the equilibrium axial magnetic field reverses sign within the plasma.

  3. On the Flow Physics of Effectively Controlled Open Cavity Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    effective in supersonic free stream conditions. To achieve this goal several advancements in our understanding of active control methodologies, as well as...achieve the goal of using adaptive control at supersonic free stream Mach numbers, one needs to better understand the flow physics of the actuator flow...following section we will detail applications of this to open cavities with both supersonic and subsonic free stream conditions. 2.1 Supersonic

  4. Effect of inlet geometry on macrosegregation during the direct chill casting of 7050 alloy billets: experiments and computer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Eskin, D. G.; Miroux, A.; Subroto, T.; Katgerman, L.

    2012-07-01

    Controlling macrosegregation is one of the major challenges in direct-chill (DC) casting of aluminium alloys. In this paper, the effect of the inlet geometry (which influences the melt distribution) on macrosegregation during the DC casting of 7050 alloy billets was studied experimentally and by using 2D computer modelling. The ALSIM model was used to determine the temperature and flow patterns during DC casting. The results from the computer simulations show that the sump profiles and flow patterns in the billet are strongly influenced by the melt flow distribution determined by the inlet geometry. These observations were correlated to the actual macrosegregation patterns found in the as-cast billets produced by having two different inlet geometries. The macrosegregation analysis presented here may assist in determining the critical parameters to consider for improving the casting of 7XXX aluminium alloys.

  5. Investigation of flaw geometry and loading effects on plane strain fracture in metallic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, L. R.; Finger, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    The effects on fracture and flaw growth of weld-induced residual stresses, combined bending and tension stresses, and stress fields adjacent to circular holes in 2219-T87 aluminum and 5AI-2.5Sn(ELI) titanium alloys were evaluated. Static fracture tests were conducted in liquid nitrogen; fatigue tests were performed in room air, liquid nitrogen, and liquid hydrogen. Evaluation of results was based on linear elastic fracture mechanics concepts and was directed to improving existing methods of estimating minimum fracture strength and fatigue lives for pressurized structure in spacecraft and booster systems. Effects of specimen design in plane-strain fracture toughness testing were investigated. Four different specimen types were tested in room air, liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen environments using the aluminum and titanium alloys. Interferometry and holograph were used to measure crack-opening displacements in surface-flawed plexiglass test specimens. Comparisons were made between stress intensities calculated using displacement measurements, and approximate analytical solutions.

  6. Effect of nozzle orifice geometry on spray, combustion, and emission characteristics under diesel engine conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Som, S.; Longman, D. E; Ramirez, A. I.; Aggarwal, S. K.

    2011-03-01

    Diesel engine performance and emissions are strongly coupled with fuel atomization and spray processes, which in turn are strongly influenced by injector flow dynamics. Modern engines employ micro-orifices with different orifice designs. It is critical to characterize the effects of various designs on engine performance and emissions. In this study, a recently developed primary breakup model (KH-ACT), which accounts for the effects of cavitation and turbulence generated inside the injector nozzle is incorporated into a CFD software CONVERGE for comprehensive engine simulations. The effects of orifice geometry on inner nozzle flow, spray, and combustion processes are examined by coupling the injector flow and spray simulations. Results indicate that conicity and hydrogrinding reduce cavitation and turbulence inside the nozzle orifice, which slows down primary breakup, increasing spray penetration, and reducing dispersion. Consequently, with conical and hydroground nozzles, the vaporization rate and fuel air mixing are reduced, and ignition occurs further downstream. The flame lift-off lengths are the highest and lowest for the hydroground and conical nozzles, respectively. This can be related to the rate of fuel injection, which is higher for the hydroground nozzle, leading to richer mixtures and lower flame base speeds. A modified flame index is employed to resolve the flame structure, which indicates a dual combustion mode. For the conical nozzle, the relative role of rich premixed combustion is enhanced and that of diffusion combustion reduced compared to the other two nozzles. In contrast, for the hydroground nozzle, the role of rich premixed combustion is reduced and that of non-premixed combustion is enhanced. Consequently, the amount of soot produced is the highest for the conical nozzle, while the amount of NOx produced is the highest for the hydroground nozzle, indicating the classical tradeoff between them.

  7. The effect of cathode geometry on barium transport in hollow cathode plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Polk, James E. Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.

    2014-05-14

    The effect of barium transport on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in numerical modeling of a cathode with two different orifice sizes. Despite large differences in cathode emitter temperature, emitted electron current density, internal xenon neutral and plasma densities, and size of the plasma-surface interaction region, the barium transport in the two geometries is qualitatively very similar. Barium is produced in the insert and flows to the surface through the porous structure. A buildup of neutral Ba pressure in the plasma over the emitter surface can suppress the reactions supplying the Ba, restricting the net production rate. Neutral Ba flows into the dense Xe plasma and has a high probability of being ionized at the periphery of this zone. The steady state neutral Ba density distribution is determined by a balance between pressure gradient forces and the drag force associated with collisions between neutral Ba and neutral Xe atoms. A small fraction of the neutral Ba is lost upstream. The majority of the neutral Ba is ionized in the high temperature Xe plasma and is pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field. The steady state Ba{sup +} ion density distribution results from a balance between electrostatic and pressure forces, neutral Xe drag and Xe{sup +} ion drag with the dominant forces dependent on location in the discharge. These results indicate that hollow cathodes are very effective at recycling Ba within the discharge and therefore maintain a high coverage of Ba on the emitter surface, which reduces the work function and sustains high electron emission current densities at moderate temperatures. Barium recycling is more effective in the cathode with the smaller orifice because the Ba is ionized in the dense Xe plasma concentrated just upstream of the orifice and pushed back into the hollow cathode. Despite a lower emitter temperature, the large orifice cathode has a higher Ba loss rate through the orifice

  8. The effect of viewing geometry and topography on viewable gap fractions through forest canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jicheng; Melloh, Rae A.; Woodcock, Curtis E.; Davis, Robert E.; Ochs, Elke S.

    2004-12-01

    The fraction of the surface under forest canopies that is visible from above, or the viewable gap fraction (VGF), influences a number of significant physical processes, such as the longwave radiation budget of the surface and the magnitude of diffuse irradiance. In addition, it has significant implications for the remote sensing of the surface. The VGF is dependent on canopy structure, topography and viewing geometry. Although it is difficult to map VGF using current operational remote sensing systems, it is possible to estimate VGF using models based on the three-dimensional structure of forest canopies.Results from hemispheric photographs taken in the field at Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado, and a geometric optical (GO) model show a trend of rapid decrease in VGF as the view zenith angles diverges from nadir. Whereas there is general agreement between model estimates and the hemispheric photographs, the hemispheric photographs generally show higher VGF values for all view zenith angles. In particular, the higher values for VGF are apparent at high view zenith angles. Use of a more complicated GO radiative transfer model would add the effect of within-crown gaps to those modelled by the GO model and will be used in future studies.VGF maps estimated using the GO model for the Fool Creek intensive study area show a significant decrease in VGF when view zenith angle is increased from 0° (nadir) to 30° viewing from the east. To produce VGF maps in mountain areas, the effect of topography must be taken into account, as changes in slope angle and azimuth are similar to changes in the view zenith angle. Hence, topography can serve either to accentuate or to minimize view zenith angle effects, depending on the slope orientation relative to the viewing position. Copyright

  9. Transport and Fate of Bacteria in Porous Media: Coupled Effects of Chemical Conditions and Pore Space Geometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Experimental and theoretical studies were undertaken to explore the coupling effects of chemical conditions and pore space geometry on bacteria transport in porous media. The retention of Escherichia coli D21g was investigated in a series of batch and column experiments with solutions of different i...

  10. Effectiveness of Spinal Anaesthesia versus General Anaesthesia for Open Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Kuju, R B; Dongol, Y; Verma, R

    2016-05-01

    Cholecystectomy is performed either as an open or a laparascopic route. Despite of a number of peri-operative and post-operative benefits of laparascopic cholecystectomy, the traditional and invasive open cholecystectomy is still in frequent practice for various reasons. Though general anaesthesia is regarded as the gold standard anaesthetic technique, alternatives to it such as spinal anaesthesia, with its advantages, outweighs general anaesthesia. Spinal anaesthesia, therefore, could be a safe and effective anaesthetic procedure over general anaesthesia for open cholecystectomy. 120 patients with uncomplicated symptomatic gallstone disease undergoing open cholecystectomy and complying with ASA I or II physical status, aged between 18 and 70 years of either sex and BMI ≤ 30 kg/m2 were enrolled for the study. They were randomly categorized into SA group (received spinal anaesthesia) and GA group (received general anaesthesia), each group containing 60 patients. Intra-operative events and post-operative events were observed up to 48 hours post-surgery and compared between the groups. Data is in percentage and mean with standard deviation and median. Statistical analysis was done using independent t-test, chi-square test, relative risks and ANOVA. Spinal anaesthesia is safe and effective in pain management post open cholecystectomy. The median pain-free intervalin SA group was 8hours as compared to 1 hour in GA group. The average mean pain score was also significantly less in SA group than in GA group at all intervals of time observed. Majority (90%) in SA groups were managed with intramuscular diclofenacsodium whereas majority in GA group were managed with intramuscular pethedine. Intra-operatively, SA group had more cases of haemodynamic instability than GA group, which were easily managed in both the groups. The differences in the incidence of post-operative nausea and vomiting and the days of hospital stay between the groups were not significant. Spinal

  11. Contrasting effects of managed opening regimes on water quality in two intermittently closed and open coastal lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schallenberg, M.; Larned, S. T.; Hayward, S.; Arbuckle, C.

    2010-03-01

    Intermittently closed and open lakes and lagoons (ICOLLs) are shallow barrier lakes which are intermittently connected to the sea and experience saline intrusions. Many ICOLLs are mechanically opened to prevent flooding of surrounding agricultural and urban land and to flush water of poor quality. In this study, the effects of modified opening regimes (frequency and duration of barrier openings and closures) on water quality and phytoplankton in two New Zealand ICOLLs were investigated over a number of opening/closure cycles. Water quality in Lake Ellesmere (Te Waihora) responded weakly to both opening and closing events, indicating that sea-ICOLL exchange did not markedly improve water quality. Conversely, water quality in Waituna Lagoon responded rapidly to barrier openings; water level decreased to near sea level within days of opening and subsequent seawater exchange resulted in rapid decreases in nitrate and chlorophyll a concentrations. The closure of Waituna Lagoon resulted in rapid rise in water level and a pulse of nitrate and phosphorus in the water column and phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentrations increased with increasing closed-period duration. Based on data on the underwater light climate and nutrient dynamics, phytoplankton in Lake Ellesmere was probably light-limited, whereas phytoplankton in Waituna Lagoon was rarely light-limited, and appeared to be predominately P-limited. The marked differences in responses of Lake Ellesmere and Waituna Lagoon to barrier openings and closures reflected differences in ICOLL water levels and morphological characteristics, which dictated the degree of tidal flushing when the barriers were open. The inter-ICOLL differences observed in this study indicate that unless the effects of ICOLL openings/closures on phytoplankton and nutrient dynamics are understood, changes to ICOLL opening regimes may have unintended consequences for the water quality and ecology of these systems.

  12. Effects of crystal lattice and counterions on the geometries of metal complexes: Hexaaquomagnesium cation as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, Agrinaldo J.; Moura, Gustavo L. C.; Lima, Nathalia B. D.; Simas, Alfredo M.

    2017-04-01

    We address how diverse are crystallographic geometries of several compounds of the same metal complex cation, and also how they contrast from those resulting from quantum chemical calculations on isolated molecules. In a crystal, besides the desired molecule or molecular ion of interest, there are usually present co-crystallized molecules and/or counterions, that, together with the crystal lattice, perturb its geometry. In order to examine the nature and intensity of each of these effects, we present a novel methodology to separate and quantify them. Accordingly, we compared the crystallographic geometries of the hexaaquomagnesium cation in 45 different compounds, each one with different counter ions and other co-crystallized molecules. We show that the resulting perturbations of the counterions on the geometry of the complex behave as pseudorandom around a mean, and are subject to suitable probability distributions. Results indicate that the crystal lattice effect seems to compress the hexaaquomagnesium complex cation by a magnitude which we estimate to be 0.047 Å in its distances, and 6.6% in its volume. This crystal lattice effect is then superimposed to the effect of the counter ions and other molecules, which provokes a further ±0.035 Å variation on the geometries of the compounds. Consequently, perturbations of counterions and the lattice effect, together, amount to a statistical difference of ≈0.05 Å for distances, and ≈5° for the angles. As such, only within these boundaries, may quantum chemical calculations on isolated complexes be compared to crystallographic results.

  13. The effect of hillslope angle on pocket gopher (Thomomys bottae) burrow geometry.

    PubMed

    Seabloom, E W; Reichman, O J; Gabet, E J

    2000-10-01

    One way for animals to decrease energy expenditures is to minimize the cost of movement. For animals dwelling on slopes, gravity can impart a large energetic cost to movement. For this reason, animals traveling aboveground alter their movement patterns in response to the steepness of terrain (specifically hillslope angle) so as to minimize their energetic costs. Subterranean animals should also benefit from choosing optimum movement paths in relation to hillslopes but concurrently must factor the cost of excavation into their movement decisions. In cases where the excavation costs are much higher than the costs of working against gravity, excavation costs may override the consideration of gravitational costs and movement of subterranean animals may be independent of hillslope angle. To determine the response of a subterranean animal to hillslope angle, we excavated tunnels in the burrow systems of 19 pocket gophers in southern California that occupied hillslopes ranging from 2 to 30°. At each excavation we measured several characteristics of burrow geometry and used these data in a model of pocket gopher energetics to calculate the cost of tunnel construction at the various hillslope angles. We found that the cost of tunnel construction was independent of hillslope angle, and that the costs of shearing soil and pushing soil horizontally through the tunnels were 3 orders of magnitude greater than the costs of lifting the soil against the force of gravity. Accordingly, pocket gopher foraging tunnels were oriented independently of the hillslope. The decoupling of the movement patterns of subterranean animals from the effects of gravity is a distinctive feature of the subterranean habit compared to the movement of aboveground animals. Because of the important effects of tunnel construction on soil processes, this unique biological feature of subterranean animals has implications for basic physical processes, such as soil erosion. We found that the rate of soil flux

  14. Comparative effectiveness of topical drugs in dermatologic priority diseases: geometry of randomized trial networks.

    PubMed

    Maruani, Annabel; Samimi, Mahtab; Lorette, Gérard; le Cleach, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Among the 100 initial priority topics for comparative effectiveness research, three concern topical drugs in the following dermatologic diseases: psoriasis, chronic lower-extremity wounds (CLEWs), and acne vulgaris (AV). Our objective was to explore the geometry of the corresponding networks of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We performed a review of RCTs on topical drugs in psoriasis, CLEWs, and AV. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL for published trials from 2007 to 2012 and ClinicalTrials.gov for unpublished trials registered since 2011. RCTs comparing at least one topical treatment with any active or inactive comparator, regardless of RCT design and outcomes, were eligible. We produced network graphs (each node representing a treatment and links between nodes representing trials) and tested for co-occurrence (preference or avoidance of specific comparisons). We included 60 RCTs on psoriasis (14,255 patients) and 19 registered RCTs, 50 of CLEWs (5,916 patients) and 7 registered RCTs, and 90 of AV (22,984 patients) and 21 registered RCTs. Head-to-head comparisons were made in 78%, 32%, and 57% of published RCTs of these conditions, respectively. The co-occurrence test suggested that no specific head-to-head comparison was significantly preferred or avoided (P-value=0.53, 0.20, and 0.57, respectively). This study has limitations, the main being that the search period was restricted to 5 years. In conclusion, more comparative effectiveness trials are needed for CLEWs, for which head-to-head comparisons are fewer than those for psoriasis and AV.

  15. Dynamical gauge effects in an open quantum network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianshi; Price, Craig; Liu, Qi; Gemelke, Nathan

    2016-05-01

    We describe new experimental techniques for simulation of high-energy field theories based on an analogy between open thermodynamic systems and effective dynamical gauge-fields following SU(2) × U(1) Yang-Mills models. By coupling near-resonant laser-modes to atoms moving in a disordered optical environment, we create an open system which exhibits a non-equilibrium phase transition between two steady-state behaviors, exhibiting scale-invariant behavior near the transition. By measuring transport of atoms through the disordered network, we observe two distinct scaling behaviors, corresponding to the classical and quantum limits for the dynamical gauge field. This behavior is loosely analogous to dynamical gauge effects in quantum chromodynamics, and can mapped onto generalized open problems in theoretical understanding of quantized non-Abelian gauge theories. Additional, the scaling behavior can be understood from the geometric structure of the gauge potential and linked to the measure of information in the local disordered potential, reflecting an underlying holographic principle. We acknowledge support from NSF Award No.1068570, and the Charles E. Kaufman Foundation.

  16. Enhancing efficiency and power of quantum-dots resonant tunneling thermoelectrics in three-terminal geometry by cooperative effects

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Jian-Hua

    2014-11-21

    We propose a scheme of multilayer thermoelectric engine where one electric current is coupled to two temperature gradients in three-terminal geometry. This is realized by resonant tunneling through quantum dots embedded in two thermal and electrical resisting polymer matrix layers between highly conducting semiconductor layers. There are two thermoelectric effects, one of which is pertaining to inelastic transport processes (if energies of quantum dots in the two layers are different), while the other exists also for elastic transport processes. These two correspond to the transverse and longitudinal thermoelectric effects, respectively, and are associated with different temperature gradients. We show that cooperation between the two thermoelectric effects leads to markedly improved figure of merit and power factor, which is confirmed by numerical calculation using material parameters. Such enhancement is robust against phonon heat conduction and energy level broadening. Therefore, we demonstrated cooperative effect as an additional way to effectively improve performance of thermoelectrics in three-terminal geometry.

  17. Effect of illuminating and viewing geometry on the color coordinates of samples with various surface textures.

    PubMed

    Billmeyer, F W; Marcus, R T

    1969-04-01

    Color measurements with several different illuminating/viewing geometries were carried out for samples with four different surface textures in four different colors: matte papers, glossy papers, ceramic or porcelain enamel tiles, and polished opaque glasses, with ISCC-NBS color designations moderate pink, pale orange-yellow, dark bluish-green, and dark gray. On a single instrument (Cary 14 spectrophotometer), three geometries were used: normal/diffuse (N/D), diffuse/normal (D/N) and normal/45 degrees (N/45). For comparison, measurements were also made on a GE spectrophotometer (GERS) using near-normal/diffuse geometry. All integrating sphere (diffuse) measurements were made with specular component both included and excluded. Specular gloss and goniophotometric reflectance measurements were made. For these samples, the Cary 14 N/D and GERS results are in good agreement, and the results with N/D and D/N geometries are essentially equivalent, but there is strong evidence of the serious problem of incomplete exclusion of the specular component with all of the integrating sphere geometries when operated in the specular-excluded mode, even with samples normally considered to be highly glossy or highly matte.

  18. Bounded openness: The effect of openness to experience on intolerance is moderated by target group conventionality.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Mark J; Chambers, John R; Crawford, Jarret T; Wetherell, Geoffrey; Reyna, Christine

    2015-09-01

    Openness to experience is consistently associated with tolerance. We suggest that tests of the association between openness to experience and tolerance have heretofore been incomplete because they have primarily focused on prejudice toward unconventional target groups. We test (a) the individual difference perspective, which predicts that because people who are high in openness are more open to diverse and dissimilar people and ideas, they will express more tolerance than people who are low in openness and (b) the worldview conflict perspective, which predicts that people high and low in openness will both be intolerant toward those with different worldviews. Four studies, using both conventional and unconventional target groups, find support for an integrative perspective. People high in openness do appear more tolerant of diverse worldviews compared with people low in openness; however, at the same time, people both high and low in openness are more intolerant of groups whose worldviews conflict with their own. These findings highlight the need to consider how individual difference variables and features of the target groups may interact in important ways to influence the expression of prejudice.

  19. Effect of trailing edge geometry and thickness on the performance of certain turbine stator blading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prust, H. W., Jr.; Helon, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    The experimental and analytical investigation included solid blades with five different trailing-edge thicknesses and four different trailing-edge geometries. One of the geometries was round, one was square, one was tapered from the suction surface, and the other tapered from the pressure surface. One of the trailing-edge thicknesses was sharp edged; the other four thicknesses were equivalent to about 5, 11, 16, and 20 percent of the blade throat width. The experimental results show increased efficiency loss for increased trailing-edge thickness for all trailing-edge geometries. The blade with round trailing edge, equal to about 11 percent of the blade throat width, had 60 percent more loss than the sharp-edged blade. For the same trailing-edge thickness, square trailing edges caused more loss than round trailing edges, and the tapered trailing edges caused about the same loss as the round trailing edges.

  20. The effect of discharge chamber geometry on the ignition of low-pressure rf capacitive discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Lisovskiy, V.; Martins, S.; Landry, K.; Douai, D.; Booth, J.-P.; Cassagne, V.; Yegorenkov, V.

    2005-09-15

    This paper reports measured and calculated breakdown curves in several gases of rf capacitive discharges excited at 13.56 MHz in chambers of three different geometries: parallel plates surrounded by a dielectric cylinder ('symmetric parallel plate'), parallel plates surrounded by a grounded metallic cylinder ('asymmetric parallel plate'), and parallel plates inside a much larger grounded metallic chamber ('large chamber'). The breakdown curves for the symmetric chamber have a multivalued section at low pressure. For the asymmetric chamber the breakdown curves are shifted to lower pressures and rf voltages, but the multivalued feature is still present. At higher pressures the breakdown voltages are much lower than for the symmetric geometry. For the large chamber geometry the multivalued behavior is not observed. The breakdown curves were also calculated using a numerical model based on fluid equations, giving results that are in satisfactory agreement with the measurements.

  1. The effects of arcjet operating condition and constrictor geometry on the plasma plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, Lynnette M.; Sankovic, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of plasma number density and electron temperature were obtained in the plumes of lab arcjet thrusters using electrostatic probes of both spherical and cylindrical geometry. The two arcjet thrusters used had different constrictor and/or nozzle geometries and operated on mixtures of nitrogen, hydrogen, and ammonia to simulate the decomposition products of hydrazine and ammonia. An increase in the measured electron density was observed for both geometries with increasing arc power at a constant mass flow rate and with increasing mass flow rate at a constant arc current. For a given operating condition, the electron number density decreased exponentially off centerline and followed an inverse distance squared relationship along the thrust axis. Typical measured electron temperatures ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 eV.

  2. The effects of arcjet thruster operating condition constrictor geometry on the plasma plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, Lynnette M.; Sankovic, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of plasma number density and electron temperature were obtained in the plumes of lab arcjet thrusters using electrostatic probes of both spherical and cylindrical geometry. The two arcjet thrusters used had different constrictor and/or nozzle geometries and operated on mixtures of nitrogen, hydrogen, and ammonia to simulate the decomposition products of hydrazine and ammonia. An increase in the measured electron density was observed for both geometries with increasing arc power at a constant mass flow rate and with increasing mass flow rate at a constant arc current. For a given operating condition, the electron number density decreased exponentially off centerline and followed an inverse distance squared relationship along the thrust axis. Typical measured electron temperatures ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 eV.

