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Sample records for effective polar membrane

  1. Mechano-capacitive properties of polarized membranes.

    PubMed

    Mosgaard, Lars D; Zecchi, Karis A; Heimburg, Thomas

    2015-10-28

    Biological membranes are capacitors that can be charged by applying a field across the membrane. The charges on the capacitor exert a force on the membrane that leads to electrostriction, i.e. a thinning of the membrane. Since the force is quadratic in voltage, negative and positive voltage have an identical influence on the physics of symmetric membranes. However, this is not the case for a membrane with an asymmetry leading to a permanent electric polarization. Positive and negative voltages of identical magnitude lead to different properties. Such an asymmetry can originate from a lipid composition that is different on the two monolayers of the membrane, or from membrane curvature. The latter effect is called 'flexoelectricity'. As a consequence of permanent polarization, the membrane capacitor is discharged at a voltage different from zero. This leads to interesting electrical phenomena such as outward or inward rectification of membrane permeability. Here, we introduce a generalized theoretical framework, that treats capacitance, polarization, flexoelectricity, piezoelectricity and thermoelectricity in the same language. We show applications to electrostriction, membrane permeability and piezoelectricity and thermoelectricity close to melting transitions, where such effects are especially pronounced. PMID:26324950

  2. An experimental study on the effect of spacer on concentration polarization in a long channel reverse osmosis membrane cell.

    PubMed

    Mo, H; Ng, H Y

    2010-01-01

    This study was to experimentally investigate the performance and organic fouling behaviour in a 1-m long RO membrane channel with or without spacer for desalting. It was found that local permeate flux distributed heterogeneously along the long membrane channel without a spacer inserted due to exponential growth of concentration polarization, which also resulted in decreasing salt rejection and increasing organic fouling along the membrane channel in the downstream direction. This heterogeneity could be lessened by inserting a spacer into the channel, which mitigated concentration polarization due to the enhanced turbulence caused by a spacer, especially at the downstream portion of the channel. However, in the upstream of the channel, inserting a spacer exerted an additional vertical resistance which might counteract the effect of concentration polarization mitigation by a spacer and caused a lower permeate flux. This suggests that it is necessary to consider the integral effect of spacer for designing an RO membrane module and an overall RO system in order to prevent extra resistance, reduce concentration polarization and membrane fouling. PMID:20389001

  3. Temperature polarization coefficients in membrane distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Diez, L.; Vazquez-Gonzalez, M.I.; Florido-Diaz, F.J.

    1998-04-01

    Membrane distillation is a membrane process in which two liquid phases at different temperatures are separated by a microporous hydrophobic membrane. The membrane plays the role of a physical support for the vapor-liquid interface. The aim of this paper is to study pure water transport by membrane distillation through a PTFE flat membrane. The dependence of the phenomenon on average temperature and recirculation rate at the membrane sides is investigated. The influence of these operating conditions on water transport is discussed by taking into account mass and heat transfer within the membrane and the adjoining liquid phases. The concept of temperature polarization is introduced into the transport equations and shown to be important in the interpretation of the experimental results.

  4. Nanoscale Membrane Curvature detected by Polarized Localization Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Christopher; Maarouf, Abir; Woodward, Xinxin

    Nanoscale membrane curvature is a necessary component of countless cellular processes. Here we present Polarized Localization Microscopy (PLM), a super-resolution optical imaging technique that enables the detection of nanoscale membrane curvature with order-of-magnitude improvements over comparable optical techniques. PLM combines the advantages of polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence localization microscopy to reveal single-fluorophore locations and orientations without reducing localization precision by point spread function manipulation. PLM resolved nanoscale membrane curvature of a supported lipid bilayer draped over polystyrene nanoparticles on a glass coverslip, thus creating a model membrane with coexisting flat and curved regions and membrane radii of curvature as small as 20 nm. Further, PLM provides single-molecule trajectories and the aggregation of curvature-inducing proteins with super-resolution to reveal the correlated effects of membrane curvature, dynamics, and molecular sorting. For example, cholera toxin subunit B has been observed to induce nanoscale membrane budding and concentrate at the bud neck. PLM reveals a previously hidden and critical information of membrane topology.

  5. Effect of concentration polarization on permselectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    abu-Rjal, Ramadan; Chinaryan, Vahe; Bazant, Martin Z.; Rubinstein, Isaak; Zaltzman, Boris

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the variation of permselectivity in the course of concentration polarization is systematically analyzed for a three-layer membrane system consisting of a nonperfectly permselective ion exchange membrane, homogeneous or heterogeneous, flanked by two diffusion layers of a binary univalent electrolyte. For a heterogeneous membrane, an ionic transport model is proposed, which is amenable to analytical treatment. In this model, assuming a constant fixed charge in the membrane and disregarding water splitting, the entire transport problem is reduced to solution of a single algebraic equation for the counterion transport number. It is concluded that for both types of membrane the concentration polarization may significantly affect the permselectivity of the system through the effects of the induced nonuniformity of the coion diffusion flux in the membrane (convexity of the coion concentration profile) and varying membrane-solution interface concentration. While the former is significant for low membrane fixed charge density, for a heterogeneous membrane, the latter might be considerably affected by the flux focusing effect at the permeable membrane segments.

  6. Sterol-Rich Membrane Domains Define Fission Yeast Cell Polarity.

    PubMed

    Makushok, Tatyana; Alves, Paulo; Huisman, Stephen Michiel; Kijowski, Adam Rafal; Brunner, Damian

    2016-05-19

    Cell polarization is crucial for the functioning of all organisms. The cytoskeleton is central to the process but its role in symmetry breaking is poorly understood. We study cell polarization when fission yeast cells exit starvation. We show that the basis of polarity generation is de novo sterol biosynthesis, cell surface delivery of sterols, and their recruitment to the cell poles. This involves four phases occurring independent of the polarity factor cdc42p. Initially, multiple, randomly distributed sterol-rich membrane (SRM) domains form at the plasma membrane, independent of the cytoskeleton and cell growth. These domains provide platforms on which the growth and polarity machinery assembles. SRM domains are then polarized by the microtubule-dependent polarity factor tea1p, which prepares for monopolar growth initiation and later switching to bipolar growth. SRM polarization requires F-actin but not the F-actin organizing polarity factors for3p and bud6p. We conclude that SRMs are key to cell polarization. PMID:27180904

  7. Sterol-Rich Membrane Domains Define Fission Yeast Cell Polarity.

    PubMed

    Makushok, Tatyana; Alves, Paulo; Huisman, Stephen Michiel; Kijowski, Adam Rafal; Brunner, Damian

    2016-05-19

    Cell polarization is crucial for the functioning of all organisms. The cytoskeleton is central to the process but its role in symmetry breaking is poorly understood. We study cell polarization when fission yeast cells exit starvation. We show that the basis of polarity generation is de novo sterol biosynthesis, cell surface delivery of sterols, and their recruitment to the cell poles. This involves four phases occurring independent of the polarity factor cdc42p. Initially, multiple, randomly distributed sterol-rich membrane (SRM) domains form at the plasma membrane, independent of the cytoskeleton and cell growth. These domains provide platforms on which the growth and polarity machinery assembles. SRM domains are then polarized by the microtubule-dependent polarity factor tea1p, which prepares for monopolar growth initiation and later switching to bipolar growth. SRM polarization requires F-actin but not the F-actin organizing polarity factors for3p and bud6p. We conclude that SRMs are key to cell polarization.

  8. ROCK1-directed basement membrane positioning coordinates epithelial tissue polarity.

    PubMed

    Daley, William P; Gervais, Elise M; Centanni, Samuel W; Gulfo, Kathryn M; Nelson, Deirdre A; Larsen, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    The basement membrane is crucial for epithelial tissue organization and function. However, the mechanisms by which basement membrane is restricted to the basal periphery of epithelial tissues and the basement membrane-mediated signals that regulate coordinated tissue organization are not well defined. Here, we report that Rho kinase (ROCK) controls coordinated tissue organization by restricting basement membrane to the epithelial basal periphery in developing mouse submandibular salivary glands, and that ROCK inhibition results in accumulation of ectopic basement membrane throughout the epithelial compartment. ROCK-regulated restriction of PAR-1b (MARK2) localization in the outer basal epithelial cell layer is required for basement membrane positioning at the tissue periphery. PAR-1b is specifically required for basement membrane deposition, as inhibition of PAR-1b kinase activity prevents basement membrane deposition and disrupts overall tissue organization, and suppression of PAR-1b together with ROCK inhibition prevents interior accumulations of basement membrane. Conversely, ectopic overexpression of wild-type PAR-1b results in ectopic interior basement membrane deposition. Significantly, culture of salivary epithelial cells on exogenous basement membrane rescues epithelial organization in the presence of ROCK1 or PAR-1b inhibition, and this basement membrane-mediated rescue requires functional integrin β1 to maintain epithelial cell-cell adhesions. Taken together, these studies indicate that ROCK1/PAR-1b-dependent regulation of basement membrane placement is required for the coordination of tissue polarity and the elaboration of tissue structure in the developing submandibular salivary gland.

  9. Dynamic nuclear polarization methods in solids and solutions to explore membrane proteins and membrane systems.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Han, Songi

    2013-01-01

    Membrane proteins regulate vital cellular processes, including signaling, ion transport, and vesicular trafficking. Obtaining experimental access to their structures, conformational fluctuations, orientations, locations, and hydration in membrane environments, as well as the lipid membrane properties, is critical to understanding their functions. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of frozen solids can dramatically boost the sensitivity of current solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance tools to enhance access to membrane protein structures in native membrane environments. Overhauser DNP in the solution state can map out the local and site-specific hydration dynamics landscape of membrane proteins and lipid membranes, critically complementing the structural and dynamics information obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Here, we provide an overview of how DNP methods in solids and solutions can significantly increase our understanding of membrane protein structures, dynamics, functions, and hydration in complex biological membrane environments. PMID:23331309

  10. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Methods in Solids and Solutions to Explore Membrane Proteins and Membrane Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Han, Songi

    2013-04-01

    Membrane proteins regulate vital cellular processes, including signaling, ion transport, and vesicular trafficking. Obtaining experimental access to their structures, conformational fluctuations, orientations, locations, and hydration in membrane environments, as well as the lipid membrane properties, is critical to understanding their functions. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of frozen solids can dramatically boost the sensitivity of current solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance tools to enhance access to membrane protein structures in native membrane environments. Overhauser DNP in the solution state can map out the local and site-specific hydration dynamics landscape of membrane proteins and lipid membranes, critically complementing the structural and dynamics information obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Here, we provide an overview of how DNP methods in solids and solutions can significantly increase our understanding of membrane protein structures, dynamics, functions, and hydration in complex biological membrane environments.

  11. Surface aggregation patterns of LDL receptors near coated pits III: potential effects of combined retrograde membrane flow-diffusion and a polarized-insertion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Echavarria-Heras, Héctor; Leal-Ramirez, Cecilia; Castillo, Oscar

    2014-05-22

    Although the process of endocytosis of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) macromolecule and its receptor have been the subject of intense experimental research and modeling, there are still conflicting hypotheses and even conflicting data regarding the way receptors are transported to coated pits, the manner by which receptors are inserted before they aggregate in coated pits, and the display of receptors on the cell surface. At first it was considered that LDL receptors in human fibroblasts are inserted at random locations and then transported by diffusion toward coated pits. But experiments have not ruled out the possibility that the true rate of accumulation of LDL receptors in coated pits might be faster than predicted on the basis of pure diffusion and uniform reinsertion over the entire cell surface. It has been claimed that recycled LDL receptors are inserted preferentially in regions where coated pits form, with display occurring predominantly as groups of loosely associated units. Another mechanism that has been proposed by experimental cell biologists which might affect the accumulation of receptors in coated pits is a retrograde membrane flow. This is essentially linked to a polarized receptor insertion mode and also to the capping phenomenon, characterized by the formation of large patches of proteins that passively flow away from the regions of membrane exocytosis. In this contribution we calculate the mean travel time of LDL receptors to coated pits as determined by the ratio of flow strength to diffusion-coefficient, as well as by polarized-receptor insertion. We also project the resulting display of unbound receptors on the cell membrane. We found forms of polarized insertion that could potentially reduce the mean capture time of LDL receptors by coated pits which is controlled by diffusion and uniform insertion. Our results show that, in spite of its efficiency as a possible device for enhancement of the rate of receptor trapping, polarized

  12. Surface aggregation patterns of LDL receptors near coated pits III: potential effects of combined retrograde membrane flow-diffusion and a polarized-insertion mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although the process of endocytosis of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) macromolecule and its receptor have been the subject of intense experimental research and modeling, there are still conflicting hypotheses and even conflicting data regarding the way receptors are transported to coated pits, the manner by which receptors are inserted before they aggregate in coated pits, and the display of receptors on the cell surface. At first it was considered that LDL receptors in human fibroblasts are inserted at random locations and then transported by diffusion toward coated pits. But experiments have not ruled out the possibility that the true rate of accumulation of LDL receptors in coated pits might be faster than predicted on the basis of pure diffusion and uniform reinsertion over the entire cell surface. It has been claimed that recycled LDL receptors are inserted preferentially in regions where coated pits form, with display occurring predominantly as groups of loosely associated units. Another mechanism that has been proposed by experimental cell biologists which might affect the accumulation of receptors in coated pits is a retrograde membrane flow. This is essentially linked to a polarized receptor insertion mode and also to the capping phenomenon, characterized by the formation of large patches of proteins that passively flow away from the regions of membrane exocytosis. In this contribution we calculate the mean travel time of LDL receptors to coated pits as determined by the ratio of flow strength to diffusion-coefficient, as well as by polarized-receptor insertion. We also project the resulting display of unbound receptors on the cell membrane. We found forms of polarized insertion that could potentially reduce the mean capture time of LDL receptors by coated pits which is controlled by diffusion and uniform insertion. Our results show that, in spite of its efficiency as a possible device for enhancement of the rate of receptor trapping, polarized

  13. A method for dynamic nuclear polarization enhancement of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam N; Caporini, Marc A; Fanucci, Gail E; Long, Joanna R

    2015-01-26

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) magic-angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy has the potential to enhance NMR signals by orders of magnitude and to enable NMR characterization of proteins which are inherently dilute, such as membrane proteins. In this work spin-labeled lipid molecules (SL-lipids), when used as polarizing agents, lead to large and relatively homogeneous DNP enhancements throughout the lipid bilayer and to an embedded lung surfactant mimetic peptide, KL4 . Specifically, DNP MAS ssNMR experiments at 600 MHz/395 GHz on KL4 reconstituted in liposomes containing SL-lipids reveal DNP enhancement values over two times larger for KL4 compared to liposome suspensions containing the biradical TOTAPOL. These findings suggest an alternative sample preparation strategy for DNP MAS ssNMR studies of lipid membranes and integral membrane proteins. PMID:25504310

  14. Calculation of polarization effects

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, A.W.

    1983-09-01

    Basically there are two areas of accelerator applications that involve beam polarization. One is the acceleration of a polarized beam (most likely a proton beam) in a synchrotron. Another concerns polarized beams in an electron storage ring. In both areas, numerical techniques have been very useful.

  15. Hydrophilic Mineral Coating of Membrane Substrate for Reducing Internal Concentration Polarization (ICP) in Forward Osmosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Li, Jingguo; Zhou, Zhengzhong; Xie, Jianping; Lee, Jim Yang

    2016-01-22

    Internal concentration polarization (ICP) is a major issue in forward osmosis (FO) as it can significantly reduce the water flux in FO operations. It is known that a hydrophilic substrate and a smaller membrane structure parameter (S) are effective against ICP. This paper reports the development of a thin film composite (TFC) FO membrane with a hydrophilic mineral (CaCO3)-coated polyethersulfone (PES)-based substrate. The CaCO3 coating was applied continuously and uniformly on the membrane pore surfaces throughout the TFC substrate. Due to the intrinsic hydrophilicity of the CaCO3 coating, the substrate hydrophilicity was significantly increased and the membrane S parameter was reduced to as low as the current best of cellulose-based membranes but without the mechanical fragility of the latter. As a result, the ICP of the TFC-FO membrane could be significantly reduced to yield a remarkable increase in water flux without the loss of membrane selectivity.

  16. Hydrophilic Mineral Coating of Membrane Substrate for Reducing Internal Concentration Polarization (ICP) in Forward Osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qing; Li, Jingguo; Zhou, Zhengzhong; Xie, Jianping; Lee, Jim Yang

    2016-01-01

    Internal concentration polarization (ICP) is a major issue in forward osmosis (FO) as it can significantly reduce the water flux in FO operations. It is known that a hydrophilic substrate and a smaller membrane structure parameter (S) are effective against ICP. This paper reports the development of a thin film composite (TFC) FO membrane with a hydrophilic mineral (CaCO3)-coated polyethersulfone (PES)-based substrate. The CaCO3 coating was applied continuously and uniformly on the membrane pore surfaces throughout the TFC substrate. Due to the intrinsic hydrophilicity of the CaCO3 coating, the substrate hydrophilicity was significantly increased and the membrane S parameter was reduced to as low as the current best of cellulose-based membranes but without the mechanical fragility of the latter. As a result, the ICP of the TFC-FO membrane could be significantly reduced to yield a remarkable increase in water flux without the loss of membrane selectivity.

  17. Orientational Ordering of Carotenoids in Myelin Membranes Resolved by Polarized Raman Microspectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kutuzov, Nikolay P.; Brazhe, Alexey R.; Maksimov, Georgy V.; Dracheva, Olga E.; Lyaskovskiy, Vladimir L.; Bulygin, Fedor V.; Rubin, Andrey B.

    2014-01-01

    We study orientational ordering of membrane compounds in the myelinated nerve fiber by means of polarized Raman microspectroscopy. The theory of orientational distribution functions was adapted to live-cell measurements. The obtained orientational distribution functions of carotenoids and lipid acyl chain clearly indicated a predominantly radial-like orientation in membranes of the myelin. Two-dimensional Raman images, made under optimal polarization of incident laser beam, corroborated the proposed carotenoid orientation within the bilayer. Experimental data suggested the tilted orientation of both carotenoid polyenic and lipid acyl chains. The values of maximum tilt angles were similar, with possible implication of carotenoid-induced ordering effect on lipid acyl chains, and hence change of myelin membrane properties. This study stages carotenoids of the nerve as possible mediators of excitation and leverages underlying activity-dependent membrane reordering. PMID:25140424

  18. Concentration polarization model for hollow-fiber membrane ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.M. ); Cheng, T.W. )

    1994-02-01

    The concentration polarization model has been applied to analyze the permeate flux of hollow-fiber membrane ultrafiltration. Comparison of theoretical prediction with experimental data has been made under various transmembrane pressures, feed velocities, and solution concentrations. Both theoretical prediction and experimental results show that average permeate flux increases as transmembrane pressure or feed velocity increases, but decreases when solution concentration increases. 24 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Effective rigidity of membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peliti, L.

    1986-12-01

    The role of thermal fluctuations of shape (undulations) in reducing the effective rigidity of membranes is reviewed. The consequences of this effect on vesicle size distribution and on the structure of microemulsions, as well as on other physical phenomena, are sketched.

  20. Monoclonal antibodies as probes of epithelial membrane polarization

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed against antigens in the apical plasma membrane of the toad kidney epithelial cell line A6 were produced to probe the phenomena that underlie the genesis and maintenance of epithelial polarity. Two of these antibodies, 17D7 and 18C3, were selected for detailed study here. 17D7 is directed against a 23-kD peptide found on both the apical and basolateral surfaces of the A6 epithelium whereas 18C3 recognizes a lipid localized to the apical membrane only. This novel observation of an apically localized epithelial lipid species indicates the existence of a specific sorting and insertion process for this, and perhaps other, epithelial plasma membrane lipids. The antibody-antigen complexes formed by both these monoclonal antibodies are rapidly internalized by the A6 cells, but only the 18C3-antigen complex is recycled to the plasma membrane. In contrast to the apical localization of the free antigen, however, the 18C3-antigen complex is recycled to both the apical and basolateral surface of the epithelium, which indicates that monoclonal antibody binding interferes in some way with the normal sorting process for this apical lipid antigen. PMID:4066753

  1. Spontaneous membrane-translocating peptides: influence of peptide self-aggregation and cargo polarity

    PubMed Central

    Macchi, Sara; Signore, Giovanni; Boccardi, Claudia; Di Rienzo, Carmine; Beltram, Fabio; Cardarelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Peptides that translocate spontaneously across cell membranes could transform the field of drug delivery by enabling the transport of otherwise membrane-impermeant molecules into cells. In this regard, a 9-aminoacid-long motif (representative sequence: PLIYLRLLR, hereafter Translocating Motif 9, TM9) that spontaneously translocates across membranes while carrying a polar dye was recently identified by high-throughput screening. Here we investigate its transport properties by a combination of in cuvette physico-chemical assays, rational mutagenesis, live-cell confocal imaging and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy measurements. We unveil TM9 ability to self-aggregate in a concentration-dependent manner and demonstrate that peptide self-aggregation is a necessary –yet not sufficient– step for effective membrane translocation. Furthermore we show that membrane crossing can occur with apolar payloads while it is completely inhibited by polar ones. These findings are discussed and compared to previous reports. The present results impose a careful rethinking of this class of sequences as direct-translocation vectors suitable for delivery purposes. PMID:26567719

  2. Hydrophilic Mineral Coating of Membrane Substrate for Reducing Internal Concentration Polarization (ICP) in Forward Osmosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Li, Jingguo; Zhou, Zhengzhong; Xie, Jianping; Lee, Jim Yang

    2016-01-01

    Internal concentration polarization (ICP) is a major issue in forward osmosis (FO) as it can significantly reduce the water flux in FO operations. It is known that a hydrophilic substrate and a smaller membrane structure parameter (S) are effective against ICP. This paper reports the development of a thin film composite (TFC) FO membrane with a hydrophilic mineral (CaCO3)-coated polyethersulfone (PES)-based substrate. The CaCO3 coating was applied continuously and uniformly on the membrane pore surfaces throughout the TFC substrate. Due to the intrinsic hydrophilicity of the CaCO3 coating, the substrate hydrophilicity was significantly increased and the membrane S parameter was reduced to as low as the current best of cellulose-based membranes but without the mechanical fragility of the latter. As a result, the ICP of the TFC-FO membrane could be significantly reduced to yield a remarkable increase in water flux without the loss of membrane selectivity. PMID:26796675

  3. Chimera proteins with affinity for membranes and microtubule tips polarize in the membrane of fission yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Recouvreux, Pierre; Sokolowski, Thomas R; Grammoustianou, Aristea; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein; Dogterom, Marileen

    2016-02-16

    Cell polarity refers to a functional spatial organization of proteins that is crucial for the control of essential cellular processes such as growth and division. To establish polarity, cells rely on elaborate regulation networks that control the distribution of proteins at the cell membrane. In fission yeast cells, a microtubule-dependent network has been identified that polarizes the distribution of signaling proteins that restricts growth to cell ends and targets the cytokinetic machinery to the middle of the cell. Although many molecular components have been shown to play a role in this network, it remains unknown which molecular functionalities are minimally required to establish a polarized protein distribution in this system. Here we show that a membrane-binding protein fragment, which distributes homogeneously in wild-type fission yeast cells, can be made to concentrate at cell ends by attaching it to a cytoplasmic microtubule end-binding protein. This concentration results in a polarized pattern of chimera proteins with a spatial extension that is very reminiscent of natural polarity patterns in fission yeast. However, chimera levels fluctuate in response to microtubule dynamics, and disruption of microtubules leads to disappearance of the pattern. Numerical simulations confirm that the combined functionality of membrane anchoring and microtubule tip affinity is in principle sufficient to create polarized patterns. Our chimera protein may thus represent a simple molecular functionality that is able to polarize the membrane, onto which additional layers of molecular complexity may be built to provide the temporal robustness that is typical of natural polarity patterns.

  4. Polarization Effects at a Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    1998-11-01

    For Muon Colliders, Polarization will be a useful tool if high polarization is achievable with little luminosity loss. Formulation and effects of beam polarization and luminosity including polarization effects in Higgs resonance studies are discussed for improving precision measurements and Higgs resonance ''discovery'' capability e.g. at the First Muon Collider (FMC).

  5. Polarization effects in radiative decay of a polarized τ lepton

    SciTech Connect

    Gakh, G. I.; Konchatnij, M. I. Korchin, A. Yu.; Merenkov, N. P.

    2015-02-15

    The polarization effects in the one-meson radiative decay of a polarized τ lepton, τ → π{sup −}γν{sub τ}, are investigated. The inner bremsstrahlung and structural amplitudes are taken into account. The asymmetry of the differential decay width caused by the τ-lepton polarization and the Stokes parameters of the emitted photon itself are calculated depending on the polarization of the decaying τ lepton. These physical quantities are estimated numerically for an arbitrary direction of the τ lepton polarization 3-vector in the rest frame. The vector and axial-vector form factors describing the structure-dependent part of the decay amplitude are determined using the chiral effective theory with resonances (RχT)

  6. Fit of fluxes of sunscreens and other compounds from propylene glycol:water (30:70) through human skin and silicone membrane to the Roberts-Sloan equation: the effect of polar vehicle (or water) solubility.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Kenneth B; Devarajan-Ketha, Hemamalini; Synovec, Jennifer; Majumdar, Susruta

    2013-01-01

    It would be useful to develop a surrogate for animal skin, which could be use to predict flux through human skin. The fluxes (and physicochemical properties) of sunscreens and other compounds from propylene glycol (PG):water (AQ), 30:70, through human skin have previously been reported. We measured the fluxes of several of those sunscreens and other compounds from PG:AQ, 30:70, through silicone membrane and fit both sets of data to the Roberts-Sloan (RS) equation to determine any similarities. For both sets of data, the fluxes were directly dependent on their solubilities in a lipid solvent [octanol (OCT), in this case] and in a polar solvent (PG:AQ, 30:70, or AQ in this case) and inversely on their molecular weights. The fit of the experimental (EXP) fluxes through human skin in vivo to RS was excellent: r² = 0.92 if the vehicle (VEH) PG:AQ, 30:70 was the polar solvent (RS¹) or r² = 0.97 if water was the polar solvent (RS²). The fit of the EXP fluxes through silicone membrane to RS was good: r² = 0.80 if the VEH PG:AQ, 30:70, was the polar solvent (RS¹) or r² = 0.81 if water was the polar solvent (RS²). The correlations between their EXP fluxes through human skin in vivo and their EXP fluxes through silicone membrane were good (r² = 0.85). In addition, the correlation between EXP fluxes from PG:AQ, 30:70, through human skin in vivo and their fluxes calculated from the coefficients of the fit of solubilities, molecular weights and fluxes from water through silicone membranes from a previous n = 22 database to RS was even better (r² = 0.94). These results suggest that flux through human skin can be calculated from flux through a silicone membrane.

  7. Fit of fluxes of sunscreens and other compounds from propylene glycol:water (30:70) through human skin and silicone membrane to the Roberts-Sloan equation: the effect of polar vehicle (or water) solubility.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Kenneth B; Devarajan-Ketha, Hemamalini; Synovec, Jennifer; Majumdar, Susruta

    2013-01-01

    It would be useful to develop a surrogate for animal skin, which could be use to predict flux through human skin. The fluxes (and physicochemical properties) of sunscreens and other compounds from propylene glycol (PG):water (AQ), 30:70, through human skin have previously been reported. We measured the fluxes of several of those sunscreens and other compounds from PG:AQ, 30:70, through silicone membrane and fit both sets of data to the Roberts-Sloan (RS) equation to determine any similarities. For both sets of data, the fluxes were directly dependent on their solubilities in a lipid solvent [octanol (OCT), in this case] and in a polar solvent (PG:AQ, 30:70, or AQ in this case) and inversely on their molecular weights. The fit of the experimental (EXP) fluxes through human skin in vivo to RS was excellent: r² = 0.92 if the vehicle (VEH) PG:AQ, 30:70 was the polar solvent (RS¹) or r² = 0.97 if water was the polar solvent (RS²). The fit of the EXP fluxes through silicone membrane to RS was good: r² = 0.80 if the VEH PG:AQ, 30:70, was the polar solvent (RS¹) or r² = 0.81 if water was the polar solvent (RS²). The correlations between their EXP fluxes through human skin in vivo and their EXP fluxes through silicone membrane were good (r² = 0.85). In addition, the correlation between EXP fluxes from PG:AQ, 30:70, through human skin in vivo and their fluxes calculated from the coefficients of the fit of solubilities, molecular weights and fluxes from water through silicone membranes from a previous n = 22 database to RS was even better (r² = 0.94). These results suggest that flux through human skin can be calculated from flux through a silicone membrane. PMID:23752033

  8. Polar groups in membrane channels: consequences of replacing alanines with serines in membrane-spanning gramicidin channels.

    PubMed

    Daily, Anna E; Kim, Jung H; Greathouse, Denise V; Andersen, Olaf S; Koeppe, Roger E

    2010-08-17

    To explore the consequences of burying polar, hydrogen-bonding hydroxyl groups within the hydrocarbon core of lipid bilayer membranes, we examined the structural and functional effects of alanine-to-serine substitutions in bilayer-spanning gramicidin channels. A native Ala was replaced by Ser at position 3 or 5 in the gramicidin A (gA) sequence: formyl-VG(2)A(3)LA(5)VVVWLWLWLW-ethanolamide (d-residues underlined). In the head-to-head dimers that form the conducting, membrane-spanning gA channels, these sequence positions are located near the lipid bilayer center (and subunit interface). The sequence substitutions at positions 3 and 5 were tested within the context of having either Gly or d-Ala at position 2, because d-Ala(2) causes the channel lifetimes to increase 3-fold relative to Gly(2) [Mattice et al. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 6827]. Size-exclusion chromatograms and circular dichroism spectra show that the Ala --> Ser replacements are well tolerated and have little effect on channel structure. In planar bilayers, the Ser-substituted gramicidins form well-defined channels, with cation conductances that are approximately 60% of those of the reference channels. The Ser-substituted channels are structurally equivalent to native gramicidin channels, as demonstrated by the formation of heterodimeric channels between a Ser-containing subunit and a native gramicidin subunit. These hybrid channels exhibit rectification, attributable to asymmetric placement of the single Ser hydroxyl group with respect to the bilayer center. Compared to the corresponding Ala-containing reference channels, the polar Ser residues decrease the analogues' channel-forming potency by 3 orders of magnitude, indicating a substantial energetic penalty ( approximately 15 kJ/mol) for burying the polar Ser side chain in the bilayer hydrophobic core.

  9. Concentration polarization of interacting solute particles in cross-flow membrane filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, S.; Kim, A.S.; Elimelech, M.

    1999-04-01

    A theoretical approach for predicting the influence of interparticle interactions on concentration polarization and the ensuing permeate flux decline during cross-flow membrane filtration of charged solute particles is presented. The Ornstein-Zernike integral equation is solved using appropriate closures corresponding to hard-spherical and long-range solute-solute interactions to predict the radial distribution function of the solute particles in a concentrated solution (dispersion). Two properties of the solution, namely the osmotic pressure and the diffusion coefficient, are determined on the basis of the radial distribution function at different solute concentrations. Incorporation of the concentration dependence of these two properties in the concentration polarization model comprising the convective-diffusion equation and the osmotic-pressure governed permeate flux equation leads to the coupled prediction of the solute concentration profile and the local permeate flux. The approach leads to a direct quantitative incorporation of solute-solute interactions in the framework of a standard theory of concentration polarization. The developed model is used to study the effects of ionic strength and electrostatic potential on the variations of solute diffusivity and osmotic pressure. Finally, the combined influence of these two properties on the permeate flux decline behavior during cross-flow membrane filtration of charged solute particles is predicted.

  10. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program biocatalysis research activity. Potential membrane applications to biocatalyzed processes: Assessment of concentration polarization and membrane fouling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingham, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Separation and purification of the products of biocatalyzed fermentation processes, such as ethanol or butanol, consumes most of the process energy required. Since membrane systems require substantially less energy for separation than most alternatives (e.g., distillation) they have been suggested for separation or concentration of fermentation products. This report is a review of the effects of concentration polarization and membrane fouling for the principal membrane processes: microfiltration, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis including a discussion of potential problems relevant to separation of fermentation products. It was concluded that advanced membrane systems may result in significantly decreased energy consumption. However, because of the need to separate large amounts of water from much smaller amounts of product that may be more volatile than wate, it is not clear that membrane separations will necessarily be more efficient than alternative processes.

  11. Temperature dependence of spectral induced polarization data: experimental results and membrane polarization theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairlein, Katharina; Bücker, Matthias; Hördt, Andreas; Hinze, Björn

    2016-04-01

    Spectral induced polarization measurements are affected by temperature variations due to a variety of temperature-dependent parameters that control the complex electrical conductivity. Most important is the influence of the ion mobility, which increases with increasing temperature. It is responsible for the increase of the conductivity of the fluid in the pores with temperature and influences the electrical double layer on the mineral surface. This work is based on laboratory measurements of 13 sandstone samples from different sources with different geological and petrophysical characteristics. We measured the complex impedance in a frequency range from 0.01 to 100 Hz and a temperature range from 0 to 40 °C. The main observation is a decrease of the characteristic time (defined by the inverse of the frequency, at which the phase shift is maximum) with increasing temperature. The strength of this decrease differs from one sample to another. The temperature dependence of the phase shift magnitude cannot easily be generalized, as it depends on the particular sample. The experimental findings suggest that neglecting the influence of temperature on complex conductivity may lead to significant errors when estimating hydraulic conductivity from relaxation time. We also simulate the temperature dependence with a theoretical model of membrane polarization and review some of the model properties, with an emphasis on the temperature dependence of the parameters. The model reproduces several features characterizing the measured data, including the temperature dependence of the characteristic times. Computed tomography and microscope images of the pore structure of three samples also allow us to associate differences in the geometrical parameters used in the modelling with pore scale parameters of the actual samples.

  12. REDUCTION OF CONCENTRATION POLARIZATION IN PERVAPORATION USING VIBRATING MEMBRANE MODULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A vibrating membrane module currently marketed for filtration applications was evaluated for the separation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from aqueous solutions by pervaporation. Preliminary screening experiments with three VOCs, four silicone membranes, and in the presenc...

  13. Polarized EMC Effect in Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Cloet; A. W. Thomas; W. Bentz

    2006-06-05

    The discovery of the EMC effect and the proton spin crisis by the European Muon Collaboration are two of the standout experiments of the last 25 years. It is therefore surprising that there has been no experimental and little theoretical investigation of the spin structure functions of atomic nuclei. To address this we present results for the spin-dependent structure functions of nuclei. The quark degrees of freedom in nuclei are accessed via the convolution formalism. Where the nucleon bound state is obtained by solving the relativistic Faddeev equation, and a relativistic shell model is used to model the atomic nucleus. We find the important result that the medium modifications to the polarized structure functions are about twice that of the unpolarized case.

  14. Apical-basal membrane polarity of membrane phosphatases in isolated capillary endothelium: alteration in ultrastructural localisation under culture conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, R L; Sandra, A

    1993-01-01

    Capillaries from freshly isolated rat epididymal fat were subjected to protocols that allowed ultrastructural localisation of alkaline phosphatase and 5'-nucleotidase. Alkaline phosphatase was almost entirely restricted to the capillary luminal membrane and vesicles associated with this membrane. 5'-nucleotidase was localised on the basal or abluminal membrane and associated vesicles. Arterioles and occasional venules were also present in the cell isolates, and arteriole localisation of 5'-nucleotidase was identical to that in capillaries. In venules, 5'-nucleotidase often failed to exhibit a polarised distribution and was present on both membrane domains. In confluent cultured endothelial cells, 5'-nucleotidase was not expressed in a predominantly polarised arrangement. Alkaline phosphatase was found on apical surfaces and regions of lateral cell contact. The results of these studies show that capillary endothelial cells exhibit enzyme polarity of their surface membranes which is subject to change on introduction of the cells to tissue culture. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8226289

  15. Feedback regulation between plasma membrane tension and membrane-bending proteins organizes cell polarity during leading edge formation.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, Kazuya; Takenawa, Tadaomi; Itoh, Toshiki

    2015-06-01

    Tension applied to the plasma membrane (PM) is a global mechanical parameter involved in cell migration. However, how membrane tension regulates actin assembly is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that FBP17, a membrane-bending protein and an activator of WASP/N-WASP-dependent actin nucleation, is a PM tension sensor involved in leading edge formation. In migrating cells, FBP17 localizes to short membrane invaginations at the leading edge, while diminishing from the cell rear in response to PM tension increase. Conversely, following reduced PM tension, FBP17 dots randomly distribute throughout the cell, correlating with loss of polarized actin assembly on PM tension reduction. Actin protrusive force is required for the polarized accumulation, indicating a role for FBP17-mediated activation of WASP/N-WASP in PM tension generation. In vitro experiments show that FBP17 membrane-bending activity depends on liposomal membrane tension. Thus, FBP17 is the local activator of actin polymerization that is inhibited by PM tension in the feedback loop that regulates cell migration.

  16. Dlg5 maintains apical polarity by promoting membrane localization of Crumbs during Drosophila oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jun; Wang, Heng; Kang, Di; Guo, Xuan; Wan, Ping; Wang, Dou; Chen, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Apical-basal polarity plays critical roles in the functions of epithelial tissues. However, the mechanisms of epithelial polarity establishment and maintenance remain to be fully elucidated. Here we show that the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family protein Dlg5 is required for the maintenance of apical polarity of follicle epithelium during Drosophila oogenesis. Dlg5 localizes at the apical membrane and adherens junction (AJ) of follicle epithelium in early stage egg chambers. Specifically, we demonstrate that the major function of Dlg5 is to promote apical membrane localization of Crumbs, since overexpression of Crumbs but not other major apical or AJ components could rescue epithelial polarity defects resulted from loss of Dlg5. Furthermore, we performed a structure-function analysis of Dlg5 and found that the C-terminal PDZ3 and PDZ4 domains are required for all Dlg5’s functions as well as its ability to localize to apical membrane. The N-terminal coiled-coil motif could be individually targeted to the apical membrane, while the central linker region could be targeted to AJ. Lastly, the MAGUK core domains of PDZ4-SH3-GUK could be individually targeted to apical, AJ and basolateral membranes. PMID:27211898

  17. Nonequilibrium spin polarization induced charge Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Dazhi; Qiu, Z.; Iguchi, R.; Sato, K.; Uchida, K.; Bauer, G. W.; Saitoh, Eiji

    2015-03-01

    The nonequilibrium spin polarization lies at the heart of information processing in spin-based devices. The generation and manipulation of the spin polarization have been realized by various approaches, however, the spin polarization is usually considered to have negligible effect on the electric transport property, especially for systems of high electron concentration like metals (ɛF ~ eV). Here we show that the nonequilibrium spin polarization can cause a novel Hall voltage in a conventional metallic alloy at room temperature, which is due to a new mechanism and closely related to the spin Nernst effect.

  18. Electrokinetic effects near a membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoste, David

    2009-03-01

    We discuss the electrostatic and electrokinetic contribution to the elastic moduli of a cell or artificial membrane placed in an electrolyte and driven by a DC electric field. The field drives ion currents across the membrane, through specific channels, pumps or natural pores. In steady state, charges accumulate in the Debye layers close to the membrane, modifying the membrane elastic moduli. We first study a model of a membrane of zero thickness, later generalizing this treatment to allow for a finite thickness and finite dielectric constant. Our results clarify and extend the results presented in [D. Lacoste, M. Cosentino Lagomarsino, and J. F. Joanny, Europhys. Lett., 77, 18006 (2007)], by providing a physical explanation for a destabilizing term proportional to kps^3 in the fluctuation spectrum, which we relate to a nonlinear (E^2) electro-kinetic effect called induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO). Recent studies of ICEO have focused on electrodes and polarizable particles, where an applied bulk field is perturbed by capacitive charging of the double layer and drives flow along the field axis toward surface protrusions; we predict similar ICEO flows around driven membranes, due to curvature-induced tangential fields within a non-equilibrium double layer, which hydrodynamically enhance protrusions.

  19. Polarization effects and multipolarization SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Imaging radar polarimeters are usually implemented using a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) approach to give a high resolution image in two dimensions: range and azimuth. For each pixel in the image a polarimetric SAR gives sufficient information to characterize the polarimetric scattering properties of the imaged area (or target) as seen by the radar. Using a polarimetric SAR system as opposed to a single-polarization SAR system provides significantly more information about the target scattering mechanisms and allows better discrimination between different types of surfaces. In these notes a brief overview of SAR polarimetry is offered. The notes are intended as a text to accompany a lecture on SAR polarimetry as part of an AGARD-NATO course. Covered in the notes are the following: the polarization properties of electromagnetic waves; the concepts of radar scattering and measuring radar backscatter with a SAR; polarization synthesis; scattering matrix, Stokes matrix, and covariance matrix representations of polarimetric SAR data; polarization signature plots; design and calibration of polarimetric SAR systems; polarization filtering for target detection; fitting a simple model to polarimetric SAR measurements of naturally occurring features; and supervised classification of polarimetric SAR data.

  20. Probing membrane protein structure using water polarization transfer solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jonathan K.; Hong, Mei

    2014-10-01

    Water plays an essential role in the structure and function of proteins, lipid membranes and other biological macromolecules. Solid-state NMR heteronuclear-detected 1H polarization transfer from water to biomolecules is a versatile approach for studying water-protein, water-membrane, and water-carbohydrate interactions in biology. We review radiofrequency pulse sequences for measuring water polarization transfer to biomolecules, the mechanisms of polarization transfer, and the application of this method to various biological systems. Three polarization transfer mechanisms, chemical exchange, spin diffusion and NOE, manifest themselves at different temperatures, magic-angle-spinning frequencies, and pulse irradiations. Chemical exchange is ubiquitous in all systems examined so far, and spin diffusion plays the key role in polarization transfer within the macromolecule. Tightly bound water molecules with long residence times are rare in proteins at ambient temperature. The water polarization-transfer technique has been used to study the hydration of microcrystalline proteins, lipid membranes, and plant cell wall polysaccharides, and to derive atomic-resolution details of the kinetics and mechanism of ion conduction in channels and pumps. Using this approach, we have measured the water polarization transfer to the transmembrane domain of the influenza M2 protein to obtain information on the structure of this tetrameric proton channel. At short mixing times, the polarization transfer rates are site-specific and depend on the pH, labile protons, sidechain conformation, as well as the radial position of the residues in this four-helix bundle. Despite the multiple dependences, the initial transfer rates reflect the periodic nature of the residue positions from the water-filled pore, thus this technique provides a way of gleaning secondary structure information, helix tilt angle, and the oligomeric structure of membrane proteins.

  1. Quantitative analysis of membrane trafficking in regulation of Cdc42 polarity.

    PubMed

    Watson, Leah J; Rossi, Guendalina; Brennwald, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    Vesicle delivery of Cdc42 has been proposed as an important mechanism for generating and maintaining Cdc42 polarity at the plasma membrane. This mechanism requires the density of Cdc42 on secretory vesicles to be equal to or higher than the plasma membrane polarity cap. Using a novel method to estimate Cdc42 levels on post-Golgi secretory vesicles in intact yeast cells, we: (1) determined that endocytosis plays an important role in Cdc42's association with secretory vesicles (2) found that a GFP-tag placed on the N-terminus of Cdc42 negatively impacts this vesicle association and (3) quantified the surface densities of Cdc42 on post-Golgi vesicles which revealed that the vesicle density of Cdc42 is three times more dilute than that at the polarity cap. This work suggests that the immediate consequence of secretory vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane polarity cap is to dilute the local Cdc42 surface density. This provides strong support for the model in which vesicle trafficking acts to negatively regulate Cdc42 polarity on the cell surface while also providing a means to recycle Cdc42 between the cell surface and internal membrane locations.

  2. Effects of climate change on polar bears.

    PubMed

    Wiig, Øystein; Aars, Jon; Born, Erik W

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we review the effects on polar bears of global warming that have already been observed, and try to evaluate what may happen to the polar bears in the future. Many researchers have predicted a wide range of impacts of climate change on polar bear demography and conditions. A predicted major reduction in sea ice habitat will reduce the availability of ice associated seals, the main prey of polar bears, and a loss and fragmentation of polar bear habitat will ultimately lead to large future reductions in most subpopulations. It is likely that polar bears will be lost from many areas where they are common today and also that the total population will change into a few more distinctly isolated populations.

  3. Polarized protein membrane for high cell seeding efficiency.

    PubMed

    Atthoff, Björn; Aulin, Cecilia; Adelöw, Catharina; Hilborn, Jöns

    2007-11-01

    A new type of scaffold for tissue engineering was developed to give enhanced cell seeding in three dimensions. A gradient of either collagen or fibrin protein was prepared, supported by a knitted poly(ethylene terephtalate) PET fabric. The membranes were, after hydrolysis and acetic acid wash, submerged in a protein solution for adsorption followed by immersion into a gelling agent. The immediate contact between the protein solution held by the fabric and the gelling agent resulted in a dense, fibrous protein network with pore sizes around 0.5 microm at the surface, and larger pores of 10-50 microm size throughout the interior of the fabric as observed by scanning electron microscopy. By separating the fabric double layers holding this network, a gradient porosity membrane was produced. To evaluate the fractions of cells trapped in the matrix upon seeding, i.e. the seeding efficiency, 500 microl 3T3 fibroblasts cell suspension containing one million cells was seeded by filtering through the gradient protein membrane. For both the collagen and fibrin membranes, the seeding efficiency was approximately 93%, which was significantly higher than that of 28% from the corresponding PET fabric without protein immobilization. Attempt to seed cells from the dense side of the protein networks resulted in no cell penetration into the scaffold. Histology on subsequent culture of the cells in the scaffold demonstrated viability and proliferation in three dimensions throughout the scaffold. This new and simple way of producing scaffolds play an important role when the cells are precious or scarce and cell seeding in three dimensions is important. PMID:17443668

  4. Polar interactions trump hydrophobicity in stabilizing the self-inserting membrane protein Mistic.

    PubMed

    Broecker, Jana; Fiedler, Sebastian; Gimpl, Katharina; Keller, Sandro

    2014-10-01

    Canonical integral membrane proteins are attached to lipid bilayers through hydrophobic transmembrane helices, whose topogenesis requires sophisticated insertion machineries. By contrast, membrane proteins that, for evolutionary or functional reasons, cannot rely on these machineries need to resort to driving forces other than hydrophobicity. A striking example is the self-inserting Bacillus subtilis protein Mistic, which is involved in biofilm formation and has found application as a fusion tag supporting the recombinant production and bilayer insertion of other membrane proteins. Although this unusual protein contains numerous polar and charged residues and lacks characteristic membrane-interaction motifs, it is tightly bound to membranes in vivo and membrane-mimetic systems in vitro. Therefore, we set out to quantify the contributions from polar and nonpolar interactions to the coupled folding and insertion of Mistic. To this end, we defined conditions under which the protein can be unfolded completely and reversibly from various detergent micelles by urea in a two-state equilibrium and where the unfolded state is independent of the detergent used for solubilizing the folded state. This enabled equilibrium unfolding experiments previously used for soluble and β-barrel membrane proteins, revealing that polar interactions with ionic and zwitterionic headgroups and, presumably, the interfacial dipole potential stabilize the protein much more efficiently than nonpolar interactions with the micelle core. These findings unveil the forces that allow a protein to tightly interact with a membrane-mimetic environment without major hydrophobic contributions and rationalize the differential suitability of detergents for the extraction and solubilization of Mistic-tagged membrane proteins.

  5. Ischemia induces partial loss of surface membrane polarity and accumulation of putative calcium ionophores.

    PubMed Central

    Molitoris, B A; Wilson, P D; Schrier, R W; Simon, F R

    1985-01-01

    To determine if ischemia induces alterations in renal proximal tubule surface membranes, brush border (BBM) and basolateral membranes (BLM) were isolated simultaneously from the same cortical homogenate after 50 min of renal pedicle clamping. Ischemia caused a selective decrease in the specific activity of BBM marker enzymes leucine aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase, but did not effect enrichment (15 times). Neither specific activity nor enrichment (10 times) of BLM NaK-ATPase was altered by ischemia. Contamination of BBM by intracellular organelles was also unchanged, but there was an increase in the specific activity (41.1 vs. 60.0, P less than 0.01) and enrichment (2.3 vs. 4.3, P less than 0.01) of NaK-ATPase in the ischemic BBM fraction. Ischemia increased BLM lysophosphatidylcholine (1.3 vs. 2.5%, P less than 0.05) and phosphatidic acid (0.4 vs. 1.3%, P less than 0.05). Ischemia also decreased BBM sphingomyelin (38.5 vs. 29.6%, P less than 0.01) and phosphatidylserine (16.1 vs. 11.4%, P less than 0.01), and increased phosphatidylcholine (17.2 vs. 29.7%, P less than 0.01), phosphatidylinositol (1.8 vs. 4.6%, P less than 0.01), and lysophosphatidylcholine (1.0 vs. 1.8%, P less than 0.05). The large changes in BBM phospholipids did not result from new phospholipid synthesis, since the specific activity (32P dpm/nmol Pi) of prelabeled individual and total phospholipids was unaltered by ischemia. We next evaluated if these changes were due to inability of ischemic cells to maintain surface membrane polarity. Cytochemical evaluation showed that while NaK-ATPase could be detected only in control BLM, specific deposits of reaction product were present in the BBM of ischemic kidneys. Furthermore, using continuous sucrose gradients, the enzymatic profile of ischemic BBM NaK-ATPase shifted away from ischemic BLM NaK-ATPase and toward the BBM enzymatic marker leucine aminopeptidase. Taken together, these data suggest that NaK-ATPase activity determined enzymatically

  6. The young and happy marriage of membrane traffic and cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Barry J; Perez, Franck; Vaccari, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    The ESF-EMBO meeting on 'Cell Polarity and Membrane Traffic' took place in Poland in April 2012. It brought together scientists from two once separate fields and highlighted their emerging interdependence. The wealth of scientific insights and discoveries presented laid a path for future research.

  7. DETERMINATION OF POLAR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN WATER BY MEMBRANE PERMEATE AND TRAP GC-MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel approach is presented combining semipermeable membranes with the accepted purge and trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technology to produce a method of selectively extracting polar, volatile organic compounds from water, particularly those compounds not am...

  8. Overlimiting current through ion concentration polarization layer: hydrodynamic convection effects.

    PubMed

    Cho, Inhee; Sung, Gun Yong; Kim, Sung Jae

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we experimentally investigated an effect of the hydrodynamic convective flow on ion transport through a nanoporous membrane in a micro/nanofluidic modeled system. The convective motion of ions in an ion concentration polarization (ICP) layer was controlled by external hydrodynamic inflows adjacent to the nanoporous membrane. The ion depletion region, which is regarded as a high electrical resistance, was spatially confined to a triangular shape with the additional hydrodynamic convective flow, resulting in a significant alteration in the classical ohmic-limiting-overlimiting current characteristics. Furthermore, the extreme spatial confinement can completely eliminate the limiting current region at a higher flow rate, while the ICP layer still exists. The presented results enable one to obtain a high current value which turns out to be a high electrical power efficiency. Therefore, this mechanism could be utilized as an optimizing power consumption strategy for various electrochemical membrane systems such as fuel-cells, electro-desalination systems and nanofluidic preconcentrators, etc.

  9. Effective interactions between fluid membranes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bing-Sui; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2015-08-01

    A self-consistent theory is proposed for the general problem of interacting undulating fluid membranes subject to the constraint that they do not interpenetrate. We implement the steric constraint via an exact functional integral representation and, through the use of a saddle-point approximation, transform it into a novel effective steric potential. The steric potential is found to consist of two contributions: one generated by zero-mode fluctuations of the membranes and the other by thermal bending fluctuations. For membranes of cross-sectional area S, we find that the bending fluctuation part scales with the intermembrane separation d as d-2 for d≪√S but crosses over to d-4 scaling for d≫√S, whereas the zero-mode part of the steric potential always scales as d-2. For membranes interacting exclusively via the steric potential, we obtain closed-form expressions for the effective interaction potential and for the rms undulation amplitude σ, which becomes small at low temperatures T and/or large bending stiffnesses κ. Moreover, σ scales as d for d≪√S but saturates at √kBTS/κ for d≫√S. In addition, using variational Gaussian theory, we apply our self-consistent treatment to study intermembrane interactions subject to different types of potentials: (i) the Moreira-Netz potential for a pair of strongly charged membranes with an intervening solution of multivalent counterions, (ii) an attractive square well, (iii) the Morse potential, and (iv) a combination of hydration and van der Waals interactions. PMID:26382349

  10. Effective interactions between fluid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bing-Sui; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2015-08-01

    A self-consistent theory is proposed for the general problem of interacting undulating fluid membranes subject to the constraint that they do not interpenetrate. We implement the steric constraint via an exact functional integral representation and, through the use of a saddle-point approximation, transform it into a novel effective steric potential. The steric potential is found to consist of two contributions: one generated by zero-mode fluctuations of the membranes and the other by thermal bending fluctuations. For membranes of cross-sectional area S , we find that the bending fluctuation part scales with the intermembrane separation d as d-2 for d ≪√{S } but crosses over to d-4 scaling for d ≫√{S } , whereas the zero-mode part of the steric potential always scales as d-2. For membranes interacting exclusively via the steric potential, we obtain closed-form expressions for the effective interaction potential and for the rms undulation amplitude σ , which becomes small at low temperatures T and/or large bending stiffnesses κ . Moreover, σ scales as d for d ≪√{S } but saturates at √{kBT S /κ } for d ≫√{S } . In addition, using variational Gaussian theory, we apply our self-consistent treatment to study intermembrane interactions subject to different types of potentials: (i) the Moreira-Netz potential for a pair of strongly charged membranes with an intervening solution of multivalent counterions, (ii) an attractive square well, (iii) the Morse potential, and (iv) a combination of hydration and van der Waals interactions.

  11. Effect of operating conditions and membrane quality on the separation performance of composite silicalite-1 membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Graaf, J.M. van de; Bijl, E. van der; Stol, A.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulign, J.A.

    1998-10-01

    The separation capacity of silicalite-1 membranes for various hydrocarbon mixtures is determined as a function of membrane quality, operating conditions, and orientation of the composite membrane with respect to the feed side. The quality of the membranes is judged on the basis of the n-butane/i-butane permselectivity. Membranes with a different n-butane/i-butane permselectivity showed an identical separation capacity for ethane/methane mixtures, but the quality difference was affecting separation of hydrogen from the butane isomers. The selectivity of the membrane is significantly affected by the operating conditions, such as mixture composition, temperature, and absolute pressure. These effects are shown for ethane/methane, propene/ethene, and n-butane/i-butane mixtures. The selectivity for ethane in ethane/methane mixtures, found when the zeolite layer is facing the feed side, is completely lost when the orientation of the composite membrane is reversed, due to concentration polarization. Depending on the membrane orientation, the major resistance of the composite is in the support layer or in the zeolite layer.

  12. Structural effects of titanium citrate on the human erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, M; Villena, F; Norris, B; Soto, M A; Sotomayor, C P; Messori, L; Zatta, P

    2005-03-01

    The structural effects of titanium citrate on the human erythrocyte membrane were studied through its interaction with intact erythrocytes and isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes (IUM). The studies were carried out by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. Titanium citrate induced shape changes in erythrocytes, which were damaged and ruptured leaving empty and retracted membranes. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements in IUM indicated a disordering effect at both the polar head group and the acyl chain packing arrangements of the membrane phospholipid bilayer. Titanium citrate also interacted with molecular models of the erythrocyte membrane consisting in bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), representing classes of phospholipids located in the outer and inner monolayers of the erythrocyte membrane, respectively. X-ray diffraction indicated that titanium citrate induced structural perturbation of the polar head group and of the hydrophobic acyl regions of DMPC, while the effects on DMPE bilayers were negligible. This conclusion is supported by fluorescence spectroscopy measurements on DMPC large unilamellar vesicles. All these findings indicate that the structural perturbations induced by titanium to human erythrocytes can be extended to other cells, thereby affecting their functions. PMID:15708797

  13. Folding of helical membrane proteins: the role of polar, GxxxG-like and proline motifs.

    PubMed

    Senes, Alessandro; Engel, Donald E; DeGrado, William F

    2004-08-01

    Helical integral membrane proteins share several structural determinants that are widely conserved across their universe. The discovery of common motifs has furthered our understanding of the features that are important to stability in the membrane environment, while simultaneously providing clues about proteins that lack high-resolution structures. Motif analysis also helps to target mutagenesis studies, and other experimental and computational work. Three types of transmembrane motifs have recently seen interesting developments: the GxxxG motif and its like; polar and hydrogen bonding motifs; and proline motifs.

  14. The effect of polar caps on obliquity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, B. L.

    1993-01-01

    Rubincam has shown that the Martian obliquity is dependent on the seasonal polar caps. In particular, Rubincam analytically derived this dependence and showed that the change in obliquity is directly proportional to the seasonal polar cap mass. Rubincam concludes that seasonal friction does not appear to have changed Mars' climate significantly. Using a computer model for the evolution of the Martian atmosphere, Haberle et al. have made a convincing case for the possibility of huge polar caps, about 10 times the mass of the current polar caps, that exist for a significant fraction of the planet's history. Since Rubincam showed that the effect of seasonal friction on obliquity is directly proportional to polar cap mass, a scenario with a ten-fold increase in polar cap mass over a significant fraction of the planet's history would result in a secular increase in Mars' obliquity of perhaps 10 degrees. Hence, the Rubincam conclusion of an insignificant contribution to Mars' climate by seasonal friction may be incorrect. Furthermore, if seasonal friction is an important consideration in the obliquity of Mars, this would significantly alter the predictions of past obliquity.

  15. Effects of small halocarbon molecules on reverse osmosis membrane performance

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, R.C.; Glater, J.; Neethling, J.B. )

    1990-01-01

    The reverse osmosis (RO) membrane industry has long been concerned with problems of performance decline due to fouling. Colloidal and biological fouling have been discussed to some extent in the literature but little is known about the effect of small organic molecules on membrane performance. The work reported in this paper involved controlled laboratory experiments with three small halocarbons and three different types of commercial RO membranes. The compounds used were CHCl{sub 3}, CHBr{sub 3} and CCl{sub 4}. The first two represent typical small and large THM's. Carbon tetrachloride was selected as a non-polar model compound. Membranes representing three different polymer systems were provided by E. I. du Pont Inc.

  16. Inverse polarizing effect of an elliptical-polarization recorded hologram at a large cross angle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiying; Kang, Guoguo; Zang, Jinliang; Wang, Jue; Liu, Ying; Tan, Xiaodi; Shimura, Tsutomu; Kuroda, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    We report on the inverse polarizing effect (IPE) of an elliptical-polarization recorded hologram at a large recording angle. The IPE is a polarizing phenomenon in which the reconstructed signal switches the major and minor axes and keeps the original polarization, direction compared, to that of the signal wave. In reviewing the case of a linear-polarization and circular-polarization recorded hologram, we found that the IPE is a unique phenomenon for elliptical polarization. The IPE was observed at the cross angle of 38° experimentally, and was theoretically explained using tensor theory to remove paraxial limitation.

  17. Inverse polarizing effect of an elliptical-polarization recorded hologram at a large cross angle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiying; Kang, Guoguo; Zang, Jinliang; Wang, Jue; Liu, Ying; Tan, Xiaodi; Shimura, Tsutomu; Kuroda, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    We report on the inverse polarizing effect (IPE) of an elliptical-polarization recorded hologram at a large recording angle. The IPE is a polarizing phenomenon in which the reconstructed signal switches the major and minor axes and keeps the original polarization, direction compared, to that of the signal wave. In reviewing the case of a linear-polarization and circular-polarization recorded hologram, we found that the IPE is a unique phenomenon for elliptical polarization. The IPE was observed at the cross angle of 38° experimentally, and was theoretically explained using tensor theory to remove paraxial limitation. PMID:27607989

  18. Optical polarizer based on the mechanical effect of light.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Hao; Kong, Cui; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Ying

    2016-09-15

    Based on the recent experimental progress in chip-scale silicon photonics, a nontrivial polarizing effect arising from the mechanical effect of light is present in an optomechanical crystal, which enables a new nanophotonic polarizer with excellent functionality. Unlike previously reported optical polarizers, the polarizer proposed here can be adjusted rapidly by tuning polarization and intensity of the control field and may enable on-chip optical control of polarization management with remarkable applications, due to the improvement of nanofabrication techniques. PMID:27628386

  19. Polarization effects in molecular mechanical force fields

    PubMed Central

    Cieplak, Piotr; Dupradeau, François-Yves; Duan, Yong; Wang, Junmei

    2014-01-01

    The focus here is on incorporating electronic polarization into classical molecular mechanical force fields used for macromolecular simulations. First, we briefly examine currently used molecular mechanical force fields and the current status of intermolecular forces as viewed by quantum mechanical approaches. Next, we demonstrate how some components of quantum mechanical energy are effectively incorporated into classical molecular mechanical force fields. Finally, we assess the modeling methods of one such energy component—polarization energy—and present an overview of polarizable force fields and their current applications. Incorporating polarization effects into current force fields paves the way to developing potentially more accurate, though more complex, parameterizations that can be used for more realistic molecular simulations. PMID:21828594

  20. Localized topological changes of the plasma membrane upon exocytosis visualized by polarized TIRFM

    PubMed Central

    Onoa, Bibiana; Edwards, Robert H.; Holz, Ronald W.; Axelrod, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) images the plasma membrane–cytosol interface and has allowed insights into the behavior of individual secretory granules before and during exocytosis. Much less is known about the dynamics of the other partner in exocytosis, the plasma membrane. In this study, we report the implementation of a TIRFM-based polarization technique to detect rapid submicrometer changes in plasma membrane topology as a result of exocytosis. A theoretical analysis of the technique is presented together with image simulations of predicted topologies of the postfusion granule membrane–plasma membrane complex. Experiments on diI-stained bovine adrenal chromaffin cells using polarized TIRFM demonstrate rapid and varied submicrometer changes in plasma membrane topology at sites of exocytosis that occur immediately upon fusion. We provide direct evidence for a persistent curvature in the exocytotic region that is altered by inhibition of dynamin guanosine triphosphatase activity and is temporally distinct from endocytosis measured by VMAT2-pHluorin. PMID:20142424

  1. Effects of resveratrol on membrane biophysical properties: relevance for its pharmacological effects.

    PubMed

    Brittes, J; Lúcio, M; Nunes, C; Lima, J L F C; Reis, S

    2010-11-01

    The current study gathers a range of spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric techniques to systematically monitor the effects of resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydrostilbene) on the biophysical properties of membrane model systems consisting of unilamellar liposomes of phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) with the ultimate goal of relating these effects with some of the well documented pharmacological properties of this compound, and clarifying some controversial results reported on the literature. Physiological conditions have been pursued, such as a buffered pH control with adjusted ionic strength similar to the blood plasma conditions (pH 7.4, I=0.1M) and the study at different membrane physical states (gel phase and fluid phase) for the assessment of resveratrol-membrane: aqueous partition coefficient by derivative spectroscopy. Results obtained by fluorescence quenching and anisotropy studies indicate that resveratrol has a membrane fluidizing effect and is able to permeate the membrane even in the gel phase. These results mirror the well described antioxidant effect of resveratrol, since antioxidants have to reach peroxidised rigid membranes and increase membrane fluidity in order to interact more efficiently with lipid radicals in the disordered lipid bilayer. Location of resveratrol pointed also to a membrane distribution that is favourable for scavenging the lipid radicals and was elucidated using probes positioned at different membrane depths suggesting that this compound penetrates into the acyl membrane region but also positions its polar hydroxyl group near the headgroup region of the membrane. PMID:20691168

  2. Treatment of high salinity brines by direct contact membrane distillation: Effect of membrane characteristics and salinity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Guan, Yunshan; Cheng, Fangqin; Liu, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) is one of the attractive technologies for high salinity brine treatment. In this study, four polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes were examined in treating highly concentrated salt solutions. Results showed that non-supported membranes generally have a higher overall mass transfer coefficient but porosity seems to be the most important parameter controlling membrane flux and thermal efficiency. Supported membranes with large thickness had relatively higher thermal efficiency than small thickness. This can be attributed to their reduced heat loss through heat condition. In addition, KCl, NaCl and MgCl2 solutions showed distinct trends over flux decline at high salt concentrations (⩾2.0M). The difference in flux was largely due to the discrepancy in water activities of these solutions (KCl>NaCl>MgCl2). However, the effect of viscosity on permeate flux could not be neglected for MgCl2 at high salt concentrations as the suddenly increased viscosity could lead to serious temperature polarization. This study indicates that membrane distillation is a promising technology for high salinity brine treatment. PMID:25563165

  3. Treatment of high salinity brines by direct contact membrane distillation: Effect of membrane characteristics and salinity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Guan, Yunshan; Cheng, Fangqin; Liu, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) is one of the attractive technologies for high salinity brine treatment. In this study, four polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes were examined in treating highly concentrated salt solutions. Results showed that non-supported membranes generally have a higher overall mass transfer coefficient but porosity seems to be the most important parameter controlling membrane flux and thermal efficiency. Supported membranes with large thickness had relatively higher thermal efficiency than small thickness. This can be attributed to their reduced heat loss through heat condition. In addition, KCl, NaCl and MgCl2 solutions showed distinct trends over flux decline at high salt concentrations (⩾2.0M). The difference in flux was largely due to the discrepancy in water activities of these solutions (KCl>NaCl>MgCl2). However, the effect of viscosity on permeate flux could not be neglected for MgCl2 at high salt concentrations as the suddenly increased viscosity could lead to serious temperature polarization. This study indicates that membrane distillation is a promising technology for high salinity brine treatment.

  4. The polarizing effect of arousal on negotiation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ashley D; Curhan, Jared R

    2013-10-01

    In this research, we examined the impact of physiological arousal on negotiation outcomes. Conventional wisdom and the prescriptive literature suggest that arousal should be minimized given its negative effect on negotiations, whereas prior research on misattribution of arousal suggests that arousal might polarize outcomes, either negatively or positively. In two experiments, we manipulated arousal and measured its effect on subjective and objective negotiation outcomes. Our results support the polarization effect. When participants had negative prior attitudes toward negotiation, arousal had a detrimental effect on outcomes, whereas when participants had positive prior attitudes toward negotiation, arousal had a beneficial effect on outcomes. These effects occurred because of the construal of arousal as negative or positive affect, respectively. Our findings have important implications not only for negotiation, but also for research on misattribution of arousal, which previously has focused on the target of evaluation, in contrast to the current research, which focused on the critical role of the perceiver. PMID:23925306

  5. Polarization effects in cutaneous autofluorescent spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, E.; Angelova, L.; Jeliazkova, Al.; Genova, Ts.; Pavlova, E.; Troyanova, P.; Avramov, L.

    2014-05-01

    Used polarized light for fluorescence excitation one could obtain response related to the anisotropy features of extracellular matrix. The fluorophore anisotropy is attenuated during lesions' growth and level of such decrease could be correlated with the stage of tumor development. Our preliminary investigations are based on in vivo point-by-point measurements of excitation-emission matrices (EEM) from healthy volunteers skin on different ages and from different anatomical places using linear polarizer and analyzer for excitation and emission light detected. Measurements were made using spectrofluorimeter FluoroLog 3 (HORIBA Jobin Yvon, France) with fiber-optic probe in steady-state regime using excitation in the region of 280-440 nm. Three different situations were evaluated and corresponding excitation-emission matrices were developed - with parallel and perpendicular positions for linear polarizer and analyzer, and without polarization of excitation and fluorescence light detected from a forearm skin surface. The fluorescence spectra obtained reveal differences in spectral intensity, related to general attenuation, due to filtering effects of used polarizer/analyzer couple. Significant spectral shape changes were observed for the complex autofluorescence signal detected, which correlated with collagen and protein cross-links fluorescence, that could be addressed to the tissue extracellular matrix and general condition of the skin investigated, due to morphological destruction during lesions' growth. A correlation between volunteers' age and the fluorescence spectra detected was observed during our measurements. Our next step is to increase developed initial database and to evaluate all sources of intrinsic fluorescent polarization effects and found if they are significantly altered from normal skin to cancerous state of the tissue, this way to develop a non-invasive diagnostic tool for dermatological practice.

  6. Plasma membrane protein polarity and trafficking in RPE cells: Past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Guillermo L.; Benedicto, Ignacio; Philp, Nancy J.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) comprises a monolayer of polarized pigmented epithelial cells that is strategically interposed between the neural retina and the fenestrated choroid capillaries. The RPE performs a variety of vectorial transport functions (water, ions, metabolites, nutrients and waste products) that regulate the composition of the subretinal space and support the functions of photoreceptors (PRs) and other cells in the neural retina. To this end, RPE cells display a polarized distribution of channels, transporters and receptors in their plasma membrane (PM) that is remarkably different from that found in conventional extra-ocular epithelia, e.g. intestine, kidney, and gall bladder. This characteristic PM protein polarity of RPE cells depends on the interplay of sorting signals in the RPE PM proteins and sorting mechanisms and biosynthetic/recycling trafficking routes in the RPE cell. Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the RPE trafficking machinery, most available data have been obtained from immortalized RPE cell lines that only partially maintain the RPE phenotype and by extrapolation of data obtained in the prototype Madin–Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line. The increasing availability of RPE cell cultures that more closely resemble the RPE in vivo together with the advent of advanced live imaging microscopy techniques provides a platform and an opportunity to rapidly expand our understanding of how polarized protein trafficking contributes to RPE PM polarity. PMID:25152359

  7. Radiation effects on bovine taste bud membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Shatzman, A.R.; Mossman, K.L.

    1982-11-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of radiation-induced taste loss, the effects of radiation on preparations of enriched bovine taste bud membranes were studied. Taste buds containing circumvallate papilae, and surrounding control epithelial tissues devoid of taste buds, were obtained from steers and given radiation doses of 0-7000 cGy (rad). Tissue fractions were isolated into membrane-enriched and heterogeneous components using differential and sucrose gradient centrifugation of tissue homogenates. The yield of membranes, as measured by protein content in the buoyant membrane-enriched fractions, was reduced in quantity with increasing radiation dose. The relation between radiation dose and membrane quantity in membrane-enriched fractions could be fit by a simple exponential model with taste bud-derived membranes twice as radiosensitive as membranes from control epithelial tissue. Binding of sucrose, sodium, and acetate and fluoride stimulation of adenylate cyclase were nearly identical in both irradiated and nonirradiated intact membranes. Radiation had no effect on fractions of heterogeneous components. While it is not clear what changes are occurring in enriched taste cell membranes, damage to membranes may play an important role in the taste loss observed in patients following radiotherapy.

  8. Cellular Solid-State NMR Investigation of a Membrane Protein Using Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Caporini, Marc A.; Im, Sang-Choul; Waskell, Lucy; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-01-01

    While an increasing number of structural biology studies successfully demonstrate the power of high-resolution structures and dynamics of membrane proteins in fully understanding their function, there is considerable interest in developing NMR approaches to obtain such information in a cellular setting. As long as the proteins inside the living cell tumble rapidly in the NMR timescale, recently developed in-cell solution NMR approaches can be applied towards the determination of 3D structural information. However, there are numerous challenges that need to be overcome to study membrane proteins inside a cell. Research in our laboratory is focused on developing a combination of solid-state NMR and biological approaches to overcome these challenges with a specific emphasis on obtaining high-resolution structural insights into electron transfer biological processes mediated by membrane-bound proteins like mammalian cytochrome b5, cytochrome P450 and cytochrome P450 reductase. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of using the signal-enhancement rendered by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy for in-cell studies on a membrane-anchored protein. Our experimental results obtained from 13C-labeled membrane-anchored cytochrome b5 in native Escherichia coli cells show a ~16-fold DNP signal enhancement (ε). Further, results obtained from a 2D 13C/13C chemical shift correlation MAS experiment demonstrates that it is highly possible to suppress the background signals from other cellular contents for high-resolution structural studies on membrane proteins. We believe that this study would pave new avenues for high-resolution 3D structural studies on a variety of membrane-associated proteins and their complexes in the cellular context to fully understand their functional roles in physiological processes. PMID:25017802

  9. Different sets of ER-resident J-proteins regulate distinct polar nuclear-membrane fusion events in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Masaya; Endo, Toshiya; Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi

    2014-11-01

    Angiosperm female gametophytes contain a central cell with two polar nuclei. In many species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, the polar nuclei fuse during female gametogenesis. We previously showed that BiP, an Hsp70 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), was essential for membrane fusion during female gametogenesis. Hsp70 function requires partner proteins for full activity. J-domain containing proteins (J-proteins) are the major Hsp70 functional partners. A. thaliana ER contains three soluble J-proteins, AtERdj3A, AtERdj3B, and AtP58(IPK). Here, we analyzed mutants of these proteins and determined that double-mutant ovules lacking AtP58(IPK) and AtERdj3A or AtERdj3B were defective in polar nuclear fusion. Electron microscopy analysis identified that polar nuclei were in close contact, but no membrane fusion occurred in mutant ovules lacking AtP58(IPK) and AtERdj3A. The polar nuclear outer membrane appeared to be connected via the ER remaining at the inner unfused membrane in mutant ovules lacking AtP58(IPK) and AtERdj3B. These results indicate that ER-resident J-proteins, AtP58(IPK)/AtERdj3A and AtP58(IPK)/AtERdj3B, function at distinct steps of polar nuclear-membrane fusion. Similar to the bip1 bip2 double mutant female gametophytes, the aterdj3a atp58(ipk) double mutant female gametophytes defective in fusion of the outer polar nuclear membrane displayed aberrant endosperm proliferation after fertilization with wild-type pollen. However, endosperm proliferated normally after fertilization of the aterdj3b atp58(ipk) double mutant female gametophytes defective in fusion of the inner membrane. Our results indicate that the polar nuclear fusion defect itself does not cause an endosperm proliferation defect.

  10. Single-mode and single-polarization photonics with anchored-membrane waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiles, Jeff; Fathpour, Sasan

    2016-08-01

    An integrated photonic platform with anchored-membrane structures, the T-Guide, is proposed and numerically investigated. These compact air-clad structures have high index contrast and are much more stable than prior membrane-type structures. Their semi-infinite geometry enables single-mode and single-polarization (SMSP) operation over unprecedented bandwidths. Modal simulations quantify this behavior, showing that an SMSP window of 2.75 octaves (1.2 - 8.1 {\\mu}m) is feasible for silicon T-Guides, spanning almost the entire transparency range of silicon. Dispersion engineering for T-Guides yields broad regions of anomalous group velocity dispersion, rendering them a promising platform for nonlinear applications, such as wideband frequency conversion.

  11. Chern-Simons anomaly as polarization effect

    SciTech Connect

    Semikoz, V.B.; Valle, J.W.F. E-mail: valle@ific.uv.es

    2011-11-01

    The parity violating Chern-Simons term in the epoch before the electroweak phase transition can be interpreted as a polarization effect associated to massless right-handed electrons (positrons) in the presence of a large-scale seed hypermagnetic field. We reconfirm the viability of a unified seed field scenario relating the cosmological baryon asymmetry and the origin of the protogalactic large-scale magnetic fields observed in astronomy.

  12. Improvement the equation of polarization curve of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell at different channel geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazaee, I.

    2015-12-01

    The polarization curve of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is an important parameter which is expressed by the change of voltage and current of it that indicates the performance of the cell. The voltage of the cell is a function of temperature that is expressed by the Nernst equation and the equation of voltage losses such as activation loss, ohmic loss and concentration loss. In this study a new correlation for polarization curve is obtained that it in addition to temperature, a new parameter is involved in it that shows the effect of the geometry of cross-section area of channels. For this purpose three PEM fuel cells with different channels geometry of rectangular, elliptical and triangular have constructed. The active area of each cell is 25 cm2 that its weight is 1300 g. The material of the gas diffusion layer is carbon clothes, the membrane is nafion 117 and the catalyst layer is a plane with 0.004 g/cm2 platinum. Also a test bench designed and constructed for testing the cell and a series of experiments are carried out to investigate the influence of the geometry of the cell on performance of the cell. The results show that when the geometry of channel is rectangular the performance of the cell is better than the triangular and elliptical channel.

  13. Rack1 is required for Vangl2 membrane localization and planar cell polarity signaling while attenuating canonical Wnt activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuangding; Esterberg, Robert; Lachance, Veronik; Ren, Dongdong; Radde-Gallwitz, Kristen; Chi, Fanglu; Parent, Jean-Luc; Fritz, Andreas; Chen, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The vertebrate planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway shares molecular components with the β-catenin–mediated canonical Wnt pathway but acts through membrane complexes containing Vang or Frizzled to orient neighboring cells coordinately. The molecular interactions underlying the action of Vang in PCP signaling and specification, however, are yet to be delineated. Here, we report the identification of Rack1 as an interacting protein of a vertebrate Vang protein, Vangl2. We demonstrate that Rack1 is required in zebrafish for PCP-regulated processes, including oriented cell division, cellular polarization, and convergent extension during gastrulation. We further show that the knockdown of Rack1 affects membrane localization of Vangl2 and that the Vangl2-interacting domain of Rack1 has a dominant-negative effect on Vangl2 localization and gastrulation. Moreover, Rack1 antagonizes canonical Wnt signaling. Together, our data suggest that Rack1 regulates the localization of an essential PCP protein and acts as a molecular switch to promote PCP signaling. PMID:21262816

  14. Studies of the molecular effects of a solid support upon lipid membranes and membrane bound proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartshorn, Christopher M.

    Often, membrane/protein systems are studied and/or utilized on solid supports. The underlying substrate in solid supported lipid bilayer assemblies causes large perturbations to the membrane, but the nature of these effects are not well understood. To gain an understanding, these effects were studied on two fronts: the effect upon the membrane by itself, and then the effects upon a membrane/protein system. First, all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of DLPC, DMPC, POPC, and DEPC on a hydroxylated nanocrystalline alpha-quartz (011) slab revealed a pronounced thinning effect in the lipid bilayers. It was shown that this thinning effect proceeded by one of two mechanisms: the first through a curling of the terminal methyl groups at the interface of the opposing leaflets, and the second through increased interdigitation of the alkyl chains. Also, with the introduction of the solid support, marked asymmetries in a number of structural properties were reported. These asymmetries included (a) the surface area per lipid, (b) the electron densities of the polar head groups, (c) the radial distributions of the choline groups, and (d) the average orientation of water surrounding the membranes. Next, the free energy perturbation method was used to begin calculating the change in free energy (DeltaGbinding) from a Gramicidin monomer to its dimeric state, which were simulated via MD of supported DLPC, DMPC, and DEPC bilayers. The most notable effect was an asymmetry of the calculated free energies relative to the bilayer side closest to the solid support. In all three systems, there was a large difference in free energy between the Gramicidin monomers that were close to the support and the monomers further from the support.

  15. The Influence of Non Polar and Polar Molecules in Mouse Motile Cells Membranes and Pure Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Sierra-Valdez, Francisco J.; Forero-Quintero, Linda S.; Zapata-Morin, Patricio A.; Costas, Miguel; Chavez-Reyes, Arturo; Ruiz-Suárez, Jesús C.

    2013-01-01

    We report an experimental study of mouse sperm motility that shows chief aspects characteristic of neurons: the anesthetic (produced by tetracaine) and excitatory (produced by either caffeine or calcium) effects and their antagonic action. While tetracaine inhibits sperm motility and caffeine has an excitatory action, the combination of these two substances balance the effects, producing a motility quite similar to that of control cells. We also study the effects of these agents (anesthetic and excitatory) on the melting points of pure lipid liposomes constituted by 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (DPPA). Tetracaine induces a large fluidization of the membrane, shifting the liposomes melting transition temperature to much lower values. The effect of caffeine is null, but its addition to tetracaine-doped liposomes greatly screen the fluidization effect. A high calcium concentration stiffens pure lipid membranes and strongly reduces the effect of tetracaine. Molecular Dynamics Simulations are performed to further understand our experimental findings at the molecular level. We find a strong correlation between the effect of antagonic molecules that could explain how the mechanical properties suitable for normal cell functioning are affected and recovered. PMID:23565149

  16. Quantitation of lysolipids, fatty acids, and phospholipase A2 activity and correlation with membrane polarity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jasmeet; Ranganathan, Radha

    2012-01-01

    Acrylodan-labeled rat-intestinal fatty acid binding protein, ADIFAB, binds both of lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC) and FA. Binding displaces Acrylodan and its fluorescence peak shifts from 432 to 505 nm. A fluorescence assay that relies on this shift is presented for quantitating LPC, FA, and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity in phospholipid bilayers in absolute units of μM/min/mg of enzyme. This is a development over an earlier assay that took into account only FA binding. Activities of bee venom PLA2 on dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dioleylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers were measured. Standard pH-Stat assays validated the present assay. Products increase linearly with time for about one minute in DOPC and five minutes in DPPC corresponding to completion of 5 to 8% hydrolysis in DOPC and 20% in DPPC. Membrane polarity and microviscosity measured using electron spin resonance (ESR) exhibited discontinuities at compositions that mimicked similar percentages of hydrolysis products in the respective bilayers. The observed hydrolysis rate decrease following the initial linear period thus correlates to changes in membrane polarity. The ability of the assay to yield actual product concentrations, reveal structure in the reaction progress curves, and interpretation in light of the ESR data bring insight into the shape of the reaction curve. PMID:22773689

  17. Effects of 3D geometries on cellular gradient sensing and polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spill, Fabian; Andasari, Vivi; Mak, Michael; Kamm, Roger D.; Zaman, Muhammad H.

    2016-06-01

    During cell migration, cells become polarized, change their shape, and move in response to various internal and external cues. Cell polarization is defined through the spatio-temporal organization of molecules such as PI3K or small GTPases, and is determined by intracellular signaling networks. It results in directional forces through actin polymerization and myosin contractions. Many existing mathematical models of cell polarization are formulated in terms of reaction-diffusion systems of interacting molecules, and are often defined in one or two spatial dimensions. In this paper, we introduce a 3D reaction-diffusion model of interacting molecules in a single cell, and find that cell geometry has an important role affecting the capability of a cell to polarize, or change polarization when an external signal changes direction. Our results suggest a geometrical argument why more roundish cells can repolarize more effectively than cells which are elongated along the direction of the original stimulus, and thus enable roundish cells to turn faster, as has been observed in experiments. On the other hand, elongated cells preferentially polarize along their main axis even when a gradient stimulus appears from another direction. Furthermore, our 3D model can accurately capture the effect of binding and unbinding of important regulators of cell polarization to and from the cell membrane. This spatial separation of membrane and cytosol, not possible to capture in 1D or 2D models, leads to marked differences of our model from comparable lower-dimensional models.

  18. Effects of 3D geometries on cellular gradient sensing and polarization.

    PubMed

    Spill, Fabian; Andasari, Vivi; Mak, Michael; Kamm, Roger D; Zaman, Muhammad H

    2016-01-01

    During cell migration, cells become polarized, change their shape, and move in response to various internal and external cues. Cell polarization is defined through the spatio-temporal organization of molecules such as PI3K or small GTPases, and is determined by intracellular signaling networks. It results in directional forces through actin polymerization and myosin contractions. Many existing mathematical models of cell polarization are formulated in terms of reaction-diffusion systems of interacting molecules, and are often defined in one or two spatial dimensions. In this paper, we introduce a 3D reaction-diffusion model of interacting molecules in a single cell, and find that cell geometry has an important role affecting the capability of a cell to polarize, or change polarization when an external signal changes direction. Our results suggest a geometrical argument why more roundish cells can repolarize more effectively than cells which are elongated along the direction of the original stimulus, and thus enable roundish cells to turn faster, as has been observed in experiments. On the other hand, elongated cells preferentially polarize along their main axis even when a gradient stimulus appears from another direction. Furthermore, our 3D model can accurately capture the effect of binding and unbinding of important regulators of cell polarization to and from the cell membrane. This spatial separation of membrane and cytosol, not possible to capture in 1D or 2D models, leads to marked differences of our model from comparable lower-dimensional models. PMID:27345945

  19. Effects of 3D geometries on cellular gradient sensing and polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spill, Fabian; Andasari, Vivi; Mak, Michael; Kamm, Roger D.; Zaman, Muhammad H.

    2016-06-01

    During cell migration, cells become polarized, change their shape, and move in response to various internal and external cues. Cell polarization is defined through the spatio-temporal organization of molecules such as PI3K or small GTPases, and is determined by intracellular signaling networks. It results in directional forces through actin polymerization and myosin contractions. Many existing mathematical models of cell polarization are formulated in terms of reaction–diffusion systems of interacting molecules, and are often defined in one or two spatial dimensions. In this paper, we introduce a 3D reaction–diffusion model of interacting molecules in a single cell, and find that cell geometry has an important role affecting the capability of a cell to polarize, or change polarization when an external signal changes direction. Our results suggest a geometrical argument why more roundish cells can repolarize more effectively than cells which are elongated along the direction of the original stimulus, and thus enable roundish cells to turn faster, as has been observed in experiments. On the other hand, elongated cells preferentially polarize along their main axis even when a gradient stimulus appears from another direction. Furthermore, our 3D model can accurately capture the effect of binding and unbinding of important regulators of cell polarization to and from the cell membrane. This spatial separation of membrane and cytosol, not possible to capture in 1D or 2D models, leads to marked differences of our model from comparable lower-dimensional models.

  20. Folded state of the integral membrane colicin E1 immunity protein in solvents of mixed polarity.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R M; Zakharov, S D; Bernard Heymann, J; Girvin, M E; Cramer, W A

    2000-10-10

    The colicin E1 immunity protein (ImmE1), a 13.2-kDa hydrophobic integral membrane protein localized in the Escherichia coli cytoplasmic membrane, protects the cell from the lethal, channel-forming activity of the bacteriocin, colicin E1. Utilizing its solubility in organic solvents, ImmE1 was purified by 1-butanol extraction of isolated membranes, followed by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography in a chloroform/methanol/H(2)O (4:4:1) solvent system. Circular dichroism analysis indicated that the alpha-helical content of ImmE1 is approximately 80% in 1-butanol or 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, consistent with a previous membrane-folding model with three extended hydrophobic transmembrane helical domains, H1-H3. Each of these extended hydrophobic domains contains a centrally located single Cys residue that could be used as a probe of protein structure. The presence of tertiary structure of purified ImmE1 in a solvent of mixed polarity, chloroform/methanol/H(2)O (4:4:1) was demonstrated by (i) the constraints on Tyr residues shown by the amplitude of near-UV circular dichroism spectra in the wavelength interval, 270-285 nm; (ii) the correlation between the near-UV Tyr CD spectrum of single and double Cys-to-X mutants of the Imm protein and their in vivo activity; (iii) the upfield shift of methyl groups in a 1D NMR spectrum, a 2D- HSQC NMR spectrum of ImmE1 in the mixed polarity solvent mixture, and a broadening and disappearance of the indole (1)H proton resonance from Trp94 in H3 by a spin label attached to Cys16 in the H2 hydrophobic domain; (iv) near-UV circular dichroism spectra with a prominent ellipticity band centered at 290 nm from a single Trp inserted into the extended hydrophobic domains. It was concluded that the colicin E1 immunity protein adopts a folded conformation in chloroform/methanol/H(2)O (4:4:1) that is stabilized by helix-helix interactions. Analysis of the probable membrane folding topology indicated that several Tyr residues in the bilayer

  1. Nuclear polarization effects in big bang nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronchev, Victor T.; Nakao, Yasuyuki

    2015-10-01

    A standard nuclear reaction network for big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) simulations operates with spin-averaged nuclear inputs—unpolarized reaction cross sections. At the same time, the major part of reactions controlling the abundances of light elements is spin dependent, i.e., their cross sections depend on the mutual orientation of reacting particle spins. Primordial magnetic fields in the BBN epoch may to a certain degree polarize particles and thereby affect some reactions between them, introducing uncertainties in standard BBN predictions. To clarify the points, we have examined the effects of induced polarization on key BBN reactions—p (n ,γ )d , d (d ,p )t , d (d ,n )He 3 , t (d ,n )α , He 3 (n ,p )t , He 3 (d ,p )α , Li 7 (p ,α )α , Be 7 (n ,p )Li 7 —and the abundances of elements with A ≤7 . It has been obtained that the magnetic field with the strength B0≤1012 G (at the temperature of 109 K ) has almost no effect on the reaction cross sections, and the spin polarization mechanism plays a minor role in the element production, changing the abundances at most by 0.01%. However, if the magnetic field B0 reaches 1015 G its effect on the key reactions appears and becomes appreciable at B0≳1016 G . In particular, it has been found that such a field can increase the p (n ,γ )d cross section (relevant to the starting point of BBN) by a factor of 2 and at the same time almost block the He 3 (n ,p )t reaction responsible for the interconversion of A =3 nuclei in the early Universe. This suggests that the spin polarization effects may become important in nonstandard scenarios of BBN considering the existence of local magnetic bubbles inside which the field can reach ˜1015 G .

  2. Polarization Effects in Optical Coherence Tomography of Various Biological Tissues

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Johannes F.; Srinivas, Shyam M.; Park, B. Hyle; Pham, Tuan H.; Chen, Zhongping; Milner, Thomas E.; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) was used to obtain spatially resolved ex vivo images of polarization changes in skeletal muscle, bone, skin and brain. Through coherent detection of two orthogonal polarization states of the signal formed by interference of light reflected from the biological sample and a mirror in the reference arm of a Michelson interferometer, the depth resolved change in polarization was measured. Inasmuch as any fibrous structure will influence the polarization of light, PS-OCT is a potentially powerful technique investigating tissue structural properties. In addition, the effects of single polarization state detection on OCT image formation is demonstrated. PMID:25774083

  3. Effect of 3D Polarization profiles on polarization measurements and colliding beam experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Bazilevsky, A.

    2011-08-18

    The development of polarization profiles are the primary reason for the loss of average polarization. Polarization profiles have been parametrized with a Gaussian distribution. We derive the effect of 3-dimensional polarization profiles on the measured polarization in polarimeters, as well as the observed polarization and the figure of merit in single and double spin experiments. Examples from RHIC are provided. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is the only collider of spin polarized protons. During beam acceleration and storage profiles of the polarization P develop, which affect the polarization measured in a polarimeter, and the polarization and figure of merit (FOM) in colliding beam experiments. We calculate these for profiles in all dimensions, and give examples for RHIC. Like in RHIC we call the two colliding beams Blue and Yellow. We use the overbar to designate intensity-weighted averages in polarimeters (e.g. {bar P}), and angle brackets to designate luminosity-weighted averages in colliding beam experiments (e.g.

    ).

  4. Induced-charge electrokinetics, bipolar current, and concentration polarization in a microchannel-Nafion-membrane system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sinwook; Yossifon, Gilad

    2016-06-01

    The presence of a floating electrode array located within the depletion layer formed due to concentration polarization across a microchannel-membrane interface device may produce not only induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) but also bipolar current resulting from the induced Faradaic reaction. It has been shown that there exists an optimal thickness of a thin dielectric coating that is sufficient to suppress bipolar currents but still enables ICEO vortices that stir the depletion layer, thereby affecting the system's current-voltage response. In addition, the use of alternating-current electro-osmosis by activating electrodes results in further enhancement of the fluid stirring and opens new routes for on-demand spatiotemporal control of the depletion layer length.

  5. Induced-charge electrokinetics, bipolar current, and concentration polarization in a microchannel-Nafion-membrane system.

    PubMed

    Park, Sinwook; Yossifon, Gilad

    2016-06-01

    The presence of a floating electrode array located within the depletion layer formed due to concentration polarization across a microchannel-membrane interface device may produce not only induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) but also bipolar current resulting from the induced Faradaic reaction. It has been shown that there exists an optimal thickness of a thin dielectric coating that is sufficient to suppress bipolar currents but still enables ICEO vortices that stir the depletion layer, thereby affecting the system's current-voltage response. In addition, the use of alternating-current electro-osmosis by activating electrodes results in further enhancement of the fluid stirring and opens new routes for on-demand spatiotemporal control of the depletion layer length. PMID:27415327

  6. Effect of membrane polymeric materials on relationship between surface pore size and membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Taro; Yuasa, Kotaku; Ishigami, Toru; Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Kamio, Eiji; Ohmukai, Yoshikage; Saeki, Daisuke; Ni, Jinren; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the effect of different membrane polymeric materials on the relationship between membrane pore size and development of membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). Membranes with different pore sizes were prepared using three different polymeric materials, cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), polyvinyl butyral (PVB), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and the development of membrane fouling in each membrane was evaluated by batch filtration tests using a mixed liquor suspension obtained from a laboratory-scale MBR. The results revealed that the optimal membrane pore size to mitigate membrane fouling differed depending on membrane polymeric material. For PVDF membranes, the degree of membrane fouling decreased as membrane pore size increased. In contrast, CAB membranes with smaller pores had less fouling propensity than those with larger ones. Such difference can be attributed to the difference in major membrane foulants in each membrane; in PVDF, they were small colloids or dissolved organics in which proteins are abundant, and in CAB, microbial flocs. The results obtained in this study strongly suggested that optimum operating conditions of MBRs differ depending on the characteristics of the used membrane.

  7. Formation of a Bazooka-Stardust complex is essential for plasma membrane polarity in epithelia.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Michael P; Bückers, Johanna; Kastrup, Lars; Wodarz, Andreas

    2010-09-01

    Apical-basal polarity in Drosophila melanogaster epithelia depends on several evolutionarily conserved proteins that have been assigned to two distinct protein complexes: the Bazooka (Baz)-PAR-6 (partitioning defective 6)-atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) complex and the Crumbs (Crb)-Stardust (Sdt) complex. These proteins operate in a functional hierarchy, in which Baz is required for the proper subcellular localization of all other proteins. We investigated how these proteins interact and how this interaction is regulated. We show that Baz recruits Sdt to the plasma membrane by direct interaction between the Postsynaptic density 95/Discs large/Zonula occludens 1 (PDZ) domain of Sdt and a region of Baz that contains a phosphorylation site for aPKC. Phosphorylation of Baz causes the dissociation of the Baz-Sdt complex. Overexpression of a nonphosphorylatable version of Baz blocks the dissociation of Sdt from Baz, causing phenotypes very similar to those of crb and sdt mutations. Our findings provide a molecular mechanism for the phosphorylation-dependent interaction between the Baz-PAR-3 and Crb complexes during the establishment of epithelial polarity.

  8. The Cdc42 Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor FGD6 Coordinates Cell Polarity and Endosomal Membrane Recycling in Osteoclasts*

    PubMed Central

    Steenblock, Charlotte; Heckel, Tobias; Czupalla, Cornelia; Espírito Santo, Ana Isabel; Niehage, Christian; Sztacho, Martin; Hoflack, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The initial step of bone digestion is the adhesion of osteoclasts onto bone surfaces and the assembly of podosomal belts that segregate the bone-facing ruffled membrane from other membrane domains. During bone digestion, membrane components of the ruffled border also need to be recycled after macropinocytosis of digested bone materials. How osteoclast polarity and membrane recycling are coordinated remains unknown. Here, we show that the Cdc42-guanine nucleotide exchange factor FGD6 coordinates these events through its Src-dependent interaction with different actin-based protein networks. At the plasma membrane, FGD6 couples cell adhesion and actin dynamics by regulating podosome formation through the assembly of complexes comprising the Cdc42-interactor IQGAP1, the Rho GTPase-activating protein ARHGAP10, and the integrin interactors Talin-1/2 or Filamin A. On endosomes and transcytotic vesicles, FGD6 regulates retromer-dependent membrane recycling through its interaction with the actin nucleation-promoting factor WASH. These results provide a mechanism by which a single Cdc42-exchange factor controlling different actin-based processes coordinates cell adhesion, cell polarity, and membrane recycling during bone degradation. PMID:24821726

  9. The Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor FGD6 coordinates cell polarity and endosomal membrane recycling in osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Steenblock, Charlotte; Heckel, Tobias; Czupalla, Cornelia; Espírito Santo, Ana Isabel; Niehage, Christian; Sztacho, Martin; Hoflack, Bernard

    2014-06-27

    The initial step of bone digestion is the adhesion of osteoclasts onto bone surfaces and the assembly of podosomal belts that segregate the bone-facing ruffled membrane from other membrane domains. During bone digestion, membrane components of the ruffled border also need to be recycled after macropinocytosis of digested bone materials. How osteoclast polarity and membrane recycling are coordinated remains unknown. Here, we show that the Cdc42-guanine nucleotide exchange factor FGD6 coordinates these events through its Src-dependent interaction with different actin-based protein networks. At the plasma membrane, FGD6 couples cell adhesion and actin dynamics by regulating podosome formation through the assembly of complexes comprising the Cdc42-interactor IQGAP1, the Rho GTPase-activating protein ARHGAP10, and the integrin interactors Talin-1/2 or Filamin A. On endosomes and transcytotic vesicles, FGD6 regulates retromer-dependent membrane recycling through its interaction with the actin nucleation-promoting factor WASH. These results provide a mechanism by which a single Cdc42-exchange factor controlling different actin-based processes coordinates cell adhesion, cell polarity, and membrane recycling during bone degradation. PMID:24821726

  10. Trace analysis of polar pharmaceuticals in wastewater by LC-MS-MS: comparison of membrane bioreactor and activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    Celiz, Mary Dawn; Pérez, Sandra; Barceló, Damià; Aga, Diana S

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the efficiency of wastewater treatment plants in removing pharmaceuticals from wastewater, sensitive and reliable methods are necessary for trace analysis of these micropollutants in the presence of a highly complex matrix. In this study, conventional activated sludge (CAS) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) treatment systems are compared in eliminating pharmaceuticals in wastewater. The pharmaceuticals investigated include aceclofenac, carbamazepine, diclofenac, enalapril, and trimethoprim. Analysis is performed using a liquid chromatograph with hybrid linear ion-trap mass spectrometer equipped with a polar reversed-phase column to achieve good separation and minimize matrix effects. To pre-concentrate the samples, the use of two types of solid-phase extraction packing materials in tandem assures good recoveries of all the target analytes. In the influent, the concentration of these compounds ranges from 0.09 to 1.4 microg/L. Diclofenac shows resistance to degradation in the CAS but is amenable to degradation in the MBR. Trimethoprim and enalapril are only slightly eliminated in the CAS but are reduced by more than 95% in the MBR. Carbamazepine removal is negligible, while aceclofenac is only 50% reduced in CAS and MBR. In general, these results indicate that MBR has a higher efficiency in removing some polar pharmaceuticals in wastewater.

  11. High electrical field effects on cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Pliquett, U; Joshi, R P; Sridhara, V; Schoenbach, K H

    2007-05-01

    Electrical charging of lipid membranes causes electroporation with sharp membrane conductance increases. Several recent observations, especially at very high field strength, are not compatible with the simple electroporation picture. Here we present several relevant experiments on cell electrical responses to very high external voltages. We hypothesize that, not only are aqueous pores created within the lipid membranes, but that nanoscale membrane fragmentation occurs, possibly with micelle formation. This effect would produce conductivity increases beyond simple electroporation and display a relatively fast turn-off with external voltage. In addition, material loss can be expected at the anode side of cells, in agreement with published experimental reports at high fields. Our hypothesis is qualitatively supported by molecular dynamics simulations. Finally, such cellular responses might temporarily inactivate voltage-gated and ion-pump activity, while not necessarily causing cell death. This hypothesis also supports observations on electrofusion.

  12. Membrane topologies of the PGLa antimicrobial peptide and a transmembrane anchor sequence by Dynamic Nuclear Polarization/solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Salnikov, Evgeniy Sergeevich; Aisenbrey, Christopher; Aussenac, Fabien; Ouari, Olivier; Sarrouj, Hiba; Reiter, Christian; Tordo, Paul; Engelke, Frank; Bechinger, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has been introduced to overcome the sensitivity limitations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy also of supported lipid bilayers. When investigated by solid-state NMR techniques the approach typically involves doping the samples with biradicals and their investigation at cryo-temperatures. Here we investigated the effects of temperature and membrane hydration on the topology of amphipathic and hydrophobic membrane polypeptides. Although the antimicrobial PGLa peptide in dimyristoyl phospholipids is particularly sensitive to topological alterations, the DNP conditions represent well its membrane alignment also found in bacterial lipids at ambient temperature. With a novel membrane-anchored biradical and purpose-built hardware a 17-fold enhancement in NMR signal intensity is obtained by DNP which is one of the best obtained for a truly static matrix-free system. Furthermore, a membrane anchor sequence encompassing 19 hydrophobic amino acid residues was investigated. Although at cryotemperatures the transmembrane domain adjusts it membrane tilt angle by about 10 degrees, the temperature dependence of two-dimensional separated field spectra show that freezing the motions can have beneficial effects for the structural analysis of this sequence. PMID:26876950

  13. Single-molecule tracking of small GTPase Rac1 uncovers spatial regulation of membrane translocation and mechanism for polarized signaling

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sulagna; Yin, Taofei; Yang, Qingfen; Zhang, Jingqiao; Wu, Yi I.; Yu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Polarized Rac1 signaling is a hallmark of many cellular functions, including cell adhesion, motility, and cell division. The two steps of Rac1 activation are its translocation to the plasma membrane and the exchange of nucleotide from GDP to GTP. It is, however, unclear whether these two processes are regulated independent of each other and what their respective roles are in polarization of Rac1 signaling. We designed a single-particle tracking (SPT) method to quantitatively analyze the kinetics of Rac1 membrane translocation in living cells. We found that the rate of Rac1 translocation was significantly elevated in protrusions during cell spreading on collagen. Furthermore, combining FRET sensor imaging with SPT measurements in the same cell, the recruitment of Rac1 was found to be polarized to an extent similar to that of the nucleotide exchange process. Statistical analysis of single-molecule trajectories and optogenetic manipulation of membrane lipids revealed that Rac1 membrane translocation precedes nucleotide exchange, and is governed primarily by interactions with phospholipids, particularly PI(3,4,5)P3, instead of protein factors. Overall, the study highlights the significance of membrane translocation in spatial Rac1 signaling, which is in addition to the traditional view focusing primarily on GEF distribution and exchange reaction. PMID:25561548

  14. Electrostatics of cell membrane recognition: structure and activity of neutral and cationic rigid push-pull rods in isoelectric, anionic, and polarized lipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Sakai, N; Gerard, D; Matile, S

    2001-03-21

    Design, synthesis, and structural and functional studies of rigid-rod ionophores of different axial electrostatic asymmetry are reported. The employed design strategy emphasized presence of (a) a rigid scaffold to minimize the conformational complexity, (b) a unimolecular ion-conducting pathway to minimize the suprastructural complexity and monitor the function, (c) an extended fluorophore to monitor structure, (d) variable axial rod dipole, and (e) variable terminal charges to create axial asymmetry. Studies in isoelectric, anionic, and polarized bilayer membranes confirmed a general increase in activity of uncharged rigid push-pull rods in polarized bilayers. The similarly increased activity of cationic rigid push-pull rods with an electrostatic asymmetry comparable to that of alpha-helical bee toxin melittin (positive charge near negative axial dipole terminus) is shown by fluorescence-depth quenching experiments to originate from the stabilization of transmembrane rod orientation by the membrane potential. The reduced activity of rigid push-pull rods having an electrostatic asymmetry comparable to that in alpha-helical natural antibiotics (a positive charge near the positive axial dipole terminus) is shown by structural studies to originate from rod "ejection" by membrane potentials comparable to that found in mammalian plasma membranes. This structural evidence for cell membrane recognition by asymmetric rods is unprecedented and of possible practical importance with regard to antibiotic resistance.

  15. Effect of Preparation Methods on Crystallization Behavior and Tensile Strength of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Lu, Xiaolong; Wu, Chunrui

    2013-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes were prepared by non solvent induced phase separation (NIPS), melt spinning and the solution-cast method. The effect of preparation methods with different membrane formation mechanisms on crystallization behavior and tensile strength of PVDF membranes was investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to examine the crystal form of the surface layers and the overall membranes, respectively. Spherulite morphologies and thermal behavior of the membranes were studied by polarized light optical microscopy (PLO) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) separately. It was found that the crystallization behavior of PVDF membranes was closely related to the preparation methods. For membranes prepared by the NIPS method, the skin layers had a mixture of α and β phases, the overall membranes were predominantly α phase, and the total crystallinity was 60.0% with no spherulite. For melt spinning membranes, the surface layers also showed a mixture of α and β phases, the overall membranes were predominantly α phase. The total crystallinity was 48.7% with perfect spherulites. Whereas the crystallization behavior of solution-cast membranes was related to the evaporation temperature and the additive, when the evaporation temperature was 140 °C with a soluble additive in the dope solution, obvious spherulites appeared. The crystalline morphology of PVDF exerted a great influence on the tensile strength of the membranes, which was much higher with perfect spherulites. PMID:24957064

  16. Lipophilic and polar interaction forces between acidic drugs and membrane phospholipids encoded in IAM-HPLC indexes: their role in membrane partition and relationships with BBB permeation data.

    PubMed

    Grumetto, Lucia; Carpentiero, Carmen; Di Vaio, Paola; Frecentese, Francesco; Barbato, Francesco

    2013-03-01

    The membrane phospholipid affinity data, log k(w)(IAM), for 18 acidic and unionized drugs spanning a wide lipophilicity range were measured by HPLC on two different phospholipid stationary phases, i.e. IAM.PC.MG and IAM.PC.DD2. These data related weakly with both log P(N) values, the n-octanol/water partition coefficients of the neutral forms, and log D(7.4) values, the n-octanol/water partition coefficients of the mixtures of neutral and ionized forms at pH 7.4. The lack of collinearity confirms that, differently from partition in n-octanol/water, partition in phospholipids encodes not only lipophilic/hydrophobic intermolecular recognition forces but also ionic bonds, due to electrostatic interactions between electrically charged species and phospholipids, according to the "pH piston hypothesis". Since, differently from bases, electrostatic interactions between acids and phospholipids take place at the surface of phospholipid layers (choline moieties), and not near their lipophilic core (phosphate moieties), they were parameterized by a new procedure yielding "Δ'log k(w)(IAM)" parameters, i.e. the difference between the IAM retention factors observed for the analytes and those of neutral compounds with the same n-octanol partition values displayed by the analytes at pH 7.4. All acidic analytes, but one, and all unionized analytes, but the unionizable ones, showed positive Δ'log k(w)(IAM) values, indicating that they partition stronger in phospholipids than in n-octanol. Log BB values (capability to pass BBB) weakly related with both lipophilicity and phospholipid affinity values; in contrast they are inversely related with Δ'log k(w)(IAM) values. The relationships between log BB and Δ'log k(w)(IAM) practically overlapped the previously found log BB/Δlog k(w)(IAM) relationships for bases. The excess of polar interaction component between acidic drugs and phospholipids, mainly electrostatic forces, although enhancing partition in phospholipids, hinders membrane

  17. Polarization Effects Aboard the Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Jason; Young, Martin; Dubovitsky, Serge; Dorsky, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    For precision displacement measurements, laser metrology is currently one of the most accurate measurements. Often, the measurement is located some distance away from the laser source, and as a result, stringent requirements are placed on the laser delivery system with respect to the state of polarization. Such is the case with the fiber distribution assembly (FDA) that is slated to fly aboard the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) next decade. This system utilizes a concatenated array of couplers, polarizers and lengthy runs of polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber to distribute linearly-polarized light from a single laser to fourteen different optical metrology measurement points throughout the spacecraft. Optical power fluctuations at the point of measurement can be traced back to the polarization extinction ration (PER) of the concatenated components, in conjunction with the rate of change in phase difference of the light along the slow and fast axes of the PM fiber.

  18. The aPKC/Par3/Par6 Polarity Complex and Membrane Order Are Functionally Interdependent in Epithelia During Vertebrate Organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Abu-Siniyeh, Ahmed; Owen, Dylan M; Benzing, Carola; Rinkwitz, Silke; Becker, Thomas S; Majumdar, Arindam; Gaus, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The differential distribution of lipids between apical and basolateral membranes is necessary for many epithelial cell functions, but how this characteristic membrane organization is integrated within the polarity network during ductal organ development is poorly understood. Here we quantified membrane order in the gut, kidney and liver ductal epithelia in zebrafish larvae at 3-11 days post fertilization (dpf) with Laurdan 2-photon microscopy. We then applied a combination of Laurdan imaging, antisense knock-down and analysis of polarity markers to understand the relationship between membrane order and apical-basal polarity. We found a reciprocal relationship between membrane order and the cell polarity network. Reducing membrane condensation by exogenously added oxysterol or depletion of cholesterol reduced apical targeting of the polarity protein, aPKC. Conversely, using morpholino knock down in zebrafish, we found that membrane order was dependent upon the Crb3 and Par3 polarity protein expression in ductal epithelia. Hence our data suggest that the biophysical property of membrane lipid packing is a regulatory element in apical basal polarity.

  19. Polarization effects in silver delafossite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panapitiya, Gihan; Lewis, James P.

    Delafossites are a promising class of materials which has applications in catalysis and optoelectronic devices. Even though much work has been carried out on the cuprate family of delafossites, little is known about the structural and electronic properties of it's silver counterpart. In this work, we present a computational study for two delafossite oxides of the form AgB1 - x FexO2 (For B = Al,Ga). A large number of structures are studied by varying the Fe alloying percentage(x) from 0 to 5 and by choosing the impurity sites randomly. We find that the local structural changes occurring at the vicinity of Fe atoms in these two systems have opposite trends with regard to the O-O distance. The reason for this difference in the trends is identified as the polarization effects on the inter-atomic distances caused by the displacements in O atoms resulting from the incorporation of Fe in sites, previously occupied by either Al or Ga. We believe that these effects are mediated by the differences in the atomic radii of Fe, Al and Ga. Higher alloying levels coupled with nearest neighbor Fe atoms can intensify these distortions in the structure creating deformations in the O-Ag-O bonds, which are directly related to the formation of the conduction band edge in these systems.

  20. Bone marrow homing and engraftment of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is mediated by a polarized membrane domain.

    PubMed

    Larochelle, Andre; Gillette, Jennifer M; Desmond, Ronan; Ichwan, Brian; Cantilena, Amy; Cerf, Alexandra; Barrett, A John; Wayne, Alan S; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Dunbar, Cynthia E

    2012-02-23

    Manipulation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) ex vivo is of clinical importance for stem cell expansion and gene therapy applications. However, most cultured HSPCs are actively cycling, and show a homing and engraftment defect compared with the predominantly quiescent noncultured HSPCs. We previously showed that HSPCs make contact with osteoblasts in vitro via a polarized membrane domain enriched in adhesion molecules such as tetraspanins. Here we show that increased cell cycling during ex vivo culture of HSPCs resulted in disruption of this membrane domain, as evidenced by disruption of polarity of the tetraspanin CD82. Chemical disruption or antibody-mediated blocking of CD82 on noncultured HSPCs resulted in decreased stromal cell adhesion, homing, and engraftment in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency IL-2γ(null) (NSG) mice compared with HSPCs with an intact domain. Most leukemic blasts were actively cycling and correspondingly displayed a loss of domain polarity and decreased homing in NSG mice compared with normal HSPCs. We conclude that quiescent cells, unlike actively cycling cells, display a polarized membrane domain enriched in tetraspanins that mediates homing and engraftment, providing a mechanistic explanation for the homing/engraftment defect of cycling cells and a potential new therapeutic target to enhance engraftment.

  1. Cdc42-dependent Modulation of Tight Junctions and Membrane Protein Traffic in Polarized Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Raul; Ruiz, Wily G.; Leung, Som-Ming; Jou, Tzuu-Shuh; Apodaca, Gerard

    2001-01-01

    Polarized epithelial cells maintain the asymmetric composition of their apical and basolateral membrane domains by at least two different processes. These include the regulated trafficking of macromolecules from the biosynthetic and endocytic pathway to the appropriate membrane domain and the ability of the tight junction to prevent free mixing of membrane domain-specific proteins and lipids. Cdc42, a Rho family GTPase, is known to govern cellular polarity and membrane traffic in several cell types. We examined whether this protein regulated tight junction function in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and pathways that direct proteins to the apical and basolateral surface of these cells. We used Madin-Darby canine kidney cells that expressed dominant-active or dominant-negative mutants of Cdc42 under the control of a tetracycline-repressible system. Here we report that expression of dominant-active Cdc42V12 or dominant-negative Cdc42N17 altered tight junction function. Expression of Cdc42V12 slowed endocytic and biosynthetic traffic, and expression of Cdc42N17 slowed apical endocytosis and basolateral to apical transcytosis but stimulated biosynthetic traffic. These results indicate that Cdc42 may modulate multiple cellular pathways required for the maintenance of epithelial cell polarity. PMID:11514615

  2. Electroviscous Effects in Ceramic Nanofiltration Membranes.

    PubMed

    Farsi, Ali; Boffa, Vittorio; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    2015-11-16

    Membrane permeability and salt rejection of a γ-alumina nanofiltration membrane were studied and modeled for different salt solutions. Salt rejection was predicted by using the Donnan-steric pore model, in which the extended Nernst-Planck equation was applied to predict ion transport through the pores. The solvent flux was modeled by using the Hagen-Poiseuille equation by introducing electroviscosity instead of bulk viscosity. γ-Alumina particles were used for ζ-potential measurements. The ζ-potential measurements show that monovalent ions did not adsorb on the γ-alumina surface, whereas divalent ions were highly adsorbed. Thus, for divalent ions, the model was modified, owing to pore shrinkage caused by ion adsorption. The ζ-potential lowered the membrane permeability, especially for membranes with a pore radius lower than 3 nm, a ζ-potential higher than 20 mV, and an ionic strength lower than 0.01 m. The rejection model showed that, for a pore radius lower than 3 nm and for solutions with ionic strengths lower than 0.01 m, there is an optimum ζ-potential for rejection, because of the concurrent effects of electromigration and convection. Hence, the model can be used as a prediction tool to optimize membrane perm-selectivity by designing a specific pore size and surface charge for application at specific ionic strengths and pH levels. PMID:26346603

  3. Electroviscous Effects in Ceramic Nanofiltration Membranes.

    PubMed

    Farsi, Ali; Boffa, Vittorio; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    2015-11-16

    Membrane permeability and salt rejection of a γ-alumina nanofiltration membrane were studied and modeled for different salt solutions. Salt rejection was predicted by using the Donnan-steric pore model, in which the extended Nernst-Planck equation was applied to predict ion transport through the pores. The solvent flux was modeled by using the Hagen-Poiseuille equation by introducing electroviscosity instead of bulk viscosity. γ-Alumina particles were used for ζ-potential measurements. The ζ-potential measurements show that monovalent ions did not adsorb on the γ-alumina surface, whereas divalent ions were highly adsorbed. Thus, for divalent ions, the model was modified, owing to pore shrinkage caused by ion adsorption. The ζ-potential lowered the membrane permeability, especially for membranes with a pore radius lower than 3 nm, a ζ-potential higher than 20 mV, and an ionic strength lower than 0.01 m. The rejection model showed that, for a pore radius lower than 3 nm and for solutions with ionic strengths lower than 0.01 m, there is an optimum ζ-potential for rejection, because of the concurrent effects of electromigration and convection. Hence, the model can be used as a prediction tool to optimize membrane perm-selectivity by designing a specific pore size and surface charge for application at specific ionic strengths and pH levels.

  4. Membrane-thinning effect of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wei-Chin; Chen, Fang-Yu; Lee, Chang-Chun; Sun, Yen; Lee, Ming-Tao; Huang, Huey W

    2008-06-01

    Interaction of curcumin with lipid bilayers is not well understood. A recent experiment showed that curcumin significantly affected the single-channel lifetime of gramicidin in a 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) bilayer without affecting its single-channel conductance. We performed two experiments to understand this result. By isothermal titration calorimetry, we measured the partition coefficient of curcumin binding to DOPC bilayers. By x-ray lamellar diffraction, we measured the thickness change of DOPC bilayers as a function of the curcumin/lipid ratio. A nonlinear membrane-thinning effect by curcumin was discovered. The gramicidin data were qualitatively interpreted by the combination of isothermal titration calorimetry and x-ray results. We show that not only does curcumin thin the lipid bilayer, it might also weaken its elasticity moduli. The result implies that curcumin may affect the function of membrane proteins by modifying the properties of the host membrane.

  5. Membrane-Thinning Effect of Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Wei-Chin; Chen, Fang-Yu; Lee, Chang-Chun; Sun, Yen; Lee, Ming-Tao; Huang, Huey W.

    2008-01-01

    Interaction of curcumin with lipid bilayers is not well understood. A recent experiment showed that curcumin significantly affected the single-channel lifetime of gramicidin in a 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) bilayer without affecting its single-channel conductance. We performed two experiments to understand this result. By isothermal titration calorimetry, we measured the partition coefficient of curcumin binding to DOPC bilayers. By x-ray lamellar diffraction, we measured the thickness change of DOPC bilayers as a function of the curcumin/lipid ratio. A nonlinear membrane-thinning effect by curcumin was discovered. The gramicidin data were qualitatively interpreted by the combination of isothermal titration calorimetry and x-ray results. We show that not only does curcumin thin the lipid bilayer, it might also weaken its elasticity moduli. The result implies that curcumin may affect the function of membrane proteins by modifying the properties of the host membrane. PMID:18310254

  6. Polarization mode coupling and related effects in fiber Bragg grating inscribed in polarization maintaining fiber.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanshuang; Sun, Bo; Liu, Yanlei; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Jianzhong; Yang, Jun; Canning, John; Peng, G D; Yuan, Libo

    2016-01-11

    Polarization mode coupling (PMC) and related effects from writing fiber Bragg gratings in polarization maintaining fiber (FBGs-in-PMF) are observed experimentally for the first time by optical fiber coherence domain polarimetry (OCDP) using a broadband light source. PMC is another useful aspect of FBG-in-PMF besides Bragg wavelength and its possible potential is evaluated and discussed. A localized and long range temperature measurement based on the PMC and Bragg wavelength is given as an example. PMID:26832291

  7. Exclusion of a Proton ATPase from the Apical Membrane Is Associated with Cell Polarity and Tip Growth in Nicotiana tabacum Pollen Tubes[W

    PubMed Central

    Certal, Ana C.; Almeida, Ricardo B.; Carvalho, Lara M.; Wong, Eric; Moreno, Nuno; Michard, Erwan; Carneiro, Jorge; Rodriguéz-Léon, Joaquín; Wu, Hen-Ming; Cheung, Alice Y.; Feijó, José A.

    2008-01-01

    Polarized growth in pollen tubes results from exocytosis at the tip and is associated with conspicuous polarization of Ca2+, H+, K+, and Cl− -fluxes. Here, we show that cell polarity in Nicotiana tabacum pollen is associated with the exclusion of a novel pollen-specific H+-ATPase, Nt AHA, from the growing apex. Nt AHA colocalizes with extracellular H+ effluxes, which revert to influxes where Nt AHA is absent. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis showed that Nt AHA moves toward the apex of growing pollen tubes, suggesting that the major mechanism of insertion is not through apical exocytosis. Nt AHA mRNA is also excluded from the tip, suggesting a mechanism of polarization acting at the level of translation. Localized applications of the cation ionophore gramicidin A had no effect where Nt AHA was present but acidified the cytosol and induced reorientation of the pollen tube where Nt AHA was absent. Transgenic pollen overexpressing Nt AHA-GFP developed abnormal callose plugs accompanied by abnormal H+ flux profiles. Furthermore, there is no net flux of H+ in defined patches of membrane where callose plugs are to be formed. Taken together, our results suggest that proton dynamics may underlie basic mechanisms of polarity and spatial regulation in growing pollen tubes. PMID:18364468

  8. EMBO workshop al fin del mundo: a meeting on membrane trafficking and its implication for polarity and diseases.

    PubMed

    Marzolo, María-Paz; Faundez, Victor; Galli, Thierry

    2015-07-01

    The EMBO worskhop at the "end of the world'" (al fin del mundo), a meeting on membrane trafficking and its implication for polarity and diseases, took place in the Chilean Patagonia surrounded by the landscapes once witnessed by Charles Darwin. The meeting showcased some of the best membrane trafficking science with an emphasis in neuroscience and disease models. Speakers from Europe, USA, South America and the graduate students behind it; embarked on an enthusiastic and eclectic dialog where a wide range of cell types, model genetic systems, and diseases where discussed. This meeting demonstrated the power of trafficking concepts to integrate diverse biology and to formulate mechanisms of normal and disease cells.

  9. Surface characterization of the chitosan membrane after oxygen plasma treatment and its aging effect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingjun; Yin, Shiheng; Ren, Li; Zhao, Lianna

    2009-06-01

    Chitosan has received considerable attention for biomedical applications in recent years because of its biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this paper, angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) was carried out to investigate the chemical groups' spatial orientation on the chitosan membrane surface. Oxygen plasma treatment was also employed to improve the surface hydrophilicity of the chitosan membrane. The results of ARXPS revealed the distribution of surface polar groups, such as-OH and O=CNH(2) toward the membrane bulk, which was the origin of the chitosan membrane surface hydrophobicity. The contact angle measurements and XPS results indicated that oxygen plasma treatment can markedly improve the surface hydrophilicity and surface energy of the chitosan membrane by incorporating oxygen-containing polar groups. With the existence of the aging process, the influence of plasma treatment was not permanent, it faded with storage time. The ARXPS result discovered that the reorientation of polar functional groups generated by plasma treatment toward the membrane bulk was primarily responsible for the aging effect.

  10. Effects of asphericity on single-particle polarized light scattering.

    PubMed

    Spinrad, R W; Brown, J

    1993-10-20

    Polarized light scattering from individual particles has been analyzed to determine the effects of particle shape. Flow cytometric techniques were used on samples of spherical microspheres and naturally occurring marine algae. An analog of the depolarization ratio was obtained by using crossed polarizers in the source and detector of the flow cytometer. Results suggest that differences between the polarized light scattering of spheres and aspherical particles are not discernible unless the scattered intensities are normalized to the forward scattering, which is roughly equivalent to particulate cross section. This research indicates that polarized light scattering, when normalized to particle size, may provide an indication of the extent of asphericity of hydrosols.

  11. The effect of bacterial cellulose membrane compared with collagen membrane on guided bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Youn-Mook; Jeong, Sung In; An, Sung-Jun; Kang, Seong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was to evaluate the effects of bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes as a barrier membrane on guided bone regeneration (GBR) in comparison with those of the resorbable collagen membranes. MATERIALS AND METHODS BC membranes were fabricated using biomimetic technology. Surface properties were analyzed, Mechanical properties were measured, in vitro cell proliferation test were performed with NIH3T3 cells and in vivo study were performed with rat calvarial defect and histomorphometric analysis was done. The Mann-Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon signed rank test was used (α<.05). RESULTS BC membrane showed significantly higher mechanical properties such as wet tensile strength than collagen membrane and represented a three-dimensional multilayered structure cross-linked by nano-fibers with 60 % porosity. In vitro study, cell adhesion and proliferation were observed on BC membrane. However, morphology of the cells was found to be less differentiated, and the cell proliferation rate was lower than those of the cells on collagen membrane. In vivo study, the grafted BC membrane did not induce inflammatory response, and maintained adequate space for bone regeneration. An amount of new bone formation in defect region loaded with BC membrane was significantly similar to that of collagen membrane application. CONCLUSION BC membrane has potential to be used as a barrier membrane, and efficacy of the membrane on GBR is comparable to that of collagen membrane. PMID:26816579

  12. Solvent relaxation of fluorescent labels as a new tool for the detection of polarity and rigidity changes in membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hof, Martin; Hutterer, Rudi

    1998-04-01

    Since solvent relaxation (SR) exclusively depends on the physical properties of the dye environment, SR spectroscopy of defined located labels in amphiphilic assemblies accomplishes the characterisation of specific domains. The most accurate way to characterise SR is the determination of the time-dependent Stokes shift. The time course of the Stokes shift, expressed as a solvent relaxation time, gives information about both the rigidity and polarity of the dye environment. The absolute value of the Stokes shift following the excitation is correlated with the polarity of the probed region. The validity of this approach for the investigation of phospholipid bilayers is illustrated by listing the parameters influencing the SR kinetics of appropriate membrane labels: membrane curvature, percentage of phosphatidylserine (PS) in small unilamell vesicles (SUV), addition of Ca2+ ions, binding of vitamin-K dependent proteins, percentage of diether-lipids in phosphatidylcholine (PC)-vesicles, and temperature.

  13. Effects of beta-pinene on yeast membrane functions.

    PubMed

    Uribe, S; Ramirez, J; Peña, A

    1985-03-01

    The effects of beta-pinene on yeast cells were studied. This terpene inhibited respiration with glucose or ethanol as the substrate. The inhibition depended on the ratio of the terpene to the amount of yeast cells; for a fixed concentration of pinene, inhibition decreased as the amount of yeast cells increased. Pinene also inhibited the pumping of protons and K+ transport, but this inhibition was more marked with with ethanol than with glucose as the substrate, indicating the mitochondrial localization of the inhibition. The studies on isolated mitochondria showed a series of effects, starting with the disappearance of the respiratory control and deenergization of the organelles and followed by an inhibition of respiration at higher concentrations of the terpene. The effect on respiration could be localized to the cytochrome b region of the electron transport chain. No effect could be detected on the activity of ATPase. The effects can be ascribed to a localization of pinene on membranes which was also accompanied by a decrease in the fluorescence polarization of diphenyl hexatriene, probably meaning an increase in the fluidity of the membrane, localized preferentially to the mitochondria.

  14. Collective effects in spin polarized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Coppi, B.; Cowley, S.; Detragiache, P.; Kulsrud, R.; Pegoraro, F.

    1984-10-01

    A fusing plasma with coherently polarized spin nuclei can be subject to instabilities due to the anisotropy of the reaction product distributions in velocity space, which is a result of their polarization. The characteristics of these instabilities depend strongly on the plasma spatial inhomogeneities and a significant rate of spin depolarization can be produced by them if adequate fluctuation amplitudes are reached. The results of the relevant analysis are, in addition, of interest for plasma heating processes with frequencies in the range of the cyclotron frequencies of the considered nuclei.

  15. Determination of apical membrane polarity in mammary epithelial cell cultures: The role of cell-cell, cell-substratum, and membrane-cytoskeleton interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, G.; Beck, J.C.; Moss, L.; Bartley, J. ); Ojakian, G.K. )

    1990-06-01

    The membrane glycoprotein, PAS-O, is a major differentiation antigen on mammary epithelial cells and is located exclusively in the apical domain of the plasma membrane. The authors have used 734B cultured human mammary carcinoma cells as a model system to study the role of tight junctions, cell-substratum contacts, and submembranous cytoskeletal elements in restricting PAS-O to the apical membrane. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectronmicroscopy experiments demonstrated that while tight junctions demarcate PAS-O distribution in confluent cultures, apical polarity could be established at low culture densities when cells could not form tight junctions with neighboring cells. They suggest, then, that interactions between vitronectin and its receptor, are responsible for establishment of membrane domains in the absence of tight junctions. The role of cytoskeletal elements in restricting PAS-O distribution was examined by treating cultures with cytochalasin D, colchicine, or acrylamide. Cytochalasin D led to a redistribution of PAS0O while colchicine and acrylamide did not. They hypothesize that PAS-O is restricted to the apical membrane by interactions with a microfilament network and that the cytoskeletal organization is dependent upon cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions.

  16. Effect of humidity on cuticular water permeability of isolated cuticular membranes and leaf disks.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, L; Skrabs, M; Hartmann, K D; Diamantopoulos, P; Simanova, E; Santrucek, J

    2001-12-01

    The effects of humidity on water permeability of astomatous, isolated cuticular membranes and leaf disks of Citrus aurantium L., Vinca major L., Prunus laurocerasus L., Hedera helix L. and Forsythia intermedia (Thunb.) Vahl. were investigated by a new method using 3H2O. With isolated cuticular membranes of P. laurocerasus the isotope method resulted in values similar to those obtained by a well-established gravimetric method. Cuticular water permeability significantly increased by factors of 2 to 3 when air humidities increased from 2 to 100%. Plots of permeances vs. air humidity were non-linear and the slope increased with increasing air humidity. Permeances of intact leaf disks showed a response to increasing humidity similar to those of isolated cuticular membranes. When cuticular water permeability was measured using wax-free, isolated polymer matrix membranes that had been methylated, the effect of air humidity was significantly suppressed compared to non-methylated polymer matrix membranes. From this observation it is concluded that non-esterified, free carboxyl groups present in the cutin polymer matrix significantly contribute to the effect of humidity on cuticular water permeability. These and other polar groups sorb water, which in turn increases the water permeability of polar domains of the cuticle. This humidity-sensitive, polar path of cuticular water permeability is arranged in parallel with the major, dominating and humidity-independent, non-polar path of cuticular water permeability formed by the lipophilic wax components of the cuticle. This conclusion is supported by the fact that cuticular transpiration can be increased by orders of magnitude upon (i) wax extraction, (ii) increase in temperature or (iii) the action of plasticizers, none of which influenced or only marginally influenced the permeability of inorganic ions penetrating plant cuticles across humidity-sensitive polar pores. PMID:11800392

  17. Bipolar Plasma Membrane Distribution of Phosphoinositides and Their Requirement for Auxin-Mediated Cell Polarity and Patterning in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Tejos, Ricardo; Sauer, Michael; Vanneste, Steffen; Palacios-Gomez, Miriam; Li, Hongjiang; Heilmann, Mareike; van Wijk, Ringo; Vermeer, Joop E.M.; Heilmann, Ingo; Munnik, Teun; Friml, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Cell polarity manifested by asymmetric distribution of cargoes, such as receptors and transporters, within the plasma membrane (PM) is crucial for essential functions in multicellular organisms. In plants, cell polarity (re)establishment is intimately linked to patterning processes. Despite the importance of cell polarity, its underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown, including the definition and distinctiveness of the polar domains within the PM. Here, we show in Arabidopsis thaliana that the signaling membrane components, the phosphoinositides phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] as well as PtdIns4P 5-kinases mediating their interconversion, are specifically enriched at apical and basal polar plasma membrane domains. The PtdIns4P 5-kinases PIP5K1 and PIP5K2 are redundantly required for polar localization of specifically apical and basal cargoes, such as PIN-FORMED transporters for the plant hormone auxin. As a consequence of the polarity defects, instructive auxin gradients as well as embryonic and postembryonic patterning are severely compromised. Furthermore, auxin itself regulates PIP5K transcription and PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels, in particular their association with polar PM domains. Our results provide insight into the polar domain–delineating mechanisms in plant cells that depend on apical and basal distribution of membrane lipids and are essential for embryonic and postembryonic patterning. PMID:24876254

  18. Membrane Permeabilization by Thrombin-Induced Platelet Microbicidal Protein 1 Is Modulated by Transmembrane Voltage Polarity and Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Su-Pin; Bayer, Arnold S.; Kagan, Bruce L.; Yeaman, Michael R.

    1999-01-01

    Thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein 1 (tPMP-1) is a small, cationic peptide generated from rabbit platelets when they are exposed to thrombin in vitro. It has potent microbicidal activity against a broad spectrum of bacterial and fungal pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. Previous in vitro studies involving whole staphylococcal cells and planar lipid bilayers (as artificial bacterial membrane models) suggested that membrane permeabilization by tPMP-1 is voltage dependent (S.-P. Koo, M. R. Yeaman, and A. S. Bayer, Infect. Immun. 64:3758–3764, 1996; M. R. Yeaman, A. S. Bayer, S. P. Koo, W. Foss, and P. M. Sullam, J. Clin. Investig. 101:178–187, 1998). Thus, the aims of the present study were to specifically characterize the electrophysiological events associated with membrane permeabilization by tPMP-1 by using artificial planar lipid bilayer membranes. We assessed the influence of transmembrane voltage polarity and magnitude on the initiation and modulation of tPMP-1 membrane permeabilization at various concentrations of tPMP-1 (range, 1 to 100 ng/ml) added to the cis side of the membranes. The incidence of membrane permeabilization induced by tPMP-1 at all of the concentrations tested was more frequent at −90 mV than at +90 mV. It is noteworthy that membrane permeabilization due to 1-ng/ml tPMP-1 was successfully initiated at −90 mV but not at +90 mV. Further, the mean onset times of induction of tPMP-1 activity were comparable under the various conditions. Modulation of ongoing membrane permeabilization was dependent on voltage and tPMP-1 concentration. Membrane permeabilization at a low tPMP-1 concentration (1 ng/ml) was directly correlated with trans-negative voltages, while a higher tPMP-1 concentration (100 ng/ml) induced conductance which was more dependent on trans-positive voltages. Collectively, these data indicate that the mechanism of tPMP-1 microbicidal activity at the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane may involve distinct

  19. Electromembrane extraction of polar basic drugs from plasma with pure bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphite as supported liquid membrane.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuixiu; Seip, Knut Fredrik; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2016-08-31

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) of polar basic drugs from human plasma was investigated for the first time using pure bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphite (DEHPi) as the supported liquid membrane (SLM). The polar basic drugs metaraminol, benzamidine, sotalol, phenylpropanolamine, ephedrine, and trimethoprim were selected as model analytes, and were extracted from 300 μL of human plasma, through 10 μL of DEHPi as SLM, and into 100 μL of 10 mM formic acid as acceptor solution. The extraction potential across the SLM was 100 V, and extractions were performed for 20 min. After EME, the acceptor solutions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). In contrast to other SLMs reported for polar basic drugs in the literature, the SLM of DEHPi was highly stable in contact with plasma, and the system-current across the SLM was easily kept below 50 μA. Thus, electrolysis in the sample and acceptor solution was kept at an acceptable level with no detrimental consequences. For the polar model analytes, representing a log P range from -0.40 to 1.32, recoveries in the range 25-91% were obtained from human plasma. Strong hydrogen bonding and dipole interactions were probably responsible for efficient transfer of the model analytes into the SLM, and this is the first report on efficient EME of highly polar analytes without using any ionic carrier in the SLM.

  20. Effect of laser polarization on quantum electrodynamical cascading

    SciTech Connect

    Bashmakov, V. F.; Nerush, E. N.; Kostyukov, I. Yu.; Fedotov, A. M.; Narozhny, N. B.

    2014-01-15

    Development of quantum electrodynamical (QED) cascades in a standing electromagnetic wave for circular and linear polarizations is simulated numerically with a 3D PIC-MC code. It is demonstrated that for the same laser energy the number of particles produced in a circularly polarized field is greater than in a linearly polarized field, though the acquiring mean energy per particle is larger in the latter case. The qualitative model of laser-assisted QED cascades is extended by including the effect of polarization of the field. It turns out that cascade dynamics is notably more complicated in the case of linearly polarized field, where separation into the qualitatively different “electric” and “magnetic” regions (where the electric field is stronger than the magnetic field and vice versa) becomes essential. In the “magnetic” regions, acceleration is suppressed, and moreover the high-energy electrons are even getting cooled by photon emission. The volumes of the “electric” and “magnetic” regions evolve periodically in time and so does the cascade growth rate. In contrast to the linear polarization, the charged particles can be accelerated by circularly polarized wave even in “magnetic region.” The “electric” and “magnetic” regions do not evolve in time, and cascade growth rate almost does not depend on time for circular polarization.

  1. Effect of lipid head group interactions on membrane properties and membrane-induced cationic β-hairpin folding.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Sai J; Xu, Hongcheng; Matysiak, Silvina

    2016-07-21

    Stages in POPS membrane induced SVS-1 folding. One key characteristic of mIFs is the dielectric gradient and subsequently, electrostatic potential that arises from dipolar interactions in the head group region. In this work, we present a coarse-grained (CG) model for anionic and zwitterionic lipids that accounts for dipolar intricacies in the head group region. Prior work on adding dipolar interactions in a coarse grained (CG) model for peptides enabled us to achieve α/β secondary structure content de novo, without any added bias. We have now extended this idea to lipids. To mimic dipolar interactions, two dummy particles with opposite charges are added to CG polar beads. These two dummy charges represent a fluctuating dipole that introduces structural polarization into the head group region. We have used POPC (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) and POPS (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine) as our model lipids. We characterize structural, dynamic, and dielectric properties of our CG bilayer, along with the effect of monovalent ions. We observe head group dipoles to play a significant role in membrane dielectric gradient and lipid clustering induced by dipole-dipole interactions in POPS lipids. In addition, we studied membrane-induced peptide folding of a cationic antimicrobial peptide with anticancer activity, SVS-1. We find that membrane-induced peptide folding is driven by both (a) cooperativity in peptide self-interaction and (b) cooperativity in membrane-peptide interaction. In particular, dipolar interactions between the peptide backbone and lipid head groups contribute to stabilizing folded conformations. PMID:27165814

  2. The macroscopic polarization effect on thermal conductivity of binary nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, S. K.; Sahoo, B. K.; Sahoo, S.