  3. The effects of geometry and stability of solid-state nanopores on detecting single DNA molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollings, Ryan; Graef, Edward; Walsh, Nathan; Nandivada, Santoshi; Benamara, Mourad; Li, Jiali

    2015-01-01

    In this work we use a combination of 3D-TEM tomography, energy filtered TEM, single molecule DNA translocation experiments, and numerical modeling to show a more precise relationship between nanopore shape and ionic conductance and show that changes in geometry while in solution can account for most deviations between predicted and measured conductance. We compare the structural stability of ion beam sculpted (IBS), IBS-annealed, and TEM drilled nanopores. We demonstrate that annealing can significantly improve the stability of IBS made pores. Furthermore, the methods developed in this work can be used to predict pore conductance and current drop amplitudes of DNA translocation events for a wide variety of pore geometries. We discuss that chemical dissolution is one mechanism of the geometry change for SiNx nanopores and show that small modification in fabrication procedure can significantly increase the stability of IBS nanopores.

  4. The effects of geometry and stability of solid-state nanopores on detecting single DNA molecules.

    PubMed

    Rollings, Ryan; Graef, Edward; Walsh, Nathan; Nandivada, Santoshi; Benamara, Mourad; Li, Jiali

    2015-01-30

    In this work we use a combination of 3D-TEM tomography, energy filtered TEM, single molecule DNA translocation experiments, and numerical modeling to show a more precise relationship between nanopore shape and ionic conductance and show that changes in geometry while in solution can account for most deviations between predicted and measured conductance. We compare the structural stability of ion beam sculpted (IBS), IBS-annealed, and TEM drilled nanopores. We demonstrate that annealing can significantly improve the stability of IBS made pores. Furthermore, the methods developed in this work can be used to predict pore conductance and current drop amplitudes of DNA translocation events for a wide variety of pore geometries. We discuss that chemical dissolution is one mechanism of the geometry change for SiNx nanopores and show that small modification in fabrication procedure can significantly increase the stability of IBS nanopores.

  5. The Effects of Geometry and Stability of Solid-state Nanopores on Detecting Single DNA molecules

    PubMed Central

    Rollings, Ryan; Graef, Edward; Walsh, Nathan; Nandivada, Santoshi; Benamara, Mourad

    2014-01-01

    In this work we use a combination of 3D-TEM tomography, energy filtered TEM, single molecule DNA translocation experiments, and numerical modeling to show a more precise relationship between nanopore shape and ionic conductance and show that changes in geometry while in solution can account for most deviations between predicted and measured conductance. We compare the structural stability of Ion Beam Sculpted (IBS), IBS-annealed, and TEM drilled nanopores. We demonstrate that annealing can significantly improve the stability of IBS made pores. Furthermore, the methods developed in this work can be used to predict pore conductance and current drop amplitudes of DNA translocation events for a wide variety of pore geometries. We discuss that chemical dissolution is one mechanism of the geometry change for SiNx nanopores and show that small modification in fabrication procedure can significantly increase the stability of IBS nanopores. PMID:25556317

  6. Effect of Microscale Surface Geometry of Electrodes on Performance of Microbial Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Tomonori; Suito, Eiichi; Hishida, Koichi; Miki, Norihisa

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we experimentally revealed that the microscale surface geometry of anodes strongly affects the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs have much need to be improved in their power. The power generated by an MFC is considered to be strongly affected by the interaction between the organic bacteria and the inorganic electrode surfaces. In prior work, the nanoscale surface roughness of the anode was discussed; however, we consider that the microscale surface geometry may play a crucial role given the bacteria size of micrometer order. We used a two-chamber MFC and the direct electron transfer bacteria Shewanella putrefaciens. We prepared seven types of anode electrodes with different microscale surface geometries and experimentally found that the MFC performance depended on the contact area between the bacteria and the anode. The MFC generated the maximum power when the contact area between the anode and bacteria was the largest.

  7. Analysis of the Effect of Geometry Generated Turbulence on HCCI Combustion by Multi-Zone Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Christensen, M; Johansson, B; Hessel, R P

    2004-12-13

    This paper illustrates the applicability of a sequential fluid mechanics, multi-zone chemical kinetics model to analyze HCCI experimental data for two combustion chamber geometries with different levels of turbulence: a low turbulence disc geometry (flat top piston), and a high turbulence square geometry (piston with a square bowl). The model uses a fluid mechanics code to determine temperature histories in the engine as a function of crank angle. These temperature histories are then fed into a chemical kinetic solver, which determines combustion characteristics for a relatively small number of zones (40). The model makes the assumption that there is no direct linking between turbulence and combustion. The results show that the multi-zone model yields good results for both the disc and the square geometries. The model makes good predictions of pressure traces and heat release rates. The experimental results indicate that the high turbulence square geometry has longer burn duration than the low turbulence disc geometry. This difference can be explained by the sequential multi-zone model, which indicates that the cylinder with the square bowl has a thicker boundary layer that results in a broader temperature distribution. This broader temperature distribution tends to lengthen the combustion, as cold mass within the cylinder takes longer to reach ignition temperature when compressed by the expansion of the first burned gases. The multi-zone model, which makes the basic assumption that HCCI combustion is controlled by chemical kinetics, is therefore capable of explaining the experimental results obtained for different levels of turbulence, without considering a direct interaction between turbulence and combustion. A direct connection between turbulence and HCCI combustion may still exists, but it seems to play a relatively minor role in determining burn duration at the conditions analyzed in this paper.

  8. Effect of magnetic field geometry on the wave signature of the pickup of interstellar neutrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. L.; Zank, G. P.

    1994-01-01

    By using the technique of Johnstone et al. (1991), the asymptotic wave spectrum induced by the pickup of interstellar ions in the heliosphere is derived. This approach is independent of quasi-linear theory. The asymptotic wave spectrum is calculated from the standard resonance condition by assuming that the asymptotic ion distribution is bispherical and by using conservation of energy. The calculation places no restriction on either the ratio of Alfven speed to solar wind flow speed or the particle pitch angle. Spectra for various geometries (relative orientations of the magnetic field and solar wind velocity) are calculated. Absolute upper limits to the expected wave enhancements are calculated. These upper limits are compared to the background fluctuation spectrum extrapolated from 0.87 AU, assuming a spectral index of -5/3 and radial dependences of -2 and -3. The heliocentric radial distances at which the peaks in the various geometry-dependent wave spectra are expected to be observable above the background are identified. Peaks due to pickup hydrogen at the proton gyrofrequency are found to be always stronger relative to the background in parallel than in perpendicular geometries. The parallel-geometry excitations consist only of sunward propagating waves. In perpendicular geometries a peak also occurs, this time near 0.1 of the proton gyrofrequency (corresponding to the peak calculated by Lee and Ip (1987)). However, the steep spectral dependence of the ambient wave field makes it unlikely that this peak will be observed inside 20 AU. A similar result holds for the case of pickup-helium induced excitation at the helium gyrofrequency. Inside 10 AU, peaks at these lower frequencies tend to be obscured by the steep frequency dependence (proportional to -5/3) of the ambient spectrum and then are only observable in parallel geometries.

  9. Effect of Weld Tool Geometry on Friction Stir Welded AA2219-T87 Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querin, Joseph A.; Schneider, Judy A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, flat panels of AA2219-T87 were friction stir welded (FSWed) using weld tools with tapered pins The three pin geometries of the weld tools included: 0 (straight cylinder), 30 , and 60 angles on the frustum. For each weld tool geometry, the FSW process parameters were optimized to eliminate defects. A constant heat input was maintained while varying the process parameters of spindle rpm and travel speed. This provided a constant heat input for each FSW weld panel while altering the hot working conditions imparted to the workpiece. The resulting mechanical properties were evaluated from tensile test results of the FSW joint.

  10. Geometry Effects on Multipole Components and Beam Optics in High-Velocity Multi-Spoke Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Christopher S.; Deitrick, Kirsten E.; Delayen, Jean R.

    2013-12-01

    Velocity-of-light, multi-spoke cavities are being proposed to accelerate electrons in a compact light-source. There are strict requirements on the beam quality which require that the linac have only small non-uniformities in the accelerating field. Beam dynamics simulations have uncovered varying levels of focusing and defocusing in the proposed cavities, which is dependent on the geometry of the spoke in the vicinity of the beam path. Here we present results for the influence different spoke geometries have on the multipole components of the accelerating field and how these components, in turn, impact the simulated beam properties.

  11. Effects of the geomagnetic field on the beaming geometry of TGFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celestin, Sebastien

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are bursts of high-energy photons originating from the Earth's atmosphere in association with thunderstorm activity [e.g., Briggs et al., JGR, 118, 3805, 2013]. Although TGFs are believed to be produced inside thunderclouds (below 15 km altitude), the underlying physical mechanisms are still debated. Large-scale relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) along with relativistic feedback caused by positrons and photons have been proposed to occur in thunderclouds and to produce TGFs [e.g., Dwyer et al., Space Sci. Rev., 173, 133, 2012]. It has also been found that the production of thermal runaway electrons by stepping lightning leaders and their further acceleration could explain the TGF spectra and fluences for intracloud (IC) lightning electric potentials above ˜100 MV [Xu et al., GRL, 39, L08801, 2012; Celestin et al., JGR, 120, 2015]. In both scenarios, runaway electron avalanches take place and the related bremsstrahlung produces the TGF. The impact of the geomagnetic field on RREAs has been seldom studied (with the notable exceptions of Lehtinen et al. [JGR, 104, 24699, 1999], Babich et al. [Geom. Aeron., 44, 243, 2004] and Cramer et al. [AGU Fall Meeting, abstract AE33A-0472, San Francisco, USA, 2015]), particularly in view of recent knowledge acquired about TGF sources properties. In this work, we study the effects of the geomagnetic field on the runaway electron beam geometry in large-scale RREAs and in the vicinity of lightning leaders and the corresponding impact on TGF observations using analytical and numerical means.

  12. Effect of faulting on fluid flow in porous sandstones: Geometry and spatial distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Antonellini, M.; Aydin, A.

    1995-05-01

    We present a methodology to describe fault geometry at different scales and to characterize the distribution of these scales on the flanks of a salt intrusion in the Colorado Plateau (Arches National Park, United States). This methodology is based on the recognition of the physical processes of faulting and on the quantitative characterization of the structural and petrophysical properties of faults in porous sandstones. The methods used include a variety of mapping techniques (photography, aerial photography, string mapping, theodolite surveys, etc.), as well as techniques for determining fluid flow properties. The resulting study is a prototype for understanding seismic and subseismic scales of heterogeneity related to faulting and fracturing in subsurface reservoirs. Slip planes, which are not interconnected, may have poor geometric sealing characteristics. In the hanging wall of a major normal fault, the quantitative spatial distribution of the faults can be correlated with bending of the strata, probably associated with the salt intrusion. The number of deformation bands, the most ubiquitous element, is proportional to the amount of slip on a single major fault. Deformation bands also have a very high density (>100 m{sup -1}) in stepovers between slip planes. In these areas we find the largest anomalies in permeability. In zones of high strata curvature, the average orders of magnitude with respect to the host rock; if complex fault zones are present, the average permeability can drop more than four orders of magnitude in the direction normal to the faults. Finally, by using outcrop and laboratory data that describe the effect of distinctive structural units on fluid flow, we quantify the three-dimensional distribution of permeability in a reservoir analog at any scale, and we show that such permeability distribution could be implemented in a geology-based reservoir simulator.

  13. Cosmological discordances: A new measure, marginalization effects, and application to geometry versus growth current data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Weikang; Ishak, Mustapha

    2017-07-01

    The continuous progress toward more precise cosmological surveys and experiments has galvanized recent interest into consistency tests on cosmological parameters and models. At the heart of this effort is quantifying the degree of inconsistency between two or more cosmological data sets. We introduce an intuitive moment-based measure we call the index of inconsistency (IOI) and show that it is sensitive to the separation of the means, the size of the constraint ellipsoids, and their orientations in the parameter space. We find that it tracks accurately the inconsistencies when present. Next, we show that parameter marginalization can cause a loss of information on the inconsistency between two experiments, and we quantify such a loss using the drop in IOI. In order to zoom on a given parameter, we define the relative residual IOI and the relative drop in IOI. While these two quantities can provide insights on the parameters that are most responsible for inconsistencies, we find that the full IOI applied to the whole parameter spaces is what must be used to correctly reflect the degree of inconsistency between two experiments. We discuss various properties of IOI, provide its eigenmode decomposition, and compare it to other measures of discordance. Finally, we apply IOI to current geometry data sets (i.e., an improved Supernovae Type Ia compilation, baryon acoustic oscillations from 6dF, SDSS MGS and Lyman-α forest, and high-ℓ cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature data from Planck-2015) versus growth data sets (i.e., Redshift Space Distortions from WiggleZ and SDSS, Weak Lensing from CFHTLenS, CMB Lensing, Sunyav-Zeldovich effect, and low-ℓ CMB temperature and polarization data from Planck-2015). We find that a persistent inconsistency is present between the two data sets. This could reflect the presence of systematics in the data or inconsistencies in the underlying model.

  14. Effects of acute ischemic mitral regurgitation on three-dimensional mitral leaflet edge geometry.

    PubMed

    Bothe, Wolfgang; Nguyen, Tom C; Ennis, Daniel B; Itoh, Akinobu; Carlhäll, Carl Johan; Lai, David T; Ingels, Neil B; Miller, D Craig

    2008-02-01

    Improved quantitative understanding of in vivo leaflet geometry in ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is needed to improve reparative techniques, yet few data are available due to current imaging limitations. Using marker technology we tested the hypotheses that IMR (1) occurs chiefly during early systole; (2) affects primarily the valve region contiguous with the myocardial ischemic insult; and (3) results in systolic leaflet edge restriction. Eleven sheep had radiopaque markers sutured as five opposing pairs along the anterior (A(1)-E(1)) and posterior (A(2)-E(2)) mitral leaflet free edges from the anterior commissure (A(1)-A(2)) to the posterior commissure (E(1)-E(2)). Immediately postoperatively, biplane videofluoroscopy was used to obtain 4D marker coordinates before and during acute proximal left circumflex artery occlusion. Regional mitral orifice area (MOA) was calculated in the anterior (Ant-MOA), middle (Mid-MOA), and posterior (Post-MOA) mitral orifice segments during early systole (EarlyS), mid systole (MidS), and end systole (EndS). MOA was normalized to zero (minimum orifice opening) at baseline EndS. Tenting height was the distance of the midpoint of paired markers to the mitral annular plane at EndS. Acute ischemia increased echocardiographic MR grade (0.5+/-0.3 vs 2.3+/-0.7, p<0.01) and MOA in all regions at EarlyS, MidS, and EndS: Ant-MOA (7+/-10 vs 22+/-19 mm(2), 1+/-2 vs 18+/-16 mm(2), 0 vs 17+/-15 mm(2)); Mid-MOA (9+/-13 vs 25+/-17 mm(2), 3+/-6 vs 21+/-19 mm(2), 0 vs 25+/-17 mm(2)); and Post-MOA (8+/-10 vs 25+/-16, 2+/-4 vs 22+/-13 mm(2), 0 vs 23+/-13 mm(2)), all p<0.05. There was no change in MOA throughout systole (EarlyS vs MidS vs EndS) during baseline conditions or ischemia. Tenting height increased with ischemia near the central and the anterior commissure leaflet edges (B(1)-B(2): 7.1+/-1.8mm vs 7.9+/-1.7 mm, C(1)-C(2): 6.9+/-1.3mm vs 8.0+/-1.5mm, both p<0.05). MOA during ischemia was larger throughout systole, indicating that acute IMR

  15. EFFECTS OF ACUTE ISCHEMIC MITRAL REGURGITATION ON THREE DIMENSIONAL MITRAL LEAFLET EDGE GEOMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Bothe, Wolfgang; Nguyen, Tom C.; Ennis, Daniel B.; Itoh, Akinobu; Carlhäll, Carl Johan; Lai, David T.; Ingels, Neil B.; Miller, D. Craig

    2008-01-01

    Background: Improved quantitative understanding of in-vivo leaflet geometry in ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is needed to improve reparative techniques, yet few data are available due to current imaging limitations. Using marker technology we tested the hypotheses that IMR: (1) Occurs chiefly during early-systole; (2) Affects primarily the valve region contiguous with the myocardial ischemic insult; and, (3) Results in systolic leaflet edge restriction. Methods: Eleven sheep had radiopaque markers sutured as five opposing pairs along the anterior (A1-E1) and posterior (A2-E2) mitral leaflet free-edges from the anterior commissure (A1-A2) to the posterior commissure (E1-E2). Immediately postoperatively, biplane videofluoroscopy was used to obtain 4-D marker coordinates before and during acute proximal left circumflex artery occlusion. Regional mitral orifice area (MOA) was calculated in the anterior (Ant-MOA), middle (Mid-MOA) and posterior (Post-MOA) mitral orifice segments during early-systole (EarlyS), mid-systole (MidS), and end-systole (EndS). MOA was normalized to zero (minimum orifice opening) at baseline EndS. Tenting height was the distance of the midpoint of paired markers to the mitral annular plane at EndS. . Results: Acute ischemia increased echocardiographic MR grade (0.5±0.3 vs. 2.3±0.7, p<0.01) and MOA in all regions at EarlyS, MidS and EndS: Ant-MOA (7±10 vs. 22±19mm2, 1±2 vs. 18±16mm2, 0 vs. 17±15mm2); Mid-MOA (9±13 vs. 25±17mm2, 3±6 vs. 21±19mm2, 0 vs. 25±17mm2); and Post-MOA (8±10 vs. 25±16, 2±4 vs. 22±13mm2, 0 vs. 23±13mm2), all p<0.05. There was no change in MOA throughout systole (EarlyS vs. MidS vs. EndS) during baseline conditions or ischemia. Tenting height increased with ischemia near the central and the anterior commissure leaflet edges (B1-B2: 7.1±1.8mm vs. 7.9±1.7mm, C1-C2: 6.9±1.3mm vs. 8.0±1.5mm, both p<0.05). Conclusions: (1) MOA during ischemia was larger throughout systole, indicating that acute IMR in

  16. Molecular Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desseyn, H. O.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Compares linear-nonlinear and planar-nonplanar geometry through the valence-shell electron pairs repulsion (V.S.E.P.R.), Mulliken-Walsh, and electrostatic force theories. Indicates that although the V.S.E.P.R. theory has more advantages for elementary courses, an explanation of the best features of the different theories offers students a better…

  17. Molecular Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desseyn, H. O.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Compares linear-nonlinear and planar-nonplanar geometry through the valence-shell electron pairs repulsion (V.S.E.P.R.), Mulliken-Walsh, and electrostatic force theories. Indicates that although the V.S.E.P.R. theory has more advantages for elementary courses, an explanation of the best features of the different theories offers students a better…

  18. The Effect of Visual-Chunking-Representation Accommodation on Geometry Testing for Students with Math Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dake; Ding, Yi; Stegall, Joanna; Mo, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Students who struggle with learning mathematics often have difficulties with geometry problem solving, which requires strong visual imagery skills. These difficulties have been correlated with deficiencies in visual working memory. Cognitive psychology has shown that chunking of visual items accommodates students' working memory deficits. This…

  19. The Effect of Dynamic Geometry Software on Student Mathematics Teachers' Spatial Visualization Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güven, Bülent; Kosa, Temel

    2008-01-01

    Geometry is the study of shape and space. Without spatial ability, students cannot fully appreciate the natural world. Spatial ability is also very important for work in various fields such as computer graphics, engineering, architecture, and cartography. A number of studies have demonstrated that technology has an important potential to develop…

  20. Assessing the Effectiveness of Learning Solid Geometry by Using an Augmented Reality-Assisted Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Chen, Mei-Chi; Chang, Chih-Kai

    2015-01-01

    This study integrates augmented reality (AR) technology into teaching activities to design a learning system that assists junior high-school students in learning solid geometry. The following issues are addressed: (1) the relationship between achievements in mathematics and performance in spatial perception; (2) whether system-assisted learning…

  1. The Effect of Visual-Chunking-Representation Accommodation on Geometry Testing for Students with Math Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dake; Ding, Yi; Stegall, Joanna; Mo, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Students who struggle with learning mathematics often have difficulties with geometry problem solving, which requires strong visual imagery skills. These difficulties have been correlated with deficiencies in visual working memory. Cognitive psychology has shown that chunking of visual items accommodates students' working memory deficits. This…

  2. Assessing the Effectiveness of Learning Solid Geometry by Using an Augmented Reality-Assisted Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Chen, Mei-Chi; Chang, Chih-Kai

    2015-01-01

    This study integrates augmented reality (AR) technology into teaching activities to design a learning system that assists junior high-school students in learning solid geometry. The following issues are addressed: (1) the relationship between achievements in mathematics and performance in spatial perception; (2) whether system-assisted learning…

  3. The Effect of Dynamic Geometry Software on Student Mathematics Teachers' Spatial Visualization Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guven, Bulent; Kosa, Temel

    2008-01-01

    Geometry is the study of shape and space. Without spatial ability, students cannot fully appreciate the natural world. Spatial ability is also very important for work in various fields such as computer graphics, engineering, architecture, and cartography. A number of studies have demonstrated that technology has an important potential to develop…

  4. The Effect of Teacher Pedagogical Content Knowledge and the Instruction of Middle School Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenhart, Sara Talley

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between middle school math teacher pedagogical content knowledge as gathered from a teacher assessment and student Standards of Learning scores. Nine middle-school math teachers at two rural schools were assessed for their pedagogical content knowledge in geometry and measurement in the specific area of…

  5. Effects of Polya Questioning Instruction for Geometry Reasoning in Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chun-Yi; Chen, Ming-Jang

    2015-01-01

    In teaching geometry, most instructors opt for direct demonstration with detailed explanations; however, under this kind of instruction students face considerable difficulties in the development of the reasoning skills required to deal with problems of a geometric nature. This study adopted a nonequivalent pretest-postest quasi-experimental design…

  6. Effects of Polya Questioning Instruction for Geometry Reasoning in Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chun-Yi; Chen, Ming-Jang

    2015-01-01

    In teaching geometry, most instructors opt for direct demonstration with detailed explanations; however, under this kind of instruction students face considerable difficulties in the development of the reasoning skills required to deal with problems of a geometric nature. This study adopted a nonequivalent pretest-postest quasi-experimental design…

  7. The Effect of Designed Geometry Teaching Lesson to the Candidate Teachers' Van Hiele Geometric Thinking Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Gül Kaleli; Koparan, Timur

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out how designed Geometry Teaching Lesson affects candidate teachers' Van Hiele Geometric Thinking Levels. For that purpose, 14 weeks long study was performed with 44 candidate teachers who were university students in Turkey. Van Hiele Geometric Thinking Test was applied to candidate teachers before and after…

  8. Meagre effects of disuse on the human fibula are not explained by bone size or geometry.

    PubMed

    Ireland, A; Capozza, R F; Cointry, G R; Nocciolino, L; Ferretti, J L; Rittweger, J

    2017-02-01

    Fibula response to disuse is unknown; we assessed fibula bone in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients and able-bodied counterparts. Group differences were smaller than in the neighbouring tibia which could not be explained by bone geometry. Differential adaptation of the shank bones may indicate previously unknown mechanoadaptive behaviours of bone.

  9. Modeling the Coupled Effects of Pore Space Geometry and Velocity on Colloid Transport and Retention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent experimental and theoretical work has demonstrated that pore space geometry and hydrodynamics can play an important role in colloid retention under unfavorable attachment conditions. Computer models that only consider the average pore-water velocity and a single attachment rate coefficient a...