    2013-10-01

    We theoretically investigate the effect of macroscopic polarization on phonon thermal conductivity of wurtzite (WZ) binary nitrides (AlN, GaN and InN). Our results show that macroscopic polarization contributes to the effective elastic constant of the wurtzite nitrides and modifies the phonon group velocity, Debye frequency, and Debye temperature. Using revised phonon velocity and Debye temperature, different phonon scattering rates and combined scattering rate are calculated as functions of the phonon frequency at room temperature. We estimate phonon thermal conductivity of binary nitrides using these modified parameters. The theoretical analysis shows that up to a certain temperature (different for AlN, GaN, and InN) the polarization effect acts as ill effect and reduces the thermal conductivity. However, after this temperature, the thermal conductivity is significantly enhanced by the polarization effect. The revised thermal conductivity at room temperature is found to be increased by 12% in GaN, 18% in InN and 20% in case of AlN due to macroscopic polarization, i.e., maximum polarization effect is observed in AlN and minimum in GaN. The method we have developed can be used for calculation of thermal energy in the active region of nitride optoelectronic devices.

  3. Multiphysics simulation of ion concentration polarization induced by a surface-patterned nanoporous membrane in single channel devices.

    PubMed

    Jia, Mingjie; Kim, Taesung

    2014-10-21

    Microfluidic devices utilize ion concentration polarization (ICP) phenomena for a variety of applications, but a comprehensive understanding of the generation of ICP is still necessary. Recently, the emergence of a novel single channel ICP (SC-ICP) device has stimulated further research on the mechanism of ICP generation, so that we developed a 2-D model of an SC-ICP device that integrates a nanoporous membrane on the bottom surface of the channel, allowing bulk flow over the membrane. We solved a set of coupled governing equations with appropriate boundary conditions to explore ICP numerically. As a result, we not only showed that the simulation results held a strong qualitative agreement with experimental results, but also found the distribution of ion concentrations in the SC-ICP device that has never been reported in previous studies. We confirmed again that the electrophoretic mobility (EPM) of counterions in the membrane is the most dominant factor determining the generation and strength of ICP, whereas the charge density of the membrane was dominant to the ICP strength only when a high EPM value was assumed. From the viewpoint of practical applications, an SC-ICP device with a long membrane under low buffer strength showed enhanced performance in the preconcentration of charged molecules. Therefore, we believe that the simulation results could not only provide sharp insight into ICP phenomena but also predict and optimize the performance of SC-ICP devices in various microfluidic applications.

  4. Evaluation of polycaprolactone as a new sorbent coating for determination of polar organic compounds in water samples using membrane-SPME.

    PubMed

    Marcinkowski, Łukasz; Kloskowski, Adam; Spietelun, Agata; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-02-01

    Commercially available solid-phase microextraction fibers used for isolation of polar analytes are based on the adsorption phenomenon. In consequence, typical limitations bonded with analytes displacement and matrix effects are very frequent. In the present study, alternative solution is described. Polycaprolactone (PCL) was used for the first time as sorbent to isolate polar organic compounds from water samples using the membrane-solid-phase microextraction (M-SPME) technique. In this technique, due to protective role of the mechanically and thermally stable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane, internal polar coating might be melted during extraction and desorption of analytes. In consequence sorbents with low melting points like a PCL might be utilized. Based on chromatographic retention data, triazines were selected as a model compounds for evaluation of the sorptive properties of the polycaprolactone. Applying the screening plan and central composite design, statistically significant parameters influencing extraction efficiency were determined and optimized. The analysis of variance confirmed the significant influence of temperature, salt content, and pH of samples on the extraction efficiency. Besides the new PCL/PDMS fiber, a commercial fiber coated with divinylbenzene/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/PDMS) was used for comparative studies. The results obtained showed that PCL is an interesting sorbent which can be successfully applied for isolation of polar organics from aqueous matrices at a broad range of analytes concentration. The determined detection limits of procedure based on the novel fiber enable its application at the concentration levels of triazines recommended by the US EPA standards. The practical applicability of the developed fiber has been confirmed by the results based on the analysis of real samples.

  5. Microwave frequency effect in the formation of Au nanocolloids in polar and non-polar solvents.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Abe, Hideki; Sumi, Takuya; Torigoe, Kanjiro; Sakai, Hideki; Serpone, Nick; Abe, Masahiko

    2011-04-01

    Given earlier observations that microwave frequencies can have a substantial effect on the photoactivity of a well-known photocatalyst (TiO(2)), in the synthesis of 3,6-diphenyl-4-n-butylpyridazine through a Diels-Alder process, and in the one-pot solvent-free synthesis of a room-temperature ionic liquid, we proceeded to examine the frequency effects of the 5.8 and 2.45 GHz microwave (MW) radiation in the synthesis of gold nanoparticles in non-polar media, such as oleylamine, which have a low dielectric constant (ε'), and we further examine differences in shape and size under otherwise identical temperature conditions when the synthesis of the gold nanoparticles was carried out in an ethylene glycol polar medium in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone. Whereas a change in microwave frequency from 2.45 to 5.8 GHz at equal microwave power levels led to the synthesis of gold nanoparticles in the non-polar media, a change in the microwave frequency had no effect on the size and shape of the gold nanoparticles synthesized in polar media for identical microwave power levels.

  6. The Neurospora crassa exocyst complex tethers Spitzenkörper vesicles to the apical plasma membrane during polarized growth

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Meritxell; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Callejas-Negrete, Olga; Roberson, Robert W.; Ludwig, Sarah; Beltrán-Aguilar, Alejandro; Seiler, Stephan; Novick, Peter; Freitag, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Fungal hyphae are among the most highly polarized cells. Hyphal polarized growth is supported by tip-directed transport of secretory vesicles, which accumulate temporarily in a stratified manner in an apical vesicle cluster, the Spitzenkörper. The exocyst complex is required for tethering of secretory vesicles to the apical plasma membrane. We determined that the presence of an octameric exocyst complex is required for the formation of a functional Spitzenkörper and maintenance of regular hyphal growth in Neurospora crassa. Two distinct localization patterns of exocyst subunits at the hyphal tip suggest the dynamic formation of two assemblies. The EXO-70/EXO-84 subunits are found at the peripheral part of the Spitzenkörper, which partially coincides with the outer macrovesicular layer, whereas exocyst components SEC-5, -6, -8, and -15 form a delimited crescent at the apical plasma membrane. Localization of SEC-6 and EXO-70 to the plasma membrane and the Spitzenkörper, respectively, depends on actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. The apical region of exocyst-mediated vesicle fusion, elucidated by the plasma membrane–associated exocyst subunits, indicates the presence of an exocytotic gradient with a tip-high maximum that dissipates gradually toward the subapex, confirming the earlier predictions of the vesicle supply center model for hyphal morphogenesis. PMID:24523289

  7. Favorable effect of in-situ generated platinum in the membrane on fuel cell membrane durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macauley, Natalia; Wong, Ka Hung; Watson, Mark; Kjeang, Erik

    2015-12-01

    The overall lifetime of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is often determined by the membrane durability. Platinum, which may dissolve from the catalyst layers during fuel cell operation and deposit in the membrane, has been shown to have both positive and negative effects on membrane stability. In the present work, we analyze what specific conditions are required in order to reach a favorable, membrane stabilizing effect with the controlled use of platinum in the membrane. Using accelerated membrane durability testing, field operated membrane samples, and electron microscopy, we demonstrate that a high platinum concentration with specific particle shapes and sizes is essential for enhanced membrane stability. Specifically, star shaped and dendritic particles with high particle density and high surface area are shown to be preferable. These particles contain high levels of Pt(111) and are expected to have high catalytic activity toward peroxide quenching and crossover gas consumption, thereby mitigating chemical membrane degradation. On the other hand, small, dispersed cubic particles are found to have no effect or the opposite, negative effect on membrane stability.

  8. Polarity effect in electrovibration for tactile display.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Kurt A; Nammi, Krishnakant; Agarwal, Abhishek K; Tyler, Mitchell E; Haase, Steven J; Beebe, David J

    2006-10-01

    Electrovibration is the tactile sensation of an alternating potential between the human body and a smooth conducing surface when the skin slides over the surface and where the current is too small to stimulate sensory nerves directly. It has been proposed as a high-density tactile display method, for example to display pictographic information to persons who are blind. Previous models for the electrovibration transduction mechanism are based on a parallel-plate capacitor in which the electrostatic force is insensitive to polarity. We present experimental data showing that electrovibratory perceptual sensitivity to positive pulses is less than that for negative or biphasic pulses and propose that this disparity may be due to the asymmetric electrical properties of human skin. We furthermore propose using negative pulses for insulated tactile displays based on electrovibration because their sensory thresholds were found to be more stable than for waveforms incorporating positive pulses.

  9. Polarity effect in electrovibration for tactile display

    PubMed Central

    Nammi, Krishnakant; Agarwal, Abhishek K.; Tyler, Mitchell E.; Haase, Steven J.; Beebe, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Electrovibration is tactile sensation of an alternating potential between the human body and a smooth conducing surface when the skin slides over the surface and where the current is too small to stimulate sensory nerves directly. It has been proposed as a high-density tactile display method, for example to display pictographic information to persons who are blind. Previous models for the electrovibration transduction mechanism are based on a parallel-plate capacitor, in which the electrostatic force is insensitive to polarity. We present experimental data showing that electrovibratory perceptual sensitivity to positive pulses is less than that for negative or biphasic pulses, and propose that this disparity may be due to the asymmetric electrical properties of human skin. We furthermore propose using negative pulses for insulated tactile displays based on electrovibration because their sensory thresholds were found to be more stable than for waveforms incorporating positive pulses. PMID:17019869

  10. Effect of polar surfaces on decomposition of molecular materials.

    PubMed

    Kuklja, Maija M; Tsyshevsky, Roman V; Sharia, Onise

    2014-09-24

    We report polar instability in molecular materials. Polarization-induced explosive decomposition in molecular crystals is explored with an illustrative example of two crystalline polymorphs of HMX, an important energetic material. We establish that the presence of a polar surface in δ-HMX has fundamental implications for material stability and overall chemical behavior. A comparative quantum-chemical analysis of major decomposition mechanisms in polar δ-HMX and nonpolar β-HMX discovered a dramatic difference in dominating dissociation reactions, activation barriers, and reaction rates. The presence of charge on the polar δ-HMX surface alters chemical mechanisms and effectively triggers decomposition simultaneously through several channels with significantly reduced activation barriers. This results in much faster decomposition chemistry and in higher chemical reactivity of δ-HMX phase relatively to β-HMX phase. We predict decomposition mechanisms and their activation barriers in condensed δ-HMX phase, sensitivity of which happens to be comparable to primary explosives. We suggest that the observed trend among polymorphs is a manifestation of polar instability phenomena, and hence similar processes are likely to take place in all polar molecular crystals.

  11. Effect of polar surfaces on decomposition of molecular materials.

    PubMed

    Kuklja, Maija M; Tsyshevsky, Roman V; Sharia, Onise

    2014-09-24

    We report polar instability in molecular materials. Polarization-induced explosive decomposition in molecular crystals is explored with an illustrative example of two crystalline polymorphs of HMX, an important energetic material. We establish that the presence of a polar surface in δ-HMX has fundamental implications for material stability and overall chemical behavior. A comparative quantum-chemical analysis of major decomposition mechanisms in polar δ-HMX and nonpolar β-HMX discovered a dramatic difference in dominating dissociation reactions, activation barriers, and reaction rates. The presence of charge on the polar δ-HMX surface alters chemical mechanisms and effectively triggers decomposition simultaneously through several channels with significantly reduced activation barriers. This results in much faster decomposition chemistry and in higher chemical reactivity of δ-HMX phase relatively to β-HMX phase. We predict decomposition mechanisms and their activation barriers in condensed δ-HMX phase, sensitivity of which happens to be comparable to primary explosives. We suggest that the observed trend among polymorphs is a manifestation of polar instability phenomena, and hence similar processes are likely to take place in all polar molecular crystals. PMID:25170566

  12. Estimating terra MODIS polarization effect using ocean data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, Andrew; Brinkmann, Jake; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Jack

    2016-05-01

    Terra MODIS has been known since pre-launch to have polarization sensitivity, particularly in shortest-wavelength bands 8 and 9. On-orbit reflectance trending of pseudo-invariant sites show a variation in reflectance as a function of band and scan mirror angle of incidence consistent with time-dependent polarization effects from the rotating doublesided scan mirror. The MODIS Characterization Support Team [MCST] estimates the Mueller matrix trending from this variation as observed from a single desert site, but this effect is not included in Collection 6 [C6] calibration. Here we extend the MCST's current polarization sensitivity monitoring to two ocean sites distributed over latitude to help estimate the uncertainties in the derived Mueller matrix. The Mueller matrix elements derived for polarization-sensitive Band 8 for a given site are found to be fairly insensitive to surface brdf modeling. The site-to-site variation is a measure of the uncertainty in the Mueller estimation. Results for band 8 show that the polarization correction reduces mirror-side striping by up to 50% and reduces the instrument polarization effect on reflectance time series of an ocean target.

  13. Polarized deposition of basement membrane proteins depends on Phosphatidylinositol synthase and the levels of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Devergne, Olivier; Tsung, Karen; Barcelo, Gail; Schüpbach, Trudi

    2014-05-27

    The basement membrane (BM), a specialized sheet of the extracellular matrix contacting the basal side of epithelial tissues, plays an important role in the control of the polarized structure of epithelial cells. However, little is known about how BM proteins themselves achieve a polarized distribution. Here, we identify phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) as a critical regulator of the polarized secretion of BM proteins. A decrease of PIP2 levels, in particular through mutations in Phosphatidylinositol synthase (Pis) and other members of the phosphoinositide pathway, leads to the aberrant accumulation of BM components at the apical side of the cell without primarily affecting the distribution of apical and basolateral polarity proteins. In addition, PIP2 controls the apical and lateral localization of Crag (Calmodulin-binding protein related to a Rab3 GDP/GTP exchange protein), a factor specifically required to prevent aberrant apical secretion of BM. We propose that PIP2, through the control of Crag's subcellular localization, restricts the secretion of BM proteins to the basal side.

  14. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110δ promotes lumen formation through enhancement of apico-basal polarity and basal membrane organization

    PubMed Central

    Sar, Sokhavuth; Komaiha, Ola Hamze; Moyano, Romina; Rayal, Amel; Samuel, Didier; Shewan, Annette; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart; Mostov, Keith; Gassama-Diagne, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Signaling triggered by adhesion to the extracellular matrix plays a key role in the spatial orientation of epithelial polarity and formation of lumens in glandular tissues. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in particular is known to influence the polarization process during epithelial cell morphogenesis. Here, using Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells grown in 3D culture, we show that the p110δ isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase colocalizes with focal adhesion proteins at the basal surface of polarized cells. Pharmacological, siRNA- or kinase-dead mediated inhibition of p110δ impair the early stages of lumen formation, resulting in inverted polarized cysts, with no laminin or type IV collagen assembly at cell/extracellular matrix contacts. p110δ also regulates the organization of focal adhesions and membrane localization of dystroglycan. Thus, we uncover a previously unrecognized role for p110δ in epithelial cells in the orientation of the apico-basal axis and lumen formation. PMID:25583025

  15. Effects of lithium on the human erythrocyte membrane and molecular models.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, Mario; Fierro, Paulo; Villena, Fernando; Sotomayor, Carlos P

    2007-08-01

    The mechanism whereby lithium carbonate controls manic episodes and possibly influences affective disorders is not yet known. There is evidence, however, that lithium alters sodium transport and may interfere with ion exchange mechanisms and nerve conduction. For these reasons it was thought of interest to study its perturbing effects upon membrane structures. The effects of lithium carbonate (Li+) on the human erythrocyte membrane and molecular models have been investigated. The molecular models consisted in bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), representing classes of phospholipids located in the outer and inner monolayers of the erythrocyte membrane, respectively. This report presents the following evidence that Li+ interacts with cell membranes: a) X-ray diffraction indicated that Li+ induced structural perturbation of the polar head group and of the hydrophobic acyl regions of DMPC and DMPE; b) experiments performed on DMPC large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) by fluorescence spectroscopy also showed that Li+ interacted with the lipid polar groups and hydrophobic acyl chains, and c) in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies on intact human erythrocytes the formation of echinocytes was observed, effect that might be due to the insertion of Li+ in the outer monolayer of the red cell membrane. PMID:17532553

  16. A Mechanism for the Polarity Formation of Chemoreceptors at the Growth Cone Membrane for Gradient Amplification during Directional Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Bouzigues, Cedric; Holcman, David; Dahan, Maxime

    2010-01-01

    Accurate response to external directional signals is essential for many physiological functions such as chemotaxis or axonal guidance. It relies on the detection and amplification of gradients of chemical cues, which, in eukaryotic cells, involves the asymmetric relocalization of signaling molecules. How molecular events coordinate to induce a polarity at the cell level remains however poorly understood, particularly for nerve chemotaxis. Here, we propose a model, inspired by single-molecule experiments, for the membrane dynamics of GABA chemoreceptors in nerve growth cones (GCs) during directional sensing. In our model, transient interactions between the receptors and the microtubules, coupled to GABA-induced signaling, provide a positive-feedback loop that leads to redistribution of the receptors towards the gradient source. Using numerical simulations with parameters derived from experiments, we find that the kinetics of polarization and the steady-state polarized distribution of GABA receptors are in remarkable agreement with experimental observations. Furthermore, we make predictions on the properties of the GC seen as a sensing, amplification and filtering module. In particular, the growth cone acts as a low-pass filter with a time constant ∼10 minutes determined by the Brownian diffusion of chemoreceptors in the membrane. This filtering makes the gradient amplification resistent to rapid fluctuations of the external signals, a beneficial feature to enhance the accuracy of neuronal wiring. Since the model is based on minimal assumptions on the receptor/cytoskeleton interactions, its validity extends to polarity formation beyond the case of GABA gradient sensing. Altogether, it constitutes an original positive-feedback mechanism by which cells can dynamically adapt their internal organization to external signals. PMID:20179770

  17. Unique Charge Storage Characteristics of FEP/THV/FEP Sandwich Electret Membrane Polarized by Thermally Charging Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang-Jin; Lei, Ming-Feng; Xiao, Hui-Ming; Wu, Ling

    2014-12-01

    Utilizing the synergy of three processes (space charge injection, dipole orientation and interfacial polarization) which determine the electret properties, a sandwich electret membrane FEP/THV/FEP (FEP: fluorinated ethylene propylene, THV: tetrafluoroethylene-hexafluoropropylene-vinylidene) is prepared by the laminating method and the thermal charging technology. The surface potential measurement indicates that the sandwich electret membrane exhibits excellent charge storage stability. When washing the sample surface with alcohol, its surface potential first undergoes decay to zero, and then quickly restores to a high value. The surface potential value is associated with the charging electric field and temperature. The best charging condition is 18.75 MV·m-1 and 130°C. A charge storage profile is proposed, and the experimental results are in good agreement with this profile.

  18. The effects of organic fouling on the removal of radionuclides by reverse osmosis membranes.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiyuan; Yang, Yu; Li, Chen; Huang, Haiou; Hou, Li-An

    2016-05-15

    The removals of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr), two hazardous and abundant radionuclides in aquatic environment, were assessed with their isotopes in a synthetic water containing Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM), a natural surface water (SW) and a wastewater effluent (WW) by two different types of ultra-low pressure RO membranes (M1 and M2). The rejections of Sr by the membranes M1 and M2 were higher than 97.5% and 96.0%, respectively, and the rejections of Cs exceeded 90.0% and 85.0%, respectively, in the filtration of real water. The membrane M1 exhibited a more significant flux decline in the filtration of the SRNOM solution, while more severe flux declines were observed with the membrane M2 in the filtration of SW and WW. Protein-like materials with relatively high molecular weight were the main contributors to the flux decline, and humic-acid-like compounds had little effect on the flux decline. Donnan exclusion and size exclusion by humic-acid-like compounds improved the rejections by the membrane M2 with weaker hydrophilicity, while the cake-enhanced concentration polarization reduced the rejections of Cs and Sr by the membrane M1 with stronger hydrophilicity. The ionic strength in the real water resulted in the mitigation of membrane fouling. This study provided important insights into foulant characterization and the mechanisms of organic-fouling-enhanced rejections of Cr and Sr by ultra-low pressure RO membranes.

  19. The effects of organic fouling on the removal of radionuclides by reverse osmosis membranes.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiyuan; Yang, Yu; Li, Chen; Huang, Haiou; Hou, Li-An

    2016-05-15

    The removals of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr), two hazardous and abundant radionuclides in aquatic environment, were assessed with their isotopes in a synthetic water containing Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM), a natural surface water (SW) and a wastewater effluent (WW) by two different types of ultra-low pressure RO membranes (M1 and M2). The rejections of Sr by the membranes M1 and M2 were higher than 97.5% and 96.0%, respectively, and the rejections of Cs exceeded 90.0% and 85.0%, respectively, in the filtration of real water. The membrane M1 exhibited a more significant flux decline in the filtration of the SRNOM solution, while more severe flux declines were observed with the membrane M2 in the filtration of SW and WW. Protein-like materials with relatively high molecular weight were the main contributors to the flux decline, and humic-acid-like compounds had little effect on the flux decline. Donnan exclusion and size exclusion by humic-acid-like compounds improved the rejections by the membrane M2 with weaker hydrophilicity, while the cake-enhanced concentration polarization reduced the rejections of Cs and Sr by the membrane M1 with stronger hydrophilicity. The ionic strength in the real water resulted in the mitigation of membrane fouling. This study provided important insights into foulant characterization and the mechanisms of organic-fouling-enhanced rejections of Cr and Sr by ultra-low pressure RO membranes. PMID:26994696

  20. The effect of dust on the martian polar vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzewich, Scott D.; Toigo, A. D.; Waugh, D. W.

    2016-11-01

    The influence of atmospheric dust on the dynamics and stability of the martian polar vortices is examined, through analysis of Mars Climate Sounder observations and MarsWRF general circulation model simulations. We show that regional and global dust storms produce "transient vortex warming" events that partially or fully disrupt the northern winter polar vortex for brief periods. Increased atmospheric dust heating alters the Hadley circulation and shifts the downwelling branch of the circulation poleward, leading to a disruption of the polar vortex for a period of days to weeks. Through our simulations, we find this effect is dependent on the atmospheric heating rate, which can be changed by increasing the amount of dust in the atmosphere or by altering the dust optical properties (e.g., single scattering albedo). Despite this, our simulations show that some level of atmospheric dust is necessary to produce a distinct northern hemisphere winter polar vortex.

  1. Apical plasma membrane proteins and endolyn-78 travel through a subapical compartment in polarized WIF-B hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ihrke, G; Martin, G V; Shanks, M R; Schrader, M; Schroer, T A; Hubbard, A L

    1998-04-01

    We studied basolateral-to-apical transcytosis of three classes of apical plasma membrane (PM) proteins in polarized hepatic WIF-B cells and then compared it to the endocytic trafficking of basolaterally recycling membrane proteins. We used antibodies to label the basolateral cohort of proteins at the surface of living cells and then followed their trafficking at 37 degreesC by indirect immunofluorescence. The apical PM proteins aminopeptidase N, 5'nucleotidase, and the polymeric IgA receptor were efficiently transcytosed. Delivery to the apical PM was confirmed by microinjection of secondary antibodies into the bile canalicular-like space and by EM studies. Before acquiring their apical steady-state distribution, the trafficked antibodies accumulated in a subapical compartment, which had a unique tubulovesicular appearance by EM. In contrast, antibodies to the receptors for asialoglycoproteins and mannose-6-phosphate or to the lysosomal membrane protein, lgp120, distributed to endosomes or lysosomes, respectively, without accumulating in the subapical area. However, the route taken by the endosomal/lysosomal protein endolyn-78 partially resembled the transcytotic pathway, since anti-endolyn-78 antibodies were found in a subapical compartment before delivery to lysosomes. Our results suggest that in WIF-B cells, transcytotic molecules pass through a subapical compartment that functions as a second sorting site for a subset of basolaterally endocytosed membrane proteins reaching this compartment.

  2. Interparticle interactions and polarization effects in colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Hayter, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The physics of simple colloidal systems is usually dominated by three independent length scales: the particle size, the average interparticle distance, and the range of the interparticle potential. The dispersed particles typically have characteristic dimensions in the range 5 to 100 nm, often with spherical or cylindrical symmetry. Dispersion densities vary over volume fractions ranging from 0.5 to 10/sup -4/, with the corresponding mean interparticle distances ranging from about 1 to 10 diameters (in spherical systems). The interaction potential may be very short ranged (hard sphere), very long ranged (Coulomb or dipolar), or anywhere in between (screened Coulomb), and the correlations exhibited in the dispersion may be gas-like, liquid-like or crystalline, depending on the range of the potential relative to the interparticle distance. This rich phase behavior is responsible for the remarkable importance of colloidal studies in many areas of condensed matter physics and biophysics, but it poses often intractable problems in developing the statistical mechanical descriptions necessary for an understanding of scattering data from colloids. This paper will review the considerable recent progress in this field, in the context of SANS experiments on colloids in which the potentials are dominated by either screened Coulomb or magnetic dipolar interactions; in the case of magnetic colloids (ferrofluids), the use of polarization analysis will also be discussed. 32 refs., 4 figs.

  3. The effect of internal air bleed on CO poisoning in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wentao

    It is found that carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning could be mitigated by increasing only cathode backpressure for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with ultra-thin membranes (≤25 μm). This mitigation can be explained by a heterogeneous oxidation of CO on a Pt-Ru/C anode by the permeated O 2 which is known as "internal air bleed" in his paper. A steady-state model which accounts for this internal air bleed has been developed to model the Pt-Ru/C anode polarization data when 50 ppm CO in H 2 is used as anode feed gas. The modeling results show that the mitigation of CO poisoning by the internal air bleed even exists at ambient conditions for a PEMFC with an ultra-thin membrane. Therefore, the effect of internal air bleed must be considered for modeling fuel cell performance or anode polarization data if an ultra-thin membrane and a low level of CO concentration are used for a Pt-Ru/C anode. An empirical relationship between the amount of internal air bleed used for the mitigation of CO poisoning and the fraction of free Pt sites is provided to facilitate the inclusion of an internal air bleed term in the modeling of anode polarization and the fuel cell performance.

  4. The antecedents and belief-polarized effects of thought confidence.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsuan-Yi; Lien, Nai-Hwa; Liang, Kuan-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates 2 possible antecedents of thought confidence and explores the effects of confidence induced before or during ad exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that both consumers' dispositional optimism and spokesperson attractiveness have significant effects on consumers' confidence in thoughts that are generated after viewing the advertisement. Higher levels of thought confidence will influence the quality of the thoughts that people generate, lead to either positively or negatively polarized message processing, and therefore induce better or worse advertising effectiveness, depending on the valence of thoughts. The authors posit the belief-polarization hypothesis to explain these findings. PMID:21902013

  5. Specific ion effects on membrane potential and the permselectivity of ion exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Geise, Geoffrey M; Cassady, Harrison J; Paul, Donald R; Logan, Bruce E; Hickner, Michael A

    2014-10-21

    Membrane potential and permselectivity are critical parameters for a variety of electrochemically-driven separation and energy technologies. An electric potential is developed when a membrane separates electrolyte solutions of different concentrations, and a permselective membrane allows specific species to be transported while restricting the passage of other species. Ion exchange membranes are commonly used in applications that require advanced ionic electrolytes and span technologies such as alkaline batteries to ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis, but membranes are often only characterized in sodium chloride solutions. Our goal in this work was to better understand membrane behaviour in aqueous ammonium bicarbonate, which is of interest for closed-loop energy generation processes. Here we characterized the permselectivity of four commercial ion exchange membranes in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and ammonium bicarbonate. This stepwise approach, using four different ions in aqueous solution, was used to better understand how these specific ions affect ion transport in ion exchange membranes. Characterization of cation and anion exchange membrane permselectivity, using these ions, is discussed from the perspective of the difference in the physical chemistry of the hydrated ions, along with an accompanying re-derivation and examination of the basic equations that describe membrane potential. In general, permselectivity was highest in sodium chloride and lowest in ammonium bicarbonate solutions, and the nature of both the counter- and co-ions appeared to influence measured permselectivity. The counter-ion type influences the binding affinity between counter-ions and polymer fixed charge groups, and higher binding affinity between fixed charge sites and counter-ions within the membrane decreases the effective membrane charge density. As a result permselectivity decreases. The charge density and polarizability

  6. [Changes in polarization of myometrial cells plasma and internal mitochondrial membranes under calixarenes action as inhibitors of plasma membrane Na+, K+-ATPase].

    PubMed

    Danylovych, H V; Danylovych, Iu V; Kolomiiets', O V; Kosterin, S O; Rodik, R V; Cherenok, S O; Kal'chenko, V I; Chunikhin, O Iu; Horchev, V F; Karakhim, S O

    2012-01-01

    The influence of supramolecular macrocyclic compounds--calix[4]arenes C-97, C-99, C-107, which are ouabainomymetic high affinity inhibitors of Na+, K(+)-ATPase, on the polarization level of plasmic and mitochondrial membranes of rat uterine smooth muscle cells was investigated. The influence of these compounds on the myocytes characteristic size was studied. By using a confocal microscopy and specific for mitochondrial MitoTracker Orange CM-H2TMRos dye it was proved that the potential-sensitive fluorescent probe DiOC6(3) interacts with mitochondria. Artificial potential collapse of plasmic membrane in this case was modeled by myocytes preincubation with ouabain (1 mM). Further experiments performed using the method of flow cytometry with DiOC6(3) have shown that the compounds C-97, C-99 and C-107 at concentration 50-100 nM caused depolarization of the plasma membrane (at the level of 30% relative to control values) in conditions of artificial collapse of mitochondrial potential by myocytes preincubation in the presence of 5 mM of sodium azide. Under artificial sarcolemma depolarization by ouabain, calixarenes C-97, C-99 and C-107 at 100 nM concentrations caused a transient increase of mitochondrial membrane potential, that is 40% of the control level and lasted about 5 minutes. Calixarenes C-99 and C-107 caused a significant increase in fluorescence of myocytes in these conditions, which was confirmed by confocal microscopy too. It was proved by photon correlation spectroscopy method that the C-99 and C-107 caused an increase of characteristic size of myocytes.

  7. Electromembrane extraction of polar basic drugs from plasma with pure bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphite as supported liquid membrane.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuixiu; Seip, Knut Fredrik; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2016-08-31

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) of polar basic drugs from human plasma was investigated for the first time using pure bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphite (DEHPi) as the supported liquid membrane (SLM). The polar basic drugs metaraminol, benzamidine, sotalol, phenylpropanolamine, ephedrine, and trimethoprim were selected as model analytes, and were extracted from 300 μL of human plasma, through 10 μL of DEHPi as SLM, and into 100 μL of 10 mM formic acid as acceptor solution. The extraction potential across the SLM was 100 V, and extractions were performed for 20 min. After EME, the acceptor solutions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). In contrast to other SLMs reported for polar basic drugs in the literature, the SLM of DEHPi was highly stable in contact with plasma, and the system-current across the SLM was easily kept below 50 μA. Thus, electrolysis in the sample and acceptor solution was kept at an acceptable level with no detrimental consequences. For the polar model analytes, representing a log P range from -0.40 to 1.32, recoveries in the range 25-91% were obtained from human plasma. Strong hydrogen bonding and dipole interactions were probably responsible for efficient transfer of the model analytes into the SLM, and this is the first report on efficient EME of highly polar analytes without using any ionic carrier in the SLM. PMID:27506347

  8. Cross-tolerance of human placental plasma membranes of smokers to fluidizing effects of alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Sastry, B.V.R.; Horst, M.A.; Naukam, R.J. )

    1991-03-11

    There is cross-tolerance between ethanol and several centrally acting drugs at the membrane level. In order to evaluate cross-tolerance between maternal smoking during pregnancy and alcohol, the authors have prepared plasma membranes of human term placentas from nonsmokers (NS, n=5) and smokers (S, 24 {plus minus} 8 cigarettes/day, n=5) and studied their microviscosities by steady state fluorescence polarization using trans-1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene as a fluorescent probe. These experiments gave the following results: (a) microviscosity was increased by maternal smoking; (b) alcohol decreased microviscosity of the membranes of smokers; (c) exogenous nicotine did not exert any significant effect on the membranes of smokers and nonsmokers. Therefore, the increase in the rigidity of placental plasma membranes is due to chronic smoking, and these membranes are tolerant to the fluidizing effects of alcohol. Cross-tolerance between smoking and ethanol suggests a common hydrophobic locus of the apparent adaptation at the membrane level.

  9. Coherent effects in the field of elliptically polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Ch.; Biancalana, Valerio; Cartaleva, Stefka S.; Dancheva, Yordanka V.; Karaulanov, Todor S.; Mariotti, E.; Moi, L.; Nasyrov, K. A.

    2004-06-01

    In the present communication we report on the investigation of the effect of elliptically polarized laser light exciting the Fg=3 Cs D2 absorption line. Coherent resonances in Cs have been studied, obtained in Hanle configuration by scanning of magnetic field parallel to the light propagation direction. The resonances were investigated depending on the polarization of the irradiating light field. It has been observed that for linear polarization dark resonances in the fluorescence are registered, while for circularly polarized light, bright resonances are obtained, probably due to stray orthogonal magnetic field. For elliptical polarization a narrow peak appears superimposed on a broader dip. Theoretical description has been made, which shows that at elliptical polarization and orthogonal magnetic field in the case of weak light fields, a single peak in the excited state population is observed, while strong fields lead to the splitting of this peak into two peaks. The presence of both weak and strong light fields, probably due to reflection of the light beam on the cell walls, could lead to the experimentally observed fluorescence behaviour.

  10. Characteristics analysis of polarization module on optical proximity effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chanha; Hong, Jongkyun; Yang, Kiho; Theeuwes, Thomas; Gautier, Frederic; Min, Young-Hong; Chen, Alek; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Kim, Jinwoong

    2007-03-01

    In hyper NA system, specific illumination combined with polarization can be used as one of major RET techniques. Polarization at high NA dry system is also regarded as important technology to bring improvement of very low k1 process. The benefits of polarization on repeated structure are very well known. However we also need to understand the effect on random pattern in peripheral region to adopt polarization technology successfully into real devices. Memory device such as DRAM and NAND Flash has repeated cell structure and also loose pattern in peripheral region. In this study two kinds of polarization function will be applied to real memory devices and the polarization behavior on various patterns in peripheral circuit will be analyzed through actual printing process using 6% attenuated PSM at ArF high NA dry system. The printed result will be compared on random patterns through in-line metrology tool and process guideline including OPC treatment will be discussed based on this study, especially with regard to ID bias.

  11. Effect of membrane bioreactor solids retention time on reverse osmosis membrane fouling for wastewater reuse.

    PubMed

    Farias, Elizabeth L; Howe, Kerry J; Thomson, Bruce M

    2014-02-01

    The effect of the solids retention time (SRT) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) on the fouling of the membranes in a subsequent reverse osmosis (RO) process used for wastewater reuse was studied experimentally using a pilot-scale treatment system. The MBR-RO pilot system was fed effluent from the primary clarifiers at a large municipal wastewater treatment plant. The SRT in the MBRs was adjusted to approximately 2, 10, and 20 days in three experiments. The normalized specific flux through the MBR and RO membranes was evaluated along with inorganic and organic constituents in the influent and effluent of each process. Increasing the SRT in the MBR led to an increase in the removal of bulk DOC, protein, and carbohydrates, as has been observed in previous studies. Increasing the SRT led to a decrease in the fouling of the MBR membranes, which is consistent with previous studies. However, the opposite trend was observed for fouling of the RO membranes; increasing the SRT of the MBR resulted in increased fouling of the RO membranes. These results indicate that the constituents that foul MBR membranes are not the same as those that foul RO membranes; to be an RO membrane foulant in a MBR-RO system, the constituents must first pass through the MBR membranes without being retained. Thus, an intermediate value of SRT may be best choice of operating conditions in an MBR when the MBR is followed by RO for wastewater reuse.

  12. The effect of the nature of H-bonding groups on diffusion through PDMS membranes saturated with octanol and toluene.

    PubMed

    Du Plessis, Jeanetta; Pugh, W John; Judefeind, Anja; Hadgraft, Jonathan

    2002-02-01

    The permeation of a series of structurally related compounds across silicone membranes (PDMS) was studied. The PDMS was saturated either with toluene, to mimic a functionally inert barrier, or octanol, to mimic the polar/hydrogen bonding environment of the stratum corneum lipid barrier. Phenol, salicylic acid, benzoic acid, anisole, phenylethanol and benzyl alcohol were chosen in an attempt to relate permeation to their different H-bonding capabilities. The flux was lower through the octanol system suggesting retardation by polar/H-bonding interactions. Separation of the permeability coefficient into its thermodynamic (partition coefficient) and kinetic (diffusion coefficient) terms suggests that the effect of altering polarity within the membrane has a greater impact on the diffusion of permeant rather than its chemical potential within the membrane.

  13. Nanocarbon-based membrane filtration integrated with electric field driving for effective membrane fouling mitigation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xinfei; Zhao, Huimin; Quan, Xie; Liu, Yanming; Chen, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Membrane filtration provides an effective solution for removing pollutants from water but is limited by serious membrane fouling. In this work, an effective approach was used to mitigate membrane fouling by integrating membrane filtration with electropolarization using an electroconductive nanocarbon-based membrane. The electropolarized membrane (EM) by alternating square-wave potentials between +1.0 V and -1.0 V with a pulse width of 60 s exhibited a permeate flux 8.1 times as high as that without electropolarization for filtering feed water containing bacteria, which confirms the ability of the EM to achieve biofouling mitigation. Moreover, the permeate flux of EM was 1.5 times as high as that without electropolarization when filtrating natural organic matter (NOM) from water, and demonstrated good performance in organic fouling mitigation with EM. Furthermore, the EM was also effective for complex fouling mitigation in filtering water containing coexisting bacteria and NOM, and presented an increased flux rate 1.9 times as high as that without electropolarization. The superior fouling mitigation performance of EM was attributed to the synergistic effects of electrostatic repulsion, electrochemical oxidation and electrokinetic behaviors. This work opens an effective avenue for membrane fouling mitigation of water-treatment membrane filtration systems.

  14. The hydration and solvent polarization effects of nucleotide bases.

    PubMed

    Gao, J

    1994-08-01

    A combined Monte Carlo quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulation method is used to determine the free energy of hydration and the solvent polarization effect for the nucleotide bases. In the present AM1/TIP3P model, the solute molecule is characterized by valence electrons and effective nucleus cores with Hartree-Fock molecular orbital theory incorporating a solute-solvent interaction Hamiltonian. It is found that polarization energy contributes up to 37%-61% of the total solute-solvent interaction for the systems considered. The computed free energies of hydration are compared with previous theoretical results.

  15. Effect of residual ozone on membrane fouling reduction in ozone resisting microfiltration (MF) membrane system.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Jang, N; Watanabe, Y

    2004-01-01

    The effect of residual ozone on reducing the membrane fouling was investigated using ozone resisting microfiltration membrane. It was found out that the fouling was reduced effectively by maintaining residual ozone in the membrane module. To clarify the reason why the residual ozone reduces the membrane fouling, research was focused on the molecular degradation reaction and particle destabilization reaction induced by residual ozone. The major reason of membrane fouling reduction was attributed to the reduction of reversible resistance induced by the cake layer. The reversible resistance was reduced due to degradation of organic substances in the cake layer. In addition to degradation reaction, the increase of fouling particle size due to residual ozone in the cake layer is another important process for fouling reduction. This effect has been referred to as ozone-induced destabilization reaction. The calcium present in the raw water influenced this reaction. The increase of fouling particles size improves the filterability through the cake layer and backwashing efficiency.

  16. Effects of membrane orientation on fouling characteristics of forward osmosis membrane in concentration of microalgae culture.

    PubMed

    Honda, Ryo; Rukapan, Weerapong; Komura, Hitomi; Teraoka, Yuta; Noguchi, Mana; Hoek, Eric M V

    2015-12-01

    Application of forward osmosis (FO) membrane to microalgae cultivation processes enables concentration of microalgae and nutrients with low energy consumption. To understand fouling characteristics of FO membrane in concentration of microalgae culture, we studied flux decline, flux recovery by cleaning, and foulants characteristics, in different membrane orientation of active-layer-facing-feed-solution (AL-FS) and active-layer-facing-draw-solution (AL-DS) modes. Batch concentration of Chlorella vulgaris was conducted with a cellulose-triacetate FO membrane. Rapid flux decline and lower flux recovery was observed in AL-DS mode because of inner-membrane fouling including internal pore clogging, adsorption and internal concentration polarization in the support layer. A proportion of polysaccharides in extracellular polymeric substances to soluble microbial products were larger in chemical cleaning effluent than physical one in AL-DS mode, although those were not significantly different in AL-FS mode. Excitation-emission matrix analysis revealed that proteins and humic-like substances were also possible irreversible foulants both in AL-DS and AL-FS modes.

  17. Membrane Transporters as Mediators of Cisplatin Effects and Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Ciarimboli, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Transporters are important mediators of specific cellular uptake and thus, not only for effects, but also for side effects, metabolism, and excretion of many drugs such as cisplatin. Cisplatin is a potent cytostatic drug, whose use is limited by its severe acute and chronic nephro-, oto-, and peripheral neurotoxicity. For this reason, other platinum derivatives, such as carboplatin and oxaliplatin, with less toxicity but still with antitumoral action have been developed. Several transporters, which are expressed on the cell membranes, have been associated with cisplatin transport across the plasma membrane and across the cell: the copper transporter 1 (Ctr1), the copper transporter 2 (Ctr2), the P-type copper-transporting ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B, the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), and the multidrug extrusion transporter 1 (MATE1). Some of these transporters are also able to accept other platinum derivatives as substrate. Since membrane transporters display a specific tissue distribution, they can be important molecules that mediate the entry of platinum derivatives in target and also nontarget cells possibly mediating specific effects and side effects of the chemotherapeutic drug. This paper summarizes the literature on toxicities of cisplatin compared to that of carboplatin and oxaliplatin and the interaction of these platinum derivatives with membrane transporters. PMID:24278698

  18. Sensor development for in situ detection of concentration polarization and fouling of reverse osmosis membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detrich, Kahlil T.; Goulbourne, Nakhiah C.

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate three polymer electroding techniques in developing a novel in situ sensor for an RO system using the electrical response of a thin film composite sensor. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to measure the sensor response when exposed to sodium chloride solutions with concentrations from 0.1 M to 0.8 M in both single and double bath configurations. An insulated carbon grease sensor was mechanically stable while a composite Direct Assembly Process (DAP) sensor was fragile upon hydration. Scanning electron microscopy results from an impregnation-reduction technique showed gold nanoparticles were deposited most effectively when presoaked in a potassium hydroxide solution and on an uncoated membrane; surface resistances remained too high for sensor implementation. Through thickness carbon grease sensors showed a transient response to changes in concentration, and no meaningful concentration sensitivity was noted for the time scales over which EIS measurements were taken. Surface carbon grease electrodes attached to the polyamide thin film were not sensitive to concentration. The impedance spectra indicated the carbon grease sensor was unable to detect changes in concentration in double bath experiments when implemented with the polyamide surface exposed to salt solutions. DAP sensors lacked a consistent response to changes in concentration too. A reverse double bath experiment with the polysulfone layer exposed to a constant concentration exhibited a transient impedance response similar to through thickness carbon grease sensors in a single bath at constant concentration. These results suggest that the microporous polysulfone layer is responsible for sensor response to concentration.

  19. The Delta F508 mutation shortens the biochemical half-life of plasma membrane CFTR in polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Heda, G D; Tanwani, M; Marino, C R

    2001-01-01

    Although the biosynthetic arrest of the DeltaF508 mutant of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) can be partially reversed by physical and chemical means, recent evidence suggests that the functional stability of the mutant protein after reaching the cell surface is compromised. To understand the molecular basis for this observation, the current study directly measured the half-life of Delta F508 and wild-type CFTR at the cell surface of transfected LLC-PK(1) cells. Plasma membrane CFTR expression over time was characterized biochemically and functionally in these polarized epithelial cells. Surface biotinylation, streptavidin extraction, and quantitative immunoblot analysis determined the biochemical half-life of plasma membrane DeltaF508 CFTR to be approximately 4 h, whereas the plasma membrane half-life of wild-type CFTR exceeded 48 h. This difference in biochemical stability correlated with CFTR-mediated transport function. These findings indicate that the Delta F508 mutation decreases the biochemical stability of CFTR at the cell surface. We conclude that the Delta F508 mutation triggers more rapid internalization of CFTR and/or its preferential sorting to a pathway of rapid degradation. PMID:11121388

  20. Efficiency of Membrane Protein Expression Following Infection with Recombinant Adenovirus of Polarized Non-Transformed Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Müller, Claudia; Blenkinsop, Timothy A; Stern, Jeffrey H; Finnemann, Silvia C

    2016-01-01

    Transient expression of exogenous proteins facilitates studies of molecular mechanisms and utility for transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in culture. Here, we compared expression of the membrane protein β5 integrin-GFP (β5-GFP) in two recently established models of differentiated human RPE, adult RPE stem cell-derived RPE and primary fetal RPE, upon infection with recombinant adenovirus or transfection with DNA in liposomes. We varied viral titer and duration of virus incubation and examined β5-GFP and the tight junction marker ZO-1 in manipulated cells by confocal microscopy. Fewer than 5 % of cells expressed β5-GFP after liposome-mediated transfection. The percentage of cells with detectable β5-GFP exceeded 90 % after adenovirus infection for as little as 1 h. Decreasing virus titer two-fold did not alter the fraction of cells expressing β5-GFP but increased variability of β5-GFP level among cells. In cells with low expression levels, β5-GFP localized mostly to the apical plasma membrane like endogenous αvβ5 integrin. In cells with high expression levels, β5-GFP localized to the cytoplasm in addition to the apical surface suggesting accumulation in trafficking compartments. Altogether, adenovirus delivery yields efficient exogenous membrane protein expression of correct polarity in differentiated human RPE cells in culture. PMID:26427482

  1. Selective photosensitizer delivery into plasma membrane for effective photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Santos, Olavo Amorim; Park, Ji-Ho

    2014-10-10

    Subcellular localization of photosensitizers (PSs) determines the therapeutic efficacy in the photodynamic therapy. However, among the subcellular compartments, there has been little effort to deliver the PSs selectively into the plasma membrane and examine the phototherapeutic efficacy of membrane-localized PSs. Here, we developed a liposomal delivery system to localize the hydrophobic PSs selectively into the plasma membrane. The membrane fusogenic liposomes (MFLs), the membrane of which is engineered to fuse with the plasma membrane, was prepared for the membrane localization of PSs. The phototherapeutic efficacy of cells treated with ZnPc-loaded MFLs was superior over that of cells treated with ZnPc-loaded non-fusogenic liposomes, which is the conventional liposomal formulation that delivers the PSs into the intracellular compartments via endocytosis. The membrane localization of ZnPc molecules led to rapid membrane disruption upon irradiation and subsequent necrosis-like cell death. The membrane-localized generation of reactive oxygen species in the cells treated with ZnPc-loaded MFLs was likely to account for the effective disruption of plasma membrane. Thus, this work provides a novel delivery method to localize the PSs selectively into the plasma membrane with the enhanced phototherapeutic efficacy.

  2. Effects of the local anesthetic benzocaine on the human erythrocyte membrane and molecular models.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, Mario; Schneider, Carlos; Villena, Fernando; Norris, Beryl; Cárdenas, Hernán; Cuevas, Francisco; Sotomayor, Carlos P

    2004-04-01

    The interaction of the local anesthetic benzocaine with the human erythrocyte membrane and molecular models is described. The latter consisted of isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes (IUM), large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) of dimyristoylphospatidylcholine (DMPC), and phospholipid multilayers of DMPC and dimyristoylphospatidyletanolamine (DMPE), representatives of phospholipid classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the human erythrocyte membrane, respectively. Optical and scanning electron microscopy of human erythrocytes revealed that benzocaine induced the formation of echinocytes. Experiments performed on IUM and DMPC LUV by fluorescence spectroscopy showed that benzocaine interacted with the phospholipid bilayer polar groups and hydrophobic acyl chains. X-ray diffraction analysis of DMPC confirmed these results and showed that benzocaine had no effects on DMPE. The effect on sodium transport was also studied using the isolated toad skin. Electrophysiological measurements indicated a significant decrease in the potential difference (PD) and in the short-circuit current (Isc) after the application of benzocaine, reflecting inhibition of active ion transport. PMID:15059670

  3. Solvent Polarity Effect on Nonradiative Decay Rate of Thioflavin T.

    PubMed

    Stsiapura, Vitali I; Kurhuzenkau, Siarhei A; Kuzmitsky, Valery A; Bouganov, Oleg V; Tikhomirov, Sergey A

    2016-07-21

    It has been established earlier that fluorescence quantum yield of thioflavin T (ThT)-a probe widely used for amyloid fibrils detection-is viscosity-dependent, and photophysical properties of ThT can be well-described by the fluorescent molecular rotor model, which associates twisted internal charge transfer (TICT) reaction with the main nonradiative decay process in the excited state of the dye. Solutions of ThT in a range of polar solvents were studied using steady-state fluorescence and sub-picosecond transient absorption spectroscopy methods, and we showed that solvent effect on nonradiative transition rate knr cannot be reduced to the dependence on viscosity only and that ∼3 times change of knr can be observed for ThT in aprotic solvents and water, which correlates with solvent polarity. Different behavior was observed in alcohol solutions, particularly in longer n-alcohols, where TICT rate was mainly determined by rotational diffusion of ThT fragments. Quantum-chemical calculations of S0 → S1 transition energy were performed to get insight of polar solvent contribution to the excited-state energy stabilization. Effect of polar solvent on electronic energy levels of ThT was simulated by applying homogeneous electric field according to the Onsager cavity model. Static solvent effect on the excited-state potential energy surface, where charge transfer reaction takes place, was not essential to account for experimentally observed TICT rate differences in water and aprotic solvents. From the other side, nonradiative decay rate of ThT in water, ethylene glycol, and aprotic solvents was found to follow dynamics of polar solvation knr ∼ τS(-1), which can explain dependence of the TICT rate on both polarity and viscosity of the solvents.

  4. Estimating Potential Effects of Hypothetical Oil Spills on Polar Bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G.M.; McDonald, T.L.; Johnson, W.R.

    2006-01-01

    Much is known about the transport and fate of oil spilled into the sea and its toxicity to exposed wildlife. Previously, however, there has been no way to quantify the probability that wildlife dispersed over the seascape would be exposed to spilled oil. Polar bears, the apical predator of the arctic, are widely dispersed near the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean, an area also undergoing considerable hydrocarbon exploration and development. We used 15,308 satellite locations from 194 radiocollared polar bears to estimate the probability that polar bears could be exposed to hypothetical oil spills. We used a true 2 dimensional Gausian kernel density estimator, to estimate the number of bears likely to occur in each 1.00 km2 cell of a grid superimposed over near shore areas surrounding 2 oil production facilities: the existing Northstar oil production facility, and the proposed offshore site for the Liberty production facility. We estimated the standard errors of bear numbers per cell with bootstrapping. Simulated oil spill footprints for September and October, the times during which we hypothesized effects of an oil-spill would be worst, were estimated using real wind and current data collected between 1980 and 1996. We used ARC/Info software to calculate overlap (numbers of bears oiled) between simulated oil-spill footprints and polar bear grid-cell values. Numbers of bears potentially oiled by a hypothetical 5912 barrel spill (the largest spill thought probable from a pipeline breach) ranged from 0 to 27 polar bears for September open water conditions, and from 0 to 74 polar bears in October mixed ice conditions. Median numbers oiled by the 5912 barrel hypothetical spill from the Liberty simulation in September and October were 1 and 3 bears, equivalent values for the Northstar simulation were 3 and 11 bears. In October, 75% of trajectories from the 5912 barrel simulated spill at Liberty oiled 9 or fewer bears while 75% of the trajectories affected 20 or

  5. Electromagnetic wave propagation in rain and polarization effects

    PubMed Central

    OKAMURA, Sogo; OGUCHI, Tomohiro

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes our study on microwave and millimeter-wave propagation in rain with special emphasis on the effects of polarization. Starting from a recount of our past findings, we will discuss developments with these and how they are connected with subsequent research. PMID:20551593

  6. The effect of airborne dust on astronomical polarization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Jeremy; Ulanowski, Z.; Lucas, P. W.; Hough, J. H.; Hirst, E.; Tamura, M.

    2008-05-01

    In the past, it has generally been assumed that polarization observations made with ground-based telescopes are unaffected by the passage of light through the Earth's atmosphere. Here, we report observations with a new high-sensitivity astronomical polarimeter (PlanetPol) made during a Saharan dust event over the La Palma observatory in 2005 May that show excess linear polarization in the horizontal direction due to the passage of the starlight through the dust. The polarization reached a maximum value of 4.8 × 10-5 at 56° zenith distance and varied over five nights in proportion to the change in dust optical depth. Polarization of transmitted light (dichroism) does not occur for spherical or randomly oriented non-spherical particles. Thus, these results imply that some fraction of the dust grain population aligns with a preferred orientation. We use T-matrix models to demonstrate that the observed polarization direction implies a vertical orientation for the long axis of the particles. We suggest a possible mechanism for vertical orientation resulting from the electric field in the atmosphere. These results will need to be taken into account in the design and use of future instruments for high-sensitivity astronomical polarimetry. The results also indicate possible new approaches to studying aerosol particles and their effects on the Earth's atmosphere.

  7. Membrane studies with polarity-dependant and excimer-forming fluorescent probes

    PubMed Central

    Brocklehurst, J. R.; Freedman, R. B.; Hancock, D. J.; Radda, G. K.

    1970-01-01

    1. The interaction of electron-transporting particles from heavy mitochondria of ox heart with several fluorescent probes was examined. 2. 1-Anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonate and 2-(N-methylanilino)naphthalene-6-sulphonate both show an energy-dependent response. 3. Energy transfer between the electron-transporting particles and the dyes and the kinetics of the dye–particle interaction were studied in order to locate the binding regions in the membrane. 4. The energy-dependent probe responses were shown to be a result of changes in the quantum yield of fluorescence of the bound dyes together with increased binding of the dyes to the energized membrane. 5. Fluorescence lifetime measurements were also used to observe changes on energization. 6. A new type of probe was found in pyrene-3-sulphonate, which may be regarded as a `volume indicator' for the internal membrane binding region, since it shows a concentration-dependent excimer fluorescence. 7. By comparing the responses of all these dyes when energized particles are uncoupled, a membrane transition with a time-constant of 2–3s is inferred. PMID:5435498

  8. Widespread spin polarization effects in photoemission from topological insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Jozwiak, C.; Chen, Y. L.; Fedorov, A. V.; Analytis, J. G.; Rotundu, C. R.; Schmid, A. K.; Denlinger, J. D.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Lee, D.-H.; Fisher, I. R.; Birgeneau, R. J.; Shen, Z.-X.; Hussain, Z.; Lanzara, A.

    2011-06-22

    High-resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (spin-ARPES) was performed on the three-dimensional topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} using a recently developed high-efficiency spectrometer. The topological surface state's helical spin structure is observed, in agreement with theoretical prediction. Spin textures of both chiralities, at energies above and below the Dirac point, are observed, and the spin structure is found to persist at room temperature. The measurements reveal additional unexpected spin polarization effects, which also originate from the spin-orbit interaction, but are well differentiated from topological physics by contrasting momentum and photon energy and polarization dependencies. These observations demonstrate significant deviations of photoelectron and quasiparticle spin polarizations. Our findings illustrate the inherent complexity of spin-resolved ARPES and demonstrate key considerations for interpreting experimental results.

  9. Effective area for northern Polar Cap index data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The northern (PCN) and southern (PCS) Polar Cap indices are used, among other, in applications to forecast geomagnetic storms and substorms. The index values are based on geomagnetic observations that for the forecast are transmitted in real-time from selected stations, PCN on data from Qaanaaq (Thule) in Greenland and PCS on geomagnetic data from Vostok in Antarctica. Observational conditions in the harsh polar environments are difficult and data transmission links are vulnerable. Hence, it could be advantageous to base real-time PC index values on data from multiple sites in order to safeguard the forecasts. The presentation shall compare PCN index values derived from a range of further observatories in Greenland and Canada in order to delimit an effective Polar Cap area for providing geomagnetic data for a useful index and to settle whether reliable (preliminary) index values could be derived from other than the standard observatories particularly during strongly disturbed conditions.

  10. Spatial Congruity Effects Reveal Metaphorical Thinking, not Polarity Correspondence.

    PubMed

    Dolscheid, Sarah; Casasanto, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Spatial congruity effects have often been interpreted as evidence for metaphorical thinking, but an alternative account based on polarity correspondence (a.k.a. markedness) has challenged this view. Here we compared metaphor- and polarity-correspondence-based explanations for spatial congruity effects, using musical pitch as a testbed. In one experiment, English speakers classified high- and low-frequency pitches as "high" and "low," or as "front" and "back," to determine whether space-pitch congruity effects could be elicited by any marked spatial continuum. Although both pairs of terms describe bipolar spatial continuums, we found congruity effects only for high/low judgments, indicating that markedness is not sufficient to produce space-pitch congruity effects. A second experiment confirmed that there were no space-pitch congruity effects for another pair of terms that have clear markedness (big/small), but which do not denote spatial height. By contrast, this experiment showed congruity effects for words that cued an appropriate vertical spatial schema (tall/short), even though these words are not used conventionally in English to describe pitches, ruling out explanations for the observed pattern of results based on verbal polysemy. Together, results suggest that space-pitch congruity effects reveal metaphorical uses of spatial schemas, not polarity correspondence effects. PMID:26635713

  11. Spatial Congruity Effects Reveal Metaphorical Thinking, not Polarity Correspondence

    PubMed Central

    Dolscheid, Sarah; Casasanto, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Spatial congruity effects have often been interpreted as evidence for metaphorical thinking, but an alternative account based on polarity correspondence (a.k.a. markedness) has challenged this view. Here we compared metaphor- and polarity-correspondence-based explanations for spatial congruity effects, using musical pitch as a testbed. In one experiment, English speakers classified high- and low-frequency pitches as “high” and “low,” or as “front” and “back,” to determine whether space-pitch congruity effects could be elicited by any marked spatial continuum. Although both pairs of terms describe bipolar spatial continuums, we found congruity effects only for high/low judgments, indicating that markedness is not sufficient to produce space-pitch congruity effects. A second experiment confirmed that there were no space-pitch congruity effects for another pair of terms that have clear markedness (big/small), but which do not denote spatial height. By contrast, this experiment showed congruity effects for words that cued an appropriate vertical spatial schema (tall/short), even though these words are not used conventionally in English to describe pitches, ruling out explanations for the observed pattern of results based on verbal polysemy. Together, results suggest that space-pitch congruity effects reveal metaphorical uses of spatial schemas, not polarity correspondence effects. PMID:26635713

  12. Polarized ATR-FTIR spectroscopy of the membrane-embedded domains of the particulate methane monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Vinchurkar, Madhuri S; Chen, Kelvin H-C; Yu, Steve S-F; Kuo, Shan-Jen; Chiu, Hui-Chi; Chien, Shu-Hua; Chan, Sunney I

    2004-10-26

    The particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is an integral membrane protein that catalyzes the conversion of methane to methanol. To gain some insight into the structure-reactivity pattern of this protein, we have applied attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy to investigate the secondary structure of the pMMO. The results showed that ca. 60% of the amino acid residues were structured as alpha-helices. About 80% of the peptide residues were estimated to be protected from the amide (1)H/(2)H exchange during a 21 h exposure to (2)H(2)O. In addition, a significant portion of the protein was shown to be sequestered within the bilayer membrane, protected from trypsin proteolysis. The ATR-FTIR difference spectrum between the intact and the proteolyzed pMMO-enriched membranes revealed absorption peaks only in the spectral regions characteristic for unordered and beta-structures. These observations were corroborated by amino acid sequence analysis of the pMMO subunits using the program TransMembrane topology with a Hidden Markov Model: 15 putative transmembrane alpha-helices were predicted. Finally, an attempt was also made to model the three-dimensional folding of the protein subunits from the sequence using the Protein Fold Recognition Server based on the 3D Position Specific Scoring Matrix Method. The C-terminal solvent-exposed sequence (N255-M414) of the pMMO 45 kDa subunit was shown to match the beta-sheet structure of the multidomain cupredoxins. We conclude on the basis of this ATR-FTIR study that pMMO is an alpha-helical bundle with ca. 15 transmembrane alpha-helices embedded in the bilayer membrane, together with a water-exposed domain comprised mostly of beta-sheet structures similar to the cupredoxins.

  13. Ganglioside Structure Dictates Signal Transduction by Cholera Toxin and Association with Caveolae-like Membrane Domains in Polarized Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Anne A.; Jobling, Michael G.; Wimer-Mackin, Susan; Ferguson-Maltzman, Margaret; Madara, James L.; Holmes, Randall K.; Lencer, Wayne I.

    1998-01-01

    In polarized cells, signal transduction by cholera toxin (CT) requires apical endocytosis and retrograde transport into Golgi cisternae and perhaps ER (Lencer, W.I., C. Constable, S. Moe, M. Jobling, H.M. Webb, S. Ruston, J.L. Madara, T. Hirst, and R. Holmes. 1995. J. Cell Biol. 131:951–962). In this study, we tested whether CT's apical membrane receptor ganglioside GM1 acts specifically in toxin action. To do so, we used CT and the related Escherichia coli heat-labile type II enterotoxin LTIIb. CT and LTIIb distinguish between gangliosides GM1 and GD1a at the cell surface by virtue of their dissimilar receptor-binding B subunits. The enzymatically active A subunits, however, are homologous. While both toxins bound specifically to human intestinal T84 cells (Kd ≈ 5 nM), only CT elicited a cAMP-dependent Cl− secretory response. LTIIb, however, was more potent than CT in eliciting a cAMP-dependent response from mouse Y1 adrenal cells (toxic dose 10 vs. 300 pg/well). In T84 cells, CT fractionated with caveolae-like detergent-insoluble membranes, but LTIIb did not. To investigate further the relationship between the specificity of ganglioside binding and partitioning into detergent-insoluble membranes and signal transduction, CT and LTIIb chimeric toxins were prepared. Analysis of these chimeric toxins confirmed that toxin-induced signal transduction depended critically on the specificity of ganglioside structure. The mechanism(s) by which ganglioside GM1 functions in signal transduction likely depends on coupling CT with caveolae or caveolae-related membrane domains. PMID:9585411

  14. Piezotronic Effect in Polarity-Controlled GaN Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenfu; Pu, Xiong; Han, Changbao; Du, Chunhua; Li, Linxuan; Jiang, Chunyan; Hu, Weiguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-08-25

    Using high-quality and polarity-controlled GaN nanowires (NWs), we studied the piezotronic effect in crystal orientation defined wurtzite structures. By applying a normal compressive force on c-plane GaN NWs with an atomic force microscopy tip, the Schottky barrier between the Pt tip and GaN can be effectively tuned by the piezotronic effect. In contrast, the normal compressive force cannot change the electron transport characteristics in m-plane GaN NWs whose piezoelectric polarization axis is turned in the transverse direction. This observation provided solid evidence for clarifying the difference between the piezotronic effect and the piezoresistive effect. We further demonstrated a high sensitivity of the m-plane GaN piezotronic transistor to collect the transverse force. The integration of c-plane GaN and m-plane GaN indicates an overall response to an external force in any direction.

  15. Dietary fat and hormonal effects on erythrocyte membrane fluidity and lipid composition in adult women.

    PubMed

    Berlin, E; Bhathena, S J; Judd, J T; Nair, P P; Jones, D Y; Taylor, P R

    1989-08-01

    Erythrocyte ghost membrane fluidity and phospholipid linoleate were significantly increased when higher levels of polyunsaturated fats were fed to healthy, free living, premenopausal women. Fluidity was assessed by diphenylhexatriene (DPH) fluorescence polarization measurements with hypotonically lysed red blood cells from 31 female subjects fed one of two sets of diets, which were formulated from typical US foods to contain polyunsaturate to saturate ratios (P/S) of 1.0 or 0.3. Both groups of women were fed diets with 40% of energy as fat for four menstrual cycles followed by low-fat diets having 20% of energy as fat for the next four menstrual cycles. Blood was sampled during the fourth cycle of each dietary period at times estimated to correspond to maximum secretions of estrogen and progesterone to assess interactive hormonal and dietary effects on membrane composition and fluidity. Red blood cell membranes were most fluid following higher levels of linoleate intake, either by higher (40%) total fat or higher P/S levels. Membrane fluidity was directly related to the phospholipid oleate and linoleate contents and inversely related to the molar cholesterol/phospholipid ratio. Hormonal status effects on the membranes were not extensive. Membrane fluidity in cells from women fed P/S = 0.3 diets was higher at 40% than at 20% fat during the luteal phase of the fourth cycle. In contrast, women fed the P/S = 1.0 diets had more fluid red cells at 40% fat during the follicular phase of the cycle. Regression analysis showed a direct linear correlation between membrane fluidity and red cell membrane insulin binding demonstrating a relation between receptor binding and cell membrane fluidity in the human female.

  16. Solutocapillary Convection Effects on Polymeric Membrane Morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, William B.; Todd, Paul W.; Kinagurthu, Sanjay

    1996-01-01

    Macro voids are undesirable large pores in membranes used for purification. They form when membranes are cast as thin films on a smooth surface by evaporating solvent (acetone) from a polymer solution. There are two un-tested hypotheses explaining the growth of macro voids. One states that diffusion of the non-solvent (water) is solely responsible, while the other states that solutocapillary convection is the primary cause of macro void growth. Solutocapillary convection is flow-caused by a concentration induced surface-tension gradient. Macrovoid growth in the former hypothesis is gravity independent, while in the latter it is opposed by gravity. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, experiments were designed to cast membranes in zero-gravity. A semi-automated apparatus was designed and built for casting membranes during the 20 secs of zero-g time available in parabolic aircraft flight such as NASA's KC-135. The phase changes were monitored optically, and membrane morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These studies appear to be the first quantitative studies of membrane casting in micro-gravity which incorporate real-time data acquisition. Morphological studies of membranes cast at 0, 1, and 1.8 g revealed the presence of numerous, sparse and no macrovoids respectively. These results are consistent with the predictions of the solutocapillary hypothesis of macrovoid growth.

  17. Optimization of cross-polarization at low radiofrequency fields for sensitivity enhancement in solid-state NMR of membrane proteins reconstituted in magnetically aligned bicelles.