  10. Cerebroprotective effect of piracetam in patients undergoing open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Holinski, Sebastian; Claus, Benjamin; Alaaraj, Nour; Dohmen, Pascal Maria; Neumann, Konrad; Uebelhack, Ralf; Konertz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of cognitive function is a possible side effect after the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during cardiac surgery. Since it has been proven that piracetam is cerebroprotective in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery, we investigated the effects of piracetam on the cognitive performance of patients undergoing open heart surgery. Patients scheduled for elective open heart surgery were randomized to the piracetam or placebo group in a double-blind study. Patients received 12 g of piracetam or placebo at the beginning of the operation. Six neuropsychological subtests from the Syndrom Kurz Test and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale were performed preoperatively and on day 3, postoperatively. To assess the overall cognitive function and the degree of cognitive decline across all tests after the surgery, we combined the six test-scores by principal component analysis. A total of 88 patients with a mean age of 67 years were enrolled into the study. The mean duration of CPB was 110 minutes. Preoperative clinical parameters and overall cognitive functions were not significantly different between the groups. The postoperative combined score of the neuropsychological tests showed deterioration of cognitive function in both groups (piracetam: preoperative 0.19 ± 0.97 vs. postoperative -0.97 ± 1.38, p <0.0005 and placebo: preoperative -0.14 ± 0.98 vs. postoperative -1.35 ± 1.23, p <0.0005). Patients taking piracetam did not perform better than those taking placebo, and both groups had the same decline of overall cognitive function (p = 0.955). Piracetam had no cerebroprotective effect in patients undergoing open heart surgery. Unlike the patients who underwent coronary surgery, piracetam did not reduce the early postoperative decline of neuropsychological abilities in heart valve patients.

  11. Landau level quantization for massless Dirac fermions in the spherical geometry: Graphene fractional quantum Hall effect on the Haldane sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arciniaga, Michael; Peterson, Michael R.

    2016-07-01

    We derive the single-particle eigenenergies and eigenfunctions for massless Dirac fermions confined to the surface of a sphere in the presence of a magnetic monopole, i.e., we solve the Landau level problem for electrons in graphene on the Haldane sphere. With the single-particle eigenfunctions and eigenenergies we calculate the Haldane pseudopotentials for the Coulomb interaction in the second Landau level and calculate the effective pseudopotentials characterizing an effective Landau level mixing Hamiltonian entirely in the spherical geometry to be used in theoretical studies of the fractional quantum Hall effect in graphene. Our treatment is analogous to the formalism in the planar geometry and reduces to the planar results in the thermodynamic limit.

  12. Effect of hydration on the lowest singlet PiPi* excited-state geometry of guanine: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Shukla, M K; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2005-09-15

    An ab-initio computational study was performed to investigate the effect of explicit hydration on the ground and lowest singlet PiPi* excited-state geometry and on the selected stretching vibrational frequencies corresponding to the different NH sites of the guanine acting as hydrogen-bond donors. The studied systems consisted of guanine interacting with one, three, five, six, and seven water molecules. Ground-state geometries were optimized at the HF level, while excited-state geometries were optimized at the CIS level. The 6-311G(d,p) basis set was used in all calculations. The nature of potential energy surfaces was ascertained via the harmonic vibrational frequency analysis; all structures were found minima at the respective potential energy surfaces. The changes in the geometry and the stretching vibrational frequencies of hydrogen-bond-donating sites of the guanine in the ground and excited state consequent to the hydration are discussed. It was found that the first solvation shell of the guanine can accommodate up to six water molecules. The addition of the another water molecule distorts the hydrogen-bonding network by displacing other neighboring water molecules away from the guanine plane.

  13. The Effect of Combined Magnetic Geometries on Thermally Driven Winds. I. Interaction of Dipolar and Quadrupolar Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, Adam J.; Matt, Sean P.

    2017-08-01

    Cool stars with outer convective envelopes are observed to have magnetic fields with a variety of geometries, which on large scales are dominated by a combination of the lowest-order fields such as the dipole, quadrupole, and octupole modes. Magnetized stellar wind outflows are primarily responsible for the loss of angular momentum from these objects during the main sequence. Previous works have shown the reduced effectiveness of the stellar wind braking mechanism with increasingly complex but singular magnetic field geometries. In this paper, we quantify the impact of mixed dipolar and quadrupolar fields on the spin-down torque using 50 MHD simulations with mixed fields, along with 10 each of the pure geometries. The simulated winds include a wide range of magnetic field strength and reside in the slow-rotator regime. We find that the stellar wind braking torque from our combined geometry cases is well described by a broken power-law behavior, where the torque scaling with field strength can be predicted by the dipole component alone or the quadrupolar scaling utilizing the total field strength. The simulation results can be scaled and apply to all main-sequence cool stars. For solar parameters, the lowest-order component of the field (dipole in this paper) is the most significant in determining the angular momentum loss.

  14. Catalytic combustion: an investigation of combustor geometry effects. Shelton Energy Research report No. 8272R

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, J.; Graeser, L.

    1982-01-01

    A Riteway Model 37 wood stove was modified to accept a catalytic combustor. Twenty-six metal plates coated with a platinum/palladium catalyst were assembled into one, two or three layers (26, 13 and 9 plates per layer). The stove's energy efficiency was measured without the catalyst and with the catalyst in each of its three geometries. A combination of room calorimetry and flue gas heat loss measurements was used for these determinations. The one-layer catalyst increased the unit's combustion efficiency by 11 percentage points to 95 percent at a power output of 35,000 Btu/h. Increases of 8 and 5 percentage points were recorded for the two- and three-layer geometries, respectively. In order to investigate relative creosote plugging rates in the event of catalyst failure or low temperature operation, two samples of each substrate geometry were installed in the flues of six identical stoves and cool fires were burned for four days. Total creosote accumulation was greatest for the sparser geometries, but it was less hazardous - the pressure drop for a given flow was less because of the wider spacing. Total plugging is a definite possibility in relatively short time periods for all geometries. Two passive bypass systems were investigated to detour flue gases around a total obstruction of the catalyst. One of these recirculated flue gas during normal stove operation, but both alleviated the possible safety hazard of smoke spillage. Finally, a theory of catalyst design was developed and tested; it predicted the experimental combustion efficiencies within two percentage points.

  15. A Genuine Jahn-Teller System with Compressed Geometry and Quantum Effects Originating from Zero-Point Motion.

    PubMed

    Aramburu, José Antonio; García-Fernández, Pablo; García-Lastra, Juan María; Moreno, Miguel

    2016-07-18

    First-principle calculations together with analysis of the experimental data found for 3d(9) and 3d(7) ions in cubic oxides proved that the center found in irradiated CaO:Ni(2+) corresponds to Ni(+) under a static Jahn-Teller effect displaying a compressed equilibrium geometry. It was also shown that the anomalous positive g∥ shift (g∥ -g0 =0.065) measured at T=20 K obeys the superposition of the |3 z(2) -r(2) ⟩ and |x(2) -y(2) ⟩ states driven by quantum effects associated with the zero-point motion, a mechanism first put forward by O'Brien for static Jahn-Teller systems and later extended by Ham to the dynamic Jahn-Teller case. To our knowledge, this is the first genuine Jahn-Teller system (i.e. in which exact degeneracy exists at the high-symmetry configuration) exhibiting a compressed equilibrium geometry for which large quantum effects allow experimental observation of the effect predicted by O'Brien. Analysis of the calculated energy barriers for different Jahn-Teller systems allowed us to explain the origin of the compressed geometry observed for CaO:Ni(+) . © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Effect of particle geometry on triple line motion of nano-fluid drops and deposit nano-structuring.

    PubMed

    Askounis, Alexandros; Sefiane, Khellil; Koutsos, Vasileios; Shanahan, Martin E R

    2015-08-01

    We illustrate the importance of particle geometry on droplet contact line pinning, 'coffee-stain' formation and nano-structuring within the resulting rings. We present the fundamentals of pure liquid droplet evaporation and then discuss the effect of particles on the evaporation process. The resulting coffee-stain patterns and particle structuring within them are presented and discussed. In the second part, we turn our attention to the effect of particle geometry on the evaporation process. A wide range of particle shapes, categorised according to aspect ratio, from the simple shape of a sphere to the highly irregular shapes of platelets and tubes is discussed. Particle geometry effect on evaporation behaviour was quantified in terms of change in contact angle and contact radius for the stick-slip cases. Consequently the hysteretic energy barrier pinning the droplets was estimated, showing an increasing trend with particle aspect ratio. The three-phase contact line (TL) motion kinetics are complemented with analysis of the nano-structuring behaviour of each shape, leading to the identification of the two main parameters affecting nanoparticle self-assembly behaviour at the wedge. Flow velocity and wedge constraints were found to have antagonist effects on particle deposition, although these varied with particle shape. This description should help in understanding the drying behaviour of more complex fluids. Furthermore, knowing the fundamentals of this simple and inexpensive surface patterning technique should permit its tailoring to the needs of many potential applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Lensless x-ray imaging in reflection geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, S.; Parks, D.H.; Seu, K.A.; Turner, J.J.; Chao, W.; Anderson, E.H.; Cabrini, S.; Kevan, S.D.; Su, R.

    2011-02-03

    Lensless X-ray imaging techniques such as coherent diffraction imaging and ptychography, and Fourier transform holography can provide time-resolved, diffraction-limited images. Nearly all examples of these techniques have focused on transmission geometry, restricting the samples and reciprocal spaces that can be investigated. We report a lensless X-ray technique developed for imaging in Bragg and small-angle scattering geometries, which may also find application in transmission geometries. We demonstrate this by imaging a nanofabricated pseudorandom binary structure in small-angle reflection geometry. The technique can be used with extended objects, places no restriction on sample size, and requires no additional sample masking. The realization of X-ray lensless imaging in reflection geometry opens up the possibility of single-shot imaging of surfaces in thin films, buried interfaces in magnetic multilayers, organic photovoltaic and field-effect transistor devices, or Bragg planes in a single crystal.

  18. Numerical study of the effect of the channel and electrode geometry on the performance of microfluidic fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi Khabbazi, A.; Richards, A. J.; Hoorfar, M.

    Using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5, 3D numerical models of different microfluidic fuel cells have been developed in this paper to determine the effect of different modifications which have been implemented in the microfluidic fuel cell since its advent. These modifications include the channel geometry aspect ratio and electrode configuration, the third flow between the anolyte and catholyte in the channel (i.e., multi-stream laminar flow), and multiple periodically placed inlets. To be consistent with the convention, the output power of the device is normalized by the electrode surface area; however, the power density calculations are also performed through normalization by the device volume. It is shown that the latter method is more realistic and providing more information from the design point of view since the ultimate goal in designing the microfluidic fuel cell is to fabricate a compact, yet powerful device. Finally, a novel design of the microfluidic fuel cell with a tapered channel is suggested and compared to the non-tapered geometry through the polarization curves. The steps which have been taken in COMSOL to obtain these polarization curves are clearly and thoroughly explained. The Butler-Volmer equation was implemented to incorporate for the electrochemical reactions at the electrodes. The "Conductive Media DC" module, in COMSOL, is used to model the electric fields within the fuel cell. The concentration distributions of the reactant species are obtained using the "Incompressible Navier-Stokes" and "Convection and Diffusion" modules. Solving these equations together predicts the current density for given cell voltage values. The results demonstrate the cell voltage losses due to activation, ohmic and concentration overpotentials. It is shown that for a fixed value of the cell voltage (say 0.45 V), the fuel cell with multiple periodically placed inlets has the highest fuel utilization (i.e., 62.3%); while the "Simple square" geometry depicts 13.8% fuel

  19. In-plane electric fields and the ν =5/2 fractional quantum Hall effect in a disk geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylan-Tyler, Anthony; Lyanda-Geller, Yuli

    2017-03-01

    The ν =5/2 fractional quantum Hall effect is of experimental and theoretical interest due to the possible non-Abelian statistics of the excitations in the electron liquid. A small voltage difference across a sample applied in experiments to probe the system is often ignored in theoretical studies due to the Galilean invariance in the thermodynamic limit. No experimental sample, however, is Galilean invariant. In this Rapid Communication, we explore the effects of the probe electric fields in a disk geometry with finite thickness. We find that weak probe fields enhance the Moore-Read Pfaffian state, but sufficiently strong electric fields destroy the incompressible state. In a disk geometry, the behavior of the system depends on the polarity of the applied radial field, which can potentially be observed in experiments using a Corbino disk configuration. Our simulation also shows that the application of such a field enhances the coherence length of quasiholes propagating through the edge channels.

  20. The Effects on Bay Circulation of Changing Geometry and Location of Katama Inlet, Martha's Vineyard, MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orescanin, M. M.; Elgar, S.; Raubenheimer, B.

    2014-12-01

    Circulation in bays with one or more connections to the ocean depends on the location and morphology of the inlets. Here, field observations and the numerical model ADCIRC are used to investigate circulation in the small (~7 km2 surface area) and shallow (~2 m deep) Katama Bay, Martha's Vineyard, MA, which is connected to Vineyard Sound in the north by the long (~2.5 km), stable, maintained Edgartown Channel, and to the Atlantic Ocean in the south by the variable and ephemeral Katama Inlet, which changes shape in response to storms, as well as to daily waves and tides. Katama Inlet was initiated by a breach in 2007, and has migrated almost 2.5 km to the east where it is now adjacent to Chappaquiddick Island. In a typical decadal cycle, the inlet eventually closes until another storm breaches the sand barrier. As it migrates, Katama Inlet varies in width, length, depth, and orientation. The bathymetry near the inlet was measured pre- and post Hurricane Irene (2011), and in the summers of 2012-2014. In addition, sea levels, waves, and currents were measured in the ocean, the inlets, and the bay from August until October 2011 (including during Hurricane Irene), and in August 2013. Between 2011 and 2013 the inlet migrated 1 km to the east and changed alignment from roughly north-south to east-west. Pressure data from the Atlantic Ocean and northern Edgartown Channel are used to drive ADCIRC using bathymetry measured (1) pre- and (2) post-Irene in 2011, and (3) in 2013. The model is run over month-long periods using a variable Manning's n for friction and including wetting and drying of the coast. The model simulations are consistent with the observations, including the observed changes to the circulation caused by the evolving inlet channel. The results suggest that changes in the geometry, orientation, and location of one inlet may have significant effects on hydrodynamics throughout the bay and in the other channel. Supported by ASD(R&E), ONR, and NSF.

  1. Effect of roughness and porosity on geometry and kinematics of lock-exchange gravity currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatto, Elena; Adduce, Claudia; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2017-04-01

    Gravity currents generated by lock-exchange are an important research tool to understand key features of flows driven by a density may be naturally caused by interaction of geophysical nature but may also be triggered by adverse anthropic actions, from oil spills to pollution related turbidity. Research on the fundamental geometrical and kinematic features of these currents is still necessary, especially when they propagate on complex geometries. The purpose of this work is to investigate the shape and the velocity of propagation of gravity currents over rough beds and over rough-porous beds. To attain this objective, different initial conditions were specified, namely smooth bed, rough bed composed of a single layer of 2 mm glass beads and rough and porous bed composed of 4 layers of the same beads. The dimensions of the channel are 300 × 19,6 × 40 cm in which a steel gate is inserted to define the lock. Two initial mixtures were tested: 1015 and 1030 kgm-3. The density is measured with a pycnometer on a high precision balance. The mixture is composed of fresh water, salt and rhodamine, to allow for visualization and measurements based on image analysis. A high-speed video system camera was used to record the motion of the current. The camera has a 50 mm lens and a sampling frequency of 100 fps. Gray-level images were obtained with 8 bit depth. Calibration of gray-levels was performed pixel by pixel to mixture concentrations. The current is examined in three positions: immediately after the gate ((x-x0)/x0 = 0 to 3), in the middle ((x-x0)/x0 = 5 to 8) and at the end of the channel((x - x0)/x0 = 10 to 13). It is shown that the celerity of the gravity current wave front varies with the different boundary conditions. Indeed, the current is faster for the smooth bed and slower for the rough bed conditions. No appreciable effects of porosity were registered on the wave celerity. The shape of the current varied slightly between the rough and the porous-rough tests

  2. The safest parameters for FUS-induced blood-brain barrier opening without effects on the opening volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Yao-Sheng; Olumolade, Yemi; Wang, Shutao; Wu, Shih-Ying; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2012-11-01

    Acoustic cavitation has been identified as the main physical mechanism for the focused ultrasound (FUS) induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening. In this paper, the mechanism of stable cavitation (SC) and inertial cavitation (IC) responsible for BBB opening was investigated. Thirty-three (n=33) mice were intravenously injected with bubbles of 4-5 μm in diameter. The right hippocampus was then sonicated using focused 1.5-MHz ultrasound and three different studies were carried out. First, pulse lengths (PLs) of 0.1, 0.5, 2, and 5 ms at 0.18- MPa peak rarefactional pressure with 5-Hz pulse repetition frequency (PRF) and 5-minute duration were used to identify the threshold of PL using SC. Second, the effects of the duty cycle and exposure time were investigated. Third, the BBB opening size was compared between the SC and the IC. In the case of IC-induced BBB opening, a burst sequence (3-cycles PL; 5-Hz burst repetition frequency (BRF); 30 s duration) at 0.45 MPa was applied. Passive cavitation detection was performed with each sonication to detect whether a broadband response was obtained, i.e., if IC occurred, during BBB opening. The properties of BBB opening were measured through MRI. The threshold of PL for BBB opening was identified between 0.1 and 0.5 ms using SC, but the BBB can be opened in few cycles using IC. The BBB opening volume and normalized intensity increased with the PL, but reached saturation when the PL was above 2 ms. Once the PL threshold was reached, the same exposure time induced a similar BBB opening volume, but longer sonication duration induced higher MR intensity. The duty cycle was found not to play an important role on the BBB opening. Comparable BBB opening volume (20-25 mm3) could be reached between long PL (7500 cycles, i.e., 5 ms) at 0.18 MPa and 3 cycles at 0.45 MPa. 3-kDa fluorescently tagged dextran may be able to diffuse to the parenchyma after IC-induced BBB opening at 0.45 MPa but not after SC-induced BBB opening at 0.18 MPa.

  3. Wind-tunnel investigation of effects of trailing-edge geometry on a NASA supercritical airfoil section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. D.

    1971-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests have been conducted at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 0.81 to determine the effects of trailing-edge geometry on the aerodynamic characteristics of a NASA supercritical airfoil shape. Variations in trailing-edge thicknesses from 0 to 1.5 percent of the chord and a cavity in the trailing edge were investigated with airfoils with maximum thicknesses of 10 and 11 percent of the chord.

  4. Effects of nozzle exit geometry and pressure ratio on plume shape for nozzles exhausting into quiescent air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scallion, William I.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of varying the exit geometry on the plume shapes of supersonic nozzles exhausting into quiescent air at several exit-to-ambient pressure ratios are given. Four nozzles having circular throat sections and circular, elliptical and oval exit cross sections were tested and the exit plume shapes are compared at the same exit-to-ambient pressure ratios. The resulting mass flows were calculated and are also presented.

  5. ORGAN AND EFFECTIVE DOSE COEFFICIENTS FOR CRANIAL AND CAUDAL IRRADIATION GEOMETRIES: NEUTRONS.

    PubMed

    Veinot, K G; Eckerman, K F; Hertel, N E; Hiller, M M

    2016-08-29

    Dose coefficients based on the recommendations of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 were reported in ICRP Publication 116, the revision of ICRP Publication 74 and ICRU Publication 57 for the six reference irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, right and left lateral, rotational and isotropic. In this work, dose coefficients for neutron irradiation of the body with parallel beams directed upward from below the feet (caudal) and downward from above the head (cranial) using the ICRP 103 methodology were computed using the MCNP 6.1 radiation transport code. The dose coefficients were determined for neutrons ranging in energy from 10(-9) MeV to 10 GeV. At energies below about 500 MeV, the cranial and caudal dose coefficients are less than those for the six reference geometries reported in ICRP Publication 116.

  6. Indenter geometry effects on the measurements of mechanical properties by nanoindentation with sharp indenters

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, T.Y.; Pharr, G.M.; Oliver, W.C.

    1996-05-01

    The measurement of mechanical properties by nanoindentation methods is most often conducted using indenters with the Berkovich geometry (a triangular pyramid) or with a sphere. These indenters provide a wealth of information, but there are certain circumstances in which it would be useful to make measurements with indenters of other geometries. We have recently explored how the measurement of hardness and elastic modulus can be achieved using sharp indenters other than the Berkovich. Systematic studies in several materials were conducted with a Vickers indenter, a conical indenter with a half-included tip angle of 70.3{degrees}, and the standard Berkovich indenter. All three indenters are geometrically similar and have nominally the same area-to-depth relationship, but there are distinct differences in the behavior of each. Here, we report on the application of these indenters in the measurement of hardness and elastic modulus by nanoindentation methods and some of the difficulties that occur.

  7. Organ and effective dose coefficients for cranial and caudal irradiation geometries: Neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Veinot, K. G.; Eckerman, K. F.; Hertel, N. E.; Hiller, M. M.

    2016-08-29

    Dose coefficients based on the recommendations of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 were reported in ICRP Publication 116, the revision of ICRP Publication 74 and ICRU Publication 57 for the six reference irradiation geometries: anterior–posterior, posterior–anterior, right and left lateral, rotational and isotropic. In this work, dose coefficients for neutron irradiation of the body with parallel beams directed upward from below the feet (caudal) and downward from above the head (cranial) using the ICRP 103 methodology were computed using the MCNP 6.1 radiation transport code. The dose coefficients were determined for neutrons ranging in energy from 10–9 MeV to 10 GeV. Here, at energies below about 500 MeV, the cranial and caudal dose coefficients are less than those for the six reference geometries reported in ICRP Publication 116.

  8. Organ and effective dose coefficients for cranial and caudal irradiation geometries: Neutrons

    DOE PAGES

    Veinot, K. G.; Eckerman, K. F.; Hertel, N. E.; ...

    2016-08-29

    Dose coefficients based on the recommendations of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 were reported in ICRP Publication 116, the revision of ICRP Publication 74 and ICRU Publication 57 for the six reference irradiation geometries: anterior–posterior, posterior–anterior, right and left lateral, rotational and isotropic. In this work, dose coefficients for neutron irradiation of the body with parallel beams directed upward from below the feet (caudal) and downward from above the head (cranial) using the ICRP 103 methodology were computed using the MCNP 6.1 radiation transport code. The dose coefficients were determined for neutrons ranging in energy from 10–9more » MeV to 10 GeV. Here, at energies below about 500 MeV, the cranial and caudal dose coefficients are less than those for the six reference geometries reported in ICRP Publication 116.« less

  9. Effect of phenolic radicals on the geometry and electronic structure of DNA base pairs: computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarei, Mohammad; Seif, Abdolvahab; Azizi, Khaled; Zarei, Mohanna; Bahrami, Jamil

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we show the reaction of a hydroxyl, phenyl and phenoxy radicals with DNA base pairs by the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The influence of solvation on the mechanism is also presented by the same DFT calculations under the continuum solvation model. The results showed that hydroxyl, phenyl and phenoxy radicals increase the length of the nearest hydrogen bond of adjacent DNA base pair which is accompanied by decrease in the length of furthest hydrogen bond of DNA base pair. Also, hydroxyl, phenyl and phenoxy radicals influenced the dihedral angle between DNA base pairs. According to the results, hydrogen bond lengths between AT and GC base pairs in water solvent are longer than vacuum. All of presented radicals influenced the structure and geometry of AT and GC base pairs, but phenoxy radical showed more influence on geometry and electronic properties of DNA base pairs compared with the phenyl and hydroxyl radicals.