    PubMed

    Koroloff, Sophie N; Nevzorov, Alexander A

    2015-07-01

    Solid-state NMR (ssNMR) of oriented membrane proteins (MPs) is capable of providing structural and dynamic information at nearly physiological conditions. However, NMR experiments performed on oriented membrane proteins generally suffer from low sensitivity. Moreover, utilization of high-power radiofrequency (RF) irradiations for magnetization transfer may give rise to sample heating, thereby decreasing the efficiency of conventional cross-polarization schemes. Here we have optimized the recently developed repetitive cross-polarization (REP-CP) sequence (Tang et al., 2011) to further increase the magnetization transfer efficiency for membrane proteins reconstituted in magnetically aligned bicelles and compared its performance to single-contact Hartmann-Hahn cross-polarization (CP), CP-MOIST and the adiabatic transfer. It has been found that employing the REP-CP sequence at RF amplitudes of 19kHz instead of the commonly used higher RF fields (>45kHz) enhances the efficiency of REP-CP. An additional 30% signal can be obtained as compared to the previously published REP-CP, and 20% when compared to the re-optimized REP-CP at 50kHz RF fields. Moreover, the (15)N signal gain of low-power REP-CP was found to be 40% over the adiabatic CP and up to 80% over CP-MOIST. Thus, the low-power REP-CP sequence surpasses all of the previous CP schemes in addition of having the tremendous advantage of reducing the RF powers by a factor of seven, thereby preserving the liquid-like bicelle sample. By contrast, in purely static (NAL crystal) and semi-rigid systems (Pf1 phage), the adiabatic CP was found to be more effective. Periodic oscillations of the intensity profile (distinct from the transient oscillations) as a function of the CP contact time and B1 RF field strengths were observed during the REP-CP optimization with the oscillations becoming more pronounced with lower RF fields. Many-spin simulations were performed to explain the oscillations and their periodicity.

  18. Membrane effects of N-terminal fragment of apolipoprotein A-I: a fluorescent probe study.

    PubMed

    Trusova, Valeriya; Gorbenko, Galyna; Girych, Mykhailo; Adachi, Emi; Mizuguchi, Chiharu; Sood, Rohit; Kinnunen, Paavo; Saito, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    The binding of monomeric and aggregated variants of 1-83 N-terminal fragment of apolipoprotein A-I with substitution mutations G26R, G26R/W@8, G26R/W@50 and G26R/W@72 to the model lipid membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine and its mixture with cholesterol has been investigated using fluorescent probes pyrene and Laurdan. Examination of pyrene spectral behavior did not reveal any marked influence of apoA-I mutants on the hydrocarbon region of lipid bilayer. In contrast, probing the membrane effects by Laurdan revealed decrease in the probe generalized polarization in the presence of aggregated proteins. suggesting that oligomeric and fibrillar apoA-I species induce increase in hydration degree and reduction of lipid packing density in the membrane interfacial region. These findings may shed light on molecular details of amyloid cytotoxicity.

  19. EFFECT OF COMPRESSION ON CONDUCTIVITY AND MORPHOLOGY OF PFSA MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect

    Kusoglu, Ahmet; Weber, Adam; Jiang, Ruichin; Gittleman, Craig

    2011-07-20

    Polymer-Electrolyte-Fuel-Cells (PEFCs) are promising candidates for powering vehicles and portable devices using renewable-energy sources. The core of a PEFC is the solid electrolyte membrane that conducts protons from anode to cathode, where water is generated. The conductivity of the membrane, however, depends on the water content of the membrane, which is strongly related to the cell operating conditions. The membrane and other cell components are typically compressed to minimize various contact resistances. Moreover, the swelling of a somewhat constrained membrane in the cell due to the humidity changes generates additional compressive stresses in the membrane. These external stresses are balanced by the internal swelling pressure of the membrane and change the swelling equilibrium. It was shown using a fuel-cell setup that compression could reduce the water content of the membrane or alter the cell resistance. Nevertheless, the effect of compression on the membrane’s transport properties is yet to be understood, as well as its implications in the structure-functions relationships of the membrane. We previously studied, both experimentally and theoretically, how compression affects the water content of the membrane.6 However, more information is required the gain a fundamental understanding of the compression effects. In this talk, we present the results of our investigation on the in-situ conductivity of the membrane as a function of humidity and cell compression pressure. Moreover, to better understand the morphology of compressed membrane, small-angle X-ray-scattering (SAXS) experiments were performed. The conductivity data is then analyzed by investigating the size of the water domains of the compressed membrane determined from the SAXS measurements.

  20. Effect of 8-alkylberberine homologues on erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Yong, Yang; Ye, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Bao-Shun; Li, Xue-Gang

    2011-05-01

    8-alkylberberine homologues (Ber-C8-n, where n indicates carbon atom number of gaseous normal alkyl at 8 position, n = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, or 16) were synthesized and their effects on the hemolysis of rabbit erythrocyte, the fluidity of membrane and the fluorescence of membrane protein were investigated by fluorescence analysis technique. Ber-C8-n with mediate length alkyl (4 < n < 10) exhibited obvious hemolysis effect on rabbit erythrocyte when their concentration exceed 1.25 x10(-4) mol/L, and Ber-C8-8 displayed the highest hemolysis effect among all tested homologues. All of Ber-C8-n influenced the fluidity of erythrocyte membrane to different extents, which exhibited an obvious dose-effect relationship. The effect of Ber-C8-n on fluidity increased as the length of alkyl chain was elongated and decreased gradually when the alkyl carbon atoms exceeded 8. The fluorescence of erythrocyte membrane protein was quenched by Ber-C8-n, which showed a similar changing tendency on membrane fluidity. Experiments in vitro suggested that disturbing effects of Ber-C8-n on the conformation and function of membrane protein leaded to the changes of membrane fluidity and stability, and then the membrane was broken down.

  1. Nondipole Effects in Chiral Systems Measured with Linearly Polarized Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, K. P.; Hemmers, O.; Guillemin, R.; Stolte, W. C.; Piancastelli, M. N.; Lindle, D. W.

    2015-06-01

    With the advent of third-generation synchrotron light sources, it has been demonstrated that higher-order corrections to the dipole approximation are necessary for the description of light-matter interactions in the soft x-ray range. These effects, known as 'nondipole effects', present themselves as asymmetries in the angular distributions of photoelectrons. Chiral molecules, known to have asymmetries in photoelectron angular distributions when exposed to circularly polarized light, have been proposed to demonstrate a chiral-specific nondipole effect when exposed to linearly polarized light. We present the first-ever measurement of nondipole chiral angular distributions for the case of each enantiomer of camphor in the photon energy range 296-343eV.

  2. Hydrodynamic effects of air sparging on hollow fiber membranes in a bubble column reactor.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lijun; Law, Adrian Wing-Keung; Fane, Anthony G

    2013-07-01

    Air sparging is now a standard approach to reduce concentration polarization and fouling of membrane modules in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). The hydrodynamic shear stresses, bubble-induced turbulence and cross flows scour the membrane surfaces and help reduce the deposit of foulants onto the membrane surface. However, the detailed quantitative knowledge on the effect of air sparging remains lacking in the literature due to the complex hydrodynamics generated by the gas-liquid flows. To date, there is no valid model that describes the relationship between the membrane fouling performance and the flow hydrodynamics. The present study aims to examine the impact of hydrodynamics induced by air sparging on the membrane fouling mitigation in a quantitative manner. A modelled hollow fiber module was placed in a cylindrical bubble column reactor at different axial heights with the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) monitored under constant flux conditions. The configuration of bubble column without the membrane module immersed was identical to that studied by Gan et al. (2011) using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA), to ensure a good quantitative understanding of turbulent flow conditions along the column height. The experimental results showed that the meandering flow regime which exhibits high flow instability at the 0.3 m is more beneficial to fouling alleviation compared with the steady flow circulation regime at the 0.6 m. The filtration tests also confirmed the existence of an optimal superficial air velocity beyond which a further increase is of no significant benefit on the membrane fouling reduction. In addition, the alternate aeration provided by two air stones mounted at the opposite end of the diameter of the bubble column was also studied to investigate the associated flow dynamics and its influence on the membrane filtration performance. It was found that with a proper switching interval and membrane module orientation, the membrane fouling can be effectively

  3. Hydrodynamic effects of air sparging on hollow fiber membranes in a bubble column reactor.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lijun; Law, Adrian Wing-Keung; Fane, Anthony G

    2013-07-01

    Air sparging is now a standard approach to reduce concentration polarization and fouling of membrane modules in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). The hydrodynamic shear stresses, bubble-induced turbulence and cross flows scour the membrane surfaces and help reduce the deposit of foulants onto the membrane surface. However, the detailed quantitative knowledge on the effect of air sparging remains lacking in the literature due to the complex hydrodynamics generated by the gas-liquid flows. To date, there is no valid model that describes the relationship between the membrane fouling performance and the flow hydrodynamics. The present study aims to examine the impact of hydrodynamics induced by air sparging on the membrane fouling mitigation in a quantitative manner. A modelled hollow fiber module was placed in a cylindrical bubble column reactor at different axial heights with the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) monitored under constant flux conditions. The configuration of bubble column without the membrane module immersed was identical to that studied by Gan et al. (2011) using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA), to ensure a good quantitative understanding of turbulent flow conditions along the column height. The experimental results showed that the meandering flow regime which exhibits high flow instability at the 0.3 m is more beneficial to fouling alleviation compared with the steady flow circulation regime at the 0.6 m. The filtration tests also confirmed the existence of an optimal superficial air velocity beyond which a further increase is of no significant benefit on the membrane fouling reduction. In addition, the alternate aeration provided by two air stones mounted at the opposite end of the diameter of the bubble column was also studied to investigate the associated flow dynamics and its influence on the membrane filtration performance. It was found that with a proper switching interval and membrane module orientation, the membrane fouling can be effectively

  4. Polarity and transport properties of rabbit kidney proximal tubule cells on collagen IV-coated porous membranes.

    PubMed

    Genestie, I; Morin, J P; Vannier, B; Lorenzon, G

    1995-07-01

    A high degree of functional polarity has been obtained in primary cultures of rabbit kidney proximal tubule cells grown on collagen IV-coated porous membranes. Tight confluency was attained 6 days after seeding and maintained for at least 6 more days, as shown by analysis of paracellular inulin diffusion. From day 6 onward, L-lactate, ammonia, and D-glucose concentration gradient and a pH difference of approximately 1 unit developed between the two nutrient medium compartments. Confluent monolayers expressed organic ion transport properties higher than those formerly reported for other cell models. Transcellular transport of 20 microM tetraethylammonium was directed from basal to apical compartment and was specifically inhibited by mepiperphenidol (1 mM). Unidirectional transport of 2.4 microM p-aminohippurate also occurred from basal to apical compartment, was saturable, and specifically inhibited by probenecid (1 mM). These results suggest that rabbit kidney proximal tubule cells, cultured under the experimental conditions described here, may be a useful model for the in vitro study of highly polarized renal transport processes.

  5. Interfacial Water-Transport Effects in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kienitz, Brian; Yamada, Haruhiko; Nonoyama, Nobuaki; Weber, Adam

    2009-11-19

    It is well known that the proton-exchange membrane is perhaps the most critical component of a polymer-electrolyte fuel cell. Typical membranes, such as Nafion(R), require hydration to conduct efficiently and are instrumental in cell water management. Recently, evidence has been shown that these membranes might have different interfacial morphology and transport properties than in the bulk. In this paper, experimental data combined with theoretical simulations will be presented that explore the existence and impact of interfacial resistance on water transport for Nafion(R) 21x membranes. A mass-transfer coefficient for the interfacial resistance is calculated from experimental data using different permeation cells. This coefficient is shown to depend exponentially on relative humidity or water activity. The interfacial resistance does not seem to exist for liquid/membrane or membrane/membrane interfaces. The effect of the interfacial resistance is to flatten the water-content profiles within the membrane during operation. Under typical operating conditions, the resistance is on par with the water-transport resistance of the bulk membrane. Thus, the interfacial resistance can be dominant especially in thin, dry membranes and can affect overall fuel-cell performance.

  6. A non-linear induced polarization effect on transient electromagnetic soundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallbauer-Zadorozhnaya, Valeriya Yu.; Santarato, Giovanni; Abu Zeid, Nasser; Bignardi, Samuel

    2016-10-01

    In a TEM survey conducted for characterizing the subsurface for geothermal purposes, a strong induced polarization effect was recorded in all collected data. Surprisingly, anomalous decay curves were obtained in part of the sites, whose shape depended on the repetition frequency of the exciting square waveform, i.e. on current pulse length. The Cole-Cole model, besides being not directly related to physical parameters of rocks, was found inappropriate to model the observed distortion, due to induced polarization, because this model is linear, i.e. it cannot fit any dependence on current pulse. This phenomenon was investigated and explained as due to the presence of membrane polarization linked to constrictivity of (fresh) water-saturated pores. An algorithm for mathematical modeling of TEM data was then developed to fit this behavior. The case history is then discussed: 1D inversion, which accommodates non-linear effects, produced models that agree quite satisfactorily with resistivity and chargeability models obtained by an electrical resistivity tomography carried out for comparison.

  7. Annular (HSURIA) resonators: some experimental studies including polarization effects.

    PubMed

    Chodzko, R A; Mason, S B; Turner, E B; Plummer, W W

    1980-03-01

    A repetitively pulsed CO(2) laser facility was developed for testing annular resonators. The large-aperture device exhibits generally uniform gain over an annular region of 18-cm o.d. and 10-cm i.d. The half-symmetric unstable resonator with internal axicon (HSURIA) was tested at equivalent Fresnel numbers up to 4.5. This resonator design incorporates a W-axicon mirror beam compactor that transforms a cylindricalmode region into an annular-mode region. Two HSURIA configurations were evaluated: (a) with a conical end mirror and (b) with a flat end mirror in the annular leg. With the conical end mirror, the aligned resonator produced a predominantly higher-order azimuthal mode with an on-axis null in the far field. The output was strongly linearly polarized with the electric-field vector tangential to the optic axis in both the near and far fields. The higher-order tangentially polarized mode appears to be the result of a geometric polarization scrambling effect caused by the conical end mirror. The boundary conitions for the conical or W-axicon mirrors imply that the radial electric field has a 180 degrees phase shift on reflection, whereas the tangential component is unchanged. Thus, a tangentially polarized mode is self-reproducing, but a linearly polarized mode is not. To eliminate the polarization scrambling effect in the HSURIA, the conical end mirror was replaced with a flat end mirror. The HSURIA with a flat end mirror produced a central spot in the far field that indicated an l = 0 mode with no spatial variations in polarization. Beam quality was measured in terms of the ratio n(2) of the theoretical (geometric-mode) power transmitted through an aperture of the central lobe diameter to the observed power; n(2) values as low as 1.2 were obtained. The variation of beam quality with tilt of the flat end mirror indicated a factor of 2 degradation in n(2) for a 20-microrad tilt, which is in good agreement with theory. PMID:20220932

  8. Antagonistic effects of α-tocopherol and ursolic acid on model bacterial membranes.

    PubMed

    Broniatowski, Marcin; Flasiński, Michał; Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna

    2015-10-01

    α-tocopherol (Toc), the most active component of vitamin E can exert antagonistic effects disabling the therapy of cancers and bacterial infections. Such antagonisms were observed also between Toc and bioactive pentacyclic triterpenes (PT) exhibiting anticancer and antibacterial properties. Both Toc and PT are water-insoluble membrane active substances. Thus, our idea was to emulate their interactions with model Escherichia coli membranes. E. coli inner membranes were selected for the experiments because their lipid composition is quite simple and well characterized and the two main components are phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. As a model of E. coli membranes we applied Langmuir monolayers formed by the E. coli total extract of polar lipids (Etotal) as well as by the main lipid components: phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE) and phosphatidylglycerol (ECPG). The antagonistic effects of ursolic acid (Urs) and Toc were investigated with the application of ternary Langmuir monolayers formed by Urs, Toc and one of the phospholipids POPE or ECPG. Our studies indicated that the affinities of Urs and Toc towards the POPE molecule are comparable; whereas there are profound differences in the interactions of Urs and Toc with ECPG. Thus, the model experiments prove that in the case of E. coli membrane, the differences in the interactions between Urs and Toc with the anionic bacterial phosphatidylglycerol can be the key factor responsible for the antagonistic effects observed between PT and Toc in vivo.

  9. Effect of hydration on the structure of caveolae membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Caracciolo, Giulio; Sciubba, Fabio; Caminiti, Ruggero

    2009-04-13

    In situ energy dispersive x-ray diffraction was used to investigate the effect of hydration on the structure of caveolae membranes. The structure of caveolae membrane was found to be strongly dependent on hydration. At low hydration two lamellar phases with distinct repeat spacings were found to coexist with segregated cholesterol crystallites. Upon hydration, the lamellar phases did swell, while diffraction peak of cholesterol crystals disappeared suggesting that cholesterol molecules redistributed homogeneously within the caveolae membrane. At full hydration, unbinding of caveolae membrane occurred. Upon dehydration the system returned to the bound state, demonstrating that the unbinding transition is fully reversible.

  10. Pressure effects on lipids and bio-membrane assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Membranes are amongst the most important biological structures; they maintain the fundamental integrity of cells, compartmentalize regions within them and play an active role in a wide range of cellular processes. Pressure can play a key role in probing the structure and dynamics of membrane assemblies, and is also critical to the biology and adaptation of deep-sea organisms. This article presents an overview of the effect of pressure on the mesostructure of lipid membranes, bilayer organization and lipid–protein assemblies. It also summarizes recent developments in high-pressure structural instrumentation suitable for experiments on membranes. PMID:25485127

  11. Coherent control of optical polarization effects in metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyedmohammad A; Plum, Eric; Shi, Jinhui; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2015-01-01

    Processing of photonic information usually relies on electronics. Aiming to avoid the conversion between photonic and electronic signals, modulation of light with light based on optical nonlinearity has become a major research field and coherent optical effects on the nanoscale are emerging as new means of handling and distributing signals. Here we demonstrate that in slabs of linear material of sub-wavelength thickness optical manifestations of birefringence and optical activity (linear and circular birefringence and dichroism) can be controlled by a wave coherent with the wave probing the polarization effect. We demonstrate this in proof-of-principle experiments for chiral and anisotropic microwave metamaterials, where we show that the large parameter space of polarization characteristics may be accessed at will by coherent control. Such control can be exerted at arbitrarily low intensities, thus arguably allowing for fast handling of electromagnetic signals without facing thermal management and energy challenges. PMID:25755071

  12. Effect of EMP fields on cell membrane potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Gailey, P.C.; Easterly, C.E.

    1993-06-01

    A simple model is presented for cell membrane potentials induced during exposure to electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Using calculated values of internal electric field strength induced during EMP exposure, the model predicts that cell membrane potentials of about 100 mV may be induced for time frames on the order of 10 ns. Possible biological effects of these potentials including electroporation area discussed.

  13. Solid effect in magic angle spinning dynamic nuclear polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corzilius, Björn; Smith, Albert A.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2012-08-01

    For over five decades, the solid effect (SE) has been heavily utilized as a mechanism for performing dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). Nevertheless, it has not found widespread application in contemporary, high magnetic field DNP experiments because SE enhancements display an ω _0 ^{ - 2} field dependence. In particular, for nominally forbidden zero and double quantum SE transitions to be partially allowed, it is necessary for mixing of adjacent nuclear spin states to occur, and this leads to the observed field dependence. However, recently we have improved our instrumentation and report here an enhancement of ɛ = 91 obtained with the organic radical trityl (OX063) in magic angle spinning experiments performed at 5 T and 80 K. This is a factor of 6-7 higher than previous values in the literature under similar conditions. Because the solid effect depends strongly on the microwave field strength, we attribute this large enhancement to larger microwave field strengths inside the sample volume, achieved with more efficient coupling of the gyrotron to the sample chamber. In addition, we develop a theoretical model to explain the dependence of the buildup rate of enhanced nuclear polarization and the steady-state enhancement on the microwave power. Buildup times and enhancements were measured as a function of 1H concentration for both trityl and Gd-DOTA. Comparison of the results indicates that for trityl the initial polarization step is the slower, rate-determining step. However, for Gd-DOTA the spread of nuclear polarization via homonuclear 1H spin diffusion is rate-limiting. Finally, we discuss the applicability of the solid effect at fields > 5 T and the requirements to address the unfavorable field dependence of the solid effect.

  14. Effects of polarization mode dispersion on polarization-entangled photons generated via broadband pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyang-Tag; Hong, Kang-Hee; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    An inexpensive and compact frequency multi-mode diode laser enables a compact two-photon polarization entanglement source via the continuous wave broadband pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) process. Entanglement degradation caused by polarization mode dispersion (PMD) is one of the critical issues in optical fiber-based polarization entanglement distribution. We theoretically and experimentally investigate how the initial entanglement is degraded when the two-photon polarization entangled state undergoes PMD. We report an effect of PMD unique to broadband pumped SPDC, equally applicable to pulsed pumping as well as cw broadband pumping, which is that the amount of the entanglement degradation is asymmetrical to the PMD introduced to each quantum channel. We believe that our results have important applications in long-distance distribution of polarization entanglement via optical fiber channels. PMID:27174100

  15. Effects of polarization mode dispersion on polarization-entangled photons generated via broadband pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyang-Tag; Hong, Kang-Hee; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    An inexpensive and compact frequency multi-mode diode laser enables a compact two-photon polarization entanglement source via the continuous wave broadband pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) process. Entanglement degradation caused by polarization mode dispersion (PMD) is one of the critical issues in optical fiber-based polarization entanglement distribution. We theoretically and experimentally investigate how the initial entanglement is degraded when the two-photon polarization entangled state undergoes PMD. We report an effect of PMD unique to broadband pumped SPDC, equally applicable to pulsed pumping as well as cw broadband pumping, which is that the amount of the entanglement degradation is asymmetrical to the PMD introduced to each quantum channel. We believe that our results have important applications in long-distance distribution of polarization entanglement via optical fiber channels. PMID:27174100

  16. Membrane air-stripping: Effects of pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, K. ); Zander, A.K. . Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)

    1995-03-01

    As a result of the Safe Drinking Water Act and its 1986 amendments, the number of regulated volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) has increased substantially. The discovery of drinking water supply sources contaminated by VOCs is also increasing. These factors have led to the development of alternative treatment methods for control of VOCs. Microporous polypropylene hollow-fiber membranes offer significant advantages over packed-tower aeration for removing volatile organic chemicals. A laboratory study assessed the performance of membrane air-stripping in continuous operation, while exposed to various pretreatments. Results indicate that membrane air-stripping is compatible with low-pH or low-chlorine waters but not with waters of high pH or high-chlorine concentration or those that are ozonated.

  17. Analytical Jacobian Calculation in RT Model Including Polarization Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabayashi, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Ota, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The greenhouse gas observing satellite "GOSAT" launched in January 2009 has been observing global distribution of CO2 and CH4. The TANSO-FTS mounted on GOSAT measures the two polarized components (called "P" and "S") of short wavelength infrared (SWIR) spectrum reflected from the earth's surface. In NIES, column-averaged dry air mole fraction of CO2 and CH4 (XCO2 and XCH4) are retrieved from SWIR spectra. However, the observed polarization information is not effectively utilized in the retrieval process due to the large computational cost of a vector RT model, instead the polarization synthesized spectra and a scalar RT model are used in the operational processing. An optical path length modification due to aerosol scattering is known as the major error source for XCO2 and XCH4 retrieval from SWIR spectra. Because the aerosol scattering changes polarization state of light, more accurate or additional aerosol information is expected by using the observed polarization spectra effectively in the retrieval process, which improves the retrieval accuracy of XCO2 and XCH4. In addition, for information content analysis, sensitivity analysis and error analysis, Jacobian matrix is important onto retrieval algorithm design before analyses for actual observed data. However, in the case of using RT model including polarization effect in retrieval process, the computational cost of Jacobian matrix calculations in maximum a posteriori retrieval is significantly large. Efficient calculation of analytical Jacobian is necessary. As a first step, we are implementing an analytical Jacobian calculation function to the vector RT model "Pstar". RT scheme of Pstar is based on hybrid method comprising the discrete ordinate and matrix operator methods. The reflection/transmission matrices and source vectors are obtained for each vertical layer through the discrete ordinate solution, and the vertically inhomogeneous system is constructed using the matrix operator method. Because the delta

  18. Effects of polarization of polar semiconductor on electrical properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/ZnO heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Takeshi Fujimura, Norifumi

    2015-06-21

    The electrical properties of heterostructures composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) and ZnO with different crystallographic polarities, i.e., O- and Zn-polar ZnO, were investigated. Distinct differences in the capacitance-voltage and polarization-voltage characteristics between the P(VDF-TrFE)/O- and Zn-polar ZnO were obtained in the depletion regions of ZnO. The band configurations were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) using a synchrotron radiation beam to analyze the differences in the electrical properties of the P(VDF-TrFE)/O- and Zn-polar ZnO. The XPS spectra indicated that the valence band maximum of P(VDF-TrFE) is 2.9 and 2.7 eV higher than Zn- and O-polar ZnO, respectively. Thus, both structures have staggered band configurations with large valence band offsets, and the spontaneous polarization of ZnO is less effective on the band lineup. The electrical properties of the P(VDF-TrFE)/ZnO heterostructures are modulated through carrier generation because of the polarization-mediated interface charges and the staggered band alignments of the P(VDF-TrFE)/ZnO with a large valence band offset.

  19. Effects of polarization of polar semiconductor on electrical properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/ZnO heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Fujimura, Norifumi

    2015-06-01

    The electrical properties of heterostructures composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) and ZnO with different crystallographic polarities, i.e., O- and Zn-polar ZnO, were investigated. Distinct differences in the capacitance-voltage and polarization-voltage characteristics between the P(VDF-TrFE)/O- and Zn-polar ZnO were obtained in the depletion regions of ZnO. The band configurations were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) using a synchrotron radiation beam to analyze the differences in the electrical properties of the P(VDF-TrFE)/O- and Zn-polar ZnO. The XPS spectra indicated that the valence band maximum of P(VDF-TrFE) is 2.9 and 2.7 eV higher than Zn- and O-polar ZnO, respectively. Thus, both structures have staggered band configurations with large valence band offsets, and the spontaneous polarization of ZnO is less effective on the band lineup. The electrical properties of the P(VDF-TrFE)/ZnO heterostructures are modulated through carrier generation because of the polarization-mediated interface charges and the staggered band alignments of the P(VDF-TrFE)/ZnO with a large valence band offset.

  20. Physical Effects of Buckwheat Extract on Biological Membrane In Vitro and Its Protective Properties.

    PubMed

    Włoch, Aleksandra; Strugała, Paulina; Pruchnik, Hanna; Żyłka, Romuald; Oszmiański, Jan; Kleszczyńska, Halina

    2016-04-01

    Buckwheat is a valuable source of many biologically active compounds and nutrients. It has properties that reduce blood cholesterol levels, and so reduces the risk of atherosclerosis, seals the capillaries, and lowers blood pressure. The aim of the study was to determine quantitative and qualitative characteristics of polyphenols contained in extracts from buckwheat husks and stalks, the biological activity of the extracts, and biophysical effects of their interaction with the erythrocyte membrane, treated as a model of the cell. An analysis of the extract's composition has shown that buckwheat husk and stalk extracts are a rich source of polyphenolic compounds, the stalk extracts showing more compounds than the husk extract. The study allowed to determine the location which incorporated polyphenols occupy in the erythrocyte membrane and changes in the membrane properties caused by them. It was found that the extracts do not induce hemolysis of red blood cells, causing an increase in osmotic resistance of erythrocytes. They affect mainly the hydrophilic region by changing the degree of order of the polar heads of lipids, but do little to change the fluidity of the membrane and its hydration. The results showed also that polyphenolic substances included in the extracts well protect the membranes of red blood cells against oxidation and exhibit anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:26581904

  1. Polarized photocurrent response in black phosphorus field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Hong, Tu; Chamlagain, Bhim; Lin, Wenzhi; Chuang, Hsun-Jen; Pan, Minghu; Zhou, Zhixian; Xu, Ya-Qiong

    2014-08-01

    We investigate electrical transport and optoelectronic properties of field effect transistors (FETs) made from few-layer black phosphorus (BP) crystals down to a few nanometers. In particular, we explore the anisotropic nature and photocurrent generation mechanisms in BP FETs through spatial-, polarization-, gate-, and bias-dependent photocurrent measurements. Our results reveal that the photocurrent signals at BP-electrode junctions are mainly attributed to the photovoltaic effect in the off-state and photothermoelectric effect in the on-state, and their anisotropic feature primarily results from the directional-dependent absorption of BP crystals.

  2. Taking the Scenic Route: Biosynthetic Traffic to the Plasma Membrane in Polarized Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fölsch, Heike; Mattila, Polly E.; Weisz, Ora A.

    2009-01-01

    The maintenance of epithelial cell function requires the establishment and continuous renewal of differentiated apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains with distinct lipid and protein compositions. Newly synthesized proteins destined for either surface domain are processed along the biosynthetic pathway and segregated into distinct subsets of transport carriers emanating from the trans-Golgi network. Recent studies have illuminated additional complexities in the subsequent delivery of these proteins to the cell surface. In particular, multiple routes to the apical and basolateral cell surfaces have been uncovered, and many of these involve indirect passage through endocytic compartments. This review summarizes our current understanding of these routes and discusses open issues that remain to be clarified. PMID:19453969

  3. Normal and tumor-derived myoepithelial cells differ in their ability to interact with luminal breast epithelial cells for polarity and basement membrane deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Villadsen, Rene; Rank, Fritz; Bissell, Mina J.; Petersen, Ole William

    2001-10-04

    The signals that determine the correct polarity of breast epithelial structures in vivo are not understood. We have shown previously that luminal epithelial cells can be polarized when cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane gel. We reasoned that such cues in vivo may be given by myoepithelial cells. Accordingly, we used an assay where luminal epithelial cells are incorrectly polarized to test this hypothesis. We show that culturing human primary luminal epithelial cells within collagen-I gels leads to formation of structures with no lumina and with reverse polarity as judged by dual stainings for sialomucin, epithelial specific antigen or occludin. No basement membrane is deposited, and {beta}4-integrin staining is negative. Addition of purified human myoepithelial cells isolated from normal glands corrects the inverse polarity, and leads to formation of double-layered acini with central lumina. Among the laminins present in the human breast basement membrane (laminin-1, -5 and -10/11), laminin-1 was unique in its ability to substitute for myoepithelial cells in polarity reversal. Myoepithelial cells were purified also from four different breast cancer sources including a biphasic cell line. Three out of four samples either totally lacked the ability to interact with luminal epithelial cells, or conveyed only correction of polarity in a fraction of acini. This behavior was directly related to the ability of the tumor myoepithelial cells to produce {alpha}-1 chain of laminin. In vivo, breast carcinomas were either negative for laminin-1 (7/12 biopsies) or showed a focal, fragmented deposition of a less intensely stained basement membrane (5/12 biopsies). Dual staining with myoepithelial markers revealed that tumorassociated myoepithelial cells were either negative or weakly positive for expression of laminin-1, establishing a strong correlation between loss of laminin-1 and breast cancer. We conclude that the double-layered breast acinus may be

  4. [Effect of decimeter polarized electromagnetic radiation on germinating capacity of seeds].

    PubMed

    Polevik, N D

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a polarization structure of electromagnetic radiation on the germinating capacity of seeds of such weeds as Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) and Green amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus) has been studied. Seeds have been exposed to impulse electromagnetic radiation in a frequency of 896 MHz with linear, elliptical right-handed and elliptical left-handed polarizations at different power flux density levels. It is determined that the effect of the right-handed polarized electromagnetic radiation increases and the influence of the left-handed polarized one reduces the germinating capacity of seeds compared to the effect of the linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the seeds have an amplitude polarization selectivity as evinced by the major effect of the right-handed polarized radiation on seeds. An electrodynamic model as the right-handed elliptically polarized antenna with the given quantity of the ellipticity of polarization is suggested to use in description of this selectivity.

  5. Source polarization and OPC effects on illumination optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brist, Travis; Bailey, George E.; Drozdov, Alexander; Torres, Andres; Estroff, Andrew; Hendrickx, Eric

    2005-11-01

    To perform a thorough source optimization during process development is becoming more critical as we move to leading edge-technology nodes. With each new node the acceptable process margin continues to shrink as a result of lowering k1 factors. This drives the need for thorough source optimization prior to locking down a process in order to attain the maximum common depth of focus (DOF) the process will allow. Optical proximity correction (OPC) has become a process-enabling tool in lithography by providing a common process window for structures that would otherwise not have overlapping windows. But what effect does this have on the source optimization? With the introduction of immersion lithography there is yet another parameter, namely source polarization, that may need to be included in an illumination optimization process. This paper explored the effect polarization and OPC have on illumination optimization. The Calibre ILO (Illumination Optimization) tool was used to perform the illumination optimization and provided plots of DOF vs. various parametric illumination settings. This was used to screen the various illumination settings for the one with optimum process margins. The resulting illumination conditions were then implemented and analyzed at a full chip level. Based on these results, a conclusion was made on the impact source polarization and OPC would have on the illumination optimization process.

  6. Effects of polarization-charge shielding in microwave heating

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M. S.; Lin, S. M.; Chiang, W. Y.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R.

    2015-08-15

    Heating of dielectric objects by radio frequency (RF) and microwaves has long been a method widely employed in scientific research and industrial applications. However, RF and microwave heating are often susceptible to an excessive temperature spread due to uneven energy deposition. The current study elucidates an important physical reason for this difficulty and proposes an effective remedy. Non-spherical samples are placed in an anechoic chamber, where it is irradiated by a traveling microwave wave with 99% intensity uniformity. Polarization charges induced on the samples tend to partially cancel the incident electric field and hence reduce the heating rate. The polarization-charge shielded heating rate is shown to be highly dependent on the sample's shape and its orientation relative to the wave electric field. For samples with a relatively high permittivity, the resultant uneven heating can become a major cause for the excessive temperature spread. It is also demonstrated that a circularly polarized wave, with its rapidly rotating electric field, can effectively even out the heating rate and hence the temperature spread.

  7. Polarization effects in thallium bromide x-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kozorezov, A.; Wigmore, J. K.; Gostilo, V.; Shorohov, M.; Owens, A.; Quarati, F.; Webb, M. A.

    2010-09-15

    We present the results of a detailed experimental study of polarization effects in thallium bromide planar x-ray detectors. Measurements were carried out in the range 10-100 keV by scanning a highly focused x-ray beam, 50 {mu}m in diameter, from a synchrotron source across the detector. Above a certain radiation threshold the detector response showed a systematic degradation of its spectroscopic characteristics, peak channel position, peak height, and energy resolution. Using a pump-and-probe technique, we studied the dynamics of spectral degradation, the spatial extent and relaxation of the polarized region, and the dependence of the detector response on bias voltage and temperature. For comparison, we modeled polarization effects induced by the charging of traps by both electrons and holes using a model based on recent theoretical work of Bale and Szeles. We calculated the charge collection efficiency and spectral line shapes as functions of exposure time, beam position, count rate, and photon energy, and obtained credible agreement with experimental results.

  8. Character of the opposition effect and negative polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, Carle M.; Shkuratov, Yu. G.; Stankevich, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    Photometric and polarimetric properties at small phase angles were measured for silicates with controlled surface properties in order to distinguish properties that are associated with surface reflection from those that are associated with multiple scattering from internal grain boundaries. These data provide insight into the causes and conditions of photometric properties observed at small phase angles for dark bodies of the solar system. Obsidian was chosen to represent a silicate dielectric with no internal scattering boundaries. Because obsidian is free of internal scatterers, light reflected from both the rough and smooth obsidian samples is almost entirely single and multiple Fresnel reflections form surface facets with no body component. Surface structure alone cannot produce an opposition effect. Comparison of the obsidian and basalt results indicates that for an opposition effect to occur, surface texture must be both rough and contain internal scattering interfaces. Although the negative polarization observed for the obsidian samples indicates single and multiple reflections are part of negative polarization, the longer inversion angle of the multigrain inversion samples implies that internal reflections must also contribute a significant negative polarization component.

  9. The effects of vacuum polarization on thermonuclear reaction rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Added to the pure Coulomb potential, the contribution from vacuum polarization increases the barrier, reducing the wave function (u) for reacting nuclei within the range of nuclear forces. The cross section and reaction rate are then reduced accordingly by a factor proportional to u squared. The effect is treated by evaluating the vacuum polarization potential as a small correction to the Coulomb term, then computing u in a WKB formulation. The calculation is done analytically employing the small r power-series expansion for the Uehling potential to express the final result in terms of convenient parameters. At a temperature of 1.4 x 10 to the 7th K the (negative) correction is 1.3 percent for the fundamental fusion process p + p yields d + e(+) + nu.

  10. Vector diffraction and polarization effects in an optical disk system.

    PubMed

    Yeh, W H; Li, L; Mansuripur, M

    1998-10-10

    The track pitch of current optical disks is comparable with the wavelength of the laser source. In this domain of the pitch-to-wavelength ratio, the complex-diffraction amplitudes are different for different incident polarization states, and the validity of the scalar diffraction theory is questionable. Furthermore, the use of multilayer coatings and high-numerical-aperture beams in modern optical disk technology inevitably entails the excitation of surface waves, which can disturb the baseball pattern significantly. To describe the interaction of a focused beam with a grooved multilayer system fully, it is necessary to have a rigorous vector theory. We use a rigorous vector theory to model the diffraction of light at the optical disk. We present the simulation and the experimental results and demonstrate the ability of this approach to predict or model accurately all essential features of beam-disk interaction, including the polarization effects and the excitation of surface waves. PMID:18301517

  11. Vector Diffraction and Polarization Effects in an Optical Disk System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Wei-Hung; Li, Lifeng; Mansuripur, M.

    1998-10-01

    The track pitch of current optical disks is comparable with the wavelength of the laser source. In this domain of the pitch-to-wavelength ratio, the complex-diffraction amplitudes are different for different incident polarization states, and the validity of the scalar diffraction theory is questionable. Furthermore, the use of multilayer coatings and high-numerical-aperture beams in modern optical disk technology inevitably entails the excitation of surface waves, which can disturb the baseball pattern significantly. To describe the interaction of a focused beam with a grooved multilayer system fully, it is necessary to have a rigorous vector theory. We use a rigorous vector theory to model the diffraction of light at the optical disk. We present the simulation and the experimental results and demonstrate the ability of this approach to predict or model accurately all essential features of beam disk interaction, including the polarization effects and the excitation of surface waves.

  12. Nonselective and polarization effects in time-resolved optogalvanic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhechev, D.; Steflekova, V.

    2016-02-01

    Three interfering effects in optogalvanic (OG) spectroscopy are identified in a hollow cathode discharge (HCD) - OG detector. The laser beam is found to generate two nonselective processes, namely photoelectron emission (PE) from the cathode surface with a sub-breakdown bias applied, and nonresonant space ionization. The convolution of these galvanic contributions was determined experimentally as an instrumental function and a deconvolution procedure to determine the actual OG signal was developed. Specific plasma conductance is detected dependent on the polarization of the laser beam irradiating. Linearly/circularly polarized light beam is found to induce OG signals differ in amplitude (and their shape parameters in the time-resolved OG signals (TROGS)). The phenomena coherence and specific conductance are found to be in causal relationship. The additional conductance due to coherent states of atoms manifests itself as an intrinsic instrumental property of OG detector.

  13. Vector diffraction and polarization effects in an optical disk system.

    PubMed

    Yeh, W H; Li, L; Mansuripur, M

    1998-10-10

    The track pitch of current optical disks is comparable with the wavelength of the laser source. In this domain of the pitch-to-wavelength ratio, the complex-diffraction amplitudes are different for different incident polarization states, and the validity of the scalar diffraction theory is questionable. Furthermore, the use of multilayer coatings and high-numerical-aperture beams in modern optical disk technology inevitably entails the excitation of surface waves, which can disturb the baseball pattern significantly. To describe the interaction of a focused beam with a grooved multilayer system fully, it is necessary to have a rigorous vector theory. We use a rigorous vector theory to model the diffraction of light at the optical disk. We present the simulation and the experimental results and demonstrate the ability of this approach to predict or model accurately all essential features of beam-disk interaction, including the polarization effects and the excitation of surface waves.

  14. Scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect with longitudinally polarized neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Allman, B. E.; Lee, W.-T.; Motrunich, O. I.; Werner, S. A.

    1999-12-01

    In the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect, a charged particle (electron) interacts with the scalar electrostatic potential U in the field-free (i.e., force-free) region inside an electrostatic cylinder (Faraday cage). Using a perfect single-crystal neutron interferometer we have performed a ''dual'' scalar Aharonov-Bohm experiment by subjecting polarized thermal neutrons to a pulsed magnetic field. The pulsed magnetic field was spatially uniform, precluding any force on the neutrons. Aligning the direction of the pulsed magnetic field to the neutron magnetic moment also rules out any classical torque acting to change the neutron polarization. The observed phase shift is purely quantum mechanical in origin. A detailed description of the experiment, performed at the University of Missouri Research Reactor, and its interpretation is given in this paper. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  15. Chromatic polarization effects of swept waveforms in FDML lasers and fiber spools.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Wolfgang; Palte, Gesa; Eigenwillig, Christoph M; Biedermann, Benjamin R; Pfeiffer, Tom; Huber, Robert

    2012-04-23

    We present detailed investigations of chromatic polarization effects, caused by fiber spools used in FDML lasers and buffering spools for rapidly wavelength swept lasers. We introduce a novel wavelength swept FDML laser source, specially tailored for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) which switches between two different linear polarization states separated by 45°, i.e. 90° on the Poincaré sphere. The polarization maintaining laser cavity itself generates a stable linear polarization state and uses an external buffering technique in order to provide alternating polarization states for successive wavelength sweeps. The design of the setup is based on a comprehensive analysis of the polarization output from FDML lasers, using a novel 150 MHz polarization analyzer. We investigate the fiber polarization properties related to swept source OCT for different fiber delay topologies and analyze the polarization state of different FDML laser sources.

  16. Membrane targeting and intracellular trafficking of the human sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter in polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Veedamali S; Marchant, Jonathan S; Boulware, Michael J; Ma, Thomas Y; Said, Hamid M

    2009-04-01

    The human sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (hSMVT) mediates sodium-dependent uptake of biotin in renal and intestinal epithelia. To date, however, there is nothing known about the structure-function relationship or targeting sequences in the hSMVT polypeptide that control its polarized expression within epithelia. Here, we focused on the role of the COOH-terminal tail of hSMVT in the targeting and functionality of this transporter. A full-length hSMVT-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein was functional and expressed at the apical membrane in renal and intestinal cell lines. Microtubule disrupting agents disrupted the mobility of trafficking vesicles and impaired cell surface delivery of hSMVT, which was also prevented in cells treated with dynamitin (p50), brefeldin, or monensin. Progressive truncation of the COOH-terminal tail impaired the functionality and targeting of the transporter. First, biotin transport decreased by approximately 20-30% on deletion of up to 15 COOH-terminal amino acids of hSMVT, a decrease mimicked solely by deletion of the terminal PDZ motif (TSL). Second, deletions into the COOH-terminal tail (between residues 584-612, containing a region of predicted high surface accessibility) resulted in a further drop in hSMVT transport (to approximately 40% of wild-type). Third, apical targeting was lost on deletion of a helical-prone region between amino acids 570-584. We conclude that the COOH tail of hSMVT contains several determinants important for polarized targeting and biotin transport.

  17. Effect of light source parameters on the polarization properties of the beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Hui-lin; Liu, Zhi; Zhou, Xin; Fang, Hanhan

    2013-08-01

    Polarized laser has been widely used in free space optical communication, laser radar, and laser ranging system because of its advantages of good performance in recent years. The changes of laser polarization properties in the process of transmission in atmospheric turbulence have a certain impact on the system performance. The paper research on the rule of polarization properties changes of Gauss Schell model beam in turbulent conditions. And analysis the main factors to affect the polarization properties by numerical simulation using MATLAB software tools. The factors mainly including: initial polarization, coherence coefficient, spot size and the intensity of the atmospheric turbulent. The simulation results show that, the degree of polarization will converge to the initial polarization when the beam propagation in turbulent conditions. The degrees of polarization change to different value when initial polarization of beam is different in a short distance. And, the degrees of polarization converge to the initial polarization after long distance. Beam coherence coefficient bigger, the degree of polarization and change range increases bigger. The change of polarization more slowly for spot size is bigger. The change of polarization change is faster for longer wavelength. The conclusion of the study indicated that the light source parameters effect the changes of polarization properties under turbulent conditions. The research provides theory basis for the polarization properties of the laser propagation, and it will plays a significant role in optical communication and target recognition.

  18. Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on lipid membrane electroporation.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M Laura; Reigada, Ramon

    2014-08-01

    Pores can be generated in lipid membranes by the application of an external electric field or by the addition of particular chemicals such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Molecular dynamics (MD) has been shown to be a useful tool for unveiling many aspects of pore formation in lipid membranes in both situations. By means of MD simulations, we address the formation of electropores in cholesterol-containing lipid bilayers under the influence of DMSO. We show how a combination of physical and chemical mechanisms leads to more favorable conditions for generating membrane pores and, in particular, how the addition of DMSO to the medium significantly reduces the minimum electric field required to electroporate a lipid membrane. The strong alteration of membrane transversal properties and the energetic stabilization of the hydrophobic pore stage by DMSO provide the physicochemical mechanisms that explain this effect.

  19. The effect of oxycholesterols on thermo-induced membrane dynamics.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, Mun'delanji C; Yoda, Tsuyoshi; Hamada, Tsutomu; Akazawa Ogawa, Yoko; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Takagi, Masahiro

    2011-09-01

    The effect of temperature change(s) on the dynamics of giant unilamellar vesicles containing oxidized and non-oxidized cholesterol was investigated and characterized. We have demonstrated that (i) major cholesterol auto-oxidation products, 7β-hydroxycholesterol (7β) and 7-ketocholesterol (7keto), rendered vesicles more responsive to temperature changes; (ii) 7keto imparted greater thermo-induced membrane dynamics than 7β; (iii) 7β and 7keto vesicles synergistically were more thermo-responsive than the individual oxysterols; (iv) the thermo-responsiveness of 7keto-containing vesicles was equivalent to that of 25 hydroxycholesterol (25OH)-containing vesicles; and (v) we have characterized the observed membrane dynamics. The results provide a new plausible mechanism: oxidative-stressed membranes in conjunction with temperature change induce membrane dynamics. These findings improve the mechanisms reported previously that attributed the induced dynamics solely to membrane oxidation.

  20. Search for Polarization Effects in the Antiproton Production Process

    SciTech Connect

    Grzonka, D.; Kilian, K.; Ritman, J.; Sefzick, T.; Oelert, W.; Diermaier, M.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.; Głowacz, B.; Moskal, P.; Zieliński, M.; Wolke, M.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Carmignotto, M.; Horn, T.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Asaturyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Tadevosyan, V.; Zhamkochyan, S.; Malbrunot-Ettenauer, S.; Eyrich, W.; Hauenstein, F.; Zink, A.

    2015-01-01

    For the production of a polarized antiproton beam, various methods have been suggested including the possibility that antiprotons may be produced polarized which will be checked experimentally. The polarization of antiprotons produced under typical conditions for antiproton beam preparation will be measured at the CERN/PS. If the production process creates some polarization, a polarized antiproton beam could be prepared by a rather simple modification of the antiproton beam facility. The detection setup and the expected experimental conditions are described.

  1. Sorting of Membrane and Fluid at the Apical Pole of Polarized Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Som-Ming; Ruiz, Wily G.; Apodaca, Gerard

    2000-01-01

    When fluid-phase markers are internalized from opposite poles of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, they accumulate in distinct apical and basolateral early endosomes before meeting in late endosomes. Recent evidence suggests that significant mixing of apically and basolaterally internalized membrane proteins occurs in specialized apical endosomal compartments, including the common recycling endosome and the apical recycling endosome (ARE). The relationship between these latter compartments and the fluid-labeled apical early endosome is unknown at present. We report that when the apical recycling marker, membrane-bound immunoglobulin A (a ligand for the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor), and fluid-phase dextran are cointernalized from the apical poles of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, they enter a shared apical early endosome (≤2.5 min at 37°C) and are then rapidly segregated from one another. The dextran remains in the large supranuclear EEA1-positive early endosomes while recycling polymeric immunoglobulin receptor–bound immunoglobulin A is delivered to a Rab11-positive subapical recycling compartment. This latter step requires an intact microtubule cytoskeleton. Receptor-bound transferrin, a marker of the basolateral recycling pathway, has limited access to the fluid-rich apical early endosome but is excluded from the subapical elements of the Rab11-positive recycling compartment. We propose that the term ARE be used to describe the subapical Rab11-positive compartment and that the ARE is distinct from both the transferrin-rich common recycling endosome and the fluid-rich apical early endosome. PMID:10848634

  2. Effect of silica fouling on the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Li; Chiou, Jheng-Hong; Lee, Chung-Hsiang

    2014-07-30

    In this study, one reverse osmosis (XLE) and two nanofiltration (NF90 and NF270) membranes were fouled by silica to evaluate its effect on the flux decline as well as the removal of six pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) including carbamazapine (CBZ), triclosan (TRI), ibuprofen (IBU), sulfadiazine (DIA), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and sulfamethazine (SMZ) from pH 3 to 10. The membranes were characterized by physicochemical properties including hydrophobicity, surface morphology and PPCPs adsorption with or without the presence of silica fouling to validate the rejection mechanisms of PPCPs. The fouling mechanisms were investigated using the modified Hermia model. It was found that all membranes with silica fouling showed more severe permeate flux decline at low pHs (3 and 5) than at high pHs (8 and 10) by the decomposition of nonionized silica particles to form a dense gel layer on membrane surfaces, which was hard to be removed by backwash. Silica fouling rendered the membrane surface considerably more hydrophilic, and only IBU, TRI and SMZ were adsorbed on membranes. Silica fouling on tight membranes (NF90 and XLE) can promote rejection of most PPCPs because the dense fouling layer could supply membrane with synergistic steric hindrance to reduce the transportation of PPCPs across membrane surface, implying that size exclusion is the dominating mechanism. While for loose NF270, electrostatic repulsion dominates by enhanced rejection of PPCPs as pH increased. Although fouling layer could provide extra steric hindrance for NF270, its effect was overwhelmed by the accompanied cake-enhanced concentration polarization phenomenon (CEOP). CEOP impeded back diffusion of PPCPs into the feed solution, trapped and accumulated PPCPs on membrane surface so as to increase their diffusion across membrane. At all pH levels, intermediate blocking and gel layer formation was the major fouling mechanism for tight and loose membrane, respectively.

  3. Effect of silica fouling on the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Li; Chiou, Jheng-Hong; Lee, Chung-Hsiang

    2014-07-30

    In this study, one reverse osmosis (XLE) and two nanofiltration (NF90 and NF270) membranes were fouled by silica to evaluate its effect on the flux decline as well as the removal of six pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) including carbamazapine (CBZ), triclosan (TRI), ibuprofen (IBU), sulfadiazine (DIA), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and sulfamethazine (SMZ) from pH 3 to 10. The membranes were characterized by physicochemical properties including hydrophobicity, surface morphology and PPCPs adsorption with or without the presence of silica fouling to validate the rejection mechanisms of PPCPs. The fouling mechanisms were investigated using the modified Hermia model. It was found that all membranes with silica fouling showed more severe permeate flux decline at low pHs (3 and 5) than at high pHs (8 and 10) by the decomposition of nonionized silica particles to form a dense gel layer on membrane surfaces, which was hard to be removed by backwash. Silica fouling rendered the membrane surface considerably more hydrophilic, and only IBU, TRI and SMZ were adsorbed on membranes. Silica fouling on tight membranes (NF90 and XLE) can promote rejection of most PPCPs because the dense fouling layer could supply membrane with synergistic steric hindrance to reduce the transportation of PPCPs across membrane surface, implying that size exclusion is the dominating mechanism. While for loose NF270, electrostatic repulsion dominates by enhanced rejection of PPCPs as pH increased. Although fouling layer could provide extra steric hindrance for NF270, its effect was overwhelmed by the accompanied cake-enhanced concentration polarization phenomenon (CEOP). CEOP impeded back diffusion of PPCPs into the feed solution, trapped and accumulated PPCPs on membrane surface so as to increase their diffusion across membrane. At all pH levels, intermediate blocking and gel layer formation was the major fouling mechanism for tight and loose membrane, respectively. PMID:24560524

  4. Differential Effect of Plant Lipids on Membrane Organization

    PubMed Central

    Grosjean, Kevin; Mongrand, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The high diversity of the plant lipid mixture raises the question of their respective involvement in the definition of membrane organization. This is particularly the case for plant plasma membrane, which is enriched in specific lipids, such as free and conjugated forms of phytosterols and typical phytosphingolipids, such as glycosylinositolphosphoceramides. This question was here addressed extensively by characterizing the order level of membrane from vesicles prepared using various plant lipid mixtures and labeled with an environment-sensitive probe. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed that among major phytosterols, campesterol exhibits a stronger ability than β-sitosterol and stigmasterol to order model membranes. Multispectral confocal microscopy, allowing spatial analysis of membrane organization, demonstrated accordingly the strong ability of campesterol to promote ordered domain formation and to organize their spatial distribution at the membrane surface. Conjugated sterol forms, alone and in synergy with free sterols, exhibit a striking ability to order membrane. Plant sphingolipids, particularly glycosylinositolphosphoceramides, enhanced the sterol-induced ordering effect, emphasizing the formation and increasing the size of sterol-dependent ordered domains. Altogether, our results support a differential involvement of free and conjugated phytosterols in the formation of ordered domains and suggest that the diversity of plant lipids, allowing various local combinations of lipid species, could be a major contributor to membrane organization in particular through the formation of sphingolipid-sterol interacting domains. PMID:25575593

  5. Effects of polarization induced by non-weak electric fields on the excitability of elongated neurons with active dendrites.

    PubMed

    Reznik, Robert I; Barreto, Ernest; Sander, Evelyn; So, Paul

    2016-02-01

    An externally-applied electric field can polarize a neuron, especially a neuron with elongated dendrites, and thus modify its excitability. Here we use a computational model to examine, predict, and explain these effects. We use a two-compartment Pinsky-Rinzel model neuron polarized by an electric potential difference imposed between its compartments, and we apply an injected ramp current. We vary three model parameters: the magnitude of the applied potential difference, the extracellular potassium concentration, and the rate of current injection. A study of the Time-To-First-Spike (TTFS) as a function of polarization leads to the identification of three regions of polarization strength that have different effects. In the weak region, the TTFS increases linearly with polarization. In the intermediate region, the TTFS increases either sub- or super-linearly, depending on the current injection rate and the extracellular potassium concentration. In the strong region, the TTFS decreases. Our results in the weak and strong region are consistent with experimental observations, and in the intermediate region, we predict novel effects that depend on experimentally-accessible parameters. We find that active channels in the dendrite play a key role in these effects. Our qualitative results were found to be robust over a wide range of inter-compartment conductances and the ratio of somatic to dendritic membrane areas. In addition, we discuss preliminary results where synaptic inputs replace the ramp injection protocol. The insights and conclusions were found to extend from our polarized PR model to a polarized PR model with I h dendritic currents. Finally, we discuss the degree to which our results may be generalized. PMID:26560333

  6. Compensation of Beam Line Polarizing Effects at UE112 of BESSY II

    SciTech Connect

    Bahrdt, J.; Follath, R.; Frentrup, W.; Gaupp, A.; Scheer, M.

    2010-06-23

    Reflections in synchrotron radiation beam lines tend to change the state of polarization of the radiation. This effect is more pronounced for steep angle of incidence, i.e. at low photon energy (say below 100 eV) beam lines. The APPLE II undulator UE112 at BESSY has all four magnetic rows shiftable and thus generates any state of polarization. To provide any intended polarization state at the sample we perform polarization measurements based on simple and fast linear polarization analysis that together with calculations of the undulator radiation predicts undulator settings that cancel beam line polarization effects.

  7. Selected SNARE proteins are essential for the polarized membrane insertion of igf-1 receptor and the regulation of initial axonal outgrowth in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Diego; Plonka, Florentyna Bustos; Oksdath, Mariana; Guil, Alvaro Nieto; Sosa, Lucas J; Quiroga, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of polarity necessitates initial axonal outgrowth and, therefore, the addition of new membrane to the axon’s plasmalemma. Axolemmal expansion occurs by exocytosis of plasmalemmal precursor vesicles (PPVs) primarily at the neuronal growth cone. Little is known about the SNAREs family proteins involved in the regulation of PPV fusion with the neuronal plasmalemma at early stages of differentiation. We show here that five SNARE proteins (VAMP2, VAMP4, VAMP7, Syntaxin6 and SNAP23) were expressed by hippocampal pyramidal neurons before polarization. Expression silencing of three of these proteins (VAMP4, Syntaxin6 and SNAP23) repressed axonal outgrowth and the establishment of neuronal polarity, by inhibiting IGF-1 receptor exocytotic polarized insertion, necessary for neuronal polarization. In addition, stimulation with IGF-1 triggered the association of VAMP4, Syntaxin6 and SNAP23 to vesicular structures carrying the IGF-1 receptor and overexpression of a negative dominant form of Syntaxin6 significantly inhibited exocytosis of IGF-1 receptor containing vesicles at the neuronal growth cone. Taken together, our results indicated that VAMP4, Syntaxin6 and SNAP23 functions are essential for regulation of PPV exocytosis and the polarized insertion of IGF-1 receptor and, therefore, required for initial axonal elongation and the establishment of neuronal polarity. PMID:27462422

  8. Calcium Binding to Calmodulin by Molecular Dynamics with Effective Polarization.

    PubMed

    Kohagen, Miriam; Lepšík, Martin; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2014-11-20

    Calcium represents a key biological signaling ion with the EF-hand loops being its most prevalent binding motif in proteins. We show using molecular dynamics simulations with umbrella sampling that including electronic polarization effects via ionic charge rescaling dramatically improves agreements with experiment in terms of the strength of calcium binding and structures of the calmodulin binding sites. The present study thus opens way to accurate calculations of interactions of calcium and other computationally difficult high-charge-density ions in biological contexts.

  9. Mimicking the effect of gravity using an elastic membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yecun; Zhu, Changqing; Wang, Yijun; Shi, Qingfan

    2014-05-01

    Comparing astrospace with an elastic membrane is an interesting analogy but it lacks a theoretical basis and experimental support. We develop a theoretical model that brings to light the relationship between the conceptual model of a gravity well and an elastic deformation equation of a membrane supporting a heavy ball, and further derive the ‘gravitational constant’ for such a small ‘elastic space’. The experimental data obtained are consistent with the prediction of our model, in mimicking the revolution of a small planet. Teaching practice shows that using an elastic membrane is a simple, intuitive and reliable method to enhance the quality of learning about the effect of gravity.

  10. Icehouse Effect: A Polar Autumn and Winter Cooling Trend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetzel, Peter J.

    1999-01-01

    The icehouse effect is a hypothesized polar climate trend toward cooling (or lack of warming) in response to greenhouse warming of adjacent lower latitudes. When greenhouse warmed air from lower latitudes moves over ice and snow, it generates a stronger, more stable, cappino, inversion than in a parallel case without greenhouse warming. Because the degree of decoupling between vertically adjacent air masses is directly dependent on the strength of the inversion, the capping inversion acts somewhat analogously to the walls and roof of the icehouse of generations past. What is inside the icehouse, namely the cold polar atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) air, is preserved by the "insulation" or decoupling, provided by the warm air aloft. Observations over the Arctic Ocean have shown an unexpected lack of any detectable surface warming trend over the past 40 years. This finding strongly contradicts climate model predictions that polar regions should show the strongest effect of greenhouse warming. It also stands in contrast to the consensus reached by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), that human caused greenhouse warming is now detectable globally. One might ask: Are these Arctic observations wrong? Or, if right, is there a plausible physical explanation for them? The published observations mentioned above used about 50,000 soundings over the Arctic Ocean. Here I present a novel analysis of ALL available Arctic rawinsonde data north of 65N--a total of more than 1.1 million soundings. The analysis confirms the previously published result: There is indeed a slight climate-cooling trend in the vast majority of the data. Importantly, there are also select conditions (very strong and very weak stability of the ABL) which show a consistent, strong Arctic warming trend. It is the juxtaposition of these warming and cooling trends which defines a unique "icehouse signature" for which an explanation can be sought.

  11. Photoelectric response of polarization sensitive bacteriorhodopsin films.

    PubMed

    Li, Qun; Stuart, Jeffrey A; Birge, Robert R; Xu, Jian; Stickrath, Andrew; Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2004-03-15

    Polarization sensitivity is introduced into oriented bacteriorhodopsin (BR) films through a photochemical bleaching process, which chemically modifies the structure of the purple membrane by breaking the intrinsic symmetry of the membrane-bound BR trimers. The resulting photovoltage generated in an indium-tin oxide (ITO)/BR/ITO detector is found to be anisotropic with respect to cross-polarized probe beams. A model, based on the polarization dependent photoselection of the BR molecules qualitatively explains the photochemical bleaching process and the observed anisotropic response. The effect reported here can be used to construct a polarization sensitive BR-based bio-photoreceiver.

  12. Potentiodynamic polarization effect on phase and microstructure of SAC305 solder in hydrochloric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaini, Nurwahida Binti Mohd; Nazeri, Muhammad Firdaus Bin Mohd

    2016-07-01

    The corrosion analysis of SAC305 lead free solder was investigated in Hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. Potentiodynamic polarization was used to polarize the SAC305. The effect of polarization on the phase and microstructure were compared to as-prepared SAC305 solder. Potentiodynamic polarization introduces mixed corrosion products on the surface of SAC305 solder. The XRD analysis confirms that the mixed corrosion products emerged on the surface after polarization by formation of SnO and SnO2 of which confirmed that dissolution of Sn was dominant during polarization. Microstructure analysis reveal the presence of gap and porosities produced limits the protection offered by the passivation film.

  13. Atmospheric effects on Quaternary polarization encoding for free space communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soorat, Ram; Vudayagiri, Ashok

    2016-10-01

    We have simulated atmospheric effects such as fog and smoke in laboratory environment to simulate depolarisation due to atmospheric effects during a free space optical communi- cation. This has been used to study noise in two components of quaternary encoding for polarization shift keying. Individual components of a Quaternary encoding, such as vertical and horizontal as well as 45$^\\circ$ and 135$^\\circ$ , are tested separately and indicates that the depo- larization effects are different for these two situation. However, due to a differential method used to extract information bits, the protocol shows extremely low bit error rates. The information obtained is useful during deployment of a fully functional Quaternary encoded PolSK scheme in free space.

  14. Electrostatically Shielded Quantum Confined Stark Effect Inside Polar Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The effect of electrostatic shielding of the polarization fields in nanostructures at high carrier densities is studied. A simplified analytical model, employing screened, exponentially decaying polarization potentials, localized at the edges of a QW, is introduced for the ES-shielded quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE). Wave function trapping within the Debye-length edge-potential causes blue shifting of energy levels and gradual elimination of the QCSE red-shifting with increasing carrier density. The increase in the e−h wave function overlap and the decrease of the radiative emission time are, however, delayed until the “edge-localization” energy exceeds the peak-voltage of the charged layer. Then the wave function center shifts to the middle of the QW, and behavior becomes similar to that of an unbiased square QW. Our theoretical estimates of the radiative emission time show a complete elimination of the QCSE at doping densities ≥1020 cm−3, in quantitative agreement with experimental measurements. PMID:20596407

  15. Effects of UV radiation on marine ectotherms in polar regions.

    PubMed

    Dahms, Hans-U; Dobretsov, Sergey; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2011-05-01

    Ozone-related increase in solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) during the last decades provided an important ecological stressor, particularly for polar ecosystems since these are less adapted to such changes. All life forms appear to be susceptible to UVR to a highly variable extent that depends on individual species and their environment. Differences in sensitivity between organisms may relate to efficiency differences of their protection mechanisms and repair systems. UVR impacts are masked by large seasonal and geographic differences even in confined areas like the polar regions. UVR has effects and responses on various integration levels: from genetics, physiology, biology, populations, communities, to functional changes as in food webs with consequences on material and energy circulations through ecosystems. Even at current levels, solar UV-B affects consumer organisms, such as ectotherms (invertebrates and fish), particularly through impediments on critical phases of their development (early life history stages such as gametes, zygotes and larvae). Despite the overall negative implications of UVR, effect sizes vary widely in, e.g., molecular damage, cell and tissue damage, survival, growth, behavior, histology, and at the level of populations, communities and ecosystems.

  16. Effects of surface charge on interfacial interactions related to membrane fouling in a submerged membrane bioreactor based on thermodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huihui; Fan, Hao; Zhao, Leihong; Hong, Huachang; Shen, Liguo; He, Yiming; Lin, Hongjun; Chen, Jianrong

    2016-03-01

    Effects of both membrane and sludge foulant surface zeta potentials on interfacial interactions between membrane and sludge foulant in different interaction scenarios were systematically investigated based on thermodynamic methods. Under conditions in this study, it was found that zeta potential had marginal effects on total interfacial interaction between two infinite planar surfaces, and the total interfacial interaction between foulant particles and membrane would be more repulsive with increase of absolute value of zeta potential. Adhesion of foulant particles on membrane surface should overcome an energy barrier. There exists a critical zeta potential below which energy barrier would disappear. Results also showed that rough surface membrane corresponded to significantly low strength of interfacial interactions. This study not only provided a series of methods to quantitatively assess the interfacial interactions between membrane and sludge foulants, but also reconciled the contradictory conclusions regarding effects of zeta potential in literature, giving important implications for membrane fouling mitigation.

  17. Effects of tetrandrine on calcium transport, protein fluorescences and membrane fluidity of sarcoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lan-Ying; Chen, Xi; Tian, Xiao-Li; Yu, Xiao-Hong

    2000-01-01

    To understand whether the molecular mechanism of Tetrandrine (Tet)'s pharmacological effects is concerned with sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium transport so as to be involved in myocardial contractility, we observed the effects of Tet on calcium transport and membrane structure of rabbit skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles (SR) and rat cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles (CSR).Calcium uptake was monitored with a dual-wavelength spectrophotometer. Protein conformation and fluorescence polarization were measured by fluospectrophotometric method and membrane lipids labelled with fluorescence probes for SR, respectively.128 μmol l−1 Tet reduced the initial rate of calcium uptake to 59% of control 6 min after reaction. Tet un-competitively inhibited SR Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase activity, causing the stoichiometric ratio of SR Ca2+/ATP to decrease to 1.43 from 2.0 of control.Inhibitory rates on SR Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase by Tet were reduced from 60% in the absence of phosphate to 50% in the presence of phosphate and reduced from 92% in 1 mmol l−1 ATP to 60% in 5 mmol l−1 ATP.Tet markedly reduced SR intrinsic protein fluorescence, while it slightly decreased the thiol(SH)-modified protein fluorescence of SR labelled with N-(3-pyrene)-maleimide.Tet slightly increased fluorescence polarization in the middle and deep layers of SR membrane lipids labelled with 7- or 12-(9-anthroyloxy) stearic acid (AS) probes, whereas it did not change that of SR labelled with 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatrine (DPH).These results revealed that prevention of SR calcium uptake by Tet was due to inhibition of the SR calcium pump Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase, changes in spatial conformation of the pumps protein molecules and a decrease in the extent of motion of membrane lipid molecules, thus altering the regulation of [Ca2+]i and myocardial contractility. PMID:11015304

  18. Polarization effects in femtosecond laser induced amorphization of monocrystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Feng; Li, Hong-Jin; Huang, Yuan-Yuan; Fan, Wen-Zhong; Pan, Huai-Hai; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Cheng-Wei; Qian, Jing; Li, Yang-Bo; Zhao, Quan-Zhong

    2016-10-01

    We have used femtosecond laser pulses to ablate monocrystalline silicon wafer. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis of ablation surface indicates horizontally polarized laser beam shows an enhancement in amorphization efficiency by a factor of 1.6-1.7 over the circularly polarized laser ablation. This demonstrates that one can tune the amorphization efficiency through the polarization of irradiation laser.

  19. Experimental effects of orbit on polarization loss in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjbar V.; Bai, M.; Huang, H.; Marusic, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Minty, M.

    2012-05-20

    We are performing several experiments during the RHIC ramp to better understand the impact of orbit errors on the polarization at our current working point. These will be conducted by exciting specified orbit harmonics during the final two large intrinsic resonance crossing in RHIC during the 250 GeV polarized proton ramp. The resultant polarization response will then be measured.

  20. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Influences PIN Polarization by Controlling Clathrin-Mediated Membrane Trafficking in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Ischebeck, Till; Werner, Stephanie; Krishnamoorthy, Praveen; Lerche, Jennifer; Meijón, Mónica; Stenzel, Irene; Löfke, Christian; Wiessner, Theresa; Im, Yang Ju; Perera, Imara Y.; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Busch, Wolfgang; Boss, Wendy F.; Teichmann, Thomas; Hause, Bettina; Persson, Staffan; Heilmann, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    The functions of the minor phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] during vegetative plant growth remain obscure. Here, we targeted two related phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinases (PI4P 5-kinases) PIP5K1 and PIP5K2, which are expressed ubiquitously in Arabidopsis thaliana. A pip5k1 pip5k2 double mutant with reduced PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels showed dwarf stature and phenotypes suggesting defects in auxin distribution. The roots of the pip5k1 pip5k2 double mutant had normal auxin levels but reduced auxin transport and altered distribution. Fluorescence-tagged auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMED (PIN1)–green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PIN2-GFP displayed abnormal, partially apolar distribution. Furthermore, fewer brefeldin A–induced endosomal bodies decorated by PIN1-GFP or PIN2-GFP formed in pip5k1 pip5k2 mutants. Inducible overexpressor lines for PIP5K1 or PIP5K2 also exhibited phenotypes indicating misregulation of auxin-dependent processes, and immunolocalization showed reduced membrane association of PIN1 and PIN2. PIN cycling and polarization require clathrin-mediated endocytosis and labeled clathrin light chain also displayed altered localization patterns in the pip5k1 pip5k2 double mutant, consistent with a role for PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the regulation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Further biochemical tests on subcellular fractions enriched for clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) indicated that pip5k1 and pip5k2 mutants have reduced CCV-associated PI4P 5-kinase activity. Together, the data indicate an important role for PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the control of clathrin dynamics and in auxin distribution in Arabidopsis. PMID:24326589

  1. Photoelectric Effects in Lipid Bilayer Membranes. A Pedagogical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Jay S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides information appropriate for introductory lectures on photoelectric effects in membranes. Describes the apparatus and supplies required for laboratory exercises. Outlines typical laboratory exercises. Identifies the chromophores known to induce photoelectric effects. Concludes that this topic can provide useful subjects for undergraduate…

  2. Permeability-Selectivity Analysis of Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes: Effect of Pore Size and Shape Distribution and Membrane Stretching.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Muhammad Usama; Arif, Abul Fazal Muhammad; Bashmal, Salem

    2016-01-01

    We present a modeling approach to determine the permeability-selectivity tradeoff for microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes with a distribution of pore sizes and pore shapes. Using the formulated permeability-selectivity model, the effect of pore aspect ratio and pore size distribution on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff of the membrane is analyzed. A finite element model is developed to study the effect of membrane stretching on the distribution of pore sizes and shapes in the stretched membrane. The effect of membrane stretching on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff of membranes is also analyzed. The results show that increasing pore aspect ratio improves membrane performance while increasing the width of pore size distribution deteriorates the performance. It was also found that the effect of membrane stretching on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff is greatly affected by the uniformity of pore distribution in the membrane. Stretching showed a positive shift in the permeability-selectivity tradeoff curve of membranes with well-dispersed pores while in the case of pore clustering, a negative shift in the permeability-selectivity tradeoff curve was observed. PMID:27509528

  3. Permeability-Selectivity Analysis of Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes: Effect of Pore Size and Shape Distribution and Membrane Stretching

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Muhammad Usama; Arif, Abul Fazal Muhammad; Bashmal, Salem

    2016-01-01

    We present a modeling approach to determine the permeability-selectivity tradeoff for microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes with a distribution of pore sizes and pore shapes. Using the formulated permeability-selectivity model, the effect of pore aspect ratio and pore size distribution on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff of the membrane is analyzed. A finite element model is developed to study the effect of membrane stretching on the distribution of pore sizes and shapes in the stretched membrane. The effect of membrane stretching on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff of membranes is also analyzed. The results show that increasing pore aspect ratio improves membrane performance while increasing the width of pore size distribution deteriorates the performance. It was also found that the effect of membrane stretching on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff is greatly affected by the uniformity of pore distribution in the membrane. Stretching showed a positive shift in the permeability-selectivity tradeoff curve of membranes with well-dispersed pores while in the case of pore clustering, a negative shift in the permeability-selectivity tradeoff curve was observed. PMID:27509528

  4. The effect of acute microgravity on mechanically-induced membrane damage and membrane-membrane fusion events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, M. S.; Vanderburg, C. R.; Feeback, D. L.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Although it is unclear how a living cell senses gravitational forces there is no doubt that perturbation of the gravitational environment results in profound alterations in cellular function. In the present study, we have focused our attention on how acute microgravity exposure during parabolic flight affects the skeletal muscle cell plasma membrane (i.e. sarcolemma), with specific reference to a mechanically-reactive signaling mechanism known as mechanically-induced membrane disruption or "wounding". Both membrane rupture and membrane resealing events mediated by membrane-membrane fusion characterize this response. We here present experimental evidence that acute microgravity exposure can inhibit membrane-membrane fusion events essential for the resealing of sarcolemmal wounds in individual human myoblasts. Additional evidence to support this contention comes from experimental studies that demonstrate acute microgravity exposure also inhibits secretagogue-stimulated intracellular vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane in HL-60 cells. Based on our own observations and those of other investigators in a variety of ground-based models of membrane wounding and membrane-membrane fusion, we suggest that the disruption in the membrane resealing process observed during acute microgravity is consistent with a microgravity-induced decrease in membrane order.

  5. The Effect of Acute Microgravity on Mechanically-Induced Membrane Damage and Membrane-Membrane Fusion Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Mark, S. F.; Vanderburg, Charles R.; Feedback, Daniel L.

    2001-01-01

    Although it is unclear how a living cell senses gravitational forces there is no doubt that perturbation of the gravitational environment results in profound alterations in cellular function. In the present study, we have focused our attention on how acute microgravity exposure during parabolic flight affects the skeletal muscle cell plasma membrane (i.e. sarcolemma), with specific reference to a mechanically-reactive signaling mechanism known as mechanically-induced membrane disruption or "wounding". This response is characterized by both membrane rupture and membrane resealing events mediated by membrane-membrane fusion. We here present experimental evidence that acute microgravity exposure can inhibit membrane-membrane fusion events essential for the resealing of sarcolemmal wounds in individual human myoblasts. Additional evidence to support this contention comes from experimental studies that demonstrate acute microgravity exposure also inhibits secretagogue-stimulated intracellular vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane in HL-60 cells. Based on our own observations and those of other investigators in a variety of ground-based models of membrane wounding and membrane-membrane fusion, we suggest that the disruption in the membrane resealing process observed during acute microgravity is consistent with a microgravity-induced decrease in membrane order.

  6. Induced spin polarization effect in graphene by ferromagnetic nanocontact

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, Sumit; Saha, Shyamal K.

    2015-03-07

    Chemically synthesized graphene contains large number of defects which act as localized spin moments at the defect sites. Cobalt nanosheets of variable thickness are grown on graphene surface to investigate spin/magnetotransport through graphene sheets containing large number of localized spins. Negative magnetoresistance (MR) is observed over the entire temperature range (5–300 K) for thin cobalt sheets, while a cross-over from negative to positive MR with increasing temperature is noticed for thicker cobalt sheets. The observed MR results are explained on the basis of recently reported spin polarization effect in graphene due to the presence of ferromagnetic atoms on the surface considering a spin valve like Co/graphene/Co nanostructures.

  7. Induced spin polarization effect in graphene by ferromagnetic nanocontact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Sumit; Saha, Shyamal K.

    2015-03-01

    Chemically synthesized graphene contains large number of defects which act as localized spin moments at the defect sites. Cobalt nanosheets of variable thickness are grown on graphene surface to investigate spin/magnetotransport through graphene sheets containing large number of localized spins. Negative magnetoresistance (MR) is observed over the entire temperature range (5-300 K) for thin cobalt sheets, while a cross-over from negative to positive MR with increasing temperature is noticed for thicker cobalt sheets. The observed MR results are explained on the basis of recently reported spin polarization effect in graphene due to the presence of ferromagnetic atoms on the surface considering a spin valve like Co/graphene/Co nanostructures.

  8. Heat sink effects in variable polarity plasma arc welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelmessih, Amanie N.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Shuttle External Tank is fabricated by the variable polarity plasma arc (VPPA) welding process. In VPPA welding, a noble gas, usually argon, is directed through an arc to emerge from the torch as a hot plasma jet. This jet is surrounded by a shielding gas, usually helium, to protect the weld from contamination with air. The high velocity, hot plasma jet completely penetrates the workpiece (resembling a line heat source) when operated in the 'keyhole' mode. The metal melts on touching the side of the jet, as the torch travels in the perpendicular direction to the direction of the jet, and melted metal moves around the plasma jet in the keyhole forming a puddle which solidifies behind the jet. Heat sink effects are observed when there are irregularities in the workpiece configuration, especially, if these irregularities are close to the weld bead. These heat sinks affect the geometry of the weld bead, i.e., in extreme cases they could cause defects such as incomplete fusion. Also, different fixtures seem to have varying heat sink effects. The objective of this research is to study the effect of irregularities in workpiece configuration and fixture differences (heat sink effects) on the weld bead geometry with the ultimate objective to compensate for the heat sink effects and achieve a perfect weld. Experiments were performed on different workpiece geometries and compared to approximate models.

  9. Building hospital TQM teams: effective polarity analysis and maximization.

    PubMed

    Hurst, J B

    1996-09-01

    Building and maintaining teams require careful attention to and maximization of such polar opposites (¿polarities¿) as individual and team, directive and participatory leadership, task and process, and stability and change. Analyzing systematic elements of any polarity and listing blocks, supports, and flexible ways to maximize it will prevent the negative consequences that occur when treating a polarity like a solvable problem. Flexible, well-timed shifts from pole to pole result in the maximization of upside and minimization of downside consequences.

  10. Effect of surface and membrane potentials on IAA (indoleactic acid) uptake and binding by zucchini membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, K.A.; Goldsmith, M.H.M.

    1986-08-01

    The polar transport of the endogenous hormone controlling extension growth of plant cells, indoleacetic acid (IAA), is thought to depend on transmembrane pH and electrical gradients resulting in part from the action of proton ATPases in the plasma membrane. Elements of this transport process are permeation of the membrane by the undissociated lipophilic indoleacetic acid (IAAH) from the acidic apoplast, followed by dissociation of the weak acid and accumulation of the IAA anion (IAA/sup -/) in the alkaline cytoplasm; a saturable symport of IAA/sup -/ with one or more protons; a carrier-mediated efflux of IAA/sup -/ down a considerable electrochemical gradient. The efflux is greater from the basal than the apical end of cells and is thought to be responsible for the overall polarity of the process. This step is also the site of action of napthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and herbicides that inhibit polar transport but stimulate net accumulation of auxin by tissues and cells. We are using membrane vesicles as a simplified system for studying the mechanisms involved in the transport and accumulation of auxin. In particular, we are interested in determining the involvement of the transmembrane pH (pH/sub o/ < pH/sub i/) and voltage gradients (K/sup +/ diffusion potential, (K/sup +/)/sub in/ > (K/sup +/)/sub out/) in IAA uptake. 19 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Effect of polarization circularity on light propagation in an optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugin, A. V.; Zel'Dovich, B. Ia.; Kundikova, N. D.; Liberman, V. S.

    1991-02-01

    Reference is made to an earlier study (Zeldovich and Liberman, 1990) in which the effect of polarization circularity on the twisting of an initially plane beam trajectory has been predicted theoretically. Here, the rotation of the speckle pattern in a multimode optical fiber due to the reversal of the sign of circular polarization of the propagating light is demonstrated experimentally. The effect discussed here is the opposite of the well-known effect of polarization plane rotation described by Rytov (1938).

  12. Millimeter microwave effect on ion transport across lipid bilayer membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, S.I.; Ziskin, M.C.

    1995-06-01

    The effects of millimeter microwaves in the frequency range of 54--76 GHz on capacitance and conductance of lipid bilayer membranes (BLM) were studied. Some of the membranes were modified by gramicidin A and amphotericin B or by tetraphenylboron anions (TPhB{sup {minus}}). The millimeter microwaves were pulse-modulated (PW) at repetition rates ranging from 1 to 100 pps, PW at 1,000 pps, or unmodulated continuous waves (CW). The maximum output power at the waveguide outlet was 20 mW. It was found that CW irradiation decreased the unmodified BLM capacitance by 1.2% {+-} 0.5%. At the same time, membrane current induced by TPhB{sup {minus}} transport increased by 5% {+-} 1%. The changes in conductance of ionic channels formed by gramicidin A and amphotericin B were small (0.6% {+-} 0.4%). No resonance-like effects of mm-wave irradiation on membrane capacitance, ionic channel currents, or TPhB{sup {minus}} transport were detected. All changes in membrane capacitance and currents were independent of the modulation employed and were equivalent to heating by approximately 1.1 C.

  13. Substrate affinities for membrane transport proteins determined by 13C cross-polarization magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Patching, Simon G; Brough, Adrian R; Herbert, Richard B; Rajakarier, J Anton; Henderson, Peter J F; Middleton, David A

    2004-03-17

    We have devised methods in which cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CP-MAS) solid-state NMR is exploited to measure rigorous parameters for binding of (13)C-labeled substrates to membrane transport proteins. The methods were applied to two proteins from Escherichia coli: a nucleoside transporter, NupC, and a glucuronide transporter, GusB. A substantial signal for the binding of methyl [1-(13)C]-beta-d-glucuronide to GusB overexpressed in native membranes was achieved with a sample that contained as little as 20 nmol of GusB protein. The data were fitted to yield a K(D) value of 4.17 mM for the labeled ligand and 0.42 mM for an unlabeled ligand, p-nitrophenyl beta-d-glucuronide, which displaced the labeled compound. CP-MAS was also used to measure binding of [1'-(13)C]uridine to overexpressed NupC. The spectrum of NupC-enriched membranes containing [1'-(13)C]uridine exhibited a large peak from substrate bound to undefined sites other than the transport site, which obscured the signal from substrate bound to NupC. In a novel application of a cross-polarization/polarization-inversion (CPPI) NMR experiment, the signal from undefined binding was eliminated by use of appropriate inversion pulse lengths. By use of CPPI in a titration experiment, a K(D) value of 2.6 mM was determined for uridine bound to NupC. These approaches are broadly applicable to quantifying binding of substrates, inhibitors, drugs, and antibiotics to numerous membrane proteins. PMID:15012136

  14. Effects of laser polarization on jet emission of fast electrons in femtosecond-laser plasmas.

    PubMed

    Chen, L M; Zhang, J; Li, Y T; Teng, H; Liang, T J; Sheng, Z M; Dong, Q L; Zhao, L Z; Wei, Z Y; Tang, X W

    2001-11-26

    Effects of laser polarization on fast electron emission are studied from an aluminum target irradiated by ultrashort laser pulses at 2 x 10(16) W/cm(2). Jet emission of outgoing fast electrons collimated in the polarization direction is observed for s-polarized laser irradiation, whereas for p-polarized irradiation highly directional emission of outgoing fast electrons is found in the direction close to the normal of the target. The behavior of ingoing fast electrons into the target for s- and p-polarized irradiation is also investigated by observing x-ray bremsstrahlung radiation at the backside of the target.

  15. The temperature-dependent physical state of polar lipids and their miscibility impact the topography and mechanical properties of bilayer models of the milk fat globule membrane.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Appala Venkata Ramana; Guyomarc'h, Fanny; Lopez, Christelle

    2016-09-01

    The polar lipid assembly and biophysical properties of the biological membrane enveloping the milk fat globules (the MFGM) are yet poorly known, especially in connection with the temperature history that milk can experience after its secretion. However, bioactive mechanisms depend on biological structure, which itself highly depend on temperature. The objectives of this study were to investigate polar lipid packing in hydrated bilayers, models of the MFGM, and to follow at intermolecular level temperature-induced changes in the range 60-6°C, using the combination of differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging and force spectroscopy. MFGM polar lipids, especially sphingomyelin, contain long chain saturated fatty acids with high phase transition temperatures. On cooling, the liquid disordered ld to solid ordered so (gel) phase transition of MFGM polar lipids started at about 40°C, leading to phase separation and formation of so phase domains protruding by about 1nm from the ld phase. Indentation measurements using AFM revealed that the resistance of the so phase domains to rupture was significantly higher than that of the ld phase and that it increased for both the domain and fluid phases with decreasing temperature. However, packing and stability of the bilayers were adversely affected by fast cooling to 6°C or by cooling-rewarming cycle. This study showed that MFGM polar lipid bilayers are dynamic systems. Heterogeneity in the structure and mechanical properties of the membrane was induced by temperature-dependent so/ld phase immiscibility of the lipid components. This could have consequences on the MFGM technological and biological functions (e.g. immunity and milk lipid digestion). PMID:27349732

  16. THE X-RAY POLARIZATION SIGNATURE OF QUIESCENT MAGNETARS: EFFECT OF MAGNETOSPHERIC SCATTERING AND VACUUM POLARIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Rodrigo; Davis, Shane W.

    2011-04-01

    In the magnetar model, the quiescent non-thermal soft X-ray emission from anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma repeaters is thought to arise from resonant Comptonization of thermal photons by charges moving in a twisted magnetosphere. Robust inference of physical quantities from observations is difficult, because the process depends strongly on geometry, and current understanding of the magnetosphere is not very deep. The polarization of soft X-ray photons is an independent source of information, and its magnetospheric imprint remains only partially explored. In this paper, we calculate how resonant cyclotron scattering would modify the observed polarization signal relative to the surface emission, using a multidimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code that accounts for the gradual coupling of polarization eigenmodes as photons leave the magnetosphere. We employ a globally twisted, self-similar, force-free magnetosphere with a power-law momentum distribution, assume a blackbody spectrum for the seed photons, account for general relativistic light deflection close to the star, and assume that vacuum polarization dominates the dielectric properties of the magnetosphere. The latter is a good approximation if the pair multiplicity is not much larger than unity. Phase-averaged polarimetry is able to provide a clear signature of the magnetospheric reprocessing of thermal photons and to constrain mechanisms generating the thermal emission. Phase-resolved polarimetry, in addition, can characterize the spatial extent and magnitude of the magnetospheric twist angle at {approx}100 stellar radii, and discern between uni- or bidirectional particle energy distributions, almost independently of every other parameter in the system. We discuss prospects for detectability with the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism (GEMS) mission.

  17. The X-ray Polarization Signature of Quiescent Magnetars: Effect of Magnetospheric Scattering and Vacuum Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Rodrigo; Davis, Shane W.

    2011-04-01

    In the magnetar model, the quiescent non-thermal soft X-ray emission from anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma repeaters is thought to arise from resonant Comptonization of thermal photons by charges moving in a twisted magnetosphere. Robust inference of physical quantities from observations is difficult, because the process depends strongly on geometry, and current understanding of the magnetosphere is not very deep. The polarization of soft X-ray photons is an independent source of information, and its magnetospheric imprint remains only partially explored. In this paper, we calculate how resonant cyclotron scattering would modify the observed polarization signal relative to the surface emission, using a multidimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code that accounts for the gradual coupling of polarization eigenmodes as photons leave the magnetosphere. We employ a globally twisted, self-similar, force-free magnetosphere with a power-law momentum distribution, assume a blackbody spectrum for the seed photons, account for general relativistic light deflection close to the star, and assume that vacuum polarization dominates the dielectric properties of the magnetosphere. The latter is a good approximation if the pair multiplicity is not much larger than unity. Phase-averaged polarimetry is able to provide a clear signature of the magnetospheric reprocessing of thermal photons and to constrain mechanisms generating the thermal emission. Phase-resolved polarimetry, in addition, can characterize the spatial extent and magnitude of the magnetospheric twist angle at ~100 stellar radii, and discern between uni- or bidirectional particle energy distributions, almost independently of every other parameter in the system. We discuss prospects for detectability with the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism (GEMS) mission.

  18. Effect of Erythrodiol, A Natural Pentacyclic Triterpene from Olive Oil, on the Lipid Membrane Properties.

    PubMed

    Habib, Lamice; Jraij, Alia; Khreich, Nathalie; Charcosset, Catherine; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2015-12-01

    The effect of erythrodiol, a natural pentacyclic triterpene to which humans are exposed through nutrients, on the lipid membranes is studied using liposomes as a membrane model. Empty and erythrodiol-loaded liposomes were prepared by the reverse phase evaporation method followed by the extrusion and by the thin film hydration method. Liposomes were characterized in terms of size and zeta potential and were imaged by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of erythrodiol on thermotropic behavior of DPPC bilayers is also examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The DSC thermograms suggested that erythrodiol interacted with the polar head groups of phospholipids and may produce a disruption of the ordering of the alkyl chains. The diffraction light scattering analysis showed that erythrodiol-loaded liposomes presented a decrease in the vesicle size when compared to blank liposomes. Images obtained by TEM confirmed the formation of unilamellar and spherical liposomes. AFM images showed spherical vesicles and single lipid bilayers. The latter were more abundant in the preparations containing erythrodiol than in the blank ones. Moreover, erythrodiol-loaded liposomes tended to rupture into single lipid bilayers during scanning. The study may provide a better understanding of pentacyclic triterpenes-membrane interaction. PMID:26141679

  19. Cdc42 and Actin Control Polarized Expression of TI-VAMP Vesicles to Neuronal Growth Cones and Their Fusion with the Plasma MembraneV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Philipp; Rudge, Rachel; Irinopoulou, Theano; Danglot, Lydia; Gauthier-Rouvière, Cécile; Galli, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    Tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein (TI-VAMP)-mediated fusion of intracellular vesicles with the plasma membrane is crucial for neurite outgrowth, a pathway not requiring synaptobrevin-dependent exocytosis. Yet, it is not known how the TI-VAMP membrane trafficking pathway is regulated or how it is coordinated with cytoskeletal dynamics within the growth cone that guide neurite outgrowth. Here, we demonstrate that TI-VAMP, but not synaptobrevin 2, concentrates in the peripheral, F-actin-rich region of the growth cones of hippocampal neurons in primary culture. Its accumulation correlates with and depends upon the presence of F-actin. Moreover, acute stimulation of actin remodeling by homophilic activation of the adhesion molecule L1 induces a site-directed, actin-dependent recruitment of the TI-VAMP compartment. Expression of a dominant-positive mutant of Cdc42, a key regulator of cell polarity, stimulates formation of F-actin- and TI-VAMP-rich filopodia outside the growth cone. Furthermore, we report that Cdc42 activates exocytosis of pHLuorin tagged TI-VAMP in an actin-dependent manner. Collectively, our data suggest that Cdc42 and regulated assembly of the F-actin network control the accumulation and exocytosis of TI-VAMP-containing membrane vesicles in growth cones to coordinate membrane trafficking and actin remodeling during neurite outgrowth. PMID:16381811

  20. Cdc42 and actin control polarized expression of TI-VAMP vesicles to neuronal growth cones and their fusion with the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Philipp; Rudge, Rachel; Irinopoulou, Theano; Danglot, Lydia; Gauthier-Rouvière, Cécile; Galli, Thierry

    2006-03-01

    Tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein (TI-VAMP)-mediated fusion of intracellular vesicles with the plasma membrane is crucial for neurite outgrowth, a pathway not requiring synaptobrevin-dependent exocytosis. Yet, it is not known how the TI-VAMP membrane trafficking pathway is regulated or how it is coordinated with cytoskeletal dynamics within the growth cone that guide neurite outgrowth. Here, we demonstrate that TI-VAMP, but not synaptobrevin 2, concentrates in the peripheral, F-actin-rich region of the growth cones of hippocampal neurons in primary culture. Its accumulation correlates with and depends upon the presence of F-actin. Moreover, acute stimulation of actin remodeling by homophilic activation of the adhesion molecule L1 induces a site-directed, actin-dependent recruitment of the TI-VAMP compartment. Expression of a dominant-positive mutant of Cdc42, a key regulator of cell polarity, stimulates formation of F-actin- and TI-VAMP-rich filopodia outside the growth cone. Furthermore, we report that Cdc42 activates exocytosis of pHLuorin tagged TI-VAMP in an actin-dependent manner. Collectively, our data suggest that Cdc42 and regulated assembly of the F-actin network control the accumulation and exocytosis of TI-VAMP-containing membrane vesicles in growth cones to coordinate membrane trafficking and actin remodeling during neurite outgrowth.

  1. Polarizing effect of aligned nanoparticles in terahertz frequency region.

    PubMed

    Polley, Debanjan; Ganguly, Arnab; Barman, Anjan; Mitra, Rajib Kumar

    2013-08-01

    We report the polarizing behavior of aligned Ni nanoparticles (NPs) having average diameter of 165±15 nm in ~210 μm thick polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix in the frequency range of 0.2-1.6 THz. The NPs have been prepared via a wet chemical route and then aligned in PVA film by using an external magnetic field. When the polarization of THz electric field is parallel to the NPs alignment direction, a strong THz absorption is observed whereas a minimum THz absorption is noticed for the corresponding perpendicular configuration. Degree of polarization is calculated to be 0.9±0.08. Considering the good polarizing performance, ease of preparation, durability, and low maintenance, this aligned NP system is a perfect candidate to emerge as a potential THz polarizer.

  2. Membrane mechanisms of antiarrhythmic effect of quaternidine.

    PubMed

    Balashov, V P; Blinov, D S; Kazachenko, V N; Astashev, M E; Agenosova, O G

    2005-06-01

    Complex electrophysiological study of the effects of quaternidine carried out on intact hearts from cats, myocardial fragments from rats, and single ionic channels of large edible snail showed that quaternidine demonstrates properties of class 1B antiarrhythmic drug according to Vaughan-Williams nomenclature. This agent did not suppress nomotopic pacemaker automaticity, did not change conduction in ventricles, atria, and atrioventricular junction in hearts with preserved sinus rhythm, did not prolong refractoriness of the atria and atrioventricular junction, but prolonged efficient refractory period of heart ventricles. Quaternidine decelerated rapid depolarization of the action potential, but had no effect on its duration. It did not affect potassium conductance.

  3. Superamphiphobic nanofibrous membranes for effective filtration of fine particles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Zhu, Zhigao; Sheng, Junlu; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2014-08-15

    The worldwide demands are rising for an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach that can provide advanced nanofibrous membranes with high filtration performance and superior antifouling properties. Here we report a novel synthesized fluorinated polyurethane (FPU) modified nanofibrous membrane optimized to achieve oil and non-oil aerosol particle filtration. By employing the FPU incorporation, the polyacrylonitrile/polyurethane (PAN/PU) composite membranes were endowed with superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 154° and superoleophobicity with an oil contact angle of 151°. Morphology, surface wettability, porous structure, and filtration performance could be manipulated by tuning the solution composition as well as the hierarchical structure. Furthermore, the as-prepared membranes can capture, for the first time, a range of different oil aerosol particles in a single-unit operation, with >99.9% filtration efficiency, by using the combined contribution of fiber diameter and surface roughness acting on the objective particles. Exemplified here by the construction of superamphiphobic nanofibrous membrane, numerous applications of this medium includes high efficiency particulate air filters, ultra-low penetration air filters, and respiratory protection equipment.

  4. Effects of chronic kidney disease on blood cells membrane properties.

    PubMed

    Kaderjakova, Z; Lajdova, I; Horvathova, M; Morvova, M; Sikurova, L

    2012-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is progressive loss of renal function associated among others with increased intracellular calcium concentration. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of CKD on cell membrane properties such as human red blood cell Ca(2+) ATPase activity, lymphocyte plasma membrane P2X(7) receptor expression and function. This could help us in elucidating the origin of increased calcium concentration in blood cells. We found out Ca(2+) ATPase activity is decreased in early stage CKD patients resulting in altered calcium removal from cytoplasm. By means of flow cytometry we assessed that P2X(7) receptor expression on lymphocyte membrane is 1.5 fold increased for CKD patients. Moreover, we detected an increased uptake of ethidium bromide through this receptor in CKD at basal conditions. It means CKD lymphocyte membranes contain more receptors which are more permeable thus allowing increased calcium influx from extracellular milieu. Finally, we can state alterations in blood cell membranes are closely linked to CKD and may be responsible for intracellular calcium accumulation.

  5. Superamphiphobic nanofibrous membranes for effective filtration of fine particles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Zhu, Zhigao; Sheng, Junlu; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2014-08-15

    The worldwide demands are rising for an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach that can provide advanced nanofibrous membranes with high filtration performance and superior antifouling properties. Here we report a novel synthesized fluorinated polyurethane (FPU) modified nanofibrous membrane optimized to achieve oil and non-oil aerosol particle filtration. By employing the FPU incorporation, the polyacrylonitrile/polyurethane (PAN/PU) composite membranes were endowed with superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 154° and superoleophobicity with an oil contact angle of 151°. Morphology, surface wettability, porous structure, and filtration performance could be manipulated by tuning the solution composition as well as the hierarchical structure. Furthermore, the as-prepared membranes can capture, for the first time, a range of different oil aerosol particles in a single-unit operation, with >99.9% filtration efficiency, by using the combined contribution of fiber diameter and surface roughness acting on the objective particles. Exemplified here by the construction of superamphiphobic nanofibrous membrane, numerous applications of this medium includes high efficiency particulate air filters, ultra-low penetration air filters, and respiratory protection equipment. PMID:24910033

  6. The quintuple-shape memory effect in electrospun nanofiber membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fenghua; Zhang, Zhichun; Liu, Yanju; Lu, Haibao; Leng, Jinsong

    2013-08-01

    Shape memory fibrous membranes (SMFMs) are an emerging class of active polymers, which are capable of switching from a temporary shape to their permanent shape upon appropriate stimulation. Quintuple-shape memory membranes based on the thermoplastic polymer Nafion, with a stable fibrous structure, are achieved via electrospinning technology, and possess a broad transition temperature. The recovery of multiple temporary shapes of electrospun membranes can be triggered by heat in a single triple-, quadruple-, quintuple-shape memory cycle, respectively. The fiber morphology and nanometer size provide unprecedented design flexibility for the adjustable morphing effect. SMFMs enable complex deformations at need, having a wide potential application field including smart textiles, artificial intelligence robots, bio-medical engineering, aerospace technologies, etc in the future.

  7. Reprint of : Spin polarization induced by an electric field in the presence of weak localization effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerci, Daniele; Borge, Juan; Raimondi, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    We evaluate the spin polarization (Edelstein or inverse spin galvanic effect) and the spin Hall current induced by an applied electric field by including the weak localization corrections for a two-dimensional electron gas. We show that the weak localization effects yield logarithmic corrections to both the spin polarization conductivity relating the spin polarization and the electric field and to the spin Hall angle relating the spin and charge currents. The renormalization of both the spin polarization conductivity and the spin Hall angle combine to produce a zero correction to the total spin Hall conductivity as required by an exact identity. Suggestions for the experimental observation of the effect are given.

  8. Quantitative analysis of TALE-DNA interactions suggests polarity effects.

    PubMed

    Meckler, Joshua F; Bhakta, Mital S; Kim, Moon-Soo; Ovadia, Robert; Habrian, Chris H; Zykovich, Artem; Yu, Abigail; Lockwood, Sarah H; Morbitzer, Robert; Elsäesser, Janett; Lahaye, Thomas; Segal, David J; Baldwin, Enoch P

    2013-04-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) have revolutionized the field of genome engineering. We present here a systematic assessment of TALE DNA recognition, using quantitative electrophoretic mobility shift assays and reporter gene activation assays. Within TALE proteins, tandem 34-amino acid repeats recognize one base pair each and direct sequence-specific DNA binding through repeat variable di-residues (RVDs). We found that RVD choice can affect affinity by four orders of magnitude, with the relative RVD contribution in the order NG > HD ≈ NN > NI > NK. The NN repeat preferred the base G over A, whereas the NK repeat bound G with 10(3)-fold lower affinity. We compared AvrBs3, a naturally occurring TALE that recognizes its target using some atypical RVD-base combinations, with a designed TALE that precisely matches 'standard' RVDs with the target bases. This comparison revealed unexpected differences in sensitivity to substitutions of the invariant 5'-T. Another surprising observation was that base mismatches at the 5' end of the target site had more disruptive effects on affinity than those at the 3' end, particularly in designed TALEs. These results provide evidence that TALE-DNA recognition exhibits a hitherto un-described polarity effect, in which the N-terminal repeats contribute more to affinity than C-terminal ones.

  9. Quantitative analysis of TALE–DNA interactions suggests polarity effects

    PubMed Central

    Meckler, Joshua F.; Bhakta, Mital S.; Kim, Moon-Soo; Ovadia, Robert; Habrian, Chris H.; Zykovich, Artem; Yu, Abigail; Lockwood, Sarah H.; Morbitzer, Robert; Elsäesser, Janett; Lahaye, Thomas; Segal, David J.; Baldwin, Enoch P.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) have revolutionized the field of genome engineering. We present here a systematic assessment of TALE DNA recognition, using quantitative electrophoretic mobility shift assays and reporter gene activation assays. Within TALE proteins, tandem 34-amino acid repeats recognize one base pair each and direct sequence-specific DNA binding through repeat variable di-residues (RVDs). We found that RVD choice can affect affinity by four orders of magnitude, with the relative RVD contribution in the order NG > HD ∼ NN ≫ NI > NK. The NN repeat preferred the base G over A, whereas the NK repeat bound G with 103-fold lower affinity. We compared AvrBs3, a naturally occurring TALE that recognizes its target using some atypical RVD-base combinations, with a designed TALE that precisely matches ‘standard’ RVDs with the target bases. This comparison revealed unexpected differences in sensitivity to substitutions of the invariant 5′-T. Another surprising observation was that base mismatches at the 5′ end of the target site had more disruptive effects on affinity than those at the 3′ end, particularly in designed TALEs. These results provide evidence that TALE–DNA recognition exhibits a hitherto un-described polarity effect, in which the N-terminal repeats contribute more to affinity than C-terminal ones. PMID:23408851

  10. Polar Kerr effect in high temperature cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewari, Sumanta; Sharma, Girish; Goswami, Pallab; Yakovenko, Victor; Chakravarty, Sudip

    A mechanism is proposed for the tantalizing evidence of polar Kerr effect in a class of high temperature superconductors-the signs of the Kerr angle from two opposite faces of the same sample are identical and magnetic field training is non-existent. The mechanism does not break global time reversal symmetry, as in an antiferromagnet, and results in zero Faraday effect. It is best understood in a phenomenological model of bilayer cuprates, such as YBCO, in which intra-bilayer tunneling nucleates a chiral d-density wave such that the individual layers have opposite chirality. Although the presentation is specific to the chiral d-density wave, the mechanism may be more general to any quasi-two-dimensional orbital antiferromagnet in which time reversal symmetry is broken in each plane, but not when averaged macroscopically. St and GS supported by AFOSR (FA9550-13-1-0045), PG supported by JQI-NSF-PFC, SC supported by NSF-DMR-1004520.

  11. THE EFFECT OF SYSTEMATICS ON POLARIZED SPECTRAL INDICES

    SciTech Connect

    Wehus, I. K.; Fuskeland, U.; Eriksen, H. K.

    2013-02-15

    We study four particularly bright polarized compact objects (Tau A, Vir A, 3C 273, and For A) in the 7 year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky maps, with the goal of understanding potential systematics involved in the estimation of foreground spectral indices. First, we estimate the spectral index, the polarization angle, the polarization fraction, and the apparent size and shape of these objects when smoothed to a nominal resolution of 1 Degree-Sign FWHM. Second, we compute the spectral index as a function of polarization orientation, {alpha}. Because these objects are approximately point sources with constant polarization angle, this function should be constant in the absence of systematics. However, for the K and Ka band WMAP data we find strong index variations for all four sources. For Tau A, we find a spectral index of {beta} = -2.59 {+-} 0.03 for {alpha} = 30 Degree-Sign , and {beta} = -2.03 {+-} 0.01 for {alpha} = 50 Degree-Sign . On the other hand, the spectral index between the Ka and Q bands is found to be stable. A simple elliptical Gaussian toy model with parameters matching those observed in Tau A reproduces the observed signal, and shows that the spectral index is particularly sensitive to the detector polarization angle. Based on these findings, we first conclude that estimation of spectral indices with the WMAP K band polarization data at 1 Degree-Sign scales is not robust. Second, we note that these issues may be of concern for ground-based and sub-orbital experiments that use the WMAP polarization measurements of Tau A for calibration of gain and polarization angles.

  12. Experimental investigation of thermal effects and PCT on FBGs-based linearly polarized fiber laser performance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Long; Ma, Pengfei; Tao, Rumao; Shi, Chen; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu

    2015-04-20

    We experimentally study the impacts of thermal effects and polarization crosstalk (PCT) on the performance of FBGs-based linearly polarized all-fiber laser. The mechanism that the thermal effects and PCT influence the performance of the laser is analyzed. Thermally-dependent reflection peaks of polarization maintaining (PM) fiber Bragg gratings are revealed to be the prime reason why temperature influences spectrum, output power, and polarization property of the laser. The PCT would also influence the performance of the laser seriously in the case of mismatched angle even with effectively overlapped spectrum. It is revealed experimentally that stable linearly polarized output can be obtained if a certain pair of aligned principal axes of PM FBGs is not only spectrally overlapped but also strictly angle matched. Further, we point out that accurate temperature control and careful angle match are essential for stable linearly polarized output and even possible power scaling further. PMID:25969091

  13. Effectiveness Factors and Conversion in a Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Godongwana, Buntu

    2016-01-01

    Analytical expressions of the effectiveness factor of a biocatalytic membrane reactor, and its asymptote as the Thiele modulus becomes large, are presented. The evaluation of the effectiveness factor is based on the solution of the governing equations for solute transport in the two regions of the reactor, i.e. the lumen and the matrix (with the biofilm immobilized in the matrix). The lumen solution accounts for both axial diffusion and radial convective flow, while the matrix solution is based on Robin-type boundary conditions. The effectiveness factor is shown to be a function of the Thiele modulus, the partition coefficient, the Sherwood number, the Peclet number, and membrane thickness. Three regions of Thiele moduli are defined in the effectiveness factor graphs. These correspond with reaction rate limited, internal-diffusion limited, and external mass transfer limited solute transport. Radial convective flows were shown to only improve the effectiveness factor in the region of internal diffusion limitation. The assumption of first order kinetics is shown to be applicable only in the Thiele modulus regions of internal and external mass transfer limitation. An iteration scheme is also presented for estimating the effectiveness factor when the solute fractional conversion is known. The model is validated with experimental data from a membrane gradostat reactor immobilised with Phanerochaete chrysosporium for the production of lignin and manganese peroxidases. The developed model and experimental data allow for the determination of the Thiele modulus at which the effectiveness factor and fractional conversion are optimal. PMID:27104954

  14. The Effect of Dust on the Martian Polar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzewich, S. D.; Toigo, A. D.; Waugh, D. W.

    2016-09-01

    We examine transient warming events of the martian north polar winter vortex in Mars Climate Sounder observations and MarsWRF general circulation model simulations caused by increased atmospheric dust opacity.

  15. Ultrasonic study of melittin effects on phospholipid model membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Colotto, A; Kharakoz, D P; Lohner, K; Laggner, P

    1993-01-01

    Low dose effects of melittin on dilute suspensions of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine multilamellar vesicles are investigated by studying the acoustic properties of the system. The temperature dependencies of sound velocity and absorption have been measured at 7.2 MHz in the temperature range of 20-55 degrees C, for different peptide/lipid molar ratios, R. The most pronounced effects were observed at R = 5 x 10(-3), in the vicinity of the pretransition, with a simultaneous increase in sound absorption and velocity. This indicates that melittin affects the polar head group region of the bilayer resulting in a decrease in mobility of the polar head groups. A nonmonotonic dependence of the main transition temperature, with an initial decrease followed by an increase as melittin is added, is interpreted as a consequence of a destabilizing action of the interfaces between mellitin-affected clusters and the unaffected phase. PMID:8312475

  16. Protective effect of sucrose on the membrane properties of Lactobacillus casei Zhang subjected to freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiping; Lu, Meijun; Guo, Hongfang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Heping

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of sucrose at 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0% as a protectant during freeze-drying on the viability and membrane properties of Lactobacillus casei Zhang. Membrane properties were determined using zeta potential, hydrophobicity, fluidity, and integrity before and after freeze-drying. Exposing L. casei Zhang to sucrose protected it from drastic changes in cell surface electrophoretic mobility and hydrophobicity in contrast with the untreated condition, and the effect was dose related. Sucrose caused an increase in membrane fluidity compared with the control sample. Moreover, 2.0% sucrose decreased the general polarization values less than 4.0 or 8.0% sucrose, while 4.0% sucrose and 8.0% sucrose had no significant difference in decreasing general polarization values (P < 0.05). L. casei Zhang freeze-dried in the presence of 2.0% sucrose retained up to 23.7% membrane integrity, whereas cells freeze-dried with 4.0 and 8.0% sucrose had 32.4 and 37.6% membrane integrity compared with that of L. casei Zhang before freeze-drying. Correspondingly, the number of survivors of L. casei Zhang, determined by the plate count method, decreased from 8.02 to 0.63 log CFU/ml after freeze-drying in the absence of sucrose. However, in the presence of 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0% sucrose, the numbers of survivors were 2.01, 2.87, and 3.20 log CFU/ml after freeze-drying, respectively. The present work suggested that sucrose was an effective membrane protectant at 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0% on the surface zeta potential, hydrophobicity, fluidity, and integrity of L. casei Zhang.

  17. Protective effect of sucrose on the membrane properties of Lactobacillus casei Zhang subjected to freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiping; Lu, Meijun; Guo, Hongfang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Heping

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of sucrose at 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0% as a protectant during freeze-drying on the viability and membrane properties of Lactobacillus casei Zhang. Membrane properties were determined using zeta potential, hydrophobicity, fluidity, and integrity before and after freeze-drying. Exposing L. casei Zhang to sucrose protected it from drastic changes in cell surface electrophoretic mobility and hydrophobicity in contrast with the untreated condition, and the effect was dose related. Sucrose caused an increase in membrane fluidity compared with the control sample. Moreover, 2.0% sucrose decreased the general polarization values less than 4.0 or 8.0% sucrose, while 4.0% sucrose and 8.0% sucrose had no significant difference in decreasing general polarization values (P < 0.05). L. casei Zhang freeze-dried in the presence of 2.0% sucrose retained up to 23.7% membrane integrity, whereas cells freeze-dried with 4.0 and 8.0% sucrose had 32.4 and 37.6% membrane integrity compared with that of L. casei Zhang before freeze-drying. Correspondingly, the number of survivors of L. casei Zhang, determined by the plate count method, decreased from 8.02 to 0.63 log CFU/ml after freeze-drying in the absence of sucrose. However, in the presence of 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0% sucrose, the numbers of survivors were 2.01, 2.87, and 3.20 log CFU/ml after freeze-drying, respectively. The present work suggested that sucrose was an effective membrane protectant at 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0% on the surface zeta potential, hydrophobicity, fluidity, and integrity of L. casei Zhang. PMID:20377961

  18. Cross-polarized wave generation by effective cubic nonlinear optical interaction.

    PubMed

    Petrov, G I; Albert, O; Etchepare, J; Saltiel, S M

    2001-03-15

    A new cubic nonlinear optical effect in which a linearly polarized wave propagating in a single quadratic medium is converted into a wave that is cross polarized to the input wave is observed in BBO crystal. The effect is explained by cascading of two different second-order processes: second-harmonic generation and difference frequency mixing.

  19. Enabling the Intestinal Absorption of Highly Polar Anti-Viral Agents: Ion-Pair Facilitated Membrane Permeation of Zanamivir Heptyl Ester and Guanidino Oseltamivir

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jonathan M.; Dahan, Arik; Gupta, Deepak; Varghese, Sheeba; Amidon, Gordon L.

    2012-01-01

    Anti-viral drugs often suffer from poor intestinal permeability, preventing their delivery via the oral route. The goal of this work was to enhance the intestinal absorption of the low-permeability anti-viral agents zanamivr heptyl ester (ZHE) and guanidino oseltamivir (GO) utilizing an ion-pairing approach, as a critical step toward making them oral drugs. The counterion 1-hydroxy-2-napthoic acid (HNAP) was utilized to enhance the lipophilicity and permeability of the highly polar drugs. HNAP substantially increased the log P of the drugs by up to 3.7 log units. Binding constants (K11aq) of 388 M−1 for ZHE-HNAP and 2.91 M−1 for GO.-HNAP were obtained by applying a quasi-equilibrium transport model to double-reciprocal plots of apparent octanol-buffer distribution coefficients versus HNAP concentration. HNAP enhanced the apparent permeability (Papp) of both compounds across Caco-2 cell monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner, as substantial Papp (0.8 – 3.0 × 10−6 cm/s) was observed in the presence of 6–24 mM HNAP, whereas no detectable transport was observed without counterion. Consistent with a quasi-equilibrium transport model, a linear relationship with slope near 1 was obtained from a log-log plot of Caco-2 Papp versus HNAP concentration, supporting the ion-pair mechanism behind the permeability enhancement. In the rat jejunal perfusion assay, the addition of HNAP failed to increase the effective permeability (Peff) of GO. However, the rat jejunal permeability of ZHE was significantly enhanced by the addition of HNAP in a concentration-dependent manner, from essentially zero without HNAP to 4.0 × 10−5 cm/s with 10 mM HNAP, matching the Peff of the high-permeability standard metoprolol. The success of ZHE-HNAP was explained by its >100-fold stronger K11aq versus GO-HNAP, making ZHE-HNAP less prone to dissociation and ion-exchange with competing endogenous anions and able to remain intact during membrane permeation. Overall, this work

  20. [The Effect of Observation Geometry on Polarized Skylight Spectrum].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ren-bin; Wang, Ling-mei; Gao, Jun; Wang, Chi

    2015-03-01

    Study on polarized skylight spectral characters while observation geometry changing in different solar zenith angles (SZA), viewing zenith angles (VZA) or relative azimuth angles (RAA). Simulation calculation of cloudless daylight polarimetric spectrum is realized based on the solver, vector discrete ordinate method, of radiative transfer equation. In the Sun's principal and perpendicular plane, the spectral irradiance data, varying at wavelengths in the range between 0.4 and 3 μm, are calculated to extend the atmospheric polarization spectral information under the conditions: the MODTRAN solar reference spectrur is the only illuminant source; the main influencing factors of polarized radiative transfer include underlying surface albedo, aerosol layers and components, and the absorption of trace gases. Simulation analysis results: (1) While the relative azimuth angle is zero, the magnitude of spectrum U/I is lower than 10(-7) and V/I is negligible, the degree of polarization and the spectrum Q/I are shaped like the letter V or mirror-writing U. (2) In twilight, when the Sun is not in FOV of the detector, the polarization of the daytime sky has two maximum near 0.51 and 2.75 μm, and a minimum near 1.5 μm. For arbitrary observation geometry, the spectral signal of V/I may be ignored. According to observation geometry, choosing different spectral bands or polarized signal will be propitious to targets detection. PMID:26117882

  1. Effects of Atmospheric Dust on Residual South Polar Cap Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonrv, B. P.; Bjorkman, J. E.; Hansen, G. B.; James, P. B.; Wolff, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    The Martian polar caps have been studied from the time of Herschel. Neither polar cap normally disappears in summer. The Residual North Polar Cap (portion that remains through summer) is composed of a mixture of water ice and dust, and its interannual stability is due to its low sublimation rate at the summer temperatures in the North Polar Region. The Residual South Polar Cap (RSPC) is more enigmatic, surviving the relatively hot perihelic summer season despite being composed of much more volatile CO2. It is able to do so because of its unusually high albedo, which is larger than that of other bright regions in the seasonal cap (e.g. Mountains of Mitchel). The proximity of the albedo of the RSPC to the critical albedo for stability raises the question of whether the RSPC exists in every Martian year. The ground based record is somewhat ambivalent. Douglass and Lowell reported that RSPC suddenly vanished at Ls=297deg in 1894 and did not reappear until Ls=0deg [1], and Kuiper reported that it disappeared in 1956 [2]; but both observations were questioned by contemporaries, who tended to attribute them to obscuring dust. Barker [3] reported a large amount of water vapor over the south polar cap in 1969 that could be attributed to exposure of near surface water ice during partial removal of the CO2 in the RSPC in 1969.

  2. Scanning force microscopy study of phase segregation in fuel cell membrane materials as a function of solvent polarity and relative humidity

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, Marilyn Emily; Kim, Yu S; Hjelm, Rex P

    2010-01-01

    Scanning force microscopy (SFM) phase imaging provides a powerful method for directly studying and comparing phase segregation in fuel cell membrane materials due to different preparation and under different temperature and hwnidity exposures. In this work, we explored two parameters that can influence phase segregation: the properties of the solvents used in casting membrane films and how these solvents alter phase segregation after exposure to boiling water as a function of time. SFM was used under ambient conditions to image phase segregation in Nafion samples prepared using five different solvents. Samples were then subjected to water vapor maintained at 100C for periods ranging from 30 minutes to three hours and re-imaged using the same phase imaging conditions. SFM shows what appears to be an increase in phase segregation as a function of solvent polarity that changes as a function of water exposure.

  3. Water-quality data from semipermeable-membrane devices and polar organic chemical integrative samplers deployed in the McKenzie River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Alvarez, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Two types of passive samplers—the semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) and the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS)—are being used to collect data from the McKenzie River, Oregon. The McKenzie River is the source of drinking water for the City of Eugene, Oregon, and passive-sampler data are part of an ongoing monitoring effort designed to help understand and protect the drinking water source. Data from the passive samplers are reported here. This data report is dynamic and will be appended with additional data as they become available.

  4. Correlation of [RuCl3(dppb)(VPy)] cytotoxicity with its effects on the cell membranes: an investigation using Langmuir monolayers as membrane models.

    PubMed

    Sandrino, B; Tominaga, T T; Nobre, T M; Scorsin, L; Wrobel, E C; Fiorin, B C; de Araujo, M P; Caseli, L; Oliveira, O N; Wohnrath, K

    2014-09-11

    One of the major challenges in drug design is to identify compounds with potential toxicity toward target cells, preferably with molecular-level understanding of their mode of action. In this study, the antitumor property of a ruthenium complex, mer-[RuCl3(dppb)(VPy)] (dppb = 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphine)butane and VPy = 4-vinylpyridine) (RuVPy), was analyzed. Results showed that this compound led to a mortality rate of 50% of HEp-2 cell with 120 ± 10 μmol L(-1), indicating its high toxicity. Then, to prove if its mode of action is associated with its interaction with cell membranes, Langmuir monolayers were used as a membrane model. RuVPy had a strong effect on the surface pressure isotherms, especially on the elastic properties of both the zwitterionic dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and the negatively charged dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) phospholipids. These data were confirmed by polarization-modulated infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). In addition, interactions between the positive group from RuVPy and the phosphate group from the phospholipids were corroborated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, allowing the determination of the Ru complex orientation at the air-water interface. Although possible contributions from receptors or other cell components cannot be discarded, the results reported here represent evidence for significant effects on the cell membranes which are probably associated with the high toxicity of RuVPy.

  5. The photoelectric effect from CsI by polarized soft X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Ping S.; Church, Eric D.; Hanany, Shaul; Liu, Yee; Fleischman, Judith; Kaaret, Philip; Novick, Robert; Manzo, Giuseppe

    1991-01-01

    Studies of the polarization dependence of the photoelectric effect produced by soft X-rays from CsI indicate that the geometrical effects in these experiments can often mimic the polarization signature. This paper presents a detailed calculation of these geometrical effects that are produced when the X-ray beam is not precisely aligned on a rotatable plane photocathode. The experimentally observed geometrical effects were used to precisely determine the realignment of the incident beam of polarized X-rays on a rotatable photocathode. The results allow determinations of the true polarization dependence of the photoemission from CsI. It is shown that the photoelectric effect in CsI depends on the polarization state of the X-rays.

  6. Toxic effects of the fungicide benomyl on cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, M; Benites, M; Norris, B; Sotomayor, P

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the toxicity of the fungicide benomyl towards cell membranes. Approaches to this aim were the study of its acute effects on the stimulatory response of a frog neuroepithelial synapse and on membrane models. The latter consisted of large unilamellar vesicles of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and phospholipid multilayers built-up of DMPC and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE). Results showed that benomyl at concentrations as low as 10 microM decreased the stimulatory response of the potential difference (PD) and the short-circuit current (SCC) of the frog sympathetic junction. It is concluded that benomyl caused a dose-dependent reduction in the response of a sympathetic junction of the frog to stimulation leading to Cl(-) channel perturbation. This finding might be explained from those obtained from fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies on membrane models. In fact, similar (0.01-1.0 mM) concentrations induced structural perturbations in DMPC large unilamellar vesicles and multilayers, respectively. Although it is still premature to define the precise molecular mechanism of benomyl toxicity, the experimental results confirm the important role played by the phospholipid bilayers in the interaction of the pesticide with cell membranes. PMID:11790335

  7. Differential membrane effects of general and local anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Diamond, B I; Havdala, H S; Sabelli, H C

    1975-12-01

    The authors studied the effects of varying Na+ and Ca++ concentrations and of replacing H2O with D2O in Ringer's solution upon the actions of general and local anesthetics on isolated frog sciatic nerves. This experimental model was used to study whether general anesthetics affect excitable membranes in a manner similar to that of typical membrane stabilizers (local anesthetics). Procaine (2.5-7.5 mM), halothane (9, 18, and 36 mM), enflurane (8 mM), and ketamine (0.15 and 0.73 mM) raised threshold and lowered spike amplitude, and their effects were facilitated by reducing Na+ concentration in the Ringer's solution. The local anesthetic effects of procaine (2.5-7.5 mM) and ketamine (0.73 mM) were antagonized by Ca++, while the axonal depressant effect of halothane was facilitated by increasing Ca++ concentration in the Ringer's solution, indicating a different mode of action. General anesthetics also differed from local anesthetics in their interaction with water: replacement by D2O of H2O in the Ringer's solution selectively increased the axonal depressant effects of halothane and enflurane but not those of ketamine or procaine. Since D2O differs from H2O in its greater ice-likeness, these results are consistent with the view that general anesthetics stabilize excitable membranes via stabilization of the water-biopolymer lattice, as predicted by the hydrate-microcrystal theory of anesthesia. In contrast, local anesthetics may stabilize excitable tissues by binding to the same fixed negative charges of the membrane to which Ca++ is normally bound. (Key words: Theories of anesthesia, hydrate-microcrystal; Nerve, mode of action of anesthetics; Anesthetics, volatile, halothane; Anesthetics, volatile, enflurane; Anesthetics, local, procaine; Anesthetics, intravenous, ketamine.)

  8. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.

    1986-01-01

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  9. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1986-08-26

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  10. Effect of Lanthanide Ions on Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhancement and Liquid State T1 Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Jeremy; Fain, Sean B.; Rowland, Ian J

    2012-01-01

    In the dynamic nuclear polarization process, microwave irradiation facilitates exchange of polarization from a radical’s unpaired electron to nuclear spins at cryogenic temperatures, increasing polarization by >10000. Doping samples with Gd3+ ions further increases the achievable solid-state polarization. However, upon dissolution, paramagnetic lanthanide metals can be potent relaxation agents, decreasing liquid-state polarization. Here, the effects of lanthanide metals on the solid and liquid-state magnetic properties of [1-13C]pyruvate are studied. The results show that in addition to gadolinium, holmium not only increases the achievable polarization but also the rate of polarization. Liquid-state relaxation studies found that unlike gadolinium, holmium minimally affects T1. Additionally, results reveal that linear contrast agents dissociate in pyruvic acid, greatly reducing liquid-state T1. While macrocyclic agents do not readily dissociate, they yield lower solid-state polarization. Results indicate that polarization with free lanthanides and subsequent chelation during dissolution produces the highest polarization enhancement while minimizing liquid-state relaxation. PMID:22367680

  11. Effective field theory of dark matter from membrane inflationary paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Sayantan; Dasgupta, Arnab

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we have studied the cosmological and particle physics constraints on dark matter relic abundance from effective field theory of inflation from tensor-to-scalar ratio (r), in case of Randall-Sundrum single membrane (RSII) paradigm. Using semi-analytical approach we establish a direct connection between the dark matter relic abundance (ΩDMh2) and primordial gravity waves (r), which establishes a precise connection between inflation and generation of dark matter within the framework of effective field theory in RSII membrane. Further assuming the UV completeness of the effective field theory perfectly holds good in the prescribed framework, we have explicitly shown that the membrane tension, σ ≤ O(10-9) Mp4, bulk mass scale M5 ≤ O(0.04 - 0.05) Mp, and cosmological constant Λ˜5 ≥ - O(10-15) Mp5, in RSII membrane plays the most significant role to establish the connection between dark matter and inflation, using which we have studied the features of various mediator mass scale suppressed effective field theory "relevant operators" induced from the localized s, t and u channel interactions in RSII membrane. Taking a completely model independent approach, we have studied an exhaustive list of tree-level Feynman diagrams for dark matter annihilation within the prescribed setup and to check the consistency of the obtained results, further we apply the constraints as obtained from recently observed Planck 2015 data and Planck + BICEP2 + Keck Array joint data sets. Using all of these derived results we have shown that to satisfy the bound on, ΩDMh2 = 0.1199 ± 0.0027, as from Planck 2015 data, it is possible to put further stringent constraint on r within, 0.01 ≤ r ≤ 0.12, for thermally averaged annihilation cross-section of dark matter, < σv > ≈ O(10-28 - 10-27) cm3 / s, which are very useful to constrain various membrane inflationary models.

  12. Effect of Trehalose on a Phospholipid Membrane under Mechanical Stress

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Cristina S.; Hünenberger, Philippe H.

    2008-01-01

    Explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate at atomic resolution the effect of trehalose on a hydrated phospholipid bilayer under mechanical stress (stretching forces imposed in the form of negative lateral pressure). Simulations were performed in the absence or presence of trehalose at 325 K, and with different values for negative lateral pressure. In the concentration regime (2 molal) and range of lateral pressures (1 to −250 bar) investigated, trehalose was found to interact directly with the membrane, partially replacing water molecules in the formation of hydrogen bonds with the lipid headgroups. Similar to previous findings in the context of thermal stress, the number, degree of bridging, and reaching depth of these hydrogen bonds increased with the magnitude of perturbation. However, at the concentration considered, trehalose was not sufficient to preserve the integrity of the membrane structure and to prevent its extreme elongation (and possible disruption) under the effect of stretching forces. PMID:18599628

  13. Acyl chain length and charge effect on Tamoxifen-lipid model membrane interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilge, Duygu; Kazanci, Nadide; Severcan, Feride

    2013-05-01

    Tamoxifen (TAM), which is an antiestrogenic agent, is widely used during chemotherapy of breast, pancreas, brain and liver cancers. In this study, TAM and model membrane interactions in the form of multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) were studied for lipids containing different acyl chain length and different charge status as a function of different TAM (1, 6, 9 and 15 mol%) concentrations. Zwitterionic lipids namely dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) lipids were used to see the acyl chain length effect and anionic dipalmitoyl phosphtidylglycerol (DPPG) lipid was used to see the charge effect. For this purpose Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) techniques have been conducted. For zwitterionic lipid, concentration dependent different action of TAM was observed both in the gel and liquid crystalline phases by significantly increasing the lipid order and decreasing the dynamics for 1 mol% TAM, while decreasing the lipid order and increasing the dynamics of the lipids for higher concentrations (6, 9 and 15 mol%). However, different than neutral lipids, the dynamics and disorder of DPPG liposome increased for all TAM concentrations. The interactions between TAM and head group of multilamellar liposomes was monitored by analyzing the Cdbnd O stretching and PO2- antisymmetric double bond stretching bands. Increasing Tamoxifen concentrations led to a dehydration around these functional groups in the polar part of the lipids. DSC studies showed that for all types of lipids, TAM eliminates the pre-transition, shifts the main phase transition to lower temperatures and broadened the phase transition curve. The results indicate that not the acyl chain length but the charge status of the polar head group induces different effects on lipid membranes order and dynamics.

  14. Effects of Frequency-Dependent Membrane Capacitance on Neural Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Grill, Warren M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Models of excitable cells consider the membrane specific capacitance as a ubiquitous and constant parameter. However, experimental measurements show that the membrane capacitance declines with increasing frequency, i.e., exhibits dispersion. We quantified the effects of frequency-dependent membrane capacitance, c(f), on the excitability of cells and nerve fibers across the frequency range from dc to hundreds of kilohertz. Approach We implemented a model of c(f) using linear circuit elements, and incorporated it into several models of neurons with different channel kinetics: the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model of an unmyelinated axon, the McIntyre-Richardson-Grill (MRG) of a mammalian myelinated axon, and a model of a cortical neuron from prefrontal cortex. We calculated thresholds for excitation and kHz frequency conduction block, the conduction velocity, recovery cycle, strength-distance relationship and firing rate. Main results The impact of c(f) on activation thresholds depended on the stimulation waveform and channel kinetics. We observed no effect using rectangular pulse stimulation, and a reduction for frequencies of 10 kHz and above using sinusoidal signals only for the MRG model. c(f) had minimal impact on the recovery cycle and the strength-distance relationship, whereas the conduction velocity increased by up to 7.9% and 1.7% for myelinated and unmyelinated fibers, respectively. Block thresholds declined moderately when incorporating c(f), the effect was greater at higher frequencies, and the maximum reduction was 11.5%. Finally, c(f) marginally altered the firing pattern of a model of a prefrontal cortex cell, reducing the median interspike interval by less than 2%. Significance This is the first comprehensive analysis of the effects of dispersive capacitance on neural excitability, and as the interest on stimulation with kHz signals gains more attention, it defines the regions over which frequency-dependent membrane capacitance, c(f), should be

  15. Effects of photooxidation on membrane integrity in Salix nigra seeds

    PubMed Central

    Roqueiro, Gonzalo; Facorro, Graciela B.; Huarte, Mónica G.; Rubín de Celis, Emilio; García, Fernando; Maldonado, Sara; Maroder, Horacio

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Salix nigra seeds are desiccation-tolerant, as are orthodox seeds, although in contrast to other orthodox seeds they lose viability in a few weeks at room temperature. They also differ in that the chloroplasts of the embryo tissues conserve their chlorophyll and endomembranes. The aim of this paper was to investigate the role of chlorophyll in seed deterioration. Methods Seeds were aged at different light intensities and atmospheric conditions. Mean germination time and normal and total germination were evaluated. The formation of free radicals was assessed using electronic spin resonance spectroscopy, and changes in the fatty acid composition from phospholipids, galactolipids and triglycerides using gas–liquid chromatography. Membrane integrity was studied with electronic spin resonance spin probe techniques, electrolyte leakage and transmission electron microscopy. Key Results Light and oxygen played an important role in free-radical generation, causing a decrease in normal germination and an increase in mean germination time. Both indices were associated with a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from membrane lipids as phospholipids and galactolipids. The detection of damage in thylakoid membranes and an increase in plasmalemma permeability were consistent with the decrease in both types of lipids. Triglycerides remained unchanged. Light-induced damage began in outermost tissues and spread inwards, decreasing normal germination. Conclusions Salix nigra seeds were very susceptible to photooxidation. The thylakoid membranes appeared to be the first target of the photooxidative process since there were large decreases in galactolipids and both these lipids and the activated chlorophyll are contiguous in the structure of that membrane. Changes in normal germination and mean germination time could be explained by the deteriorative effects of oxidation. PMID:20338949

  16. Dielectric studies of the solvent polarity effect on conformational equilibrium in 3-nitroacetophenone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Małecki, Jerzy; Nowak, Jadwiga

    1991-08-01

    The conformational equilibria in 3-nitroacetophenone have been studied as a function of solvent polarity and temperature. The dipole moment and non-linear dielectric effect methods have been applied. The measurements were performed in four solvents of different polarity within the temperature range 288-323 K. The dipole moment of the synperiplanar conformer and changes in the free enthalpy, enthalpy and entropy of the assumed antiperiplanar—synperiplanar equilibrium have been determined from the experimental data. The results reveal an enhanced stability of the polar, synperiplanar conformer in more polar solutions.

  17. Effects of slow clinorotation on lipid contents and proton permeability of thylakoid membranes of pea chloroplasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhaylenko, N. F.; Sytnik, S. K.; Zolotareva, E. K.

    Photochemical characteristics and lipid composition of thylakoid membranes from 12 day-old pea leaves that were exposed to slow clino-rotation were examined and compared with a vertical control. Proton permeability of thylakoid membranes was estimated from light-induced proton uptake (ΔH+) and post-illumination proton efflux in chloroplast suspensions. The ΔpH magnitude was calculated from the level of light-induced quenching of 9-aminoacridine fluorescence. Proton permeability of thylakoid membranes increased during exposure to clino-rotation. When subsequently transferred to darkness, proton efflux increased almost 2-fold in clinorotated leaves. The results were compared with data on pigment and polar lipid composition of photosynthetic membranes in clino-rotated and control plants. It was concluded that both the increase of proton permeability and the decrease of polar lipid content in chloroplasts were induced by clino-rotation.

  18. IMF polarity effects on the equatorial ionospheric F-region

    SciTech Connect

    Sastri, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    An exploratory study is made of the influence, during the equinoxes, of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) sector structure on the ionospheric F-region using ionosonde data from several equatorial stations for a 3-yr period around the 19th sunspot cycle maximum. It is found that, compared with days having positive IMF polarity, the post-sunset increase of h'F near the dip equator and the depth of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) are reduced during the vernal equinox and enhanced during the autumnal equinox on days with negative IMF polarity. Similar trends are also noted in the data for the 20th sunspot cycle maximum, but with reduced amplitude. The systematic changes in the F-region characteristics suggest a modification of the equatorial zonal electric fields in association with the IMF polarity-related changes in the semi-annual variation of geomagnetic activity. 24 references.

  19. Optical lattice polarization effects on hyperpolarizability of atomic clock transitions.

    PubMed

    Taichenachev, A V; Yudin, V I; Ovsiannikov, V D; Pal'chikov, V G

    2006-10-27

    The light-induced frequency shift due to hyperpolarizability (i.e., terms of second-order in intensity) is studied for a forbidden optical transition, J = 0 --> J = 0. A simple universal dependence on the field ellipticity is obtained. This result allows minimization of the second-order light shift with respect to the field polarization for optical lattices operating at a magic wavelength (at which the first-order shift vanishes). We show the possibility for the existence of a magic elliptical polarization, for which the second-order frequency shift vanishes. The optimal polarization of the lattice field can be either linear, circular, or magic elliptical. The obtained results could improve the accuracy of lattice-based atomic clocks.

  20. Effects of Si-doping on structural, electrical, and optical properties of polar and non-polar AlGaN epi-layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongquan; Zhang, Xiong; Wang, Shuchang; Wang, Yi; Luan, Huakai; Dai, Qian; Wu, Zili; Zhao, Jianguo; Cui, Yiping

    2016-08-01

    The polar (0001)-oriented c-plane and non-polar (11 2 bar 0) -oriented a-plane wurtzite AlGaN epi-layers were successfully grown on polar (0001)-oriented c-plane and semi-polar (1 1 bar 02) -oriented r-plane sapphire substrates, respectively with various Si-doping levels in a low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. The morphological, structural, electrical, and optical properties of the polar and non-polar AlGaN epi-layers were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Hall effect, and Raman spectroscopy. The characterization results show that Si dopants incorporated into the polar and non-polar AlGaN films induced a relaxation of compressive residual strain and a generation of biaxial tensile strain on the surface in consequence of the dislocation climbing. In particular, it was found that the Si-induced compressive strain relaxation in the non-polar AlGaN samples can be promoted by the structural anisotropy as compared with the polar counterparts. The gradually increased relaxation of compressive residual strain in both polar and non-polar AlGaN samples with increasing Si-doping level was attributed to the Si-induced enhancement in the opportunity for the dislocations to interact and annihilate. This implies that the crystal quality for both polar and non-polar AlGaN epi-layers can be remarkably improved by Si-doping.