  10. Eyes open versus eyes closed - Effect on human rotational responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Conrad, III; Furman, Joseph M. R.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of eyelid closure on the response to rotational vestibular stimulation was assessed by evaluating 16 normal human subjects with both earth vertical axis (EVA) and earth horizontal axis (EHA) yaw rotations with either eyes closed (EC) or eyes open in the dark (EOD). Results indicated that for EVA rotation, the subjects' responses were of larger magnitude and less variable with EOD than with EC. However, for EHA rotation, responses were of larger magnitude and equally variable with EC as compared to EOD. Data also indicated that the quality of the EHA response with EC was altered because eyelid closure influenced the amount of periodic gaze. It is concluded that eyelid closure has an effect upon both canalocular and otolithocular reflexes and it is suggested that both EVA and EHA rotational testing be performed with EOD rather than with EC.

  11. Eyes open versus eyes closed - Effect on human rotational responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Conrad, III; Furman, Joseph M. R.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of eyelid closure on the response to rotational vestibular stimulation was assessed by evaluating 16 normal human subjects with both earth vertical axis (EVA) and earth horizontal axis (EHA) yaw rotations with either eyes closed (EC) or eyes open in the dark (EOD). Results indicated that for EVA rotation, the subjects' responses were of larger magnitude and less variable with EOD than with EC. However, for EHA rotation, responses were of larger magnitude and equally variable with EC as compared to EOD. Data also indicated that the quality of the EHA response with EC was altered because eyelid closure influenced the amount of periodic gaze. It is concluded that eyelid closure has an effect upon both canalocular and otolithocular reflexes and it is suggested that both EVA and EHA rotational testing be performed with EOD rather than with EC.

  12. Open-Ended Coaxial Dielectric Probe Effective Penetration Depth Determination.

    PubMed

    Meaney, Paul M; Gregory, Andrew P; Seppälä, Jan; Lahtinen, Tapani

    2016-03-01

    We have performed a series of experiments which demonstrate the effect of open-ended coaxial diameter on the depth of penetration. We used a two layer configuration of a liquid and movable cylindrical piece of either Teflon or acrylic. The technique accurately demonstrates the depth in a sample for which a given probe diameter provides a reasonable measure of the bulk dielectric properties for a heterogeneous volume. In addition we have developed a technique for determining the effective depth for a given probe diameter size. Using a set of simulations mimicking four 50 Ω coaxial cable diameters, we demonstrate that the penetration depth in both water and saline has a clear dependence on probe diameter but is remarkably uniform over frequency and with respect to the intervening liquid permittivity. Two different 50 Ω commercial probes were similarly tested and confirm these observations. This result has significant implications to a range of dielectric measurements, most notably in the area of tissue property studies.

  13. Geometry and treatment of fiducial networks - Effects on GPS baseline precision in South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Golombek, Matthew P.

    1988-01-01

    A covariance analysis indicates that GPS baseline precision in northern South America is substantially improved when fiducial stations in North America are supplemented by stations in Hawaii, Australia, and New Zealand. The formal errors for a variety of fiducial networks are calculated. It is found that the systematic error of fiducial stations is dependent on the fiducial network geometry. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the baselines of northern South America are very sensitive to uncertainties in the locations of the closest fiducial stations.

  14. Geometry and treatment of fiducial networks - Effects on GPS baseline precision in South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Golombek, Matthew P.

    1988-01-01

    A covariance analysis indicates that GPS baseline precision in northern South America is substantially improved when fiducial stations in North America are supplemented by stations in Hawaii, Australia, and New Zealand. The formal errors for a variety of fiducial networks are calculated. It is found that the systematic error of fiducial stations is dependent on the fiducial network geometry. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the baselines of northern South America are very sensitive to uncertainties in the locations of the closest fiducial stations.

  15. On the effects of turbine geometry on the far wake dynamics of an axial flow hydrokinetic turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Yang, Xiaolei; Kang, Seokkoo

    2013-11-01

    In large-eddy simulation (LES) of multi-turbine arrays actuator disk (AD) or actuator line (AL) models are employed to simulate individual turbines. Such parameterizations do not take into account the details of the turbine geometry and, therefore, cannot be expected to accurately resolve the flow in the near wake. We investigate the performance of AD and AL models by comparing their predictions with laboratory measurements and with LES resolving the geometrical details of the turbine. We simulate the flow past an axial flow hydrokinetic turbine in a fully-developed turbulent flow in an open channel using: turbine-geometry resolving LES (LES-TG) and LES-AD and LES-AL parameterizations. We show that LES-TG reveals very complex large-scale dynamics in the near wake, driven by the interaction of a counter-rotating to the turbine hub vortex and the top-tip shear layer, which appears to influence both the mean flow characteristics and the intensity of wake meandering several rotor diameters downstream. The LES-AD and LES-AL results cannot capture the geometry-induced complex near wake phenomena and yield flows that exhibit important differences with the LES-TG results in the far wake. The mechanisms that give rise to and modeling implications of these differences will be discussed. This work was supported by Department of Energy DOE (DE-EE0002980 and DE-EE0005482) and Xcel Energy through the Renewable Development Fund (grant RD3-42). Computational resources were provided by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  16. Generalized wake geometry for a helicopter in forward flight and effect of wake deformation on airloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical investigation was conducted to develop a first level generalization of the predicted distorted wake geometry of a helicopter rotor in level steady forward flight and to demonstrate the influence of wake deformation on the prediction of rotor airloads. Distortions of the tip vortex relative to the classical undistorted geometry are generalized in terms of vortex age, blade azimuth, advance ratio, thrust coefficient, and number of blades for a representative rotor. A computer module and charts were developed for approximating wake geometry and identifying wake boundaries and locations of blade-vortex passage. Predicted H-34 airloads for several inflow/wake models are compared with data for selected flight conditions. The occurrence of close blade-vortex passages and the high sensitivity of predicted airloads to small deviations of blade to tip vortex distance demonstrate the requirement for improved blade-vortex interaction models. The airload correlations indicate that refined distorted wake methodology has the potential to provide more accurate airload prediction.

  17. Probing bulk physics in the 5/2 fractional quantum Hall effect using the Corbino geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Benjamin; Bennaceur, Keyan; Bilodeau, Simon; Gaucher, Samuel; Lilly, Michael; Reno, John; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Reulet, Bertrand; Gervais, Guillaume

    We present two- and four-point Corbino geometry transport measurements in the second Landau level in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. By avoiding edge transport, we are able to directly probe the physics of the bulk quasiparticles in fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states including 5/2. Our highest-quality sample shows stripe and bubble phases in high Landau levels, and most importantly well-resolved FQH minima in the second Landau level. We report Arrhenius-type fits to the activated conductance, and find that σ0 agrees well with theory and existing Hall geometry data in the first Landau level, but not in the second Landau level. We will discuss the advantages the Corbino geometry could bring to various experiments designed to detect the non-Abelian entropy at 5/2, and our progress towards realizing those schemes. The results of these experiments could complement interferometry and other edge-based measurements by providing direct evidence for non-Abelian behaviour of the bulk quasiparticles. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  18. 3D Bioprinting of complex channels-Effects of material, orientation, geometry, and cell embedding.

    PubMed

    Wüst, Silke; Müller, Ralph; Hofmann, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    Creating filled or hollow channels within 3D tissues has become increasingly important in tissue engineering. Channels can serve as vasculature enhancing medium perfusion or as conduits for nerve regeneration. The 3D biofabrication seems to be a promising method to generate these structures within 3D constructs layer-by-layer. In this study, geometry and interface of bioprinted channels were investigated with micro-computed tomography and fluorescent imaging. In filament printing, size and shape of printed channels are influenced by their orientation, which was analyzed by printing horizontally and vertically aligned channels, and by the ink, which was evaluated by comparing channels printed with an alginate-gelatin hydrogel or with an emulsion. The influence of geometry and cell-embedding in the hydrogel on feature size and shape was investigated by printing more complex channels. The generation of hollow channels, induced through leaching of a support phase, was monitored over time. Horizontally aligned channels provided 16× smaller cross-sectional areas than channels in vertical orientation. The smallest feature size of hydrogel filaments was twice as large compared to emulsion filaments. Feature size and shape depended on the geometry but did not alter when living cells were embedded. With that knowledge, channels can be consciously tailored to the particular needs.

  19. Effect of nozzle geometry on impingement heat transfer distribution from jet arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, R.D.; Liburdy, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    Heat transfer distributions were determined for flat surfaces using three different 3 x 3 jet-impingement arrays. Each array used a different jet orifice cross sectional geometry, either circles, triangles, or ellipses. For each geometry, the jet-to-jet spacing divided by the hydraulic diameter, was three. Five flow rates were tested with Reynolds numbers ranging from 268 to 1,557. For each flow rate, the four jet array height-to-jet spacings (H/D) of 2, 3, 4, and 5 were tested. All of the parameters presented, such as the Reynolds and Nusselt numbers, were based on the orifice hydraulic diameter. In order to determine the heat transfer distributions for each condition tested, thermochromic liquid crystals were used as part of a transient heating testing method. In the majority of the tests, the ellipse array performed the best, with the triangular orifice close behind. Also, of the three orifice geometries, the ellipse had the lowest pressure drop. The heat transfer improvement was especially predominant at low Reynolds numbers.

  20. The effects of opening areas on solar chimney performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, L. S.; Rahman, M. M.; Chu, C. M.; Misaran, M. S. bin; Tamiri, F. M.

    2017-07-01

    To enhance natural ventilation at day time, solar chimney is one of the suitable options for topical country like Malaysia. Solar chimney creates air flow due to stack effect caused by temperature difference between ambient and inside wall. In the solar chimney, solar energy is harvested by the inner wall that cause temperature rise compare to ambient. Therefore, the efficiency of the solar chimney depends on the availability of solar energy as well as the solar intensity. In addition, it is very hard to get good ventilation at night time by using a solar chimney. To overcome this problem one of the suitable valid option is to integrate solar chimney with turbine ventilator. A new type of solar chimney is designed and fluid flow analyzed with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. The aim of CFD and theoretical study are to investigate the effect of opening areas on modified solar chimney performance. The inlet and outlet area of solar chimney are varied from 0.0224m2 to 0.6m2 and 0.1m2 to 0.14m2 respectively based on the changes of inclination angle and gap between inner and outer wall. In the CFD study the constant heat flux is considered as 500W/m2. CFD result shows that there is no significant relation between opening areas and the air flow rate through solar chimney but the ratio between inlet and outlet is significant on flow performance. If the area ratio between inlet and outlet are equal to two or larger, the performance of the solar chimney is better than the solar chimney with ratio lesser than two. The solar chimney performance does not effect if the area ratio between inlet and outlet varies from 1 to 2. This result will be useful for design and verification of actual solar chimney performance.

  1. Effect of tool geometry and cutting parameters on delamination and thrust forces in drilling CFRP/Al-Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bouami, Souhail; Habak, Malek; Franz, Gérald; Velasco, Raphaël; Vantomme, Pascal

    2016-10-01

    Composite materials are increasingly used for structural parts in the aeronautic industries. Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) are often used in combination with metallic materials, mostly aluminium alloys. This raises new problems in aircraft assembly. Delamination is one of these problems. In this study, CFRP/Al-Li stacks is used as experimental material for investigation effect of interaction of cutting parameters (cutting speed and feed rate) and tool geometry on delamination and thrust forces in drilling operation. A plan of experiments, based on Taguchi design method, was employed to investigate the influence of tool geometry and in particular the point angle and cutting parameters on delamination and axial effort. The experimental results demonstrate that the feed rate is the major parameter and the importance of tool point angle in delamination and thrust forces in the stacks were shown.

  2. Effects of self-heating and phase change on the thermal profile of hydrogen isotopes in confined geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Baxamusa, S. Field, J.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Kozioziemski, B.; Suratwala, T.; Sater, J.

    2014-03-28

    Growth of high-quality single-crystal hydrogen in confined geometries relies on the in situ formation of seed crystals. Generation of deuterium-tritium seed crystals in a confined geometry is governed by three effects: self-heating due to tritium decay, external thermal environment, and latent heat of phase change at the boundary between hydrogen liquid and vapor. A detailed computation of the temperature profile for liquid hydrogen inside a hollow shell, as is found in inertial confinement fusion research, shows that seeds are likely to form at the equatorial plane of the shell. Radioactive decay of tritium to helium slowly alters the composition of the hydrogen vapor, resulting in a modified temperature profile that encourages seed formation at the top of the shell. We show that the computed temperature profile is consistent with a variety of experimental observations.

  3. A study of the effect of subcritical crack growth on the geometry dependence on nonlinear fracture toughness parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. L.; Poulose, P. K.; Liebowitz, H.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of subcritical crack growth on the geometry dependence of nonlinear fracture toughness parameters was studied by comparing the toughness values for different specimen geometries at the onset of subcritical crack growth and at the initiation of unstable crack propagation. Center-cracked thin sheet specimens of 2024-T3 and 7075-T6 aluminum alloys were tested by varying the specimen length L, width w, and crack length-to-width ratio c/w. When the onset of unstable crack propagation was selected as the critical point, the nonlinear energy toughness and the R curve toughness increased with increasing w and decreasing L and c/w. However, when the onset of subcritical crack growth was taken as the critical point, energy toughness and the linear toughness values were independent of these geometrical variables.

  4. A Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of the Computer Assisted Method and the Interactionist Approach to Teaching Geometry Shapes to Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaranis, Nicholas; Synodi, Evanthia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare and evaluate the effectiveness of computer assisted teaching of geometry shapes and an interactionist approach to teaching geometry in kindergarten versus other more traditional teaching methods. Our research compares the improvement of the children's geometrical competence using two teaching approaches. The…

  5. The Effects on Short- and Long-Term Retention of Discovery and Expository Methods of Presenting Selected Geometry Concepts: A Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Barbara A.; Frayer, Dorothy A.

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of discovery and expository methods of presentation on the immediate acquisition and retention of geometry concepts by seventh graders. Four geometry concepts, "quadrilateral,""rhombus,""trapezoid," and "parallelogram," were presented in written lessons which used either an expository or a…

  6. On the effects of centrifugal forces in air-water two-phase flow regime transitions in an adiabatic helical geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eric Paul

    Two-phase flow in helical conduits is important in many industries where reaction between components, heat transfer, and mass transport are utilized as processes. The helical design is chosen for the effects of secondary flow patterns that reduce axial dispersion, increased heat transfer, and also their compact design. The first is a result of the secondary flow, which continually transports fluid from the near wall region to the bulk of the flow. In single-phase chemical reactor design this secondary flow increases radial mixing and reduces axial dispersion. In heat exchanger design it increases laminar heat transfer while extending the Reynolds number range of laminar flow. A literature review of the work on helical pipe flow shows that the vast majority of the work is on toroidal single-phase flow, and analyses of two-phase flow are sparse. This dissertation addresses this void by presenting an analytical model of the stratified and annular flow regime transitions in helical conduits, by consideration of the governing equations and mechanisms for transition in the toroidal geometry including the major impact of pitch. Studies have taken a similar approach for straight inclined horizontal and vertical geometries, but none have been found which resolve two-phase flow in the curved geometry of a helix. The main issue in resolving the flow in this geometry is that of determining appropriate inter-phase momentum transfer, and the appropriate friction correlations for wall interaction. These issues are resolved to yield a novel attempt at modeling helical two-phase flow. Pitch is considered negligible in introduction of torsion, while the dominating influence of the centrifugal force is retained. The formulation of the governing equations are taken from a general vector form that is readily extended to a true helix that includes torsion. The predictive capability of the current model is compared to the data and observations of the two-phase helical flow studies

  7. Radiocarbon dating of open systems with bomb effect

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, C.P.; Long, A.; Friedmann, E.I.

    1986-03-10

    The application of radiocarbon dating is extended to include systems that are slowly exchanging carbon with the atmosphere. Simple formulae are derived that relate the true age and the exchange rate of carbon to the apparent radiocarbon age. A radiocarbon age determination does not give a unique true age and exchange rate but determines a locus of values bounded by a minimum age and a minimum exchange rate. It is found that for radiocarbon ages as large as 10,000 years it is necessary to correct for the anthropogenic radiocarbon produced in the atmosphere by nuclear weapons testing. A one-term exponential approximation, with an e-folding time of 14.43 years, is used to model this effect and is shown to be accurate to within 3% for exchange time constants of 100 years and greater. The approach developed here is not specific to radiocarbon and can be applied to other radioisotopes in open systems.

  8. Radiocarbon dating of open systems with bomb effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, C. P.; Long, A.; Friedmann, E. I.

    1986-01-01

    The application of radiocarbon dating is extended to include systems that are slowly exchanging carbon with the atmosphere. Simple formulae are derived that relate the true age and the exchange rate of carbon to the apparent radiocarbon age. A radiocarbon age determination does not give a unique true age and exchange rate but determines a locus of values bounded by a minimum age and a minimum exchange rate. It is found that for radiocarbon ages as large as 10,000 years it is necessary to correct for the anthropogenic radiocarbon produced in the atmosphere by nuclear weapons testing. A one-term exponential approximation, with an e-folding time of 14.43 years, is used to model this effect and is shown to be accurate to within 3 percent for exchange time constants of 100 years and greater. The approach developed here is not specific to radiocarbon and can be applied to other radioisotopes in open systems.

  9. Cross-section perimeter is a suitable parameter to describe the effects of different baffle geometries in shaken microtiter plates.

    PubMed

    Lattermann, Clemens; Funke, Matthias; Hansen, Sven; Diederichs, Sylvia; Büchs, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnological screening processes are performed since more than 8 decades in small scale shaken bioreactors like shake flasks or microtiter plates. One of the major issues of such reactors is the sufficient oxygen supply of suspended microorganisms. Oxygen transfer into the bulk liquid can in general be increased by introducing suitable baffles at the reactor wall. However, a comprehensive and systematic characterization of baffled shaken bioreactors has never been carried out so far. Baffles often differ in number, size and shape. The exact geometry of baffles in glass lab ware like shake flasks is very difficult to reproduce from piece to piece due to the hard to control flow behavior of molten glass during manufacturing. Thus, reproducibility of the maximum oxygen transfer capacity in such baffled shake flasks is hardly given. As a first step to systematically elucidate the general effect of different baffle geometries on shaken bioreactor performance, the maximum oxygen transfer capacity (OTRmax) in baffled 48-well microtiter plates as shaken model reactor was characterized. This type of bioreactor made of plastic material was chosen, as the exact geometry of the baffles can be fabricated by highly reproducible laser cutting. As a result, thirty different geometries were investigated regarding their maximum oxygen transfer capacity (OTRmax) and liquid distribution during shaking. The relative perimeter of the cross-section area as new fundamental geometric key parameter is introduced. An empirical correlation for the OTRmax as function of the relative perimeter, shaking frequency and filling volume is derived. For the first time, this correlation allows a systematic description of the maximum oxygen transfer capacity in baffled microtiter plates. Calculated and experimentally determined OTRmax values agree within ± 30% accuracy. Furthermore, undesired out-of-phase operating conditions can be identified by using the relative perimeter as key parameter

  10. Cross-section perimeter is a suitable parameter to describe the effects of different baffle geometries in shaken microtiter plates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biotechnological screening processes are performed since more than 8 decades in small scale shaken bioreactors like shake flasks or microtiter plates. One of the major issues of such reactors is the sufficient oxygen supply of suspended microorganisms. Oxygen transfer into the bulk liquid can in general be increased by introducing suitable baffles at the reactor wall. However, a comprehensive and systematic characterization of baffled shaken bioreactors has never been carried out so far. Baffles often differ in number, size and shape. The exact geometry of baffles in glass lab ware like shake flasks is very difficult to reproduce from piece to piece due to the hard to control flow behavior of molten glass during manufacturing. Thus, reproducibility of the maximum oxygen transfer capacity in such baffled shake flasks is hardly given. Results As a first step to systematically elucidate the general effect of different baffle geometries on shaken bioreactor performance, the maximum oxygen transfer capacity (OTRmax) in baffled 48-well microtiter plates as shaken model reactor was characterized. This type of bioreactor made of plastic material was chosen, as the exact geometry of the baffles can be fabricated by highly reproducible laser cutting. As a result, thirty different geometries were investigated regarding their maximum oxygen transfer capacity (OTRmax) and liquid distribution during shaking. The relative perimeter of the cross-section area as new fundamental geometric key parameter is introduced. An empirical correlation for the OTRmax as function of the relative perimeter, shaking frequency and filling volume is derived. For the first time, this correlation allows a systematic description of the maximum oxygen transfer capacity in baffled microtiter plates. Conclusions Calculated and experimentally determined OTRmax values agree within ± 30% accuracy. Furthermore, undesired out-of-phase operating conditions can be identified by using the

  11. Basis set effects on the geometry of C96H24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W.

    2016-11-01

    C96H24 has D6h symmetry using the 4-31G, 6-31G, cc-pVDZ, or cc-pVTZ basis sets, but has lower symmetry if the 6-31G∗∗ or 6-311G∗∗ basis sets are used. Changing the carbon 3d exponent in the 6-31G∗∗ basis set can restore the D6h symmetry, but raises the total energy. The question of geometry vs basis set is discussed.

  12. The effect of reactor geometry on the synthesis of graphene materials in plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavelkina, M. B.; Amirov, R. H.; Shatalova, T. B.

    2017-05-01

    The possibility of synthesis of graphene and graphane (hydrogenated graphene) using the decomposition of hydrocarbons by thermal plasma has been investigated. Investigations of the influence of the plasma-forming gas on the efficiency of synthesis and the morphology of graphene materials were carried out. The synthesis products have been characterized by the methods of scanning microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis. It is found that the morphology of graphene materials is affected by the geometry of the reactor. It was demonstrated that the obtained graphene materials are uniformly distributed in the volume of plastic based on cyanate ester resins under mixing.

  13. Electromagnetic Casimir Effect in Wedge Geometry and the Energy-Momentum Tensor in Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, I.; Ellingsen, S. Å.; Milton, K. A.

    2010-04-01

    The wedge geometry closed by a circular-cylindrical arc is a nontrivial generalization of the cylinder, which may have various applications. If the radial boundaries are not perfect conductors, the angular eigenvalues are only implicitly determined. When the speed of light is the same on both sides of the wedge, the Casimir energy is finite, unlike the case of a perfect conductor, where there is a divergence associated with the corners where the radial planes meet the circular arc. We advance the study of this system by reporting results on the temperature dependence for the conducting situation. We also discuss the appropriate choice of the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor.

  14. Electromagnetic Casimir Effect in Wedge Geometry and the Energy-Momentum Tensor in Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, I.; Ellingsen, S. Å.; Milton, K. A.

    The wedge geometry closed by a circular-cylindrical arc is a nontrivial generalization of the cylinder, which may have various applications. If the radial boundaries are not perfect conductors, the angular eigenvalues are only implicitly determined. When the speed of light is the same on both sides of the wedge, the Casimir energy is finite, unlike the case of a perfect conductor, where there is a divergence associated with the corners where the radial planes meet the circular arc. We advance the study of this system by reporting results on the temperature dependence for the conducting situation. We also discuss the appropriate choice of the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor.