  1. Effect of solid retention time on membrane fouling in membrane bioreactor: from the perspective of quorum sensing and quorum quenching.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huarong; Xu, Guoren; Qu, Fangshu; Li, Guibai; Liang, Heng

    2016-09-01

    Solid retention time (SRT) is one of the most important operational parameters in membrane bioreactor (MBR), which significantly influences membrane fouling. It is widely recognized that SRT mainly changes biomass characteristics, and then, influences membrane fouling. Effect of SRT on quorum sensing (QS) in MBR, which could also influence fouling by coordinating biofilm formation, has not been reported. In this study, fouling, QS, soluble microbial products (SMP), and extracellular polymer substances (EPS) in MBRs operated under SRTs of 4, 10, and 40 days were investigated. The results showed that as SRT increased, the abundance of quorum quenching (QQ) bacteria increased, the quorum signal degradation activity of activated sludge increased, the concentrations of signal molecules in MBR decreased, the excretion of SMP and EPS decreased, and thus membrane biofouling was alleviated. Therefore, besides altering the biomass physiochemical properties, SRT also changed the balance between QS and QQ in MBR, and in this way, influenced membrane biofouling.

  2. Effects of Content Polarization, Item Wording, and Rating Scale Width on Rating Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Tony C. M.; Stevens, Joseph J.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of the following three variables on rating scale response were studied: (1) polarization of opinion regarding scale content; (2) intensity of item wording; and (3) psychological width of the scale. Results with 167 college students suggest best ways to balance polarization and item wording regardless of scale width. (SLD)

  3. Finite-Size and Confinement Effects in Spin-Polarized Trapped Fermi Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, Mark; Braun, Jens; Schwenk, Achim

    2009-06-26

    We calculate the energy of a single fermion interacting resonantly with a Fermi sea of different-species fermions in anisotropic traps, and show that finite particle numbers and the trap geometry impact the phase structure and the critical polarization. Our findings contribute to understanding some experimental discrepancies in spin-polarized Fermi gases as finite-size and confinement effects.

  4. Study of the effect of scattering from turbid water on the polarization of a laser beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, R. G.; Hovanlou, A. H.

    1978-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation method was used to determine the effect of scattering from turbid water on the polarization of a backscattered beam of laser light. The relationship between the polarization and the type and amount of suspended particulates in the water was investigated.

  5. Polarization Effects of GaN and AlGaN: Polarization Bound Charge, Band Bending, and Electronic Surface States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eller, Brianna S.; Yang, Jialing; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2014-12-01

    GaN-based devices are currently limited by reliability issues such as gate leakage and current collapse, where the mechanisms responsible for degradation are closely related to the electronic surface state configuration. Therefore, understanding the electronic surface state configuration of GaN-based materials will help improve device performance. Since GaN has an inherent polarization, these materials are also subject to a bound polarization charge, which influences the electronic state configuration. In this study, the surface band bending of N-face GaN, Ga-face GaN, and Ga-face AlGaN was measured with x-ray photoemission spectroscopy after various cleaning steps to investigate the effects of the polarization. Despite the different surface bound charge on these materials, similar band bending was observed regardless of the magnitude or direction of the charge. Specifically, the band bending varied from -0.1 eV to 0.9 eV on these samples, which supported the models of a Fermi level pinning state at ˜0.4 eV to 0.8 eV below the conduction band. Based on available literature, we suggest this pinning state is indirectly evident of a nitrogen vacancy or gallium-dangling bond.

  6. Osmotic pressure effect on membrane fouling in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor and its experimental verification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianrong; Zhang, Meijia; Wang, Aijun; Lin, Hongjun; Hong, Huachang; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2012-12-01

    A laboratory-scale submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR) treating sewage was used to investigate the membrane fouling mechanism. Characterization of cake layer formed on membrane surface showed that cake layer was hydrated, rich of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and negative charged with the charge density of 0.21-0.46 meq/kg MLSS. Detailed analysis revealed a new membrane fouling mechanism, osmotic pressure during cake layer filtration process due to the interception of ions. An osmotic pressure model was then developed to elaborate the existence of osmotic pressure and to estimate the contribution of osmotic pressure to membrane fouling. The calculated results showed that osmotic pressure accounted for the largest fraction of total operation pressure, indicating that osmotic pressure generated by the retained ions was one of the major mechanisms responsible for membrane fouling problem in MBRs. These findings provided a new insight into membrane fouling in MBRs. PMID:23026319

  7. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on lipid bilayer membranes. I. Influence on membrane thickness and activation volumes of lipophilic ion transport.

    PubMed

    Benz, R; Conti, F

    1986-07-01

    Measurements of membrane capacitance, Cm, were performed on lipid bilayers of different lipidic composition (diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine PPhPC, dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine DOPE, glycerylmonooleate GMO) and containing n-decane as solvent. In the same membranes, the absorption of the lipophilic ions dipicrylamine (DPA-) and tetraphenylborate (TPhB-), and the kinetics of their translocation between the two membrane faces have been studied. The data were obtained from charge pulse relaxation measurements. Upon increasing pressure the specific capacity Cm increased in a fully reversible and reproducible way reflecting a thinning of the membrane that is attributed to extrusion of n-decane from the black membrane area. High pressure decreased the rate constant, ki, for lipophilic ion translocation. After correcting for changes in the height of the energy barrier for translocation due to membrane thinning the pressure dependence of ki yields an apparent activation volume for translocation of approximately 14 cm3/mol both for DPA- and TPhB-. Changes in lipophilic ion absorption following a step of pressure developed with a rather slow time course due to diffusion limitations in solution. The stationary concentration of membrane absorbed lipophilic ions increased with pressure according to an apparent volume of absorption of about -10 cm3/mol. The relevance of the results for the interpretation of the effects of pressure on nerve membrane physiology is discussed.

  8. Effect of choline carboxylate ionic liquids on biological membranes

    PubMed Central

    Rengstl, Doris; Kraus, Birgit; Van Vorst, Matthew; Elliott, Gloria D.; Kunz, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Choline carboxylates, ChCm, with m = 2–10 and choline oleate are known as biocompatible substances, yet their influence on biological membranes is not well-known, and the effect on human skin has not previously been investigated. The short chain choline carboxylates ChCm with m = 2, 4, 6 act as hydrotropes, solubilizing hydrophobic compounds in aqueous solution, while the longer chain choline carboxylates ChCm with m = 8,10 and oleate are able to form micelles. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of choline carboxylates was tested using HeLa and SK-MEL-28 cells. The influence of these substances on liposomes prepared from dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) was also evaluated to provide insights on membrane interactions. It was observed that the choline carboxylates with a chain length of m > 8 distinctly influence the bilayer, while the shorter ones had minimal interaction with the liposomes. PMID:25444662

  9. Effects of ascorbate fatty ester derivatives on erythrocyte membrane lipoperoxidation.

    PubMed

    Spengler, M I; Rasia, M; Palma, S; Allemandi, D

    2011-01-01

    6-O-alkyl ascorbic acid esters (ASC(n)) are amphiphilic molecules that behave as surfactants in aqueous solution. ASC(n) have shown some physical and rheological properties that suggest a potential utility as drug carriers. The present paper aims to evaluate the effect of ASC(n) on erythrocyte properties in order to get information regarding the relationship between osmotic fragility, erythrocyte deformability and membrane lipoperoxidation process. The assays were performed at the following concentrations: the critical micelar concentration (CMC), producing 10% hemolysis (CH(10)) and producing 50% hemolysis (CH(50)). We observed that ASC(n) (ASC(8), ASC(10) and ASC(12)), at concentration nearby CMC, neither affected cell deformability nor produced lipoperoxidation. Nevertheless, at higher concentrations (CH(10) and CH(50)), the RBCs incubated with ASC(n) were affected by a significant and progressive loss of deformability, simultaneously with an increase of osmotic fragility and membrane lipoperoxidation.

  10. Modeling Solar Zenith Angle Effects on the Polar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glocer, A; Kitamura, N.; Toth, G; Gombosi, T.

    2012-01-01

    We use the Polar Wind Outflow Model (PWOM) to study the geomagnetically quiet conditions in the polar cap during solar maximum. The PWOM solves the gyrotropic transport equations for O+, H+, and He+ along several magnetic field lines in the polar region in order to reconstruct the full 3D solution. We directly compare our simulation results to the data based empirical model of Kitamura et al. (2011) of electron density which is based on 63 months of Akebono satellite observations. The modeled ion and electron temperatures are also compared with a statistical compilation of quiet time data obtained by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) and Intercosmos Satellites. The data and model agree reasonably well, albeit with some differences. This study shows that photoelectrons play an important role in explaining the differences between sunlit and dark results of electron density, ion composition, as well as ion and electron temperatures of the quiet time polar wind solution. Moreover, these results provide an initial validation of the PWOM s ability to model the quiet time "background" solution.

  11. Analysis of detergent-resistant membranes of Helicobacter pylori infected gastric adenocarcinoma cells reveals a role for MARK2/Par1b in CagA-mediated disruption of cellular polarity.

    PubMed

    Zeaiter, Zaher; Cohen, David; Müsch, Anne; Bagnoli, Fabio; Covacci, Antonello; Stein, Markus

    2008-03-01

    Detergent-resistant membranes of eukaryotic cells are enriched in many important cellular signalling molecules and frequently targeted by bacterial pathogens. To learn more about pathogenic mechanisms of Helicobacter pylori and to elucidate novel effects on host epithelial cells, we investigated how bacterial co-cultivation changes the protein composition of detergent-resistant membranes of gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) tissue culture cells. Using iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) analysis we identified several cellular proteins, which are potentially related to H. pylori virulence. One of the proteins, which showed a significant infection-dependent increase in detergent resistance, was the polarity-associated serine/threonine kinase MARK2 (EMK1/Par-1b). We demonstrate that H. pylori causes the recruitment of MARK2 from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, where it colocalizes with the bacteria and interacts with CagA. Using Mardin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) monolayers and a three-dimensional MDCK tissue culture model we showed that association of CagA with MARK2 not only causes disruption of apical junctions, but also inhibition of tubulogenesis and cell differentiation. PMID:18005242

  12. Effect of the spiral phase element on the radial-polarization (0, 1) ∗ LG beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machavariani, G.; Lumer, Y.; Moshe, I.; Jackel, S.

    2007-03-01

    Radially-polarized beams can be strongly amplified without significant birefringent-induced aberrations. However, radially-polarized beam is a high-order beam, and therefore has to be transformed into a fundamental Gaussian beam for reduction the beam-propagation factor M2. In effort to transform the radially-polarized beam to a nearly-Gaussian beam, we consider effect of a spiral phase element (SPE) on the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) (0, 1)∗ beam with radial polarization, and compare this with the case when the input beam is a LG (0, 1)∗ beam with spiral phase and uniform or random polarization. The LG (0, 1)∗ beam with radial polarization, despite its identity in intensity profile to the beam with spiral phase, has distinctly different properties when interacting with the SPE. With the SPE and spatial filter, we transformed the radially-polarized (0, 1)∗ mode with M2 = 2.8 to a nearly-Gaussian beam with M2 = 1.7. Measured transformation efficiency was 50%, and the beam brightness P/(M2)2 was practically unchanged. The SPE affects polarization state of the radially-polarized beam, leading to appearance of spin angular momentum in the beam center at the far-field.

  13. The effect of polarity and surface states on the Fermi level at III-nitride surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, P; Bryan, I; Bryan, Z; Guo, W; Hussey, L; Collazo, R; Sitar, Z

    2014-09-28

    Surface states and their influence on the Fermi level at the surface of GaN and AlN are studied using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effect of polarity on surface electronic properties was studied. Accurate modeling of the valence band edge and comparison with XPS data revealed the presence of donor surface states at 1.4 eV and acceptor states at energies > 2.7 eV from the valence band in GaN. Al polar AlN showed acceptor states at energies > 3.3 eV. Density of acceptor surface states was estimated to be between 10(13) and 10(14) eV(-1) cm(-2) in both GaN and AlN. The shift in charge neutrality levels and barrier heights due to polarity and the density of surface states on AlN and GaN were estimated from XPS measurements. Theoretical modeling and comparison with XPS data implied full compensation of spontaneous polarization charge by charged surface states. Barrier height measurements also reveal a dependence on polarity with phi(metal-polar)>phi(non-polar)>phi(nitrogen-polar) suggesting that the N-polar surface is the most suitable for Ohmic contacts. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  14. Singular observation of the polarization-conversion effect for a gammadion-shaped metasurface

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chu-En; Yen, Ta-Jen; Yu, Chih-Jen; Hsieh, Cheng-Min; Lee, Min-Han; Chen, Chii-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the polarization-conversion effects of a gammadion-shaped metasurface in transmission and reflection modes are discussed. In our experiment, the polarization-conversion effect of a gammadion-shaped metasurface is investigated because of the contribution of the phase and amplitude anisotropies. According to our experimental and simulated results, the polarization property of the first-order transmitted diffraction is dominated by linear anisotropy and has weak depolarization; the first-order reflected diffraction exhibits both linear and circular anisotropies and has stronger depolarization than the transmission mode. These results are different from previously published research. The Mueller matrix ellipsometer and polar decomposition method will aid in the investigation of the polarization properties of other nanostructures. PMID:26915332

  15. Modelization of nanospace interaction involving a ferromagnetic atom: a spin polarization effect study by thermogravimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, K S V; Chen, Xu; Gupta, S

    2014-04-01

    Ab initio studies of ferromagnetic atom interacting with carbon nanotubes have been reported in the literature that predict when the interaction is strong, a higher hybridization with confinement effect will result in spin polarization in the ferromagnetic atom. The spin polarization effect on the thermal oxidation to form its oxide is modeled here for the ferromagnetic atom and its alloy, as the above studies predict the 4s electrons are polarized in the atom. The four models developed here provide a pathway for distinguishing the type of interaction that exists in the real system. The extent of spin polarization in the ferromagnetic atom has been examined by varying the amount of carbon nanotubes in the composites in the thermogravimetric experiments. In this study we report the experimental results on the CoNi alloy which appears to show selective spin polarization. The products of the thermal oxidation has been analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. PMID:24734699

  16. Singular observation of the polarization-conversion effect for a gammadion-shaped metasurface.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chu-En; Yen, Ta-Jen; Yu, Chih-Jen; Hsieh, Cheng-Min; Lee, Min-Han; Chen, Chii-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the polarization-conversion effects of a gammadion-shaped metasurface in transmission and reflection modes are discussed. In our experiment, the polarization-conversion effect of a gammadion-shaped metasurface is investigated because of the contribution of the phase and amplitude anisotropies. According to our experimental and simulated results, the polarization property of the first-order transmitted diffraction is dominated by linear anisotropy and has weak depolarization; the first-order reflected diffraction exhibits both linear and circular anisotropies and has stronger depolarization than the transmission mode. These results are different from previously published research. The Mueller matrix ellipsometer and polar decomposition method will aid in the investigation of the polarization properties of other nanostructures. PMID:26915332

  17. Full-scale simulation of seawater reverse osmosis desalination processes for boron removal: Effect of membrane fouling.

    PubMed

    Park, Pyung-Kyu; Lee, Sangho; Cho, Jae-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to further develop previously reported mechanistic predictive model that simulates boron removal in full-scale seawater reverse osmosis (RO) desalination processes to take into account the effect of membrane fouling. Decrease of boron removal and reduction in water production rate by membrane fouling due to enhanced concentration polarization were simulated as a decrease in solute mass transfer coefficient in boundary layer on membrane surface. Various design and operating options under fouling condition were examined including single- versus double-pass configurations, different number of RO elements per vessel, use of RO membranes with enhanced boron rejection, and pH adjustment. These options were quantitatively compared by normalizing the performance of the system in terms of E(min), the minimum energy costs per product water. Simulation results suggested that most viable options to enhance boron rejection among those tested in this study include: i) minimizing fouling, ii) exchanging the existing SWRO elements to boron-specific ones, and iii) increasing pH in the second pass. The model developed in this study is expected to help design and optimization of the RO processes to achieve the target boron removal at target water recovery under realistic conditions where membrane fouling occurs during operation.

  18. Full-scale simulation of seawater reverse osmosis desalination processes for boron removal: Effect of membrane fouling.

    PubMed

    Park, Pyung-Kyu; Lee, Sangho; Cho, Jae-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to further develop previously reported mechanistic predictive model that simulates boron removal in full-scale seawater reverse osmosis (RO) desalination processes to take into account the effect of membrane fouling. Decrease of boron removal and reduction in water production rate by membrane fouling due to enhanced concentration polarization were simulated as a decrease in solute mass transfer coefficient in boundary layer on membrane surface. Various design and operating options under fouling condition were examined including single- versus double-pass configurations, different number of RO elements per vessel, use of RO membranes with enhanced boron rejection, and pH adjustment. These options were quantitatively compared by normalizing the performance of the system in terms of E(min), the minimum energy costs per product water. Simulation results suggested that most viable options to enhance boron rejection among those tested in this study include: i) minimizing fouling, ii) exchanging the existing SWRO elements to boron-specific ones, and iii) increasing pH in the second pass. The model developed in this study is expected to help design and optimization of the RO processes to achieve the target boron removal at target water recovery under realistic conditions where membrane fouling occurs during operation. PMID:22578430

  19. Pressure effects on the equilibrium configurations of bilayer lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVita, Raffaella; Stewart, Iain W.; Leo, Donald J.

    2007-10-01

    Planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) are currently employed to construct many bio-inspired material systems and structures. In order to characterize the pressure effects on the equilibrium configurations of these biological membranes, a novel continuum model is proposed. The BLM is assumed to be a two-layer smectic A liquid crystal. The mean orientation of the amphiphilic molecules comprising the membrane is postulated to be perpendicular to the layers and each layer is idealized as a two-dimensional liquid. Moreover, the BLM is modeled as a simply supported plate undergoing small deformations. It is subjected to a pressure load that acts perpendicularly to the layers. The equilibrium equations and boundary conditions are derived from the bulk elastic energy for smectic A liquid crystals as described by de Gennes and Prost (1993 The Physics of Liquid Crystals 2nd edn (Oxford Science Publications)) by using variational methods. The resulting fourth-order linear partial differential equation is solved by employing cylindrical functions and the series solution is proved to be convergent. The solution is numerically computed for values of the model parameters that are reported in the literature. This paper is dedicated to the memory of our colleagues, Professors Kevin P Granata and Liviu Librescv, who lost their lives during the sensless tragedy on 16 April, 2007 at Virginia Tech.

  20. Electrochemical control of cell and tissue polarity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fred; Minc, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Localized ion fluxes at the plasma membrane provide electrochemical gradients at the cell surface that contribute to cell polarization, migration, and division. Ion transporters, local pH gradients, membrane potential, and organization are emerging as important factors in cell polarization mechanisms. The power of electrochemical effects is illustrated by the ability of exogenous electric fields to redirect polarization in cells ranging from bacteria, fungi, and amoebas to keratocytes and neurons. Electric fields normally surround cells and tissues and thus have been proposed to guide cell polarity in development, cancer, and wound healing. Recent studies on electric field responses in model systems and development of new biosensors provide new avenues to dissect molecular mechanisms. Here, we review recent advances that bring molecular understanding of how electrochemistry contributes to cell polarity in various contexts. PMID:25062359

  1. Effects of thermal efficiency in DCMD and the preparation of membranes with low thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhehao; Peng, Yuelian; Dong, Yajun; Fan, Hongwei; Chen, Ping; Qiu, Lin; Jiang, Qi

    2014-10-01

    The effects of the membrane characteristics and operational conditions on the vapor flux and thermal efficiency in a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process were studied with a mathematical simulation. The membrane temperature, driving force of vapor transfer, membrane distillation coefficient, etc. were used to analyze the effects. The operating conditions that increased the vapor flux improved the thermal efficiency. The membrane characteristics of four microporous membranes and their performances in DCMD were compared. A polysulfone (PSf) membrane prepared via vapor-induced phase separation exhibited the lowest thermal conductivity. The PSf and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes were modified using SiO2 aerogel blending and coating to reduce the thermal conductivity of the membrane. The coating process was more effective than the blending process toward this end. The changes in the structure of the modified membrane were observed with a scanning electron microscope. Si was found on the modified membrane surface with an energy spectrometer. The PVDF composite and support membranes were tested during the DCMD process; the composite membrane had a higher vapor flux and a better thermal efficiency than the support. A new method based on a 3ω technique was used to measure the thermal conductivity of the membranes.

  2. Addition of lipid to the photosynthetic membrane: effects on membrane structure and energy transfer

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    We have carried out a series of experiments in which the lipid composition of the photosynthetic membrane has been altered by the addition of lipid from a defined source under experimental conditions. Liposomes prepared by sonication are mixed with purified photosynthetic membranes obtained from spinach chloroplasts and are taken through cycles of freezing and thawing. Several lines of evidence, including gel electrophoresis and freeze-fracture electron microscopy, indicate that an actual addition of lipid has taken place. Structural analysis by freeze-fracture shows that intramembrane particles are widely separated after the addition of large amounts of lipid, with one exception: large hexagonal lattices of particles appear in some regions of the membrane. These lattices are identical in appearance with lattices formed from a single purified component of the membrane known as chlorophyll-protein complex II. The suggestion that the presence of such lattices in lipid-enriched membranes reflects a profound rearrangement of photosynthetic structures has been confirmed by analysis of the fluorescence emission spectra of natural and lipid- enriched membranes. Specifically, lipid addition in each of the cases we have studied results in the apparent detachment of chlorophyll- protein complex II from photosynthetic reaction centers. It is concluded that specific arrangements of components in the photosynthetic membrane, necessary for the normal functioning of the membrane in the light reaction of photosynthesis, can be regulated to a large extent by the lipid content of the membrane. PMID:7298712

  3. The polarization effect of a laser in multiphoton Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Guo-Hua; Lü, Qing-Zheng; Teng, Ai-Ping; Li, Ying-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The multiphoton Compton scattering in a high-intensity laser beam is studied by using the laser-dressed quantum electrodynamics (QED) method, which is a non-perturbative theory for the interaction between a plane electromagnetic field and a charged particle. In order to analyze in the real experimental condition, a Lorentz transformation for the cross section of this process is derived between the laboratory frame and the initial rest frame of electrons. The energy of the scattered photon is analyzed, as well as the cross sections for different laser intensities and polarizations and different electron velocities. The angular distribution of the emitted photon is investigated in a special velocity of the electron, in which for a fixed number of absorbed photons, the electron energy will not change after the scattering in the lab frame. We obtain the conclusion that higher laser intensities suppress few-laser-photon absorption and enhance more-laser-photon absorption. A comparison between different polarizations is also made, and we find that the linearly polarized laser is more suitable to generate nonlinear Compton scattering.

  4. THE EFFECT OF THE DUST SIZE DISTRIBUTION ON ASTEROID POLARIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Masiero, Joseph; Hartzell, Christine; Scheeres, Daniel J. E-mail: christine.hartzell@colorado.edu

    2009-12-15

    We have developed a theoretical description of how of an asteroid's polarization-phase curve will be affected by the removal of the dust from the surface due to a size-dependent phenomenon such as radiation pressure-driven escape of levitated particles. We test our calculations against new observations of four small (D {approx} 1 km) near-Earth asteroids (NEAs; (85236), (142348), (162900), and 2006 SZ{sub 217}) obtained with the Dual Beam Imaging Polarimeter on the University of Hawaii's 2.2 m telescope, as well as previous observations of (25143) Itokawa and (433) Eros. We find that the polarization of the light reflected from an asteroid is controlled by the mineralogical and chemical composition of the surface and is independent of dust particle. The relation between the slope of the polarization-phase curve beyond the inversion angle and the albedo of an asteroid is thus independent of the surface regolith size distribution and is valid for both Main Belt and NEAs.

  5. Polarization effects in optical fiber communication and distributed vibration sensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ziyi

    This thesis includes studies of polarization effects in two main research areas of optical fiber technology: optical fiber communication systems and optical fiber sensors. Polarization of light in optical fiber is sensitive to environmental disturbances. On the negative side, this results in complex measurement processes and errors in communication systems caused by dynamic polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization dependent loss (PDL). On the positive side though, it also results in the possibility of developing a distributed optical fiber vibration sensor. For the purpose of fast polarization measurement for high bit-rate communication systems, a new PDL vector method was proposed based on the equation of motion in Stokes space. It is capable of providing accurate PDL measurements while requiring less measurement steps compared with other available techniques. We had performed a PMD field test, and found the fastest PMD change in submarine fibers under the Caribbean Sea. With long measurement duration (>24h) on one pair of fiber, correlations between polarization effects and tides were reported for the first time. A histogram of the differential group delay (DGD) data and an auto-correlation function of state of polarization (SOP) and DGD were validated by theoretical fittings. The average and fastest drift time for both SOP and DGD was found to be ˜3min and less than 15s, respectively. Polarization effects were then utilized as a sensing parameter to detect and locate external disturbances along the optical fiber. A system based on polarization optical time domain reflectometry (Polarization-OTDR) technique was developed in order to pinpoint the disturbances as well as to give events' frequency information. For the first time, a fully distributed optical fiber vibration sensor has been demonstrated in a 1km fiber link with 10m spatial resolution and 5kHz maximum detectable frequency. Moreover, by our proposed spectrum analysis, multiple simultaneous

  6. Integrating Partial Polarization into a Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen

    1999-01-01

    The ferroelectric channel in a Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MFSFET) can partially change its polarization when the gate voltage near the polarization threshold voltage. This causes the MFSFET Drain current to change with repeated pulses of the same gate voltage near the polarization threshold voltage. A previously developed model [11, based on the Fermi-Dirac function, assumed that for a given gate voltage and channel polarization, a sin-le Drain current value would be generated. A study has been done to characterize the effects of partial polarization on the Drain current of a MFSFET. These effects have been described mathematically and these equations have been incorporated into a more comprehensive mathematical model of the MFSFET. The model takes into account the hysteresis nature of the MFSFET and the time dependent decay as well as the effects of partial polarization. This model defines the Drain current based on calculating the degree of polarization from previous gate pulses, the present Gate voltage, and the amount of time since the last Gate volta-e pulse.

  7. The effect of organic loading on bacterial community composition of membrane biofilms in a submerged polyvinyl chloride membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Xia, Siqing; Li, Jixiang; He, Shuying; Xie, Kang; Wang, Xiaojia; Zhang, Yanhao; Duan, Liang; Zhang, Zhiqiang

    2010-09-01

    The effect of organic loading on bacterial community composition of membrane biofilms was investigated using a submerged polyvinyl chloride membrane bioreactor. The low and high loadings were set at 0.33 and 0.52 gCOD/(gVSSd), respectively. The results showed that membrane fouling occurred earlier and faster under the high loading conditions. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that the similarity of bacterial community in the membrane biofilms between the two loadings was 0.67, higher than that in the mixed liquors (0.52-0.55), which indicated that some specific bacteria were selected preferentially on the membranes. Clone library analysis of the membrane biofilms indicated that Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes under the high loading were 54.72% and 19.81%, respectively. Microarray results further confirmed that the two bacteria were the dominant microorganisms in the high loading biofilm. The severe membrane fouling may be aroused mainly by the enrichment of the two bacteria under the high loading.

  8. The interactions of squalene, alkanes and other mineral oils with model membranes; effects on membrane heterogeneity and function.

    PubMed

    Richens, Joanna L; Lane, Jordan S; Mather, Melissa L; O'Shea, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Droplet interface bilayers (DIBs) offer many favourable facets as an artificial membrane system but the influence of any residual oil that remains in the bilayer following preparation is ill-defined. In this study the fluorescent membrane probes di-8-butyl-amino-naphthyl-ethylene-pyridinium-propyl-sulfonate (Di-8-ANEPPS) and Fluoresceinphosphatidylethanolamine (FPE) were used to help understand the nature of the phospholipid-oil interaction and to examine any structural and functional consequences of such interactions on membrane bilayer properties. Concentration-dependent modifications of the membrane dipole potential were found to occur in phospholipid vesicles exposed to a variety of different oils. Incorporation of oil into the lipid bilayer was shown to have no significant effect on the movement of fatty acids across the lipid bilayer. Changes in membrane heterogeneity were, however, demonstrated with increased microdomain formation being visible in the bilayer following exposure to mineral oil, pentadecane and squalene. As it is important that artificial systems provide an accurate representation of the membrane environment, careful consideration should be taken prior to the application of DIBs in studies of membrane structure and organisation.

  9. Interaction of amphiphilic molecules with biological membranes. A model for nonspecific and specific drug effects with membranes.

    PubMed

    Herbette, L; Napolitano, C A; Messineo, F C; Katz, A M

    1985-01-01

    The nonspecific interactions of propranolol, timolol, and ethanol with model and sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes were determined utilizing radioisotopic association differential scanning calorimetry, and neutron diffraction. Differential scanning calorimetry performed on mixtures of these amphiphilic compounds and model membrane bilayers composed of dimyristoyllecithin showed that propranolol was approximately 25 times more lipid-soluble than timolol and at least 100 times more lipid-soluble than ethanol. Neutron diffraction showed that the solvation of propranolol was within the fatty acyl chain region of the lipid bilayer. This solvation correlated with the effect of propranolol to inhibit ATP-dependent calcium transport in isolated rabbit skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum, a membrane that lacks beta-adrenergic receptors. In contrast, the major site of interaction of ethanol was within the aqueous compartment hydrating the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. A model for nonspecific drug interaction with the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane based on the site of interaction of these amphiphiles and their relative potencies to inhibit calcium transport by these membranes is proposed. In principle, this model could be extended to specific drug interactions with membranes.

  10. Effect of membrane characteristics on the performance of membrane bioreactors for oily wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Mafirad, S; Mehrnia, M R; Sarrafzadeh, M H

    2011-01-01

    Influence of membrane material and pore size on the performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor (sMBR) for oily wastewater treatment was investigated. The sMBR had a working volume of about 19 L with flat sheet modules at the same hydrodynamic conditions. Five types of micro- and ultra-polymeric membranes containing cellulose acetate (CA), cellulose nitrate (CN), polyamide (PA), polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and polyethersulfone (PES) were used and their filtration performance in terms of permeability, permeate quality and fouling intensity were evaluated. Characterization of the membranes was done by performing some analysis such as pore size distribution; contact angle and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) microphotograph on all membranes. The quality of permeates from each membrane was identified by measuring chemical oxygen demand (COD). The results showed more irreversible fouling intensity for membranes with larger pore size which can be due to more permeation of bioparticles and colloids inside the pores. Membrane characteristics have a major role in the preliminary time of the filtration before cake layer formation so that the PA with the highest hydrophilicity had the lowest permeability decline by fouling in this period. Also, the PVDF and PES membranes had better performance according to better permeate quality in the preliminary time of the filtration related to smaller pore size and also their better fouling resistance and chemical stability properties. However, all membranes resulted in the same permeability and permeate quality after cake layer formation. An overall efficiency of about 95% in COD removal was obtained for oily wastewater treatment by the membranes used in this study.

  11. Effect of a membrane-stabilizing compound on calcium binding to the plasma membrane of Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed

    Przełecka, A; Fritsch, R S; Wollweber, L; Sobota, A

    1980-01-01

    Binding of calcium ions at the plasma membrane was studied in Acanthamoeba cells pretreated with ZIMET 3164, a benzimidazole nitrogen mustard derivative, which is known to show a potent immunosuppressive action combined with a membrane-stabilizing effect in mice. For reference, 2 compounds were applied: ZIMET 3393 (Cytostasan¿), another benzimidazole mustard derivative, which exerts only a moderate membrane effect and acts as a strong cytostatic, and ZIMET 176/68, a barbituric acid derivative, which acts as an inhibitor of humoral immune responses but without membrane-stabilizing effect. Application of any of the 3 compounds does not reduce the appearance of calcium binding sites, visualized by means of ultracytochemical reaction, notwithstanding their different action in the mammalian organism. On the contrary, it was estimated by morphometric analysis that the number of Ca-dependent deposits was augmented after treatment with low doses of any of the 3 compounds, what seems to be connected with the induced metabolic disturbances in low molecular phosphates level. High doses and/or prolongation of treatment of the cells resulted in diminution of the number of deposits and induces profound disturbances in cell ultrastructure, probably due to the toxic action of the applied doses. In these cases, band-like structures crosslinking the two leaflets of the plasma membrane may be observed; it is suggested that they represent integral membrane proteins. PMID:6774578

  12. EFFECT OF ORBIT DISTORTIONS LAND BETATRON TUNE ON THE RHIC POLARIZED BEAM.

    SciTech Connect

    LUCCIO,A.U.; PILAT,F.; PTITSYN,V.

    2001-06-18

    Polarized protons have been stored and accelerated in RHIC from G{sub {gamma}} = 46.5 to 60 during Run2000 with only one Siberian snake installed. We simulated with the spin tracking code Spink the behavior of polarized protons, in particular the effect of closed orbit distortions and betatron tune variation on the spin dynamics. According to simulation results, closed orbit and tune effects will be translated into requirements for the tune and orbit correction systems for the RHIC polarized proton Run2001, when both Siberian snakes will be available.

  13. The effect of orbital forcing on Polar Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roychowdhury, R.; Deconto, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Alternating glacial and interglacial conditions have dominated Earth's long-term climate variability for at least the past 3 million years. Several proposed theories associate these cycles with variations in the Earth's orbital configuration. However, to constrain these proposed mechanisms, climate models need to accurately simulate the effects of orbital forcing leading to glaciation and glacial terminations. The variability of Northern hemispheric versus Antarctic ice sheets remains unresolved. Globally integrated proxies such as marine δ18O record the history of ice volume and ocean temperature. These records include periods of 41,000 and 21,000 years and an unexplained strong component of 100,000 years. Here, we consider the interval from the late Pliocene to early Pleistocene (41k world), when the glacial cycles are dominated by 41,000 years cyclicity and the precession period (21,000 years) is weak or missing. Peter Hybers (2006) proposed Antarctic glacial cycles are driven by the duration of summer rather than the intensity of summer insolation, which controls Northern Hemisphere climate. According to Hybers, the amount of melting an ice sheet undergoes can be explained by integrating the total insolation over summer. This Summer Metric (S) varies mainly at the obliquity period and is therefore consistent with the δ18O records observed in marine cores from 1-3 million years ago. In this study, we use a top down approach and physically based models to gain insight into the role of the individual orbital forcing factors, viz. precession, obliquity and eccentricity on glacial termination in both hemispheres. The effects of orbital precession and obliquity are studied systematically using a GCM and nested, high resolution RCM over both Polar Regions. Results show that precession-paced changes in Summer Metric (S) and Total Summer Energy (J) are out of phase, thus the changes in ice volume in each hemisphere could cancel out. Obliquity-paced changes in the

  14. Differential resistance of GaN-based laser diodes with and without polarization effect.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Liu, Z S; Zhao, D G; Jiang, D S; Chen, P; Zhu, J J; Yang, J; Le, L C; Liu, W; He, X G; Li, X J; Liang, F; Zhang, L Q; Liu, J Q; Yang, H

    2015-10-10

    In this paper, we used numerical calculation and simulation to investigate the differential resistance of GaN-based laser diodes (LDs) with and without polarization effect. We confirmed the existence of a kink at the vicinity of threshold current in the differential resistance curve of GaN-based LDs and found that the kink polarity can be reversed dependent on the polarization effect. The serial parasitic diodes should be included in the theoretical analysis of the equivalent circuit of the LD devices. We determined that the superposition effects of the n-side, active, and p-side regions of the LDs caused the kink and its polarity. We also found that the differential resistance before and after the threshold was dominated by the p-side region and its gradual reduction is related to an electron overflow into p-side. Finally, we studied the effects of cavity facet reflectivity on the kink. PMID:26479807

  15. Theoretical investigation of polarization effects in solution: Importance of solvent collective motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Tateki

    2015-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies on interesting topics related to polarization effects in solutions are presented. As one of interesting topics, ionic liquids (ILs) solvents are focused on. The collective dynamics of electronic polarizability through interionic dynamics and the effect of polarization in ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF6]), are studied with molecular dynamics simulation. Also, the time-dependent polarization effect on the probe betaine dye molecule, pyridinium N-phenoxide, in water is investigated by a time-dependent reference interaction site model self-consistent field (time-dependent RISM-SCF) approach. The importance of considering polarization effects on solution systems related to solvent collective motions is shown.

  16. THRESHOLD RESUMMATION EFFECTS IN THE POLARIZED DRELL-YAN PROCESS AT GSI AND J-PARC.

    SciTech Connect

    YOKOYA, H.; VOGELSANG, W.

    2006-04-20

    We present studies of QCD corrections to dilepton production in transversely polarized pp and {bar p}p scattering. In particular we briefly discuss the effects of NNLL threshold resummation on the rapidity distribution of the lepton pair.

  17. Theoretical investigation of polarization effects in solution: Importance of solvent collective motions

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Tateki

    2015-01-22

    Recent theoretical studies on interesting topics related to polarization effects in solutions are presented. As one of interesting topics, ionic liquids (ILs) solvents are focused on. The collective dynamics of electronic polarizability through interionic dynamics and the effect of polarization in ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF{sub 6}]), are studied with molecular dynamics simulation. Also, the time-dependent polarization effect on the probe betaine dye molecule, pyridinium N-phenoxide, in water is investigated by a time-dependent reference interaction site model self-consistent field (time-dependent RISM-SCF) approach. The importance of considering polarization effects on solution systems related to solvent collective motions is shown.

  18. A polarization independent liquid crystal phase modulation adopting surface pinning effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Tsou, Yu-Shih

    2011-12-01

    A polarization-independent liquid crystal (LC) phase modulation using the surface pinning effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystals (SP-PDLC) is demonstrated. In the bulk region of the SP-PDLC, the orientations of LC directors are randomly dispersed; thus, any polarization of incident light experiences the same averaged refractive index. In the regions near glass substrates, the LC droplets are pinned. The orientations of top and bottom droplets are orthogonal. Two eigen-polarizations of an incident light experience the same phase shift. As a result, the SP-PDLC is polarization independent. Polarizer-free microlens arrays of SP-PDLC are also demonstrated. The SP-PDLC has potential for application in spatial light modulators, laser beam steering, and electrically tunable microprisms.

  19. Ray Scattering by an Arbitrarily Oriented Spheroid: 2. Transmission and Cross-polarization Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Transmission of an arbitrarily polarized plane wave by an arbitrarily oriented spheroid in the short-wavelength limit is considered in the context of ray theory. The transmitted electric field is added to the diffracted plus reflected ray-theory electric field that was previously derived to obtain an approximation to the far-zone scattered intensity in the forward hemisphere. Two different types of cross-polarization effects are found. These are: (a) a rotation of the polarization state of the transmitted rays from when they are referenced with respect to their entrance into the spheroid to when they are referenced with respect to their exit from it and (b) a rotation of the polarization state of the transmitted rays when they are referenced with respect to the polarization state of the diffracted plus reflected rays.

  20. The effect of spontaneous polarization on two-dimensional elasticity of smectic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Dolganov, P. V. Dolganov, V. K.; Cluzeau, P.

    2013-06-15

    The influence of polarity on orientational elasticity and on structures formed in the director field is studied in free-standing smectic films. Periodic stripe patterns and 2{pi}-walls in a magnetic field are investigated. Measurements are performed on a nonpolar racemic mixture, on an optically pure ferroelectric compound, and in mixtures with different concentrations of the chiral isomers of opposite signs. The structure of periodic stripes changes drastically with the polarity of the film. The ratio of the bend K{sub B} and splay K{sub S} elastic constants for smectic films is determined as a function of polarization from the structure of periodic stripe patterns and 2{pi}-walls. We find that the elastic anisotropy K{sub B}/K{sub S} increases essentially with increasing the polarity of the film. Changes of the elasticity and the structure of periodic stripes are explained by polarization charge effects.

  1. Aerosol polarization effects on atmospheric correction and aerosol retrievals in ocean color remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Menghua

    2006-12-10

    The current ocean color data processing system for the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) and the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) uses the Rayleigh lookup tables that were generated using the vector radiative transfer theory with inclusion of the polarization effects. The polarization effects, however, are not accounted for in the aerosol lookup tables for the ocean color data processing. I describe a study of the aerosol polarization effects on the atmospheric correction and aerosol retrieval algorithms in the ocean color remote sensing. Using an efficient method for the multiple vector radiative transfer computations, aerosol lookup tables that include polarization effects are generated. Simulations have been carried out to evaluate the aerosol polarization effects on the derived ocean color and aerosol products for all possible solar-sensor geometries and the various aerosol optical properties. Furthermore, the new aerosol lookup tables have been implemented in the SeaWiFS data processing system and extensively tested and evaluated with SeaWiFS regional and global measurements. Results show that in open oceans (maritime environment), the aerosol polarization effects on the ocean color and aerosol products are usually negligible, while there are some noticeable effects on the derived products in the coastal regions with nonmaritime aerosols.

  2. Selective effect of cell membrane on synaptic neurotransmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postila, Pekka A.; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Róg, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were performed with 13 non-peptidic neurotransmitters (NTs) in three different membrane environments. The results provide compelling evidence that NTs are divided into membrane-binding and membrane-nonbinding molecules. NTs adhere to the postsynaptic membrane surface whenever the ligand-binding sites of their synaptic receptors are buried in the lipid bilayer. In contrast, NTs that have extracellular ligand-binding sites do not have a similar tendency to adhere to the membrane surface. This finding is a seemingly simple yet important addition to the paradigm of neurotransmission, essentially dividing it into membrane-independent and membrane-dependent mechanisms. Moreover, the simulations also indicate that the lipid composition especially in terms of charged lipids can affect the membrane partitioning of NTs. The revised paradigm, highlighting the importance of cell membrane and specific lipids for neurotransmission, should to be of interest to neuroscientists, drug industry and the general public alike.

  3. Effects of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) on membrane fouling in anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactors (AnCMBRs) treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiaodi; Koh, Yoong Keat Kelvin; Ng, How Yong

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) have been regarded as a potential solution to achieve energy neutrality in the future wastewater treatment plants. Coupling ceramic membranes into AnMBRs offers great potential as ceramic membranes are resistant to corrosive chemicals such as cleaning reagents and harsh environmental conditions such as high temperature. In this study, ceramic membranes with pore sizes of 80, 200 and 300 nm were individually mounted in three anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactors (AnCMBRs) treating real domestic wastewater to examine the treatment efficiencies and to elucidate the effects of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) on fouling behaviours. The average overall chemical oxygen demands (COD) removal efficiencies could reach around 86-88%. Although CH4 productions were around 0.3 L/g CODutilised, about 67% of CH4 generated was dissolved in the liquid phase and lost in the permeate. When filtering mixed liquor of similar properties, smaller pore-sized membranes fouled slower in long-term operations due to lower occurrence of pore blockages. However, total organic removal efficiencies could not explain the fouling behaviours. Liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectrophotometer and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence and ultra-violet detectors were used to analyse the DOMs in detail. The major foulants were identified to be biopolymers that were produced in microbial activities. One of the main components of biopolymers--proteins--led to different fouling behaviours. It is postulated that the proteins could pass through porous cake layers to create pore blockages in membranes. Hence, concentrations of the DOMs in the soluble fraction of mixed liquor (SML) could not predict membrane fouling because different components in the DOMs might have different interactions with membranes.

  4. Asymmetry distributions and mass effects in dijet events at a polarized HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maul, M.; Schäfer, A.; Mirkes, E.; Rädel, G.

    1998-09-01

    The asymmetry distributions for several kinematic variables are considered for finding a systematic way to maximize the signal for the extraction of the polarized gluon density. The relevance of mass effects for the corresponding dijet cross section is discussed and the different approximations for including mass effects are compared. We also compare via the programs Pepsi and Mepjet two different Monte Carlo (MC) approaches for simulating the expected signal in the dijet asymmetry at a polarized HERA.

  5. Development of neutron polarization measurement system for studying the medium effect on NN interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Jumpei

    2014-09-01

    Modification of nucleon and meson properties in nuclear medium is one of the most interesting topics in nuclear physics. To investigate the medium effect on NN interaction, quasi-elastic reaction is one of the most powerful tool. Especially, the spin observables are very useful since it is insensitive to distortion effect. For the proton-proton interaction, the analyzing power and polarization transfer have been measured for exclusive (p,2p) reaction. On the other hand, for the proton-neutron interaction, the polarization transfer have been measured only for inclusive (p,n) reaction. Therefore, we plan to measure the polarization transfer for exclusive (p,np) reaction. To achieve the measurement, we developed the neutron polarization measurement system for (p,np) reaction, which has following two component; (1) neutron polarization measurement; (2) exclusive measurement. For the neutron polarization measurement, we have reconstructed the neutron polarimeter NPOL3. We have calibrated the new NPOL3 by using the polarized neutron from 2H(p,n) reaction and obtained the effective analyzing power Ayeff = 0 . 127 . For the exclusive measurement, we used the LAS spectrometer for recoil proton detection and achieved the energy resolution of 6 MeV.

  6. Polarization effects of a high-power CO2 laser beam on aluminum alloy weldability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shunichi; Takahashi, Kunimitsu; Mehmetli, Bülent

    1996-06-01

    Linearly polarized CO2 laser beams have been used to investigate the effects of polarization on aluminum alloy weldability. Bead-on-plate welding tests have been performed on A5083 (AlMg4.5Mn0.7) alloy plates with quasi-TEM00-mode beams whose polarization direction is parallel or perpendicular to the welding direction, referred to as the parallel or the perpendicular polarization beam, respectively. Comparison of the fusion zone shapes between the two cases shows that deeper penetration, and hence more efficient optical energy coupling to the work can be obtained with the parallel polarization beam. This effect can be interpreted as being due to the higher Fresnel absorption at the keyhole front wall for the parallel polarization beam than for the perpendicular polarization beam. It is also found that the polarization effect is much more evident in the case of He gas shielding than in the case of Ar gas shielding. The weaker polarization effects observed in the case of Ar may be due to more densely formed laser-induced plume or plasma because of lower ionization potential and much smaller thermal conductivity of Ar when compared with those of He. Under such conditions the energy coupling may be dominated by plasma absorption (the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption). It has so far been considered that in aluminum welding, the energy coupling is dominated by the plasma absorption, because relatively strong plasma is observed in aluminum welding. But our results indicate that the Fresnel absorption process has an important role on the energy coupling mechanism under certain conditions.

  7. Polarization effects in nitride and ferroelectric based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Madhusudan

    This dissertation addresses the application of theoretical and computational methods to examine heterostructure devices based on planar semiconductors. The thesis pursues III-V nitrides and ferroelectrics like LiNbO3 and BaxSr1-xTiO 3. GaN and other nitrides exhibit a large polarization charge arising from the built in polarization revealed in the [1000] growth direction, and are also wide band-gap materials (with the exception of InN). The nitrides are important for high-power/high-temperature electronics and for short wavelength light emitters. Our studies address important issues in large bandgap junctions, transistors and light emitters. One of the salient results of our studies has been the first calculations of tunnel current in polar junctions and the potential of using built in polar charge at interface to design junctions. We find that novel junctions cam be designed to produce tailorable I-V characteristics. Our studies have led to experimental realization of such tailorable junctions. We also present results on charge control in ferroelectric-nitride structures where post growth junction tailoring can be carried out (using poling) to create functional devices. This leads to a new class of devices such as switches. We have developed extensive charge control, Monte Carlo based transport models and device simulation techniques to examine nitride based transistors. These studies allow us to examine mobility, transit time, high frequency behavior, noise, transconductance, etc. We have examined device non-linearity issues, scaling issues, temperature dependence, noise sources, and device design optimization issues. Our results are closely coupled to experimental results. Role of unusual velocity-field relations, self-heating and non-equilibrium phonons is examined. III-V nitride based light emitters often exhibit a very high radiative efficiency, higher than the presence of dislocations in the system suggests. Calculations indicate however, that local disorder

  8. Heterogeneity of auxin-accumulating membrane vesicles from Cucurbita and Zea: a possible reflection of cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Lützelschwab, M; Asard, H; Ingold, U; Hertel, R

    1989-03-01

    When microsomes from hypocotyls of Cucurbita pepo L. or coleoptiles of Zea mays L. were centrifuged on dextran-sucrose gradients a heterogeneity of auxin-accumulating vesicles was observed. Vesicles from the top part of the gradient showed saturable, specific accumulation of indole-3-acetic acid with only a small stimulation by phytotropins, and with very few binding sites for 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid. In the vesicles from the lower part of the gradient, net accumulation of indole-3-acetic acid could be strongly increased by addition of phytotropins; binding of 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid was high in this region. After two-phase partitioning, both kinds of vesicles were found in the upper-phase membrane fraction considered to be purified plasma membrane. The hypothesis is discussed that vesicles can be separated from the apical and basal parts of the cell's plasmalemma.

  9. The effective flux through a thin-film composite membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruna, M.; Chapman, S. J.; Ramon, G. Z.

    2015-05-01

    Composite membrane structures, used extensively in separation processes, comprise an ultra-thin selective polymer film cast over a porous support, whose pores partially obstruct transport out of the top film. Here, we model the composite as a finite thickness slab with a periodic array of circular absorbing patches in an otherwise reflective surface and study the effective transport properties of the composite. We obtain an analytical approximation for the effective diffusive flux as a function of the geometrical parameters, namely the film thickness, the support porosity and the pore size. We find a good agreement with full numerical solutions, and that a good effective rate is achievable with a relatively small number of pores.

  10. Biophysical mechanism of the protective effect of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L. var. kamtschatica Sevast.) polyphenols extracts against lipid peroxidation of erythrocyte and lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Bonarska-Kujawa, D; Pruchnik, H; Cyboran, S; Żyłka, R; Oszmiański, J; Kleszczyńska, H

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present research was to determine the effect of blue honeysuckle fruit and leaf extracts components on the physical properties of erythrocyte and lipid membranes and assess their antioxidant properties. The HPLC analysis showed that the extracts are rich in polyphenol anthocyanins in fruits and flavonoids in leaves. The results indicate that both extracts have antioxidant activity and protect the red blood cell membrane against oxidation induced by UVC irradiation and AAPH. The extracts do not induce hemolysis and slightly increase osmotic resistance of erythrocytes. The research showed that extracts components are incorporated mainly in the external part of the erythrocyte membrane, inducing the formation of echinocytes. The values of generalized polarization and fluorescence anisotropy indicate that the extracts polyphenols alter the packing arrangement of the hydrophilic part of the erythrocyte and lipid membranes, without changing the fluidity of the hydrophobic part. The DSC results also show that the extract components do not change the main phase transition temperature of DPPC membrane. Studies of electric parameters of membranes modified by the extracts showed that they slightly stabilize lipid membranes and do not reduce their specific resistance or capacity. Examination of IR spectra indicates small changes in the degree of hydration in the hydrophilic region of liposomes under the action of the extracts. The location of polyphenolic compounds in the hydrophilic part of the membrane seems to constitute a protective shield of the cell against other substances, the reactive forms of oxygen in particular. PMID:24862869

  11. Tailoring of Polarizing Agents in the bTurea Series for Cross-Effect Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in Aqueous Media.

    PubMed

    Sauvée, Claire; Casano, Gilles; Abel, Sébastien; Rockenbauer, Antal; Akhmetzyanov, Dimitry; Karoui, Hakim; Siri, Didier; Aussenac, Fabien; Maas, Werner; Weber, Ralph T; Prisner, Thomas; Rosay, Mélanie; Tordo, Paul; Ouari, Olivier

    2016-04-11

    A series of 18 nitroxide biradicals derived from bTurea has been prepared, and their enhancement factors ɛ ((1)H) in cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization (CE DNP) NMR experiments at 9.4 and 14.1 T and 100 K in a DNP-optimized glycerol/water matrix ("DNP juice") have been studied. We observe that ɛ ((1)H) is strongly correlated with the substituents on the polarizing agents, and its trend is discussed in terms of different molecular parameters: solubility, average e-e distance, relative orientation of the nitroxide moieties, and electron spin relaxation times. We show that too short an e-e distance or too long a T1e can dramatically limit ɛ ((1)H). Our study also shows that the molecular structure of AMUPol is not optimal and its ɛ ((1)H) could be further improved through stronger interaction with the glassy matrix and a better orientation of the TEMPO moieties. A new AMUPol derivative introduced here provides a better ɛ ((1)H) than AMUPol itself (by a factor of ca. 1.2). PMID:26992052

  12. Effects of polar and nonpolar groups on the solubility of organic compounds in soil organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.; Kile, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Vapor sorption capacities on a high-organic-content peat, a model for soil organic matter (SOM), were determined at room temperature for the following liquids: n-hexane, 1,4-dioxane, nitroethane, acetone, acetonitrile, 1-propanol, ethanol, and methanol. The linear organic vapor sorption is in keeping with the dominance of vapor partition in peat SOM. These data and similar results of carbon tetrachloride (CT), trichloroethylene (TCE), benzene, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME), and water on the same peat from earlier studies are used to evaluate the effect of polarity on the vapor partition in SOM. The extrapolated liquid solubility from the vapor isotherm increases sharply from 3-6 wt % for low-polarity liquids (hexane, CT, and benzene) to 62 wt % for polar methanol and correlates positively with the liquid's component solubility parameters for polar interaction (??P) and hydrogen bonding (??h). The same polarity effect may be expected to influence the relative solubilities of a variety of contaminants in SOM and, therefore, the relative deviations between the SOM-water partition coefficients (Kom) and corresponding octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) for different classes of compounds. The large solubility disparity in SOM between polar and nonpolar solutes suggests that the accurate prediction of Kom from Kow or Sw (solute water solubility) would be limited to compounds of similar polarity.

  13. Polarity effect of the thimble-type ionization chamber at a low dose rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Kyun; Park, Se-Hwan; Kim, Han-Soo; Kang, Sang-Mook; Ha, Jang-Ho; Chung, Chong-Eun; Cho, Seung-Yeon; Kim, J. K.

    2005-11-01

    It is known that the current collected from an ionization chamber exposed to a constant radiation intensity changes in magnitude when the polarity of the collecting potential is reversed. It is called the polarity effect of the ionization chamber. There are many possible causes that induce the polarity effect and one of them can be a field distortion due to a potential difference between the guard electrode and the collector. We studied how much the polarity effect depends on the design of the electrodes in the thimble-type ionization chamber. Two thimble-type ionization chambers, which had different electrode structures, were designed and fabricated at KAERI. We calculated the field distortions due to the potential difference between the guard electrode and the collector for the two ionization chambers. MAXWELL and Garfield were employed to calculate the electron drift lines inside the chamber. The polarity effects of the two ionization chambers were measured, and they were consistent with the field calculation. We could conclude that the polarity effect is mostly induced from the field distortion due to the potential difference between the guard electrode and the collector in our experiment and it depends significantly on the design of the electrodes.

  14. Magnetic Field Disorder and Faraday Effects on the Polarization of Extragalactic Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamee, Mehdi; Rudnick, Lawrence; Farnes, Jamie S.; Carretti, Ettore; Gaensler, B. M.; Haverkorn, Marijke; Poppi, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    We present a polarization catalog of 533 extragalactic radio sources that have a 2.3 GHz total intensity above 420 mJy from the S-band Polarization All Sky Survey, S-PASS, with corresponding 1.4 GHz polarization information from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey, NVSS. We studied the selection effects and found that fractional polarization, π, of radio objects at both wavelengths depends on the spectral index, the source magnetic field disorder, the source size, and depolarization. The relationship between depolarization, spectrum, and size shows that depolarization occurs primarily in the source vicinity. The median {π }2.3 of resolved objects in NVSS is approximately two times larger than that of unresolved sources. Sources with little depolarization are ∼2 times more polarized than both highly depolarized and re-polarized sources. This indicates that intrinsic magnetic field disorder is the dominant mechanism responsible for the observed low fractional polarization of radio sources at high frequencies. We predict that number counts from polarization surveys will be similar at 1.4 GHz and at 2.3 GHz, for fixed sensitivity, although ∼10% of all sources may currently be missing because of strong depolarization. Objects with {π }1.4≈ {π }2.3≥slant 4 % typically have simple Faraday structures, so they are most useful for background samples. Almost half of flat-spectrum (α ≥slant -0.5) and ∼25% of steep-spectrum objects are re-polarized. Steep-spectrum, depolarized sources show a weak negative correlation of depolarization with redshift in the range 0 < z < 2.3. Previous non-detections of redshift evolution are likely due the inclusion of re-polarized sources as well.

  15. [Effects of multi-angle hyperspectral polarized reflection by forest soil].

    PubMed

    Han, Yang; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Zhao, Nai-Zhuo; Li, Qian; Lü, Yun-Feng

    2009-03-01

    In the present study, the authors measured samples of typical forest soils in different states with multi-angle hyperspectral polarized reflections. The authors analyzed multi-angle hyperspectral polarized reflections of soil data with various viewing zenith angles, incidence angles, relative azimuth angles, polarized states, soil water content and soil granule. The authors found that those factors affected the reflectance values of forest soils but not the spectral feature. The conclusions included that the larger the incidence angles and viewing zenith angles are, the bigger the polarized reflectance values of the surface of the forest soil. When the forest soil was dry, the surface had phenomenon of diffuse reflection and the polarized light reflection did not take place. When the soil moisture content reached a certain level, the polarized reflection appeared. The more the moisture content of the forest soil was, the smaller the polarized reflectance of the surface. The bigger the soil granule was and the rougher the soil surface was, the smaller the surface polarized reflectance. The results and conclusions suggested that the spectral characteristics of the ground target need to be considered adequately in order to design the best mode for sensor systems by remote sensing technology. The authors suggest that the incidence angle and viewing zenith angle be selected on the basis of factual instance. The authors suggest using larger viewing zenith angles and that the incidence angle should be equal to the viewing zenith angle. In the meantime, the effects of sheltering by ground targets need to be considered and the proper state of polarization should be chosen while keeping relative zenith angle at 180 degrees. This study not only helps find a new way for detection of soil characters, but also provides a theoretical basis for further research on multi-angle hyperspectral polarized reflection for detecting characteristic spectrum and best states in measuring

  16. The Influence of Local Geometric Effects on Mars Polar Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, M. H.

    2005-01-01

    Using simple, qualitative heat balance models, this paper addresses textures and structures that will result from the evolution of volatile layers by accretion and by ablation. Such phenomena may have global implications that are not apparent when only flat or sloped surfaces are modeled. In general, structures such as mounds or depressions formed out of volatile materials will evolve in shape such that the growth or retreat of any particular surface will be maximized. It can be shown that the local radius of curvature is proportional to the growth or retreat rate. For example, icy surfaces will tend to form facets that face the dominant sun direction. Two such cases are evaluated: a) Features associated with condensation of volatiles, include cold-trapping and redistribution, such as the concentration of frost around the Viking 2 lander [1]. Here I will focus on textures that likely result from the formation of seasonal CO2 deposits. b) Features associated with sublimation of volatiles, such as those described by Ingersoll et. al. [2] result in textured surfaces that affect both the apparent emissivity and albedo. Similar calculations have been performed with respect to the "Swiss cheese" features on the South Polar Cap [3]. Here, I evaluate the likely sublimation rates from optimal ice scarp structures and their implications for the long-term evolution of the polar caps and formation of layered terrain.

  17. Effects of azole treatments on the physical properties of Candida albicans plasma membrane: a spin probe EPR study.

    PubMed

    Sgherri, Cristina; Porta, Amalia; Castellano, Sabrina; Pinzino, Calogero; Quartacci, Mike F; Calucci, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy was applied to investigate the effects of the treatment of Candida albicans cells with fluconazole (FLC) and two newly synthesized azoles (CPA18 and CPA109), in a concentration not altering yeast morphology, on the lipid organization and dynamics of the plasma membrane. Measurements were performed in the temperature range between 0°C and 40°C using 5-doxyl- (5-DSA) and 16-doxyl- (16-DSA) stearic acids as spin probes. 5-DSA spectra were typical of lipids in a highly ordered environment, whereas 16-DSA spectra consisted of two comparable components, one corresponding to a fluid bulk lipid domain in the membrane and the other to highly ordered and motionally restricted lipids interacting with integral membrane proteins. A line shape analysis allowed the relative proportion and the orientational order and dynamic parameters of the spin probes in the different environments to be determined. Smaller order parameters, corresponding to a looser lipid packing, were found for the treated samples with respect to the control one in the region close to the membrane surface probed by 5-DSA. On the other hand, data on 16-DSA indicated that azole treatments hamper the formation of ordered lipid domains hosting integral proteins and/or lead to a decrease in integral protein content in the membrane. The observed effects are mainly ascribable to the inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis by the antifungal agents, although a direct interaction of the CPA compounds with the membrane bilayer in the region close to the lipid polar head groups cannot be excluded. PMID:24184423

  18. Effects of Bloom-Forming Algae on Fouling of Integrated Membrane Systems in Seawater Desalination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladner, David Allen

    2009-01-01

    Combining low- and high-pressure membranes into an integrated membrane system is an effective treatment strategy for seawater desalination. Low-pressure microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes remove particulate material, colloids, and high-molecular-weight organics leaving a relatively foulant-free salt solution for treatment by…

  19. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi

    1986-01-01

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  20. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, S.

    1986-08-19

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  1. Analysis of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides excited by two orthogonal polarization waves

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez, A. M.; Boria, V. E.

    2014-08-15

    Circular waveguides, either employed as resonant cavities or as irises connecting adjacent guides, are widely present in many passive components used in different applications (i.e., particle accelerators and satellite subsystems). In this paper, we present the study of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides considering the coexistence of the two polarizations of the fundamental TE{sub 11} circular waveguide mode. For a better understanding of the problem, only low multipactor orders have been explored as a function of the polarization ellipse eccentricity. Special attention has been paid to the linear and circular polarizations, but other more general configurations have also been explored.

  2. Polarization induced resistance switching effect in ferroelectric vinylidene-fluoride/trifluoroethylene copolymer ultrathin films

    SciTech Connect

    Usui, S. Nakajima, T.; Hashizume, Y.; Okamura, S.

    2014-10-20

    We observed a clear polarization reversal-induced resistance switching effect in ferroelectric Vinylidene-fluoride (VDF)/Trifluoroethylene (TrFE) copolymer thin films. Pt and Au were used as the bottom and top electrodes, respectively, and the thickness of the VDF/TrFE copolymer film was adjusted to be 10 nm. The conduction current was 100 times higher in the case of the spontaneous polarization of the VDF/TrFE film towards the Au electrode than that in the case of the opposite direction. This resistance switching was confirmed to be reproducible after 10 successive polarization reversals.

  3. Effects of polarity, hydrophobicity, and density of ionic liquids on cellulose solubility.

    PubMed

    Abe, Mitsuru; Kuroda, Kosuke; Sato, Daiki; Kunimura, Haruhito; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-28

    We have synthesised novel ionic liquids (ILs) to show both cellulose dissolution ability and LCST-type phase transition after mixing with water. To realise both polar and hydrophobic properties, tetraalkylphosphonium cations and a series of carboxylate anions were employed to assume hydrophobic and highly polar properties, respectively. Effects of their alkyl chain length on the water compatibility and cellulose solubility of the corresponding ILs were systematically examined. We succeeded in synthesising novel ILs which dissolve cellulose and separable with water at moderate temperature. Through the present study, we have clarified that not only polarity but also density of ILs is an important factor in designing the ILs for cellulose dissolution. PMID:26583649

  4. Polarity-dependent effect of humidity on the resistive switching characteristics of nonpolar devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Qiaonan; Wei, Chunyang; Wei, Qi; Chen, Yan; Xia, Yidong; Xu, Bo; Yin, Jiang; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-10-01

    The roles of moisture in resistive switching (RS) devices are closely related to the RS mechanism. In principle, the nonpolar RS promises symmetric behaviors independent of the polarities of operating voltages. However, the effect of humidity on the RS characteristics of Pt/TiO2- x /Pt nonpolar cells is confirmed to be polarity-dependent. The positive electroforming threshold voltage decreases when humidity increases, whereas the negative one is unaffected. This asymmetric phenomenon can be attributed to the polarity-associated rule of current varying with humidity before electroforming. The voltage distribution in the device and then the electroforming threshold voltage are modified.

  5. Irradiation effect of polarization direction and intensity of semiconductor laser on injured peripheral nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo-Xin, Xiong; Lei-lei, Xiong

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the irradiation effect of polarization direction and the intensity of a semiconductor laser on the injured peripheral nerve in rabbits, the model of the injured common peroneal nerve was established, the L5,6 spinal segments of the rabbits were irradiated, a uniform rotating polarizer was placed at the laser output which made the polarization direction and intensity of the output laser change according to the 80 Hz cosine law. The experimental results show that irradiating the spinal segment of injured nerves in rabbits with this changeable semiconductor laser can significantly promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves and the function recovery.

  6. The polarized Debye sheath effect on Kadomtsev-Petviashvili electrostatic structures in strongly coupled dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Shahmansouri, M.; Alinejad, H.

    2015-04-15

    We give a theoretical investigation on the dynamics of nonlinear electrostatic waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma with strong electrostatic interaction between dust grains in the presence of the polarization force (i.e., the force due to the polarized Debye sheath). Adopting a reductive perturbation method, we derived a three-dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation that describes the evolution of weakly nonlinear electrostatic localized waves. The energy integral equation is used to study the existence domains of the localized structures. The analysis provides the localized structure existence region, in terms of the effects of strong interaction between the dust particles and polarization force.

  7. [Reverse osmosis membrane fouling by humic acid using XDLVO approach: effect of calcium ions].

    PubMed

    Yao, Shu-Di; Gao, Xin-Yu; Guo, Ben-Hua; Bao, Nan; Xie, Hui-Jun; Liang, Shuang

    2012-06-01

    Interfacial interactions involved in reverse osmosis (RO) membrane fouling by humic acid were quantitatively evaluated using the XDLVO (extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek) approach. The role of each individual interfacial interaction during membrane fouling was elucidated with special emphasis devoted into the influence of Ca2+ under different solution pHs. The results showed that, regardless of the presence of Ca2+, van der Waals interaction favoring fouling contributed the most to the interfacial interactions at pH 3, whereas the polar interaction inhibiting fouling played a dominant role at pH 7 and pH 10. Electrostatic double layer interaction appeared to be the weakest in all cases, thus contributing the least to membrane fouling. It was the changing of polar interaction that gave rise to the influence of Ca2+ on membrane fouling, which turned out to be more significant at lower pH. Ca2+ would accelerate humic acid RO membrane fouling at most cases. Correlation analysis between interfacial free energy and fouling extent revealed that XDLVO approach could reasonably predict humic acid RO membrane fouling behaviors under different solution conditions.

  8. Effects of Antimicrobial Peptide Revealed by Simulations: Translocation, Pore Formation, Membrane Corrugation and Euler Buckling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Licui; Jia, Nana; Gao, Lianghui; Fang, Weihai; Golubovic, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    We explore the effects of the peripheral and transmembrane antimicrobial peptides on the lipid bilayer membrane by using the coarse grained Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations. We study peptide/lipid membrane complexes by considering peptides with various structure, hydrophobicity and peptide/lipid interaction strength. The role of lipid/water interaction is also discussed. We discuss a rich variety of membrane morphological changes induced by peptides, such as pore formation, membrane corrugation and Euler buckling. PMID:23579956

  9. Effects of antimicrobial peptide revealed by simulations: translocation, pore formation, membrane corrugation and euler buckling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Licui; Jia, Nana; Gao, Lianghui; Fang, Weihai; Golubovic, Leonardo

    2013-04-11

    We explore the effects of the peripheral and transmembrane antimicrobial peptides on the lipid bilayer membrane by using the coarse grained Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations. We study peptide/lipid membrane complexes by considering peptides with various structure, hydrophobicity and peptide/lipid interaction strength. The role of lipid/water interaction is also discussed. We discuss a rich variety of membrane morphological changes induced by peptides, such as pore formation, membrane corrugation and Euler buckling.