  15. Effect of surface-plasmon polaritons on spontaneous emission and intermolecular energy-transfer rates in multilayered geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Marocico, C. A.; Knoester, J.

    2011-11-15

    We use a Green's tensor method to investigate the spontaneous emission rate of a molecule and the energy-transfer rate between molecules placed in two types of layered geometries: a slab geometry and a planar waveguide. We focus especially on the role played by surface-plasmon polaritons in modifying the spontaneous emission and energy-transfer rates as compared to free space. In the presence of more than one interface, the surface-plasmon polariton modes split into several branches, and each branch can contribute significantly to modifying the electromagnetic properties of atoms and molecules. Enhancements of several orders of magnitude both in the spontaneous emission rate of a molecule and the energy-transfer rate between molecules are obtained and, by tuning the parameters of the geometry, one has the ability to control the range and magnitude of these enhancements. For the energy-transfer rate interference effects between contributions of different plasmon-polariton branches are observed as oscillations in the distance dependence of this rate.

  16. Exploring the Opsin shift with ab initio methods: Geometry and counterion effects on the electronic spectrum of retinal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Marko; Buß, Volker; Sugihara, Minoru

    2003-12-01

    To study the effect of the charged chromophore environment on the absorption spectrum of rhodopsin, we have calculated excited state energies of chromophore models using multi-configurational second-order perturbation theory. Taking advantage of the recently solved crystal structures of rhodopsin we have considered different chromophore geometries and their interaction with the Glu113 counterion, water and Glu181 in different protonation states. We observe a strongly blueshifted S1 state upon inclusion of Glu113/water to the wave function; the effect of the additional carboxyl group appears to be overbalanced by the complex counterion.

  17. Effect of geometry on drug release from 3D printed tablets.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Robles Martinez, Pamela; Buanz, Asma; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2015-10-30

    The aim of this work was to explore the feasibility of combining hot melt extrusion (HME) with 3D printing (3DP) technology, with a view to producing different shaped tablets which would be otherwise difficult to produce using traditional methods. A filament extruder was used to obtain approx. 4% paracetamol loaded filaments of polyvinyl alcohol with characteristics suitable for use in fused-deposition modelling 3DP. Five different tablet geometries were successfully 3D-printed-cube, pyramid, cylinder, sphere and torus. The printing process did not affect the stability of the drug. Drug release from the tablets was not dependent on the surface area but instead on surface area to volume ratio, indicating the influence that geometrical shape has on drug release. An erosion-mediated process controlled drug release. This work has demonstrated the potential of 3DP to manufacture tablet shapes of different geometries, many of which would be challenging to manufacture by powder compaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Weld Tool Geometry on Friction Stir Welded Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querin, Joseph A.; Schneider, Judy A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, flat 0.250" thick Ti-6Al-4V panels were friction stir welded (FSWed) using weld tools with tapered pins. The five different pin geometries of the weld tools included: 0 degree (straight cylinder), 15 degree, 30 degree, 45 degree, and 60 degree angles on the frustum. All weld tools had a smooth 7 degree concave shoulder and were made from microwave sintered tungsten carbide. For each weld tool geometry, the FSW process parameters were optimized to eliminate internal defects. All the welds were produced in position control with a 2.5 degree lead angle using a butt joint configuration for the panels. The process parameters of spindle rpm and travel speed were varied, altering the hot working conditions imparted to the workpiece. Load cells on the FSWing machine allowed for the torque, the plunge force, and the plow force to be recorded during welding. Resulting mechanical properties were evaluated from tensile tests results of the FSWjoints. Variations in the material flow were investigated by use of microstructural analysis including optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and orientation image mapping (aIM).

  19. The Effects of Magnetic-field Geometry on Longitudinal Oscillaitons of Solar Prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luna, M.; Diaz, A. J.; Karpen, J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the influence of the geometry of the solar filament magnetic structure on the large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations. A representative filament flux tube is modeled as composed of a cool thread centered in a dipped part with hot coronal regions on either side.We have found the normal modes of the system and establish that the observed longitudinal oscillations are well described with the fundamental mode. For small and intermediate curvature radii and moderate to large density contrast between the prominence and the corona, the main restoring force is the solar gravity. In this full wave description of the oscillation a simple expression for the oscillation frequencies is derived in which the pressure-driven term introduces a small correction. We have also found that the normal modes are almost independent of the geometry of the hot regions of the tube. We conclude that observed large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations are driven by the projected gravity along the flux tubes and are strongly influenced by the curvature of the dips of the magnetic field in which the threads reside.

  20. Interaction between leading and trailing edge vortex shedding: effects of bluff body geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Zachary; Kopp, Gregory; Gurka, Roi

    2011-11-01

    Elongated bluff bodies are distinguished from shorter bluff bodies (e.g., circular cylinders) by the fact that they have separating-reattaching flow at the leading edge as well as having vortex shedding at the trailing edge. Engineering examples of these bodies include heat exchanger fins and long-span suspension bridges. We have performed experiments on elongated bluff bodies of varying geometry. These experiments have been performed at Reynolds numbers O(104) based on the thickness of the model. Both surface pressure measurements (using 512 simultaneously sampled pressure taps) and PIV are used to quantify the flow fields of these bodies. The leading edge separation angle is controlled by changing the leading edge geometry. It is observed that the size of the leading edge separation bubble increases with increasing leading edge separation angle. As the size of the leading edge separation bubble increases, it is shown to continually decrease the shedding frequency for a given elongation ratio. It is suggested that the shedding frequency is diminished because the trailing edge vortex shedding is affected by the structures being shed from the leading edge separation bubble. The implications of this competition between leading and trailing edge flows will be explored.

  1. Effect of geometry on concentration polarization in realistic heterogeneous permselective systems.

    PubMed

    Green, Yoav; Shloush, Shahar; Yossifon, Gilad

    2014-04-01

    This study extends previous analytical solutions of concentration polarization occurring solely in the depleted region, to the more realistic geometry consisting of a three-dimensional (3D) heterogeneous ion-permselective medium connecting two opposite microchambers (i.e., a three-layer system). Under the local electroneutrality approximation, the separation of variable methods is used to derive an analytical solution of the electrodiffusive problem for the two opposing asymmetric microchambers. The assumption of an ideal permselective medium allows for the analytic calculation of the 3D concentration and electric potential distributions as well as a current-voltage relation. It is shown that any asymmetry in the microchamber geometries will result in current rectification. Moreover, it is demonstrated that for non-negligible microchamber resistances, the conductance does not exhibit the expected saturation at low concentrations but instead shows a continuous decrease. The results are intended to facilitate a more direct comparison between theory and experiments, as now the voltage drop is across a realistic 3D and three-layer system.

  2. Effect of geometry on concentration polarization in realistic heterogeneous permselective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Yoav; Shloush, Shahar; Yossifon, Gilad

    2014-04-01

    This study extends previous analytical solutions of concentration polarization occurring solely in the depleted region, to the more realistic geometry consisting of a three-dimensional (3D) heterogeneous ion-permselective medium connecting two opposite microchambers (i.e., a three-layer system). Under the local electroneutrality approximation, the separation of variable methods is used to derive an analytical solution of the electrodiffusive problem for the two opposing asymmetric microchambers. The assumption of an ideal permselective medium allows for the analytic calculation of the 3D concentration and electric potential distributions as well as a current-voltage relation. It is shown that any asymmetry in the microchamber geometries will result in current rectification. Moreover, it is demonstrated that for non-negligible microchamber resistances, the conductance does not exhibit the expected saturation at low concentrations but instead shows a continuous decrease. The results are intended to facilitate a more direct comparison between theory and experiments, as now the voltage drop is across a realistic 3D and three-layer system.

  3. Effect of casting geometry on mechanical properties of two nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, J. R.; Dreshfield, R. L.; Collins, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was performed to determine mechanical properties of two rhenium-free modifications of alloy TRW, and to evaluate the suitability of the alloy for use in a small integrally cast turbine rotor. The two alloys were initially developed using stress rupture properties of specimens machined from solid gas turbine blades. Properties in this investigation were determined from cast to size bars and bars cut from 3.8 by 7.6 by 17.8 cm blocks. Specimens machined from blocks had inferior tensile strength and always had markedly poorer rupture lives than cast to size bars. At 1,000 C the cast to size bars had shorter rupture lives than those machined from blades. Alloy R generally had better properties than alloy S in the conditions evaluated. The results show the importance of casting geometry on mechanical properties of nickel base superalloys and suggest that the geometry of a component can be simulated when developing alloys for that component.

  4. Effects of Homogeneous Geometry Models in Simulating the Fuel Balls in HTR-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng-Jen; Peir, Jinn-Jer; Chao, Der-Sheng; Liang, Jenq-Horng

    In this study, the core geometry of HTR-10 was simulated using four different models including: (1) model 1 - an explicit double heterogeneous geometry, (2) model 2 - a mixing of UO2 kernel and four layers in each TRISO particle into one, (3) model 3 - a mixing of 8,335 TRISO particles and the inner graphite matrix in each fuel ball into one, and (4) model 4 - a mixing of the outer graphite shell, 8,335 TRISO particles, and the inner graphite matrix in each fuel ball into one. The associated initial core computations were performed using the MCNP version 1.51 computer code. The experimental fuel loading height of 123 cm was employed for each model. The results revealed that the multiplication factors ranged from largest to smallest with model 1, model 2, model 3, and model 4. The neutron spectrum in the fuel region of each models varied from the hardest to the softest are model 1, model 2, model 3, and model 4 while the averaged neutron spectrum in fuel ball from hardest to softest are model 4, model 3, model 2, and model 1. In addition, the CPU execution times extended from longest to shortest with model 1, model 2, model 3, and model 4.

  5. Characterizing the Peano fluidic muscle and the effects of its geometry properties on its behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veale, Allan Joshua; Xie, Sheng Quan; Anderson, Iain Alexander

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we explore the basic static and dynamic behavior of a hydraulically actuated Peano muscle and how its geometry affects key static and dynamic performance metrics. The Peano muscle, or pouch motor is a fluid powered artificial muscle. Similar to McKibben pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs), it has the ability to generate the high forces of biological muscles with the low threshold pressure of pleated PAMs, but in a slim, easily distributed form. We found that Peano muscles have similar characteristics to other PAMs, but produce lower free-strains. A test rig capable of measuring high-speed flow rates with a Venturi tube revealed that their efficiency peaks at about 40% during highly dynamic movements. Peano muscles with more tubes and of a greater size do not move faster. Also, their muscle tubes should have an aspect ratio of at least 1:3 and channel width greater than 20% to maximize performance. These findings suggest that finite element modeling be used to optimize more complex Peano muscle geometries.

  6. THE EFFECTS OF MAGNETIC-FIELD GEOMETRY ON LONGITUDINAL OSCILLATIONS OF SOLAR PROMINENCES

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, M.; Karpen, J.

    2012-09-20

    We investigate the influence of the geometry of the solar filament magnetic structure on the large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations. A representative filament flux tube is modeled as composed of a cool thread centered in a dipped part with hot coronal regions on either side. We have found the normal modes of the system and establish that the observed longitudinal oscillations are well described with the fundamental mode. For small and intermediate curvature radii and moderate to large density contrast between the prominence and the corona, the main restoring force is the solar gravity. In this full wave description of the oscillation a simple expression for the oscillation frequencies is derived in which the pressure-driven term introduces a small correction. We have also found that the normal modes are almost independent of the geometry of the hot regions of the tube. We conclude that observed large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations are driven by the projected gravity along the flux tubes and are strongly influenced by the curvature of the dips of the magnetic field in which the threads reside.

  7. Diagnostics of electron-heated solar flare models. III - Effects of tapered loop geometry and preheating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emslie, A. G.; Li, Peng; Mariska, John T.

    1992-01-01

    A series of hydrodynamic numerical simulations of nonthermal electron-heated solar flare atmospheres and their corresponding soft X-ray Ca XIX emission-line profiles, under the conditions of tapered flare loop geometry and/or a preheated atmosphere, is presented. The degree of tapering is parameterized by the magnetic mirror ratio, while the preheated atmosphere is parameterized by the initial upper chromospheric pressure. In a tapered flare loop, it is found that the upward motion of evaporated material is faster compared with the case where the flare loop is uniform. This is due to the diverging nozzle seen by the upflowing material. In the case where the flare atmosphere is preheated and the flare geometry is uniform, the response of the atmosphere to the electron collisional heating is slow. The upward velocity of the hydrodynamic gas is reduced due not only to the large coronal column depth, but also to the increased inertia of the overlying material. It is concluded that the only possible electron-heated scenario in which the predicted Ca XIX line profiles agree with the BCS observations is when the impulsive flare starts in a preheated dense corona.

  8. Effect of Weld Tool Geometry on Friction Stir Welded Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querin, Joseph A.; Schneider, Judy A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, flat 0.250" thick Ti-6Al-4V panels were friction stir welded (FSWed) using weld tools with tapered pins. The five different pin geometries of the weld tools included: 0 degree (straight cylinder), 15 degree, 30 degree, 45 degree, and 60 degree angles on the frustum. All weld tools had a smooth 7 degree concave shoulder and were made from microwave sintered tungsten carbide. For each weld tool geometry, the FSW process parameters were optimized to eliminate internal defects. All the welds were produced in position control with a 2.5 degree lead angle using a butt joint configuration for the panels. The process parameters of spindle rpm and travel speed were varied, altering the hot working conditions imparted to the workpiece. Load cells on the FSWing machine allowed for the torque, the plunge force, and the plow force to be recorded during welding. Resulting mechanical properties were evaluated from tensile tests results of the FSWjoints. Variations in the material flow were investigated by use of microstructural analysis including optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and orientation image mapping (aIM).

  9. Investigation of the electrode surface geometry effects driven by nanosecond-pulsed surface dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S. Y.; Cai, J. S.; Zhang, Z. K.; Tang, S. J.

    2017-05-01

    Nanosecond-pulsed surface dielectric barrier discharge (NS-DBD) plasma actuations with powered electrodes of different surface geometries were investigated numerically by solving the coupled plasma discharge equations, electron energy equations and the Navier-Stokes equations in quiescent air at atmospheric pressure. The plasma discharge characteristics and the air flow features were simulated numerically using a simple chemical kinetics plasma model for three powered electrodes with serrated, rectangular and semicircular surfaces, respectively. The results show that the reduced electric field of the serrated electrode is globally the strongest, while that of the rectangular electrode the second strongest, and that of the semicircular electrode the weakest. The maximum values of the reduced electric field, the mean electron energy and the electron density are found to occur immediately near the right upper tips of the powered electrodes, and the streamers of the mean electron energy and electron density in the serrated electrode case are larger in size and higher in value than in the rectangular and semicircular electrode cases. On the other hand, the pressure wave in the serrated electrode case is more intensive, and propagates slightly faster than in the other two electrode cases. Besides, the heated region in the serrated electrode case is greater with a higher temperature than in the other two electrode cases. The comparison results indicate that the performance of NS-DBD plasma actuators depends significantly on the powered electrode surface geometry, and the serrated surface design is a very promising means of flow control.

  10. Effects of the geometry of the exit of a tube in an oscillating flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverría, Elia; Málaga, Carlos; Czitrom, Steven; Olvera, Arturo; Stern, Catalina

    2014-11-01

    The problem of optimizing the performance of a wave-driven seawater pump - comprising a resonant duct and an exhaust duct joined by a variable volume air-compression chamber - it is explored by studying oscillating flows at the exit of a tube. It is known that the performance of this pump depends on the geometry of the mouth of its intake tube. An inspection of the integral expression of the Navier-Stokes equation along a central streamline of this flow shows that changing the shape of the tube's mouth modifies only the inertia and energy losses terms because both depend on the flow field at the chosen streamline. These changes must be such that the integral relation is preserved. Therefore, by measuring the inertial term (known as added mass), the term for losses can be measured indirectly. We developed a method to measure the added mass for oscillating flows in tubes with different mouth shapes and compared these measurements with those obtained for a model of the flow through the pump. Our results suggest a way to find a criterion for choosing the geometry of the mouth of the tubes in order to minimize dissipation and improve efficiency of the pump. This work was supported by funds provided by DGAPA-UNAM (Project PAPITT-IN1188608).

  11. Diagnostics of electron-heated solar flare models. III - Effects of tapered loop geometry and preheating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emslie, A. G.; Li, Peng; Mariska, John T.

    1992-01-01

    A series of hydrodynamic numerical simulations of nonthermal electron-heated solar flare atmospheres and their corresponding soft X-ray Ca XIX emission-line profiles, under the conditions of tapered flare loop geometry and/or a preheated atmosphere, is presented. The degree of tapering is parameterized by the magnetic mirror ratio, while the preheated atmosphere is parameterized by the initial upper chromospheric pressure. In a tapered flare loop, it is found that the upward motion of evaporated material is faster compared with the case where the flare loop is uniform. This is due to the diverging nozzle seen by the upflowing material. In the case where the flare atmosphere is preheated and the flare geometry is uniform, the response of the atmosphere to the electron collisional heating is slow. The upward velocity of the hydrodynamic gas is reduced due not only to the large coronal column depth, but also to the increased inertia of the overlying material. It is concluded that the only possible electron-heated scenario in which the predicted Ca XIX line profiles agree with the BCS observations is when the impulsive flare starts in a preheated dense corona.

  12. Effect of sample geometry on the apparent biaxial mechanical behaviour of planar connective tissues.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Stephen D; Lee, J Michael

    2005-12-01

    Mechanical testing methodologies developed for engineering materials may result in artifactual material properties if applied to soft planar connective tissues. The use of uniaxial tissue samples with high aspect ratios or biaxial samples with slender cruciform arms could lead to preferential loading of only the discrete subset of extracellular fibres that fully extend between the grips. To test this hypothesis, cruciform biaxial connective tissue samples that display distinctly different material properties (bovine pericardium, fish skin), as well as model textile laminates with predefined fibrous orientations, were repeatedly tested with decreasing sample arm lengths. With mechanical properties determined at the sample centre, results demonstrated that the materials appeared to become stiffer and less extensible with less slender sample geometries, suggesting that fibre recruitment increases with decreasing sample arm length. Alterations in the observed shear behaviour and rigid body rotation were also noted. The only truly reliable method to determine material properties is through in vivo testing, but this is not always convenient and is typically experimentally demanding. For the in vitro determination of the biaxial material properties, appropriate sample geometry should be employed in which all of the fibres contribute to the mechanical response.

  13. Effect of interface geometry on electron tunnelling in Al/Al2O3/Al junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koberidze, M.; Feshchenko, A. V.; Puska, M. J.; Nieminen, R. M.; Pekola, J. P.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate how different interface geometries of an Al/Al2O3 junction, a common component of modern tunnel devices, affect electron transport through the tunnel barrier. We study six distinct Al/Al2O3 interfaces which differ in stacking sequences of the metal and the oxide surface atoms and the oxide termination. To construct model potential barrier profiles for each examined geometry, we rely on first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) calculations for the barrier heights and the shapes of the interface regions as well as on experimental data for the barrier widths. We show that even tiny variations in the atomic arrangement at the interface cause significant changes in the tunnel barrier parameters and, consequently, in electron transport properties. Especially, we find that variations in the crucial barrier heights and widths can be as large as 2 eV and 5 Å, respectively. Finally, to gain information about the average properties of the measured junction, we fit the conductance calculated within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation to the experimental data and interpret the fit parameters with the help of the DFT results.

  14. Numerical simulation of spontaneous rupture processes on twonon-coplanar faults: the effect of geometry on fault interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kase, Yuko; Kuge, Keiko

    1998-12-01

    Analyses of earthquake sources have revealed that the earthquake rupture process is complex and that the rupture does not occur on a single plane. Earthquake faults are often composed of several subfaults, and rupture propagation tends to decelerate or terminate at places where the fault strike changes. These observations imply that fault geometry, including fault steps and fault strike change, plays an important role in earthquake rupture complexity. In this paper, we calculate the spontaneous rupture processes of two non-coplanar faults in 2-D in-plane problems, attempting to clarify the effect of fault geometry. We consider two simple models-models in which two faults are either parallel or perpendicular to each other. We calculate spontaneous rupture propagation on the faults by a finite difference method, and we then compare the results. In our simulations, rupture initially grows on the main fault, and stress perturbation from the main rupture then triggers rupture on the secondary fault. Propagation of the main-fault rupture controls a spatio-temporal pattern of stress difference in the uniform elastic medium, which determines the rupture process of the secondary fault. The rupture propagation and termination of the secondary fault are significantly different between the two models. The difference is obvious when rupture of the main fault is arrested and the secondary fault is located near the arrested end of the main fault. When the secondary fault is parallel to the main fault, rupture can propagate ahead on the secondary fault. However, when the secondary fault is perpendicular to the main fault, rupture is either not triggered on the secondary fault, or soon terminates if triggered. This variation of the rupture process implies that fault interaction, depending on geometry, can explain the termination and change of rupture at places where the fault strike varies. This shows the importance of the fault geometry in studying spontaneous dynamic rupture

  15. Effective protection of open space: does planning matter?

    PubMed

    Steelman, Toddi A; Hess, George R

    2009-07-01

    High quality plans are considered a crucial part of good land use planning and often used as a proxy measure for success in plan implementation and goal attainment. We explored the relationship of open space plan quality to the implementation of open space plans and attainment of open space protection goals in Research Triangle, North Carolina, USA. To measure plan quality, we used a standard plan evaluation matrix that we modified to focus on open space plans. We evaluated all open space plans in the region that contained a natural resource protection element. To measure plan implementation and open space protection, we developed an online survey and administered it to open space planners charged with implementing the plans. The survey elicited each planner's perspective on aspects of open space protection in his or her organization. The empirical results (1) indicate that success in implementation and attaining goals are not related to plan quality, (2) highlight the importance of when and how stakeholders are involved in planning and implementation processes, and (3) raise questions about the relationship of planning to implementation. These results suggest that a technically excellent plan does not guarantee the long-term relationships among local land owners, political and appointed officials, and other organizations that are crucial to meeting land protection goals. A greater balance of attention to the entire decision process and building relationships might lead to more success in protecting open space.

  16. Effective Protection of Open Space: Does Planning Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steelman, Toddi A.; Hess, George R.

    2009-07-01

    High quality plans are considered a crucial part of good land use planning and often used as a proxy measure for success in plan implementation and goal attainment. We explored the relationship of open space plan quality to the implementation of open space plans and attainment of open space protection goals in Research Triangle, North Carolina, USA. To measure plan quality, we used a standard plan evaluation matrix that we modified to focus on open space plans. We evaluated all open space plans in the region that contained a natural resource protection element. To measure plan implementation and open space protection, we developed an online survey and administered it to open space planners charged with implementing the plans. The survey elicited each planner’s perspective on aspects of open space protection in his or her organization. The empirical results (1) indicate that success in implementation and attaining goals are not related to plan quality, (2) highlight the importance of when and how stakeholders are involved in planning and implementation processes, and (3) raise questions about the relationship of planning to implementation. These results suggest that a technically excellent plan does not guarantee the long-term relationships among local landowners, political and appointed officials, and other organizations that are crucial to meeting land protection goals. A greater balance of attention to the entire decision process and building relationships might lead to more success in protecting open space.