  10. Involvement of a di-leucine motif in targeting of ABCC1 to the basolateral plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Emi, Yoshikazu; Harada, Yasue; Sakaguchi, Masao

    2013-11-01

    Localization of ATP-binding cassette transporter isoform C1 (ABCC1) to the basolateral membrane of polarized cells is crucial for export of a variety of cellular metabolites; however, the mechanism regulating basolateral targeting of the transporter is poorly understood. Here we describe identification of a basolateral targeting signal in the first cytoplasmic loop domain (CLD1) of human ABCC1. Comparison of the CLD1 amino acid sequences from ABCC1 to ABCC2 revealed that ABCC1 possesses a characteristic sequence, E(295)EVEALI(301), which is comprised of a cluster of acidic glutamate residues followed by a di-leucine motif. This characteristic sequence is highly conserved among vertebrate ABCC1 orthologs and is positioned at a site that is structurally equivalent to the apical targeting signal previously described in ABCC2. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of this sequence in full-length human ABCC1 showed that both L(300) and I(301) residues were required for basolateral targeting of ABCC1 in polarized HepG2 and MDCK cells. Conversely, E(295), E(296), and E(298) residues were not required for basolateral localization of the transporter. Therefore, a di-leucine motif within the CLD1 is a basolateral targeting determinant of ABCC1.

  11. Effects of the membrane action of tetralin on the functional and structural properties of artificial and bacterial membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Sikkema, J; Poolman, B; Konings, W N; de Bont, J A

    1992-01-01

    Tetralin is toxic to bacterial cells at concentrations below 100 mumol/liter. To assess the inhibitory action of tetralin on bacterial membranes, a membrane model system, consisting of proteoliposomes in which beef heart cytochrome c oxidase was reconstituted as the proton motive force-generating mechanism, and several gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were studied. Because of its hydrophobicity, tetralin partitioned into lipid membranes preferentially (lipid/buffer partition coefficient of tetralin is approximately 1,100). The excessive accumulation of tetralin caused expansion of the membrane and impairment of different membrane functions. Studies with proteoliposomes and intact cells indicated that tetralin makes the membrane permeable for ions (protons) and inhibits the respiratory enzymes, which leads to a partial dissipation of the pH gradient and electrical potential. The effect of tetralin on the components of the proton motive force as well as disruption of protein-lipid interaction(s) could lead to impairment of various metabolic functions and to low growth rates. The data offer an explanation for the difficulty in isolating and cultivating microorganisms in media containing tetralin or other lipophilic compounds. PMID:1314806

  12. Comparative study of nuclear effects in polarized electron scattering from 3 He

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ethier, J. J.; Melnitchouk, W.

    2013-11-01

    We present a detailed analysis of nuclear effects in inclusive electron scattering from polarized 3He nuclei for polarization asymmetries, structure functions and their moments, both in the nucleon resonance and deep-inelastic regions. We compare the results of calculations within the weak binding approximation at finite Q2 with the effective polarization ansatz often used in experimental data analyses, and explore the impact of Δ components in the nuclear wave function and nucleon off-shell corrections on extractions of the free neutron structure. Using the same framework we also make predictions for the Q2 dependence of quasielastic scattering from polarized 3He, data onmore » which can be used to constrain the spin-dependent nuclear smearing functions in 3He.« less

  13. Modeling and analysis of polarization effects in Fourier domain mode-locked lasers.

    PubMed

    Jirauschek, Christian; Huber, Robert

    2015-05-15

    We develop a theoretical model for Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) lasers in a non-polarization-maintaining configuration, which is the most widely used type of FDML source. This theoretical approach is applied to analyze a widely wavelength-swept FDML setup, as used for picosecond pulse generation by temporal compression of the sweeps. We demonstrate that good agreement between simulation and experiment can only be obtained by including polarization effects due to fiber bending birefringence, polarization mode dispersion, and cross-phase modulation into the theoretical model. Notably, the polarization dynamics are shown to have a beneficial effect on the instantaneous linewidth, resulting in improved coherence and thus compressibility of the wavelength-swept FDML output.

  14. In Situ Determination of Clostridium Endospore Membrane Fluidity during Pressure-Assisted Thermal Processing in Combination with Nisin or Reutericyclin

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, S.; Winter, R.; McMullen, L. M.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined the membrane fluidity of clostridial endospores during treatment with heat and pressure with nisin or reutericyclin. Heating (90°C) reduced laurdan (6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene) general polarization, corresponding to membrane fluidization. Pressure (200 MPa) stabilized membrane order. Reutericyclin and nisin exhibit divergent effects on heat- and pressure-induced spore inactivation and membrane fluidity. PMID:23335780

  15. Effect of dust particle polarization on scattering processes in complex plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kodanova, S. K.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Bastykova, N. Kh.; Moldabekov, Zh. A.

    2015-06-15

    Screened interaction potentials in dusty plasmas taking into account the polarization of dust particles have been obtained. On the basis of screened potentials scattering processes for ion-dust particle and dust particle-dust particle pairs have been studied. In particular, the scattering cross section is considered. The scattering processes for which the dust grain polarization is unimportant have been found. The effect of zero angle dust particle-dust particle scattering is predicted.

  16. Polarity effects in the lactose operon of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Altman, Sidney

    2004-05-21

    An intergenic RNA segment between lacY and lacA of the lactose operon in Escherichia coli is cleaved by RNase P, an endoribonuclease. The cleavage of the intergenic RNA was ten times less efficient than cleavage of a tRNA precursor in vitro. Fragments of the RNase P cleavage product are detectable in vivo in the wild-type strain but not in a mutant strain at the restrictive temperature. The cleavage product that contains lacA in the wild-type strain was quickly degraded. When this intergenic segment was cloned upstream of a reporter gene, the expression of the reporter gene was also inhibited substantially in wild-type E.coli, but not in a temperature sensitive mutant strain in RNase P at the restrictive temperature. These results support data regarding the natural polarity between lacZ versus lacA, the downstream gene. PMID:15123418

  17. Solvent polarity effects on carbene/ether-O-ylide equilibria.

    PubMed

    Hoijemberg, Pablo A; Moss, Robert A; Krogh-Jespersen, Karsten

    2012-05-17

    p-Nitrophenylchlorocarbene (PNPCC) reacted reversibly with tetrahydrofuran (THF), tetrahydropyran (THP), 1,3-dioxane (1,3-D), and 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) to form O-ylides 8, 9, 10, and 11, respectively. The O-ylides were visualized by their characteristic UV-vis spectroscopic signatures. Equilibrium constants (K) were determined spectroscopically, and studies of K as a function of pentane/1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) solvent blends illustrated the dependence of K on solvent polarity. Electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory provided carbene/ether O-ylide structures and energetics, as well as electronic spectroscopic parameters for use in the determination of K. Comparisons of the computed and experimental data were generally satisfactory. PMID:22564048

  18. Fatigue effect on polarization switching dynamics in polycrystalline bulk ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, S.; Glaum, J.; Kungl, H.; Sapper, E.; Dittmer, R.; Genenko, Y. A.; von Seggern, H.

    2016-08-01

    Statistical distribution of switching times is a key information necessary to describe the dynamic response of a polycrystalline bulk ferroelectric to an applied electric field. The Inhomogeneous Field Mechanism (IFM) model offers a useful tool which allows extraction of this information from polarization switching measurements over a large time window. In this paper, the model was further developed to account for the presence of non-switchable regions in fatigued materials. Application of the IFM-analysis to bipolar electric cycling induced fatigue process of various lead-based and lead-free ferroelectric ceramics reveals different scenarios of property degradation. Insight is gained into different underlying fatigue mechanisms inherent to the investigated systems.

  19. NSOM/QD-based fluorescence-topographic image fusion directly reveals nano-spatial peak-valley polarities of CD69 and CD71 activation molecules on cell-membrane fluctuations during T-cell activation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Liyun; Zhang, Zhun; Lu, Xiaoxu; Huang, Dan; Chen, Crystal Y; Wang, Richard; Chen, Zheng W

    2011-10-30

    Nano-spatial distribution of cell surface molecules on cell membrane fluctuations during T-cell activation has not been reported. In this study, we innovated application of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM)/quantum dots (QDs)-based nanotechnology through three-dimensional image fusion algorithm to merge the simultaneously obtained dual-color fluorescence information and three-dimensional topography. This novel imaging system made it possible to visualize nano-spatial distribution and organization of early-activation molecules CD69 and late-activation molecules CD71 on cell-membrane fluctuations during T-cell activation. Interestingly, most CD69 molecules were clustered to form 250-500nm nano-domains polarizing predominantly in the peak of the cell-membrane fluctuations. In contrast, although CD71 molecules were also clustered as 250-500nm nano-domains, they polarized dominantly in the valley of the cell-membrane fluctuations. The peak-valley polarities of CD69 nano-domains and CD71 nano-domains implied their different functions. CD69 nano-domains polarizing on membrane-peak fluctuations might serve as transient platforms driving TCR/CD3-induced signaling and activation, whereas CD71 nano-domains distributing in the membrane-valley fluctuations appeared to facilitate iron uptake for increased metabolisms in T-cell activation. Importantly, this NSOM/QD-based fluorescence-topographic image fusion provides a powerful tool to visualize nano-spatial distribution of cell-surface molecules on cell-membrane fluctuations and enable better understanding of distribution-function relationship.

  20. Zwitterionic sulfobetaine-grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride) membrane with highly effective blood compatibility via atmospheric plasma-induced surface copolymerization.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yung; Chang, Wan-Ju; Shih, Yu-Ju; Wei, Ta-Chin; Hsiue, Ging-Ho

    2011-04-01

    Development of nonfouling membranes to prevent nonspecific protein adsorption and platelet adhesion is critical for many biomedical applications. It is always a challenge to control the surface graft copolymerization of a highly polar monomer from the highly hydrophobic surface of a fluoropolymer membrane. In this work, the blood compatibility of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes with surface-grafted electrically neutral zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA), from atmospheric plasma-induced surface copolymerization, was studied. The effect of surface composition and graft morphology, electrical neutrality, hydrophilicity and hydration capability on blood compatibility of the membranes were determined. Blood compatibility of the zwitterionic PVDF membranes was systematically evaluated by plasma protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, plasma-clotting time, and blood cell hemolysis. It was found that the nonfouling nature and hydration capability of grafted PSBMA polymers can be effectively controlled by regulating the grafting coverage and charge balance of the PSBMA layer on the PVDF membrane surface. Even a slight charge bias in the grafted zwitterionic PSBMA layer can induce electrostatic interactions between proteins and the membrane surfaces, leading to surface protein adsorption, platelet activation, plasma clotting and blood cell hemolysis. Thus, the optimized PSBMA surface graft layer in overall charge neutrality has a high hydration capability and the best antifouling, anticoagulant, and antihemolytic activities when comes into contact with human blood. PMID:21388227

  1. Theoretical aspects of dynamic nuclear polarization in the solid state - The solid effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovav, Yonatan; Feintuch, Akiva; Vega, Shimon

    2010-12-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization has gained high popularity in recent years, due to advances in the experimental aspects of this methodology for increasing the NMR and MRI signals of relevant chemical and biological compounds. The DNP mechanism relies on the microwave (MW) irradiation induced polarization transfer from unpaired electrons to the nuclei in a sample. In this publication we present nuclear polarization enhancements of model systems in the solid state at high magnetic fields. These results were obtained by numerical calculations based on the spin density operator formalism. Here we restrict ourselves to samples with low electron concentrations, where the dipolar electron-electron interactions can be ignored. Thus the DNP enhancement of the polarizations of the nuclei close to the electrons is described by the Solid Effect mechanism. Our numerical results demonstrate the dependence of the polarization enhancement on the MW irradiation power and frequency, the hyperfine and nuclear dipole-dipole spin interactions, and the relaxation parameters of the system. The largest spin system considered in this study contains one electron and eight nuclei. In particular, we discuss the influence of the nuclear concentration and relaxation on the polarization of the core nuclei, which are coupled to an electron, and are responsible for the transfer of polarization to the bulk nuclei in the sample via spin diffusion.

  2. Local Maps of the Polarization and Depolarization in Organic Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ronggang; Jonas, Alain M

    2016-02-24

    We study the local ferroelectric polarization and depolarization of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) in p-type ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FeFETs). Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) is used to obtain local maps of the polarization on model metal-semiconductor-ferroelectric stacks, and on FeFETs stripped from their top-gate electrode; transfer curves are measured on complete FeFETs. The influence of the semiconductor layer thickness and of the polarity and amplitude of the poling voltage are investigated. In accumulation, the stable "on" state consists of a uniform upward-polarized ferroelectric layer, with compensation holes accumulating at the ferroelectric/semiconducting interface. In depletion, the stable "off" state consists of a depolarized region in the center of the transistor channel, surrounded by partially downward-polarized regions over the source and drain electrodes and neighboring regions. The partial depolarization of these regions is due to the incomplete screening of polarization charges by the charges of the remote electrodes. Therefore, thinner semiconducting layers provide higher downward polarizations, which result in a more depleted transistor channel and a higher charge injection barrier between the electrodes and the semiconductor, leading to lower threshold voltages and higher on/off current values at zero gate bias. Clues for optimization of the devices are finally provided.

  3. Effects of electric polarization of indium tin oxide (ITO) and polypyrrole on biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Schaule, Gabriela; Rumpf, A; Weidlich, C; Mangold, K-M; Flemming, H-C

    2008-01-01

    The influence of electric polarization on primary adhesion and on biofilm formation was investigated. As substrata, indium tin oxide (ITO) and polypyrrole coatings were used because of their electric conductivity. The materials were polarized from -600 mV to +600 mV, switching every 60 seconds. Control was non-polarized substrata. Primary adhesion under this regime was not strongly influenced, however, the morphology of the primary biofilm was obviously different from that of the control. Biofilm formation of the natural population of non-chlorinated drinking water, supplemented with nutrient in low concentration, was determined over 164 hours. While the biofilm on the control surface developed to a thickness of about 100 microm, on the pulsed polarized surface it reproducibly developed only to a very thin biofilm. Faster switching of the polarization (10 second) had no further influence. If the polarization routine was reduced to only twice a day (one hour), no influence on biofilm development was observed. These results indicate that fluctuating polarization at a rate of once per minute inhibits the physiological processes during biofilm formation during one week. Investigations are in process to determine further details of this effect in order to employ it for inhibition of biofouling. PMID:19092192

  4. Optically controlled spin-polarization memory effect on Mn delta-doped heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Balanta, M. A. G.; Brasil, M. J. S. P.; Iikawa, F.; Mendes, Udson C.; Brum, J. A.; Danilov, Yu. A.; Dorokhin, M. V.; Vikhrova, O. V.; Zvonkov, B. N.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the dynamics of the interaction between spin-polarized photo-created carriers and Mn ions on InGaAs/GaAs: Mn structures. The carriers are confined in an InGaAs quantum well and the Mn ions come from a Mn delta-layer grown at the GaAs barrier close to the well. Even though the carriers and the Mn ions are spatially separated, the interaction between them is demonstrated by time-resolved spin-polarized photoluminescence measurements. Using a pre-pulse laser excitation with an opposite circular-polarization clearly reduces the polarization degree of the quantum-well emission for samples where a strong magnetic interaction is observed. The results demonstrate that the Mn ions act as a spin-memory that can be optically controlled by the polarization of the photocreated carriers. On the other hand, the spin-polarized Mn ions also affect the spin-polarization of the subsequently created carriers as observed by their spin relaxation time. These effects fade away with increasing time delays between the pulses as well as with increasing temperatures. PMID:27080310

  5. pH-Dependent retention changes during membrane filtration of aluminum-coagulated solutions and the effect of precentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Bérubé, Denis; Dorea, Caetano

    2013-03-19

    During jar tests on alum-based drinking water treatment, dissolved Al determinations on solutions coagulated at pH ≥ 6.5 were not reproducible. These determinations were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after syringe filtration (0.45 μm polyethersulfone membrane). In order to better define these anomalies, the filtrates were collected in sequential fractions of 7.5 mL. At coagulation pHs of 6.5 and 7.0, retention changes were demonstrated by large filtrate concentration reductions at all temperatures tested (0.1, 5.0, and 17.0 °C). In all cases, the concentrations converged to levels <50 μg/L within the fourth sequential fraction. In comparison, no retention change was observed for jar tests conducted at the same temperatures but in the low range of the minimum solubility domain, at pHs 5.5 and 6.0. The retention changes were also eliminated by precentrifugation (7000 g for 45 min; pH 6.5-7.2). At weaker precentrifugation conditions, as well as by varying membrane surface area or membrane fouling, the filtrate concentrations behaved according to a barrier buildup at the membrane-solution interface by unsettled flocculation residuals. The influence of flocculation time and temperature emphasized the importance of reaction rates, which could be enhanced at the interface by concentration polarization effects. These phenomena have implications on analytical protocols and on filtration in full-scale treatment.

  6. Polarization effects of the finite-size low-altitude ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenovski, P.

    2001-01-01

    We use two-fluid or Hall effect MHD description of weakly-ionized stratified atmosphere to describe several polarization features of the MHD disturbance penetration. We employ a pair of functions for the electric and magnetic field components ratio which can be treated analytically. As an example we derive an approximation to the case of the MHD waves in the Earth's Hall ionosphere and demonstrate its different polarization responses (ellipticity and rotation) for Alfvén and fast magnetosonic modes depending on the Hall region thickness. Neglecting the Hall thickness effect we derive previously obtained, well-known results for the rotation of the polarization plane of the MHD waves (Dungey, 1963; Nishida, 1964; Inoue, 1973; Hughes, 1974; Hughes and Southwood, 1976). The ionospheric effects are more essential for the polarization of the fast magnetosonic waves. The polarization changes of the magnetosonic waves are expressed as a function of i) the ratio (R) of the height-integrated Hall (Σ_H) and Pedersen (Σ_p) conductivities (conductances) in the Hall region (85-125 km) and ii) a wave/magnetospheric parameter (A_m) and the ratio A_m/Σ_p. The wave/magnetospheric parameter A_m depends on the wave frequency and the horizontal scale of the ULF waves. Using standard models IRI 90 and MSIS 86, responses of ULF magnetosonic waves to seasonal/diurnal ionospheric variations at subauroral/middle latitudes are illustrated for arbitrary, but reasonable values of the wave/magnetospheric parameter A_m. The polarization plane rotation for the ULF compressional waves ranges between 0 and π/2 and reaches the classical π/2 degree only for special cases. Along with the rotation effect an ellipticity effect has also local time course. These findings suggest a new dissipative mechanism (non-resonant) of transformation of magnetosonic waves into Alfvén modes in the ionosphere. In addition we suggest a physical insight for the MHD wave transformation effects by the ionosphere

  7. Factors controlling the distribution of anaerobic methanotrophic communities in marine environments: Evidence from intact polar membrane lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossel, Pamela E.; Elvert, Marcus; Ramette, Alban; Boetius, Antje; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Three distinct types of microbial consortia appear to mediate the anaerobic oxidation of methane with sulfate as electron acceptor in marine sediments and are distributed ubiquitously. These consortia consist of ANerobic MEthanotrophic (ANME) archaea of the ANME-1, ANME-2 and ANME-3 clades and their sulfate-reducing bacterial partners either of the Desulfosarcina- Desulfococcus (ANME-1/DSS and ANME-2/DSS) or Desulfobulbus spp. (ANME-3/DBB) branches. Frequently one consortium type dominates the community, but the selective factors are not well constrained. Here we analyzed patterns in the composition of intact polar lipids extracted from bacterial and archaeal communities of different marine seep environments. Further, we investigated if different environmental and geographical factors were responsible for the observed patterns, and hence could be important in the selection of seep communities. Intact polar lipids (IPLs) provide a more robust distinction of the composition of extant communities than their less polar derivatives. In ANME-1/DSS-dominated communities, glycosidic- and phospho-glyceroldialkylglyceroltetraethers were abundant, while ANME-2/DSS and ANME-3/DBB-dominated communities showed abundant archaeol-based IPLs, either with glycosidic and phospho-headgroups or only phospho-headgroups, respectively. The relative proportion of bacterial IPLs varied widely from 0% to 93% and was generally lower in samples of the ANME-1 type, suggesting lower bacterial biomasses in the respective communities. In addition to these lipid signatures, distinctive features were related to the habitat characteristics of these communities: lower amounts of phosphate-based IPLs were generally observed in communities from calcified microbial mats compared to sediments, which may reflect phosphate limitation. Based on statistical analyses of IPLs and environmental data this study constrained for the first time the occurrence of three environmental factors controlling the

  8. Accounting for Electronic Polarization Effects in Aqueous Sodium Chloride via Molecular Dynamics Aided by Neutron Scattering.

    PubMed

    Kohagen, Miriam; Mason, Philip E; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Modeled ions, described by nonpolarizable force fields, can suffer from unphysical ion pairing and clustering in aqueous solutions well below their solubility limit. The electronic continuum correction takes electronic polarization effects of the solvent into account in an effective way by scaling the charges on the ions, resulting in a much better description of the ionic behavior. Here, we present parameters for the sodium ion consistent with this effective polarizability approach and in agreement with experimental data from neutron scattering, which could be used for simulations of complex aqueous systems where polarization effects are important.

  9. Relativistic Effects and Polarization in Three High-Energy Pulsar Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyks, J.; Harding, Alice K.; Rudak, B.

    2004-01-01

    We present the influence of the special relativistic effects of aberration and light travel time delay on pulsar high-energy lightcurves and polarization characteristics predicted by three models: the two-pole caustic model, the outer gap model, and the polar cap model. Position angle curves and degree of polarization are calculated for the models and compared with the optical data on the Crab pulsar. The relative positions of peaks in gamma-ray and radio lightcurves are discussed in detail for the models. We find that the two-pole caustic model can reproduce qualitatively the optical polarization characteristics of the Crab pulsar - fast swings of the position angle and minima in polarization degree associated with both peaks. The anticorrelation between the observed flux and the polarization degree (observed in the optical band also for B0656+14) naturally results from the caustic nature of the peaks which are produced in the model due to the superposition of radiation from many different altitudes, ie. polarized at different angles. The two-pole caustic model also provides an acceptable interpretation of the main features in the Crab's radio profile. Neither the outer gap model nor the polar cap model are able to reproduce the optical polarization data on the Crab. Although the outer gap model is very successful in reproducing the relative positions of gamma-ray and radio peaks in pulse profiles, it can reproduce the high-energy lightcurves only when photon emission from regions very close to the light cylinder is included.

  10. Effects of Very Low Dose Fast Neutrons on Cell Membrane And Secondary Protein Structure in Rat Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Saeed, A; Raouf, Gehan A; Nafee, Sherif S; Shaheen, Salem A; Al-Hadeethi, Y

    2015-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on biological cells have been reported in several literatures. Most of them were mainly concerned with doses greater than 0.01 Gy and were also concerned with gamma rays. On the other hand, the studies on very low dose fast neutrons (VLDFN) are rare. In this study, we have investigated the effects of VLDFN on cell membrane and protein secondary structure of rat erythrocytes. Twelve female Wistar rats were irradiated with neutrons of total dose 0.009 Gy (241Am-Be, 0.2 mGy/h) and twelve others were used as control. Blood samples were taken at the 0, 4th, 8th, and 12th days postirradiation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of rat erythrocytes were recorded. Second derivative and curve fitting were used to analysis FTIR spectra. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to classify group spectra. The second derivative and curve fitting of FTIR spectra revealed that the most significant alterations in the cell membrane and protein secondary structure upon neutron irradiation were detected after 4 days postirradiation. The increase in membrane polarity, phospholipids chain length, packing, and unsaturation were noticed from the corresponding measured FTIR area ratios. This may be due to the membrane lipid peroxidation. The observed band shift in the CH2 stretching bands toward the lower frequencies may be associated with the decrease in membrane fluidity. The curve fitting of the amide I revealed an increase in the percentage area of α-helix opposing a decrease in the β-structure protein secondary structure, which may be attributed to protein denaturation. The results provide detailed insights into the VLDFN effects on erythrocytes. VLDFN can cause an oxidative stress to the irradiated erythrocytes, which appears clearly after 4 days postirradiation.

  11. Effects of Very Low Dose Fast Neutrons on Cell Membrane And Secondary Protein Structure in Rat Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nafee, Sherif S.; Shaheen, Salem A.; Al-Hadeethi, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on biological cells have been reported in several literatures. Most of them were mainly concerned with doses greater than 0.01 Gy and were also concerned with gamma rays. On the other hand, the studies on very low dose fast neutrons (VLDFN) are rare. In this study, we have investigated the effects of VLDFN on cell membrane and protein secondary structure of rat erythrocytes. Twelve female Wistar rats were irradiated with neutrons of total dose 0.009 Gy (241Am-Be, 0.2 mGy/h) and twelve others were used as control. Blood samples were taken at the 0, 4th, 8th, and 12th days postirradiation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of rat erythrocytes were recorded. Second derivative and curve fitting were used to analysis FTIR spectra. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to classify group spectra. The second derivative and curve fitting of FTIR spectra revealed that the most significant alterations in the cell membrane and protein secondary structure upon neutron irradiation were detected after 4 days postirradiation. The increase in membrane polarity, phospholipids chain length, packing, and unsaturation were noticed from the corresponding measured FTIR area ratios. This may be due to the membrane lipid peroxidation. The observed band shift in the CH2 stretching bands toward the lower frequencies may be associated with the decrease in membrane fluidity. The curve fitting of the amide I revealed an increase in the percentage area of α-helix opposing a decrease in the β-structure protein secondary structure, which may be attributed to protein denaturation. The results provide detailed insights into the VLDFN effects on erythrocytes. VLDFN can cause an oxidative stress to the irradiated erythrocytes, which appears clearly after 4 days postirradiation. PMID:26436416

  12. Evaluation of membrane bioreactor performance via residence time distribution: effects of membrane configuration and mixing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Ong, K W; Brannock, M W D; Leslie, G L

    2008-01-01

    Unlike conventional wastewater treatment systems that have a single effluent discharge point, membrane bioreactors (MBR) may have multiple extraction points resulting from the location of the membrane element in the reactor. This leads to multiple residence time distributions for an MBR system. One method to characterise the mixing is based on the concept of residence time distribution (RTD). A set of RTDs were generated using the conservative tracer, lithium chloride, for pilot plant MBRs with capacity up to 300 m3/day. Flat sheet and hollow fibre pilot plant MBR systems were operated in parallel on primary effluent collected at the Bedok Water Reclamation Plant in the republic of Singapore. Analysis of the RTD profiles indicated that membrane geometry did not impact on the kinetic conversion associated with nitrification because both MBRs were in well mixed conditions. However, the energy required to achieve perfect mixing with a hollow fibre module MBR, as defined by the velocity gradient, was lower than that with a flat sheet module MBR. The implication is that energy input associated with reactor mixing will depend on the configuration of the membrane. The difference in energy requirements between flat sheets and hollow fibres is such that careful consideration should be given to membrane selection in larger municipal installations. PMID:18309212

  13. Valley spin polarization by using the extraordinary Rashba effect on silicon.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kazuyuki; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kuzumaki, Takuya; Müller, Beate; Yamamoto, Yuta; Ohtaka, Minoru; Osiecki, Jacek R; Miyamoto, Koji; Takeichi, Yasuo; Harasawa, Ayumi; Stolwijk, Sebastian D; Schmidt, Anke B; Fujii, Jun; Uhrberg, R I G; Donath, Markus; Yeom, Han Woong; Oda, Tatsuki

    2013-01-01

    The addition of the valley degree of freedom to a two-dimensional spin-polarized electronic system provides the opportunity to multiply the functionality of next-generation devices. So far, however, such devices have not been realized due to the difficulty to polarize the valleys, which is an indispensable step to activate this degree of freedom. Here we show the formation of 100% spin-polarized valleys by a simple and easy way using the Rashba effect on a system with C3 symmetry. This polarization, which is much higher than those in ordinary Rashba systems, results in the valleys acting as filters that can suppress the backscattering of spin-charge. The present system is formed on a silicon substrate, and therefore opens a new avenue towards the realization of silicon spintronic devices with high efficiency. PMID:23811797

  14. Valley spin polarization by using the extraordinary Rashba effect on silicon.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kazuyuki; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kuzumaki, Takuya; Müller, Beate; Yamamoto, Yuta; Ohtaka, Minoru; Osiecki, Jacek R; Miyamoto, Koji; Takeichi, Yasuo; Harasawa, Ayumi; Stolwijk, Sebastian D; Schmidt, Anke B; Fujii, Jun; Uhrberg, R I G; Donath, Markus; Yeom, Han Woong; Oda, Tatsuki

    2013-01-01

    The addition of the valley degree of freedom to a two-dimensional spin-polarized electronic system provides the opportunity to multiply the functionality of next-generation devices. So far, however, such devices have not been realized due to the difficulty to polarize the valleys, which is an indispensable step to activate this degree of freedom. Here we show the formation of 100% spin-polarized valleys by a simple and easy way using the Rashba effect on a system with C3 symmetry. This polarization, which is much higher than those in ordinary Rashba systems, results in the valleys acting as filters that can suppress the backscattering of spin-charge. The present system is formed on a silicon substrate, and therefore opens a new avenue towards the realization of silicon spintronic devices with high efficiency.

  15. Dynamic nuclear polarization assisted spin diffusion for the solid effect case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovav, Yonatan; Feintuch, Akiva; Vega, Shimon

    2011-02-01

    The dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) process in solids depends on the magnitudes of hyperfine interactions between unpaired electrons and their neighboring (core) nuclei, and on the dipole-dipole interactions between all nuclei in the sample. The polarization enhancement of the bulk nuclei has been typically described in terms of a hyperfine-assisted polarization of a core nucleus by microwave irradiation followed by a dipolar-assisted spin diffusion process in the core-bulk nuclear system. This work presents a theoretical approach for the study of this combined process using a density matrix formalism. In particular, solid effect DNP on a single electron coupled to a nuclear spin system is considered, taking into account the interactions between the spins as well as the main relaxation mechanisms introduced via the electron, nuclear, and cross-relaxation rates. The basic principles of the DNP-assisted spin diffusion mechanism, polarizing the bulk nuclei, are presented, and it is shown that the polarization of the core nuclei and the spin diffusion process should not be treated separately. To emphasize this observation the coherent mechanism driving the pure spin diffusion process is also discussed. In order to demonstrate the effects of the interactions and relaxation mechanisms on the enhancement of the nuclear polarization, model systems of up to ten spins are considered and polarization buildup curves are simulated. A linear chain of spins consisting of a single electron coupled to a core nucleus, which in turn is dipolar coupled to a chain of bulk nuclei, is considered. The interaction and relaxation parameters of this model system were chosen in a way to enable a critical analysis of the polarization enhancement of all nuclei, and are not far from the values of 13C nuclei in frozen (glassy) organic solutions containing radicals, typically used in DNP at high fields. Results from the simulations are shown, demonstrating the complex dependences of the DNP

  16. Effects of nitrous acid exposure on human mucous membranes.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, T R; Brauer, M; Kjaergaard, S

    1995-05-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is formed both indirectly from the reaction of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with water on indoor surfaces, and directly during combustion. This gaseous pollutant may be a previously unrecognized causal factor in assessments of nitrogen oxide exposure effects. The present study is the first attempt to evaluate exposure effects of HONO on the human airways and the mucous membranes of the eyes and nose. Fifteen healthy adult nonsmokers were exposed for 3.5 h in a double-blind, balanced protocol to clean air, 77, and 395 ppb HONO. Each exposure was preceded by a 1-h baseline measurement period, and exposures were separated by 1 wk. There was a 10-min exercise period during exposure. Effects measurements included assessment of bronchial reactivity, measurement of specific airway conductance, spirometry, acoustic rhinometry, nasal lavage, tear-fluid cytology, a CO2 eye-provocation test, evaluation of eye redness, and subjective sensations. Effects of HONO exposure on the eyes were found as exposure-related changes in tear-fluid cytology. In particular, the number of squamous cells increased by 20, 67, and 80% following exposure to clean air, 77, and 395 ppb HONO, respectively (p = 0.004). Possible indications of exposure effects on sensitivity to CO2 eye provocation and on specific airway conductance were also measured. For specific airway conductance there was an approximate 10% decrease in conductance following exercise in association with HONO exposure, compared with a 2% decrease with clean air (p = 0.038).

  17. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes.

    PubMed

    Koyano, Yuki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S

    2016-08-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous two-dimensional fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it was shown [A. S. Mikhailov and R. Kapral, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015)PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1506825112] that such active proteins should induce nonthermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxislike drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them. PMID:27627343

  18. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyano, Yuki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2016-08-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous two-dimensional fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it was shown [A. S. Mikhailov and R. Kapral, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015), 10.1073/pnas.1506825112] that such active proteins should induce nonthermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxislike drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them.

  19. The effects of gravity darkening on the ultraviolet continuum polarization produced by circumstellar disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, J. E.; Bjorkman, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the effects of gravity darkening on the UV continuum polarization produced by an axisymmetric disk that surrounds a rapidly rotating star. Although the model is a single scattering approximation, we do include the effects of attenuation (electron scattering plus hydrogen bound-free absorption) by the disk, using an approach similar to that of Sobolev (1963). Because of the gravity darkening of the star and the attenuation within the disk, the radiation field is not axially symmetric about the radius vector. This implies that the polarization source functions are no longer provided by the finite disk depolarization factors of Cassinelli, Nordsieck, & Murison (1987), which are functions of the intensity moments in a spherically symmetric atmosphere. We reformulate the polarization source functions using generalized intensity moment tensors (J, H(sub i), K(sub ij)) that are valid for an arbitrary radiation field and envelope geometry. We find that the polarization source functions are simplest when using intensity moments in the observer's reference frame. On the other hand, the intensity moments are most easily evaluated in the stellar reference frame. Using the rotation transformation properties of the generalized intensity moments, we relate the observer's moments to those evaluated in the stellar reference frame. Our procedure for determining the polarization source functions thus merely involves choosing a set of Euler angles for the coordinate rotations, and then evaluating the associated rotation matrix. The geometrical complications of polarization transfer are thus reduced to obtaining a coordinate rotation matrix.

  20. Exploring the Effects of Cloud Vertical Structure on Cloud Microphysical Retrievals based on Polarized Reflectances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. J.; Zhang, Z.; Platnick, S. E.; Ackerman, A. S.; Cornet, C.; Baum, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    A polarized cloud reflectance simulator was developed by coupling an LES cloud model with a polarized radiative transfer model to assess the capabilities of polarimetric cloud retrievals. With future remote sensing campaigns like NASA's Aerosols/Clouds/Ecosystems (ACE) planning to feature advanced polarimetric instruments it is important for the cloud remote sensing community to understand the retrievable information available and the related systematic/methodical limitations. The cloud retrieval simulator we have developed allows us to probe these important questions in a realistically relevant test bed. Our simulator utilizes a polarized adding-doubling radiative transfer model and an LES cloud field from a DHARMA simulation (Ackerman et al. 2004) with cloud properties based on the stratocumulus clouds observed during the DYCOMS-II field campaign. In this study we will focus on how the vertical structure of cloud microphysics can influence polarized cloud effective radius retrievals. Numerous previous studies have explored how retrievals based on total reflectance are affected by cloud vertical structure (Platnick 2000, Chang and Li 2002) but no such studies about the effects of vertical structure on polarized retrievals exist. Unlike the total cloud reflectance, which is predominantly multiply scattered light, the polarized reflectance is primarily the result of singly scattered photons. Thus the polarized reflectance is sensitive to only the uppermost region of the cloud (tau~<1) where photons can scatter once and still escape before being scattered again. This means that retrievals based on polarized reflectance have the potential to reveal behaviors specific to the cloud top. For example cloud top entrainment of dry air, a major influencer on the microphysical development of cloud droplets, can be potentially studied with polarimetric retrievals.

  1. Electrically-Induced Polarization and the Spin Hall Effect in Semiconductors at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Nathaniel

    2007-03-01

    The capability to generate and manipulate spin polarization through the spin-orbit interaction inspires growing interest in all-electrical techniques to exploit electron spins for applications in semiconductor spintronics. Experiments show spin polarization can be electrically generated by current- induced spin polarization from internal magnetic fields in the bulk of a conducting channel, or accumulation of spin polarization near sample edges due to transverse spin currents generated by the spin Hall. These spin currents can drive spin accumulation over micron length scales in semiconductor arms transverse to a conducting channel. More recently, we investigate electrical generation of spin polarization in n-ZnSe epilayers using Kerr rotation spectroscopy The internal magnetic field is studied and found to only be measurable in strained layers, likely due to the weak spin-orbit interaction in ZnSe. Despite this, unstrained n-ZnSe layers exhibit both in-plane bulk current-induced spin polarization and an out-of-plane spin accumulation of opposite sign on opposite edges of a conducting channel indicative of the spin Hall effect. The spin Hall conductivity is estimated according to a spin accumulation model and is found to be consistent with the extrinsic spin- dependent scattering mechanism. Both the current-induced spin polarization and the spin Hall effect are robust to room temperature in ZnSe. These results suggest the potential for practical utilization of electrically generated spin polarization in room temperature semiconductor devices. V. Sih, W. H. Lau, R. C. Myers, V. R. Horowitz, A. C. Gossard and D. D. Awschalom, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 096605 (2006). N.P. Stern, S. Ghosh, G. Xiang, M. Zhu, N. Samarth, and D. D. Awschalom, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 126603 (2006).

  2. SCATTERING POLARIZATION AND HANLE EFFECT IN STELLAR ATMOSPHERES WITH HORIZONTAL INHOMOGENEITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Manso Sainz, Rafael; Trujillo Bueno, Javier E-mail: jtb@iac.es

    2011-12-10

    Scattering of light from an anisotropic source produces linear polarization in spectral lines and in the continuum. In the outer layers of a stellar atmosphere the anisotropy of the radiation field is typically dominated by the radiation escaping away, but local horizontal fluctuations of the physical conditions may also contribute, distorting the illumination and, hence, the polarization pattern. Additionally, a magnetic field may perturb and modify the line scattering polarization signals through the Hanle effect. Here, we study such symmetry-breaking effects. We develop a method to solve the transfer of polarized radiation in a scattering atmosphere with weak horizontal fluctuations of the opacity and source functions. It comprises linearization (small opacity and Planck function fluctuations are assumed), reduction to a quasi-plane-parallel problem through harmonic analysis, and the problem's numerical solution by generalized standard techniques. We apply this method to study scattering polarization in atmospheres with horizontal fluctuations in the Planck function and opacity. We derive several very general results and constraints from considerations on the symmetries and dimensionality of the problem, and we give explicit solutions of a few illustrative problems of special interest. For example, we show (1) how the amplitudes of the fractional linear polarization signals change when considering increasingly smaller horizontal atmospheric inhomogeneities, (2) that in the presence of such inhomogeneities even a vertical magnetic field may modify the scattering line polarization, and (3) that forward scattering polarization may be produced without the need for an inclined magnetic field. These results are important for understanding the physics of the problem and as benchmarks for multidimensional radiative transfer codes.

  3. Effects of polarization in low-level laser therapy of spinal cord injury in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Takahiro; Sato, Shunichi; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Hamblin, Michael R.; Obara, Minoru

    2012-03-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a promising approach to treat the spinal cord injury (SCI). Since nerve fibers have optical anisotropy, propagation of light in the spinal tissue might be affected by its polarization direction. However, the effect of polarization on the efficacy of LLLT has not been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of polarization on the efficacy of near-infrared LLLT for SCI. Rat spinal cord was injured with a weight-drop device. The lesion site was irradiated with an 808-nm diode laser beam that was transmitted through a polarizing filter immediately after injury and daily for five consecutive days. The laser power at the injured spinal cord surface was 25 mW, and the dosage per day was 9.6 J/cm2 (spot diameter, 2 cm; irradiation duration, 1200 s). Functional recovery was assessed daily by an open-field test. The results showed that the functional scores of the SCI rats that were treated with 808-nm laser irradiation were significantly higher than those of the SCI alone group (Group 1) from day 5 after injury, regardless of the polarization direction. Importantly, as compared to the locomotive function of the SCI rats that were treated with the perpendicularly-polarized laser parallel to the spinal column (Group 2), that of the SCI rats that were irradiated with the linearly aligned polarization (Group 3) was significantly improved from day 10 after injury. In addition, the ATP contents in the injured spinal tissue of Group 3, which were measured immediately after laser irradiation, were moderately higher than those of Group 2. These observations are attributable to the deeper penetration of the parallelpolarized light in the anisotropic spinal tissue, suggesting that polarization direction significantly affects the efficacy of LLLT for SCI.

  4. Substrate polarization in enzyme catalysis: QM/MM analysis of the effect of oxaloacetate polarization on acetyl-CoA enolization in citrate synthase.

    PubMed

    van der Kamp, Marc W; Perruccio, Francesca; Mulholland, Adrian J

    2007-11-15

    Citrate synthase is an archetypal carbon-carbon bond forming enzyme. It promotes the conversion of oxaloacetate (OAA) to citrate by catalyzing the deprotonation (enolization) of acetyl-CoA, followed by nucleophilic attack of the enolate form of this substrate on OAA to form a citryl-CoA intermediate and subsequent hydrolysis. OAA is strongly bound to the active site and its alpha-carbonyl group is polarized. This polarization has been demonstrated spectroscopically, [(Kurz et al., Biochemistry 1985;24:452-457; Kurz and Drysdale, Biochemistry 1987;26:2623-2627)] and has been suggested to be an important catalytic strategy. Substrate polarization is believed to be important in many enzymes. The first step, formation of the acetyl-CoA enolate intermediate, is thought to be rate-limiting in the mesophilic (pig/chicken) enzyme. We have examined the effects of substrate polarization on this key step using quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) methods. Free energy profiles have been calculated by AM1/CHARMM27 umbrella sampling molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, together with potential energy profiles. To study the influence of OAA polarization, profiles were calculated with different polarization of the OAA alpha-carbonyl group. The results indicate that OAA polarization influences catalysis only marginally but has a larger effect on intermediate stabilization. Different levels of treatment of OAA are compared (MM or QM), and its polarization in the protein and in water analyzed at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d)/CHARMM27 level. Analysis of stabilization by individual residues shows that the enzyme mainly stabilizes the enolate intermediate (not the transition state) through electrostatic (including hydrogen bond) interactions: these contribute much more than polarization of OAA. PMID:17623847

  5. Substrate polarization in enzyme catalysis: QM/MM analysis of the effect of oxaloacetate polarization on acetyl-CoA enolization in citrate synthase.

    PubMed

    van der Kamp, Marc W; Perruccio, Francesca; Mulholland, Adrian J

    2007-11-15

    Citrate synthase is an archetypal carbon-carbon bond forming enzyme. It promotes the conversion of oxaloacetate (OAA) to citrate by catalyzing the deprotonation (enolization) of acetyl-CoA, followed by nucleophilic attack of the enolate form of this substrate on OAA to form a citryl-CoA intermediate and subsequent hydrolysis. OAA is strongly bound to the active site and its alpha-carbonyl group is polarized. This polarization has been demonstrated spectroscopically, [(Kurz et al., Biochemistry 1985;24:452-457; Kurz and Drysdale, Biochemistry 1987;26:2623-2627)] and has been suggested to be an important catalytic strategy. Substrate polarization is believed to be important in many enzymes. The first step, formation of the acetyl-CoA enolate intermediate, is thought to be rate-limiting in the mesophilic (pig/chicken) enzyme. We have examined the effects of substrate polarization on this key step using quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) methods. Free energy profiles have been calculated by AM1/CHARMM27 umbrella sampling molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, together with potential energy profiles. To study the influence of OAA polarization, profiles were calculated with different polarization of the OAA alpha-carbonyl group. The results indicate that OAA polarization influences catalysis only marginally but has a larger effect on intermediate stabilization. Different levels of treatment of OAA are compared (MM or QM), and its polarization in the protein and in water analyzed at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d)/CHARMM27 level. Analysis of stabilization by individual residues shows that the enzyme mainly stabilizes the enolate intermediate (not the transition state) through electrostatic (including hydrogen bond) interactions: these contribute much more than polarization of OAA.

  6. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-03-08

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices.

  7. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices. PMID:26954833

  8. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices. PMID:26954833

  9. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-03-01

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices.

  10. The Effect of Negative Polarity Items on Inference Verification

    PubMed Central

    SZABOLCSI, ANNA; BOTT, LEWIS; McELREE, BRIAN

    2010-01-01

    The scalar approach to negative polarity item (NPI) licensing assumes that NPIs are allowable in contexts in which the introduction of the NPI leads to proposition strengthening (e.g. Kadmon & Landman 1993; Krifka 1995; Lahiri 1997; Chierchia 2006). A straightforward processing prediction from such a theory is that NPIs facilitate inference verification from sets to subsets. Three experiments are reported that test this proposal. In each experiment, participants evaluated whether inferences from sets to subsets were valid. Crucially, we manipulated whether the premises contained an NPI. In Experiment 1, participants completed a metalinguistic reasoning task and Experiments 2 and 3 tested reading times using a self-paced reading task. Contrary to expectations, no facilitation was observed when the NPI was present in the premise compared to when it was absent. In fact, the NPI significantly slowed down reading times in the inference region. Our results therefore favour those scalar theories that predict that the NPI is costly to process (Chierchia 2006), or other, non-scalar theories (Ladusaw 1992; Giannakidou 1998; Szabolcsi 2004; Postal 2005) that likewise predict NPI processing cost but, unlike Chierchia (2006), expect the magnitude of the processing cost to vary with the actual pragmatics of the NPI. PMID:21562618

  11. Effects of climatic changes on anisakid nematodes in polar regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokicki, Jerzy

    2009-11-01

    Anisakid nematodes are common in Antarctic, sub-Antarctic, and Arctic areas. Current distributional knowledge of anisakids in the polar regions is reviewed. Climatic variables influence the occurrence and abundance of anisakids, directly influencing their free-living larval stages and also indirectly influencing their predominantly invertebrate (but also vertebrate) hosts. As these parasites can also be pathogenic for humans, the paucity of information available is a source of additional hazard. As fish are a major human dietary component in Arctic and Antarctic areas, and are often eaten without heat processing, a high risk of infection by anisakid larvae might be expected. The present level of knowledge, particularly relating to anisakid larval stages present in fishes, is far from satisfactory. Preliminary molecular studies have revealed the presence of species complexes. Contemporary climate warming is modifying the marine environment and may result in an extension of time during which anisakid eggs can persist and hatch, and of the time period during which newly hatched larvae remain viable. As a result there may be an increase in the extent of anisakid distribution. Continued warming will modify the composition of the parasitic nematode fauna of marine animals, due to changes in feeding habits, as the warming of the sea and any localised reduction in salinity (from freshwater runoff) can be expected to bring about changes in the species composition of pelagic and benthic invertebrates.

  12. Spin effects in Kapitza-Dirac scattering at light with elliptical polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhard, Rico; Bauke, Heiko

    2015-10-01

    The Kapitza-Dirac effect, which refers to electron scattering at standing light waves, is studied in the Bragg regime with counterpropagating elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves with the same intensity, wavelength, and degree of polarization for two different setups. In the first setup, where the electric-field components of the counterpropagating waves have the same sense of rotation, we find distinct spin effects. The spins of the scattered electrons and of the nonscattered electrons, respectively, precess with a frequency that is of the order of the Bragg-reflection Rabi frequency. When the electric-field components of the counterpropagating waves have an opposite sense of rotation, which is the second considered setup, the standing wave has linear polarization, and no spin effects can be observed. Our results are based on numerical solutions of the time-dependent Dirac equation and the analytical solution of a relativistic Pauli equation, which accounts for the leading relativistic effects.

  13. Transport properties of track-etched membranes having variable effective pore-lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Ali, Mubarak; Nasir, Saima; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    The transport rate of molecules through polymeric membranes is normally limited because of their micrometer-scale thickness which restricts their suitability for more practical application. To study the effect of effective pore length on the transport behavior, polymer membranes containing cylindrical and asymmetric-shaped nanopores were prepared through a two-step ion track-etching technique. Permeation experiments were performed separately to investigate the transport properties (molecular flux and selectivity) of these track-etched membranes. The permeation data shows that the molecular flux across membranes containing asymmetric nanopores is higher compared to those having cylindrical pores. On the other hand, the cylindrical pore membranes exhibit higher selectivity than asymmetric pores for the permeation of charged molecules across the membrane. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements of single-pore membranes further verify that asymmetric pores exhibit lower resistance for the flow of ions and therefore show higher currents than cylindrical pores. Moreover, unmodified and polyethyleneimine (PEI) modified asymmetric-shaped pore membranes were successfully used for the separation of cationic and anionic analyte molecules from their mixture, respectively. In this study, two distinct effects (pore geometry and pore density, i.e. number of pores cm-2), which mainly influence membrane selectivity and molecular transport rates, were thoroughly investigated in order to optimize the membrane performance. In this context, we believe that membranes with high molecular transport rates could readily find their application in molecular separation and controlled drug delivery processes.

  14. Effects of basilar membrane arch and radial tension on the travelling wave in gerbil cochlea.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wei Xuan; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2015-09-01

    The basilar membrane velocity of gerbil cochlea showed discrepancy between theoretical model and experimental measurements. We hypothesize that the reasons of such discrepancies are due to the arch towards the scala tympani and radial tension present in the basilar membrane of the gerbil cochlea. The arch changes the bending stiffness in the basilar membrane, reduces the effective fluid force on the membrane and increases the basilar membrane's inertia. The existence of the radial tension also dampens the acoustic travelling wave. In this paper, the wave number functions along the gerbil basilar membrane are calculated from experimentally measured physical parameters with the theoretical model as well as extracted from experimentally measured basilar membrane velocity with the wave number inversion formula. The two wave number functions are compared and the effects of the tension and membrane arch on the wave number are studied based on various parameters of the model. We found that the bending stiffness across the gerbil basilar membrane varies (1-2 orders along the cochlea in the section 2.2 mm-3 mm from base) more than the calculated value in the flat basilar membrane model and the radial tension increases the damping of the travelling wave in gerbil cochlea significantly (5 times more than that without radial tension). These effects of arch and radial tension in the basilar membrane elucidate the discrepancy between previous theoretical model and experimental measurements in gerbil cochlea.

  15. Nonlinear theory of intense laser-plasma interactions modified by vacuum polarization effects

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wenbo; Bu, Zhigang; Li, Hehe; Luo, Yuee; Ji, Peiyong

    2013-07-15

    The classical nonlinear theory of laser-plasma interactions is corrected by taking account of the vacuum polarization effects. A set of wave equations are obtained by using the Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian density and the derivative correction with the first-order quantum electrodynamic effects. A model more suitable to formulate the interactions of ultra-strong lasers and high-energy-density plasmas is developed. In the result, some environments in which the effects of vacuum polarization will be enhanced are discussed.

  16. GPS scintillation effects associated with polar cap patches, auroral arcs and blobs in European Arctic sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yaqi; Moen, Jøran; Miloch, Wojciech

    2014-05-01

    Both polar cap patches and auroral arcs are associated with irregularities that can affect the propagation of radio waves and thus disrupt the navigation system in the high latitudes. But which is the worst case remains unanswered. This study focuses on the direct comparison of the relative scintillation effects associated with different phenomena in high latitudes. The All Sky Camera located at Ny-Alesund, Svalbard observed six polar cap patches on January 13, 2013. The patches exited into the nightside auroral region in response to the ongoing substorms and then they are termed blobs. The collocated GPS scintillation monitor is used to study the scintillations produced by these different phenomena which are frequently observed at high latitudes. The amplitude scintillation index (S_4) was very low during this period, while the phase scintillation index (sigma_phi) indicated a disturbed ionospheric condition but responded differently to these three types of phenomena. Comparisons of the associated scintillation effects indicate that the blobs are the most violent scintillation source. Moreover, polar cap patches produce scintillation more effectively than auroral arcs do. Five of the six polar cap patches were observed to produce significant scintillations either on the edges or on the center of the patches, which imply most of the polar cap patches are associated with strong small scale irregularities. All of the scintillations produced by the pure auroral arcs were below 0.2 rad in this period. This study highlights the compound effects of the particle precipitations (auroral arcs) and high density plasma islands (patches) in developing the small scale irregularities. From the space weather forecasting perspective, particular attention is to be paid to polar cap patches exiting the polar cap at night in the European sector.

  17. Investigation of the effect of bilayer membrane structures and fluctuation amplitudes on SANS/SAXS profile for short membrane wavelength

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Victor; Hawa, Takumi

    2013-09-28

    The effect of bilayer membrane structures and fluctuation amplitudes on small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) profile is investigated based on harmonic motions of the surfactant bilayers with bending as well as thickness fluctuation motions. In this study we consider the case in which the wavelength of the bilayer membrane is shorter than the thickness of the membrane. We find that the thickness of the surfactant bilayer membrane, d{sub m}, affects both q{sub dip} and q{sub peak} of I(q,0) profile, and that the fluctuation amplitude, a, of the membrane changes the peak of I(q,0). A simple formula is derived to estimate the thickness of the bilayer based on the q{sub dip} of the profile obtained from the simulation. The resulting estimates of the thickness of the bilayer with harmonic motion showed accuracy within 1%. Moreover, the bilayer thicknesses estimated from the proposed formula show an excellent agreement with the SANS and SAXS experimental results available in the literatures. We also propose a curve fit model, which describes the relationship between the fluctuation amplitude and the normalized q{sub peak} ratio. The present results show the feasibility of the simple formula to estimate the fluctuation amplitude based on the SANS and SAXS profiles.

  18. Investigation of the effect of bilayer membrane structures and fluctuation amplitudes on SANS/SAXS profile for short membrane wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Victor; Hawa, Takumi

    2013-09-01

    The effect of bilayer membrane structures and fluctuation amplitudes on small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) profile is investigated based on harmonic motions of the surfactant bilayers with bending as well as thickness fluctuation motions. In this study we consider the case in which the wavelength of the bilayer membrane is shorter than the thickness of the membrane. We find that the thickness of the surfactant bilayer membrane, dm, affects both qdip and qpeak of I(q,0) profile, and that the fluctuation amplitude, a, of the membrane changes the peak of I(q,0). A simple formula is derived to estimate the thickness of the bilayer based on the qdip of the profile obtained from the simulation. The resulting estimates of the thickness of the bilayer with harmonic motion showed accuracy within 1%. Moreover, the bilayer thicknesses estimated from the proposed formula show an excellent agreement with the SANS and SAXS experimental results available in the literatures. We also propose a curve fit model, which describes the relationship between the fluctuation amplitude and the normalized qpeak ratio. The present results show the feasibility of the simple formula to estimate the fluctuation amplitude based on the SANS and SAXS profiles.

  19. Enhanced environmental stability induced by effective polarization of a polar dielectric layer in a trilayer dielectric system of organic field-effect transistors: a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Subbarao, Nimmakayala V V; Gedda, Murali; Iyer, Parameswar K; Goswami, Dipak K

    2015-01-28

    We report a concept fabrication method that helps to improve the performance and stability of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) based organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) in ambient. The devices were fabricated using a trilayer dielectric system that contains a bilayer polymer dielectrics consisting of a hydrophobic thin layer of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) or poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) or polystyrene (PS) with Al2O3 as a third layer. We have explored the peculiarities in the device performance (i.e., superior performance under ambient humidity), which are caused due to the polarization of dipoles residing in the polar dielectric material. The anomalous behavior of the bias-stress measured under vacuum has been explained successfully by a stretched exponential function modified by adding a time dependent dipole polarization term. The OFET with a dielectric layer of PVA or PVP containing hydroxyl groups has shown enhanced characteristics and remains highly stable without any degradation even after 300 days in ambient with three times enhancement in carrier mobility (0.015 cm(2)·V(-1)·s(-1)) compared to vacuum. This has been attributed to the enhanced polarization of hydroxyl groups in the presence of absorbed water molecules at the CuPc/PMMA interface. In addition, a model has been proposed based on the polarization of hydroxyl groups to explain the enhanced stability in these devices. We believe that this general method using a trilayer dielectric system can be extended to fabricate other OFETs with materials that are known to show high performances under vacuum but degrade under ambient conditions. PMID:25552195

  20. The effect of macroscopic polarization on intrinsic and extrinsic thermal conductivities of AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedam, Vikas; Pansari, Anju; Sinha, Arvind Kumar; Sahoo, Bijay Kumar

    2015-03-01

    The effect of macroscopic polarization on thermal conductivity of bulk wurtzite AlN has been theoretically investigated. Our results show that macroscopic polarization modifies the phonon group velocity, Debye frequency and Debye temperature of the AlN. Using revised phonon velocity and Debye temperature, various phonon scattering rates and combined scattering rate are calculated as functions of the phonon frequency at room temperature. The intrinsic and extrinsic thermal conductivities of AlN have been estimated using these modified parameters. The theoretical analysis shows that up to a certain temperature the polarization effect acts as negative effect and reduces the intrinsic and extrinsic thermal conductivities. However, after this temperature both thermal conductivities are significantly enhanced. High phonon velocity and Debye temperature are the reason of this enhancement which happens due to the polarization effect. The revised thermal conductivities at room temperature are found to be increased by more than 20% in AlN due to macroscopic polarization phenomenon. The method we have developed can be taken into account during the simulation of heat transport in optoelectronic nitride devices to minimize the self heating processes.

  1. Femtosecond pulsed light polarization induced effects in direct laser writing 3D nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinauskas, Mangirdas; RekštytÄ--, Sima; Jonavičius, Tomas; Gailevičius, Darius; Mizeikis, Vygantas; Gamaly, Eugene; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate how the coupling between (i) polarization of the writing laser beam, (ii) tight focusing and (iii) heat conduction affects the size, shape and absorption in the laser-affected area and therefore the polymerization process. It is possible to control the sizes of 3D laser-produced structure at the scale of several nanometers. Specifically we were able to tune the aspect ratio of 3D suspended line up to 20% in hybrid SZ2080 resist. The focal spot of tightly focused linearly polarized beam has an elliptical form with the long axis in the field direction. It is shown here that this effect is enhanced by increase in the electronic heat conduction when polarization coincide with temperature gradient along with the absorption. Overlapping of three effects (i- iii) results in the difference of several tens of nanometers between two axes of the focal ellipse. Narrow line appears when polarization and scan direction coincide, while the wide line is produced when these directions are perpendicular to each other. The effect scales with the laser intensity giving a possibility to control the width of the structure on nanometer scale as demonstrated experimentally in this work. These effects are of general nature and can be observed in any laser-matter interaction experiments where plasma produced by using tight focusing of linear-polarized light.

  2. Polymeric blend nanocomposite membranes for ethanol dehydration-effect of morphology and membrane-solvent interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanocomposite membranes (NCMs) of sodium alginate/poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) blend polymers incorporated with varying concentrations of phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40) (PWA) nanoparticles have been prepared and used in ethanol dehydration by the pervaporation (PV) technique. Effe...

  3. Long-living structures of photochromic salicylaldehyde azine: polarity and viscosity effects from nanoseconds to hours.

    PubMed

    Ziółek, Marcin; Burdziński, Gotard; Douhal, Abderrazzak

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we report on the effects of solvent viscosity and polarity on the photochromic salicylaldehyde azine (SAA) molecule by examining the steady-state and UV-visible absorption results in the time scale from nanoseconds to hours, in solution and in a polymer film. For the neutral structure, the viscosity strongly affects the lifetime of the photochromic (trans-keto) tautomer by suppressing the second order quenching process, and thus increasing the photochrome lifetimes in highly viscous solvents to 500 μs in polar triacetine, and to 65 μs in non-polar squalane. Trapping SAA in a non-polar polymer film (polyethylene) results in further elongation of the photochromic lifetime (700 μs) by one order of magnitude (with respect to that in squalane), due to the retardation of the intramolecular back-isomerization. Another species, living significantly longer and absorbing more in the UV comparing to the photochrome, was identified as the syn-enol tautomer. The lifetime of this tautomer, created in a competitive mechanism to the photochrome creation, is much longer in non-polar solvents (hundreds of minutes) than in polar ones (tens of minutes), opposite to the trend observed for the photochrome. For the SAA anion, the transient living on the ns-μs time scale can be exclusively assigned to the triplet state, which is not observed for the neutral form at room temperature.

  4. Effects of polar cortical cytoskeleton and unbalanced cortical surface tension on intercellular bridge thinning during cytokinesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; An, Mei-Wen; Li, Xiao-Na; Yang, Fang; Liu, Yang

    2011-12-01

    To probe the contributions of polar cortical cytoskeleton and the surface tension of daughter cells to intercellular bridge thinning dynamics during cytokinesis, we applied cytochalasin D (CD) or colchicine (COLC) in a highly localized manner to polar regions of dividing normal rat kidney (NRK) cells. We observed cellular morphological changes and analyzed the intercellular bridge thinning trajectories of dividing cells with different polar cortical characteristics. Global blebbistatin (BS) application was used to obtain cells losing active contractile force groups. Our results show that locally released CD or colchicine at the polar region caused inhibition of cytokinesis before ingression. Similar treatment at phases after ingression allowed completion of cytokinesis but dramatically influenced the trajectories of intercellular bridge thinning. Disturbing single polar cortical actin induced transformation of the intercellular bridge thinning process, and polar cortical tension controlled deformation time of intercellular bridges. Our study provides a feasible framework to induce and analyze the effects of local changes in mechanical properties of cellular components on single cellular cytokinesis.

  5. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Burnett

    2004-09-29

    Produced water is a major waste generated at the oil and natural gas wells in the state of Texas. This water could be a possible source of new fresh water to meet the growing demands of the state after treatment and purification. Treatment of brine generated in oil fields or produced water with an ultrafiltration membranes were the subject of this thesis. The characterization of ultrafiltration membranes for oil and suspended solids removal of produced water, coupled with the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination of brine were studied on lab size membrane testing equipment and a field size testing unit to test whether a viable membrane system could be used to treat produced water. Oil and suspended solids were evaluated using turbidity and oil in water measurements taken periodically. The research considered the effect of pressure and flow rate on membrane performance of produced water treatment of three commercially available membranes for oily water. The study also analyzed the flux through the membrane and any effect it had on membrane performance. The research showed that an ultrafiltration membrane provided turbidity removal of over 99% and oil removal of 78% for the produced water samples. The results indicated that the ultrafiltration membranes would be asset as one of the first steps in purifying the water. Further results on selected RO membranes showed that salt rejection of greater than 97% could be achieved with satisfactory flux and at reasonable operating cost.

  6. Effects of ethanol in vitro on rat intestinal brush-border membranes.

    PubMed

    Hunter, C K; Treanor, L L; Gray, J P; Halter, S A; Hoyumpa, A; Wilson, F A

    1983-07-13

    Ethanol, at concentrations found in the intestinal lumen after moderate drinking, has been shown to inhibit carrier-mediated intestinal transport processes. This inhibition could occur by direct interaction with membrane transporters, dissipation of the energy producing Na+ electrochemical gradient and/or nonspecific alteration of membrane integrity. The latter alteration may be reflected by changes in membrane fluidity, chemical composition or vesicular size. These possibilities were examined with studies in purified brush border membrane vesicles of rat intestine. Ethanol inhibited concentrative Na+-dependent D-glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, ethanol did not inhibit concentrative D-glucose uptake under conditions of D-glucose trans-stimulation in the absence of a Na+ electrochemical gradient. Ethanol also inhibited initial, concentrative Na+-dependent taurocholic acid uptake, as well as equilibrium uptake. That ethanol exerted a dual effect on transport by increasing membrane conductance for Na+ while decreasing intravesicular space was supported by direct studies of Na+ uptake. Morphometric analysis confirmed that ethanol-treated membranes had a decreased intravesicular size when compared to untreated membranes. Finally, membrane fluidity measured by EPR showed that ethanol had a significant fluidizing effect without producing qualitative changes in membrane proteins, as determined by SDS gel electrophoresis. These results suggest that ethanol inhibits carrier-mediated transport by dissipation of the Na+ electrochemical gradient and alteration of membrane integrity rather than by direct interaction with membrane transporter.

  7. Interfacial Effects in Polymer Membranes for Clean Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soles, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Polymeric membranes are critical components in several emerging clean energy technologies. Examples include proton exchange membranes for hydrogen fuel cells, anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells, flow batteries, and even block copolymer membranes for solid electrolytes/separators in lithium ion and other battery technologies. In all of these examples the function of the membrane is to physically separate two reactive electrodes or reactants, but allow the transport or exchange of specific ions through the membrane between the active electrodes. The flow of the charged ionic species between the electrodes can be used to balance the flow of electrons through an external electrical circuit that connects the electrodes, thereby storing or delivering charge electrochemically. In this presentation I will review the use of polymeric membranes in electrochemical energy storage technologies and discuss the critical issues related to the membranes that hinder these technologies. In particular I will also focus on the role the polymer membrane interface on device performance. At some point the polymer membrane must be interfaced with an active electrode or catalyst and the nature of this interface can significantly impact performance. Simulations of device performance based on bulk membrane transport properties often fail to predict the actual performance and empirical interfacial impedance terms usually added to capture the device performance. In this presentation I will explore the origins of this interfacial impedance in the different types of fuel cell membranes (proton and alkaline) by creating model thin film membranes where all of the membrane can be considered interfacial. We then use these thin films as a surrogate for the interfacial regions of a bulk membrane and then quantify the structure, dynamics, and transport properties of water and ions in the confined interfacial films. Using neutron reflectivity, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and

  8. SYSTEMATIC EFFECTS IN POLARIZING FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROMETERS FOR COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Nagler, Peter C.; Tucker, Gregory S.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan

    2015-11-15

    The detection of the primordial B-mode polarization signal of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) would provide evidence for inflation. Yet as has become increasingly clear, the detection of a such a faint signal requires an instrument with both wide frequency coverage to reject foregrounds and excellent control over instrumental systematic effects. Using a polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) for CMB observations meets both of these requirements. In this work, we present an analysis of instrumental systematic effects in polarizing FTSs, using the Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) as a worked example. We analytically solve for the most important systematic effects inherent to the FTS—emissive optical components, misaligned optical components, sampling and phase errors, and spin synchronous effects—and demonstrate that residual systematic error terms after corrections will all be at the sub-nK level, well below the predicted 100 nK B-mode signal.

  9. Systematic Effects in Polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometers for Cosmic Microwave Background Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagler, Peter C.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan; Tucker, Gregory S.

    2015-11-01

    The detection of the primordial B-mode polarization signal of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) would provide evidence for inflation. Yet as has become increasingly clear, the detection of a such a faint signal requires an instrument with both wide frequency coverage to reject foregrounds and excellent control over instrumental systematic effects. Using a polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) for CMB observations meets both of these requirements. In this work, we present an analysis of instrumental systematic effects in polarizing FTSs, using the Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) as a worked example. We analytically solve for the most important systematic effects inherent to the FTS—emissive optical components, misaligned optical components, sampling and phase errors, and spin synchronous effects—and demonstrate that residual systematic error terms after corrections will all be at the sub-nK level, well below the predicted 100 nK B-mode signal.