  17. Monte Carlo study of the effects of system geometry and antiscatter grids on cone-beam CT scatter distributions

    PubMed Central

    Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Badal, A.; Kyprianou, I. S.; Stayman, J. W.; Vaquero, J. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The proliferation of cone-beam CT (CBCT) has created interest in performance optimization, with x-ray scatter identified among the main limitations to image quality. CBCT often contends with elevated scatter, but the wide variety of imaging geometry in different CBCT configurations suggests that not all configurations are affected to the same extent. Graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerated Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are employed over a range of imaging geometries to elucidate the factors governing scatter characteristics, efficacy of antiscatter grids, guide system design, and augment development of scatter correction. Methods: A MC x-ray simulator implemented on GPU was accelerated by inclusion of variance reduction techniques (interaction splitting, forced scattering, and forced detection) and extended to include x-ray spectra and analytical models of antiscatter grids and flat-panel detectors. The simulator was applied to small animal (SA), musculoskeletal (MSK) extremity, otolaryngology (Head), breast, interventional C-arm, and on-board (kilovoltage) linear accelerator (Linac) imaging, with an axis-to-detector distance (ADD) of 5, 12, 22, 32, 60, and 50 cm, respectively. Each configuration was modeled with and without an antiscatter grid and with (i) an elliptical cylinder varying 70–280 mm in major axis; and (ii) digital murine and anthropomorphic models. The effects of scatter were evaluated in terms of the angular distribution of scatter incident upon the detector, scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR), artifact magnitude, contrast, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and visual assessment. Results: Variance reduction yielded improvements in MC simulation efficiency ranging from ∼17-fold (for SA CBCT) to ∼35-fold (for Head and C-arm), with the most significant acceleration due to interaction splitting (∼6 to ∼10-fold increase in efficiency). The benefit of a more extended geometry was evident by virtue of a larger air gap—e.g., for a 16 cm

  18. Monte Carlo study of the effects of system geometry and antiscatter grids on cone-beam CT scatter distributions.

    PubMed

    Sisniega, A; Zbijewski, W; Badal, A; Kyprianou, I S; Stayman, J W; Vaquero, J J; Siewerdsen, J H

    2013-05-01

    The proliferation of cone-beam CT (CBCT) has created interest in performance optimization, with x-ray scatter identified among the main limitations to image quality. CBCT often contends with elevated scatter, but the wide variety of imaging geometry in different CBCT configurations suggests that not all configurations are affected to the same extent. Graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerated Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are employed over a range of imaging geometries to elucidate the factors governing scatter characteristics, efficacy of antiscatter grids, guide system design, and augment development of scatter correction. A MC x-ray simulator implemented on GPU was accelerated by inclusion of variance reduction techniques (interaction splitting, forced scattering, and forced detection) and extended to include x-ray spectra and analytical models of antiscatter grids and flat-panel detectors. The simulator was applied to small animal (SA), musculoskeletal (MSK) extremity, otolaryngology (Head), breast, interventional C-arm, and on-board (kilovoltage) linear accelerator (Linac) imaging, with an axis-to-detector distance (ADD) of 5, 12, 22, 32, 60, and 50 cm, respectively. Each configuration was modeled with and without an antiscatter grid and with (i) an elliptical cylinder varying 70-280 mm in major axis; and (ii) digital murine and anthropomorphic models. The effects of scatter were evaluated in terms of the angular distribution of scatter incident upon the detector, scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR), artifact magnitude, contrast, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and visual assessment. Variance reduction yielded improvements in MC simulation efficiency ranging from ∼17-fold (for SA CBCT) to ∼35-fold (for Head and C-arm), with the most significant acceleration due to interaction splitting (∼6 to ∼10-fold increase in efficiency). The benefit of a more extended geometry was evident by virtue of a larger air gap-e.g., for a 16 cm diameter object, the SPR reduced

  19. Control of pore geometry in soil microcosms and its effect on the growth and spread of Pseudomonas and Bacillus sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Wilfred; Juyal, Archana; Eickhorst, Thilo; Falconer, Ruth; Spiers, Andrew; Baveye, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The way micro-organisms access C and interact with each other in heterogeneous environments is key to our understanding of soil processes. Growth and mobility of bacteria is crucial aspect of these processes in particular how this is affected by complicated pathways of water and air-filled pores. Simplified experimental systems, often referred to with the term microcosms, have played a central role in the development of modern ecological thinking ranging from competitive exclusion to examination of spatial resources and competitive mechanisms, with important model driven insights to the field. However, in the majority of cases these do not include detailed description of the soil physical conditions and hence there is still little insight in how soil structure affects these processes. Recent advances in the use of Xray CT now allow for a different approach to this as we can obtain quantitative insight in to the pathways of interaction and how these are controlled in microcosms. In the current presentation we therefor ask the following questions: - To what extent can we control the pore geometry in microcosm studies through manipulation of common variables such as density and aggregate size? Are replicated microcosms really replicated at the microscale? - What is the effect of pore geometry on the growth dynamics of bacteria following introduction into soil? - What is the effect of pore geometry on the rate and extent of spread of bacteria in soil? We focus on Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. Both species are abundantly present in the rhizosphere and bulk-soil, frequently studied for their growth promoting ability, yet there is still very little knowledge available on how the growth and spread is affected by soil physical conditions such as pore geometry and wetness. We show how pore geometry, connectivity and interface areas are affected by the way soil is packed into microcosms and how this affects growth and spread of both species. We emphasize that microscopic

  20. 43 CFR 2091.7-2 - Segregative effect and opening: Taylor Grazing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Segregative effect and opening: Taylor Grazing Act. 2091.7-2 Section 2091.7-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands § 2091.7-2 Segregative effect and opening: Taylor...

  1. 43 CFR 2091.5-4 - Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands § 2091.5-4 Segregative effect and opening: Water power... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. 2091.5-4 Section 2091.5-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...

  2. 43 CFR 2091.5-4 - Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands § 2091.5-4 Segregative effect and opening: Water power... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. 2091.5-4 Section 2091.5-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...

  3. 43 CFR 2091.5-4 - Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands § 2091.5-4 Segregative effect and opening: Water power... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. 2091.5-4 Section 2091.5-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...

  4. 43 CFR 2091.5-4 - Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands § 2091.5-4 Segregative effect and opening: Water power... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Segregative effect and opening: Water power withdrawals. 2091.5-4 Section 2091.5-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...

  5. A Survey of Reynolds Number and Wing Geometry Effects on Lift Characteristics in the Low Speed Stall Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhamus, Edward C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of the effects of Reynolds number on the low- speed lift characteristics of wings encountering separated flows at their leading and side edges, with emphasis on the region near the stall. The influence of leading-edge profile and Reynolds number on the stall characteristics of two- dimensional airfoils are reviewed first to provide a basis for evaluating three- dimensional effects associated with various wing planforms. This is followed by examples of the effects of Reynolds number and geometry on the lift characteristics near the stall for a series of three-dimensional wings typical of those suitable for high-speed aircraft and missiles. Included are examples of the effects of wing geometry on the onset and spanwise progression of turbulent reseparation near the leading edge and illustrations of the degree to which simplified theoretical approaches can be useful in defining the influence of the various geometric parameters. Also illustrated is the manner in which the Reynolds number and wing geometry parameters influence whether the turbulent reseparation near the leading edge results in a sudden loss of lift, as in the two-dimensional case, or the formation of a leading-edge vortex with Rs increase in lift followed by a gentle stall as in the highly swept wing case. Particular emphasis is placed on the strong influence of 'induced camber' on the development of turbulent reseparation. R is believed that the examples selected for this report may be useful in evaluating viscous flow solutions by the new computational methods based on the Navier-Stokes equations as well as defining fruitful research areas for the high-Reynolds-number wind tunnels.

  6. Effective leaf area index retrieving from terrestrial point cloud data: coupling computational geometry application and Gaussian mixture model clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, S.; Tamura, M.; Susaki, J.

    2014-09-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the most important structural parameters of forestry studies which manifests the ability of the green vegetation interacted with the solar illumination. Classic understanding about LAI is to consider the green canopy as integration of horizontal leaf layers. Since multi-angle remote sensing technique developed, LAI obliged to be deliberated according to the observation geometry. Effective LAI could formulate the leaf-light interaction virtually and precisely. To retrieve the LAI/effective LAI from remotely sensed data therefore becomes a challenge during the past decades. Laser scanning technique can provide accurate surface echoed coordinates with densely scanned intervals. To utilize the density based statistical algorithm for analyzing the voluminous amount of the 3-D points data is one of the subjects of the laser scanning applications. Computational geometry also provides some mature applications for point cloud data (PCD) processing and analysing. In this paper, authors investigated the feasibility of a new application for retrieving the effective LAI of an isolated broad leaf tree. Simplified curvature was calculated for each point in order to remove those non-photosynthetic tissues. Then PCD were discretized into voxel, and clustered by using Gaussian mixture model. Subsequently the area of each cluster was calculated by employing the computational geometry applications. In order to validate our application, we chose an indoor plant to estimate the leaf area, the correlation coefficient between calculation and measurement was 98.28 %. We finally calculated the effective LAI of the tree with 6 × 6 assumed observation directions.

  7. Open-Ended Coaxial Dielectric Probe Effective Penetration Depth Determination

    PubMed Central

    Meaney, Paul M.; Gregory, Andrew P.; Seppälä, Jan; Lahtinen, Tapani

    2016-01-01

    We have performed a series of experiments which demonstrate the effect of open-ended coaxial diameter on the depth of penetration. We used a two layer configuration of a liquid and movable cylindrical piece of either Teflon or acrylic. The technique accurately demonstrates the depth in a sample for which a given probe diameter provides a reasonable measure of the bulk dielectric properties for a heterogeneous volume. In addition we have developed a technique for determining the effective depth for a given probe diameter size. Using a set of simulations mimicking four 50 Ω coaxial cable diameters, we demonstrate that the penetration depth in both water and saline has a clear dependence on probe diameter but is remarkably uniform over frequency and with respect to the intervening liquid permittivity. Two different 50 Ω commercial probes were similarly tested and confirm these observations. This result has significant implications to a range of dielectric measurements, most notably in the area of tissue property studies. PMID:27346890

  8. Entropic effects in the self-assembly of open lattices from patchy particles.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiaoming

    2013-06-01

    Open lattices are characterized by low-volume-fraction arrangements of building blocks, low coordination number, and open spaces between building blocks. The self-assembly of these lattices faces the challenge of mechanical instability due to their open structures. We theoretically investigate the stabilizing effects of entropy in the self-assembly of open lattices from patchy particles. A preliminary account of these findings and their comparison to experiment was presented recently [Mao, Chen, and Granick, Nat. Mater. 12, 217 (2013)]. We found that rotational entropy of patchy particles can provide mechanical stability to open lattices, whereas vibrational entropy of patchy particles can lower the free energy of open lattices and, thus, enables the selection of open lattices verses close-packed lattices which have the same potential energy. These effects open the door to significant simplifications of possible future designs of patchy particles for open-lattice self-assembly.

  9. Effect of reentrant cone geometry on energy transport in intense laser-plasma interactions.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, K L; Sherlock, M; Green, J S; Gregory, C D; Hakel, P; Akli, K U; Beg, F N; Chen, S N; Freeman, R R; Habara, H; Heathcote, R; Hey, D S; Highbarger, K; Key, M H; Kodama, R; Krushelnick, K; Nakamura, H; Nakatsutsumi, M; Pasley, J; Stephens, R B; Storm, M; Tampo, M; Theobald, W; Van Woerkom, L; Weber, R L; Wei, M S; Woolsey, N C; Yabuuchi, T; Norreys, P A

    2009-10-01

    The energy transport in cone-guided low- Z targets has been studied for laser intensities on target of 2.5x10(20) W cm(-2). Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) imaging and transverse optical shadowgraphy of the rear surfaces of slab and cone-slab targets show that the cone geometry strongly influences the observed transport patterns. The XUV intensity showed an average spot size of 65+/-10 microm for slab targets. The cone slabs showed a reduced spot size of 44+/-10 microm. The shadowgraphy for the aforementioned shots demonstrate the same behavior. The transverse size of the expansion pattern was 357+/-32 microm for the slabs and reduced to 210+/-30 microm. A transport model was constructed which showed that the change in transport pattern is due to suppression of refluxing electrons in the material surrounding the cone.

  10. Experimental study of effect of stenosis geometry on pressure loss for periodic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselý, Ondřej; Nováková, Ludmila; Adamec, Josef

    2016-03-01

    A stenosis is a narrowing in a tubular organ. In medicine, vessel stenosis poses health risk for people. In the last work, experimental investigation of pressure loss coefficient for varying stenosis eccentricity and shape for steady flow were performed. In this work, experimental investigation of pressure loss for varying stenosis eccentricity and shape under periodic flow were performed. Four models of different geometry were studied, two models are axisymmetric stenoses and two models are eccentric stenoses. All models were stenosis of 75% area reduction. The periodic flow, generated by a controllable pump, has sinus shape in an inlet. The measuring range of medium Reynolds number was from 500 to 1500, range of ratio between an amplitude and medium flow rate was from 0.2 to 0.6 and range of frequency was from 0.2 to 1 Hz. The pressure loss for each conditions was quantified by mean value, amplitude and phase shift against flow rate.

  11. Effect of reentrant cone geometry on energy transport in intense laser-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, K. L.; Sherlock, M.; Heathcote, R.; Green, J. S.; Norreys, P. A.; Gregory, C. D.; Hakel, P.; Akli, K. U.; Hey, D. S.; Stephens, R. B.; Beg, F. N.; Chen, S. N.; Wei, M. S.; Yabuuchi, T.; Freeman, R. R.; Highbarger, K.; Van Woerkom, L.; Weber, R. L.; Habara, H.; Key, M. H.

    2009-10-15

    The energy transport in cone-guided low-Z targets has been studied for laser intensities on target of 2.5x10{sup 20} W cm{sup -2}. Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) imaging and transverse optical shadowgraphy of the rear surfaces of slab and cone-slab targets show that the cone geometry strongly influences the observed transport patterns. The XUV intensity showed an average spot size of 65{+-}10 {mu}m for slab targets. The cone slabs showed a reduced spot size of 44{+-}10 {mu}m. The shadowgraphy for the aforementioned shots demonstrate the same behavior. The transverse size of the expansion pattern was 357{+-}32 {mu}m for the slabs and reduced to 210{+-}30 {mu}m. A transport model was constructed which showed that the change in transport pattern is due to suppression of refluxing electrons in the material surrounding the cone.

  12. Laser cutting of triangular geometries in aluminum foam: Effect of cut size on thermal stress levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Akhtar, S. S.; Keles, O.

    2013-06-01

    Laser cutting of triangle shaped geometries in aluminum foam is carried out and the influence of triangle size on temperature and stress fields is examined. ABAQUS finite element code is used to simulate temperature and stress fields in the cut sections in line with the experimental conditions. Laser cut sections are examined incorporating optical and scanning electron microscopes, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. It is found that small size triangle cut results in relatively higher temperatures around the cut edges as compared to large size triangle cut; however, opposite is true for von Mises stress. This is attributed to the slow cooling rate in the case of the small size triangle cuts. Laser cut surfaces are free from large defects and locally scattered small dross attachment are found at the kerf exit.

  13. Effect of geometry and magnetic field on the coherence time of 3D transmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Gao, Y.; Axline, C.; Brecht, T.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2014-03-01

    The three-dimensional circuit QED architecture has enabled nearly two orders of magnitude of improvement in the coherence time of transmon qubits over the last couple of years. Continued improvement moving forward relies on a better understanding of the factors limiting coherence of the current generation of transmons. Here we present a systematic study of the energy relaxation time (T1) of transmon qubits coupled to 3D waveguide cavities with various designs of capacitor geometries and its dependence on temperature and external magnetic field. Our measurement and analysis indicate both surface dielectric loss and quasiparticle loss play important roles in limiting T1 of 3D transmons. More interestingly, with certain geometric design we found qubit T1 can be improved by cooling in a small magnetic field. These results suggest more complex interplays of loss mechanisms than was previously appreciated and may have important implications for future design of transmons. Work supported by IARPA.

  14. Computational studies of flow through cross flow fans - effect of blade geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govardhan, M.; Sampat, D. Lakshmana

    2005-09-01

    This present paper describes three dimensional computational analysis of complex internal flow in a cross flow fan. A commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software code CFX was used for the computation. RNG k-ɛ two equation turbulence model was used to simulate the model with unstructured mesh. Sliding mesh interface was used at the interface between the rotating and stationary domains to capture the unsteady interactions. An accurate assessment of the present investigation is made by comparing various parameters with the available experimental data. Three impeller geometries with different blade angles and radius ratio are used in the present study. Maximum energy transfer through the impeller takes place in the region where the flow follows the blade curvature. Radial velocity is not uniform through blade channels. Some blades work in turbine mode at very low flow coefficients. Static pressure is always negative in and around the impeller region.

  15. The effects of core geometry on core power for passively safe HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    Kubali, V.C.; Lidsky, L.M. )

    1993-01-01

    Decay heat removal under accident conditions is one of the major concerns of nuclear reactor safety. By imposing a limit on the core power density, reactor designers can ensure that the energy generated after shutdown would not pose any problem even when the active cooling agent is lost. On the other hand, it is usually desirable to have a high power density for the competitiveness of the reactor design. Therefore, the design approach must make maximum use of passive means of heat transfer for obtaining the highest achievable core power density without sacrificing passive safety. The strong temperature dependence of radiative heat transfer combined with the high-temperature operability of coated-particle-fueled gas-cooled reactors can provide a valuable opportunity in this regard. To enhance radiative heat transfer within the core, an optimization of the design parameters, such as core geometry, fuel element configuration, and a proper choice of the materials, would be necessary in addition to neutronics considerations.

  16. Effective Teaching Strategies for Open Enrollment Honors and AP Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winebrenner, Susan

    2006-01-01

    A trend is emerging to open enrollment for honors and AP classes to all students who wish to take them. Teachers of these open enrollment classes may be facing several dilemmas. How can the high standards and academic rigor of the course be maintained? How can students who struggle to learn be supported in their endeavors to keep up with the…

  17. The Effect of Channel Geometry and Diurnal Discharge Fluctuations on Modeled Stream Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, E. A.; Lautz, L.; McKenzie, J. M.; Glose, A.; Kelleher, C.

    2016-12-01

    Energy balance models are used to predict stream temperature through both space and time. These models often rely on simplifications, such as assuming constant stream discharge through time. While this simplification is justifiable in many settings, some streams have diurnal discharge fluctuations of up to 50%, which, if ignored, could cause error in modeled stream temperatures. Daily discharge variations occur in proglacial settings or areas experiencing high evapotranspiration, or can be induced anthropogenically in dammed rivers. Fluctuations in discharge result in two important, and competing, impacts on stream energy balances. First, increases in discharge mean greater water volume and thermal mass in the stream channel, thereby reducing the change in temperature resulting from a given heat flux. On the other hand, increases in discharge mean a wider stream, which maximizes heat fluxes that increase linearly with channel width, thereby increasing changes in temperature. We investigated the relative importance of these feedbacks in channels with contrasting width-to-depth ratios under various diurnal discharge fluctuation scenarios using Monte Carlo simulations. We updated the HFLUX stream temperature solver, a 1D finite difference model coded in MATLAB, to allow for fluctuating discharge through time and variable stream geometry with each model simulation. Using Manning's equation and assuming a triangular channel shape, we developed a relationship between discharge and stream dimensions to calculate stream width and model node volumes through time as a function of discharge. Model inputs include initial stream temperatures, climate data, stream discharge, groundwater temperature, stream shading, cloudiness, stream dimensions, and sediment type. Unsurprisingly, large daily amplitude fluctuations cause the largest differences from the observed data. However, these large fluctuations matter most when peak discharge occurs around midday. Additionally, simulations

  18. Effects of particles size, componentry and conduit geometry on fragmentation processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes, J.; Scheu, B.; Montanaro, C.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Dingwell, D. B.; Perugini, D.

    2016-12-01

    The grain size distribution (GSD) is an important tool to characterize a volcanic deposit and to link it to eruptive processes. The GSD of a deposit is a complex product of primary fragmentation converting magma to tephra and secondary processes within the conduit and the subsequent way out of it. Particularly, the continuous interaction between tephra particles, together with the conduit geometry, play a crucial role in the secondary processes which in turn control the GSD of the ejected mixture. Here we present first results of a series of rapid decompression experiments aimed to evaluate the influence of the initial particle size and lithology, together with conduit geometry, on size reduction processes (gas-driven fragmentation, collision, abrasion). Loose material collected from the Pomici Principale eruption (10.3ka) fall deposit (Campi Flegrei) was used for the experiments. A physical separation allowed discriminating two main groups as 1) pumiceous fraction, and 2) lithic fraction, which included both crystal and lithic particles. The sample was slowly pressurized to 10MPa using argon gas and then rapidly decompressed. A transparent autoclave and sample holder were used to optimize the visual observation of particle's acceleration, collision and eventual fragmentation. Finally the ejected fragments were analyzed for their grain size distribution. Our first results suggest that 1) an increasing amount of lithics in the initial particle mixture produced an increased percentage of fines; 2) a significant amount of very fine material (<63μm) is produced independently of the presence of lithics, and 3) a reduction on the conduit diameter (analogous to obstacles within the conduit walls) is likely to further reduce the average diameter and increase the generation of very fine material.

  19. Effect of growth plate geometry and growth direction on prediction of proximal femoral morphology.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Priti; Shefelbine, Sandra J; Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M

    2016-06-14

    Mechanical stimuli play a significant role in the process of endochondral growth. Thus far, approaches to understand the endochondral mechanical growth rate have been limited to the use of approximated location and geometry of the growth plate. Furthermore, growth has been simulated based on the average deflection of the growth plate or of the femoral neck. It has also been reported in the literature that the growth plate lies parallel to one of the principal stresses acting on it, to reduce the shear between epiphysis and diaphysis. Hence the current study objectives were (1) to evaluate the significance of a subject-specific finite element model of the femur and growth plate compared to a simplified growth plate model and (2) to explore the different growth direction models to better understand proximal femoral growth mechanisms. A subject-specific finite element model of an able-bodied 7-year old child was developed. The muscle forces and hip contact force were computed for one gait cycle and applied to a finite element model to determine the specific growth rate. Proximal femoral growth was simulated for two different growth direction models: femoral neck deflection direction and principal stress direction. The principal stress direction model captured the expected tendency for decreasing the neck shaft angle and femoral anteversion for both growth plate models. The results of this study suggest that the subject-specific geometry and consideration of the principal stress direction as growth direction may be a more realistic approach for correct prediction of proximal femoral growth morphology.

  20. Dietary pseudopurpurin effects on bone mineral density and bone geometry architecture in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Chen; Li, Xiao-Bing; Han, Tie-Suo; Li, Peng; Liu, Guo-Wen; Wang, Wei-Zhong; Wang, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate whether feeding pseudopurpurin affects bone mineral density and bone geometry architecture in rats. Pseudopurpurin was extracted, analyzed and purified using an HLPC-ESI-MS. Rats were given 0% and 0.5% pseudopurpurin powder in their diet. Femurs of rats were examined at 0.5, 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. Compared with rats in the group 0%, the bone mineral density, and the calcium, magnesium, zinc and manganese concentrations in the rats femur in the group 0.5% increased significantly at 1 month and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. Analytical results of micro-computed tomography showed that the group 0.5% displayed an increase in the trabecular volume fraction, trabecular thickness and trabecular number of the distal femur at 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding, and the mean thickness, inner perimeter, outer perimeter, and area of the femur diaphysis were significantly increased at 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding compared with the group 0%. In parallel, the trabecular separation and structure model index of the distal femur were decreased, compared with the group 0% at 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. In the 0.5% and 0% groups, there was no damage to kidney and liver by histopathology analysis. The long-term feeding of pseudopurpurin is safe for rats. The feeding of 0.5% pseudopurpurin which has specific chemical affinities for calcium for bone improvement and level of bone mineral density, enhances the geometry architecture compared with the 0% group.

  1. Adsorption of ethanol and water on calcite: dependence on surface geometry and effect on surface behavior.

    PubMed

    Keller, K S; Olsson, M H M; Yang, M; Stipp, S L S

    2015-04-07

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to explore adsorption on calcite, from a 1:1 mixture of ethanol and water, on planar {10.4} and stepped, i.e. vicinal, surfaces. Varying the surface geometry resulted in different adsorption patterns, which would directly influence the ability of ethanol to control calcite crystal growth, dissolution, and adsorption/desorption of other ions and molecules. Ethanol forms a well-ordered adsorbed layer on planar faces and on larger terraces, such as between steps and defects, providing little chance for water, with its weaker attachment, to displace it. However, on surfaces with steps, adsorption affinity depends on the length of the terraces between the steps. Long terraces allow ethanol to form a well-ordered, hydrophobic layer, but when step density is high, ethanol adsorption is less ordered, allowing water to associate at and near the steps and even displacing pre-existing ethanol. Water adsorbed at steps forms mass transport pathways between the bulk solution and the solid surface. Our simulations confirm the growth inhibiting properties of ethanol, also explaining how certain crystal faces are more stabilized because of their surface geometry. The -O(H) functional group on ethanol forms tight bonds with calcite; the nonpolar, -CH3 ends, which point away from the surface, create a hydrophobic layer that changes surface charge, thus wettability, and partly protects calcite from precipitation and dissolution. These tricks could easily be adopted by biomineralizing organisms, allowing them to turn on and off crystal growth. They undoubtedly also play a role in the wetting properties of mineral surfaces in commercial CaCO3 manufacture, oil production, and contamination remediation.

  2. Testing and optical modeling of novel concentrating solar receiver geometries to increase light trapping and effective solar absorptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellowhair, Julius; Ho, Clifford K.; Ortega, Jesus D.; Christian, Joshua M.; Andraka, Charles E.

    2015-09-01

    Concentrating solar power receivers are comprised of panels of tubes arranged in a cylindrical or cubical shape on top of a tower. The tubes contain heat-transfer fluid that absorbs energy from the concentrated sunlight incident on the tubes. To increase the solar absorptance, black paint or a solar selective coating is applied to the surface of the tubes. However, these coatings degrade over time and must be reapplied, which reduces the system performance and increases costs. This paper presents an evaluation of novel receiver shapes and geometries that create a light-trapping effect, thereby increasing the effective solar absorptance and efficiency of the solar receiver. Several prototype shapes were fabricated from Inconel 718 and tested in Sandia's solar furnace at an irradiance of ~30 W/cm2. Photographic methods were used to capture the irradiance distribution on the receiver surfaces. The irradiance profiles were compared to results from raytracing models. The effective solar absorptance was also evaluated using the ray-tracing models. Results showed that relative to a flat plate, the new geometries could increase the effective solar absorptance from 86% to 92% for an intrinsic material absorptance of 86%, and from 60% to 73% for an intrinsic material absorptance of 60%.

  3. Effect of the Van Hiele Model in Geometric Concepts Acquisition: The Attitudes towards Geometry and Learning Transfer Effect of the First Three Grades Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-ebous, Tahani

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of the van Hiele model in Geometric Concepts Acquisition, and the attitudes towards Geometry and learning transfer of the first three grades students in Jordan. Participants of the study consisted of 60 students from the third grade primary school students from the First Directorate, Amman, in the…

  4. Main rotor free wake geometry effects on blade air loads and response for helicopters in steady maneuvers. Volume 1: Theoretical formulation and analysis of results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadler, S. G.

    1972-01-01

    A mathematical model and computer program were implemented to study the main rotor free wake geometry effects on helicopter rotor blade air loads and response in steady maneuvers. The theoretical formulation and analysis of results are presented.

  5. Effective Thermal Conductivity of High Porosity Open Cell Nickel Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullins, Alan D.; Daryabeigi, Kamran

    2001-01-01

    The effective thermal conductivity of high-porosity open cell nickel foam samples was measured over a wide range of temperatures and pressures using a standard steady-state technique. The samples, measuring 23.8 mm, 18.7 mm, and 13.6 mm in thickness, were constructed with layers of 1.7 mm thick foam with a porosity of 0.968. Tests were conducted with the specimens subjected to temperature differences of 100 to 1000 K across the thickness and at environmental pressures of 10(exp -4) to 750 mm Hg. All test were conducted in a gaseous nitrogen environment. A one-dimensional finite volume numerical model was developed to model combined radiation/conduction heat transfer in the foam. The radiation heat transfer was modeled using the two-flux approximation. Solid and gas conduction were modeled using standard techniques for high porosity media. A parameter estimation technique was used in conjunction with the measured and predicted thermal conductivities at pressures of 10(exp -4) and 750 mm Hg to determine the extinction coefficient, albedo of scattering, and weighting factors for modeling the conduction thermal conductivity. The measured and predicted conductivities over the intermediate pressure values differed by 13%.

  6. Towards laser control of open quantum systems: memory effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthumpally-Joseph, R.; Atabek, O.; Mangaud, E.; Desouter-Lecomte, M.; Sugny, D.

    2017-08-01

    Laser control of Open Quantum Systems (OQS) is a challenging issue as compared to its counterpart in isolated small size molecules, basically due to very large numbers of degrees of freedom to be accounted for. Such a control aims at appropriately optimizing decoherence processes of a central two-level system (a given vibrational mode, for instance) towards its environmental bath (including, for instance, all other normal modes). A variety of applications could potentially be envisioned, either to preserve the central system from decaying (long duration molecular alignment or orientation, qubit decoherence protection) or, to speed up the information flow towards the bath (efficient charge or proton transfers in long chain organic compounds). Achieving such controls require some quantitative measures of decoherence in relation with memory effects in the bath response, actually given by the degree of non-Markovianity. Characteristic decoherence rates of a Spin-Boson model are calculated using a Nakajima-Zwanzig type master equation with converged HEOM expansion for the memory kernel. It is shown that, by adequately tuning the two-level transition frequency through a controlled Stark shift produced by an external laser field, non-Markovianity can be enhanced in a continuous way leading to a first attempt towards the control of OQS.

  7. Atmospheric modeling related to Thematic Mapper scan geometry. [atmospheric effects on satellite-borne photography of LANDSAT D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Gleason, J. M.; Cicone, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    A simulation study was carried out to characterize atmospheric effects in LANDSAT-D Thematic Mapper data. In particular, the objective was to determine if any differences would result from using a linear vs. a conical scanning geometry. Insight also was gained about the overall effect of the atmosphere on Thematic Mapper signals, together with the effects of time of day. An added analysis was made of the geometric potential for direct specular reflections (sun glint). The ERIM multispectral system simulation model was used to compute inband Thematic Mapper radiances, taking into account sensor, atmospheric, and surface characteristics. Separate analyses were carried out for the thermal band and seven bands defined in the reflective spectral region. Reflective-region radiances were computed for 40 deg N, 0 deg, and 40 deg S latitudes; June, Mar., and Dec. days; and 9:30 and 11:00 AM solar times for both linear and conical scan modes. Also, accurate simulations of solar and viewing geometries throughout Thematic Mapper orbits were made. It is shown that the atmosphere plays an important role in determining Thematic Mapper radiances, with atmospheric path radiance being the major component of total radiances for short wavelengths and decreasing in importance as wavelength increases. Path radiance is shown to depend heavily on the direct radiation scattering angle and on haze content. Scan-angle-dependent variations were shown to be substantial, especially for the short-wavelength bands.

  8. Synergistic effects of geometry, inertia, and dynamic contact angle on wetting and dewetting of capillaries of varying cross sections.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuling; Graber, Ellen R; Wallach, Rony

    2013-04-15

    Understanding the role of geometry, inertia, and dynamic contact angle on wetting and dewetting of capillary tubes has theoretical and practical aspects alike. The specific and synergistic effects of these factors were studied theoretically using a mathematical model that includes inertial and dynamic contact angle terms. After validating the model for capillaries of uniform cross section, the model was extended to capillaries with sinusoidal modulations of the radius, since in practice, capillaries rarely have uniform cross-sections. The height of the meniscus during wetting and dewetting was significantly affected by the relations between the local slope of the capillary surface and the Young contact angle. Non-dimensional variables were defined using viscous effects and gravity as the scaling parameters. Simulations using the dimensionless model showed that the inertial and dynamic contact angle terms can be neglected for narrow capillaries of uniform cross-section but not for uniform, wide cross-section capillaries. Moreover, nonuniformity in cross-sectional area induced hysteresis, deceleration, blocking, and metastable equilibrium locations. An increase in contact angle further amplified the effect of geometry on wetting and dewetting processes. These results enable characterization and modeling of fluid retention and flow in porous structures that inherently consist of capillaries of varying cross section.

  9. Numerical study of the effect of pore geometry on non-wetting phase trapping in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, N.; Yang, J.; Takehana, K.; Suekane, T.; Wang, Q. W.

    2013-07-01

    In this work, Lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is utilized to numerically study the effect of pore geometry on non-wetting phase trapping in porous media. The porous media is constructed by randomly packing spheres into a specific domain. The radius and total amount of the packed spheres are varied to construct porous models with different porous structures. Using these models five simulations are carried out. The displacing process of non-wetting phase by wetting phase is observed and the final displacing results are discussed. Results show that increasing the radius and the total amount of spheres will reduce the pore throat resulting in larger residual non-wetting phase saturation. This implies that pore geometry has a strong effect on non-wetting phase trapping and small pore throat will be beneficial for trapping of non-wetting phase by capillary. This numerical work also demonstrates the effectiveness of LBM as a tool for simulation of immiscible two phase flow in porous media.

  10. The effects of neurotoxins on web-geometry and web-building behaviour in Araneus diadematus Cl.

    PubMed

    Hesselberg, Thomas; Vollrath, Fritz

    2004-09-15

    The process of orb weaving and the resultant orb web constitute a good example of a complex behavioural pattern that is still governed by a relatively simple set of rules. We used the orb spider Araneus diadematus as a model organism to study the effect of the three neurotoxins (scopolamine, amphetamine, and caffeine) on the spider's behaviour. Scopolamine was given at two concentrations, with the lower one showing no effects but the higher one reducing web-building frequency; there also appeared to be a weak effect on web geometry. Amphetamine and caffeine, on the other hand, both resulted in significant changes in both building frequency and web geometry, compared to the controls. Amphetamine webs retained their size but showed an increase in spiral spacing and radius irregularity, as well as a decrease in building efficiency. Caffeine led to a general decrease in size and a slight increase in spiral spacing, as well as radius irregularity. Furthermore, caffeine caused webs to be rounder. Our observations suggest that these neurotoxins disturb different parts of the web-building programme presumably by affecting different actions in the spider's CNS.

  11. The effect of reflector geometry on the acoustic field and bubble dynamics produced by an electrohydraulic shock wave lithotripter

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yufeng; Zhong, Pei

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical model for the propagation of shock wave from an axisymmetric reflector was developed by modifying the initial conditions for the conventional solution of a nonlinear parabolic wave equation (i.e., the Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya–Kuznestsov equation). The ellipsoidal reflector of an HM-3 lithotripter is modeled equivalently as a self-focusing spherically distributed pressure source. The pressure wave form generated by the spark discharge of the HM-3 electrode was measured by a fiber optic probe hydrophone and used as source conditions in the numerical calculation. The simulated pressure wave forms, accounting for the effects of diffraction, nonlinearity, and thermoviscous absorption in wave propagation and focusing, were compared with the measured results and a reasonably good agreement was found. Furthermore, the primary characteristics in the pressure wave forms produced by different reflector geometries, such as that produced by a reflector insert, can also be predicted by this model. It is interesting to note that when the interpulse delay time calculated by linear geometric model is less than about 1.5 μs, two pulses from the reflector insert and the uncovered bottom of the original HM-3 reflector will merge together. Coupling the simulated pressure wave form with the Gilmore model was carried out to evaluate the effect of reflector geometry on resultant bubble dynamics in a lithotripter field. Altogether, the equivalent reflector model was found to provide a useful tool for the prediction of pressure wave form generated in a lithotripter field. This model may be used to guide the design optimization of reflector geometries for improving the performance and safety of clinical lithotripters. PMID:16838506

  12. Effects of deviation from focal plane on lesion geometry for ablative fractional photothermolysis.

    PubMed

    Kositratna, Garuna; Hibert, Matthew Louis; Jaspan, Martin; Welford, David; Manstein, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    Fractional Photothermolysis (FP) is a method of skin treatment that generates a thermal damage pattern consisting of multiple columns of thermal damage, also known as microscopic treatment zones (MTZs). They are very small in diameter and are generated by application of highly focused laser beams. In order to obtain the smallest spot size, the treatment should be performed in the focal plane. Any deviation from the focal plane (DFP) results in an increase of spot size. FP devices typically utilize distance holders in order to facilitate exposures at this specific location. In spite of the use of distance holders, DFP can occur. In particular, variations of contact pressure to the skin surface and anatomical treatment areas of high surface curvature may be prone to DFP during FP treatments. The impact of such distance variation on lesion geometry, such as depth and diameter of the thermal injury, has not previously been evaluated. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between DFP and the resulting lesion geometry for a selected ablative fractional device. A handpiece of an ablative fractional laser (DeepFX, UltraPulse Encore, Lumenis, Yokneam, Israel) was mounted to a rigid stand. Full thickness human skin obtained from abdominoplasty was mounted to a separate stand perpendicular to the handpiece. The tissue stand allowed the distance between the handpiece and the tissue to be adjusted to produce a variation up to ±3 mm from the focal plane. A 1 × 1 cm(2) scanning area of 169 MTZs, 50 mJ energy per MTZ, 120 μm nominal spot size, was applied at -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, and +3 mm deviated from the focal plane. Minus (-) and plus (+) signs indicate decreasing and increasing distance between the handpiece and the tissue, respectively. Depth and diameter of the laser induced tissue lesions were assessed and quantified. DFPs produced a significant alteration of the lesion geometry. DFPs of -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3 mm resulted in

  13. Enrichment Activities for Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman

    1983-01-01

    Enrichment activities that teach about geometry as they instruct in geometry are given for some significant topics. The facets of geometry included are tessellations, round robin tournaments, geometric theorems on triangles, and connections between geometry and complex numbers. (MNS)

  14. Simulating the effects of stellarator geometry on gyrokinetic drift-wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgaertel, Jessica Ann

    Nuclear fusion is a clean, safe form of energy with abundant fuel. In magnetic fusion energy (MFE) experiments, the plasma fuel is confined by magnetic fields at very high temperatures and densities. One fusion reactor design is the non-axisymmetric, torus-shaped stellarator. Its fully-3D fields have advantages over the simpler, better-understood axisymmetric tokamak, including the ability to optimize magnetic configurations for desired properties, such as lower transport (longer confinement time). Turbulence in the plasma can break MFE confinement. While turbulent transport is known to cause a significant amount of heat loss in tokamaks, it is a new area of research in stellarators. Gyrokinetics is a good mathematical model of the drift-wave instabilities that cause turbulence. Multiple gyrokinetic turbulence codes that had great success comparing to tokamak experiments are being converted for use with stellarator geometry. This thesis describes such adaptations of the gyrokinetic turbulence code, GS2. Herein a new computational grid generator and upgrades to GS2 itself are described, tested, and benchmarked against three other gyrokinetic codes. Using GS2, detailed linear studies using the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) geometry were conducted. The first compares stability in two equilibria with different β=(plasma pressure)/(magnetic pressure). Overall, the higher β case was more stable than the lower β case. As high β is important for MFE experiments, this is encouraging. The second compares NCSX linear stability to a tokamak case. NCSX was more stable with a 20% higher critical temperature gradient normalized by the minor radius, suggesting that the fusion power might be enhanced by ˜ 50%. In addition, the first nonlinear, non-axisymmetric GS2 simulations are presented. Finally, linear stability of two locations in a W7-AS plasma were compared. The experimentally-measured parameters used were from a W7-AS shot in which measured heat fluxes

  15. Geometry effects on STOL engine-over-the-wing acoustics with 5.1 slot nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U.; Groesbeck, D.

    1975-01-01

    The correspondence of far field acoustic trends with changes in the characteristics of the flow field at the wing trailing edge caused by alterations in the nozzle-wing geometry were determined for several STOL-OTW configurations. Nozzle roof angles of 10 to 40 deg were tested with and without cutback of the nozzle sidewalls. Three wing chord sizes were used: baseline (33 cm with flaps retracted), 2/3-baseline, and 3/2-baseline. Flap deflection angles of 20 and 60 deg were used. The nozzle locations were at 21 and 46-percent of chord. With increasing wing size the jet noise shielding benefits increased. With increasing nozzle roof angle, the jet velocity at the trailing edge was decreased, causing a decrease in trailing-edge and fluctuating lift noise. Cutback of the nozzle sides improved flow attachment and reduced far-field noise. The best flow attachment and least trailing-edge noise generally were obtained with a 40 deg external deflector configuration and a cutback nozzle with a 40 deg roof angle.

  16. Indentation and overall compression behavior of multilayered thin-film composites. Effect of undulating layer geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, Ryan D.; Shen, Y. -L.

    2015-03-19

    Two finite element models are used to investigate the behavior of aluminum/silicon carbide thin-film layered composites with imperfect internal geometry when subjected to various loadings. In both models, undulating layers are represented by regular waveforms with various amplitudes, wavelengths, and phase offsets. First, uniaxial compressive loading of the composite is considered. The modulus and stress/strain response of the composite is sensitive to both loading direction and frequency of the undulation. Second, the nanoindentation response of the composite is investigated. The derived hardness and modulus are shown to be sensitive to the presence of undulating layers and the relative size of the indenter to the undulation. Undulating layers create bands of tensile and compressive stress in the indentation direction that are significantly different from the flat layers. The amount of equivalent plastic strain in the Al layers is increased by the presence of undulating layers. The correlations between the two forms of loading, and the implications to composite property measurement are carefully examined in this study.

  17. Punch geometry and formulation considerations in reducing tablet friability and their effect on in vitro dissolution.

    PubMed

    Chowhan, Z T; Amaro, A A; Ong, J T

    1992-03-01

    The tablet friability resulting from formulation variations was studied under controlled granulation moisture content and tablet crushing strength. Tablets made with lactose were more friable than tablets made with microcrystalline cellulose. Replacement of 0.5% magnesium stearate with 0.5% stearic acid in the formula reduced tablet friability, whereas the combination of 0.5% stearic acid and up to 0.25% magnesium stearate did not increase tablet friability, decrease drug dissolution rate, or increase tablet-to-tablet variability in dissolution. Tablets compressed with extra deep concave punches resulted in lower friability compared with tablets compressed with standard concave or deep concave punches. The friabilities of the standard convex and deep convex tablets were similar, indicating that a critical level of punch tip curvature was important in reducing tablet friability. The dissolution rate was not affected by the punch tip geometry, but the tablet-to-tablet dissolution variability at the 0.5% stearic acid level for the extra deep convex tablets was higher compared with the standard convex tablets.

  18. Coupled Effects of Pore Space Geometry, Velocity, and Solution Chemistry on Colloid Retention in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, S. A.; Torkzaban, S.; Leij, F.; Toride, N.; Simunek, J.; van Genuchten, M.

    2008-05-01

    Colloid transport in porous media has traditionally been assumed to be controlled by chemical interactions between the colloids and the solid-water and air-water interfaces. The influence of pore space geometry, interface configuration, and system hydrodynamics in classical colloid retention models has largely been neglected. Recent experimental and theoretical work, however, has demonstrated that these factors can also play important roles in colloid retention under unfavorable attachment conditions. In particular, hydrodynamic forces can funnel weakly associated colloids to grain-grain contacts and air-water-solid triple points, as well as to hydrodynamically isolated low velocity (eddy) regions. The extent to which colloid mass transfer and retention will occur to/in these locations is a function of the balance of adhesive, diffusion, and hydrodynamic forces. One consequence of enhanced colloid retention in low velocity regions is that the colloid retention profile may not be exponential with depth. Pore- and column-scale experimental evidence that support this conceptual model for colloid retention is summarized. Furthermore, colloid transport models that account for enhanced colloid retention in low velocity regions are demonstrated and discussed.

  19. Effect of fjord geometry on Greenland mass loss in a warming climate (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nick, F. M.; Vieli, A.; Andersen, M. L.; Joughin, I. R.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past decade, ice loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet increased as a result of both increased surface melting and ice discharge through the narrow outlet glaciers. The complicated behaviour of narrow outlet glaciers has not yet been fully captured by the ice-sheet models used to predict Greenland's contribution to future sea level. Here we try to quantify the future dynamic contribution of four major marine terminating outlet glaciers to sea-level rise. We use a glacier flow line model that includes a fully dynamic treatment of marine termini to simulate behavior of Helheim, Kangerdlugssuaq, Petermann and Jakobshavn Isbræ. The contribution from these glaciers to sea-level rise is largely (80%) dynamic in origin and is caused by several episodic retreats past overdeepenings in outlet glacier troughs. Model results show that the shape of the glacier and its fjord can alter how the glacier will respond to a changing climate. Dynamic losses are mainly related to channel geometry and occur when an ice front retreats from a basal high through an overdeepening. Subsequent decelerations in retreat and mass loss mostly coincide with a decrease in water depth as the glacier retreats or re-advances to a new or previous bathymetric high. In some cases, channel narrowing may temporarily slowdown the terminus retreat even when the terminus is located on an upward bed slope.

  20. Indentation and overall compression behavior of multilayered thin-film composites. Effect of undulating layer geometry

    DOE PAGES

    Jamison, Ryan D.; Shen, Y. -L.

    2015-03-19

    Two finite element models are used to investigate the behavior of aluminum/silicon carbide thin-film layered composites with imperfect internal geometry when subjected to various loadings. In both models, undulating layers are represented by regular waveforms with various amplitudes, wavelengths, and phase offsets. First, uniaxial compressive loading of the composite is considered. The modulus and stress/strain response of the composite is sensitive to both loading direction and frequency of the undulation. Second, the nanoindentation response of the composite is investigated. The derived hardness and modulus are shown to be sensitive to the presence of undulating layers and the relative size ofmore » the indenter to the undulation. Undulating layers create bands of tensile and compressive stress in the indentation direction that are significantly different from the flat layers. The amount of equivalent plastic strain in the Al layers is increased by the presence of undulating layers. The correlations between the two forms of loading, and the implications to composite property measurement are carefully examined in this study.« less

  1. Effects of edge dc biasing on plasma rotation and transport in a toroidal geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredriksen, Åshild; Riccardi, Claudia; Magni, Simone

    2006-02-01

    We report results from experiments performed to study how a change in boundary conditions affects the plasma state in the toroidal geometry of the Blaamann device in Tromso. The boundary condition was changed by applying a dc bias on a limiter extended around the entire poloidal circumference of the plasma column. Two distinctly different plasma potential states were found. One state was associated with a bias at or negative with respect to the floating potential of the limiter, and a small ion-saturation current. The other state was associated with a positive bias with respect to the floating potential, near or in the electron saturation regime of the limiter. In the latter case the potential minimum in the middle of the cross-section was significantly less negative than in the case of ion-saturation current to the limiter. On the other hand, the grounded limiter provided the best confinement properties, for which the density maximum was significantly higher than for both more positive and more negative biases. This state also had the lowest fluctuation levels, and near zero poloidal velocities close to the boundaries, as well as the smallest radial, anomalous particle transport.