  10. The Effects of Plant Virus Infection on Polarization Reflection from Leaves.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Daniel J; Partridge, Julian C; Roberts, Nicholas W; Boonham, Neil; Foster, Gary D

    2016-01-01

    Alteration of leaf surface phenotypes due to virus infection has the potential to affect the likelihood of colonisation by insect vectors, or to affect their feeding activities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether viruses that rely on insects for their transmission, and which can be sensitive to the polarization of light, affect the percentage polarization of light reflected from leaves. We also set out to discover whether a correlation exists between the expression of ECERIFERUM (CER) genes involved in cuticular wax synthesis and the polarization of the light reflected from the leaf surfaces. It was found that the aphid-vectored viruses Potato virus Y and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) caused significant reductions in the percentage polarization of light reflected from the abaxial surfaces of leaves of Nicotiana tabacum, whereas the non-insect-vectored viruses Tobacco mosaic virus and Pepino mosaic virus did not induce this effect. In Arabidopsis thaliana, there was little difference in the impacts of CMV and the non-insect-vectored Turnip vein clearing virus on polarization reflection, with both viruses increasing the percentage polarization of light reflected from the abaxial surfaces of leaves. There was a trend towards increased accumulation of CER6 transcripts in N. tabacum and A. thaliana when infected with aphid-vectored viruses. No significant effect of infection on trichome densities was found in A. thaliana, suggesting that alterations to the formation of cuticular waxes may be the more likely phenotypic change on the leaf surface contributing to the changes in polarization reflection. The possible impacts and adaptive significance of these effects with regard to viral transmission by insects are discussed. PMID:27100188

  11. The Effects of Plant Virus Infection on Polarization Reflection from Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Daniel J.; Partridge, Julian C.; Roberts, Nicholas W.; Boonham, Neil; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Alteration of leaf surface phenotypes due to virus infection has the potential to affect the likelihood of colonisation by insect vectors, or to affect their feeding activities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether viruses that rely on insects for their transmission, and which can be sensitive to the polarization of light, affect the percentage polarization of light reflected from leaves. We also set out to discover whether a correlation exists between the expression of ECERIFERUM (CER) genes involved in cuticular wax synthesis and the polarization of the light reflected from the leaf surfaces. It was found that the aphid-vectored viruses Potato virus Y and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) caused significant reductions in the percentage polarization of light reflected from the abaxial surfaces of leaves of Nicotiana tabacum, whereas the non-insect-vectored viruses Tobacco mosaic virus and Pepino mosaic virus did not induce this effect. In Arabidopsis thaliana, there was little difference in the impacts of CMV and the non-insect-vectored Turnip vein clearing virus on polarization reflection, with both viruses increasing the percentage polarization of light reflected from the abaxial surfaces of leaves. There was a trend towards increased accumulation of CER6 transcripts in N. tabacum and A. thaliana when infected with aphid-vectored viruses. No significant effect of infection on trichome densities was found in A. thaliana, suggesting that alterations to the formation of cuticular waxes may be the more likely phenotypic change on the leaf surface contributing to the changes in polarization reflection. The possible impacts and adaptive significance of these effects with regard to viral transmission by insects are discussed. PMID:27100188

  12. Effect of cholesterol on the interaction of the HIV GP41 fusion peptide with model membranes. Importance of the membrane dipole potential.

    PubMed

    Buzón, Víctor; Cladera, Josep

    2006-12-26

    Fusion of viral and cell membranes is a key event in the process by which the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters the target cell. Membrane fusion is facilitated by the interaction of the viral gp41 fusion peptide with the cell membrane. Using synthetic peptides and model membrane systems, it has been established that the sequence of events implies the binding of the peptide to the membrane, followed by a conformational change (transformation of unordered and helical structures into beta-aggregates) which precedes lipid mixing. It is known that this process can be influenced by the membrane lipid composition. In the present work we have undertaken a systematic study in order to determine the influence of cholesterol (abundant in the viral membrane) in the sequence of events leading to lipid mixing. Besides its effect on membrane fluidity, cholesterol can affect a less known physical parameter, the membrane dipole potential. Using the dipole potential fluorescent sensor di-8-ANEPPS together with other biophysical techniques, we show that cholesterol increases the affinity of the fusion peptide for the model membranes, and although it lowers the extent of lipid mixing, it increases the mixing rate. The influence of cholesterol on the peptide affinity and the lipid mixing rate are shown to be mainly due to its influence of the membrane dipole potential, whereas the lipid mixing extent and peptide conformational changes seem to be more dependent on other membrane parameters such as membrane fluidity and hydration.

  13. Sunlight penetration through the Martian polar caps: Effects on the thermal and frost budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Bernhard Lee

    1992-01-01

    An energy balance model of the seasonal polar caps on Mars is modified to include penetration of solar radiation into and through the ice. Penetration of solar radiation has no effect on subsurface temperature or total frost sublimation if seasonal ice overlies a dust surface. An effect is noted for seasonal ice which overlies the residual polar caps. For the case of an exposed water-ice residual polar cap, the temperature at depth is calculated to be up to several degrees warmer and the calculated lifetime of seasonal CO2 frost is slightly lower when penetration of sunlight is properly treated in the model. For the case of a residual polar cap which is perennially covered by CO2 frost, the calculated lifetime of seasonal CO2 frost is very slightly increased as a result of sunlight penetration through the ice. Hence, penetration of sunlight into the ice helps to stabilize the observed dichotomy in the residual polar caps on Mars, although it is a small effect.

  14. Sunlight penetration through the Martian polar caps - Effects on the thermal and frost budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Bernhard L.

    1992-01-01

    An energy balance model of the seasonal polar caps on Mars is modified to include penetration of solar radiation into and through the ice. Penetration of solar radiation has no effect on subsurface temperature or total frost sublimation if seasonal ice overlies a dust surface. An effect is noted for seasonal ice which overlies the residual polar caps. For the case of an exposed water-ice residual polar cap, the temperature at depth is calculated to be up to several degrees warmer, and the calculated lifetime of seasonal CO2 frost is slightly lower when penetration of sunlight is properly treated in the model. For the case of a residual polar cap which is perennially covered by CO2 frost, the calculated lifetime of seasonal CO2 frost is very slightly increased as a result of sunlight penetration through the ice. Hence, penetration of sunlight into the ice helps to stabilize the observed dichotomy in the residual polar caps on Mars, although it is a small effect.

  15. Spicules and the Effect of Rigid Rods on Enclosing Membrane Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, D. R.; Turner, M. S.

    2005-12-01

    Membrane tubes (spicules) arise in cells, or artificial membranes, in the nonlinear deformation regime due to, e.g., the growth of microtubules, actin filaments, or sickle hemoglobin fibers towards a membrane. We calculate the axial force f exerted by the tube, and its average radius, taking into account steric interactions between the fluctuating membrane and the enclosed rod. We find a smooth crossover of the axial force between ftilde σ and ftilde σ as the membrane tension σ increases and the tube radius shrinks. This crossover occurs around the most physiologically relevant membrane tensions. Our work may be important in (i) interpreting experiments in which axial force is related to the tube radius or membrane tension, and (ii) constructing dynamical theories for biopolymer growth in narrow tubes where these fluctuation effects control the tube radius.

  16. The negative effect of soy extract on erythrocyte membrane fluidity: an electron paramagnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Ajdžanović, Vladimir; Spasojević, Ivan; Sošić-Jurjević, Branka; Filipović, Branko; Trifunović, Svetlana; Sekulić, Milka; Milošević, Verica

    2011-02-01

    A decrease of erythrocyte membrane fluidity can contribute to the pathophysiology of hypertension. Soy products, which are used as alternative therapeutics in some cardiovascular conditions, contain various isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, and their glucosides, genistin and daidzin), which can incorporate cellular membrane and change its fluidity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of soy extract (which generally corresponds to the soy products of isoflavone composition) on erythrocyte membrane fluidity at graded depths. We used electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and fatty acid spin probes (5-DS and 12-DS), the spectra of which are dependent on membrane fluidity. After being treated with soy extract, erythrocytes showed a significant (P = 0.016) decrease of membrane fluidity near the hydrophilic surface, while there were no significant changes of fluidity in deeper hydrophobic membrane regions. These results suggest that soy products containing high levels of genistein and isoflavone glucosides may not be suitable for use in hypertension because they decrease erythrocyte membrane fluidity.

  17. Electroosmosis in Membranes: Effects of Unstirred Layers and Transport Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Barry, P. H.; Hope, A. B.

    1969-01-01

    When a current is passed through a membrane system, differences in transport numbers between the membrane and the adjacent solutions will, in general, result in depletion and enhancement of concentrations at the membrane-solution interfaces. This will be balanced by diffusion back into the bulk solution, diffusion of solute back across the membrane itself, and osmosis resulting from these local concentration gradients. The two main results of such a phenomenon are (1) that there is a current-induced volume flow, which may be mistaken for electroosmosis, and (2) that there will generally develop transient changes in potential difference (PD) across membranes during and after the passage of current through them. PMID:5786317

  18. Can conceptual congruency effects between number, time, and space be accounted for by polarity correspondence?

    PubMed

    Santiago, Julio; Lakens, Daniël

    2015-03-01

    Conceptual congruency effects have been interpreted as evidence for the idea that the representations of abstract conceptual dimensions (e.g., power, affective valence, time, number, importance) rest on more concrete dimensions (e.g., space, brightness, weight). However, an alternative theoretical explanation based on the notion of polarity correspondence has recently received empirical support in the domains of valence and morality, which are related to vertical space (e.g., good things are up). In the present study we provide empirical arguments against the applicability of the polarity correspondence account to congruency effects in two conceptual domains related to lateral space: number and time. Following earlier research, we varied the polarity of the response dimension (left-right) by manipulating keyboard eccentricity. In a first experiment we successfully replicated the congruency effect between vertical and lateral space and its interaction with response eccentricity. We then examined whether this modulation of a concrete-concrete congruency effect can be extended to two types of concrete-abstract effects, those between left-right space and number (in both parity and magnitude judgment tasks), and temporal reference. In all three tasks response eccentricity failed to modulate the congruency effects. We conclude that polarity correspondence does not provide an adequate explanation of conceptual congruency effects in the domains of number and time.

  19. The Effects of Instrumental Elliptical Polarization on Stellar Point Spread Function Fine Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, Joseph C.; Kern, Brian D.; Breckinridge, James B.; Trauger, John T.

    2005-01-01

    We present procedures and preliminary results from a study on the effects of instrumental polarization on the fine structure of the stellar point spread function (PSF). These effects are important to understand because the the aberration caused by instrumental polarization on an otherwise diffraction-limited will likely have have severe consequences for extreme high contrast imaging systems such as NASA's planned Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission and the proposed NASA Eclipse mission. The report here, describing our efforts to examine these effects, includes two parts: 1) a numerical analysis of the effect of metallic reflection, with some polarization-specific retardation, on a spherical wavefront; 2) an experimental approach for observing this effect, along with some preliminary laboratory results. While the experimental phase of this study requires more fine-tuning to produce meaningful results, the numerical analysis indicates that the inclusion of polarization-specific phase effects (retardation) results in a point spread function (PSF) aberration more severe than the amplitude (reflectivity) effects previously recorded in the literature.

  20. Permeation of protons, potassium ions, and small polar molecules through phospholipid bilayers as a function of membrane thickness.

    PubMed Central

    Paula, S; Volkov, A G; Van Hoek, A N; Haines, T H; Deamer, D W

    1996-01-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for solute permeation of lipid bilayers. Partitioning into the hydrophobic phase of the bilayer, followed by diffusion, is accepted by many for the permeation of water and other small neutral solutes, but transient pores have also been proposed to account for both water and ionic solute permeation. These two mechanisms make distinctively different predictions about the permeability coefficient as a function of bilayer thickness. Whereas the solubility-diffusion mechanism predicts only a modest variation related to bilayer thickness, the pore model predicts an exponential relationship. To test these models, we measured the permeability of phospholipid bilayers to protons, potassium ions, water, urea, and glycerol. Bilayers were prepared as liposomes, and thickness was varied systematically by using unsaturated lipids with chain lengths ranging from 14 to 24 carbon atoms. The permeability coefficient of water and neutral polar solutes displayed a modest dependence on bilayer thickness, with an approximately linear fivefold decrease as the carbon number varied from 14 to 24 atoms. In contrast, the permeability to protons and potassium ions decreased sharply by two orders of magnitude between 14 and 18 carbon atoms, and leveled off, when the chain length was further extended to 24 carbon atoms. The results for water and the neutral permeating solutes are best explained by the solubility-diffusion mechanism. The results for protons and potassium ions in shorter-chain lipids are consistent with the transient pore model, but better fit the theoretical line predicted by the solubility-diffusion model at longer chain lengths. PMID:8770210

  1. Permeation of protons, potassium ions, and small polar molecules through phospholipid bilayers as a function of membrane thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paula, S.; Volkov, A. G.; Van Hoek, A. N.; Haines, T. H.; Deamer, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for solute permeation of lipid bilayers. Partitioning into the hydrophobic phase of the bilayer, followed by diffusion, is accepted by many for the permeation of water and other small neutral solutes, but transient pores have also been proposed to account for both water and ionic solute permeation. These two mechanisms make distinctively different predictions about the permeability coefficient as a function of bilayer thickness. Whereas the solubility-diffusion mechanism predicts only a modest variation related to bilayer thickness, the pore model predicts an exponential relationship. To test these models, we measured the permeability of phospholipid bilayers to protons, potassium ions, water, urea, and glycerol. Bilayers were prepared as liposomes, and thickness was varied systematically by using unsaturated lipids with chain lengths ranging from 14 to 24 carbon atoms. The permeability coefficient of water and neutral polar solutes displayed a modest dependence on bilayer thickness, with an approximately linear fivefold decrease as the carbon number varied from 14 to 24 atoms. In contrast, the permeability to protons and potassium ions decreased sharply by two orders of magnitude between 14 and 18 carbon atoms, and leveled off, when the chain length was further extended to 24 carbon atoms. The results for water and the neutral permeating solutes are best explained by the solubility-diffusion mechanism. The results for protons and potassium ions in shorter-chain lipids are consistent with the transient pore model, but better fit the theoretical line predicted by the solubility-diffusion model at longer chain lengths.

  2. Effect of VSR invariant Chern-Simons Lagrangian on photon polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, Alekha C.; Verma, Ravindra K.; Jain, Pankaj

    2015-07-21

    We propose a generalization of the Chern-Simons (CS) Lagrangian which is invariant under the SIM(2) transformations but not under the full Lorentz group. The generalized lagrangian is also invariant under a SIM(2) gauge transformation. We study the effect of such a term on radiation propagating over cosmological distances. We find that the dominant effect of this term is to produce circular polarization as radiation propagates through space. We use the circular polarization data from distant radio sources in order to impose a limit on this term.

  3. Effective cleaning and sanitizing of polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane systems.

    PubMed

    Bohner, H F; Bradley, R L

    1992-03-01

    Polysulfone UF membranes that were soiled by Cheddar cheese whey were successfully cleaned in place. This cleaning procedure was completed in about 1 h. Most cleaning chemicals used were common and inexpensive. The cleaning procedure consisted of rinsing the membrane system for 2 min with water initially and after each cleaning solution. Sodium hydroxide at pH 11.0, with .1% of a nonionic surfactant added, was circulated for 20 min. After a 2-min rinse with water, a 1:1 mixture of nitric and phosphoric acids at pH 2 was circulated for 20 min and rinsed again with water. Finally, sodium hydroxide at pH 11.0, with 200 ppm of sodium hypochlorite added, was circulated for 20 min and rinsed. All cleaning solutions and all rinse waters were at 54 degrees C. Membranes cleaned by this procedure were found to be free from whey residue under examination by scanning electron microscopy. The cleaning process did not damage the membranes even when it was used continuously for 300 h. Microbial populations on the membrane were estimated by incubating small (4-cm2) sections of membrane in screw-cap vials filled with trypticase soy broth. From the portion of vials showing growth after 72 h at 32 degrees C, a most probable microbial population was calculated. Santizing cleaned polysulfone UF membranes with 100 ppm of sodium hypochlorite or 100 ppm of dichloroisocyanurate at 54 degrees C resulted in membranes free from viable microorganisms. When dichloroisocyanurate was used at 10 degrees C and 200 ppm, a most probable microbial population of 290/m2 was found. No microbial growth was detected when cleaned and sanitized membranes were stored in tap water for 24 h. This technique for cleaning UF membranes does not require the use of a holding solution containing santizers to control the growth of residual microorganisms. PMID:1569262

  4. ESTIMATION OF EFFECTIVE SHEAR STRESS WORKING ON FLAT SHEET MEMBRANE USING FLUIDIZED MEDIA IN MBRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaw, Hlwan Moe; Li, Tairi; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Mishima, Iori

    This study was aimed at estimating effective shear stress working on flat sheet membrane by the addition of fluidized media in MBRs. In both of laboratory-scale aeration tanks with and without fluidized media, shear stress variations on membrane surface and water phase velocity variations were measured and MBR operation was conducted. For the evaluation of the effective shear stress working on membrane surface to mitigate membrane surface, simulation of trans-membrane pressure increase was conducted. It was shown that the time-averaged absolute value of shear stress was smaller in the reactor with fluidized media than without fluidized media. However, due to strong turbulence in the reactor with fluidized media caused by interaction between water-phase and media and also due to the direct interaction between membrane surface and fluidized media, standard deviation of shear stress on membrane surface was larger in the reactor with fluidized media than without media. Histograms of shear stress variation data were fitted well to normal distribution curves and mean plus three times of standard deviation was defined to be a maximum shear stress value. By applying the defined maximum shear stress to a membrane fouling model, trans-membrane pressure curve in the MBR experiment was simulated well by the fouling model indicting that the maximum shear stress, not time-averaged shear stress, can be regarded as an effective shear stress to prevent membrane fouling in submerged flat-sheet MBRs.

  5. Flavonoid-membrane Interactions: A Protective Role of Flavonoids at the Membrane Surface?

    PubMed Central

    Oteiza, Patricia I.; Erlejman, Alejandra G.; Verstraeten, Sandra V.; Keen, Carl L.; Fraga, César G.

    2005-01-01

    Flavonoids can exert beneficial health effects through multiple mechanisms. In this paper, we address the important, although not fully understood, capacity of flavonoids to interact with cell membranes. The interactions of polyphenols with bilayers include: (a) the partition of the more non-polar compounds in the hydrophobic interior of the membrane, and (b) the formation of hydrogen bonds between the polar head groups of lipids and the more hydrophilic flavonoids at the membrane interface. The consequences of these interactions are discussed. The induction of changes in membrane physical properties can affect the rates of membrane lipid and protein oxidation. The partition of certain flavonoids in the hydrophobic core can result in a chain breaking antioxidant activity. We suggest that interactions of polyphenols at the surface of bilayers through hydrogen bonding, can act to reduce the access of deleterious molecules (i.e. oxidants), thus protecting the structure and function of membranes. PMID:15712595

  6. Coherent-backscatter effect - A vector formulation accounting for polarization and absorption effects and small or large scatterers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Kenneth J.

    1992-01-01

    Previous theoretical work on the coherent-backscatter effect in the context of speckle time autocorrelation has gone beyond the diffusion approximation and the assumption of isotropic (point) scatterers. This paper extends the theory to include the effects of polarization and absorption, and to give the angular line shape. The results are expressions for angular variations valid for small and large scatterers and linear and circular polarizations, in lossless or lossy media. Calculations show that multiple anisotropic scattering results in the preservation of incident polarization. Application to a problem in radar astronomy is considered. It is shown that the unusual radar measurements (high reflectivity and polarization ratios) of Jupiter's icy Galilean satellites can be explained by coherent backscatter from anisotropic (forward) scatterers.

  7. EFFECT OF DETERGENT ON ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF SQUID AXON MEMBRANE.

    PubMed

    KISHIMOTO, U; ADELMAN, W J

    1964-05-01

    The effects of detergents on squid giant axon action and resting potentials as well as membrane conductances in the voltage clamp have been studied. Anionic detergents (sodium lauryl sulfate, 0.1 to 1.0 mM; dimethyl benzene sulfonate, 1 to 20 mM, pH 7.6) cause a temporary increase and a later decrease of action potential height and the value of the resting potential. Cationic detergent (cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, 6 x 10(-5)M or more, pH 7.6) generally brings about immediate and irreversible decreases in the action and resting potentials. Non-ionic detergent (tween 80, 0.1 M, pH 7.6) causes a slight reversible reduction of action potential height without affecting the value of the resting potential. Both anionic and cationic detergents generally decrease the sodium and potassium conductances irreversibly. The effect of non-ionic detergent is to decrease the sodium conductance reversibly, leaving the potassium conductance almost unchanged.

  8. Simulation of subnanosecond streamers in atmospheric-pressure air: Effects of polarity of applied voltage pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaeva, N. Yu.; Naidis, G. V.

    2016-08-01

    Results of simulation of subnanosecond streamer propagation in corona gap configuration, obtained in the framework of 2D fluid model, are presented. Effects related with the polarity of a voltage pulse applied to the stressed electrode are discussed. It is argued that these effects (dependence of the discharge current and propagation velocity on the polarity of applied voltage) observed in experiments can be attributed to the difference in initial (preceding the streamer formation) distributions of charged species inside the gap. This difference can be caused by preionization (at negative polarity) of the gas inside the discharge gap by runaway electrons. Calculated streamers have large widths (up to 1 cm) and move with velocities in the range of 109-1010 cm s-1, similar to experimental data.

  9. Analysis of the polarization rotation effect in the inversely tapered spot size converter.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lianxi; Zhou, Haifeng; Liow, Tsung-Yang; Song, Junfeng; Huang, Ying; Tu, Xiaoguang; Luo, Xianshu; Li, Chao; Fang, Qing; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guoqiang

    2015-10-19

    Inversely tapered spot size converter (SSC) is widely used to connect silicon waveguide with fiber in silicon photonics. However, the tapered structure may cause polarization rotation and further generate interference fluctuation in the transmission spectrum even of a straight waveguide. We analyzed the light propagation in a straight waveguide with SSC at the both ends with coupling matrix and transmission matrix methods. The analysis results matched with the phenomena we observed in the transmission spectrum. Combining the analysis with the measurement results, we calculated the polarization rotation efficiency of the SSC in different samples and analyzed the origin of the polarization rotation effect. Finally, we discussed the influence of the effect to the DP-QPSK signal and proposed several methods to release the impact.

  10. Polarization singularities and orbital angular momentum sidebands from rotational symmetry broken by the Pockels effect.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiancong; Wu, Ziwen; Zhang, Wuhong; Chen, Lixiang

    2014-05-02

    The law of angular momentum conservation is naturally linked to the rotational symmetry of the involved system. Here we demonstrate theoretically how to break the rotational symmetry of a uniaxial crystal via the electro-optic Pockels effect. By numerical method based on asymptotic expansion, we discover the 3D structure of polarization singularities in terms of C lines and L surfaces embedded in the emerging light. We visualize the controllable dynamics evolution of polarization singularities when undergoing the Pockels effect, which behaves just like the binary fission of a prokaryotic cell, i.e., the splitting of C points and fission of L lines are animated in analogy with the cleavage of nucleus and division of cytoplasm. We reveal the connection of polarization singularity dynamics with the accompanying generation of orbital angular momentum sidebands. It is unexpected that although the total angular momentum of light is not conserved, the total topological index of C points is conserved.

  11. Effects of biradical deuteration on the performance of DNP: Towards better performing polarizing agents

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Perras, Frédéric A.; Reinig, Regina R.; Slowing, Igor I.; Sadow, Aaron D.; Pruski, Marek

    2015-11-20

    We study the effects of the deuteration of biradical polarizing agents on the efficiency of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) via the cross-effect. To this end, we synthesized a series of bTbK and TOTAPol biradicals with systematically increased deuterium substitution. The deuteration increases the radicals' relaxation time, thus contributing to a higher saturation factor and larger DNP enhancement, and reduces the pool of protons within the so-called spin diffusion barrier. Notably, we report that full or partial deuteration leads to improved DNP enhancement factors in standard samples, but also slows down the build-up of hyperpolarization. Improvements in DNP enhancements factors ofmore » up to 70% and time savings of up to 38% are obtained upon full deuteration. As a result, it is foreseen that this approach may be applied to other DNP polarizing agents thus enabling further sensitivity improvements.« less

  12. Effects of biradical deuteration on the performance of DNP: Towards better performing polarizing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Perras, Frédéric A.; Reinig, Regina R.; Slowing, Igor I.; Sadow, Aaron D.; Pruski, Marek

    2015-11-20

    We study the effects of the deuteration of biradical polarizing agents on the efficiency of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) via the cross-effect. To this end, we synthesized a series of bTbK and TOTAPol biradicals with systematically increased deuterium substitution. The deuteration increases the radicals' relaxation time, thus contributing to a higher saturation factor and larger DNP enhancement, and reduces the pool of protons within the so-called spin diffusion barrier. Notably, we report that full or partial deuteration leads to improved DNP enhancement factors in standard samples, but also slows down the build-up of hyperpolarization. Improvements in DNP enhancements factors of up to 70% and time savings of up to 38% are obtained upon full deuteration. As a result, it is foreseen that this approach may be applied to other DNP polarizing agents thus enabling further sensitivity improvements.

  13. Theoretical investigation into the effects of polar anchoring in antiferroelectric liquid crystal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, N. J.; Elston, S. J.

    2000-11-01

    We present a theoretical investigation into the effects of polar anchoring, which induces ferroelectric ordering close to the cell surfaces, in a liquid crystal cell containing an antiferroelectric liquid crystalline material. Our model includes effects due to finite polar and nonpolar anchoring, quadrupolar ordering and polarization self interaction. By minimizing the free energy of the system, we find parameter domains in which multiple zero-voltage solutions are stable. We find that these solutions may undergo thresholdless or hysteretic switching depending on the parameter values. In two instances, the presence of quadrupolar ordering or weak anchoring means that the cell must first be primed into the thresholdless state through a discontinuous transition from an initial antiferroelectric state.

  14. Polarization singularities and orbital angular momentum sidebands from rotational symmetry broken by the Pockels effect.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiancong; Wu, Ziwen; Zhang, Wuhong; Chen, Lixiang

    2014-01-01

    The law of angular momentum conservation is naturally linked to the rotational symmetry of the involved system. Here we demonstrate theoretically how to break the rotational symmetry of a uniaxial crystal via the electro-optic Pockels effect. By numerical method based on asymptotic expansion, we discover the 3D structure of polarization singularities in terms of C lines and L surfaces embedded in the emerging light. We visualize the controllable dynamics evolution of polarization singularities when undergoing the Pockels effect, which behaves just like the binary fission of a prokaryotic cell, i.e., the splitting of C points and fission of L lines are animated in analogy with the cleavage of nucleus and division of cytoplasm. We reveal the connection of polarization singularity dynamics with the accompanying generation of orbital angular momentum sidebands. It is unexpected that although the total angular momentum of light is not conserved, the total topological index of C points is conserved. PMID:24784778

  15. Polarization singularities and orbital angular momentum sidebands from rotational symmetry broken by the Pockels effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiancong; Wu, Ziwen; Zhang, Wuhong; Chen, Lixiang

    2014-05-01

    The law of angular momentum conservation is naturally linked to the rotational symmetry of the involved system. Here we demonstrate theoretically how to break the rotational symmetry of a uniaxial crystal via the electro-optic Pockels effect. By numerical method based on asymptotic expansion, we discover the 3D structure of polarization singularities in terms of C lines and L surfaces embedded in the emerging light. We visualize the controllable dynamics evolution of polarization singularities when undergoing the Pockels effect, which behaves just like the binary fission of a prokaryotic cell, i.e., the splitting of C points and fission of L lines are animated in analogy with the cleavage of nucleus and division of cytoplasm. We reveal the connection of polarization singularity dynamics with the accompanying generation of orbital angular momentum sidebands. It is unexpected that although the total angular momentum of light is not conserved, the total topological index of C points is conserved.

  16. The double effects of silver nanoparticles on the PVDF membrane: Surface hydrophilicity and antifouling performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Hua; Shao, Xi-Sheng; Zhou, Qing; Li, Mi-Zi; Zhang, Qi-Qing

    2013-01-01

    In this study, silver nanoparticles were used to endow poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane with excellent surface hydrophilicity and outstanding antifouling performance. Silver nanoparticles were successfully immobilized onto PVDF membrane surface under the presence of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). The double effects of silver nanoparticles on PVDF membrane, i.e., surface hydrophilicity and anti-fouling performance, were systematically investigated. Judging from result of water static contact measurement, silver nanoparticles had provided a significant improvement in PVDF membrane surface hydrophilicity. And the possible explanation on the improvement of PVDF membrane surface hydrophilicity with silver nanoparticles was firstly proposed in this study. Membrane permeation and anti-bacterial tests were carried out to characterize the antifouling performance of PVDF membrane. Flux recovery ratio (FRR) increased about 40% after the presence of silver nanoparticles on the PVDF membrane surface, elucidating the anti-organic fouling performance of PVDF membrane was elevated by silver nanoparticles. Simultaneously, anti-bacterial test confirmed that PVDF membrane showed superior anti-biofouling activity because of silver nanoparticles. The above-mentioned results clarified that silver nanoparticles can endow PVDF membrane with both excellent surface hydrophilicity and outstanding antifouling performance in this study.

  17. Effect of Amphotericin B antibiotic on the properties of model lipid membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiryakova, S.; Dencheva-Zarkova, M.; Genova, J.

    2014-12-01

    Model membranes formed from natural and synthetic lipids are an interesting object for scientific investigations due to their similarity to biological cell membrane and their simple structure with controlled composition and properties. Amphotericin B is an important polyene antifungal antibiotic, used for treatment of systemic fungal infections. It is known from the literature that the studied antibiotic has a substantial effect on the transmembrane ionic channel structures. When applied to the lipid membranes it has the tendency to create pores and in this way to affect the structure and the properties of the membrane lipid bilayer. In this work the thermally induced shape fluctuations of giant quasi-spherical liposomes have been used to study the influence of polyene antibiotic amphotericin B on the elastic properties of model lipid membranes. It have been shown experimentally that the presence of 3 mol % of AmB in the lipid membrane reduces the bending elasticity of the lipid membrane for both studied cases: pure SOPC membrane and mixed SOPC-Cholesterol membrane. Interaction of the amphotericin B with bilayer lipid membranes containing channels have been studied in this work. Model membranes were self-assembled using the patch-clamp and tip-dip patch clamp technique. We have found that amphotericin B is an ionophore and reduces the resistance of the lipid bilayer.

  18. High-order polarization mode crosstalk effect: a calibration scheme of white light-based optical coherence domain polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bing; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Jianzhong; Liang, Shuai; Yu, Zhangjun; Yuan, Yonggui; Peng, Feng; Zhou, Ai; Zhang, Yu; Yuan, Libo

    2015-09-01

    We propose a calibration scheme of the white light interferometer based optical coherence domain polarimetry (OCDP), which could be used to measure the ultra-weak polarization mode crosstalk (PMC) or the ultra-high polarization extinction ratio (PER) of different polarization optical devices. The calibration depends on the first and second order PMC effect of different polarization devices in series. The first and second PMCs between 0 and -90dB, established by five pieces of polarization maintaining fiber (PMF) and a Y-waveguide, is used to prove its feasibility.

  19. Interrogation and mitigation of polarization effects for standard and birefringent FBGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Selwan K.; Van Roosbroeck, Jan; O'Dowd, John A.; Van Hoe, Bram; Lindner, Eric; Vlekken, Johan; Farnan, Martin; Karabacak, Devrez M.; Singer, Johannes M.

    2016-05-01

    Optical sensors based on Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) are used in several applications and industries. Several inscription techniques and type of fibers can be used. However, depending on the writing process, type of fiber used and the packaging of the sensor a Polarization Dependent Frequency Shift (PDFS) can often be observed with polarized tunable laser based optical interrogators. Here we study the PDFS of the FBG peak for the different FBG types. A PDFS of <1pm up to >20pm was observed across the FBGs. To mitigate and reduce this effect we propose a polarization mitigation technique which relies on a synchronous polarization switch to reduce the effect typically by a factor greater than 4. In other scenarios the sensor itself is designed to be birefringent (Bi-FBG) to allow pressure and/or simultaneous temperature and strain measurements. Using the same polarization switch we demonstrate how we can interrogate the Bi-FBGs with high accuracy to enable high performance of such sensors to be achievable.

  20. Ferroelectric polarization effect on surface chemistry and photo-catalytic activity: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. A.; Nadeem, M. A.; Idriss, H.

    2016-03-01

    The current efficiency of various photocatalytic processes is limited by the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the photocatalyst as well as the back-reaction of intermediate species. This review concentrates on the use of ferroelectric polarization to mitigate electron-hole recombination and back-reactions and therefore improve photochemical reactivity. Ferroelectric materials are considered as wide band gap polarizable semiconductors. Depending on the surface polarization, different regions of the surface experience different extents of band bending and promote different carriers to move to spatially different locations. This can lead to some interesting interactions at the surface such as spatially selective adsorption and surface redox reactions. This introductory review covers the fundamental properties of ferroelectric materials, effect of an internal electric field/polarization on charge carrier separation, effect of the polarization on the surface photochemistry and reviews the work done on the use of these ferroelectric materials for photocatalytic applications such as dye degradation and water splitting. The manipulation of photogenerated charge carriers through an internal electric field/surface polarization is a promising strategy for the design of improved photocatalysts.

  1. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulation: Effect of polarization on thrombin-ligand binding energy.

    PubMed

    Duan, Li L; Feng, Guo Q; Zhang, Qing G

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations lasting 500 ns were performed in explicit water to investigate the effect of polarization on the binding of ligands to human α-thrombin based on the standard nonpolarizable AMBER force field and the quantum-derived polarized protein-specific charge (PPC). The PPC includes the electronic polarization effect of the thrombin-ligand complex, which is absent in the standard force field. A detailed analysis and comparison of the results of the MD simulation with experimental data provided strong evidence that intra-protein, protein-ligand hydrogen bonds and the root-mean-square deviation of backbone atoms were significantly stabilized through electronic polarization. Specifically, two critical hydrogen bonds between thrombin and the ligand were broken at approximately 190 ns when AMBER force field was used and the number of intra-protein backbone hydrogen bonds was higher under PPC than under AMBER. The thrombin-ligand binding energy was computed using the molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) method, and the results were consistent with the experimental value obtained using PPC. Because hydrogen bonds were unstable, it was failed to predict the binding affinity under the AMBER force field. Furthermore, the results of the present study revealed that differences in the binding free energy between AMBER and PPC almost comes from the electrostatic interaction. Thus, this study provides evidence that protein polarization is critical to accurately describe protein-ligand binding. PMID:27507430

  2. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulation: Effect of polarization on thrombin-ligand binding energy

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Li L.; Feng, Guo Q.; Zhang, Qing G.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations lasting 500 ns were performed in explicit water to investigate the effect of polarization on the binding of ligands to human α-thrombin based on the standard nonpolarizable AMBER force field and the quantum-derived polarized protein-specific charge (PPC). The PPC includes the electronic polarization effect of the thrombin-ligand complex, which is absent in the standard force field. A detailed analysis and comparison of the results of the MD simulation with experimental data provided strong evidence that intra-protein, protein-ligand hydrogen bonds and the root-mean-square deviation of backbone atoms were significantly stabilized through electronic polarization. Specifically, two critical hydrogen bonds between thrombin and the ligand were broken at approximately 190 ns when AMBER force field was used and the number of intra-protein backbone hydrogen bonds was higher under PPC than under AMBER. The thrombin-ligand binding energy was computed using the molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) method, and the results were consistent with the experimental value obtained using PPC. Because hydrogen bonds were unstable, it was failed to predict the binding affinity under the AMBER force field. Furthermore, the results of the present study revealed that differences in the binding free energy between AMBER and PPC almost comes from the electrostatic interaction. Thus, this study provides evidence that protein polarization is critical to accurately describe protein-ligand binding. PMID:27507430

  3. The effect of vapor polarity and boiling point on breakthrough for binary mixtures on respirator carbon.

    PubMed

    Robbins, C A; Breysse, P N

    1996-08-01

    This research evaluated the effect of the polarity of a second vapor on the adsorption of a polar and a nonpolar vapor using the Wheeler model. To examine the effect of polarity, it was also necessary to observe the effect of component boiling point. The 1% breakthrough time (1% tb), kinetic adsorption capacity (W(e)), and rate constant (kv) of the Wheeler model were determined for vapor challenges on carbon beds for both p-xylene and pyrrole (referred to as test vapors) individually, and in equimolar binary mixtures with the polar and nonpolar vapors toluene, p-fluorotoluene, o-dichlorobenzene, and p-dichlorobenzene (referred to as probe vapors). Probe vapor polarity (0 to 2.5 Debye) did not systematically alter the 1% tb, W(e), or kv of the test vapors. The 1% tb and W(e) for test vapors in binary mixtures can be estimated reasonably well, using the Wheeler model, from single-vapor data (1% tb +/- 30%, W(e) +/- 20%). The test vapor 1% tb depended mainly on total vapor concentration in both single and binary systems. W(e) was proportional to test vapor fractional molar concentration (mole fraction) in mixtures. The kv for p-xylene was significantly different (p < or = 0.001) when compared according to probe boiling point; however, these differences were apparently of limited importance in estimating 1% tb for the range of boiling points tested (111 to 180 degrees C). Although the polarity and boiling point of chemicals in the range tested are not practically important in predicting 1% tb with the Wheeler model, an effect due to probe boiling point is suggested, and tests with chemicals of more widely ranging boiling point are warranted. Since the 1% tb, and thus, respirator service life, depends mainly on total vapor concentration, these data underscore the importance of taking into account the presence of other vapors when estimating respirator service life for a vapor in a mixture.

  4. The membrane skeleton of erythrocytes: models of its effect on lateral diffusion.

    PubMed

    Saxton, M J

    1990-01-01

    The membrane skeleton, a network of structural proteins attached to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane, hinders lateral diffusion of integral proteins. 2. In some types of cells, such as epithelial cells and nerve cells, the obstruction of lateral diffusion by the membrane skeleton is one of the mechanisms by which proteins are localized to domains on the cell surface. 3. The effect of the membrane skeleton on lateral diffusion may involve steric hindrance, transient binding or both. Three pictures of the effect are reviewed, the discrete barrier model, the continuous barrier model and the transient binding model. 4. Experiments to distinguish the models are discussed.

  5. Effects of genistein and daidzein on erythrocyte membrane fluidity: an electron paramagnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Ajdzanović, Vladimir; Spasojević, Ivan; Filipović, Branko; Sosić-Jurjević, Branka; Sekulić, Milka; Milosević, Verica

    2010-04-01

    The maintenance of erythrocyte membrane fluidity at the physiological level is an important factor affecting the ability of erythrocytes to pass through blood vessels of small luminal diameter. Genistein and daidzein, which are used as alternative therapeutics in cardiovascular conditions, can be incorporated into the cell membrane and change its fluidity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of genistein and daidzein on erythrocyte membrane fluidity at graded depths. We used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and fatty acid spin probes (5-DS and 12-DS) where EPR spectra were dependent on fluidity. The results showed that genistein significantly (p < 0.05) decreased erythrocyte membrane fluidity near the hydrophilic surface, while daidzein significantly (p < 0.05) increased the same parameter in deeper regions of the membrane. These data suggest that the deep fluidizing effects of daidzein on erythrocyte membranes make it a better therapeutic choice than genistein in some cardiovascular conditions.

  6. Differential Effect of Cholesterol and Its Biosynthetic Precursors on Membrane Dipole Potential

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Sourav; Kanaparthi, Ravi Kumar; Samanta, Anunay; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2012-01-01

    Dipole potential is the potential difference within the membrane bilayer, which originates due to the nonrandom arrangement of lipid dipoles and water molecules at the membrane interface. Cholesterol, a representative sterol in higher eukaryotic membranes, is known to increase membrane dipole potential. In this work, we explored the effects of immediate (7-DHC and desmosterol) and evolutionary (ergosterol) precursors of cholesterol on membrane dipole potential, monitored by the dual wavelength ratiometric approach utilizing the probe di-8-ANEPPS. Our results show that the effect of these precursors on membrane dipole potential is very different from that observed with cholesterol, although the structural differences among them are subtle. These results assume relevance, since accumulation of cholesterol precursors due to defective cholesterol biosynthesis has been reported to result in several inherited metabolic disorders such as the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Interestingly, cholesterol (and its precursors) has a negligible effect on dipole potential in polyunsaturated membranes. We interpret these results in terms of noncanonical orientation of cholesterol in these membranes. Our results constitute the first report on the effect of biosynthetic and evolutionary precursors of cholesterol on dipole potential, and imply that a subtle change in sterol structure can significantly alter the dipolar field at the membrane interface. PMID:22500756

  7. The effect of process parameters on the pervaporation of alcohols through organophilic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, P.J.; Juricic, F.P.; Slater, C.S. )

    1992-06-01

    Several organophilic membranes were utilized to selectively permeate ethanol, n-butanol, and t-butanol from dilute aqueous mixtures using pervaporization (PV). Poly(1-(trimethylsilyl)-1-propyne) (PTMSP) membranes were utilized to investigate the effect of temperature, pressure, and start-up/transient time on the separation of aqueous ethanol mixtures. Results indicate optimal ethanol selectivity and flux at the lowest permeate-side pressure. Increased temperature significantly enhanced the productivity of PTMSP, but extended operation of the PTMSP membranes at high temperatures resulted in flux degradation. Two other hydrophobic membranes, poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) and a poly(methoxy siloxane) (PMS) composite, were used to separate n-butanol and t-butanol from dilute aqueous mixtures. The effect of feed concentration of the flux and selectivity was investigated. Both membranes were found to be more permeable to n-butanol than t-butanol. The PDMS membrane was found to be more effective than PMS membrane in terms of flux and selectivity. The effect of membrane thickness on water permeation and on organic selectivity was also studied using the PDMS membrane.

  8. Effect of aluminium ions on liposomal membranes as detected by Laurdan fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Dousset, N; Ferretti, G; Galeazzi, T; Taus, M; Gouaze, V; Berthon, G; Curatola, G

    1997-09-01

    We report here an investigation of the influence of aluminium on iron-induced peroxidation in brain model membranes. Laurdan fluorescence emission spectra and generalised polarisation measurements have been used to investigate how ferrous and aluminium ions can affect the phase components of phospholipid membranes. An increase in the generalised polarisation of oxidised liposomes with respect to controls has been observed, which reveals the presence of a less polar environment surrounding the probe that changes the properties of the bilayer. Aluminium has been shown to facilitate iron-mediated oxidation as detected from emission fluorescence spectra. However, no quantitative influence has been calculated relative to general polarisation and derived phase state determinations. The structural influence of aluminium on membranes may therefore be less significantly marked than initially expected. PMID:9350433

  9. On effective temperatures and electron spin polarization in storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.D.

    1998-05-01

    This note is a summary of the author`s views on the subject of effective temperatures (and the Unruh temperature in particular) in accelerators. Unruh analyzes the response to vacuum fluctuations of a linearly accelerated two-level atom serving as a detector and shows that the relative populations of the two states are given by a boltzmann factor with kT = {h_bar}a/2{pi}c, where a is the acceleration. The inference is that the detector is immersed in a black-body spectrum of Unruh radiation at the Unruh temperature. He refers to these ideas as the Unruh effect.

  10. Polarized light scanning cryomacroscopy, part I: Experimental apparatus and observations of vitrification, crystallization, and photoelasticity effects.

    PubMed

    Feig, Justin S G; Eisenberg, David P; Rabin, Yoed

    2016-10-01

    Cryomacroscopy is an effective means to observe physical events affecting cryopreservation success in large-size specimens. The current study aims at integrating polarized-light in the study of large-size cryopreservation, using the scanning cryomacroscope as a development platform. Results of this study demonstrate polarized light as a visualization enhancement means, including the following effects: contaminants in the CPA solution, crystallization, fracture formation, thermal contraction, and solute precipitation. In addition, photoelasticity effects are used to demonstrate the development of residual stresses and the potential for stress relaxation above the glass transition temperature. Furthermore, this study suggests that the ability to periodically switch between non-polarized light and polarized light is an essential feature of investigation. When using polarized light for example, a dark region may represent a free-of-stress and free-of-crystals material, or fully crystallized material, which may potentially experience mechanical stress; switching to a non-polarized light would help to distinguish between the different cases. The analysis of thermo-mechanical stress in cryopreservation is essentially based on four key elements: identification of physical events, knowledge of physical properties, thermal analysis of the specimen, and description of the mechanical behavior of the cryopreserved material (also known as the constitutive law). With the above knowledge, one can investigate the conditions to preserve structural integrity. While the current study aims at identification of physical events, critical knowledge on physical properties and mechanical behavior has already been developed in previous studies. The companion manuscript (Part II) aims at providing means for thermal analysis in the specimen, which will serve as the basis for a multi-scale analysis of thermo-mechanical stress in large-size specimens. PMID:27343138

  11. Polarized light scanning cryomacroscopy, part I: Experimental apparatus and observations of vitrification, crystallization, and photoelasticity effects.

    PubMed

    Feig, Justin S G; Eisenberg, David P; Rabin, Yoed

    2016-10-01

    Cryomacroscopy is an effective means to observe physical events affecting cryopreservation success in large-size specimens. The current study aims at integrating polarized-light in the study of large-size cryopreservation, using the scanning cryomacroscope as a development platform. Results of this study demonstrate polarized light as a visualization enhancement means, including the following effects: contaminants in the CPA solution, crystallization, fracture formation, thermal contraction, and solute precipitation. In addition, photoelasticity effects are used to demonstrate the development of residual stresses and the potential for stress relaxation above the glass transition temperature. Furthermore, this study suggests that the ability to periodically switch between non-polarized light and polarized light is an essential feature of investigation. When using polarized light for example, a dark region may represent a free-of-stress and free-of-crystals material, or fully crystallized material, which may potentially experience mechanical stress; switching to a non-polarized light would help to distinguish between the different cases. The analysis of thermo-mechanical stress in cryopreservation is essentially based on four key elements: identification of physical events, knowledge of physical properties, thermal analysis of the specimen, and description of the mechanical behavior of the cryopreserved material (also known as the constitutive law). With the above knowledge, one can investigate the conditions to preserve structural integrity. While the current study aims at identification of physical events, critical knowledge on physical properties and mechanical behavior has already been developed in previous studies. The companion manuscript (Part II) aims at providing means for thermal analysis in the specimen, which will serve as the basis for a multi-scale analysis of thermo-mechanical stress in large-size specimens.

  12. Effect of membrane filtration artifacts on dissolved trace element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, Arthur J.; Elrick, Kent A.; Colberg, Mark R.

    1992-01-01

    Among environment scientists, the current and almost universally accepted definition of dissolved constituents is an operational one; only those materials which pass through a 0.45-??m membrane filter are considered to be dissolved. Detailed laboratory and field studies on Fe and Al indicate that a number of factors associated with filtration, other than just pore size, can substantially alter 'dissolved' trace element concentrations; these include: filter type, filter diameter, filtration method, volume of sample processed, suspended sediment concentration, suspended sediment grain-size distribution, concentration of colloids and colloidally associated trace elements and concentration of organic matter. As such, reported filtered-water concentrations employing the same pore size filter may not be equal. Filtration artifacts may lead to the production of chemical data that indicate seasonal or annual 'dissolved' chemical trends which do not reflect actual environmental conditions. Further, the development of worldwide averages for various dissolved chemical constituents, the quantification of geochemical cycles, and the determination of short- or long-term environmental chemical trends may be subject to substantial errors, due to filtration artifacts, when data from the same or multiple sources are combined. Finally, filtration effects could have a substantial impact on various regulatory requirements.

  13. Effect of deuterium oxide on junctional membrane channel permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Brink, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of deuterium oxide on junctional membrane permeability to dichlorofluorescein was examined to determine the mode of transfer of the dye from one cell interior to another in the septate giant axon of earthworm. Dichlorofluorescein was shown to diffuse through the nexus passively and in a hydrated form. Additionally, evidence suggested an alteration of the cell-to-cell channel structure by deuterium/hydrogen exchange. Dichlorofluorescein was rendered impermeant at 6 degrees C in D/sub 2/O and 4 degrees C in H/sub 2/O. Action potentials, however, were capable of propagation from cell to cell at 4 degrees C in D/sub 2/O and H/sub 2/O. The results are consistent with a hydrophilic channel where solute molecules diffuse through the junction (nexus) in a hydrated form. The temperature blocks are presumably brought about by increasing hydration shells around solute and channel proteins with cooling until the solute is rendered too large to diffuse.

  14. Membrane Permeabilization Induced by Sphingosine: Effect of Negatively Charged Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Rojo, Noemi; Sot, Jesús; Viguera, Ana R.; Collado, M. Isabel; Torrecillas, Alejandro; Gómez-Fernández, J.C.; Goñi, Félix M.; Alonso, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine [(2S, 3R, 4E)-2-amino-4-octadecen-1, 3-diol] is the most common sphingoid long chain base in sphingolipids. It is the precursor of important cell signaling molecules, such as ceramides. In the last decade it has been shown to act itself as a potent metabolic signaling molecule, by activating a number of protein kinases. Moreover, sphingosine has been found to permeabilize phospholipid bilayers, giving rise to vesicle leakage. The present contribution intends to analyze the mechanism by which this bioactive lipid induces vesicle contents release, and the effect of negatively charged bilayers in the release process. Fluorescence lifetime measurements and confocal fluorescence microscopy have been applied to observe the mechanism of sphingosine efflux from large and giant unilamellar vesicles; a graded-release efflux has been detected. Additionally, stopped-flow measurements have shown that the rate of vesicle permeabilization increases with sphingosine concentration. Because at the physiological pH sphingosine has a net positive charge, its interaction with negatively charged phospholipids (e.g., bilayers containing phosphatidic acid together with sphingomyelins, phosphatidylethanolamine, and cholesterol) gives rise to a release of vesicular contents, faster than with electrically neutral bilayers. Furthermore, phosphorous 31-NMR and x-ray data show the capacity of sphingosine to facilitate the formation of nonbilayer (cubic phase) intermediates in negatively charged membranes. The data might explain the pathogenesis of Niemann-Pick type C1 disease. PMID:24940775

  15. Dynamics of biofilm formation under different nutrient levels and the effect on biofouling of a reverse osmosis membrane system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Suwarno, Stanislaus Raditya; Chong, Tzyy Haur; McDougald, Diane; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Cohen, Yehuda; Fane, Anthony G; Rice, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 wild type and a mucoid derivative (FRD1) which over produces alginate were used to foul reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. When operated at a constant flux, biofilm formation on the RO membrane resulted in a slow rise in transmembrane pressure (TMP) of 22% for the initial four days of operation, followed by a sharp increase of 159% over the following two days. The initial slow increase in TMP was probably due to the formation of a biofilm on the membrane surface, which then accelerated the rate of biofouling through the effect of concentration polarization. At later stages of operation, most of the bacterial biomass consisted of dead cells. The amount of extracellular polymeric substances appeared to correlate positively with the number of dead cells. The results indicate that prolonging the initial stage of slow TMP increase and avoiding the latter stage of accelerated TMP increase would provide a sustainable operation of the RO system. These results suggest that nutrient limitation could reduce biofilm accumulation and delay the increase in TMP.

  16. Effectiveness of Water Desalination by Membrane Distillation Process

    PubMed Central

    Gryta, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The membrane distillation process constitutes one of the possibilities for a new method for water desalination. Four kinds of polypropylene membranes with different diameters of capillaries and pores, as well as wall thicknesses were used in studied. The morphology of the membrane used and the operating parameters significantly influenced process efficiency. It was found that the membranes with lower wall thickness and a larger pore size resulted in the higher yields. Increasing both feed flow rate and temperature increases the permeate flux and simultaneously the process efficiency. However, the use of higher flow rates also enhanced heat losses by conduction, which decreases the thermal efficiency. This efficiency also decreases when the salt concentration in the feed was enhanced. The influence of fouling on the process efficiency was considered. PMID:24958289

  17. Phenotypic effects of membrane protein overexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Osterberg, Marie; Kim, Hyun; Warringer, Jonas; Melén, Karin; Blomberg, Anders; von Heijne, Gunnar

    2006-07-25

    Large-scale protein overexpression phenotype screens provide an important complement to the more common gene knockout screens. Here, we have targeted the so far poorly understood Saccharomyces cerevisiae membrane proteome and report growth phenotypes for a strain collection overexpressing approximately 600 C-terminally tagged integral membrane proteins grown both under normal and three different stress conditions. Although overexpression of most membrane proteins reduce the growth rate in synthetic defined medium, we identify a large number of proteins that, when overexpressed, confer specific resistance to various stress conditions. Our data suggest that regulation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis and the Na(+)/K(+) homeostasis system constitute major downstream targets of the yeast PKA/RAS pathway and point to a possible connection between the early secretory pathway and the cells' response to oxidative stress. We also have quantified the expression levels for >550 membrane proteins, facilitating the choice of well expressing proteins for future functional and structural studies.

  18. Effectiveness of water desalination by membrane distillation process.

    PubMed

    Gryta, Marek

    2012-07-17

    The membrane distillation process constitutes one of the possibilities for a new method for water desalination. Four kinds of polypropylene membranes with different diameters of capillaries and pores, as well as wall thicknesses were used in studied. The morphology of the membrane used and the operating parameters significantly influenced process efficiency. It was found that the membranes with lower wall thickness and a larger pore size resulted in the higher yields. Increasing both feed flow rate and temperature increases the permeate flux and simultaneously the process efficiency. However, the use of higher flow rates also enhanced heat losses by conduction, which decreases the thermal efficiency. This efficiency also decreases when the salt concentration in the feed was enhanced. The influence of fouling on the process efficiency was considered.

  19. The effects of polar excipients transcutol and dexpanthenol on molecular mobility, permeability, and electrical impedance of the skin barrier.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Sebastian; Pham, Quoc Dat; Jensen, Louise Bastholm; Knudsen, Nina Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Dencker; Ekelund, Katarina; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Engblom, Johan; Sparr, Emma

    2016-10-01

    In the development of transdermal and topical products it is important to understand how formulation ingredients interact with the molecular components of the upper layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC), and thereby influence its macroscopic barrier properties. The aim here was to investigate the effect of two commonly used excipients, transcutol and dexpanthenol, on the molecular as well as the macroscopic properties of the skin membrane. Polarization transfer solid-state NMR methods were combined with steady-state flux and impedance spectroscopy measurements to investigate how these common excipients influence the molecular components of SC and its barrier function at strictly controlled hydration conditions in vitro with excised porcine skin. The NMR results provide completely new molecular insight into how transcutol and dexpanthenol affect specific molecular segments of both SC lipids and proteins. The presence of transcutol or dexpanthenol in the formulation at fixed water activity results in increased effective skin permeability of the model drug metronidazole. Finally, impedance spectroscopy data show clear changes of the effective skin capacitance after treatment with transcutol or dexpanthenol. Based on the complementary data, we are able to draw direct links between effects on the molecular properties and on the macroscopic barrier function of the skin barrier under treatment with formulations containing transcutol or dexpanthenol.

  20. The effects of polar excipients transcutol and dexpanthenol on molecular mobility, permeability, and electrical impedance of the skin barrier.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Sebastian; Pham, Quoc Dat; Jensen, Louise Bastholm; Knudsen, Nina Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Dencker; Ekelund, Katarina; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Engblom, Johan; Sparr, Emma

    2016-10-01

    In the development of transdermal and topical products it is important to understand how formulation ingredients interact with the molecular components of the upper layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC), and thereby influence its macroscopic barrier properties. The aim here was to investigate the effect of two commonly used excipients, transcutol and dexpanthenol, on the molecular as well as the macroscopic properties of the skin membrane. Polarization transfer solid-state NMR methods were combined with steady-state flux and impedance spectroscopy measurements to investigate how these common excipients influence the molecular components of SC and its barrier function at strictly controlled hydration conditions in vitro with excised porcine skin. The NMR results provide completely new molecular insight into how transcutol and dexpanthenol affect specific molecular segments of both SC lipids and proteins. The presence of transcutol or dexpanthenol in the formulation at fixed water activity results in increased effective skin permeability of the model drug metronidazole. Finally, impedance spectroscopy data show clear changes of the effective skin capacitance after treatment with transcutol or dexpanthenol. Based on the complementary data, we are able to draw direct links between effects on the molecular properties and on the macroscopic barrier function of the skin barrier under treatment with formulations containing transcutol or dexpanthenol. PMID:27388135

  1. Polarization effects in thermoacoustic CT of biologic tissue at 434 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DelRio, Stephen P.; Kruger, Robert A.; Lam, Richard B.; Reinecke, Daniel R.

    2010-02-01

    Thermoacoustic image contrast is dependent on the dielectric and thermoacoustic properties of the tissue being imaged, its spatial distribution, and the polarization of the incident microwave radiation. We have designed and constructed a thermoacoustic computed tomography (TCT) test platform to study these effects in phantoms and biologic tissue (e.g., beefsteak and mice). Our results indicate that muscle and fat are easily differentiated, but the relative thermoacoustic absorption is strongly dependent upon the polarization angle of the microwave radiation and the morphology of fat and muscle tissues.

  2. Effect of temperature on polarization switching in long-wavelength VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirce, Ana; Valle, Angel; Pesquera, Luis; Panajotov, Krassimir; Thienpont, Hugo

    2015-03-01

    We have measured the effect of the temperature on the polarization-resolved characteristics of a 1550-nm singletransverse mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). Two double polarization switchings (PS) are observed. For low temperatures a PS from longer to shorter wavelengths (Type II PS) followed by the opposite PS (Type I) is observed. For higher temperatures Type I followed by Type II PS are measured. A simple expression relating the spin flip rate to the dichroism, differential gain, threshold current and PS current is derived. With this expression the dependence of the spin-flip rate on the temperature is obtained.

  3. Unsolved problems: Mesoscale polar cap flow channels' structure, propagation, and effects on space weather disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, L. R.; Nishimura, Y.; Zou, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the magnetosphere-ionosphere system is frequently driven by dynamic mesoscale flow structures that are first seen near the dayside cusps, move across the open field line regions of the polar caps, and then enter the plasma sheet where they lead to a large variety of space weather disturbances. It will be important to uncover the features of these flow enhancements, including their structure, how they propagate across the polar cap, and what controls their dynamic effects after reaching the nightside plasma sheet.

  4. Electric polarization, magnetoelectric effect, and orbital state of a layered iron oxide with frustrated geometry.

    PubMed

    Nagano, A; Naka, M; Nasu, J; Ishihara, S

    2007-11-23

    A layered iron oxide RFe2O4 (R denotes rare-earth-metal elements) is an exotic dielectric material with charge-order (CO) driven electric polarization and magnetoelectric effect caused by spin-charge coupling. In this paper, a theory of electronic structure and dielectric property in RFe2O4 is presented. Charge frustration in paired-triangular lattices allows a charge imbalance without inversion symmetry. Spin frustration induces reinforcement of this polar CO by a magnetic ordering. We also analyze an orbital model for the Fe ion which does not show a conventional long-range order.

  5. High intensity induced photocurrent polarity switching in lead sulfide nanowire field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yiming; Peng, Xingyue; Yu, Dong

    2014-05-16

    We report an optoelectronic investigation of lead sulfide nanowires (NWs) by scanning photocurrent microscopy. The photocurrent in p-type lead sulfide NW field effect transistors has demonstrated unusually nonlinear dependence on the intensity of local excitation. Surprisingly, the photocurrent polarity can be reversed under high illumination intensity on the order of 100 W cm(-2). The origin of this photocurrent polarity switching is that the photo-injected carriers flip the direction of the electric field near the contact. These observations shed light on the nonlinear optoelectronic characteristics in semiconductor nanostructures and may provide an innovative method for optically tailoring local band structures.

  6. SU(2) Higher-order effective quark interactions from polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braghin, Fábio L.

    2016-10-01

    Higher order quark effective interactions are found for SU(2) flavor by departing from a non-local quark-quark interaction. By integrating out a component of the quark field, the determinant is expanded in chirally symmetric and symmetry breaking effective interactions up to the fifth order in the quark bilinears. The resulting coupling constants are resolved in the leading order of the longwavelength limit and exact numerical ratios between several of these coupling constants are obtained in the large quark mass limit. In this level, chiral invariant interactions only show up in even powers of the quark bilinears, i.e. O(ψ bar ψ) 2 n (n = 1 , 2 , 3 , . .), whereas (explicit) chiral symmetry breaking terms emerge as O(ψ bar ψ) n being always proportional to some power of the Lagrangian quark mass.

  7. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Origins of the Polar Kerr Effect in a Chiral p-WAVE Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryo, Jun

    Recently, the measurement of the polar Kerr effect (PKE) in the quasi two-dimensional superconductor Sr2RuO4, which is motivated to observe the chirality of px + ipy-wave pairing, has been reported. We clarify that the PKE has intrinsic and extrinsic (disorder-induced) origins. The extrinsic contribution would be dominant in the PKE experiment.

  8. Critical component of the interplanetary magnetic field responsible for large geomagnetic effects in the polar cap.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friis-Christensen, E.; Lassen, K.; Wilhjelm, J.; Wilcox, J. M.; Gonzalez, W.; Colburn, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    An observed influence of the interplanetary magnetic-sector structure on the geomagnetic variations in the polar cap appears to be due to the component of the interplanetary magnetic field near the ecliptic perpendicular to the earth-sun direction. This suggests that the observed effect on the ground originates in the front of the magnetosphere.

  9. Critical component of the interplanetary magnetic field responsible for large geomagnetic effects in the polar cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friis-Christensen, E.; Lassen, K.; Wilhjelm, J.; Wilcox, J. M.; Gonzalez, W.; Colburn, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    An observed influence is studied of the interplanetary magnetic sector structure on the geomagnetic variations in the polar cap which appears to be due to the component of the interplanetary magnetic field near the ecliptic perpendicular to the earth-sun direction. It is suggested that the observed effect on the ground originates in the front of the magnetosphere.

  10. Pair-collision between heterogeneous capsules in simple shear: Effect of membrane stiffness and membrane constitutive laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajesh; Sarkar, Kausik

    2012-11-01

    Deformability of red blood cells affects hydrodynamic properties of blood and thereby physiological functions in many cardiovascular diseases, e.g. in sickle cell anemia and malaria, the cell membrane becomes stiff affecting their circulation through microvessels. Here, we numerically simulate the hydrodynamic interaction between a pair of cell-like capsules in a free shear flow, using a front-tracking method. The membrane is modeled using various constitutive equations. By varying the stiffness of one capsule (C2) and keeping all other parameters constant, we find a significant effect on the deformation and trajectory of the other (C1) . Increasing the stiffness of C2 surprisingly increases the peak deformation of C1 while decreasing the cross-stream shift in its trajectory However, the relative trajectory between capsules remains the same. Effects of constitutive laws and difference in behaviors between capsules and drops are investigated explaining underlying physics. partial support from NSF.

  11. Polarization-induced transport in TIPS-pentacene field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudari, Amrit; Guha, Suchi

    The dielectric constant of polymer ferroelectric dielectrics can be tuned by changing the temperature, offering a platform for monitoring the changes in interfacial transport in organic field-effect transistors (FETs), as the polarization strength is tuned. Temperature dependent transport studies of FETs have been carried out from a solution-processed organic semiconductor, 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene), using both ferroelectric and non-ferroelectric gate insulators. Non-polar dielectric based TIPS-pentacene FETs show a clear activated transport in contrast to the ferroelectric dielectric polymer, poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (PVDF-TrFE), where a negative temperature coefficient of the mobility is observed in the ferroelectric temperature range. We attribute the weak temperature-dependence of the charge carrier mobility to a polarization fluctuation driven transport resulting from a coupling of the charge carriers to the surface phonons of the polar dielectric. The negative coefficient of mobility (dμ/dT < 0) observed with ferroelectric dielectrics is not a signature of an extended-state conduction but rather denotes polarization fluctuation driven transport. This work was supported by National Science Foundation under Grant No. ECCS-1305642.

  12. Polarization beam combination technique for gain saturation effect compensation in high-energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junchi; Peng, Yujie; Su, Hongpeng; Leng, Yuxin

    2016-06-01

    To compensate for the gain saturation effect in the high-energy laser amplifier, a modified polarization beam combination (PBC) method is introduced to reshape temporal waveform of the injected laser pulse to obtain a controlled high-energy laser pulse shape after amplification. One linearly polarized beam is divided into two orthogonal polarized beams, which spatially recombine together collinearly after propagating different optical paths with relative time delay in PBC structure. The obtained beam with polarization direction being rotated by the following half wave plate is divided and combined again to reform a new beam in another modified polarization beam structure. The reformed beam is injected into three cascaded laser amplifiers. The amplified pulse shape can be controlled by the incident pulse shape and amplifier gain, which is agreeable to the simulation by the Frank-Nodvik equations. Based on the simple method, the various temporal waveform of output pulse with tunable 7 to 20 ns pulse duration can be obtained without interferometric fringes.

  13. Salinity effect on the spectral induced polarization porosimetry: theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Q.; Revil, A.; Saidian, M.; Prasad, M.

    2015-12-01

    Spectral induced polarization (SIP) porosimetry is a new technique for characterizing the pore size distribution of a porous medium. The induced polarization of porous media under low frequencies is mainly attributed to the relaxation of the mineral/fluid interface, i.e., the electrical double layer (EDL, including both Stern and diffuse layers). Currently, the salinity effect is not considered while applying the SIP porosimetry although a number of experiments have shown the water salinity could affect the relaxation of EDL. In this study, we conducted SIP measurement of a Portland sandstone sample with a broad range of salinities. The relaxation time distributions of the sample at different salinities are obtained by inverting the measured SIP responses using the least-square method with optimized damping parameter. The modal relaxation time shows a non-negligible dependence on the salinity/fluid conductivity. The salinity dependence can be explained by considering the ions exchange between Stern and diffuse layers during polarization, i.e., diffuse layer polarization (DLP). It is also shown that the SIP porosimetry could underestimate the pore size if only Stern layer polarization is considered. It is therefore suggested to include DLP while interpreting the SIP porosimetry data in order to give consistent pore size information with other techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance and mercury injection capillary porosimetry.

  14. Polarization beam combination technique for gain saturation effect compensation in high-energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junchi; Peng, Yujie; Su, Hongpeng; Leng, Yuxin

    2016-06-01

    To compensate for the gain saturation effect in the high-energy laser amplifier, a modified polarization beam combination (PBC) method is introduced to reshape temporal waveform of the injected laser pulse to obtain a controlled high-energy laser pulse shape after amplification. One linearly polarized beam is divided into two orthogonal polarized beams, which spatially recombine together collinearly after propagating different optical paths with relative time delay in PBC structure. The obtained beam with polarization direction being rotated by the following half wave plate is divided and combined again to reform a new beam in another modified polarization beam structure. The reformed beam is injected into three cascaded laser amplifiers. The amplified pulse shape can be controlled by the incident pulse shape and amplifier gain, which is agreeable to the simulation by the Frank-Nodvik equations. Based on the simple method, the various temporal waveform of output pulse with tunable 7 to 20 ns pulse duration can be obtained without interferometric fringes.

  15. Effective zero-thickness model for a conductive membrane driven by an electric field.

    PubMed

    Ziebert, Falko; Bazant, Martin Z; Lacoste, David

    2010-03-01

    The behavior of a conductive membrane in a static (dc) electric field is investigated theoretically. An effective zero-thickness model is constructed based on a Robin-type boundary condition for the electric potential at the membrane, originally developed for electrochemical systems. Within such a framework, corrections to the elastic moduli of the membrane are obtained, which arise from charge accumulation in the Debye layers due to capacitive effects and electric currents through the membrane and can lead to an undulation instability of the membrane. The fluid flow surrounding the membrane is also calculated, which clarifies issues regarding these flows sharing many similarities with flows produced by induced charge electro-osmosis (ICEO). Nonequilibrium steady states of the membrane and of the fluid can be effectively described by this method. It is both simpler, due to the zero thickness approximation which is widely used in the literature on fluid membranes, and more general than previous approaches. The predictions of this model are compared to recent experiments on supported membranes in an electric field.

  16. THE EFFECTS OF POLARIZED FOREGROUNDS ON 21 cm EPOCH OF REIONIZATION POWER SPECTRUM MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David F.; Aguirre, James E.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Pober, Jonathan C.; Jacobs, Daniel C.

    2013-06-01

    Experiments aimed at detecting highly-redshifted 21 cm emission from the epoch of reionization (EoR) are plagued by the contamination of foreground emission. A potentially important source of contaminating foregrounds may be Faraday-rotated, polarized emission, which leaks into the estimate of the intrinsically unpolarized EoR signal. While these foregrounds' intrinsic polarization may not be problematic, the spectral structure introduced by the Faraday rotation could be. To better understand and characterize these effects, we present a simulation of the polarized sky between 120 and 180 MHz. We compute a single visibility, and estimate the three-dimensional power spectrum from that visibility using the delay spectrum approach presented in Parsons et al. Using the Donald C. Backer Precision Array to Probe the Epoch of Reionization as an example instrument, we show the expected leakage into the unpolarized power spectrum to be several orders of magnitude above the expected 21 cm EoR signal.

  17. First-principles variational formulation of polarization effects in geometrical optics

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, D. E.; Dodin, I. Y.

    2015-10-02

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves in isotropic dielectric media with local dispersion is studied under the assumption of small but nonvanishing λ/l, where λ is the wavelength and l is the characteristic inhomogeneity scale. It is commonly known that, due to nonzero λ/l, such waves can experience polarization-driven bending of ray trajectories and polarization dynamics that can be inte