  2. Effects of Edge DC Biasing on Plasma Rotation and Transport in a Toroidal Geometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredriksen, Ashild; Riccardi, Claudia

    2005-10-01

    We report results from experiments performed to study how a change in boundary conditions is affecting the plasma states in the toroidal geometry of the Blaamann device in Tromso. The boundary condition was changed by applying a DC bias on a limiter extended around the entire poloidal circumference of the plasma column. Two distinctly different plasma potential states were found. One state was associated with a bias at or negative with respect to the floating potential of the limiter, and a small ion saturation current. The other state was associated with a positive bias with respect to the floating potential, near or in the electron saturation regime of the limiter. In the latter case the potential minimum in the middle of the cross-section was significantly less negative than in the case of ion-saturation current to the limiter. On the other hand, the grounded limiter provided the best confinement properties, for which the density maximum was significantly higher than for both more positive and more negative biases. This state also had the lowest fluctuation levels, and near zero poloidal velocities close to the boundaries, as well as the smallest radial, anomalous particle transport.

  3. 43 CFR 2091.5-5 - Segregative effect and opening: Federal Power Act withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands § 2091.5-5 Segregative effect and opening: Federal Power Act withdrawals. (a)(1) The filing of an application for a power project with the Federal Energy... laws; however, the lands remain open to the location, lease or disposal of the mineral estate. (2)...

  4. The effect of electric field geometry on the performance of electromembrane extraction systems: footprints of a third driving force along with migration and diffusion.

    PubMed

    Moazami, Hamid Reza; Hosseiny Davarani, Saied Saeed; Mohammadi, Jamil; Nojavan, Saeed; Abrari, Masoud

    2015-09-03

    The distribution of electric field vectors was first calculated for electromembrane extraction (EME) systems in classical and cylindrical electrode geometries. The results showed that supported liquid membrane (SLM) has a general field amplifying effect due to its lower dielectric constant in comparison with aqueous donor/acceptor solutions. The calculated norms of the electric field vector showed that a DC voltage of 50 V can create huge electric field strengths up to 64 kV m(-1) and 111 kV m(-1) in classical and cylindrical geometries respectively. In both cases, the electric field strength reached its peak value on the inner wall of the SLM. In the case of classical geometry, the field strength was a function of the polar position of the SLM whereas the field strength in cylindrical geometry was angularly uniform. In order to investigate the effect of the electrode geometry on the performance of real EME systems, the analysis was carried out in three different geometries including classical, helical and cylindrical arrangements using naproxen and sodium diclofenac as the model analytes. Despite higher field strength and extended cross sectional area, the helical and cylindrical geometries gave lower recoveries with respect to the classical EME. The observed decline of the signal was proved to be against the relations governing migration and diffusion processes, which means that a third driving force is involved in EME. The third driving force is the interaction between the radially inhomogeneous electric field and the analyte in its neutral form.

  5. Entanglement classification with algebraic geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, M.; Braak, D.; Solano, E.; Egusquiza, I. L.

    2017-05-01

    We approach multipartite entanglement classification in the symmetric subspace in terms of algebraic geometry, its natural language. We show that the class of symmetric separable states has the structure of a Veronese variety and that its k-secant varieties are SLOCC invariants. Thus SLOCC classes gather naturally into families. This classification presents useful properties such as a linear growth of the number of families with the number of particles, and nesting, i.e. upward consistency of the classification. We attach physical meaning to this classification through the required interaction length of parent Hamiltonians. We show that the states W N and GHZ N are in the same secant family and that, effectively, the former can be obtained in a limit from the latter. This limit is understood in terms of tangents, leading to a refinement of the previous families. We compute explicitly the classification of symmetric states with N≤slant4 qubits in terms of both secant families and its refinement using tangents. This paves the way to further use of projective varieties in algebraic geometry to solve open problems in entanglement theory.

  6. Effect of the geometry of the anodized titania nanotube array on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lidong; Zhang, Sam; Sun, Xiaowei; He, Xiaodong

    2010-07-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays are superior photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) due to reduced intertube connections, vectorial electron transport, suppressed electron recombination, and enhanced light scattering. Performance of the cells is greatly affected by tube geometry, such as wall thickness, length, inner diameter and intertube spacing. In this paper, effect of geometry on the photovoltaic characteristics of DSSCs is reviewed. The nanotube wall has to be thick enough for a space charge layer to form for faster electron transportation and reduced recombination. When the tube wall is too thin to support the space charge layer, electron transport in the nanotubes will be hindered and reduced to that similar in a typical nanoparticle photoanode, and recombination will easily take place. Length of the nanotubes also plays a role: longer tube length is desired because of more dye loading, however, tube length longer than the electron diffusion length results in low collecting efficiency, which in turn, results in low short-circuit current density and thus low overall conversion efficiency. The tube inner diameter (pore size) affects the conversion efficiency through effective surface area, i.e., larger pore size gives rise to smaller surface area for dye adsorption, which results in low short-circuit current density under the same light soaking. Another issue that may seriously affect the conversion efficiency is whether each of the tube stands alone (free from connecting to the neighboring tubes) to facilitate infiltration of dye and fully use the outer surface area.

  7. Effects of Cylindrical Charge Geometry and Secondary Combustion Reactions on the Internal Blast Loading of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Matthew A.

    2005-05-01

    An understanding of the detonation phenomenon and airblast behavior for cylindrical high-explosive charges is essential in developing predictive capabilities for tests and scenarios involving these charge geometries. Internal tests on reinforced concrete structures allowed for the analysis of cylindrical charges and the effect of secondary reactions occurring in confined structures. The pressure profiles that occur close to a cylindrical explosive charge are strongly dependent on the length-to-diameter ratio (L/D) of the charge. This study presents a comparison of finite-element code models (i.e., AUTODYN) to empirical methods for predicting airblast behavior from cylindrical charges. Current finite element analysis (FEA) and blast prediction codes fail to account for the effects of secondary reactions (fireballs) that occur with underoxidized explosives. Theoretical models were developed for TNT and validated against literature. These models were then applied to PBX 9501 for predictions of the spherical fireball diameter and time duration. The following relationships for PBX 9501 were derived from this analysis (units of ft, lb, s). Comparison of centrally located equivalent weight charges using cylindrical and spherical geometries showed that the average impulse on the interior of the structure is ~3%–5% higher for the spherical charge. Circular regions of high impulse that occur along the axial direction of the cylindrical charge must be considered when analyzing structural response.

  8. Analysis of Effect of Inlet Swirl In Four Stroke Single Cylinder Diesel Engine With Different Inlet Valve Geometries Using CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobinath, R.; Mathiselvan, G.; Kumarasubramanian, R.

    2017-05-01

    Flow patterns are essential to ensure that the engine can produce high performance with the presence of swirl and tumble effect inside the engine cylinder. This paper provides the simulation of air is simulated in the software to predict the flow pattern. The flow pattern is simulated by using the steady state pressure based solver. The domain used for the simulations predicated on the particular engine parameters. Mistreatment the CFD problem solver ANSYS FLUENT, the CFD simulation is earned for four totally different geometries of the valve. The geometries consist of Horizontal, Vertical, curve and arc springs. In this simulation, only the intake strokes are simulated. From this results show that the velocity of the air flow is high during the sweeps the intake stroke takes place. This situation is produced more swirls and tumble effect during the compression, hence enhancing the combustion rate in a whole region of the clearance volume of the engine cylinder. This will initiate to the production of tumble and swirl in the engine cylinder.

  9. Interactive effects of nutrition, environment, and rat-strain on cortical and vertebral bone geometry and biomechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zernicke, R. F.; Li, K.-C.; Salem, G. J.; Vailas, A. C.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to generate comparative data on the sensitivity of cortical- and vertebral-bone adaptations in two different rat strains maintained at conditions typical for spaceborne experiments conducted by U.S.A. and USSR. The effects of cage environment, diet, and rat-strain on the cortical (humerus) and vertebral (T7) bones of male Taconic-Sprague-Dawley and Czechoslovakian-Wistar rats were investigated using different flight-simulation cages (one rat/cage for U.S.A.; ten rats/cage for USSR conditions) and fed either U.S.A. or USSR diet. The results showed significant effects of these factors on the humeral and vertebral geometry and mechanical properties, as well as significant interactive effects on the mechanical properties of the humerus.

  10. Effects of microchannel geometry on preconcentration intensity in microfluidic chips with straight or convergent-divergent microchannels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Lin; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2012-03-01

    Preconcentration microfluidic devices are fabricated incorporating straight or convergent-divergent microchannels and hydrogel or Nafion membranes. Sample preconcentration is achieved utilizing concentration-polarization effects. The effects of the microchannel geometry on the preconcentration intensity are systematically examined. It is shown that for the preconcentrator with the straight microchannel, the time required to achieve a satisfactory preconcentration intensity increases with an increasing channel depth. For the convergent-divergent microchannel, the preconcentration intensity increases with a reducing convergent channel width. Comparing the preconcentration performance of the two different microchannel configurations, it is found that for an equivalent width of the main microchannel, the concentration effect in the convergent-divergent microchannel is faster than that in the straight microchannel.

  11. Swept Mechanism of Micro-Milling Tool Geometry Effect on Machined Oxygen Free High Conductivity Copper (OFHC) Surface Roughness

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhenyu; Liu, Zhanqiang; Li, Yuchao; Qiao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Cutting tool geometry should be very much considered in micro-cutting because it has a significant effect on the topography and accuracy of the machined surface, particularly considering the uncut chip thickness is comparable to the cutting edge radius. The objective of this paper was to clarify the influence of the mechanism of the cutting tool geometry on the surface topography in the micro-milling process. Four different cutting tools including two two-fluted end milling tools with different helix angles of 15° and 30° cutting tools, as well as two three-fluted end milling tools with different helix angles of 15° and 30° were investigated by combining theoretical modeling analysis with experimental research. The tool geometry was mathematically modeled through coordinate translation and transformation to make all three cutting edges at the cutting tool tip into the same coordinate system. Swept mechanisms, minimum uncut chip thickness, and cutting tool run-out were considered on modeling surface roughness parameters (the height of surface roughness Rz and average surface roughness Ra) based on the established mathematical model. A set of cutting experiments was carried out using four different shaped cutting tools. It was found that the sweeping volume of the cutting tool increases with the decrease of both the cutting tool helix angle and the flute number. Great coarse machined surface roughness and more non-uniform surface topography are generated when the sweeping volume increases. The outcome of this research should bring about new methodologies for micro-end milling tool design and manufacturing. The machined surface roughness can be improved by appropriately selecting the tool geometrical parameters. PMID:28772479

  12. Effects of temperature, particle features and vent geometry on volcanic jet dynamics, a shock-tube investigation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigala, Valeria; Kueppers, Ulrich; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    The lowermost part of an eruptive plume commonly shows characteristics of an underexpanded jet. The dynamics of this gas-thrust region are likely to be a direct consequence of intrinsic (magma properties, overpressure) and extrinsic (vent geometry, weather) eruption conditions. Additionally, they affect the subsequent evolution of the eruptive column and have, therefore, important hazard assessment implications for both near- and far-field. Direct observation of eruptive events is possible, but often insufficient for complete characterization. Important complementary data can be achieved using controlled and calibrated laboratory experiments. Loose natural particles were ejected from a shock-tube while controlling temperature (25° and 500°C), overpressure (15MPa), starting grain size distribution (1-2 mm, 0.5-1 mm and 0.125-0.250 mm), density (basaltic and phonolitic), gas-particle ratio and vent geometry (nozzle, cylindrical, funnel with a flaring of 15° and 30°, respectively). For each experiment, we quantified the velocity of individual particles, the jet spreading angle, the presence of electric discharges and the production of fines and analysed their dynamic evolution. Data shows velocity of up to 296 m/s and deceleration patterns following nonlinear paths. Gas spreading angles range between 21° and 41° while the particle spreading angles between 3° and 32°. Electric discharges, in the form of lightning, are observed, quantified and described. Moreover, a variation in the production of fines is recognized during the course of single experiments. This experimental investigation, which mechanistically mimics the process of pyroclast ejection, is shown to be capable of constraining the effects of input parameters and conduit/vent geometry on pyroclastic plumes. Therefore, the results should greatly enhance the ability of numerically model explosive ejecta in nature.

  13. Swept Mechanism of Micro-Milling Tool Geometry Effect on Machined Oxygen Free High Conductivity Copper (OFHC) Surface Roughness.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhenyu; Liu, Zhanqiang; Li, Yuchao; Qiao, Yang

    2017-01-28

    Cutting tool geometry should be very much considered in micro-cutting because it has a significant effect on the topography and accuracy of the machined surface, particularly considering the uncut chip thickness is comparable to the cutting edge radius. The objective of this paper was to clarify the influence of the mechanism of the cutting tool geometry on the surface topography in the micro-milling process. Four different cutting tools including two two-fluted end milling tools with different helix angles of 15° and 30° cutting tools, as well as two three-fluted end milling tools with different helix angles of 15° and 30° were investigated by combining theoretical modeling analysis with experimental research. The tool geometry was mathematically modeled through coordinate translation and transformation to make all three cutting edges at the cutting tool tip into the same coordinate system. Swept mechanisms, minimum uncut chip thickness, and cutting tool run-out were considered on modeling surface roughness parameters (the height of surface roughness Rz and average surface roughness Ra) based on the established mathematical model. A set of cutting experiments was carried out using four different shaped cutting tools. It was found that the sweeping volume of the cutting tool increases with the decrease of both the cutting tool helix angle and the flute number. Great coarse machined surface roughness and more non-uniform surface topography are generated when the sweeping volume increases. The outcome of this research should bring about new methodologies for micro-end milling tool design and manufacturing. The machined surface roughness can be improved by appropriately selecting the tool geometrical parameters.

  14. STABILITY OF A CYLINDRICAL SOLUTE-SOLVENT INTERFACE: EFFECT OF GEOMETRY, ELECTROSTATICS, AND HYDRODYNAMICS.

    PubMed

    Li, B O; Sun, Hui; Zhou, Shenggao

    The solute-solvent interface that separates biological molecules from their surrounding aqueous solvent characterizes the conformation and dynamics of such molecules. In this work, we construct a solvent fluid dielectric boundary model for the solvation of charged molecules and apply it to study the stability of a model cylindrical solute-solvent interface. The motion of the solute-solvent interface is defined to be the same as that of solvent fluid at the interface. The solvent fluid is assumed to be incompressible and is described by the Stokes equation. The solute is modeled simply by the ideal-gas law. All the viscous force, hydrostatic pressure, solute-solvent van der Waals interaction, surface tension, and electrostatic force are balanced at the solute-solvent interface. We model the electrostatics by Poisson's equation in which the solute-solvent interface is treated as a dielectric boundary that separates the low-dielectric solute from the high-dielectric solvent. For a cylindrical geometry, we find multiple cylindrically shaped equilibrium interfaces that describe polymodal (e.g., dry and wet) states of hydration of an underlying molecular system. These steady-state solutions exhibit bifurcation behavior with respect to the charge density. For their linearized systems, we use the projection method to solve the fluid equation and find the dispersion relation. Our asymptotic analysis shows that, for large wavenumbers, the decay rate is proportional to wavenumber with the proportionality half of the ratio of surface tension to solvent viscosity, indicating that the solvent viscosity does affect the stability of a solute-solvent interface. Consequences of our analysis in the context of biomolecular interactions are discussed.

  15. Effect of ocular shape and vascular geometry on retinal hemodynamics: a computational model.

    PubMed

    Dziubek, Andrea; Guidoboni, Giovanna; Harris, Alon; Hirani, Anil N; Rusjan, Edmond; Thistleton, William

    2016-08-01

    A computational model for retinal hemodynamics accounting for ocular curvature is presented. The model combines (i) a hierarchical Darcy model for the flow through small arterioles, capillaries and small venules in the retinal tissue, where blood vessels of different size are comprised in different hierarchical levels of a porous medium; and (ii) a one-dimensional network model for the blood flow through retinal arterioles and venules of larger size. The non-planar ocular shape is included by (i) defining the hierarchical Darcy flow model on a two-dimensional curved surface embedded in the three-dimensional space; and (ii) mapping the simplified one-dimensional network model onto the curved surface. The model is solved numerically using a finite element method in which spatial domain and hierarchical levels are discretized separately. For the finite element method, we use an exterior calculus-based implementation which permits an easier treatment of non-planar domains. Numerical solutions are verified against suitably constructed analytical solutions. Numerical experiments are performed to investigate how retinal hemodynamics is influenced by the ocular shape (sphere, oblate spheroid, prolate spheroid and barrel are compared) and vascular architecture (four vascular arcs and a branching vascular tree are compared). The model predictions show that changes in ocular shape induce non-uniform alterations of blood pressure and velocity in the retina. In particular, we found that (i) the temporal region is affected the least by changes in ocular shape, and (ii) the barrel shape departs the most from the hemispherical reference geometry in terms of associated pressure and velocity distributions in the retinal microvasculature. These results support the clinical hypothesis that alterations in ocular shape, such as those occurring in myopic eyes, might be associated with pathological alterations in retinal hemodynamics.

  16. Geometry and magnetic-state induced phenomena in S/F nanohybrids: unusual flux pinning effects and bistable superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas, Javier E.

    2009-03-01

    Superconducting/Ferromagnetic (S/F) hybrids exhibit a plethora of induced effects and novel physical properties, due to the interplay between the competing S and F orders. We will show a few examples of those, in a series of experiments on a simple hybrid system: a S thin film with an array of F nanodots. Changing the array geometry, the nanodots size or their magnetic-state allows to investigate a large variety of physical phenomena. We will focus on two of them: flux pinning effects and stray-magnetic-field induced manipulation of superconductivity. We will firstly consider geometry induced effects; in particular, we will compare the pinning properties of periodic, quasiperiodic, and fractal arrays [1]. Secondly, we will discuss the effects induced by particular nanodot magnetic-states. We will show experiments on the interaction between flux quanta and nanodot magnetic vortices, which can be used to obtain switchable flux pinning potentials [2]. Finally, we will describe an experiment in which the magnetic reversal events of the nanodot magnetic vortices are imprinted into the transport properties of a superconducting thin film [3]. This yields a very unusual hysteretic magnetoresistance. This effect is induced by the stray magnetic fields from the nanodots, which drive the superconducting-to-normal transition of the hybrid depending on the magnetic history. [4pt] [1] J.E. Villegas et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 027002 (2006). [0pt] [2] J.E. Villegas et al., Phys. Rev. B 77, 134510 (2008). [0pt] [3] J.E. Villegas et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 227001 (2007).

  17. Effects of transducer beam geometry and flow velocity profile on the Doppler power spectrum: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Bascom, P A; Cobbold, R S

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical model is used to show how the Doppler spectrum for various axisymmetric velocity profiles is affected by beam misalignment and incomplete insonation. Results are presented for both circular and square beam geometries. Moreover, a closed-form expression is derived for the power spectral density received by an on-axis transducer with a Gaussian beam profile. It is shown that the error incurred in measuring the mean Doppler frequency with such a profile will generally be bounded by the results for the circular and square beam geometries. The effects of an ideal high-pass filter on the mean Doppler frequency and the backscattered Doppler power are examined. It is shown that such a filter can introduce large differences in the measured systolic to diastolic power ratios. Finally, theoretical expressions and results are presented for the spectral broadening index (SBI), normalized spectral variance (NSV), coefficient of kurtosis (CK), the coefficient of skewness (CS) as functions of the axisymmetric velocity profile shape assuming complete uniform insonation.

  18. Effects of orbit and pointing geometry of a spaceborne formation for monostatic-bistatic radargrammetry on terrain elevation measurement accuracy.

    PubMed

    Renga, Alfredo; Moccia, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade a methodology for the reconstruction of surface relief by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measurements - SAR interferometry - has become a standard. Different techniques developed before, such as stereo-radargrammetry, have been experienced from space only in very limiting geometries and time series, and, hence, branded as less accurate. However, novel formation flying configurations achievable by modern spacecraft allow fulfillment of SAR missions able to produce pairs of monostatic-bistatic images gathered simultaneously, with programmed looking angles. Hence it is possible to achieve large antenna separations, adequate for exploiting to the utmost the stereoscopic effect, and to make negligible time decorrelation, a strong liming factor for repeat-pass stereo-radargrammetric techniques. This paper reports on design of a monostatic-bistatic mission, in terms of orbit and pointing geometry, and taking into account present generation SAR and technology for accurate relative navigation. Performances of different methods for monostatic-bistatic stereo-radargrammetry are then evaluated, showing the possibility to determine the local surface relief with a metric accuracy over a wide range of Earth latitudes.

  19. Effects of Orbit and Pointing Geometry of a Spaceborne Formation for Monostatic-Bistatic Radargrammetry on Terrain Elevation Measurement Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Renga, Alfredo; Moccia, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade a methodology for the reconstruction of surface relief by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measurements – SAR interferometry – has become a standard. Different techniques developed before, such as stereo-radargrammetry, have been experienced from space only in very limiting geometries and time series, and, hence, branded as less accurate. However, novel formation flying configurations achievable by modern spacecraft allow fulfillment of SAR missions able to produce pairs of monostatic-bistatic images gathered simultaneously, with programmed looking angles. Hence it is possible to achieve large antenna separations, adequate for exploiting to the utmost the stereoscopic effect, and to make negligible time decorrelation, a strong liming factor for repeat-pass stereo-radargrammetric techniques. This paper reports on design of a monostatic-bistatic mission, in terms of orbit and pointing geometry, and taking into account present generation SAR and technology for accurate relative navigation. Performances of different methods for monostatic-bistatic stereo-radargrammetry are then evaluated, showing the possibility to determine the local surface relief with a metric accuracy over a wide range of Earth latitudes. PMID:22389594

  20. Continuous flow micro-bioreactors for the production of biopharmaceuticals: the effect of geometry, surface texture, and flow rate.

    PubMed

    Garza-García, Lucía D; García-López, Erika; Camacho-León, Sergio; Del Refugio Rocha-Pizaña, María; López-Pacheco, Felipe; López-Meza, Julián; Araiz-Hernández, Diana; Tapia-Mejía, Eduardo J; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Rodríguez-González, Ciro A; Alvarez, Mario Moisés

    2014-04-07

    We used continuous flow micro-devices as bioreactors for the production of a glycosylated pharmaceutical product (a monoclonal antibody). We cultured CHO cells on the surface of PMMA/PDMS micro-channels that had been textured by micromachining and coated with fibronectin. Three different micro-channel geometries (a wavy channel, a zigzag channel, and a series of donut-shape reservoirs) were tested in a continuous flow regime in the range of 3 to 6 μL min(-1). Both the geometry of the micro-device and the flow rate had a significant effect on cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and monoclonal antibody production. The most efficient configuration was a series of donut-shaped reservoirs, which yielded mAb concentrations of 7.2 mg L(-1) at residence times lower than one minute and steady-state productivities above 9 mg mL(-1) min(-1). These rates are at about 3 orders of magnitude higher than those observed in suspended-cell stirred tank fed-batch bioreactors.